xeimeth M. Mackenthun

    Director, Technical Support Staff


      a Cleaner
       Kenneth M. Mackenthun
      Director, Technical Support Staff

 For sale by the Superintendent of Documents, U.S. Government Printing Office,
      Washington, D.C. 20402—Price: $2.05 (paper cover)
          Stock Number 5501-00573

   '• •
                        The  scenic grandeur  of  unspoiled  nature.

    PROTECTION  from pollution  and quality enhancement of the
    environmental resources of this Nation are challenges that must be
met by our modern society. We have an innate obligation to those who
follow in  our footsteps  to  deliver to them a water resource  that can
meet  the  use demands of their generation. Positive actions  to ensure
the attainment of  this  goal  must  be  accelerated to  compensate for
continued pressures of  population  and industrial growths,  urbaniza-
tion, and technological changes.

  One key to our success will be the extent to which we, as a society,
can define and understand the quality and behavior  of the aquatic
environment. To correct  situations already  bad,  we  must  be aware
of the alternatives available for correction, and we must be  in a posi-
tion to weigh the potential environmental effects of each alternative
before reaching a sound decision  for an appropriate course  of action.
Determination of the quality of the aquatic environment, the effects
of pollutants on that quality, and the causes  and control of plant and
animal  nuisances that result in costly problems  are critical  elements
in the scientific efforts needed for decision making. This book is devoted
to a definition of those causes and  effects  and will be a valuable con-
tribution  to  assist  those who are involved  in  the applied aspects  of
water pollution control.
                               Robert W. Fri, Acting Administrator
                                 Environmental Protection Agency

    THIS book was prepared to provoke concern for the control of water
    pollution and to serve as a guide in the investigation and definition
of problems associated  with the aquatic environment.  It  has been
written principally for use in the curriculum for the  upper grades in
high schools and in colleges. Hopefully, in addition, it  will be found of
value  by the aquatic biologists inexperienced  in  field  investigative
activities, as well  as by  sanitary engineers, chemists,  attorneys, water
pollution control  administrators, and others who  may have need to
broaden their understanding of investigative  techniques  and water
quality and technical problems  encountered in such studies.
  This book is divided into 21 chapters that address: characteristics of
the aquatic  environment, insults  on  the  aquatic  environment  per-
petrated by man, controls for such insults, constraints on governmental
actions, investigations of aquatic problems,  reporting  the investigative
results, biological  nuisances, health-related  aquatic  problems,  keys to
common algae and rooted aquatic  vegetation, and government abate-
ment and control  programs. Investigative techniques  are described in
detail  for the pond,  stream, and lake  environments,  and  for  special
studies. The ability to present a clear,  understandable concept of the
results  of a  field  investigation  by  different methods  of  data display
is  evaluated.  Methods of correcting the causes of  slime, plant,  and
animal nuisances are discussed.
  The investigation of water-associated problems always is a fascinating
challenge to the initiative and imagination of the investigator. Water
and the life within it presents  a dynamic panorama  of  action, inter-
action, and  reaction to forces imposed upon the aquatic environment.
The physical constraints of the waterway, as well as the regulating
actions of  temperature,  light,  wind, and precipitation impose their
effects  on  the unpolluted  aquatic  ecosystem.  These  effects may  be
accentuated when pollution is  introduced as an additional factor of
concern. As Henry Baldwin Ward  wrote in 1918,  "From the tiniest
rivulet to the mightest river one may find every possible  intermediate
stage, and between the swiftest mountain torrent and the most sluggish
lowland stream  there  exists every intermediate gradation." No   two
waterways will be  found to  be similar and each supports  a population
of Biota that has adjusted  to  its  particular quality conditions  for
  The investigator of water quality problems should possess the  tenacity
and persistence of a detective combined with the thoroughness of  an

attorney preparing a major case for  court. The capabilities of even
the experienced investigator frequently are taxed to the limit in resolv-
ing some of the puzzling features  of  the complex reaction and inter-
action of pollution in a receiving waterway.
  Clearness in thought and  understandability have been the goals  in
presenting this book's contents. Reference citations have been kept  to
a minimum, but a short chapter devoted to helpful references should
assist the investigator in obtaining  the information  necessary for a
basic study of the aquatic environment.  Many  such studies can  be
completed on  a  local waterway by the individual researcher or  in
fulfillment  of  a  class project  in high  school  or college. This  book
hopefully will  serve as a reference  guide to aid in the successful com-
pletion of such projects. It is with these future professional investigators
that this generation entrusts the future solution  of aquatic  problems.

                                          Kenneth  M.  Mackenthun
                                             Washington,  D. C.
                                                January, 1973

Its waters were clear as the finest crystal, some say;
But this was two score and five years ago,
Before we ceased to care where rusty parts, and old tires lay,
That now are our rejected symbols of progress and a nation's alter ego.

What once was clean, now is a mixture of translucent grays,
That slide more than flow as in the past,
And prevent the sun's unique and penetrating rays,
From giving life's gift to those creatures who might have been, alas!

In the river's far upstream reaches, life happily yet competes,
Mayflies, caddisflies and an occasional stonefly each have  their day;
Finny friends seek food, spawn, and the cycle repeats
Among aquatic pastures where the damsel- and the dragonfly play.

Downstream, life's harsh realities encounter degradation,
Caused  by sewage, inadequately treated, and other waste flows,
Which kill, destroy homes, blanket and result in deprivation
Of life, for all except the most tolerant of pollution's woes.

Abundant sludge, foul smelling, soft, deep and more,
Blankets all but the channel of the swiftly-flowing stream,
Covering  the  bottom  with dull, red, undulating  sludgeworms and
  bloodworms galore,
Eliminating the less tolerant and happy-water insect larvae, as well
  as the bream.

With the anticipated coming of pollution control's new dawn,
Downstream and upstream quality will hopefully approach the same;
With all the happy waters, and finny friends with spawn,
Clean and pure; an investigator's report can then cast no blame.

O PECIAL acknowledgment and appreciation for invaluable assistance
^-J  in this  book's preparation are  given  Mrs.  Dianne L. Seay for
her diligence and  perseverance in  the demanding tasks  of  typing,
arranging and proofing copy;  Dr. John L.  Buckley, Deputy Director,
Office of Research,  Environmental Protection Agency,  and Dr. Frank
F. Hooper, Professor of Fisheries and Zoology, University of Michigan,
for  their critical review of  the  draft manuscript;  and Mrs. Dorothy
Mackenthun for her review, proofing and  helpful  comments on nar-
rative structure, as  well as her encouragement throughout manuscript

  Acknowledgments are given for  permission to  use  the  following
plates and figures:  Plates 1,  5, 7, 12  and 23, The Environmental Pro-
tection Agency; Plates  3, 11  and 16, Mr. Thomas W. Bendixen, Office
of Solid Waste Management,  EPA,  Cincinnati, Ohio;  Plate 10, Mr.
Herbert Kelly, U. S. Soil Conservation Service; Plate 25, Horn Photo,
Clatskanie, Oregon; Plate 26, Illinois Natural History Survey, Urbana,
Illinois; Plates 27 and  28, Mr.  Carl A. Werner, California Department
of Water Resources; Plates  29 and  30, Dr. Harold Rehder and Dr.
J. P.E. Morrison, U. S. National Museum; Plates 31  through 34, Dr. C.
M.  Palmer, "Algae in  Water Supplies"  (1959); Plates  35 through 60,
U. S.  Department of Agriculture from Bull. No. 634 "Food of Game
Ducks in the United States and Canada" by Martin and Uhler  (1939);
Plate 61, Aquatic Controls Corporation, Hartland, Wisconsin; Plate 62,
Dr. John E. Gallagher, Amchem Products, Ambler, Pennsylvania.

 "The nineteen-seventies

          absolutely must be

the years when America

    pays  its debt to the past

           by reclaiming

        the purity  of  its air,

          its  waters and

     our  living environment.

           It is literally

              now or never."
     President Richard M. Nixon
                 January 1, 1970

FOREWORD  	   iii

PREFACE 	    v



        Aquatic Environments	    1
        Lakes  	    2
        Regulating Factors 	    4
        Ecology  	    6
        Pollution  	    7
        Society's  Goal 	    8
        Definition  	    9
        Aesthetic Qualities 	    9
        Quality Constituents 	   11
          Dead Fish  	   12
          Floating  Solids  	   13
          Settleable Solids 	   14
          Color  	   15
          Solid Wastes 	   15
          Oil  	   16
          Tastes and  Odors 	   17
          Slimes 	   18
          Algae  	   19
          Vascular  Plants  	   21
          Sludgeworms, Bloodworms and Associates  	   22
          Toxic  Streams   	   22
        Control  	   22
        Postscript  	   23
        Some of the Problems 	   24
        Citizens Groups	   27
        Education  Needs  	   27
        Citizen Action 	   28
        The Role of  Industry and Agriculture  	   31
        The Role of Governments	   31
        River and Harbor Act of 1899	   33
        Early Water Pollution Control Legislation	   33
        Federal Water Pollution Control Act  	   34
        Water  Quality Act of 1965  	   35
        National Environmental  Policy Act of 1969  	   36
        Water Quality Improvement Act of 1970	   37


        Federal Law  	   38
        Federal Water Pollution  Control  Act Amendments of
          1972	   40
        The Varieties of Pollution	   43
        Aesthetic Insults  	   43
        Toxic  Substances	   44
        Silts and Settleable Solids  	   45
        Organic Wastes  	   47
        Organism's Effects on Pollution 	   50
        Heat Pollution  	   51
        Nutrients   	   53
        Oil  	   55
        Objectives	   62
        Planning 	   64
        Data Collection	   68
        Sample Analyses	   78
        Study Plan  	   83
        Wastes  Mixing  	   84
        Waste  Sources 	   84
        Water  Use Considerations	   86
        Station Location  	   87
        Sampling Periodicity	   92
        Laboratories  	   94
        The Pond  as  a Study Habitat  	   96
        The Standing Water  Environment 	   97
        Effects of Water Inflows and Discharges	  101
        Biotic Considerations and Sample Station Selections ....  103
        Physical Considerations and Sample Station Selection ...  Ill
        Sample Station Selection	  Ill
        Sampling Frequency	  115
        Particular and Singular Problems	  116
        Fish Kills  	  117
        Water  Supplies  	  122
        Pond or Lake Eutrophication  	  126
        Sewage Treatment Systems	  128
        Concepts 	  133
        Influencing Factors	  134
        Infiltrating Mechanisms 	  136
        Environmental Catastrophes  	  138
        Data Evaluation	  143
        Data Organization	  144
        Selected Case Histories	  146


        Outline  	   160
        Organization  	   161
        Report Development  	   163
        Revision  	   164
        Review  and Final Report 	   165
        Iron Bacteria  	   168
        Sewage Fungus   	   169
        Sulfur Bacteria 	   169
        Assets    	   172
        Liabilities 	   173
        Conditions of  Existence 	   175
        Limiting Factors  	   175

        Sponges  	   178
        Midges   	   178
        Mayflies  and Caddisflies 	   179
        Mosquitoes  	   181
        Other Insects  	   182
        Leeches   	   183
        Other Organisms 	   185
        Swimmer's Itch 	   187
        Schistosomiasis, the Blood Fluke Disease of Man	   192
        Fish Parasites  Important to Man 	   193
        Swimming-associated Amoebic Meningoencephalitis ....   194
        Health-associated  Algae 	   194
        General Control   	   230
        Slimes  	   231
        Plant Nuisances	   232
        Algal Control  	   234
        Vascular  Plants   	   237
        Animal  Nuisances 	   238
        Swimmer's Itch Control 	   240
        Enforcement	   243
        Research  	   245
        Municipal Wastes	   246
        Training  	   247
        Industrial Wastes  	   248
        Non-Point Source Wastes	   248
          Feedlot Wastes  	   249
          Forestry and Logging 	   249
          Irrigation  and Agricultural  Run-Off 	   249


          Pesticides  	:	   250
          Construction Site Siltation 		   251
        The Subsurface Environment	   251
        Vessel Wastes ...:	   252
        Water  Quality Standards 	   253
          Toxic and Pretreatment Effluent Standards	   254
          Ocean Dumping	   254
        Other Activities	   255
References Cited	   255
Glossary   	   260
Appendix 	   265
Subject Index  	   271
Frontispiece   The scenic grandeur of unspoiled  nature  	     ii
          1   Canoeing over  calm, clear waters is a recreational
              pursuit  made  more enjoyable  in  unblemished
              surroundings  	     3
          2   Sludgeworm eggs with embryos 	     5
          3   An open dump contributes to air  pollution and
              is  an aesthetic  insult 	     7
          4   Acid  mine  discharges  kill natural  stream bed
              organisms   	    11
          5   A  dramatic visible indication of an environmental
              catastrophe  	    12
          6   An insult to  a  waterway with otherwise excellent
              aesthetic potential	    14
          7   Construction  site siltation  harms both land and
              receiving waterway 	    16
          8   Biological slimes defile  a  stream and destroy  a
              habitat for benthic organisms	    19
          9   A  nutrient-stimulated algal bloom, Lake Sebasti-
              cook, Maine  	    21
         10   Uncontrolled erosion in a housing development  is
              the genesis of a waterway's sediments   	    26
         11   A  stream-bank  dump pollutes the receiving water-
              way for miles	    29
         12   Wastes that must be treated to protect the receiv-
              ing waterway 	    40
         13   Benthic zones of pollution    	    46
         14   Response of  organisms toward organic pollution
              in days of stream flow and  miles of stream	    48
         15   Zones of pollution with animals, algae and physical
              indices	    49


 16    Trash deposited on an area subject to flooding ...   52
 17    Biological  collecting  equipment  	   72
 18    A multiple-plate artificial substrate colonized by
      aquatic organisms 	   76
 19    Clean water stream bed animals	   88
20    Intermediately tolerant stream bed animals	   90
 21    Very tolerant stream  bed animals	   91
 22    Analyses in a wet laboratory  of samples collected
      from a field investigation	   94
 23    Trickling filter operation  	  129
 24    Slimes form waving masses in  polluted streams ...  168
 25    Massive slime accumulations on commercial fisher-
      man's net  	  170
 26    Mosquito  (Psorophora  ciliata)  one  of  Illinois'
      largest  	  180
 27    Interim Canal, California, with Asiatic Clams com-
      pletely covering canal bed  	    184
 28    Closeup of undisturbed canal bed, Interim Canal,
      California, with multitudes of Asiatic  Clams ...    185
 29    Snails known to harbor swimmer's itch  cereariae .  .  190
 30    Snails known to harbor swimmer's itch  carcariae .  .  191
 31    Nuisance Algae—Rivularia, Nodularia, Anabaena,
      Oscillatoria, Lyngbya, Aphanizomenon	    197
 32    Nuisance Algae—Stephana discus, Cyclotella, Phor-
      midium, Zygnema, Spirogyra,  Scenedesmus, Uloth-
      rix,  Oedogonium, Fragilaria  	  199
 33    Nuisance Algae—Melosira,  Hydrodictyon, Dinob-
      ryon,  Rhizoclonium, Stigeoclonium, Caldophora,
      Pediastrum   	  200
 34    Nuisance  Algae—Anhistrodesmus,  Synura, Coelo-
      sphaerium, Microcystis, Ceratium, Sataurastrum ..  201
 35    Duckweeds  (Lemnaceae)  	  204
 36    Watershield  (Brasenia schreberi)  	  205
 37    American lotus (Nelumbo)	  205
 38    Musk grass  (Chard) 	  206
 39    Bladderwort  (Utricularia)  	  207
 40    Watermilfoil  (Myriophyllum)  	  208
 41    Coontail (Ceratophyllum)  	  209
 42    Water buttercup (Ranunculus)   	  210
 43    Water star grass (Heteranthera)  	  211
 44    Floating-leafed pondweed (Potamogeton natans) ..  212
 45    Large-leafed pondweed (Potamogeton amplifolius)  213


        46   Curly-leafed pondweed (Potamogeton crispus) ...   214
        47   Robbing pondweed (Potamogeton robbinsii) ....   215
        48   Flat-stemmed  pondweed  (Potamogeton  zosteri-
             formis)  	   216
        49   Sago  pondweed  (Potamogeton pectinatus) 	   217
        50   Wild celery (Vallisneria) 	   218
        51   Bushy pondweed (Najas) 	   219
        52   Waterweed (Anacharis)  	   220
        53   Spike rush (Eleocharis)  	   221
        54   Bulrush (Scirpus)  	   222
        55   Wild rice  (Zizania)  	   223
        56   Bureed (Sparganium) 	   224
        57   Alligatorweed (Alternanthera) 	   225
        58   Smartweed (Polygonum) 	   226
        59   Waterhyacinth (Eichhornia) 	   227
        60   Waterchestnut (Trapa)  	   228
        61   Mechanical weed cutting and removal	   236
        62   Helicopter application of a granular herbicide ...   239
 1.  Field Collection Card tor Jsenthic Samples	   69
 2.  Lake zones with seasonal temperature and dissolved oxygen
    changes  	   98
 3.  Diagram of a long,  narrow shallow  water reservoir showing
    suggested sampling stations 	   112
 4.  Diagram of a natural lake  basin showing suggested sampling
    sites  	   113
 5.  Tributary  stream station selection for a lake eutrophication
    study  	   126
 6.  Lake station selection for a lake eutrophication study	   127
 7.  Principles  of waste stabilization in  areas affected by  cold
    winter climate	   131
 8.  Brule River benthic organisms	   147
 9.  Bottom  organism   populations—Iron  Mountain-Kingsford
    area, Menominee River, August 1963  	   148
10.  Comparison of  bottom organism populations in two upper
    Menominee  River  reservoirs	   150
11.  Genera and population numbers of bottom animals per square
    foot in Potomac River, September 1952 	   151

12.  Dissolved oxygen  in  the Chattooga River showing the  per-
    centage D.O.  below 4 mg/1, August 1962 	  152
13.  Stream bed animal  population  in  Chattooga  River,  Ga.,
    August 1962 	  153
14.  Vertical temperature  and dissolved oxygen curves, Lake Se-
    basticook,  Maine  	  155
15.  Chlorophyll entering Lake Sebasticook, July 29,  1965	  156
16.  Lake Michigan sludgeworm populations  	  157
17.  Life cycle of swimmer's itch cercariae 	  188
18.  Cercariae of the type causing swimmer's itch	  190
19.  Equipment  for algal  control 	  233
20.  Chemical Dosage Chart	  235
I.  Pounds of Phosphorus Contributed to Aquatic Ecosystems ..    54
2.  Carbon,  Nitrogen, and  Phosphorus  in  Freshwater  Environ-
   mental Constituents  	   105

                1 he  Environment
     THE LAND, the air, and the water are inseparably bound together
    and interrelated  one with the other to  form the environment in
which we live. When a portion of the universe is degraded because of
pollution,  another portion is likewise affected. It is well known that
pollution  from  the  lands enters watercourses  and results in  their
degradation. Likewise, certain elements such as nitrogen and phosphorus
may occur in the atmosphere because of natural phenomena or because
of industrial pollution. These elements may in turn be  deposited in
the immediate drainage basins or on water  bodies,  and contribute to
the fertilization and subsequent stimulation  of organisms undesired by
man. It has  been shown that the nitrogen present in waste matter
from confined cattle  feeding areas may escape as ammonia to the  air
and  be  reabsorbed by surface waters in concentrations  above those
considered  as threshold for  the  development of eutrophication. On
the other  hand, there  is a loss of nitrogen to  the  atmosphere  from
lakes and  other standing waters during the processes that comprise
the nitrogen cycle and, similarly,  there is loss of nitrogen and other
nutrients to the soils of the lake bed.

Aquatic  Environments

  Aquatic environments are as numerous as the very waters themselves.
Rising in snowcapped mountains,  small streams  collect the snow melt
and  transport it to the plains. As these streams  meander through the
countryside, they take from the lands that which is  released to them.
Small streams soon form larger ones  that eventually join to form the
great rivers and  these in turn terminate in coastal estuaries.  Each
change  in  size and  shape forms  a  habitat that  becomes a  unique
microcosm  and supports an  assemblage of organisms that  is adapted
to life in that particular environment.

  Reservoirs, built by man on rivers, in turn form a particular habitat
that is influenced principally by the reservoir's morphometric features.
The reservoir in turn may influence  the  downstream  environment
because  of the depth  of the  penstock that releases water of lower


temperature, or of  less dissolved oxygen,  or of a  different  mineral
quality, than the waters that receive it.
  The landscape is  dotted with ponds and with many larger lakes of
varying sizes and shapes. There  are  over 1,586,000 lakes, ponds,  and
reservoirs in the United States (Anon.,  1962). Over 90 percent of these
are private farm ponds, primarily encouraged and developed for limited
withdrawal uses. The  populace  lives  in contact with  fresh surface
waters of which 90 percent by area are lakes:

                          Great Lakes          —  33,878,000 acres
                          Alaskan Lakes        —   7,363,960 acres
                          Other U.  S. Lakes  —  19,493,000 acres
                             Total                  60,734,960 acres

  Organisms that may be found  in great numbers in the stream en-
vironment are  often not adapted to life within the lake or reservoir
environments, and  visa  versa. There  are many features that tend to
make a particular  aquatic environment  suitable or unsuitable, com-
pletely or to some degree, to a particular organism or group of closely
associated organisms.


  Lakes are temporary water-holding vessels on the landscape. Nearly
all  are very young on  the geological time  scale but very old on the
human  time scale.  Lakes will disappear.  Natural processes  tend to
destroy  lakes,  and  man's actions tend to  accelerate this destruction.
Destruction may result from erosion of the  natural dam or  sill  that
controls the lake's minimum level. Erosion contributes materials  that
settle in quiescent waters to eventually fill  the lake basins. Poor land
practices can increase erosion; thus the rate of sedimentation is increased.

  Terrestrial disposal of waste materials may seriously affect a  lake
where drainage from dumps transport undesirable nutrient and solid
materials  to waterways. Dumps containing  large quantities of organic
garbage contribute especially large quantities of such materials. Manure
disposal has become a problem because farmers rely more on synthetic
fertilizers and waste the natural, less efficient fertilizers.  This water pol-
lution problem is  intensified  in  northern climes where runoff over
frozen ground may carry these nutrient-rich  organic materials to lake or
stream. Large cattle  feed lots are frequently  located directly on a stream
bank to ensure water supplies for livestock, but this inappropriate prac-
tice greatly increases the contaminants entering the water.

  Common practice in many  areas is  to use a lake as  a community
dump. Frequently this is justified as a land  fill by the local populace to

create  valuable industrial or residential sites.  Besides  the addition of
nutrients to the water, the lake volume is reduced and  less water is left
for other purposes.

   Location  of  a  waste  water  treatment  plant often  contributes  to
eutrophication problems. Discharging treated effluent downstream from
a lake removes nutrients and other materials in this waste water from
the lake but may contribute to downstream problems. Locating the plant
on an  upstream tributary might provide for some nutrient assimilation
before the waste stream enters the static water. Discharge of waste waters
immediately upstream from, or directly to, a lake is the least desirable
of alternatives.

   Runoff from mismanaged lands carries large  quantities of sediments
and  nutrient-rich top soils and fertilizers.  Highway construction  can
leave extensive areas open to erosion for long  periods  of  time. Similar
situations occur in suburban residential developments  where  the  land
is stripped for sub-dividing.

   Industrial plant locations can create many problems because wastes
from some  industrial sites  are  direct sources of nutrients.  Frequently
Plot* 1.  Canoeing over calm, clear waters i* a recreational pursuit made more enjoyable
                       in unblemished surroundings.

land fills are economical methods of obtaining new acreage in congested
areas. Industrial sites often do not include sufficient space for expansion
or a waste water treatment facility.
  Financing sewer systems to intercept waste waters from waterfront
properties, especially in recreational areas, can be a problem because of
the high per capita costs. Ground water tables near the surface  can
complicate  the  development  of sewer and other drainage  facilities. In
hilly regions, impounded waters have very irregular shorelines and  this
too complicates  sewer development. Increased lake frontage must be
covered to  adequately intercept the waste waters, and  more pumping
stations are required for the  varied elevations.  In many of these situa-
tions, the practical  alternative  seems to be individual septic  tanks.
Residences  may be positioned so close to  the lake that  it is impossible
to develop  a sufficiently large tile field to prevent seepage to the lake.
Placement a couple of hundred feet from the lake might reduce nutri-
ents  entering the lake since many critical  nutrients are adsorbed to the
soils. Eventually the soils may become saturated with nutrients and then
nutrients may again seep to the lake. Preserving and restoring our lakes
may well depend more upon  good, practical land zoning than upon the
more frequently  considered nutrient removal or control aspect. Obvi-
ously people cannot be barred  from the lake.  If they were, its value
would be reduced, but a lake destroyed by indiscriminate use is always
a possibility.

  Biota  convert dissolved  nutrients to settleable organic solids in the
lake basin  and a portion of  these is incorporated in the bottom sedi-
ments. Nutrient additions can increase biological productivity and sedi-
mentation. The  factors contributing to a  lake's aging, and eventual
death, function in unison and as a composit are termed eutrophication.

Regulating Factors

  Life in waters is influenced by water temperatures, dissolved oxygen,
pH,  color, turbidities, total dissolved solids,  total alkalinities, nutrients,
mineral  composition,  concentrations of heavy  metals, and  concentra-
tions of pesticides or other toxicants. Maximal values, and in some cases
minimal values  also, of these constituents often create an environment
that becomes intolerable  to  particular  organisms and  will limit their
production or interfere subtly with physiological processes, that  in turn
reduce their ability to compete with others within the environment.

  A waterway can be termed a living thing, a thing of energy, of move-
ment, of change. It may be harnessed and made to do useful work but
it struggles when an attempt is made to confine it. It is a living thing
also because of the life within such an environment.  A waterway must
have certain physical-chemical  qualities  before a bountiful life  will

develop. There must be a plentiful supply of oxygen to support life, a
virtual  absence  of biochemical oxygen demanding  substances, a pH
that approaches neutrality  or is slightly alkaline, and a temperature
amenable to organism  reproduction  and the  continuation  of various
life stages of the organisms present.

  A food web is established that ranges from the smallest to the largest
organisms in the aquatic community. The natural land drainage fur-
nishes the basic food material in  the form of humus extracts, organic
particulate matter, nitrogen and phosphorus and other essential nutri-
ents, and various organic salts leached from the soil. Bacteria and algae
begin the cyclic process by their  ability  to convert  these materials to
food for growth and reproduction. Single-celled protozoa live upon the
bacteria, many-celled rotifers live upon  the protozoa, and the  more
complex invertebrates can use both  algae and microscopic  animals as
food. Ultimately the  food web is consumated in various species of fish
within  the  aquatic  environment  and these  become  the dominant
                    Plate 2. Sludgeworm eggi with embryos.

  Competition for food and space  is encountered by each  individual
organism within the aquatic habitat. Many organisms are adapted for
life in riffles or in pools, upon a rubble substrate or in the soft mud
where  they burrow and live in tubes.  The reproductive potential for
each species is much greater than  the number required to fill their
niche in the aquatic society. However, natural mortality,  predation, and
the fact that only a given number of organisms can exist in one locality
makes  life in such a stream a true  survival of the fittest. The natural
conditions for  existence for a given species form a constraining barrier
to species distribution. Competition among organisms for food,  space
and other necessities of survival produces a natural community that is
characterized by a great many different species with relatively few indi-
viduals representing  any given species in the  community. When condi-
tions for existence deteriorate because  of some types of  pollution, pre-
daceous and  other species are eliminated. When  an abundant food
supply is present, those remaining species, which are reduced in num-
ber, will flourish and multiply in great  numbers and may be a nuisance
to man in his use of water.


  In our present vocabulary the term "ecology" is very common. It was
not always thus. Ecology was born near the turn of the twentieth cen-
tury. It came into being with a host of great names in biology, including
those of Victor E. Shelford, Stephen A. Forbes, Henry B. Ward, R. E.
Richardson, E. A. Birge, Chauncey Juday,  and others.  The science
flourished as a period of observational biology and great strides were
made in a comparatively short time in exploring and explaining in
general terms the phenomena of both land and water.

  As scientific knowledge and methods advanced, the generalists gave
way to the specialists, and research was directed toward the intricate
parts of the whole. The science of ecology relates these parts and seeks
to uncover the subtle mechanisms of interdependence that maintain the
life system.

  Now the word "ecology"—unknown  to all  but  a scientific  few a
quarter of a century ago—has become a  dinner-table word. It is of a
timely interest with the occurrence of the rapid environmental changes.
The question  of the day is: "How do we fit  the human organism into
his  environment so that each can coexist in harmpny and in full respect
for  those things that,  if altered, may result in destruction of all?"

  Steven A. Forbes in 1887 noted the complexity and interrelationships
of organisms through community studies in water quality explorations.
He concluded, "If one chooses to become acquainted with the  black
bass ...  he will  learn but little  if the limits himself to that species."

Forbes further called attention to  the close community of interest that
exists among species with the reasoning that to exist a species' birth rate
must at least equal its death rate and that when a species is preyed upon
by another, it must produce regularly an excess of individuals for this
destruction. Forbes went on to say that on the other hand the dependent
species must not appropriate, on the average, any more than the excess
of individuals upon which it preys.

  Another dinner-table word with no official, or universal definition is
the term  "pollution." Webster's Third New International  Dictionary
states that to pollute  is  to make  unclean or impure,  to defile,  or  to
desecrate. Reduced to its simplest definition, pollution is the addition to
water of any matter that can interfere actually or  potentially with a
reasonable water use. Interference may  take the form of  actually deny-
ing the water use or of simply making conditions less desirable for the
  Pollutants alter detrimentally the physical, chemical, or biological
properties in water for a present or potential water use.  They may be
       Plate 3. An open dump contributes to air pollution and is an aesthetic insult.

actually or potentially harmful or injurious  to  the  public  health  or
welfare; to animals, wild or domestic, aquatic or others; or to plants
that are important to man. Pollution relates  both to the quality and
quantity of the waste. A given quantity of a substance  introduced into a
particular volume of water will result in a concentration of the par-
ticular substance. The concentration or  quality is often  a measure of
the immediate degree of harm and the quantity of the substance intro-
duced is an accurate measure of the waste's potential to pollute.
  Pollution includes matter that floats, settles, remains suspended for a
time, is dissolved, or that is altered biologically or chemically  to become
harmful. Some pesticides, heavy metals,  and  radionuclides undergo a
phenomenon known  as biological magnification  within the  water en-
vironment. A classic example of biological magnification  is that of the
insecticide DDD, which was introduced into Clear Lake,  California, in
1949, 1954, and  1957 to  control the  Clear Lake gnat, a nuisance orga-
nism to lake shore inhabitants. Following  the latter  chemical  applica-
tions, western grebes were found dead along the lake shore. Subsequent
investigations revealed that the insecticide,  applied at a  concentration
of 0.02 parts per million parts of water, had been taken up and accumu-
lated in the microscopic waterborne plants and animals with a concen-
tration of 5  parts per million (250X).  Fish  that  ate the microscopic
organisms concentrated the DDD in their fat to levels that exceeded
2,000 parts per million (lOO.OOOX over the water concentration). Grebes,
which are diving birds, fed on the fish and died. The highest  concentra-
tion of DDD in grebe tissue was 1,600 parts per million.
  A similar situation exists with mercury pollution. Fish, in a  number
of waters, have  accumulated mercury through the food  chain so that
the eating of too much of their flesh may be a hazard to  health. Algae
have been found to concentrate arsenic  by a factor of 2,000 and lead
by a factor of 40,000. Radionuclides  have been concentrated  by aquatic
organisms by a factor of 200,000 times.

  The  environment  has received belated,  wide-spread publicity  and
public emphasis in the past few years. In its  first Report to the Presi-
dent, the Council  on Environmental Quality stated that "Historians
may one day call  1970 the year of the environment." Water uses must
be  protected for  the benefits  of  public health,  including  municipal
water  supplies;  recreation, including boating and water  skiing; swim-
ming and sport fishing;  aesthetic enjoyment;  commercial fishing; agri-
culture; and industrial water supplies.

Society's  Goal

   The goal toward which this generation must exert its combined and
coordinated energies must be to leave to posterity an environment  that
is aesthetically more pleasing and physiologically more healthful than
the one that now provides us abundant life.

           .Environmental  Insults
     MAN daily insults the air, land, and water environments in which
      he lives. The smoke and chemicals billowing from a  discharge
stack or the sometimes colorful effluent coming from a sewer  each con-
tribute a load of pollutants to the receiving environment. When such
pollutants are degradable, the receiving environment must expend  a
portion of its latent, and often renewable energies, in the degradation
process. This process  of degradation  reduces the effectiveness of the
environment to serve man in other ways. When pollution is of a repeti-
tive rather than of an ephemeral nature, environmental degradation
continues  and the natural processes of recovery  are  prevented from
fulfilling their cleansing actions.


  Environmental insults may  be defined in a number of different ways.
Perhaps the simplest  of these is  to classify them as visible or  non-
visible. The visible insults of the water environment include the sludges,
silts, oils, and other rejectamenta  from the manufacture of articles of
commerce or from the  waste barrels of  civilization. The non-visible
insults would include certain inorganic or inert materials that are
permitted to enter the receiving watercourse. Each of these has its
distinctive and ascertainable effect upon the water and the plant and
animal life  that  reside therein. Heat  pollution also can be  termed  a
nonvisible insult as can other pollutants such as  acid mine  drainage,
pesticides  and other poisons, and fertilizing nutrients that  stimulate
biologic production to excess. The  action of sublethal levels of some
otherwise toxic pollutants is insidious in that physiological changes are
produced within the aquatic  organism that  may not kill directly but
may interfere or change  the  physiology of reproduction to an extent
sufficient to eliminate the species from the particular waterway.

Aesthetic Qualities

  The type of environmental pollution that is most observed by the
citizen is that which can be seen either casually in  passing or by inspec-

tion with the unaided eye.  This type of  pollution becomes an insult
upon the aesthetic quality of the environment.
  Water that should be a  source of tranquil, aesthetic enjoyment often
becomes a defiled conveyor of civilization's wastes, and  a  refuge  for
biological pests and nuisances. The National Technical Advisory Com-
mittee on  Water Quality (Anon,  1968)  addressed itself to  aesthetic
values with these words: "It is not surprising that  water  has  occupied
an important position in  the concerns of  man. The fate of tribes and
nations, cities and civilizations has been  determined by  drought and
flood,  by  abundance or scarcity of water  since the  earliest days  of
  "Artists have reflected man's fascination with water. Literature and
art  of  a variety of cultures  dwell upon brooks, waves, waterfalls, and
lakes as superlatives among the delights of the environment.
  "Aesthetically pleasing  waters, add  to the quality of human experi-
ence. Water may be pleasant to' look. up®*,, to walk or rest beside, t&
contemplate. It may provide a variety of active recreation experiences.
It may enhance the visual  scene wherever it appears, in cities or wilder-
ness. It may enhance values of adjoining properties, public and private.
It may provide a focal point of pride in the  community.
  "The appearance  of pollution  and the  fear  of pollution reduces
aesthetic value; the knowledge that water  is clean enhances both direct
and indirect aesthetic appreciation."

  Lake Tahoe is the recognized jewel of the West and Mark Twain
eulogized its aesthetic uniqueness  with these  words:  "When  the boat
drifts shoreward to the white water and he lolls over the  gunwale and
gazes by the hour down through the crystal depths  and notes  the color
of the pebbles and  reviews the finny armies gliding  in  procession a
hundred feet below.  ..."

  A report on water pollution in the Missouri River stressed  the great
value  of relaxation  and mental well-being achieved  by  viewing and
absorbing the scenic grandeur of the great and restless Missouri. Many
people crowd the "highline" drives along the bluffs to view this mighty
river to achieve a certain restfulness from the proximity of nature.

  Conversely, Porterfield (1952) listed ". .  .  neuroses caused by noxious
odors  from polluted streams .  . .  ."  among the effects on man from
severe  water pollution. Headaches and nausea are not uncommon com-
plaints from those who live  by algal laden waters, when the algal mass
floats and decomposes in  the hot sun and pigpenlike odors permeate
the gentle breezes along the leeward shore.
  The Water Quality Act of  1965 provided  for the establishment of
water  quality standards for interstate waters.  Under the terms of this


Plate 4.  Acid mine discharges  kill natural  stream  bed organisms.  Note acid  polluted
stream bed on viewer's left compared to relatively unpolluted stream bed on viewer's right.
Act, the  States assigned  applicable  uses  to the individual  interstate
waters and adopted standards of quality to ensure that those uses would
be protected. Subsequently, these standards totally  or in part were ap-
proved by the Secretary of the  Interior and became Federal-State water
quality standards subject  to  the provisions of the Act. The purpose of
water  quality  standards is not only  to  maintain, but also to enhance
water quality throughout the Nation.

  In their standards, each of the States adopted minimum water quality
criteria applicable at any place at any time. Many of these minimum
criteria relate  specifically to maintaining  the aesthetic quality.  These
minimum criteria specify  that  surface waters should  be free from  sub-
stances attributable to waste discharges  that settle to form objectionable
deposits;  that produce  objectionable color,  odor,  taste or turbidity;
that are toxic to  humans, fish  and other animal life, and plants;  and
that float as debris, oil, scum, and other matter.
Quality  Constituents

  The pollution of the water aesthetics involves the defilement with at
least a dozen discrete water quality constituents. It may be  helpful to
consider each of these separately within the context of their particular
cause and effect relationship.


  When fish die in large numbers at one time, it is usually a sign of an
unnatural  phenomenon within the aquatic environment. Fish die of old
age like all other animals but usually the number so afflicted at any one
time is so  small  that  they go unnoticed. Fish  populations become af-
flicted with death-dealing diseases or parasites but such is often confined
to a single species of the total  population at any  given time.  When
several species involving several age groups are killed, the cause is often
attributable to a catastrophic spill  or discharge of a toxic compound, a
drastic temperature change that traps fish in a lethal environment, or a
reduction  in the dissolved oxygen  to levels 'that induce mortality. Re
duced dissolved oxygen can be caused by the decomposition of organic
materials from waste discharges, from the die-off of an abundant crop
of algae or rooted aquatic plants, or the insidious conditions associated
with winter kill under ice cover in northern climes.

  Fish are significant  indicators of water quality. Except for potential
bacterial hazards, there is a general concept th.it a water which supports
an ecologically balanced  fish population is  suitable also as a domestic
water  supply. The destruction of fish not only indicates a severe prob-
lem  occurring  in tlu*  aquatic environment, but also reduces  a  natural
          Plot* 5. A dramatic vitible indication of an environmental catastrophe.

resource of recreational and often economic value. And dead fish offend
the aesthetic of sight, as well as the sense of smell on a hot summer day.

  The Environmental Protection  Agency  (EPA)  publishes an annual
Fish Kill Summary, which is a statistical listing of the reported number
of fish killed by stream, State and waste source. The EPA has acceler-
ated its program of reporting and responding to significant fish kills.
A facet of  this  program was the development and publication  of a
leaflet on the technical aspects of  fish mortality investigations.  The
purpose of  this  accelerated program is to more  specifically determine
the cause of fish mortalities and to permit abatement of their causes
through appropriate actions. The identification of  the cause of  a fish
mortality often involves rapid and precise investigation, highly sophisti-
cated analytical testing,  and a generous mixture of art sprinkled with
experienced judgment.

  Like dead fish, floating solids are a visible evidence of pollution or
of a disregard by man for nature's unblemished beauty. Depending on
their origin, floating materials may  or may not offend the aesthetic of
smell, or serve as a haven for mosquitoes, flies or other nuisances. Float-
ing solids may accumulate as the rejectamenta from a passing motorist
or bicyclist, or waterside stroller. The beer can, child's boot, paper sack
and glass  bottle are examples of the wanton toss. Why is it that the
flowing stream is such an attractive receptacle for the empty container?

  Floating solids may come from other sources that can affect the water
quality more severely than discarded trash. Such solids may  be attribut-
able to discharges  from the manufacture of an  article in commerce,
from odorous sludges that  are carried to the surface ephemerally by
gases of decomposition, or from  accumulated  living and  decaying

  Solids from domestic and industrial wastes can and will be controlled
through adequate waste treatment and the better operation and main-
tenance of waste treatment facilities. The EPA is now accelerating its
program of plant operator  training and is offering  technical assistance
to the States to enhance  the operation and maintenance of sewage treat-
ment plants.

  The control  of the discarded beer can, paper  sack and  glass  bottle
must be carried out through an accelerated educational program, origi-
nating in the schools, and a more effective enforcement of local litter
laws. Stream clean-up days should become routine. Through local edu-
cation and leadership, a sense of pride and protection must be instilled
in people in their local waterways.


  Solids may be suspended in water for a time, and then settle to the
bed of the stream or lake. These settleable solids discharged with man's
wastes may be inert, slowly biodegradable materials, or rapidly decom-
posable substances. While in suspension, they increase the turbidity of
      Plate 6. An insult to a waterway with otherwise excellent aesthetic potential.
 i !

the water, reduce light penetration and impair photosynthetic activity
of aquatic plants, and make  a  sparkling clear water a murky, liquid

  Solids  in  suspension are  aesthetically displeasing.  When they settle
to form sludge deposits on the stream or lake bed, they are often much
more damaging to the life in water, and they retain the capacity to dis-
please the senses. Solids, when transformed to sludge deposits, may do a
variety of damaging things: They blanket the stream or lake bed and
destroy  the  living spaces for those  bottom  associated organisms  that
would otherwise occupy the habitat. When of an organic and therefore
decomposable nature, solids use  a portion or  all of the dissolved oxygen
available in the area. Organic materials also  serve as a seemingly in-
exhaustible food source for sludgeworms and  associated organisms. Thus
an assemblage of burrowing worms replaces  the larval stages of caddis-
flies, mayflies, dragonflies, hellgrammites and other organisms that add
ephemeral pleasures to those who take the opportunity to observe them,
and  marvel at their  delicate  features,  during their  individually  brief
sojourn as adults on earth.

  The minimum water quality for  interstate  waters, as prescribed by
the  Federal-State  water quality criteria standards,  specify  that  such
waters are to  be  free from  all objectionable solids that interfere with
designated uses. The Federal Water Pollution Control Act recognizes
the primary responsibility of the States to maintain  water quality and
enforce water  quality  standards within  their individual boundaries.
There are certain provisions when the Federal government may  take
actions to abate pollution and enforce compliance with the water  qual-
ity standards.

  Water is  the most aesthetically  pleasing  in its natural color.  The
pea-soup appearance of a blue-green algal  scum; the red-paint  color
from the red Euglena or from  Oscillatoria rubescens; the dull brown
color from a diatom bloom; the brillant red, green, and purple hues
from textile dye wastes; the dead red color imparted by acid mine wastes
are all aesthetically displeasing. Color  is imparted to water  from the
soil through which it flows, from an overabundance of an aquatic crop
that is stimulated perhaps as an indirect effect from the fertilizers pres-
ent in some forms of pollution,  and from direct pollution. In addition
to aesthetic  impairment, color reduces light penetration, which in turn
affects the physiological responses of aquatic life.

  For the purposes  of  this  discussion,  solid wastes are defined as the
masses of discarded materials, commonly referred to as dumps, that are
deposited adjacent to or in the flood plain  of waterways. The deposit


of refuse matter of any kind or description whatever into the water or
on the bank of any navigable water or on a bank ol a tributary thereof,
where  the  i el use  is liable  to  be  wa.shed  into  the navigable water,  is
prohibited by  the River and Marboi  Ait of  IH99.  The courts have
traditionally  given a  libei.d interpretation  to the kinds of matters that
may impede  or obstruct navigation within the meaning of this Ad, so
that floating  debris, -.illation, or other small objects, when washed into
the water regularly and in sufficient c|uantily. have been found to violate
this  provision.  The River and Harlxjr A
loss of body heat insulation, or, unable to  fly,  the  birds may slowly
starve to death or be eaten by predators.

  Successful treatment of rescued birds is extremely difficult. A month
after oil was spilled  by the TORREY  CANYON, The Nature  Con-
servancy in London reported that 7,000 birds had been rescued and
treated but that only a few hundred lived.

  When surface feeding fishes swim into the floating oil, their bodies
and gills become coated.  If  death does not result  from such contacts,
their flesh  absorbs  the  taste and odor-producing fractions  of  the oil,
rendering them unfit for human consumption for a long time afterward.
  As an oil mass moves landward, toxic oil  fractions can bring death
to both larval and  adult forms of invertebrate marine life that inhabit
the shallow, near-shore areas. Marine life, valuable to man as a food
resource, may be totally destroyed or, at the  least, is likely to acquire
disagreeable tastes  and  odors from the oil. Beds of seaweeds, valuable
as a food or industrial material, can be totally destroyed by the oil.

  Finally, as the oil hits the shorefaces and collects in harbor or port
areas, it blankets everything in  its path. The usefulness of beaches for
recreation suddenly ends. Navigational and fire hazards are created in
harbors,  ports,  and marinas. Shorefront properties are despoiled, and
the air reeks with the fumes.
  In less heavily affected areas the  odor may be less, but  grime and
stain abound. Snow-white cruisers and picturesque  sailboats  show  a
dark smear at the waterline; small children after playing on the beach
come home with oily feet; swimmers are coated with  oil patches which
cling to  their skins and  mat their  hair. Removal requires thorough
scrubbing with detergent and kerosene.
  The Federal Water Pollution Control Act prohibits the discharge of
oil into or upon the  navigable  waters of the United States, adjoining
shorelines, or into or upon the waters of the contiguous zone  in harmful
quantities.  Liabilities have been established  for failure to notify the
United States Government of such a discharge by the facility discharg-
ing, as well as for violation of the Act.

  Most waterworks  officials consider algae to be the most frequent cause
of tastes and odors  in water supplies, with other types of decaying vege-
tation second in importance. Decay or decomposition is brought about
by fungi and bacteria, including the actinomycetes. The odors  that are
produced through  the activities of fungi and bacteria may be  either
from the intermediate products formed during  the  decomposition  or
from special substances that are synthesized within the  cells of micro-
organisms.  The latter appears to be true in the case of the actinomyce-


tales. Tastes and odors that have been related to various algal genera
include such sensations as bitter, metallic, slick,  sweet,  fishy, grassy,
musty, septic, nasturtium and cucumber.
  Algae are not the only cause of organoleptic sensations; industrial
wastes  are a contributor in many areas. The EPA currently is' conduct-
ing a study in such an industrialized area where a large number of com-
plex organic compounds  are  contributing to serious taste and odor
problems  in  the receiving water supply. Investigative and analytical
techniques to identify contributing compounds  and  their sources  are
sophisticated and complex. As many as 300,000 gallons  of water  are
pumped through a special, large carbon filter. Later the  organic ma-
terial is extracted from the carbon and then the process of individual
compound identification begins through sophisticated  organic chemistry
analyses. Identified compounds are tagged to specific industrial waste
outfalls through similar techniques.
  Fish and shellfish absorb off-flavoring materials from the water  en-
vironment and this produces great concern among the fishermen. Fish
and shellfish products cannot  be marketed or are reduced in value as
a result. Studies by this Agency have  linked a change in the degree of
off-flavor in fish flesh to particular river reaches  that receive discrete
waste sources.
  Fish flavor testing is done by placing unaffected fish in holding nets
both  upstream  and downstream from  a suspected  pollution  source.
After five days, the fish are removed,  filleted, quick frozen, and sent to
a professional taste testing panel where individual fish flavors are rated
against control  specimens. Fish  readily absorb  many of the wasted
by-products of industry's contribution to civilization.

  Upon the introduction  of waste sugars, nitrogen and other nutritive
materials into watercourses, biological slimes may develop to the extent
that visible masses appear.  These are woolly,  slimy  coatings on sub-
merged objects or  tufts and strands, sometimes 15 inches or more long,
streaming in the current from their point of attachment.  They vary in
color from milky white in fresh new  growth  to dull grey-white, brown
or rusty-red,  depending on age, nutrition, and the type and amount of
solids they entrap from the passing water.

  Numerous problems  arise from the  presence of  slime growths in
streams. Where  commercial or game  fishing exists, drifting slimes may
foul gill nets rendering them ineffective, interfere with fish hatching by
coating fish eggs, and smother aquatic  animals  that  serve as food for
fish. Biological  slimes and  the materials they  entrap, such as  plant
fibers,  wood  chips,  and debris,  blanket the stream bed and destroy the
homes of organisms that compose the aquatic food web.


Plate 8. Biological slimes defile a stream and destroy a habitat for benthic organisms.

  Biological  slimes bring about  a visually unpleasant stream.  To  the
public, they  are an obvious  sign  of stream pollution.  Prolific growths
destroy the recreational potential of the water, and interfere with one
of the major public associated uses of water. Slimes, in floating down-
stream with the currents, may clog intake screens of power plants and
other installations. In areas polluted by paper mill wastes, for example,
slimes have a secondary effect. The stream slime community is composed
of a  variety of microorganisms that are  held together as a mat princi-
pally by Sphaerotilus. Such interwoven mats entrap silt, sand, fibers and
chips. The filamentous masses offer shelter and support for other orga-
nisms such as bacteria, protozoans, nematodes, rotifers and occasionally
midge larvae. During the process of decomposition, or because of physi-
cal disturbance, mats sometimes as large as three feet in diameter "boil"
to the water's surface in  an unsightly  foul-smelling eruption. These
"boils" may settle at or  near the point  of origin or be carried down-
stream to areas where the flow velocity permits settling.  Here, sludge
banks are formed that give rise to anaerobic conditions with subsequent
offensive effects. These sludge banks may be formed many miles down-
stream from  the initial pollution source, and thus increase the stream
reach affected by pollution.

  Algae  appear as  floating  scums; suspended matter giving  rise  to
murky, turbid water or water having a "pea soup" appearance; attached
filaments; and bottom dwelling  types that may be confused with  the


aquatic vascular plants.  Algae are found  in every nontoxic aquatic
habitat. When  stimulated by abundant nutrients, sunlight and warm
temperatures, algae multiply rapidly to become  a nuisance  to water
users. Nitrogen and phosphorus are  the principal nutrients that are
added with waste waters that stimulate algal growths, but carbon, iron,
and  often trace elements are sometimes involved in stimulating these
  Much is currently written about "dying lakes", which are lakes that
have much life  left  but that have been changed to the extent that they
now give rise to prolific algal production. Much effort and  many re-
sources must be expended to enhance the quality of the lakes so afflicted
and  to conserve our other  waters so that they will not rapidly attain
that eutrophic state.
  Plant nuisances may curtail or eliminate bathing, boating, water ski-
ing, and sometimes  fishing; perpetrate psychosomatic illness in man by
emitting vile stenches; impart tastes and odors to water supplies; shorten
filter runs or otherwise hamper industrial  and municipal water treat-
ment; impair areas of picturesque beauty; reduce or restrict resort trade;
lower water front property values;  interfere with the manufacture of
a product in industry,  such as paper; on occasion become toxic  to cer-
tain warm-blooded animals that ingest the water; foul irrigation siphon
tubes and trashracks; and cause skin rashes and hay fever-like symptons
in man.
  When present in great numbers, algae may give an unsightly blue-
green or green  appearance to the water, form a massive floating scum
that obstructs navigation or impairs water  uses, in decay produce nox-
ious odors  that drive people from  the  area, remove dissolved  oxygen
from the water  when decomposing and kill aquatic life as a result, foul
fish  harvesting  equipment and  water intake devices and reduce the
carrying capacity of water distribution systems. Stigeoclonium, Oedogo-
nium,  Ulothrix and Cladophora have been problems in irrigation sys-
tems where they have restricted flow in the canals, and fouled  pumps
and tubes.  Cladophora has been a problem of great concern in  Lakes
Ontario, Erie,  and Michigan where  abundant growths have  become
detached through wave and wind action  to be washed upon a  beach
where they decompose to make the area uninhabitable.
  Blue-green algae  have been severe nuisance problems,  especially to
those engaged  in water  oriented recreation in most eutrophic  lakes.
Chara,  a branched  erect alga that  becomes encrusted with calcareous
deposits giving the plant a rough  surface, has become a  problem in
many lakes and ponds with a high  alkalinity. Should the lake or pond
bed be composed of a peat-type material, Chara can become detached
from its moorings  and bring substantial quantities of bottom  with it
when it rolls to the  surface  in 9-inch thick rafts that obstruct navigation,



         Plate 9. A nutrient-stimulated algal bloom. Lake Sebasticook, Maine.

destroy aquatic aesthetics, and emit vile odors. The author has witnessed
dead tree stumps, with root systems that measure 20 feet in diameter,
embedded in these floating Chara rafts.

  There is beauty associated with the intricate design of aquatic vegeta-
tion. When such vegetation becomes too dense, beauty ceases and a
nuisance has developed. Submersed  aquatic plants can cause many of
the nuisance problems described for algae. They are particularly trouble-
some to boaters, swimmers, and water skiers.

  Like algae, aquatic vascular plants relish a liberal supply of nutrients.
Most of the vascular plants have roots and many are able to take a por-
tion of their needed nutrients from  the soil in which their  roots pene-
trate.  Submersed plants must have sunlight following seed germination
and during their active  growth  period. This restriction  limits their
distribution to that zone with a depth of about 20  feet in  most fresh-
water bodies.
  The depth of water determines the adjustment of aquatic  seed plants
into three  principal categories. Emersed plants are those that occupy
shallow water,  are  rooted in bottom mud,  and support foliage, seeds
and mature fruit one or more feet above the water surface. Cattails and
rushes are  familiar examples. Surface or floating plants generally grow


in deeper water in front of (and oftentimes  commingling with)  the
emersed plants. The larger floating plants are  water lilies that may be
rooted in the mud of the bottom and bear large leaves that float upon
the surface.  Submersed aquatic growths often  form a belt or zone of
herbage farthest from shore. The pondweeds are examples of this group.

  "And the  stream turned red like  some giant brush had stroked the
bottom with paint!" This is not rhetoric but was a complaint once filed.
The cause of the problem was the  red sludgeworms and  bloodworms
living  happily in the rich sludge covering stream beds that received
organic wastes.  These organisms burrow in the sludge and use it as a
food source.  In so doing, they function as one component of a treatment
system because after they have used the sludge it is a little more stabi-
lized than before. Thousands of these creatures, individually no larger
than the fine lead of a pencil, can live in a square foot of sludge-laden
stream bed.
  Sludgeworms live with  their heads buried in the sludge and their
tails waving in  the current. When disturbed, they disappear into their
burrows to reappear when the suscepted danger is past. In streams re-
ceiving pulp and paper wastes, this author has observed sludgeworms
to form balls that may attain the size of a clenched fist.
  Midge larvae are shorter and thicker than sludgeworms and construct
tubes around them through which  they circulate the water to obtain
food, as well as take opportune advantage of all available oxygen. Many
are blood red in color. They hatch into  hordes of principally non-biting
adults that resemble large mosquitoes.  During their swarming period
they may become a very noticeable nuisance around homes and in their
habit of getting into ears and nasal passages of children. They have been
known to stop traffic on roadways because of the denseness  of the flying

  There is no pleasure in  an environment without life. The water may
be crystal clear, and it may portray a tranquil scene in riffles and pools,
but without  life, water is dead. Toxic substances kill aquatic life, either
a few at a time if the substances are dilute or many at once if the toxic
materials are strong. In either case, the reach  of water receiving these
materials is rendered useless for many water uses.

  The purpose of this chapter is not to discuss in detail the control of
those things that defile the aesthetic properties of water.  Suffice it to
state that the implementation of the following would make possible the
giant step towards control's success:


  1.  A universal citizen awareness and concern about the problem with
  an innate desire to make conditions better tomorrow than they were

  2.  Community  sponsored lake and stream clean-up campaigns peri-
  odically undertaken.

  3.  An evaluation of  local litter laws coupled with a meaningful en-
  forcement program.

  4.  Accelerated  water pollution  control efforts to ensure adequate
  treatment of all wastes to meet water quality standards and protect
  receiving waters for the many uses they perform.


If a postscript is to be stated in defense of water aesthetics,
It should be sufficient to pause for a moment and recall
The  crystal clear depths of Lakes Tahoe or Crater;
The  shimmering waters of a Bois Brule, or the grandeur of a waterfall.
Must one in all honesty defer to memory alone
To visualize a stream or a lake unblemished by human deeds,
Where finny friends, and caddis fly, and crayfish alike,
Without stress from  pollution or unencumbered  by trash, conduct
  nature's needs?

 Controlling Environmental Insults
Some  of the  Problems

  IT has been estimated that 15,000 spills of oil and hazardous materials
   occur annually in U. S.  navigable waters. Presently 75 percent of
these spills involve petroleum products.  The potential for oil spillage
is expected to triple over the next 30 years. This potential is related to
the projected increased demand for petroleum products.

  The major  effects of spills of oil and hazardous materials are injury
or death to aquatic life and aesthetic and economic damages to beaches,
boats, and shoreline  property. Essentially  all navigable and coastal
waters of the Nation are vulnerable to  oil  spills because of the wide
dispersion of oil and petroleum product transport, storage, refining, and
use. Many of the Nation's non-navigable surface waters and ground-
waters are subject to oil spill damage because of  pipeline breaks, tank
truck accidents, rupture or  leakage  from gasoline  stations  and  other
small tank storage facilities,  and the deliberate dumping of waste oil.

  In 1970, 25 million cattle were marketed from about 184,000 feedlots,
each holding over 1,000 animals at a time. Nearly 9 million cattle were
marketed from 350 feedlots. The daily manure production averages 60
pounds per head for each 1,000 pounds of live weight animal. An esti-
mate of the national production, of livestock manure in  the United
States is 2 billion tons annually. On a pound-for-pound  basis, the po-
tential for phosphorus pollution to the receiving waterway from a steer
and a human is comparable. Winter runoff concentrations from a cattle
feedlot have reached  as high as 750  mg/1 phosphorus  and 2,000 mg/1
ammonia nitrogen. Runoff can be toxic  to aquatic life, remove needed
oxygen from the water, and supply food for the development of nuisance
biological pests.

  Sediments produced by erosion are the most extensive pollutants of
surface waters. It has been estimated that loadings  of suspended solids
reaching our waters are at  least 700 times the loadings  from sewage
discharges. The dirty brown or grey appearance of a river or reservoir
after a rainstorm is due to sediments washed in from crop land,  un-


protected forest soils, over-grazed pastures, or the bulldozed "develop-
ments"  of urban areas. The presence of sediments  generally increases
the cost of water purification and reduces the value of water recreation.
Nutrients adsorbed on sediment particles contribute  to undesirable con-
ditions  in standing waters. Erosion  is a serious problem on  at least
300,000 miles of the Nation's stream banks  and along many of the
470,000 miles of rural and secondary roads. Over 1  billion tons of sedi-
ment reach  the rivers of  our country each year.  Approximately ten
percent of this quantity is contributed  by erosion  from lands under-
going development or  highway construction.  Sediment quantities in
streams flowing from  urbanized drainage basins vary  from  approxi-
mately 200 to 500 tons per square mile per year. In contrast, the urban-
ized areas have quantities varying from 1,000 to 100,000 tons per square
mile per year.

  In some areas, serious water  quality degradation has occurred as a
result of  runoff from  irrigated lands. Water returned  from irrigated
areas usually has a much higher concentration of dissolved solids than
does stream  flow because  the diverted water leaches additional solids
from the fields, and because evaporation  from the soil and transpiration
by  the  crops concentrate  the dissolved solids into a smaller flow of
water.  Particular  problems have been  encountered in the Colorado
River Basin  because of the increased salt content in irrigation return

  Both active and  abandoned mines pose problems  of water pollution.
Acid mine pollution is a well-publicized result of mining activity  and
contributes  4 million tons of  pollutants annually. There  are  about
12,400 miles  of stream that are  significantly affected by mine pollution
in the  United States. Most of  these are degraded by  coal mining  opera-
tions, but mining for  copper, lead and  zinc, uranium, iron, sand  and
gravel,  phosphates,  and other minerals  are important factors. Stream
degradation  by mining activities in the Appalachian  coal  region  ac-
counts for 84 percent of the stream miles polluted by mine wastes. Mine
pollutants include such dissolved  constituents  as  acid,  iron, copper,
arsenic, cadmium, nickel, sulfate, phosphate, radioactive minerals, sus-
pended sediments, and colloidal iron.

  Sediment  yields  from strip-mined  areas have reached nearly  30,000
tons per square mile annually. This is  10 to 60 times the amount of
sedimentation from agricultural lands. At this rate the two million acres
of strip-mined  land in need  of reclamation could  be a source  for 94
million tons of sediment a year.

  In addition to mine drainage, refuse piles, and tailing ponds, washery
preparation  residues are  also important indirect sources  of pollution
from mining. For many minerals, such as phosphates, the pollution from


       Plate 10. Uncontrolled erosion in a housing development ii the genesis of i
                          waterway's sediments.
processing operations exceeds that resulting directly from the mining
operation. The pollution from  coal mines in Indiana and Illinois, for
example,  arises primarily from refuse piles, tailing ponds, and prepara-
tion plants. No national estimates are  available that show the volume
or related importance of pollution from these sources.

  Industry is a very big polluter of  water  and water is one of this
Nation's most valuable resources. The  waste water discharges from the
processing of food,  textiles, paper and chemical products,  petroleum
and coal, rubber, primary  metals, and machinery  and  transportation
equipment exceed  14  trillion  gallons annually.  By comparison  the
waste water  volume of domestic sewage  from the  population  of the
United  States served by sewers is slightly  more than 5 trillion gallons.
Waste water volumes from two  industries only, chemical and  allied
products  and primary  metals, which  include glass  furnaces and steel
mills, exceed that of domestic sewage by a substantial margin. The great
preponderance of American industrial  water use, as  measured by waste
water discharges, occurs in the  Northeast, North Atlantic,  the  Great
Lakes areas, and the Ohio River Drainage Basin.

   The April 1971, United States Department of Commerce publication
on "Water Used in Manufacturing,"  reported 241,000 water-using  in-


dustries. Of these, 9400 or 3.9 percent consume 20 million gallons or
more of water. About 80 percent of the water used by industry is fresh;
the remainder is brackish. Of the industrial waste waters discharged,
4.3 trillion gallons or 31 percent were treated prior to discharge. Over
one-half of the  waste water volume is  from four major water-using
groups and these include primary metals, chemicals and allied products,
paper and allied products, and petroleum and coal products.

  The above  are but some examples of the many forms of pollution
entering the Nation's waterways. The control  of  these environmental
insults must be  a cooperative and integrated effort on the part of the
individual citizens,  organized citizen groups, local governmental units,
small business managers, corporate industrial executives and production
managers, State  and Federal Governments, and the legislators.

Citizens Groups
  The growing  interest of individual  citizens and citizens' groups has
been  a major  factor in causing government and industry to move more
rapidly in the  implementation of  pollution abatement and  control
programs and in devising a successful recycling program in the Nation's
battle against solid wastes. Litter continues to  mar our Nation's high-
ways  and city streets, our parks, and public buildings. Anti-litter cam-
paigns  and the creation of  local reclamation centers have  focused
public attention on the potential value of recycling these waste products.
While the total  number of bottles, cans,  and paper collected and sep-
arated at home  and local recycling centers may constitute only a small
percentage of the total produced,  this is  at the very least a beginning
toward a solution of a very large problem.
  Unfortunately, many false hopes have been raised about the likelihood
of large scale recycling as a solution to our solid wastes problems in the
immediate future. There will have to  be some fundamental and long-
ranged changes in our life styles and in the structure of our economy to
achieve such a goal. Too often  citizen groups have rushed into setting
up local reclamation centers only to find that  poor planning,  lack of
existing markets and a tapering off of  voluntary participation force
them to close. Having started with high expectations, many people have
become discouraged about the potential of recycling. The publicity and
glamourization of recycling has also had a negative effect on efforts to
construct less glamourous types of conventional disposal facilities, which
are needed now.

Education  Needs
  There is still a tremendous need for  education on waste reduction of
all  kinds: Waste of electricity, gasoline,  and  other forms of energy


resources; waste of water and food; waste of paper, metals, minerals,
glass and our  other natural resources. The Environmental Protection
Agency is working with the Office of Consumer Affairs, the Department
of Housing and Urban Development,  and other Federal agencies  to
launch an active public education campaign for the reduction of con-
sumer wastes.  Similar programs  on waste avoidance for business, in-
dustry, and State and local governments are likewise urged.
  Several  environmental  education  programs recently have  been
launched  by the Federal Government. In October  1971,  the Environ-
mental Merit Award Program, now administered by  the Environmental
Protection Agency and supported by the U. S. Office of Education, was
initiated.  This program provides  national  recognition  to  successful
student environmental project. It has already involved over 2,000 high
schools across the country.
  The National Park Service has done impressive work in developing
curriculum materials  through the National  Environmental Education
Program.  Study sites have been established on Federal park lands and
the program is now being extended to natural and man-made sites, both
public and private. As often  as possible the environmental study sites
are being located in or near major urban areas.
  The Forest Service  has established an effective teacher-training pro-
gram. The program uses forest service field personnel to conduct en-
vironmental workshops for teachers from widely separated disciplines.
The Department of Agriculture recently established an "Environmental
Thrust" campaign to  provide organizational and technical guidance to
community projects in environmental quality.
  A most  significant  Federal activity in the realm of environmental
education was the Environmental Education Act of  1970,  including the
establishment  of an  Office  of Environmental Education within  the
U. S. Office of Education. A National Advisory Council was appointed
to oversee the implementation of the Act. Some 74 grants,  totalling over
$1.7 million, were processed during fiscal year 1971 and these supported
a wide range of projects principally outside the context of formal edu-
cation. These projects stress community-based environmental education
and are focused oil local environmental problems.

Citizen Action

  As a result of this increased awareness and  interest toward environ-
mental cleanup on the part  of the individual  citizen, the question is
often asked, "What can the average citizen do  to protect and enhance
the environment?"
  Voluntary citizen organizations have long been a part  of the  way of
life  in the United States. Individuals with common interest in  social,


 civic, cultural, religious, political,  business and professional pursuits
 have united together in clubs, societies, associations, and groups to share
 their common interests.  Thousands of such groups exist. Among them
 now are at least 3,000  conservation  and environmental  organizations.
 This number includes approximately 250 national and regional groups
 and about 400 State organizations.  On the local community level, there
 are approximately  2500 organizations of individuals concerned about
 one or  more  conservation  or environmental  problems. In  addition,
 there are uncounted civic, church,  labor, business, youth, school,  and
 women's groups  that devote  at least  some of their efforts toward the
solving of environmental problems.

  Environmental organizations vary in size and range of activity. Some
employ  professional staffs. Some,  especially on the  local level, operate
solely with volunteers.  Some are  concerned with a single issue while
others are concerned with any and all environmental problems. While
the scope and  degree of their efforts vary, in total, they engage  in  a
multitude of activities on behalf of a better environment. The groups
work for water  pollution  control,  cleaner air,  noise  control, better
methods of solid  wastes  management, conservation of natural areas,
preservation of wildlife,  transportation reform,  pesticide  control, and
sound resource management.
        Plate 11. A stream-bank dump pollutes the receiving waterway for miles.

  Such  citizen organizations serve as the active articulate  voices of a
public which has become increasingly concerned about environmental
quality. These groups fulfill a watchdog role. They exert a pro-environ-
mental influence on public opinion, on the press, on industry, and on
government. Through their individual concern and relentless prodding
of industrial and governmental officials, these citizen groups mold and
hasten actions that result in a better and cleaner environment. Through
a stimulus from these groups,  other citizens are motivated to join the
crusade for environmental actions. It is most important, however, that
these actions be directed toward achievable, technical accomplishments
with -a sound appraisal  of the problem and various alternatives  avail-
able rather than to be misdirected by emotional or political motives.

  The planet earth serves as man's parlor and it should be treated with
the same respect and thoughtfulness as the innermost sanctuary of one's
dwelling.  Each citizen should make it his duty to become informed
regarding the problems  of water pollution and its control,  the alterna-
tives  of control actions, and the  long-range water resource and  waste
water control management plans, founded on  technical concepts and
judgments, that  have been developed for the area in question. Unless
a citizen becomes well  informed on these critical matters, his efforts
may be unintentionally misdirected  and impede rather than assist the
development of a feasible control management program. A citizen can
become informed on these matters by obtaining and reading technical
and semi-technical  authentic reports and by questioning  government
officials and technical experts who are working with the problems.

  There are a number of actions a citizen or a citizens' group can take
to foster the pollution control efforts. Examples of such actions would

    1. Encourage industries and municipalities at all opportunities to
      adopt and implement pollution abatement or control measures.

    2. Don't discard unwanted things in areas  where  they will receive
      inadequate disposal or where they will clutter the environment.

    3. Don't litter;  assist in picking up and disposing of litter that may
      have been discarded by others.

    4. Promote through individual efforts, private organizations, or a
      community effort, all attempts to cleanse the environment of the
      rejectamenta of civilization and promote campaigns and educa-
      tional  programs  to prevent contamination  of the environment
      with such materials.

    5. Support local and other governmental efforts in the adoption and
      implementation  of realistic pollution  abatement  and control


   6. Support  and encourage efforts to recycle waste materials into
      products of use to civilization.

   7. For  sake of economy and environmental preservation, use no
      more than the minimal amount that has been determined to ful-
      fill the intended useful purpose of a given product.

   8. Do not waste electricity,  gasoline, and other forms  of  energy
      resources; water or food; and paper, metals, minerals, glass, and
      other natural resources.

   9. Seek to influence government decisions to protect, preserve, con-
      serve, and enhance environmental quality.

  10. Remember always that a discharge valve cannot be shut instantly.
      To  use  currently available technology requires  planning and
      construction. Often  gigantic strides toward accomplishment  of
      defined goals are made  with small incremental positive steps
      taken in the right direction.

  Strive  to become an  informed citizen  regarding the current pollu-
tional problems, the actions that have been  taken  to correct the prob-
lems, the facets of the problems  that need  yet to be  corrected, the
technology currently available for  the correction of the problems, and
the efforts  being pursued by municipal,  industrial, and governmental
agencies that will result in problems correction.

The Role  of Industry and Agriculture

  Industries, municipalities, and agricultural enterprises have an obli-
gation to society and to posterity to preserve all facets of the environ-
ment so that it may be used and enjoyed in an undiminished and un-
degraded condition by all who follow. Decision makers in these groups,
therefore, have  an  obligation to plan pollution control actions far into
the future  to ensure that  production changes can be accommodated
without  environmental degradation. Decision makers have an addi-
tional obligation to control present pollution  and to promote programs
that include  the immediate use of pollution abatement and control
technology that are currently available rather than await a  legislative
mandate or an  action on the part  of government,  or by the courts,  to
force implementation of pollution control  procedures. The decision
makers in industry, for municipalities, and in other enterprises  should
take the forefront in pollution abatement and control.

The Role  of Governments

  The role of governments in the pollution  abatement program is  to
investigate  pollution damage and  identify the causes, to research and


support research directed toward the development of new and innova-
tive treatment or control technologies, to demonstrate the feasibility of
control technology, to adopt standards of performance and of environ-
mental quality, and to regulate and enforce laws and regulations foster-
ing treatment and  control efforts. The first step toward a control meas-
ure is the identification  and  quantification of particular  sources of
pollution. This investigative procedure  largely has been accomplished
for those sources that are obvious. Likewise, the gross effect of various
types  of  pollutants  are  generally known  but research continues to
determine the subtle effects of  sublethal changes on the physiology of
various life forms that inhabit the receiving waterways.
  Research  efforts  to  develop  new,  more effective,  and  less  costly
methods  for pollution abatement and control  will always be required.
Likewise,  the feasibility  and  technological reliability  of  developed
methods  must be  demonstrated before  they can  be adopted fully by
industry.  The  demonstration  of- environmental  improvement  tech-
niques and management  practices are also  essential  for the enhance-
ment  of environmental quality and these demonstrations have largely
been lacking in the  past. For  example, we  need  to demonstrate on a
field-scale level the reliability of certain eutrophication control measures
before such measures can be  adopted as tools in  the  control of the
broad-scale eutrophication problem facing this Nation.
  The governments must develop, adopt, and promulgate criteria and
standards to define those levels of environmental  quality that must be
maintained  by  this society. Such  standards further must be promul-
gated to  define those limits on pollution that will maintain through
time the necessary environmental quality.

  Legislators must adopt laws that will permit appropriate actions and
interactions among governments to insure the maintenance of adequate
environmental quality. Following the adoption of such laws, the ap-
propriate governments must be responsive in the development of man-
dated programs and in  the enforcement of laws  and regulations  that
may evolve from such legislative actions.

                Legal Constraints
River and  Harbor Act  of 1899

   The dynamic philosophy of legal constraints against water pollution
had its genesis in the River and Harbor Act of 1899. This Act consti-
tuted the first specific Federal water pollution control legislation.  Sec-
tion 13 of the Act made it unlawful to throw, discharge, or deposit any
refuse matter  of any kind or description other than that flowing from
streets and  sewers and  passing therefrom in a liquid  state into  any
navigable waters. This  section made it equally unlawful  to deposit
material of any kind on the bank of any navigable water or its tributary
where the same shall be liable to be washed into the navigable water.
The United States  Army  Corps of Engineers  could grant permission
for the deposit of any material that might otherwise violate the language
of Section 13. The Department of Justice was given authority to enforce
the provisions of the River and Harbor Act of 1899 as they  pertain to
water pollution. A  statement within the penalty  provisions provided
that one-half of any fine collected for violation of this Act shall be paid
to the person or persons giving information which shall lead to convic-
tion. The provisions of the River and Harbor Act of 1899 have assumed
major significance in the fight against water pollution in recent months
and the United States Department of Justice has prosecuted a  signifi-
cant number of cases to abate water pollution under its provisions.

Early  Water Pollution  Control Legislation

  The Public Health Service Act of 1912 contained provisions authoriz-
ing investigation of water pollution relating to the diseases and impair-
ment of man. In 1924, the Oil Pollution Act was enacted to control oil
discharges in coastal waters that  might be damaging  to aquatic  life,
harbors and docks, and recreational facilities. This Act made it unlaw-
ful for any person to discharge or suffer or permit the discharge of oil
by any method, means, or manner into or upon the coastal, navigable
waters of the United States  from any vessel  using  oil  as fuel for  the
generation of  propulsion power  or any vessel carrying or having oil
thereon in excess of that necessary for its lubricating requirements.


  Legislation was first enacted for the control and abatement of water
pollution in some States in the late 1930's. As early as 1941, for example,
additional enabling legislation was passed in Wisconsin for the purpose
of controlling biological growths. It instructed the State Committee on
Water Pollution  ". . .  to supervise chemical treatment  of  waters  for
the suppression of algae, aquatic weeds, swimmer's itch, and other nuis-
ance-producing plants and organisms. To this end,  the committee may
conduct experiments for the purpose of ascertaining'the best methods
for such  control. It may purchase equipment and may make a charge
for the use of same and for materials furnished, together with a per
diem charge for any services performed in such work. The charge shall
be sufficient to reimburse the committee for the use of the equipment,
the actual cost of the materials furnished,  and the actual cost of the
services rendered, plus ten percent  for overhead and  development

Federal Water Pollution  Control Act

  In  1948, the Federal Water  Pollution  Control  Act  was passed as
Public Law 845 by the 80th Congress.  It  provided pollution control
activities in the Public Health Service of the  then Federal  Security
Agency and in the  Federal Works Agency. The Act declared it to be
the policy of Congress  to recognize, preserve, and  protect the primary
responsibilities of the States in  controlling  water pollution,  to support
and aid technical research,  to devise and perfect methods of treatment
of industrial wastes which are not susceptible to known effective methods
of treatment, and to provide Federal technical services  to  States and
interstate agencies and  to industries,  and  financial aid  to  States and
interstate agencies and  to municipalities in  the  formulation and execu-
tion of their abatement programs. Section 2 of this Act stated: "In
the development of such comprehensive programs due regard shall be
given to  the improvements which are necessary to conserve such waters
for public water  supply, propagation of fish and  aquatic life, recrea-
tional  purposes,  and  agricultural, industrial,  and other  legitimate

  Comprehensive water pollution control  legislation was enacted by
the 84th  Congress, which passed the Federal Water Pollution Control
Act, Public  Law  660, on July  9, 1956. The 1956 Act  extended and
strengthened the  1948 Act and  was administered by the  Surgeon Gen-
eral of the Public Health Service under the  supervision  and direction
of the  Secretary of Health,  Education, and  Welfare. The Act provided
grants for State water pollution control programs and authorized the
granting  of Federal funds to any State, municipality, or intermunicipal
or interstate agency for the construction of necessary treatment works
to prevent the discharge of untreated or inadequately treated sewage or

other wastes into any waters and for the purpose of reports, plans, and
specifications in connection therewith.

  A definition of comprehensive planning was contained in one of
the recommendations of the National Conference  on Water Pollution
held in Washington, D. C., December 12 to 14, 1960. This recommenda-
tion stated:

    "Planning for the comprehensive development of each major basin
  or water  resource  area  should be  established  as  a  fixed  national
  policy. By comprehensive development we mean the application of
  integrated multiple-purpose  design, planning and management which
  include the  joint consideration of ground and surface waters, system-
  atic  conservation by water  users,  and  the  treatment and  manage-
  ment of waters having substandard quality.  Consideration  of every
  appropriate technique would be a routine part of planning for such

    "Such planning insofar as feasible, should include consideration of
  all important industrial plant sites. An early and important objective
  should be a systematic program of flow regulation. State initiative
  toward comprehensive planning should be encouraged, and partici-
  pation by all major  interests should be encouraged. The objective
  should be one of eventually producing maximum total benefits from
  all economic and social use."

  Further amendments to the Federal Water  Pollution Control  Act
were  signed into  law  on  July 20,  1961 as  Public  Law  87-88,  87th
Congress. The 1961 amendments improved and strengthened the  Act
by extending  Federal authority to enforce abatement of pollution in
interstate, as well as  navigable  waters. It  provided  that in  the plan-
ning for any  reservoir, consideration shall be  given to inclusion of
storage for regulation of stream flow for the  purpose of water quality
control, except that any such  storage and  water releases shall not be
provided as a substitute for adequate treatment or  other  methods of
controlling wastes at the source.

Water Quality Act of 1965

  The Water Quality Act of 1965 established the Federal Water Pollu-
tion Control Administration within the Department  of Health, Educa-
tion, and Welfare. With the presidential reorganization plan  effective
on May 10,  1966, the  Federal Water  Pollution Control Administration
was transferred to the Department of the Interior.  The Water Quality
Act of 1965  provided for the establishment of water quality standards
to enhance  the quality of all  of the Nation's  interstate and coastal


  In setting the water quality standards, the States were mandated to
determine  after public hearings  the uses to be made  of  particular
reaches of interstate water. Following this determination, criteria were
to be adopted that would define the levels or ranges of bacterial pollu-
tion, dissolved oxygen, temperature,  and other water  quality constitu-
ents that would provide for these uses. In addition, the States were to
develop and submit to the Federal Government a specific and enforce-
able implementation  plan to meet the  criteria that were established.
These water quality standards have been  submitted by the individual
States and, on the whole, have  been approved by the Federal Govern-
ment. With this action, they became Federal-State water quality stand-
ards enforceable  by either level  of  government  with the individual
States having  primary responsibility  for  enforcement. Water quality
standards represented  a major step forward in defining the  quality of
water that  would be acceptable to meet certain designated water uses.
The  prescribed water uses,  developed  through  public  hearing and
participation of the public, were  the result  of direct involvement  in
water pollution control  regulatory  activities by the  private citizen.
The goal behind the  water quality  standards provision  was that  the
quality of this Nation's waters shall be enhanced through implementa-
tion of  appropriate  treatment or control  measures to abate water
pollution. A  further provision  of  the Water Quality Act of 1965 ex-
tended  Federal enforcement powers and authorized Federal action
when substantial economic injury  results from the inability  to market
shellfish  or shellfish products in interstate commerce because of pollu-
tion. A substantial effort was expended by the individual States, as well
as the Federal Government, in  responding to the mandate of this Act
for the  establishment of standards  of  quality on  all interstate and
coastal waters.

National Environmental Policy Act of  1969
  A very significant piece of legislation  was embodied in the National
Environmental Policy Act of  1969,  Public  Law  91-190 of the 91st
Congress enacted January 1, 1970. This  Act created the Council on
Environmental Quality in the Executive Office of the President whose
responsibility it is to  formulate and recommend national policies to
promote the improvement of the  quality of the environment. In addi-
tion,  the Act provides for the  development and filing of an  environ-
mental impact  statement  for any  Federal action significantly affecting
the quality of  the human environment.  The Environmental Impact
Statements shall detail the environmental impact of  the proposed ac-
tion, any adverse environmental effect which cannot be avoided should
the proposal  be implemented, alternatives to the proposed action, the
relationship between  local, short-term uses of man's environment and
the maintenance  and  enhancement of long-term  productivity, and any


irreversible and irretrievable commitments of resources which would be
involved in the proposed action should it be implemented. As a result
of this Act, the Environmental Impact Statements filed by other Federal
agencies related to the effects and potential effects of the  designated
action on the air, land, and water quality are reviewed in detail by the
Environmental Protection Agency.

Water Quality Improvement  Act of  1970
  The  Water  Quality Improvement Act of 1970 was  passed  by the
91st Congress as Public Law 91-224 on April 3, 1970. This Act amended
the Federal Water Pollution Control Act and changed the name of the
Federal Water  Pollution Control Administration to the Federal Water
Quality Administration.  A new  and comprehensive section  was added
on the control of pollution by oil. This section prohibited the discharge
of harmful  quantities of oil into or upon the navigable  waters, ad-
joining shorelines,  or the contiguous zone of  the United States. It
provided that a person who is in charge of any vessel must immediately
notify the Federal Government  whenever any  discharge of oil occurs
and if he fails to do so he is subject to a fine of $10,000 or imprisonment
for not more than one year or both. This Section provided  a revolving
fund  to finance the  removal of  oil and other hazardous materials. In
addition,  the Water  Quality Improvement  Act of 1970 provided for
the control  of  hazardous polluting substances  and directed that  such
substances be designated that are dangerous to the public health or
welfare when discharged into the navigable waters of the United States.

  A Section was provided on the control of human body wastes from
vessels and mandated the Environmental Protection Agency to promul-
gate standards  of performance to control these wastes. In addition the
Act provided that each Federal  agency engaged in any Federal public
works activity  must  comply with  applicable water quality standards,
as well as the purposes of the Federal Water Pollution Control Act.

  Reorganization Plan No. 3, effective July 1970, transferred all Federal
water pollution control programs to the Administrator of the Environ-
mental  Protection Agency.  This independent agency,  reporting to the
President, has  Federal jurisdiction over water pollution control pro-
grams, air pollution control programs, solid wastes abatement programs,
radiological and pesticidal programs, and noise abatement. The Federal
effort  includes  the granting of Federal funds for  the construction of
pollution  treatment  or  control devices;  technical support to  State,
interstate  agencies,  and other groups  or individuals; regulatory and
enforcement  activities; and research, demonstration, and development
of new  or innovated processes  for  the  control or treatment of waste
products. The  establishment  and  subsequent functioning  of the  En-
vironmental  Protection Agency provides a united front  within  the


Federal Government directed toward the purposes of prevention, con-
trol, or abatement of pollution or insults to the air, land, and water
environments. The Environmental Protection Agency is organized with
an Administrator and Deputy Administrator who direct the Agency's
activities. Assistant Administrators are charged with responsibilities for
air  and water programs; categorical programs,  including  pesticides,
radiation, and solid  wastes;  research and monitoring; general counsel
and enforcement; and administration.

Federal Law

  In the chronology of Federal laws to control water pollution, it has
been a declared policy of Congress  to recognize, preserve, and  protect
the primary responsibilities and rights of the States in preventing and
controlling water pollution.  Provision has been made for the granting
of Federal funds for a number of special purposes. Federal funds on a
matching basis may be granted to a planning agency at the request of a
State for the purpose of developing  a comprehensive pollution control
and abatement plan for a basin.  Such a plan must be consistent with
applicable  water quality  standards and must recommend  treatment
works and  sewer systems that will provide  the most effective and eco-
nomical means of  waste water management. Grants may  be made to
States and  interstate agencies  to  assist them in meeting  the costs of
establishing and maintaining water pollution control programs,  includ-
ing the training of personnel of  public agencies. Substantial sums of
money have been allocated also for grants to any State, municipality, or
intermunicipal or  interstate agency for the construction  of  necessary
treatment works to prevent the discharge of untreated or inadequately
treated sewage or other wastes into any waters and for the purposes of
reports, plans, and  specifications in  connection with  this  program.
These funds have been allocated on a matching basis with State funds.

  Federal grants for  research, demonstration, and development may be
made to assist in the  development of any project which will demonstrate
a new or improved method of controlling the discharges into any waters
of untreated or inadequately treated sewage or other wastes from sewers
which carry storm  water or both storm water and sewage, and to  assist
in the  development  of any  project which  will demonstrate  advanced
waste treatment and water purification methods. Further, such grants
may be made to persons for research and  demonstration projects for
prevention of pollution by industry including, but not limited to, treat-
ment of industrial wastes. Such grants must be approved by the appro-
priate State water pollution control  agency and no grant shall be made
unless it is determined that such project will serve a useful purpose in
the development or  demonstration  of a new or improved method of
waste treatment or pollution prevention and that  such method  shall


have  wide and  general applicability for the industry or nation as a

  Provision has been made in Federal water pollution control law for
technical  assistance  to conduct  investigations and research  and make
surveys concerning any specific problem of water pollution confronting
any State  or community or industrial plant with a view of recommend-
ing a solution of such problem. The Federal Government is authorized
to collect and make available through  publication  and other appro-
priate means information on water quality and water pollution control
measures  and to collect and disseminate basic data. Federal authoriza-
tion has been provided also for the maintaining of field laboratory and
research facilities and at the present time such laboratories are located
in strategic locations within  the  ten regional offices of  the Environ-
mental Protection Agency. Provision has also been made for training
activities  both from  the standpoint of training  Federal  personnel, as
well as State and  other  personnel in water pollution, analytical, and
management techniques.

  The Federal agencies' enforcement prerogatives for  water pollution
abatement have historically been  constrained by the language  within
the Federal  Water  Pollution Control  Act. Federal actions to  abate
pollution  may  be taken when the health or  welfare of persons is
endangered in  a  State  other than that  in  which  the  discharge  or
discharges originate. Federal actions may be taken also when requested
by  the Governor  of any State  or the  State water  pollution control
agency when the health or welfare of persons is endangered in a State
other than that in  which the discharge or discharges originate. The
Governor  of any State may request Federal intervention to abate pollu-
tion of interstate  or navigable waters when the health or welfare of
persons is endangered in the requesting State from pollution arising
therein. In addition, the Federal Government  may  take enforcement
actions against violators of Federal-State water quality standards where
such violations have not been corrected by the State authorities. Federal
actions may  be taken against polluters where  substantial economic
injury results from the inability to market shellfish or shellfish products
in interstate commerce because of pollution.

  The United States Department of Justice  has undertaken prosecution
of a number of water pollution cases in  violation of the River and
Harbor Act of 1899. In addition,  the Corps of Engineers and the En-
vironmental Protection Agency have been cooperating in the evaluation
of permit  applications for the discharge of industrial wastes as provided
for  in that Act. Essentially three alternatives are  evident when a par-
ticular application is reviewed  within the context  of environmental
damage. One  alternative would be to recommend approval  of the ap-


       Plate 12. Wastes that must be treated to protect the receiving waterway.

plication as received. Another would recommend conditional approval
based upon  the implementation of a waste treatment or control  pro-
gram  with defined  and acceptable implementation dates  that would
bring the waste  water discharge into compliance  with  water quality
standards  and general environmental acceptability. The  third alterna-
tive is to disapprove the application as presented and request a resub-
mission that would detail a new program approach for waste water  con-
trol or treatment.
Federal Water Pollution Control Act
   Amendments  of 1972

  Many of the past efforts to abate water pollution have  not  demon-
strated dramatic and visible accomplishments. This has been due  to a
number of reasons not the least of which is the accelerating demand
placed upon American  industry  to  produce more products and an
increasing number of types of products. The expanding population and
the expanding industrial  development  have resulted  in  a dramatic
increase in the pollution load upon  the receiving waterways. Were it
not for the substantial efforts toward pollution abatement that have
been  made  by governments at  all levels, industry,  and  the  private
citizen, water quality would be far worse than it is at the present time.


In a great many cases,  unfortunately, these past efforts have kept pace
only with increased production and  have not served to clean up areas
with a long history of pollution. The inability  of past water pollution
control efforts to demonstrate visible improvements  in  water  quality
has led to  citizen demand for more  stringent and more encompassing
Federal legislation and involvement  in water pollution control efforts.
As a result of such public outcry for  action, the 92nd  Congress enacted
on October 18, 1972, a series of very comprehensive amendments to the
Federal Water Pollution Control Act.
  In this legislation to form the basis of future Federal water pollution
control efforts, it is the expressed  national goal that  the discharge of
pollutants into the navigable waters of the United States be eliminated
by 1985 and that the discharge of toxic pollutants in toxic amounts be
prohibited.  Further, an interim  goal of water  quality which provides
for the protection and  propagation of fish, shellfish,  and wildlife  and
provides for recreation in and on the water is to be achieved by July  1,
1983. The  legislation provides for  a  number of significant changes in
Federal water pollution control laws and  would extend and expand
Federal authority in the control of  industrial  wastes, toxic materials,
non-point source wastes and ocean dumping and discharges.
  The new philosophy of legal  controls provides for Federal  involve-
ment in ground  water  quality, as well as  that  of the contiguous zone
and the oceans, in sedimentation and the prevention and abatement of
pollution from  agriculture  and other non-point sources, in  thermal
pollution,  in acid mine drainage,  and with  toxic  substances. The
Federal Government is mandated  to develop and  publish  guidelines
for effluent limitations identifying the  best practicable control tech-
nology currently available  for classes and categories  of point sources,
other than publicly owned treatment  works, and guidelines for identify-
ing and evaluating the  nature and extent  of non-point  pollutants  and
processes, procedures, and methods to control pollution resulting from
agricultural and  silvicultural activities,  mining activities, construction
activities, disposal  of pollutants in  wells  and  changes that  may be
produced in  ground waters.  National  standards of performance to
control the discharge of pollutants are to be proposed  and published as
regulations for some 27 new sources of industrial waste water categories.
Toxic pollutants  are to be identified and a regulation is to be published
with a proposed  effluent standard or  a prohibition for such pollutants
or combinations  thereof. A section on  clean lakes  provides for State
identification  and classification of  lakes according  to their eutrophic
condition and permits  Federal support in undertaking methods  and
procedures to restore the quality of  such lakes. Federal  criteria are to be
developed and published for the discharge of materials into the terri-
torial sea, the waters of  the  contiguous zone or the oceans. Permits may
be issued for the  discharge of dredged or fill material into the navigable


waters at specified disposal sites providing criteria are met that were
developed to define acceptable materials for disposal. The new legisla-
tion also would authorize very substantial  increases in  government
funds  to  support construction of waste water treatment facilities and
provides for loans  to small business concerns to meet water pollution
control requirements established under the  Federal Water Pollution
Control Act.
  In the  early history of water pollution control  legislation,  the con-
cern of the Nation was centered on the control of oil pollution on the
high seas and later on assisting the States with Federal monies for the
planning of pollution abatement facilities and for the construction of
waste water treatment plants. Municipal waste water treatment facilities
received principal emphasis. More  recently, national attention  has
focused on maintaining ambient  water  quality  suitable to support
the desirable  and designated water uses for the Nation's waters.  At-
tention has focused also  on the industrial waste component of  the total
pollutional complex. A  need has remained to focus  attention on non-
point source wastes arising from confined animal feeding areas, irriga-
tion return flows, logging practices,  construction site siltation,  and
rural sewage treatment devices. The need has existed also to  focus on
problems of eutrophication in specific lakes and to manage the wastes
entering these drainage  basins in such  a manner that lake quality will
be  preserved  for the  uses of  posterity. These needs are fulfilled  in
present legislative acts. The control philosophy is likewise  changing to
one of exerting maximal control of pollution at the source  through the
institution  of effluent limitations  rather  than efforts  to  maintain  a
particular water quality without  specific regard  for each source  of
pollution that may affect  the  receiving water quality.  We must  now
move forward as a  society to translate the will of the people into  a
pollution control action program that will  enhance  environmental
quality and insure its continued maximal usefulness.

   .Pollution  Caused Environmental
    EFE in water is influenced by water temperatures, dissolved oxygen,
    pH, color,  turbidities, suspended and total dissolved solids, total
alkalinity, nutrients, mineral composition, and a host of other physical,
chemical, and biological entities.
  Maximal values, and in  some cases minimal  values also, of these
constituents often create an  environment that becomes intolerable to
particular organisms. This results in limiting productivity or interferes
subtly with physiological processes that in turn reduce the organism's
ability to  compete with others within its environment throughout its
life span.

The Varieties of Pollution
  The effects of pollution upon the water environment assumes many
characteristics, as well as an infinite variation in degree.  The specific
environmental and ecological responses to  a given pollutant depend
largely on its volume combined with the characteristic of  the waste
water, and the volume and characteristics of the receiving water into
which it flows. Pollutants may provide  an aesthetic insult, a toxic action,
a blanketing effect that destroys the stream or lake bed, a biodegradable,
organically-decomposable  material that removes  the dissolved oxygen
from  the water, a hazard to the health of man and other animals that
use the water, a substance that magnifies in concentration as it becomes
escalated through the aquatic food web, an alterant of water tempera-
ture which is the prime regulator of natural processes within the water
environment, and a supplier of fertilizing nutrients that stimulate ex-
cessive production among some aquatic species.

Aesthetic Insults
  The discarded object that results in an aesthetic environmental insult
can be an  asset  as far as life  in water  is concerned. In  some  situations


the discarded automobile tire or baby carriage may provide additional
substrate area for some types of organisms to colonize, provided other
aspects  of  the  physical and chemical characteristics of the waterway
support such biotic development.  Many streams naturally lack appro-
priate  substrates for  the attachment of various macroorganisms that
can supply food for a  fishery in these areas. Artificial materials are often
introduced in lakes as a management practice both to furnish a site for
the development of  fish food organisms  and  to act as a  harbor of
security for the fish population that is attracted to the device. In  these
cases, notably rare, the aesthetic liability of the discarded material  must
be  weighed against  its assets for  the  production  of  a  higher-use

  Many aesthetic insults on the  aquatic environment do  not possess
possibilities for biotic improvement within the waterway. Colors that
are introduced may decrease substantially the light penetration that is
necessary for photosynthetic oxygen  production and they tend to dis-
courage  sport  fishing and  interfere with the  functioning of  the gear
used by the commercial  fishermen.  Increased turbidity through the
introduction of clays has a similar detrimental effect and in  addition
the clays may carry nutrients or toxic substances as adsorbed materials.
Bacterial slimes are a  classic example of aesthetic insults and are a result
of other direct and  immediate pollutional conditions  rather than a
result  of direct discharge of slime material, except as an unnecessary
discharge from a waste water treatment operation.

Toxic  Substances

  Wastes containing  concentrations of heavy metals or other toxic sub-
stances either individually  or in combination may be toxic to aquatic
organisms  and thus have a severe impact on the water community. Fish
kills are often the result of direct toxicity. Such acute toxicity may be
so broadly effective that many life forms are damaged at one time, or
it may be  highly selective.  Acute toxicity may result from a  low con-
centration  of a highly toxic material or a high concentration of  a less
toxic material. Often acute  toxicity appears  as a  "slug"  or a high
concentration resulting from  a dump or a stream of a  toxic material.
Such a concentration of material may be followed by normal, relatively
non-toxic conditions, as the mass  of  water containing the poison 'flows
downstream or is deflected by tidal movements.

   Toxic actions that may require weeks or months to be noticed may
be referred to as low-level,  cumulative, or chronic toxicity and is most
often observed as a reduction in the  production of a particular type of
organism.  Slowly toxic materials may be more deleterious  to a par-
ticular developmental stage rather than to the adult organism. Low


level toxicities may change the entire population balance by a number
of processes:

  1. Susceptible species of either fish or fish food organisms may gradu-
     ally die off thereby permitting tolerant species that are less desir-
     able to man to flourish because of a lack of competition.

  2. If algae  or invertebrate food organisms are  killed by a low-level
     toxicity,  fish may die or move out of the area because of an inade-
     quate food supply.

  3. Weakened individuals surviving near the threshold of their toler-
     ance are more  susceptible  to attack by parasites and disease such
     as the aquatic fungus, Saprolegnia.

  4. Reproductive potential may be altered because eggs or very young
     individuals may be more  susceptible  to the low-level toxic sub-
     stance than are the adults. The end result of such  toxicity can be
     a slow and subtle alteration of the characteristics of the biological
     stream or lake inhabitants.

  Sublethal concentrations of chemicals  such as  phenol,  benzene oil,
2-4, D and others may impart an unpleasant flavor to  fish flesh even
when present  in very dilute concentrations. This can be as detrimental
to a fishery as a more direct fish kill because  the waterway will not be
used  in the  recreational  pursuit  for  which it  would otherwise  be
adapted. Shellfish  are affected by organoleptic producing pollutants as
are fin fish.
  Fish may be repelled or driven out of an area by chemicals they find
obnoxious. This may result  in  their scarcity or absence from a given
locale or it may prevent  their migrating to  another area to spawn.
In either case the  species will soon disappear and be lost to the fishing

Silts and Settleable  Solids

  Deposition  of inert precipitates and  silts  tend to smother bottom
organisms. The  general effect on the aquatic environment of inorganic
silts is to reduce, severely both the kinds of organisms present and their
individual numbers. As particulate matter  settles to  the bottom  it
blankets the substrate and forms an undesirable, physical  environment
for organisms  that would normally occupy such a habitat. Erosion silts
alter aquatic environments chiefly by screening out light, changing heat
radiation, blanketing the stream bottom, retaining organic materials,
and carrying nutrients or toxic substances.
  Developing eggs of fish and  other organisms are  smothered by de-
posits of silt. Fish food invertebrates are either destroyed or driven from


the area because a stream bed that once was composed of rubble and
filled with living spaces now has been paved  with an innocuous sub-
stance that cannot be penetrated by the fragile creatures. Blanketing
materials may  be biodegradable organic substances and  as such may
have  additional undesirable qualities in that oxygen is removed from
the superimposed water during the decomposition of the sludge beds
and, additionally, a food supply is afforded sludge-dwelling organisms,
which multiply in great numbers.

  The organic fraction  of settleable solids includes greases, oils, tars,
animal  and vegetable fats,  feedlot wastes,  paper mill fibers, synthetic
plastic fibers, sawdust, hair,  greases, and various settleable materials
from  city sewers. In addition to depleting the dissolved  oxygen, such
materials produce hydrogen sulfide, carbon dioxide, methane  or other
noxious gases when undergoing decomposition.

  The  inorganic  components of  settleable solids include silts from
construction activities and clays originating from  such sources  as ero-
sion,  placer mining, mine tailing wastes, strip mining, gravel .washing,
dusts from coal washeries, loose soils from freshly plowed farmlands,
highway construction, and other building projects.  Under  poor farming
practices, for example, as much as  11 tons of silt per acre  per year may
be washed by surface water into a drainage basin.  Dredging of tidal
rivers becomes  a necessity for the continuation  of navigation.  The
disposal of dredge spoils, often containing high concentrations of pollu-
tional substances, becomes  a matter of grave  concern and a financial
I                               ACTIVE DECOMPOSITION
I                               RECOVERY
               Plate 13. Benthic zones of pollution (organic wastes).

burden that could be prevented in large measure  through universal
adoption of control measures to prevent or reduce the amounts of silts
and clays reaching the waterways.

Organic Wastes

  Organic or biodegradable wastes are attacked by  bacteria upon en-
tering the water environment and during this process of decomposition
the dissolved oxygen, so necessary  for  life within water, is used and
reduced. When  the  organic load to the receiving waterway is heavy,
all of the dissolved oxygen may be  so used and the  waterway becomes
anaerobic and, from the standpoint of  aquatic life,  virtually dead. In
addition to the oxygen-consuming  properties associated with organic
wastes, solids may settle to the waterway's bottom forming sludge banks
that not only continue  to exert an  oxygen demand during  the decom-
position process but also furnish an ideal habitat for the development
and  reproduction of tremendous numbers of sludgeworms. Some  types
of organic wastes such as fibers from paper mills, for example, may form
cohesive mats and with associated waste products, become lifted from
the  remaining sludge banks  by the  gases  of  decomposition. These
"boils"  of sludge can  be transported downstream  where they  may
settle in a new area and extend the zone of  pollution. Organic wastes
are often  associated  also with nutrients such as high concentrations of
nitrogen and phosphorus. When the waterway has been cleansed  of its
visible signs of pollution  through natural and biological actions, and
the  water clears,  the nutrients often  persist to stimulate  obnoxious
growths of plants or animals in downstream areas.
  Upstream from the introduction of organic wastes, classic description
details a clean-water zone or one that is not  affected by  pollutants. At
the  point  of waste  discharge,  and  for a short distance downstream,
there is formed a zone of degradation where wastes become mixed with
the receiving waters, and where the  initial attack is made on the wastes
by bacteria and other organisms in  the process of decomposition.
  Following the  zone of degradation,  there  is the zone of active de-
composition that may extend for miles,  or days of stream flow, depend-
ing in large measure on the volume of dilution that is afforded  the
waste by  the  stream and the water temperature that affects the rate
of biological decomposition. The biological processes  that occur within
this  zone  are  similar in many respects  to those that occur  in a  waste
water treatment plant utilizing a biological process of waste treatment.
Within this zone, waste products are decomposed and those products
that are not  settled as sludge  are assimilated by  organisms in  life
  A zone of recovery follows the zone of active decomposition.  The
recovery zone is  essentially a reach of  water in which  the quality is


gradually returned to that which existed prior to the entrance of pol-
lutants.  Water  quality  recovery  is  accomplished  through  physical,
chemical, and biological interactions within the aquatic environment.
The zone of recovery may extend also for many miles  and its extent
will depend principally upon morphometric features of the waterway.

  Finally, the zone of  recovery terminates in another  zone of clean
water or an area  unaffected by pollutants  that is similar in physical,
chemical, and biological features to  that which existed upstream from
the pollution source.

  A general axiom of water pollution biology is that water pollution
is associated with  a reduction in the numbers of species of organisms
that otherwise would be present in  a particular  aquatic situation.  In
field  examination,  this species  reduction can   be  demonstrated  by
comparing samples taken  from  a  polluted area with  those  samples
taken  from a  similar  aquatic  habitat  in an area  not so  affected.
Depending  upon  the  type of pollution,  the  reduction in species  is
associated also with either  a  tremendous increase  or a reduction in the
numbers of individuals representing a given species within the habitat.
An increase in such numbers, such as sludgeworms  or midges or even
a species of algae,  is indicative of an  environment that restricts all but
the most tolerant aquatic species and in addition furnishes a seemingly
unlimited food supply for the growth and development of those species
that are able to survive. A  reduction in the number  of  individuals
representing  a  given species  would  be  indicative of conditions that
                                       THE  BIOTA
Plate 14.
              12  24  36  48  60  72  84 96 108
Response  of organisms toward organic  pollution  in  days of  stream flov
                 and miles of stream.

 are toxic or restrictive to all but the most tolerant  types of organisms.
 An additional food supply is not present.

   Within the  zone  of  active  decomposition,  conditions of  existence
 for aquatic life are at their worst. The breakdown of organic products
 by bacteria may  have  consumed  available  dissolved oxygen.  Sludge
 deposits may have covered the stream bed thus eliminating dwelling
 areas  for  the  majority  of bottom-associated organisms that  could be
 found on a similarly unaffected area. Fish spawning areas have  been
 eliminated but perhaps  fish are  no longer present because  of the
 diminished  oxygen  supply  and  the  substantially  reduced  available
 natural  food. Here, aquatic plants will not be found in large numbers
 because  they cannot survive on the soft, shifting  blanket of  sludge.
 Turbidity may be high  and floating  plants and  animals  destroyed.
 Water color may be substantially changed. When organic materials are
 decomposed, a  seemingly  inexhaustible  food supply  is liberated for
 those  particular organisms  that are adapted  to use  this food  source.
 Thus, bacteria and certain protozoan  populations  may  increase to
 extremely high levels.  Those  bottom-associated  organisms such  as
 sludgeworms,  bloodworms,  and other worm-like animals may also in-
 crease to tremendous numbers because they are adapted to burrowing
 within  the  sludge, deriving  their  food  therefrom,  and  existing on
 sources  and amounts of oxygen that may  be essentially  nondetectable
                            ZONES OF  POLLUTION
             Clean water
Clear, no bottom
 Floating solids,
 bottom sludge
Turbid, foul gas,
 bottom sludge
 bottom sludge
                                                             Clean water
Clear, no bottom
Game, pan, food
and forage fish
Tolerant fishes-
carp, buffalo, gars
Tolerant fishes-
carp, buffalo, gars
Game, pan, food
and forage fish
Plate 15. Diagrammatic presentation of the zones of pollution showing types of bottom
            animals, algae, and physical indices associated with pollution.

by conventional field investigative methods. Within the /one of active
decomposition the species that can tolerate the environment are few.
Under some conditions, those bottom-associated animals that are visible
to the unaided eye may be  completely  eliminated. Because  of  the
tremendous quantity of food that is available to  those organisms that
are adapted to use it, the number of individuals of the surviving species
may indeed be great. For example, it is possible to find in  excess of
50,000 sludgeworms  living within each square foot  of  bottom areas
under conditions of severe organic pollution.
  As organic wastes become more stabilized, other species of organisms
predominate within the aquatic animal community. Midge larvae have
been found to "paint" the stream bed with a brilliant red with their
undulating bodies. Caddisfly larvae populations greater than  1,000 per
square foot of  stream bed or mayfly nymphs numbering more than
300 per square foot have been found on several occasions.

Organism's Effects on  Pollution

  The converse of the effects  of  pollution on organisms is the  effects
of organisms on pollutants.  Organic wastes especially supply food which
in turn produces an  abundance  of a few types of organisms  greater
than  that  produced  in  an unpolluted  environment. In consuming
such organic wastes, these  organisms stabilize the waste material in a
manner similar to that encountered in a  biological sewage treatment
plant. As stated above, the wet weight of  sludgeworms in rich organic
sludge may be  as much  as 25 tons per acre of sludge and they may
move tremendous quantities of sludge per day by  passing it through
their  digestive tract. If it were not for the action  of such organisms
on organic wastes, the extent of environmental damage from pollution
would be  tremendously expanded. For example,  the  purpose of  a
waste water treatment plant utilizing the  biological  process is  to
accomplish  in  an artificially  confined area  the  same type  of waste
conversion that occurs in a natural stream. Such  conversion is  accom-
modated by supplying the right type of organism substrate for maximum
efficiency and by aiding the process with mechanical devices and some-
times with the addition of air for an oxygen supply.

  Biological  magnification  is an additional chronic effect  of toxic
pollutants such as heavy metals, pesticides, radionuclides, bacteria, and
viruses. Many animals and  especially shellfish such as oysters have the
ability to remove from  the environment and store in  their  tissues
substances present at nontoxic levels  in the  surrounding water. This
process may continue in  the oyster or fish for example until  the body
burden of the toxin reaches such levels that the animal's death would
result if the pollutants were released into the bloodstream by  a
physiological activity. This may  occur as  in the case of  chlorinated


hydrocarbon pesticides such as DDT and endrin, which are stored in
fat deposits, when the animal's  food supply is restricted and the body
fat is utilized. The presence of the  toxin that enters the blood stream
causes the death of  the animal. .Equally disastrous is the mobilization
of body fat to form sex products, which may contain sufficiently high
levels  of  the pollutant so that normal development of the young  is

   Herbivorous and carnivorous fish at lower  trophic stages may gradu-
ally build up DDT residues of 15 to 20 mg/1 without apparent ill
effect.  Carnivorous  fish,  mammals, and  birds preying on  these con-
taminated fish may be killed immediately or  suffer irreparable damage
because of the pesticide residue or infectious agent.

Heat Pollution

   Temperature,  a catalyst, a depressant,  an  activator, a restricter, a
stimulator, a  controller,  a killer, is one of  the most important and
influential water quality  characteristics to life in water. Temperature
determines those species that may be present; it activates the hatching
of  young, regulates  their activity, and stimulates  or suppresses  their
growth and development; it  attracts, and kills when the water becomes
too hot or becomes  chilled too suddenly.  Colder water generally sup-
presses development; warmer water generally accelerates activity and
may be a  primary cause of aquatic plant nuisances when other environ-
mental factors are suitable.

   Temperature  is a prime regulator  of  natural processes within the
water environment. It governs physiological functions in organisms and,
acting directly or indirectly in  combination  with other water quality
constituents,  it  affects aquatic  life with  each  change.  These  effects
include chemical reaction rates, enzymatic  functions, molecular  move-
ments, and molecular exchanges between membranes within and be-
tween  the physiological systems and the organs of an animal. Because
of  the complex interactions involved and often because of the lack
of specific knowledge or facts, temperature effects as they pertain  to an
animal or plant are most efficiently assessed  on the basis of the net
influence on the organism.

  Chemical reaction rates vary with temperature and generally increase
as the  temperature is increased. The solubility of gases in water varies
with temperature. Dissolved oxygen is decreased by the decay or decom-
position of  dissolved organic substances;  the decay rate increases as
the temperature of the water increases reaching a maximum at  about
30 °C (86 °F). The temperature of stream water, even during summer,
is  below the optimum for pollution-associated bacteria. Increasing the
water  temperature  increases  the  bacterial multiplication rate  when


the environment is favorable and  the  food supply  is abundant. In-
creasing the water temperature within the growth range of the bacteria
causes a more rapid die-off when the food supply is limiting.
  Warm water fish can survive temporarily in waters heated artificially
to 33.9°C  (93°F);  some  fish populations however such  as  those of
roach, perch, and carp are reduced at these high  temperatures. In cold
weather,  water  temperatures  must  be  substantially  reduced  at all
points to prevent fish  mortalities when fish move through changing
temperature  gradients. Cold water  nonanadromous  fish  populations
such  as  trout should  not  be  subjected  to  temperatures  exceeding
13.5°C (58°F). Sudden changes  in  temperature can be more harmful
to some species of fish than continued exposure to a higher temperature.
Fish can adapt to higher temperatures faster than to lower temperatures.
The maximal temperature for a given  species of fish varies  with the
fish's rate of  heating, size, and physiological condition. Fish may starve
at elevated temperatures  because of their  inability  to capture  food,
which will be accentuated  by  a reduced  swimming speed  and the
stress placed on  physiological activities. Likewise,  the  toxic effects of
potential toxicants to fish increase with temperature.
  There are  restricted ranges of temperature within  which fish can
reproduce  successfully. Larval   development  especially requires very
         Plate 16. Trash deposited on an area subject to flooding will pollute a
                    receiving waterway with the next flood.

narrow ranges of temperature. A fish population may exist in a heated
area only by  continued immigration of individuals from the  outside.
Fish may be  absent from  such areas  during warm summer  months
but be  attracted to the warmer temperatures in cold winter months.
Increased temperature may block the migration of anadromous fishes.

  When water  temperatures  increase,  the  predominant algal  species
may change from diatoms to  green algae and finally at  high tempera-
tures  to blue-green algae because of  species temperature preferentials.
The number  and distribution of benthic organisms decrease as water
temperatures  increase  above  90 °F,  which  is  close to  the tolerance
limit  for  the  population. Adult stages of many fish species are  able
to tolerate higher temperatures than eggs or young.

  Certain benefits,  including open-water winter fishing in otherwise
ice covered areas  and a cold  water fishery  downstream  from deep
reservoirs in  an otherwise  warm water region, can  be  derived from
artificially induced  temperature changes. The  benefits  of  fish being
attracted to heated water in winter months may be negligible compared
to fish mortalities that may result when the fish return to the cooler


  Eutrophication is a term meaning enrichment of waters by nutrients
through either man-created or  natural means.  Present knowledge in-
dicates  that the  fertilizing elements most responsible for  lake eutrophi-
cation are phosphorus and nitrogen. Iron and certain "trace" elements
are also important. Sewage and  sewage effluents contain a generous
amount of those nutrients necessary for algal development.

  Lake  eutrophication results in an increase in algal and weed nuisances
and an  increase in midge larvae, whose adult stage has plagued man
in Clear Lake, California, Lake Winnebago, Wisconsin, and several lakes
in Florida.  Dense  algal growths  form  surface  water scums and  con-
tribute  to algal-littered  beaches. Water may  become  foul-smelling.
Filter-clogging problems  at municipal  water installations  can result
from abundant  suspended algae. When algal  cells die, oxygen is used
in decomposition, and fish kills have  resulted. Rapid decomposition
of dense algal scums, with  associated organisms and debris, gives rise
to odors and hydrogen sulfide gas that creates strong citizen disapproval;
the gas  often stains the white  lead paint on residences adjacent to the
  Nitrogen and phosphorus are necessary components of an environ-
ment  in which  excessive aquatic growths arise. Algal  growth is in-
fluenced by many  varied factors: vitamins, trace  metals,  hormones,
auxins, extracellular metabolites, autointoxicants, viruses and predation


and grazing by  aquatic  animals. Several vitamins in small quantities
are requisite to growth in certain  species of algae. In a  freshwater
environment, algal requirements are met by vitamins supplied in soil
runoff,  lake  and  stream bed sediments, solutes  in the  water,  and
metabolites  produced  by actinomycetes, fungi,  bacteria, and several

  Evidence  indicates  that: (1) High phosphorus  concentrations  are
associated with accelerated eutrophication of waters, when other growth
promoting factors are  present; (2)  aquatic plant problems  develop  in
reservoirs or other standing waters at phosphorus values  lower than
those critical  in flowing streams;  (3) reservoirs and other  standing
waters collect phosphates from influent streams and store a portion of
these within consolidated sediments; and (4) phosphorus concentrations
critical  to noxious plant growths vary, and they produce such growths
in one  geographical area, but not  in another. Potential contributions
of phosphorus to the aquatic  environment have been indicated in the
literature (Table 1). Phosphorus is temporarily stored in bottom sedi-
ments or transported  as a  portion of the stream's bed-load after  its
removal from the flowing water. Long-term storage is  effected when
the phosphorus  is pooled in deltas or deposited on flood plains.

   Table 1. Pounds of Phosphorus Contributed to Aquatic Ecosystems

Major Contributors:
   Sewage and Sewage Effluents: 3 Ibs. per capita per year.*
   Some industries, e.g., potato  processing:  1.7 Ib. per ton  processed.
   Phosphate rock from 23 states (Mackenthun and Ingram, 1967).
   Culivated agricultural drainage: 0.35-0.39 Ib. per acre drained per year
     Engelbrecht and Morgan, 1961) (Sawyer, 1947) (Weibel, 1965).
   Surface irrigation returns, Yakima  River  Basin: 0.9-3.9 Ibs. per acre  per
     year (Sylvester, 1961).
   Benthic Sediment Releases.

Minor Contributors:
   Domestic duck: 0.9 Ib. per year (Sanderson, 1953).
   Sawdust: 0.9 Ib. per ton (Donahue,  1961).
   Groundwater,  Wis.: 1  Ib. per 9 million gals. (Juday  and  Birge, 1931).
   Wild  duck: 0.45 Ib. per year (Paloumpis and Starrett,  1960).
   Tree  leaves: 1.8-3.3  Ib. per  acre of trees per year  (Chandler, 1943).
   Dead Organisms; animal excretions.
   * Various researchers have recorded the annual per capita contribution
of phosphorus in pounds from domestic sewage as 2 to 4 (Bush & Mulford,
1954), 2, 3 (Metzler et al.,  1958),  1.9 (Owen, 1953), and 3.5 (Sawyer,
   ** Influenced by pollution  present in atmosphere "washed out" by rain-


  Once nutrients are combined within the ecosystem of the receiving
waters,  their  removal  is  tedious  and expensive; removal must be
compared to  inflowing quantities  to  evaluate  accomplishment.  In a
lake,  reservoir, or  pond,  phosphorus is  removed naturally  only by
outflow,  by insects that hatch and fly out of the drainage basin, by
harvesting a crop, such as  fish, and by combination with consolidated
bottom sediments. Even should adequate  harvesting methods be  avail-
able,  the expected standing crop of algae per acre exceeds 2 tons and
contains  only about 1.5 Ibs of phosphorus. Similarly, submersed aquatic
plants could approach  at  least  7 tons/acre (wet weight) and  contain
3.2  Ibs/acre of phosphorus. Probably only half of  the standing crop of
submersed  aquatic plants can be considered harvestable. The  harvest-
able fish population  (500  Ibs.)  from  3 acres  of water  would  contain
only 1 Ib. of phosphorus.

  Dredging has often  been suggested as a  means of  removing  the
storehouse of nutrients contained within the lake bed sediments. These
sediments are usually rich in nitrogen and phosphorus, for they rep-
resent the  accumulation of years of  settled  organic materials.  Some
of  these  nutrients  may be recirculated within the  water mass and
furnish food for  a new crop  of organic growth.  However, in an  un-
disturbed mud-water system,  the  percentage  of nutrients,  as  well as
the amount of phosphorus that is released to the  superimposed water,
is very small.


  The effects of  oil  substances on aquatic life in freshwater  may be
summarized as follows:

  (1) Free oil and emulsions  may coat and  destroy algae and  other

  (2) heavy coatings of free oil on the surface may interfere with the
      natural processes of reaeration  and photosynthesis,  while  light
      coatings would be  less detrimental  because wave  action and
      other turbulence would maintain adequate reaeration;  and

  (3) water soluble principles may exert a direct toxic action.

The deleterious effect of crude  oil and lubricating oils on  fish is due
to a film formed over  the gill filaments of  fish,  which prevents  the
exchange of gases and results in suffocation.

  The effects  of oils  on marine animals may include the tainting of
fish and shellfish flesh, poisoning by ingestion of oil or soluble fractions,
such as phenol,  ammonia, and sulfides, disturbances of marine  food
webs, and physical fouling of animals with heavy coats of oil.


  Many  thousands of waterfowl have  been destroyed by the effects
of oil pollution. This wasteful loss has deprived nature lovers, water-
fowl hunters, and bird watchers of  immeasurable  enjoyment.  The
destruction of many  duck species, such as the  canvas back,  redhead,
and scaups, comes at a critical period for these species  that are fighting
for survival against the forces of nature. In future  years additional
waterfowl will be  destroyed if oil dumping is continued, especially in
late winter. In this modern age of technical development, the discharge
of oil into a river system indicates man's lack of responsibility for
the preservation of our natural resources.
  The effects of oil on birds depend upon a variety of factors including
the type of oil, extent  of contamination of plumage, temperature of
the air and water, and the quantity of oil ingested.  Migratory birds
may be affected indirectly by deposits of oil on the bottom, in shallow
water,  or along the shore that reduce the available  food supply  by
destroying both plants  and animals. Elements within the food chain
are eliminated by chemical or  physical  properties  of the  oils and
food for waterfowl may become unavailable by being coated  or em-
bedded in the oily materials. Accumulation of petroleum sludge may
also prevent germination and growth of plants and the production of
invertebrates important as food, either  by  smothering  or  through
toxic effects.

  Oil causes matting of the ducks' feathers  so that ducks  become
water-logged, lose their ability  to fly  and drown  if  they cannot get
out of the water soon enough.  It breaks  down  the insulating power
of the feathers; body heat and stored energy reserves  are lost rapidly.
Diving  ducks may starve  and,  following the  preening of  oil from
contaminated feathers, bleeding ulcers may be produced in the digestive
tract causing mortality.

               llelpful References
'  I 1 HERE  are many references helpful to the investigators of water
 -i- quality problems  and to the  interpretation of data  that  are
collected in investigations. This chapter contains  a  selected  listing of
some  of the more useful books that have been compiled to respond
to the  needs  in  this field of endeavor. All or most of these  books
should  be available in  a local library, but some of them should be
purchased  and retained for day-to-day reference  by the investigator
who must interpret and strive to correct  water quality problems  on
a recurring basis. Some  of the references  are  of  such  significance to
the determination  of water  quality, to the particular water quality
requirements for specific uses, and to the interpretation of data obtained
from  field investigations that they warrant special discussion.

  A very comprehensive,  useful,  and  authentic  publication is that
of "Standard Methods for the Examination of Water and Wastewater"
currently in its 13th edition,  copyrighted 1971 by the American Public
Health  Association,  1015 18th Street, N.W., Washington, D.  C. 20036.
"Standard Methods" was first published in 1905. Its goal has been to
represent the  best current practices of American  water analysts,  and
to be generally applicable in connection with the ordinary  problems
of water purification,  sewage disposal, and  sanitary  investigations.
The book  is  currently  revised on a five-year  schedule. The present
edition  contains 874 pages that are devoted to chemical, microbiological,
and biological methods that have withstood the innumerable tests of
time and the  scrutiny of analytical peers  before  being recognized as
standard procedures. The last approximately 100 pages of the volume
are devoted to biological methods for waterway investigations, which
were revised particularly for  the  13th  edition. The  book contains a
key to  major  groups of aquatic  organisms,  a  host  of  helpful  plates
for gross identification of plants and animals, a key  for the identifica-
tion of  fresh-water algae,  and a  reproduction in color of  six  plates
of algae grouped  according to habitat preference. "Standard Methods"
is an extremely helpful document both  to the experienced investigator
who must ensure himself  that the methods of his  investigation will
withstand the scrutiny of  the scientific community,  and also to  the


novice investigator who will find the biological and other  discussions
on methods of investigation, as well as keys in identifying animals and
plants, helpful in pursuing his investigations.

  The definition of  a water quality amenable for defined  water uses
had its genesis in a  1952 publication by the State of California, in  a
book  entitled "Water Quality  Criteria."  This effort was  expanded
and tremendously enhanced in  a 2nd edition  edited by Messrs.  Jack
E. McKee and Harold W. Wolf and published in 1963 by the Resources
Agency of California, State Water Quality  Control Board, Sacramento,
California. This edition, including 3,827 cited references, was a monu-
mental effort in bringing together under one cover the world's literature
on water quality criteria as of the  date of publication. Criteria were
identified and  referenced for a host of water quality characteristics
according to their effects  on domestic water supply,  industrial  water
supplies, irrigation waters, fish and  other aquatic life, shellfish culture,
and swimming and other recreational uses. Specific values were arranged
in ascending  order, with  appropriate  references,  as they  had been
reported as lethal or damaging to fish or as  not harmful  to fish in
the indicated time and under the conditions of exposure.  The results
of such a tabulation presented a range of values and, as  would be
expected by those investigating such conditions,  there was  often an
overlap in values between those concentrations that have been reported
by some investigators as harmful and those  concentrations  that have
been reported by other investigators as not harmful.  Such an anomaly
is  due to differences in investigative techniques among investigators,
the characteristics of the water used as a diluent for the toxicant, .the
physiological state of the test organisms, and variations in the tempera-
ture under which the tests were conducted.  Nevertheless, the tabulation
of criteria values for each  of the water quality constituents  has been
helpful through time to predict a range within which a water quality
constituent  would have a deleterious effect upon  the.receiving water-
way. The State of California "Water Quality Criteria"  publication is
currently being enlarged and updated through a series of publications
developed through  contracts with consultants by  the Environmental
Protection Agency. These publications appear as volumes of a "Water
Quality Criteria Data" book. Volume I is subtitled "Organic Chemical
Pollution of Freshwater." Volume II is subtitled "Inorganic Chemical
Pollution of Freshwater." The  third is subtitled "Effects of  Chemicals
on  Aquatic Life,"  and volume  IV  is "Recreational  Water Quality
Criteria." These volumes appear as a Water Pollution Control Research
Series  for the  Environmental  Protection  Agency  and  are  attainable
from the Superintendent of Documents, Washington, D. C. Each volume
contains  a series of tables, one of which  lists the concentrations  of
particular pollutants that have  been found in water based on a search
of the literature. Another  table presents  the  pollutants'  acute  toxi-


cological  information for mammals. Another lists the mammalian and
chronic toxicity of potential pollutants of water. Another table presents
the  concentration and effects of  various  pollutants in  human  and
animal tissues and additional tables depict the carcinogenicity, muta-
genicity, and teratogenicity of identified pollutants.

   On  April 1,  1968, the  then Federal  Water Pollution  Control Ad-
ministration published a book entitled "Water Quality Criteria." This
book,  obtainable from the Superintendent of Documents, Washington,
D. C., was a report of the National Technical Advisory Committee to
the Secretary of  the  Interior that constituted the most  comprehensive
documentation to  date on water quality  requirements  for particular
and defined water uses. The book was intended to be used as a basic
reference by persons  in State water pollution control agencies engaged
in water  quality studies and water quality standards setting activities.
Recommendations and water quality constituent criteria designed to
ensure a  quality of water amenable  to  designated uses  were recorded
for recreation and aesthetics,  public water supplies,  fish  and other
aquatic life and  wildlife,  agricultural,  and industrial  uses. In  some
respects, this volume represented  a marriage between the best available
experimental criteria recorded in the literature  and the  judgment of
recognized  water quality  experts with  long experience in associated
management problems.

   The Environmental  Protection Agency has  contracted  with the
National Academy of Sciences and the National Academy of Engineer-
ing to revise  and bring up to date the  information contained in the
1968 Water Quality  Criteria  volume. Committees of experts have been
laboring  over the  past year to complete this assignment. Final drafts
of the 1972 version of "Water Quality Criteria"  have been  assembled.
Publication is anticipated late in  1973. The revised volume represents
an accumulation  of  the  latest data  and scientific judgments on this
important and timely subject and, without question, will be a  basic
reference in connection with  the  interpretation  of investigative water
quality data for many years to come.

   A selected  alphabetical listing of additional references that should
be helpful to the investigator follows:
AMOS, W. H. 1967. The Life of the Pond. McGraw-Hill, New York.
BARDACH, J. 1966. Downstream: A Natural History of the  River From Its Source to
  the Sea. Grossett and Dunlap, New York.
BERNER, L.  1950. The Mayflies of  Florida. University of Florida Press, Gainesville,
BURKS, B. D. 1953. The Mayflies, or Ephemeroptera, of Illinois. Bull. Illinois Nat. Hist.
CHU, H. F.  1949. How  to  Know the Immature Insects. Wm. C. Brown Co., Dubuque,


EDMONDSON, W. T. 1959.  Ward and Whipple's Fresh Water  Biology (2nd ed.). Jqhn
  Wiley and Sons, New York.
FASSETT, N. C. 1960. A Manual of Aquatic Plants (with Revision Appendix by E. C.
  Ogden). University of Wisconsin Press, Madison.
FREY, D.  G. 1963.  Limnology in North  America. University  of Wisconsin  Press,
FRISON, T. H. 1935.  The Stoneflies, or Plecoptera, of Illinois, Bull. Illinois Nat. Hist.
HARVEY, H. W. 1955. The Chemistry and Fertility of Sea Waters. Cambridge Univer-
  sity Press, American  Branch, 32 East 57th Street, New York.
HAWKES, H. A.  1963. The Ecology of Waste Water Treatment. Pergamon Press, New
  York.                                    ,
HUTCHINSON, G. E. 1957.  A Treatise on  Limnology. John Wiley and Sons, Inc., New
HUTCHINSON, G. E. 1967. A Treatise on Limnology. Vol. 2: Introduction to Lake Biol-
  ogy and the Limnoplankton. John Wiley and Sons, Inc., New York.
HYNES, H. B. N.  1960. The Biology of Polluted Waters. Liverpool  University Press,
INGRAM, W. M., K. M. MACKENTHUN and A. F. BARTSCH. 1966. Biological Field Investi-
  gative Data for Water Pollution Surveys. U. S. Department of the Interior, Federal
  Water Pollution Control Administration.
JACKSON, D. F.  Ed. 1964. Algae and  Man. Plenum Press, New York.
JACKSON, D. F., Ed. 1968. Algae, Man, and  the Environment.  Syracuse  University
  Press, New York.
JONES, J. R. E.  1964. Fish  and  River Pollution. Butterworth, Inc., Washington, D. C.
KITTRELL, F. W. 1969. A  Practical Guide to Water Quality Studies of Streams. U. S.
  Department of the Interior, Federal Water Pollution Control Administration.   *
KLEIN, L. 1959. River Pollution 1. Chemical Analysis. Butterworths, London.
KLEIN, L. 1962. River  Pollution 2. Causes and Effects. Butterworths,  London.
KLEIN, L. 1966.  River Pollution 3. Control. Butterworths, London.
KLOTS, E. B. 1966. New  Field Book of  Freshwater Life. G. P.  Putnam's Sons, New
MACAN, T. T. 1963. Fresh-Water Ecology. John Wiley and Sons, Inc.,  New York.
MACAN, T.  T.  and  E. B. WORTHINGTON. 1951. Life in Lakes and Rivers. The New
  Naturalist, Collins, London.

MACKENTHUN, K. M.  1969. The Practice of Water Pollution Biology. U. S. Depart-
  ment of the Interior, Federal Water Pollution Control Administration.

MORGAN, A. H. 1930. Fieldbook of Ponds and Streams. G. P.  Putnam's Sons, New

MUENSCHER, W. C.  1944. Aquatic Plants of the  United States. Comstock Publishing
  Co., Ithaca, New York.

NEEDHAM,  J. G. and  P.  R.  NEEDHAM. 1962. A Guide  to the Study of Fresh-Water
  Biology (5th  Ed.). Holden-Day, Inc., San Francisco, California.

PENNAK, R. W. 1953. Fresh-Water  Invertebrates of the United  States.  The Ronald
  Press Co., New York.


PRATT, H.  S.  1951. A Manual of the Common  Invertebrate Animals  Exclusive of
  Insects. The Blakiston Co., Philadelphia.
PRESCOTT, G. W.  1962. Algae of the Western  Great Lakes Area  (rev. ed.).  Wm. C.
  Brown Co., Dubuque, Iowa.
REID, G. K. 1967. Pond  Life: A Guide  to Common Plants  and Animals o£  North
  American Ponds and Lakes. Golden Press, New York.
Ross, H. H. 1944.  The Caddis Flies, or Trichoptera, of Illinois. Bull. Illinois Nat. Hist.
RUTTNER, F. 1963. Fundamentals of Limnology (3rd ed.). University of Toronto Press,
  Toronto, Canada.
SMITH, G. M.  1950. The Fresh-Water Algae of the United States. McGraw-Hill, New
TIFFANY, L. H. and M. E. BRITTON. 1952. The Algae of Illinois. The University of
  Chicago Press, Chicago, Illinois.
TRYON, C.  A.  and R. T. HARTMAN. 1960. Ecology of Algae. Pymatuning Laboratory
  of Field Biology, University of Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania.
USINCER, R. L. 1956. Aquatic Insects of  California With Keys  to  North American
  Genera and  California Species. University of California Press, Berkeley.
WELCH, P. S. 1948. Limnological Methods. Blakiston Co., Philadelphia.
WELCH, P.  S.  1952. Limnology. McGraw-Hill, New York.
WHIPPLE, G. C. (Rev. by G. M. Fair and M. C. Whipple). 1948.  The Microscopy of
  Drinking Water (4th ed.). John Wiley and Sons, New York.

     Investigative  Preparation and
   STUDY objectives are a necessary and important beginning to any
     investigation. Careful thought  and consideration should be given
to their development.  The objective should encompass clear, concise,
positive definitions of the investigation's purpose,  its  scope, and its
boundary limits. Study objectives should be realistically oriented to the
number, competencies, and disciplines of the investigators. They should
be adjusted to budgetary limitations for the study, as  well as to the
length of time allocated for the study, including the final report prepara-
tion. Ultimately, as the study progresses,  and at  its  conclusion, the
study's success and accomplishments will  be  judged in  part  on the
extent to which it fulfilled the objectives stated at the  study's  instiga-
tion.  Study objectives become important  tools  to guide subsequent
investigations and to delineate avenues of approach toward problem

  Study objectives should be committed to writing as the first act in
formulating an essential study plan. When properly developed, they
will ensure adherence  to essential investigation and discourage  pursuit
of the interesting but nonessential bypaths or tangential considerations
that  so often  dominate and defeat  a well  intended purpose.  Written
objectives  fix the  responsibility of  those charged with supervision of
the study  and they provide a  basis for judging the extent  to which
the results meet the needs that justified the initial undertaking.

  Waterways  are studied for many  reasons. One very excellent reason
in the high school or beginning college curriculum is that of training
the future investigators of this Nation  in the science and art of  using
the tools of investigation successfully to formulate  a sound judgment
that accurately depicts existing conditions.

  Studies of waterways may be designed to consider water quality at
a single point or  to determine changing water quality throughout a
reach of waterway. The former involves one or more unrelated sampling


stations on a water system whereas  the latter involves an examination
of data from a series of related sampling stations  selected to reflect
both instantaneous changes in water quality caused by waste discharges
or major tributaries, as well as  the  more subtle changes  that  result
from  natural purification processes.  In  either  case, samples may  be
collected from chosen stations on a periodic basis with the periodicity
of sampling being determined by the types of samples being  collected
and the general needs of the study.
  Objectives of water quality studies  that  require  samples  from  a
single station or isolated stations would include:

  • The establishment of  a  baseline record of water quality.

  • Investigation  of the  suitability  of  an area  for  a water  supply
    source  for municipal,  industrial,  agricultural,  recreational,  or
    other uses.

  • Investigation of  the suitability of water quality for  the  propaga-
    tion of aquatic life, including fish.

  • Monitoring waste water discharges and their effects at a particular

  • Research or demonstration  on  analytical  procedures for  water
    quality examination.

  Objectives that require  the examination of water quality from sta-
tions located at related points on the waterway include:

  • Determination of the nature and extent of pollution from point
    or non-point pollution sources.

  • Determination  of  adherence to or  violation  of water quality

  • Determination of characteristics and  rates of natural purification
    of waterways.

  • Determination of causes of fish kills and other catastrophic events
    involving water quality deterioration.

  • Determination of existing water quality through a waterway reach
    prior to some  anticipated  event  that would be expected to alter
    water quality.

  • Research and demonstration of techniques  of waterway investiga-

  • Serve as  an environmental  training laboratory to  train  water
    quality investigators.


  • Serve as a basis for predicting water quality changes that may be
    caused by  anticipated increased  pollutional loads or the imple-
    mentation  of certain pollution abatement or control activities.

  • Serve as  a data base for projecting  a cost-benefit  analyses of a
    water management effort.


  Planning for a waterway  investigation  involves a myraid of details
that are  essential for the completion of a successful study.  The first
essential  activity is  to become familiar  with  available information
on  the waterway under  investigation that may relate to the present
activity. Seldom is the investigation of  a  waterway an original  event.
Most lakes and streams in the Nation have been investigated to some
extent by someone and many prognostications and  predictions have
been recorded by previous investigators relating to the quality of water
within a  given  reach of the  waterway or the effects of significant anti-
cipated changes in  the  watercourse  that may affect water quality.
The results of  these investigations  and  prognostications have  been
recorded  in either  published or  unpublished  reports,  the  latter of
which  may reside  in a  now  obscure  file  of  an appropriate  State
agency. Much time  and effort in redoing  what already has been done
can be saved  on the part of the investigator by  searching out and
becoming familiar with  the  past studies  that relate  to  the  waterway
in question.

  Good field maps of  the  watercourse under  investigation must be
secured and the points of access noted.  Factors affecting the  investiga-
tion should be recorded on the map and  these include locations of
various water uses, geographical boundaries such as State  limits or
other significant landmarks, and marked changes in waterway character-
istics such as the entry of free-flowing streams into reservoirs or  lakes.
The approximate location of known  waste  sources such  as industries,
municipalities  or  other significant  contributors  should be  marked.
The approximate  length of the waterway  to  be investigated should
be noted, as well as the area of the watercourse that will impact  the
study.  Tentative sampling stations should be selected from  the  maps
based on points of  access and stream mile designations  developed for
major  landmarks on the waterway and the location  of  waste sources.
Development of these conditions  necessitates that the  selected  maps
be accurate and of suitable scale.

  Following a  "desk top" analyses of available background  data and
a perusal of information gathered  on the waterway by other previous
investigators, a reconnaissance survey should be undertaken  whenever
time permits. During a reconnaissance  survey a judgment can be reached


on the  potential effects on water quality of individual and combined
waste sources, the reach or reaches of waterway that are of potentially
greatest  concern in the  particular investigation,  and points of access
and anticipated sampling sites. Certain judgments  should be reached
during  the reconnaissance survey that will save much time and effort
at a later date. These would include the advantages and disadvantages
of sampling by boat as  opposed to  collecting samples from  bridges
and by  wading, or by a car top or trailered boat  that may be lowered
into the water from  several  points of access  along  the  waterway.
Reaching this  decision  will necessitate observations on stream width,
depth, nature  and type of stream  bed, relative  flow, as  well as  any
morphometric  features that would  influence a  sampling procedure.
The availability of boats for rental along the waterway and the avail-
ability of suitable access points for the types of samples to be collected
should be ascertained during such a reconnaissance. Also contacts may
be made with local officials or local investigators who may be encouraged
to participate in some manner with the actual  investigation. Arrange-
ment should be made  with landowners to cross private lands  at times
when samples are to be  collected from the waterway should  this be a

  A minimal  number  of  samples  should be collected from  readily
available access points along the waterway during  the  reconnaissance
survey to ascertain the  relative  water quality  at various  points and
to  aid  in the  judgment of  selecting sampling stations. This may
involve  the collection of  water  samples  or certain  chemical  analyses
and it should  involve the  examination  of rocks,  twigs, or submersed
debris to ascertain the types of biota that are able  to exist in a given
reach of the waterway.  Much can  be  determined about  the water
quality   through  a cursory examination  of the  types  of  attached
organisms that may be found in a  given area excluding the bacterio-
logical water quality. Observations of visible  conditions along a water-
way associated  with a  brief  examination  of attached organisms  on
submersed objects should be sufficient to delineate appropriate sampling
sites for future investigation.

  Following the completion of  a  reconnaissance survey,  and  subject
to modification or change during the course of the actual field sampling,
decisions can be made on: (1)  types of samples necessary to  meet the
objectives of the study (i.e., various physical, chemical,  and biological
samples); (2) sampling points for each of the  selected types of samples;
(3)  periodicity  of  sampling and  approximate time  necessary for  col-
lection of a specific sample; and (4)  approximate numbers of samples
necessary to meet the objectives of the study.

  Often the objectives  of the  study will be sufficiently broad that a
number  of investigative disciplines  will be  required to complete the


investigation.  It is axiomatic that the chemist,  microbiologist,  water
quality engineer, biologist, hydrologist, and others are equally essential
to the development of a sound perspective of water quality.

  The next aspect of study planning involves  the details necessary
to initiate the  process of data  collection. Decisions must be  made
on methods of sample handling between  the point of collection and
the point of analytical result, sample preservation, and  transportation
of samples  to a base laboratory.  Often  biological samples may  be
preserved for  examination at some future and more convenient time.
Certain samples for  chemical  analyses also may be  preserved  for a
short period of time  until  they can  be analyzed  at an appropriate
laboratory where precision instruments are available. Sample collection
containers must be  obtained and  the  number of  these will  depend
upon the relative  number of samples to  be  collected during the  in-
vestigation.  Sampling equipment,  data  cards, notebooks,  and all  of
the necessary  paraphernalia  associated  with the collection, retention,
and  shipment of samples must be obtained  and organized. Arrange-
ments  must be  made  to  transport such equipment to  the study site
and  to ensure that it is at hand when the field investigators  arrive.
Collecting and field analytical  gear should be checked and rechecked
to determine  that no essential piece of equipment has been omitted
from the  materials necessary for  the investigation  and  to determine
that the  equipment is operable and functions  according to designed
specifications.  The planning of a local  study as  a  part  of  a high
school or college  curriculum  should  be  equally  comprehensive not
only because of its training  value  but  also because the  results  of  an
investigation  are  influenced to  a great  extent  by the preliminary
planning  that goes into the  initiation  of  the investigation. Planning
should be associated closely with the objectives that define the study.

  If the study is some distance from the base of operations, a  portion
of the study  planning involves  the  making of travel  arrangements,
room accommodations, transportation of  samples and  equipment  to
and  from the sampling  areas  and arrangements for such items  as
transportation  during  the  investigation,  procurement  of outboard
motor  gasoline, cartons or boxes for  shipping collected samples,  ice
to keep certain samples cold if this is a prerequisite for analyses, and
other considerations.  Laboratories  that will  analyze collected  samples
should be alerted  and given  an estimate of the number  and kinds  of
samples that will  be submitted, the  types of analyses required, how
the samples will be  shipped and  the  approximate dates  of  arrival.
The laboratory should also  be advised of  the  date  their analytical
results will be required to meet the investigation's deadline.

  A  preliminary cost estimate  can now be made of the investigation
under  consideration and  it may be that the first compromise  of the


ideal plan will be necessary. The cost must be adjusted to the available
budget. The  compromise  may  be in a reduction in the number of
sampling  stations, in the types of analyses to  be made, in the number
of samples  to be obtained from each station,  or in combination of
these factors.  Realistically, the conceived ideal for a field investigation
is seldom achieved because of resource limitation or an alteration in
time  schedule that must be imposed upon the study at  some point in
its persual.

  There are a number of sources of information concerning investiga-
tions or problems connected with  water quality in waterways.  One
of the best sources is  the  State  water  pollution control agency.  As
would be expected, this agency usually has the most complete collection
of information and data on factors involved with water  quality within
a State.  They have conducted  surveys  over  a  number  of  years  and
have  received complaints  and  statements from  citizens over a  long
period of time concerned with  this subject. Other State agencies that
may have important data include the State  Health Department, which
is generally responsible for supervising public water  supplies; the State
Fish  and  Game  Department;  the  State  Geological  Survey,  which
cooperates with  the U. S. Geological Survey  in the  stream  gaging
program;  and the Public Service Commission, which usually has juris-
diction over dams and obstruction to navigation. In addition, interstate
agencies  such  as  the  Interstate Commission on  the Potomac River
Basin, the  Delaware River Basin Commission,  and the Ohio River
Valley Water Sanitation Commission usually  have information similar
to that in State  Water Pollution Control  Agency files.  Here the  in-
formation may be confined to  a river system rather  than confined
to a particular State boundary.  The Environmental  Protection Agency
with  its ten regional offices located in strategic cities throughout the
United States has a great deal of particular information  on  the water-
ways  of the Nation. The regional office in question should be contacted
for water quality information as it  may pertain to a particular study.
Federal river development agencies, such as the U. S. Corps of Engineers,
the Bureau of Reclamation of  the  U. S. Department of the Interior,
and the Tennessee Valley Authority are all fertile sources of information
on streams  for which they have responsibility.  The U.  S. Geological
Survey operates stream gaging  stations  and reports  daily stream  dis-
charges throughout the Nation,  usually in cooperation with the States.
The U. S. Bureau of Sport Fisheries  and Wildlife and the U.  S. Marine
Fisheries  Service  collect data  on fish and  fishing.  Municipal water
treatment plant operators  have  comprehensive records on the quality
of the water serving their source of raw water. Often these data include
both  chemical and biological  constituents and the record of time for
which these data have been  collected extends through many years.
Waste water treatment  plant operators often keep a log of the quality


of their waste water and, in rare instances, have data on stream water
quality  both upstream  and downstream from their  discharge point.
Often  particular individuals  have had an  interest  in a  particular
statistic of water quality at a  given point  for a long period of time.
These data may be very accurate but also  may be difficult to authen-
ticate. But,  such data are  a source of valuable information as back-
ground upon which to base further investigations.

Data  Collection

  The collection of data  on  a particular study  involves talking to
people  who  are concerned with  the problem in  question  and in
obtaining their views. Many of these citizens have had long experience
with the problems and may be dissatisfied with the speed of obtaining
visible water quality improvement. The views of laymen may indicate
approaches that should  be  pursued in the investigation that otherwise
might be omitted.
  The collection of field data  for a survey  by a high school or college
team need  not be sophisticated. Visual observations  of  water  quality
conditions and abundant substantiating pictures of such observations
are important components  to  depict the story of waterway conditions.
A determination of the kinds of  organisms attached  to submersed
objects  within the  waterway  is an important adjunct to a study of
this type. This  determination can be made  by use  of such common
tools as a garden rake or a dip net to obtain  the sample or by picking
up the  submersed object  by hand  and  washing or  scrapping  the
attached organisms from it. The organisms are then identified to major
groups and  the  numbers present  in such groups should indicate in a
very general way the water quality of  the area from which the samples
were obtained. Routine chemical samples can be analyzed by kits for
such analyses, which contain the necessary fixative and testing chemicals.
Field analytical kits have been found not to offer the precision  that
can be  obtained with stationary equipment  in a laboratory but  they
are entirely adequate for the type of study described above.

  The collection of data and samples from a particular station involves
making  a number of  scientific observations. Flow  measurements on
streams, inlets and outlets to  standing  bodies of  water such as lakes
and reservoirs, suspected municipal and industrial waste sources,  and
water use drawoff  and return points, which can be correlated with
sampling dates,  are of utmost  importance.  Such data  permit a  calcula-
tion of the  amounts of particular water quality constituents passing  a
point at a given time, and estimates can be  made from these data on
daily, monthly, or annual contributions. Rainfall may be a contributing
factor to investigations  concerning major aquatic  plant  nutrients  and
should  be  sampled to  determine  annual contributing amounts of


                     FIELD COLLECTION CARD
Date	Hour	Collector .
Field Designation	
Station  Location 	
Sample No.	Stream Miles
inn Samnle Henth
ftlk Tot Alk
: Ek : Pet : Sq Ft
: Qual : :
 Bottom: 	Rock:	C. Gravel F	: C. Sand  F.
   %   : 	Sandy Loam:	Silt Loam:	Silt:
        : 	C. Clay F	:	Organic Sludge:
 Sample Location
 River:  Width
      :  Temp
      :  Phth
 No. of  Samples:         :          :            :           :       :
 Fish:    Gear    :  Shocker   :   Dip Net    :   Seine   :        :
   Sample Time  :             :               :            :        :
   Sample Area  :             :               :            :        :
                Figure 1. Field Collection Card for Benthic Samples.
Desired items for a field biological collection card may be arranged on a 5" x 8" unlined
card for convenience.  Cards can  be carried in a field notebook; they may be filed after field
and laboratory use. The backside of the card may be ruled to itemize the organisms observed
in the laboratory examination of the collected sample.

nitrogen and phosphorus. A house-to-house  survey of the area draining
to a watercourse may be indicated to determine types of waste  treatment
and to  project  potential impact of  wastes that are discharged to or
reach the watercourse. The  types and amounts of fertilizers applied
to lands within the drainage basin,  as well as the  period of the year
when fertilizers  are applied, may  be of  importance  to the  study.
Groundwater may be a factor and should be sampled from appropriate
adjacent wells for those constituents of importance.

  On approaching a  stream station  a number of observations  must
be  made. Observations are  made on  water depth; presence  of riffles
and pools; stream width; flow characteristics;  bank cover; presence of
slime growths, attached algae,  scum algae and other aquatic plants,
as well  as red sludgeworm masses; and unusual physical characteristics
such  as silt deposits,  organic  sludge  deposits,  iron precipitates, or
various  waste materials from manufacturing processes.


  Organisms associated with  the  stream  bed are studied most  often
in the biological  evaluation  of water quality. These organisms  are
valuable to relate  water  quality  because they are not  equipped  to
move great  distances through their own  efforts and,  thus, remain at
fixed points to indicate water  quality. Because the life history of  many
of these organisms extends through one year or longer, their presence
or absence is  indicative of  water  quality within  the  past, as well as
the present. Bottom-associated organisms are relatively easy to capture
with conventional sampling equipment and the amount of time and
effort devoted to their capture and interpretation is not as great as
that required for other segments of the aquatic community.

  The investigator should  ask himself  three  basic  questions: Based
on  a knowledge  of  preferred organism  habitats,  what bottom  fauna
should be expected at this station?  Specifically, where would one expect
to find these creatures? What is  the appropriate gear with which to
capture them? A close search  of the  respective  areas should  be  made
by noting and collecting qualitatively the various types of organisms.
A commercial 30-mesh sieve is a handy exploratory tool.

  The qualitative search for benthos should involve the collection of
organisms from  rocks, plants,  submersed  twigs or debris, or  leaves of
overhanging trees  that become submersed and waterlogged. It is often
convenient to  scrape  and  wash organisms from these materials into a
bucket or tub partially filled  with water and then to pass this  water
through the sieve to concentrate and retain the organisms. The collected
sample may be preserved for organism sorting and identification later.
The investigator should search until he is certain  that he has collected
the majority of  species that can  tolerate the particular environment.
In some environments it is possible only to collect qualitative samples
because the physical nature of the waterway may be such that  quantita-
tive sampling is not feasible.

  Qualitative  sampling determines the variety of species occupying a
reach of a waterway. Samples may be taken by any method  that will
capture representatives of the species present.  Collections from such
samplings indicate changes in the environment, but they generally  do
not accurately reflect the degree of change.  Mayflies, for example, may
be reduced  in the stream  because  of adverse conditions from 1QO to 1
per square foot, whereas sludgeworms may increase  from 1  to 14,000
per square foot. Qualitative data would indicate  the presence of both
species, but might not necessarily delineate the change in predominance
from mayflies to sludgeworms.

  The basic principle in qualitative  sampling is to  collect  as  many
different kinds  of animals as practical.  Obviously,  because of  the
rarity of some forms, the probability of collecting a specimen of every


kind is remote and a limit must be imposed on the collector's efforts.
Two convenient limiting methods are:

  (1)  Presetting a time limit on the collector's effort at each sampling
      point. A  minimum of 30 minutes and a maximum of an hour
      is a convenient range in which to establish this limit.

  (2)  Sampling in an  area until new forms  are encountered so in-
      frequently that "the law of diminishing returns" dictates  aban-
      doning the sampling point.  This method requires  professional
      judgment—but  if  after  10  minutes  only a single species  or
      organism is found, the  sampler can move to the next sampling
      site where he might continue to find new forms after searching
      more than an hour.

  A number of tools readily obtained in any community are valuable
in this type of sampling:

  a. Pocket-knives are excellent tools  to remove animals from crevices
     in rocks, to peel bark from decaying logs thus exposing animals,
     and to slip under animals to lift and transfer  them to sample

  b.  Mason jars in y2 to 1 pint sizes serve as the  most economical
     sample containers and provide visibility of the  preserved  speci-

  c. Common garden rakes are valuable to retrieve rocks, brush, logs
     and aquatic vegetation for inspection.

  d. Fine-meshed dip-nets are  good devices for sweeping animals from
     vegetation or out from under overhanging rock ledges.

  e. Buckets  are handy to quickly  receive rocks and debris,  thus
     preventing escape of the swift running animals.

  f. Sheet polyethyelene, 6x6  feet, can be  spread on the stream
     bank and substrate materials  placed  upon it. As the materials
     begin  to dry the animals will abandon their hiding places and
     can  be seen readily as  they  migrate across  the sheet seeking

  g. U.  S.  Standard Series No. 30 soil sieves  can be used  to  scoop
     up  fine sediments  and  sieve out  its inhabitants.  The entire
     qualitative sample can also be screened to standardize the organ-
     ism sizes taken at various sample sites.

  h. Any other tools, such as forceps, scalpels, shovels, and forks are
     legitimate devices and   can  prove  their  merit in  individual


Plate  17. Biological collecting  equipment. From  left,  Kemmerer  sampler, Ekman dredge,
           U.S. Standard No. 30 sieve, washing bucket, and Petersen dredge.
  Following these general observations, the investigator collects appro-
priate quantitative samples  of the various kinds of organisms  present
in the aquatic  area. He makes certain that:  (1) The  sampling  area
selected  is  representative of stream  conditions,  and  (2)  the  sample
is  representative of  and contains  those  forms predominant  in  the
area and encountered during the qualitative search.

  Bottom samples in soft areas usually may be collected with an Ekman
dredge, although the physical composition of the bottom determines to
a great extent the type  of  sampler that must be used to collect an
adequate sample. The Ekman dredge (Ekman, 1911) consists of a square
box  of sheet brass 6x6 inches in cross section.* The lower opening of
this  box is  closed by a pair of strong jaws so made and installed that
they oppose each other. When open,  the jaws are pulled apart so that
the whole bottom of the box is open; the jaws are held  open by chains
attached to trip pins. To close the dredge, the trip pins  are released by
a brass messenger sent down the attachment rope and the jaws snap
shut by two strong external springs. The hinged top of the  box may be
equipped with a permanent 30-mesh screen to prevent loss of organisms
if the sample sinks into mud deeper than its own height. The sampler
is especially adapted for use in soft, finely divided mud and muck; it
does not function  properly  on sand  bottoms or hard substrates.  The
Ekman can also be mounted on a pipe for shallow stream sampling  and
tripped by a thrust-through rod.
  * Ekmans arc made also in 9" x 9" and 12" x 12" sizes, but because of  size of
grabs, these are almost impossible to operate effectively on many occasions. Through
long experience the author recommends only the 6" x 6" size.


   The  Petersen dredge (Petersen, 1911) is a most versatile stream bed
sampler to collect bottom life. It is widely used to sample hard bottoms
such as sand, gravel, marl, clay, and similar materials. It is an iron clam-
type dredge, samples  an area of 0.6  to 0.8  square foot,  and  weighs
between 35 and  70 pounds  depending  on the rare use of  additional
weights that may be bolted to its sides. By means of a rope, the  dredge
is slowly lowered to the bottom to avoid disturbing and flushing away
significant lighter materials. As tension is eased on  the rope, the mech-
anism holding the  jaws apart  is released. As the rope is  again made
taut, a  sample is secured. The operator controls the  dredge by main-
taining tension on  the rope until the dredge is placed. This is helpful
in sampling gravel or rubble,  as the operator can determine through
sound and touch the type of bottom and by carefully manipulating the
dredge, can secure  a better sample than would  otherwise  be possible.
In streams with gravel and rubble beds that permit  wading, another
technique is for the investigator to place the dredge and then stand on
the jaws  working  them into  the  stream  bed  with his weight,  thus
gradually closing them. When the dredge is surfaced, careful and rapid
placement and subsequent discharge, endwise,  of  the  dredge  into  a
bucket  whose  lip  is placed  at  the  water's  surface  prevents  loss of

   The orange-peel  dredge is a multijawed, round dredge with a  canvas
closure  serving as a portion of the sample  compartment. It is available
in a variety of sizes. Its sampling area is a function of depth of penetra-
tion and this area must be calibrated,  usually with the volume of sedi-
ment contents. It has  received wide use in marine waters and  in the
Great Lakes,  where it  has advantages over other tools for sampling
sandy substrates.

   The ponar  dredge is receiving increased use  in deep lakes. In com-
parative studies it is more efficient than the Petersen dredge when sam-
ples are secured from deep (> 100 feet) waters. In appearance it is simi-
lar to a Petersen dredge but it has side-plates and a screen on the top
of the sample compartment.

  The Smith-Mclntyre  dredge  has the heavy steel  construction  of the
Petersen, but  its  jaws  are  closed by strong coil springs. Its principal
advantage is its stability or operator control in rough waters. Its bulk
and heavy weight requires operation from  large boats  equipped  with a
powered winch.

  Core  samplers  have been  used to  sample  sediments in depth and
collect small areas  (2-4 sq. inches) of  the  mud-water  interface. Their
efficient use requires dense animal populations. Corer design varies from
hand-pushed tubes to explosive driven  and automatic surfacing models.
The Phleger type is the most widely used corer in water quality studies.


It is a gravity corer, relying on its weight (near 100 Ibs.) to  drive its
sample tube into the substrate. The length of core  retained will vary
with substrate texture; 30 inches is near the maximum length. A core
of this length is adequate for most physical, chemical or fossil examina-
tion to delineate recent environmental changes.
  The Wilding, or stove-pipe, sampler is  the only  sampler that will
quantitatively sample the fauna inhabiting  the bottom and/or  the vege-
tation in areas with dense aquatic weed growths. Its operation may be
restricted  to the vegetation,  or mud-water interface sediment may be

  Drift nets may be  suspended in flowing waters to capture inverte-
brates that have  migrated  into  the  water  mass  from  the  bottom
substrates and are temporarily being  transported by  currents. Their
principal uses have been to study migratory movements and to evaluate
sublethal  toxicants, especially insecticides,  on the fauna.  Before  toxi-
cants become lethal  the  animals are weakened and cannot maintain
their  benthic position and  thus  are swept away by the currents and
carried into the nets.

  These nets must be standardized in  an individual study. As of now
no single  style of net has been standardized among  investigators. It is
recommended that these nets be  designed  with a 1  x 1  foot upstream
opening, with U. S. Standard Series No.  30 netting (or finer, with sub-
sequent screening for  uniform organism size), and with a  net-bag length
of 36 inches.

  After suspension in the water, these nets  require constant  tending.
Within a fraction of an hour the nets' efficiency is reduced through
clogging of the net by drifting animals and detritus that soon results in
significant volumes of water and organisms being diverted around the
mouth of the net.

  After the bottom sample  is collected by one of the deepwater sam-
pling devices, it is brought to the surface and placed in  a large  pail or
tub. Water for sample dilution is added to the pail, and the sample is
mixed into a slurry with the slurry finally being passed through a U. S.
Standard No. 30 mesh sieve while the sieve is being rotated in the water.
The washing operation is  repeated until  all fine material has passed
through the  sieve, and all  organisms  are  retained  in  the sieve. The
organisms and coarser debris are then  removed from the sieve and are
preserved. It is often  easier  to sort the  organisms from the debris when
the organisms are  alive. Time schedules and extensive field operations,
however,  often dictate  that sample collection  and  examination take
place at different  times during the year. Wide-mouthed tapered pint
freeze jars,  obtainable from most grocery stores, have  proven  to be
excellent bottom organism sample containers. When  these jars  are filled


half full with 10 percent formalin before the day's activities of sample
collection, it is a time-saving process to transfer the concentrated sample
from the  side of the sieve to  the  jar of preservative by lightly hitting
the sieve  against the top of the jar. The investigator is assured always
of a minimum of 5 percent formalin in the sample container, a sufficient
strength to preserve the collected  organisms. After the samples are pre-
served in the  field they are returned to the laboratory where the or-
ganisms  are separated  from  the  debris, placed in  respective groups,
identified, and enumerated.
  To sample riffle areas in streams, a square-foot bottom sampler,  origi-
nally described by Surber (1936), is  widely used. It consists  of  two 1
foot-square brass frames hinged together at right angles; one frame sup-
ports the  net which is held extended downstream by current velocities,
the other encloses the sampling area. In field operation, the sampler is
so placed that organisms dislodged by hand from the  substratum within
the sampling  frame  will be  carried into the net by  the  current. In
stagnant or in slowly moving  water, it often is not practical to employ
this square-foot sampler.
  In  practice, it  may be found convenient to remove  the larger  rocks
from inside the sampling frame, placing them in a bucket or tub par-
tially filled with water. Here,  the  organisms  can be washed  or scrapped
from the  rocks, and concentrated  by  a sieve  as described earlier, before
being combined  with those from the Surber sampler in a sample jar
with preservative.
  Artificial  substrates  have been successfully  employed in  studying
bottom-fauna  in  flowing streams.  One multiple-plate  sampler  con-
structed  of  tempered hardboard  (Hester  and Dendy,  1962)  has  been
especially suitable for studying stream inhabitants in those streams that
do not possess a natural substrate suitable for the attachment of benthic
forms. A sampler constructed of eight 3-inch  squares,  separated by  seven
1-inch squares, and held in place by a bolt or threaded rod exposes
slightly more  than  1  square  foot of surface to which organisms can
  Artificial substrates are placed in the water for 3- to 6-weeks and then
carefully removed to prevent losing the organisms that have made them
a temporary home. As nearly as possible the substrates should be placed
at similar depths and in similar physical relationship to the stream at
all  stations. Usually they are  placed about  1-foot beneath the surface
or 1-foot off the stream  bed. The multiple-plate sampler can be reduced
in size to three plates  only and placed vertically near the surface, at
mid-depth, and near the bottom  at a particular station. Loss of some
substrates because of vandalism or flooding should be anticipated.
  Periphyton  include the assemblage of organisms that grow on free
surfaces of submersed objects in water and cover them with a slimy coat.


      Plate 18. A multiple-plate artificial substrate colonized by aquatic organisms.
                           (Hester-Dendy type).

Cooke (1956)  comprehensively  reviews  the  literature  on the  subject.
Periphyton  play an  important role in flowing waters  because  these
organisms are the major primary producers in that environment. Thus,
they are an important part of a lake  or reservoir study of both  the
influent and receiving streams. A number of substrates have been pro-
posed with  which to study attached organisms including glass slides,
cement  blocks,  wooden shingles, and  plexiglass plates  (Grzenda and
Brehmer,  1960). Growths on such substrates may be analyzed  qualita-
tively or quantitatively.
  The type of artificial substrate employed  to collect organisms is  not
terribly important as long as the same type is used at all  such sampling
stations in a particular investigation. Any type  will be somewhat selec-
tive to those organisms that are attracted  to it. They do tend to favor
drift organisms or those that become detached from their  dwelling areas
and float downstream with the current.  When the same type of sampler

 is used  at each  station,  data  collected among the stations should be

   Patrick et al.  (1954) developed a slide-carrying device, termed the
 Catherwood Diatometer,  to sample the diatom populations of streams.
 It consists of a plastic base mounted on a lead bar shaped like a boat.
 On the plastic base are mounted two floats designed so that the depth
 to which the diatometer is sunk can be varied. Between the floats,
 behind a plastic  V-shaped vane,  the plastic slide holder slotted to  hold
 six slides vertically is  mounted  edgewise  to the current. The vane
 prevents excess washing  of the  slides. It was stated  that  1 week  was
 sufficient to expose the slides and that the population of an unpolluted
 stream could be  estimated as adequately with this method as  with the
 usual  methods of  collecting diatoms.  Calculations upon which these
 estimates are based must be  corrected when dealing with  polluted

   A comprehensive review on limnological methods to investigate peri-
 phytic communities has been prepared by Sladeckova (1962).  She lists
 448 references as a bibliography and portrays a large number of devices
 on which attached organisms can grow and be sampled. In a summary
 she states that there is no single, universal method for the quantitative
 evaluation of periphyton for every purpose. An  analysis  of ecological
 factors influencing the periphytic community may make methods for
 the evaluation of this community on natural substrata preferable. On
 the contrary, the use of artificial substrata is essential for the determina-
 tion of periphyton formation on a unit area or for the study of coloni-
 zation and stratification of attached organisms, especially in deep water.
 The choice  of exposure technique is often determined by circumstance.
 The duration of  exposure must be tested in advance. Lund and Tailing
 (1957) completed an earlier review with 777 references; they  also  dis-
 cussed methods with special reference to algae,  both planktonic  and
 attached. Sladecek  and  Sladeckova (1964)   discussed the  glass slide
 method for the determination of periphytic  production in particular.
 Methods were cited for the calculation of production rates.
  In  the study  of attached  organisms in waters receiving acid mine
 drainage, it  was found that extreme  corrosion  of the  slide holding
 device contributed to a substantial loss of samplers during the study
 period. A type of putty (Plasti-tak *)  has been found  to be extremely
 useful to secure microscope slides to clay bricks or to the upper fiber
 board plate  of a multiplate sampler  (Thomas,  1968). Advantages to
 this procedure include good holding  power, noncorrosive aspects  in
 acid or salt water, ease of artificial substrate placement, low cost, and
removal  of single slides without  disturbing adjacent ones. The surface
  * Mention of a commercial product does not constitute endorsement by the Environ-
mental Protection Agency.


to which the adhesive is applied must be dry and clean and the adhesive
will release in fast water after about 3 weeks.
  To obtain a history of sediment deposition or to permit selection of
strata within the  sediments, sampling  of  these by a commercial  core
sampling  device is expedient.  Much information of a historic nature
can be obtained and can be related to the  problem under investigation
through the chemical and biological examination of sediment cores.

  Samples collected for plankton analysis are most often similar to those
collected for the analyses of chemical water quality.  They  may be col-
lected with  the aid of a Kemmerer sampler or similar device that  per-
mits capture of a sample from a particular water strata.

  Fish samples may be collected by  nets,  seines,  poisons, and  electro-
fishing. Electrofishing is conducted by means of an alternating or direct
electrical  current applied to water that has a resistance different from
the fish. This difference in resistance  to pulsating direct current stimu-
lates the swimming muscles for short periods of time, causing the fish
to orient  and be attracted  to the positive  electrode. An electrical field
of sufficient potential to demobilize the fish is present near  the positive
electrode, but decreases  in  intensity  with  distance. After the fish  are
identified, weighed, and measured, they can be returned to the water

  The electrofishing unit may consist of a  110-volt, 60 cycle, heavy duty
generator, an electrical control section, which is a modified commer-
cially sold variable voltage pulsator, and electrodes. The electrical  con-
trol section  provides selection of voltages from 50 to  700 volts a.c.  and
25 to 350 volts d.c. The a.c. current acts as a standby for the d.c.  cur-
rent and is used in cases of extremely low water resistance. The variable
voltage allows control of field size in various types of water.

  Meaningful samples of littoral vegetation may be  difficult to secure.
Sampling, per se, is often not necessary. It is usually sufficient to map,
identify,  and estimate abundance of  the principal components of  the
aquatic vegetation population.

Sample Analyses

  When  samples are collected of animals  associated with  the lake or
stream bed the organisms and debris are usually preserved with 10  per-
cent formalin.  The formalized sample  is washed in  the laboratory to
remove the  strong formalin solution.  From this point it is necessary to
remove and segregate the animals on which an interpretation will be
made from  the debris within  the sample  jar. A number  of flotation
methods  have been  proposed  by  various  authors to reduce the time
expended in this  operation.  When  an investigation includes  stream


reaches that are heavily polluted with organic sludges or that produce
prolific growths of slimes and other attached organisms, flotation meth-
ods do  not work well. Thus, as a routine measure the somewhat labo-
rious effort of separating organisms  from debris through hand sorting
must be employed.

  A white enamel  pan with a  depth of approximately H/2" is  often
used in the hand picking operation. It is convenient to fill half the pan
with water and then place 2 or 3  tablespoons of material from  the
sample  jar in the center of the pan. By teasing the sample to all sides
with the aid of forceps, small animals can be removed without difficulty.
It is helpful for later identification to keep the removed organisms
separated into  the taxonomic groups that are discernible with  the  un-
aided eye. When it is noted that organisms within the collected sample
are limited to a few (2 to 4) kinds and are extremely abundant as they
often are when sludgeworms reproduce in great  numbers  in  organic
sludge,  samples may be split to reduce time and labor in removing
organisms. This is  accomplished by placing the sample  in the white
pan without water, leveling the sample surface, and randomly selecting
Vz> /4»  Vi6> or  Vs2> °f trie  sample for  organism removal.  When this is
done, the entire sample should be examined for those larger organisms
that may not be numerous. In reports written  principally for  those
outside of the biological  discipline, bottom  fauna abundance is  ex-
pressed usually as the number  of a particular  kind of organism  per
square  foot. Organisms from 6" x 6" Ekman dredge samples, for  ex-
ample,  would be multiplied by 4 to arrive at the number per square
foot. When the  sample is split and  only  an aliquot examined,  the
appropriate conversion multiplication  must also be used. Further iden-
tification through the use  of a  stereoscopic microscope and counts to
ascertain numbers  within  a particular group are made to facilitate
interpretation of water quality.

  Slimes and other attached growths are identified and estimates made
of  relative  abundance.  Quantitative  methods are  often  employed.
Chlorophyll determinations may be used as an indicator of those plants
that possess this  material  and the determination is  often  helpful to
separate attached algal quantities from slimes.

  Chlorophyll,  an enzyme  present in  green plants, in the presence of
light converts carbon dioxide and water to basic sugar, a process that is
termed  photosynthesis. Chlorophyll increases in lakes as  the lakes  be-
come more eutrophic; thus  chlorophyll measurements provide compara-
tive data on eutrophication.

  Chlorophyll-bearing cells may be filtered  from the water with mem-
brane filters (0.45 micron pore). Filters and cells are placed in  vials of
acetone for extraction of the pigments and for solution  of the filters


(Creitz and Richards, 1955).  Samples are  then centrifuged to remove
particulate suspended materials. The clear supernatant pigment-bearing
acetone is examined on a recording spectrophotometer. Spectrums are
evaluated and the quantity of chlorophyll determined as outlined by
Richards with Thompson (1952).
  Some waters contain sufficient plankton  (phyto- and/or zooplankton)
so that samples must be diluted to obtain adequate numerical informa-
tion; however, with a sparse plankton sample, concentration should be
used. The phytoplankton in samples from most natural waters require
neither  dilution nor concentration and should be enumerated directly.
Correspondingly, zooplankton often are not sufficiently abundant to be
counted without concentration. Selection of methods and materials used
in plankton enumeration depends on objectives of the study, density of
plankters in the waters  being investigated, equipment available,  and
experience of the investigator.
  The  Sedgwick-Rafter cell  has  been and continues  to be  the  most
commonly employed device  for  plankton enumeration because it is
easily manipulated and provides  reasonably  reproducible information
when used with a calibrated microscope equipped with an eyepiece
measuring device, usually a Whipple ocular micrometer. It can be used
to  enumerate undiluted, concentrated,  or diluted plankton samples.
The biggest disadvantage associated with the cell is magnification. The
cell cannot be used for enumerating very small plankton  unless  the
microscope is equipped with special  lenses that provide sufficient mag-
nification (400 x or greater) and clearance between objective lenses and
the cell.
   The  Sedgwick-Rafter cell is 50-mm. long by 20-mm. wide by 1-mm.
deep. Since the total area is 1,000 mm.2, the total volume is  1X 1012
cubic ft,, l.OOO.3 or 1 ml. A "strip" the length of the cell thus constitutes a
volume 50-mm.  long, 1-mm. deep, and the width of the Whipple field.
Two or four strips usually are counted, depending on the density of
plankters.  Counting more than four strips  is not  expedient when there
are many  samples to be enumerated; concentrating  procedures then
should be employed, and counts made of plankters in the concentrate.

        No. per ml. = Actual Count x^n	FTTS—=—^-7	=r
            ^                       Volume of  Strip (mm.3)

   If the sample has been concentrated, the concentration factor is di-
vided into the actual count to derive the  number of organisms per ml.
For separate field counts (usually 10 or more fields):
   No. per ml. = avg. count per field x -^rr	cc u—™	Jg ,,—
       r          6       r          Volume of field x No. of fields

   When special lenses are not used and there is a need to enumerate


small plankton, unusually abundant, other procedures may be employed
in conjunction with and related to counts obtained from  the Sedgwick-
Rafter cell.

  Lackey (1938) used a drop counting method in his  examination of
Scioto River, Ohio, phytoplankton. In this method,  the sample is first
centrifuged and ". . . after thorough agitation by alternately sucking
it in and spurting it out of the pipette, the exact number of drops was
counted and a sufficient number of drops of the decanted portion was
added, so that one drop  of catch bore a definite relationship to the
amount centrifuged."  One drop of sample is put on a glass slide and
a cover glass added; 5  low-power fields  and 10 high-power fields are
examined, and the number of each species is recorded at the magnifica-
tions  used. Enumeration is repeated on  3 such mounts for a total of
15 low-power fields and 30 high-power fields.
  No. per ml = avg. no. per field x no. of fields per drop or per cover
    slip x no. of drops per ml -H- the concentration factor.

  The concentration factor = ml of original sample-^ ml of concentrate
     X (100 —percent of preservative in sample).

Lackey's  method  has the advantages of including all organisms in the
catch, simplicity and ease  of manipulation, and instant use of the high
power magnification where identification with the low power is  ques-
tionable. Certain disadvantages are inherent in the method: (1) because
water  normally is used  as  a mounting medium enumeration must  be
accomplished  relatively  rapidly to prevent dessication  and subsequent
distortion of organisms; (2) results are not sufficiently accurate when
only one slide-mount is examined thus, it is necessary  to prepare and
enumerate at least three or more  slide-mounts; and (3)  the  investigator
should be sufficiently familiar  with  plankton to  rapidly identify and
count the specimens encountered.

  Plankton samples have been successfully concentrated by settling with
a liquid detergent and counted by the drop technique.  To concentrate
the phytoplankton, 500 ml. of sample were placed in 1-liter glass settling
cylinders to which were added 20 ml. of commercial formalin  to pre-
serve  the sample, and 10 ml. of a detergent to settle the sample. Sedi-
mentation of the plankton was complete in 24 hours,  after which the
supernatant was carefully  siphoned from the cylinder, and the concen-
trate  was washed into screw-capped storage vials and  brought to the
nearest 5 ml. by  the addition of  4 percent formalin and the use of a
volume standard. In making the drop count, 5 low-power fields and
10 high-power fields were observed on this slide, and the magnification
as well as number of each species of organisms was recorded. This pro-
cedure was repeated on 3 such mounts so that totals of 15 low-power
fields and 30 high-power fields were observed. The  number of a par-


ticular type of organism in 1-liter  of water was  determined by  the
following formula:

           (Avg No./Held) (No. fields/coverslip) (No. drops/ml) x 1,000
     ''  ~~                   Concentration factor
                                    ml. of original sample
         The concentration f actor=-
                                  (ml. of concentrate) (0.94)

where 0.94 accounts for the dilution of the sample by the addition of
formalin and the detergent.

  The average volume in cubic microns of each species was obtained
by measuring 20 individuals. The volume  contributed by each species
was expressed in parts per million by use of the following formula:

        Volume (ppm) = (No. org/1) (avg species vol in /t3) X 10~9.

  Segments of lake bottom  core samples may be analyzed microscopi-
cally to determine the diatom composition  of the layered segments. To
examine diatomaceous sediments in lake bed core sediments, an aliquot
solids sample based on a packed volume of a selected core segment is
oven-dried, suspended in equal parts  of water and concentrated nitric
acid, gently  boiled for 45  minutes,  and allowed  to cool.  Potassium
dichromate crystals (0.1 gram) are added, the mixture cooled, washed
into a centrifuge tube, and water added. The sample  is washed 3 times
by alternately centrifuging, decanting, and adding water. The inorganic
residue  is then diluted to a  specific volume of water (200 ml. per gram
of original sample), then 2  drops  of  liquid household detergent are
added, the sample is stirred, and 2 drops of sample are withdrawn by a
large bore pipette  and placed on a cover slip. The sample on the cover
slip is evaporated  to dryness on a hot plate. Following drying the hot
plate  temperature is increased to 350°F,  a clean microscopic slide is
placed  thereon, and  a  large drop of suitable  microscopic  mounting
media  such  as Harleco * or Styrax *  is placed  on the slide. After 10
minutes, with slight cooling, the cover slip  with the dried sample is
inverted onto the mounting  medium drop and pressed firmly into place.
The slide is then examined  for diatom skeletons.'
  * Mention of commercial products does not constitute endorsement by the Environ-
mental Protection Agency.


                  [Stream Surveys
Study Plan

A    STY field investigative technical study should be preceded by a study
     plan. A study plan, which should be recorded in writing, should
delineate the steps taken in preparing for and conducting a study. The
study plan begins with a clear STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM or
need that prompted the investigation. It should include  a description
of the problem, the importance of resolving the problem,  the requestor
for the  study, and the previous actions  that have been undertaken to
resolve the problem.

  The statement of the problem is  followed by a  clear  statement of
AUTHORITY for conducting the study. STUDY OBJECTIVES should
follow with clear,  concise, positive  definitions of  the investigation's
purpose, its scope, and its limitations. Study objectives provide a basis
for judging the extent to which the results of the study meet the  needs
that justify  the undertaking. The next sequential step in  developing a
study plan is  to identify the APPROACH  of the  investigation.  The
approach  contains a definition of the boundaries and location of the
study area and a map showing proposed sampling stations, approximate
distances,  and other pertinent features. A description of sampling or of
data collection is included, which indicates the projected inclusive dates
of field sample collections, the types of samples to be collected, the loca-
tions from which samples will be collected, the  periodicity of sample
collection, the number of replica samples for particular sampling  types,
the general method of sample collection, and the number of sampling
cruises necessary to  complete the collection. Data collection is followed
by a statement on laboratory analyses including the kinds of analyses
to be  performed, the use of fixed or mobile laboratories, and the avail-
ability of laboratory facilities. A statement on any special equipment or
facilities that will be needed for the study should include its availability
and location.  A work schedule  or a timetable showing each major
project task, or a study division, with the starting and finishing dates
for the  completion  of the task should be included. Lastly, the  study
plan should define RESOURCE LEVELS, which include an itemization


of the estimated  expenses  for the study, an indication  of  manpower
needs by a project task, and a statement regarding the need for any
manpower in addition to that readily available.
  In conducting a stream study it should be understood by the investi-
gator that a stream's physical characteristics greatly influence its reaction
to pollution and  its natural purification. An understanding of the na-
ture of these influences is  important to the intelligent  planning and
execution of stream studies. Important physical factors include tempera-
ture, turbidity, depth, velocity, turbulence, slope, changes in direction
and in cross sections,  and nature of  the stream bed. These  factors are
closely interrelated and acting either separately or together  they influ-
ence the type of life that will become and remain associated with the

Wastes Mixing

  Wastes entering a stream mix vertically, from top to bottom, laterally
from  one side to the  other, and longitudinally from  their point  of
entrance to  a point downstream. The  distances that wastes mix  in
these  three directions  must be considered in selecting appropriate sam-
pling stations. The vertical  mixing of wastes in a stream is usually rapid
and enhanced by  turbulence, which may cause vertical  mixing to  be
completed within a few hundred feet. Lateral mixing is generally
depended on  the  occurrence of relatively sharp  reverse bends  within
the stream,  and the distance for adequate lateral mixing  across  the
stream may  be in  miles. Longitudinal mixing also is in terms of miles
or perhaps days of stream flow. The water passing a point downstream
from  a waste source is not the identical mass of water that  passed the
waste source at some  specified earlier time.  Instead it is a mixture of
particles of  water that passed the waste source at different times and
spent various times in  traveling to  the downstream sampling point.
Such variations ultimately  are averaged-out at some distance down the
stream  to   produce  uniform  concentrations  of waste constituents
throughout a 24-hour period.

Waste Sources

  There are a great number of  different kinds of waste sources that
influence water quality and life within the receiving waters. Municipal
sewage, industrial wastes of all varieties, acid mine drainage,  heat pollu-
tion,  agricultural  wastes, wastes  from confined animal  feeding areas,
logging practices, irrigation  return  flows, construction  site siltation,
waste from  ships  and  other  vessels,  and general land runoff all con-
tribute  to water  quality degradation. Information on some of these
wastes sources is  known and can be  obtained from the appropriate
governmental or other agency.


  Pertinent information on the quality and quantity of sewage inflows
can be obtained usually from the municipality  operating the plant if
the State water pollution control agency has no  data or if the data are
insufficient for the purposes of the investigation. Some approximation
for  purposes of calculation may be useful in denning  the sewage load
for  a given plant. For example, the number of connected homes multi-
plied  by 3.7  persons per family  gives a reasonable  estimate of the
sewered population. The sewered population multiplied by 0.17 pounds
of 5-day biochemical oxygen demand (BOD) per person per day provides
an estimate of the BOD load of raw domestic sewage. The sewered
population multiplied by 0.2 pounds of suspended solids per capita per
day is an estimate  of the suspended solids load of the raw sewage. The
total coliform bacterial load in the receiving stream,  if no treatment
is provided, may be  estimated by  multiplying the sewered population
by 400 billion per capita per day for temperatures above 15° centigrade
and 125 billion for temperatures below 15°C. The  population equiva-
lent for total phosphorus is approximately three pounds (P) per capita
per year and that of total  nitrogen  approximately nine pounds per
capita per year.

  An estimate of the treated sewage BOD load may be made by apply-
ing conventional percentage reductions  in BOD for various  types of
treatment if an estimate of the raw sewage load  has been made. Values
used commonly are  33  percent reduction for primary treatment,  65
percent for chemical precipitation, and 85 percent for  a secondary
treatment such as  trickling filter plants and about 90 percent for acti-
vated sludge plants. Reductions  in suspended solids by conventional
treatment may be  estimated as 55 percent for primary, 80  percent for
chemical precipitation,  80 percent for trickling filter plants,  and  90
percent for activated sludge plants. Bacterial reductions may be esti-
mated as 50 percent for primary treatment, 60 percent for chemical
precipitation, between 92 and 95 percent for secondary treatment plants,
and 99 percent for chlorination following secondary treatment.

  If greater reliability than  that of an estimate is required for the par-
ticular investigation  this type of measurement of the sewage load to
the receiving  waterway  can  be achieved only by round-the-clock sam-
pling  because of the wide variation  in  flow and sewage constituents
from the mid morning maximum to the minimum of early morning
hours. Raw sewage should be sampled frequently, possibly every 10 to
15 minutes because of its variability. Plant effluents may be sampled less
frequently, possibly every 30 minutes to 1 hour. Flow measurements are
necessary to determine  the  quantity  of pollutional  load and to com-
posite the samples collected in proportion to the flow at the time of
sampling, if a compositing method is used.
  Industrial wastes are  even more capricious than  municipal wastes.
In their composition throughout a period of time, industrial wastes may


vary significantly in  their constituents with  different  manufacturing
processes that may be begun and stopped periodically. Thus, the knowl-
edge of the industrial process producing a given waste is essential to
predict the potential characteristics of the waste water. An appropriate
sampling schedule must be  developed  that will include the variations
in waste water constituency, as well as flow. The time of operation of
the industry must be taken  into account in such a sampling program.
Some plants operate 8 hours a day, some 16, and some 24.
  The sampling of non-point waste sources, including many of those
wastes associated with agricultural  practices  as well  as  construction,
must be designed to fit the situation being studied. Many of these waste
waters are  associated with periods of  intense  precipitation  and land
runoff,  thus, they become  intermittent rather than  continuous dis-
charges. Some information is available in the literature regarding the
composition of confined feedlot drainage, irrigation return flows, and
general land drainage from fertilized crop lands. The predominant soils
of the area have a significant impact on the characteristics of the runoff.
The difficulties of obtaining a quantitative determination of non-point
source inflows are paramount. A method that frequently is used includes
sampling the receiving waterway at points both upstream and down-
stream from the area that is being assessed for non-point source pollu-
tion potential and ascertaining the difference between  the  two stations
so sampled. It is, of course, axiomatic  that no significant  point source
waste be present to obfuscate the results of such a determination. If a
point source  waste is present, and its  pollutional load is known, this
load may  be subtracted from  the difference between the two stations
designed to depict the loading  of non-point  sources to arrive  at the
correct answer to the investigative problem.

Water Use Considerations

  The underlying purpose of a water quality study often is to determine
the effects on uses of the water involved. A knowledge of existing and
potential water uses is therefore essential to the intelligent planning of
a water quality study. Cognizance should be given to water uses in the
placing of sampling stations. Generally the water use that requires the
highest water quality will dominate  the formulation of the recommen-
dations resulting from a water quality investigation.

  Water uses include those for  municipal  water supplies; industrial
water supply; agricultural water supply, including livestock watering,
irrigation, and domestic farm use; recreation, including swimming, wad-
ing, water skiing, boating, and aesthetic enjoyment; the propagation of
fish and other  aquatic life and  wildlife, including sport  fishing, com-
mercial fishing, fur trapping, and as  a water supply for wildlife;  hydro-
power production;  and navigation.  Different water uses  require sub-


stantially different water qualities. Those uses that require the highest
water quality from the standpoint of chemical and microbiological con-
stituency include the uses for fish and other wildlife, recreation, and
municipal water supply.

Station Location

  The selection of stations for stream sampling of chemical characteris-
tics is  dependent upon judgments derived  from an assessment of the
physical  characteristics of the stream,  as well as the predicted mixing
qualities of inflowing pollutants. As Kittrell relates in his 1969 book
that was cited  as a basic reference in  Chapter VI, the ideal  sampling
station would be a cross section of a stream at which samples from all
points on the cross section would yield a similar concentration for each
particular constituent, and a sample taken at any time would yield the
same relative concentrations as one taken at any other time. A marriage
of these  two conditions  to produce  the ideal sampling  stations  never
persists in nature for any appreciable time  period. Variations in  water
quality with time  require  that samples be  collected at the proper
frequencies  and times of day  to ensure  results representative of the
quality variations.

  Seldom is it necessary to sample at various depths in a stream because
of incomplete vertical mixing. Sampling usually is at either a 5-foot or
mid-depth whichever is lesser, except for certain biological samples such
as plankton that may be sampled at a depth of about 1-foot or bacteria
that is usually  sampled just  beneath the  surface. Lateral mixing on a
stream poses yet another problem and it is good practice to take samples
at quarter points across the stream unless a predetermination of mixing
has shown that a single sample at mid point of the main current is
  Samples should be obtained  from major tributaries. As  a general
rule, tributaries with flows greater than 10 to 20 percent of that of the
main stream should be  sampled. Tributaries with lesser flows should
be included if they are suspected of being significantly polluted. Should
the principal interest center on the main stream, the sampling of tribu-
taries at their mouths may be adequate. It is often desirable however to
pinpoint the source  of waste inflow on the  tributary and to determine
its loading in pounds per day in a similar  fashion  to that of a  waste
inflow on the main stream. The determination of the quality of waste
inflow involves an  assessment of waste constituent concentrations, as
well as a gaging or a determination of the volume of waste flow. Usually
there is a variation in waste strength throughout a 24-hour period and
this  variation must be  detected and  considered in determining the
pounds per  day contribution. Similarly, an  appraisal must be made of
the flow within the receiving waterway to relate the pounds of dissolved


Plate 19. Representatives of stream bed associated animals [The  clean water (Sensitive)
    group].  From left:  Stonefly nymph;  Mayfly naiad; Caddisfly larvae;  Hellgrammite
    Unionid Clam.
oxygen that may be used, for example, with the pounds of biochemical
oxygen demand that may be contributed by inflowing wastes.

  Usually a series of sampling stations are selected on a stream to estab-
lish a  course of pollution or  water qu'ality change throughout a given
reach of river. When time-of-water travel determinations can be made,
a desirable interval for station selection is about one-half  day time-of-
water  travel for the first three days travel below a source of waste, and

about  one day throughout  any remaining distance. On small streams
that may be quite heavily polluted the location of longitudinal  sam-
pling stations should be at a much closer interval if one is to assess the
damage of the waste load from  an analyses of chemical constituents.
Major points of water use,  including  recreational and water  supply
areas, should be included in the sampling regime.
  Personnel and facility limitations may prevent the collection of sam-
ples from all stations  or  points  for the examination  of the desirable
daily number of samples. The least detrimental cut  in projected sample
numbers can be made  in the number of stations when  reduction of the
sampling  or  analytical program below the optimum level  is necessary.
Decreasing the number of stations in a stream reach by increasing the
spacing between them usually is preferable to  reducing the lengths of
the reach, the number of points  on station cross sections where lateral
mixing is incomplete,  or the frequency or total number  of sampling
  Biological  sampling stations to assess the stream environment rou-
tinely  should be located close to or at those sampling stations selected
for chemical and microbiological analyses to enhance interpretation of
water  quality through the use of interrelated  data. Sampling stations
should be located upstream and  downstream from  suspected pollution
sources,  from major tributary streams, and  at appropriate  intervals
throughout the stream  reach under investigation.
  The upstream or control station or stations should depict conditions
unaffected by a pollution  source or tributary. The nearest station down-
stream from the pollution source or tributary should be so located that
it leaves no doubt that conditions depicted by the sample can be related
to  the cause  of any environmental change.  The  minimal number of
downstream  stations from this point should  be located  in the  most
severe area of the zone of active decomposition, downstream in an area
depicting less severe conditions  within this zone,  near the upper up-
stream reach of the zone of recovery,  near the downstream reach of the
recovery zone, and in  the downstream  reach that first shows no  effect
from the suspected pollution source. Precise station locations will de-
pend on the flow, the  strength, volume, and type of pollution entering
the source and the entrance of additional sources of pollution to com-
plicate the stream recovery picture. When water in tributary streams is
found to  be polluted, or to influence water quality in a primary stream,
these streams should be  similarly investigated. The precise location of
sampling stations can  be aided through a cursory examination of the
benthic fauna, which are excellent indicators,  as a community, of pre-
vailing water quality.
  A stream usually is composed of riffles and pools.  These areas will
vary in depth, velocity of flow,  and types  of  substrate that  form the


Plate 20. Representatives of stream bed associated animals  (The intermediately tolerant
    group).  From Left: Scud; Sowbug; Black fly larvae; Fingernail Clam; Snail; Dragonfly
    nymph; Leech; Damselfly nymph.

stream bed. Because a biologist seeks to determine  changes that occur
in water  quality  as  depicted  by aquatic organisms, and to  relate the
changes to particular sources, he must compare  observations at a par-
ticular station with observations and findings from an upstream station,
as well as with those at  a station  within the stream reach that is un-
affected by a  suspected source. To accomplish this,  an  effort  should be
made to collect samples  from habitat types that are morphometrically
similar. Riffle samples should  be compared with riffle samples and pool
samples  compared  with  pool  samples.  Both should be studied  in a

stream where  feasible to determine the extent of each major environ-
mental change produced by pollution.  The biological investigator may
need to choose a number of stations in  addition to those selected  for
routine chemical or bacteriological sampling to access satisfactorily the
extent of biological change.

  Plankton samples are collected usually at one point within the study
station, most commonly  at mid stream 1-  to  2-feet below the surface.
Plate 21:  Representatives  of stream  bed associated animals (The  very tolerant group).
    From left:  Bloodworm or midge  larvae; Sludgeworm; Rat-tailed maggot; Sewage fly
    larvae; Sewage fly pupae.


Samples  for bottom-associated  organisms should  be collected at  a
number  of  points on a transection  between the  stream  banks. Op-
timistically,  these samples  should be collected at a minimum  of five
points across the stream (mid and 2  quarter  points and at  near zero
water  level  with banks).  More  than one  sample  may at  times be
collected from  each  point and  retained  separately. Realistically, the
objectives of a  particular survey and  the  number of stations at which
bottom fauna  are collected may  dictate  the  number of  samples for
a particular  station. Attached slimes and other  growths are sampled
as they occur  and  when it  appears  that a  change has  taken place
within the community of attached organisms.
  Samples for bacteriological examinations must be collected in  bottles
properly sterilized and protected  against contamination.  The  prefer-
able method is to scoop  up the water with  the open bottle just
beneath  the  surface. This  method usually is  used  when sampling by
a boat. When  sampling from  a bridge,  the  sterilized  sample  bottle
should be placed in a weighted frame  that holds  the bottle securely.
While the bottle is open, both bottle and stopper must be  protected
against contamination. A  small  amount  of  water should be poured
from the bottle after filling to leave an air space for  subsequent shaking
in the laboratory. The bottle should be  closed at  once and analyzed

Sampling Periodicity
  Frequency of sampling varies  with the water use,  the urgency of
developing a representative record of quality, and the resource capa-
bility of the investigative team.  Sampling usually is  done at least
daily  for an  operating water supply and  may be taken  at random or
systematically alternated throughout the operating day so  that the
sample will not represent  fixed  daily time. In the larger  water treat-
ment  plants, sampling of  raw water may be more frequent and as
often  as once  each  shift,  or even hourly. Weekly collections, as  a
minimum,  are  desirable throughout the season of  active  biological
growth to measure  planktonic populations and  chemical  constituents
that may change rapidly. In special studies, samples are often collected
daily or even periodically during a 24-hour day to assess  these changes.
During the  non-growing season monthly samples of these  constituents
should be adequate except  where otherwise indicated by the  objectives
of the study. A reconnaissance and mapping of the aquatic vegetation
should be  done during maximal vegetative  growth,  usually in mid
or late summer.

  Selecting  the seasonal time of year to  institute  a field  study is an
important  and  significant consideration  in  ensuring  that! the  data
collected will depict representative conditions of water  quality. Gen-


erally, the most severe conditions for life in water occur when tempera-
tures are increased by the heat of summer and when stream  flows are
at a  minimum. This may correspond with  the  maximal growth  of
planktonic or attached plants, which release oxygen to the water during
the sun-lighted photosynthetic period  and remove oxygen from  the
water during the night time plant respiration  period. Another seasonal
time when conditions of existence for life in  water are at a minimum
occurs during late winter just before ice breakup in those streams and
other waterways that are  ice-covered in northern climes. Ice and snow
preclude sufficient sunlight from reaching the water to  trigger photo-
synthetic oxygen  production  and, when organic materials are present,
the available dissolved oxygen is slowly  removed  from the  water  by
the bacteria  during  the  decomposition of these  materials. If wastes
enter the stream  that  are high  in sugars, biological slimes  develop
in profusion  and further  reduce  the available oxygen through decom-
position processes.

  If one is interested in demonstrating the most severe effect  on water
quality and associated aquatic organisms,  it may be sufficient to sample
the waterway only during the low stream flow period of late summer
or early fall.  In northern areas, additional samples to complement the
study should be taken during the late winter just before ice  breakup.
Complex  water pollution investigations  on  major  waterways require
greater sampling  efforts  and usually are investigated for periods  of
time  during each of the prevailing seasons for the area. The collection
of generally 20 samples for chemical analyses  from a particular station
for each of the periods of sampling should give an adequate data base
from  which to reach a  conclusion on water quality for that period
of time. Of course, if the variation in a specific determination among
samples is great,  the  number of samples necessary to  reach a  valid
conclusion is increased.

  Insect representatives  of the  bottom  organism community emerge
from the  water as adults  periodically throughout  the warm weather.
Times of emergence  depend on  the species involved.  Life histories of
these organisms tend to overlap  so  that  at no  time is there  a dearth
of such organisms within the bottom-associated community. Bottom
fauna should be sampled  during  the annual seasons whenever possible.
The standing crops  of benthos  will be  highest however during  the
fall and winter period when insect emergence is minimal. One of the
sampling times should represent this season.

  Because of the  report  deadline or limited resources  available,  the
theory and practice of station location and sampling periodicity  may
not coincide. The objectives of a study may  be met  by investigating
only bottom  fauna and attached organisms in a stream and  these on
perhaps only  one occasion during the time of most critical temperature


and stream  flow. Much can be  learned from this minimal effort.  The
effect on  aquatic life can be predicted  but no information  will  be
obtained on the  quantity of pollutants entering or within the stream,
and the amounts that must be removed before  aquatic life will regain
the population that would be expected during  conditions when pollu-
tion was virtually absent.

  Investigators should be careful not to burden the sampling program
with more than  the kinds and  numbers  of samples and analyses that
will be required to meet the stated objectives of  the study. For example,
little  knowledge may  be  gained  from  only  one  series  of plankton
samples from  a  stream. Because  these organisms are carried by the
currents  a  given sample  is  representative of  water  quality at some
point upstream rather than at  the place of  sampling.


  The conduct of any field  water quality investigation  involves the
necessity of  sample analyses at a laboratory. The laboratory in question
may be of the fixed type at some distant point  where precision instru-
ments are available. In this event, consideration must be given to the
physical problems of transporting the samples from the site of collection
to the analytical  laboratory bench. Mobile laboratories have  been  used
successfully  by many  governmental agencies  in the examination  of
water quality. These are self-propelled usually  or of a separate trailer
         Plate 22. Analyses in a wel chemistry laboratory of samples collected
                         from a field investigation.

type that requires a tractor to move the laboratory from place to place.
Mobile laboratories have been designed to include all of the essential
analytical equipment, as well  as air conditioners,  dishwashers, and
other essential conveniences for the analyst.
  The  investigator should  keep  the  laboratory analyst informed at
all  times  of any changes that  may  occur in the field investigation.
He should become  particularly  cognizant of the daily analytical work
load that can be performed without undue stress  on  the part of the
laboratory analyst.  The  analyzing of  samples  from a  field study is a
highly repetitive type of operation and,  for greatest efficiency,  a day's
field collection from  the chemical and microbiological stations must
fit  conveniently  in  the   analytical work  day within  the  laboratory.
Samples collected for plankton and  benthic organisms, on the other
hand,  can be preserved  for  a period  of time and examined at  a  later
date.  Often  it is not essential that these be returned to the laboratory
immediately and such samples  collected  during a field investigation
may be retained  in the field headquarters until the end of the survey
before being transported to the laboratory. When  there is no urgency
for a report of the field  investigation, it  is often convenient to collect
such  biological  samples  during the  summertime  "field" season and
examine such samples during the winter months when climatic condi-
tions are more inclement for sample collection.

     Fond and Lake Investigations
   STEPHEN A. Forbes, writing in the Illinois Natural History Survey
     Bulletin in  1925, described  in colorful and eloquent prose his
concept of the lake environment with the words:
    "A lake is to the naturalist a chapter out of the history of primeval
  time, for the conditions of life  there are primitive, the forms of life
  are, as a whole, relatively low and ancient, and the system of organic
  interactions by  which they  influence  and control  each  other has
  remained substantially unchanged from a remote geological period.

    "The  animals of such a body of water are, as a whole, remarkably
  isolated—-closely related among themselves in all their interests, but
  so far independent of the land around them that if every terrestrial
  animal were suddenly annihilated it would doubtless be long before
  the general multitude of the inhabitants of the lake would feel the
  effects of this event in an  important way. It is  an islet of  older,
  lower life  in the midst  of the higher,  more  recent life  of the
  surrounding region.  It forms a little world within itself—a micro-
  cosm within which  all of  the elemental  forces  are  at  work  and
  the play of life goes on in full, but on so small  a scale as to bring
  it easily within the mental grasp."

The Pond as a Study Habitat

  The preceding chapter was  devoted to a study of the  flowing water
environment. It  should have been readily  apparent  that such  a
habitat would prove to be an  excellent laboratory for a class project
for the high school or early college curriculum.  The possibility exists
for  an attack on the investigative problem by individuals with  a
wide variety of  personal scientific interests and  the amalgamation of
the  data collected into a useful report aimed toward actions to correct
the  prevailing problems. The stream environment presented an ever-
changing panorama of life and chemical conditions  as the water flowed
downstream and was  affected  by various physical conditions and the
entrance of a wide variety of pollutants  that may  act individually or
in combination to produce various and sometimes complex effects.


  As  a  study  project,  the confined  pond or small lake environment
with its multiplicity of biotic interactions offers an entirely different
type  of  habitat  from the  stream  environment.  The  pond  or lake
environment offers a stimulating and interesting study for a variety
of scientific disciplines; it is a confined area where much effort can be
concentrated in one geographical site  thus precluding certain transporta-
tion problems associated with some investigations. Further, the intrica-
cies of the microcosm  of life  that Professor Forbes referred to in his
1925  writing  will probably  take a  longer  period of time to  define
and should be more challenging to  the  investigator than that of the
flowing water environment.
  Being confined, life  within a pond  or lake is not  subjected in the
same  degree to sudden environmental  changes as is life in the  flowing
water environment. There is a buffer zone between the environmental
insult  and  the remainder of the  standing  water  ecosystem. Life's
vicissitudes occur less  rapidly in a  pond compared to a stream.

The  Standing Water Environment

  A complex  interaction of  many  physical,  chemical, and biological
factors,  influenced by meteriological  phenomena, occur in the standing
water environment. Nutrients are vital as a food supply for  the eco-
system and dissolved oxygen is an essential component for aquatic life.
Changes in the concentration of either of these factors will induce
significant alterations in  the complexity of life that inhabits the water.
The pond or  lake environment tends  to be a vertical environment as
contrasted with the more horizontal environment of the flowing stream.
Because  of this,  factors  such  as temperature  and  light penetration
assume  roles of paramount importance and become controlling condi-
tions to  life in the vertical environment.

  Water weighs 62.4 pounds per cubic foot or 8.345 pounds per gallon
at 4°C  (39.2°F). It is  approximately 0.2 Ib.  per cubic foot lighter at
80°F  than at 40°F. Reaching its maximum density  at  39.2°F (4°C),
water becomes lighter  or less dense  as it either  cools or  warms.

  The  density of  water related to  temperature induces a  seasonal
thermal stratification in many ponds  and lakes. For a few weeks in
the spring, water  temperatures  may  be homogeneous  from  top to
bottom  in the standing water environment. Vertical water  density
is also  homogeneous.  During this  time it is  possible for the  wind
to mix  the water  in  the lake or  pond,  distributing nutrients  and
flocculent bottom solids from  the deeper waters to  the  surface. Dis-
solved oxygen is  also mixed at this time and tests will indicate that
water quality characteristics  are very  similar from the surface  to the


  As atmospheric temperatures  increase with  the coming of summer,
the  surface waters become  warmer and as they warm  they  become
lighter  and rest over  the  cooler  waters of greater density. Thus,  a
thermal stratification is  formed for many months. In natural deep
water, three layers of various temperatures and  densities are  formed.
The upper layer, or epilimnion, represents  the warm,  more or  less
freely circulating waters  of  approximately uniform  temperature. The
epilimnion may vary in thickness from a few feet in shallow lakes
to 40 or more  feet in deeper lakes. Near the bottom  of the lake  a
lower layer, or  hypolimnion, represents the cold water region of uni-
form cold temperature.  This may  sometimes be referred  to as  the
profundal region and represents  a portion  of the water body that
is isolated from circulation with  the  upper  waters  and that  receives
no oxygen from the  atmosphere during stratification. When the pond
or lake environment is enriched with organic materials,  the dissolved
oxygen  in the hypolimnion may  be rapidly  removed during periods
of stratification,  and its potential for supporting aquatic life becomes
severely restricted.

  The top and bottom water layers of approximately uniform tempera-
tures are separated by a middle layer or thermocline. The thermocline
is the region of rapid change  in water temperature and  is usually
defined by a  change  of  1.8°F for each 3.28  feet variance  in depth.
The  thermocline represents  a  vertical temperature  transition zone
with the  upper region representing warmer water conditions  and  the
lower region representing cooler water conditions.
                                     TEMPERATURE -F
                                  3O  40  30 6P 70
30 40 9O 6O TO BO !»
                                   Z  4  « 6 10  12  14
                                   DISSOLVED OXYGEN CmQ/l)
                                     TEMPERATURE *F
                                  30  40 5O SO TO 8O  9O
                                                       DISSOLVED OXYGEN (mg/l)
3O 4O  BO 60 TO 60 90
X 40




T«mp. DO


J 1 1






_ OCT. 11,1906
	 1 	 1 I

'f ' ' '_

1 ' 1 1

                                   DISSOLVED OXYGEN (mg/0
                                                       DISSOLVED OXYGEN (mg/ll
Figure 2.  Diagram of lake zones with seasonal temperature and dissolved oxygen changes
          observed in Lake Mendota, Wisconsin (from Birge and Juday, 1911).

  As  atmospheric  temperature cools  and  autumn approaches,  the
surface waters of a pond or lake  cool  also.  The cooling process with
the corresponding increase in water density  increases the  thickness of
the epilimnion  until the lake or pond becomes homothermous and
again a  period  of complete  water  circulation,  aided  by  the  winds,
begins. This phenomenon  occurs from late September to December
and depends upon the area and depth of  the lake and its geographic
location  and  local climatological conditions. The  period lasts until
changes in density re-establish stratification or until the lake  is frozen
over and a period of winter stratification follows.

  Thus,  the exchange of  gases  with those in the  atmosphere  are
restricted during a greater part of the year for the entire lake environ-
ment. The water is saturated or  nearly so with atmospheric gases in
the spring and again in the  fall. However,  as soon as thermal stratifica-
tion occurs, and lasting until  the water again becomes  homothermous,
only the water of the  epilimnion  or upper  portion has direct contact
with the atmosphere.

  Water warms more  rapidly and to a higher  degree  in  the shallow
areas  near shore. Microscopic life, both plant and animal, accelerates
first in standing crop in these areas following the cooler temperatures
of winter and, if the food-supplying nutrients are abundant,  localized
plant nuisances may develop that  could spread to other sectors of
the water body.

  The temperature gradient in reservoirs  may be more complex than
that found in ponds or lakes.  Main  stream "run-of-the-river" reservoirs
often  have a small and  fairly regular  temperature  gradient from  top
to bottom.  In some  situations, however,  there  may  be a stream of
inflowing cold water that  tends  to flow  through  the impoundment
and be discharged by  way of the  penstock intake  thus a  thermocline
is  created below the water  surface of the  dam  and extends upstream
parallel to the bottom of the reservoir. A storage reservoir, often located
at the headwaters of a stream, may have  the characteristics of a lake
because  the  water is  often  stored  in the reservoir for a period of
time  extending for many  months.  Temperature  gradients  here  are
similar to those  described for  a lake. In addition, reservoirs frequently
have density currents which are caused by differences  in temperature,
differences in the concentration of electrolytes, such as  carbonates, and
differences in silt content. These often extend from the inflowing area
to the region of the penstock. In some instances, density currents have
been  detected from  60  to 80  feet  below the surface. Density currents
affect  the fish populations since game fish orient  themselves both to
the stratum of stagnant water caused by density currents, as well as to
the temperature range that  suits them best. Often fish become trapped
by a lack of oxygen within their chosen water.


  Another physical factor of  significant importance in the standing
water  environment is that of light. Rooted, suspended,  and floating
aquatic plants require light for photosynthesis and light penetration
into water is exceedingly variable in different lakes.
  The principal factors affecting  the  depths of  light  penetration in
natural  waters  include suspended microscopic  plants  and  animals,
suspended mineral particles such  as mineral silts,  stains that impart
a color,  detergent foam, dense mats of floating and suspended  debris
or  a combination  of these. The  region  in  which  light intensity  is
adequate for photosynthesis in  algae is often referred  to  as the
trophogenic zone. This is a layer of water that encompasses  99 percent
of the  incident light reaching the surface. The depth of the trophogenic
zone in  ponds and lakes may vary from  less than 5 • to greater than
90  feet. The amount of incident light necessary for photosynthesis in
vascular  plants,  as  opposed to algae, is slightly greater for the former.
Vascular plants can conduct photosynthesis when approximately 2.5 per-
cent of the incident light remains in water.
  In winter the presence of  ice will limit light penetration,  and when
snow covers the surface of the ice  the penetration is further reduced.
It has  been found that seven inches of very clear ice permitted 84 per-
cent light transmission but only 22  percent of the light was transmitted
through  a similar  thickness  of cloudy ice. A 1-inch  snow  cover  per-
mitted only 7 percent light transmissions  through the ice  and  snow
and 2-inches of snow cover permitted only  1 percent light transmission.
Without light the plants die  and instead of producing dissolved oxygen
through  photosynthesis, oxygen is used through the process  of decom-
position  and  a  fish mortality  known as a winter kill may result in
shallow water bodies when the oxygen is reduced substantially.

  Oxygen enters the water by absorption directly from the atmosphere
or by plant photosynthesis and is removed by respiration of organisms
and by the process of decomposition. Oxygen derived from the at-
mosphere may be by direct diffusion or by surface water agitation by
wind and waves. Conversely,  wind and waves may  also release dissolved
oxygen under conditions of supersaturation.
  In photosynthesis, aquatic  plants utilize  carbon dioxide and liberate
dissolved and free  gaseous oxygen at times of supersaturation.  Since
energy is required in the form of light, photosynthesis is limited  to the
photic  zone where  light is sufficient  to  facilitate  this process. During
respiration and  decomposition, animals and plants  consume dissolved
oxygen and liberate carbon  dioxide at all depths where they  occur.
Because  excreted and secreted products in dead animals and  plants
sink, most of the decomposition takes place in the hypolimnion, thus,
during lake stratification there is a gradual decrease of dissolved oxygen
in  this zone.  After the dissolved  oxygen is  depleted, anaerobic de-


 composition continues with  the  evolution of methane and  hydrogen
 sulfide gases.

 Effects of Water Inflows and Discharges

   The standing water environment receives its inflowing water  from
 tributary streams, general land runoff,  seepage  from adjacent areas,
 and springs. The standing water basin is, thus, the first line receptacle
 for those materials  that may be washed or drained  from the lands
 within the drainage basin, for those substances that are discharged as
 waste water either without treatment or with some degree of treatment
 and removal, and for those materials that may enter the water environ-
 ment from  the atmosphere  and  other sources.  Those materials that
 are discharged from  the  pond, lake, or other standing water bodies
 into  downstream  waterways eventually  reach  the estuaries  or  the
 oceanic environment, which  become the ultimate receptacle for such

   An example of the cycling of an element by man would be that
 of phosphorus. Large deposits of phosphate rock are  found near the
 western shore of central Florida, as well as in a number of other States.
 Deposits in Florida  are found in the  form of pebbles which vary in
 size from fine sand to about the size of a man's  foot. These pebbles
 are embedded in a matrix of clay and sand. The phosphate rock beds
 lie within a few feet of  the surface  so that  all of the mining  is of
 the open pit type. Once the overburden is removed, the mining is
 carried out by using hydraulic  water jets. Following  this practice,
 the washing operation separates  the phosphate  from  waste materials.
 The phosphate is then dried  before marketing.  Millions of tons  of
 phosphate rock are mined each year in the United States. A recent report
 by the Council on Environmental Quality indicated that the phosphate
 rock mining operation disturbed  183,000 acres of the  land  in  the
 United States. The process is similar to that of strip mining and the
 State of Florida experiences the greatest proportion of land destruction
 by this  operation.  Other States that  have  land  destruction from
 phosphate mining operations include Idaho, Montana,  North Carolina,
 South  Carolina, Tennessee, Utah, Virginia,  and Wyoming. There are
 a number of uses for the  phosphate obtained from the mining opera-
 tion and these include uses in fertilizers, as builders in detergents,
 and for other purposes.

  The human  body excretes about  1-pound of phosphorus  as P  per
year. Other uses closely associated with  man's activity, including the
 use of detergents, contribute about  2-  to  2i/£-pounds per  year  per
 capita  of phosphorus as P. Thus, about 3- to 3i/2-pounds per year per
 capita  of phosphorus as P is discharged in waste water to municipal
 and  private waste water  treatment  plants,  and  eventually  to  the


receiving  waterways.  Conventional secondary sewage  treatment  with
routine operating  practices  will remove only a small amount of the
phosphorus in the waste waters. To remove  additional amounts, it is
necessary  to adopt one of the advanced waste treatment methods that
will precipitate the phosphorus from the waste waters in combination
with other substances.

  In the  receiving waterways the phosphorus is  used by  algae and
higher plants and may be  stored in  excess of use within  the  algal
cell. Phosphorus is one of the contributors of nutrients that stimulates
excessive  development within  the plant community  and  that  gives
rise to problems of eutrophication. The standing  water  body receives
the phosphates and other nutrients from inflowing waterways and much
is used in the biotic  cycle of life. With subsequent decomposition of
the plant  cells, some phosphorus may be released immediately through
bacterial  action for  recycling within  the   biotic community  while
another significant portion may be deposited with sediments. Much of
the material  that becomes combined with the  consolidated sediments
within the lake bottom is  bound permanently and will not be recycled
into  the ecosystem. Studies  on Lake Sebasticook,  Maine, a  Lake  of
4,200  acres,  indicated that   the  dry weight phosphorus  (P)  in the
0- to 1-inch stratum was 0.15  percent. Assuming that lake bed sediments
contain 15 percent solids, the upper 1-inch stratum of Lake Sebasticook,
just beneath the mud-water interface, might then contain about 200,000
pounds of phosphorus. The  1- to 2-inch stratum contained 0.09 percent
phosphorus or about  120,000 pounds—some  80,000 pounds less phos-
phorus than  the inch immediately above it.  The 2- to 3-inch stratum
contained 0.06 percent or about 80,000  pounds of phosphorus. Beneath
the 1-  to  2-inch stratum the phosphorus content ranged from 0.06 to
0.09 percent  on a  dry weight basis for each of the succeeding 1-inch
  The discharge from a lake or reservoir also has an effect on down-
stream water quality. Water flowing from a natural  lake  should  be
expected to be of a quality  similar to that of the water in the upper-
most stratum of the lake. However, when water in a free-flowing stream
is impounded in a large storage  reservoir,  marked changes  are pro-
duced  in  the physical,  chemical,  and mineral  quality of the water.
In reservoirs operated for flood control and power production, discharge
releases are often reduced over weekends and other periods of off-peak
power  loads.  Discharges  likewise may be increased substantially during
the week days. The penstock usually is located deep within the reservoir
and the temperatures of  the water discharged to the receiving stream
may be substantially lower  than the natural receiving water tempera-
tures.  Discharged water  also may be low in  dissolved oxygen concen-
tration and release odors of hydrogen sulfide  from decaying organic
materials in the deeper portions of the reservoir.


  The ecology of the receiving stream is drastically altered as a result
of a low level  discharge characterized by low temperatures and reduced
dissolved oxygen concentrations. The warm water fish habitat may be
destroyed. A cold water fish habitat may be created providing dissolved
oxygen  is sufficient.  Bottom  fauna may be changed  in  the  receiving
waterway  from an assemblage  of  stoneflies and  hellgrammites  to  an
assortment of  cold water species such as immature midges, black flies,
caddisflies and scuds. Such a  substantial alteration of  the physical and
chemical characteristics of the receiving stream  can  only produce a
drastic change in the composition of the biota inhabiting the receiving
water environment.

Biotic Considerations  and Sample Station Selections

  Organisms  respond  to  the aquatic  environment by producing  an
aquatic  crop that is suited best for the particular environment in which
they exist.  Organisms respond also to  changes that take place within
their  environment with  shifts in species  dominance in the aquatic
community and sometimes with  dramatic changes in the  population
numbers of a  single  species or a group of species with similar habitat
requirements.  Because  of this response, and because the  response may
be less evenly distributed in  the standing water environment as com-
pared to  the  flowing water environment, the  quality of  water at
selected sampling stations will be  influenced to a great extent by the
standing crop of organisms in the vicinity of that station. The con-
sideration  of  this impact therefore  becomes an  important one  in
station site selection.

  Algal population  are influenced by climate. They tend to rise to
the surface during  hot humid  days and  disperse in greater depths
during  rain storms  or turbulent water  conditions. Several successive
dark or cloudy  days may be sufficient to kill a  portion  of  a  dense
algal  population and  subsequent decomposition may bring  about a
localized dissolved oxygen reduction or a depletion and may result in
fish kills from suffocation.
  It is  difficult  to estimate  the standing  algal or plankton  crop of
a particular water body because of the diverse horizontal and vertical
distribution of  these  organisms  and  their  transportation by  water
movement. Early work on Lake  Mendota,  Wisconsin, indicated that
on  a  dry weight basis the  spring  plankton crop was  greatest  and
averaged 98 pounds  per  acre in winter compared to  360 pounds per
acre in  spring.  The dry  weight of an algal  mass is approximately
10  percent of its wet weight.  In Lake Sebasticook,  Maine,  the  wet
weight algal standing  crop reached a  maximum  of 2,260 pounds per
acre, which occurred on August 1. The filamentous alga, Cladophora,
has been  found to  attain a  population of 1  ton or more  per  acre.


The plankton  that  are  developed in standing waters are  not suited
to life in flowing waters and  usually die when  they are  discharged
thereto. Conversely,  river plankton  are  not  adapted for the environ-
ment of standing water. Plankton are affected adversely by toxicants,
turbidities, radical shifts in pH, temperature, currents, and acid mine
  In early studies in Wisconsin on submersed aquatic  plant  popula-
tions, it was found that  the  1- to  3-meter zone contained the  greatest
density of plants with lesser densities both  shoreward and lakeward.
The population density  averaged  about 7 tons wet weight and 1,800
pounds dry weight per acre.  Other studies have indicated that various
aquatic plant species have a substantially different population  density;
coontail populations have been found to approach 2,500 pounds per
acre on a dry weight basis whereas  sago pondweed was 1,700  pounds
and duckweed 240 pounds per acre.

  Bottom-associated  organism  populations  vary  quantitatively  and
qualitatively with the seasons of the year and from year-to-year in the
same lake. The population is not  distributed evenly over the  floor in
any lake but varies  with depth and during  the seasons. Investigators
have found  a zone of concentration of  the  organisms that shifts  up
and down the  slope of the lake  floor  with seasonal changes.

  Populations of bottom-associated organisms have been  found to vary
from 60 pounds per acre on a wet weight  basis  to 400 pounds per
acre in the Mississippi River system where no aquatic vegetation was
associated. Where submersed plants were present in the  Mississippi
River,  population densities as great as  1,100 pounds per  acre were
found  and one early study in New York indicated 3,500  pounds of
such organisms in association with  a Chara bed. Aquatic plants  provide
living  space,  food, and shelter for the  invertebrates and the  inverte-
brates in turn tend to select a particular  aquatic plant with  leaves that
are finely branched  and compact. Coontail  and  water milfoil rank
extremely high as being the most  productive harbor  for  fish food
organisms because of their finely divided and very  compact leaves.

  Standing crops  of  fish  have been found to  vary from 75 pounds per
acre on a  wet weight basis  to more than 1000 pounds per acre in the
black-soil  ponds  in  the flood  plains  of central  Illinois.  Additional
information concerning  standing crops and  the amount of nutrients
that may  be combined in  such crops is presented  in Table  2.

  To properly assess an eutrophication problem in the standing water
environment, consideration should be given to all of those sources that
may contribute  nutrients  to the watercourse. These  sources could
include sewage,  sewage effluents,  industrial wastes,  land  drainage,
applied fertilizers,  precipitation,  urban runoff, soils, and nutrients


                   Table 2. Carbon, Nitrogen, and  Phosphorus in Freshwater  Environmental Constituents
Standing Crop, Ibs/ac
fnnctiti tent °/ f~ 1
^*QilallTUv?iII /O V^
Wet Dry
Phytoplankton 1 ,000 to
3,600 1 00 to 360


Attached Algae 2,000 200

Vascular Plants 1 4,000 1 ,800






























6.5 10









— Reference

Birge and Juday,
Gerloff and Skoog,
Mackenthun et al.,
Birge and Juday,
Neil, 1958.
Birge and Juday,
Rickett, 1922, 1924.
Harper and Daniel,
Birge and Juday,
Schuette and Alder,
1928, 1929.
Schuette and Alder,
1928, 1929.
Schuette and Alder,
1928, 1929.
Schuette and Alder,
1928, 1929.

Standing Crop, Ibs/ac
Wet Dry

Bottom Organisms
Midges 200 to 400 40 to 80




Fish 150 to 600

Domestic Wastes 3

.c- %H.




2 2.5

2.6 to 3.3

4 45

20 to
y p i
0.5 6

0.9 8
1.2 6

0.8 14

0.6 14

2 0.2 10
0.1 8 to 0.49


0.1 8 to 0.24
5.1 to

48 6

5.3 to

Anderson et al.,

Dineen, 1953;Moyle,
Borutsky, 1939.
Birge and Juday,
Birge and Juday,
Birge and Juday,
Swingle, 1950.
Beard, 1926.
Borgstrom, 1961.
Love et al., 1 959.
McGauhey et al.,
Sylvester and
Anderson, 1964.
Ingalls et al., 1950.

Engelbrecht and
Morgan, 1959.
McGauhey et al.,

  Lake Tahoe
  Wisconsin Lakes

  Madison, Wis.
  Green Lake


  Klamath Lake

  Boston Harbor

  Organic River

  Pulp & Paper
     Wastes in


0.6 to

4.4 to

10 to

2.3 to
4 40

4 61. 3
18 to
4 28
0.6 to

0.6 to
0.7 to

0.3 to

.06 to
4 10.6

4 10.7
3.5 to

0.1 2 to
0.1 to

.06 to

4 to

8 to

8 to



5 to
6 to

5 to

Bush and Mulford,
Oswald, 1960.

Anon, 1967.

McGauhey et al.,
Black, 1 929; Juday
etal., 1941.

Sawyer et al., 1 945.
Sylvester and
Anderson, 1964.
Mackenthun et al.,
Thomas, N. A.,
Stewart, R. K., 1 968.'

           12      Finger and Wastler,
22                Finger and Wastler,
12                Finger and Wastler,

Standing Crop, Ibs/ac
Wet Dry
Chemical and
fertilizers and

No tributary

Sand; silt; clay;

Stable sludge;
peat; organic

Paper mill


Fresh sludge;
algae; sewage




0.4 to

2.0 to

6 to

2.8 to

5 to
"AN1 %P



.02 to

.10 to

.10 to

.30 to

.70 to




20 to

50 to

8 to

7 to


Finger and Wastler,

Finger and Wastler,
1 969.

Ballinger and
McKee,6 1971.

Ballinger and
McKee, 1971.

Ballinger and
McKee, 1971.

Ballinger and
McKee, 1 971 .

Ballinger and
McKee, 1971.

Log Pond Bark

Sewage sludge
in river

Algae; sawdust;

Leaf litter




Floating Waste








37 to







3.4 to







.08 to







9 to







38 to
Thomas, N. A.

Thomas, N. A.

Thomas, N. A.
Warner, R. W. et al..
Warner, R. W. et al.,
1 969.7
Warner, R. W. et al.,
Warner, R. W. et al..


       1 As the total element in percentage of the dry weight, unless specified otherwise.
       2 Calculated on wet weight.
       3 Average sewage flow can be calculated at 100 gallons per capita per day.
       5 Biological Aspects of Water Quality, Charles River and Boston Harbor, Massachusetts by R. K. Stewart. Technical Advisory and
     Investigations Branch, Cincinnati, Ohio (1968).
       8 Technical Advisory and Investigations Branch, Cincinnai, Ohio.
       7 Analyses  of  soil  types  from "Black-Water Impoundment Investigations," by R. W. Warner,  R. K. Ballentine and L. E.  Keup,
     Technical Advisory and Investigations Branch, U.S. Department of the Interior, Cincinnati, Ohio (1969).
_     s Fertilization and  Algae in Lake Sebasticook, Maine.  Department of Health, Education, and Welfare, Technical Advisory and
§   Investigations Activities, Cincinnati, Ohio (1966).

released from bottom sediments and from decomposing plants. Transient
waterfowl,  fallen tree leaves, and ground water may  contribute im-
portant additions to  the  nutrient  budget.  Flow  measurements are
paramount in a study to quantitatively  assess  the respective amounts
contributed by those various sources during different seasons  and  at
different flow characteristics. In a receiving lake or pond,  an estimate
of the quantity of nutrients contained by  the  standing crop of algae,
aquatic vascular plants, fish, and other aquatic organisms are important
considerations.  A knowledge of those  nutrients  that are  harvested
annually through the fish  catch or  that may be removed  from the
system through the emergence of adult insects will contribute additional
information to an understanding of the nutrient  budget.

  The interaction of specific chemical components in water, prescribed
fertilizer application  rates  to  land  and to  water, minimal nutrient
values required  for algal  blooms, vitamins required,  other limiting
factors, and the intercellular nitrogen and phosphorus concentrations
of plants are likewise  important. Usually it is  necessary to determine
that portion of the nutrient input attributable to man-made or man-
induced pollution that may be controlled as  opposed to that input
that is natural in  origin  and  therefore usually not  controllable  or
controllable only to a minor extent.  A nutrient budget should define
the annual  nutrient input  to a system,  the annual outflow and  that
which is retained to recycle with the biomass or become combined
with the solidified bottom sediments.

  Sediments  are  best collected  with  a device  that permits a  core  of
the material  to be extracted from which identifiable segments  may be
selected for examination. These segments may be examined for pollen,
diatom skeletons  or chitinized  remains  of cladocerans or midges,  as
well as selected chemical constituents. Generally carbon and nitrogen
and often  phosphorus are  determined. The  carbon, nitrogen,  and
phosphorus  contents and their  respective ratios are important values
to  aid in  the  identification  of the  sediment, and  to calculate the
amount of major nutrients contained within a  portion of the biomass
or a stratum of sediment. From this  information it should be possible
to judge the relative  return of nutrients to the water mass  when the
particular ecosystem component undergoes decomposition, or any change
that fosters nutrient release.

  A lake  or reservoir usually  retains a  portion of  those  nutrients
that it receives from its various sources  in its  consolidated sediments.
The amount or percentage of the nutrients that may be retained is
variable and will depend upon: (1)  the nutrient loading  to the  lake
or reservoir,  (2) the volume of the   euphotic  zone,  (3) the  extent  of
biological activity, (4) the  detention  time within the basin or a time
allotted for  biological  activity, and (5) the level of the penstock or the
level of discharge from the lake.


Physical Considerations  and Sample Station Selection
  Preparatory to the investigation  of  a pond, lake,  or reservoir, an
accurate  map of the drainage basin should be obtained.  Such a map
will  give an indication  of the  area of land  that potentially  could
contribute to water  quality  within the  lake. Potential sources  of
pollution should be indicated on such a map because a determination
must be  made of the extent of influence to the lake or  standing water
environment from  those sources  that  both contribute directly and
indirectly to its conditions. In the determination of remedial measures
to correct  the standing  water problem, consideration must  be given
to all potential contributing factors to that problem.

  Whenever possible a contour map of  the pond or lake basin will be
of tremendous advantage to the investigators.  When such a contour
map is not available one should be constructed for  the  waterway  in
question because the location of sampling stations and  the  types  of
samples  to  be collected  in a standing  water  body depend  in large
extent on the contour of the basin. A  contour map provides also for
the  calculation  of  the volume  of water  within  a particular  depth
stratum  and this is important in ascertaining the volume that may be
representative of a particular set  of conditions found through sampling.

   Identification of pollution sources within the drainage basin includes
a  determination of  the  characteristics  and volumes of  waste  water
discharges  from municipalities and industries.  If a thorough  investiga-
tion of the waste  water components cannot be accomplished within
the constraints of the  study plan, the  type of industry  and its manu-
factured  products along with the number of persons connected to the
municipal sewerage system would be useful information  in interpreting
the data  collected from the field investigation. Pertinent data on both
municipal  and industrial wastes discharges to a  particular drainage
basin should be in the files of the State water pollution control agency.

  Additional physical  information that will  serve as  essential back-
ground material for a  lake investigation includes the  following: Area,
mean depth, maximum depth, area of  depth  zones, volume of depth
strata, shore length, shore development, littoral slope, number of islands,
area of islands, shore length of the islands, drainage area, rate of runoff,
average inflow to receiving pond or lake, average  outflow, detention
time within the pond or lake, water level and  water level fluctuations.

Sample  Station Selection

   The establishment of stations  within  the flowing water environment
was  discussed in the  previous chapter. Sampling  stations should  be
located  on major  tributaries to a standing  water basin in similar
manner.  As a minimum, it is imperative  that a sampling station  be
located near the mouth  of each tributary  to the standing water basin


 and that a station be located  near the pond's or lake's  outfall.  The
 effluent  from a natural lake will usually give a better than  average
 composite of the surface waters of  the  lake. The  discharge  from  a
 reservoir penstock located below the thermocline, however, will  not
 give a representative  sample of  the  productive  zone of the reservoir
 but instead will show water quality in a portion of the hypolimnion.
 Additional stations downstream  within the receiving water environ-
 ment would indicate  the  effects  of such a low level discharge  on the
 receiving waters.

   Within  the lake, pond or reservoir a number  of sampling sites  may
 be chosen depending  upon the problem under  investigation and the
 conditions to be  studied. An investigation of the kinds  and  relative
 abundance of aquatic vegetation would naturally be limited to  the
 littoral  area. A mapping of  aquatic  plants  with  an indication  of
 predominant species and their  relative  abundance often proves useful
 for future comparisons to record  relative changes in the vascular plant
 population. A mapping of the deep water attached plants such as Chara
 may be  accomplished with the use of one  of the sampling dredges.
 Mapping of the vegetation generally can be accomplished satisfactorily
 with a boat reconnaissance survey, and frequent inspection stops,  in
 the  littoral area  of a standing water  basin during the  peak  of  the
 summer  vegetative growing season.

   Fish sampling also  is often more profitable  in shallow water areas.
 Such sampling  can be  accomplished with the  use  of electro-fishing
 devices,  seines, hoop nets, or gill  nets set in the  region of the thermo-
 cline. The latter  will sample  a fish  population not usually observed
 in shallow-water areas.
                              o TRANSECT SAMPLING SITES -
                                PERIODIC OR SEASONAL COLLECTIONS
Figure 3. Diagram  of a long, narrow reservoir showing suggested  sampling stations.


  The use of transactions in sampling  a  lake  bottom is of particular
value because  there are changes  in depth  and because benthos  con-
centration zones usually occur. Unless sampling is done systematically
and at relatively  close  intervals  along transections,  especially those
that extend across the  zone between  the  weed  bed and the  upper
extent of the hypolimnion, concentration zones may be missed entirely
or represented inadequately. Maximal benthic  productivity may occur
in  the  profundal  region.  Because  depth  is an important factor in
the distribution  of bottom  organisms, productivity  is often compared
on  the basis  of samples collected from similar depth zones. Collections
along a transection will sample all depth zones, but a sufficient number
of samples must be taken to make the data meaningful.

  A circular lake  basin should be  sampled from several transections
extending from shore to the  deepest point in the basin. A  long narrow
basin is suitable for regularly spaced parallel  transects  that  cross the
basin perpendicular to  the shore  beginning near the inlet and ending
near the outlet. A  large bay should be bisected by transections originat-
ing near shore and extending into the lake proper.

Figure 4. Diagram of a natural lake  basin showing  suggested sampling  sites.  Samples
    taken from points on transaction lines on a periodic or seasonal basis are valuable
    to determine vertical  water characteristics and the  benthic standing crop.


  Transections aid also in sampling the plankton population. Because
of the number of analyses necessary to appraise the  plankton popula-
tion, however, more strategic points are usually sampled such as water
intakes, a  site  near the dam in the  forebay  area or discharge, con-
strictions within the water body, and major bays that may influence
the main basin. Because of significant population variations, plankton
samples must be taken vertically at periodic  depths and at  different
times over the 24-hour day.

  It often  is impractical to make vertical determinations of plankton
and various chemical constituents  at  each of the stations located  on
the transection lines  that were selected for an examination of bottom-
associated organisms. Availability of resources dictates the number of
stations that can  be selected for a vertical determination  of various
water  quality  constituents.  Certainly one  such station  for vertical
analyses should  be located in the deepest portion of the lake or pond
basin.  Other  stations should  be  selected so that  the  data derived
therefrom  are  representative insofar  as possible  of that portion of
the standing water basin that is represented by the  particular station
in question. In  studies of Lake Sebasticook, Maine,  for example, five
stations were selected within the Lake basin for vertical  sampling. A
number of additional flowing water stations  were selected  to depict
conditions in inflowing streams.
  As  a minimum,  vertical  temperature and dissolved oxygen profiles
should be  obtained  during each  period of  study.  The number of
vertical samples for other water quality constituents will depend upon
the problem being investigated and available  resources for sample
analyses. As a minimum, two sampling points should be located in the
epilimnion, at least one in the  thermocline and an additional two to
represent the hypolimnetic waters.
  Vertical  samples should be taken from the  pond  environment also
because stratification does  occur even in  shallow ponds. Again, the
number of sampling points within  a vertical column will be governed
in large measure by the type of problem under investigation. It should
be possible  to substantially reduce the number  of points to one rep-
resentative of the near surface waters,  one of the mid-depth waters,
and one of the near bottom waters.
  There  are definite advantages in sampling  the benthic population
in winter  beneath  the ice cover in lakes.  Samples can be collected at
definite space intervals  on a  transection  and the exact location of
sampling points can  be  determined. Collections at this time are also
at the peak of the benthic population when emergence of adult insects
does not occur.
  Reservoirs usually are long and narrow water bodies with  the widest
portions occurring downstream near the dam. They are particularly


suitable for the  placement of imaginary transection  lines that extend
perpendicularly  from one shore to the opposite shore. Sampling sta-
tions  can be conveniently  located on  these transections. In addition,
water use return waters or  areas designated for  water use removal
should be sampled.

Sampling  Frequency

  The frequency of sampling a standing water environment depends
upon the objectives of the study. When possible, samples should be
collected during each season to  depict  seasonal changes in  chemical
substances  and biologic populations.  A  sampling  time corresponding
to the spring or fall  overturn is often helpful.  A  sufficient  number
of samples should be collected from each sampling point on different
dates during each of the survey periods  to permit comparison of data
among different water strata and different seasons. A minimum of five
daily samples should be collected from each point, but for some pur-
poses this number should be increased.

  Vascular aquatic plants may need to be surveyed  only during their
active growing period when the population is at a  peak. The sampling
for benthos should coincide with the fall or winter season as a minimum
and  preferably samples should be taken during each of the  seasons.
Significant chemical  constituents  and samples for  algal populations
should be taken during each of the sampling periods.
  In  the  pond  environment, sampling might  be continued  on  a
monthly basis to depict fluctuations  throughout the year. Considera-
tion  should  be  given to  the collection of some  samples during the
early morning hours to determine if  a  significant fluctuation in dis-
solved oxygen concentration  occurs because of respiration of the stand-
ing crop of aquatic vegetation during periods of no sunlight. Dissolved
oxygen may fluctuate from as high as 30 milligrams per  liter to 0 during
a 24-hour period in extreme situations.

                  (Special Studies
   SPECIAL  investigations or  studies involve a  combination of a
    scientific investigation  with an  inquisitiveness  and perceptivity
of a Sherlock Holmes. Such investigations usually have as a singular
objective to identify the cause of a problem and to recommend control
measures.  Because  environmental  problems  vary  tremendously  in
complexity, special investigations likewise vary in the amount of man-
power and monetary resources,  as well as time allocation necessary for
study  completion. Special investigations  may  be  grouped into those
that address  themselves to particular and singular problems, investiga-
tions  of  more complex problems  and  catastrophes,  and studies  to
increase  the fund of  knowledge about  interactions  in  the  aquatic
environment or to serve as class training projects.

Particular and  Singular Problems

  The investigation of  particular  and  singular problems usually is
not time consuming and resource  demanding but  may require ^an
on-site appraisal  and laboratory examination.  Such problems include
the determination of the cause of red, white, or green water; determina-
tion of the source of animal hairs  or other  visible objects in private
water  supplies;  identification of  a  pond scum or a type of  aquatic
weed  that may be causing  a problem;  or  the identification of any
problem organism.

  The background and  experience  of the investigator contributes  in
large measure to the success of  this  type of aquatic detection. Often a
cursory examination of a sample is adequate  to diagnose a problem
organism and  sometimes to formulate  corrective recommendations.
Red water for example can be caused by one of several species of iron
bacteria, an alga, Oscillatoria rubescens, a flagellate, Euglena sanguined,
and, under certain conditions, a dense population of sludgeworms  or
bloodworms  may give  the appearance of red paint on the bottom of
the waterway.

  The microscopy of water is fascinating and entertaining, particularly
in the identification  of  "unknown" organisms.  Appropriate,  easily


obtained references are adequate for the gross identification of most
plants  and animals. The  identification of  paper-making  and  other
fibers  that are often associated with industrial waste waters requires
special references  and  the reader is referred to Anon.,  1953, and
Carpenter et  al., 1963. Mammalian hair identification guides (Brown,
1942; Mathiak, 1938) are useful in identifying the type of animal that
may have drowned in  a local well that probably  had an improper
  The investigation of more complex aquatic problems and catastrophes
may require a study plan, field crew, and laboratory support. Examples
of  such  studies  would include  the investigation  of  fish  kills,  the
determination of animal or  plant interferences of domestic or industrial
water  supplies, and the determination of the causes  or extent of pond
or lake eutrophication.

Fish Kills

  Fish mortalities are a visible sign  and  later an odoriferous indication
of an abnormal event within  the aquatic environment. Fish  mortalities
result  from  a variety  of  causes, some  of  natural  origin  and  some
man-induced. Those from  natural  causes may result from  such phe-
nomena as  acute temperature  changes,  storms, ice  and snow  cover,
decomposition of natural organic materials,  salinity changes, spawning
mortalities, and bacterial or parasitic epidemics. Man-induced fish kills
may be attributed to municipal or industrial wastes, agricultural activi-
ties, and other  activities by man  such as  water manipulation that
significantly alter the quality of the aquatic environment.
  The  Environmental  Protection Agency has  published  an annual
report on fish kills caused by pollution  since 1961. The latest publica-
tion for the year 1970 states that about 23 million fish were reported
killed  by water pollution in 634 separate incidences in 45  States. The
1970 report showed a 36 percent increase in reports by States  compared
to 1969. Probably  this can be  related to increased  cooperation from
the State reporting officials,  improved reporting  practices, and increased
public awareness of pollution-caused fish kills. There were 31 reported
kills where the number of  dead fish equaled or exceeded 100,000 and
5 of the reported kills indicated dead fish in excess of 1 million.
  In  1970, industrial  operations  were responsible for approximately
9.6  million fish killed based on  177 reports. Operations associated with
municipalities reportedly killed 6.6  million fish in  1970 based on  109
separate reports.  Other operations including pollutants from highway
and building  construction,  airport and service  station operations, and
mosquito control were charged with 3.8 million  dead fish  based  on
153 reports, and agricultural operations killed approximately  1.8 million
fish based on 95 reports.


  As  in past years, the greatest number of fish  kills occurred  during
the summer months  when warm water  and  low stream  flows  from
May through September enhanced the effects of  pollutional materials.
Almost 80  percent of  the fish reported  killed  in 1970 were  killed
between  May and September with July indicated as the month with
the greatest number of reports. Of the 633 fish kills reported in  1970,
487 were killed in rivers with  a loss of over 13  million fish involving
1,865  stream miles. Fish kills  occurred in 33,000  acres of lake water
with  over  3 million  fish  killed in  111  incidents. Coastal  areas  were
responsible for 36 kills  involving  more  than  6 million fish  along
12,000 miles of shoreline.  Fish die  also of old  age but the numbers
so affected  at any one time are usually small and would not be expected
to incite public attention.

  In the initial phases of investigating fish kills, speed is all important.
Dead fish disintegrate rapidly  in hot weather  and the cause of death
may disappear  or become unidentifiable within minutes. Early arrival
at the scene after a fish kill begins usually determines the success of
the investigator's evaluation of the problem. The  initial investigation
can be greatly expedited  through  the cooperation of persons who
report immediately the time and  place of observed kills, the general
kinds of organisms affected, an estimate of the total number  of dead
fish, and any unusual observed phenomena.

  Because  the  presence of dead  fish is  a dramatic indicator  of  an
environmental  catastrophe,  a knowledge of the cause of the mortality
is of importance  to the users of the water.  Training in  the observation
and investigation of  environmental catastrophes such as fish kills
should begin early in the life of a student interested in the life sciences
and should be well developed at the high school level.

  Preparation for the investigation of a fish mortality is similar  to the
preparation for any  other  investigation of a  waterway reach except
that the preparation should be accomplished in  anticipation of the
investigation rather than at its initiation to ensure speed of response.
Maps should be  consulted and the location of the reported mortality
along with the location of known  sources of contributing pollution
should be  noted. Often a knowledge of a history of  fish mortalities
in  the  area will contribute  valuable information. The  laboratory
analyst  should be alerted to  expect samples  from the  investigation.
The basic  type of equipment that most  likely would  be employed
would be  a thermometer, dissolved oxygen, pH, and conductivity
testing equipment, a  general chemistry kit, dip net, dredge or square-
foot bottom sampler for sampling benthos, appropriate standard sieves,
buckets, waders,  a long-handled garden rake,  sample containers, pre-
servative, an ice chest, and a boat.


  The  time that the fish kill  began and  when it ended should  be
carefully determined from local observers, or by the investigator. The
fish kill area  should be defined by reference  to legal descriptions of
adjacent lands or political subdivisions. In streams, and often in lakes,
fish are washed or blown rapidly away from the specific  kill location.
In streams also the cause of the kill may be carried downstream with
the current as a "slug" along with floating dead fish. The number of
fish killed  should be estimated  as accurately as possible, as well as the
kinds of fish involved. For large lakes and rivers, a measured distance
of shoreline may be traversed by boat and  the  number  and kinds of
dead  or dying fish  counted.  Estimates can be made by projecting
representative counts to the  area of total kill.  For  smaller streams the
banks  may be walked and counts  made on the  observed numbers of
dead  fish by species. An appraisal should be  made  of the size  range
of each species killed and observations should  be made  on the pre-
dominance of the particular size groups, when distribution appears to
be  other  than  random.  Other killed wildlife  or animals  including
invertebrates should be observed in a similar fashion.

  The  fish kill investigation should be conducted in  such a  manner
that evidence  from it can be introduced into court. The names of wit-
nesses  to the kill, together with a detailed report of their observations
and a signed statement should be obtained, when possible. Samples col-
lected in the field and transported to a central laboratory for examina-
tion should be sealed and so identified by the sender that  the chain of
evidence remains intact. Each  sample as received  in the laboratory
should  be  logged in and thereafter the date and exact time for each
step in the analytical procedure should be recorded by the responsible
technician. The log should be continuous and  account  for all the time
that the sample is in the laboratory until the analyses are completed.
When not in use such samples should be stored in a locked room.

  A number of physical, chemical, and biological observations are neces-
sary to define  the cause of death, in the "typical"  fish mortality. Precise
instructions to conduct  such observations can be  obtained from the
State water pollution control agency.  In addition,  the Environmental
Protection  Agency in 1970 published a brochure entitled, "Investigating
Fish Mortalities," that detailed some of the indicated tests and observa-
tions to be undertaken.

  Water temperature fluctuation is a possible direct or  contributing
cause  to fish mortalities. Temperatures should be recorded during the
hottest part of the day. Stream flows should be observed and it should
be noted whether  they are reasonably constant  or intermittent. The
weather conditions prevailing at the time of  the kill may  be an impor-
tant factor especially if weather was extreme. Other noteworthy obser-
vations  include the appearance  of any unusual physical characteristics


of the water, the presence of oil or of excessive biotic growths of any
kind, the color and appearance of rocks or  debris,  and the  physical
actions of the fish in a moribund state. Photographs should be obtained
where possible to record the physical conditions observed.
  Certain chemical and biological  data should  be collected at various
stations throughout the kill areas,  as well as in upstream  and down-
stream unaffected  areas. Locating  these sampling stations  is a matter
principally for the judgment of an experienced observer but  they should
be so located that the extent of water quality affected can be defined
and  the maximal alteration in water quality can be delineated. The
dissolved  oxygen should be determined, as well as the specific con-
ductance,  pH, methyl orange alkalinity and other pertinent  water qual-
ity characteristics. Water samples for  chemical  analysis should be col-
lected in  chemically cleaned bottles  and analyzed  for  suspected toxic
substances. A  1-liter sample volume  is minimal and  10  such samples
from the kill area may prove valuable.
  To preserve water, mud, and biologic samples for pesticides analysis,
the freezing of  all wet sample  is recommended. When  freezing cannot
be done,  thoroughly  cleaned glass  containers must be used and these
should have a screw-type cap lined with teflon. Water proof  tags should
be attached to all samples stating the place, date, and time of collection,
type of sample,  condition of the specimen when collected, and the name
of the sample collector. Silt or sludge samples varying  from 1-quart to
1-gallon size are collected preferably in quart glass jars. Dry samples
require no preservation, nor do wet  silt or sludge samples when they
are dried  rapidly. When rapid drying is not possible, samples may be
preserved with  10 percent formalin  and the preservation method should
be indicated on the label. In all surveys of this  nature it is imperative
that arrangements have been made with the appropriate  laboratory to
receive samples  for analyses.
  Samples of moribund or  recently dead fish and in some  cases other
organisms should be collected, placed  separately in plastic bags, labeled,
quick  frozen immediately with dry  ice, and shipped frozen to the
laboratory. Ten fish  of a given species  and size  affected should  be
obtained  in  this manner.  When  possible such fish  should  average
1-pound each. A similar poundage and number of live specimens of the
affected species  should be obtained from outside the kill area but within
the same water body to serve  as control  specimens.  The preservation
and  shipment of control specimens  should be identical to that  of speci-
mens obtained within a kill area.
  Fish should also be preserved for histological  examination and  pres-
ervation may be with 10 percent  formalin.  The fixing  fluid volume
should be approximately 10 times the bulk of the fish tissue, and inter-
nal tissues should be  exposed by an abdominal incision to  permit the


fixative to penetrate the flesh. When disease is suspected, five moribund
fish of each involved species should be placed on wet ice and delivered
to a fish disease laboratory within 24 hours to ensure satisfactory speci-
mens for the detection of fish diseases.

  Accurate recording of symptoms when collecting specimens is  of great
importance in diagnosing  the positive agent or  agents. Conditions such
as general appearance, sight of hemorrhage, body color, and organ color
must be recorded  immediately  upon  capture.  For certain analytical
tests, such  as  the  determination of  pesticidal levels,  blood  samples
should  be  collected from  dying  or recently dead  fish. This procedure
involves drying the exterior of the fish with paper towels, wrapping a
paper towel around the fish in the anal region and cutting off the caudal
peduncle (tail) with sharp scissors. The fish is held in the vertical posi-
tion,  tail down, with the blood dropping in a 10 to 15 cc vial until 5 cc
of blood is collected. If blood clotting reduces the flow, a  second shear-
ing may again free  the  flow. Composite samples from several fish of the
same species may be necessary to obtain 5 cc of blood. Five vials con-
taining 5 cc each of blood  for each important species are preferred. The
vial  stopper or cap is covered with aluminum foil; it is closed  and the
sample  is frozen immediately and handled with care so that the sample
does not touch the  foil. A  code number is given to the blood sample so
that it can be matched with the carcass, which is retained  and frozen
separately in a plastic bag.

  It is important to make  collections of algae when they are present in
a quantity sufficient to be a potential factor in the  kill. Careful  observa-
tions on the extent and density of rooted aquatic plants also should be
made. In collecting attached or planktonic algae for pesticidal analyses,
collect  10 cc of concentrated material in a 20 cc glass vial. Attach tag
giving basic collection identification and indicate volume of water from
which the  sample was  collected  and the method of sample concentra-
tion.  In dense  algal mats,  such concentration can be effected with the
use of a sieve. Cover the top of vial with aluminum foil,  cap and ship
frozen.  Dilute fresh algal  cells or an algal suspension  in the  affected
water may be injected into laboratory mice to determine algal  toxicity.
Such samples should be returned rapidly to  the laboratory in  a fresh
and chilled state for such tests.

  Following these  more urgent aspects  of the  fish kill investigation,
sampling of benthic organisms  in the accepted manner for  biologic
investigation of water  pollution  will aid in defining the extent and
cause of the fish kill.

  Lastly, the field observations and the laboratory analyses should  be
confined into a succinct report that will withstand critical cross-exami-
nation.  All field notes, laboratory notes, and data forms must be main-


tained until there is assurance that they will not be needed further in
subsequent court or other actions.

  A sample collection summary for a fish mortality investigation would

  1. Ten l-liter water samples from kill area from chemical analyses.
     Other 1-liter samples from control and other stations.

  2. Ten pounds including 10 individuals of dying fish of each impor-
     tant species frozen  with  dry ice and an equivalent amount and
     number of control fish.

  3. Five small fish of each  important species preserved in formalin.

  4. Five dying fish of each significant species placed on wet ice and
     delivered to fish disease laboratory within 24 hours.

  5. Five vials containing  5 cc each of blood from each important fish

  6. One quart to 1-gallon  of sludge or sediment.

  7. Ten cc of concentrated algae, frozen.

  8. Ten cc of concentrated algae, chilled.

  9. Benthos samples.

Water  Supplies

  Water supplies are derived either from the subsurface or from surface
storage reservoirs or lakes and  streams and each may have its associated
chemical or biological problems. Algae, protozoa  and diatoms can pro-
duce tastes and odors and  clog filters. Iron bacteria produce nauseous
tastes and odors and clog  pipes.  Copepods may  infest a system when
eggs pass through filters, and small  nematode  worms, sowbugs,  and
midge larva or bloodworms  have been found in distribution systems.

  Before a source for a  water supply is finally selected, it should be
surveyed by  a  competent  aquatic biologist  to evaluate  present  and
probable future conditions that  might affect the water quality. Often
through an analysis of the  chemistry of the inflowing water, an evalua-
tion of the proposed reservoir morphology and an assessment of  soils
to be  inundated, a prediction  can be made regarding future problems
likely to result  when subsequent  construction and reservoir filling are
completed. The elimination of undesirable shallow areas can often be
accomplished more  cheaply during construction than with continual
surveillance and maintenance of acceptable water quality in these areas
after reservoir filling.


  Impounded water may result in the leaching of undesirable materials
from inundated soils. When present in excessive concentrations, such
materials can interfere with the desired water uses. For example, color
may become objectionable aesthetically. Excessive iron in water supplies
stains laundry, produces a disagreeable taste, interferes with filtration,
and supports iron bacterial growths. Iron is more soluble in water when
oxygen  is absent, when organic materials are present, and when the
water is acidic. Manganese should be absent from finished water and,
when present in excess, stains laundry and produces tastes. Manganese
is affected in its  solubility similarly to that of iron. Phosphorus con-
centrations  in  excess of 0.1  mg/1 may interfere with coagulation in
water treatment plants and in excess of 0.05 mg/1 may stimulate the
excessive growth  of  algae and other  aquatic plants. Algal growths im-
part undesirable  tastes  and odors to water, interfere  with water treat-
ment, become aesthetically unpleasing, and  alter the chemistry  of the
water supply. Likewise,  nitrogen is an important factor  in  water sup-
plies. The decomposition of organic  materials produces ammonia that,
in an environment without abundant  oxygen, may not  oxidize to  ni-
trate. Ammonia reacts with chlorine to form chloramines, which inter-
fere with disinfection.  In addition,  nitrogen is  a nutrient  that, with
phosphorus, supports excessive  aquatic vegetation. The possibility of
the development of  such  problems  in a  new reservoir  can often  be
predicted through a chemical analyses of the inflowing water, as well as
the soils to be inundated and an experiment  to determine the probabil-
ity  of leaching of materials from the soils  to superimposed  water.
  To prevent water quality degradation in newly formed reservoirs, it
may be  necessary to remove woody debris prior to flooding, particularly
rotting  logs and  stumps. If tests show  that organic soils could have a
marked effect on  a significant area of the reservoir, these soils should be
excavated or covered with at least 2 feet of mineral soil, which is effec-
tive in preventing adverse effects on the overlying water. As the reservoir
ages the effects of the original soil will diminish because of a decrease
in the rate  of decay and the extraction of available  solutes. Clays and
other soils  washed  in  with  spring  freshets gradually will  cover the
original soils.
  When new reservoir areas are  flooded, the terrestrial vegetation is
killed including  the shrubs  and  remaining trees. Subsequent decom-
position and leaching from the  topsoils release nutrients  and may con-
tribute  to the release of iron and manganese, as well as increase the
background color. The nutrient release in turn provides  a food  source
for  algae and other  microscopic organisms  that  contributes to water
quality  degradation. It  has been found to take from  10 to 15 years to
reach a  state of stabilization following the inundation of vegetation and
rich topsoils. Stripping of  the top soil and removal from the reservoir
site or burial along with the removal of shrubs, brush, and logs may be


 necessary to prevent the  formation of taste and odors and other un-
 desirable qualities associated with new reservoirs.

  Algae are considered to be the most important causes  of tastes  and
 odors in water supplies.  Particular organoleptic sensations  have been
 associated with a large number of algal genera. Their decay and decom-
 position in  association with  fungi and bacteria accentuate  their taste
 and odor producing properties. The number of algal cells present per
 unit of water for a particular algal genus is a probable indication of its
 potential for the production of organoleptic sensations in water sup-
 plies. Early  control of an algal population through the use  of an algicide
 in a reservoir or enclosed basin often  alleviates the potential problem
 but the control measures usually have  to be repeated on more than one
 occasion throughout  the course of the warm  summer months.

  Algae are also a primary cause  of filter  clogging in water treatment
 operations.  Efficient  coagulation and sedimentation  may remove 90 to
 95 percent of the algae from the water, however, the algae  remaining
 may still be sufficient to cause  gradual or even rapid loss of head in a
 sand filter.  The clogged filter must then be backwashed  and frequent
 backwashing is an expensive undertaking  in water  treatment because
 the filter being  backwashed is removed  from  service and a  certain
 amount  of  water is  wasted during the backwashing procedure. Filter
 runs may often extend from 30 to 100 hours  before backwashing  is
 required or  may be shortened to 3 to  10 hours when algae are present
 and interfere with the filtering operation.  Diatoms are especially note-
 worthy  as filter clogging organisms. The additional cost of operating a
 water treatment  plant  imposed by the problems of algae  as  a filter
 clogging organism may extend into the hundreds of thousands of dol-
 lars per season in a large water treatment plant.

  Algae  sometimes contribute  to corrosion either directly in localized
 places where they may be growing or through their modification of the
 water by physical or chemical changes. Green- and blue-green  algae,
 growing on  the surface of submersed concrete, have caused the concrete
 to become pitted and friable.  The algae have been reported also to cause
 corrosion in metal tanks and  basins open to sunlight. Oscillatoria grow-
 ing in abundance in  an open  steel tank has  caused serious pitting of the
 metal. The algal growth permitted the  pitting to take place by releasing
 oxygen  which combined  with  the protective film of oxide  over  the
 steel. When  the steel tank was covered to prevent the entrance of light,
 the algae disappeared and corrosion stopped. Growths of algae increase
 organic deposition in pipes and increase the dissolved oxygen in  the
water during daylight hours through photosynthesis.  Their growth also
 produces changes in  pH and carbon dioxide content all of which may
affect the rate of corrosion.


  Growths of iron bacteria can be found in deep wells and frequently
occur in water distribution systems. These bacteria may cause turbidity
and discoloration of the water  and be  responsible for  some  of  the
unpleasant tastes and odors that are produced  either directly or in-
directly as the dead bacterial cells are decomposed by other microorgan-
isms. When present in great numbers, as they are sometimes associated
with the distribution system  near fire hydrants,  the bacteria impart a
reddish coloration to the water and increase the turbidity  substantially.
These  organisms also may be identified by a microscopic examination
of a small sample of water. When present in few numbers, it  may be
necessary to pass a sample of water through a membrane filter where
subsequent  microscopic  examination  should reveal  iron bacteria in
abundance if  they are present. Leuschow and  Mackenthun (1962) de-
scribe  such  a technique  for the detection  and  enumeration  of  iron
bacteria from a water supply faucet.

  Published records have indicated that certain animals can pose prob-
lems as unwanted inhabitants of water supply systems. Examples of such
animals include bloodworms that have been  found in certain distribu-
tion systems. Bloodworms have been a nuisance  organism in the sand
filtration process because  they live upon  the organic material collected
by  the  filters  and construct tubes in which they live within the filter
media. When  the insects emerge as adults the empty tubes on occasions
have been found to allow the  water to pass through the filters in an
unfiltered state. Other types  of worms and  nematodes  also have been
found  in distribution systems. Copepods or water  fleas  have  been a
problem on occasions and the eggs  have been found to  pass through
filters,  later hatching into mature  forms in the potable supplies. Sponges
have been a problem in pipes because of their ability to  line portions
of the pipe with a rough coating that hinders the flow of water or, when
heavy infestations occur, stop the flow of water. Clams and snails have
been reported from distribution systems  and have been a problem be-
cause of incrustations in  intake pipes.

  As a school project,  and when a membrane  filtering  apparatus is
available in the laboratory, samples of water from a  laboratory faucet
may be examined microscopically from time  to time  for any materials
it contains. A very informative field trip would be a visit to the local
municipal water supply  where the operator undoubtedly would be
pleased to explain the process of water purification. When the supply is
from a surface source, such as a  reservoir, samples collected from  the
reservoir and  from various  points  throughout the water purification
system for microscopic investigation would reveal  the degree of clarifica-
tion provided by various units in the treatment system.  Operators of
larger water treatment plants using surface waters as a source maintain
detailed records of the quality of the intake water. Such records, when


maintained over a  period  of many years, provide a  historical resume
of the chemical and biologic quality of the particular waterway.

Pond  or  Lake  Eutrophication

   The general procedures involved in a special study  of a pond or lake
eutrophication problem were detailed in the previous chapter under a
discussion of pond and lake investigations. Such studies on eutrophica-
tion may be considered specialized investigations because the sole pur-
pose may be to define the extent of eutrophication at present and proffer
recommendations to alleviate the problem.

   In studies conducted to  determine the source of the eutrophication
problem in  Lake Sebasticook, Maine, industries and municipalities con-
      Figure 5. Tributary stream station selection for a lake eutrophication study.

tributing to the inflowing nutrients were sampled on a 24-hour basis to
determine the pounds of nitrogen  and phosphorus contribution from
each major source. Samples from inflowing tributary streams were also
analyzed for nutrient composition  and, when adjusted to a measured
flow, indicated the amounts of major nutrients entering the Lake dur-
ing the four seasonal sampling times. Samples also were collected ver-
tically from top to bottom at five locations in the 4,200 acre Lake. Field
studies were conducted during the ice cover season of February, as well
as in May, August and November.

  Water samples for organic nitrogen, ammonia nitrogen, nitrate nitro-
gen, and total and  dissolved phosphorus were acid-fixed and shipped
to a stationary laboratory for analyses. Plankton samples were collected
also at all flowing and standing water stations and were preserved with
4 percent formalin and shipped to a stationary  laboratory for later
examination.  Phytoplankton  counts  were made  with the Sedgwick-
Rafter counting cell following the procedures in  "Standards Methods
for the Examination of Water and Waste Water." Microscopic measure-
ments  were  made of a selected number of predominant algae and the
wet algal volume was determined in parts per million by multiplying
the number of organisms observed per milliliter by the average species
volume in cubic microns times 10-6.
           Figure 6. Lake station selection for a lake eutrophication study.

  Chlorophyll bearing cells were filtered from the water with a 0.45
micron  pore  membrane filter  and the filter and cells were placed in
vials of acetone for the extraction of the pigments and for solution of
the filters.  Samples were then centrifuged to remove particulate  sus-
pended materials. The clear supernatant pigment-bearing acetone  was
examined on  a recording spectrophotometer and the quantity of chloro-
phyll determined.
  Lake  sediments were examined for carbon,  nitrogen and phosphorus
content, as well as for diatom  remains. Calculations were made of the
amounts of major nutrients contained in the algal population. Estimates
were made also on the  amounts of nutrients draining directly to the
Lake from peripherally  placed septic  tanks, from the use of fertilizers
on adjacent fields, and from the groundwater. A vertical temperature
and  dissolved oxygen series were taken  during each survey,  and the
early November samples coincided with the period of the fall overturn.
Samples  of the  benthos population  taken from defined transection
points were collected during each of the studies.

Sewage  Treatment Systems

  The vast majority of municipal sewage  treatment  facilities employ
biological processes for the treatment  of domestic wastes. The  purpose
of the facility under these conditions is to provide an artificial  environ-
ment, as ideal as practicable, for the organisms to accomplish the same
task  that would otherwise be accomplished if the wastes were discharged
untreated into a receiving water. Because it has  been designed for
maximum  efficiency, a sewage treatment facility will accomplish the
waste water modification in a  small controlled area, 'whereas  it other-
wise  would be accomplished over a considerable length of stream or
area  of standing water body in the natural environment. In addition,
preventative  measures are  taken in the sewage  treatment facility to
destroy pathogenic bacteria and protect the health and welfare  of water
users, as well as prevent environmental degradation that would other-
wise  be caused by  the introduction  of biodegradable wastes. Problems
can arise in sewage treatment  installations when conditions occur that
effect an imbalance of the biota attacking the waste material in a man-
ner similar to those occurrences  that  produce biologic nuisance prob-
lems in the natural environment. An  investigation and surveillance of
the biota in  a sewage treatment installation can  often predict  such
occurrences and  recommend measures to prevent a malfunctioning of
the facility.

  Bacterial and other  colorless plants initiate the breakdown of organic
substances while particular organic  substances are attacked by particu-
lar species. Generally there is a large number of bacterial species in any
waste disposal unit. Most of the lower plants  and animals found in


       Plate 23. The supply of food constantly to a trickling filter provides an ideal
                 environment for organisms to stabilize sewage.

sewage treatment are cosmopolitan in occurrence. They are well known
and seem to be substantially alike in similar treatment plants. Some
organisms however tend to occur  very abundantly in certain  types of
wastes so much so that blooms of them can be called indicative for the
waste and for the condition it causes. The dominance of any particular
species is an organism response to some particular component or condi-
tion  of the  waste. Only a  few chlorophyll-containing  types can utilize
the dissolved organic substances  in sewage, raw or partly digested, and
these then become of value  as indicators of particular conditions.

  Visible  active inhabitants of  anaerobic habitats,  Imhoff  tanks  and
digesters,  are generally bacteria,  together  with about 20  species of

  Often the protozoa are extremely scarce. It has been stated that it is
probable that these organisms afford a fair criterion to the proper work-
ing conditions  in an Imhoff tank. When the tanks foam  or  seem to
digest  poorly, the number of protozoa is  high and  when  there is but
little  solid matter in the  liquid the number  of protozoa tends to be

  Biotic populations in trickling filters include bacteria, fungi, proto-
zoans,  algae, nematodes, rotifers, snails, sludgeworms, and larvae of cer-
tain  insects. In  this environment,  animals exert  a dominant influence
by consuming bacteria to  the extent that, when  the filter is operating
effectively, the  bacteria  are  always growing and reproducing  and the


bacterial population never levels off. Worms and certain insect  larvae
serve as scouring organisms and burrow in the film of the niters, thereby
keeping it loose and porous and capable of unloading to maintain effec-
tive biotic digestion.
  Trickling filters  are often troubled seriously by  Psychoda flies, the
"trickling filter fly." These small  flies tend to reproduce in  great abun-
dance  where there is  high relatively humidity, oxygen, and organic
materials that furnish food for the larvae. The flies do not sting or suck
blood but they are a real annoyance because they settle on the eyes, ears,
nose, and clothes, and because  of their small size  they easily enter sur-
rounding  houses. Control of the filter fly is provided by keeping the
weeds  and grass mowed short throughout the  sewage treatment  plant
area, spraying the walls and other structures that are  inhabited by the
flies  with an insecticide, and, if necessary, spraying the edges and walls
of sludge drying beds similarly.

  Protozoa are dominant in the biota affecting treatment  in an acti-
vated sludge unit. Protozoa can be observed readily through the use of
a low power on a microscope and, with experience,  an investigator can
determine the effectiveness of a particular activated sludge  by the rela-
tive predominance of various types of protozoan inhabitants.

  Stabilization  ponds  are  used by  a  large number of municipalities
throughout the United States for the  stabilization of domestic wastes,
as well as by many types of industries for the  treatment of industrial
wastes. Treatment  efficiencies in  stabilization ponds vary with indica-
tions that well-designed and well-operated ponds produce effluents equal
to or better than those expected  from effective conventional secondary
treatment plants. The prevailing climate  is an important factor in waste
stabilization in an outdoor pond. Pond construction, location, and the
types and loading of wastes that  are introduced are likewise constrain-
ing factors on operating efficiency. Photosynthesis has been termed the
most important single factor in determining the  course and effectiveness
of stabilization pond treatment.  Algae are an intricate part of photo-
synthesis.  Bacteria  attack the liquid wastes in  an environment that is
dominated by the  algal flora,  and  bottom organisms, usually  midge
larvae, assist in the stabilization of settled  solids.

  A  stabilization pond environment is  a confined ecosystem for the
study or demonstration of aquatic interrelationships among organisms.
A bountiful microscopic life abounds in an organically enriched, well-
operating stabilization pond. Of course, certain  precautions must be
taken by the investigator to  prevent the possibility of infection from
pathogenic bacteria or other disease-producing organisms.

  Under certain conditions, blue-green algal masses may form on the
surface of the stabilization pond and these give rise to pigpen-like odors.


                        SUMMER  AND FALL
                           MAXIMUM   ALOAE
                           AND  PROTOZOAN
                       HIGH ALGAE VOL.
                       HIGH D.O.
                       LOW B.O.D.
                       ALKALINE  pH
                       LOW INORGANIC  N
                       LOW SOLUBLE P
                       NO ODORS
            ORGANIC N
                   EARLY  SPRING  AND WINTER
                       LOW  ALGAE  VOL.
                       LOW D.O.
                       HIGH  B.O.D.
                       pNEAR pH 7
                       'HIGH  NHJ-N
                       HIGH  SOLUBLE  P
                       PROBABLE  ODORS
  Figure 7. Principles of waste stabilization in area affected by cold winter climate.
Blue-green algal masses may be  carried to  the leeward shore by wind
and under a hot sun the surface of the mass will bake and decompose.
The causes of such a phenomenon cannot be stated with specificity but
the organic loading to the pond is an important factor. There are
several avenues of approach that are available to combat odors arising
from  blue-green algal and other solids  on  the  surface of stabilization
ponds. These  include skimming  off  the floating solids and burial on
shore. In some cases the solid mass may  be broken up with the applica-
tion of  a  hard spray  of water from  a pump and  fire hose-type spray
nozzle or  by  running a boat with  an outboard  motor through the
nuisance area. When the solids are broken up the odorous condition is

 temporarily alleviated because of increased bacterial action and aerobic
 oxidation of the solid masses. Continual surveillance must be instituted
 to preclude a regrouping of the floating mass. During the early stages
 of the formation of a floating algal mass, it may be controlled through
 the periodic use of an algal-killing chemical such as copper sulfate. The
 copper tends to kill the blue-green algae more effectively than the green
 algal species and thus the pond operation is not  damaged severely by
 the treatment.
  In the control of blue-green  algae in a stabilization pond, floating
 sun-baked masses should first be removed from the surface and buried.
 With a methyl orange  alkalinity of less  than  50 mg/1, a calculated dose
 of 0.5 ppm commercial copper sulfate is used. With higher alkalinity,
 1-ppm copper sulfate is applied, thus, for a high alkalinity pond that is
 4-feet deep,  10 pounds  of commercial grade copper sulfate per acre is
 required.  The application may need to be repeated throughout the
 summer months and perhaps as often as every two weeks. The copper
 sulfate may be applied as a  spray over the surface of the pond or by
 placing crystals in a burlap  bag  and  dragging the  bag through the
 nuisance area until the copper sulfate crystals are  dissolved. The pond
 should be observed closely following any treatment to ascertain that the
 purpose  for  which the  pond was initially  designed is  not  seriously

       Kecovery from Catastrophe

CCTTOW long after clean up will it be before the water is fit for
   J. _Lswimming, fishing, or aesthetic enjoyment?" This oft-asked ques-
tion actually is a phase of prediction based on the observed facts that
become evident from a water quality investigation. Often the prediction
is a part of the formal water quality investigator's report and an attempt
to answer this question accurately should be made by the investigator
at the completion of the study and the analyses of the data.

  The question is not an easy one to answer because the answer depends
upon a great number of interacting factors that combine to form what
might be termed the recovery of a waterway from the effects of pollution
or from  a  naturally occurring catastrophic event. For one thing,  the
water quality necessary to support swimming, fishing or aesthetic enjoy-
ment can be slightly different depending upon the chosen recreational
pursuit. As a result, the recovery process may differ, one from  the other,
and the length  of time necessary for recovery likewise will differ.
  As discussed earlier, each waterway is  a unique microcosm comprised
of physical, chemical, and biological interacting factors. For this reason
alone, the recovery of the waterway from a particular catastrophic occur-
rence will be dissimilar  both in the particular events leading toward
recovery and also in the length of time required for the recovery process.
  Theoretically, the recovery of a waterway that  is not influenced  sig-
nificantly  by  tributaries  or  other  similarly-acting factors, and  from
which a significant source  of pollution has been removed, should pro-
ceed toward recovery with a shortening of the  pollution zones. The
downstream or horizonally-located  zone of recovery  should  move  up-
stream and gradually replace the zone of active decomposition. Even-
tually a similar process should occur in the zone of  degradation. The
adjacent downstream or more distant clean-water zone likewise should
follow and eventually replace the zone of recovery when the effects of
the insult on the aquatic environment have been obliterated. A succes-
sion of organisms would occur in the polluted area beginning with the
bacteria and associated protozoa and algae  and extending  through  the


 macrobenthos,  which would include the sludgeworms, midge larvae,
 fingernail clams,  sowbugs,  leeches, dragonfly nymphs,  caddisfly larvae
 and other gill-breathing insect larvae in that order. Eventually a popu-
 lation of fish and other  aquatic life would be present that would be
 indistinguishable in population  characteristics  from  an  area of the
 waterway that  remained unaffected by pollution. Often the events in
 nature do not  occur in this logical sequence,  however, because of the
 interaction of the many factors that will be discussed later. It is this
 process of interaction that complicates  the  predictability of natural
 phenomena that in combination produce waterway recovery.

 Influencing Factors
  Significant influencing factors in the waterway recovery process in-
 clude the extensiveness of  environmental damage, the length of time
 that the environment  has  been degraded, the environments  affected,
 and the possibilities for infiltration of biota.

  The extensiveness of environmental damage  to a particular waterway
 habitat is different for each cause of environmental destruction.  Such
 damage may be subtle and may affect only one or a few species of the
.most sensitive  organisms within  the aquatic  community.  The other
 extreme would be virtual destruction of  the community of plants and
 animals within a  given reach of waterway. An innumerable number of
 possibilities for different environmental gradations exist between  these
 two extremes.

  The cause of  the environmental  destruction may have been con-
 tinuous, intermittent, fluctuating  in degree, seasonal, annual, or occur-
 ring once in 10, 50, or 100 years. Each action  will produce a different
 reaction within the aquatic community.

  The history of  the environmental degradation or the length of time
 that such degradation has occurred will tend to affect the length of time
 required for recovery. For  example a lake that has  become eutrophic
 within the past decade, and within which  the process has been a gradual
 one, will recover  in a much shorter time span than  a lake with a long
 history of eutrophication.

  The types of waterway environments affected by a particular catas-
 trophe will affect the time  required for recovery when the catastrophe
 subsides or has been controlled. The flowing  water environment will
 react differently from that of the non-flowing water environment.

  When pollution has been removed or controlled in a flowing stream,
 recovery often is  aided by  certain natural phenomena that occur sea-
 sonally or at more or less defined intervals. A spring flood for example
 will remove sludge deposits  or dilute and wash away the  residual pockets


of toxic materials that may remain from a source of toxic pollution.
This cleansing effect will prepare a physical habitat that is more suit-
able for colonization and inhabitation by organisms than one associated
with a polluted environment.  If nutrients have been a problem in the
stream environment, these too are diluted and cleansed from the area
by the forces and actions of spring freshets. Should the expected spring
floods fail to occur because of prevailing area drought  conditions, the
time of recovery for a flowing  water environment may well be extended
for one or two additional years.

  Expected  recovery  in the  non-flowing environment  generally will
require a longer period  of time than expected  recovery within  the
flowing environment. Sludge deposits and their resultant environment-
ally deleterious effects are not easily removed by floods or spring freshets.
Quite often the effects of such deposits must be minimized through the
natural blanketing of such areas with naturally occurring materials that
are environmentally more acceptable. The covering-over process is a
much slower one than the attrition caused by flooding and may require
several years to complete. In the  interim, biological degradation of the
sludge bank continues with some deleterious environmental effects that
are diminished  progressively with the healing influence of time.

  Recovery  within the non-flowing environment depends  to  a large
extent on the flow-through time  or  water retention time of the pond,
lake, or reservoir. For example, the  flow-through time for Lake Michi-
gan is approximately 15 times  the flow-through time for Lake Erie. The
theoretical recovery time following a similar degree of abatement of a
similar pollutional load would approximate a ratio of 15 to 1 with Lake
Erie experiencing the more rapid recovery. The physical topography of
a water basin affects its retention time and significant  factors  include
the length, width, depth, contour of the bottom, physical location of
inflowing and outflowing streams, volume of water within the  holding
basin compared to  the annual volume  of inflowing water, water  tem-
perature, and a number of other related factors.

  Probably the most significant pollution problem associated with lakes
is that of eutrophication. All  natural lakes through geologic time  tend
to mature, become more fertile, eventually fill with organic materials,
and ultimately  return  to the landscape as dry land. This aging process
has been accelerated in a great number of lakes through the activities
of man. The  nutrients, principally in the form of available nitrogen and
phosphorus, that reach a lake  basin  through discharges of pollution to
the basin or to the drainage area result in increased algal and vascular
plant nuisances. These have contributed to an accelerated accumulation
of organic  materials  and  the  general process associated with  a  lake
becoming overenriched before its geologic time has been referred to as
cultural eutrophication.


   Once  nutrients are removed from  the lake or its  drainage  basin
 through processes of  advanced waste treatment or other controls, lake
 recovery will begin. It may not be possible ever to bring the condition
 of a lake back to a point on  the geologic timescale  when  the cultural
 eutrophication process was initiated. It should be  possible, on the other
 hand,  to recover  a waterway to such an extent that  many  valuable
 decades  of multi-water use  can be  obtained  for a  citizenry  that  has
 displayed an innate affinity for association with the water environment.
  The fourth significant factor influencing recovery is the possibilities
 for infiltration of organisms  into the  organism-depleted environment.
 These  possibilities include downstream drift, upstream migration, gen-
 eral invasion from adjacent areas as in a lake, egg deposition of those
 aquatic organisms that have terrestrial adults, infiltration by wind-borne
 algae and other organisms, transportation of aquatic weeds, algae, and
 microorganisms by birds and  mammals,  and the  influences of man in
 transporting  and transplanting aquatic organisms intentionally or  un-
 intentionally, into an otherwise denuded area.

 Infiltrating Mechanisms

  Waterway recovery begins with the removal of pollution or with its
 control through more adequate treatment or by other means.  When
 the recruitment of organisms from adjacent or upstream areas does  not
 occur,  the principal process of establishing a biotic community within
 an area where  the previous community has been  virtually  destroyed is
 through ecological succession. In the process of succession, bacteria from
 the soil and those introduced from the atmosphere convert the organic
 materials present to protoplasm and serve as a food supply for protozoa
 and  other microscopic organisms. Simultaneously minute  algae con-
 tribute  similarly to the development of an environment  that will be
 amenable to the life processes of higher and more  complex biotic forms.
When  the environment attains a quality that will support their exis-
 tence, other organisms will appear. Each  type of organism in turn, will
 influence the aquatic  environment and prepare it for the invasion of a
higher  form of life, which culminates in a balanced fish population. In
 an undisturbed aquatic environment the predator fish  will assume  the
role  of dominant organisms  and will control the biotic population to
the advantage of their species.

  The  type or  combination  of  recruitment activities  to fill  a  biotic
environmental  void is an important determinant of the time interval
required for  recovery. The  downstream drift  of organisms from  up-
stream  riffle areas or from tributaries may attain rates of many pounds
per day and may serve to repopulate an area rapidly providing condi-
tions for existence are acceptable for the survival of the species. The
downstream drift of organisms is a common occurrence but  there is evi-


dence that the greatest drift may occur during the non-daylight hours.
Downstream drift is common among insect larvae and occurs when the
immature forms become released from their points of attachment and
drift with the current.

  Upstream migration of organisms is another phenomenon that is not
as effective  as downstream drift  in  the repopulation of an area but,
nevertheless, is a significant factor. Evidence indicates that  the amount
of downstream drift far exceeds the amount of upstream migration for
a given  stream reach. In a lake environment, repopulation can be aided
to a great extent from a general  invasion by organisms from adjacent
lake areas. Presumably the invasion  would be from all sides accessible
and would occur when  conditions for existence would support the or-
ganisms, and in accordance with  their  general adaptability  for locomo-

  Egg deposition can be a significant means of repopulating an area
particularly by those species of organisms that have a terrestrial adult
stage. When the chemical  water  quality is returned  to an acceptable
level for the survival  of immature insect forms, the forms  usually will
be present within the environment following the time of the next egg-
laying period  for the species. Thus, a flowing water area would  tend to
become repopulated with invertebrates within a maximal period of one
year following a corrected or  controlled catastrophic occurrence. The
interval of time might be  decreased depending upon the  possibilities
of downstream drift or upstream migration or  general invasion. The
lake or  pond environment  is more complex and depends upon  a num-
ber of related  factors and the recovery period probably would be longer.

  Algae and other microscopic organisms are found in the  atmosphere
and may be transported over great  distances  by the  winds. This is a
major reason  why  algae may  be found  in  practically every  habitat
known to man. Birds are a significant transporter of fragments of aqua-
tic  vascular  plants,  algae, and  other microscopic organisms. Such  or-
ganisms may be carried in the intestinal tract of birds or as passengers
on  feet  or beaks. When birds  alight upon the water such organisms
are dislodged  and can mature in the new environment. Certain mam-
mals also, particularly those  that are  associated with the  aquatic en-
vironment, can transport algae.-aquatic vascular plants, and other aqua-
tic microorganisms.  Man himself plays an important part by his practice
of intentional  or accidental planting or introducing various species into
aquatic  habitats. Often such species, unencumbered by natural enemies,
become a severe pest  and result  in the expenditures  of large sums of
money aimed  toward their eradication or control. Notably examples of
such introductions that have become significant pest species include the
german  carp, Eurasian water milfoil and the Asiatic clam. The occur-
rence of certain other species  in  southern waters of the United States


that are pests in more tropical climes is a matter of grave concern and
current investigation.

Environmental Catastrophes

  Environmental catastrophes may occur  as a result of pollution or as
a result of natural phenomena. The nature and extent  of such catas-
trophes determine the time and other conditions necessary for environ-
mental recovery. Catastrophes arising from pollution may assume many
forms  and degrees. Principally  they may be confined to those from
organic wastes, toxic wastes,  inert silts,  nutrients, heat, and oil. Catas-
trophes arising from natural phenomena likewise occur in a wide variety
of  forms  and degree.  Generally  these may  be attributed to  floods,
drought, ice, seasonal climatic conditions, and winds.

  Brinkhurst (1964) observed the recovery of a British  river from gross
organic pollution that was alleviated with the operation of a new sewage
treatment plant, and cooling towers  and a recirculating system to deal
with hot water discharges. According to his  observations the river bed
was carpeted with sewage fungus and inhabited by sludgeworms alone
prior to the institution of pollution control  devices.  Deep accumula-
tions of sludge were present. It was considered problematical that it
would take some time for the sludge to disperse and that the  recovery
of the invertebrate fauna would be gradual  and progressive. However,
this prognostication proved to be pessimistic. Pollution control devices
became operational in April, 1958.  Later that  spring the sludge was
swept  away by winter flood waters and the river was  very greatly im-
proved biologically. By September 1958 water quality had improved to
such an extent that more resistant mayfly nymphs were able to survive
along with sowbugs, various  leeches, and midge larvae.  In this case a
pollution  catastrophe was aided by a natural catastrophe  in the process
of environmental recovery.

  Brinkhurst cites several examples  of stream recovery following a re-
duction or  control of severe pollution.  Generally, according  to the
evidence submitted, recovery of a normally denuded area is rapid for
those organisms  that are mobile, but a much longer time is necessary
for  slow-moving species to recolonize such an area. Often several years
will Be required for molluscs to reappear.  Aerial imaginal  stages of
aquatic insect  larvae were able to lay eggs in a  river in  the course of
the ensuing breeding season in a great number of cases. If flood waters
are not able to dislodge the accumulated sludges,  stream recovery will
require a much longer time period.

  The introduction of toxic materials will kill a portion or all of the
animals within the affected reach of  the water environment depending
upon the  relative  toxicity of  the introduced materials. Hopkins  et al.


(1966) investigated the effects of insecticides on aquatic fauna in waters
draining a treated pasture land. There resulted a considerable mortality
among aquatic insects in the treated area although there was no evi-
dence of mortality among fresh-water crayfish and fish. After  12 months
following treatment, large numbers of aquatic insects were again found
in the streams but the species  composition was entirely different  from
that present before treatment with the insecticide.

  Studies have been made  on stream faunal recovery after reclamation
of manganese strip mining operations in Virginia. Faunal recovery in
the reclaimed stream was  complete six years after reclamation of the
surface mining spoils. Partial reclamation was found  to be  ineffective
in bringing about faunal recovery or changing the turbidity and silt
load of affected waters. Intermediate samples before the six-year  time
period were not obtained and it was therefore  impossible to  determine
the earliest time of stream recovery.

  Stuart (1953)  conducted studies  on the effects of siltation on trout
redds and very young trout. He concluded from his studies  that silt is
not very dangerous in the normal stream if excess occurs only at inter-
vals. The character  of such normal streams can, however, be altered
drastically by allowing the washings of quarries, gravel pits,  and mines
to flow into streams  untreated. In many cases the quantities allowed to
enter the streams may be small and the material in suspension may in
itself  be of a non-toxic character. But, continuous applications of small
quantities over the redds were found to be much more detrimental to
the welfare  of the very small fish than sudden flushes of large quanti-
ties of silt. Stuart found that the continuous addition of fresh sediment
resulted in  serious  gill membrane  inflammation, which  eventually
caused death. Intermittent additions did not cause death. Wilson (1957)
studied the effects of gold dredging operations on bottom-associated
organisms in the Powder River of Oregon. During siltation, production
of fish food organisms dropped to almost nil in the zone of heaviest pol-
lution. Between 15 and 20 miles of the River were heavily silted. In
about one year after the dredge closed operations, there was  a remark-
able recovery of bottom life. Silt was flushed from the pools  and riffles
by freshets and bottom organisms increased eight to ten fold  in weight
per unit of bottom area.

  As  discussed earlier,  nutrients contribute to the eutrophication of
standing water bodies. The recovery of a lake from eutrophication fol-
lowing the removal or reduction in nutrient inflows is a complex proc-
ess. The control  of the nutrients stimulating the plant growth is seldom
complete because  of  the residual naturally-occurring  nutrient inflows
from  the drainage basin, groundwaters, and atmospheric washouts. In
addition, a  substantial  portion of the nutrients that have  been  con-
tributed by pollution over the years are bound in benthic sediments and


comprise a part of the  biotic population. A portion of the nutrients
found in benthic sediments may be recycled to the superimposed water
when conditions for such recharge are suitable. The nutrients occurring
in the benthic population are released upon the death and decay of the
organisms. A portion of these may be recycled in the aquatic food web,
whereas the remaining portion may be transported to the bottom sedi-
ments where a small portion only may be available for future recycling.
When eutrophication has been severe and has existed for a considerable
period of time, the speciation of the fish population usually has changed.
Carp and other rough fish are found in abundance in fertile eutrophic
waters. Midge larvae also are found in the rich organic sediments. The
finer, more  sensitive  fish species generally  are  eliminated with the
onset of eutrophication. Often this is a result of a depletion of oxygen
in the lower limits of the thermocline and beneath where the tempera-
ture is suitable for such fish.

  The recovery of a lake from the degrading effects of eutrophication
is a  slow process of attrition of the  nutrient supply.  Bottom sediments
may be covered with inert silts that serve to segregate the organic ma-
terials from the superimposed water. In time, the nutrients  that are
recycled within the biomass decrease. With the death and decomposition
of organisms a portion of the nutrients combines with the consolidated
benthic  sediments  and does not recharge to the superimposed water.
Nutrients are discharged continually in the lake's effluent and there the
flow-through time of the water in the lake basin  is an important factor
in determining the time necessary for lake  recovery. When the flow-
through  time  is a  few months or  two or  three years,  the  recovery
rate  from eutrophication should be rapid following the  control of
nutrient  inflows. If the flow-through time is 10, 20 or  100 years, the
length of anticipated recovery time will  be great. Examples  of lake
environments  that  have  shown  substantial  recovery  following the
removal  of pollution sources  of  nutrients include Lake Washington
near Seattle and Lake Monona near Madison, Wisconsin.

  Heat and oil each produce their unrelated  effects upon the receiving
aquatic environment. The dissipation or degradation of these materials
will  result in biotic recovery that will follow the principles discussed

  Natural phenomena such as floods will produce  a scouring action
that may wash  away  substantial quantities  or virtually  all of the
invertebrate fauna of a flowing waterway. Drought  conditions reduce
stream flows  and expose  productive marginal areas of lakes, ponds,
and  streams to the baking effects of the sun. Adverse  water quality
characteristics that virtually may  be unrecognized during normal flow
times become accentuated in their effects during  conditions of drought.
Ice formations sometimes produce their toll on benthic life by gouging


out  shoreline areas and  occasionally by  destroying the  habitat for
benthos with the formation of stream bed ice where both the surface
and stream bed become solid ice sheets with the water flowing between.
These  conditions occur only  in  extremely cold  weather in northern
climes. Recovery from these natural phenomena follow similar  prin-
ciples  to those described  above. The repopulation by  mobile forms
is rapid whereas  the repopulation by those forms  not  carried by the
current, and which are relatively non-mobile, is slow.

  Wind  as  a natural phenomenon occasionally has  its deleterious
impact upon the aquatic  environment. High winds and other pheno-
mena  associated  with  hurricanes in coastal waters  produce  changes
in flow and  in  the distribution  of  fresh-water  and  salt-water in the
coastal waterways. These changes have a deleterious effect  particularly
on those species  that depend upon  a certain chlorinity of the water
for  their existence. Recovery  in these instances depends principally
upon the life history of the species in question,  the  extent of  damage,
and the possibilities for repopulation  through infiltration.

  Water quality changes induced by the seasons can have  their effects
on  macrobenthos and other  organisms associated  with the  aquatic
environment.  Gaufin  and Tarzwell (1955)  studied  environmental
changes in  a polluted stream during winter.  In  their studies  they
found  that  the  decomposition  and recovery zones were shortened
during summer  and that  the  effects of pollution  were most  evident
and  the life  zones  more  clear cut and more  readily observed during
this time. In the winter months, the metabolic activity of the organisms
is at a lower level and life zones become longer or tend to lose  their
identity.  The pollutional  carpet  of  bacteria, protozoa, and entrapped
organic materials, which was  characteristic of the zone  of decomposi-
tion in summer, extended farther downstream during  winter. Occa-
sionally this carpet reached  the upper end of the summer's clean
water zone. During the winter months, bottom organisms characteristic
of the decomposition and  recovery zones during summer may appear
at points much farther downstream.

  The writer has made  similar  observations on numerous occasions
during winter studies of polluted   streams in  northern Wisconsin.
Although  the observed effects on the  macrobenthos of the  zone of
active  decomposition  may not  be  nearly  as  severe in  winter as in
summer, this zone may occur as many as 50 miles downstream in winter
compared to 15 miles downstream from an  organic pollution source
in summer. In winter, under  18 inches of ice, the area affected by the
active  decomposition  zone corresponded to the area denned  as  clean
water in summer. Because of the organism's reduced  metabolic  rate
during winter, the growth of Sphaerotilus  and attendant pollution
indicators did not seem  to hamper a  rapid recovery  when  the  ice


was removed and water  temperature increased.  In such  northern
ice-covered polluted streams,  a  particular area may appear polluted
in  winter and  relatively  unpolluted  during  the  summer  months.
Judging from an examination  of  the benthic organisms,  the reach
of stream just downstream from the source of  pollution may appear
very  polluted in summer and  only relatively polluted in  winter.
Recovery within  the macrobenthic  population is rapid because all of
the clean-water associated forms are not destroyed in winter. Destruc-
tion is  handicapped by  the organisms' reduced metabolism, and the
rapid dissipation  of adverse  water quality effects  with the  warmer
temperatures of summer.

         Interpreting the Findings
Data Evaluation

    THE evaluation of water quality from field investigative data is an
    exercise in judgment supported by mathematics and graphic dis-
play of organized data. Mathematics  and graphic data displays are
support tools for interpretation and should not be used at the exclusion
of the judgment factor.

  One who interprets data  well  continually tempers his  confidence
with doubt. Doubt stimulates a search for  new and different methods
of confirmation  for  reassurance.  Such reasonable  doubt is directed
toward each step in the investigative  procedure: Were the sampling
stations located in the right general area to  depict water quality within
the stream  or lake environment? Were a sufficient number of sampling
stations used? Were  the  samples collected  representative  of  water
quality  within the limits of  available  sampling  technology?  Were
adequate measures employed  to avoid contamination during the act
of bacteriological sample collection? Were  analyses completed  for all
water quality  constituents vital  to  data  interpretation?  Were  the
correct analytical  procedures followed in sample analyses? What would
be the expected effect of  the  seasonal climate on  the  water quality

  The correct expression  in  labeling data is vital  to  accurate  data
interpretation, as well  as to  later report preparation and even to
the reading of the report. Already  there is much confusion  when
reading reports and other literature regarding the  forms of nitrogen
and phosphorus  that particular data  represent.  For example,  nitrate
is expressed in either the more common form  as the elemental nitrogen
(N) or as the  radical nitrate  (NO3),  which  has a molecular  weight
that  is 4.4  times  the atomic weight of nitrogen. Phosphorus on the
other  hand commonly is  reported as the radical phosphate (PO4),
but also may be reported  as the elemental  phosphorus (P)   and
occasionally as phosphorus pentoxide (P2O5). The element has  an
atomic weight less than one third the molecular weight of the phosphate
radical. To convert from phosphate (PO4) to  phosphorus (P) the value


must be multiplied by 0.326; to convert from phosphorus pentoxide
(P2O5)  to phosphorus  (P) the value must be multiplied  by 0.436. In
addition it  is frequently not indicated whether  the stated  value is
representative of total, soluble,  or  some other form of phosphate or
phosphorus.  The  total to soluble  phosphorus ratios may vary from
2 to 17 or  even  90,  depending upon  the  particular water, season,
aquatic plant populations,  and probably other  factors.  These ratios
are  of value when they  can be determined periodically within  the
same  water   body and changes in  them correlated with  volumetric
response changes within the algal mass.

  Iron commonly is reported merely as Fe without indicating whether
it is in the  ferrous or the  ferric form.  The  distinction  is important
in interpretation  of the  iron data  since ferrous iron uses dissolved
oxygen and  ferric iron does not. Failure to indicate  whether the iron
is  in a  total or  dissolved state  is  frequent also.  Total iron may
include some indefinite portion of inert iron derived from silt in  the
water,  which is  dissolved by the acid used  in the analyses. Dissolved
iron is much more significant with respect  to water quality than is
total iron.
Data Organization

  Organization of data in some orderly  form is the first step in their
interpretation. Data produced by the laboratory usually are tabulated
most  conveniently for laboratory personnel by date of  sample collec-
tion,  which is generally the order  in  which they are received  in  the
laboratory for analyses. Chemical data may be combined for all stations
under that date.  The data must be reorganized by sampling stations
for interpretation. A  common basic table has the data for each  station
arranged  chronologically by date  of  collection in the first  column
followed by columns indicating time  of collection, stream discharge,
and the concentrations of various water quality constituents.

  Data for one  or  more  years on a year-round  basis, or for some
other protracted  period, should be separated into segments of  similar
flow and temperature combinations. Year-round data may be separated
by  seasons. Data  that are obtained daily or several times weekly may
be separated by months or combinations of 2 or 3 months with  similar
stream flow and temperature characteristics. The discharge of a seasonal
industrial  waste  may govern  the  separation of  data.  Data  for  the
same  month from 2, 3, or more years may be combined. The important
guiding principle is to include  sufficient data for statistical reliability
within relatively limited ranges of stream, lake, or pond  characteristics.
In  a  lake or  pond environment  it is  often advantageous to group
the data  according to depth strata. In  the  stream environment,  the


more important considerations  are temperature,  stream  flow,  and
seasonal waste discharges, if any.

  Evaluation of data at an individual station may be aided materially
by arranging the values in sequence of magnitude and plotting them
as the frequency distribution on probability graph paper. The frequency
distribution plotting on  probability paper may be used to determine
the mean value graphically by taking the point  at which the straight
line  fitted to  the points  crosses  the 50 percent frequency line. The
standard deviation of the data and selected confidence limits also may
by  taken directly  from  the plotting.  The logarithmic  probability
plotting  is especially useful for obtaining a  mean of coliform density
data. This method minimizes the influence on the mean of occasional
extremely high values in much  the same manner as the geometric

  Constituent loads  entering  the waterway and in the stream can be
evaluated most  conveniently if constituent concentrations  and stream
and  waste flows are converted to pounds per day. The concentration of
the  constituent  in  milligrams  per  liter  (mg/1) multiplied  by  the
flow in cubic feet per second multiplied by 5.4 will result in the weight
of the constituent  load  in pounds  per day passing a given  point.
Likewise, the  concentration in mg/1 times 8.34 times gallons per day
times 10-8 will result in a pounds  per day value. The gallons per
minute times 2.228 times  KH equals cubic feet per second. The gallons
per minute times 1440 equals gallons per day. These formula can be
memorized quite easily and will be used many, many times in data
interpretation. Their use may be reversed to express constituents in
concentration when load weight designations are known.
  Graphical representation of data is  one of the simpliest and best
methods  for showing the influence  of  one variable on  another. The
best graphs are those  that  are most  easily comprehended  by  the
viewer.  The degree  of success of  a presentation  or report  is very
frequently correlated with the above-stated  axiom.
  Ordinary rectangular coordinate paper is satisfactory for most graphic
purposes. Twenty lines per inch is recommended. Semilogarithmic paper
is convenient when one of the coordinates is  to be the logarithm of an
observed variable. The independent and  dependent variables should
be plotted on  the abscissa and ordinate  in a manner that can be easily
comprehended. The scales for graphic  presentation should be chosen
so that the value of each coordinate can be  found quickly  and easily.
The plotted curve should  cover as much of the graph paper as possible.
The scales should be chosen so that the slope of the curve approaches
unity as  nearly as  possible.  Other  things being equal, the  variable
should be chosen to give  a plot that will be as nearly a straight line
as possible.


  The title  of  a graph should  describe  adequately  the  plot that
it is intended to show, yet  the ttile should contain  the least number
of words possible. A legend should be present on the graph  to clarify
any  possible ambiguities that may be  present to otherwise confuse
the  viewer. Information on  the conditions under which the data were
obtained that are demonstrated graphically should be included in the
legion where  possible or described in  detail in a  closely associated
portion of the report.
  In  essence,  data organization involves  the least  complex  arrange-
ment and display of the  data that will aid  in  the  interpretation
of water  quality and  facilitate an  understanding  of  conditions of
existence  within the waterway.  Existing  Federal-State  water quality
standards on interstate  streams are a valuable  adjunct in the inter-
pretative process, as will be the effluent limitations and standards being
developed .presently for various industrial waste categories. Most States
have  extended  their  standards programs  to  include   all  intrastate
waters. These programs have  simplified the investigator's evaluation
of data to some extent because the  classification of stream  uses  and
the  associated water  quality criteria contained within  water quality
standards provide an  official basis against which to compare the  in-
vestigative data  collected. In addition, the helpful references provided
in Chapter VI will serve as invaluable tools for any data interpretative

Selected Case Histories

  Figure  8  represents  data collected in  1963  on  certain immature
insect larvae collected from the Brule River that separates the  States
of Michigan and Wisconsin. The Brule River stream bed was composed
of rock,  rubble, and  gravel with  occasional sand.  The  current  was
swift and water depths ranged from 6 inches  to 2  feet in the area
sampled. About  one year prior to the field investigation,  the Iron
River, a tributary of  the Brule River,  had received gross acid mine
drainage  pollution.  At the time of sampling, there  was  a  dense
growth of filamentous green algae in the  stream. Samples were collected
in early August.  River discharge at the mouth of the Brule River was
300 cubic feet per second during the sampling period.

  The remaining effects of the earlier acid mine discharge was demon-
strated graphically by the types of organisms selected for visual display.
Caddisfly larvae are representative of a group of clean-water associated
organisms generally intolerant of  adverse environmental conditions.
Midge larvae on the other hand, as a group, tolerate adverse environ-
mental conditions to  a  much  greater extent. The  tolerance level .of
the  particular genera of mayflies found in this survey  is closely asso-
ciated to that of the midge larvae. In  the control station  area> upstream


   w 100-
                                            _S	EZL
   Figure 8. Populations of selected  benthic organisms in the  Brule River,  1963.

from the entrance of the Iron River  to the Brule River, caddisfly larvae
were found in abundance  whereas the number  of midge  or mayfly
immature forms  was  in the order of expected magnitude  for  the
physical environment of the waterway. Downstream  from the tributary
Iron River, the effects of previous  acid  mine pollution were clearly
evident.  At some previous time the  caddisfly larval population  un-
doubtedly  had  been  eliminated. The numbers of  caddisfly larvae
present during the survey  in  the  downstream reaches of  the  Brule
River were indicative  of a population  that could have  been supplied
by the downstream drift of organisms from areas upstream,  as well as
a water  quality that  then could be tolerated by certain individuals

of  the  group. On  the other hand, immature  midges  and  mayflies
increased in  population  density  by  several  fold  over  the control
station  in reaches downstream from the  Iron River tributary, which
demonstrated the latent impact of nutrients  to  support the attached
algal population. Iron can be a nutritive stimulant  for  algal growth.
The  mayfly larvae  represented by the  graphic display were  those
that  can  live in  close association with  abundant  filamentous  algae
and secure  their food supply in such  an  environment. The  field
investigation  did  not  extend sufficiently far downstream  to demon-
strate recovery in the benthic population  from the past environmental
insult. Often  it is not possible to demonstrate such recovery because
of the discharge  of  the particular stream under  investigation into  a
river where  much greater dilution is  afforded  the waste  materials,
or  of the presence  of main  stream reservoirs, which  serve  as  giant
stabilization basins for the introduced wastes.
  The effects on benthos  of  the  effluent from an overloaded sewage
treatment' plant are  depicted  in Figure 9.  In the upstream environ-
        Figure 9. Bottom organism populations—Iron Mountain-Kingsford area,
                      Menominee River,  August, 1963.

merit,  sensitive organisms  predominated  and very tolerant  organisms
were few in numbers. Organisms sensitive to organic  wastes generally
include  immature  stoneflies, caddisflies, mayflies,  riffle beetles  and
hellgrammites. Organisms  considered to  be  very  tolerant  toward
organic wastes include sludgeworms,  several species  of midges with
ventral blood  gills,  certain leeches  and  other worm-like  organisms
that are  associated  closely with  this group.  In between these  two
extremes  are  those  organisms  generally considered  tolerant toward
organic wastes. Tolerant  organisms are  those that  do not appear  to
fit readily into either the  sensitive or very tolerant group and include
some of  the midge larvae,  sowbugs, many of the leeches, snails, clams,
and many of the  species of fly larvae. Two hundred yards downstream
from  the entrance of the  sewage  treatment plant effluent, a  zone  of
degradation can  be  identified from the  benthic population.  Sensitive
organisms, here,  are reduced  to  a minimum.  There is  an  increase
in  tolerant organisms  and  a  substantial increase  in the organisms
very tolerant  toward pollution. About 3 miles  downstream, the river
entered a reservoir,  which served as a settling basin  for the  organic
wastes. The settleable solids collected as an extensive sludge bed  in
the upper reaches  of  the  reservoir and  very  tolerant  sludgeworms
increased in population to an excess of  900 per square  foot.  Sensitive
organisms  were entirely eliminated in this environment. Thus in a
short  reach of river, slightly over 3  miles, a benthic population  of
sensitive  organisms was reduced from 200  per  square foot  to 0  and
a population of very tolerant sludge-associated organisms was increased
from very small numbers to that of abundance.
  A clean water  zone usually contains individuals of the tolerant and
very tolerant  group within  the  benthic  population.  Conversely,  a
polluted water zone usually contains no sensitive organisms but may
contain  tolerant  and very tolerant  organisms  in  varying  numbers.
When  the dissolved  oxygen is  completely  eliminated, even  the very
tolerant  macroorganisms may be eliminated also, except for the  pos-
sibility of those that are able to breathe air for their oxygen supply.
  Sensitive organisms are  found  in  lakes  and reservoirs, as  well  as
in  streams.  The  benthic  population  in  two reservoirs separated  by
eight stream miles and the effects of organic wastes from a paper-making
industry  are depicted in Figure 10. The population of bottom-associated
organisms found  in  the upper  reservoir was considered  typical for a
clean  water  environment  and  was  composed  of a  well  diversified
organism  complex containing immature caddisflies and  mayflies. The
organism  assemblage in the downstream reservoir was  one  depicting
a polluted environment. Sensitive benthos were eliminated. The sludge-
worm  population was  increased  to  700 organisms per square foot.
Tolerant  sowbugs, midges and  fingernail clams were associated with
the sludgeworms. Sludge  and  wood  chips were found in  areas  of


                 STURGEON  FALLS  FLOWAGE
         Figure 10. Comparison of bottom organism populations in two upper
                       Menominee River reservoirs.

reduced  current and wood fibers  and  slime bacteria were  present.
Benthic  organisms  in  the  downstream reservoir indicate  a polluted
environment  whereas those organisms in  the upstream reservoir  in-
dicate an environment  that had not been degraded substantially by the
activities of man.

  The effects of inert inorganic solids on  the benthos are  illustrated
in Figure 11. Demonstrated also by these data is a lack of immediate
lateral mixing of a waste  in a river such as  the  Potomac. Glass sand
was,tes were  discharged  to  a  stream  approximately  one-half  mile
upstream from its confluence with the Potomac River. Upstream from
this  junction,  the  sparkling  clear Potomac  was bedded with  rock,
rocky ledges, coarse gravel and some naturally  occurring clean  sand.
Beds  of  rooted vegetation were  plentiful. Gill-breathing snails  and
mayflies  predominated in the invertebrate population and were found
everywhere  on  the  bottom  substrate.  Small fish  were  observed in
abundance.  Thirteen genera  of bottom animals were  represented in
collections from the control station.

  At  a station  600 yards  downstream,  and on  the same side as the
confluence of the small  creek  receiving glass  sand  wastes  with the
Potomac  River,  the  stream bed  was  devoid of visible animal  life.
Blue-green algae grew  marginally on  the  wave-washed stream  bank
area.  On the opposite side of the stream,  13 genera of animals were
                                  (SOURCE OFPOLLimON FROM
                                   GLASS-SAND WASTES)
                                    SCALE  IN MILES

                                     *     i     *
                 BAR GRAPH KEY
        Figure 11. Genera and population numbers of bottom animals per square
                    foot in Potomac River, September, 1952.

found in bottom  samples,  which  made the  variation  between  the
two  sides of the stream  a  dramatic indication of the environmental
effects of inert silts.
  Downstream  from  this  area the  number  of genera of  benthos
gradually increased,  but the  number of organisms per square foot
of bottom material remained low. The 1952 survey was  not, extended
to a reach that indicated stream recovery from the introduced wastes
nor  did  the population of bottom organisms  indicate lateral mixing
of the stream waters  at the downstream  point  of sampling. The shore
waters opposite the introduction  of the  glass  sand  wastes maintained
a similar benthic population both in numbers  of genera  and numbers
of individuals  and indicated that  the effects of inert solids from  this
waste source had  not extended beyond  the mid point of the stream.
           ALABAMA . [^GEORGIA


1. __
• /i
- .. ,.

^"-— v^-M/M

••-./ /
n 	 -~-_Jf
             |    LYERLY |      TRION
       % ABOVE 4.0 MG/L
       Figure 12. Dissolved oxygen in the Chattooga River showing the percentage
                       D.O. below 4 mg/l, August 1962.

  Studies  have been made  on  the Chattooga  River,  which  had  a
mean daily discharge of 94 c.f.s. from  Trion, Georgia, to Lake  Weiss
in Alabama.  Textile wastes  and  organic  wastes entered  the  stream
at Trion, Georgia, and  organic wastes  principally entered at Summer-
ville, Georgia. Samples  were  collected  daily  for  14  days for dissolved
oxygen concentrations. The dissolved oxygen of the  stream was drasti-
cally reduced  by introduced wastes and  at times was eliminated (Figure
12).  The data were  graphically illustrated as  the percent  of samples
that contained dissolved oxygen below 4.0 mg/1  (shown in black) and
the  remainder  of  the samples  where  the  dissolved  oxygen exceeded
that  number  (white). This   display of  data  is dramatic  because  a
particular level or concentration of the water  quality constituent can
be chosen as  an acceptable minimal criterion and  the  percentage of
time that the criterion  is violated can  be  shown.  The violation of
any  criterion contained in Federal-State  water  quality standards on
interstate streams could be dramatically pictured in  this manner.
  Twenty different kinds of  stream bed associated  animals, predomi-
nantly  insects sensitive  toward  pollution, were found in the  rocks
and gravel upstream from Trion,  Georgia. Three miles downstream,
no stream  bed animals were found  (Figure  13). The  color  of the
                                            TOTAL POPULATION  (No/K)f1KlO}

                                          ^) -TOTAL SPECIES  (No>

                                          ^jj-SPECES OF IMMATURE INSECTS MINUS TRUE FLES

                                          %-SLUDOEWORMS » SPECKS OF VERY TOLERANT TRUE FLJES
  Figure 13. Stream bed animal population  in Chattooga River, Georgia,  August 1962.


River in  the  downstream area changed  from day  to  day according
to the type, volume, and intensity of dye  materials included in the
textile mill wastes.  Changing  from deep blue to black to  brilliant
green, it faded to less intense  shades of grey and green  downstream.
A layer  of black sludge covered the stream bottom where no organisms
were  found.  Stream recovery began  to occur about 20  miles  down-
stream although  a benthic population similar to that occurring in
the control station area  did not occur throughout  the course of the
30-mile  survey. Figure 13  illustrates  a benthic fauna  that has  been
subjected  to severely toxic pollutants  downstream from Trion. After
a 5-mile flow distance  the toxicity of the waste had  been diluted
sufficiently to  permit the establishment of a minimal benthic popula-
tion.  Probably the  population could have been established in  this
area by drift of organisms from upstream clean water areas or tributaries
during  times  when  the  water  flowing  above  the toxic  sediments
would permit  such drifting organisms to live. As the toxicity subsided,
the food materials in the organic sediments permitted the development
of  an abundant  population  of sludgeworms and  associated midge
larvae. The numbers of  different kinds of  benthic organisms, and in
particular  the species of  sensitive  organisms, did not  show  recovery
for a distance of about  20 miles downstream  from  the  source of

  Toxic wastes may interfere with the natural clarification processes
in water by reducing or eliminating those  organisms  that otherwise
would break down the waste products. The  character of the water and
its mineral content can alter considerably the toxic effects of a given
chemical or wastes. The combination of two or more metals can make
them  several times more  toxic to aquatic life than when they occur
singly in the environment.
  Figure 14 depicts temperature and dissolved oxygen profiles obtained
from sampling Lake  Sebasticook, Maine. The May study was conducted
just following the spring overturn  and the November study was  con-
ducted during the fall overturn when  the entire  water  volume of the
lake was being mixed by winds. Dissolved oxygen  was present  from
surface to bottom. Especially during the November study,  the tempera-
ture did not  vary from  the water's surface  to its  bottom. During the
latter part of  July, Lake  Sebasticook was stratified. The thermocline
began at  a depth of 32 feet  and extended downward to  44 feet.
The dissolved oxygen was less than  1 mg/1  at the  beginning of the
thermocline and  was 0 at a depth of 35 feet. Being  stratified  from
the latter  part of May,  the  deeper waters  of the  Lake  could not
receive  oxygen from the  atmosphere. Prolific growths of algae,  and
other  organic materials, settle into these deeper waters from  the waters
near the surface  and, during  the  process of decomposition  of  these
materials,   the dissolved  oxygen present  on May 20  was gradually


Ttmptrotort *F
« 20

'/ ' ',
- 1 /-
— I
- f
I " ''
t> i
£ '
1 May 20. 1969
1 1 1 \ 1 1 1
                                                  Ttmptroturt *F
        0   2466   »  12
        Dlttolvtd Oxygtn (mg/l)
             Ttmptroturt  *F
               60*     70*
        0   2   4   6  •   K>  12
         Dltsolvtd Oxygtn  (mg/l)
                               0   2   4   6   6  K>  12
                                 Dlnolvtd Oxygtn  (mg/l)

                                    Ttmptraturt *F




30* 40* 50* 60*
1 1




1 1 1
1 f |
c ^ —
* /
o /
I! '
• i
^ —
Novtmbtr 2, !
1965 i
1 1 111
                                  Dlnolvtd Oxygtn  (mg/l)
Figure 14. Vertical temperature and dissolved oxygen  profiles, Lake Sebasticook, Maine.

depleted from the deeper water area. Probably, as the summer advanced,
the vertical  zone of depleted dissolved oxygen would extend upward.
The dissolved oxygen curve for  the afternoon  of July  29 and in the
morning  of  July 30 had a  different profile  in  the  upper waters and
reflected the effects of a large  mass of algae that was present at that

  Where  historic data are available on the  temperature and dissolved
oxygen profiles within a lake, comparative calculations  among specific
years can be made of the volume of water within a particular portion

  of the profile. Through such a method, a judgment  can be reached
  on the degree of eutrophic advancement within the water body.
    Two additional methods of data display are illustrated  in  Figures
  15 and 16.  In Figure  15  the downstream increase in chlorophyll  a
  is  illustrated  by the  diameters of circles  that are  associated with
     STATION 5
                 ?   7   ?
0    10   20  30  40   50
                                       'LESS THAN
    Figure 15. Chlorophyll concentrations in stabilization area of Sebasticook River.

particular  stations throughout  an  area of  sluggish  water  that  was
heavily  loaded  with  organic  materials.  The  grossly  polluted  water
entering  the upstream portion of the stabilization area supported very
lew  algae.  As  the water  became less  polluted  through  the settling
of suspended  solids  and  the  decomposition and stabilization of the
Figure  16.  Lake  Michigan  sludgeworm  populations, number per  square meter,  1967.


 organic materials, the algae increased substantially  in  numbers. The
 nutrients released by the decomposing  wastes  supplied  the  food to
 support the increased algal mass. The measurement of the chlorophyll
 provides comparative data on the density of the algal population.
  Areas of polluted lake bed may be demonstrated by the sludgeworm
 population as in Figure 16. Lake sediments supporting population of
 sludgeworms greater  than 100 per square foot (approximately  1,000
 per square meter) have been associated with polluted bottom materials.
 The pollution in  the case of Lake Michigan is the result of inflows
 of treated sewage and other wastes from  shoreline developed areas.

            Keporting the Results
    REPORTING  the  findings is equally as important as any  other
      aspect of problem solving. A report represents the end product
of the investigation. It is often the only link between the field investiga-
tion which  may  take considerable  time, money, and effort and  the
public or report recipient.  A report usually  recommends corrective
actions to abate a problem and such efforts are necessary for problem
solving and  environmental enhancement.  Thus, the report may be  the
most  important part  of a  particular investigation especially  because
of the effects that it can have on broad political changes that may be
focused on the problem area.

  Good report writing is a systematic recording of organized thought.
Good technical writing is  clear and concise.  It  involves  an orderly
presentation of the results of an investigation. A report usually includes
data,  data  interpretation,  conclusions  and recommendations for  re-
medial actions.

  When  study objectives are  crystallized,  before the actual  study com-
mences, thoughts about the report should begin. The embryonic mental
concept of the  report  should grow  in organization and content as  the
investigation progresses,  each phase of  the study satisfying a part of
an objective and fulfilling a part of the report.

  The report is  the  end  result of all  the efforts expended on  the
study and should signal the beginning of any indicated remedial actions.
A poor report frequently negates a meticulous field program; a good
report will  often  ensure the success of the project. Any report should
be  planned  as carefully as  the field  operation.  The report's style
will depend  upon its intended  purpose  and the audience to which
it is directed.  It may  be a  record of the findings only. It  may be an
exposition of existing  causes and effects  and projections to other con-
siderations  that reasonably  may occur.  It may  be  a prediction of
conditions to  come and recommendations for actions to be  taken.
The report should be  considered a  document that records all essential
facts in a study that  will  help  meet the needs  of those  concerned,
such as technical agencies and representatives of varied vested interests


who may be for or  against the conclusions  and recommendations, as
well as the public.
  Too often the message that  an investigator could  bring  to denning
a water pollution problem is lost in poor reporting. Basic facts become
mired  in technical explanation.  Concise interpretative reporting sup-
ported by  uncluttered  pertinent  graphic  and  tabular materials will
offer the reader a sound comprehension of  the findings of fact. Present-
ing information that is understandable and meaningful to scientists,
engineers, administrators, and  to the general public  is a challenge to
the water quality investigator in reporting the results of  his investiga-


  The first step in  developing a report is  to make an  outline. The
outline should be considered carefully and should include all necessary
items in  logical continuity. An outline is a  structural skeleton on which
a good report may be built. It must  have  a  beginning, a middle, and
an end.
  A good  outline  will avoid any omissions  of  necessary materials
and save much time in report  writing.  Outlines will vary with report
objectives,  however,  most  reports on water  quality  will contain  the
following major items:
  1. Introduction

  2. Summary

  3. Conclusions
  4. Recommendations

  5. Predictions  based  on  following  the  various  recommendations
  6. Description of study area.

  7. Water uses:
     (a)  Municipal
     (b)  Fish propagation
     (c)  Recreation
     (d)  Industrial water supplies
     (e)  Navigation
     (f)  Irrigation
     (g)  Hydropower

  8. Waste sources:
     (a)  Municipal
     (b)  Industrial


     (c)  Agricultural
     (d)  Other nonpoint
  9.  Effects of pollution on water quality and uses:
     (a)  Bacterial pollution
     (b)  Aquatic life
     (c)  Oxygen demand and dissolved oxygen
     (d)  Aesthetic considerations
  10. Appendix

  An explanation of the methods of study, a tabular presentation  of
water quality data collected, methods of analyzing samples and mathe-
matical calculations all  can  be relegated  to the  report's appendix.
Here they may be available to the technical report reader but, on the
other hand, will  not interfere with the understanding  of the report
by an administrator who may be responsible  for assuming a lead role
in the implementation of the report's recommendation.


  The title, authors, and table of contents pose  initial  decisions for
the report writer.  Long  titles should be  avoided but  must identify
clearly the work accomplished. Acknowledgments of aid  and assistance
are placed usually near the front of the report following  the table  of
contents. A good report reviewer  spends a great deal of  time on his
critique and should be acknowledged.

  The report's introduction should describe  briefly the problem and
its location, the study objectives, the inclusive  dates of  the investiga-
tion, the authority for the study and by whom  the study was performed.
It may relate  briefly  the methods  used  to  conduct the  study, but
generally such description should be placed in the appendix, particularly
when it is lengthily and includes those methods that are not understood
as standard procedures within the profession.
  The summary  of a  report  should  briefly and concisely relate how
the study was accomplished and what was found in the investigation.
The entire  summary should  be as brief as possible and yet contain
the essentials  of  the findings of  fact. Stringent  review  and  editing
always should be  employed.  The   summary  should contain  those
particular  facts that will be used  to  formulate  conclusions.

  The report's conclusions should be concise,  positive,  lucid statements
that can be made from  an evaluation of summarized data and  other
observations and  that enhance an  understanding of the  problem. The
report's summary can be a basis for the formulation of the conclusions.
The report's  narrative and the data it contains must support the
conclusions  presented. Just as a dredge is a  tool to sample a stream


or lake bed, words are tools  to  convey thoughts.  Great care  should
be exercised by the report writer to choose the right words in formulat-
ing the conclusions and recommendations.  Often the summary, con-
clusions, and recommendations may be the only parts of the  reports
that are read by many of the report's audience. There is  often a
difference of opinion among report writers regarding the numbering
of thoughts or paragraphs within the conclusions. From the standpoint
of conciseness and adherence to a particular thought it may be  helpful
to number conclusions in consecutive  order at least initially. After
these have been edited and re-edited the  numbers may be removed
without harm to the text material.
  The report's recommendations contain the words  to  stimulate the
remedial actions to correct the problem that was the cause of instigating
the study. These should be developed with great care and sound logic
and preferably  numbered in consecutive order. Just as the individual
conclusions are supported by statements within  the report's summary,
each recommendation should be  the result of a particular conclusion
and each conclusion  requiring remedial action  should have  its  cor-
relative recommendation. The  summary, conclusions, and recommenda-
tions of a report are  the building block  for  the presentation of a
logical sequence of thought, the purpose of which is to solve a particular
  Predictions may or may not be within the investigation's objectives.
They are of great value to the report's reading audience however to
ascertain the water quality that may be  expected when all  recom-
mendations  are met, or when  50 percent or  30  percent of the recom-
mendations are implemented. Similarly, such predictions would depict
the environmental outlook if no action is taken  as  a result of the
investigation. Predictions  should logically  follow  the  report's  recom-
  The area  description  section should include a general area  location
map, as  well as a specific map of the study reach showing stations
sampled, principal  population centers, and principal waste  sources.
Insignificant streams, highways, railroads, towns  that are not involved,
symbols for types of land use and similar features that are not pertinent
to the study or to the understanding by  the  reader of the  report
should not clutter the base maps. On the other hand, any geographical
feature  that is  mentioned in the text should be shown on the map.
If the study is complex, one map may include locations of point waste
sources. Another map may indicate points for areas of water use,  and
yet a third might show locations of sampling stations.
  The water uses and waste sources  sections need little  explanation.
Each item should be discussed in sufficient  detail to inform the reader
of the essential  information. Monetary benefits and damages associated


with  water uses or  lack  thereof  should  be noted  where  possible.
Measured or computed waste loads to specific stream reaches  should
be ascribed to waste sources.

  The effects of pollution on water quality and uses include the findings
of fact and their analyses, interpretation, and discussion. This is the
report's section that  supports  the  conclusions and recommendations.
This  is a section that defines present water quality and may predict
future quality and uses  when  recommended remedial measures are
effected.  It is  here  that explanation may be proffered to solidify con-
tinuity of presented fact or to clarify a statement. Other studies often
are cited to substantiate  the  writer's  findings or  to  show that other
investigators have found  similar or different phenomena under  com-
parable circumstances. Citations from other works should be referenced

Report Development

  A report consists of a number of logical interrelated processes that
begin with the planning of the study  and end with the distribution
of the report  to the recipients.  It is in the study planning phase that
the report takes embryonic shape. Each phase  of  the  process  is of
equal importance to each  other phase  in the project's success.

  It is in the  organization of data within the  report that the ingenuity
and imagination of  the report writer  will reap great rewards.  Data
first are  arranged in  tables. Lengthy detailed tables should be placed
in  the report's appendix. When placed in  a narrative they  detract
from reading  coherency. Easy-to-follow summary  tables, prepared as a
digest of the tabular  data in the appendix, are helpful in the narrative
to explain and substantiate discussions and conclusions. Graphs should
be  uncluttered, pertinent, and easy to follow.  Broad lines to illustrate
trends are preferred.  As an  artist develops a painting with broad brush
and board strokes, the report's author  should arrange his  graphs to
portray essential information and  should use them  sparingly only to
underscore principal points.

  In  developing a report  the who,  what,  why, when, where,  and
how  questions must  be  answered  at every opportunity. Is  the water
quality degraded?  Where  and  to what extent does degradation take
place? What is the cause?  What particular components are affected?
When did degradation occur?  How can  the  problem  be solved?

  Definite assertions should  be  made  and   noncommittal  language
avoided. The  specific phrase should be chosen rather than the  general
phrase, the definite over the vague, the concrete rather than the abstract.
Qualifying words should  be avoided whenever possible. These  are the


leeches that  suck the blood of decisiveness and  weaken actions  on
implementing remedial solutions.

  Develop the report for the waterway.  Do not say, "Table  1  shows
the  biological  data  collected at the 13  stations; Figure  6  shows the
relationship  between  species diversity and Jones'  slough;  Station  4
shows  the  dissolved  oxygen  to  be  1.0  mg/1."  Insead state,  "The dis-
solved oxygen in Jones' slough, one mile downstream from Jonesville,
was  1  mg/1 on August 14, 1972. An examination of bottom-associated
organisms  in this same stream reach indicated  that only  sludgeworms
could tolerate the degraded water quality (Table  1)."

  Any calculations used in the report should be  checked and rechecked.
Tabular data  should be checked  against bench  cards  and graphic
displays should be  checked  against tabular data for accuracy. Errors
are  prone  to occur  in bibliographic citations  also.  When  an article
is being sent to, a professional  journal for  publication,  the journal's
editorial style,  the manner in which the  references are  cited,  and the
style of presenting references should be  noted. Adherence to journal
style will insure consistency  and enhance the possibility of acceptance
of the article for publication.

  Within  the  water quality report, the biological, microbiological,
chemical and  engineering reports  are segments  of the  whole;  each
should complement the other. The successful approach skillfully blends
the  findings of all disciplines into a cohesive,  inclusive, and  compre-
hensive discussion of the aquatic environmental conditions found and
the measures necessary to enhance those conditions to a level acceptable
for society's uses.


  Revision is a part of  writing. Few writers can produce acceptable
copies  on  the  first  attempt.  Even  the  professional  writers write and
rewrite, revise, and  rearrange.  Quite  often the writer will  discover
serious flaws that require transposition in his  arrangement  of a  com-
pleted  draft. When  this is  the case much time  and  effort  can be
saved  by  using scissors  to   cut  the manuscript  to  pieces  and  tape
to fit the pieces together in a more logical order.

  Reading the  manuscript aloud is a necessary  adjunct to good report
preparation. It tends to accent the flaws in rhythm, as well as  illogical
approaches and conclusions.  Often  laying the manuscript aside for  a
few days will give the writer  a new insight, a more objective approach,
and  a  more  critical  appraisal  of words and structures. It is  no sign
of weakness or  defeat when a manuscript is in need of major revision.
This is a common occurrence in all writing.


  Special  effort should be made  to avoid redundant and tautological
phrases. Often a  report  writer will  become carried  away and may
repeat an entire  paragraph with slightly different sentence structure
but  without  the  addition of substantive  thought. Such  repetition
should be  avoided like a disease and should  be deleted  during the
revision process.

  Care should be exercised to choose the proper words to  express the
idea.  A number of words and expressions commonly are  misused in
water quality reports. Examples of these are:

  Upstream from  should  be used rather than  upstream of or above.
  Similarly, downstream from should be used rather than downstream
  of or below. "From" denotes direction; ''above" or "below" connote
  a vertical comparison rather than the more  horizontal reality asso-
  ciated with comparing two stations on a stream.

  Data takes a plural verb  always; datum is the singular.

  Affect is a  verb meaning  to influence; effect  is most commonly a
  noun meaning result. When used as a verb, effect means to bring
  about or accomplish.

  That is a defining or restrictive pronoun;  which is non-defining or

  Farther is a word  relating  to distance; further is a time or quantity

  Owing to means because of; due to means the result of. Owing to
  may be used at the beginning of a sentence in the sense of because of;
  due to should not be so used; due to should  commonly be preceded
  by some form of the verb to be.

  Its  is the possessive pronoun; it's is the contraction for  it is.
  Rather than saying owing to the fact that, use because.
  Rather than saying different than, use different from.
  Rather than saying in order to, use to.

Review and Final Report
  When  a report is  submitted and is accepted by a reviewer,  both
the writer and reviewer assume certain specific  obligations.  The writer
should submit his report  for review only after completing his own
revision and editing and after striving  for the best  in  manuscript
preparation as his  talents permit.  Further,  he should inform the
reviewer of the report's  purpose and its expected audience  if  these
facts  have not been made clear in the report  itself.  Preferably, a
minimum of two  manuscript copies should be sent  to each reviewer


so that the reviewer may retain one for his files and return  the other
with comments in the report's margin if that is his desire.
  A proper review, on  the other hand, entails consideration of the
technical message in a  report, as well  as the manner in which the
message  is presented. A  review can be directed toward editorial com-
ments only but rarely can a technical review disregard the editorial
aspects.  Good grammar and  technical  competency usually are  in-
separable.  A technical reviewer reads a document for clarity, technical
accuracy, and to determine whether a dual meaning is present in the
sentence  or  paragraph.  The  reviewer  is  obligated to consider the
purpose  that the  report  is designed  to  fulfill;  to be constructive,
thorough and helpful with comments;  to be certain of his own accuracy
in suggesting changes; to  base comments on  the  technical level  and
interest of the report's intended audience; to avoid sarcasm, argument
or destruction of the writer's  style  for the  sake of  expression in the
reviewer's  words; and to appreciate always that the purpose of the
review is to help the report's writer produce a better report.

  Following consideration of all  the  review comments, the  report  is
ready for final assembly. Graphs, pictures, and summary tables should
be rechecked for consistency and subheads and to make sure  that they
follow the narrative reference to them. The appendix is the  place for
detailed procedures and tables. These too should be consistent in format,
understandability, and sequential arrangement.

  Finally,  an appropriate cover should  be designed for  the  report.
The report  cover  serves  as  a wrapping  to  the  package and may
influence the  recipient's opinion  of the report or even his  desire to
examine its contents in more detail. An imaginative cover  design will
pay  dividends. Usually  the most  effective  designs are  simple, direct,
and representative of the report's subject matter.

                      ime  Nuisances
     WHEN associated with water quality, the word slime is a collective
      designation  to describe the iron and  sulfur bacteria and  the
organisms that may  live in association with  them or the particulate
matter that may be  entrapped by the slime  growths. The organisms
are characterized  by their  ability to  transform or deposit significant
amounts of iron or  sulfur and may be filamentous  or single  celled,
aerobic or anaerobic.

  Upon the introduction of waste nutritive materials into watercourses,
biological slimes may develop to the extent that visible masses appear.
Such masses may be  woolly coatings on submersed objects or tuffs and
strands  sometimes  15 inches  or  more long streaming in  the  current
from  the  point of attachment. They vary in color from  milky  white
in fresh new growth  to dull grey-white, brown or rusty-red depending
on age,  nutrition, and the type and amount of solids they  entrap from
the passing water.

  Numerous problems arise  from the presence  of slime  growths  in
waterways. Slimes  may foul commercial fishing  nets rendering  them
ineffective, interfere with fish hatching by coating fish eggs,  and smother
aquatic  fauna that serve as food for fish.  Biological slimes and  the
materials  they entrap,  such as plant fibers,  wood chips  and debris,
blanket  the stream bed and destroy the homes of clean water-associated
organisms. They may cause filling and plugging of  wells and  water
distribution systems.  Sulfate-reducing  bacteria may cause rusty  water
and  pitting of pipes. These organisms may  also cause  odor,  taste,
frothing, color, and turbid water. They destroy the recreational poten-
tial of the water and cause an aesthetically unpleasant waterway.  To
the public, slimes are an obvious visible sign of water pollution.

  Although organic  food usually is abundant where  slime growths
occur, the food supply of iron and sulfur bacteria may be wholly  or
partly inorganic and they  may extract it from  a low concentration
in inflowing waters. Temperature, light, pH, and oxygen supply  affect
these  organisms' growth.  Under  different  environmental conditions
some bacteria  may appear  either as  iron  or  as  sulfur bacteria.


        Plate 24. Slimes form waving masses in polluted streams that destroy the
                habitat for animals and the waterway's aesthetics.

  Most  bacteria  respond  directly to  the  introduction of  organic
materials into a watercourse. They are  the  major  factor in the self-
purification process occurring in most natural  waters. Slime  growths
in natural waters function similarly  to  the  bacteria. Substantial bio-
chemical oxygen demand  reductions  and high purification rates have
been  observed  in  many  shallow  turbulent streams  in  which  slime
growths  were  the major force  in the  self-purification process.

Iron  Bacteria
  Iron  bacteria  are  typically  aerobic organisms,  widely  distributed
in nature, and  commonly observed  in most habitats.  Generally they
are considered fouling  organisms and not agents of  corrosion but they
may contribute  indirectly  to the latter. They obtain energy from the
oxidation of  ferrous iron to  ferric  iron, and  in  the process  ferric
hydrate is precipitated.  The iron withdrawn from the water is deposited
on or in the secretions of the organisms. When  water is passed  through
an  iron  pipe, the iron may  be  obtained from  the pipe  itself. The
amount  of ferric  hydrate  deposited is very large in comparison with
the enclosed cell. The bacteria  are able to produce  a large amount of
brown slime and may impart a  reddish color and an unpleasant odor
to the water. Springs often have a reddish-brown deposit produced by
the activity of  these bacteria  and  stagnant marshes may  produce a
reddish scum  as a result of their activity. As  early  as the middle of
the 19th century, iron bacteria in potable water supplies were reported


to be the positive organisms of taste and odor problems. The flocculent
deposit has been observed  to accumulate  to a depth of 2-feet through-
out several miles of drainage  ditch under natural conditions.

  The identification of nuisance iron bacteria usually has been made
on the basis of microscopic examination.  The  bacteria readily can be
settled or filtered from  water. They  occur  in  such masses either in
bulked activated sludge, naturally in lakes, rivers,  or streams, or in
cooling towers that the material may be examined directly without
concentration. Identification usually  is through comparison of  micro-
scopic specimens with plates in standard reference texts.

Sewage Fungus

  One of the iron bacteria, Sphaerotilus natans  is associated closely
with  sewage and certain industrial wastes. It  has been implicated in
the bulking of activated sludge  and  has  created problems  in  paper-
making wet felts.  Its appearance in  streams as a dominant organism
has been associated with effluents from beet  sugar, paper, rayon, glue,
flour  mills,  textile bleach, by-product coke, dairy  wastes,  and spent
sulphite liquors. Like other iron bacteria,  the organism has the ability
to extract nutrients from large volumes of flowing water at  extremely
low waste concentrations.  It  has been reported to grow in sulphite
waste liquor  dilutions of one in 700,000.  In some polluted  European
rivers, estimates have been made that range as high as 300  tons wet
weight  per day of drifting Sphaerotilus  passing a  given  point.

  The  secondary  effects of biological slimes  in  streams may be as
serious as the initial pollution. A growth of Sphaerotilus acts as a net
and entraps silt, sand, wood fibers, small wood chips and other debris.
It offers shelter  and support for other  organisms such as  bacteria,
protozoa,  nematodes, rotifers,  and occasionally midge  larvae.  There
is a high degree of secondary pollution resulting from  the decomposi-
tion of this mass at its ultimate resting place.

  The most important food requirements necessary for heavy Sphaeroti-
lus growths  appear to be  sugars and organic nitrogen. Further,  there
appears to be competition  between  filamentous and planktonic  algae
and  Sphaerotilus for the  available phosphorus. Under conditions of
active growth, the detached and floating slime materials may be assumed
to be equivalent to the new  material being formed.

Sulfur Bacteria

  Some of the sulfur bacteria are encountered occasionally in water,
particularly in water containing sulfide or elemental sulfur. One of the
typical sulfur  bacteria, Thiobacillus, may bring large amounts of iron


into solution under conditions favorable for its development. It is an
aerobic bacterium  that has the capacity to oxidize sulfur  and,  by its
production of sulfuric acid, has contributed to the destruction of con-
crete sewers and the acid corrosion of metals.

  Sulfate-reducing  bacteria are of importance in water distribution
systems because they produce sulfide, which is dissolved in the water
and makes it objectionable by reason of odor, the presence of suspended
black particles, and the corrosive effect of the sulfide on steel and other
          Plate 25. Massive slime accumulation on commercial fisherman's net.

  Identification of nuisance  sulfur bacteria usually has been made on
the basis of microscopic examination of the suspected material. Samples
of slimes, suspended in water, scrappings from exposed surfaces, or sedi-
ments may be examined directly. Green sulfur bacteria may occur com-
monly in waters high in hydrogen sulfide. Sulfur globules are seldom
if ever deposited within the cell. Purple sulfur bacteria  occur also in
waters containing hydrogen sulfide but the cells are stuffed with  sulfur
globules and  often  are  so intensively  pigmented  that the  individual
cells appear red. In addition there are the colorless filamentous  sulfur
bacteria  that occur in waters where both oxygen and hydrogen sulfide
are present and colorless nonfilamentous sulfur bacteria that usually
are associated with decaying algae.

  The true sulfate-reducing bacteria are microorganisms that use sulfate
as an oxidizing agent for respiration instead of oxygen that is used by
the aerobic bacteria. They produce massive concentrations of hydrogen
sulfide as a respiratory end product, which properly distinguishes them
from the many bacteria that form small amounts of hydrogen sulfide
during  the decomposition process. Natural  waters  invariably contain
the sulfate ion although not in high  concentrations. The  growth of
aerobic bacteria multiplies as food  is supplied by  organic  polluting
materials.  In  this process these bacteria reduce the oxygen  tension to
values  at which the sulfate-reducing  bacteria and other anaerobes can
develop. In addition, the toxic effects of some of the metabolic products
of the aerobic bacteria kill many of the aerobes and enhance the  effects
of pollution. The hydrogen sulfide formed by the sulfate-reducing bac-
teria is a  substrate  for  the  development of colorful sulfide-oxidizing
bacteria and massive growths of these may lead to red waters.
  A massive number of  environmental phenomena  are associated with
the development of sulfate-reducing bacteria. Examples of these include
disagreeable  odors,  blackening of nearby paint  work,  tarnishing of
copper or silver domestic materials, and the blackening of stones, sands
and muds on waterway bottoms.

  The anaerobic corrosion by pitting of iron and steel and sometimes
zinc and the  corrosion  of concrete and  stone principally by sulfuric
acid formed from the hydrogen sulfide are some examples  of the adverse
economic effects of the  sulfate-reducing bacteria. On the opposite  side
of the  environmental ledger, these and associated bacteria  have been
credited with the formation of elemental sulfur in the world's  major
sulfur deposits, with the release of oil from shale,  and  further  in the
genesis of oil deposits themselves.

                 I  lant Nuisances
T 7 EGETATIONAL problems in water may derive from the masses
 V of floating, attached,  and rooted plants. These  growths become
problems only when conditions of existence promote excessive standing
crops  that interfere with a water use. The purpose of this presentation
is to examine the assets, liabilities, interrelationships, and growth stimu-
lators for aquatic plants. More appropriate control of excessive produc-
tion can often be implemented  through an understanding of  these

  Aquatic plants,  like most other living matter, are not all bad or all
good.  Their assets are many and their liabilities  are  most often asso-
ciated with their degree of concentration.
  Plants are a basic and extremely important component of the aquatic
ecosystem. As the  basis of the food chain they are the bread of life for
the aquatic grazing animals. Such animals range in complexity from the
thousands of different kinds of mostly microscopic zooplankton to ducks
and diving birds and fur-bearing animals as well.  Serving not only as
food in themselves, aquatic plants act as the high rise apartment homes
for a  myriad of different  small animals that are  a  vital  link in  the
aquatic food web that culminates in a fish population.

  Aquatic plant apartment homes  provide protection from predators
to their inhabitants.  All aquatic vegetation  areas will support many
times  the  animal  population that may be found  in  non-vegetational
areas within the same ecosystem. Plants are collectors for fish and  the
fishing potential is increased  in  areas adjacent  to standing crops of
vascular plants. Many  fish use these areas as foraging grounds and dine
contentedly upon  the  apartment dwelling inhabitants  of the vascular
plant community.

  These same plants  serve as  the  substrate  for  the  spawn of many
organisms  including snails  and fish such as the yellow  perch. Just forty
years ago,  Rudolfs and Huekelekian noted the effects of sunlight and


green organisms on the  reaeration of streams and found that the  dis-
solved oxygen in water  containing large  quantities of  algae could be
decreased from supersaturation to 17 percent saturation by placing the
water in darkness, and could also be increased to 282 percent saturation
by subjecting it to  diffused light (Rudolfs and Huekelekian,  1931). If
the darkness experiments had been extended over a longer time period,
these early researchers would have no doubt found the oxygen satura-
tion decreasing into an  oxygen deficit.  By  adding oxygen during  the
process  of photosynthesis, plants  decrease the problems  associated with
decomposition of organic materials that may be present.

  Plants tend to purify their surrounding water by other means. Certain
algal and vascular plant populations have been  found to  possess a
bactericidal quality that  reduces the concentration of coliform bacteria
and presumably pathogenic bacteria that would otherwise be associated
with the specific environment.

  In  photosynthesis,  aquatic plants use  carbon  dioxide and liberate
dissolved and free  gaseous  oxygen  at times of  supersaturation.  Since
energy is required in the form of light, photosynthesis is limited to  the
photic zone where  light is  sufficient to facilitate  this process. During
respiration and decomposition, animals and plants consume dissolved
oxygen and liberate carbon dioxide at all depths where they occur.

  Computations of net  photosynthetic  oxygen production for several
lakes yield values lying mostly between  42 to 57 pounds of oxygen  per
acre per day. A year-around study under completely natural conditions
in western Lake Erie showed winter yields of about 11 pounds per acre
per day and summer maxima of about 85 pounds per acre per day. The
annual  oxygen curve  closely followed the  solar  radiation curve. Net
oxygen  photosynthesis in two  Alaskan lakes ranged from  3.4  to  4.0
pounds per acre per day (Goldman, 1960).


  When aquatic plants are  stimulated in some manner to the produc-
tion of a standing crop so abundant that it  interferes with a water use,
plant nuisances develop.  It is at this point where citizens, whose normal
use of the water has been restricted by an abundant plant growth, de-
mand remedial measures and control of the nuisance. Plant  nuisances
may curtail  or eliminate bathing, boating, water skiing and sometimes
fishing;   perpetrate  psychosomatic  illness  in man by emitting vile
stenches; impart tastes and  odors to water supplies, shorten filter runs
or otherwise hamper industrial and municipal water treatment; impair
areas of picturesque beauty; reduce or restrict resort trade; lower water
front property values; interfere with the manufacture of a product in
industry such as  paper; on occasion become  toxic to certain warm


blooded animals that ingest the water; reduce the use potential of irri-
gation waters through evapo-transpiration; foul irrigation siphon tubes
and trash racks; and cause skin rashes and hayfever-like symptoms in
   Most algal problems occur when growth conditions permit the forma-
tion of a "bloom."  A bloom is  an unusually large number of cells
(usually one or a few species) per unit of surface water, which can be
seen as a green, blue-green, brown or even brilliant red discoloration of
the water.

   Algae are found  in every non-toxic aquatic habitat.  Constituting a
primary source of food for fish and other aquatic  animals,  they may
be free-floating and  free-swimming, or attached to the bottom sub-

   Excessive  algal growths are troublesome in many ways. When present
in great numbers, algae may:  give an  unsightly blue-green or green
appearance  to the water,  form a massive  floating scum that obstructs
navigation or impairs water use,  in decay produce noxious odors that
drive people from the area, remove dissolved oxygen  from the water
when decomposing and kill aquatic life as a result, foul fish harvesting
equipment and water intake devices, reduce the carrying  capacity of
water  distribution systems, and destroy bathing  and other water use
areas.  Stigeoclonium, Oedogonium, Ulothrix,  and  Cladophora  have
been problems in irrigation systems where they have restricted flow in
the canals, and fouled pumps and tubes. Cladophora has been a prob-
lem of great concern in  Lakes  Ontario, Erie,  and Michigan where
abundant growths have become detached through wave and wind action
to be washed upon  a beach where they decompose  to  make  the area

   Blue-green algae  have been severe  nuisance problems, especially to
those engaged in water oriented recreation  in most eutrophic lakes.
Chara, a branched erect alga that becomes  encrusted with calcareous
deposits giving the plant a rough surface has become a problem in many
high alkalinity lakes  and ponds. Often Chara becomes abundant follow-
ing the destruction of aquatic vascular plants. Should the lake or pond
bed be composed of a peat-type material,  Chara can become detached
from its mooring and bring substantial quantities  of bottom with it
when it rolls to the surface in 9-inch thick rafts that obstruct navigation,
destroy aquatic aesthetics, and emit vile  odors. The author  has wit-
nessed  dead tree  stumps,  with root  systems that measure 20-feet in
diameter, embedded in these floating Chara rafts.

  In highly enriched streams, green algal streamers that may exceed
50-feet in length  provide  an excellent substrate  for black fly larvae,
midge larvae, and other nuisance animals.


Conditions  of Existence
  Dispersal of water plants is accomplished by water transport, migra-
tory birds, air transport of algae, and by domestic and other animals.
Seeds may remain viable after passing through the digestive tract of
animals, and seeds and other  means of propagation may be transported
by animals externally. Water plants usually produce an abundance of
seeds but propagation  through vegetative  means  is a most effective
method of distribution. A small broken portion of a healthy plant may
soon reestablish itself, when,  in settling out of the water, it roots again
on a suitable substrate. Most  aquatic plants are perennials and are well
adapted to withstand heavy cropping by animals.

  Plant populations will develop in the aquatic environment wherever
conditions are suitable. Plants  have been found growing at a depth of
500  feet in  Lake  Tahoe (Frantz and Cordone,  1967). Providing the
aquatic environment is non-toxic, light intensity and nutrients are the
principal controlling factors for planktonic growths. Temperature is an
important factor with some  of the nuisance forms such as blue-green
algae. Light  intensity, water temperature, wave  action, flow velocity,
nutrient abundance, water depth and type of substrate, all interact to
govern  the establishment of weed beds or weed sparsity. Both bottom
sediments,  as well as the water contribute  nutrients to  the plants
 (Martin et  al.,  1969;  McRoy  and  Barsdate,  1967). Sediments supply
inorganic nutrients through the plants relatively weak root system.

  Many submersed plants, as well as algae, continue active in winter,
providing ice and snow cover are  not sufficiently opaque to reduce light
penetration  so  that growth is  impeded. Once established  in an  area,
rooted aquatic plants  exhibit a high degree of persistence and efficiency
of propagation. Some reproduce only by means of seeds formed in insect
pollinated flowers  borne at or above the water's surface. Others propa-
gate by buds, tubers, roots and node  fragments in addition to produc-
ing viable seeds. Factors that  limit growth include insufficient light,
insufficient nutrients, physical instability because of water level fluctua-
tion and current and wave action,  an unsuitable  bottom stratum, and
competition by other plants and animals. Considering that the physical
properties of the environment  are favorable, the  nutrients become the
prime  stimulators and  controllers  of aquatic  plant production. The
most important required nutrients are carbon, nitrogen, phosphorus,
certain  trace  elements, organic  growth factors, and, in the case of dia-
toms, silica.

Limiting  Factors

  Of the required nutrients, one will become limiting for future growth
if other physical and chemical  features of the aquatic environment are


suitable. The  term, "limiting'' is one that has caused much misunder-
standing among many of those who attempt to evaluate limiting factors.
Something is always limiting to the further growth of a biological popu-
lation. That which is limiting at one level of production may not limit
at another. The term "limiting", when associated with eutrophication
and its control should refer to that substance which  when added will
stimulate a biological population to increase and become restrictive, or
more detrimental, to a given water use.

  Hutchinson (1957) states, "Of all elements present in living organisms,
phosphorus is  likely to be the most important ecologically, because the
ratio of phosphorus to other elements in organisms  tends to be greater
than the ratio in primary sources of the biological elements. A deficiency
of phosphorus, is therefore, more likely to limit productivity." Research
over the succeeding years has not produced evidence that would dis-
credit this basic observation.

  Basic sources of nutrients to waterways are (1) tributary streams carry-
ing land runoff and domestic and industrial wastes, (2) the biological
and chemical interchange between bottom sediments and superimposed
water,  and (3) precipitation  from the atmosphere.  Tributary  streams
have been reported to carry 21 pounds of phosphorus per square mile
of drainage area in sparsely settled forested areas, 225 pounds of  phos-
phorus per square mile of drainage area in agricultural areas, and  more
than 6,000 pounds in densely populated urban areas (Keup, 1968).

  The question is sometimes asked, how much algae  can be grown from
a given amount of phosphorus? Allen (1955) found  that the maximum
that could be  grown in the laboratory on sewage, an excellent growth
media  for algae, was 1  to 2 g/1 (dry weight) and in  the field in sewage
oxidation ponds the maximum  was  0.5 g/1. Thus, assuming optimal
growth conditions and maximum phosphate utilization, the maximum
algal crop that could be grown from 1 pound of phosphorus would be
1,000 pounds of wet algae  under laboratory conditions or 250  pounds
wet  algae under field  conditions. Considering a cellular phosphorus
content of 0.7 percent  in algae,  1 pound of phosphorus  could be dis-
tributed among  1,450 pounds of algae  on  a  wet weight  basis.  A con-
sidered judgment suggests  that  to prevent biological nuisances,  total
phosphorus should not exceed 100 ^g/l P at any point within the flow-
ing stream, nor should 50 ^g/1 be exceeded where waters enter a lake,
reservoir, or other standing water body. To enhance the quality of this
Nation's lakes, reservoirs and estuaries, we must reduce to the ultimate
phosphates, and all other nutrients where feasible, from all controllable

  With suitable environmental conditions,  plants  will  develop  and
avail themselves of the space and available nutrients. With the applica-


tion of chemicals to a segment of the aquatic environment, it is possible
to change the predominant growth  from vascular plants to planktonic
algae or attached algae and visa versa almost at will.

  There are over  17,000 species of  algae and fresh water forms which
are grouped into  blue-green  algae, green  algae, yellow-green algae,
golden-brown algae and diatoms,  red algae, euglenoids and dinoflagel-
lates. Some of these  are capable of producing physiologically active
metabolites that may function as toxins, growth inhibitors, or growth
stimulators  to themselves or to associated algae. Some algae are born to
self-destruct. After a  growth period when  extracellular products have
accumulated, it is thought that these  act as  deterrents and  that  the
plant, in a  sense,  manufactures its  own  algicide (Prescott, 1960). The
extracellular substances (possibly of a toxic nature) have prevented  the
growth  of  certain other species, and thereby the plant that begins its
development first in  a body of water quickly  assumes a dominance,
depending upon its inherent cell division rate. With auto-destruction
comes a reduction in the  inhibitor, thus another species or  group of
species is permitted to develop.

  Natural  waters  contain  these active agents that  are secreted and ex-
creted by fresh-water algae. The toxicity of these agents to other algae
and bacteria and  to  fish varies constantly  and is not well understood
in the aquatic environment. It has been postulated that  algae  secrete
not just one substance but several, some  antibiotic, others stimulating.
The amount secreted and the net result  of the  secretions would be
determined by the prevalence of one group of substances over the others.
Thus sequences of algal blooms may be expected to occur under condi-
tions of a nutrient supply in excess of critical values.

               Animal  Nuisances
     WHEN aquatic animals become abundant they can become pests and
     nuisances to man because of their biting habits and their sheer
mass of numbers. Some aquatic animals serve as intermediate hosts for
parasites  that may  attack man directly  and some serve as  vectors  of
diseases that affect the health and welfare of man.


  Sponges in irrigation systems can cause  hydraulic problems  when
growing in association with  other aquatic  animals  and plants. This
undesirable effect is compounded by the favorable substrate they create
for a wide variety of other aquatic pest organisms  that form a com-
munity of life in association with the sponges.

  The fresh-water Bryozoa are a group of organisms referred to as pipe
moss. They attach to logs, rocks, and other submersed objects usually
where the light is relatively dim. They have been found in a number of
irrigation systems growing in profusion on concrete, canal linings, sub-
merged inlet screens, louvers, trash racks, and on the inside of pipes.
The individual  animal is microscopic. It secretes an  individual protec-
tive layer around the body wall and many of these individual animals
grow in close association to produce a connected highly branched antler-
like colony.


  Midges have created nuisance problems around the shores of a num-
ber of lakes, ponds, and swampy areas. The females of some genera have
mouth parts adapted for blood sucking and bite most actively at dusk
or in the shade during daytime. These minute insects  are annoying
pests and are variously called midges, gnats,  punkies,  and "no-see-ums."
Their bites can cause considerable irritation and itching and even fever.
Human individuals  differ in their susceptibility to  the bites of these


  The eggs of the biting midges are deposited on plants or vegetable
matter in shallow water. In about three  days they produce a 12-seg-
mented larva that leads an  aquatic existence for 6 to 12 months  after
which it passes into a pupal stage from which the adult fly emerges.

  Other  non-biting type midges have  proven to  be  nuisances around
lakes  because of the great numbers of the adults. These hoards of adult
midges have been known to get into  children's  eyes and  noses,  turn
houses black with insects, and literally stall traffic along lake shore roads
in the evening because  of the inability of  drivers to see. Also because
of this abundant food supply, spiders increase in numbers where midges
are prevalent and their webs drape the  trees, bushes, and buildings and
create an additional nuisance.

  Midge larvae feed almost exclusively  on  algae that have settled to the
bottom muds and thus  are  found in great numbers  in  organically en-
riched lakes that are high in algal production. Under favorable condi-
tions, the larval midge population may exceed 1,000 larvae per square
foot of lake or pond bottom. Since emergence of the adult midges  takes
place from the  entire surface of the  lake at  approximately the  same
time,  nuisances  result from the  mass  of  adult numbers. The adults
swarm during the late afternoon or early evening in their mating flight.
The swarm has been described  as being composed almost entirely of
males, beginning with a few individuals, and  increasing in proportion
as others join its ranks.  Like a single unit, the mass moves forward for
a short distance, then drifts back with the wind, then  moves forward
again and  so on and on in  endless repetition. There  is much weaving
in and out and up and down among the  individuals within the mass.
This  produces  a somewhat  regular rise and fall of the  whole mass in
the vertical plane.

  Estimates have been made of  the adult emergence from  bloodworm
larvae for  Clear Lake, California. The total seasonal production  from
a 44  square mile lake area  was estimated  at slightly over  700 billion
gnats or 356 tons of organisms. One night's emergence was estimated at
31/2 billion gnats. This  was  from an area where sampling  indicated a
population of 1,000 bloodworms per square foot of bottom. When this
mass of minute organisms becomes concentrated along one shore because
of the wind drift, the results can approach catastrophic proportions.

Mayflies and Caddisflies

  Mayflies and caddisflies  are among those organisms that water pollu-
tion biologists refer to as clean-water-associated. Because of biologic or
climatic phenomena or both these organisms may cause nuisances when
the adults emerge in great numbers.


   The immature forms of these organisms can be found in nearly all
 types of unpolluted aquatic habitats. Most species spend about one year
 as an  aquatic organism but there are those that spend two years in the
 immature stage. Unusual hoards of mayflies may leave the water on the
 first suitable day after adverse weather conditions.  The adults are fragile
 insects that die within a few hours and when they occur in hoards their
 dead bodies may clog ventilator ducts and sewers and may also cause
 temporary traffic difficulties.

   Fremling (1960) reports on mayfly problems caused by the large bur-
 rowing mayfly, Hexagenia  bilineata  (Say), in some areas of the Missis-
 sippi River. Upon emerging ". .  . the mayflies rest on terrestrial objects
 during the day, and under their weight, tree limbs become pendulous
 and even break. Residents  of summer homes  along the river find their
 houses covered and  their yards littered  by the insects. A constant rustle
 is heard as the insects, are disturbed and fly up from their resting places.
 The dead insects and their cast nymphal exuviae  form  foul-smelling
 drifts where  they  are washed up along the shore . . .  crews  of the tow-
 boats which transport freight on the Upper Mississippi River find may-
 flies to be a navigational hazard . . . Visibility is greatly reduced by
 the mass of insects in the searchlight  beams. The crushed insects render
 the decks, ladders, and equipment of the boats slippery and dangerous.
 The towboats must of necessity be completely hosed off with  water after
 each encounter with a large swarm of mayflies."

  A number of years ago the dead bodies of mayflies were piled as high
 as four feet on some of the bridges  crossing the Mississippi River and
 snowplows were used to clear a path for traffic. The aduit mayflies  are
 not equipped with mouth parts and therefore take no food during this
 stage of  their life history. The adults' sole purpose is to complete  the
 reproductive cycle.
Plate 26. Mosquito[Psorophora ci/iafa (Fabricius)] one of the largest of Illinois mosquitoes.


  Likewise, adult caddisflies have created nuisances and health  prob-
lems in certain areas. They swarm around the city lights during most of
the summer and often blanket store windows. Masses of the insects dart
into the faces of people, nutter under their eyeglasses, and under  open-
necked clothing.  The minute setae that are dislodged from the  wings
and bodies of the caddisflies can cause swelling and soreness around the

eyes of hypersensitive individuals. The individual may exhibit a typical
hayfever-like symptom as a result. Again, spider webs become pendulous
with captured caddisflies  making the riverside homes unsightly.  Both
caddisflies and mayflies have been reported by a number of authors to
be a cause of allergic distress.


  In 1947 Ross estimated the Nation's annual "mosquito bill" at $100
million because of mosquito-borne diseases, and close to $50 million for
screening, pest control programs, and depressed real estate values. Mos-
quitoes cause an economic loss both as nuisances and as disease carriers.
  Mosquitoes in the nuisance group inflict financial loss in various ways.
In some sections  they restrict the vacation season by inflicting painful
bites, with subsequent loss of patronage to resort establishments.  They
attack domestic animals and fowl and, when bites are inflicted in large
numbers,  cause loss of weight  and ill health. It has been established
that 500 mosquitoes will  draw about  %0  of a pint of blood per day
from an exposed animal. (Ross, 1947). Sometimes mosquitoes become so
abundant that they interfere with  or stop work by man with a con-
sequent loss of labor and accomplishments. Mosquitoes are among the
worst nuisances of the out-of-doors and prevent  enjoyment of recrea-
tional facilities by many people seeking exericse and relaxation.

  While a fertilized female mosquito  usually  cannot produce  fertile
eggs without ingesting blood, at least three species are able to deposit
the first batch of  eggs without a blood meal. The eggs of two common
genera are deposited in  water  while  those of Aedes  are deposited  in
shaded localities on ground subject  to intermittent flooding. The  num-
ber of eggs laid  at one  time varies between  100 and  400. The eggs
develop into larvae, which  are voracious feeders and molt four  times
before developing into a pupa. The pupal stage is a non-feeding  trans-
formation part of the life  history from which the fully developed  insect
emerges. The male mosquito does not suck blood but feeds upon  the
nectar of flowers and the juices of fruit.

  Water areas with little  wave action, an abundant cover in the form
of aquatic vegetation, an  abundant food supply in the form of humus
or other organic  matters,  and floating particles of microorganisms  are


a preferred habitat for mosquito egg deposition and for the develop-
ment of mosquito  larvae. The mosquito  production of the  lake  or
reservoir appears to be directly proportional to the amount of inter-
section line between plants and the water surface. Situations with  an
abundance of intersection line provide mosquito larvae with food and
protection from natural enemies and also furnish the adult mosquitoes
with an ideal environment for egg deposition. The intersection value of
various aquatic plants  varies according to the percentage of vegetation
cover occurring at the water surface.
  Mosquitoes serve as  vectors for the three principal arthropod-borne
viruses in the United States. Birds serve as natural hosts and man as  an
accidental host, but clinical disease in man is  produced by all three
viruses.  These  are  western  equine, eastern equine  and St.  Louis en-
cephalitis. Western equine and St.  Louis encephalitis occur primarily
in the 22 western  States, whereas  eastern equine encephalitis occurs
primarily in the Atlantic and Gulf Coast States.

  Mosquitoes serve as the  intermediate host  in the transmission  of
parasitic diseases such as malaria and filariasis. Filarial worms, Wuchere-
ria bancrofti, are slender nematode parasites that invade the circulatory
and lymphatic  systems, muscles, connective tissues or serous cavities  of
the vertebrates. The organism is carried by 41 species of mosquitoes and
produces elephantiasis, which is characterized  by  massive  glandular
swelling. It is  a disease  that occurs commonly among the  people  of
Puerto Rico.

Other Insects

  Black flies, Simulium spp. are a pest to fishermen and woodsmen and
may incapacitate both man  and animals. Large  numbers  of cattle,
horses, and other domestic animals have perished from the depravation
of these flies in Europe and America. Their bite may produce an ulcer-
like sore that is due to salivary toxins. In susceptible individuals there
may be marked inflammation, local swelling, and general  incapacity.
As carriers of human diseases, black flies are not serious in this  country
although many persons may get severe dermatitis from their bites.

  The  adult  fly  deposits  eggs  on  vegetation or  other  solid  sub-
strate just under the surface of swift water,  especially where the current
is broken. Overwintering sometimes occurs in the egg stage. The eggs
hatch below the water surface to produce larvae which attach  them-
selves to a solid submerged substrate.  The larval stage may last from
two to six weeks. During the last stage of development the larvae con-
struct silken cocoons in which the insects develop into pupae, a growth
stage preceding development and emergence  of the adult. The  cocoons
are firmly cemented to the substrate and create roughened surfaces  on


canal linings. These extensive  areas  of  pupal encasements  increase
resistence to  water  flow in canals. The cases are persistent and often
require mechanical removal from the canal linings.

  Deer flies and horse flies are of medical importance not only because
they are  aggressive blood-sucking pests but also because certain species
transmit  diseases to man and animals. As  mechanical vectors they may
carry pathogenic organisms on their mouth parts and bodies. Chrysops
discalis, the western deer  fly, can transfer tularemia to both man  and
animal and  remains infective  for at least  two weeks. Occasionally
anthrax germs also are carried on the beaks of horse flies and deer  flies
between  the  diseased  and healthy animals  and  sometimes to man.
Anthrax  is highly infective to all classes of mammals, including man.

  The stable fly, Stomoxys calcitrans resembles a housefly  in appear-
ance. Its  mouth parts are adapted for piercing and for sucking blood
and it is  a vicious biter. The fly sucks blood for two to five minutes or
longer until its abdomen becomes distended. In some of the Tennessee
Valley Authority impoundments, extensive  breeding areas  have been
created for this organism by the aquatic vegetation  and algae that con-
centrate on the water surface in dense mats of decomposing plants. In
some waterways this pest  breeds prolifically in floatage created by the
bodies of dead mayflies and aquatic vegetation. In the past, extensive
recreational areas have had to be closed in the Tennessee area because
of this pest.  The flies  feed repeatedly on animals since at  least three
blood meals  are required for egg production. Cattle and horses have
been known to die because of frequent and heavy attacks from fly bites.
The flies' habit of leaving one animal to resume feeding upon another
makes the stable fly an ideal mechanical carrier of  disease-producing


  Leeches are found in warm protective shallow water where there is
little wave action  and where plants,  stones,  and debris offer  conceal-
ment. They are chiefly nocturnal in their activities  and remain hidden
under stones and vegetation  in  daylight.  The majority of leeches are
found in shallow water up to a  depth of  approximately six feet. They
require substrates to which they can adhere and consequently are  rare
on pure mud and clay bottoms. Some species persist in intermittent pools
by  burrowing  into  the  bottom  mud where they  construct  a small
mucous-lined cell in which they live. Leeches are dormant in  winter and
bury themselves in the upper part of the bottom materials just beneath
the frost line.
  Although several genera take  blood from man, only two  genera are
true blood-sucking leeches. These require only an occasional full meal


of blood because specimens have been  kept  for more than  two years
without feeding. The leech of greatest concern to bathers is Macrobdella
decora, the northern blood-sucking leech. It is a swamp animal princi-
pally and normally inhabits the shallows in the vicinity of the shoreline
where  land and water meet.  It may be found concealed under stones
and logs  where, when well fed, it rests quietly or, when hungry, lies and
waits for frogs or warm-blooded animals. Like all  other blood suckers,
this leech attaches to the host with the caudal sucker and explores with
the anterior end until a suitable spot is located where the  skin is thin.
The oral sucker is then attached tightly  and three painless incisions are
made by a back-and-forth rotary motion of the jaws. Sufficient blood is
taken  to distend the stomachs  so that the leech may be five times as
heavy  as it was  when it began feeding. When  the leech  has filled  its
digestive tract it leaves the host voluntarily but the incisions keep on
bleeding for  a variable time  because of the persistence of the salivary
anticoagulant, hirudin, which  the leech injects into the incision and
which  causes  a more or less intense  prolonged itching. If  the leech is
permitted to  complete its meal,  this substance is largely or entirely with-
drawn from the wound but if the meal is curtailed, it acts as an irritant.
  Any disturbance of the water, such as is  caused  by a wading animal,
attracts the leeches  partly because of the  mechanical disturbance that
stimulates the tactile organs and partly because of the animal emana-
tions that stimulate  the organ's chemical  sense. Thus, leeches are  at-
tracted by bathers and  tend to  congregate and remain about the docks
and stones of  the bathing area. They are strong and rapid swimmers and
Plate 27. Interim Canal, California,  with Asiatic clams completely covering canal bed.

can invade a particular area  from other sections of the  lake or pond.
Leeches are most active at maximal water temperatures and their period
of greatest prevalence  in  the bathing area corresponds  with  that  of
maximal water temperature in late summer.
  Macrobdella  decora may be identified by its bright striking color pat-
term, large size, and soft slimy very contractual body. It has a medium
longitudinal  role of  20 to  22 orange  or light red  spots. A similarly
arranged series of small black spots on each side close to the margins,
find a rich orange ventral surface  that sometimes is plain but usually
is spotted with black. Five pairs of eyes are arranged in a regular arch
near the anterior dorsal margin. The last two are especially difficult to
see in pigmented specimens. The  body is elongated, flattened, smooth,
very soft,  slimy and very contractual.  The maximum extended length
is seven to eight inches, whereas the usual extended length  is four to
six inches.

Other Organisms
  The Asiatic clam, Corbicula fluminea has caused significant problems
of operation  and maintenance in irrigation and other canals in several
areas. These  organisms have  contributed to silt  accumulation in two
ways: by continually moving the top of the bottom sediments and cover-
ing any material that settled  out,  thus holding the settled material on
the bottom of  the  canal, and by  removing suspended solids from the
         Plate 28. Closeup of undisturbed canal bed, Interim Canal, California,
                      with multitudes of Asiatic clams.

water  through their process of filtration and depositing the solids on
the canal bed combined with a proteinaceous slime  that does not go
back into suspension readily. In certain canals, the density of  these
organisms has been found to exceed 5,500 per square foot. The bed of
a canal system can become heavily graveled with clams.
   The Asiatic clam probably will become a nuisance to water treatment
plant operators and has become a  nuisance to  the  sand and gravel
industry in portions  of  the  Tennessee Valley.  Clams  present in  the
river gravel are introduced into the aggregate. Mechanical separation is
almost impossible. When the  clams are poured with the concrete aggre-
gate, the  live clams move toward  the surface, which  leaves  a  void.
Moving concrete sometimes results.

   A variety of organisms including snails, bloodworms, sow bugs, and
water fleas have been reported as pests in the distribution systems of
domestic water supplies. The dates  for most of  the  infestations  were
several years ago and public awareness and better operation and main-
tenance of the water treatment plants have reduced greatly the poten-
tial for such organisms to be found in the present-day  treatment system.

    Uther Health Related Aquatic
              Animals and  Plants
Swimmer's Itch
    CORT (1928) first demonstrated that the larvae of certain trematode
    worms of birds and mammals  can penetrate the skin of man and
produce a dermatitis characterized by papular eruptions.  "Swimmer's
itch," schistosome dermatitis, or "water rash'' has attracted increasing
attention since  1928, particularly  in the lake regions of the North-
Central United States where tourist trade has been affected.
  The cercariae  causing swimmer's itch are free-swimming, colorless,
and about 0.7 mm in length. With proper illumination they are just
visible to the unaided eye as they swim rapidly in an irregular manner
or hang suspended in water. The  adults are parasitic in the hepatic,
portal, and mesenteric veins of birds and mammals. The fertilized  fe-
male migrates  to  the smaller  intestinal  veins and  deposits  eggs that
work their way through the intestinal wall into the lumen, from which
they are passed with the feces. Each egg contains an  embryo that, upon
hatching, develops into a ciliated free-swimming organism  termed a
miracidium.  If a suitable snail is  located, the miracidium penetrates
into its soft  tissues, and a further  type  of development takes place in
which  a  sporocyst  and then cercariae  are  produced. Following this
period of development,  the  cercariae emerge from  the snail host and
swim about in search of the proper vertebrate host  to penetrate where
they can develop to maturity in the blood vessels to complete  the life
  The cycle  is interrupted accidentally by the occasional  penetration
of cercariae into  the epithelial layer of the skin of bathers, and swim-
mer's  itch results. Following such  penetration, the  cercariae are  soon
destroyed by unsuitable human body fluids and their bodies remain at
the penetration site to cause acute  inflammatory reactions. Apparently
the cercariae do not penetrate completely until the bather has emerged
from the water;  however, a few minutes after  emergence the victim
experiences a tingling sensation in exposed  parts of  the body. Soon,
minute red spots can be seen at the points where the organisms  have
penetrated the skin. The  tingling  sensation may then disappear, and


it may be a number of hours before a distinct  itching is felt,  and the
minute spots enlarge to form discrete red elevations of the skin %6 to
% inch in diameter. Occasionally the elevations become  pustular. The
degree of discomfort and bodily  reaction  resulting  from  infestation
varies with the sensitivity of the individual and the degree of infesta-
tion.  With  particularly  sensitive persons, considerable pain, fever, and
severe itching may occur along  with noticeable  swelling of the affected
areas; in  others the discomfort may be only minor and transitory, and
some bathers appear immune to infestation. The skin elevations typi-
        Figure 17. Life cycle of swimmer's itch cercariae. E. Egg; M. Miracidiun
                    S. Sporocyst; R. Redia; and C. Cercariae.

cally disappear within a week, but the redness may persist for some time

  Cercariae may live in the water from 24 to 60 hours or more after
emerging from  the snail host  (Brackett,  1941). It is probably safe to
assume that under natural conditions the life span is only 24 hours or
less, and in wind-agitated water it may be  considerably shorter. The
types of cercariae capable of producing swimmer's itch typically emerge
from the snail host  quite regularly at a  definite  and more  or less re-
stricted period each  day. The  majority  of  forms emerge about 4:30
a.m., and one type emerges at about 9:30 p.m. Because cercariae prob-
ably survive  at  least  24  hours under conditions in nature,  it appears
during an  outbreak  that the causative  organisms may be  present in
water at all  times  of the day.  The typical emergent activity of the
cercariae may be influenced to  some extent  by factors existing in the

  There is evidence that submersed aquatic  plants promote  swimmer's
itch. Some of the species of snails capable of  harboring the causative
organism live in and upon stands of submersed  aquatic plants that often
grow adjacent to or in the vicinity of bathing areas. Also, at least two
species of cercariae attach themselves to objects and may cling to such
vegetation. Under these circumstances, the removal of  the  submersed
vegetation will usually eliminate infections to bathers by the  parasite.

  Cercariae emerge in greatest  numbers  during the warmest weather.
Infected snails kept  at low  temperatures cease to shed cercariae; how-
ever, if these snails are brought into a warmer environment such as a
room-temperature laboratory bench, cercariae emerge suddenly in large
numbers regardless of light conditions. Cercariae  are also attracted by
light and swim  actively in the direction of the greatest light intensity.
These characteristics  facilitate the identification of the organism in the
laboratory. Although active swimming by the cercariae may  be limited
to 50 feet or  less, it is thought that they  may be carried distances of %
mile or more by the movement of surface water. In many places bathers
are troubled  only when there is  an inshore wind of not too great inten-
sity, and only those who bathe in the  shallow  water close to shore are
affected. Those who swim in  the  deeper water farther from shore are
scarcely bothered even though they swim directly over an infected bed
of snails.

  Cort (1950) listed 18 species of schistosome cercariae, excluding those
that develop  to maturity in man in other areas of the world, that have
been reported to cause dermatitis. Brackett  (1941)  states that "one of
the most striking and clear-cut  features  of schistosome dermatitis out-
breaks is the  fact that probably over 90 percent of the more  severe out-
breaks are caused by Cercaria stagnicolae in varieties of the snail Stagni-


               Figure 18. Cercoria of the type causing swimmer's itch.

cola emarginata."  The  relationship between this snail  and the  most
severe  outbreaks of swimmer's itch is  promoted by:  (1) clean, sandy
beaches ideal for swimming and preferred by the snail; (2) peak popula-
tions of the snail host that develop in  sandy-bottomed lakes of glacial
origin; (3) the greatest development of adult  snails that  do not die oft
until toward the end of the bathing season; and (4) the cycle of cercarial
infection so timed that the greatest numbers of cercariae emerge during
the hot weather in  the middle of the summer when the greatest amount
of bathing is done.
             Plate 29. Snails known to harbor swimmer's itch cercariae.

               Plate 30. Snails known to harbor swimmer's itch cercariae.
  No.    Snail                       Collector
1. 284448 Lymnaea (Lymnaea)        Bryant Walker
         stagnalis (Linnaeus).

2. 569286 Lymnaea (Radix)           F. C. Baker
          auricularia (Linnaeus)
3.30255  Lymnaea (Stagnicola)
          palustris elodes (Say).

4. 30252  Lymnaea (Stagnicola)
          emarginata (Say).

5. 251214 Physaparkeri Currier.
                                  L. H. Streng

                                  L. H. Streng

                                  H.  B. Baker

6. 334392 Physa ampullacea Gould    W. Westgate

7. 432259 Gyraulus parvus (Say).
                                   J. P. E. Morrison
Detroit, Mich.

Lincoln Park,
Chicago, 111.

Grand Rapids,

Lake Houghton,

Douglas Lake,

Klamath Falls,
Boulder Junction,
  United States National Museum.
   In the Lake States the seasonal cycle of the parasite in relation to the
life  cycle of the intermediate  host snail determines  the seasonal varia-
tion in  the dermatitis infections. The first case on the bathing beaches
usually  occurs  in  late  June or  early  July when the snails  infected in
the  fall begin to give off cercariae in  appreciable  numbers. Exact dates

may vary somewhat with the season and with water temperature. During
July,  the peak of  cercarial  production  is reached, and the infections
reach their highest intensities.  Production is especially influenced by
hot spells that speed up the development of the cercariae and increase
the numbers that  escape. Later in  the summer  the dermatitis  cases
lessen, chiefly  because of the death of infected snails;  in many places
there  is a complete cessation before  the end  of the swimming season.
When the adult snails die early, the dermatitis season is shortened  since
there  is practically no infection of juvenile snails during the summer.
  Schistosome  dermatitis is widespread.  As summarized by Cort (1950),
it  has been  reported  from the  United  States, Asia,  Japan, Australia,
Wales, France, Switzerland, Cuba, Mexico, and  Canada. In the United
States, schistosome  dermatitis has caused greatest problems in the North
Central lake region. In addition to Wisconsin,  Minnesota,  and Michi-
gan,  schistosome  dermatitis has been reported from  North Dakota,
Illinois, Nebraska,  Texas, Florida, Washington,  Oregon, Nevada, Okla-
homa, California, Connecticut, Rhode Island, New York, and Iowa.
  The pathology and symptomatology of schistosome dermatitis  is de-
scribed by fielding (1942): "The resistance  of man, an abnormal  host,
to these cercariae explains the severe reaction. Its nature indicates that
the cercariae are walled off by the  host and destroyed in the epithelial
layers of  the skin.  Penetration  of  the  skin  occurs  when  the
film  of  water  evaporates.  The  cercariae  adhere  with   the  ven-
tral suckers and enter in about 5 minutes through the action of  their
anterior spines and lytic secretions, either between or through the pores.
After  29 hours no cercariae remain but the reaction persists around the
burrows. They evoke an acute inflammatory response with edema,  early
infiltration of neutrophils and lymphocytes, and later invasion of eosino-
phils. As the water evaporates a prickling sensation is followed by the
rapid development of urticarial  wheals, which subside in about half an
hour  leaving a few minute  macules. After some hours severe itching,
edema and the transformation  of the macules into papules and  occa-
sional pustules occur, reaching  maximal intensity in 2 to  3 days. The
papular and sometimes hemorrhagic rash heals in a week or more, but
may be complicated by scratching and secondary infection.  Individuals
vary in susceptibility and show slight or severe reactions."

Schistosomiasis, the  Blood Fluke Disease of  Man

  Schistosomiasis caused by Schistosoma mansoni, is widely distributed
throughout Puerto Rico and is  an important health problem  there. It
has been estimated that up to 12 percent of the population are infected
(Anon. 1946). The 2 types of environments responsible are  the streams
and pools used for  bathing and other domestic purposes, and the irriga-
tion systems. The intermediate host, Australorbis glabratus, prefers


the quiet waters of stream pools, irrigation ditches, and reservoirs. The
habits  of the people  play an all important role in the spread of  the
infection. The natives commonly use the snail-infested waters for bath-
ing and washing and there  is excessive human pollution of the water
and diversion of untreated sewage into streams.
  In the human, cercarial penetration may give rise to a more or less
intense local reaction. The immature worms then find their way to  the
veins and are carried  to the  lungs; this requires 2 or 3 weeks. From  the
lungs the developing worms find their way to the liver lobules.  Nausea,
vomiting,  headache, and abdominal  pain may be the systemic com-
plaints. After becoming nearly mature in the liver the worms  migrate
against the  blood stream to  the small veins in the mesenteric  venules
draining the colon and the terminal section of the small intestine. The
adults  produce virtually no pathologic process in the mesenteric venules.
They feed on serum and cells but not so gluttonously as to create any
noticeable effect. Egg deposition is initiated within an average of  10
weeks  following infection. Abdominal pain, tenesmus, dysentery, blood-
flecked stools, and remittent fever are results of the intestinal egg deposi-
tion process. The eggs are equipped  with a lateral spine that aids in
tissue  penetration. Severe liver damage  is typical.  The liver  becomes
involved and enlarged because of the drift of the eggs back  through
the portal blood stream into the liver. Enlargement of  the liver results
in abscesses around infiltrated eggs. Tissue damage in unarrested and
progressive cases is severe, and in all moderately heavy infections would
be  enough alone to cause death. The liver becomes a gigantic  mass of
scar tissue. Accompanying symptoms are daily fever, extreme weakness,
diarrhea, loss of appetite and weight, emaciation, and, in untreated
cases, death from exhaustion.
  The destruction of snails theoretically offers the best method of con-
trol of these parasites. The  practical application of such control meas-
ures, however, is far from satisfactory.

Fish  Parasites Important to Man

  The broad  tapeworm, Diphyllabothrium  latum  (Linnaeus,  1758)
Liihe,  1910, is a  parasite of man, dog, cat, fox and hog. It is acquired
through the eating of raw or  improperly cooked fish.  The parasite is
prevalent in regions of the northern temperate zones where fish from
fresh-water lakes  form an important part of the human  diet. It  was first
observed in the United  States in 1858 and is known  to be present in
northern Minnesota, Southeastern Manatoba, the Lake Nipigon District
of Ontario, and  the Portage Lake  district of Michigan's upper penin-
sula. The worm recently has been reported from Florida.
  The life history of Diphyllobothrium  latum involves two intermedi-
ate hosts—copepods,  and fresh-water fish. The parasite's eggs  are  dis-


charged with the feces from the host organism. The eggs are hatched
in 9 to 12 days after reaching water and the ciliated embryo can swim
for several  days  until it is ingested by  a  suitable species of  copepods.
The copepod is, in turn, eaten by small fish where the larvae undergo
further development. The small fish may be eaten by a larger specimen.
Man and other animals are  infected by eating raw fish. The types  of
infected fish can be northern pike, walleye,  sauger, and yellow perch.
In the intestine of man, the parasitic worm  reaches maturity in about
three weeks. The length of  the adult worm ranges from 3 to 30 feet
and its width is  about  10 to 12 mm. Infestation can cause anemia and
loss of weight.  The  parasitic infestation  may be spread through the
marketing of infected fish caught from an endemic area.  Freezing  at
—10 °C for 24 hours, thorough cooking  for at least 10 minutes at 50 °C,
and proper drying and pickling of the fish will kill the larvae.

Swimming-associated Amoebic  Meningoencephalitis

  Amoebic meningoencephalitis is a  recently  recognized  disease  of
man that has exhibited extremely high fatality.  Epidemiologically, the
disease appears to be acquired following swimming in fresh or brackish
waters. Of  the 45 swimming-associated cases that have been reported
to date, 22  have occurred in the United States. Eighteen of these have
been reported from the State of Virginia, all  of which were fatal to the

  The disease is caused by an amoeba  that is indistinguishable in ap-
pearance from a free-living amoeba, Naegleria gruber, commonly found
in sewage effluents, surface waters, and soils.  The amoebic's pathogenic
strains, however, exhibit physiological  differences from those of the
wild strains that are encountered commonly in swimming pools and
other areas. Clinical  and autopsy findings, together with experimental
data obtained from laboratory animals, have led to the belief that the
disease is a result of the invasion of amoeba  into the cranial  area from
the upper  nasal region.  Apparently the amoeba  reached  the  upper
nasal region when infested water is accidentally forced into it during
the process of swimming or diving.

  Much remains yet to be learned  about this organism. Methods for
identifying pathogenic and non-pathogenic forms need  to be developed.
Additional  studies on  the organism's pathogenicity are needed. The
chemical nature of the  cytotoxic substance produced by the pathogenic
strains of amoeba must be investigated.

Health-associated Algae

  Waters containing dense populations of algae, when ingested, have
been responsible for mammalian, avarian, and  fish deaths, as well  as


outbreaks of human gastroenteritis. The causative  algae belong to the
blue-green group and are of  the genera Microcystis, Aphanizomenon,
Anabaena, Nodularia,  Goelosphaerium, and Gloeotrichia.

  Animal intoxication  by phytoplankton has been known since  1878.
In  most recorded  cases,  the  attacks occurred  after the animals  had
drunk from lakes  or  ponds  containing  heavy algal growths.  Such
growths  occurred usually during successive days  of  hot and humid
weather  and often when  deaths of  animals occur a  wind has  been
reported blowing,  and causes the  concentration of algae  in  the lee-
shore areas.

  The syndrome of symptoms, described by Fitch et al.  (1934), exhibited
by  guinea pigs from  the  feeding or from  the inoculation intraperi-
toneally  of a fatal  dose of toxic algae was:  (1) restlessness, (2) urina-
tion,  (3) defecation,  (4) deep breathing,  (5)  weakness in the hind-
quarters,  (6) sneezing,  (7) coughing,  (8) salivation, (9) lachrymation,
and (10) clonic spasms and death.

  Although as little as 0.02 ml of a toxic algal solution injected  into
mice  intraperitoneally  may kill a 20-gram individual in an hour, the
danger to  man is not  necessarily great. Gorham  (1964) reviewed the
literature on toxic  algae as a  public  health hazard. He concluded that
the fish and livestock poisons  produced by waterblooms were nuisances
and economic  hazards  rather than public health  hazards.  It  was esti-
mated that the oral minimum lethal dose of decomposing toxic Micro-
cystis bloom for a  150-pound man would be  1 to 2  quarts  of  thick
paint-like  algal suspension.  Gorham stated that  this amount would
not be ingested voluntarily. However, in the case  of an accident such
H quantity might be ingested involuntarily.

  Seventeen case histories of human gastrointestinal disorders associated
with algae generally within the United States and Canada are  recorded
in  the literature.  The manifestations of toxicity  included  headaches,
nausea, gastrointestinal upsets and in some cases vomiting and  diarrhea
 (Mackenthun  and Ingram, 1967). Human  respiratory disorders have
been  associated with algae by  14 authors since 1916. The manifestations
of  toxicity here included burning  in  the  throat, nostrils and eyes,
sneezing and coughing. Human skin disorders associated with  algae
have  been recorded in 10 articles since  1937. The gastrointestinal and
skin disorders  generally  have been  associated  with fresh-water  algae
whereas  the algae causing human  respiratory disorders  were almost
equally divided between the fresh water and the marine forms.

   Key to Commonly Encountered
A   SI artificial key is presented for some of the algal genera commonly
     encountered in recreational waters. Because of a preponderance of
genera  associated  with the fresh-water  environment,  other  English-
language publications useful  in supplying descriptive  details and
pictures for identification  are  listed. These include  Forest  (1954),
Palmer  (1959), Patrick and Reimer  (1966),  Prescott  (1951),  Prescott
 (1954),  Smith  (1950),  Taft (1961),  and Tiffany  and Britton  (1952).

  To use the key, the specimen must be observed under a microscope
to determine its  pertinent characteristics.  These characteristics  are
compared against  the first  couplet in the key. Choosing the one that
best fits the specimen, one must proceed to the designated couplet
following and repeat the operation until  a genus is reached.
 1.  Plant consisting of a thread, strand,  ribbon,  or membrane
    composed of cells; frequently visible  to  the unaided eye	  2
 1.  Plants of microscopic cells that are isolated or in irregular
    spherical, or microscopic clusters;  cells  not  grouped into
    threads	  25
 2.  Heterocysts present. (Heterocysts are specialized cells, larger,
    clearer, and thicker walled  than  the regular cells in a fila-
    ment;  they separate from other algal cells permitting por-
    tions of chains to grow into completely new individuals)	  3
 2.  Heterocysts absent 	  8
 3.  Threads gradually narrowed to a point at one end, appear-
    ing as  radii, in a gelatinous bead or mass	  4
 3.  Threads same width throughout	  5
 4.  Spore   (an asexual reproductive  structure)  present,  adja-
    cent to the terminal heterocyst	GLOEOTRICHIA
 4.  No spore  present  	RIVULARIA
  * Modified from Palmer, C. M. (1959)


5.  Branching  absent,  heterocysts  contained  within  the  fila-
   ment, threads encased in a gelatinous bead or mass	NOSTOC
5.  Threads not  encased in a definite gelatinous mass	  6
6.  Heterocysts and  vegetative  cells shorter  than  the  thread
   width  	NODULARIA
6.  Heterocysts and vegetative cells not shorter than the thread
   width  	  7
7.  Heterocysts rounded  	ANABAENA
7.  Heterocysts cylindric  	APHANIZOMENON
8.  Branching absent 	  9
8.  Branching  (including "false"  branching) present	20
9.  Cell  pigments  distributed throughout  the protoplasm	10
9.  Cell pigments limited to  plastids (bodies within plant cell
   that  contain  photosynthetic pigments)	12
   Plate 31. Nuisance Algae. Top row, left to right, RiVu/oria, Nodu/aria, Anabaena,
          Bottom row, left to right, Oscil/aforio, lyngbya, Aphanizomenon

10. Threads long, not forming a spiral, one thread per sheath;
    sheath  or  gelatinous matrix  present	11
10. No sheath or  gelatinous matrix apparent	OSCILLATORIA
11. Sheath distinct; no gelatinous matrix between threads. .LYNGBYA
11. Sheath indistinct or absent; threads interwoven with gelati-
    nous matrix between	PHORMIDIUM
12. Cells  forming a thread or ribbon, cells separating readily
    into discs  or  short cylinders,  their circular  face showing
12. Cells either not separating readily, or if so, no circular end
    wall with radial markings	13
13. Cells in a ribbon, attached side by side or by their corners	14
13. Cells  in a  thread, attached end to end	15
14. Numerous  regularly   spaced   markings   in  the   cell
    wall  	FRAGILARIA
14. Numerous markings in the cell  wall  absent	SCENEDESMUS
15. Plastid in the form of a spiral band	SPIROGYRA
15. Plastid  not a  spiral band	16
16. Plastids two per cell, cells with a smooth outer wall. .ZYGNEMA
16. Plastids either one  or more than two  per cell	17
17. Plastids close to the cell wall, occasional cells with one to
    several  transverse wall lines near one  end	OEDOGONIUM
17. Occasional terminal transverse wall lines not present	18
18. Cells with one plastid that has a smooth surface, cells with
    flat ends  	ULOTHRIX
18. Cells with several plastids or with one modular plastid	19
19. Iodine  test  for  starch  positive,  one  plastid  per  cell,
    threads  when  broken  separating  irregularly  or between
    cells  	RHIZOCLONIUM
19. Iodine  test for starch  negative, several  plastids per cell,
    side walls  of cells straight, not  bulging. A  pattern of fine
    lines or dots present in the wall  but often indistinct. . MELOSIRA
20. Branches reconnected, forming a distinct net.. HYDRODICTYON
20. Branches not forming a distinct net	21
21. Each cell in a conical sheath open at the broad end.DINOBRYON
21. No conical sheath  around each cell	22
22. Branching commonly single or in pairs, cells green, threads
    not surrounded by  a gelatinous  mass,  light and dense  dark
    cells intermingled  in  the thread.,	PITHOPHORA
22. Most  of cells  essentially alike  in density	23
23. Branches few in number, and short,  colorless. .RHIZOCLONIUM
23. Branches numerous and green	24
24. Terminal attenuation  (a continuous decrease in width of
    a filament, often to a point or thin'hair) gradual involving
    two or  more cells	STIGEOCLONIUM


Plate 32. Nuisance Algae. Top  row, left to right, Sfephanodiscus, Cyc/ofe/fa, P/iormidium;
    center row, left to right, Zygnema, Spirogyra, Scenedeunus; bottom row, left to right,
    Ulothrix, Oedogonium, Fragilaria.
24.  Terminal  attenuation  absent  or abrupt,  involving  only
     one  cell  	CLADOPHORA
25.  Cells in colonies generally of a definite form or arrangement. .. .26
25.  Cells isolated, in pairs or in loose, irregular aggregates	31
26.  Cells without transverse rows of markings, cells arranged
     as  a layer  one-cell  thick	27
26.  Cells without transverse rows of markings, cell cluster more
     than one-cell thick and not a  flat plate	28

  Plate 33. Nuisance Algae. Top row, left to right, Melosira,  Hydrodicfyon, Dinobryon,
   Rhizocfonium; bottom row,  left to  right,  Sfigeoclonium, Cfadophora,  Pediastrum.
27. Cells  elongate,  united   side   by  side  in  one   or  two
    rows  	SCENEDESMUS
27. Cells  about  as long  as   wide,  not  immersed  in  colorless
    matrix,   cells   angular    with   spines,   projections,   or
    incisions  	PEDIASTRUM
28. Cells sharp-pointed at  both ends; often curved like a bow,
    loosely  arranged or twisted together	ANKISTRODESMUS
28. Cells not sharp-pointed at both ends; not bent as  a bow	29

Plote 34. Nuisance Algae. Top row, left to right, Anltittrodesmus, Synura, Coe/osphaerium,
             bottom row, left to right, Microcysfis, Cerarium, Sfaurasfrum.

29. Flagella  present,  cells touching one  another  in  a dense
    colony,  cells arranged  radially, facing  outward,  plastids
    brown   	SYNURA
29. Flagella  absent 	30
30. Cells  not elongate,  often spherical,  plastids  absent,  pig-
    ment   throughout,   cells   equidistant   from   center   of
    colony   	COELOSPHAERIUM
30. Cells irregularly distributed in  the  colony, not  equidistant
    from  the center,  cells rounded	MICROCYSTIS
31. Cells with an abrupt  median  transverse groove or  incision;
    cells brown, flagella  present	armored
                                         flagellates (e.g. CERATIUM)
31. Cells with an abrupt  median  transverse groove or  incision;
    cells green,  no  flagella	Desmid  (e.g. STAURASTRUM)

   Key  to Commonly  Encountered
                Vascular Plants
O PECIFIC identification of aquatic plants is possible sometimes only
O  through  the  examination of minute plant parts by  specialists.
  A key is presented that will aid the non-systematists in the identifi-
cation of the common plant groups. It is divided as follows:

A. Plants floating on water surface.
B. Plants submersed beneath water surface.
C. Plants erect and emersed; rooted to the substratum and extending
upward out of the water.
  Other manuals  supplying descriptive comments and pictures  as
an aid to  more  specific  identification include:  Eyles and  Robertson
(1944), Fassett (1960), Martin et  al. (1957),  Mason  (1957),  Morgan
(1930), and Muenscher (1944).


  To  use  the key,  one  must  select the proper group and read the
description in the first  couplet. The description  that best fits the
unknown specimen will  indicate either the plant group or genus to
which the  specimen belongs or an additional couplet, in which case
the process is repeated  until  the description for  a particular plant
or genus best fits the unidentified specimen.


 1.  A lobed or  regularly forked plant body,  usually small in
    size, roots usually suspended free in  the  water, with no
    connection to lake bottom;  capable of drifting	  2
      The duckweed group includes the smallest of the aquatic
    flowering plants. They have neither true leaves nor  stems,
    but the floating green plant body, usually possessing  tiny
    roots that penetrate the water, looks like a leaf  and is often


   so-called. Duckweed floats on the surface of pools, marshes,
   and ponds, and may grow abundantly in enriched streams;
   from  such  streams it may enter  standing  water  areas and
   become a nuisance as it is held by plant and other obstruc-
   tions. It may become sufficiently dense to prohibit sunlight
   from  penetrating  the water, and thus algae  and  other
   aquatic plants are killed. It physically obstructs water use,
   creates an unsightly condition, and upon decomposition pro-
   duces odors. It is difficult to kill because of the waxy sheen
   to the plant body and the characteristic "layering"'  of one
   plant upon another.  Provided the plant mass is not held in
   place by obstructions, the wind or currents aid  greatly  in
   preventing proliferation of the plant mass.
     Occasionally the layman  may  confuse  duckweed with
   algae. Close observation or  the examination of any object
   removed from the water surface will clearly show the cling-
   ing bright  green plant bodies to be much  larger  than non-
   filamentous microscopic algae.

1.  Floating-leafed plants with  leaves attached to the bottom
   by a bare unbranched stem of varying length	  6
2.  Plants  consisting  of  forked  or  cross-shaped,  long-stalked
   segments, floating below the surface; often many entangle to
   form  clumps	Star Duckweed,  LEMNA  TRISCULA  Linnaeus
2.  Plants rounded, not  stalked	  3
3.  Plants  with  roots	  4
3.  Plants without roots	  5
4.  Plants red on the lower surface, each joint with two or more
   roots....Big Duckweed, SPIRODELA POLYRHIZA (Linnaeus)
4.  Plants green  on the lower  surface,  each  joint  with one
   root 	Duckweed, LEMNA
5.- Plants globular, pea  green, the size of a  pinhead	
                                            Watermeal, WOLFFIA
5.  Plants thin, sickle-shaped or elongated	Duckweed,
6.  Stem  attached to  middle of  leaf	  7
6.  Stem attached at the  summit of a deep notch in the leaf	  8
7.  Leaves oval, not more than 3 inches wide, with supple stem
   attached to the middle of the leaf	Watershield,
                                BRASENIA SCHREBERI Gmelin
7.  Circular leaf with a  long, fairly rigid stem attached to the
   middle  of the leaf, leaves 6  inches or more wide  sometimes
   supported by  the stem above the water level. .. .American Lotus,


              .  \

Plate 35. Duckweeds (Lemnaceae  A. Big duckweed  [Spirode/a po/yrhiza (Linnaeus)]; B.  Star
    duckweed  (Lemna frisu/ca Linnaeus);  C.  Duckweed (Lemna); D.  Watermeal  (Wo/ffia);
    E.  Wolffiella; F.  Big  duckweed  on a Maryland pond.

               Plate 36. Watershield (Brasenio schreberi Gmelin) x %.

 8.  Circular or heart-shaped leaf with  the veins radiating from
    the mid-rib nearly to the margin without  forking; floating
    yellow  flowers	Yellow Pond  Lily, NUPHAR
 8.  Circular leaf  with much-forked veins radiating to the mar-
    gin, white, or pink  floating flowers	White  Water  Lily,
 1. Plant  body  made up of  stems  bearing  whorled, smooth,
    brittle branches, easily snapped with a slight pressure; plants
    with a musky odor, no roots, often with a limy encrustation
                                     Green Algae, Muskgrass, CHARA
                      Plate 37. American Lotus (Ne(umbo).

                    Plate 38. Muskgrass (Chora) (An Alga)
 1. Plant  body  not  brittle	 2
 2. Submersed leaves bearing small bladders,  leaves irregularly
    forked  	Bladderwort,  UTRICULARIA
 2. Submersed  leaves  not bladder  bearing	 3


                     Plate 39. Bladderwort (Ufricufaria)
3.  Submersed leaves compound, made up of narrow segments
   or  leaflets  	  4
3.  Submersed leaves simple, made up of a single narrow blade. ...  7
4.  Submersed leaves with one central axis, leaves feather-like,
   branches  in  whorls about  the  stem,  stems usually  very
   lax  	Water  Milfoil, MYRIOPHYLLUM
4.  Submersed leaves irregularly forking	  5
5.  Submersed leaves singly and alternately or irregularly borne;
   leaves many  branched, irregularly forked and appearing as


            Plate 40. Water Milfoil X '/3: A. Myriophyllum ipkatum Linnaeus;
              B. M. verticillatum Linnaeus; C. M. heterophyllum Michaux.

     tufts  of numerous thread-like projections  attached  to the
     center stem	Water Buttercup, RANUNCULUS
 5.  Submersed  leaves borne  opposite each other on stem or
     whorled                                                         .  6

                   Plate 41. Coontail (Cerofophy/lum) X *•
6.  Leaves  stalked, fan-like, extending  from opposite  sides of
   the stem;  leaflets  not  toothed	Fanwort, CABOMBA
6.  Stems with  whorls  of  stiff,  forked  leaves;  leaflets  with
   toothed  or serrated margins  (small  barbs) on  one  side;
   plant without true roots	Coontail,  CERATOPHYLLUM
7.  Submersed leaves long  and ribbon-like, at least  1/10 inch
   wide   	  8

                    Plate 42. Water Buttercup (Ranunculus).

 7. Submersed leaves  not ribbon-like;  often  thread-like but if
    wider than 1/10 inch, less than  1 inch  long	18
 8. Leaves scattered along the stem	 9
 8. Leaves all borne from one point	17


                  Plate 43. Water Star Grass (Heferanrhera).

9.  Leaves with mid-ribs  evident when held  against bright
   light,  many species with great diversity in leaf forms Pond-
   weed,  POTAMOGETON	10
9.  Leaves without  mid-ribs evident  when held against bright
   light	Water Star Grass, HETERANTHERA


          Plate 44. Floating-leafed Pondweed (Pofomogefon nafans Linnaeus).
 10.  Plants with both  floating and submersed leaves, the floating
     leaves with expanded blades and differing from  those  sub-
     mersed  	11
 10.  Plants with all leaves alike and submersed	14
 11.  Floating leaves, heart-shaped at the base, 1  to 4 inches long,
     waxy in appearance	Floating-leafed  Pondweed,
                             POTAMOGETON NATANS Linnaeus
 11.  Floating leaves rounded at  the base	12


        Plate 45. Large-leafed Pondweed (Pofamogefon amp/ifo/ius Tuckerman).

12.  Floating  leaves  with  30  to  50 nerves; submersed  leaves
    about three times as long as broad
           Large-leafed Pondweed, POTAMOGETON AMPLIFOLIUS
12.  Floating  leaves  with less than  30 nerves	13


          Plate 46. Curly-leafed Pondweed (Pofamogeron crispus Linnaeus).

13. Upper submersed leaves with long stalks	Pondweed,
                               POTAMOGETON NODOSUS Poiret
13. Submersed leaves  not as above  but with  an abrupt  awl-
    shaped  tip  	Pondweed,
                    POTAMOGETON ANGUSTIFOLIUS Berchtold


            Plate 47. Robbins Pondweed (Pofamogefon robbinsii Oakes).
14.  Margins of  the  thin leaves crimped and toothed,  the
    marginal serrations visible to the naked eye
    Curly-leafed  Pondweed,  POTAMOGETON  CRISPUS Linnaeus
14.  Margins of  leaves not  visibly toothed	15


         Plate 48. Flat-stemmed Pondweed (Pofamogelon zosteriformis Fernald)

15.  Leaves  minutely  toothed  on  the  margins, visible  when
    magnified; leaves extending stiffly in  opposite  directions
    so that whole plant appears flat; only  midvein prominent
            Robbins Pondweed, POTAMOGETON  ROBBINSII Oakes
15.  Not as above..                                             ,.16

Plate 49. Sago Pondweed (Pofamogelon pecfinalus Linnaeus).

       Plate 50. Wild Celery (Vaf/isneria) X '/4: A. Specimen with fruit and tubers;
                    C. Northern form; D. Southern form.
16.  Stems  much  flattened and  winged,  about as wide  as  the
    leaves; leaves  %2  to  M> incn wide	Flat-stemmed Pondweed,
                      POTAMOGETON ZOSTERIFORMIS Fernald
16.  Leaves threadlike, long, rounded, and slender,  rarely  ex-
    ceeding yio inch wide, oriented into a lax, diffuse, branched
    spray. The "bunched" appearance of the threadlike rounded
    leaves  as  they float  in the water readily  distinguish sago
    pondweed  from others of group	Sago Pondweed,
                         POTAMOGETON PECTINATUS Linnaeus
17.  Leaves very  long and ribbonlike;  when examined with
    hand lens, showing a central dense zone and a  peripheral
    less dense  zone; flowers borne  on a long  stem  that  forms
    a spiral after  fertilization	Wild Celery, VALLISNERIA
17.  Leaf, when examined with hand lens not showing  zones
    as above  	Water Plantains, ALISMATACEAE
18.  Leaves opposite,  all  leaves elongated  and narrow,  many
    times longer  than broad, and enlarged or dilated at base.
    Bunches of smaller leaves near  the leaf base.... Bushy Pondweed,
18.  Leaves whorled,  usually 3  in  each  whorl,  (sometimes 4)
                                 Waterweed, ANACHARIS  (Elodea)

 1. Leaves more than 10 times as long as broad	 2
 1. Leaves less than  10 times as  long  as broad	 9

Plate 51. Bushy Pondweed (Najas) X %•

 2.  Base of stem  triangular in cross  section,  the three  angles
    in some cases  so  rounded as to  make  the stem appear
    almost round  	  3
 2.  Base of stem not  triangular	  5
 3.  Three cornered seeds, usually straw colored, enclosed within
    a loose  elongated  sac; a low-growing grasslike  plant	Sedge,
 3.  Seeds not  enclosed  in a loose elongated sac	  4
 4.  A single  flower or seed-bearing  structure  on  the  tip  of
    the stem	Spike  Rush,  ELEOCHARIS
 4.  Stem with one or  more leaves extending beyond  the  spike
    or seed-bearing  structure	Bulrush, SCIRPUS
     (The hardstem bulrush has long,  hard, slender, dark  olive-
    green stems, % to  % inch at the base, extending 3 to 5 feet
    above the water surface; the softstem bulrush has  soft stems
    of light green color, % 0 to 1 inch thick at the base.)
 5.  Leaf with a  collarlike appendage, membranous or  composed
    of hairs at the junction of the leaf blade and that part of the
    leaf  that  is wrapped around the  stem	  6
 5.  Leaf without collarlike appendage  mentioned  above	  8
 6.  Seed or flower-bearing structure  composed of scales  with
    fringed  margins and overlapping in a single row	Cut Grass,
 6.  Flower-bearing structure not  as  above	  7
  Plate 52. Waterweed X %: A. Anachoris canadensis Michaux, B. A. occidentalis Putth.

Plate 53. Spike Rush (EJeocharis).

                         Plate 54. Bulrush (Scirpus)
 7. Flowering heads  composed of small  seeds with long silky
    hairs,  appearing as a silky mass.  The rootstocks are stout,
    making it a difficult plant  to pull  up.  Plants are 6 to 12 feet
    tall. .                             . . Reed Grass, PHRAGMITES


      Plate 55. Wild Rice (Zizania): A. Stand of Broad-leaved form; a. broad-leaved;
                         b. narrow-leaved form.

 7.  Flowering part of plant much branched, but not as closely
    packed  as  in PHRAGM1TES. Seeds  much larger,  about
    % inch long. Plants  with short roots and easily  pulled up
                                                Wild Rice, ZIZANIA
 8.  Flowers borne in  closely packed  cylindrical spikes, seeds
    very small	Cattail, TYPHA
    (The common cattail has flat leaves about 1 inch wide; the
    narrow-leaved  cattail  has  leaves  somewhat  rounded on
    the back that are % to % inch wide.)
 8.  Flowers in spherical  heads, seeds larger,  up to size of corn
    kernel;  leaves  shallowly  and broadly  triangular in cross-
    section  	Burreed, SPARGANIUM
 9.  Leaves arising  at  intervals  along  the stem	10
 9.  Leaves arising at base of the plant	11
10.  Plants with  jointed  stems, swollen at the  joints,  or with
    creeping  rootstocks;  stems  with  alternate,  simple  leaves
                                         Smartweed, POLYGONUM
10.  Stems  prostrate or creeping, branched,  and often  jointed
    and rooted  at  the joints; leaves opposite; spreading plant,
    often forming floating  mats  over  extensive  water areas
    crowding  out  other  plants;  broken-off  branch  fragments
    root readily,  and stems may elongate as much as 200 inches
    in one  season	Alligatorweed, ALTERNANTHERA
11.  Fleshy or tuber-bearing  rootstocks  and  rosettes  of  sheath-
    ing  basal leaves;  leaves variable,  some  kinds  arrowhead
    shaped  	Duck Potato, SAGITTARIA

                            Plate 56. Burreed (Sparganium).

Plate 57. Alligatarweed (Alternanthera).

                       Plate 58. Smartweed (Pofygonum) X

Plate 59. Walerhyacinth (Eichhornia).

                           Plate 60. Waterchestnut (7>apa) X '/i.

11.  Not as  above,  floating plants	12
12.  Plants floating with fibrous, branched roots  and  rosettes
    of stalked leaves, the leaf stalks often inflated  and bladder-
    like 	Waterhyacinth,  EICHHORNIA
12.  Plants with  floating rosettes of stalked  leaves,  commonly
    several rosettes produced on branches of  the same plant at
    the end of  flexible, cardlike, sparsely-branched  submersed
    stems; plant thrives at depths  of 2  to  5  feet and favors
    muddy  bottoms with  high  organic  content; leaf stalks in-
    flated,  but   not   as  conspicuously  as  in waterhyacinth
                                            Waterchestnut, TRAPA

     Control  of Excess  Production
General Control
    ULTIMATE  control of nuisance aquatic organisms can be accom-
    ed  only by taking appropriate actions  against the basic  cause.
Generally the introduction of organic materials or certain  inorganic
nutrients into the Nation's waterways is responsible for the  explosion
of a plant or animal population into a nuisance state.  Drainage from
fertilized lands, inadequately treated domestic or industrial waste dis-
charges, street and storm drainage, improperly managed refuse dumps,
wastes from confined animal feeding areas and other agricultural activi-
ties, irrigation return flows,  improper logging practices, construction
site siltation, and inadequate treatment of rural sanitary wastes each
contributes its abundant share to the receiving water degradation. Each
waste  source,  point and non-point,  must be treated  or  controlled
adequately if this Nation's waters are to be used to the extent that is
and will be  necessary to respond to the  needs  of this and  the future

  A maintenance concept  must be adopted and implemented by  all
users  of  streams,  lakes,  ponds, or reservoirs. The water front is  an
aquatic  extension  of  the  surrounding lands.  To  achieve  the  most
lasting beauty, it must be maintained periodically in a  fashion similar
to that of private lawns or the areas adjacent to the Nation's parkways.
If not, nuisances and unsightliness will prevail. Controls developed to
cure water ills other than those that will correct the basic  cause are
not singular operations. They are remedial, temporary  measures only.
They  provide some degree of transitory success, and they must  be  re-
peated at intervals throughout the  season  to maintain  the degree
of water quality ncessary for specified uses. The mechanism triggering
a nuisance development is usually  such  that it will re-establish itself
another year, thus  continuous surveillance and  maintenance  are neces-
sary components of water management.

  Controls designed to correct the  basic cause  often involve the con-
struction and continuous operation of a treatment system  that will
remove  those  substances from  the waste water that are contributing


to the receiving  waterways'  degradation. Such waste water treatment
systems often involve the expenditure of substantial sums of money, as
well as a great deal  of  planning and community or corporate  effort.
Furthermore,  it  must be recognized by the  citizens affected by the
degraded water  that the  planning and  construction of  waste  water
treatment plants involve a considerable  period of time between the
date of initiation and the date of operation.  An additional factor of
consideration  is  that waterways that have been polluted  will require
time to rid  themselves of the pollution and regain a quality and flora
and  fauna  that  will support a higher  degree of future water  use.


  Much work has been done on the control of Sphaerotilus because of
the severity of the problems that it  causes in activated sludge sewage
treatment plants, cooling towers, and receiving waterways.  The  use of
chlorine has been considered to be  the  most feasible substance for
large scale use to control a slime organism such  as Sphaerotilus. The
discharge of residual chlorine in the waste water to  a receiving  water-
way  has created additional problems because  of its toxicity to fish and
other aquatic life.

  In water  treatment plants  a high initial dose  of  chlorine followed
by the maintenance of residual chlorine in the effluent water has been
found necessary to remove established slime growths. On a routine basis,
of course, the  addition  of chlorine to water  prior to use  imposes an
added  cost-burden upon the  consumer that would be unnecessary with
appropriate waste water treatment or control upstream.

  Sphaerotilus slime  growths have been  controlled through the prac-
tice of an intermittent  discharge of waste waters. To effect such  con-
trols, it appears  from the literature  that waste holding capacity must
provide for  five or six days of waste retention with a discharge  of the
waste materials over a one- or two-day period.

  Chlorination of water appears  to be the most satisfactory method of
controlling  the  development of  other  iron  bacteria.  Free  chlorine
residual must be  maintained  throughout the distribution system.  When
iron bacteria have been present, and although  the kill may be effective,
tastes and odors in the water supply are still possible from decomposing

  When iron  bacteria grow  profusely in drainage ditches, and  an in-
festation of a  lake or reservoir may be likely  as a result, effective  con-
trol  has been accomplished with the application of  copper sulfate at
a dosage rate  of  about  three parts per million of the blue vitriol. As
with the use of  chlorine,  great care must be exercised in the  use of


copper sulfate for the control of aquatic nuisances to prevent damage
to organisms desired by man.
  There appears to be no straightforward solution to the technological
problem  of controlling  massive  pollution by sulfate-reducing bacteria.
Sterilization of the water is almost always out of the question. There
are some expedient measures  available that provide air or oxygen  to
the water as a means of inhibiting the organism's growth. If the water
is aerobic, the growth of these organisms can be alleviated. Acidification
to a pH value below 5 will prevent the growth of sulfate-reducing bac-
teria.  Most clean  water  associated aquatic life  will also be inhibited  in
waters with this pH characteristic.
  The chromate ion is an inhibitor of ordinary corrosion,  as well as a
powerful inhibitor of the growth of sulfate-reducing bacteria. It has
been used at concentrations as low as 2 mg/1 to stop development  of
these  nuisance organisms in confined  areas. The application of sodium
nitrate has been found  helpful in reducing the evolution of hydrogen
sulfide. Sodium nitrate provides oxygen to the water, as well as nutrient
for the photosynthesizing plants.
  It becomes readily obvious  that the  temporary control  of  these,  or
for that matter other aquatic organisms, is an expensive and continuing
operation.  The most lasting  results  will  be  obtained by addressing
remedial actions to the cause of the problem.

Plant  Nuisances

  Methods have been developed and  perfected that effect an adequate
temporary  reduction and control of  plant nuisances under a  number
of circumstances. Controls may  be either mechanical or chemical and
their  selection  and use  depend  upon the the  nature and scope of the
problem, the  type and  the extent of  the control  desired,  and com-
parative  costs of  alternative control measures. Mechanical  controls are
limited  principally to  rooted  aquatic plants  with the exception that
microstrainers  have been employed successfully in  the  removal  of
algae  from water supply intakes and other areas.  Chemical. controls
have  been used  for algae and  vascular aquatic plants. Each control
has its limitations based upon the dimensions  of the area to be treated
and the relative costs of the control operation.

  From the standpoint of nutrient removal and as an asset to eutrophi-
cation control, harvesting the  aquatic  crop annually or at more fre-
quent intervals would be advantageous. The economics of  present har-
vesting technology and  the scope of the problem however necessitate a
critical evaluation of the benefits derived as opposed to  the cost  in-
volved.  As stated in am earlier chapter,  the  volume and  weight  of
aquatic vegetation presents certain constraints upon feasible harvesting


procedures. Aquatic  vegetation is about 90  percent water by weight
and this fact adds a tremendous burden to the collection and transporta-
tion of the harvested vegetation, as well as the use  to which  it may be

  Some methods and equipment used for  the physical and mechanical
removal of water weeds are reservoir draw down and drying, burning,
hand pulling, hand cutting, hand raking,  chain dragging, hand oper-
ated under-water weed saws, and power driven under-water weed cutting
and weed removal units. The type of control employed depends on the
field situation, the extent of control required, and the labor  and other
costs involved. Mechanical control has the advantage of removing the
vegetation and its contained nutrients from the waterway, as well  as
precluding  the  effects  of  decomposition products.  Such controls are
especially valuable to reclaim  shallow areas with vegetative  nuisances.
Mechanical controls, on the other  hand, substantially exceed costs  of
chemical controls in most instances in  both monetary and  personnel
resources required to accomplish the task.

  Specific chemical control measures depend upon the  type of nuisance
and local conditions. A good algicide or herbicide must:  (1)  be reason-
ably safe to use; (2) kill the specific nuisance  plant or plants;  (3) be
non-toxic at the plant killing concentration to fish, fish food organisms,
and terrestrial animals that  use the water;  (4) not prove seriously
harmful to the ecology of the general aquatic area;  (5) be safe for
water  contact by humans or  animals  or   provide  suitable safeguards
                                                  3? PRESSURE HOSE
                                                     AND NOZZLE WITH
                                /- HOSE RETURN-
                                   TO WASH CRYSTALS
                      ,FOOT VALVE
                      WITH SCREEN
         Figure 19. Equipment designed for algal control. Blue vitriol crystals are
               placed over perforated drum in chemical solution tank.

during the unsafe period; and (6) be of reasonable cost. The cost figure
assumes added significance, and depends upon the physical dimensions
of the waterway on which control is desired. A procedure that might
be suitable for a pond from both the cost and toxicity standpoint might
not be feasible in  a control program for specific areas on a large lake
or impoundment.
  For the chemical control of algae, it  may be necessary only to know
the acreage  of  water requiring treatment and  the methyl orange
alkalinity of the water  to  be treated. For the chemical  control  of
vascular  aquatic plants it is necessary usually to know the volume of
water receiving treatment. A formula is used to ascertain  the amount
of chemical to apply to a given  area:  Length  (ft.)  times width (ft.)
times average depth  (ft.) times 62.4  (wgt. of a cu. ft. of water) divided
by 1,000,000  equals the pounds of chemical (active ingredient) needed
to give a concentration  of  1  mg/1.  This  number multiplied by  the
required chemical concentration in milligrams per liter for treatment
equals the pounds of chemical needed for the designated area. Various
formulations of chemicals are used. For example, a formulation con-
taining two pounds of active  ingredient per gallon would necessitate
dividing the pounds of  chemical by two  to arrive at the gallons  of
commercial formulation required to control the specific  nuisance.

Algal  Control

  Since 1900, copper sulfate  (blue  vitriol) has been used for the con-
trol of algae. The solubility of  copper in water is  influenced by  the
pH and  alkalinity, as well as  temperature.  Thus,  the dosage  required
for algal control  depends upon  the  chemistry of  the  water being
treated,  as well as the  susceptibility of  the particular organisms  to
the copper. Arbitrary dosage rates have been used successfully. These
generally prescribe a  concentration  of 0.3 mg/1 commercial copper
sulfate (CuSO4 . 5H2O) for the total volume of water when  the total
methyl orange alkalinity is below 40  mg/1. This dosage is comparable
to 0.9 pounds of copper sulfate per  acre foot of water. In waters where
the total methyl orange alkalinity exceeds 40 mg/1  the dosage rate is in-
creased to 1 mg/1  for the upper two feet of water regardless of actual
depth, or an equivalent of 5.4 pounds of the commercial copper sulfate
per surface area to be treated.

  Algal  control treatments  can  be  complete or marginal  depending
upon the size, shape, relative water fertility and estimated cost of the
project. Complete treatment is the systematic  application of a calcu-
lated  amount of chemical over the entire surface  area affected by the
nuisance. It ensures that a major proportion of the  total algal popula-
tion is eliminated at one time so that  a longer recovery  period is re-
quired before an algal bloom reappears.  The  interval between neces-


   o  10
   W   o

        0           2           4          6
                        AVERAGE   DEPTH  (FEET)
Figure  20. Chemical Dosage Chart. To achieve  a  chemical concentration of ]  mg/l  in
   water having an average depth of 8 feet requires 10 pounds of the active chemical
   for an area 200 feet by 100 feet, or 21.8 pounds per acre.

sary complete treatment will be correlated directly with  climatological
conditions  and the  avaiable  nutrients used  by  the remaining  algal
cells that are  not  killed as a result of the  chemical application. One
to three complete treatments  per season should be sufficient to give
reasonable control within the lake environment.
  Marginal  treatment, on the other hand,  is designed to obtain tem-
porary  relief in a  restricted area where more  extensive activity  is not

feasible or is financially impossible. In this procedure a strip of water
200 to 400 feet wide lying parallel with the shore and all protected
bays are sprayed in the  same manner as in a complete treatment opera-
tion. No other  part of the total area is treated even though many algae
may be present. As a result of marginal treatment the algal population
and  the odor  intensity along  the  lake's periphery are reduced. The
duration of freedom from  the algal nuisance following marginal treat-
ment is dependent  upon the density of the  algal  population in the
center of the lake and its ability to infiltrate  the  treated area  through
the actions of winds, waves, and currents. Marginal treatment must be
repeated oftener than that of complete treatment.
  Copper sulfate may be applied to a given waterway by bag dragging,
dry feeding,  liquid spray,  or an airplane application of either dry or
wet materials.  Because  rapid and  uniform distribution of the algicide
is essential, the size and scope of the problem determine  to some extent
the method employed.
  For  maximal effectiveness, algal  control measures should be under-
taken  before the  maximal development of the  algal  bloom. If the
problem area cannot be  treated before the algal population has be-
come dense,  judgment must be used in determining  the area that
should  receive  treatment  at  a given time. When organic materials
such as algae or aquatic weeds are killed instantly, their decomposition
may result in sufficient oxygen use to remove from  the water the oxygen
required for  the support of fish and other aquatic life.  A fish  or orga-
nism kill will result from this situation. When the algal scum is dense,
                 Plate 61. Mechanical weed cutting and removal.

it is good practice to subdivide the total area to be treated into sections
and control  the nuisance with  chemicals  in one section  at a time.
Other sections may be treated after an interval of seven to ten days to
ensure that sufficient  dissolved oxygen is  present to satisfy the oxygen
demands of the decomposing algae.
  Any chemical applied to water for the  control of the problem must
be  used  with caution and the benefits to  be derived, as  well as  the
environmental costs of such an operation,  must be evaluated. Obviously
the chemical  employed is toxic to aquatic life because the purpose of
the application  is to  kill and thereby control a  portion of the biotic
system. The  effects of the chemical  on that aquatic  life necessary for
man's water  uses, and the extent to which these beneficial organisms
will be injured  either directly or subtly  by the  chemical  application,
must be  understood  and considered before a decision is reached to
apply the chemical. The necessity and probability of additional appli-
cations and  the  cumulative  effects of such additions  on  the aquatic
ecosystem must receive similar consideration.

Vascular Plants
  In the control of submersed aquatic plants it is often  desirable to
concentrate control efforts on localized areas  along the shoreline  such
as  bathing beaches and around piers and to develop  channels through
weed beds  so that boaters will have  access to  deeper  water. Sometimes
it is advantageous to  treat more  extensive areas in an  effort to curtail
an  advancing population of a weed species  such as Eurasian water-
milfoil (Myriophyllum spicatum Linnaeus). Chemical controls of aquatic
vegetation, both algae and  vascular plants, must be regarded  cur-
rently as  a temporary remedy for the situation. The control of vascular
plants should last for the season during which the control is applied.
When nutrients  and other factors are suitable, the removal of a vascular
plant population may promote  the growth of phytoplankton or  a
bottom dwelling alga such as  Chara. The successive growth of these
organisms  is  stimulated by a release of  nutrients to  the water from
the decomposing vascular plants  that have been killed by the  chemical
and the  penetration  of sunlight  through  the water  mass. Conversely,
the control of an algal  population often gives rise  to the development
of  rooted aquatic plants within the ecosystem. Thus, the control of one
nuisance  may well stimulate  the  occurrence of another under suitable
conditions  and necessitate additional control actions.

  The control of nuisance aquatic  vegetation by biological  or viral
means is  in the research and  demonstration phase. Some work has been
done  with plant-eating fish,  as  well as  certain  plant-eating insects,
but an ultimate solution to the vast aquatic nuisance problem  that
faces many sectors of this Nation has not yet been found.


  Most States have laws or regulations that address specifically the use
of pesticides to control nuisances in the  aquatic environment. Some
States  regulate only  the commercial applicators. Others  regulate all
chemical  users.  Before chemicals  are applied to control  any aquatic
pest it is  well to check with the appropriate  State agency to ascertain
the legality of the proposed chemical application and to obtain assist-
ance in designing a control program for the particular problem. Very
often the State authorities have a  vast resource of data relating  to the
problem at hand and are in a position to provide technical assistance
to the property  owners in  designing  an  appropriate abatement and
control program that will not harm the overall aquatic ecosystem.

  The application of the chemical  to water  involves certain hazards
that must be understood and  against which public rights must be
protected. Factors that must  be considered are  the short-  and long-
range toxicity to all aquatic life, the deposition  and possible accumu-
lation  of  the chemical upon the lake bottom,  the subsequent reaction
upon the community of bottom organisms, the impact resulting from
the destruction  of too much  biological growth at one time, and  the
possible disturbance or impairment of the general aquatic environment.
It is essential  that all pesticides  including algicides and herbicides and
related chemicals be  applied in a manner fully consistent  with  the
protection of the entire environment. When there is  reasonable  doubt
regarding the  environmental effects of the use  of  a given pesticide in  a
control program, no use should be made of the  pesticide in question.

Animal Nuisances

  Chemicals have  been  employed  to  control dense populations  of
nuisance animals. All  such efforts have not been without their attendant
problems.  A classic example  was the attempt to control midges  in
Clear Lake, California in 1949 when a chlorinated hydrocarbon in-
secticide DDD was applied.  Following  a second  application  of  the
insecticide in  1954 and a third application  in  1957, western grebes
were found dead along the lake shore.  It then  became evident that
the persistent insecticide was being concentrated within  the aquatic
food web with the result that birds who feasted at  the aquatic table
received  a resulting  lethal dose.  This  unfortunate historic  episode
underscored dramatically the complexities associated with the  appli-
cation  of  a pesticide to the aquatic environment. It further stimulated
a great deal of research directed  toward finding less hazardous materials
for the control of nuisance organisms.

  Numerous chemical  formulations have  been  tried for  the control
of various animal pests. At the present time there is no general method
of chemical control that can be recommended.


              Plate 62. Helicopter application of a granular herbicide.
  The control of mosquitoes is  a combination of mechanical and
chemical means coupled with a routine  and periodic  surveillance of
larval  production. The  mechanical means involves a destruction of
areas for mosquito breeding and egg deposition. Containers that hold
water  after rainfall  serve  as  excellent breeding sites and should  be
collected and removed from the landscape.  The aquatic vegetation
that provides cover for adults and egg deposition should be managed
to reduce to a  minimum the floatage  and the amount of intersection
line between plants  and  the water surface. Mosquito  breeding areas
that cannot or should not be drained may be  treated with a surface
film of oil or with the application of a larvicide following a determina-
tion that such procedures will  not inflict irreversible  damage to the
environment. The periodic and continuing surveillance are essential
parts of  an adequate mosquito  control program. Such surveillance  in-
volves a continual  search  for  likely  breeding areas and  a periodic
sampling of those areas to determine the mosquito  larval  population
and development. Such surveillance usually is accompished by dipping
a specified quantity of water from a suspected breeding area and count-
ing the number  of  larvae that it contains and comparing  the  count
so obtained with a count taken at a previous time. Trends in develop-
ment can thus be noted and appropriate action taken.


  Leeches are killed readily by exposure to a temperature of 20 °F for
a few  hours.  As water temperatures  fall  with the  onset  of  winter,
leeches become more and more sluggish and finally bury themselves in
the mud or work their way beneath stones on the bottom of shallow
water.  Freezing of  bottom  muds  accomplished by  a rapid lowering
of the  water level after the first thin ice starts to form on the water
has been effective in controlling leeches where such mechanical  con-
trol measures can be practiced.
  In general chemicals for  leech controls have not  proved successful,
although chemicals  such as  copper sulfate  will  kill  those  leeches
readily that are exposed to  it. The principal difficulty with chemical
controls is  the fact that leeches are a  very  mobile organism and  they
dislike to remain in an area that has received chemical treatment for
a sufficient length of time  for them  to  receive a fatal dose. Weekly
distributions of a slurry composed  of ten pounds  of copper sulfate
and five pounds of copper carbonate or lime per acre of bathing  area
have shown some success as a temporary remedial leech control meas-
ure. The literature records further that the application of 100 pounds
of powdered lime per acre  per day in shallow waters has controlled
leeches temporarily in  localized beach areas. It must be appreciated
that such dosage rates result in significant concentrations of the applied
chemical in the water environment. The  effects of such application,
as well as  alternative  measures available, must  be  considered  and
evaluated prior to the instigation of a control program.

Swimmer's Itch Control

  A substantial degree of  control for the individual  bather  can be
obtained by rubbing the body with a  rough towel  immediately on
coming out of the water and before the water film has an opportunity
to dry  on the body surface.  Such action will crush the cercariae before
they have an opportunity to penetrate the skin. A  freshwater shower
taken immediately after leaving the water also is effective. The common
practice of  alternately swimming and sunbathing provides an excellent
opportunity  for a bather to receive  a severe infection of swimmer's
itch when infective cercariae  are abundant in the water.

  Chemical controls have been aimed toward virtual elimination of the
intermediate host snail population  within and  around the bathing
area. Lake waters with a total methyl orange alkalinity of 50 mg/1
or greater have been treated successfully with a mixture of two pounds
of copper sulfate plus one pound of copper carbonate for each  1,000
square feet of bottom area  to be treated.  Lake waters with a methyl
orange alkalinity of less than 50 mg/1 have been successfully treated
with two pounds of copper  carbonate per 1,000 square feet of bottom.
It has  been found ncessary  to apply such chemicals to at least 300 to


400 feet of lake  frontage to a width of 200 feet or  to  the drop off
whichever is less.  Often it is desirable to treat up to 1,000 uninterrupted
shoreline feet. Treatment should be conducted from the shoreline out-
ward until the entire area is covered.  One treatment is effective during
a season and  sometimes will maintain control  throughout two swim-
ming seasons.

  The time of year that chemical treatment is undertaken is important
because it involves the life cycle  and habits  of snails and fish.  Studies
indicate that very few young snails are infected with cercariae. Early
in summer, numerous immature  infections  are present in the adult
snails that  have  survived the  winter.  The  majority of the cercariae
complete their development and first begin  to emerge from the snails
in late June and  early July. The infected snails in most cases continue
to give  off cercariae until their death in late summer  or early  fall. In
the north central lake States  the optimum time to apply chemical  con-
trols for swimmer's itch is between mid-June and July 4.
  The  theory of  chemical application  is to  precipitate the maximum
amount of copper on the bottom of the area  receiving treatment where
it  will  make direct  contact with  the snails. As the snails crawl  over
the treated area  they  adsorb  the  precipitated copper on  the  lake or
pond bed until a lethal dose occurs.
  For small scale operations very simple equipment will suffice to dis-
tribute  the chemical mixture.  An open-end, 50-gallon drum may be
half-filled  with water and placed  in  a  suitable boat. Fifty pounds of
copper sulfate (snow grade) should be added and stirred until dissolved.
To this solution  25 pounds of copper  carbonate is  added slowly and
stirred  to make a suspension of  the copper sulfate-copper carbonate
mixture. A vigorous reaction  takes place inside the  drum with the
addition of the copper carbonate and frothing is caused by the carbon
dioxide produced. When all of the copper  carbonate  has been added
and  the chemical action  has  subsided  the  drum is filled with water
and  the solutfon is  ready for  use. It should be borne in mind  that
these  chemicals are irritating to the mucous  membranes of the human
eye, nose,  and throat.  Prolonged exposure of the skin to  this  concen-
trated mixture should be avoided and  precautions should be taken to
protect anyone associated with the control measure.
  The chemical solution from the drum is  allowed  to flow by gravity
through a hose and  pipe arrangement that will  distribute the chemical
solution evenly over the bottom of the area to be  treated.  Often an
inverted "T" pipe with quarter inch holes drilled at three-inch intervals
across the  bottom portion of the pipe is a  useful mechanism  to dis-
tribute  the  chemical. The boat is propelled slowly back  and forth so
that the mixture can be distributed as evenly as possible. A drum filled
with  the 50 pounds of copper sulfate  and 25  pounds of copper car-


bonate  as described above is  sufficient to  treat 25,000 square feet  of
bathing area.  Other methods  of application include the  trailing of a
number of lengths of hose from the rear of the boat, which are weighted
at the  outlet  end, to ensure  introduction of the  chemical  solution
directly on the bottom.
  The  chemical should be  applied  beneath the  surface  of the water
directly over the snail beds when  the water is very calm. Even slight
ripples  on  the  water's surface represent  sufficient water  movement
to decrease  the efficiency of  the  treatment. Applying the chemicals
beneath the surface of the water concentrates the chemical within the
treatment area and reduces its adverse effects on  the  ecology of the
surrounding area. Areas  to be treated should  be marked carefully
and  subdivided into small sections to ensure even  distribution of the
calculated amount of chemical. Swimming should  be  prohibited for
at least two hours after  treatment to prevent undue chemical disper-

  The chemicals applied to kill snails in the control of the swimmer's
itch  organism are, by nature,  toxic to aquatic life. Any fish that may
be trapped within the treated area or that are confined to live or bait
traps will  be killed. Usually  the  area requiring treatment for the
control  of swimmer's  itch is small in relation to  the total area of the
water body  in question thus the loss of fish food  organisms as a result
of the treatment will  have a negligible effect upon the fishery. All pre-
cautions should be taken  during  the treatment operation to reduce
to a  minimum adverse effects upon the environment. The introductions
of chemicals for this purpose usually are supervised by representatives
of State governmental agencies to ensure minimal environmental harm.


    Federal Programs for Pollution

          Abatement and Control

' I 'HE  most  comprehensive program ever  enacted to clean up the
 -•-  Nation's waters became law on October 18, 1972. Known as the
Federal Water Pollution Control Act Amendments of 1972, the new law
mandates a sweeping Federal-State campaign to  prevent, reduce and
eliminate water pollution.

  The law proclaims two general goals for the United States:

   (1) To achieve wherever possible by July 1, 1983, water that is clean
enough for swimming and other  recreational uses, and clean enough
for the protection and propagation of fish, shellfish and wildlife,

   (2) and  by  1985,  to have no discharges of  pollutants  into  the
Nation's waters.

  Those are goals. They reflect deep national concern about the con-
dition of the Nation's waters and a strong commitment to end  water


  The River and Harbor Act of 1899 outlawed the discharge  of pollut-
ants  other than municipal  sewage into the navigable waters of the
United States  except by permit from the Army Corps of Engineers.
The  EPA cooperated closely with the Corps of Engineers in fulfilling
the mandate of this Act. Applications for permit  to discharge pollut-
ants  received a comprehensive  evaluation within the Agency and, as
a result, recommendations were made to the Corps of Engineers for
action on the  application. The recommendations  (1) supported issu-
ance of a permit in accordance with the application, (2) supported issu-
ance of  a conditional permit based upon a clear declaration by the
applicant of an implementation program with acceptable dates for the
control or  treatment of pollution, and  (3)  supported a rejection  of
the application as presented.

  While the  Rivers and Harbors Act of 1899 had  provided for the
issuance  of  permits by the Corps of Engineers,  the  Federal  Water


 Pollution Control  Act Amendments of  1972  have instituted a  new
 permit program under EPA guidance and assistance that has shifted
 administration and enforcement to State governments. Under the new
 law, no discharge  is permitted except as authorized by  a  discharge
 permit. This  new amendment extends to previously exempt munici-
 pal discharges, so that all potential pollutants are now covered. While
 EPA issues guidelines for State permit programs, it retains a right  to
 review  a State-issued permit affecting another  State's water  resources.

   Discharge permits must be consistent with effluent limitations, guide-
 lines, and other requirements of the statute. They must be for periods
 no longer  than five  years,  and may be  terminated when  there  is a
 violation of a condition  of the permit  or when changed conditions
 dictate  the  need for  further reduction  of  the  permitted discharge.
 Similarly, EPA may withdraw approval of a State permit program  if
 the agency determines the State has failed to fulfill the requirements
 of the Act.

   The Federal Water Pollution Control Act provided for two enforce-
 ment mechanisms for pollution abatement.  The first was a Federal
 conference; the second provided for a 180-day notice to violators.  The
 enforcement conference was initiated with Federal, State and interstate
 water quality  agency representatives and followed,  if necessary, by a
 public hearing and  finally  court action. Conferences could  be  called
 by the Federal Government when water pollution from one  State
 affected the health or welfare of persons in an adjoining State, or
 when requested by or with  the consent of the Governor of a State,
 or if the shipment of shellfish was endangered. Following a conference,
 recommendations for  pollution abatement were transmitted to the
 States  by the  EPA  Administrator. If  appropriate abatement  actions
 were not taken, the Administrator  could  reconvene  the conference or
 call a formal  public hearing. If action was still  not forthcoming the
 matter could be taken to the courts. Such conferences were an excellent
 mechanism for focusing public attention on polluters  and the particular
 pollution problem.  As a pure  enforcement mechanism,  they  could
 become cumbersome. During 1972 the EPA initiated six new enforce-
 ment conferences and reconvened or convened additional sessions of
 seven conferences addressing areas on which initial  action had begun

  The  180-day notification  was  a mechanism  whereby  violators of
 water quality  standards  were given an  opportunity to  comply with
 such standards voluntarily without legal action. If the violator failed
 to produce results acceptable to the Agency, court action could follow.
 In the first nine months of fiscal year 1972, EPA served 180-day notices
 on 26 industries and 56 municipalities.


  Under the 1972 Amendments, EPA has the authority to enforce the
provisions of the law through both administrative and judicial channels.
When the Administrator finds a person to be in violation of a permit
condition or other provision  of the law,  he must notify  the polluter,
and  shall  either  issue an  administrative  order  prohibiting  further
violation or pursue a judicial remedy for appropriate relief.

  If the Administrator finds  that violations within a State are  wide-
spread because of State inaction, he  may so notify  the State, and the
Federal Government will assume enforcement responsibilities until the
State can satisfy  the Administrator that it  will enforce  the law.

  In order  to insure compliance  with the law, EPA has been  given
broad inspection and  monitoring powers. The agency has a right of
entry to all effluent  sources  and authority to inspect  records,  data
and  information, monitoring equipment,  and effluents.  If a  State
develops similar procedures, the Administrator may transfer this author-
ity to the State.

  The Administrator may  also bring suit if he finds that a particular
pollution source  presents   an imminent  and  substantial danger  to
human health or danger  to  an individual's livelihood, such as  the
inability to market shellfish.


  The search for new answers to existing problems is  an important
facet of the Federal pollution control program.  The  research and
demonstration program is aimed toward the development of new and
innovative ideas for the  treatment or control of water pollution that
have  wide applicability throughout  the United States or  within  the
industry or other field of research endeavor. Research is  aimed toward
fulfilling the  needs of EPA's water pollution abatement programs.
It is  conducted in the EPA  laboratories located in strategic  regions
throughout  the Nation or  through contracts primarily  with industry
or through  grants primarily  with universities,  industries, States, and
municipalities.  Contract projects are funded  entirely  with Federal
funds whereas grant projects  require some level of matching support
from the grantee.

  Research  currently is  conducted in all program activities and in-
cludes pollution control technology for municipal, industrial, agricul-
tural and mining activities, water quality control  technology,  waste
treatment and ultimate disposal technology, water quality  requirements
and vessel wastes and oil spills control.

  In  January 1972 the Environmental Protection  Agency sponsored
publication of the Environmental Protection Research Catalog. Part I


 of the Catalog contains 897 pages and documents 5,488 project descrip-
, tions on air, water, solid waste management, pesticides, radiation and
 noise research. The Catalog  contains ongoing research  notices as of
 October 1971 that are concerned with environmental protection, pollu-
 tion, and  contamination.  The  listed  research projects are  supported
 largely by the Federal Government but conducted in academic insti-
 tutions, State and local organizations laboratories, private foundations,
 professional  associations,  and  industrial  organizations, as  well  as
 Federal laboratories. Part II  of the two  part Catalog is a  1,445-page
 subject and  investigator index to the project descriptions described
 in Part I.

 Municipal Wastes

  The greatest single  category of Federal  spending for environmental
 quality is  for  construction or improving  waste treatment plants and
 interceptor sewers to carry wastes to the treatment plant. The Federal
 Water Pollution Control  Act provides  that grants  may be made to
 States, municipalities, inter-municipal or  interstate  agencies to assist
 in  the construction  of waste  treatment  works  that  are  needed  to
 prevent the discharge  of untreated or inadequately treated  sewage or
 other wastes into any waters.

  Based on 1968 municipal wastes facilities data, there are about 13,000
 communities served with sewer systems. Of this number, 1500 discharge
 raw sewage only.  Thus out of a sewered population of 140 million
 persons, 9.5 million or 6.8 percent discharge raw sewage to the receiving
 waterways. The vast  majority  (80 percent) of the  sewage  treatment
 installations  provide a  secondary level  of treatment, which  removes
 about 85 to 90 percent of the biochemical oxygen demand and 90 per-
 cent of the suspended solids. Nineteen percent of the sewered popula-
 tion in  1968 provided primary treatment  only  and the  remainder
 provided  various  degrees  of  treatment  including  advanced  waste

  In addition to  the  need for new sewage treatment works  to treat
 the raw or inadequately treated sewage from a substantial population
 within the United States, over 1,000 communities outgrow their treat-
 ment systems every year. Because of the continuing population growth
 in metropolitan  areas  and industrial expansion, there  is  a need  to
 enlarge and  upgrade  many of  the existing sewage  treatment  plants;
 particularly when problems of eutrophication occur in receiving water-
 ways a need for  phosphorus and sometimes nitrogen removal occurs.

  The construction of a waste water treatment facility is only a part
 of the job to treat waste waters and prevent water pollution. The
 facilities must be operated in a continuing manner  so that the plant


will function in accordance  with its design. Often  waste  treatment
plant operators profit from training to maximize their operating skills.
The EPA conducts a training program to fulfill this need. Short-term
training courses are offered also for those who  may  be interested in
enlarging their understanding of interrelationships within the aquatic
environment, of  chemical and biological investigative  procedures to
identify and define  water  pollution, and  of  laboratory  analytical

  An operations and  maintenance  program  is conducted within the
Federal  Government to  ensure that waste  treatment  facilities con-
structed with Federal  funds can effectively and  efficiently treat waste
waters.  A portion of this program is devoted to the publication of
manuals for operating waste treatment installations.

  A municipal  waste water facilities inventory is maintained that
describes each waste water  treatment facility and gives information
on  its  location, the community served,  the  waters to  which it dis-
charges, the  type of treatment employed and the various operational
components  of the  treatment facility, the population  served  by the
unit, its designed capacity, the volume of waste flow, and any require-
ments for treatment plant improvements or needs.

  Water pollution control and water quality training grants are offered
to expand the base and  improve training  in  the  causes,  control and
prevention of water pollution and  to increase professional, scientific,
and  technical manpower. Grants are awarded to  public  and  private
agencies and  educational institutions for  the purpose of  increasing
the training of undergraduates in design, operation, and maintenance
of waste water treatment works.

  Water pollution  control research  fellowships are offered to  increase
the  number  of  water  pollution  control  specialists  by  supporting
advanced specialized education and training of individuals. Qualified
individuals with master's degrees are eligible for fellowships.

  Training activities in  State and  local manpower development are
directed toward designing and carrying out  innovative and imaginative
training projects which complement existing programs. Such activities
provide  advanced  teacher training to those involved in  conducting
operator  training  programs  and train  operators  in advanced waste
treatment technology.  State, local or  district water pollution  control
agencies or a  private non-profit institution designated  by a public
agency are eligible.


Industrial Wastes
  The  1972  amendments  changed  the thrust of enforcement from
water  quality standards,  regulating  the  amount of pollutants in  a
given body of water,  to effluent limitations, regulating  the amount of
pollutants being discharged from particular  point sources. Ambient
water quality requirements can still dictate the amount of pollutants
permitted for a discharger. The Administrator is directed to  publish
regulations by  October  18,  1973, establishing guidelines  for  effluent
limitations. These regulations shall identify the best practicable control
technology available for various industrial categories. Factors for con-
sideration are  the  cost-benefit  of applying such  technology, the  age
of equipment and facilities involved, and the process employed. Indus-
trial discharges must  meet these standards  by July  1, 1977.  Public
treatment works must meet effluent limitations  based on secondary
treatment by this same date.
  In  addition,  the Administrator shall identify the  best available
technology for  preventing  and reducing pollution. He is  also respon-
sible for identifying technology which  would achieve the  elimination
of the discharge of pollutants. In both cases, he must take into account
the factors enumerated  above.  Industrial dischargers  are obliged to
meet these standards by July 1, 1983, the same date given for achieving
the national goal  designed to  protect  fish,  shellfish, wildlife and
recreation. They must meet zero-discharge requirements if the  Admin-
istrator  determines that  such  a requirement is economically and
technologically  feasible. By July  1,  1983, public treatment  works must
use the  best  practicable waste treatment technology over the  life of
the works. New sources  of discharge  are  required to use  the best
available technology  as determined  by the Administrator and pub-
lished in the regulations. Zero-discharge  by 1985 is  a goal, not a require-
ment under the law.

Non-Point Source Wastes

  Non-point  source  wastes  that create water  quality problems  are
more  diffuse  than  those  resulting  from municipal  and industrial
activities and are characterized generally by wide-spread environmental
degradation  rather than easily  noticed  point-source impacts.  Major
sources  causing  appreciable adverse aquatic  effects  include   animal
feedlot and  other  wastes  with resulting ammonia toxicity  and  dis-
solved oxygen  problems from organic enrichment;  irrigation  return
flows and tiled land run-off with increases in receiving  water minerals,
pesticides and  nutrients;  logging and  general forestry practices with
sediment load increases; rural sanitation facilities  that foster infectious
agents,  allergens and  taste and odor-producing  substances; pesticides
application and run-off with resulting toxicity and pesticides accumula-


tion in the food  web; construction site siltation;  and general land

  Wastes  from  feedlots are a  key source  of agricultural  pollution.
The total production  of such  wastes  is  approximately  1.7 billion
tons annually. Agricultural waste  sources are  scattered throughout
the Nation. Large cattle  herds are fed in the Midwest,  Southwest,
and West; poultry in the South and in the Middle Atlantic  States;
and hogs in the  Midwest  and South. Run-off  from animal feeding
operations is 10 to 100 times more  concentrated in oxygen-consuming
organic materials than is raw domestic sewage.

  Federal effort to attack this and other non-point source  pollutional
problems  is  in its  infancy. The first task is  to inventory the particular
problem and define its pollutional  nature and extent. On-site evalua-
tions  and comprehensive studies must  be  a part  of  this assessment
to develop a quantitative knowledge  of the problem.  Following this,
criteria and  other guidelines will be developed to control the non-point
source wastes  and provide measures  to effect  control operations. A
considerable base  of information is  available  on  the characteristics
of the livestock feedlot waste  problem and on control measures that
appear to be feasible in decreasing water pollution from these sources.

  The application of pesticides  and  fertilizers  for high yield  forest
production,  as well as  log harvesting methods currently used,  result
in pesticide, nutrient, sediment, and  organic waste  contamination of
receiving  watercourses. Burning  of harvested areas  and  log  rafting
cause related problems. Means for  the prevention or control of these
problems  are  required  to enable  forest-using  agribusiness to meet
water quality standards.

  Tasks that must be completed include expansion of existing monitor-
ing systems  to evaluate more precisely the  effects of forestry practices
on  water quality. Comprehensive  studies  of selected representative
logging operations are  needed to assess pollutional problems and to
recommend specific control measures.  Research is involved to develop
means to prevent pollution from log rafting practices,  and training
will be necessary  to ensure  the dissemination of information and to
promote the adoption of control methods.

  The development of agriculture  has  grown along with  population
and industrial development. At  first, land was  cleared and plowed
and barnyard manures were used as fertilizer. Precipitation was the  sole
moisture  source.  With  the agricultural invasion  of  the  arid West


and the deterioration in the fertility of land settled earlier, irrigation
systems were  developed,  inorganic  fertilizers were applied, and  the
pesticide era began. With  control  technology  in  its infancy,  results
in serious water  quality problems included inorganic chemical salts,
nitrogen  and  phosphorus  aquatic-vegetation-stimulating  nutrients,
sediments, and pesticides.

  Many waters, including the Arkansas and Rio  Grande Rivers  are
now unfit because of their salt content for public or industrial  supply
or irrigation. Violations of salinity water quality standards have been
recorded on  the  San Joaquin River.  The Colorado River  is a note-
worthy waterway with its salt problems. The cost  of losses from nutrient-
stimulated aquatic plant  growths and  their control  in 17 western
States has been estimated at $14 million annually. Methods are needed
to prevent and control  1 billion  tons of sediment and run-off and
pollution  from 700 million pounds of pesticides and 10 million tons
of fertilizers that reach the watercourses each year.

  On January 14, 1972, the EPA promulgated a policy on the control
of nutrient run-off from agricultural lands. In this policy it  was noted
that management of agricultural nutrients  will require  appropriate
limitation of erosion and  sediment run-off, the effective use of applied
fertilizers  by  the  plants, the application of fertilizers under the right
climatic and  proper growth conditions,  and the retention  of animal
waste on the land. The policy stated that  animal wastes should not
be applied to farm lands and under adverse soil or weather conditions
except when planned  methods will ensure that they remain on the
land.  Wastes  should be  stored in designated  structures until they
can be incorporated into the soil. Watering and feeding points should
be established away  from waterways along with the establishment  of
run-off and erosion control measures to prevent the concentration  of
animal wastes  in the  vicinity  of  streams.  When  a high density  of
animals is created through confinement, fencing  of the streams travers-
ing such areas should be used as a means of preventing water pollution
by the wastes of  the confined  animals  and the physical destruction
of the stream beds and banks.

  The policy was developed  to  promote the  voluntary use  of the
stated  guidelines  in a fertilizer program for  individual  farms and
to encourage  such use through a strong effort by  the presently available
educational programs of Federal, State, and  local agencies and  educa-
tional institutions, and through technical assistance.

  Pesticides include a wide variety of chemical  compounds  to control
undesired life forms that threaten man, his possessions,  and portions
of the natural environment that he values. Over 900 pesticidal chemicals


are formulated  into  more  than 60,000 preparations in the United
States. Production  and  sale of synthetic  organic  pesticides  reached
1.2 billion pounds in 1968 and  more than half of those were used in
  The Water Quality Improvement  Act of 1970 mandated that the
EPA  conduct a study  and investigation of methods to control the
release of pesticides into the environment and include an examination
of the persistency of pesticides  in  the  water environment  and alter-
natives thereto. A report addressing the effects of pesticide pollution,
the persistency and degradation of pesticides, alternatives to pesticide
uses and other related information has been prepared for submission
to the Congress and will be available for distribution soon.
  Man's land development activities have upset drastically the natural
and necessary geologic processes of sedimentation by greatly accelerating
erosion.  Deposition of excess  quantities of sediments pollutes down-
stream waters and damages land.
  The energy responsible for  erosion is provided by falling rain and
flowing run-off water. One  inch of precipitation falling on one  acre
of exposed soil weighs  110 tons.  Approximately  10 percent of the
sediment quantity  reaching the rivers of  this country each year  is
contributed by erosion from lands undergoing highway construction or
land development. Sediment yields in streams flowing from urbanized
drainage basins  vary from approximately 200  to 500  tons per square
mile each year. In contrast  the urbanized areas have a sediment  yield
of from 1,000 to 100,000 tons per year.
  The technical capability of controlling erosion and sediment deposi-
tion is  available.  It involves  protection  of disturbed soils from the
energy of falling rain and flowing run-off water by installing protective
covers, controlling run-off and  trapping sediments in transport.  The
EPA  in  September  1971 published  a  bulletin  on  the "Control of
Erosion  and  Sediment  Deposition from  Construction  of Highways
and Land Development." The purpose of this publication was to define
the nature  and extent  of the  problem and to suggest erosion and
sediment control measures that can be employed not only to protect
the lands but also to protect  the receiving waterways from sediments
that otherwise would be washed from the lands. In addition to filling
in receiving waterways and  covering waterway bed habitats, sediments
carry adsorbed nutrients, pesticides, and other materials that may have
a deleterious effect on the receiving environment.

The Subsurface  Environment
   Actions  that the EPA  can take  relating  to  the subsurface  environ-
ment include technical  assistance,  research, and enforcement activity.


  As a part of its technical assistance program, the Agency published
a selected  annotated bibliography on subsurface  water pollution in
March 1972. This bibliography represented published summaries of
research reports as abstracted and indexed in the semi-monthly journal
"Selected  Water  Resources  Abstracts." The  three-part bibliography
resulted  from  a  search of nearly  34,000 items  from  October  1968
through  December  1971. Part  I considers  pollution associated  with
subsurface waste injection. Part II addresses pollution associated with
saline  water intrusion. Part III considers pollution associated  from
percolation from surface sources.

Vessel Wastes
  The Water Quality Improvement Act of 1970 mandated the Environ-
mental  Protection Agency  to  promulgate standards of performance
for marine sanitation devices to prevent the discharge of untreated or
inadequately treated sewage into or upon the  navigable waters of the
United States from vessels with installed  toilet facilities. In June 1972
EPA published final standards  laying out  a number of steps to curtail
discharges of vessel sewage into U. S. navigable waters. These standards
pertain  to  about 500,000 recreational  boats,  14,000  fishing  vessels,
6,000 tow  and tug boats, 1500 Corps of  Engineers' ships, boats  and
crafts,  700 U. S.  Navy ships,  700  U. S.  commercial vessels,  and  an
unknown  number of  foreign  flag ships.  According to the  law, the
standards  become effective for new  vessels two years after promulga-
tion and  for  existing vessels five years  after promulgation.

  The Coast Guard has  regulatory  authority concerning  the imple-
mentation  of marine sanitation device standards and may  distinguish
among classes, types, and  sizes  of vessels,  as  well as between  new  and
existing vessels and may waive  applicability of standards and  regula-
tions as necessary or appropriate.

  The EPA standards are implemented  with  the  promulgation  of a
Coast Guard regulation governing  the design, construction,  installa-
tion, and  operation of any marine sanitation devices onboard  vessels.
The Coast Guard is mandated to  certify a marine  sanitation device
that shall  be deemed  to  be in conformity  with  the EPA standards.
Federal vessel pollution control regulations preempt any State statutes
or regulations pertaining to the control  of  human body wastes  from
vessels on their effective dates.

  The Federal  standard provides that marine sanitation  devices  in-
stalled on vessels shall be  designed and  operated  to prevent  the
overboard  discharge of sewage,  treated or untreated, or of any waste
derived from sewage, into the  navigable  waters of the  United States.
To provide for some vessel pollution control prior to the legal effective


date of the regulation, incentive  provisions were provided for owners
and operators of existing vessels to install currently available vessel
waste  treatment  devices.  Any  existing vessel equipped with a marine
sanitation device on which is installed  a treatment system that will
reduce fecal coliform bacteria to no more than 1000 per 100  milliliters
and prevent  the  discharge of an effluent with visible floating solids
shall  not be  required  to comply with the no-discharge  provision  of
the regulation for  a specified period of time depending  upon  the
date of installation.  If the treatment  device is installed  within  three
years  after  the promulgation  of  the  regulation the  treatment  device
may be used as long as  it remains operable. If such a device is installed
after  three  years from  the  date of initial promulgation of  the imple-
menting Coast Guard regulations but  before the effective date of  the
Federal regulation, the device  may be  used for a period of three years
following the regulation's effective  date.  There is  a provision in  the
regulation whereby a State may  apply and obtain  a regulation com-
pletely prohibiting discharge from a vessel of any sewage into  particular
waters of the State  or specified portions thereof  where a complete
prohibition is required  by  applicable water  quality standards.

Water Quality Standards

  The Water Quality  Act of  1965 authorized the establishment and
enforcement of water quality standards for interstate waters  including
coastal waters. This piece of legislation has been a keystone of America's
clean  water program. In developing water quality standards,  the States
initially  held  public hearings  to  define  particular  water uses for  the
States' interstate streams. Such  water uses included domestic water
supply, recreation, fish  and other wildlife, agricultural, and industrial.
Following the designation of water uses  for particular stream reaches,
water  quality criteria  were  established  by  the States  to ensure  that
the water would  be  of a quality to  support  the  designated use. In
addition,  an  implementation  program was established  that outlined
the pollution  abatement measures that would be required to meet  the
designated criteria. The  States then submitted their individual water
quality standards to the Federal Government and,  upon  approval,
the standards  became Federal-State water quality standards. The first
responsibility  for implementing and enforcing the water quality stand-
ards rests with  the State. If the State does not act on a  violation,
however, Federal  enforcement action can ensue.

  The criteria that  were adopted  to protect interstate and coastal
waters varied to  some extent among the several  States. In general
the criteria  specified a minimum water quality  applicable in  all places
at all  times. Minimal water quality criteria would prevent  the discharge
of materials attributable to pollutional  discharges that would float


 as unsightly objects, settle to form putrescent sludge deposits, impart
 tastes or odors to water or fish or other organisms, result in a  toxic
 action to fish or other water users, or serve to stimulate the growth
 of  undesirable biota.  Generally  specific numerical criteria  were  re-
 corded  for  the  water temperature,  dissolved oxygen,  pH, and  often
 other water quality  constituents. Specific  criteria for nitrogen and
 phosphorus were designated for some of the,major lake water resources.

  The 1972 Amendments provide that water quality standards shall be
 developed and apply to all interstate and intrastate navigable waters.
 In  addition  to setting water quality standards, where effluent limita-
 tions will not be stringent enough to meet water quality standards,
 the States are required to establish maximum daily loads of pollutants
 permitted in the waters that will allow the propagation of fish and
 wildlife. A  similar assessment must be  made for  thermal discharges.
 States  are  also  required to develop  a continuing planning process
 which is able to deal with the changing patterns of water pollution
 within the State. Beginning in 1975, the States must submit to Congress
 and EPA annual reports with  an inventory of all point sources  of
 discharge, an assessment of existing water quality and  projected goals,
 and proposals of programs  for nonpoint source  control. EPA  must
 submit a similar report to Congress on January 1, 1974.


  As part of the comprehensive authority vested in the Administrator,
 he is directed to  publish a list of toxic pollutants  and effluent limita-
 tions for these substances. Such  limitations may constitute an absolute
 prohibition  against discharging. Additionally, the  Administrator  must
 publish pretreatment standards requiring any industry discharging into
,a municipal sewage treatment plant  to pretreat its effluent so that it
 does not interfere with the operation of the  plant  or pass through the
 plant untreated or without adequate treatment.


  The new ocean dumping legislation, the Marine Protection, Research
 and Sanctuaries Act of 1972, passed by the 92nd Congress and signed
 into law by  the President on October 27,' 1972, declares it to be the
 national policy  "to regulate the  dumping  of  all types of materials
 into ocean waters and to prevent or  strictly limit the dumping into
 ocean waters of  any material which would adversely affect human
 health,  welfare or  amenities, or the marine environment, ecological
 systems  or  economic  potentialities." Currently,  criteria  are  being
developed to control this source of pollution.


Other Activities
  There are a host of additional activities associated with the control
of water pollution. There is a national multi-agency oil and hazardous
materials contingency plan that provides the organizational  and com-
munications mechanism for combining Federal, State, and local efforts
into a coordinated response to control  and clean up  spills of oil and
hazardous materials. A  technical assistance program is available  to
help States solve pollution problems. Field studies can be undertaken
under this program  to define an environmental problem and proffer
recommendations for its control or for environmental  enhancement.
  A significant involvement of the Environmental Protection Agency
is in planning activities for pollution control.  Clean water will  be
achieved  only by systematically controlling pollution in entire river
basins.  Furthermore, we must  be sure  that actions  taken today will
be adequate to meet the needs of  tomorrow.  Thus, long-range  plans
are made with provisions for  future growth of waste loads, population,
industry, and water uses.

  Criteria are currently  being  developed to define  a polluted dredge
spoil that would be unacceptable for open-water disposal. Information
is being collected on the number and extent of bathing beaches that
are closed annually  because  of pollution,  as well as the number of
shellfish areas that  are  closed because  of pollution. When data of
this  type  are compared  for one year with those  of another, an index
of accomplishment  or  nonaccomplishment  in  the  fight against water
pollution control is provided.
  Water quality data are collected on a number  of fixed  water quality
stations throughout  the  Nation.  These data are stored  on  computer
tape in such a manner  that it will be possible to  compare  the water
quality in a particular location from which samples have been collected
with the water quality standards for that reach of waterway. Additional
data that will be available for the same location will include informa-
tion on municipal and other point sources of wastes, a resume of the
implementation  program to  abate pollution  from indicated sources
and  a designation indicating the violation of any time  frame within
the implementation program.

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ABSORPTION—The taking up of one sub-
  stance  into the body of  another.
ACID  MINE  DRAINAGE—Drainage  from
  certain  mines  of  water  containing
  minerals and having a low pH. The
  low pH is commonly caused by oxi-
  dation   of  iron  sulfide   to  sulfuric
  acid. Mine water  usually  contains a
  high concentration  of iron.
ACTINOMYCETES-—Mold-like  bacteria  in-
  volved  in  the  decomposition of  or-
  ganic matter  and may be responsible
  for tastes and odors in water supplies.
ADSORPTION—The adherence of a  gas,
  liquid,  or dissolved  material on the
  surface of a solid.
AEROBIC  ORGANISM—An organism that
  thrives in the  presence of oxygen.
AESTHETIC  INSULTS—A  degradation  of
  beauty  through arrogant mistreatment.
ALGICIDE—A  specific   chemical  highly
  toxic to algae. Algicides are often ap-
  plied  to water to  control nuisance
  algal blooms.
                                   AMOEBA—A genus of unicellular proto-
                                     zoan  organisms of  microscopic  size,
                                     existing in nature in large numbers;
                                     many living as parasites; some species
                                     pathogenic to man.
                                   ANAEROBIC  ORGANISM—A microorganism
                                     that thrives best,  or  only, when de-
                                     prived of oxygen.
                                   ARTIFICIAL  SUBSTRATE—A  device placed
                                     in the water for a period extending to
                                     a  few  weeks  that   provides  living
                                     spaces for  a multiplicity of drifting
                                     and   natural-born  organisms   that
                                     would not otherwise  be at the  par-
                                     ticular  spot   because   of  limiting
                                     physical habitat. Examples of artificial
                                     substrates 'include glass slides,  tiles,
                                     bricks,  wooden   shingles,   concrete
                                     blocks, multiplate-plate samplers, and
                                     brush boxes.
                                   BENTHIC REGION—The  bottom of  all
                                     waters; the substratum that  supports
                                     the benthos.

BENTHOS—Bottom-dwelling   organisms;
   the  benthos comprise:  (1) sessile ani-
   mals such  as the  sponges, barnacles,
   mussels,  and  oysters,   some  of the
   worms, and many  attached algae; (2)
   creeping  forms,  such  as  snails  and
   flatworms;  and (3) burrowing forms
   which include most clams  and worms.
   —A measure of the quantity  of  oxy-
   gen  used in the  biochemical oxida-
   tion of organic matter  in a specified
   time, at a specified temperature, and
   under specified conditions. In general,
   a high B.O.D.  indicates the presence
   of a large amount of organic material.
   It is normal to find a  B.O.D.  of 2 to
   3 mg/1 in river waters receiving natu-
   ral drainage.
BIODEGRADATION—The  destruction  or
   mineralization  of  either  natural or
   synthetic  organic  materials  by the
   microorganisms  of  soils,  waters, or
   wastewater  treatment  systems.
BIOMASS—The weight of  all life  in  a
   specified  unit  of   environment, for
   example,  a  square  foot  of  stream
   bottom.  An expression  dealing  with
   the  total  mass or  weight  of  a given
   population,  both  plant and  animal.
BLACK   FLY   LARVAE   (Simuliidae)—
   Aquatic  larvae  that produce  a   silk-
   like  thread  with  which they  anchor
   themselves to objects in swift  waters.
   With a pair of fan-shaped structures,
   a larva of this type produces a  cur-
   rent of water toward  its mouth  and
   from this water ingests  smaller orga-
   nisms. The  adults  are  terrestrial; fe-
   males  feed  on the blood  of  higher
BLOODWORMS  (Chironomidae)—Cylindri-
  cal elongated midge larvae with  pairs
  of prolegs on both the first thoracic
  and   last  abdominal   segments.  Al-
  though many species are blood-red in
  color, some are  pale yellowish, yellow-
  ish   red,   brownish,  pale  greenish
  yellow,  and green.  Most  feed on
  diatoms,  algae,  tissues  of  aquatic
  plants, decaying organic matter,  and
  plankton.  Some are associated  with
  rich  organic deposits.  Midge  larvae
  are  important as food  for fishes.
 BLOOM—A  readily visible concentrated
   growth or  aggregation  of  plankton
   (plant and animal).
 COLIFORM BACTERIA—A group of bacteria
   predominantly  inhabiting the  intes-
   tines  of  man or  animals,  but also
   occasionally  found  elsewhere.  Fecal
   coliform bacteria are those organisms
   associated with  the  intestine of warm
   blooded animals that are used com-
   monly  to indicate  the  presence  of
   fecal  material   and  the   potential
   presence of organisms capable of caus-
   ing disease in man.
 DAMSELFLY   NYMPH   (Odonata)—The
   immature damselfly. This  aquatic in-
   sect  nymph  has  an  enormous grasping
   lower  jaw and three flat leaf-like gill
   plates  that project  from the  posterior
   of the abdomen. Nymphs live most of
   their lives searching for food among
   submerged  plants   in still  water;  a
   few  cling to. plants  near the current's
   edge; and a very few cling to rocks in
   flowing water. The carnivorous adults
   capture lesser insects on the wing.
 DERMATITIS—Any  inflammation  of  the
   skin. One type may be caused by the
   penetration  beneath the  skin of  a
   cercaria  found  in   water; this form
   of   dermatitis  is  commonly  called
   "swimmer's itch."
 DIATOMETER—An  apparatus  that  holds
   microscopic  slides in the water. It is
   held in place by means of floats and an
   anchor. Living diatoms,  by means of
   their thin gelatinous coating, become
   attached to the glass slides. The slides
   are removed  from the diatometer, at
   intervals generally  of  14 days, dried,
   and  shipped  to the  laboratory  for
   study,  identification,  and  enumera-
DIATOMS—Organisms  closely associated
  with algae that are characterized by
   the presence of silica in the cell walls
   which  are sculptured with striae and
  other markings,  and by  the  presence
  of a brown pigment associated with
   the chlorophyll.
DRAGONFLY NYMPH (Odonata)—The im-
  mature dragonfly. This aquatic insect
  nymph has gills on the inner walls of

  its rectal  respiratory  chamber. It  has
  an enormous grasping lower jaw that
  it can extend  forward to a distance
  several  times  the  length  of it  head.
  Although many of these nymphs climb
  among  aquatic plants^  most  sprawl
  in the mud where they lie in ambush
  to await their  prey. The carnivorous
  adults capture lesser  insects  on  the
ECOLOGY—The branch  of biology that
  deals with  the mutual  relations  of
  living organisms and their environ-
  ments, and  the relations of organisms
  to each other.
ECOSYSTEM—The  functoning together of
  the  biological  community  and  the
  non-living environment.
EPILIMNION—That region of a body of
  water  that  extends from the surface
  to the thermocline and does not have
  a  permanent  temperature  stratifica-
EPITHELIAL  LAYER—Cellular tissue cov-
  ering all  the  free body surfaces,  cu-
  taneous, mucous, and serous, includ-
  ing  the glands  and  other  structures
  derived therefrom.
EUTROPHIC WATERS—Waters with a good
  supply of nutrients; they may support
  rich  organic production, such as algal
EUTROPHICATION—The intentional or un-
  intentional  enrichment of  water.
FALL  OVERTURN—A  physical  phenome-
  non  that  may  take  place in  a body
  of water during the early autumn. The
  sequence  of events   leading  to fall
  overturn include:  (1) cooling of sur-
  face   waters, (2) density  change   in
  surface  waters producing convection
  currents from  top to bottom, (3) cir-
  culation of the total water  volume
  by wind action, and (4) vertical tem-
  perature equality,  4°C. The overturn
  results in  a  uniformity of  the physical
  and  chemical properties of the water.
FLOC—A small, light, loose mass, as  of
  a fine precipitate.
FOOD WEB—The dependence of  orga-
  nisms  upon others  in a series  for
  food. The chain begins  with  plants
  or scavenging  organisms and ends
  with  the  largest carnivores.
GELATINOUS MATRIX—Jelly-like intercel-
  lular substance of a tissue; a semisolid
  material surrounding the cell wall of
  some algae.
GLOBULAR—Having a round or spherical
HELLGRAMMITES  (Corydalidae)—Dobson-
  fly larvae. Full-grown larvae are 2 to
  3 inches in length;  they have a dark-
  brown rough-looking skin, large jaws,
  and  posterior hooks. The aquatic lar-
  val stage lasts 2  to 3 years. They are
  secretive and predaceous, living under
  rocks and  debris in  flowing  water.
  These larvae are considered one of the
  finest live baits by  fishermen. Pupa-
  tion  occurs on shore, under rocks and
  debris near the stream edge. The  ter-
  restrial  adults are short lived.
HERBICIDE—Substances  or a  mixture of
  substances intended  to control or de-
  stroy any vegetation.
HEPATIC  VEIN—The vein leading from
  the liver.
HETEROCYST—A   specialized   vegetative
  cell  in certain filamentous blue-green
  algae;  larger,  clearer,  and  thicker-
  walled  than the regular vegetative
HIRUDIN—A substance  extracted  from
  the  salivary  glands of the leech that
  has  the. property of  preventing co-
  agulation of the blood.
HOMOTHERMOUS—Having the same tem-
  perature throughout.
HYPOLIMNION—The region of a body of
  water that  extends  from the thermo-
  cline to  the bottom of the lake and
  is removed from  surface influence.
INTRAPERITONEAL—Within the peritoneal
  or abdominal cavity.
LARVA—The worm-like form of  an in-
  sect  on  issuing from the egg.
LEECHES (Hirudinea)—Segmented worms,
  flat  from top  to bottom,  with  ter-
  minal suckers that  are  used  for at-
  tachment  and  locomotion.  Various
  species may be parasites, predators, or
  scavengers;  most  are aquatic.
LUMEN—The space in  the interior of a
  tubular structure, such  as an artery
  or the intestine.

MACROORCANISMS —  Plant,  animal, or
  fungal  organisms visible  to  the un-
  aided eye.
MAYFLY NAIADS (Ephemeridae)—The im-
  mature mayfly.  Paired  gills are  at-
  tached  to the upper surface of the
  outer edge of some or all of the first
  seven abdominal segments. The abdo-
  men terminates  in  three,  rarely  two,
  slender tails.  Mouth  parts  are  par-
  ticularly  suited  for raking  diatoms
  and rasping decaying plant stems. The
  terrestrial   adults   lack  functional
  mouth parts and live only a few hours.
  of the brain and its membranes.
MESENTERIC  VEIN—The large vein  lead-
  ing  from  the intestines  in  the ab-
  dominal cavity.
MIRACIDIUM—The ciliated free-swimming
  larva of a trematode worm.
MORPHOMETRY—The  physical shape and
  form of a  water body.
  unconfined  waste  discharge;  not  a
  point source waste.
NUTRIENT BUDGET—A quantitative de-
  termination of  the  major  nutrients
  flowing to, retained within, and dis-
  charged from a system.
  small supply of  nutrients;  hence,  they
  support little  organic production.
ORGANOLEPTIC—Affecting  or employing
  one or  more of the organs of special
  of causing disease.
PENSTOCK—A sluice for  regulating  flow
  of  water, a  conduit  for  conducting
PERIPHYTON—The association of aquatic
  •organisms attached  or  clinging to
  stems and leaves of rooted plants or
  other  surfaces projecting above the
PESTICIDE—Any  substance  used to kill
  pest organisms  including  insecticides,
  herbicides, algicides, fungicides,  and
PHOTIC ZONE—The surface  waters  that
  are penetrated by  sunlight.
PHOTOSYNTHESIS—The process by which
  simple sugars  are manufactured from
  carbon  dioxide  and water by living
  plant cells with the aid of chlorophyll
  in the presence of light.
PHYTOPLANKTON—Plant  microorganisms,
  such  as certain  algae,  living  unat-
  tached in the water.
PLANKTON—Organisms of relatively small
  size, mostly microscopic, that either
  have  relatively small  powers of loco-
  motion or  drift  in the water subject
  to the action  of waves and currents.
PLASTIDS—A body  in a  plant  cell that
  contains photosynthetic pigments.
POINT WASTES SOURCE—Any  discernible,
  confined and discrete conveyance such
  as any pipe, ditch,  channel, tunnel or
  conduit from which pollutants are or
  may be discharged.
  pressing the strength  of a waste  by
  equating it  to the strength of  waste
  from  an equivalent number  of per-
PROFUNDAL ZONE—The  deep- and bot-
  tom-water area  beyond  the depth of
  effective light  penetration. All of  the
  lake floor beneath the  hypolimnion.
PUPA—An intermediate, usually quies-
  cent,  form  assumed  by insects after
  the larval stage,  and maintained until
  the beginning of the  adult stage.
SECCHI Disc—A  circular  metal plate, 20
  cm in diameter, the upper surface of
  which  is divided  into  four  equal
  quadrants and  so  painted that  two
  quadrants directly opposite each other
  are black and the intervening ones
  plankton-counting cell consisting of a
  brass  or glass receptacle 50 by 20 by I
  millimeter  sealed  to  a  1-  by 3-inch
  glass  microscope  slide. A rectangular
  cover glass large enough to cover  the
  whole cell is required. The cell  has a
  capacity of exactly 1  milliliter.
SEICHE—A periodic oscillation of a body
  of water whose  period is determined
  by  the  resonant characteristics of  the
  containing basin as controlled by  the

  physical  dimensions.  These  periods
  generally range  from  a few minutes
  to an hour or more.  (Originally  the
  term  was applied only  to  lakes  but
  now also  to  harbors, bays,  oceans,
SESTON—The   living   and   nonliving
  bodies of plants or animals that float
  or swim in  the water.
SETTLEABLE   SctLios^Suspended   solids
  that will settle in quiescent water or
  sewage  in  a  reasonable  period. Such
  period  is  commonly,  though  arbi-
  trarily,  taken as two hours.
  served   by   wastewater   collecting
SNAIL—An   organism    that   typically
  possesses a  coiled shell and crawls on a
  single  muscular  foot.  Air  breathing
  snails, called pulmonates, do not have
  gills  but  typically   obtain  oxygen
  through  a  "lung"   or  pulmonary
  cavity.  At  variable  intervals  most
  pulmonate snails come to the surface
  of  the  water for a  fresh  supply of
  air.  Gill breathing  snails possess  an
  internal gill  through which dissolved
  oxygen  is removed from  the surround-
  ing water.
SPECIES (Both singular  and plural)—An
  organism  or organisms forming  a
  natural population or group of  popu-
  lations  that  transmit  specific  char-
  acteristics  from  parent to offspring.
  They are reproductively isolated from
  other  populations with which they
  might breed.  Populations usually ex-
  hibit a loss  of  fertility  when  hy-
STANDING  CROP—The biota present in an
  environment  at  a selected point in
  tration in  which an organism can  sur-
  vive, but within which adverse phys-
  iological changes  may be manifested.
SUSPENDED SOLIDS—Solids   mixed  with
  and generally imparting a  cloudy ap-
  pearance to water, sewage,  or  other
SWIMMER'S ITCH—A rash produced on
  bathers by  a parasitic flatworm in the
  cercarial stage  of its life  cycle. The
  organism is killed by the human body
  as soon as it penetrates  the skin; how-
  ever,  the  rash  may   persist   for  a
  period of about 2 weeks.
THERMOCLINE—The layer in a body of
  water in which the drop  in  tempera-
  ture equals or  exceeds  one  degree
  centigrade  for each meter or approxi-
  mately  three feet of water depth.
  lected  at defined intervals along an
  imaginary line  connecting two  points.
TROPHOGENIC  REGION—The  superficial
  layer of a lake in which organic pro-
  duction from mineral substances takes
  place on the basis of light energy.
TUBIFICIDAE—Aquatic segmented  worms
  that exhibit marked  population in-
  creases  in  aquatic environments con-
  taining organic decomposable  wastes.
  of the lake where organic dissimilation
  predominates   because  of  light  de-
  requirement on  which a decision or
  judgment  may be based  concerning
  the  suitability  of water  quality to
  support a designated use.
  is established  by  governmental  au-
  thority as  a program for water pollu-
  tion prevention  and abatement. Usu-
  ally it  includes a delineation  of  des-
  ignated water  uses,  criteria,  and
  pollution abatement, implementation
  and surveillance programs.
ZOOPLANKTON—Animal   microorganisms
  living unattached in water.  They in-
  clude small Crustacea, such as ctapEhia
  and cyclops, and single-celled animals,
  such as protozoa.

Square Meters  	
Grams per square meter 	
Kilograms per hectare 	
Milligrams per square centimeter
Milligrams per cubic  meter 	
X  2.471
X  2.471 X
X  4047
X  43,560
X  325,851
X  8.922
X  0.8922
X  89.22
X  2.72X1
                                            Square meters
                                            Square feet.
                                            Pounds per acre.
                                            Pounds per acre.
                                            Pounds per acre.
                                            Pounds per acre-foot
—Square of the diameter X 0.7854.
—Length of the base x height.
—Square of the radius X 3.1416 X 4.
—Square the length of one side.
—Add the two parallel sides X height -=- 2.
—Base X height -f- 2.
Circle—Diameter X 3.1416

Micromoles  per  liter 	   X  32 X 10~3
Millimoles per liter 	   X  32
Micromoles  per  microliter 	   x  32 X 103
Millimoles per square meter  	   x  2848 x It
                                        —  Milligrams per liter.
                                        =  Milligrams per liter
                                        —  Milligrams per liter
                                        =  Pounds per acre.
Length  (ft.) X Width  (ft.) X Average Depth (ft.) X 62.4 X Desired Concentration in
  ppm X 10~0 = Pounds of active Material Needed.
Speed of Boat  (feet per hour) X Width  of Spray Pattern (feet) X Depth of Calculated
  Treatment  (feet) x 62.4 x Desired Concentration in ppm x 10-° = Pounds of Ac-
  tive Material Needed Per Hour.
Fathoms 	   X   6.08         —
Meters  	   X   3.281        —
Acres 	   X   43,560       =
Square meters 	   X   10-76        =
Square  feet 	   X   929 X 10"1   =
Gallons 	   X   1337x10-"  =
Cubic  feet 	   X   '-48         =
Gallons per minute	   X   2.228 X 10-*  =
Cubic  feet per second 	   X   448.8        —
Million gallons per day  	   X   1-547        —
Cubic  feet per second 	   X   6463 X 10"1  =
                                            Square feet.
                                            Square feet.
                                            Square meters.
                                            Cubic feet.
                                            Cubic feet per second.
                                            Gallons per minute.
                                            Cubic feet per second.
                                            Million gallons per day.

Acre-feet  .........................   X  325,851      =  Gallons.
Cubic feet  ......................   X  7.48         =  Gallons.
Liters ...........................   X  2642 X io~*  =  Gallons.
Pounds of water  ..................   X  1198 X 10"*  =  Gallons of water.
Gallons per minute  ...............   X  J440         =  Gallons per day.
Gallons of water  .................   X  8-345        =  Pounds of water.
Gallons ..........................   X  1337 X 10~*  =  Cubic feet-
Gallons ...... „ ...................   X  231          =  Cubic  inches.
Gallons ..........................   X  3.785        =  Liters
Cubic feet per second  .............   X  6463 X 10-*  =  Million gallons per day.
Cubic feet per second  .............   X  44f3-8        =  Gallons per minute.
Gallons per  minute ..............   X  2.228 x 1C"3  =  Cubic feet per second.
Million gallons per day  ...........   X  1-547        =  Cubic feet per second.
Parts per  million  .................   X  8-345        =  Pounds per million


Kilometers  .......................   X  6214 X 10"4  =  Miles.
Statute Miles .....................   X  1-15         =  Nautical miles.
Miles ............................   X  !-609        =  Kilometers.
Nautical Miles Per Hour .........   X  LO          =  Knots.

microgram atoms phosphorus per gram (^g-atP/g) = 31 parts per million phosphorus
microgram atoms phosphorus  per liter (^g-atP/1) = 31 parts per billion phosphorus
phosphorus pentoxide (P2O5) x 0.436 = phosphorus (P) equiv.
phosphate (PO4) x 0-326 = phosphorus (P) equiv.

Milligrams per liter ..............   X   1-0
Grams per liter  ..................   X   1000
Micrograms per liter  .............   X   10"3
Micrograms per gram  .............   X   1-0
Cubic centimeters per  liter ........   x   1.4545
Milligrams per gram ..............   X   10s
Cubic  millimeters  per liter ......   X   1-0

Cubic microns per milliliter .......   x   10~°
Parts' per million .................  X  8.345
Parts per million.
Parts per million.
Parts per million.
Parts per million.
Parts per million.
Parts per million.
Parts per million.
Parts per million.
Pounds per million

NITRATE (NO3) X 0.226 = nitrogen (N) equiv.
Milligrams per square meter	   x  8922
Grams per square meter 	   X  8-922
Kilograms per hectare 	   X  0.8922
Milligrams per square centimeter . .   x  S922
Milligrams per liter  	   X  2.72
Milligrams per cubic meter	   x  2.72 X l°~a
Micrograms per square meter 	   x  8-92 X l°e
Acre-feet o£ water 	   X  2.7 X 10°
Gallons of water 	   X  8-345
  Parts Per Million X Cubic Feet Per Second X 5-4
    (Gallons per minute X 2.228 X 10-" = Cubic feet per
  Parts per million x 8-34 X gallons per day x 10-°
    (Gallons per minute X 1440 = Gallons per day).

Areal standard units = 2(V X 20/i = 400/i2
Cubic standard units = 2
                                                    Temperatures—Centrigrade to Fahrenheit *
50 . .

C. 0

* Temperatures in
degrees Fahrenheit in
30 ..
70 ...
80 .
100 ...

F. 0
. . 26.67

degrees Centigrade expressed in left vertical column and in top horizontal row; corresponding temperatures in
body of table. (From: Welch, P.S. 1948. Limnological Methods. McGraw-Hill Book Co., Inc.)
Temperatures — Fahrenheit to Centigrade *
    * Temperatures  in degrees Fahrenheit expressed in left vertical  column and in top horizontal row; corresponding temperatures in de-
grees Centigrade in body of table. (From: Welch, P.S. 1948. Limnological  Methods. McGraw-Hill Book Co., Inc.)                         -

                BIO-ASSAY DOSAGE CHART

         For Preliminary Screening of an  Effluent Waste

Percent of Waste
in test jar

ns required 	

Waste added
Dilution water
added (ml)

A  Guide to the Selection of Experimental Concentrations, Based on
     Progressive Bisection of  Intervals on a Logarithmic Scale

Col. 1          Col. 2          Col. 3          Col. 4          Col. 5


                      DILUTION TABLE
To prepare solutions of concentrations indicated
at left, take number of milliliters of stock solu-
Concentration Desired -1.1.1 j i i-» -.u
tion shown below, and make up to one liter with
suitable dilution water.


FF sol: 10%
"g/L lOOgm/L


sol: 1%


sol: .1%


sol: .01%


sol: .001%
.01 gm/L


                        Oubject  Index
   .                              Page
Actions to Abate Pollution	   30
Aesthetic  Insults 	g; 44
Aesthetic Problem Control	  ' 23
Aesthetic  Qualities  	9,11
Algae  	18, 177
Algal Assets	  172
Algal Bloom	  174
Algal Control  	132,234
Algal Control  Equipment	  233
Algal Counting	   80
Algal Crop Maxima	  176
Algal Identification 	  196
Algal Nuisances  	20,173
Algal Problems, Water Supply	  124
Algal Sampling, Lakes	  114
Algal Standing Crop	55, 103
Algal Volume  Determination	   82
Amoebic Meningoencephalitis ....  194
Artificial  Substrates  	   75
Asiatic Clams  	  185

Bacterial Sampling 	   92
Basin Planning  	35,255
Benthos Standing Crop	  104
Biochemical Oxygen Demand	   85
Biological  Axiom  	   48
Biological  Magnification  	8,50
Biological  Sampling  	   89
Biology of Water Pollution	   70
Black Flies 	  182
Blue Vitriol 	  234
Brule River, Wisconsin-Michigan..  146

Caddisflies  	50,179
Carbon-Nitrogen Ratio	  105
Catherwood Diatometer 	   77
Cercariae   	  187
Chara 	20,174
Chara Control	  236
Chattooga  River, Georgia	  153
Chemical Nuisance Controls	  234
Chemical Treatment 	  234
Chlorophyll Determination . .79, 128,156
Citizen Action	   28
Citizen Groups 	   27
Clean Water Organisms	   88
Clean Water Zone	   47
Coliform Bacteria 	   85
Collecting  Benthos 	   70
Collecting  Jars 	   74
Color, Causes  	15,171
Concentration Zones, Benthos	  104
Conclusions 	  161
Conference	  "44
Control Station Selection	   89
Conversion to  a  Quantity	85,143
Copper Sulfate  	  234
Copper Sulfate Application	  236
Core Samplers	73, 78
Corrosion  	124, 171,232
Court Evidence	   119

Data Collection  	66, 68
Data Evaluation 	   145
Decomposition Zone 	    47
Deer Flies	   183
Degradation Zone  	    47
Density Currents 	    99
Density of Water	    97
Diatometer 	    77
Diphyllobothrium latum  	   193
Dispersal of Water  Plants	137, 175
Dissolved Oxygen Profiles	114,155
Dredge Spoil Criteria	   255
Dredging  	   55
Drift  	136,147
Drift  Nets  	   74
Drop Counting  Method	    81
Drought Effects  	  140
Dying Lakes 	    20

Ecology, definition  	    6
Effluent Limitations 	   41
Ekman Dredge 	   72
Electrofishing  	   78
Encephalitis 	  182
Enforcement 	   39
Environmental Catastrophes	  138
Environmental Impact Statements.   36
Epilimnion  	   98
Erosion 	   25
Eutrophication  	53, 104
Eutrophication Recovery	136,139

Federal Water  Pollution Control
  Act  	34,41
Feedlots 	  249
Feedlots, cattle 	   24
Field Data 	   66
Field Investigative  Objectives	   62
Field Maps 	-	  Ill
Filariasis 	  182
Filter Clogging 	  124
Fish Kills	12,118
Fish Kill Investigation	13, 117
Fish Samples	78, 120
Fish Sampling	  112
Fish Standing Crop	55,104
Fish Tapeworm 	  193
Floating Solids 	   13
Flood Effects 	134,140
Food Web	    5
Forestry and Logging	  249
Formula for Conversion	   85

 Goal, society	8, 41
 Government's role  	   32
 Grants  	   38
 Graph  	  145

 Hand  Picking Samples	   79
 Hair Identification  	  117
 Harvesting the Crop	55,232
 Heat Pollution  	   51
 Herbicide Properties 	  233
 Hester—Dendy Sampler	75
 Horse  Flies  	  183
 Hypolimnion 	   98

 Ice Effects 	,	100, 140
 Industrial Pollution 	   26
 Industrial Wastes  	86,248
 Industrial Water  Use	   27
 Insults, environmental, definition..    9
 Inventory of Industrial  Wastes	  248
 Iron  	144,148
 Iron Bacteria 	125, 168
 Iron Bacterial Control	  231
 Irrigation  	25, 249

 Laboratories 	66, 94
 Lake Michigan 	20,135,157
 Lakes, number  	    2
 Lake Reclamation  	  140
 Lake Stratification 	   98
 Lake Tahoe  	;	10, 175
 Lateral mixing  	   84
 Laws 	   40
 Leaching  	  123
 Leech  Control  	  240
 Leeches  	  183
 Light  	21,100
 Limiting Factors	  175
 Limiting Phosphorus 	  176
 Limnological References 	   59

 Magnification, biological 	8,50
 Maintenance  of Water  Environ-    v
  ment 	.,-.	  230
 Map Usage  	64,  111
 Marine Sanitation Devices	  252
 Mayflies  	70,179
 Menominee  River, Michigan	  148
 Migration 	  137
 Midges  	22,53,178
 Mine Pollution	25,139
 Mixing  	84, 99
 Mobile  Laboratories 	    94
 Mosquito Control	   239
 Mosquitoes   	  181
 Municipal Wastes  	   246

 National Environmental Policy Act
  of 1969 	    36
 National Technical Advisory Com-
  mittee on Water Quality	10,59
 Nitrogen  	    53
 Nitrogen-Carbon Ratio  	   105
 Nitrogen-Phosphorus Ratio	   105
 Non-point Source Wastes	   248
 Non-point Waste Source Sampling.    86
 Nuisance Control	   230
 Nutrient Policy	  250
 Nutrients  	   53
 Nutrient  Sources  	  176
 Nutrient  Retention in Sediments..  110

 Objectives  	   62
. Observing the Environment	   69
 Oil  	16,55
 Oil  Contingency Plan	  255
 Oil, Effects on Aquatic Life	17,55
 Oil  Pollution  Control	   37
 Oil  Spills	   24
 180-Day Notice	  244
 Orange-peel Dredge	   73
 Organic Wastes 		47, 138
 Organism Effect on Pollution	   50
 Organism Infiltration  	  136
 Organization of Data	  144

 Periphyton	,	   76
 Pesticides  		  250
 Petersen Dredge 	   73
 Phosphate Mining	  101
 Phosphorus	 .54,100,123,143
 Phosphorus Cycle		  101
 Phosphorus in Agricultural Drain-
  age	   54
 Phosphorus in Sewage	54, 85
 Phosphorus-Nitrogen Ratio  	  105
 Photic Zone	  100
 Photosynthesis	  100
 Photosynthetic Oxygen Production.  173
 Plankton  Sampling	91
 Pollution,  definition 	    7
 Pollution,  varieties  	  43
 Ponar Dredge  	   73
 Pond Life	   96
 Potomac River, Maryland	  151
 Pounds per day	85,145
 Preservation of Samples	75,120,127
 Primary Sewage Treatment	   85

 Qualitative Sampling 	   70

 Recommendations  	,	  162
 Reconnaissance Survey	   64
 Recovery   	  133
 Recovery  Zone  	   47
 Recycling Wastes	   27
 References	   57
 Repopulation  Mechanisms 	  137
 Report  Organization 	161,163
 Report  Outline	  160
 Report  Review 	  166
 Reports 	  159
 Report  Writing 	  159
Research  	32, 38,245
 Reservoir  Effects	  102
 Reservoirs	1,123
 Riffle Sampling	   75
 River and Harbor Act of 1899	
                          16,33, 39,243
 Runoff, land  	    3

 Sample Analyses	   78
 Sample  Collection 	:. .72,121
 Sample  Concentration  	7^5,81

Sampling 	72, 89
sampling Frequency, Lakes	  115
Sampling Frequency, Streams	   92
Sampling tools  	   71
Schistosomiasis  	  192
Seasonal Effects  	93, 141
Secondary Sewage  Treatment	   85
Sebasticook Lake, Maine	102, 126
Sediment  	24,102, 110
Sediment Examination  	   82
Sedwick-Rafter Cell	   80
Settleable Solids	14,46
Settled  Solids  	   15
Settling  Plankton 	   81
Sewage   	   85
Sewage  Decomposition  	  129
Sewage  Fungus  	  169
Sewage  Sampling  	   85
Sewage  Treatment 	  128
Sieves	•..   71
Siltation  	  139
Silts 	   45
Siltation Recovery 	139,251
Slime Control  	  231
Slimes  	18, 167,231
Sludge Boils	   19
Sludgeworms 	22,50
Snail Control	  241
Solids	   16
Sphaerotilus  natans	  169
Splitting Samples  	   79
Sponges 	  178
Stabilization  Ponds 	  130
Stable  Flies  	  183
Standard Methods 	   57
Standards, water quality	  254
Standing Crops	   55
Station  Selection, Lake	  112
Station  Selection, Stream	   87
Stratification  	   98
Stove-pipe Sampler 	   74
Study Objectives  	   63
Study Plan  	   83
Study  Planning 	   64
Submersed Plants  	78, 104
Subsurface Environment  	  251
Sulfate  Bacterial  Control	  232
Sulfur  Bacteria  	  169
Summary  	  161
Suspended Solids  	   85
Swimmer's Itch 	   187
Swimmer's Itch Control	   240

Tastes and Odors	17, 124
Taxonomic References	196, 202
Technical Assistance 	   39
Temperature Profiles  	114, 154
Thermal  Pollution 	   51
Thermocline  	   98
Tolerant  Organisms 	   91
Tools  for  Sample Collection	   71
Toxic  Algae	   194
Toxic  Substances	22, 44, 138, 254
Training  	28, 147
Transections in  Sampling	   113
Tributary Sampling 	   87
Trickling Filter Flies	   130
Trickling Filter  Plants	   129
Trickling Filters	   129
Trophogenic Zone  	   100

Vertical Sampling  	   114
Vascular Plant Assets	   172
Vascular  Plant  Identification	   202
Vascular Plants	   21
Vessel  Wastes 	37,252

Waste Stabilization 	   130
Water Pollution Control Laws. . .38, 245
Water Quality Act of 1965	35, 253
Water Quality Criteria	   58
Water Quality Criteria Data	   58
Water Quality Improvement Act of
  1970 	   37
Water Quality References	   59
Water Quality Standards	10,36,254
Water Supply Problems	   122
Waterway Recovery	   133
Water Weed  Removal	   232
Water Weight	   97
Weed  Control	232,237
Weed  Nuisances  	   173
Weed  Standing Crop  	55, 104
Wilding Sampler  	  74
Wind  Effects  	  141
Winter Sampling	'... .93,114,141
Words misused  	   165
Writing	  163

Wuchereria bancrofti 	  182
                                 •fr U.S. GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE: 1973 0—503—148