United States         Office of Air and        Office of Research and
Environmental Protection    Radiation           Development
Agency            (ANR-445)           (RD-672)
August 1989                        £P A/400/1-89/001A
Report to Congress on
Indoor Air Quality

Executive Summary
and Recommendations
     Issued under Section 403(e), Title IV of the Superfund
     Amendments and Reauthorization Act of 1986 (SARA)

             Report  to  Congress


             Indoor  Air Quality

Executive  Summarv  and  Recommendations
                  Issued  Under

            Section  403(e),  Title  IV

                     of  the

    Superfund  Amendments  and Reauthorization

               Act  (SARA) of 1986

                             TABLE  OF  CONTENTS



I.    Introduction

      A.  Purpose	   1
      B.  Organization	   1
      C.  Background	   1

II.   EPA  Indoor  Air Activities

      A.   Policy and Program  Development Activities under Title  IV..   3
            1.  Policy Development
            2.  Information Dissemination
            3.  Coordination
      B.   Research and Development Activities under Title IV	  16
      C.   EPA  Regional Office Activities	  22
      D.   Addressing Indoor Air Quality at EPA's Headquarters
            Complex	  22
      E.   Actions to Address  Specific Problem Pollutants	  25
            1.  Radon	  25
            2.  Asbestos	  37
            3.  Environmental  Tobacco Smoke	  42
            4.  Formaldehyde	  44
            5.  Chlorinated Solvents	  45
            6.  Pesticides	  46

III.  Activities  Conducted by  other  Federal  Agencies

      A.   Consumer Product Safety Commission 	  48
      B.   Department of Energy  	  53
      C.   Department of Health and Human Services .	  61
      D.   General Services Administration	  68
      E.   Tennessee Valley Authority 	  69
      F.   Occupational Safety and Health Administration 	  73
      G.   Department of Transportation  	  74



I .    Assessing  the  Health  and Economic  Impacts  of Indoor  Air

      Chapter  1.  Building Systems & Factors Affecting
                 Concentrations and Exposures	  1-1
      Chapter  2.  Significant  Pollutants, Sources, and
                 Health Effects	2-1

      Chapter 3.  Measuring  and Modeling Indoor Air Pollution	  3-1
      Chapter 4.  Health Impacts	  4-1
      Chapter 5.  Economic Impacts of Indodr Air Pollution	  5-1

II.   Controlling  Indoor   Air  Pollution

      Chapter 6.    Methods  and Strategies of Control	  6-1
      Chapter 7.    Existing Indoor Air Quality Standards	  7-1
      Chapter 8.    Federal  Authorities Applicable to Indoor Air
                   Quality	  8-1
      Chapter 9.    Indoor Air Pollution Control Programs	  9-1
      Chapter 10 .   Indoor Air Quality Policy Issues	10-1


I .    Overview of  Indoor  Air  Pollution  Research  Needs

      A.   Purpose of the Indoor Air Research Program	   1
      B.   The Indoor Air Research Setting	   2
      C.   Radon	   4
      D.   Summary of Research Needs	   5

IX.   Research  Needs

      A.  Risk Assessment	  11
      B.  Exposure Assessment and Modeling Needs	  15
      C.  Source-Specific Needs	  18
      D.  Control  Techniques	  35
      E.  Building System Needs	  38
      F.  Crosscutting Research	  40
      G.  Technology Transfer	  41

III .  Additional Reading	  43

                           EXECUTIVE  SUMMARY


      Title IV of the Superfund Amendments and Reauthorization Act of 1986
(SARA) requires the Environmental Protection Agency to establish a research
program with respect to radon gas and indoor air quality and to disseminate
information on indoor air quality problems and solutions.  EPA is specifically
required under Section 403(e) to submit a report to Congress describing the
activities carried out under SARA Title IV and making such recommendations as

      This three volume report is designed to fulfill the reporting
requirement of Section 403(e) as well as to provide Congress and the public
with an up-to-date report on the status of efforts in the United States and
elsewhere to assess and control indoor air pollution problems.  The three
volumes of the report include:

      Volume I — Federal Programs Addressing Indoor Air Quality
      Volume II — Assessment and Control of Indoor Air Pollution
      Volume III — Indoor Air Pollution Research Needs Statement

      At this time, indoor air research and policy programs have not
sufficiently characterized indoor air quality problems and solutions to be
able to define the appropriate long-term Federal role regarding the need for,
or appropriateness of, regulatory approaches to indoor air quality problems.
Nevertheless, sufficient evidence exists to conclude that indoor air pollution
represents a major portion of the public's exposure to air pollution and may
pose serious acute and chronic health risks.  This evidence warrants an
expanded effort to characterize and mitigate this exposure.  Consequently, EPA
makes the following recommendations:

1.    Research to better characterize exposure and health effects of chemical
contaminants and pollutant mixtures commonly found indoors should be
significantly expanded.

      Although EPA is beginning to devote greater effort to characterizing non-
cancer health effects from various exposure routes, information on exposure in
homes and buildings is limited to a very few pollutants and groups of
pollutants.  In addition, virtually nothing is known about cancer and non-
cancer health effects due to low level respiratory exposures to multiple
chemical contaminants.  An expanded research program in this field is needed
to help characterize causes and solutions to the "sick building syndrome" and
to investigate emerging health issues such as multiple chemical sensitivity.

2.    A research program to characterize and develop mitigation strategies for
biological contaminants in indoor air should be developed.

      EPA1s historical experience in addressing environmental hazards has been
predominantly focused on chemical contaminants.  However, biological

contaminants in indoor air are predominantly responsible for known building-
related illnesses, which include Legionnaires disease and hypersensitivity
pneumonitis, and have been increasingly associated with poor hygienic and
maintenance practices in buildings.  While both the National Institutes for
Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH)  and the Consumer Product Safety
Commission  (CPSC) have active research underway, the lack of EPA participation
limits the scope and magnitude of the effort.

3.    Research to identify and characterize significant indoor air pollution
sources and to evaluate appropriate mitigation strategies should be
significantly expanded.

       Source control is the most effective control option when major sources
can be identified and characterized, and it may be the only viable option in
some situations.  However, significant resources must be devoted to
identifying and characterizing sources to enable EPA and other Federal
agencies to take appropriate control actions under existing authorities or to
advise the public of the health risks from specific sources and actions they
can take to reduce risk.  Furthermore,  research into innovative control
technologies, and evaluation of technologies developed by the private sector,
including air cleaning technologies, should be significantly enhanced.

4.    A program is needed to develop and promote,, in conjunction with
appropriate private sector organizations, guidelines covering ventilation, as
well as other building design,, operation, and maintenance practices for
ensuring that indoor air quality is protective of public health.

      EPA believes that an effective national program to control indoor air
pollution will require the application of generic strategies involving
provisions for adequate ventilation, and provisions to avoid problems through
proper building design, operation and maintenance.  This approach, combined
with programs targeted to specific individual high risk sources and pollutants
would provide a comprehensive, but feasible and cost effective, control
strategy. EPA does not believe that a pollutant-by-pollutant approach
encompassing target levels for individual pollutants would resolve the bulk of
indoor air quality problems.

5.     A program of technical assistance, and information dissemination,
similar in scope to the Agency's radon program, is needed to inform the public
about risks and mitigation strategies,  and to assist state and local
governments and the private sector in solving indoor air quality problems.
Such a program should include an indoor air quality clearinghouse.

      While EPA has joined the ongoing Federal and private sector efforts to
disseminate information on indoor air quality, as our experience with radon
has demonstrated, a program is needed that can keep pace with the needs of
state and local governments, architects, building owners and managers,
researchers, the medical and health communities, building occupants and the
general public who are seeking reliable technical and non-technical
information.  A program to transfer knowledge and develop capabilities in the
public and private sectors would include a variety of technical assistance and

information dissemination activities comparable to those developed to address
the radon' problem. An indoor air information clearinghouse is needed to
enhance coordination and access to such information.

6.     The Federal government should undertake an effort to characterize the
nature and pervasiveness of the health impacts associated with indoor air
quality problems in commercial and public buildings, schools, health care
facilities, and residences,, and develop and promote recommended guidelines for
diagnosing and controlling such problems.

      The available literature suggests that indoor air quality problems are
pervasive in a wide spectrum of buildings, but the prevalence of such
problems, the nature of their sources, and the amount of human exposure
attributable to these sources remains virtually unknown.  However, an
increasing number of complaints are being registered to government agencies,
and a growing number of private sector firms are attempting to respond to a
rapidly emerging market for diagnostic and mitigation services. A major study
is needed to determine the scope and character of such problems, and to
develop recommendations to guide and control the quality of diagnostic and
mitigation services in the private sector.


      In Volume I, the history of EPA's involvement in indoor air quality
issues is briefly summarized, including early research initiatives, efforts to
deal with specific pollutants such as asbestos, formaldehyde, radon, and
pesticides, and EPA's relatively recent initiative to develop a comprehensive
approach for characterizing and addressing indoor air quality issues.
Specific actions such as the development of an indoor air quality policy and
program, dissemination of information on indoor air issues, and coordination
of the many activities underway within EPA, other Federal agencies, state and
local governments and the private sector are described.  Volume I contains a
detailed status report on the Agency's Radon Action Program and other Agency
programs related to indoor air quality.  Reports from other Federal agencies
involved in indoor air quality issues describe their historical, current, and
anticipated roles in carrying out indoor air quality research and both
regulatory and non-regulatory programs.

Indoor  Air  Procrram  Development

      Indoor air quality activities at EPA have expanded since 1986 and
passage of SARA Title IV. Ongoing programs addressing individual problem
pollutants continue under various legislative authorities and agency
organizational units.  However, in early 1986, in recognition of the need to
establish a coordinated approach to addressing indoor air quality issues, a
small indoor air staff, now the Indoor Air Division, was established in the
Office of Air .and Radiation  (OAR).  The Indoor Air Division coordinates the
many indoor air quality issues being addressed by various EPA programs,
establishes Agency indoor air policy, identifies and fills unaddressed program

needs, develops and disseminates information on indoor air quality,  and
provides policy direction to the indoor air research program.

      Major activities of this Division during the past 18 months include
initiatives to identify and analyze specific policy issues that  will need to
be resolved with respect to the long term Federal role in indoor air quality
issues, development of mechanisms of coordination of government  and private
sector indoor air programs and activities,  and active development of a wide
spectrum of information on indoor air pollution problems and mitigation
strategies.  Major activities of the Indoor Air Division since passage of SARA
Title IV include:

      o  Sponsorship of a National Policy Forum on Indoor Air Quality to
      identify major policy issues and options with respect to the Federal
      role in addressing indoor air quality issues;

      o  Initiation of a survey of private sector firms which  offer indoor
      air quality diagnostic and mitigation services to the public in order to
      identify and evaluate the capability of the private sector to resolve
      indoor air quality problems in commercial and public buildings,
      residences, schools,  hospitals,  and day care facilities;

      o  Development of a comprehensive status report on assessment and
      control of indoor air quality in the U.S.,  presented as Volume II of
      this report;

      o  Participation in the Interagency Committee on Indoor Air Quality
      (CIAQ),  the primary coordination vehicle for Federal indoor air quality

      o  Development and distribution,  in cooperation with the Consumer
      Product  Safety Commission,  of a  32 page booklet for the general public
      titled The Inside Story:  A Guide to Indoor Air Quality which describes
      residential and public building  indoor air quality problems and

      o  Publication of a 129 page Directory of State Indoor Air Contacts
      compiled by the Public Health Foundation under a cooperative agreement
      with EPA.   The directory  recognizes the decentralized nature of indoor
      air issues  in  the states  by providing the public with the  state agency
      contacts for various  indoor air  quality issues;

      o  Publication of a series  of fact sheets on indoor air quality issues.
      Fact sheets published in  1988 include Ventilation and Indoor Air Quality
      in  Offices  and Sick Building/a;

      o  Preparation of a draft technical manual for building design
      engineers and  architects  which details indoor  air pollution prevention
      and reviews diagnostic and  mitigation considerations  for new buildings;

      o  Development, in cooperation with several Department of Health and
      Human Services (DHHS) agencies, of a draft technical manual for policy
      makers on environmental tobacco smoke which describes the technical
      basis for smoking restrictions, as well as policy and technical options
      for implementing restrictions;

      o  Initiation of work on a self-paced introductory training course for
      state and local government personnel on indoor air quality,  in
      preparation by the National Environmental Health Association under an
      interagency agreement between EPA and the Public Health Service.

Indoor  Air Quality  Research

      Title IV of SARA mandates a comprehensive indoor air quality research
and development program at EPA in order to identify, characterize, and monitor
sources and levels of indoor air pollutants, to develop instruments for indoor
air quality data collection, and to identify high risk building types. This
research is performed by EPA's Office of Research and Development (ORD).  The
primary objective of ORD's indoor air pollution research program is to gain
information in order to reduce exposure to indoor air pollutants known to
cause health risks.  The first step in achieving this goal is the
identification and characterization of the health risks in the indoor
environment.  Once the risks have been evaluated, exposure reduction
techniques must then be evaluated on the basis of their practicality, cost,
and effectiveness.  In order to reduce indoor air pollutant exposures that
pose adverse health risks, EPA must also encourage the active participation of
the public, industry, professional associations, and federal, state, and local
governments.  Technology transfer is an important part of the research
program, and information on some health risks is sufficient to notify the
public of the risks and mitigation procedures.

      ORD's indoor air research program coordinates the research efforts of
four EPA laboratories: the Health Effects Research Laboratory (HERL), the
Atmospheric Research and Exposure Assessment Laboratory (AREAL), the Air and
Energy Engineering Research Laboratory (AEERL) and the Environmental Criteria
and Assessment Office (ECAO).  Major accomplishments of the research program

      o  Completion of several major studies which were designed  to  assess
      the exposure of individuals to major indoor air pollutants.  The Total
      Human Exposure Assessment Methodology (TEAM) studies on carbon monoxide,
      volatile organic compounds, and particulates utilized personal exposure
      monitors and time use pattern questionnaires and other techniques to
      directly measure total human exposure to air pollution and to apportion
      individual exposure among different microenvironments.  These studies
      provided the first major evidence that indoor levels of many pollutants
      frequently exceed outdoor levels;

      o  Completion of an information assessment identifying the hazards of
      indoor environments which was submitted to Congress as part of EPA's
      Indoor Air Quality Implementation Plan in 1987.  The document provides a

 preliminary hazard identification of indoor  pollutants  and discusses
 current monitoring methods and mitigation  techniques.

 o  Establishment and maintenance of the Indoor Air Pollution
 Reference Bibliography.   This project is intended  to be a complete  list
 of all published information which pertains  to  indoor air pollution.
 Health effects,  monitoring methods,  exposure levels, and mitigation
 techniques are some of the key word categories  that can be searched.

 o  Recent research indicates the possibility of additional adverse
 health effects from exposure to the emissions from kerosene and other
 unvented space heaters.   New data on the complex emissions from these
 sources indicate that,  in addition to elevated  nitrogen dioxide and
 carbon monoxide levels,  indoor particle levels  may exceed outdoor
 standards,  and these emissions include high  sulfate and acidic ion
 concentrations.   Similar concentrations have been  reported to cause
 pulmonary irritancy in humans.  Additional research will be conducted to
 verify and expand on these preliminary findings.

 o  Research devoted to characterizing emissions from materials has
 developed preliminary procedures for small chamber testing of emissions
 from building materials  and consumer products such as moth repellents,
 particleboard,  floor wax,  dry cleaned fabrics,  carpet,  and office
 partitions.   These studies provide information  on  the emission rates and
 composition of organic  vapors over a wide  range of conditions, and  can
 be  used to  develop standard methods  for emission testing of indoor
 materials by manufacturers.

 o   Research in a well-characterized test house  has emphasized the study
 of  pollutant sources, sinks,  and transport in field settings.  The
 research test  house  has  been used to study indoor  pollutant
 concentrations originating from moth crystals,  caulking .compounds,
 kerosene heaters,  and cleaning solvents from dry cleaning. The test
 house  is the validation  step in indoor air pollution research.  The
 results  achieved in  chamber  studies  can be verified in  test house
 studies  for  use  in generating a predictive model of indoor air pollution

 o   Indoor air control studies have examined  the effectiveness of
 activated carbon  in  air  cleaning devices for  the control of typical
 indoor concentrations of volatile  organic  compounds.  This research has
 shown that activated carbon  devices  are ineffective in  removing VOCs.
 The prediction of ozone generation from a  wide  range of electrostatic
 air cleaners is the  subject  of  a  second study.

 o  A compendium  of indoor  air measurement  methods  is under development
 to assist in the  standardization  of  sampling  and analysis methods for
VOCs, SVOCs  (semi-volatile organic compounds), nicotine, carbon
monoxide, carbon dioxide, nitrogen dioxide, formaldehyde,  particles, air
 exchange rates, and pesticides.

o  ORD has made advances in modelling indoor air pollutants, which
builds upon early work by the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory. In
collaboration with DOE and CPSC, EPA/ORD has supported at the National
Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST, formerly NBS) the
development of an advanced, mathematical multi-zonal model to predict
indoor air pollution concentrations in large complex buildings.  ORD has
developed a more simplified indoor air quality model which has been
validated using a research test home and is currently available.  The
effects of sources, sinks, and ventilation changes can be examined
through these models, and will help researchers evaluate problems and
solutions and aid in building design considerations.

o  Indoor pollutant concentrations measured in ten public access
buildings, including schools, homes for the elderly, and office
buildings, indicate that newly constructed buildings may have levels of
some VOCs as much as 100 times normal levels.   These levels diminish
rapidly during the first several months of the buildings' life.  This
study is of importance because these buildings may contain populations
which are very sensitive to these pollutants (e.g. children and the

o  Along with NIOSH, NIST, and DOE, EPA has initiated an investigation
of complaints of indoor air pollution in the Library of Congress Madison
building as well as at EPA's own headquarters complex.  This study will
include simultaneous measurement of both pollutant levels and
ventilation rates, and the administration of an occupant survey
questionnaire.  ORD researchers have also provided ongoing support in
the investigation of occupant complaints at the EPA Headquarters
building (Washington, DC).  This support has included taking air
samples, testing the off-gassing of materials (carpeting and
partitions), and reporting on the results from these studies to EPA
management and employees.

o  Health effects research has demonstrated that cotinine can be used
as a biological marker of exposure to nicotine from environmental
tobacco smoke (ETS), especially in children.  A laboratory chamber study
will soon be initiated to evaluate cotinine for ETS dosimetry.

o  Research devoted to studying human responses to VOC mixtures has
begun which will validate a study conducted in Denmark which
demonstrated that exposures to mixtures of VOCs can produce behavioral
and sensory irritant effects, even though each individual compound is
below the known threshold for neurological effects.  This study will
help to evaluate one of the suspected causes of sick building syndrome.

o  EPA has conducted a major study of non-occupational exposure to
pesticides using the TEAM study approach.  Preliminary data indicate
that indpor exposure to pesticides is widespread, with as many as 10
different pesticides being detected in a single home.  This research is
of interest because these pesticides are used not only within the

       residence, but includes pesticides used outdoors which have also been
       found to enter the home environment.

       o  As part of the Technology Transfer program, the Office of Research
       and Development also sponsored the Consumer Federation of America's
       Third National Indoor Air Quality Conference.   This conference  is held
       annually to provide a forum for an exchange of information and  a
       discussion of the technical and policy implications of the causes and
       consequences of indoor air pollution.

 Aeti.ong  TQ   Addreaa  Soeei-f ic Problem  Pollutants


       In addition to describing EPA's research and program development
 activities on the broad indoor air quality front, Volume I of the report also
 provides summary reports of the on-going efforts of  EPA to address specific
 problem pollutants.  Most pertinent to SARA Title IV is the Radon Action
 Program,  which seeks to address the risks from indoor exposure to naturally
 occurring radon.  In 1985, EPA introduced this program to develop and
 disseminate information and expertise related to radon and encourage  the
 development of state programs and private sector capabilities in these areas.
 The major elements and accomplishments of the Radon  Action Program include:

 1.    Problem Assessment to determine the distribution and levels of  radon
• exposures and, in cooperation with the Department of Energy (DOE),  the
 associated health effects.  Accomplishments  include:

       o  Standardization of radon measurement methods
       o  National Survey of 2000-5000 homes
       o  Assistance with State surveys
       o  Development of geologic maps indicating potential high radon risk
       o  Development of methods for predicting potential high risk areas

 2.    Mitigation and Prevention to develop methods for reducing radon levels
 in existing structures  and for  preventing radon entry in new construction.
 Accomplishments include:

       o  Development of techniques for reducing and  preventing elevated radon
       o  Transfer of mitigation technologies to states and the private sector
       o  Evaluation of  the effectiveness of  radon resistant construction
       features in new construction
       o  Investigation  of  the incorporation  of radon resistant construction
       techniques into building  codes

 3.    Capability Development  to develop the  capacity within the states and the
 private sector to diagnose and  remedy radon  problems in homes.  Accomplishments

      o  Establishment of diagnosis and mitigation training course
      o  Establishment of programs to evaluate radon measurement services

4.    Public Information to inform the public about the health risks
associated with radon exposure and methods for reducing those risks.
Accomplishments include:

      o  Development of citizen action guidelines
      o  Preparation of numerous public information documents on radon
      o  Presentations on radon given to hundreds of organizations
      o  Education of health care workers
      o  Examination of the effectiveness of risk communication activities

      EPA is also participating in a number of important activities related to
radon in addition to those conducted under the Radon Action Program.  In
accordance with the Safe Drinking Water Act (SDWA), EPA is working to develop
a set of enforceable standards for radon and other radionuclides in drinking
water.  EPA is also working closely with a number of other Federal agencies to
address the radon problem.  These activities include a cooperative agreement
with the Department of Energy (DOE)  with respect to each agency's research
role and providing assistance to agencies like the Department of Housing and
Urban Development (HUD), National Park Service (NPS), and the Department of
Defense (DOD)  in developing their own radon programs.  EPA and DOE also co-
chair the Radon Workgroup of the Interagency Committee on Indoor Air Quality


      EPA's asbestos program predates SARA Title IV by several years.  Since
1979, when EPA first instituted an asbestos technical assistance program, the
asbestos program has grown into a major national program to reduce the risks
to public health from exposure to asbestos.  EPA's efforts to address asbestos
problems encompass the full range of regulatory,  grant, and technical
assistance activities.  While the primary focus of the asbestos program has
been in the Nation's schools, the program has also begun to address asbestos
problems in commercial and public buildings and homes.

      The major activities of the asbestos program in reducing exposure to
asbestos-containing materials in schools, described in Volume I of this
report, include:

      o  Promulgation of the Asbestos-Containing Materials in Schools Rule in
      October 1987;

      o  Development of a model accreditation plan to provide for training
      and accreditation of persons who inspect school buildings, develop
      management plans or design or conduct response actions;

      o  Implementation of the asbestos loan and grant program to provide
      financial assistance to schools with severe asbestos hazards and
      financial need and the Asbestos Inspection and Management Planning

      Assistance Program  (AIMPAP).  These programs have provided more than
      $175 million in school assistance since 1985;

      o  Development and distribution of guidance documents for building
      owners and others responsible for carrying out asbestos abatement

      o  Development and funding of five university asbestos information and
      training centers as well as four satellite training centers;

      o  Distribution of grants to States for certification, training and
      accreditation programs.

      Activities to reduce exposure to asbestos-containing materials in
commercial and public buildings include:

      o  Establishment of regional technical assistance outreach program,
      involving EPA asbestos coordinators and technical support staff;

      o  Submission to Congress in February 1988 of a report on the Public
      and Commercial Buildings Study,  in which EPA estimated that 20 percent
      of  commercial and public buildings (at least 700,000 buildings)  contain
      friable asbestos;

      o  Completion of a major field study which compares airborne outdoor
      asbestos levels with prevailing indoor levels in 43 Federal buildings
      with asbestos-containing materials.  An interim report on the results of
      the study indicates very low prevailing levels in Federal buildings and
      no statistical difference between indoor and outdoor levels,  even in
      buildings with damaged asbestos-containing materials;

      o  Sponsorship of the Federal Asbestos Task Force (FATF), a working
      group of Federal agencies with asbestos control responsibilities;  and

      o  Publication and distribution,  in cooperation with CPSC, of the
      booklet Asbestos in the Home.

      Other asbestos regulatory activities  include:

      o  Proposed revision of the National  Emissions Standards for Hazardous
      Air Pollutants (NESHAPS)  for  asbestos  under Section 112  of the Clean Air

      o  Issuance of a worker protection rule under Section 6 of the Toxic
      Substances  Control  Act  (TSCA);

      o A proposal,  also  under Section  6 of  TSCA,  to ban certain asbestos
      products and phase  out  others.


      Published reports of the Surgeon General and the National Research
Council  (NRC) of the National Academy of Sciences conclude that exposure to
environmental tobacco smoke  (ETS) (i.e., passive smoking)  is a cause of lung
cancer in healthy non-smokers and is responsible for both acute and chronic
respiratory and other health impacts in sensitive populations, including
children of smokers.  Published risk estimates place ETS among the most
harmful indoor air pollutants, and higher in risk than many environmental
pollutants currently regulated by EPA.

      Accordingly, EPA has established a research program on environmental
tobacco smoke as well as a risk assessment and information program.  These
programs will enable EPA to provide the public with an understanding of the
hazards of ETS as well as reliable methods for risk mitigation (e.g.,
establishment of smoking restrictions such as separately ventilated smoking
areas).  A number of EPA total exposure monitoring studies have shown that ETS
is the dominant source of particulate matter in buildings where smoking is
allowed, and that ETS contributes a significant fraction of carbon monoxide
and volatile organic compounds  (VOCs) — including benzene — exposures.
Health studies by EPA's Health Effects Research Lab show that ETS contributes
the bulk of mutagenic activity in indoor air.  Among the activities currently

      o  Continued research into the use of cotinine, a metabolite of
      nicotine, as a biological marker for ETS exposure so that an estimate of
      the dose received from exposure to ETS can be made;

      o  Evaluation of mutagenicity as a biological marker for ETS exposure;

      o  Continued studies of the exposure of children to ETS as well as
      participation in multi-agency ETS exposure studies;

      o  Development of a formal lung cancer risk assessment under EPA's
      Cancer Risk Assessment Guidelines;

      o  Development of a policy-maker's handbook and supporting reference
      manual on workplace smoking policies, in conjunction with the National
      Cancer Institute, the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute, the
      Office on Smoking and Health,  and the Office of Disease Prevention and
      Health Promotion of the Public Health Service;

      o  Publication of a fact sheet on environmental tobacco smoke, as the
      fifth in a series of short publications on indoor air pollution issues.


      In 1984,  EPA designated formaldehyde for priority attention under the
provisions of Section 4(f)  of TSCA.   EPA's investigation is currently focused
on developing the technical basis for decision making on the need for, and
nature of, additional Federal regulations affecting formaldehyde emissions

from urea-formaldehyde  (UF) pressed wood products  (particleboard, hardwood
plywood paneling, and medium density fiberboard).  EPA has been studying the
potential costs and residential air quality impacts of a range of possible
controls on pressed wood products, including product emission standards, use
limitations, product restrictions and labeling.  This information will be used
to determine whether or not an "unreasonable risk" exists.  A decision on
which actions EPA will take with respect to formaldehyde is likely to be made
in 1989.


      The Interagency Integrated Chlorinated Solvents Project is an
interagency work group chaired by EPA's Office of Toxic Substances with
participation by seven major EPA offices, the Consumer Product Safety
Commission  (CPSC), the Occupational Safety and Health Administration, and the
Food and Drug Administration  (FDA).  The Project is addressing the risks from
four chlorinated solvents  (methylene chloride, perchloroethylene,
trichlorethylene, and 1,1,1-trichloroethane) in four use categories  (dry
cleaning, solvent cleaning, aerosols, and paint stripping).  The Project is
tasked with determining appropriate control options and developing regulatory
options for use by the EPA Administrator. Options addressing risks from use of
consumer products containing methylene chloride and/or perchloroethylene are
expected to be presented to the EPA Administrator in mid-1989.


      The Federal Insecticide, Fungicide, and Insecticide Act (FIFRA) provides
EPA with the authority to  control pesticide exposure by requiring that any
pesticide must be registered with EPA before it may be sold, distributed or
used in this country.  As  a pre-condition for registration, an applicant must
be able to demonstrate that the pesticide in question will not cause
"unreasonable adverse effects" (as defined by the Act) to people or the
environment.  When evidence arises that indicates that a registered pesticide
product might cause unreasonable adverse effects, EPA may initiate a review
process to determine if cancellation or some other regulatory action is
warranted,  based on a consideration of both the risks and benefits of the
pesticide in question.

      In recent years, EPA has taken a number of actions to protect the public
from potentially unreasonable risks due to pesticide residues in indoor air.
These actions include:

      o  A variety of measures which have resulted in the removal of the
      cyclodiene termiticides (aldrin,  dieldrin, heptachlor, and chlordane)
      from the marketplace;

      o  Cancellation of the indoor fumigation use of lindane in 1985;

      o  A ban on all indoor uses of two wood preservatives,
      pentachlorophenol and creosote.

      In addition to these regulatory actions,  a number of other activities
are being conducted under FIFRA with implications for indoor air quality.   EPA
has become increasingly concerned about the potential effects of so called
"inert" ingredients which are frequently used in pesticide formulations as
solvents or baits.  While inerts are not toxic to the target pest,  as are  the
active ingredients, some may cause health effects in humans.  Accordingly, EPA
began in 1988 to request additional health and environmental data from the
registrants of 57 inerts known to have toxic effects.  In 1987,  EPA also
decided to request data from registrants on the chronic toxicity of
antimicrobials frequently used as cleaning and disinfecting agents  —
pesticides which the agency heretofore only requested acute toxicity data.
Currently, EPA is reviewing existing pesticide labeling conventions to
determine if the Agency should modify its requirements in order  to  enhance the
clarity and utility of label information to the pesticide user.   Finally,  the
TEAM approach cited above under "Indoor Air Quality Research" is being
expanded to include pesticides (the Non-occupational Pesticide Exposure

Indoor  Air  Quality  at  EPA'8  Headcniarters CottlPX^^

      In 1988, EPA1s concern over indoor air quality became somewhat more
immediate as a significant number of EPA employees began complaining of health
effects which many associated with an extensive renovation program at EPA's
Waterside Mall complex, including the installation of new carpeting and
partitions, as well as painting and other physical improvements.  Volume I of
the report briefly describes EPA's own indoor air quality problems  and the
steps that have been taken to characterize the quality of the indoor
environment,  identify contaminants, and minimize or eliminate contaminant

Acfci.vi.fc lea  of  Other  Federal  Ayenelea

      A number of Federal agencies are actively involved in indoor air quality
issues and participate with EPA on the Interagency Committee on  Indoor Air
Quality (CIAQ).  In order to provide Congress with a complete picture of the
Federal programs now addressing indoor air quality, Volume I contains program
descriptions provided by several of these agencies detailing their involvement
and activities in resolving indoor air quality problems.  Many of the
activities described by various agencies, including EPA, are part of a broad-
based, coordinated Federal and private sector effort to address  major aspects
of the indoor air quality problem.

      The Consumer Product Safety Act (CPSA) and the Federal Hazardous
Substance  Act provide the  Consumer  Product  Safety  Commission  (CPSC)
with regulatory authority over consumer products that may contribute to indoor
air pollution.   Since many of the sources of indoor air pollution are
consumer products  (e.g. household chemicals), CPSC plays a significant role in
addressing indoor air pollution.

      The Department of Energy  (DOE) has  played a major  role in indoor
air quality since the 1970s.  The two primary DOE indoor air quality policy

goals are: 1) elimination of potential hazards to the public and environment
from radioactive contamination remaining at facilities and sites previously
used in the nation's atomic energy programs; and 2)  development of information
to ensure the maintenance of healthful indoor environments with continuing use
of energy conservation measures in buildings.  DOE's interests  in indoor air
quality are focused on research and development, the DOE Remedial Action
Program, health risk assessment, and participation on the Interagency
Committee on Indoor Air Quality.  A significant portion of DOE's efforts in
indoor air are related to radon exposure and health effects research.   Five
DOE organizations are involved in indoor air quality activities:

      —Office of Conservation and Renewable Energy (CE)
      —Office of Energy Research (ER)
      —Office of Nuclear Energy (NE)
      —Office of Environment, Safety, and Health (EH)
      —Bonneville Power Administration (BPA)

      The  Department  of Health and Human  Services  (DHHS)   is  a major
contributor to the identification and resolution of indoor air  quality
problems through several  of  its  organizational components.   The National
Institute  for  Occupational  Safety  and Health   (NIOSH)  serves  as the
DHHS co-chair of the CIAQ and is the primary agency of the Federal government
with extensive experience in conducting building investigations.  Since 1971,
NIOSH has conducted approximately 550 indoor air quality investigations under
its Health Hazard Evaluation Program.

      The DHHS agencies that participate in indoor air quality  research or
mitigation activities include:

      o  Centers  for  Disease  Control:
            —National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH)
            —Center for Environmental Health and Injury Control (CEHIC)
            —Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health  Promotion
            —National Center for Health Statistics  (NCHS)

      o  National  Institutes  of  Health   (NIH):
            —National Institute of  Environmental Health Sciences (NIEHS)
            —National Institutes of Allergy and Infectious  Disease (NIAID)
            —National Cancer Institute (NCI)
            —National Heart,  Lung,  and Blood Institute (NHLBI)
            —National Institute of  Dental Research  (NIDR)

      o  Health Resources  and  Services  Administration  (HRSA)

      o   Agency for Toxic  Substances  and  Disease  Registries   (ATSDR)

      Since the  early 1980s,  the  Tennessee  Valley Authority  (TVA)  has
implemented an integrated indoor air quality program to provide  public
information and education, technical assistance to agencies  and  organizations,

and research and demonstration projects supporting the evaluations  of its
programs and policies.

      The  Occupational  Safety and Health Administration   (OSHA),  is
charged under the Occupational Safety and Health Act  with protecting the
health of workers in the workplace.  Recent interest  in indoor  air  quality in
non-industrial settings has prompted OSHA to begin development  of guidance for
its inspectors on identifying non-industrial indoor air quality problems.

      The  General  Services  Administration  (GSA)  is  involved in a
variety of indoor air quality activities related to its responsibilities to
manage a significant portion of Federal buildings.  GSA has implemented
regulations to control smoking in GSA-controlled space.   Radon,  asbestos,  and
indoor air quality programs have also been developed  and implemented.

      A number of other government and quasi-government agencies conduct
research or other activities which have significant indoor air  quality
implications.    The National Institute of  Standards  and Technology
(HIST, formerly the National  Bureau of  Standards) has done extensive  work
developing a comprehensive indoor air quality model and has contributed
significant resources and expertise to a number  of multi-agency research
projects.   The  National  Institute  of Building  Science  (NIBS),  a  quasi-
governmental body created by Congress, works with the building  industry to
integrate into the building sciences measures that promote indoor air quality.


      Volume  II,  Assessment and  Control  of   Indoor Air  Pollution
presents information on the nature and magnitude of indoor air  quality
problems, on control methods, and on policies and programs in the public and
private sectors.  This volume addresses indoor air pollution from two
perspectives. The first perspective examines indoor air pollution on a
pollutant-by-pollutant basis, identifying key pollutants,  sources,  exposures,
and risks.  The second perspective is a broader  building systems approach
addressing indoor air pollution as a whole.  This perspective is based on
knowledge that the health,  comfort and productivity of building occupants  is
greatly influenced by the design, operation and  maintenance of  buildings,  and
of the activity of building inhabitants.

      Volume II is divided into two Parts.  Part I, entitled  Assessing Health
and Economic Impacts of Indoor Air Pollution, characterizes building systems
in the United States and their impact on indoor  air pollutant levels,  and
assesses the nature and magnitude of the potential health risks and costs
resulting from indoor air pollution.  Part II, entitled Controlling Indoor Air
Pollution, covers controls in terms of engineering and operational  methods,  as
well as the legislative and policy instruments that are available and that may
be used in both the public and private sector.

      Part I begins with information on the U.S. building stock, and outlines
those building factors that affect concentrations of  indoor air pollutants.

Factors addressed include source emissions from building materials and
appliances, the air exchange or ventilation rate, and various chemical and
physical removal mechanisms. Building system inadequacies commonly identified
in investigations of building air quality complaints are also discussed and
include inadequate ventilation, contamination from indoor sources,
reentrainment of indoor pollutants, contamination from exterior sources, and
microbial problems.

      Chapters 2 through 5 characterize the health and economic impact from
indoor air pollution. In these chapters, major pollutants, sources, health
effects, exposures, and risks are identified.  Populations which may be
particularly sensitive to indoor pollutants are addressed. The major
pollutants are: radon, environmental tobacco smoke, biological contaminants,
volatile organic compounds including formaldehyde and pesticides, polycyclic
aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), asbestos, combustion gases including carbon
monoxide and nitrogen dioxide, and particles.

      The health effects identified for these pollutants cover the range of
acute and chronic effects, and include eye, nose, and throat irritation and
respiratory effects, neurotoxicity, kidney and liver effects, heart functions,
allergic and infectious diseases, developmental effects, mutagenicity, and
carcinogenicity.  In addition to individual pollutants and their effects,
recent findings on the effects of pollutant mixtures, as well as what is known
concerning-building related illnesses, sick building syndrome, and multiple
chemical sensitivities are also discussed.  The major conclusions to be drawn
from this section of the report include:

      o  Biological contaminants are an important dimension  of  indoor air
      quality,  can be the principal problem in some buildings, and can result
      in death, as in Legionnaire's disease,  or serious infectious or allergic

      o  Additive or synergistic effects  from multiple  chemical  contaminants,
      where the concentration of each individual compound is below its known
      health effect threshold.

      o  Sick building syndrome, building related illnesses,  and multiple
      chemical sensitivity are issues of potentially great significance but
      are poorly understood.

      In addition,  health risks and economic impacts of indoor air pollution
are quantified in chapters 3, 4 and 5 based on available literature.  Several
important conclusions emerge from this presentation:

      o  Risk estimates are not available for most pollutants, but available
      estimates for radon,  ETS,  and VOCs demonstrate that indoor air pollution
      is among the nation's most important environmental health problems.

      o  Environmental tobacco smoke is particularly toxic, estimated to
      account for a significant number of cancer and non-cancer mortality
      cases per year.

      o  The potential economic impact of indoor air pollution is quite high,
      and is estimated in the tens of billions of dollars per year.  Such
      impacts include direct medical costs and lost earnings due to  major
      illness, as well as increased employee sick days and lost productivity
      while on the job.

      o  Labor costs may be 10 to 100 times greater per square foot of office
      space than energy and other environmental control costs. Thus,  from a
      profit and loss standpoint,  remedial actions to improve indoor air
      quality where productivity is a concern are likely to be cost  effective
      even if they require an expensive retrofit.

      Part II of Volume II provides information on methods and strategies to
control indoor pollution. The engineering and operational methods covered
include source control, ventilation control, and air cleaning strategies.
These strategies are discussed within the context of their import in
developing the design, operation,  and maintenance practices in buildings.
Diagnostic protocols to anticipate and trouble-shoot indoor air quality
problems are also discussed.  Several important perspectives emerge  from this

      o  Source control is the most direct and dependable control option, and
      may be the only effective control option when strong pollutant sources
      are present. However, where problems result from multiple sources,  or
      where the sources or etiology of the problems are not known,  source
      control in existing buildings may not be economically or technically
      feasible. In these cases, increased ventilation or air cleaning may be
      more appropriate controls.

      o  Individuals can exercise a high degree of control over their own
      indoor environment, particularly in residential settings, and thus
      reduce their exposures to many indoor pollutants at little or  no cost.
      Control may be exercised through informed choices concerning the types
      of products and materials purchased and their use,  proper care and
      maintenance of potential sources such as combustion devices,  and
      appropriate balancing of indoor air quality and energy concerns in
      ventilation practices.

      o  Low outdoor air ventilation rates designed to conserve energy can
      result in significant indoor air quality problems.   Adequate outdoor air
      ventilation is a necessary component to an effective air pollution
      control strategy, but adequate ventilation does not guarantee  adequate
      indoor air quality.

      o  Air cleaning can complement but not replace the need for adequate
      outdoor air ventilation. Air cleaning technology is most readily applied
      to airborne particulates.  Air cleaning devices are not designed to
      effectively remove gaseous contaminants and proper maintenance of the
      specialized devices designed to remove these pollutants may be cost-
      prohibitive.  Air cleaning is most effective when integrated into the

      central air circulation system.  The effectiveness of different systems
      can vary greatly.  For example, some air cleaners can emit pollutants
      (e.g. ozone), stand alone units can be ineffective, and some of the less
      expensive models are almost worthless.

      o  Air cleaning and/or ventilation cannot be relied upon as a sole
      control strategy for ETS.

      o  Control strategies involving source control, ventilation control,
      and air cleaning should be integrated into the building design,
      operation and maintenance procedures.

      o  Standardized protocols for investigating and solving indoor air
      quality problems need to be developed and widely promulgated.

      In addition to the engineering and operational control of indoor air,
Volume II discusses various administrative control options that are  available,
considerations in choosing among those options, and the available legislative
authorities, policies and programs used to implement controls.

      Chapter 7 presents available air quality and ventilation standards and
evaluates their applicability to indoor air problems.

      Chapter 8 summarizes federal legislative authority of the major federal
agencies with responsibility for indoor air, and Chapter 9 summarizes
available control programs in the public and private sector.  This material
suggests the following:

      o   The Clean Air Act cannot be used to regulate the quality of the air

      o   Many Federal agencies have the explicit legal authority to  regulate
      products  and/or activities that affect indoor air quality,  or  to
      regulate  the quality of the air in specific indoor environments.
      Existing  authority ranges from the ability to ban or restrict  the use of
      pesticides and consumer products to setting and enforcing occupational
      indoor air quality standards in occupational settings. However,  these
      authorities are fragmented,  are limited to specific products or
      environments,  and some address indoor air quality concerns  secondarily
      or only implicitly.

      o   Most legal authority related specifically to building systems rests
      with the  Department  of Energy,  and is directed toward energy
      conservation,  with indoor air as a secondary concern.

      o   SARA Title IV provides EPA with direct indoor air authority to
      conduct a research,  coordination,  and information dissemination  program,
      but does  not  enhance EPA's regulatory authority with respect to  indoor
      air quality beyond existing authorities  under TSCA,  FIFRA,  and the Safe
      Drinking  Water Act.

      o  Significant potential exists for cooperative coordinated indoor air
      control programs at the Federal, state and local governmental levels,
      and in the private sector.  Currently, coordination is achieved
      informally through professional associations, voluntary standards
      organizations, and the Federal Interagency Committee on Indoor Air
      Quality.  Current programs at all levels of government and the private
      sector are generally fragmented and underfunded.

      Chapter 10 discusses the type of policy options that might be considered
as indoor air programs in the Federal government are initiated and expanded.
Because of the variety of indoor air pollution sources and control measures
and the many types of indoor environments, many policy options are available.
Some of these options can be implemented either as enforceable regulations or
as recommended guidance.  Some options focus on reducing levels of individual
pollutants and are thus often referred to as "pollutant-by-pollutant"
strategies; others focus on reducing levels of many pollutants simultaneously
and are thus often referred to as "multi-pollutant" strategies.  The policy
options described in this chapter include:

      o  Developing public information and technical assistance programs
      which assist the private sector, including homeowners and building
      owners/operators, in achieving acceptable indoor air quality.

      o  Establishing pollutant-specific enforceable standards or voluntary

      o  Establishing enforceable ventilation standards or voluntary
      ventilation guidelines.

      o  Stepping up development of voluntary or mandatory standards for
      products or activities that affect indoor air quality.

      o  Providing guidance on identifying and correcting indoor air quality
      problems in existing buildings.

      o Providing guidance on preventing indoor air quality problems in new


        Volume III of the report sets forth the research needs which must be
met through the combined efforts of the public and private sectors to
adequately characterize and develop effective mitigation strategies for
dealing with indoor air quality issues.  Volume III was prepared by an
interagency workgroup of the CIAQ under the sponsorship of EPA's Office of
Research and Development.   The major indoor air research needs are categorized
as follows:

      o Risk assessment methods.  This category includes health and hazard
      identification,  dose-response assessment,  exposure assessment, and risk
      characterization frameworks and methods.

      O Exposure assessment and modeling needs.  This category includes
      methods development and evaluation, measurement studies, development of
      predictive models and the management of measurement data.

      o Source-specific needs. This category includes research needed
      regarding specific indoor air pollution sources.  Indoor combustion
      sources such as tobacco products and indoor combustion appliances,
      building materials and furnishings, activity sources that emphasize
      product use and storage, ambient sources of urban pollutants, and
      biological contaminants are examples of the source category.

      o Control techniques.  This category includes evaluation of  techniques
      aimed at controlling specific sources of indoor pollutants and examining
      the effectiveness of ventilation strategies.

      O Building system needs.  This category includes studies of
      infiltration and ventilation in both large and small buildings; field
      measurements in complaint and non-complaint buildings; and research
      devoted to building system design.

      o Technology transfer.  This category includes programs to transfer
      research results to users in the public and private sectors.

A Table summarizing the major indoor air research needs,  including relative
priorities,  is appended to this Executive Summary.

                                                                    SUMMARY OF MAJOR  INDOOR AIR  RESEARCH NEEDS1

    1.  Risk Assessment Methods

        * Develop risk methodology procedures and perform assessments for
          major indoor air pollution scenarios, and conduct additional
          toxicological research vis-a-vis evaluation of respiratory hazards

    2.  Special Reports and Hazard Identification

        * Prepare special reports evaluating biological contaminants, odors
          and annoyance levels, and the effects of cleaning and maintenance
          on indoor air quality

    3.  Supporting Information for Risk Assessment

        * Provide support for development and maintenance of data bases
                                                                                               STATES/PRIVATE  SECTOR
                                                                                               DOE/PRIVATE  SECTOR
                                                                                               EPA/OHHS/DOE/PRIVATE       5

            1.   Monitoring and Measurement

                *  Improve  sampling and analytical  techniques  for volatile  and semi-
                  volatile organic compounds
                *  Develop  improved screening protocols,  questionnaires,  and measurement
                  methods  for complaint-building studies
                *  Develop  improved screening protocols,  questionnaires,  and measurement
                  methods  for indoor air quality studies in residences
                *  Evaluate and validate new measurement  methodologies  under field
                  conditions  for aerosols, organics,  biological  species, and air
               i   exchange rates
                *  Develop  validation procedures  to improve accuracy of  information
                  collection  (such as questionnaires  and activity diaries)

            2.   Modeling

                *  Further  develop and validate spatial/temporal  models,  source models,
                  receptor models, and exposure  models for indoor environments including
                  transportation compartments


                                                                                       PRIVATE SECTOR

                                                                                       STATES/PRIVATE SECTOR







        Research needs to be conducted by both the public and private sectors.
        2Primary research projects are those projects that need to be initiated  immediately to  provide  important  information to protect public
         health or to begin more in-depth research.   Secondary status research projects  are also  necessary  projects that will begin after an
         evaluation of preliminary research results, or as soon as research facilities,  staff and funding become  available.

                                                      SUMMARY OF MAJOR INDOOR AIR RESEARCH NEEDS1 (continued)
    3.   Data Management and Quality Assurance

        * Implement and maintain a source emissions data base incorporating
          source characteristics associated with emission factors
        * Develop standard reference materials for measurement of indoor
        * Implement and maintain an indoor air quality data repository





    1.   Combustion Sources

        Environmental Tobacco Smoke (ETS)

        * Characterize and model ETS exposure to children
        * Develop ETS exposure dosimetry methods
        * Evaluate cancer risks from ETS exposure
        * Study the non-cancer effects from ETS exposure

        Indoor Combustion Appliances

        * Characterize emissions from kerosene heaters

        * Prepare exposure assessment of kerosene  heater, gas-
          space heater, wood stove, and unvented gas  stove emissions
        * Dosimetry - Develop physiologically-based dose-response models
          and biological markers
        * Cancer  risks - Conduct epidemiology feasibility study and
          perform i_n vitro and  in  vivo genetic and carcinogenic
        * Non-cancer health  risks  - Prepare screening studies for hazard
          identification, multidisciplinary assessments, and verify the
          accuracy of the predictive exposure, dose,  and health effects

     2.  Material  Sources

        * Measure emission rates of organic chemicals from building
          materials, furnishings,  and consumer products
        * Conduct comparisons of emissions from  selected materials in
          small chambers, large chambers, and test houses
        * Characterize the human response produced by emissions from selected
        * Evaluate health effects  of substitute  products and materials









 Research needs to be conducted by both the public and private  sectors.
 2Primary research projects are those projects that need to be initiated  immediately  to  provide  important  information  to protect public
  health or to begin more in-depth research.   Secondary status research projects  are  also  necessary  projects  that will begin after an
  evaluation of preliminary research results,  or as soon as research  facilities,  staff and funding become  available.

                                                            SUMMARY OF MAJOR INDOOR AIR RESEARCH NEEDS1 (continued)
                                        RESEARCH AREA
                                    AND STUDY DESCRIPTION
                                                                                    AND ORGANIZATIONS
                       TIME (YRS)
3.   Activity Sources

    * Develop measurement methods and generate emission factors for
      activities associated with personal care, maintenance, office work,
      leisure, and transportation
    * Characterize electrical, magnetic, and electromagnetic fields
      encountered in personal and work-related activities
    * Determine the health effects and mechanisms of interaction with
      electromagnetic fields
    * Characterize indoor exposures to consumer-applied pesticides
      (and other toxicants)

4.   Ambient Sources

    Outdoor Air

    * Characterize indoor/outdoor concentration relationships for
      input to exposure models (e.g., heavy metals, ozone, and
      biological contaminants)


    * Characterize the penetration of soil-related pollutants into the
      indoor environment and perform a risk assessment


    * Characterize exposures to volatile organic compounds released
      from water
    * Investigate contribution of tap water in home humidifiers to indoor
      pollutant levels

5.  i Biological Contaminants

    * Prepare report on health effects, state-of-the-art sampling
      methods, and research  needs
    * Initiate development of standardized monitoring methods

    * Hardware development for biological monitoring methods

    * Identify and establish baseline concentrations of major classes of
      biological contaminants
    * Investigate contribution of HVAC equipment to indoor levels of
                                                                                             EPA/PRIVATE SECTOR



                                                                                             STATES/PRIVATE SECTOR

















       Research needs  to  be  conducted  by both  the  public  and  private  sectors.
       2Primary research projects  are those  projects  that  need to  be initiated  immediately  to provide important information to protect public
        health or to begin more  in-depth  research.  Secondary  status research projects are  also necessary projects that will begin after an
        evaluation of preliminary  research results, or as  soon as  research  facilities, staff and funding become available.

                                                      SUMMARY OF MAJOR INDOOR AIR RESEARCH NEEDS1 (continued)

    1.   Source-Specific

        * Evaluate effectiveness of source modifications, including changes
          in product composition or use, conditioning of building materials
          before use, and product substitution

    2.   Air Cleaning

        * Conduct laboratory and field studies to determine the effectiveness
          of air cleaners for the control of indoor pollutants
EPA/CPSC/DOE/NIST/         3

    1.  Ventilation

        * Continue research to refine tracer gas techniques for measuring
        * Develop ventilation measurements that can be widely applied

        * Continue research devoted to laboratory measurements of ventilation

        * Develop techniques and protocols to measure ventilation effectiveness

    2.  Field Measurements

        * Measure ventilation rates and ventilation effectiveness in complaint-
          building investigations and residences

    3.  The Total Building System

        * Conduct prototype integrated assessments of the combined  impacts of
          source emissions, pollutant levels, ventilation rates, and energy
          consumption  in  new building designs and perform follow-up measure-





 1Research  needs  to  be  conducted by both the public and private sectors.
 2Primary research projects are those projects that need to be initiated  immediately to provide important information to protect public
 health or to  begin more  in-depth research.  Secondary status research projects are also necessary projects that will begin after an
 evaluation of preliminary research results, or  as soon as research facilities, staff and funding become available.

                                                      SUMMARY OF MAJOR INDOOR AIR RESEARCH NEEDS1  (continued)
                                  RESEARCH AREA
                              AND STUDY DESCRIPTION

        * Conduct an epidemiologic study of the impact of indoor air quality
          on productivity

        * Conduct studies regarding the prevalence of building-occupant
          symptoms and indoor pollutant levels
        * Conduct ergonomic and psychosocial research


Research needs to be conducted by both the public and private sectors.
2Primary research projects are those projects that need to be initiated immediately to provide important information to protect public
 health or to begin more in-depth research.  Secondary status research projects are also necessary projects  that will  begin after an
 evaluation of preliminary research results, or as soon as research facilities, staff and funding become available.