United States              Air and Radiation           EPA 420-F-97-009
                   Environmental Protection                           February 1997

                   Office of Mobile Sources
vvEPA       Environmental
                   Fact Sheet
                   Environmental  Benefits of Proposed
                   Emission Standards for Locomotives
                   The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) is proposing emission
                   standards for oxides of nitrogen (NOx), hydrocarbons (HC), carbon
                   monoxide (CO), paniculate matter (PM) and smoke for newly manufactured
                   and remanufactured locomotives and locomotive engines. The proposed
                   standards will achieve approximately a two-third reduction in NOx
                   emissions and will reduce HC and PM emissions by half.
                  Overview of Rulemaking

                  EPA is proposing emission standards for locomotives that will provide
                  significant emission reductions to help states comply with National Ambient
                  Air Quality Standards (NAAQS) for ozone and PM. The proposed rule is
                  expected to be finalized by the end of 1997 and take effect in 2000. Since
                  locomotive emissions have not been regulated before, it was necessary for
                  EPA to create a comprehensive program, including not only emission stan-
                  dards, but also test procedures and a full compliance program. Three sepa-
                  rate sets of emission standards are proposed, with applicability of the stan-
                  dards dependent on the date a locomotive is first manufactured. The first set
                  of standards (Tier 0) are proposed to apply to locomotives and locomotive
                  engines originally manufactured from 1973 through 1999, any time they are
                  remanufactured in calendar year 2000 or later. The second and third sets of
                  standards (Tier I and Tier II) will apply to locomotives and locomotive
                  engines originally manufactured on or after January 1, 2000 (Tier II stan-
                                                                   i Printed on Recycled Paper

 dards will take effect on January 1.2005). These loco, olives and locomo-
 tive engines will also be required to meet the same standards at each subse-
 quent remanufacture. The Agency is also proposing a rigorous emission
 testing program to make sure that locomotives comply with these standards
 for the life of the locomotive.
 Health and Environmental Concerns
 Most locomotives in the U.S. are powered by diesel engines.  Thus locomo-
 tives have significant NOx emmissions, as well as HC and PM emissions, all
 of which have significant health and environmental effects. NOx is a major
 component of smog and acid rain.  NOx emissions combine with HC in the
 atmosphere to form ground-level ozone, the primary constituent of smog.
 Ozone is a highly reactive pollutant that damages lung tissue, causes conges-
 tion, and reduces vital lung capacity, in addition to damaging vegetation.
 Acid rain damages buildings and crops, and degrades lakes and streams.
 NOx also contributes to the formation of secondary PM. PM causes head-
 aches, eye and nasal irritation, chest pain, and lung inflammation.  Environ-
 mental impacts of PM include reduced visibility and deterioration of build-
Locomotive Emission Inventories
Locomotive NOx emission are estimated to represent about 4.7 percent of
NOx emissions from all mobile and stationary sources in the U.S. Locomo-
tive PM and HC emissions are both estimated to represent less than one-
quarter of one percent of total national emissions. Thus, the focus of the
proposed regulation is on NOx emission reductions. It should be noted that
in some urban areas that have very high rail traffic, such as Chicago or El
Paso, NOx emissions can represent nearly one-tenth of the total NOx inven-
Current National Locomotive Emission Inventories

Metric Tons Per Year
Percent of Total Inventory (All Sources)

What Are the Environmental Benefits?

When fully phased-in. the proposed emission standards will reduce NOx
emissions from locomotives by nearly two-thirds, and HC and PM emissions
by half. However, they will also achieve very significant emission reductions
in the near term.  These reductions, which are shown below, are being
heavily relied upon by those areas that have very high rail traffic, as well as
Southern California, which has moderately high rail traffic and very signifi-
cant air quality needs.  To put these national NOx emission reductions into
context, the 348.000 ton per year reduction expected in 2005 would be
equivalent to removing about 20 million pasenger cars from the road. In
addition, NOx emission reductions will also lead to reductions in ambient
concentrations of secondary PM. It has been estimated  that about 4 tons of
nitrate paniculate is formed from every  100 tons of NOx emitted.  Thus, the
secondary PM reduction expected in 2005 is about 14,000 tons per year.
Projected National Emission Reductions (Metric Tons Per Year)
Secondary PM*
 Assumes 4 tons of nitrate paniculate formed for each 100 tons of NOx emitted.
Reductions from Existing Locomotive Fleet
The fact that so much of the NOx emission reduction will come early in the
program is due to the Tier 0 standards that apply to existing locomotives
when they are remanufactured. These standards are a unique feature of this
proposed regulation, and would represent the first time that EPA has regu-
lated the remanufacturing of an existing fleet on such a large scale. Such
regulation of the remanufacturing process is critical because locomotives are
generally remanufactured five to  ten times during  their total service lives
(typically 40 years or more). Standards that would only apply to locomotives
originally manufactured after the effective date of the rule would not achieve
significant emissions reductions until those future locomotives replaced a
significant number locomotives in the existing fleet. For the first 13 years of
the program, the majority of projected NOx emission reductions will be the
result of the Tier 0 emission standards that apply to existing locomotives.

Projected NOx Emission Reductions From Locomotives Manufactured
Before and After January 1,2000 (Metric Tons Per Year)
(Pre-2000 Locomotives)
Tier I,& II
(Later Locomotives)
For More Information
Information on the proposed rule is available electronically via the EPA
Internet server via the dial-up modem on the Technology Transfer Network
(TTN), an electronic bulletin board system (BBS).

       World Wide Web:http//www.epa.gov/OMSWWW

       TTN BBS: 919-541-5384 (1200-1440 Dps, no parity, 8 data bits,
       1 stop bit); voice helpline 919-541-5384.
For further information on the proposed rule, please write to:

      U.S. Environmental Protection Agency
      Engine Programs and Compliance Division
      2565 Plymouth Road
      Ann Arbor, MI 48105
or call: (313) 668-4333.