Div. of WSA Inc., 11772 Sorrento Valley Road
San Diego, California 92121 (714)755-9359
Report No. 411F
Evaluation of an Injury Reporting
and Information System (IRIS)
for the Solid Waste Management Industry
Final Report: Publications
     . tax
Performed for
Office of Solid Waste Management Programs
U.S. Environmental Protection Agency
Under Contract No. 68-03-0231
April 1978

-------
Div. of WSA Inc., 11772 Sorrento Valley Road
San Diego, California 92121 (714) 755-9359
Report No.  411F
Evaluation  of an Injury Reporting
and Information System (IRIS)
for the  Solid Waste Management Industry
Final  Report:   Publications
Performed for

Office  of Solid Waste Management  Programs
U.S. Environmental Protection Agency

Under Contract No. 68-03-0231

April 1978

-------
                       TABLE OF  CONTENTS


                                                              Page

I.         INTRODUCTION 	    1

II.        QUARTERLY ACCIDENT TRENDS REPORTS  	    3

III.       QUARTERLY SAFETY MANAGEMENT REPORTS^
           (QSMR's)  	    6

IV.        IRIS NEWSFLASH	10

V.         MONTHLY IRIS NEWS	11

VI.        SPECIAL REPORTS   	  ......   13

-------
                      LIST OF EXHIBITS
ACCIDENT TRENDS REPORTS
   EXHIBIT  1  Partial Quarter December 1975
   EXHIBIT  2  First Quarter 1976
   EXHIBIT  3  Second Quarter 1976:
   EXHIBIT  4  Third Quarter 1976:
   EXHIBIT  5  Fourth Quarter 1976:
                  dents
   EXHIBIT  6  First Quarter 1977:
   EXHIBIT  7  Second Quarter 1977:
   EXHIBIT  8  Third Quarter 1977:
                  Accidents
                      Employee Characteristics
                     Equipment Related Accidents
                      Container Handling Acci-

                     Caught in Packer Accidents
                      Slips and Falls
                     Specialized Collection
QUARTERLY SAFETY MANAGEMENT REPORTS
   EXHIBIT  9
   EXHIBIT 10
QSMR Evaluation
Sample QSMR of User No. 170 for First Quarter
   1977
IRIS NEWSFLASH

   EXHIBIT 11  Vol,
   EXHIBIT 12  Vol,
   EXHIBIT 13  Vol.
   EXHIBIT 14  Vol,
     1, No. 1, January 1977
     1, No. 2, May 1977
     1, No. 3, June 1977
     1, No. 4, September 1977
IRIS NEWS

   EXHIBIT 15  Vol,
   EXHIBIT 16  Vol,
   EXHIBIT 17  Vol,
   EXHIBIT 18  Vol.
   EXHIBIT 19  Vol.
   EXHIBIT 20  Vol.
     1, No. 1, April 1977
     1, No. 2, May 1977
     1, No. 3, June 1977
     1, No. 4, July 1977
     1, No. 5, August 1977
     1, No. 6, September 1977
SPECIAL REPORTS
   EXHIBIT 21
   EXHIBIT 22
The Use of Personal Protective Equipment and Its
   Effect on Accident Reduction
The Occurrence of Back Strains  (Overexertions)
   in Relation to the Age and Experience of the
   Employee
                              11

-------
             LIST OF EXHIBITS  (Continued)
EXHIBIT 23  Crew Type Variations in Size, Type of Shift,
               and Point of Collection and Their Effects
               on Injury Rates
EXHIBIT 24  How Differences in Worker's Compensation Poli-
               cies and Wage Continuation Benefits Affect
               the Incidence of Injuries
EXHIBIT 25  The Relationship of Injury Rates for Solid Waste
               Collection to the Types of Equipment in Use
                         111

-------
                      I.   INTRODUCTION








          This Publications volume is submitted in conjunction




with the Final Report on the continuation of Contract No. 63-



03-0231, "Full Scale Operation and Use of an Injury Reporting



and Analysis System for the Solid Waste Management Industry".




This volume contains the IRIS publications of eight Accident



Trends reports, a sample Quarterly Safety Management Report,



six "IRIS News", four "IRIS Newsflashes", and five Special Re-



ports.  These were produced as a by-product of IRIS, as de-



scribed in the Final Report.



          IRIS is an interactive injury reporting and analysis



system.  For their participation in providing the data, IRIS



users receive safety statistics and specific prevention mea-




sures, or countermeasures, on a routine basis on their organi-



zation as well as the industry.  The safety information is pre-



sented in the forms of narrative, charts, and tabular and



comparative computer printouts, and users are kept anonymous




except by express permission.  In addition to the users, the



IRIS publications are also provided to EPA and national solid



waste management organizations.



          The solid waste safety topics addressed in the publi-




cations were chosen for their interest to safety professionals



(e.g., cost effectiveness and injury reduction potential of




personal protective equipment), for their relative severity
                               1

-------
(e.g., caught in packer injuries), for their relative frequency



of occurrence (e.g., container handling injuries), for inform-



ing users about national solid waste organizations (e.g., Na-



tional Safety Council),  and for informing users of standards



affecting the solid waste industry (e.g., ANSI Z245.1 standard



on refuse compaction equipment).

-------
           II.   QUARTERLY ACCIDENT TRENDS REPORTS








          The quarterly Accident Trends reports were developed




to be an adjunct to the QSMR's since they discuss the overall




accident patterns in the solid waste industry.  They were to




contain the injury statistics for the quarter, a discussion of




the quarter's accident patterns, and news of interest to the




industry.  However, after two issues, the discussion of the




accident patterns for the quarter was deemed too general and




repetitive and would lose the interest of the readers  (EXHIBITS




1 and 2).




          An alternative concept was introduced.  The Accident




Trends reports 1) discussed a different special topic each




quarter, and 2) utilized the whole data base available in the




discussion rather than just the quarter's data.  This was in-




troduced by the second quarter 1976 Accident Trends report.




The special topics covered in the following quarters were:




          •'   employee characteristics  (EXHIBIT 3)




          •    equipment related accidents  (EXHIBIT 4)




          •    container handling accidents  (EXHIBIT 5)




          •    caught in packer accidents  (EXHIBIT 6)




          •    slips and falls (EXHIBIT 7)




          •    specialized collection accidents  (EXHIBIT 8)




Emphasis was placed on narrative discussions of various pre-




vention methods that could be used to reduce specific accident

-------
patterns (e.g., install slip resistant, open mesh steps to

reduce 25% of the slips and falls occurring).   Statistics

were used to support the injury reduction potentials of the

prevention methods presented.  Types of prevention methods

discussed included:

          •    container regulations (e.g., container
               weight limits, size limits, lid require-
               ments, etc.)

          •    employee training (e.g., testing the con-
               tainer weight, proper lifting techniques,
               getting in and out of the cab,  etc.)

          •    equipment modifications  (e.g.,  tailgate
               latch, hopper flaps, two-handed packer
               panel controls, etc.)

          •    applicable equipment standards (e.g., ANSI
               Z245.1 standard on refuse collection and
               compaction equipment, etc.)

          •    operational alterations  (e.g.,  changing from
               backyard collection to curbside collection,
               developing retraining policies, etc.)

          •    personal protective equipment  (e.g., steel
               toed safety shoes, slip resistant gloves,
               bump caps, etc.)

          In discussing the various prevention measures, em-

phasis was placed on methods that were tested by IRIS users,

as related to IRIS.  Their success with them and the problems

encountered in implementation are discussed.  A survey of

container regulations and personal protective equipment  requir-

ed at the IRIS users were also presented in the narrative  dis-

cussions of the topics.-  In addition, detailed drawings  of

equipment modifications installed by IRIS  users were presented,

-------
Therefore, the "pool" of IRIS user solid waste expertise was



fully utilized and related to all the users.  Other contacts



the IRIS personnel made at conferences and meetings provided



additional helpful information.



          The format of the discussion in Section I of the




Accident Trends reports was not standardized due to the differ-



ent ways of handling the various topics.  However, an important



safety tool, the "Task/Hazards Analysis" chart, was developed



as a standard item in three of the reports  (see at end of Sec-



tion I in EXHIBIT 4).  It serves as a handy reference chart



that has condensed the hazards associated with specific tasks



and identified specific countermeasures for reducing the in-



juries.

-------
     III.   QUARTERLY SAFETY MANAGEMENT REPORTS  (QSMR'S)



          This is the only IRIS publication that the IRIS users

receive that is individualized.  Each QSMR is comprised of

three basic sections, the narrative  "Evaluation of Problem Areas

and Recommendations", the "Overall Injury Rates Compared with

Other IRIS Users" containing printouts that rank the users from

the highest to the lowest injury rates, and the "Identification

of Key Injury Problem Areas" containing printouts on just the

user's injuries for the quarter.  In the reporting period of

December 1975 to September 1977, nearly 300 QSMR's were

written.

          The time frame for receipt of the QSMR is four months

after the end of the quarter.  This  is lengthier than the two

months originally anticipated because many users could not meet

the one month deadline on turning in time lost and cost data.

Since one of the main functions of the QSMR is to compare the

users, it is essential that all users have sent in the necessary

injury, time lost and cost, employee and equipment data prior

to analyzing the data.  With fewer users, the time frame will

probably be reduced.

          Comments solicited from the users by means of QSMR

evaluation forms (EXHIBIT 9) were extremely favorable on the

quality of the reports:

          "I evaluate IRIS analysis  of injury problems with
          an A plus, and I agree with it whole-heartedly."

-------
          "The report is concise and easily understood.
          There are no points of disagreement;  so far,
          there appear to be no area(s)  that require atten-
          tion beyond that given."

          "IRIS has provided through the QSMR a view of the
          importance of Safety in the solid waste industry.
          Management is usually not aware of the high costs
          of injuries."

          "They provide a guide which can be used to strength-
          en our safety program."

In fact, several users have set up  committees to review and

evaluate IRIS prevention suggestions.

          However,  one consistent complaint about the first

few issues was its  length.  Users found that there were too

many computer printouts, and they did not have  the time to

digest them all.  Therefore, the QSMR's were streamlined to

contain only the more informative computer printouts.  For

instance, it was decided that tabulating the injuries by part

of body and by nature of injury were not as meaningful as by

accident type and by activity.  They were subsequently removed

from the QSMR's.  Also, the activity and accident type analyses

were altered to compare four quarters of data.   A sample QSMR

is included in EXHIBIT 10 that include the alterations.

          Section I, the "Evaluation of Problem Areas and Rec-

commendations" is the only section  that is written individually

for each user.  The narrative evaluates the user's accident

patterns by:

          •    pointing out high frequency, time lost and
               direct cost injury categories (e.g./ lifting
               container, slipped on same level, etc.)  as
               compared with the average user

-------
          •    comparing quarterly accident trends at the
               user  (e.g., increase of slips and falls
               during winter)

          •    comparing their injury rates with other
               similar systems  (e.g., their three man rear-
               end loader crews had the second highest OSHA
               incidence rate of that type of crew)

          •    comparing their injury rates with other types
               of systems (e.g., two man hourly collection
               crews were lower in injury rates than two man
               task)

          •    comparing their accident patterns with other
               similar and dissimilar systems (e.g., their
               slips and falls from the vehicle steps were
               twice as high as an organization that installed
               open mesh, lower steps)

          •    monitoring countermeasures implemented (e.g.,
               whether the user's incidence of slips and falls
               on ice decreased with issuing "ice creepers").

Specific prevention methods proven to be effective at other

solid waste agencies, or proven by IRIS data to be lower in

injury rates, are suggested for management to consider.  The

cost effectiveness of the suggested prevention methods for the

user are also outlined.  Therefore, the solid waste managers

are not only made aware of the seriousness of their injury

problems but also how best to correct them.

          Another improvement to the QSMR in order to maintain

user interest was in altering the comparative injury rates sec-

tion from quarter to quarter.  With the development of a wide

range of computer programs,  the injury rates for the IRIS users

could be compared by means of a variety of factors.  Some of the

factors included:

-------
          •    age of employee

          •    experience of employee

          •    division (e.g., landfill,  street cleaning)

          •    crew size

          •    crew type (e.g.,  brush collection, residential
               collection)

          •    type of shift (e.g.,  task,  fixed hour)

          •    point of collection (e.g.,  curbside, backyard
               with tub)

          •    two factor collection crew type (e.g., two
               man brush collection,  three man backyard col-
               lection, residential  task  collection)

          •    five factor collection crew type  (e.g., two
               man residential curbside manual collection
               task crew)

          •    standard job classification (e.g., collector
               non-driver)

          •    equipment type (e.g.,  front-end loader).

          To compare the injury rates of  the users with only

similar users is necessary for a meaningful comparison, since

to compare simply the overall injury rates for the users can

mean that a user that is only reporting collection crew injuries

is being compared to a user that reports  collection, disposal

and administration injuries.  Therefore,  the first user would

appear much worse in injury rates since they only included their

high risk division.

-------
                    IV.   IRIS NEWSFLASH



          The IRIS Newflash was conceived in January 1977

when IRIS received two very serious accidents from users.  It

was decided that the IRIS users should be aware of the poten-

tial dangers immediately, rather than in the Accident Trends.

The IRIS Newsflash also serves the purpose of describing

alarming trends noted in the accidents.  Accidents highlighted

are either severe accidents or near-serious accidents which

the IRIS injury reviewer has noted.  The IRIS Newsflash is

published when needed, but at least four times annually.

          Topics and accidents discussed in the four IRIS News-

flashes published within the injury reporting period included:

          •    "riding on the step while backing" and "open-
               ing tailgate" near-fatal accidents  (EXHIBIT 11)

          •    accidents while "packing on the run"  (EXHIBIT
               12)

          •    exploding bomb in the waste  (EXHIBIT 13)

          •    caught in packer accidents while catching waste
               and while operating the packer wrongly  (EXHIBIT
               14)

          The IRIS Newsflash was very well received, and one

use that the IRIS users have made of the IRIS Newsflash was to

reproduce them for the collection foremen  (or supervisors) to

present at their weekly safety "tailgate sessions".
                              10

-------
                   V.   MONTHLY IRIS NEWS



          The IRIS News is a monthly newsletter first intro-

duced in April 1977.  It was also not specified in the con-

tract but was deemed necessary to cover solid waste safety

topics that the Accident Trends reports and five Special Re-

ports would not have enough issues to cover.  The safety topics

addressed are short and are presented in newsletter fashion.

The IRIS News is also used to present articles on news of inter-

est to the industry  (e.g., National Safety Council, ANSI Z245.1-

1975 standard, etc.), which was originally part of the Accident

Trends report.  It also includes a calendar of events, announ-

cing upcoming solid waste conferences and seminars.  Another

purpose the IRIS News serves is to maintain the users' interest

on a more timely basis, since both the QSMR's and Accident

Trends reports are quarterly.  The two annual IRIS injury stat-

istics (December 1975 through September 1977) are also incor-

porated in two issues of the IRIS News, rather than in the

Accident Trends report.

          Topics that have been presented in the IRIS News

include:

          •    equipment modifications (EXHIBIT 15)

          •    the development of solid waste safety manual
               by SAFETY SCIENCES for the National Science
               Foundation (EXHIBIT 16)
                              11

-------
          •    charts "evaluating equipment modifications
               and the ANSI Z245.1-1975 standard" and a
               "task/hazards analysis of overexertions acci-
               dents", relating both to IRIS data  (EXHIBIT 17)

          •    presenting injury rates for task vs. hourly
               collection and a bibliography of solid waste
               safety literature (EXHIBIT 18)

          •    1976 annual IRIS injury rates and the National
               Safety Council (EXHIBIT 19)

          •    a discussion of safety incentive programs
               (EXHIBIT 20)

          The IRIS News was very well received, and the major

comment on it was that its brevity made it easily digestible.

With the introduction of the IRIS News, the quarterly Accident

Trends reports may no longer be necessary.  The three sections

of the Accident Trends report of the narrative which covers a

special topic, the injury statistics for the quarter, and the

safety news of the industry can and have been incorporated into

the IRIS News.  In addition, as the number of IRIS users de-

creased after the end of full EPA funding, the quarterly data

of the users become less useful because of the small sample

size.

          A number of safety topics and/or IRIS data findings

can be discussed in each issue of the IRIS News, which ranges

in length from three to fifteen pages.   As discussed in Section

3.1.1 of the Final Report, virtually an unlimited number of

data analyses still requires examination, and the IRIS News can

be used as a vehicle to announce the findings to its users, to

EPA and to the industry-
                              12

-------
                    VI.   SPECIAL REPORTS



          It was felt that the limited number of issues of the

Accident Trends report  (8) would not allow for enough issues

to cover all of the safety questions of interest to EPA, the

solid waste management  industry, or to the IRIS users.  There-

fore, an additional five special reports was agreed upon for

addressing industry safety problems in depth.  The safety

issues touched upon in  the IRIS News, Accident Trends report

and IRIS Newsflash would point out additional areas for examin-

ation (e.g., the container handling accidents issue of the

Accident Trends report  indicated that follow up was necessary

for the overexertion accidents, in particular back strains, to

determine the influence of the employee characteristics of age

and experience).

          As the injury data base expanded to over 11,000 in-

juries (counting Field  Test injuries and first aid injuries)

and close to 40 million man-hours of exposure, detailed opera-

tional system changes at the solid waste agencies  (e.g., col-

lection crew types) could be examined.

          The five special report topics chosen by OSWMP as

being of deep interest  and needed by the solid waste industry

were:

          •    The use of personal protective equipment and
               its effect on accident reduction  (EXHIBIT 21),
                              13

-------
          •    The occurrence of back strains (overexertions)
               in relation to the age and experience of the
               employee (EXHIBIT 22),

          •    How three crew type variations, size, type of
               shift, and point of collection, affect injury
               rates (EXHIBIT 23),

          •    How differences in worker's compensation poli-
               cies and wage continuation benefits affect the
               incidence of injuries (EXHIBIT 24), and

          •    The relationship of injury rates to the type
               of equipment used (e.g.,  rear-end loader, side
               loader,  etc.)  (EXHIBIT 25).

          (Note:   The write-up of the Special Reports included

in this Publications volume is in draft  form, and subject to

revision upon OSWMP reviewing their  contents.)
                              14

-------
Accident Trends
4th Quarter 1975

-------
                       EXHIBIT 1
                   ACCIDENT TRENDS

       IN  THE SOLID WASTE MANAGEMENT  INDUSTRY
       PARTIAL QUARTER:   DECEMBER 1  TO 31, 1975
DEVELOPED BY SAFETY  SCIENCES, DIVISION OF WSA,  INC,
   FOR  THE U,S, ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY
    OFFICE OF SOLID  WASTE MANAGEMENT PROGRAMS
           UNDER CONTRACT No, 68-03-0231
                           Division of USA Inc.,11772 Sorrento Valley Road
                           S«n Diego, CA 92121 (714) 755-9359 & 452-1010

-------
ACCIDENT TRENDS in the Solid Waste Management ,
Industry is developed quarterly using data from
IRIS (the Injury Reporting and Information Sys-
tem for Solid Waste Management).  ACCIDENT
TRENDS is designed to summarize and discuss
the data from all IRIS users and to provide
data and conclusions which affect the industry
as a whole.  A companion volume, the QSMR,
(Quarterly Safety Management Report) is  devel-
oped individually for each IRIS user who repor-
ted injuries during the quarter.  Each QSMR
concentrates only on the injuries of the
individual IRIS user for which it is prepared.

-------
                          ACCIDENT TRENDS

              IN  THE  SOLID WASTE MANAGEMENT INDUSTRY
  PARTIAL QUARTER:   DECEMBER IST TO 31sT,  1975
                         TABLE OF CONTENTS

                                                               Page
  INTRODUCTION

  I.   Section  I  -  DISCUSSION OF ACCIDENT CHARACTERISTICS        3
      AND  PREVENTION METHODS

 II.   Section  II - SUMMARY OF IRIS USER INDUSTRY-WIDE DATA      9

      Part I - Frequency,  Severity, Costs                       9

           How to  read FIGURE 3                                 9

           How to  read FIGURE 3-6                             10

      Part II  -  Characteristics of Accidents                    14

III.   Section  III  - SAFETY NEWS                                 30
                                 11

-------
            LIST OF FIGURES AND TABLES
TABLE A:
TABLE B:
FIGURE 1:


FIGURE 2:


FIGURE 3:


FIGURE 4:


FIGURE 5:



FIGURE 6;


FIGURE 7:
FIGURE
8A-C:
FIGURE 9
FIGURE 10
FIGURE
11A-C:
                                           Page

                                            12


                                            15
Summary of Injuries by Frequency,
Severity and Costs

Summary of Accidents by Characteristic -
Characteristics with Highest Percent of
OSHA Recordable Injuries, Workdays Lost,
and Direct Costs

Description of Users by Operational
Characteristics

Profile of Accidents by Accident Type,
Activity, Part of Body and Injury Type

Number of Injuries Reported by Type of
Severity - Comparison of 'IRIS1 Users

Average Injury Rates by 'IRIS1 Users
Ranked from Highest to Lowest

Average Workdays Lost Per Lost Workday
Case by 'IRIS' Users Ranked from
Highest to Lowest

Direct Costs by 'IRIS' Users Ranked
from Highest to Lowest

Accident Types Ranked from Highest to
Lowest Percent of OSHA Recordable
Injuries, Workdays Lost, and Direct
Costs

Injury Types Ranked from Highest to
Lowest Percent of OSHA Recordable
Injuries, Workdays'Lost and Direct Costs

Parts of Body Injured Ranked from
Highest to Lowest Percent of OSHA
Recordable Injuries, Workdays Lost,
and Direct Costs
Activities Ranked from Highest to           25
Lowest Percent of OSHA Recordable Injuries,
Workdays Lost, and Direct Costs

Accident Sites Ranked from Highest to
Lowest Percent of OSHA Recordable
Injuries, Workdays Lost, and Direct Costs   26
                                            7


                                            16


                                            17


                                            18



                                            19


                                            20
                                            21
                                            24
                        111

-------
FIGURE 12:  Types of Waste Involved Ranked from
            Highest to Lowest Percent of OSHA
            Recordable Injuries, Workdays Lost,
            and Direct Costs
                        IV

-------
                           INTRODUCTION
          This is the ACCIDENT TRENDS in the Solid Waste
Management Industry report for the partial quarter ending
December 31, 1975.  Before reading the results the following
points should be noted:

       «  This is the first ACCIDENT TRENDS report developed
          under the IRIS program and it covers only a partial
          quarter, namely the month of December, 1975.  For
          these reasons this ACCIDENT TRENDS report may not
          be typical of those in the future.  Because of the
          "short" quarter, there are too few injuries repor-
          ted to allow for much evaluation.  Because this
          is the first ACCIDENT TRENDS report, there is no
          previous history from which to report "trends".
          During the month of December there were only 11
          IRIS users, nine of which reported a total of 58
          injuries.  At the present there are 41 IRIS users,
          and the number continues to grow-  Finally, as
          this is our first ACCIDENT TRENDS report there
          may be areas needing improvement.  IRIS welcomes
          your comments.

       e  All IRIS users are identified only by number.
          A table giving background information on the
          operational characteristics of the IRIS users by
          their number is shown in FIGURE 1.

       •  The phrase "AVERAGE" refers to the injury rates or
          numbers for all IRIS users combined.

       •  The FIGURES include the injury, time lost and
          cost data that was provided to IRIS by January
          31, 1976, the "closing date" of this quarter.
          Some of the time lost and cost data, therefore,
          include "open" cases for which data is not final.

          This ACCIDENT TRENDS report is divided into three
sections.  SECTION I provides a discussion of the accidents
and prevention methods found during this quarter.  SECTION
II summarizes the data received for all IRIS users during
the quarter.  SECTION III reviews some of the safety news
of the solid waste management industry.

-------
DESCRIPTION  OF USERS BY OPERATIONAL CHARACTERISTICS
User
Number
101
111
109
261
212
210
211
207
161
136
236
Municipal=M
Private=P
M
M
M
M
M
M
M
M
M
M
M
Geographical
Area
South
Pacific
Midwest
Midwest
Pacific
Pacific
Pacific
Pacific
Midwest
South
South
Number
of Employees
325
275
600
<25
100
^25
50
200
125
150
100
M=Mechanical
A=Alley
BY=Backyard
CS=Curbside
I=Int.Cont.
W=Wheeled
A-BY-C
CS
M-I-W
A-CS
CS-A
A-CS
A-CS
BY-I-W
CS-A
A-CS-I-W
CS
Type
of
Shift
Task/
Fixed
Task
Fixed
Task
Fixed
Task
Fixed
Task
Task
Fixed
Task
Type of Service Provided
Coll. Crew Size(s)
Comm.
4
-
4
-
2
2
2
3
3
3
3
Resid.
4
-
4
3
2
1
2
3
3
3
3
Disposal
L=Landfill
I=Incinerator
T=Trans, Stn.
L
L
-
L
-
L-T
L
-
L
L
L
                      FIGURE  1

-------
                         SECTION I
                   DISCUSSION OF ACCIDENT
               CHARACTERISTICS AND PREVENTION
                           METHODS
          As mentioned in the Introduction, this is the first
ACCIDENT TRENDS report, and it covers a "short" quarter.  For
this reason, there are too few accidents to discuss or evaluate
the accidents in much detail.  A few comments may be useful,
however.

          FIGURE  2 shows profiles of the injuries for all IRIS
users reported during this short quarter.  Each of these profiles
gives, in the form of a sentence, the accident type, activity,
part of body, and injury type involved in each accident, and
shows the associated number of OSHA recordable injuries, work-
days lost and direct costs.

          Thirteen of the 58 injuries occurred while the employee
was dumping a container or waste into the hopper.  Dumping into
hopper was the most frequent activity associated with injuries
(28%), resulting in the greatest number of days lost (30%), and
in the second highest direct costs (21%) .  Although many people
feel that the most common overexertion injury in the solid waste
industry is associated with lifting,  FIGURE  2 shows that most
of the overexertion injuries were associated with dumping a con-
tainer or waste into the hopper.  While there are several types
of injuries associated with dumping into hopper the most frequent
is the strain to the back or shoulder.  Several IRIS users em-
phasized that these accidents occur when the employee is turning
or twisting at the same moment he is dumping.  In one accident,
the employee was said to be "turning at a 90° angle."  Two other
users emphasized the problem of employees tending to lift the
container "high into the air" when dumping the container (pre-
sumably in order to let the refuse fall out easier) resulting
in increased strain to the back.  Much attention during training
has been put on teaching employees how to lift, but very little
has been done concerning good dumping procedure.  From the com-
ments of IRIS users, it appears that this training should em-
phasize making a deliberate turn, before dumping the container
and holding the container down close to body when dumping.  It
is likely that the turn/twist tendency while dumping is greatest
in curbside pickup,  because of the location of the containers,
so that special emphasis should be put on this dumping error in
curbside collection systems.

-------
          Dumping containers into the hopper is also associated
with being struck by objects flung back from the hopper. Holding
the container high in the air probably increases the chances 01
this type of accident because the refuse hits the hopper with
greater impact.  For example, one employee was pulling the
refuse out of a container held high in the air when a juice
bottle fell against the hopper, broke and lacerated_the wrist.
(At least one IRIS user has a work practice forbidding, and
prescribing penalties for using hands to pull refuse out of
the container.)  One injury was due to an employee being struck
in the mouth by a can that was ejected from the hopper. In this
case the employee was dumping a container while the hopper was
operating, which is a questionable practice.  One IRIS user_has
trained employees to operate the packing mechanism by pressing
the start button with their left hand.  This procedure_almost
automatically forces the employee operating the mechanism to
stand at the side of the truck rather than at the back of the
hopper and to turn his head when the packer is operating, thus
reducing the chance of being struck by refuse ejected from the
hopper.

          Falls from the step were the second most frequent
type of accident.  One injury of this type involved an employee
who ran to catch up to and jump on the step of a packer that
was backing up, slipped and fractured his leg.  Although this
particular injury is unusually serious, the accident type is
very common.  Falls from the step amounted to approximately
19% of the total number of injuries, 30% of the workdays lost,
and 16% of the costs for all IRIS users during the month of
December, 1975.  Moreover, falls while getting on the step,
are just as frequent as those while getting off.  (See FIGURE
12.)  Falls from the step while getting on the step are usually
due to trying to mount a moving vehicle.  Falls from the step
while getting off, are mostly due to unusual surfaces.  For
example, one employee fell when he stepped on grease as he
got off the step, another fell "into a hole" as he got off.
This information suggests that injuries while getting on the
step may be easier to prevent.  Usually the falls from the
step result in sprains to the ankle, rather than fractured
legs.  Employees should be cautioned to get on and off the
step only when it is stopped, and to "let it go" rather than
try to run for a quickly moving vehicle.  In several cases,
the injured employee was said to be "reaching up" as he tried
to get on the step and fell.  Presumably the employee was
attempting to "reach up" for the grab handle.  Reaching up
usually means "looking up," which of course makes it hard
for an employee to watch his footing.  Placement of the grab
handle should be reevaluated.  Perhaps a long, verticle bar
which the employee could grab at any point could be a solution.

-------
One IRIS user has developed a step modification and special
training programs for getting on and off the step which em-
phasize a body position that allows the employee to see what
he is stepping onto.  If you would like more information about
this IRIS user's program, phone the IRIS Central Office.

          One fall from the step injury occurred while an em-
ployee was washing snow off the windshield; the employee frac-
tured his ankle.  Another injury, bruised thumb, also occurred
when an employee was washing a windshield.  Employees should
be cautioned about the hazards of this seemingly innocuous
activity.

          Of the 58 injuries, 5 occurred at the landfill and
all of these were nearly of the same type.  In each case the
injury was a result of trouble in opening and closing the
tailgate at the back of the packer as a part of emptying the
packer at the landfill.  In 4 of these cases the employees
were struck by the tailgate.  The fifth case was a result of
overexertion in trying to close the tailgate in which the em-
ployee fractured his wrist.  Three of these injuries occurred
in one accident in which the landfill tractor operator un-
latched the door, the door swung shut hitting the blade that
was still out, bounced back and struck three employees, one
very severely (fractured skull).  This type of accident is
usually due to the excess pressure put on the tailgate by
leaving the blade within the packer packed tightly against
the refuse while opening the tailgate.  If employees could
be trained to release this pressure of the blade until after
the tailgate has been opened, this type of accident might be
avoided.  A standard work practice of no more than one em-
ployee behind the tailgate when it is being opened is also
recommended.

          One injury resulted in cuts to the leg from glass
protruding from a plastic bag being carried by the employee.
IRIS data indicates that this is the most common type of acci-
dent on "bag routes."  Some cities have employed special "chaps"
or extra heavy trousers to avoid this problem.

          A more serious injury occurred when an employee was
rolling a 2 yard container to behind the packer to prepare for
emptying it, and the wheel  of the container rolled onto his
right foot.  This accident appears likely to result in perma-
nent disability at this time.  Five accidents of this type
have occurred to other IRIS users who work with bulk con-
tainers.  In one case an employee smashed his thumb while
trying to return a bulk container to its enclosure.  Two back
strains occurred while pulling a bulk container.  In another,

-------
the employee strained his back while trying to get a bulk con-
tainer back up onto its concrete platform (slab).   Normally
these accidents result when there is a change in surface level
(e.g., going over a curb, or coming off their platform).
Training concerning mapping out the path of the bulk con-
tainers before pushing them, as well as alerting employees
to the hazards of changes in level may be helpful.

          All together, bulk containers were implicated in
eight of the 58 injuries.  In two cases the bulk containers
slipped while they were being automatically dumped; one em-
ployee was struck by the barbell used to attach the bulk con-
tainer; the second injury resulted in catching an employee's
hand between the truck and the bulk container.  The eighth_
bulk container injury occurred when an employee chose to ride
on the lip of a bulk container which was being held by a
moving front-end loader.  The lip broke and the employee fell.
Fortunately, the employee fell to the side of the truck, so
that the driver was able to stop the truck before it ran over
the employee, thus only "accidentally" avoiding a very serious,
possibly fatal accident.

          One injury involved an employee who dropped a can
on himself as a result of a dog charging out from behind a
building.  Dropping an object, usually the container, on one-
self is also a frequent accident, amounting to 9% of the in-
juries, 17% of the workdays lost and 9% of the direct costs
for all users this quarter.  Another employee struck his side
against the truck as a result of being startled by rats jumping
out of the hopper.  Being startled by dogs and other animals is
a common occurrence in out-of-doors jobs.

          One injury occurred while dumping a water heater
into the hopper.  The employee was being assisted by the
driver at the time.  Perhaps, special training concerning
lifting and dumping material with another employee should
be considered, as frequently it is the poor coordination
between two employees while lifting that results in strains.
Poor coordination with the driver while getting on the step
may have been the problem in several of the falls from the
step, also.  A third type of poor coordination problem
occurred when an injured employee was struck by a wheeled
container being dumped by another employee.

          One employee received a chemical burn after shoveling
the refuse back into a packer.  The refuse had been dumped be-
cause the packer had caught fire.  It is believed that the
chemical used to put out the fire was the irritating agent.

-------
                                                             FIGURE 2
                                                                                                                     PAGE
                                                               ALL  USERS
                                                         PROFILE  OF ACCIDENTS
                                                      BY  ACCIDENT TYPE* ACTIVITY
                                                     PART OF  BODY AND  INJURY TYPE
REPORTING PERIOD:  DECEMBER 1V75
INSTRUCTIONS; EXAMINE  THIS  DATA  TO DETERMINE THE CHARACTERISTICS  OF  YOUR  ORGANIZATION'S ACCIDENTS,
THIS PROFILE  IS  A  FORMATTED SENTENCE CONSISTING OF  ACCIDENT  TYPE,  ACTIVITY,  PART  OF  BODY  INJURED AND NATURE OF INJURY.
                                                     PROFILE
STRUCK BY VEHICLE  PART  WHILE DUMPING CONTAINER INTO HOPPER INJURING  SHOULDER  RESULTING  IN
     BRUISE/CONTUSION/CRUSHING
STRUCK BY VEHICLE  PART  WHILE STANDING/WALKING INJURING SKULL  RESULTING IN  BRUISE/CONTUSION/CRUSHINB
STRUCK BY VEHICLE  PART  WHILE GETTING OUT OF CAB INJURING TRUNK RESULTING  IN BRUISE/CONTUSION/CRUSHING
STRUCK BY VEHICLE  PART  WHILE STANDING/WALKING INJURING SHOULDER RESULTING  IN  BRUISE/CONTUSION/CRUSHING
STRUCK BY VEHICLE  PART  WHILE STANDING/WALKING-INJURING ARM RESULTING IN BRUISE/CUNTUSIQN/CRUSHING
STRUCK BY VEHICLE  PART  WHILE EMPTYING VEHICLE/PACKER INJURING THUMB  RESULTING IN  BRUISE/CONTUSION/CRUSHING

STRUCK AGAINST  VEHICLE  WHILE WASHING EQUIP INJURING FINGERS RESULTING IN BRUISE/CONTUSION/CRUSHING
STRUCK AGAINST  VEHICLE  WHILE DUMPING CONTAINER INTO HOPPER INJURING  HAND RESULTING  IN
     BRUISE/CONTUSION/CRUSHING

STRUCK BY OBJECT.WHILE  DUMPING CONTAINER INTO HOPPER INJURING HAND RESULTING  IN BRUISE/CONTUSION/CRUSHING
STRUCK BY OBJECT WHILE  DUMPING CONTAINER INTO HOPPER INJURING MOUTH/LIP/TEETH RESULTING  IN
     CUT/LACERATION/PUNCTURE
STRUCK BY OBJECT WHILE  STANDING/WALKING INJURING ARM RESULTING IN BRUISE/CONTUSION/CRUSHING
STRUCK BY OBJECT WHILE  CARRYING CONTAINER INJURING EYES RESULTING IN SCRATCHES/ABRASIONS
STRUCK BY OBJECT WHILE  PUSHING/PULLING CONTAINER INJURING FOOT RESULTING  IN BRUISE/CONTUSION/CRUSHING
STRUCK BY OBJECT WHILE  PUSHING/PULLING WASTE IN/OUT CONTAINER INJURING WRIST  RESULTING  IN
     CUT/LACERATION/PUNCTURE
                                                                                  OSHA
                                                                                  REC
                                                                                  INJ
WKDYS  DIRECT
 LOST   COSTS
OBJECT  IN  EYES  WHILE DUMPING UNCGNTAINEIUZED WASTE INTO  HOPPER  INJURING  EYES RESULTING IN OBJ IN
OBJECT  IN  EYES  WHILE DUMPING CONTAINER INTO HOPPER INJURING  EYES  RESULTING  IN OBJ  IN EYE
                                                                   EYE
HURT  BY  OBJECT  HANDLED WHILE
HURT  BY  OBJECT  HANDLED WHILE
HURT  BY  OBJECT  HANDLED WHILE
      CUT/LACERATION/PUNCTURE
HURT  BY  OBJECT  HANDLED WHILE
CARRYING CONTAINER INJURING LEG RESULTING  IN  CUT/LACERATION/PUNCTURE
PUSHING/PULLING CONTAINER INJURING THUMB RESULTING  IN  BRUISE/CONTUSION/CRUSHING
HUMPING CONTAINER INTO HOPPER INJURING  FINGERS  RESULTING  IN

LIFTING UNCONTAINERIZED WASTE INJURING  EYES RESULTING  IN  SCRATCHES/ABRASIONS
FALL TO  DIFFERENT LEVEL WHILE GETTING OUT OF CAB INJURING  FOOT  RESULTING  IN SPRAIN/STRAIN

                      GETTING ON STEP INJURING BACK RESULTING  IN SPRAIN/STRAIN
                      CLEARING INJURING ANKLE RESULTING  IN  FRACTURE
                      GETTING OFF STEP INJURING HIPS RESULTING IN SPRAIN/STRAIN
                      GETTING ON STEP INJURING KNEE RESULTING  IN BRUISE/CONTUSION/CRUSHING
                      PUSHING/PULLING CONTAINER INJURING  CHEST/RIBS RESULTING IN BRUISE/CONTUSION/CRUSHING
                      RIDING ON STEP INJURING ELBOW RESULTING  IN BRUISE/CONTUSION/CRUSHING
                      GETTING ON STEP INJURING LEG RESULTING IN  FRACTURE
                      GETTING OFF STEP INJURING ANKLE RESULTING  IN SPRAIN/STRAIN

FALL TO  SAME LEVEL  WHILE  CARRYING CONTAINER INJURING KNEE  RESULTING  IN BRUISE/CONTUSION/CRUSHING
FALL TO  SAME LEVEL  WHILE  PUSHING/PULLING  CONTAINER INJURING BACK RESULTING IN BRUISE/CONTUSION/CRUSHING
FALL FROM
FALL FROM
FALL FROM
FALL FROM
FALL Vo&n
FALL VKOTl
FALL FROM
FALL FROM
STEP WHILE
STEP WHILE
STEP WHILE
STE.P WHILE
•s rep' 'WHILE
STEP WHILE-
STEP WHILE
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
3
1
i
1
i
1
1
1
1
1
17
0
0
5
0
0
0
4
0
0
0
1
18
0
•2
0
0
0
0
0
0
12
12
1
0
25
0
35
10
0
2
462
0
25
199
75
54
5
328
•36
5
32
42
7,738
0
6 A
45
60
68
50
5
5S
312
504
106
5
.1 ,103
0
867
253
0
56

-------
FALL
FALL
TO
TO
SAME
SAME
OVEREXERTION
OVEREXERTION
OVEREXERT I ON
OVEREXERTION
OVEREXERTION
OVEREXERTION
OVEREXERT.I ON
OVEREXERTION
OVEREXERTION
OVEREXERTION
OVEREXERCION
OVEREXERTION
LEVEL
LEVEL

WHILE
WHILE
WHILE
WHILE
WHILE
WHILE
WHILE
WHILE
WHILE
WHILE
WHILE
WHILE
WHILE
WHILE
                                               FIGURE '2  CONTINUED

                                                     PROFILE
PUSHING/PULLING OTHER RESULTING IN SPRAIN/STRAIN
CARRYING CONTAINER INJURING SHOULDER RESULTING  IN  BRUISE/CONTUSION/CRUSHING
                                                                                                                     PAGE
              DUMPING CONTAINER INTO HOPPER INJURING GENITALIA/GROIN RESULTING IN SPRAIN/STRAIN
              LIFTING UlNTAINER INJURING NfiCK RESULTING IN SPRAIN/STRAIN
              PUSHING/PULLING CONTAINER INJURING BACK RESULTING IN SPRAIN/STRAIN
              DUMPING CONTAINER INTO HOPPER INJURING TRUNK RESULTING IN SPRAIN/STRAIN
              DUMPING CONTAINER INTO HOPPER INJURING HIPS RESULTING IN SPRAIN/STRAIN
              DUMPING CONTAINER INTO HOPPER INJURING BACK RESULTING IN SPRAIN/STRAIN
              PUSHING/PULLING CONTAINER INJURING GENITALIA/GROIN RESULTING IN SPRAIN/STRAIN
              LIFTING CONTAINER INJURING BUTTOCKS RESULTING IN SPRAIN/STRAIN
              DUMPING UNCONTAINERIZED WASTE INTO HOPPER INJURING BACK RESULTING IN SPRAIN/STRAIN
              PUSHING/PULLING OTHER INJURING GENITALIA/GROIN RESULTING IN SPRAIN/STRAIN
              EMPTYING VEHICLE/PACKER INJURING WRIST RESULTING IN FRACTURE
              DUMPING CONTAINER INTO HOPPER INJURING ARM RESULTING IN SPRAIN/STRAIN
CONTACT WITH CAUSTIC/TOXIC/NOXIOUS SUBSTANCE WHILE USING HAND TOOLS INJURING CHEST/RIBS RESULTING
     IN DERMITITIS/RASH

STEP ON SHARP OBJECT WHILE CLEARING  INJURING FOOT RESULTING  IN CUT/LACERATION/PUNCTURE
STEP ON SHARP OBJECT WHILE DUMPING UNCONTAINERIZED WASTE INTO HOPPER INJURING FOOT RESULTING IN
     CUT/LACERATION/PUNCTURE

DROPPED OBJECT ON SELF WHILE CARRYING CONTAINER INJURING KNEE RESULTING IN BRUISE/CONTUSION/CRUSHING
DROPPED OBJECT ON SELF WHILE CARRYING OTHER INJURING FOOT RESULTING IN BRUISE/CONTUSION/CRUSHING
PROPPED OBJECT ON SELF WHILE CARRYING CONTAINER INJURING TOES RESULTING IN BRUISE/CONTUSION/CRUSHING
DROPPED OBJECT ON SELF WHILE PUSHING/PULLING CONTAINER INJURING FOOT RESULTING IN BRUISE/CONTUSION/CRUSHING
OSHA
REC
INJ
i
1
2
3
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
WKDYS
LOST

0
20
A
0
2
11
3
5
4
1
33
1
5
5
0
3
0
8
0
24
20
DIRECT
COSTS

0
840
168
15
200
559
213
377
151
42
1^043
42
188
244
32
104
81
336
5
367
9?B
STRUCK BY VEHICLE WHILE DUMPING CONTAINER INTO HOPPER INJURING FOOT RESULTING IN FRACTURE
                                                                                                                          203

-------
                             SECTION II
                       SUMMARY OF IRIS USER
                           INDUSTRY WIDE
                               DATA
          This section provides a summary of the IRIS data as
it applies to all users, and as it relates to industry wide trends.
It is divided into 2 parts.  Part I reviews the frequency,
severity and costs of injuries to the industry.  Part II
summarizes the characteristics of the injuries occurring in the
industry.  It is important to remember the limitations of this
data both in terms of the number of injuries involved (58) and
the representativeness of the IRIS users from which the data
came, (see FIGURE 1).

PART I - FREQUENCY, SEVERITY, COSTS

          FIGURES 3 through 6 summarize the frequency, severity
and costs of injuries reported during this quarter.

How to Read FIGURE 3

          FIGURE 3 provides a recap for the quarter.  This FIGURE
lists, in order of user number, the number of injuries reported
by each IRIS user and categorizes these injuries by their
severity level (i.e., first aid through death).  For each
severity level the percentage of the total injuries reported
is shown.  For example, if a percentage of 28% is shown for the
"first aid" severity level, this means that 28% of all the
injuries reported were classified as first aid.  The purpose of
this FIGURE is to recap the severity of injuries by user, so
as to make it possible to compare users by the percent of
injuries at certain severity levels.  To do this, you should:

      (1) read across the page to identify the total number
          of injuries reported this quarter and the number
          and percent of these injuries classified at various
          severity levels.

      (2) compare the percent of each IRIS user's injuries
          at various severity levels with those of the
          "AVERAGE" and with those of other IRIS users.

          Obviously the goal is to have a greater percentage
of injuries at the low severity levels.  Therefore, a user is
doing "better" than other IRIS users to the extent that

       •  the percent of its injuries at the low
          severity levels  (i.e., first aid cases and
          non-fatal cases without lost workdays) is
          greater than this percent for the other
          IRIS users; or, conversely,

-------
       •  the percent of its injuries at the high
          severity levels (i.e., lost time,  permanent
          disability, and death cases)  is lower than
          this percent for other IRIS users.

Moreover a high percentage of first aid cases reported_sug-
gests that a user is probably reporting most of its injuries.
This is because it is the less severe injuries that are the
least likely to be reported, and if these are being_reported at
by a user then it is likely that most of the other in-
juries are being reported.

How to Read FIGURES 4-6

          FIGURES 4 through 6 compare users  and provide AVERAGES
for injury frequency, severity and costs.  In all of these
FIGURES the comparison is done by ranking IRIS user's in order
of highest to lowest injury rates.  To use these FIGURES you
should:

       (1)  identify the type of rate and type of comparison
          being made.  "OSHA incidence rates" (both overall,
          and rates for lost workday -LWD- cases) are
          measures of the frequency of injuries.  The
          "OSHA severity rate," and the "average workdays
          lost per lost workday case" are measures of the
          severity of injuries.  The "average
          direct cost per OSHA recordable injury" and the
          "average cost per man-year" are measures of the
          costliness of injuries.

       (2)  look for an IRIS user or the AVERAGE and read
          across the page to identify the rates.
          FIGURES having more than one type  of rate
          may have the AVERAGE or a given IRIS user on a
          different row for each type of rate, because
          IRIS users are listed in order of  highest to
          lowest rates.

       (3)  determine how each user stands compared with other
          IRIS users and the AVERAGE.  To do this you can:

       •  check to see on which row a user is listed
          for a given type of rate.  The row on which a
          user is listed is the user's rank compared with
          other users.  For example, the user listed
          first, ranks as having the highest injury rate;
          the organization listed 3rd has the third
          highest rate, etc.

       •  check to see whether a user is listed above
          the AVERAGE rate  (meaning it has a rate that is
          higher than the AVERAGE) or below the AVERAGE
          rate (meaning that it is lower than the
          AVERAGE).
                               10

-------
       •  the best way to evaluate a user's standing is
          by checking its AVERAGE RATIO for a given rate.
          The average ratio (equal to a user's rate
          divided by the AVERAGE rate) tells you how
          much higher or lower than the AVERAGE the user's
          rates are.  For example, an average ratio, of
          3.50 would mean that the user is 3% times the
          AVERAGE; an average ratio of .33 would mean
          that the user is one-third the AVERAGE.  An
          average ratio of about 1.25 (25% above the
          AVERAGE) is normally considered to be "poor",
          while an average ratio of below .50 is
          considered "good".   Average ratios between
          .05 and 1.25 are considered average for the
          solid waste management industry, as shown by
          IRIS data.  It should be remembered, however,
          that because of the very high injury rate for
          the solid waste management industry as a
          whole, a "good" or "average" injury rate
          compared to the industry may still be a
          comparatively high rate.

          FIGURE 4 lists three columns of data by user in order
of highest to lowest rates: the OSHA incidence rate for all OSHA
recordable injuries, the OSHA incidence rate for lost workday
cases, and the OSHA severity rate.  The meaning of the rates
are explained on the FIGURE.

          FIGURE 5 lists the number of cases involving lost
workdays and the average lost workdays per lost workday case by
user in order of highest to lowest average workdays lost per
lost workday case.

          FIGURE 6 lists the average direct cost per OSHA
recordable injury by user in.order of-highest to lowest average
cost, and the average cost per man-year (i.e., per 1 full time
employee per year) by user in order of highest to lowest rates.

          TABLE A summarizes the data from FIGURES 3-60

          In reviewing these FIGURES, the data for the AVERAGE
(shown on the FIGURES as AVG)  is the most important because it
summarizes the results for all users combined.  After examining
the AVERAGES, it is important to examine how great the range
of rates between users is.  Wide ranges are important because
they show that it is possible to achieve lower rates of injury
under given operating systems and safety programs.
                               11

-------
                           TABLE A
                     SUMMARY OF INJURIES

              BY FREQUENCY, SEVERITY AND COSTS
FREQUENCY
     There were 58 cases reported by 9 of the 11 IRIS users.

     The AVERAGE OSHA incidence rate is 34.  This means that
     on the average each 100 employees has 34 injuries a year,
     or that one out of every 3 employees are injured.  The
     national OSHA incidence rate for all industries is 10.4,
     making the solid waste industry 3 times the average of
     industry.

     IRIS users range in frequency from User No. 211, which
     is experiencing 1.6 injuries per employee per year to
     User No. Ill which is experiencing 1.4 injuries for every
     10 employees per year.
SEVERITY
     There have been 310 days lost so far for injuries occurring
     during December, 1975.

     57% of the total cases resulted in lost workdays.  The
     national average for all industries is 33%, making the
     fraction of lost workday cases in the solid waste industry
     nearly 2 times the average industry.  Two IRIS users had
     less than 22% lost workday cases, but the rest were higher
     than AVERAGE.

     The AVERAGE OSHA severity rate (number of lost workdays
     per 100 employees) is 224.  This means that on the average
     each employee is losing 2.2 days per year for injuries.
     Three users were as high as nearly 5 days lost per year
     per employee; one is losing less than a day a year per
     employee.

     On the AVERAGE, each lost workday case is resulting in
     9-39 workdays lost.  This is lower than the national
     average for all industries, which is 10.5.

     One of the 58 injuries will probably result in permanent
     disability.
                             12

-------
                           TABLE A
                          (continued)
DIRECT COSTS  (Costs given are not final but represent costs
known as of January 31, 1976.  These costs, therefore, may
greatly underestimate the actual.)

•    So far the costs for injuries occurring in December, 1975
     amount to $19,386.

e    The AVERAGE cost per OSHA recordable injury is $407.

•    The AVERAGE cost per man-year is $140.  This means that
     on the average injuries are costing $140 per full-time
     employee, per year.
                              13

-------
PART II - CHARACTERISTICS OF ACCIDENTS

          FIGURES 7 through 12, summarize some of the character-
istics of injuries occurring to all IRIS users during December,
1975.  Each FIGURE covers a different characteristic of the
accidents:

       •  FIGURE 7:  Accident Type, e.g., falls

       •  FIGURE 8:  Injury Type, e.g., bruise

       •  FIGURE 9:  Part of Body Involved, e.g., leg

       •  FIGURE 10:  Activity, e.g.,  carrying.

       •  FIGURE 11:  Accident Site, e.g., back of the truck.

       •  FIGURE 12:  Type of Waste Involved.

          Each of these FIGURES is divided into 3 columns.
(FIGURES 7,9,10,and 12 have all three columns on one page.
FIGURES 8 and 11 show the columns on 3 separate pages marked
A,B, and C respectively.)  The first column lists the number
and percent of OSHA recordable injuries by characteristic of
the accident in order of highest to lowest percent.  The
second column lists the number and percent of workdays lost
(and average workdays lost)  by characteristic in order of highest
to lowest percent of workdays lost.  The third column lists the
amount and percent of direct costs  (and average direct costs)
by characteristic in order of highest to lowest percent of
direct costs.  Thus a given characteristic may be in different
rows depending on the percent of injuries, workdays lost and
direct costs associated with that characteristic.  For example
in FIGURE 7, "Falls from the Step" amount to the second
highest percent of the injuries (19%), the highest percent of
workdays lost (30%)  and the third highest percent of direct
costs (16%), and therefore Falls From the Step are shown in the
second row of the first column, first row of the second column
and the third row of the third column.

          TABLE B summarizes the data on FIGURES 6 through 11
for all IRIS users.
                                -14

-------
                                          TABLE B

                          SUMMARY OF ACCIDENTS BY CHARACTERISTIC

                  Characteristics with Highest Percent of OSHA Recordable
                          Injuries, Workdays Lost & Direct Costs
      TYPE OF
  CHARACTERISTIC
Accident Type
Injury Type
Part of Body
Involved

Activity
Accident Site
Type of Waste
Involved
    HIGHEST % OF
   OSHA  RECORDABLE
      INJURIES

Overexertion - 28%
Fall from Step - 19%
Struck by Veh. Part
  - 11%

Sprain/Strain - 40%
Bruise/Contusion/
  Crushing - 34%

Back - 17%
Foot - 15%

Dumping Into Hopper
  - 28%
Pushing/Pulling Cart
  - 15%

In/On Vehicle - 15%
Glass - 9%
CHARACTERISTICS WITH THE:


      HIGHEST % OF
     WORKDAYS  LOST

  Fall from Step - 30%
  Overexertion - 30%
  Dropped Object on
    Self - 17%

  Bruise/Contusion/
    Crushing - 46%
  Sprain/Strain - 34%

  Back - 20%
  Foot - 15%

  Dumping Into Hopper
    - 30%
  Pushing/Pulling Cart
    - 23%

  Street at Back of
    Truck - 17%

  Furniture/Appliances
    - 11%
    HIGHEST % OF
    DIRECT COSTS

Struck by Object - 40%
Overexertion - 20%
Fall from Step - 16%
Bruise/Contusion/
  Crushing - 65%
Sprain/Strain - 23%

Foot - 48%
Back - 13%

Pushing/Pulling Cart
  - 54%
Dumping Into Hopper
  - 21%

Mid Alley - 46%
Furniture/Appliances
  - 5%

-------
                                     FIGURE  3              PAGE  1

                NUMBER OF  INJURIES  REPORTED BY  TYPE  OF SEVERITY
                            COMPARISON  OF  'IRIS'  USERS

REPORTING PERIOD* DECEMBER  1975

INSTRUCTIONS? THE PERCENTAGES  ARE A  FRACTION  OF  THE  TOTAL. CASES
REPORTED*  THEY TOTAL TO APPROXIMATELY 100% IF  READ  HORIZONTALLY*
COMPARE YOUR ORGANIZATION'S PERCENTAGES WITH  THE AVERAGE AND WITH
OTHER IRIS USERS*  HIGHER  THAN AVERAGE PERCENTAGES  IN THE LOWER
SEVERITY GROUPS, I*E,? TOWARD  THE LEFT, ARE DESIRED,  AS ARE LOWER
THAN AVERAGE PERCENTAGES TOWARD  THE  RIGHT*
IRIS   TOTAL.      FIRST      NON-FATAL    LOST  WKDY     PERM        FATALITY
USER   CASES       AID     W/0  LST  WKDAY    CASES       DISAB
 MO,   RPT'D     MO*   %     NO*      %    NO*    %     NO*    %      NO*      %

AVG      58       11   19    13     22     33    57      1    1*72      0     0*00
101       7        002     29      5    71      0    0*00      0     0*00
109      12        1    8      2     17      9    75      0    0*00      0     0*00
111       2        0    0      0      0      2   100      0    0*00      0     0*00
136       7        1   14      1     14      5    71      0    0*00      0     0*00
161       1        0    0      0      0      1   100      0    0*00      0     0*00
207       9        2   22      2     22      5    56      0    0*00      0     0*00
211       6        00      3     50      3    50      0    0*00      0     0.00
212       5        00      3     60      1    20      1   20*00      0     0*00
236       9        7   78      0      0      2    22      0    0*00      0     0*00
                                         16

-------
                                   FIGURE 4
                    AVERAGE  INJURY RATES BY 'IRIS' USERS
                        RANKED  FROM HIGHEST TO LOWEST
PORTING PERIOD? DECEMBER  1975

FINITIONSJ AVERAGE RATIO  =  RATE  /  AVERAGE FOR THE RATE,
HA INCIDENCE RATE =  (NUMBER OF OSHA  RECORDABLE CASES /
N-HOURS EXPOSURE ) X 200r000.
UGHI...Y EQUIVALENT TO  THE  NUMBER OF  CASES PER 100 FULL TIME EMPLOYEES
R YEAR,  DOES NOT INCLUDE FIRST  AID  INJURIES.  DOES INCLUDE MEDICAL
EATMENT)' LOST TIME*  PERMANENT DISABILITY AND FATALITY CASES,
HA SEVERITY RATE = (NUMBER  OF WORKDAYS LOST / MAN-HOURS EXPOSURE) X
lUGHLV EQUIVALENT TO  THE  NUMBER OF  WORKDAYS LOST PER .1.00 FULL. TIME
iPLOYEES PER YEAR,

1ST RUCTIONSJ FIND YOUR  ORGANIZATION'S USER NUMBER AND COMPARE
iW IT RANKS WITH THE  AVERAGE AND  OTHER IRIS USERS,
GOOD STANDING IS AN  AVERAGE RATIO  OF LESS THAN ,50,
POOR STANDING IS AN  AVERAGE RATIO  OF GREATER THAN 1,25,
                                                                         '000,
OSHA INCIDENCE RATE
I!;;    MAN--HOURS  RATE
   NO EXPOSURE
21 :l.
207
212
136
AVG
236
101
109
161
.1.1.1.
           7 y 39.1.
          21 v 181
          19?905
          23v967
         276 v 944
          14*625
          52 i 468
          94 :' 436
          14*194
          28y778
162
 66
 50
 50
 34
 2,5
 14
 14
            INCIDENCE RATE
     AVG    IRIS    RATE
     RATIO  USER NO
4,78    211
1,95    207
1,48    136
1,48    236
1,00    AVG
0,81    212
0,79    109
0,69    101
0,42    161
0,41    11.1.
                                               •• LWC     OSHA SEVERITY  RATE
                                               AVG    IRIS     RATE     AVG
                                               RATIO  USER NO           RATIO
8 1
47
42
•-) 7
•v".. t
"\ r.:m
20
19
1 9
1 4
14
:5 , 3 1 1
1. - 92 1
1. ,70 2
1 . 1 1 2
1*00 2
0*82 1
J,78 A
:),7S 2
0,57 1
;).>57 1
61
36
07
1 2
1 1
1 1
VG
36
09
0 1
493
476
453
342
325
••;) o Q
224
137
136
65
2 ,
2 ,
2,
1 ,
1 ,
1,
:!. ,
0,
0,
0,
20
12
02
53
45
02
00
6 1
61
29
                                        17

-------
                                    FIGURE 5
                                              PAGE
                  AVERAGE WORKDAYS LOST PER LOST WORKDAY CASE
                                BY 'IRIS' USERS
                         RANKED PROM HIGHEST TO LOWEST
REPORTING PERIOD: DECEMBER 1975
INSTRUCTIONS; FIND YOUR ORGANIZATION'S USER NUMBER AND COMPARE
HOW IT RANKS WITH THE AVERAGE AND OTHER IRIS USERS,
A GOOD STANDING IS AN AVERAGE RATIO OF LESS THAN ,50,
A POOR STANDING IS AN AVERAGE RATIO OF GREATER THAN 1,25*
  RANK
  IIGHE8T
    8
 LOWEST
 IRIS
USER NO

   161
   111
   207
   136
   212
   236
   AVG
   109
   211
   1 01
 NO  LOST
JKDY  CASES

      1
                             1
                            33
                             9
AVG WKDYS
  LOST

  35,00
  16,50
  12,00
  11 ,40
  11 ,33
  10,00
   9,39
   7 . 11
   4,00
   3,40
 AVG RATIO
(DAYS / AVG)

    3,73
    1,76
    1,2S
    1,21
    1 ,21
    1,06
    1,00
    0,76
    0,43
    0,36
                                           18

-------
                                   FIGURE 6             PAGE .1.

                         DIRECT COSTS BY 'IRIS' USERS
                        RANKED FROM HIGHEST TO LOWEST

'PORTING PERIOD?  DECEMBER 1975

TINITIONS! DIRECT  COSTS INCLUDE MEDICAL EXPENSES?
IRKMEN'S COMPENSATION  BENEFITST AND WAGE CONTINUATION BENEFITS
. ,G, INJURY LEAVE)  ONLY,   INDIRECT COSTS ARE NOT INCLUDED.
:RECT COSTS
iPLOYEE PER
PER MAN-YEAR  IS THE
YEAR BASED ON 2*000
COST PER FULL--TIME
HOURS PER YEAR,
SANITATION
'STRUCTIONS? FIND  YOUR  ORGANIZATION'S USER NUMBER AND COMPARE
)W  IT RANKS WITH THE  AVERAGE AND OTHER IRIS USERS,
 GOOD STANDING  IS  AN  AVERAGE RATIO OF LESS THAN ,50*
 POOR STANDING  IS  AN  AVERAGE RATIO OF GREATER THAN 1,25,
>G DIREC
: R i s
T COST PER OS HA RE I
NO OS HA
JSER RECORD INJ
NO,

212
1 6 1
AVG
136
207
1 1 1
109
236
1 0 1
2 1 1

"j
1
4 7
6
'7
2
J. 1
2
7
6
;:ORDABLE INJ ! D
	 . (
AVG AVG R
COST (AVG CO

1 !• 722
S67
407
403
360
317
2 '1 (?
129
1 1 0
106

4,
•••) ^
J. ,
0,
0 ,
0,
0,
0 ,
0 ,
0 ,
AT 10
ST/AV

23
13
00
99
89
78
54
32
...j ...,
26
! I R I S
G) ! USER
! NO,
i
! 212
! 207
! 136
! 2 1 1
! AVG
! 1 6 1
! 109
! 236
! 1 1 1
! 1 0 1
IRECT
COST
MAN-MRS
EXPOS

19
21
•"> "7
7
276
14
9 4
14
28
52
URE P

»905
p 181
y V (•_', /
*391
5,944
v!94
? 436
v625
*778
v468
PER MAN
COSTS
ER M--Y (

865
245
206
173
140
122
5 1
46
44
29
YEAR
AVG
COST

6
1
1
1
1
0
0
0
0
0


RATIO
S/AVG)

*
*
fr
<•
<•
<-
<•
<•
<•
V

20
75
48
24
00
87
37
33
32
21
                                         19

-------
                                                               FIGURE 7
                                                                 ALL USERS
                                          ACCIDENT TYPES  RANKED  FROM HIGHEST TO LOWEST PERCENT OF'
                                          OSHA RECORDABLE INJURIES* WORKDAYS LOST AND DIRECT COSTS
                                                                                                                      PARE
  REPORTING  PERIOD:  DECEMBER 1975
  DEFINITIONS:  OSHA RECORDABLE CASES INCLUDE MEDICAL  TREATMENT  CASES  (I.E. NON-FATAL CASES WITHOUT LOST WORKDAYS>» AND LOST WORKDAYr
  PERMANENT  DISABILITY AND FATAL CASES.   FIRST AID INJURIES  ARE NOT INCLUDED.
  DIRECT COSTS  INCLUDE MEDICAL EXPENSES*  WORKER'S COMPENSATION  BENEFITS AND WAGE CONTINUATION BENEFITS (E.G.* INJURY LEAVE) ONLY.
  INDIRECT COSTS  ARE NOT INCLUDED.
  INSTRUCTIONS: DETERMINE YOUR ORGANIZATION'S PROBLEM AREAS  BY  IDENTIFYING THE AREAS WITH THE HIGHEST PERCENTAGES.
       OSHA RECORDABLE  INJURIES
     ACCIDENT  TYPE       OSHA  REC  INJ
                          NO.      7.
                                                      WORKDAYS LOST
                                          ACCIDENT  TYPE      WKDYS LOST   AVG/LOST
                                                             NO.     '/.   WKDY CASE
                                                 ACCIDENT  TYPE
                   DIRECT  COSTS
                      DIRECT  COSTS
                       AMT.       %
AVG COSTS/
OSHA REC INJ
  OVEREXERTION
  FALL FROM STEP
  STRUCK BY VEH PART
  DROPPED OBJ ON  SELF
  STRUCK BY OBJECT
  FALL TO SAME LEVEL
  OBJECT IN EYES
  HURT BY OBJ HANDLED
O STEP ON SHARP OBJECT
  STRUCK AGAINST  VEH
  •FALL TO DIFF LEVEL
  CONTACT-NOXIOUS SUBST
  STRUCK BY VEHICLE
  TOTAL
t-o
13
9
5
4
3
3
2
o
2
1
1
1
1
47
27.66
19.15
10.64
8.51
6.38
6.38
4.26
4.26
4.26
2.13
2.13
2.13
2.13
100,00
FALL FROM STEP
OVEREXERTION
DROPPED OBJ ON SELF
STRUCK BY VEH PART
FALL TO SAME LEVEL
STRUCK BY OBJECT
STRUCK AGAINST VEH
STEP ON SHARP OBJECT
STRUCK BY VEHICLE
OBJECT IN EYES
TOTAL
92
91
52
22
22
19
4
3
3
2
310
29.
29.
16,
7.
7.
6.
1.
0,
0.
0,
100.
68
35
77
10
10
13
29
97
97
65
00
13,14
7.00
17.33
1 1 . 00
11,00
9.50
4.00
3.00
3.00
2.00
9.39
STRUCK BY OBJECT
OVEREXERTION
FALL FROM STEP
DROPPED OBJ ON SELF
FALL TO SAME LEVEL
STRUCK BY VEH PART
STRUCK AGAINST VEH
STRUCK BY VEHICLE
STEP ON SHARP OBJECT
HURT BY OBJ HANDLED
OBJECT IN EYES
FALL TO DIFF LEVEL
CONTACT-NOXIOUS SUBST
TOTAL
7*780
3*863
3*151
1*636
896
761
32S
203
185
128
111
58
32
19*132
" 10.66
20.19
16.47
8.55
4.68
3. 98
1.71
1.06
0.97
0,67
0.58
0.30
0.17
100.00
      S98
      429
      630
      409
      299
      254
      164
      .101
       92
      128
      111
       58
       32
      407

-------
                                 FIGURE 8 A        PAGE  1

                                 ALL USERS
                 INJURY TYPES RANKED FROM HIGHEST TO LOWEST
                    PERCENT OF OSHA RECORDABLE INJURIES

ORTING PERIOD?  DECEMBER 1975

INITIONS:  OSHA  RECORDABLE CASES INCLUDE MEDICAL TREATMENT
£ S (I *E,  N0N-FA TA L C A SES UIT H 0 UT L 0 ST U0 RKD A YS)r AND L 0ST W0 RK D A Yr
MANENT DISABILITY AND FATAL CASES,  FIRST AID INJURIES ARE NOT INCLUDED.

TRUCTIONSI DETERMINE YOUR ORGANIZATION'S PROBLEM AREAS BY IDENTIFYING
 AREAS WITH THE HIGHEST PERCENTAGES,
                         OSHA RECORDABLE INJURIES
             TYPE OF INJURY                    NO,     %

AIN/STRAIN                                      19   40,43
IB E/C0N TU S10 N/CRU S HI NO                          16   3 4,0 4
./1... A C E R A T10 N / P U N C T U RE                             4    B , S1
CTURE                                            4    8*51
ECT IN EYE                                       2    4,26
MI FIT IS/RASH                                     1    2,13
A T C H E S / A B R A S10 N S                                 1    2 , 13
AL.                                              47  100,00
                                     21

-------
FIGURE 8B
                                                     PAGE
                                    ALL USERS
                    INJURY TYPES RANKED FROM HIGHEST TO LOWEST
                             PERCENT OF WORKDAYS LOST

REPORTING PERIOD? DECEMBER 1975
DEFINITIONS: OSHA RECORDABLE CASES INCLUDE MEDICAL TREATMENT
CASES CUE, NON-FATAL CASES WITHOUT LOST WORKDAYS)? AND LOST WORKDAY*
PERMANENT DISABILITY AND FATAL CASES,  FIRST AID INJURIES ARE NOT INCLUDED,
INSTRUCTIONS: DETERMINE YOUR ORGANIZATION'S PROBLEM AREAS BY IDENTIFYING
THE AREAS WITH THE HIGHEST PERCENTAGES,
                                 WORKDAYS LOST
                TYPE OF INJURY
''!•; R UIS E / C 0 N T U S10 N / C R U S HIN G
SPRAIN/STRAIN
I-RACTURE
C U T / L A C E R A T10 N / P U N C T U R E
OBJECT IN EYE
S C R A T C H E S / A B R A S10 N S
roTAi...
NO*

143
106
55
3
'")
.-.'..
.1.
3 1 0


46
34
1 7
0
0
0
100
%

* 1 3
, 1 9
,74
.97
,65
,32
,00
AVG WKDYS
LOST WKDYS
14,30
6 , 62
13,75
3,00
2,00
1,00
0,00
LOS
Ll







                                         22

-------
                                  FIGURE 8C
                                    PAGE   1
                  INJURY
                  ALL
         TYPES RANKED
           PERCENT OF
      USERS
      FROM HIGHEST
      DIRECT COSTS
TO LOWEST
 •ORTING PERIOD?  DECEMBER
 INITIONS*  OSHA RECORDABLE CASES INCLUDE MEDICAL TREATMENT
 ES (I.E.  NON-FATAL CASES WITHOUT LOST WORKDAYS >r AND LOST  WORKDAY y
 MANEMT DISABILITY AND FATAL CASES,  FIRST AID  INJURIES ARE NOT  INCLUDED*
 ECT COSTS INCLUDE MEDICAL EXPENSES!' WORKER'S COMPENSATION  BENEFITS  AND
 E CONTINUATION
  NOT INCLUDED,
BENEFITS (E,G,
INJURY LEAVE) ONLY,
  INDIRECT COSTS
 I' R (.1C T10 N S {  D E T E R MIN E Y 0 U R 0 R G A NIZ A T10 N ' S P R 0 B I... E M
  A R E A S WIT l-l T H E hi IG H E S T P E R C E N T AGES*
                                   AREAS  BY  IDENTIFYING
                               DIRECT COSTS
              TYPE OF INJURY
                                 AMI.
                                AVG COSTS/
                              OSHA REC INJ
JIS E / C 0 N T U S10 N / C R U S HIN G
••{AIM/STRAIN
ACT LIRE
T /1... A C E R A T10 N / P U N C T U R E
JECT IN EYE
RATCUES/ABRASIONS
RMl TITIS/RASH
TAL
                               12*530
                                4 * 4 1 0
                                1*762
                                  245
                                   32
                                19 r 132
                        65,49
                        23,05
                         9*21
                         1,28
                         0,58
                         0,22
                         0 , 17
                        .00,00
                 232
                  93
                  13
                   6
                                        23

-------
                                                              FIGURE  9
                                                                            PAGE
                                                              ALL USERS
                                     PARTS  OF  BODY  INJURED RANKED FROM HIGHEST TO LOWEST PERCENT OF
                                        OSHA RECORDABLE  INJURIESr WORKDAYS LOST AND DIRECT COSTS
REPORTING PERIOD:  DECEMBER  1975
DEFINITIONS: OSHA RECORDABLE:  CASES  INCLUDE  MEDICAL  TREATMENT CASES U.E. NON-FATAL CASES WITHOUT LOST WORKDAYS)»  AND LOST WORKDAY*
PERMANENT DISABILITY AND  FATAL  CASES.   FIRST  AID  INJURIES ARE NOT INCLUDED.  '
DIRECT COSTS INCLUDE MEDICAL  EXPENSESr  WORKER'S COMPENSATION BENEFITS AND WAGE CONTINUATION BENEFITS (E.G.r INJURY LEAVE) ONLY.
INDIRECT COSTS ARE NOT  INCLUDED.
INSTRUCTIONS: DETERMINE YOUR  ORGANIZATION'S PROBLEM AREAS BY IDENTIFYING THE AREAS WITH THE HIGHEST PERCENTAGES.
     OSHA RECORDABLE  INJURIES
   PART OF BODY       OSHA  REC  INJ
                       NO,      •/.
BACK
FOOT
GENITALIA/GROIN
EYES
SHOULDER
ARM
WRIST
TRUNK
CHEST/RIBS
HIPS
LEG
ANKLE
SKULL
ELBOW
HAND
THUMB
BUTTOCKS
KNEE
TOES
OTHER
TOTAL
           WORKDAYS LOST
PART OF BODY      WKDYS LOST   AVG/LOST
                   NO.      7.   WKDY CASE
8
7
4
3
3
2
*!>
1>
2
2
2
2
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
47
17.02
14,89
8.51
6,38
6.38
4.26
4.26
4.26
4.26
4.26
4.26
4.26
2.13
2.13
2.13
2.13
2.13
2.13
2.13
2.13
100.00
BACK
FOOT
SHOULDER
LEG
CHEST/RIBS
TOES
ANKLE
GENITALIA/GROIN
TRUNK
KNEE
ARM
WRIST
HAND
HIPS
EYES
BUTTOCKS
TOTAL




                    61
                    44
                    42
                    35
                    25
                    24
                    22
                    16
                    11
                     8
                     5
                     5
                     4
                     4
                     3
                     1
                   310
 19.68
 14.19
 13.55
 11 .29
  8.06
  7.74
  7.10
  5.16
  3, 55
  2.58
  1.61
  1.61
  1.29
  1 .29
  0.97
  0.32
100.00
 8.71
11.00'
14.00
35.00
25.00
24.00
11 .00
 4,00
11.00
 8.00
 5.00
 5.00
 4.00
 2.00
 1.50
 1,00
 9.39
                     PART  OF  BODY
FOOT
BACK-
SHOULDER
CHEST/RIBS
LEG
ANKLE
TRUNK
GENITALIA/QROIN
TOES
KNEE
HAND
ARM
HIPS
WRIST
EYES
THUMB
BUTTOCKS
TOTAL
DIRECT COSTS
DIRECT
AMT.
9,117
2,446
IfSOl
Ifl35
927
757
584
545
367
336
328
319
319
188
153
68
42
19»132
COSTS
7.
47.65
12,78
7,85
5.93
4.85
3.96
3.05
2.85
1.92"
1.76
1.71
1,67
1.67
0.98
0,80
0.36
0.22
100.00
AVG COSTS/
OSHA REC INJ
lr!40
349
3/5
378
309
378
292
272
183
168
164
159
319
188
153
68
42
407

-------
                                                              FIGURE  1 U

                                                              ALL USERS
                                          ACTIVITIES  RANKED FROM HIGHEST TO LOWEST PERCENT OF
                                       OSHA  RECORDABLE  INJURIESr WORKDAYS LOST AND DIRECT COSTS
REPORTING PERIOD:  DECEMBER
DEFINITIONS: OSHA RECORDABLE  CASES  INCLUDE  MEDICAL  TREATMENT CASES  (I.E. NON-FATAL CASES WITHOUT LOST WORKDAYS)r  AND LOST WORKDAY*
PERMANENT DISABILITY  AND  FATAL  CASES.   FIRST  AID  INJURIES ARE NOT INCLUDED.
DIRECT COSTS INCLUDE  MEDICAL.  EXPENSESr  WORKER'S COMPENSATION BENEFITS AND WAGE CONTINUATION BENEFITS (E.G.r INJURY LEAVE) ONLY.
INDIRECT COSTS ARE NOT  INCLUDED.
INSTRUCTIONS: DETERMINE YOUR  ORGANIZATION'S WORST AREAS BY IDENTIFYING THE AREAS WITH THE HIGHEST PERCENTAGES.
     OSHA RECORDABLE  INJURIES
     ACTIVITY       -  OSHA REC  INJ
                       NO.      %
     ACTIVITY
WORKDAYS LOST
       WKDYS LOST
        NO.      %
AVG/LOST
WKDY CASE
ACTIVITY
DIRECT COSTS
   DIRECT COSTS
    AMT.      %
AVG COSTS/
OSHA REC INJ
DUMPING INTO HOPPER
PUSHING/PULLING CART
GETTING ON/OFF STEP
CARRYING CAN/WASTE
STANDING/WALKING
OTHER
LIFTING CAN/WASTE
WASHING/CLEARING
GETTING IN/OUT CAB
RIDING ON STEP
EMPTYING VEH/PACKER
PUSH/PULL IN/OUT CAN
USING HAND TOOLS
TOTAL
13
7
6
5
3
3
n
rt
2
1
1
1
1
47
27.66
14.89
12.77
10.64
6.38
6.38
4.26
4.26
4.26
2.13
2.13
2.13
2.13
100.00
DUMPING INTO HOPPER
PUSHING/PULLING CART
GETTING ON/OFF STEP
CARRYING CAN/WASTE
WASHING/CLEARING
LIFTING CAN/WASTE
EMPTYING VEH/PACKER
STANDING/WALKING
OTHER
TOTAL
94
71
55
53
15
11
5
5
1
310
30.32
22.90
17.74
17.10
4.04
3.55
1.61
1.61
0.32
100.00
8.55
11.83
11.00
13.25
7.50
5.50
5.00
5.00
1.00
9.39
                               PUSHING/PULLING  CART
                               DUMPING  INTO  HOPPER
                               CARRYING CAN/WASTE
                               GETTING  ON/OFF STEP
                               WASHING/CLEARING
                               LIFTING  CAN/WASTE
                               STANDING/WALKING
                               EMPTYING VEH/PACKER
                               GETTING  IN/OUT CAB
                               OTHER
                               USING  HAND  TOOLS
                               TOTAL
10^244
3r973
1»645
Ir544
608
494
274
188
83
47
32
19,132
53.54
20.77
8.60
8.07
3.18
2.58
1.43
0.98
0.43
. 0.25
0.17
100,00
                                                      788
                                                      568
                                                      274
                                                      309
                                                      203
                                                      165
                                                      137
                                                       94
                                                       41
                                                       47
                                                       32
                                                      407

-------
                                     FIGURE 11 A
                                                       PAGE
                                     ALL.  USERS
                   ACCIDENT SITES  RANKED FROM HIGHEST TO LOWEST
                       PERCENT  OF  OSHA RECORDABLE INJURIES
REPORTING PERIOD: DECEMBER  1975
DEFINITIONS! OSHA RECORDABLE  CASES INCLUDE  MEDICAL TREATMENT
;:: A s E s c i * E , N o N -• F ATA i._ c A s E s w i T H o u T L o s T w o R K n A Y s ) »  AN D L o s T w o R K DAY?
PERMANENT DISABILITY AND FATAL.  CASES,  FIRST  AID INJURIES ARE NOT INCLUDED,
INSTRUCTIONS? DETERMINE YOUR  ORGANIZATION'S PROBLEM  AREAS BY IDENTIFYING
THE AREAS WITH THE HIGHEST  PERCENTAGES,
                            OSHA  RECORDABLE  INJURIES
                ACCIDENT SITE

IN/ ON VEHICLE
STREET AT BACK OF TRUCK
ALLEY AT BACK OF TRUCK
CUSTOMER YARD
CUSTOMER DRIVEWAY
LANDFILL? AT BACK OF TRUCK
OTHER
i-'iID ALLEY
ALLEY AT CURB
STREET AT CURB
filD STREET
i... A N D F 1 1... I... P IN/ 0 N U E H I C L E - D U M F' S I T E
TOTAL
                                                   NO
/'
6
6
5
b
4
4
O
3
2
1
1
47
1 4 *
12,
12,
1 0 ,
1 0 ,
8,
S,
6,
6,
4,
2 ,
2,
100,
89
77
77
64
6 4
51
51
38
38
26
1 3
1 3
00
                                          26

-------
                                  FIGURE 11B
    PAGE  1
                                  ALL USERS
                 ACCIDENT  SITES RANKED FROM HIGHEST TO LOWEST
                           PERCENT OF WORKDAYS LOST

 DRTING PERIOD?  DECEMBER  1975

 INITIONS? OSHA  RECORDABLE CASES INCLUDE MEDICAL TREATMENT
 ES  CUE, NON-FATAL  CASES  WITHOUT LOST WORKDAYS)!- AND LOST WORKDAYv
 MANENT DISABILITY AND  FATAL CASES,   FIRST AID INJURIES ARE  NOT  INCLUDED.

 TRUCT10NS ? DETERMINE  Y0UR 0RGANIZAT10N ' S l::'R0BI...EM AREAS BY IDENT1FYING
 A R E A S WIT H T H E HIG H E S T  P E R C E N T A G E. S ,
                               WORKDAYS LOST
              ACCIDENT  SITE
 EET AT BACK  OF  TRUCK
 EY AT CURB
 ALLEY
 STREET
 EY AT BACK OF TRUCK
 EET AT CURB
'ON VEHICLE
:TOMER DRIVEWAY
IER
IDFILLv AT BACK  OF  TRUCK
iTOMER YARD
!DF'.TLL..y IN/ON VEHICLE  •••• DUMP SITE
 A I...
NO.
AVG WKDYS LOST/
LOST WKDYS CASE
52
4 A
43
35
31
27
23
,.j ..j.
.1. .1.
10
"V
A
3 1 0
1 6
14
13
1 1
1 0
8
..,
7
3
3
•->
1
100
,77
.19
* 87
v 29
,00
, 7 1
A •'"}
<• ' Y .•:..
,42
* 5 5
,23
,26
, '? 9
,00
1 0
1 4
1 4
35
6
13
'"}
/
"V
/
11"
5
2
4
0
,40
,67
,33
,00
,20
,50
,67
,67
,50
, 00
,33
,00
,00
                                     27

-------
                                    FIGURE  11C
                           PAGE  1
                                    ALL  USERS
                   ACCIDENT  SITES  RANKED FROM HIGHEST  TO  LOWEST
                              PERCENT  OF  DIRECT  COSTS

REPORTING PERIOD: DECEMBER 1975

DEFINITIONS: OSHA RECORDABLE  CASES  INCLUDE MEDICAL  TREATMENT
C A S E S (I.E. NGN •- F A T A L C A S E S  WIT H 0 U T I... 0 S T WORKDAYS)* AN D L.. 0 S T W 0 R K D A Y *
PERMANENT DISABILITY AND FATAL CASES,  FIRST AID  INJURIES ARE NOT INCLUDED,
DIRECT COSTS INCLUDE MEDICAL  EXPENSES* WORKER'S COMPENSATION BENEFITS  AND
WAGE CONTINUATION BENEFITS 
-------
                                                                FIGURE 12
                                                                                            PAGE
                                                                ALL USERS
                                     TYPES OF WASTE INVOLVED RANKED FROM HIGHEST TO LOWEST PERCENT OF
                                         OSHA RECORDABLE INJURIES? WORKDAYS LOST AND DIRECT COSTS
  REPORTING PERIOD: DECEMBER 1975
  DEFINITIONS: OSHA RECORDABLE CASES INCLUDE MEDICAL TREATMENT CASES (I.E. NON-FATAL CASES WITHOUT LOST WORKDAYS)?  AND  LOST  WORKDAY?
  PERMANENT DISABILITY AND FATAL CASES.  FIRST AID INJURIES ARE NOT INCLUDED.
  DIRECT COSTS INCLUDE MEDICAL EXPENSES? WORKER'S COMPENSATION BENEFITS AND WAGE CONTINUATION BENEFITS (E.G.?  INJURY  LEAVE)  ONLY.
  INDIRECT COSTS ARE NOT INCLUDED.
  INSTRUCTIONS: DETERMINE YOUR ORGANIZATION'S PROBLEM AREAS BY IDENTIFYING THE AREAS WITH THE HIGHEST PERCENTAGES.
       OSHA RECORDABLE INJURIES
     TYPE OF WASTE      OSHA REC INJ
                         NO.     '/.
                           WORKDAYS LOST
                TYPE OF WASTE     WKDYS  LOST    AVG/LOST
                                   NO.      %    WKDY  CASE
                                                        TYPE OF WASTE
                                                                DIRECT COSTS
                                                                   DIRECT COSTS
                                                                    AMT.      %
                                                           AVG COSTS/
                                                           OSHA REC  INJ
  NOT APPLICABLE
  GLASS
  SHRUBBERY?UNBUNDLED
  DUST/ASHES IN WASTE
  NOXIOUS CHEMICALS
ro RATS/HOSTILE CREATURE
^> FROZEN WASTE
  FURNITURE/APPLIANCES
  TOTAL
36   76.60  NOT APPLICABLE
 2
 1
 1
 1
 1
 1
47
  8,51
  4.26
  2.13
  2.13
  2.13
  2.13
  2.13
100,00
FURNITURE/APPLIANCES
RATS/HOSTILE CREATURE
GLASS
SHRUBBERY ? UNBUNDLED
FROZEN WASTE
TOTAL
254   81.94
 33   10,65
 17    5.48
  3    0,97
  2    0,65
  1    0.32
310  100.00
 9,07
33.00
17.00
 3.00
 2.00
 1 .00
 9.39
                                                     NOT APPLICABLE
                                                                               17i
                                                          FURNITURE/APPLIANCES   1?043
RATS/HOSTILE CREATURE
GLASS
SHRUBBERY ? UNBUNDLED
DUST/ASHES  IN WASTE
FROZEN WASTE
NOXIOUS CHEMICALS
TOTAL
462
222
147
 45
 42
 32
89.58
 5.45
 2.41
 1.16
 0.77
 0.24
 0,22
 0.17
                                                                   19?132  100.00
476
261
231
222
147
 45
 42
 32
407

-------
                            SECTION III
                            SAFETY NEWS
ANSI  Z245.1  STANDARD APPROVED AND AVAILABLE

          For approximately two years a volunteer "Consensus"
group of representatives from industry  (both public and private),
unions, equipment manufacturers and safety experts have been
working on the development of Safety Standards for Refuse Col-
lection Equipment  (the ANSI Z245 standards).  The first of these
standards, the ANSI Z245.1, entitled, "Safety Standard for Refuse
Collection Equipment" has now been completed and approved by
ANSI (the American National Standards Institute).  Solid Waste
agencies desiring a copy of this standard should write or phone:

          American National Standards Institute, Inc.
          1430 Broadway
          New York, New York   10018
          (212) 868-1220

          There will be a small charge  (<$10.00) to obtain a
copy of the standard.
                                 30

-------
Accident Trends
1st Quarter 1976

-------
                      EXHIBIT 2

                   ACCIDENT TRENDS

       IN  THE SOLID WASTE MANAGEMENT  INDUSTRY
       QUARTER:  JANUARY 1 TO MARCH  31,  1976
DEVELOPED BY SAFETY SCIENCES, DIVISION OF WSA,  INC,
   FOR THE U,S, ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY
    OFFICE OF SOLID WASTE MANAGEMENT PROGRAMS
           UNDER CONTRACT No, 68-03-0231
                         01vi$ion of WSA Inc.,11772 Sorrento Valley Road
                         San Diego, CA 92121 (714) 755-9359 & 452-1010

-------
ACCIDENT TRENDS in the Solid Waste Management
Industry is developed quarterly using data from
IRIS  (the Injury Reporting and Information Sys-
tem for Solid Waste Management).  ACCIDENT
TRENDS is designed to summarize and discuss
the data from all IRIS users and to provide
data and conclusions which affect the industry
as a whole.  A companion volume, the QSMR,
(Quarterly Safety Management Report) is devel-
oped individually for each IRIS user who report-
ed injuries during the quarter.  Each QSMR
concentrates only on the injuries of the
individual IRIS user for which it is prepared.

ACCIDENT TRENDS is based on data received
from many users at great speed.  There may be
areas in which misinterpretations or mistakes
have been made.  Time lost and cost data are
based on data received to date and are thus often
too low, either because costs were not available
or because cases are still open.   These cases are
being followed and the accuracy of cost data will
improve with time.  All recommendations on accident
prevention measures are tentative and all must be
evaluated in terms of their applicability and
feasibility for individual users.

-------
                          ACCIDENT TRENDS

              IN THE SOLID WASTE MANAGEMENT INDUSTRY



  QUARTER:   JANUARY IST TO MARCH 31sT,  1976



                         TABLE OF CONTENTS

                                                             Page

  INTRODUCTION

  I.  Section I - DISCUSSION OF ACCIDENT CHARACTERISTICS
                  AND PREVENTION METHODS

           Protection Against Objects Ejected from the         5
           Hopper

           Standing Behind Packer Truck                        9

           Caught in Packer                                   11

           Step Related Accidents                             15

           Other Falls                                        19

           Overexertion Accidents                             22

           Plastic Bags                                       25

           Vehicle Accidents                                  25

           Animal Accidents                                   27

           Preliminary Task/Hazard Analysis                   27

 II.  Section II - SUMMARY OF IRIS USER INDUSTRY-WIDE DATA    45

      Part I - Frequency, Severity, Costs                     45

           How to read FIGURE 5                               45

           How to read FIGURE 6-8                             45

      Part II - Characteristics of Accidents                  55

III.  Section III - SAFETY NEWS                               67
                                 11

-------
               LIST  OF  FIGURES AND TABLES
TABLE A:

TABLE B:


TABLE C:
FIGURE  1:


FIGURE  2:


FIGURE  3:


FIGURE  4:




FIGURE  5:


FIGURE  6:


FIGURE  7:




FIGURE  8:


FIGURE  9:
FIGURE 10
A-C:
FIGURE 11
Preliminary Task  I  Hazards  Analysis

Summary  of Injuries by  Frequency,
Severity and  Costs

Summary  of Accidents by Characteristic  -
Characteristics with Highest Percent of
OSHA Recordable Injuries, Workdays Lost,
and  Direct Costs

Description of Users by Operational
Characteristics

Profile  of Accidents by Accident Type,
and  Activity

Profile  of Accidents by Part of Body and
Nature of Injury

Use  of Rubber "Mud  Guard" Flaps as Protec-
tion Against  Objects Ejected from the
Hopper

Number of Injuries  Reported by Type  of
Severity - Comparison of 'IRIS'  Users

Average  Injury Rates by 'IRIS'  Users
Ranked from Highest to  Lowest

Average  Workdays  Lost Per Lost Workday
Case by  'IRIS' Users Ranked from
Highest  to Lowest

Direct Costs  by  'IRIS'  Users Ranked
from Highest  to Lowest

Accident Types Ranked from  Highest to
Lowest Percent of OSHA  Recordable
Injuries, Workdays  Lost, and Direct
Costs

Injury Types  Ranked  from Highest to
Lowest Percent of OSHA Recordable
Injuries, Workdays Lost and  Direct Costs

Parts  of  Body Injured Ranked from
Highest to Lowest Percent of OSHA
Recordable Injuries, Workdays Lost,
and Direct Costs
 36

 49


 56
 2


28


33


 7



50


51


53



54


57
58
61
                          111

-------
FIGURE 12:
FIGURE 13
A-C:
FIGURE 14:
FIGURE 15:
Activities Ranked from Highest to
Lowest Percent of OSHA Recordable
Injuries, Workdays Lost, and Direct Costs

Accident Sites Ranked from Highest to
Lowest Percent of OSHA Recordable
Injuries, Workdays Lost, and Direct Costs

Types of Waste Involved Ranked from
Highest to Lowest Percent of OSHA
Recordable Injuries, Workdays Lost,
and Direct Costs

Diagram of Bak-safe bar on Front-End
Loader
Page

 62



 63



 66
 68
                          IV

-------
                        INTRODUCTION
          This is the Accident Trends Report for the quarter
ending March 31, 1976.  Before reading the results, the
following points should be noted:

     •    All IRIS users are identified only by number.  A
          table giving background information on the oper-
          ational characteristics of each IRIS user by
          their number is shown in FIGURE 1.

     •    This Accident Trends report covers 575 accidents
          reported by 35 IRIS users from across the United
          States during January 1st to March 31st, 1976.

     •    This QSMR covers the first quarter of 1976.  However,
          not all users started reporting injuries on January
          1st.  Some started before this date, and some started
          on February 1st or March 1st.  The injury rates shown
          are comparable, however, because the different start-
          ing dates are reflected in the hours of exposure.
          Some users who started "late" in the quarter may not
          have reported enough injuries this quarter to make
          much analysis possible.

     •    The phrase "AVERAGE" refers to the injury rates or
          numbers for all IRIS users combined.

     •    The FIGURES include the injury and time lost and cost
          data that was provided to IRIS by May 15, 1976, the
          "closing date" for this quarter.  Some of the time
          lost and cost data include "open" cases for which
          data is not final.  All of the workdays lost and
          costs data should therefore be interpreted as gross
          underestimates of the actual workdays lost and cost
          data.

          This ACCIDENT TRENDS report is divided into three
sections.  SECTION I provides a discussion of the accidents
and prevention methods found during this quarter.  It includes
a Preliminary Task/Hazards Analysis for the solid waste manage-
ment industry.  SECTION II summarizes the data received for
all IRIS users during the quarter.  SECTION III reviews some
of the safety news of the solid waste management industry.

-------
DESCRIPTION OF USERS BY OPERATIONAL CHARACTERISTICS
User
Number

101
111
109
261
212
210
211
207
161
136
236
125
181

171
Municipal=M
Private=P

M
M
M
M
M
M
M
M
M
M
M
M
M

M
Geographical
Area

South
West
Midwest
Midwest
West
West
West
West
Midwest
South
South
South
Midwest

Midwest
Number
of Employees

325
275
600
25
100
25
50
200
125
150
100
650
275

375
M=Mechanical
A= Alley
BY=Backyard
CS=Curbside
I=Int.Cont.
W=Wheeled

A-BY-C
CS
M-I-W
A-CS
CS-A
A-CS
A-CS
BY-I-W
CS-A
A-CS-I-W
CS
CS
BY-A

CS
Type
of
Shift
Task/
Fixed
Task
Fixed
Task
Fixed
Task
Fixed
Task
Task
Fixed
Task
Task
Task
Fixed/
Task
Type of Service Provided
Coll. Crew Size(s)
Comm.

4
-
4
-
2
2
2
3
3
3
3
-
_

—
Resid.

4
-
4
3
2
1
2
3
3
3
3
1,3
4

3
Disposal
L=Landfill
I=Incinerator
T=Trans-, Stn.

L
L
-
L
-
L-T
L
-
L
L
L
L-I
L

—
                  FIGURE  1

-------
DESCRIPTION OF USERS BY OPERATIONAL CHARACTERISTICS
User
Number
146

215
204

172
265
260

191

242
140
186
272
235

295
244
Municipal=M
Private=P
M

M
M

M
M
M

M

M
M
M
M
M

M
M
Geographical
Area
South

South
West

West
West
West

South

South
South
South
Northeast
South

South
West
Number
of Employees
300

75
50

700
200
175

175

50
850
300
100
125

175
25
M=Mechanical
A= Alley
BY=Backyard
CS=Curbside
I=Int.Cont.
W=Wheeled
CS-BY-I

CS-BY-I
M-CS-BY-I-W

M-A-CS-BY
CS-BY-I-W
CS-BY-I

CS

CS-BY-I
CS
CS
CS
BY-A

CS-BY
BY
Type
of
Shift
Task
Task/
Fixed
Fixed
Task/
Fixed
Task
Task
Task/
Fixed
Task/
Fixed
Task
Task
Task
Task
Task/
Fixed
Task
Type of Service Provided
Coll. Crew Size(s)
Comm.
1,2

1
1

-
-
2,3

1

3
-
3
3
3

-
2
Res id.
121
x » *• , J

3
3

1,2,3
1,2
2

3

3
3
3
3
3

4
2
Disposal
L=Landfill
I=Incinerator
T=Trans, Stn.
L-T

-
L

L
L-T
L

L-I

L-T
-
L
L-I
L

L
-
              FIGUI."  1  (cont.)

-------
                              DESCRIPTION OF  USERS BY  OPERATIONAL  CHARACTERISTICS
User
Number
286
243
296
292

237
285
283
Municipal=M
Private=P
M
M
M
M

M
M
M
Geographical
Area
West
Northeast
West
Northwest

Midwest
Midwest
South
Number
of Employees
25
50
50
225

100
75
75
M=Mechanical
A= Alley
BY=Backyard
CS=Curbside
I=Int.Cont.
W=Wheeled
-
BY-I
CS-A
CS-BY-I-W

A-BY-I-W
CS-BY-I-W
CS-A
Type
of
Shift
Fixed
Task
Fixed
Fixed
Task/
Fixed
Task
Task
Type of Service Provided
Coll. Crew Size(s)
Comm.
-
1,5
2
2

3
-
1
Resid.
-
1,5
1
1,3

3
3
2
Disposal
L=Landfill
I=Incinerator
T=Trans, Stn.
L-T
-
-
L

-
-
L-T
*>.
                                             FIGURE 1 (cont.)

-------
                          SECTION I

                   DISCUSSION OF ACCIDENT

           CHARACTERISTICS AND PREVENTION METHODS
          The following is a discussion of the characteristics
of accidents occurring this quarter and of accident prevention
methods (i.e., countermeasures) suggested by IRIS users for
the hazards identified.  Selected hazards are discussed in
detail and countermeasures are offered.  The hazards and
countermeasures are then systematically compiled in a
Preliminary Task/Hazards Analysis shown in TABLE A.

          Figures 2 and 3, shown at the end of Section I,
summarize the accident characteristics for this quarter.
FIGURE 2 is a profile listing each accident type/activity
scenario occurring this quarter and giving the number of
injuries, days lost, and costs for each scenario.  FIGURE 3
gives similar data for each injury type/part of body injured
combination.

Protection Against Objects Ejected from the Hopper

          As can be seen in FIGURE 2, objects in eye are a
frequent accident type amounting to 9% of the OSHA recordable
injuries.  Being struck by objects is also a fairly frequent
accident type.  Many of these accidents are the result of
objects being ejected from the hopper.  What frequently
happens is that an employee will dump a can of refuse into
the hopper bed and start the packing mechanism.  The force
of the packer blade will compress certain items of waste,
especially glass bottles, causing them to shatter and "spit"
out of the hopper hitting the employees standing behind the
truck like shrapnel.

          For example, one employee this quarter was knocked
unconscious (possible concussion) as the result of a bottle
flying out of the hopper and hitting him between the eyes.
In this case the bottle had not shattered, but in another
case the employee had pieces of glass fly into his eyes from
out of the hopper after a bottle was shattered by the packer
blade.  In 6 other cases the object flying out of the hopper
and into the eye was not identified.  Two employees received
severe cuts across the forehead when the packer blade broke a
stick of wood and sent it flying toward the employee.  One
employee received a chemical burn to the eyes when what is
believed to be a clorox bottle was crushed by the packer,

-------
spattering the employee.  In a related accident the hydraulic
hose line in the hopper blew apart and spattered hydraulic
oil in an employee's eyes.  In three cases employees stated
that the packer blade had "popped" the plastic bag they had
just put in the hopper, so that sawdust, ashes, and other
waste flew into their eyes.   One IRIS user reported that on
certain types of equipment a "vacuum" is sometimes created
when the packer is operating so that when the cycle is com-
pleted the hopper will "blow out" causing dust and ashes to
be ejected.

          Altogether 18 accidents, 2 serious ones, this quarter
were the direct result of being hit by objects flying from the
hopper while the packer blade was operating.  Although no
permanent impairments resulted this quarter, it is obvious
that this type of accident has a fairly high potential for
blinding or disfiguring an employee.

          A simple device for reducing this hazard has been
developed and is in use by one IRIS user, the City of San
Diego and is shown in FIGURE 4.  The cut-away view shows a
loose curtain of heavy rubber flaps which hangs in front of
the packer blade area to stop ejected objects.

          The size and location of this locally constructed
curtain can be varied to suit different packing mechanism
designs and the availability of suitable materials.  In this
case the flaps are 1 foot strips, mounted on a cross bar,
and suspended by 3 chain lengths.  Truck mud guards were used
as the curtain material.  The flaps must hang loosely but
securely from chains of at least three links to prevent them
from getting caught on objects in the hopper and from becoming
permanently trapped in the packing mechanism.  It must be
emphasized that the flaps are set back in the hopper so that
they do not interfere with dumping.

          The city maintenance department designed, produced
and installed these flaps at an estimated cost of 6 hours
labor and $20 in materials per truck.   (The city has found
that local truck modifications are often cheaper and better
than changing bid specifications).  The city had previously
had about one "hopper ejection" accident a week, but has not
had one accident of this type since the installation of these
"flaps."

          The applicability of this device may depend on the
type of packer.  Some types of packers have the hopper bed
wall rise, so that the pinch point is automatically protected
at the time the packer blade crushes the material.  The city

-------
                      FIGURE  4
           USE OF RUBBER  "MUD GUARD"  FLAPS
AS PROTECTION AGAINST OBJECTS EJECTED FROM  THE HOPPER

-------
of San Diego had some Heil* packers of this type and the
device was not installed on these packers.  The Garwood*
packers which this city had, however, did leave the blade
exposed so that items could be ejected.

          The city first tried to prevent this accident by
the use of a 'safety door", provided by Garwood, which auto-
matically came down at the edge of the hopper when the packer
was operating.  This was not deemed satisfactory however.
The door was expensive and would sometimes require replace-
ment when large objects dented it from the inside.  This
apparently does not occur with the flaps.  It was reported
that the "safety door" was in fact hazardous in that it
occasionally  came down unexpectedly and hit employees.
Employees felt that the door slowed down operations (because
it came down at the edge of the hopper, employees could not
dump while it was down) and therefore it had very low accep-
tance by employees and was frequently deliberately jammed to
make it inoperable.  The flaps have apparently met with wide
acceptance by the employees although some have requested that
about a 1/3 of one of the flaps (the one on the far right) be
cut away to enable them to look in at the packer blade.  This
request was granted even though it reduces the protection
afforded by the flaps, because acceptance of the safety device
was deemed important.

          This device may not be applicable or effective in
all cities but it is believed to be effective in San Diego.
This device is an example of how cities can take the initiative
on safety prevention and with a minimum of costs, skill or
materials prevent accidents.  Cities wishing to learn more
about this device may contact the IRIS Central Office or the
city of San Diego directly.  The city wishes to emphasize,
however, that no standard drawings or specifications are
available.

          Another IRIS user has developed another counter-
measure for the "hopper ejection" accident.  Employees in the
city of Milwaukee have been trained to use their left hand to
operate the packing mechanism.  This almost forces the
employee operating the packer to stand with his head facing
away from the packer when it is operating, thus reducing the
risk of eye injuries.  Although some difficulty in getting
all employees to cooperate was experienced, the city believes
that at least one very serious accident  (possible blindness)
*These statements are not an endorsement or criticism of a
 particular make.  Not all packers of the same make are alike,
 The comments mentioned here refer only to the particular
 packers used by this city, not to all packers with these
 makes.

-------
was avoided because of the use of this work practice.

          Related to this work practice rule, is the rule
used by some industries of turning the head to the side
when loading or unloading.  Bottling companies often train
employees to turn their head aside as they set down or lift
off a carton of bottles in order to avoid the hazard of flying
glass from bottles of carbonated drinks which occasionally
explode under impact.  They have found that employees who
are trained in this practice when they first start will do it
automatically for the rest of their employment.   Refuse
collectors might also be trained to turn their head to the
side as they dump containers and waste, thus helping to
protect the eyes from ejecting glass.

          A few IRIS users require eye goggles or glasses
and some require bump caps or hard hats.  These protective
clothing may also act as a countermeasure against some of the
"hopper ejection" hazards.

Standing Behind Packer Truck

          Of course, the best protection against hopper
ejection accidents is to avoid standing behind packer trucks.
As can be seen in FIGURE 13, "in back of truck" is the most
hazardous refuse collection site.  Because it is normally
necessary for employees to spend some time behind the truck,
employees forget to minimize the time spent behind the packer.
Some IRIS users apparently have employees who walk behind the
truck all day and never leave this location.  This is almost
certainly not necessary.  Employers should evaluate their
daily collection methods to see if the time spent behind the
packer can be reduced.  Employees should be trained to get
away from the back of the truck as soon as possible and to
only stand there when it is necessary.

          Hopper ejection accidents are not the only hazard
to employees standing behind the packer.  Six accidents this
quarter occurred due to an employee being unintentionally hit
by another employee's container.  In an additional case, an
employee was hit when a chair that another crewman had thrown
in hopper fell back out.  This type of accident frequently
occurred as the employee was turning around at the back of the
truck.  This type of accident appears to occur less frequently
with smaller crew sizes.  Employers with more than 2-man crews
should examine their collection procedures in detail.  In
some cases, once this problem is identified a coordinated
walking pattern can be developed between crew members so
that only one crewman is at the back of the truck at a time.

-------
In addition, it may be possible to reduce the times when
employees are behind the truck while another employee is
operating the packer.  This 'rhythmmethod" may not be as
hard to encourage as it sounds.  Crewmen frequently state
that they develop a rhythm what is needed is to coordinate
the rhythm of several employees.  A good crew leader may be
useful in this regard.  In most cities which have crew leaders,
however, the driver is the crew leader.  This is probably not
the most practical procedure as much of the real need for
leadership appears to take place behind the truck.

          Employees standing behind the truck are also subject
to being hit by the truck.  One employee this quarter was hit
by the packer when it rolled backwards while he was standing
behind the truck.  (Another employee was injured while riding
in the cab, as the packer was backing, when the truck struck
a car.  The dangers of these two accidents may have been
reduced by the use of a Bak-Safe device such as the one
described in Section III, Safety News, of this report).  An
employee standing toward the rear and side of the truck was
hit by a brick that was flipped up when the truck ran over it.

          Another employee, on a hand sweeping crew, was hit
while sweeping between two cars when a car backed into him.
Walking between cars is extremely dangerous, and working
procedures should be designed to avoid this practice.

          Exhaust fumes are a hazard to employees standing
behind the packer.  Four cases in this quarter involved
exposure to exhaust fumes.  In three of the cases the exhaust
system was malfunctioning  (two cases at the rear of the truck,
one into the cab).  Employees become dizzy and nauseated; in
one case an employee passed out; in another a heart attack
occurred, although this may or may not have been related to
exhaust fumes.  Studies in New York City  (Cimino, 1974) have
shown an increased likelihood of cardiovascular disease among
refuse collectors.  This higher risk has not been explained,
but daily exposure to low levels of carbon-monoxide  (contained
in exhaust fumes) is suspected by some investigators.  Although
this theory has not been proven, it does suggest that careful
attention to maintenance of exhaust systems and minimizing the
time spent at the back of the truck is advisable.

          Training of employees should include awareness of
the dangers at the back of the truck.  Employees should be
taught to evaluate their work patterns and to ask themselves
"Do I really need to be standing here?"
                            10

-------
Caught in Packer

          Seven injuries this quarter, including the most
severe accident reported, involved getting caught in the
packing mechanism.  One employee reached for paper that had
fallen in front of the blade while the hopper was operating.
His right forearm was caught by the hopper blade and amputated.
Two other employees got their arms caught in the packer (one
fracture, one laceration) while pushing falling waste back into
the hopper.  One of these employees got his glove caught on
the blade when pushing waste back into the hopper.  Two
additional employees are suspected to have been pushing falling
waste back into the hopper when their hands were cut by the
packer blade.  Two employees were riding on the step with their
feet partially in the hopper when the packer blade was activated;
one employee fractured his foot, another bruised his toe.
Another employee broke his heel when he jumped off the step
to avoid getting caught in the packer.  The employee was
standing on the rear of the step while the truck was backing
up (a violation of city safety rules for this particular IRIS
user) .  The driver had the truck in "power take off", and the
packer activated.  The rider had his hand and foot in the
hopper, and got scared and jumped off to avoid the hopper blade.

          Two extremely hazardous practices appear to be
responsible for the"caught-in-packer accidents:   (1) pushing
falling waste back into the hopper, and (2) riding on the
step with the feet and/or hands partially in the hopper.
Employees should be trained concerning the hazards of getting
caught in the packing mechanism.  This should include infor-
mation about the very strong pull that the blade has, as many
employees may assume that they can simply pull their hand
back out if it gets caught.  Employees should be told
explicitly that if waste appears to be falling out of the
hopper, "LET IT GO".  Most people have a "natural tendency"
to want to save or catch falling materials and unless they are
not only told, but explicitly trained to let falling materials
go, they will "automatically" push it back.  One IRIS user
suggested providing a bar with which to push materials back
into the hopper so that employees would not use their hands.
It is possible that the "flaps" over the Backer blade (as  M
described above) may reduce the number of caught-in-packer
accidents.  Often it is the operation of the packer that
causes objects to fall back out of the hopper, and to the
extent that the flaps keep things from falling out, employees
will be less likely to be caught in the packer while pushing
waste back into the hopper.
                          11

-------
          In some cases employees may have been attempting to
grab an item out of the hopper for scavenging when they were
caught by the packer.  Some IRIS users have explicit work
rules prohibiting scavenging and such rules are recommended.
It is often possible to tell if employees are scavenging by
checking the cab for items stowed there.  (One employee was
injured this quarter when some bottles he had been saving fell
out on him when he opened the cab door).

          Riding on the step with the feet or hands partially
in the hopper is a very dangerous practice.   Employees should
be instructed on how to get on and ride the step and explicitly
told  not to ride with any body part in the hopper.  Certain
IRIS users appear to have many more employees riding in the
hopper than others, indicating that there are means of con-
trolling this practice.

          The design and location of the steps and grab
handles should be evaluated to determine if the employee
has sufficient room to stand without feeling unstable.  It
is possible that employees may be putting their hands and
feet in the hopper because they feel "safer" (from falling)
in that position.  Grab handles should be located so that the
employee feels more secure and comfortable by using the grab
handle than he does using the side of the hopper to hold onto.
Examination should be made of the design of the back corners
of the packers.  It may be possible to locate the steps far
enough down the side of the truck or extend the side of the
hopper out far enough to make it very awkward for the rider to
ride partially in the hopper.  Care has to be taken to ensure
that the view of the hopper is not blocked to the packer
operator.  Also if steps are placed too far down the side of
the truck, employees may use the hopper to ride in instead of
on the step.  Certain IRIS users, especially those with larger
crew sizes, do presently allow employees to regularly ride in
the hopper.  This practice is strongly discouraged.

          The American National Standards Institute Z245.1-1975
Standard entitled "Safety Requirements for Refuse Collection
and Compaction Equipment" has several standards relevant to
caught-in-packer accidents.  Section 7.3.3 "Controls" prescribes

             7.33 Controls

             7.3.3.1  Each control shall be conspicuously
                      labeled as to its function.

             7.3.3.2  Controls (for example, for operating
                      packer panel, tailgate, point-of-
                      operation guards, ejector panel, con-
                      tainer hoists) shall be designed and
                      located to prevent unintentional
                      activation.


                            12

-------
             7.3.3.2.1  Start buttons shall be recessed
                        or located to prevent uninten-
                        tional activation.

             7.3.3.2.2  Stop button controls shall be red,
                        distinguishable from all other
                        controls by size and color, and
                        not be recessed.

             7.3.3.3    Packing cycle controls shall be
                        located so that the operator has
                        a view of the loading sill.  In
                        order to minimize exposure to normal
                        traffic, the packing cycle operating
                        controls shall be located on the side
                        of the vehicle opposite the normal
                        traffic side of the vehicle.  Two
                        sets of packing cycle controls shall
                        not be permitted except for additional
                        dock height controls located on the
                        same side and above the packing cycle
                        controls.

             7.3.3.4    Controls for raising the tailgate and
                        unloading the compacted load shall be
                        located away from the rear of the
                        equipment.

             7.3.3.5    For emergencies a means of stopping and
                        moving the packer panel away from the
                        pinch point (prior to the pinch point)
                        shall be provided.  Emergency stop
                        controls shall be red, distinctly
                        labeled as to function, and not be
                        recessed.

Section 7.3.6, "Point-of-Operation Protection", of the standard
is also designed to protect against"caught-in-packer accidents:

             7.3.6      Point-of-Operation Protection.  The
                        employee shall be protected from
                        pinch points during the packing cycle
                        by one of the following means:

                   (1)  Deadman control from the initiation of
                        the packing cycle until the packer
                        panel clears the loading sill.

                   (2)  An elevating hopper that raises any
                        pinch point during the packing cycle
                        at least 5 feet above the working
                        surface.

                            13

-------
                   (3)   A movable guard that is interlocked
                        with the packing cycle so that it is
                        in place before the packer panel is
                        within 6 inches of the pinch point.
                        The movable barrier shall be designed
                        so that it shall not be hazardous in
                        itself.

                   (4)   A control that provides an interrupted
                        cycle.  Actuation of the control shall
                        cause the packer panel to stop not
                        less than 6 inches or more than 16
                        inches from the pinch point created
                        by the packer panel as it moves past
                        the hopper loading sill.  The control
                        shall require reactivation to complete
                        the packing cycle by a subsequent
                        motion by the operator.

                   (5)   Other means, at least as effective as
                        those given in 7.3.6(1) through 7.3.6(4),
                        that will protect an employee from the
                        pinch point.

          At least one IRIS user has two-handed controls for
operating the packer.  That is, the operator has to have both
hands on the packer controls to activate the packer blade.
This prevents the operator from having his hands in the hopper
when the packer is operating.  However, this IRIS user states
that the employees almost invariably jam one of the controls
so that it can be operated with one hand.  This is due pri-
marily to the frequent practice of packing while riding on
the step.  This practice should be carefully examined.  It
is possible that this relatively hazardous practice is in some
ways safer if it reduces the number of employees standing
behind the hopper or dumping refuse when the packer is
operating.

          Five accidents this quarter were specifically
related to controls.   These employees reported getting their
hands caught in, twisted, jerked, pinched or sprained while
using sweep blade handles, tailgate controls and packer
controls.  In one case the control handle broke causing the
employee to smash his finger.  In another the employee was
packing and caught his finger in the trip handle that activates
the packer.  Design features of these controls should be
reviewed.

          The hazard of getting caught in the packer is often
disregarded, even though its severity is recognized, because
                            14

-------
it is believed to occur so infrequently.  About 1% of the
accidents this quarter were "caught-in-packer"accidents
which although low, might be considered relatively high
number for the severity of the accident.  Employers should
recognize that at this low rate there may be several years
between 'baught-in-packer" accidents at their establishment,
especially if they are small.  The fact that an employer has
not had a "caught-in-packer" accident in some time does not,
therefore, necessarily indicate that his system is protected
from this accident.  The IRIS data from a large number of
employers is valuable in that it can indicate low frequency/
high severity accidents to employers before they occur.  If
employees at your organization frequently use their hands to
push waste back into the hopper or if they frequently ride
with their feet or hands partially in the hopper, you should
assume that they are at high risk for "caught-in-packer"
accidents and take action to lower this risk before a "caught-
in-packer" accident occurs.

Step Related Accidents

          Getting caught in the packing mechanism is not the
only hazard of riding on the step.  There are several other
hazards associated with riding, and getting on and off the
step.  Altogether step-related accidents amounted to 14% of
the OSHA recordable accidents, 16% of the workdays lost and
16% of the costs for this quarter.  Accidents while getting
off were the most frequent followed by accidents while riding
on the step, accidents while getting out of the cab, and
accidents while getting on the step.

          Employees riding on the step are subject to striking
against objects by which the truck passes to closely.  Seven
employees were injured this way this quarter.  The truck will
frequently come too close to parked cars, trees, telephone
posts, etc.  One employee struck against a telephone post
(at approximately 10 miles per hour) because he was leaning
around the side of the truck trying to engage the packing
mechanism while riding on the step.  Two employees were struck
against limbs of trees as the truck drove by them.  One
employee saw that he was about to be squeezed between the
truck and a parked car; he jumped off and over the car hood
and was badly bruised.  Another employee saw that he was
about to hit a building and jumped off only to be squeezed
between the truck and the building.  In the last case the
truck was equiped with a warning device, specifically designed
for this type of accident, by which the step rider could
signal the driver to stop.  The employee was aware of the
warning device but was too panicked to remember to use it.
                            15

-------
Such a signal is a useful countermeasure for this type of
accident, but it is obvious from this accident that employees
must not only be informed of the device but be given training
which involves practice in using it.  Mock near-misses can be
staged at tailgate training sessions in which employees
practice using the warning devices.  Silly as it sounds, this
type of emergency reaction training is essential to train
employees to respond correctly in real life situations.

          In most cases it is better for the employee to remain
on the truck, and not jump off the truck when they are about
to hit something.  Training should include informing the
employee of this.  Training should also include how to ride a
step properly, e.g., to keep the body and arms close to the
truck.  The driver should also be included in this training;
he should be taught to judge distances and the effect of
increased speed on the rider.  The Bak-safe device described
in the Safety News section of this report may prevent some of
this type of accident.

          A related hazard to step riders is when the step
hits the ground and throws the rider either off the step or
against the truck.  Three accidents were of this type this
quarter.  Drivers should be made aware of this hazard.
Turning corners, rapid changes in the surface grade (e.g., a
dip at the bottom of a hill) and hitting driveways, gutters
and curbs are three situations that may cause the step to hit
bottom which the driver should be aware of.  Related to this
accident type were 6 accidents in which the truck lurched and
the rider was thrown against the truck.  Turning corners,
hitting bumps, sudden starts and stops are particularly risky
driving situations for this type of accident.  Training for
the driver should include practice in gradual acceleration and
deceleration.  Increased knowledge of braking distances,
including the effect of increased speed, tonnage, and grade
on braking distance may be of benefit to drivers trying to
reduce this hazard.  It must be remembered that human beings
require some amount of extra work surface space on which to
move their feet in order to maintain balance.  Thus larger
steps will compensate for lurches or bumps while riding the
step.

          In 9 cases the employee fell from the step while
riding the step.  In two cases the step broke while the
employee was riding the step.  Broken or nearly broken steps
can normally be detected with careful inspection.  Many
cities do not have a formalized method for inspecting vehicles,
but wait until something breaks before sending the truck to
maintenance.  Careful and systematic inspection at regular
                            16

-------
intervals is suggested.  In one fall case the grab handle was
wet and slippery from the rain.  Employers should consider
slip-resistant grab handles as well as steps.

          In several of the riding step accidents, the truck
was turning a corner.  The situations in which the step is
used should be reviewed carefully.  It appears likely that
employees tend to ride the step in precisely the most
hazardous situations such as around corners, up hills, down
streets where cars are parked, etc.  Identification of the
situations when a step should be ridden and should not be
ridden is needed.  For smaller crew sizes the feasibility of
riding in the cab more often should be examined.  Step design
is important, but employers should recognize that riding the
step is an inherently hazardous activity and should encourage
employees to minimize the use of the step.

          Accidents to employees getting on or off the step
were of 4 main types:  falls or trips from the step; falls or
trips due to changes in surface next to the truck; striking
against the step; striking against yard objects such as mail
boxes.  Accidents while getting off the step were far more
frequent than those while getting on.  Twenty-four employees
fell or tripped while getting off the step and in over half of
these cases the employee sprained his ankle.  Five employees
fell while getting on the step.  In 7 of these cases excess
haste was mentioned as the employee attempted to jump on or
off while the truck was still moving (sometimes at speeds
greater than 10 mph).  One IRIS user has a reprimand system
for employees caught jumping from moving steps.  In two cases
wet and slippery steps were specifically cited.  One employee
fell from the step while attempting to dump a container into
the hopper while riding; another employee fell getting on
the step when he tried to mount the step and set a container
down at the same time.

          Two employees fell due to stepping in holes as they
got off the truck; in one case the ruts made by heavy equip-
ment in a dirt alley were the cause.  One employee slipped
due to the wet grass next to truck, two due to stepping on
rocks or bricks as they dismounted, two due to cracks in the
pavement and two due to loose gravel.

          Six employees slipped and struck against the side
of the truck as they got on or off.  Three employees ran into
mailboxes, gas meters and sprinklers as they dismounted.

          Countermeasures for "fall-from-step" type accidents
must consider the size, shape and location of the steps and
                               17

-------
handrails.  The ANSI Z245.1 standard stipulates:

          7.3.7    Riding Steps and Grab Handles

          7.3.7.1  The surface and edges of steps shall
                   have a slip-resistant surface.  They
                   shall be self-cleaning or be protected
                   against the accumulation of mud, snow,
                   and ice.

          7.3.7.2  Steps shall be designed to carry a
                   uniformly distributed load of not less
                   than 1000 pounds.

          7.3.7.3  If steps are provided, they shall be
                   mounted not more than 22 inches above the
                   road surface.

          7.3.7.4  Steps shall have a depth of at least 8
                   inches and shall provide a minimum of 220
                   square inches of riding surface area.

          7.3.7.5  Grab handles shall be provided in con-
                   junction with riding steps and be located
                   so as to provide the employee with a safe
                   and comfortable riding stance.  Each grab
                   handle shall be capable of withstanding a
                   pull of at least 500 pounds.

Many IRIS users have trucks with steps much smaller than 220
square inches or narrower than 8 inches.  The size of the
steps is often limited due to the width of the packer body
and DOT regulations concerning the width of vehicles.  One
IRIS user has solved this problem by developing an extended
step on which employees ride, which can be collapsed after
dismounting so that the extra length does not interfere with
dumping.  This IRIS user has significantly reduced its fall
from step injury rate.

          Grab handles on many packers are often placed at
the height of the rider when he is on the step, and are a
little wider than a man's fists, so that employees literally
have to grab for the handle.  Long vertical bars are suggested
which extend for several feet down the side of the truck where
possible.  This reduces the need for the employee to be
looking up, instead of at his feet, when he mounts the truck.
The grab handle design also provides support all the way down
as the employee gets off the truck, and gives the employee a
choice of hand placement so that he is less tempted to use
the side of the hopper to find a comfortable holding space.
Employers should carefully examine  (perhaps with videotape)
                                18

-------
exactly how employees use grab handles for riding and getting
on and off.  Specific modifications in handrails may become
obvious with careful observation.

          Drivers should be trained to stop at low risk loca-
tions.  While it may not be possible to avoid ruts in the
road, it should be possible to avoid stopping in front of
mailboxes, the sides of driveways, trees, etc.  For curbside
pick-up, drivers should avoid stopping right in front of the
cans.   (Curbside pick-up normally has more "fall-from-step"
accidents as the step is used more often.)  For backyard
pick-up, drivers should stop so as to encourage the employee to
use walkways and driveways rather than the yard as these are
normally smoother and do not have as many surprising holes.

          One IRIS user has training sessions in how to
mount or dismount the step and cab correctly.  For example,
employees are told to leave the cab facing the truck (as on a
ladder, rather than facing outward) and holding onto a special
handrail provided next to the cab door.  Stepping out of the
cab facing the truck makes it possible for the employee to
examine his footing and hold the rail for support while dis-
mounting.  Many employees use the door instead of a grab rail
for support (largely because they are facing outward);  the
door is unstable and its swinging action may precipitate a
fall rather than avoid it.  Twelve accidents occurred while
getting out of the cab (none while getting in).  In only 1
case was the employee dismounting facing the truck.  Employers
should have places where employees frequently leave the cab
carefully inspected and cleaned.  Three of the falls while
dismounting the cab were due to employees leaving the cab in
the city yard and slipping on the oil spills of previous
trucks.

Other Falls

          Falls and trips of all kinds, were the most frequent
accident type amounting to 26% of the accidents, 34% of the
workdays lost and 32% of the costs, and even exceeding over-
exertion accidents  (18%)  when falls from the step are included.
Falls are so frequent that they have been divided into several
categories:  "falls from the step" (discussed above); "falls to a
different level", which includes falls ftrom the cab, and the
curb; falls to the same level, which are falls where no change
in level is involved; trips/slips/stumbles are falls in which
the employee maintained his balance and did not hit the ground;
and on/against/through objects are falls in which the employee
fell and struck against an object other than the ground.
                               19

-------
Altogether a total of 136 OSHA recordable accidents were
reported this quarter that involved falls.

          Many of the falls were due to winter weather con-
ditions.  Thirty-nine of the falls were due to ice or snow-
covered surfaces, seven were due to falls on wet surfaces.
Several of the falls on ice occurred while employees were
carrying more than one can.  Employees should be cautioned
that balance is lessened while carrying heavy objects and
should be instructed to carry smaller numbers of cans (with
less weight) when working on icy surfaces.  Many of the falls
on ice were due to making a turning or twisting action (such
as dumping) while carrying weight.  The lack of traction
meant that the employees kept turning and fell.  Bending over
was implicated in the same way.  Ice causes containers to
become frozen to the ground; one employee fell and seriously
injured his knee as he attempted to jerk cans loose from the
ground.  Many users maintain that it is snow covered ice that
is especially hazardous because it makes the icy surface
difficult to recognize.  Employees should be cautioned as to
this hazard when working on newly fallen snow.  Three employees
fell on ice while walking down an incline.  Usually falls
occur more frequently in backyard collection as the employee
spends more time walking and is exposed to the hazards in the
yard and of changing surfaces.  Some IRIS users maintain that
the use of a wheeled cart is safer in these circumstances as
it helps the employee to stablize his balance on icy surfaces.
Wheeled carts do appear to have several other safety advan-
tages compared to tote barrels when backyard collection is
used.

          The hazards of walking in the customer's yard com-
pared to walking on the driveway or sidewalk should be
examined carefully.  Clearly when no ice is involved, the
sidewalk or driveway is preferred.  Customers' yards are
more likely to have extra hazards of sprinklers, sewer holes
(3 falls this quarter), changes in level covered over with
grass, stairs, etc.  Fourteen falls this quarter were due'to
objects or surface conditions in the yard.  Under icy conditions,
however, it is possible that the extra hazards in the yard are
compensated for by the better traction of snow covered grass
compared to ice covered driveways and walkways.  More than
half the ice related falls occurred on driveways and walkways
this quarter.  Further review of this problem is necessary.
In any case, training in selecting the pathway to the con-
tainer is recommended.

          Ice and snow are responsible for several types of
accidents besides falls.  Four cases of frost bite were
                             20

-------
reported this quarter.  Several overexertion accidents were
due to frozen waste and containers stuck to the ground.
Vision and mobility are often impaired in snow conditions.
Even though employees are familiar with snow hazards they
may not consciously think of them until they are well into
the season and have an accident or a near-miss.  Special
pre-snow safety sessions are suggested in which hazards and
safety precautions for snow conditions are reviewed.

          Seven of the falls occurred as the employee was
stepping off the curb while carrying the container.  Curbside
collectors can easily misjudge the curb in frequent turning
back and forth.  Employees carrying containers to the curb
often block their vision of the curb with the container.  On
the other hand, several falls occurred when the employee was
hoisting the tote barrel up to his back or shoulder.

          Fourteen of the falls occurred when the employee
hoisted the can up to dump it into the hopper.  In two cases
the employee slipped on waste that had fallen in front of the
hopper.  Employees frequently fell when leaning over to give
waste an extra push into the hopper.  Employees should be
cautioned not to use the hopper edge to balance themselves.

          Several IRIS users have put considerable effort
into selecting footwear that will decrease the chances of
falls.  One IRIS user issues a special shoe covering called
"ice creepers".  Another has worked on the problem of steel
plated shoes becoming frozen in winter.  High ankle shoes
are often recommended to reduce twisted ankles especially
while dismounting the step.  Next quarter's ACCIDENT TRENDS
report will feature a special on protective clothing and will
discuss what IRIS users have done in this regard.  In general,
however, most IRIS users to date have been disappointed by
"safety shoes" because they have been designed to reduce
indoor hazards such as objects falling on top of the toe.
A suitable outdoor safety shoe is one of the major safety
appliance needs of the solid waste management industry.
Employers should be cautioned against shoes with very high
traction, such as cleats.  Such shoes will prevent falls
by keeping the employees feet from slipping but an even
greater hazard - twisted knees from starting to fall and not
having the feet move may occur.  This is a very serious hazard
especially while carrying heavy weights.  Knee injuries,
whether to Joe Namath or Joe Collector, are often very
difficult to repair.

          In general the greatest hope for the immediate
future against falls is training in walking and carrying
                             21

-------
techniques that keep the body upright  (i.e., keep the "center
of mass" over the feet).  Training in reducing the number of
times when twisting, bending, pushing or other leaning for-
ward stances are used is needed.  Employees need to be trained
to let containers go when they are about to fall so that
their hands can be used for balance.  Certain industries even
train employees on how to fall safely.  Normally employees
must make a conscious effort to learn to walk and carry safely
on slippery surfaces and must have practiced using the tech-
niques before they will do them automatically.

Overexertion Accidents

          Overexertion accidents (i.e., strains while lifting,
dumping, pushing/pulling, etc.) especially to the back and
while lifting were the second most frequent accident type.
This type of accident amounted to 18% of the OSHA recordable
accidents, 19% of the workdays lost, and 23% of the costs
for the quarter.  Back strains alone were the most frequent
nature of injury (see FIGURE 4) amounting to 95 accidents,
910 of the workdays lost and $34,000 in costs.

          Lifting was the most frequent activity associated
with Overexertion accidents.  There were 59 lifting over-
exertion accidents reported this quarter.  In about 3/4 of
the cases the container was said to be extra heavy with
weights reported up to 80 pounds.  In all cases the can was
full.  In a few cases the employee was lifting more than one
can.  Most IRIS users tell employees to "get help" when
containers are too heavy, but employees appear not to do this
very often.  When employees do get help they must know how
to lift together to avoid injury.  Special training and
practice is needed to do this.

          About 1/2 of the lifting accidents involved special
heavy types of waste such as dirt, concrete, tree stumps,
papers, wet garbage, large bags of fruit, etc.  Several IRIS
users train their employees to test the container before
lifting it.  This can be done by bumping the container with
the knee or hand near the bottom and estimating relative
weight by how much the container rocks.  Often customers
place the heavier items on the bottom of the container so
that the employee is misled in judging weight by just looking
at the container contents.  Bumping the container to test it
is a more effective method.  Bumping the container also tells
the employee whether the container is frozen to the ground
and enables the employee to identify containers that are
loosely packed.  Often it is the shift of materials within
the containers as they are lifted that causes Overexertion
accidents.  In only a few lifting accidents did the employee
test the container; most found out it was heavy by lifting it!
                             22

-------
          Many cities have container regulations but often
they are not enforced.  Container regulations should include
weight and size limitations, regulations on the condition
of the container, regulations on acceptable items to put in
the container and how to handle unacceptable items, regulations
on the location of the container, and the requirement for lids.
(Employees should be trained to assume that containers found
without lids after a rainy night or after heavy dew are water
filled and therefore very heavy).  Containers not meeting city
rules should be tagged and left rather than picked up.  Many
sanitation divisions are forced by the cries of city council-
men (echoing the cries of citizens) to pick up any and all
containers thus making enforcement of container regulations
impossible.  Public education programs must therefore accompany
issuance or changes in enforcement of container regulations.
One IRIS user has found public education programs to be
effective.

          Besides weight of container, 10 accidents reported
this quarter involved poor condition of the container (ragged
edges, broken handles, etc.).  One back injury involved
lifting a container out of a hole in the ground.  Certain
cities allow this practice; it almost certainly increases the
risk of back injury and if possible should be prohibited in
container regulations.  Approximately 20 accidents reported
involved being hurt by waste that was inadequately wrapped
or bundled.  Container regulations should specify how citizens
should handle glass, razors, chemicals like clorox and battery
acid, etc.  Shrubbery regulations should require bundling.
Certain shrubbery such as palm fronds are especially hazardous
and special regulations may be required.  Container regulations
should prohibit the use of 55 gallon drums.  The optimum weight
regulation is not known at this time.  The effect of weight
depends in part on complex relationships such as the ratio of
height of the hopper to the height of the employee.  Weights
over 30 pounds are frequently hazardous if handled improperly.
Some cities have weight regulations as high as 100 pounds.
Most cities which have weight regulations specify between 60
and 80 pounds.

          Much misunderstanding and mistrust between employer
and employees has arisen over back injuries.  While it is
true that there are employees who fake back injuries it should
also be remembered that:   (1) a back injury can be real and
not show up on an x-ray; (2) back injuries can develop over
time with repeated exertion so that the employee may genuinely
not be able to cite a specific accident which injured his back
(7 accidents of this type were reported this quarter).
Employers in some industries have successfully tried rotating
activities of employees every hour to reduce long term over-
                              23

-------
exertion accidents.  Switching the driver may be useful);  (3)
for certain types of back injuries, once an employee has
sustained a back injury he is physically more likely to^
have others, so that an employee may in fact have a series
of back injuries without being "accident prone".

          Not many hard and fast countermeasures can be
offered at present for back injuries.  Most involve training.
Employees must be trained to lift properly.

          The most important modern rule for lifting is to
keep the item close to the body (the old rule about keeping
the back straight is valid precisely because it helps keep
the item close to the body).  Employees should be taught not
to jerk up containers but to lift them steadily (most people
will not lift steadily unless trained to do so; the heavier
the object the more people tend to want to jerk it up).

          Employees should be trained to avoid twisting or
turning actions when lifting.  Twenty of the overexertion
accidents involved dumping the containers.  Employees fre-
quently lifted the container from the curb and twisted around
to dump, all in one motion.  Training on dumping should be
emphasized  (most training sessions only cover lifting).
Employees, especially on curbside crews, should be taught to
lift the container, turn (including moving the feet), and then
dump, not dump-and-turn at once.  An additional 11 overexertion
accidents were the result of trying to catch a container that
had started to slip from their hands while dumping.  Employees
should be taught to "let the container go" if it starts to
slip.  Another 5 overexertion accidents occurred when the
employee was jerking a large or stuck container back out of
the hopper.  Jerking action is to be avoided in lifting
activities.

          In 18 dumping accidents, waste flew back out while
the employee was dumping it and the employee jerked or fell
to avoid being hit.  Employees should be cautioned about the
hazard of placing exceptionally long objects in the hopper.
One employee was seriously injured when he leaped to avoid
being hit by a long board that started to swing around after
the packing blade was started.  Many employees hold the
container high in the air when dumping to get refuse out
faster.  This practice increases the chance of being hit by
objects flying back after dumping and probably increases the
risk of back strain.  Employees should be trained to turn
their head to the side when dumping to protect their eyes
from waste flying back.
                             24

-------
Plastic Bags

          Plastic bags probably reduce the risk of overexertion
accidents because there is a limited amount of weight that can
be placed in a bag.  Only 3 overexertion accidents occurred
while handling bags.  All 3 were the result of throwing and
twisting at the same time.  Employees should be taught to
pick up, carry and carefully place plastic bags rather than
twisting around and throwing bags into the hopper while
remaining at the curb.

          Nineteen accidents this quarter involved being cut
by sharp objects, usually glass, penetrating plastic bags.
Most of these occurred to the employees legs, especially if he
was swinging the bag back and forth as he carried it.  "Chaps"
on the sides of the trousers are used by one IRIS user to
prevent this type of injury and cities collecting all or nearly
all plastic bags should consider the use of chaps.  However,
in order to gain employee acceptance, chaps must be designed
so as to avoid being overly cumbersome or hot.  Nylon ballistic
pads are used in some industries.  Because of the hazard of
hypodermic needles in hospital or doctor's office waste, it
may be advisable to discourage the use of plastic bags for
these customers.

Vehicle Accidents

          For the first time since the development of IRIS,
large numbers of vehicle accidents were reported.  IRIS only
covers personal injury accidents so that vehicle accidents
involving only property damage are not reported to IRIS.
Until this quarter only a handful of personal injury accidents
were reported.  This quarter 40 employees were injured,
several very seriously, in 24 vehicle accidents.  One employee
was hit by a car in crossing the street to pick up containers.
The practice of collecting refuse from both sides of the
street is especially subject to traffic accident hazards
because the employee frequently crosses the street and because
the truck often partially blocks traffic.  This practice is
discouraged.  Seven employees were injured in snowplow  vehicle
accidents; most occurred when the snowplow  knocked against
the curbing.  In two vehicle accidents, alcohol involvement is
suspected of the employee/driver.

          One IRIS user has instituted a special program to
test and train employees about braking distance and how it is
affected by increased speed, tonnage, and grade.  It was
recognized that employees were using their brakes while getting to
the route and then driving along at curb speed while collecting
without using their brakes very often.  Meanwhile the tonnage,
                             25

-------
and therefore the braking distance was increasing often
unbeknownst to the driver.  When riding to the landfill
the brakes were again used but the doubled weight meant that
the braking distance required has doubled.  Many employees
had failed to recognize the difference in braking distance
between going to the route and coming from the route and
were not adjusting their driving habits accordingly-  The
training program was started to combat this problem.  After
the brake training program was instituted, which included
pre- and post-training tests, the number of brake failure
related accidents dropped from 10 a year to zero for this
user.

Animal Accidents

          Seven accidents reported this quarter involved
animal bites.  One employee was bitten while petting a dog.
Employees should be instructed not to touch animals.  Four
additional employees sustained falls or strains in trying to
outrun or jump away from a dog, or in one case, a cat.
Normally it is best to walk away from animals; running tends
to encourage chase.

          One animal injury this quarter could probably take
the prize for being unusual.  A driver was stopped at the
curb for container pick-up, when he was bit on the finger by
a monkey who "hopped into the cab unexpectedly" (no kiddingl)
It .is_ perhaps only marginally worth mentioning that the
employee was not wearing safety gloves at the time.

Preliminary Task/Hazard Analysis

          The information on hazards and countermeasures has
been systematically compiled and placed in chart form in
TABLE A.  It is believed that training programs and other
countermeasures can be more effectively developed if hazards
data is organized around the tasks the employee is performing.
Accordingly a preliminary effort to analyze the hazards of
the solid waste management industry by task has been started.
Only actual hazards which resulted in injuries this quarter
are included (i.e., no hypothetical hazards).  No attempt
has been made in this preliminary effort to cover every task
or every hazard.  The countermeasures described in detail
in the text are summarized in  ':he TABLE.  It  is the intention
of IRIS to continue to refine the Preliminary Task/Hazard
Analysis as more data is received.  Comments  from IRIS users
are welcomed.  Some IRIS users may wish to use the task
analysis format for evaluating their own injuries.
                             26

-------
                                                                                     ALL  USERS
                                                                               PROFILE  OF ACCIDENTS
                                                                           BY  ACCIDENT  TYPE  AND  ACTIVITY
                      REPORTING  PERIOD:  JANUARY - MARCH 1976
                      THIS PROFILE  IS  A  FORMATTED SENTENCE CONSISTING  OF  ACCIDENT  TYPE  AND  ACTIVITY.
                                                      PROFILE
NJ
-J
STRUCK
STRUCK
STRUCK
STRUCK
STRUCK
STRUCK
STRUCK
STRUCK
STRUCK
STRUCK
STRUCK
STRUCK
STRUCK
STRUCK
STRUCK
STRUCK
STRUCK
STRUCK
STRUCK
STRUCK
STRUCK
STRUCK
STRUCK
STRUCK
STRUCK
STRUCK
STRUCK
STRUCK
STRUCK
STRUCK
STRUCK
STRUCK
STRUCK
STRUCK
STRUCK
STRUCK
STRUCK
STRUCK
STRUCK
STRUCK
BY VEHICLE PART
BY VEHICLE PART
BY VEHICLE PART
BY VEHICLE PART
BY VEHICLE PART
BY VEHICLE PART
BY VEHICLE PART
BY VEHICLE PART
AGAINST VEHICLE
AGAINST VEHICLE
AGAINST VEHICLE
AGAINST VEHICLE
AGAINST VEHICLE
AGAINST VEHICLE
AGAINST VEHICLE
AGAINST VEHICLE
AGAINST VEHICLE
AGAINST VEHICLE
AGAINST VEHICLE
AGAINST VEHICLE
AGAINST VEHICLE
AGAINST VEHICLE
AGAINST VEHICLE
AGAINST VEHICLE
AGAINST VEHICLE
BY OBJECT WHILE
BY OBJECT WHILE
BY OBJECT WHILE
BY OBJECT WHILE
BY OBJECT UHILE
BY OBJECT UHILE
BY OBJECT WHILE
BY OBJECT WHILE
BY OBJECT WHILE
BY OBJECT WHILE
BY OBJECT
BY OBJECT WHILE
BY OBJECT WHILE
BY OBJECT WHILE
BY OBJECT UHILE
WHILE OPERATING PACKING MECHANISMS
WHILE EMPTYING VEHICLE/PACKER
WHILE DRIVING/OPERATING EQUIP
WHILE RIDING IN CAB
UHILE STANDING/WALKING
WHILE CARRYING CONTAINER
WHILE GETTING OUT OF CAB
WHILE REPAIRING/MAINTAINING VEHICLE
UHILE GETTING OFF STEP
WHILE DUMPING CONTAINER INTO HOPPER
WHILE RIDING ON STEP

WHILE GETTING ON STEP
WHILE PUSHING/PULLING CONTAINER
WHILE RIDING IN CAB
WHILE DRIVING/OPERATING EQUIP
WHILE CARRYING UNCONTAINERIZED WASTE
WHILE RIDING IN TRUCK BED
WHILE THROWING/CATCHING
WHILE CARRYING CONTAINER
WHILE REPAIRING/MAINTAINING VEHICLE
WHILE LIFTING UNCONTAINERIZED WASTE
WHILE DUMPING UNCONT WASTE INTO OTHER
WHILE STANDING/WALKING
WHILE OPERATING PACKING MECHANISMS
DRIVING/OPERATING EQUIP
STANDING/WALKING
GETTING IN CAB
THROWING/CATCHING
LIFTING UNCDNTAINERIZED WASTE
CARRYING CONTAINER
DUMPING CONTAINER INTO HOPPER
PUSHING/PULLING CONTAINER
RIDING ON STEP
DUMPING UNCONTAINERIZED WASTE INTO HOPPER
*
LIFTING CONTAINER
OPERATING PACKING MECHANISMS
REPAIRING/MAINTAINING VEHICLE
RIDING IN CAB
NO.
INJ
1
2
3
1
1
1
1
*p
1
8
7
2
2
2
3
2
1
2
1
1
1
1
1
3
1
2
8
1
5
1
1
7
4
2
5
1
1
1
1
1
WKDYS
LOST
0
0
28
9
0
21
0
0
12
94
24
4
21
4
20
3
0
0
3
0
0
1
3
6
0
10
14
0
48
0
1
10
0
0
3
10
12
0
2
34
DIRECT
COSTS
20
0
1»505
585
. 30
434
72
20
82
Ir623
2rl93
132
427
148
If 076
100
20
0
153
20
20
81
95
101
48
412
3r060
30
IrOBl
20
37
463
109
0
253
335
524
45
135
700

-------
                                                            FIGURE  2  (cont.)
to
CO
                                                       PROFILE
STRUCK BY OBJECT WHILE USING HAND TOOLS

STRUCK AGAINST OBJECT WHILE PUSHING/PULLING CONTAINER-
STRUCK AGAINST OBJECT WHILE LIFTING CONTAINER
STRUCK AGAINST OBJECT WHILE GETTING OFF STEP
STRUCK AGAINST OBJECT WHILE DUMPING CONTAINER INTO HOPPER-
STRUCK AGAINST OBJECT WHILE RIDING ON STEP
STRUCK AGAINST-OBJECT

OBJECT IN EYES WHILE DRIVING/OPERATING EQUIP
OBJECT IN EYES WHILE DUMPING CONTAINER INTO HOPPER
OBJECT IN EYES WHILE OPERATING PACKING MECHANISMS
OBJECT IN EYES WHILE STANDING/WALKING
OBJECT IN EYES WHILE OPERATING OTHER CONTROLS
OBJECT IN EYES WHILE WASHING EQUIP
OBJECT IN EYES WHILE DUMPING CONTAINER INTO TUB/CART
OBJECT IN EYES WHILE GETTING OUT OF CAB
OBJECT IN EYES WHILE REPAIRING/MAINTAINING VEHICLE
OBJECT IN EYES WHILE LIFTING UNCONTAINERIZED WASTE
OBJECT IN EYES WHILE RIDING ON STEP
OBJECT IN EVES WHILE DUMPING UNCONTAINERIZED WASTE INTO HOPPER-
OBJECT IN EYES WHILE RIDING IN TRUCK BED
OBJECT IN EYES WHILE USING HAND TOOLS
OBJECT IN EYES WHILE DUMPING UNCONT WASTE INTO OTHER
OBJECT IN EYES WHILE LIFTING CONTAINER-
OBJECT IN EYES WHILE GUIDING/DIRECTING VEHICLE
                        HURT  BY  OBJECT  HANDLED
                        HURT  BY  OBJECT  HANDLED
                        HURT  BY  OBJECT  HANDLED
                             INTO HOPPER-
                        HURT  BY  OBJECT  HANDLED
                        HURT  BY  OBJECT  HANDLED
                        HURT  BY  OBJECT  HANDLED
                        HURT  BY  OBJECT  HANDLED
                        HURT  BY  OBJECT  HANDLED
                        HURT  BY  OBJECT  HANDLED
                        HURT  BY  OBJECT  HANDLED
                        HURT  BY  OBJECT  HANDLED
                        HURT  BY  OBJECT  HANDLED
                        HURT  BY  OBJECT  HANDLED
                        HURT  BY  OBJECT  HANDLED
                        HURT  BY  OBJECT  HANDLED
                        HURT  BY  OBJECT  HANDLED
                        HURT  BY  OBJECT  HANDLED
                        HURT  BY  OBJECT  HANDLED
                       WHILE LIFTING CONTAINER-
                       WHILE THROWING/CATCHING
                       WHILE DUMPING UNCONTAINERIZED WASTE

                       WHILE LIFTING UNCONTAINERIZED WASTE
                       WHILE CARRYING CONTAINER
                       WHILE USING HAND TOOLS '

                       WHILE DUMPING OTHER INTO HOPPER
                       WHILE DUMPING CONTAINER INTO HOPPER
                       WHILE DUMPING CONTAINER INTO TUB/CART
                       WHILE REPAIRING/MAINTAINING VEHICLE
                       WHILE DUMPING CONTAINER INTO OTHER
                       WHILE PUSHING/PULLING WASTE IN/OUT CONTAINER
                       WHILE CLEARING
                       WHILE PUSHING/PULLING CONTAINER
                       WHILE LIFTING OTHER
                       WHILE NO SPECIFIC ACT
                       WHILE CARRYING UNCONTAINERIZED WASTE
                       FALL TO DIFFERENT LEVEL WHILE STANDING/WALKING
                       FALL TO DIFFERENT LEVEL WHILE CARRYING CONTAINER
NO.
INJ
1
3
2
1
1
1
1
6
10
5
4
2
2
1
1
2
1
3
3
1
2
1
2
1
20
4
1
3
4
1
2
1
10
2
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
5
6
WKDYS
LOST
6
15
0
0
1
0
0
7
50
3
2
1
0
3
0
0
1
0
3
0
0
2
0
2
171
6
0
0
58
0
0
0
33
2
0
0
0
0
0
1
0
0
109
62
DIRECT
COSTS
428
221
40
42
72
45
30
671
1 >196
300
200
238
54
20
20
40
115
69
270
20
40
85
45
81
6r<435
293
90
43
1»615
37
54
15
1»435
40
45
47
75
0
20
59
20
20
5rl89
lrlS3

-------
                               PROFILE
FALL TO DIFFERENT LEVEL WHILE LIFTING CONTAINER
FALL TO DIFFERENT LEVEL WHILE PUSHING/PULLING CONTAINER
FALL TO DIFFERENT LEVEL WHILE GETTING OUT OF CAB
FALL TO DIFFERENT LEVEL
FALL TO DIFFERENT LEVEL WHILE GETTING IN CAB
FALL TO DIFFERENT LEVEL WHILE DUMPING OTHER INTO HOPPER
FALL TO DIFFERENT LEVEL WHILE PUSHING/PULLING WASTE IN/OUT CONTAINER
FALL TO DIFFERENT LEVEL WHILE RIDING IN HOPPER

FALL FROM STEP WHILE GETTING OFF STEP
FALL FROM STEP WHILE GETTING ON STEP
FALL FROM STEP WHILE RIDING ON STEP
FALL FROM STEP WHILE DUMPING CONTAINER INTO HOPPER

                         PUSHING/PULLING CONTAINER
                         EMPTYING VEHICLE/PACKER
                         STANDING/WALKING
                         DUMPING UNCONT WASTE INTO OTHER
                         DUMPING CONTAINER INTO HOPPER
                         CARRYING CONTAINER
                         USING HAND TOOLS
                         LIFTING CONTAINER
                         GETTING OUT OF CAB
                         PUSHING WASTE BACK INTO HOPPER

                  WHILE CARRYING CONTAINER
                  WHILE GETTING OUT OF CAB
                  WHILE EMPTYING VEHICLE/PACKER
                  WHILE PUSHING/PULLING CONTAINER
                  WHILE STANDING/WALKING
                  WHILE DUMPING CONTAINER INTO HOPPER
                  WHILE LIFTING CONTAINER
                  WHILE GETTING IN CAB
                  WHILE DUMPING CONTAINER INTO TUB/CART
                  WHILE LIFTING UNCONTAINERIZED WASTE
                  WHILE GETTING OFF STEP
FALL
FALL
FALL
FALL
FALL
FALL
FALL
FALL
FALL
FALL
TO
TO
TO
TO
TO
TO
TO
TO
TO
TO
SAME
SAME
SAME
SAME
SAME
SAME
SAME
SAME
SAME
SAME
LEVEL
LEVEL
LEVEL
LEVEL
LEVEL
LEVEL
LEVEL
LEVEL
LEVEL
LEVEL
WHILE
WHILE
WHILE
WHILE
WHILE
WHILE
WHILE
WHILE
WHILE
WHILE
TRIP/STUMBLE/SLIP
TRIP/STUMBLE/SLIP
TRIP/STUMBLE/SLIP
TRIP/STUMBLE/SLIP
TRIP/STUMBLE/SLIP
TRIP/STUMBLE/SLIP
TRIP/STUMBLE/SLIP
TRIP/STUMBLE/SLIP
TRIP/STUMBLE/SLIP
TRIP/STUMBLE/SLIP
TRIP/STUMBLE/SLIP
BODILY REACTION WHILE DRIVING/OPERATING EQUIP
BODILY REACTION WHILE USING HAND TOOLS
BODILY REACTION WHILE PUSHING/PULLING CONTAINER
BODILY REACTION
BODILY REACTION WHILE HOOKING/UNHOOKING TRAILER
BODILY REACTION WHILE RIDING IN CAB
BODILY REACTION WHILE LIFTING CONTAINER
BODILY REACTION WHILE DUMPING CONTAINER INTO HOPPER
BODILY REACTION WHILE LIFTING OTHER

DVEREXERTION WHILE LIFTING CONTAINER
OVEREXERTION WHILE DUMPING CONTAINER INTO HOPPER
NO.
INJ
1
9
5
1
1
1
1
1
24
5
11
1
6
1
15
1
8
8
1
2
1
1
7
5
2
6
6
A
A
3
1
2
1
5
1
2
1
1
1
2
2
1
59
9
WKDYS
LOST
12
8
61
7
3
4
1
19
269
25
82
5
51
0
219
0
14
53
3
0
15
38
14
27
0
30
65
12
9
14-
1
4
6
31
0
3
3
28
1
6
6
2
435
37
DIRECT
COSTS
471
411
3r958
265
80
143
56
Ir784
7r034
2r729
2,011
22
2»365
53
6,476
67
363
2r401
183
20
626
2,260
699
447
54
1,403
2,369
1,042
339
528
70
190
306
Ir912
40
40
128
426
52
283
373
200
23,369
IF 636

-------
                                                      FIGURE 2  (cont.)
oo
o
                      OVEREXERTION WHILE
                      OVEREXERTION WHILE
                      OVEREXERTION WHILE
                      OVEREXERTION WHILE
                      OVEREXERTION WHILE
                      OVEREXERTION WHILE
                      OVEREXERTION WHILE
                      OVEREXERTION WHILE
                      OVEREXERTION WHILE
                      OVEREXERTION WHILE
                      OVEREXERTION WHILE
                      OVEREXERTION WHILE
                                                     PROFILE
EMPTYING VEHICLE/PACKER
OPERATING PACKING MECHANISMS
CLEARING
LIFTING OTHER
CARRYING CONTAINER
PUSHING/PULLING OTHER
THROWING/CATCHING
PUSHING/PULLING CONTAINER
DUMPING CONTAINER INTO TUB/CART
GETTING ON STEP
LIFTING UNCONTAINERIZED WASTE
DUMPING UNCONTAINERIZED WASTE  INTO  HOPPER
                      CAUGHT IN PACKER WHILE PUSHING  WASTE  BACK  INTO HOPPER
                      CAUGHT IN PACKER WHILE STANDING/WALKING
                      CAUGHT IN PACKER WHILE RIDING IN  HOPPER
                      CAUGHT IN PACKER

                      CAUGHT BETWEEN OR UNDER WHILE PUSHING/PULLING CONTAINER
                      CAUGHT BETWEEN OR UNDER WHILE OPERATING  PACKING MECHANISMS
                      CAUGHT BETWEEN OR UNDER
                      CAUGHT BETWEEN OR .UNDER WHILE RIDING  ON  STEP

                      CONTACT WITH TEMP EXTREME WHILE NO  SPECIFIC ACT
                      CONTACT WITH TEMP EXTREME WHILE REPAIRING/MAINTAINING VEHICLE
                      CONTACT WITH TEMP EXTREME WHILE WASHING  EQUIP
                      CONTACT  WITH  CAUSTIC/TOXIC/NOXIOUS  SUBSTANCE WHILE DUMPING
                           CONTAINER  INTO  HOPPER
                      CONTACT  WITH  CAUSTIC/TOXIC/NOXIOUS
                      CONTACT  WITH  CAUSTIC/TOXIC/NOXIOUS
                           OPERATING  PACKING  MECHANISMS
                      CONTACT  WITH  CAUSTIC/TOXIC/NOXIOUS  SUBSTANCE WHILE
                           DRIVING/OPERATING  EQUIP
                      CONTACT  WITH  CAUSTIC/TOXIC/NOXIOUS
                      CONTACT  WITH  CAUSTIC/TOXIC/NOXIOUS
                           REPAIRING/MAINTAINING  VEHICLE
                      CONTACT  WITH  CAUSTIC/TOXIC/NOXIOUS  SUBSTANCE WHILE STANDING/WALKING
                SUBSTANCE  WHILE NO SPECIFIC ACT
                SUBSTANCE'WHILE
                SUBSTANCE  WHILE  CLEARING
                SUBSTANCE  WHILE
                      INSECT  BITE  WHILE  LIFTING  UNCONTAINERIZED  WASTE

                      ANIMAL  BITE  WHILE  DRIVING/OPERATING  EQUIP
                      ANIMAL  BITE  WHILE  DUMPING  CONTAINER  INTO TUB/CART
                      ANIMAL  BITE  WHILE  LIFTING  CONTAINER
                      ANIMAL  BITE  WHILE  PUSHING/PULLING  CONTAINER
                      ANIMAL  BITE  WHILE  DUMPING  CONTAINER  INTO HOPPER
                      ANIMAL  BITE

                      STEP  ON SHARP  OBJECT  WHILE CLEARING
NO.
INJ
1
1
1
3
5
3
1
5
2
1
3
1
3
1
2
1
6
2
1
1
4
1
1
3
2
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
2
1
1
1
1
WKDYS
LOST
7
3
0
7
23
65
7
63
0
0
32
1
37
0
86
2
0
44
2
43
3
11
0
80
10
1
0
0
14
1
0
0
0
5
0
0
0
0
DIRECT
COSTS
60
191
103
378
693
2»500
100
4r833
40
20
692
128
7*249
0
2.»258
91
205
1*553
104
3fl99
213
73
0
1» 690
482
y
59 |
0 I
0
780
89
15
71
20
248
20
20
. 64
24

-------
U)
                                                       PROFILE
                        STEP ON SHARP OBJECT WHILE STANDING/WALKING
                        STEP ON SHARP OBJECT WHILE EMPTYING VEHICLE/PACKER
                        STEP ON SHARP OBJECT
                        AGGRESSIVE ACT WHILE STANDING/WALKING
                        AGGRESSIVE ACT WHILE GUIDING/DIRECTING VEHICLE
                        AGGRESSIVE ACT WHILE AGGRESSIVE ACT

                        DERMATITIS WHILE NO SPECIFIC ACT
                        DERMATITIS WHILE DUMPING UNCONTAINERIZED WASTE INTO HOPPER
                        DERMATITIS WHILE JANITORIAL WORK

                        NO SPECIFIC ACCIDENT WHILE NO SPECIFIC ACT
                        NO SPECIFIC ACCIDENT WHILE WASHING EQUIP
                        DROPPED OBJECT ON
                        DROPPED OBJECT ON
                        DROPPED OBJECT ON
                        DROPPED OBJECT ON
                        DROPPED OBJECT ON
                        DROPPED OBJECT ON
                        DROPPED OBJECT ON
                             INTO HOPPER'
                        DROPPED OBJECT ON
SELF WHILE LIFTING CONTAINER
SELF WHILE DUMPING CONTAINER INTO TUB/CART
SELF WHILE DUMPING CONTAINER INTO HOPPER
SELF WHILE CARRYING CONTAINER
SELF WHILE PUSHING/PULLING OTHER
SELF WHILE CARRYING OTHER
SELF WHILE DUMPING UNCONTAINERIZED WASTE

SELF WHILE HOOKING/UNHOOKING TRAILER
                        STRUCK BY VEHICLE WHILE RIDING IN CAB
                        STRUCK BY VEHICLE WHILE DRIVING/OPERATING EQUIP
                        STRUCK BY VEHICLE WHILE STANDING/WALKING
                        STRUCK BY VEHICLE WHILE CLEARING
                        STRUCK BY VEHICLE WHILE DUMPING CONTAINER INTO HOPPER
                        STRUCK BY VEHICLE WHILE LIFTING UNCONTAINERIZED WASTE

                        FELL ON/AGAINST/THROUGH OBJECT WHILE STANDING/WALKING
                        FELL ON/AGAINST/THROUGH OBJECT WHILE CARRYING CONTAINER
                        FELL ON/AGAINST/THROUGH OBJECT WHILE GETTING OUT OF CAB
                        FELL ON/AGAINST/THROUGH OBJECT WHILE LIFTING CONTAINER
                        FELL ON/AGAINST/THROUGH OBJECT WHILE REPAIRING/MAINTAINING VEHICLE

                        FLASH BURN WHILE REPAIRING/MAINTAINING VEHICLE

                        UNKNOWN
NO.
INJ
2
1
2
2
1
1
1
1
1
4
1
4
2
2
i
1
1
1
1
10
9
2
1
1
1
2
1
1
1
1 •
1
5
1
WKDYS
LOST
1
0
4
4
6
2
0
1
0
95
0
29
4
4
1
0
1
0
2
145
212
15
0
0
32
0
6
0
2
0
0
6
3
DIRECT
COSTS
106
110
254
297
412
72
18
45
10
3r320
20
1»076
227
207
72
20
58
36
99
3r309
4r340
736
0
20
660
20
286
52
104
45
25
408
125

-------
                                     FIGURE  3
                                                              ALL USERS
                                                        PROFILE OF ACCIDENTS
                                                 BY NATURE OF INJURY AND PART  OF  BODY
 REPORTING  PERIOD:  JANUARY  -  MARCH  1976
 THIS  PROFILE  IS  A  FORMATTED SENTENCE CONSISTING OF PART OF BODY AND NATURE  OF  INJURY.
                               PROFILE
                                  NO.
                                  INJ
    UKDYS
    LOST
AMPUTATION  INJURING ARM

ANIMAL  BITE INJURING FINGERS
ANIMAL  BITE INJURING LEG
ANIMAL  BITE INJURING ANKLE
ANIMAL  BITE INJURING TRUNK
ANIMAL  BITE INJURING CHEST/RIBS

INSECT  BITE INJURING ARM

BRUISE/CONTUSION/CRUSHING INJURING
BRUISE/CONTUSION/CRUSHING INJURING
BRUISE/CONTUSION/CRUSHING INJURING
BRUISE/CONTUSION/CRUSHING INJURING
BRUISE/CONTUSION/CRUSHING INJURING
BRUISE/CONTUSION/CRUSHING INJURING
BRUISE/CONTUSION/CRUSHING INJURING
BRUISE/CONTUSION/CRUSHING INJURING
BRUISE/CONTUSION/CRUSHING INJURING
BRUISE/CONTUSION/CRUSHING INJURING
BRUISE/CONTUSION/CRUSHING INJURING
BRUISE/CONTUSION/CRUSHING INJURING
BRUISE/CONTUSION/CRUSHING INJURING
BRUISE/CONTUSION/CRUSHING INJURING
BRUISE/CONTUSION/CRUSHING INJURING
BRUISE/CONTUSION/CRUSHING INJURING
BRUISE/CONTHSION/CRUSHJNO INJURING
BRUISF/CON1USION/CRUSHING INJURING
BRUISE/CONIUSION/CRUSHING INJURING
BRUISE/CONTUSION/CRUSHING INJURING
BRUISE/CONTUSION/CRUSHING INJURING
BRUISE/CONTUSIGN/CRUSHING INJURING
BRUISE/CONTUSION/CRUSHING INJURING
BRUISE/CONTUSION/CRUSHING INJURING
BRUISE/CONTUSION/CRUSHING INJURING
BRUISE/CONTUSION/CRUSHING INJURING
BRUISE/CONTUSION/CRUSHING INJURING

HEAT BURN/SCALD INJURING EYES
HEAT BURN/SCALD INJURING FACE
HEAT BURN/SCAUD INJURING ARM
DIRECT
COSTS

 6,877
HAND
HIPS
CHEST/RIBS
KNEE
FOOT
ELBOU
BACK
ARM
FINGERS
SKULL
LEG
ANKLE
SCALP
SHOULDER
GENITALIA/GROIN
MULTIPLE TYPES OF INJURY
TOES
WRIST
NOSE
EYES
FACE
JAW
MULTIPLE PARTS OF BODY
FOREHEAD
THUMB
NECK
CHEEK
                                     1
                                     3
                                     1
                                     1
                                     1
 8
 8
10
18
 7
11
 6
 3
12
 2
12
 5
 6
12
 2
 1
 5
 1
 2
 3
 2
 1
 2
 2
 1
 1
 1

 1
 i
 i
0
3
2
0
0
0
74
36
85
28
30
12
64
11
31
34
77
25
9
75
1
12
70
0
9
42
5
0
59
1
0
0
0
0
ll
o
71
186
1.02
20
64
15
1,835
1,652
3,858
1,193
1,388
601
4,311
316
1,584
720
1,837
1,303
502
3,341
67
2,327
904
57
274
931
250
47
3,481
87
45
.33
20
25
73
zo

-------
UJ
                                                       PROFILE
HEAT BURN/SCALD INJURING ABDOMEN

CHEMICAL BURN INJURING EYES
CHEMICAL BURN INJURING ABDOMEN

CONCUSSION INJURING SKULL
CONCUSSION INJURING FOREHEAD

CUT/LACERATION/PUNCTURE INJURING FINGERS
CUT/LACERATION/PUNCTURE INJURING EYES
CUT/LACERATION/PUNCTURE INJURING LEG
CUT/LACERATION/PUNCTURE INJURING FOREHEAD
CUT/LACERATION/PUNCTURE INJURING FOOT
CUT/LACERATION/PUNCTURE INJURING JAW
CUT/LACERATION/PUNCTURE INJURING WRIST
CUT/LACERATION/PUNCTURE INJURING HAND
CUT/LACERATION/PUNCTURE INJURING HIPS
CUT/LACERATION/PUNCTURE INJURING ANKLE
CUIVLACERATION/PUNCTURE INJURING FACE
CUT/LACERATION/PUNCTURE INJURING CHEEK
CUT/LACERATION/PUNCTURE INJURING KNEE
CUT/LACERATION/PUNCTURE INJURING THUMB
CUT/LACERATION/PUNCTURE INJURING SCALP
CUT/LACERATION/PUNCTURE INJURING SHOULDER
CUT/LACERATION/PUNCTURE INJURING EARS
CUT/LACERATION/PUNCTURE INJURING ARM
DERMATITIS/RASH INJURING GENITALIA/GROIN
DERMATITIS/RASH INJURING HAND
DERMATITIS/RASH INJURING ARM
DISLOCATION INJURING BACK
                       OBJECT  IN
                       FRACTURE
                       FRACTURE
                       FRACTURE
                       FRACTURE
                       FRACTURE
                       FRACTURE
                       FRACTURE
          EYE INJURING EYES
         INJURING SKULL
         INJURING ANKLE
         INJURING ARM
         INJURING FINGERS
         INJURING THUMB
         INJURING FOOT
         INJURING CHEST/RIBS
                       FREEZING/FROSTBITE/OTHER  LOW TEMPERATURE INJURING FINGERS
                       HERNIA/RUPTURE  INJURING GENITALIA/GROIN

                       INFLAMED  JOINTS/TENDONS/MUSCLES  INJURING HIPS
                       INFLAMED  JOINTS/TENDONS/MUSCLES  INJURING LEG

                       NOSEBLEED INJURING  NOSE
                       SCRATCHES/ABRASIONS INJURING EYES
                       SCRATCHES/ABRASIONS INJURING EARS
NO.
INJ
1
2
1
1
1
13
4
16
*3
8
1
4
13
*?
1
3
2
3
2
3
1
1
3
1
2
4
1
50
1
1
1
5
1
2
1
4
1
1
1
2
4
2
WKDYS
LOST
0
1
74
77
2
99
1
118
0
6
3
6
26
0
20
7
0
7
0
16
0
0
12
0
7
1
5
89
107
23
0
5
24
97
3
3
36
4
5
3
7
0
DIRECT
COSTS
0
111
If476
993
77
4r961
287
3f328
20
552
183
368
858
35
66Q
212
20
285
0
767
27
45
412
•18
237
92
605
4f346
Ir090
308
0
392
1,280
2»052
197
213
3*746
239
22
148
2»752
30

-------
                                                          FIGURE  3  (.cont.)
                                                     PROFILE
U)
,£>.
                      SCRATCHES/ABRASIONS INJURING LEG
                      SCRATCHES/ABRASIONS INJURING ARH
                      SCRATCHES/ABRASIONS INJURING HIPS
                      SCRATCHES/ABRASIONS INJURING ELBOW
SPRAIN/STRAIN
SPRAIN/STRAIN
SPRAIN/STRAIN
SPRAIN/STRAIN
SPRAIN/STRAIN
SPRAIN/STRAIN
SPRAIN/STRAIN
SPRAIN/STRAIN
SPRAIN/STRAIN
SPRAIN/STRAIN
SPRAIN/STRAIN
SPRAIN/STRAIN
SPRAIN/STRAIN
SPRAIN/STRAIN
SPRAIN/STRAIN
SPRAIN/STRAIN
SPRAIN/STRAIN
SPRAIN/STRAIN
SPRAIN/STRAIN
SPRAIN/STRAIN
INJURING
INJURING
INJURING
INJURING
INJURING
INJURING
INJURING
INJURING
INJURING
INJURING
INJURING
INJURING
INJURING
INJURING
INJURING
INJURING
INJURING
INJURING
INJURING
INJURING
SHOULDER
THUMB
KNEE
BUTTOCKS
BACK
ANKLE
HIPS
TRUNK
NECK
ARM
ABDOMEN
GENITALIA/GROIN
INTERNAL ORGANS
ELBOW
WRIST
FOOT
FINGERS
CHEST/RIBS
LEG
HAND
                      POISONING INJURING INTERNAL  ORGANS
                      TORN CARTILAGE INJURING KNEE

                       INJURING MULTIF'LE PARTS OF  BODY
                      UNKNOWN
                      UNKNOWN
                       INJURING BACK
                       INJURING FACE
                       INJURING LEG '
                       INJURING TOES
                       INJURING ELBOW
                       INJURING SHOULDER
                       INJURING FINGERS
                       INJURING HAND
NO.
INJ
1
1
1
1
18
3
9
1
95
41
3
3
11
5
3
7
1
1
7
3
4
2
2
1
3
1
1
5
1
3
1
2
1
1
1
1
1
WKDYS
LOST
38
0
0
0
83
59
44
3
910
303
9
24
141
14
10
23
18
5
54
2
33
38
19
0
10
15
43
14
0
10
4
18
4
3
1
3
0
DIRECT
COSTS
729
20
0
20
8r466
1*336
If471
177
34*389
10r050
246
485
3r673
782
502
506
854
195
• 4»226
149
77
3»297
844
20
4S2
664
1»902
809
25
424
98
823
154
125
56
20
20

-------
                                     PRELIMINARY TASK/HAZARD ANALYSIS
     TASK
  Dumping into
    Hopper
U)
en
         HAZARDS
Hopper Ejecting Materials
                 Falls Against Hopper
                 Overexertion
Waste Flying Back After
Dumping—Swinging of Long
Items
      SUMMARY OF POSSIBLE COUNTERMEASURE(S)
"Flaps."  Turning head when dumping.  Reducing time
spent behind packer.  Eye protection.

Pick up waste in front of hopper as soon as it has
fallen.  Avoid leaning over or twisting actions while
dumping.  Avoid the quick jerk hoisting action.

Avoid twisting while dumping.  Avoid jerking the
container up to dump—slow steady lift is best.  Train
employees to let falling containers go and not try to
catch containers that slip out of their hands.

Careful placing of waste.  Avoid holding container high
in air.  Turn head while dumping.

-------
                                            TABLE A  (cont.)
                                    PRELIMINARY TASK/HAZARD  ANALYSIS
     TASK
 Carrying
         HAZARDS
Falls and Slips
                Overexertion
u>
CTi
      SUMMARY OF POSSIBLE COUNTERMEASURE(S)
Reduce number and weight of containers carried on icy
or wet surfaces.   Avoid twisting or leaning forward
positions.  If bags are used, avoid swinging them.
Use of wheeled carts may be an advantage in backyard
collection.  Use caution when hoisting container to
shoulder.  Proper footwear.  Avoid walking in customer
yards, use sidewalks and driveways instead, except
under icy conditions.

Normally does not occur while carrying but rather when
dumping or lifting except when twisting as on slippery
surfaces.

-------
                                     PRELIMINARY TASK/HAZARD ANALYSIS
     TASK
  Lifting
         HAZARDS
Overexertion
                 Falls or Slips
OJ
      SUMMARY OF POSSIBLE COUNTERMEASURE(S)
Avoid jerking action.  Slow steady lifts are best.  Test
can for weight before lifting.  Keep can close to body
at all times.  Avoid twisting action.  Get help for
heavy weights; train employees how to lift together.
Enforce container weight regulations.  Public education
programs.  Plastic bags probably are not as great a
lifting hazard.

Avoid jerks and twisting action.  Proper footwear.

-------
                                             TABLE A  (cont.)

                                    PRELIMINARY TASK/HAZARD ANALYSIS
     TASK
 Riding on
   Step
         HAZARDS
Getting caught in Packer
U)
oo
                Striking Against Posts,
                Trees, Cars as Ride By
                Step Hitting Ground and
                Throwing Rider
                Truck Lerching due to
                Sudden Starts and Stops,
                Corners, etc., -Throwing
                Employee

                Step Breaking While Riding
      SUMMARY OF POSSIBLE COUNTERMEASURE(S)
Due to placing feet or hands partially in hopper.
Should be prohibited and employees trained how to
ride step properly.  Design of step, grab handles  and
back corners of packers should be reevaluated to deter-
mine if design could not be developed to make it very
awkward to stand with feet or hands partially in the
hopper.  Pinch point protection.

Signaling devices  (to driver) that can be activated by
the rider; must be accompanied by training and practice
in their use.  Training to not try to jump clean of the
truck.  Bak-safe device.  Training in keeping body close
to the truck.  Driver training in judging distance.

Driver training of hazardous surfaces, e.g., gutters,
corners, driveways, dips.  Step height and design.
Increased size of step.

Driver training in gradual acceleration and deceleration,
Training in braking distance.  Increased use of the cab
where feasible.  Increased size of step.
                               A formalized maintenance and vehicle inspection program.

-------
                                    PRELIMINARY  TASK/HAZARD  ANALYSIS
     TASK
 Getting On
   and Off
   the Step
OJ
 Getting Out
   of Cab
         HAZARDS
Falls or Slips From the
Step due to Haste of
Employee or Moving Truck
Falls due to Stepping into
Changes in Surface Levels.

Falls due to Wet Steps and
Surfaces

Striking Against Side of
Truck

Striking Against Yard
Objects

Slips due to Loss of Foot-
ing

Slips in Oil or Grease in
Employer's Yard
      SUMMARY OF POSSIBLE COUNTERMEASURE(S)
Rules against jumping off moving vehicles.  Extended hand
rails.  Training employees to wait until after the truck
has lerched backward in its stopping motion before' dis-
mounting.

Choice of driveway or walkway rather than yard for stoppii
                                               Slip resistant steps.
Proper stopping procedure training for driver.  Extended
hand rails.  Slip resistant steps.

Choice of stopping point by driver.
Proper stance (facing truck)  getting out of cab.  Grab
rails on side of truck near door.

Maintenance and clean up practices.

-------
                                           FIGURE A  (cont.)
                                   PRELIMINARY TASK/HAZARD ANALYSIS
    TASK
Using Plastic
  Bags
         HAZARDS
Cuts, especially to Legs,
when Glass or Other Sharp
Object Protrudes through
the Bag

Hopper Blade "Popping" Bag
and Sending out a Spray of
Dust, Ashes, and Sawdust,
etc.

Overexertion
      SUMMARY OF POSSIBLE COUNTERMEASURE(S)
Chaps on legs.  Use of long sleeved shirts  and gloves.
Train employees not to swing bags.   Public  regulations
on use of bags.
                                              "Flaps."  Getting away from back of hopper after dumping
                                              bag.  Turning head when dumping bag.  Eye protection.
                                              Avoid throwing or wide-arc swinging of bags.

-------
                                   PRELIMINARY TASK/HAZARD  ANALYSIS
    TASK
Operating
  Packing
  Mechanism
         HAZARDS
Getting Caught in Packer
               Hopper Ejecting Materials
               Twisting or Jerking of Hand
               by Sweeper Blade
      SUMMARY OF POSSIBLE COUNTERMEASURE(S)
Use left hand.  Design of operating buttons so that they
cannot be operated while riding on the step.  Training
to avoid putting hands or feet in hopper at any time whil«-
riding on step.  Training to let falling waste go.   Use
of two handed operating buttons.  Emergency stop buttons.
Pinch point protection.

"Flaps" over packer blade.  Use of left hand to operate
packer.  Eye protection.

Design of Controls.

-------
                                            TABLE  A (cont.)
                                    PRELIMINARY TASK/HAZARD ANALYSIS
    TASK


Pushing Waste
  Back Into
  The Hopper
         HAZARDS
Getting Caught in the Packer
      SUMMARY OF POSSIBLE COUNTERMEASURE(S)
Note:   This activity is extremely danagerous and should
be prohibited where possible.  Employees should be told
of the hazard of getting caught in the packer.  They
should explicitly be told that when they see waste falling
out of the hopper to LET IT GO, stop the packing mechanism
as soon as possible and put the waste back in after the
packer has stopped.  "Flaps" over the packer blade may
help reduce the need to push waste back into the packer.
Employees might be furnished with a bar with which to
push waste back in.  Regulations against scavenging.
Pinch point protection.

-------
                                     PRELIMINARY TASK/HAZARD ANALYSIS
     TASK
 Standing Be-
   hind Packer
   Truck
U)
         HAZARDS
                Hopper Ejecting Materials

                Being Struck by Another
                Employee or Another
                Employee's Container
Being Struck by Truck

Exhaust Fumes
                Truck Kicking up Rocks and
                Other Materials
      SUMMARY OF POSSIBLE  COUNTERMEASURE(S)
                               Note:   Standing behind the packer truck is a dangerous
                               activity.  Employees should be tained to spend the least
                               amount of time possible behind the truck and to move away
                               as soon as possible.

                               "Flaps".  Eye protection.

                               Smaller crew size.  Coordination between crew members.
                               "Rythum method" in their walking patterns.  Crew chief
                               direction.
Bak-safe.

Avoid practice of walking behind packer all day.
exhaust system frequently.

Avoid standing behind truck when it is moving.
                                                                                                 Check

-------
                         SECTION II
                    SUMMARY OF IRIS USER
                       INDUSTRY WIDE
                            DATA
          This section provides a summary of the IRIS data as
it applies to all users, and as it relates to industry wide trends,
It is divided into 2 parts.  Part I reviews the frequency,
severity and costs of injuries to the industry.  Part II sum-
marizes the characteristics of the injuries occurring in the
industry.

PART I - FREQUENCY, SEVERITY, COSTS

          FIGURES 5 through 8 summarize the frequency, severity
and costs of injuries reported during this quarter.

FIGURE 5

          FIGURE 5 provides a recap for the quarter.  This
FIGURE lists, in order of user number, the number of injuries
reported by each IRIS user and categorizes these injuries by
their severity level (i.e., first aid through death).  For
each severity level the percentage of the total injuries re-
ported is shown.  For example, if a percentage of 28% is
shown for the "first-aid" severity level, this means that
28% of all the injuries reported were classified as first-aid.
The purpose of this FIGURE is to recap the severity of injuries
by user, so as to make it possible to compare users by the per-
cent of injuries at certain severity levels.  To do this, you
should read across the page to identify the total number of
injuries reported this quarter and the number and percent of
these injuries classified at various severity levels.

FIGURES 6-8

          FIGURES 6 through 8 compare users and provide AVERAGES
for injury frequency, severity and costs.  In all of these
FIGURES the comparison is done by ranking IRIS user's in order
of highest to lowest injury rates. To use these FIGURES you
should:

     (1)  Identify the type of rate and type of comparison
          being made.  "OSHA Incidence Rates" are measures
          of frequency of injuries.  The "Severity Rate,"
          and the "Average Workdays Lost per Lost Workday
          Case" are measures of the severity of injuries.
          The "Average Direct Cost per OSHA Recordable
          Injury" and the "Average Cost per Man-year"
          are measures of the costliness of injuries.  (See
          descriptions of the FIGURES below.)


                             44

-------
     (2)  look for an IRIS user or the AVERAGE and read
          across the page to identify the rates.  FIGURES
          having more than one type of rate may have the
          AVERAGE or a given IRIS user on a different row
          for each type of rate, because IRIS users are
          listed in order of highest to lowest rates.

     (3)  determine how each user stands compared with
          other IRIS users and the AVERAGE.

FIGURE 4

          FIGURE 4 lists three columns of data by user in
order of highest to lowest rates:  the OSHA incidence rate for
all OSHA recordable injuries, the OSHA incidence rate for lost
workday cases, and a severity rate.  The meaning of the rates
are explained below:

     •    The OSHA incidence rate is the number of OSHA
          recordable injuries per 200,000 hours of exposure.
          The base figure of "200,000 hours" is the standard
          figure used in OSHA statistics.  It is roughly
          equivalent to 100 full-time employees working a
          year or 100 man-years (i.e., 100 employees working
          40 hours per week for 50 weeks per year).

          OSHA incidence rates can be thought of as being
          roughly equivalent to the number of injuries
          that will occur to 100 employees during a year.
          Therefore, an OSHA incidence rate of "37" means
          (roughly) that the organization is having 37
          injuries per year for each 100 employees or that
          (on the average) 1 out of every 3 employees are
          being injured.  The national average OSHA
          incidence rate for all industries has been
          around 10 for the last several years.

          An "OSHA recordable" injury is one included in the
          OSHA incidence rates as defined by OSHA.  First-
          aid injuries are not OSHA recordable, but those
          requiring medical treatment (even though there
          was no lost time) are recordable as are lost
          workday injuries and fatalities.

     •    The OSHA incidence rate for lost workday cases
          (i.e., "LWC" in Column 2 in FIGURE 6) is exactly
          the same as that for all OSHA recordable injuries,
          except that only lost time cases are counted.
          That is, it shows the number of lost workday
          injuries per 100 man-years worked.  For organ-
          izations familiar with the ANSI  (American National.
          Standards Institute) Z16.1 injury rates, they
                              45

-------
          will find the OSHA incidence rate for lost
          workday cases very nearly equal to 1/5 of the
          ANSI rate.  Those organizations wishing to
          compare OSHA and ANSI rates should multiply
          the OSHA rate shown in column 2 of FIGURE 6
          by 5 (Note:  This is only an approximation
          of an ANSI rate).

          The "severity rate" (column 3 of FIGURE 6)
          is similar to the OSHA incidence rate but
          it shows the number of workdays lost, instead
          of number of injuries, per 100 man-years
          worked  (i.e., 200,000 hours).  For example,
          a severity rate of 500 would mean (roughly)
          that an organization is losing 500 workdays
          for every 100 employees per year, or that
          (on the average) each employee is losing
          5 days a year for on-the-job injuries.
FIGURE 7
          FIGURE 7 shows the average number of workdays lost per
lost workday case by user ranked in order of highest to lowest.
For example, an average workdays lost of "10" would mean that,
on the average, every time an employee has a lost time injury he
loses 10 days.  As with all averages, the number of injuries
involved (i.e., number of lost workday cases)  must be reasonably
high for the average to have meaning.

FIGURE 8

          FIGURE 8 shows: 1) the average direct cost per OSHA
recordable injury (column 1) and 2) the direct costs per man-
year (column 2).  Direct costs are normally those for which
money was actually expended and include worker's compensation,
medical expenses, and wage continuation benefits (e.g., injury
leave).  There are many indirect costs such as down time,
replacement time, lost time by witnesses and supervisors, etc.,
which are not included in these figures.  Indirect costs are
estimated to be 5 times the direct costs in cities according
to the National Safety Council.  The columns are explained
below:

     •    "Average Direct Costs per OSHA Recordable Injury"
          (column 1 in FIGURE 8) means what each injury is
          costing on the average.  For example, an average
          direct cost per OSHA recordable injury of "$500"
          means that on the average each OSHA recordable
          injury (i.e., in non-first-aid case) is costing
          the organization $500!
                               46

-------
     •    "Direct Cost per Man-year" (column 2) shows the
          cost per 2,000 hours or the average cost per
          year per employee.  Direct cost per man-year of
          "$200" would mean that on the average an organ-
          ization's injuries are costing $200 per employee
          per year.

          It should be reemphasized that both the cost and the
workdays lost data are not complete and only cover figures
reported to IRIS as of May 15, 1976.  These workdays lost and
costs are thus gross underestimates.

TABLE B summarizes the data from FIGURES 5-8

          In reviewing these FIGURES, the data for the AVERAGE
(shown on the FIGURES as AVG)  is the most important because it
summarizes the results for all users combined.  After examining
the AVERAGES, it is important to examine how great the range
of rates between users is.  Wide ranges are important because
they show that it is possible to achieve lower rates of injury
under given operating systems and safety programs.
                              47

-------
                              TABLE B
                        SUMMARY OF  INJURIES

                 BY FREQUENCY, SEVERITY AND COSTS

FREQUENCY

•    There were 575 cases reported  by 32 of the 35 IRIS users.

•    The AVERAGE OSHA incidence rate is 37.  This means that
     on the average each 100 employees has 37 injuries a year,
     or that one out of every 3 employees are injured.  The
     national OSHA incidence rate  for all industries is 10.4,
     making the solid waste industry nearly 4 times the average of
     industry.

•    IRIS users range in frequency  from User No. 244, which
     is experiencing 1.6 injuries per employee per year to
     User No. 242 which is experiencing 4 injuries for every 100
     employees per year.

SEVERITY

•    There have been 3,680 days lost so far for injuries occurring
     during first quarter.

•  •  59% of the total cases resulted in lost workdays.  The
     national average for all industries is 33%, making the
     fraction of lost workday cases in the solid waste industry
     nearly 2 times the average industry.  Two IRIS users had
     less than 22% lost workday cases, but the rest were higher
     than AVERAGE.

•    The AVERAGE OSHA severity rate  (number of lost workdays
     per 100 employees)  is 269.  This means that on the average
     each employee is losing 2.7 days per year for injuries.
     One user was as high as 'nearly 11 days lost per year
     per employee; several are losing zero days a year per
     employee.

•    On the AVERAGE, each lost workday case is resulting in
     10.82 workdays lost.  This is  lower than the national
     average for all industries, which is 10.5.

•    One of the 575 injuries is a permanent disability.

DIRECT COSTS  (Costs given are not  final but represent costs
known as of May 15, 1976.  These costs, therefore, may
greatly underestimate the actual.)

•    So far the costs for injuries occurring in the first quarter
     1976 amount to $151,164.

•    The AVERAGE cost per OSHA recordable injury is $296.

•    The AVERAGE cost per man-year  is $111.  This means that
     on the average injuries are costing $111 per full-time
     employee, per year.


                               48

-------
                                    FIGURE  5

                NUMBER OF INJURIES REPORTED BY TYPE OF SEVERITY
                           COMPARISON OF 'IRIS' USERS

REPORTING PERIOD: JANUARY - MARCH 1976

INSTRUCTIONS: THE PERCENTAGES ARE A FRACTION OF THE TOTAL CASES
REPORTED*  THEY TOTAL TO APPROXIMATELY 100% IF READ HORIZONTALLY*
COMPARE YOUR ORGANIZATION'S PERCENTAGES WITH THE AVERAGE AND WITH
OTHER IRIS USERS*  HIGHER THAN AVERAGE PERCENTAGES IN THE LOWER
SEVERITY GROUPS? I.E.r TOWARD THE LEFTr ARE DESIRED* AS ARE LOWER
THAN AVERAGE PERCENTAGES TOWARD THE RIGHT*
IRIS
USER
NO.
AVG
101
109
111
125
136
140
146
161
171
172
181
186
191
204
207
210
211
212
235
236
237
242
244
260
261
265
272
283
285
292
295
296
TOTAL
CASES
RPT'D
575
22
45
13
64
5
61
19
10
26
69
40
17
18
9
32
4
2
23
6
21
4
1
6
22
1
10
3
5
1
6
7
3
FIRST NON-FATAL LOST WKDY
AID W/0 LST WKDAY CASES
NO.
64
12
2
1
3
0
3
1
6
2
0
11
9
1
0
0
0
0
1
0
0
1
0
0
1
0
0
0
3
0
4
2
1
%
11
55
4
8
5
0
5
5
60
8
0
27
53
6
0
0
0
0
4
0
0
25
0
0
5
0
0
0
60
0
67
29
33
NO.
170
4
14
4
14
0
18
13
4
12
23
9
4
2
6
17
2
1
0
1
2
1
0
2
7
0
5
2
2
0
0
1
0
y-
30
18
31
31
22
0
30
68
40
46
33
22
24
11
67
53
50
50
0
17
10
25
0
33
32
0
50
67
40
0
0
14
0
NO,
340
6
29
8
47
5
40
5
0
12
46
20
4
15
3
15
2
1
22
5
19
2
0
4
14
1
5
1
0
1
2
4
2
7.
59
27
64
62
73
100
66
26
0
46
67
50
24
83
33
47
50
50
96
83
90
50
0
67
64
100
50
33
0
100
33
57
67
PERM
DISAB
NO.
1
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
1
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
•/.
0,17
0.00
0,00
0,00
0,00
0,00
0.00
0,00
0,00
0,00
0,00
0,00
0,00
0.00
0,00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
100.00
0,00
0,00
0,00
0,00
0.00
0.00
0,00
0.00
0.00
0.00
FATALITY
NO.
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
X
0,1
0,1
0,1
0.1
0,1
0,1
0.1
0,1
0,1
0,1
O.I
0,1

0,1
0,1
O.I
O.I
O.I
0,1
0,1
0,1
O.I
O.I
0,1
0,1
0,<
0,1
0,1
0,'
0,1
0,1
0,1
0,'
                                         49

-------
                                 FIGURE 6
PAGE 1
                   AVERAGE INJURY RATES BY "IRIS" USERS
                      RANKED FROM HIGHEST TO LOWEST
ORTING PERIOD:  JANUARY - MARCH 1976
INITIONSJ  AVERAGE RATIO = RATE / AVERAGE FOR THE RATE*
A INCIDENCE RATE = (NUMBER OF OSHA RECORDABLE CASES /
-HOURS EXPOSURE ) X 200,000,
GHLY EQUIVALENT TO THE NUMBER OF CASES PER 100 FULL TIME EMPLOYEES
 YEAR*  DOES NOT INCLUDE FIRST AID INJURIES*  DOES INCLUDE MEDICAL
ATMENT, LOST TIME* PERMANENT DISABILITY AND FATALITY CASES,
ERITY RATE = (NUMBER OF WORKDAYS LOST / MAN-HOURS EXPOSURE) X 200,000.
GHLY EQUIVALENT TO THE NUMBER OF WORKDAYS LOST PER 100 FULL TIME
LOYEES PER YEAR,
TRUCTIONS: FIND YOUR ORGANIZATION'S USER NUMBER AND COMPARE
 IT RANKS  WITH  THE AVERAGE AND OTHER IRIS USERS,
ODD STANDING IS AN AVERAGE RATIO OF LESS THAN ,50,
OCR STANDING IS AN AVERAGE RATIO OF GREATER THAN 1,25,
OSHA INCIDENCE
MAN-HOURS
EXPOSURE

7? 572
7,752
47*613
21,331
80,964
59vl58
60,740
8,685
58,507
7,155
214,417
271,441
4,147
132,040
113,611
2,734,867
241,676
11,563
35,295
388,033
74,202
39,323
151,073
10,162
44,506
134,728
22,662
34,467
92,863
67,090
NO,
INJ

6
4
21
9
32
22
21
3
17
o
A-
58
69
1
29
24
511
43
2
6
61
10
5
18
1
4
12
2
3
8
5
RATE
RATE


158
103
88
84
79
74
69
69
58
56
54
51
48
44
42
37
36
35
34
31
27
25
24
20
18
18
18
17
17
15
INCIDENCE
AVG
RATIO

4,24
2,76
2,36
2,26
2,12
1,99
1,85
1,85
1 , 56
1,50
1.45
1,36
1,29
1,18
1.13
1,00
0,95
0,93
0,91
0,84
0,72
0,68
0.64
0,53
0,48
0,48
0,47
0,47
0,46
0,40
IRIS
USER
NO,
244
236
212
296
210
191
261
260
237
140
207
172
181
235
204
AVG
125
109
171
295
285
136
265
111
292
211
186
101
146
272
NO,
INJ

4
19
T?
A4. *-
9
2
15
1
14
2
40
15
46
20
5
3
341
47
29
12
4
1
5
5
8
2
1
4
6
5
1
RATE
RATE


106
80
74
56
52
51
48
46
46
37
37
34
30
28
28
25
24
24
21
20
20
15
13
12
10
9
9
8
7
6
- LWC
AVG
RATIO

4,24
3,20
2,98
2,24
2,07
2,06
1,93
1,85
1,85
1,50
1.49
1,36
1,21
1,14
1,13
1,00
0,97
0,96
0,85
0,82
0,79
0,60
0,54
0,48
0.38
0.35
0,35
0.30
0.27
0.23
SEVERITY
IRIS
USER-
NO,
236
296
*? l *?
136
140
204
181
172
244
299
1 '?7T>
AVG
125
111
207
211
171
109
191
260
235
237
261
101
186
210
242
295
146
265
RATE


1,080
755
710
575
543
431
420
342
317
285
273
269
253
251
205
203
202
187
178
171
170
161
145
134
106
103
98
97
44
40
                                                                      AVG
                                                                      RATIO
                                                                       4,01
                                                                       2,80
                                                                       2,64
                                                                       2,14
                                                                       2,02
                                                                       1,60
                                                                       1,56
                                                                       1,27
                                                                       1,18
                                                                       1,06
                                                                       1,01
                                                                       1,00
                                                                       0.94
                                                                       0.93
                                                                       0.76
                                                                       0,75
                                                                       0.75
                                                                       0.69
                                                                       0.66
                                                                       0.64
                                                                       0.63
                                                                       0.60
                                                                       0.54
                                                                       0.50
                                                                       0.39
                                                                       0.38
                                                                       0.37
                                                                       0.36
                                                                       0.16
                                                                       0.15
                                      50

-------
                                   FIGURE 6  (Continued)   PAGE
      QSHA INCIDENCE
.IRIS  HAN-HOURS  NO*
USER  EXPOSURE   INJ
NO.
101
292
242
286
243
215
RATE           INCIDENCE RATE - LWC
 RATE  AVG    IRIS  NO.  RATE  AVG
       RATIO  USER  INJ        RATIO
              NO.
                      1     A   0.16
                      0     0   0.00
                      0     0   0.00
                      0     0   0.00
                      0     0   0.00
                      0     0   0.00
  SEVERITY RATE
IRIS  RATE
USER
NO.
159*199
42*096
50x835
2, 363
1 1 f 650
25*949
10
2
1
0
0
0
13
10
4
0
0
0
0.34
0.25
0.11
0.00
0.00
0.00
242
286
283
243
215
161
285
286
283
243
2.15
161
39
 0
 0
 0
 0
 0
                                          51

-------
                                  FIGURE 7

                AVERAGE  WORKDAYS  LOST  PER  LOST  WORKDAY  CASE
                              BY  'IRIS'  USERS
                      RANKED  FROM  HIGHEST TO LOWEST
 ORTING PERIOD;  JANUARY  -  MARCH  1976
 TRUCTIONS:  FIND YOUR  ORGANIZATION'S USER  NUMBER  AND  COMPARE
  IT  RANKS WITH  THE  AVERAGE  AND  OTHER  IRIS USERS.
 ODD  STANDING  IS AN  AVERAGE  RATIO OF LESS  THAN  ,50.
 OOR  STANDING  IS AN  AVERAGE  RATIO OF GREATER THAN  1.25.
 :ANK       IRIS         NO  LOST      DAYS     AVG WKDYS        AVG  RATIO
         USER NO.     WKDY CASES     LOST       LOST          (DAYS /  AVG)

 :GHEST      272            i          A?       47.00            4.34
  2         136            5         193       38.60            3.57
  3         292            2          60       30.00            2.77
  A         242            1          25       25.00            2.31
  5         211            1          23       23.00            2.12
  6         111            8         169       21,12            1.95
  7         101            6         107       17.83            1,65
  8         204            3          46       15.33            1.42
  9         140           40         582       14.55            1.34
 10         181           20         277       13.85            1.28
 11         236           19         257       13.53            1,25
 12         296            2          27       13.50            1.25
 13         186            4          49       12.25            1,13
            AVG          340       3»680       10.82            1.00
 14         125           47         491       10.45            0.97
 15         172           45         464       10.31            0.95
 16         171           12         115        9.58            0.89
 17         212           22         210        9.55            0.88
 18         109           29         226        7.79            0.72
 19         146            5          33        6.60            0.61
 20         235            5          30        6.00            0.55
 21         207           15          83        5.53            0.51
 22         295            4          19        4.75            0,44
 23         260           14          52        3.71            0.34
 24         237            2           7        3.50            0.32
 25         191           15          52        3.47            0.32
 26         265            5          15        3.00            0.28
 27         261            1           3        3.00            0.28
 28         244            4          12        3.00            0.28
 29         285            1           2        2.00            0.18
OWEST        210            2           4        2.00            0.18
                                       52

-------
                                    FIGURE 8

                          DIRECT COSTS BY 'IRIS' USERS
                         RANKED FROM HIGHEST TO LOWEST

REPORTING PERIOD: JANUARY - MARCH 1976

DEFINITIONS? DIRECT COSTS INCLUDE MEDICAL EXPENSESr
WORKMEN'S COMPENSATION BENEFITS* AND WAGE CONTINUATION BENEFITS
(E.G. INJURY LEAVE) ONLY*  INDIRECT COSTS ARE NOT INCLUDED
DIRECT COSTS PER MAN-YEAR IS THE COST PER FULL-TIME SANITATION
EMPLOYEE PER YEAR BASED ON 2*000 HOURS PER YEAR*
TREATMENT* LOST TIME* PERMANENT DISABILITY AND FATALITY CASES,
INSTRUCTIONS? FIND YOUR ORGANIZATION'S USER NUMBER AND COMPARE
HOW IT RANKS WITH THE AVERAGE AND OTHER IRIS USERS.
A GOOD STANDING IS AN AVERAGE RATIO OF LESS THAN ,50.
A POOR STANDING IS AN AVERAGE RATIO OF GREATER THAN 1,25,
AVG DIRECT COST PER
IRIS
USER-
NO,
242
296
111
212
292
272
140
204
101
136
181
125
236
AVG
172
237
109
235
295
211
186
261
171
244
210
191
260
285
283
146
207
265
161
NO OSHA
RECORD INJ

1
2
12
22
':>
3
58
9
10
5
29
61
21
511
69
3
43
6
5
2
8
1
24
6
4
17
21
1
2
18
32
10
4
OSHA R
AVG
COST (

6*877
835
816
629
600
555
479
455
422
394
362
346
332
296
227
201
191
187
178
164
159
159
147
130
98
87
75
61
59
58
54
50
19
ECORDABLE INJ !
|
AVG RATIO
AVG COST/AVG)

23,25
2,82
2,76
2,12
2,03
1,88
1,62
1.54
1,43
1,33
1,22
1,17
1.12
1,00
0,77
0,68
0,65
0.63
0,60
0,55
0,54
0,54
0,50
0,44
0,33
0,29
0,25
0,21
0,20
0,20
0,18
0,17
0,06
IRIS
USER-
NO.
21 ^
296
204
236
242
140
244
181
111
237
172
AVG
125
210
272
261
109
235
171
136
101
292
260
191
295
207
211
186
283
146
265
285
161
DIRECT COST
MAN-HRS
EXPOSURE

59*158
7*155
21*331
47*613
50*835
214*417
7*572
132*040
134*728
8*685
271*441
2*734*867
388*033
7*752
34*467
4*147
241*676
35*295
113*611
67*090
159*199
42*096
60*740
58*507
39*323
80*964
22*662
92*863
11*563
151*073
74*202
10*162
44*506
PER MAN
COSTS
PER M-Y

468
467
384
293
271
260
205
161
145
139
115
111
109
101
97
77
69
64
63
59
57
57
52
50
45
42
29
27
21
14
13
12
7
YEAR
AVG RATI
(COSTS/AI
1
4,21
4,20
3,45
2,64
2,43
2,34
1,85
1,45
1,31
1,25
1,04
1,00
0,98
0,91
0,87
0,69
0,62
0,57
0,56
0,53
0,52
0,51
0,46
0,45
0,41
0,38
0,26
0,25
0,19
0,12
0,12
0,11
0,06
                                          53

-------
PART II - CHARACTERISTICS OF ACCIDENTS

          FIGURES 9 through 14, summarize some of the character-
istics of injuries occurring to all IRIS users during the 1st
quarter of 1976.  Each FIGURE covers a different characteristic
of the accidents:

     •    FIGURE 9:   Accident Type, e.g., falls

     •    FIGURE 10:  Injury Type, e.g., bruise

     •    FIGURE 11:  Part of Body Involved, e.g., leg

     •    FIGURE 12:  Activity, e.g., carrying

     •    FIGURE 13:  Accident Site, e.g., back of the truck

     •    FIGURE 14:  Type of Waste Involved

          Each of these FIGURES is divided into 3 columns.
(FIGURES 9, 11, 12, and 14 have all three columns on one page.
FIGURES 10 and 13 show the columns on 3 separate pages marked
A, B, and C respectively.)  The first column lists the number
and percent of OSHA recordable injuries by characteristic of
the accident in order of highest to lowest percent.  The
second column lists the number and percent of workdays lost
(and average workdays lost) by characteristic in order of highest
to lowest percent of workdays lost.  The third column lists the
amount and percent of direct costs  (and average direct costs)
by characteristic in order of highest to lowest percent of
direct costs.  Thus a given characteristic may be in different
rows depending on the percent of injuries, workdays lost and
direct costs associated with that characteristic.  For example,
in FIGURE 9, "Hurt by object handled" accidents amount to the
second highest percent of the injuries  (10%), the sixth highest
percent of workdays lost  (11%) and the fifth highest percent
of direct costs  (7%) , and therefore, "Hurt by object handled"
is shown in the second row of the first column, sixth row of
the second column and the fifth row of the third column.

TABLE C

          TABLE C summarizes the data on FIGURES 9 through 14
for all IRIS users.
                               54

-------
                                            TABLE  C
ui
       TYPE OF
   CHARACTERISTIC
   Accident Type
   Injury Type
   Part of Body
   Involved

   Activity
   Accident Site
                            SUMMARY OF ACCIDENTS BY CHARACTERISTIC

                    Characteristics with Highest Percent of OSHA Recordable
                            Injuries, Workdays Lost & Direct Costs
      HIGHEST % OF
     OSHA RECORDABLE
        INJURIES
CHARACTERISTICS WITH THE:

      HIGHEST % OF
     WORKDAYS LOST
   Type of Waste
   Involved
Overexertion - 18%
Hurt by Obj . Handled 10!
Object in Eyes - 9%

Sprain/Strain - 41%
Bruise/Contusion/
  Crushing - 23%

Back - 20%
Eyes - 12%

Lifting Can/Waste - 21%
Dumping into Hopper 13%

Street at Back of
  Truck - 25%
In/On Vehicle - 17%
Street at Curb - 16%

Glass - 6%
    Overexertion - 18%
    Struck by Vehicle - 11%
    Fall to Same Level - 11%

    Sprain/Strain - 49%
    Bruise/Contusion/
      Crushing - 21%

    Back - 27%
    Ankle - 10%

    Lifting Can/Waste - 20%
    Standing/Walking - 12%

    Street at Back of
      Truck - 27%
    In/On Vehicle - 25%
    Street at Curb - 18%

    Glass - 4%
     HIGHEST % OF
     DIRECT COSTS

Overexertion - 23%
Fall to Same Level - 10%
Fall to Different level - 9%

Sprain/Strain - 47%
Bruise/Contusion/
  Crushing - 22%

Back - 26%
Ankle - 8%

Lifting Can/Waste - 23%
Standing/Walking - 12%

Street at Back of
  Truck - 26%
In/On Vehicle - 19%
Street at Curb - 18%

Wood/Logs/Lumber - 5%

-------
                                                             FIGURE 9
                                                              ALL USERS
                                        ACCIDENT TYPES RANKED FROM HIGHEST TO LOWEST PERCENT OF
                                        OSHA RECORDABLE INJURIESr WORKDAYS LOST AND DIRECT COSTS
REPORTING PERIOD: JANUARY  -  MARCH  1976
DEFINITIONS: OSHA RECORDABLE CASES  INCLUDE MEDICAL TREATMENT CASES 
-------
                                    FIGURE 10A
                                    ALL USERS
                    INJURY TYPES RANKED FROM HIGHEST TO LOWEST
                       PERCENT OF OSHA RECORDABLE INJURIES
REPORTING PERIOD: JANUARY - MARCH 1976
DEFINITIONSt OSHA RECORDABLE CASES INCLUDE MEDICAL TREATMENT
CASES (I.E. NON-FATAL CASES WITHOUT LOST WORKDAYS),  AND LOST WGRKDAYr
PERMANENT DISABILITY AND FATAL CASES*   FIRST AID INJURIES ARE NOT INCLUDED,
                            OSHA RECORDABLE INJURIES
                TYPE OF INJURY                    NO,      %

SPRAIN/STRAIN                                     208    40,70
BRUISE/CONTUSION/CRUSHING                         120    23,48
CUT/LACERATION/PUNCTURE                            67    13,11
OBJECT IN EYE                                      47     9,20
OTHER                                              17     3,33
FRACTURE                                           10     1,96
SCRATCHES/ABRASIONS                                 8     1,57
ANIMAL BITE                                         7     1,37
DERMATITIS/RASH                                     6     1,17
BURN/SCALD - HEAT                                   3     0,59
BURN - CHEMICAL                                     3     0,59
CONCUSSION                                          2     0,39
FREEZING/FROSTBITE/OTHER LOW TEMPERATURE            2     0,39
INFLAMMATION - JOINTS/TENDONS/MUSCLES               2     0,39
NOSEBLEED                                           2     0,39
POISONING                                           2     0,39
AMPUTATION                                          1     0,20
INSECT BITE                                         1     0,20
DISLOCATION                                         1     0,20
HERNIA/RUPTURE                                      1     0,20
TORN CARTILAGE                                      1     0,20
TOTAL                                             511   100,00
                                          57

-------
                                  FIGURE  10B

                                  ALL USERS
                  INJURY TYPES RANKED FROM HIGHEST TO LOWEST
                           PERCENT OF WORKDAYS LOST

•ORTING  PERIOD?  JANUARY - MARCH 1976

•INITIONSJ  OSHA  RECORDABLE CASES INCLUDE MEDICAL TREATMENT
!ES (I.E.  NON-FATAL CASES WITHOUT LOST WORKDAYS)r AND LOST WORKDAYr
,'MANENT  DISABILITY AND FATAL CASES.   FIRST AID INJURIES ARE NOT INCLUDED*
                               WORKDAYS LOST
              TYPE OF INJURY
RAIN/STRAIN
JISE/CONTUSION/CRUSHING
r/LACERATION/PUNCTURE
ACTURE
HER
JECT IN EYE
NCUSSION
RN - CHEMICAL
RATCHES/ABRASIONS
RNIA/RUPTURE
PUTATION
RN CARTILAGE
RN/SCALD - HEAT
ISONING
FLAMMATION - JOINTS/TENDONS/MUSCLES
RMATITIS/RASH
IMAL BITE
^LOCATION
EEZING/FROSTBITE/OTHER LOW TEMPERATURE
SEBLEED
TAL
NO,     %     AVG WKDYS LOST/
              LOST WKDYS CASE
Ir792
790
321
259
100
89
79
75
45
36
25
15
11
10
9
8
5
5
3
3
3r680
48,70
21,47
8,72
7,04
2,72
2,42
2.15
2.04
1,22
0.98
0.68
0,41
0,30
0.27
0.24
0.22
0.14
0,14
0,08
0.08
100.00
11.13
9.40
10.35
32.37
6.67
4.68
39.50
37.50
22.50
36.00
25.00
15.00
11.00
5.00
4.50
2.67
2.50
5.00
3,00
3.00
0.00
                                        58

-------
                                     FIGURE IOC
                                     ALL USERS
                     INJURY  TYPES  RANKED FROM HIGHEST TO LOWEST
                              PERCENT OF DIRECT COSTS
REPORTING PERIOD:  JANUARY - MARCH 1976
DEFINITIONS: OSHA  RECORDABLE CASES INCLUDE MEDICAL TREATMENT
CASES (I.E. NON-FATAL  CASES WITHOUT LOST WORKDAYS)* AND LOST WORKDAY»
PERMANENT DISABILITY AND FATAL  CASES*   FIRST AID INJURIES ARE NOT INCLUDED,
DIRECT COSTS INCLUDE MEDICAL EXPENSESr WORKER'S COMPENSATION BENEFITS AND
WAGE CONTINUATION  BENEFITS  (E.G.* INJURY LEAVE) ONLY.  INDIRECT COSTS
ARE NOT INCLUDED.
                                  DIRECT  COSTS
                TYPE  OF  INJURY
AMT.
SPRAIN/STRAIN
BRUISE/CONTUSION/CRUSHING
CUT/LACERATION/PUNCTURE
AMPUTATION
FRACTURE
OTHER-
OBJECT IN EYE
HERNIA/RUPTURE
SCRATCHES/ABRASIONS
BURN - CHEMICAL
CONCUSSION
TORN CARTILAGE
DISLOCATION
POISONING
ANIMAL BITE
DERMATITIS/RASH
INFLAMMATION - JOINTS/TENDONS/MUSCLES
FREEZING/FROSTBITE/OTHER LOW  TEMPERATURE
NOSEBLEED
BURN/SCALD - HEAT
INSECT BITE
TOTAL
71,535
32*706
12*757
6*877
5*319
4*456
4*326
3r746
3*551
1*587
1*070
664
605
482
443
327
261
173
148
118
15
151*164
47.32
21.64
8.44
4.55
3.52
2.95
2.86
2.48
2.35
1.05
0.71
0.44
0.40
0.32
0.29
0.22
0.17
0.11
0.10
0.08
0.01
100.00
  AVG COSTS
OSHA REC INJ

      344
      273
      190
    7*696
      532
      262
      92
    3r746
      444
      529
      535
      664
      605
      241
      63
      54
      130
      86
      74
      39
      15
      296
                                          59

-------
                                                            FIGURE  11

                                                              ALL USERS
                                    PARTS OF BODY INJURED RANKED FROM HIGHEST TO LOWEST PERCENT OF
                                       OSHA RECORDABLE INJURIES, WORKDAYS LOST AND DIRECT COSTS

REPORTING PERIOD: JANUARY - MARCH 1976

DEFINITIONS: OSHA RECORDABLE CASES INCLUDE MEDICAL TREATMENT CASES (I.E.  NON-FATAL CASES WITHOUT LOST WORKDAYS)*  AND LOST WORKDAY,
PERMANENT DISABILITY AND FATAL CASES.  FIRST AID INJURIES ARE NOT INCLUDED.
DIRECT COSTS INCLUDE MEDICAL EXPENSES, WORKER'S COMPENSATION BENEFITS AND WAGE CONTINUATION BENEFITS (E.G.,  INJURY LEAVE) ONLY.
INDIRECT COSTS ARE NOT INCLUDED.
OSHA RECORDABLE
PART OF BODY

BACK
EYES
ANKLE
FINGERS
LEG
SHOULDER
KNEE
HAND
ARM
FOOT
CHEST/RIBS
NECK
ELBOW
WRIST
HIPS
GENITALIA/OROIN
SCALP
FACE
TOES
OTHER
SKULL
FOREHEAD
NOSE
TRUNK
THUMB
ABDOMEN
INTERNAL
MULTIPLE BODY PARTS
EARS
JAW
CHEEK
BUTTOCKS
TOTAL
INJURIES
OSHA REC INJ
NO.
101
61
45
32
32
30
26
20
17
16
13
12
12
12
11
11
9
6
6
6
4
4
4
4
3
3
3
3
2
1
1
1
511
X
19.77
11.94
8.81
6.26
6.26
5,87
5.09
3.91
3.33
3,13
2.54
2.35
2,35
2.35
2.15
2.15
1.76
1.17
1.17
1.17
0.78
0,78
0.78
0.78
0.59
0.59
0.59
0.59
0.39
0,20
0.20
0.20
100.00
WORKDAYS LOST
PART OF BODY WKDYS LOST AVG/LOST

BACK
ANKLE
LEG
SKULL
FINGERS
SHOULDER
NECK
EYES
FOOT
CHEST/RIBS
HAND
MULTIPLE BODY PARTS
KNEE
ABDOMEN
THUMB
TOES
ARM
WRIST
GENITALIA/GROIN
HIPS
INTERNAL
FACE
OTHER
SCALP
TRUNK-
ELBOW
NOSE
JAW
FOREHEAD
BUTTOCKS
TOTAL


NO.
989
373
278
218
174
159
141
140
135
126
107
102
94
84
83
74
63
60
60
49
28
27
26
25
24
20
12
3
3
3
3,680


DIRECT COSTS
PART OF BODY ' DIRECT COSTS AVG COSTS/
X WKDY CASE
26.87
10.14
7.55
5,92
4.73
4.32
3,83
3.80
3,67
3,42
2.91
2.77
2,55
2.28
2.26
2.01
1.71
1.63
1.63
1,33
0.76
0.73
0.71
0,68
0.65
0.54
0.33
0,08
0.08
0.08
100.00


11.92
10.08
14,63
72.67
10.24
7.57
14.10
5,83
13.50
12.60
11.89
34.00
4.70
42.00
27.67
12.33
9,00
12.00
10.00
5,44
9.33
5.40
5.20
5,00
8,00
2.50
4.00
3.00
1.50
3.00
10.82


BACK
ANKLE
SHOULDER
ARM
EYES
LEG
CHEST/RIBS
FINGERS
MULTIPLE BODY PARTS
WRIST
GENITALIA/GROIN
FOOT
NECK
KNEE
OTHER
HAND
SKULL
THUMB
HIPS
ABDOMEN
INTERNAL
SCALP
TOES
ELBOW
FACE
TRUNK
NOSE
FOREHEAD
JAW
BUTTOCKS
EARS
CHEEK
TOTAL
AMT.
39,677
12,431
11,831
8,514
8,431
7,672
7,416
7,197
5,383
4,651
4,337
4,089
3,706
3,573
3,161
2,920
2,803
2,557
2,117
1,958
1,336
1,269
1,058
921
591
505
422
184
183
177
75
20
151,164
X OSHA REC IN.
26,25
8,22
7.83
5,63
5.58
5.08
4.91
4.76
3.56
3.08
2,87
2,71
2.45
2.36
2.09
1.93
1,85
1.69
1,40
1,30
0,88
0.84
0.70
0.61
0.39
0.33
0,28
0.12
0.12
0.12
0.05
0.01
100.00
393
276
394
501
138
240
570
225
1,794
388
394
256
309
137
527
146
701
852
192
653
445
141
176
77
98
126
105
46
183
177
37
20
296

-------
                                                                FIGURE  12

                                                                   ALL USERS
                                              ACTIVITIES RANKED FROM HIGHEST TO  LOWEST  PERCENT  OF
                                           OSHA RECORDABLE INJURIESt WORKDAYS LOST  AND  DIRECT COSTS
    REPORTING  PERIOD:  JANUARY - MARCH 1976

    DEFINITIONS:  OSHA  RECORDABLE CASES INCLUDE MEDICAL TREATMENT  CASES  AND LOST WORKDAY*
    PERMANENT  DISABILITY AND FATAL CASES.  FIRST AID INJURIES ARE NOT INCLUDED.
    DIRECT  COSTS  INCLUDE MEDICAL EXPENSES/ WORKER'S COMPENSATION  BENEFITS AND WAGE CONTINUATION BENEFITS  (E.G.,  INJURY LEAVE) ONLY.
    INDIRECT COSTS ARE NOT INCLUDED,
          OSHA  RECORDABLE INJURIES
          ACTIVITY          OSHA REC INJ
                            NO.     %
     ACTIVITY
WORKDAYS LOST
       WKDYS LOST
        NO.      %
AVG/LOST
WKDY CASE
ACTIVITY
DIRECT COSTS
   DIRECT COSTS
    AMT.      '/.
AVG COSTS/
OSHA REC INJ
    LIFTING  CAN/WASTE
    DUMPING  INTO  HOPPER
    STANDING/WALKING
    PUSHING/PULLING CART
C\   OTHER
H   CARRYING CAN/WASTE
    DRIVING/OPER  EQUIP
    GETTING  ON/OFF STEP
    RIDING ON  STEP
    GETTING  IN/OUT CAB
    RIDING IN  CAB
    OPER PACKING  MECH
    THROWING/CATCHING
    NO  SPECIFIC ACTIVITY
    DUMP INTO  TUB/CART
    REPAIR/MAINTAIN VEH
    UAfilHUli/n I rtK'lNO
    LMCIY1NU VUI/PACNER
    USING HAND TOOLS
    RIDING IN  HOPPER
    PUSH WASTE IN HOPPER
    RIDING IN  TRUCK BED
    GUIDE/DIRECT  VEH
    PUSH/PULL  IN/OUT  CAN
    HOOK/UNHOOK TRAILER
    OFFICE/JANITOR WORK
    AGGRESSIVE ACT
    TOTAL
106
65
47
34
34
33
28
28
23
19
16
11
10
10
8
7
A
S
5
3
3
2
2
2
2
1
. 1
511
20,74
12.72
9.20
6,65
6.65
6.46
5.48
5.48
4.50
3.72
3.13
2.15
1.96
1.96
1.57
1.37
1.17
0, VIJ
0,98
0.59
0.59-
0.39
0.39
0,39
0.39
0.20
0.20
100.00
LIFTING CAN/WASTE
STANDING/WALKING
DUMPING INTO HOPPER
GETTING ON/OFF STEP
DRIVING/OPER EQUIP
CARRYING CAN/WASTE
RIDING IN CAB
PUSHING/PULLING CART
RIDING ON STEP
OTHER
GETTING IN/OUT CAB
NO SPECIFIC ACTIVITY
RIDING IN HOPPER
PUSH WASTE IN HOPPER
THROWING/CATCHING
OPER PACKING MECH
liriflK/IINIIOflK TRATLFR
KLI'Alk/MAlNI/UN VLH
DUMP INTO TUB/CART
USING HAND TOOLS
GUIDE/DIRECT VEH
EMPTYING VEH/PACKER
AGGRESSIVE ACT
PUSH/PULL IN/OUT CAN
TOTAL
751
436
354
333
291
239
209
174
149
127
120
108
105
75
64
51
30
2/
10
9
8
7
2
i
3,680
20,41
11,8'J
9,62
9,05
7.91
6.49
5.68
4,73
4.05
3.45
3.26
2.93
2.85
2.04
1,74
1,39
0,(K!
0./3
0,27
0.24
0.22
0.19
0.05
0.03
100.00
9,75
13.62
8,63
12.33
15.32
10.86
14.93
7.91
12.42
6.05
10.00
15.43
35.00
25.00
10.67
8.50
IS, 00
V.OO
2.50
4.50
4.00
7.00
2,00
1.00
10.82
                               LIFTING  CAN/WASTE
                               STANDING/WALKING
                               DUMPING  INTO  HOPPER
                               GETTING  ON/OFF  STEP
                               PUSHING/PULLING CART
                               PUSH WASTE IN HOPPER
                               DRIVING/OPER  EQUIP
                               RIDING ON STEP
                               CARRYING CAN/WASTE
                               OTHER
                               GETTING  IN/OUT  CAB
                               RIDING IN CAB
                               RIDING IN HOPPER
                               NO SPECIFIC ACTIVITY
                               OPER PACKING  MECH
                               THROWING/CATCHING
                               KiTAiu/MAiNiYiiN VF:H
                               UI.I1NU IIANU IUUL.U
                               HOOK/UNHOOK TRAILER
                               GUIDE/DIRECT  VEH
                               DUMP INTO TUB/CART
                               EMPTYING VEH/PACKER
                               WASHING/CLEARING
                               PUSH/PULL IN/OUT  CAN
                               AGGRESSIVE ACT
                               RIDING IN TRUCK BED
                               OFFICE/JANITOR  WORK
                               TOTAL
34,893
18,672
10,768
10,538
9,667
9,509
9,011
7,517
7,420
5,883
5,813
5,722
4,042
4,013
2,196
1,627
1,0 A<
6(10
525
493
382
277
201
131
72
20
10
151,164
23.08,
12.35
7.12
6.97
6.40
6.29
5,96
4.97
4.91
3.89
3.85
3.79
2.67
2.65
1.45
1.08
0.71
0.46
0.35
0.33
0.25
0.18
0.13
0.09
0.05
0.01
0.01
100.00
                                                      329
                                                      397
                                                      166
                                                      376
                                                      284
                                                    3,170
                                                      322
                                                      327
                                                      250
                                                      173
                                                      306
                                                      358
                                                    1,347
                                                      401
                                                      200
                                                      163
                                                      1M
                                                      13IJ
                                                      262
                                                      246
                                                       48
                                                       55
                                                       33
                                                       65
                                                       72
                                                       10
                                                       10
                                                      296

-------
                                  FIGURE 13A

                                  ALL USERS
                ACCIDENT  SITES  RANKED FROM HIGHEST TO LOWEST
                    PERCENT  OF  OSHA RECORDABLE INJURIES

ORTING PERIOD: JANUARY  -  MARCH  1976

INITIONS! OSHA RECORDABLE CASES INCLUDE MEDICAL TREATMENT
ES  (I.E. NON-FATAL CASES  WITHOUT LOST WORKDAYS),  AND LOST WORKDAYr
MANENT DISABILITY AND FATAL  CASES,   FIRST  AID INJURIES ARE NOT INCLUDED,
                          OSHA RECORDABLE INJURIES
              ACCIDENT  SITE                     NO,      7.

tEET  AT  BACK  OF  TRUCK                            126    24,66
'ON VEHICLE                                       88    17,22
;EET  AT  CURB                                      82    16,05
(TOMER YARD                                       47     9,20
IER                                              40     7.83
.EY AT BACK OF TRUCK                              28     5,48
.EY AT CURB                                       20     3.91
JTOMER DRIVEWAY                                   17     3.33
)  ALLEY                                           13     2.54
)  STREET                                         10     1,96
MFILLr  IN/ON VEHICLE-DUMP SITE                  10     1,96
WFILLf  AT BACK  OF  TRUCK                          9     1.76
:iNERATOR/TRANSFER  STATION/RECYCLING LOCATION
«3T*  IN/ON VEHICLE  (DUMPING FLOOR)                 7     1.37
T  APPLICABLE                                       5     0.98
HNERATOR/TRANSFER  STATION/RECYCLING LOCATION
^RAGE/SHOP                                         4     0,78
4DFILL*  GATEHOUSE/OFFICE                          2     0,39
CUSTOMER RESIDENCE                               1     0,20
4DFILL GARAGE                                     1     0,20
4BFILL,  IN/ON VEHICLE-ROAD TO DUMP  SITE           1     0,20
FAL                                             511   100,00
                                       62

-------
                                    FIGURE 13B
                                     ALL  USERS
                   ACCIDENT  SITES  RANKED FROM HIGHEST TO LOWEST
                             PERCENT OF  WORKDAYS LOST
REPORTING PERIOD: JANUARY -  MARCH  1976
DEFINITIONS: OSHA RECORDABLE CASES INCLUDE  MEDICAL TREATMENT
CASES (I.E. NON-FATAL CASES  WITHOUT LOST WORKDAYS),  AND LOST WORKDAY*
PERMANENT DISABILITY AND FATAL CASES*  FIRST  AID INJURIES ARE NOT INCLUDES,
                                  WORKDAYS  LOST
                ACCIDENT  SITE                      NO.      %     AVG WKDYS LI
                                                                 LOST WKDYS I

STREET AT BACK OF TRUCK                            978    26.58      10.19
IN/ON VEHICLE                                      938    25.49      15.90
STREET AT CURB                                     658    17.88      10.61
OTHER                                              287     7.80      11.96
CUSTOMER YARD                                      196     5.33       6.76
ALLEY AT BACK OF TRUCK                             141     3.83       9.40
MID STREET                                         133     3.61      19.00
INCINERATOR/TRANSFER STATION/RECYCLING  LOCATION
 *NDT* IN/ON VEHICLE (DUMPING  FLOOR)                55     1*49      18.33
CUSTOMER DRIVEWAY                                   54     1.47       6.00
ALLEY AT CURB                                       53     1.44       6.62
LANDFILL* IN/ON VEHICLE - DUMP SITE                 52     1.41       6.50
LANDFILL* AT BACK OF TRUCK                         40     1.09       6,67
MID ALLEY                                           33     0,90       4.71
LANDFILLr IN/ON VEHICLE - ROAD TO DUMP  SITE         24     0.65      24.00
NOT APPLICABLE                                      18     0.49       6.00
LANDFILL GARAGE                                      9     0.24       9.00
INCINERATOR/TRANSFER STATION/RECYCLING  LOCATION
 GARAGE/SHOP                                         7     0,19       7,00
IN CUSTOMER RESIDENCE                                4     0.11       4.00
TOTAL                                            3*680   100.00       0.00
                                          63

-------
                                 FIGURE 13C

                                  ALL  USERS
                ACCIDENT  SITES  RANKED FROM HIGHEST  TO LOWEST
                          PERCENT OF  DIRECT COSTS
 DRTING PERIOD: JANUARY -  MARCH  1976
 [NITIONS: OSHA RECORDABLE CASES INCLUDE  MEDICAL  TREATMENT
 ES  (I.E. NON-FATAL CASES  WITHOUT LOST WORKDAYS>*  AND LOST WORKDAY*
 1ANENT DISABILITY AND FATAL  CASES,  FIRST  AID INJURIES ARE NOT INCLUDED,
 ECT COSTS INCLUDE MEDICAL EXPENSES, WORKER'S COMPENSATION BENEFITS  AND
 E CONTINUATION BENEFITS  
-------
                                                            FIGURE  14
                                                              ALL USERS
                                    TYPES OF WASTE INVOLVED RANKED FROM HIGHEST TO LOWEST PERCENT  OF
                                       OSHA RECORDABLE INJURIES* WORKDAYS LOST AND DIRECT COSTS
REPORTING PERIOD: JANUARY - MARCH  1976
DEFINITIONS: OSHA RECORDABLE CASES  INCLUDE MEDICAL TREATMENT CASES UNBUNDLED
UIOOD/LOGS/LUMBER
OTHER SHARP OBJECT
FURNITURE/APPLIANCES
NOXIOUS CHEMICALS
SHRUBBERYrBUNDLED
ROCKS/CONCRETE
HYPODERMIC NEEDLES
GRASS/WEEDS/LEAVES
PAPER
PALM FRONDS
RATS/HOSTILE CREATURE
POISON IVY/OAK
TOTAL
345
47
29
22
15
13
8
6
6
5
3
3
2
2
2
1
1
1
511
67.51
9.20
5,68
4.31
2.94
2.54
1.57
1.17
1.17
0,98
0.59
0.59
0.39
0,39
0.39
0.20
0,20
0.20
100,00
NOT APPLICABLE
NO OUTSTANDING CHAR
OTHER
GLASS
NOXIOUS CHEMICALS
WOOD/LOGS/LUMBER
SHRUBBERY r UNBUNDLED
GRASS/WEEDS/LEAVES
SHRUBBERYrBUNDLED
OTHER SHARP OBJECT
ROCKS/CONCRETE
DUST/ASHES IN WASTE
PAPER.
FURNITURE/APPLIANCES
RATS/HOSTILE CREATURE
POISON IVY/OAK
TOTAL
2r643
349
223
130
75
64
48
36
32
31
20
12
10
4
: 2
i
3f680
71,82
9.48
6.06
3.53
2.04
1,74
1,30
0.98
0.87
0.84
0.54
0.33
0,27
0.11
0.05
0.03
100,00
11,06
10.26
15,93
7,65
37.50
9,14
8.00
36.00
32,00
6,20
10.00
2,00
5.00
2.00
.2.00
1.00
10.82
NOT APPLICABLE
NO OUTSTANDING CHAR
WDOD/LOGS/LUMBER
OTHER
GLASS
GRASS/WEEDS/LEAVES
OTHER SHARP OBJECT
ROCKS/CONCRETE
NOXIOUS CHEMICALS
SHRUBBERY r UNBUNDLED
SHRUBBERY,BUNDLED
DUST/ASHES IN WASTE
PAPER
FURNITURE/APPLIANCES
HYPODERMIC NEEDLES
POISON IVY/OAK
PALM FRONDS
TOTAL
105rl78
13f053
8r067
5»119
4,668
3rB31
3*495
Ir 986
1»674
1»562
725
700
553
393
95
45
20
151,164
69,58
8.63
5,34
3,39
3,09
2.53
2.31
1.31
1.11
1.03
0.48
0.46
0.37
0.26
0.06
0,03
0.01
100.00
                        305
                        278
                      IrOOS
                        233
                        161
                      Ir916
                        583
                        662
                        335
                        120
                        515
                         47
                        277
                         66
                         48
                         45
                         20
                        296

-------
                         SECTION III
                         SAFETY NEWS
Backing Hazard Protection

          Safety devices are available that can help to reduce
hazards associated with backing of refuse trucks and other
vehicles.

          A device suitable for multi-man crew operations in-
cludes a push button on the rear side of the truck.  This button
must be pressed and held down in order to hold off the service
brakes when the vehicle is in reverse gear.  The vehicle will
come to a quick stop if the observer at the rear side of the
truck releases the button because he trips, falls or sees an
obstruction to safe backing.

          A more complex system, illustrated in FIGURE 15,
includes a sensing arm across the full width of the back of the
truck.  This system automatically applies the truck's air brakes
whenever the arm contacts any solid object while the truck is
backing.

          The purpose of the backing safety device system, or
similar device is to stop the backing truck quickly enough to
avoid damage or injury to obstruction hit by the bar.  In the
FIGURE the sensing arm hit the post, which stops the truck before
the truck itself hits the post.  Similarly if the arm hits a
person, the truck will, in principle, automatically stop before
the truck runs over the person.

          Backing safety devices which operate as described
above are commercially available.  Bak-Safe Systems Inc. of
Orange, California quotes prices of approximately $300 for
the push button system and $560 for the sensing arm system.*

          In order to be effective, safety devices such as those
described above must be (a) in proper working order and  (b) used
for the intended purpose.  If these conditions are not met, the
presence of the device can lead to new hazards.  For example,
a push button which becomes accidentally or deliberately jammed
so that it will hold down in the on position, may give a driver
a false sense of security that an observer is present and that
there are no obstructions to backing.  There is some danger
that the sensing arm system may be used routinely as an indicator
*Data concerning commercial products is given for information
purposes only.  No endorsement of these products by SAFETY SCIENCES
or by the Environmental Protection Agency is intended.  No other
manufacturers of similar devices  are known at present.  If others
become known their names will be listed in future reports.

                               66

-------
       FIGURE  15
DIAGRAM OF BAK-SAFE BAR




  ON FRONT-END LOADER

-------
of safe backing boundaries rather than as an emergency device
to give added protection in the event a backing hazard is
missed by the driver.  Note that a driver who relies on the
arm could miss seeing a child who crawls in front of the arm,
but behind the back wheels of the truck, to retrieve a ball
in the roadway for example.

          It is concluded that, in order to gain full advantage
from backing safety devices, they must be (a) properly maintained
in working condition, (b) used as intended, and (c) designed and
constructed so as to minimize failures and encourage correct
operation.  Within these limitations, they may have a large
potential for reducing equipment damage and, in certain cases,
reducing injuries.

          IRIS Users wishing to learn more about the Bak-Safe
system may contact the:

                    KG & T Industries, Inc.
                    1150-D West Briardale
                    Orange, California 92685

                    Phone:   (714) 998-3121
                              68

-------
Accident Trends
2nd Quarter 1976

-------
                     EXHIBIT 3
                   ACCIDENT TRENDS
       IN  THE SOLID WASTE MANAGEMENT  INDUSTRY
              EMPLOYEE  CHARACTERISTICS

     QUARTER:  APRIL 1 TO JUNE 30,  1976
DEVELOPED  BY SAFETY  SCIENCES, DIVISION OF WSA INC,,
   FOR THE U,S, ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY
    OFFICE OF SOLID  WASTE MANAGEMENT PROGRAMS
           UNDER CONTRACT No, 68-03-0231
                          Division of USA Inc..11772 Sorrento Valley Road
                          San Diego, CA 92121  (714) 755-9359 I 452-1010

-------
Accident Trends in the Solid Waste Management Industry is
developed quarterly using data from IRIS  (the Injury Re-
porting and Information System for Solid Waste Management).
Accident Trends is designed to summarize and discuss the
data from all IRIS users and to provide data and conclu-
sions which affect the industry as a whole.  A companion
volume, the QSMR  (Quarterly Safety Management Report) , is
developed individually for each IRIS user who reported
injuries during the quarter.  Each QSMR concentrates only
on the injuries of the individual IRIS user for which it
is prepared.

IRIS is currently made up of 42 users.  All possible care
is taken to insure data quality.  The nature of the data
and the reports, however, precludes complete accuracy.  Not
all cases are closed by the end of the quarter.  These acci-
dents continue to be monitored.  Occasionally, full lost
time and cost data is not available.  Consequently, the tot-
als for these categories may be underestimates.  A concerted
effort is made to correct the lost time and cost figures
and improve IRIS collection methods.  The recommendations and
countermeasures presented are suggestions that must be eval-
uated in terms of individual user's needs.

The purpose of this and other IRIS publications is to dis-
seminate new ideas and alternative methods in the solid waste
field.  IRIS serves as a clearinghouse in this regard, but
does not promote or endorse any method or product.  Imple-
mentation of QSMR suggestions should be done only after
careful evaluation by each user and at each user's discre-
tion.

-------
                       ACCIDENT TRENDS
           IN THE SOLID WASTE MANAGEMENT  INDUSTRY
                  EMPLOYEE CHARACTERISTICS

QUARTER:   APRIL 1, 1976 THROUGH JUNE 30, 1976
                      TABLE OF CONTENTS

                                                          Page

INTRODUCTION 	  iv

I.        DISCUSSION OF INJURY RATES BY EMPLOYEE
          CHARACTERISTICS AND PREVENTION METHODS  ....  i_l

          1.   Age	1-1

          2.   Experience	1-6

          3.   Height	1-11

          4.   Weight	1-15
II.       SECOND QUARTER IRIS USER INDUSTRY-WIDE
          DATA	2-1
                              11

-------
                       LIST OF  FIGURES
FIGURES 1-1
     to 1-3:
Injury Rates by Age Group  for  the
Collection Division 	
FIGURE  1-4:   Distribution of the Employees'  Ages
FIGURES 1-5
     to 1-7:

FIGURE  1-8:
FIGURES 1-9
     to 1-11:

FIGURE  1-12
FIGURES 1-13
     to 1-15

FIGURE  1-16;
FIGURE  2-1:


FIGURE  2-2:


FIGURE  2-3:


FIGURE  2-4:


FIGURE  2-5:
Injury Rates by Experience Group  for
the Collection Division  	  ,
Distribution of the Employees' Exper-
ience 	

Injury Rates by Height Group for  the
Collection Division 	
Distribution of the Employees'
Heights 	
Injury Rates by Weight Group  for  the
Collection Division  	  ,
Distribution of the Employees'
Weights 	
Description of Users by Operational
Characteristics 	
Summary of Injuries by Frequency,
Severity, and Costs 	
Comparison of Injury Rates and OSHA
Days Lost for All Users  ......
Comparison of Direct Costs by Reporting
Period for All Users	
1-2

1-5


1-7


1-10


1-12


1-15


1-16


1-19


2-4


2-8


2-10


2-12
Summary of Accident Factors  for
Selected Accident Characteristics with
Highest Percent of OSHA Recordable
Injuries, Workdays Lost and  Direct
Costs 	
                                                            2-14
                             111

-------
                        INTRODUCTION
          This is the Accident Trends report for the second
quarter of 1976  (April 1 to June 30).  This report is divided
into two sections, a discussion of the special feature topic,
Injury Rates by Employee Characteristics and Their Prevention
Measures and a summary of the data for the quarter.  The dis-
cussion in SECTION I will encompass  the data since the insti-
gation of IRIS in December 1975, but SECTION II relates only
the injury rates and figures applicable to the second quarter
of 1976.

          Of the 42 IRIS users on-line during second quarter,
36 users reported injuries.  Since the injury rates are based
on man-hours of exposure, they reflect the various start-up
periods of the IRIS users.

          The time lost and direct costs shown on the FIGURES
were provided as of September 30, the "closing date" for
receiving data for the second quarter.  Any cases where the
time lost or direct cost data is incomplete are being monitored
for updating.
                              IV

-------
                          SECTION I

           DISCUSSION OF INJURY RATES BY EMPLOYEE
           CHARACTERISTICS AND PREVENTION METHODS
          This is the Accident Trends report for the solid waste
management industry for the second quarter of 1976.  The injury
factors addressed in this report are the employee characteris-
tics of age, experience, height, and weight.  An examination
of how each employee characteristic affects the overall injury
rates of the collection division is performed.  Possible pre-
vention methods to reduce the injury rates are also discussed.

          Employee characteristics need to be examined to
determine if the make-up of the collection work force affect
the injury rates.  If so, possible countermeasures can include
employee selection and establishing standards for the employee
characteristics.

          The discussion in SECTION I encompasses the entire
reporting period  (from December 1975) while SECTION II presents
the injury statistics for only the second quarter.
1.        AGE

          The age of a person is known to correlate with the
person's ability to perform strenuous tasks such as garbage
collection.  The IRIS data  (FIGURES 1-1 through 1-3) show a
marked difference between the injury rates of older employees
vs. younger employees.  The younger age groups have more in-
juries but the older age groups have more severe injuries.
This was also the findings of the Field Test of IRIS, which
collected over 2,000 injuries.  FIGURE 1-4 shows that the col-
lection division employees are widely distributed in ages with
slightly more employees under 35 years old.

          Examining the OSHA incidence and lost workday cases
rate (FIGURE 1-1), it is apparent that the employees above age
29 have less injuries, and the employees being least injured
fall in age group "60-64 years".  Also, the injury rates for
the age groups after age 35 were all below the average line.
The distance between the two graphs' points was much wider
for the age groups under 30 years old.  This indicates that
the younger employees' injuries result in non-lost time more
often than the older employees'.  The slope of the decline of
the graph decreased steadily after age 29 except at two points,
"55-59 years" and ">64 years".


                            1-1

-------
                             FIGURE  1-1


        OSHA  INCIDENCE RATES FOR OSHA RECORDABLE INJURIES

                AND LOST WORKDAY CASES BY AGE GROUP

                       *COLLECTION DIVISION*
 64

                                    Age Group

-------
                         FIGURE 1-2

                     OSHA SEVERITY  RATES
                        BY AGE GROUP
                    *COLLECTION DIVISION*
S
£
O
§
w

720-
700-
680-
660-
640-
620-
600-
580-
56°-
540-
520-
500-
480-
460-
440-
420-
400-
380-
360-
340-
320-
300-
280-
260-
240-
220-
200-
180-
160-
140-
120-
100-
 80-
 60-
 40-
 20-
                                                           Rate
      <20  20-24 25-29 30-34  35-39  40-44  45-49 50-54 55-59 60-64  >64
                                 Age Group
                              1-3

-------
                     FIGURE  1-3

             DIRECT  COST  PER MAN-YEAR
                   BY  AGE GROUP
                COLLECTION DIVISION*
<20
20-24 25-29 30-34 35-39 40-44  45-49  50-54 55-59 60-64
                      Age Group
                        1-4

-------
                         FIGURE 1-4

             DISTRIBUTION OF THE EMPLOYEES'  AGE


                                    % Man-Hours of
            Age Group                  ExposufiT

           <20   YEARS                     2%
           20-24 YEARS                    14%
           25-29 YEARS                    16%
           30-34 YEARS                    14%
           35-39 YEARS                    13%
           40-44 YEARS                    12%
           45-49 YEARS                    11%
           50-54 YEARS                    10%
           55-59 YEARS                     6%
           60-64 YEARS                     3%
           >64   YEARS                    <1%
          The low incidence of injury for the older age groups
is probably a function of the hazard risks of their respective
jobs.  The younger age groups are the collectors or laborers
who have not built up seniroity while the older employees are
the drivers who do not collect.  The two tasks have a wide
difference in the amount of exposure to hazards such as over-
exertions while handling containers.

          The severity rates  (FIGURE 1-2) show more pronounced
peaks.  The older age groups still show lower severity rates,
but increasing age does not affect it as dramatically.  A sim-
ilar curve also emerges with the direct cost per man-year
graph  (FIGURE 1-3).  In all three FIGURES the highs and lows
of the graphs were basically at the same points, but their
relationship to each other, or the slope, varied.

          There can be no suggested countermeasures with these
results because age is not a factor that can be judged by it-
self.  For instance, to resolve the problem of varying expo-
sure to hazards, the age groups should be examined in cross
tabulation with job classification, in particular the "collector
non-drivers".  The employee's physical abilities is both a
function of age and physical condition.  However, except for
new hires, the employee's physical condition is maintained
very well with the strenous work.
                             1-5

-------
2.        EXPERIENCE

          The experience of the newly hired employees  with
collecting waste prior to beginning their  jobs  is  of great
concern to solid waste managers because of high turnover rates
 (14% of the work force had been on the job less than a year,
FIGURE 1-8) and how much individual training, besides  "on-the-
job", should be provided.  In addition, for the experienced
employees, their retraining needs to be considered.

          Experience refers to how long the employee has been
working with the collection division at the organization.  A
separate study* performed by SAFETY SCIENCES on the effects of
experience on injury rates for several high risk industry es-
tablishments revealed that the incidence rates  were very high
for the inexperienced employees.  In fact, the  new employees
 (less than one month's experience) had the highest, and the
incidence rates dropped rapidly after a few months.

          FIGURES 1-5 through 1-7 present  the injury rates for
the various experience groups.  Note that  the length of exper-
ience for each point on the bottom axis increases  logarithmi-
cally rather than linearly, emphasizing the first  few  months
of work experience.

          The incidence rates shown in FIGURE 1-5  indicate also
that the employees with less work experience have  more injuries.
In particular, the less than one month's experience employees
had at least a fifth more injuries than any other  experience
group.  The injury incidence rates also do not  drop appreciably
until after five years of experience.  In  fact,  the injury rates
remained above the average line until after five years of
experience.

          The width between the same points on  the two curves
represent the medical treatment only cases (non-lost time).
The two curves indicate that the inexperienced  employees were
receiving more medical treatment cases than the employees that
have been there over two years.

          The severity and direct cost rates show  a different
trend.  Instead of the most inexperienced  employees suffering
the high workdays lost rates, the peaks appeared at "2-3 months"
and "2-10 years".  As for the direct cost  per man-year rates,
an extremely high peak ($2,376) occurs at  "2-3  months" experi-
ence that dwarfs the rest of the curve.  This peak is  due to
*Study performed for the Bureau of Labor Statistics  on  the
"feasibility of securing data from employer  records  on  the  re-
lationship between length of employment  (experience)  and the
occupational injury incidence rate" in 1970.

                             1-6

-------
                            FIGURE 1-5

       OSHA  INCIDENCE RATES FOR OSHA RECORDABLE  INJURIES
          AND LOST  WORKDAY CASES BY EXPERIENCE GROUP
                      *COLLECTION DIVISION*
      en
      QJ
      Q)
      >i
      O
     H
      ft
      e
       QJ
     o
     o
       (U
      0)
     •H
100-


 90-


 80-


 70-


 60-
Average OSHA
Incidence   50-
Rate

            40-
Average OSHA
Lost Workday
Cases Rate  30-
            20-
            10-
                      --K
               <1     1-2    2-3    3-6   6-12   1-2   2-5   5-10   >10
                mo    mo    mo    mo    mo    yr    yr    yr    yr

                                 Experience Group


                                        • = OSHA Incidence Rate
                                        + = OSHA Lost Workday Cases
                                            Rate
                               1-7

-------
                FIGURE 1-6

           OSHA SEVERITY  RATE
           BY EXPERIENCE GROUP
          *COLLECTION DIVISION*
<1    1-2   2-3  3-6   6-12  1-2    2-5   5-10   >10
mo    mo    mo   mo    mo    yr    yr    yr    yr
                  Experience Group
                    1-8

-------
                           FIGURE 1-7

                   DIRECT COST PER MAN-YEAR
                      BY EXPERIENCE  GROUP
                     *COLLECTION DIVISION*
$2,380
               $2,376
 a
 £
 0)
 o
 •H
 Q
820-
800-
780-
760-
740-
720-
700-
680-
660-
640-
620-
600-
580-
560-
540-
520-
500-
480-
460-
440-
420-
400-
380-
360-
340-
320-
300-
280-
260-
240-
220-
200-
180-
160-
140-
120-
100-
        <1    1-2   2-3   3-6   6-12
        mo    mo    mo    mo    mo
                                    1-2    2-5  5-10   >10
                                    yr    yr    yr    yr

                       Experience  Group
                              1-9

-------
the  fatality that occurred during  this  quarter.   (The employee
was  clearing waste from behind  the blade while  standing inside
the  packer body of a side loader.  The  blade  is  operated from
the  cab, and his coworker thought  he heard him  say  go ahead.
He started the blade and found  the employee caught  between the
blade and the hopper door.  He  might have slipped when he was
stepping out.  In any case, the coworker should  not have start-
ed it until he saw that the employee was safely  out.)   A second
slight peak occurred from "2-10 years"  experience,  but it is
unknown whether it would have been higher than  the  other peak
if the fatality did not occur there.
                         FIGURE 1-8

          DISTRIBUTION OF THE EMPLOYEES' EXPERIENCE


                                        % Man-Hours  of
      Experience Group                     Exposure

         <1   MONTH                            2%
         1-2  MONTHS                           1%
         2-3  MONTHS                           1%
         <3   MONTHS                           4%
         3-6  MONTHS                           3%
         6-12 MONTHS                           7%
         1-2  YEARS                            9%
         2-5  YEARS                          19%
         5-10 YEARS                          24%
         >10  YEARS                          30%


          The conclusions that can be reached  concerning ex-
perience is that nine out of ten of the newly  hired  employees
are likely to get injured on the first month of collecting
waste.  However, even after two years of experience  two out
of three of the employees were still being injured.   In addi-
tion, for some unevaluated reason the employees receive more
severe, and therefore more costly, injuries during the period
of "2-3 months" experience and "2-10 years" experience.  These
two peaks need to be examined for the accident types  occurring
to determine whether certain accident types, such as  back
strains develop with time.

          In any case, preliminary structured  training of new-
ly hired employees is indicated by the data.   This needs to
be performed prior to the employees beginning  work.   The train-
ing area that requires the most emphasis because of  its fre-
quency of injury as well as because it can be  affected by

                             1-10

-------
training is container handling: testing the container, lift-
ing the container properly, and dumping the container properly.
Forty percent of the injuries this quarter occurred as the em-
ployees were lifting or dumping the container.

          In addition, the data indicates that the experienced
employees were still experiencing high  (above average) injury
rates.  The sharp dip in incidence rates after five years of
experience may only be a reflection of job class changes due
to promotion.  For instance, the newly hired employees are
usually hired into the more hazardous job class of "collector
non-driver" while with time he can be promoted to a less haz-
ardous position of "driver non-collector".

          The severity rate curve indicates retraining may be
most effective after two months on the job and after two years.
Additional data may be necessary to determine whether this
trend holds true.  The retraining of employees, of course, re-
quires the safety department to maintain adequate records on
the date of hire into a specific job class and when the employee
was trained on what.  An additional entry on the employee cards
could also indicate previous injuries.  With an adequate record-
keeping system, the employees who need training can be spotted
easily.

          Another training consideration is the automatic re-
training of an injured employee specifically on the correct
method of performing the task he was performing when injured.
This should be effected prior to his returning to full duties.

          Once training is performed, however, responsibility
does not end.  Supervision is also an integral part of train-
ing to reinforce the training.  Reverting to old incorrect
methods could be controlled with supervision.
3.        HEIGHT

          The height of the employee may be a factor in rela-
tionship to certain tasks that require having the use of the
lower spine such as in lifting and dumping.  A taller person's
fulcrum of bending over, and therefore the stress placed on
the lower back muscles, is at a higher point.  He has to bend
further to lift or dump the container than a shorter person.
FIGURE 1-12 indicates that the average solid waste worker was
between 5'7" and 6' in height.
                              1-11

-------
                       FIGURE 1-9

   OSHA INCIDENCE RATES FOR OSHA RECORDABLE INJURIES
         AND LOST WORKDAY CASE BY HEIGHT GROUP
                 *COLLECTION DIVISION*


rfl
0)
8
cu
QJ
0
rH
s
o
o
nH
\
w
0)
•H

•f— 1
c
H






100-
90-
80-
70-

60-


50-

40-
30-



20-




10-






^\
Average OSHA ^+~^ s^ \
Incidence Rate ^^~^^~~^*~~^ s^ \
^^+ 	 — "* *^ ^^ \
^ — ^^"^Average OSHA \
Lost Workday ^~"\ \
Cases Rate 	 	 (-""""" \ \
+ 	 + 	 -^ -* + -^ V
\ *
\
\
\
\
\
\
\
\
V
— 1 	 1 	 1 	 1 	 1 	 1 	 1 	 I
                            Height  Group
• = OSHA Incidence Rate
+ = OSHA Lost Workday Cases  Rate
                          1-12

-------
                           FIGURE 1-10

                      OSHA SEVERITY RATE
                        BY HEIGHT GROUP
                     *COLLECTION DIVISION*
Id

   800-
   760-
   720-
   68°~
   640-
   600-
   560-
   52°-
   480-
   440-
   400-
   360-
f~i
>  320-
w
o  280-
   240-
   200-
   160-
   120-
    80-
    40-
W
n
       5'3-5'4  5'5-5'6 5'7-5'8 5'9-5'10 5'll-6
                                Height Group
                                                6'l-6'2 6'3-6'4  >6'4
                               1-13

-------
                           FIGUEE 1-11

                  DIRECT  COST PER MAN-YEAR
                       BY HEIGHT GROUP
                    COLLECTION DIVISION*
 $500-
  480-
  460-
  440-
  420-
  400
ti 380-
Q)
* 360-
oi 340-
cu
0) 320-
^,300-
o
^280-
I 260-
y 240-
^ 220-
-P
g 200-
8 160-
-H 140-
Q
  120-
  100-
   80-
   60-
   40-
   20-
5'3-5'4 5'5-5'6 5'7-5'8  5'9-5'10 S'll-
                           Height Group
                                                 6'l-6'2  6'3-6'4
                              1-14

-------
                         FIGURE 1-12

           DISTRIBUTION OF THE EMPLOYEES' HEIGHTS
                                       % of Man-Hours of
        Height Group                       Exposure

        <5'3"                                 1%
        5'3" - 5'4"                           3%
        5'5" - 5'6"                          12%
        5'7" - 5'8"                          21%
        5'9" - 5'10"                         23%
        5'11" - 6'                           22%
        6'1" - 6'2"                          12%
        6'3" - 6'4"                           3%
        >6'4"
          FIGURES 1-9 through 1-11 present the injury rates by
the various height groups, which were in increments of two
inches.  They appear to indicate that the over six feet tall
employees, in particular 6'3"-6'4", were having problems with
injuries.  This height group had the highest OSHA incidence
and lost workday cases rates.  It also shows corresponding
peaks for the severity rate and direct cost per man-year rates.
However, the first height group, 5'3"-5'4", had the highest
severity and direct cost per man-year rates.

          These FIGURES may indicate the unsuitability of the
work for the short and tall employees.  There are no standards
for employee selection in this industry, but further data analy-
ses is necessary before IRIS can make any recommendations.  For
instance, only the employees that handle the containers (e.g.,
collector non-drivers) should be examined.  This group of in-
juries can be examined for the type of container for the lift-
ing accidents and the sill height of equipment for the dumping
accidents.  This, however, requires a much larger data base to
be statistically valid.
4.        WEIGHT

          The weights of the employees being injured may have
some correlation to injury rates.  However, the data did not
prove conclusive.  The weights of the employees could probably
not be analyzed in a useful way without being linked to the
height of the employee at the same time.  FIGURE 1-16 shows
that the average weight of the solid waste worker ranged from
150-200 pounds.

                             1-15

-------
                                              FIGURE 1-13

                         OSHA INCIDENCE RATES FOR OSHA RECORDABLE  INJURIES
                              AND LOST WORKDAY CASES BY WEIGHT GROUP
                                       *COLLECTION DIVISION*
   100-


    90-


o>   80-


    70-
0)
OJ
0)
    60-
    50-
                                                                         • = OSHA Incidence Rate
                                                                         + = OSHA Lost Workday  Case
                                                                             Rate
                                                                          Average OSHA
                                                                         Incidence Rate
o
o
rH
\
in
Q)
•H
S-l
40-
    30-
    20-
    10-
                          Average  OSHA
                          Lost Workday
                            Case Rate
<130
 Ibs.
130-
139
140-
149
150-
159
160-
169
                                       170-
                                       179
                                                  180-
                                                  189
                                              Weight
                                                         190
                                                         199
200-   210-   220-    230-    240-  >249
209    219    229     239     249

-------
                                           FIGURE 1-14

                                       OSHA SEVERITY RATE
                                         BY WEIGHT GROUP
                                      *COLLECTION DIVISION*
  760-
  740-
 n 72°-
 ?, 70°-
 2 680-
 n 660-
 0) 640-
  620-
 S 60°
 249
                                                              219   229    239    249

-------
                                              FIGURE  1-15
I
(-•
oo
   QJ
   04
$480-
 460-
 440-
 420-
 400-
 380H
 360-
   to
 300-
 280-
 260-
 240-
 220-
   g 180-
   Q 160-
     140-
     120-
     100-
                                       DIRECT COST PER MAN-YEAR
                                            BY WEIGHT GROUP
                                         *COLLECTION DIVISION*
         <130   130-   140-   150-  160-  170-  180-   190-   200-  210-  220-  230-
          Ibs.  139    149    159   169   179   189    199    209    219   229   239
                                             Weight Group
                                                                                240-  >249
                                                                                249

-------
                         FIGURE 1-16

           DISTRIBUTION OF THE EMPLOYEES' WEIGHTS
                                      % of Man-Hours of
        Weight Group                      Exposure

        <130    Ibs.                         1%
        130-139 Ibs.                         4%
        140-149 Ibs.                         8%
        150-159 Ibs.                        12%
        160-169 Ibs.                        15%
        170-179 Ibs.                        14%
        180-189 Ibs.                        14%
        190-199 Ibs.                        10%
        200-209 Ibs.                         7%
        210-219 Ibs.                         5%
        220-229 Ibs.                         4%
        230-239 Ibs.                         2%
        240-249 Ibs.                         2%
        >249    Ibs.                         2%
          FIGURES 1-13 through 1-15 show the injury rates pat-
terns by the various weight groups which were in increments of
10 pounds.  FIGURE 1-13 shows higher incidence rates for the
lighter employees and lower incidence rates for the heavier
employees.  FIGURE 1-14 and 1-15 show three consistently low
points for severity and direct cost per man-year rates at 150-
159, 210-219, and 230-239 Ibs.  The peaks in injury rates,
however, varied between the two graphs.
                             1-19

-------
                         SECTION II

                  SECOND QUARTER IRIS USER

                     INDUSTRY-WIDE DATA
     The accidents received by IRIS from 42 users are covered
in this section.  FIGURE 2-1 gives operational background data
on the IRIS users.
FREQUENCY,  SEVERITY AND COSTS RATES

     FIGURES 2-2 through 2-5 recap the frequency, severity
and costs of injuries for this quarter:

     •    FIGURE 2-2:  Summary of Injuries by Frequency,
          Severity and Costs.  Compares the solid waste
          management industry with the national average
          for all industries.

     •    FIGURE 2-3:  Comparison of Injury Rates and
          OSHA Days Lost for All Users.  Compares the
          rates and days lost for the first two quarters
          of 1976, for each user, in user number order.

     •    FIGURE 2-4;  Comparison of Direct Costs by
          Reporting Period for All Users.  Compares
          the total costs and cost rates for the first
          two quarters of 1976, for each user, in user
          number order.

     •    FIGURE 2-5:  Summary of Accident Factors for
          Selected Accident Characteristics with Highest
          Percent of OSHA Recordable Injuries, OSHA Days
          Lost and Direct Costs.

     A few definitions of the terms used in the following
FIGURES are:

     •    OSHA Recordable Injury.  Defined by OSHA as
          a non-first aid injury.
                             2-1

-------
OSHA  Incidence  Rate.   It is a measure of the
frequency of  injuries.   The OSHA incidence rate
is  the number of  OSHA recordable injuries per
200,000 hours of  exposure.   The base figure of
"200/000 hours" is  the standard figure used
in  OSHA statistics.   It is  roughly equivalent to
100 full-time employees working a year or 100
man-years  (i.e.,  100  employees working 40 hours
per week for  50 weeks per year).

OSHA  incidence  rates  can be thought of as being
roughly equivalent  to the number of injuries
that  will occur to  100  employees during a year.
Therefore, an OSHA  incidence rate of 37 means
that  the organization is having 37 injuries
per year for  each 100 employees or that,  on
the average,  1 out  of every 3 employees are
being injured.  The national average OSHA
incidence rate  for  all  industries has been
around 10 for the last  several years.

Severity Rate.  The severity rate is similar
to  the OSHA incidence rate,  except that it
reflects the  number of  OSHA days lost (i.e.,
workdays lost and light duty days),  instead
of  the number of  injuries,  per 100 man-years
worked.  For  example,  a severity rate of  500
would mean roughly  that an  organization is
losing 500 workdays for every 100 employees
per year, or  that on  the average each employee
is  losing 5 days  a year for on-the-job injuries.

Direct Costs.  Direct costs are normally  those
for which money was actually expended and in-
clude worker's compensation,  medical expenses,
and wage continuation benefits (e.g., injury
leave).  There are many indirect costs such as
down  time, replacement  time,  lost time by wit-
nesses and supervisors,  etc.,  which are not
included in these figures.   Indirect costs are
estimated to be 5 times the direct costs  in
cities according  to the National Safety Council.

Average Direct Costs  per OSHA Recordable  Injury.
An  average direct cost per  OSHA recordable injury
of  $500 means that  on the average each OSHA record'
able  injury  (i.e.,  a  non-first aid case)  is
costing the organization $500!
            2-2

-------
         •   Direct Cost per Man-Year.  It shows the
             cost per 2,000 hours or the average cost per
             year per employee.  A direct cost per man-year
             of $200 would mean that on the average an
             organization's injuries are costing $200
             per employee per year.

     In reviewing these FIGURES, the data for the AVERAGE
(shown on the FIGURES as AVG) is the most important because
it summarizes the results for all users combined.  After
examining the AVERAGES, it is important to examine how
great the range of rates between users is.  Wide ranges are
important because they show that it is possible to achieve
lower rates of injury under given operating systems and
safety programs.
                          2-3

-------
                    FIGURE  2-1




DESCRIPTION OF USERS BY OPERATIONAL CHARACTERISTICS


User
Number
101
109
111
125
136
140
146
143
161
171
172


H=Municipal
P=Private
M
M
M
M
M
M
M
M
M
M
M


Geograph.
Area
South
Midwest
West
South
South
South
South
Northeast
Midwest
Midwest
West


No. of
Employees
325
500
280
650
140
644
295
267
125
370
700
Point of Collection:
M= Mechanical
A=Alley
BY=Backyard w/o intermed. can
BYT=Backyard-Tub
BYC=Backyard-Cart
CS=Curbside
CS/A
BY/BYC
CS
CS
M/A
CS
CS/A
CS
CS/A
A
M/CS/A

Type
of
Shift
T/F
F
T
T
F
T
T
T
T
T/F
T/F
Type of Service Provided

Coll. Crew Size(s)

Resid.
4
4,3
2

3,1
3
1,2,3

3,1
3
1,2,3
Comm.
4


1
1

1,2




Resid.
&
Comm.



3



4



Disposal
L=Landfill
I=Incinerator
T=Trans. Stn.
L

L
L,I
L

L,T

L

L

-------
                                                            FIGURE 2-1 (Continued)

                                                    OPERATIONAL CHARACTERISTICS CONTINUED


User
H amber
181
186
191
204
207
210
211
212
215
217
235
236


M=Hunicipal
P — PT*I \raf-o
*- JL J. VcttG
M
M
M
M
M
M
M
M
M
M
M
M


Geograph.
Area
Midwest
South
South
West
West
West
West
West
South
South
South
South


No. of
Employees
278
297
177
52
205
15
40
130
60
820
125
103
Point of Collection:
M= Mechanical
A= Alley
BY=Backyard w/o interned, can
DYT=Backyard-Tub
B YC=B ackyard- Cart
CS=Curbside
BY
CS
CS/A
CS/A/M
BYC
CS
CS/A
CS/A
CS/BY/BYT
CS/A/BY
BYT/A/CS
CS

Type
of
Shift
T
T
T/F
F
T
T
T
F
T/F
F
T
T/F
Type of Service Provided

Coll. Crew Size(s)

Resid.
4
3
3
1,3
3

2

3
1,2,3
3
3
Comm.

3
1
1,3
2

2

1

3
1
Resid.
&
Comm.





1,2

2




Disposal
L=Landfill
I=Incinerator
T=Trans. Stn.
L
L
L
L


L


L,T
L
L
N)
 I
Ul

-------
                                                            FIGURE 2-1  (Continued)


                                                     OPERATIONAL CHARACTERISTICS  CONTINUED


User
Number
237
242
244
260
261
265
272
275
283
285
286
292


M=Municipal
P=Private
M
M
M
M
M
M
M
M
M
M
M
M


Geograph.
Area
Midwest
South
West
West
•Midwest
West
Northeast
Northeast
South
Midwest
West
Northwest


No. of
Employees •
90
101
30
168
8
200
127
40
72
79
8
225
Point of Collection:
M=Mechanical
A=Alley
BY=Backyard w/o intermed. can
BYT=Backyard-Tub
BYC=Backyard-Cart
CS=Curbside
A/BYC
CS/BY/BYT/A
BYT/BYC
CS/BYT/A/M
CS/A
CS/BYT/BYC
CS
CS
CS/A
A/BYT/BYC

CS/A/BYT/BYC

Type
of
Shift
T/F
T/F
T
T
T
T
T
T
T/F
T
F
F
Type of Service Provided

Coll. Crew Size(s)

Resid.

3
2
1,2
3
1,2
3
3
2
3

1,3
Conim.

3
1,2
2,3

2
3

3,1


2
Resid.
&
Comm.
3











Disposal
L=Landfill
I=Incinerator
T=Trans. Stn.

L,T

L
L
L,T
L,I

L,T

L,T
L
to
I

-------
                                                              FIGURE 2-1  (Continued)

                                                      OPERATIONAL CHARACTERISTICS  CONTINUED


User
Number
295
296
316
324
325
329
330


M=Municipal
P=Private
M
M
M
P
M
P
M


Geograph.
Area
South
West
Northeast
Midwest
Northwest
West
South


No. of
Employees
179
43
475
17
45
20
60
Point of Collection:
M= Mechanical
A=Alley
•««— .» j/j i j
x3 x — Dei City circi w/ o mcerinGQ. can
BYT=Backyard-Tub
BYC=Backyard-Cart
CS=Curbside
CS/BY
CS/A/BY
CS/A/BYT
CS/A/BYT/BYC
CS/A
CS
A/CS

Type
of
Shift
T
F
F
T
F
T
F
Type of Service Provided

Coll. Crew Size(s)

Resid.
4
1
2,3

2,1
3
3
Comm.
2
2,1
2,3

1,2,3
2,1
3
Resid.
&
Comm.



1,2


3
Disposal
L=Landfill
I=Incinerator
T=Trans. Stn.
L



L

L
N)
I
-J

-------
                          FIGURE  2-2
                      SUMMARY  OF  INJURIES
              BY  FREQUENCY, SEVERITY AND  COSTS
 FREQUENCY
          There were  1,189 cases reported by  36  of  the
          IRIS users  on-line:  279 first aid  cases,  355
          non-fatal cases without lost workdays,  550  lost
          workday  cases, 4 permanent disability  cases, and
          1  fatality.  Total man-hours for  this  quarter
          were 4,133,800.

          The AVERAGE OSHA incidence rate was  44  for  this
          quarter.  This means that two out of every  five
          solid waste industry employees will experience
          a  non-first aid injury a year.  The national rate
          for all  industries was 10.4.  Therefore,  the
          solid waste industry is experiencing almost
          four times as many injuries as the average  in-
          dustry.

          IRIS users ranged in frequency rates from User
          No. 204 which was experiencing 1.4 injuries per
          employee per year, to User No. 292 which was
          experiencing 11 injuries per 100  employees  per
          year.
SEVERITY
     (Days lost given are not final.  These figures reflect
what was received from IRIS users by December 31, 1976 and
may be gross underestimates.  For example, in the months
since the publication of the first quarter Accident Trends
for 1976, the OSHA severity rate has increased from 269 to
410, and not all cases are final yet.)

     •    So far, 555 cases this quarter incurred 8,150
          workdays lost and light duty days.

     •    47% of the total cases resulted in workdays
          lost and/or light duty days.   The national
          average for all industries is 33%.  This means
          that the solid waste industry has almost 1.5
          times as many lost workday injuries as the
          average industry.
                             2-8

-------
     •    The AVERAGE OSHA severity rate was 394.  This
          means that on the average, each employee is
          losing 3.9 days per year for injuries.  One
          user's rate was as high as 29 days lost per
          year per employee; several are losing zero days
          a year per employee.

     •    On the AVERAGE, each lost workday case resulted
          in 14.71 workdays lost so far.

DIRECT COSTS

      (Costs given are not final.  These figures reflect
what was received from IRIS users by December 31, 1976, and
may be gross underestimates.  For example, first quarter of
1976's AVERAGE cost per OSHA recordable injury has gone up
from $296 to $537.)

     •    Total direct costs so far for injuries that
          occurred during the second quarter was
          $466,603.

     •    The AVERAGE cost per OSHA recordable injury
          was $512.

     •    The AVERAGE cost per man-year was $226.  This
          means that the average solid waste injury
          (non-first aid) cost $226 per full-time employee
          per year so far.
                             2-9

-------
STARTING: JANUARY,  1976
                                              FIGURE 2-3

                       COMPARISON OF INJURY RATES AND OSHA DAYS LOST FOR ALL USERS
             OSHA  INCIDENCE RATE
   USER !  QTR  1   QTR  2   QTR 3  QTR 4
SEVERITY RATE
          QTR 3
101
109
111
125
136
140
146
148
161
171
172
181
186
191
204
207
210
211
212
215
217
235
236
237
242
244
260
261
265
272
275
12
36
65
31
0
31
26

13
44
50
44
13
57
79
78
104
9
79
0

7
88
15
4
93
68
48
34
ll

33
49
74
35
0
55
21
23
41
62
56
50
24
46
136
96
0
68
44
0
44
55
104
33
0
57
54
0
46
15
6O
UTK 1
47
195
1048
875
0
347
536

0
209
476
369
69
189
342
576
467
539
759
0

11
1478
35
100
170
759
145
245
243
yrK z
391
176
1293
378
0
680
137
151
33
229
1116
148
279
150
84
251
0
281
488
0
193
0
665
152
0
199
519
0
300
11
636
QTR 4
AVERAGE OSHA DAYS LOST
              QTR 3   QTR  4
UTK -L
6.50
8.03
23.39
35.54
0.00
15.37
66.50

0.00
9.58
14.56
11.48
12.25
4.00
13.00
10.30
9.00
62.00
9.65
0.00

3.00
18.53
3.50
25.00
2.75
19.42
3.00
8. 64
32. OO
(JTK ^
27.00
8.15
24.79
13.19
0.00
16.56
20.60
12.86
1.60
5.96
27.51
4.26
22.00
5.11
8.00
5.35
0.00
4.71
11.00
0.00
11.22
0.00
8.86
6.40
0.00
3.50
16.20
0.00
7. 80
1 . 50
10.67
                                                                          o _ o o

-------
  USER !
ro
I
  OSHA INCIDENCE RATE
QTR 1  QTR 2  QTR  3  QTR  4
286
292
295
296
316
324
325
329
330
AVG.
0
3
17
19





34
0
11
20
76
53
79
42
37
25
44
    SEVERITY RATE
QTR 1  QTR 2  QTR 3  QTR 4
                                             0
                                           284
                                            64
                                           476
                                           410
                                          0
                                         20
                                         20
                                       2943
                                        608
                                          0
                                        134
                                         37
                                         82

                                        394
AVERAGE OSHA DAYS LOST
              QTR 3   QTR  4
UTK i.
0.00
86.00
4.75
25.00





17.45
UiK £
0.00
4.33
2.00
51.50
17.05
0.00
4.75
2.00
5.00
14.68

-------
                                            FIGURE  2-4

                     COMPARISON  OF  DIRECT COSTS BY REPORTING PERIOD FOR ALL USERS

Starting:  January,  1976
USER !  QTR 1
TOTAL INJURY COSTS
 QTR 2   QTR 3   QTR 4
AVG. COST PER OSHA REC. INJ,
 QTR 1  QTR 2  QTR 3  QTR 4
AVERAGE COST PER MAN YEAR
              QTR 3  QTR 4
101
109
111
125
136
140
146
148
161
171
172
181
i 186
M 191
204
207
210
211
212
215
217
235
236
237
242
244
260
261
265
272
275
283
285
4,210
13,513
57,185
54,614
0
39,842
14,050

135
3,582
27,167
11,510
1,295
1,475
2,481
4,523
1,445
794
14,297
0

251
12,768
604
6,877
706
2,317
159
2,820
1,861

119
: 61
29,631
12,994
42,448
27,060
0
69,843
5,442
3,577
815
6,376
58,431
5,081
8,021
1,685
517
9,636
0
1,987
7,138
0
87,684
725
9,550
1,813
0
904
5,620
0
8,216
109
1,437
1, 346
o
386
312
1,190
895
0
711
739

18
148
393
391
143
86
275
141
361
758
621
0

125
608
201
6,877
117
110
159
214
620

59
i 61
986
213
771
375
0
688
340
255
80
163
749
153
471
120
39
235
0
248
549
0
956
48
329
259
0
226
330
0
455
27
239
147
o
yj.K j.
51
112
776
280
0
219
188

5
65
197
176
18
49
217
110
374
68
488
0

9
536
30
274
109
75
76
72
70

7
4
^TK ^
330
104
567
131
0
382
72
60
33
102
416
76
113
55
54
226
0
168
243
0
419
26
341
86
0
128
180
0
210
4
142
75
o

-------
K)
I
I—
U>
   USER !   QTR 1
TOTAL INJURY  COSTS
 QTR 2   QTR  3    QTR 4
  AVG.  COST PER OSHA  REC.  INJ.
!   QTR 1  QTR 2  QTR  3  QTR 4
286
292
295
296
316
324
325
329
330
AVG.
0
7,327
911
1,982





290,881
0
894
578
16,786
37,857
92
2,159
153
1,053
467,658
0
3,663
177
991





537
0
127
96
2,098
630
30
359
66
351
512
AVERAGE COST  PER MAN YEAR
               QTR 3  QTR 4
yiK i
0
121
30
188





183
giK f.
0
13
19
1,598
337
24
151
28
86
226

-------
                                                                     FIGURE  2-5

                                                       SUMMARY  OF  ACCIDENT  FACTORS FOR SELECTED ACCIDENT
                                               CHARACTERISTICS  UITH  HIGHEST PERCENT OF OSHA RECORDABTTTNJURIES
                                                                OSHA DAYS LOST AND DIRECT COSTS
           Type of
      Characteristic
                                                                                  Factors With The:
                                      Highest % of OSHA
                                     Recordable Injuries
                                                                                Highest % of
                                                                               OSHA  Days Lost
                                                                                                       Highest % of
                                                                                                       Direct Costs
NJ
 I
Activi ty



Accident Type



Accident Site



Nature of Injury



Part of Body
Lifting or dumping container - 40%
Getting off equipment - 8%
Riding on equipment - 7%

Overexertion involving container - 20%
SIip on same level - 6%
Fall to a different level - 6%

On collection route at back of truck - 36%
On collection route at curb - 18%
In customer's yard - 10%

Sprain or strain - 43%
Cut or puncture - 20%
Bruise - 19%

Back - 22%
Eyes - 8%
Leg - 8%
Lifting or dumping container -  33%
Riding on equipment -  10%
Carrying container - 8%

Overexertion involving container  -  26%
Fall to a different level  -  9%
Vehicle movement involved  accident  - 8%

On collection route at back  of  truck - 42%
On collection route at curb  - 14%
On collection route on step  of  vehicle -  11%

Sprain or strain - 64%
Fracture - 12%
Bruise - 10%

Back - 48%
Knee - 8%
Multiple body parts -  5%
Lifting or dumping container -  29%
Dislodging waste from container -  12%
Riding on equipment - 7%

Overexertion involving container -  23%
Caught between objects - 21%
Fall to a different level  - 7%

On collection route at back of  truck - 36%
On collection route at curb - 13%
In customer's yard - 9%

Sprain or strain - 54%
Multiple injuries - 13%
Fracture  - 13%

Back - 41%
Multiple body parts - 16%
Foot - 7%

-------
Accident Trends
3rd Quarter 1976

-------
                      EXHIBIT 4
                   ACCIDENT  TRENDS

      IN THE  SOLID WASTE  MANAGEMENT  INDUSTRY


            EQUIPMENT RELATED ACCIDENTS


      QUARTER:   JULY 1  TO SEPTEMBER  30,  1976
DEVELOPED  BY SAFETY SCIENCES, DIVISION OF WSA,  INC,
   FOR THE U,S, ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY
    OFFICE OF SOLID WASTE MANAGEMENT PROGRAMS
           UNDER CONTRACT No, 68-03-0231
                         Division of WSA Inc, 11772 Sorrento Valley Road
                         San Diego, California 92121 (714) 755-93594.452-1010

-------
Accident Trends in the Solid Waste Management
Industry is developed quarterly using data from
IRIS (the Injury Reporting and Information Sys-
tem for Solid Waste Management). Accident Trends
is designed to summarize and discuss the data
from all IRIS users and to provide data and con-
clusions which affect the industry as a whole.
A companion volume, the QSMR  (Quarterly Safety
Management Report), is developed individually
for each IRIS user who reported injuries during
the quarter.  Each QSMR concentrates only on
the injuries of the individual IRIS user for
which it is prepared.

IRIS is currently made up of 53 users.  All
possible care is taken to insure data quality.
The nature of the data and the reports, however;
precludes complete accuracy.  Not all cases are
closed by the end of the quarter.  These accidents
continue to be monitored.  Occasionally, full lost
time and cost data is not available.  Consequently,
the totals for these categories may be underestimates,
A concerted effort is made to correct the lost time
and cost figures and improve IRIS collection methods.
The recommendations and countermeasures presented are
suggestions that must be evaluated in terms of in-
dividual user's needs.

-------
                        ACCIDENT TRENDS

            IN THE SOLID WASTE MANAGEMENT INDUSTRY



 QUARTER:   JULY IST,  TO SEPTEMBER 30,  1976




                       TABLE OF CONTENTS


 INTRODUCTION                                            Page

 I.   Section I - DISCUSSION OF EQUIPMENT RELATED
                 ACCIDENTS AND PREVENTION METHODS

          Lifting to Dump Container                        2

          Dumping Container                                5

          Dismounting                                      7

          Standing or Walking                             11

          Lifting to Dump Waste                           13

          Riding                                          14

          Mounting                                        19

          Driving                                         21

          Operating Controls                              22

          Other Equipment Related Activities              26


II.   Section II - THIRD QUARTER IRIS USER
                  INDUSTRY-WIDE DATA                      68

     Part I - Frequency, Severity and Costs Rates         68

     Part II - Characteristics of Accidents               85
                               11

-------
                       LIST OF FIGURES
FIGURE 1-1:



FIGURE 1-2:


FIGURE 1-3:


FIGURE 1-4:


FIGURE 1-5:


FIGURE 1-6:


FIGURE 1-7:


FIGURE 1-8:


FIGURE 1-9:


FIGURE 1-10:


FIGURE 1-11:


FIGURE 1-12:


FIGURE 1-13:


FIGURE 1-14:


FIGURE 1-15:
Use of Rubber "Mud Guard" Flaps as
Protection Against Objects Ejected
from the Hopper

Detailed Description of Lifting-to-
Dump Container Accidents

Detailed Description of Dumping
Container Accidents

Detailed Description of Dismounting
Accidents

Detailed Description of Standing
or Walking Accidents

Detailed Description of Lifting-to-
Dump Waste Accidents

Detailed Description of Riding
Accidents

Detailed Description of Mounting
Accidents

Detailed Description of Driving
Accidents

Detailed Description of Operating
Controls Accidents

Detailed Description of Repairing
Equipment Accidents

Detailed Description of Checking
Equipment Accidents

Detailed Description of Opening
Equipment Part Accidents

Detailed Description of Emptying
Equipment Accidents

Detailed Description of Washing
Vehicle Accidents
12


30


35


39


42


45


48


50


52


53


54


55


56


57


58
                              111

-------
                                                           Paqe
FIGURE 1-16:


FIGURE 1-17:


FIGURE 1-18:


FIGURE 2-1:


FIGURE 2-2:


FIGURE 2-3:



FIGURE 2-4:


FIGURE 2-5:


FIGURE 2-6:
FIGURES 2-7A
     TO 2-7C:
FIGURES 2-8A
     TO 2-8C:
FIGURES 2-9A
     TO 2-9C:
Detailed Description of Closing
Equipment Part Accidents                 59

Detailed Description of Hooking
or Unhooking Equipment Accidents         60

Equipment Related Accidents -
Preliminary Task/Hazard Analysis         61

Description of Users by Operational
Characteristics                          71

Summary of Injuries by Frequency,
Severity, and Costs                      76

Number of Injuries Reported by Type
of Severity - Comparison of 'IRIS1
Users                                    78

Comparison of Injury Rates and OSHA
Days Lost for all Users                  80

Comparison of Direct Costs by
Reporting Period for All Users           82

Summary of Accident Factors for
Selected Accident Characteristics with
Highest Percent of OSHA Recordable
Injuries, Workdays Lost and Direct
Costs                                    84
Activities Ranked from Highest to
Lowest Percent of OSHA Recordable
Injuries, Workdays Lost and Direct
Costs                                    86
Accident Types Ranked from Highest
to Lowest Percent of OSHA Recordable
Injuries, Workdays Lost and Direct
Costs                                    92
Accident Sites Ranked from Highest
to Lowest Percent of OSHA Recordable
Injuries, Workdays Lost and Direct
Costs                                    98
                              IV

-------
                                                            Page

FIGURES 2-10A
     TO 2-10C:   Injury Types Ranked from Highest to
                 Lowest Percent of OSHA Recordable
                 Injuries, Workdays Lost and Direct
                 Costs                                       104

FIGURE 2-11:     Parts of Body Ranked from Highest
                 to Lowest Percent of OSHA Recordable
                 Injuries, Workdays Lost and Direct
                 Costs                                       107
                             v

-------
                        INTRODUCTION
          This is the Accident Trends report for the third
quarter of 1976  (July 1 to September 30).  Before reading the
results, the following points should be noted:

          •    The special feature selected for third quarter's
               Accident Trends report is equipment related acci-
               dents.  Although the actual FIGURES reflect only
               third quarter's accidents, the narrative discusses
               accidents from IRIS users since the instigation of
               IRIS in December, 1975 through September, 1976.

          •    IRIS users are only identified by number.  A table
               giving background information on the operational
               characteristics of each user is shown in FIGURE 2-1.

          •    44 out of 52 IRIS users on-line reported a total
               of 1,083 injuries.  Not all users started reporting
               injuries at the same time.  Many users began re-
               porting injuries during previous quarters, and
               others began on August 1st or September 1st. The
               injury rates shown are comparable, however, be-
               cause the different starting dates are reflected
               in the hours of exposure.  Total hours of exposure
               for the third quarter is 3,795,819.

          •    The phrase "AVERAGE" refers to the injury rates
               or numbers for all IRIS users combined.

          •    The FIGURES include the injury and time lost and
               costs data that were provided to IRIS by December 31,
               1976, the "closing date" for receiving data for the
               third quarter.  Some of the cases are "open," for
               which data is not final.  All of the time lost and
               costs data should, therefore, be interpreted as
               low in regard to the actual data.  Open cases
               are followed until the data is final.

          This Accident Trends report is divided into two sections.
SECTION I provides a discussion of equipment related accidents and
prevention methods.  It includes a Preliminary Task/Hazards Analysis
for the solid waste management industry.  SECTION II is a summary
of the data received for all IRIS users during the quarter.

          Accompanying the Accident Trends report is a separate
handouts of Proposed Recommended Safe Work Rules.  It was compiled
from the safety rules that were requested from all IRIS users.

-------
                          SECTION I

          DISCUSSION OF EQUIPMENT RELATED ACCIDENTS
                   AND PREVENTION METHODS
          Equipment related accidents were chosen as the special
feature topic for third quarter's Accident Trends Report because
of the large toll they take on frequency of injuries, days lost
and direct costs of solid waste industry injuries.  During the
third quarter of 1976, accidents that were directly related to
interaction between the injured employee and the sanitation
vehicle (e.g., driving, mounting, dismounting, riding accidents)
accounted for a full 30% of the OSHA recordable injuries, days
lost and direct costs.  To include other accidents that were
indirectly related to sanitation vehicles  (e.g., overexertion
due to dumping in the hopper or struck by object that fell out
of the con'tainer or vehicle while dumping in the hopper) as
equipment related accidents increases the overall percentage
by as much as 15%.

          The following is a discussion of the various equipment
related accidents that occurred throughout the year.  It is sep-
arated into sections by the tasks the injured employees were per-
forming.  The hazards related to each task are discussed in detail,
and accident prevention methods  (i.e., countermeasures) are offered,
Many of the countermeasures given were suggested by IRIS users. The
hazards and countermeasures are condensed for easy reference in a
Preliminary Task/Hazards Analysis shown in FIGURE 1-18.

          FIGURES 1-1 through 1-17 included at the end of Section I
provide detailed descriptions of the equipment related accidents
occurring this quarter.  Each FIGURE centers on a specific task.
The descriptions are given in profile form (i.e., sentence) and
includes the activity, accident type, injury type and part of body.
The FIGURES also provide the total number of injuries, the days
lost and the direct costs that correspond to each profile.

          The FIGURES and the discussion are ordered from the
highest to the lowest percent of OSHA recordable injuries that
occurred for a specific task (see FIGURE 2-7A).

Lifting to Dump Container  (FIGURE 1-1)

          The term "lifting-to-dump" describes the continuous
motion that begins with lifting the container and ends with the
container in a tilted position for dumping into the hopper or
an intermediate container.  Many users refer to this action as
"loading."

-------
          As can be seen by FIGURE 1-1, almost all  lifting-
to-dump container accidents occur when the employee was  in the
process of trying to dump into the hopper.  This activity often
is the second or third major cause of accidents occurring in
the solid waste industry.  It also is frequently ranked  high
in days lost and costs.  During the third quarter,  an  average
lifting-to-dump container injury resulted in 11 days lost and
$270 in direct costs.  However, since these cases tend to re-
main open due to the large number of strains incurred, these
figures are low.  For instance, an average lifting-to-dump
container injury that occurred during second quarter resulted
in 15 days lost and $393, since revised days lost and  cost
figures were supplied for the previous quarters' injuries.

          Since December 1975, 165 cases of lifting-to-dump
container injuries were reported.  This was 5.6% of the  total
number of injuries reported.  During the third quarter,  this
task accounted for 11.8% of the injuries reported.

          The major hazard in performing this task  is  losing
control of the container.  The most common injuries are  strains
to the back or shoulder.  Fifty percent of the lifting-to-dump
accidents were overexertions.  Half of these occurred  as the
employee was twisting or turning while lifting to dump.  Thirty-
three overexertions occurred as the employees were  throwing con-
tainers into the hopper.

          Many users have found the need to train employees on
proper lifting techniques.  Throwing is not allowed.   The users
recommend that employees have feet apart, and one foot forward
when lifting.  Employees should not jerk or twist when lifting
the container and should keep their backs straight  and knees
bent.  The container should be kept close to the body.   Employees
should lift with the legs rather than the back.

          Another hazard produced by turning while  lifting to
dump is striking against the vehicle.  Thirteen injuries of this
nature occurred.  This may in part be due to haste  in  which the
employee is not properly judging the location of the truck.
Employees should take a step when turning to dump rather than
twisting the body around.  Keeping the container close to the
body should also reduce elbows and hands striking against the
truck.

          Forty-two overexertions involved lifting  overweight
containers.  Several users have safety rules for  "testing" the
weight of the container.  They recommend rocking the container
with the knee to approximate the weight.  Overweight containers
are not easily recognizable because many times there may be wet

-------
yard clippings or rocks hidden in the borroms of the containers.
If a container is found to be overweight, employees should be
instructed to GET HELP-  However, employees also need to be
trained in lifting in unison, as injuries frequently occur from
noncoordinated lifting efforts.  One employee, when lifting an
overweight container with a coworker, struck his wrist against
the hopper, fracturing it.

          To aid in reducing the number of overweight containers,
a city can be encouraged to pass container regulations on the
size, weight, condition and location of the containers.  Other
regulations can encompass unacceptable waste items that must be
handled separately and requiring lids for all containers.  If
lids are required on containers at all times, it will prevent
water-filled containers in rainy weather.  If a city adopts
container regulations, they must be enforced.  Containers that
do not meet city regulations should be tagged and left.  One
IRIS user found that public education programs aided in citizen
acceptance of new container regulations.

          Employees must have a firm grip on the container while
lifting to dump.  Six injuries occurred when the container slipped
from the employee's grasp and dropped on his foot or caught his
fingers against the edge of the hopper.  Employees should step
out of the way of falling containers.  Safety shoes with rein-
forced protection for toes are recommended since these accidents
could have resulted in a serious injury to the employee's toes.

          Gloves are recommended for protection against ragged
edges of cans and glass protruding from plastic bags.  When
lifting-to-dump plastic bags, do not put hand beneath bag and
do not swing bag into hopper, as protruding glass will cut the
leg as it brushes by.  One user utilizes chaps, another aprons,
to effectively reduce cuts to the legs.  Employees should be
trained to place the bags in the hopper rather than throwing
them into the hopper as they pick them up at the curb.

          Another type of injury that occurred when lifting-to-
dump containers was when the employees lost their balance and
strained themselves or fell.  Two of the slips were due to icy
surfaces, four due to wet surfaces.  Again, the proper lifting
technique is recommended.  A slow, steady lift minimizes
imbalance.

          Employees also should watch their step when at the
back of the vehicle.  Six injuries were due to employees stepping
on rocks, boards with nails, nails and brush.  Employees should
be trained to pick up any waste that has dropped from the con-
tainer or the vehicle immediately, in order to prevent himself
or a coworker from being injured from it.

-------
          Eye protection is recommended  any time  employees are
working in the hopper vicinity.  One  employee  had a piece of
pipe strike his eye when it was ejected  from the  hopper;  he
could easily have lost his sight.  Not only does  the hopper
eject materials  (seven injuries) but  dust  is generated in the
hopper as containers are being dumped (five objects in eye in-
juries) .  Employees should be trained to keep  their heads turned
to the side when lifting to dump.  Do not  dump if the hopper is
operating.  Employees should stand to the  side of the hopper"
rather than immediately behind, to avoid ejected  waste when the
hopper is packing.  Plastic bags tend to "pop" when packed,
ejecting dust and other materials.

Dumping Container  (FIGURE 1-2)

          Dumping container accidents had  the  third highest per-
centage (11%) of OSHA recordable injuries  for  the third quarter
(see FIGURE 2-1 A} .  The average dumping  injury during the third
quarter resulted in 9 days lost and $242 in direct costs.   Since
IRIS began, 250 cases of dumping injuries  occurred, or 8.4% of
all cases reported.  Almost all the dumping container accidents
were while dumping into the hopper rather  than into an inter-
mediate container.

          The major hazard in dumping containers  is also  losing
control of the container.  The major  accident  type was over-
exertion (22%).  Employees should be  taught to:

          1.   not shake the container while dumping;  roll
               the container back and forth instead,

          2.   rest the container on  the hopper sill  while
               dumping so that the weight  of the  container
               is supported,

          3.   keep the container close  to the body to pre-
               vent awkward body positions that put undue
               stress on the back,

          4.   keep a firm grip on the container  at all
               times, and

          5.   GET HELP if the container is overweight.

Fifty percent of the overexert ions 'while dumping, containers were
due to overweight containers.  Coordination is essential  to two-
man lifts, however.  Again, container regulations against over-
weight containers are highly recommended.   In  cases where employe65
dump their intermediate containers into  the hopper, two-man lifts
are recommended or a mechanical lifting  device adapted to the
hoppers.

-------
          Ten percent of the dumping container accidents
occurred when the container slipped from the employee's grasp.
In three cases the handles on the containers broke.  Employees
should be taught to not try to catch a falling container and
to keep hands and feet clear of the container once they have
lost control of the container.  Four back strains occurred
when employees were trying to catch their falling containers.
One employee was actually trying to hold up a bulk container
when the pin came out of the chain!  Ten employees had their
fingers pinched between the container and the edge of the
hopper when their containers slipped.

          Eight percent of the dumping container accidents
were fingers and hands caught between the container and the
edge of the hopper.  When employees initially lean the con-
tainers on the hopper sill, prior to rolling the containers
to dump, they should be careful of their hand position; it
should not be underneath the top of the container as it
definitely will be caught, nor should it be to the side
since it will be pinched when the container is rolled.

          Employees should be warned against haste.  Two in-
juries occurred when the container "bounced back" from the
hopper and struck against the employee.  This implies that
the containers had been thrown.

          There should not be two employees dumping into the
hopper at the same time.  Four percent of the dumping container
accidents were where the employee was struck by or struck against
a coworker's container.  In one case, the injured employee re-
quired stitches to his head.  It also is safer to stay clear of
the coworker when he is dumping.  One injury was due to an em-
ployee standing directly behind a coworker who was dumping his
cart.  The cart slipped out of the coworker's hands and struck
the employee's arm.

          Again, eye protection is essential for anyone who
works at the back of the vehicle.  Five percent of the dumping
container injuries were due to being injured by objects ejected
from the hopper.  Several cases involved large objects that
were ejected such as bottles and boards.  Glass narrowly missed
two employees' eyes.  Employees should not be allowed to dump
while the hopper is operating.  The dangers of being near an
operating packer cannot be stressed enough.  In addition, em-
ployees should be trained to spend as little time in front of
the hopper as possible.  Fourteen percent of the injuries were
due to receiving objects in the eye while dumping; the hopper
was not operating at the time.

-------
          Employees need to beware of objects protruding  from
the hopper.  Three employees cut their arm on broken  bottles
that were protruding from the vehicle.  One employee  struck
against a branch.

          If employees use the proper dumping technique of
resting the container on the hopper sill and rolling  the  con-
tainer back and forth, several other injuries could have  been
prevented.  Fourteen injuries occurred when the  employees were
struck by objects that fell out of the container or the vehicle.
Employees should not hold the containers high, as  this causes
the garbage to "spill" out. It is also an awkward  body position.

          Employeer were also bumping into the truck  as they
were dumping their containers.  Eight percent of the  dumping
container accidents were of this nature.  Nine injuries were
from the employees striking their elbows on the  edge  of the
hopper.  This could be prevented by keeping the  container
close to the body and not shaking the container  while dumping.
Six employees were handling overweight containers  at  the  time
and may have found them awkward to dump.  They should have re-
quested help.

          Another rule to remember while dumping is to keep
the feet firmly planted on the ground and parted for  balance.
Thirteen injuries involved the employees losing  their footing
as they were dumping, three involved ice on the  ground, two
wet surfaces and one oil on the ground.

Dismounting  (FIGURE 1-4)

          Dismounting from the vehicle resulted  in 8% of  the
OSHA recordable injuries for the third quarter.  This was the
fourth highest percentage of OSHA recordable injuries.  Approxi-
mately half of the injuries occurred while the employee was dis-
mounting from the step and half while dismounting  from the cab.
The average dismounting accident resulted in seven days lost
and $201 during the third quarter.

          Dismounting from step.  A total of 108 accidents where
the employees were hurt when stepping off the rear or side steps
of the vehicle have been reported since IRIS began.

          The major hazard encountered when employees are dis-
mounting from the step is lack of sure footage.  Forty-five
percent of the injuries were caused by "unfavorable roadway con-
ditions  (e.g., objects on the ground, uneven surfaces, slippery
surfaces).

-------
          When dismounting, employees should be trained to:

          1.   look where they are stepping,

          2.   dismount backwards rather than forwards,

          3.   maintain a firm grip on the handhold until
               both feet are securely placed on the ground,

          4.   place feet flatly on the surface.

On no account should they dismount while the vehicle is still
in motion; they should wait until after the truck has completed
its backward lurching motion in stopping.

          Equipment design factors must also be considered in
aiding the employee in mounting and dismounting.  Are the hand-
rails on the vehicles conveniently located and long enough to
be held onto until the employee is firmly situated on the ground,
or are they so high that they can only be held onto while the
employee is riding on the step?  Are the steps on the vehicles
located at such a height that it causes an awkward mounting or
dismounting stance?

          The American National Standards Institute Z245.1-1975
standard entitled, "Safety Requirements for Refuse Collection,"
has standards relevant to step design.  It stipulates:

          7.3.7     Riding Steps and Grab Handles

          7.3.7.1   The surface and edges of steps shall
                    have a slip-resistant surface.  They
                    shall be self-cleaning or be protected
                    against the accumulation of mud, snow,
                    and ice.

          7.3.7.2   Steps shall be designed to carry a
                    uniformly distributed load of not less
                    than 1000 pounds.

          7.3.7.3   If steps are provided, they shall be
                    mounted not more than 22 inches above
                    the road surface.

          7.3.7.4   Steps shall have a depth of at least 8
                    inches and shall provide a minimum of 220
                    square inches of riding surface area.

-------
          7.3.7.5   Grab handles shall be provided  in  con-
                    junction with riding steps and  be  located
                    so as to provide the employee with a  safe
                    and comfortable riding stance.  Each  grab
                    handle shall be capable of withstanding a
                    pull of at least 500 pounds.

Review your organization's step and grab handles' designs to
see if they meet the above guidelines.

          Employees were not looking at where they  were stepping,
In 33 cases, employees lost their balance when they stepped down
onto bricks, rocks, potholes in the pavement, drainage holes,
cracks in the sidewalk and edges of curbs.  One employee  stepped
down on a container, fell and fractured his ankle.  Seven other
employees slipped when they stepped onto loose gravel,  oil spots
and icy and wet pavements.  In seven other cases, employees
punctured their feet when they stepped on date thorns,  nails
and boards with nails.

          When employees are dismounting onto a known  slippery
surface, they should place their feet flat on the surface to
decrease slippage.  Safety shoes with high ankles are  strongly
recommended (many users require them) not only to give added
support to the ankle when mounting and dismounting, but also
to reduce puctures to the foot.  Several users issue special
high traction shoes designed for walking on the snow and  ice
and have found them useful in reducing their slips  and falls.
However, it must also be recognized that although slip resistant
shoes may be useful in inclement weather conditions, they should
not be used in good weather because of the opposite effect of
knee injuries occurring from too much traction.  Therefore,
different  safety shoes should be issued depending  on  seasonal
weather changes.

          Employees should not be allowed to get on or off the
step while the truck is still in motion.  Nor should they be
allowed to jump on or off the step.  One accident that could
have resulted in a serious injury occurred when the truck
driver drove off as the employee was dismounting, and  the
wheel of the truck ran over his foot.  Fortunately, the acci-
dent only resulted in a bruised foot.  Two employees fell when
they got off the step before the truck stopped.  In six cases,
employees were jumping off the step when they sprained their
ankles.  Several users give reprimands or warnings  for these
types of accidents where the employees were in direct  violation
of safety rules.  Repeated warnings would result in suspension.
To make any safety rules meaningful, violations of  the rules
must be acted upon immediately.

-------
          Injuries can also occur from twisting or turning the
body when dismounting.  Two employees turned as they stepped
down in order to pick up cans from the curb; one slipped and
fell, the other strained his knee.

          Slippery steps is another hazardous condition that
is particularly prominent in wet and icy weather conditions.
Several users have modified their steps to make them more slip
resistant.  Some users are utilizing abrasive adhesive material
on steps and others use open-mesh steps that do not accumulate
snow or water.  An important point to recognize with the abrasive
material is maintenance.  The material wears down periodically
and, therefore, should be checked and replaced on a regular basis,

          Dismounting from cab.  The accidents occurring are
distinguished from dismounting from the step accidents by two
new factors being introduced:

          1.   increased dismounting height, and

          2.   a movable vehicle part, the door.

Because of the increased difficulty in dismounting from the
cab as opposed to dismounting from the step, the proper dis-
mounting procedure is even more important.  There is increased
likelihood of being off balance as one "climbs" out of the cab
instead of simply stepping down.  Equipment design factors to
be considered for this activity are also long, vertical grab
handles and slip resistant steps.

          Thirty employees slipped on the running board and
fell while they were dismounting.  They accounted for close
to a third of the dismounting from cab injuries.  In a majority
of the cases, the accidents were caused by the employees dis-
mounting forwards, rather than backwards.  The advantages to
dismounting backwards are that the person can look at where he
is stepping as_ he is getting out of the cab, and he can use a
stationary handrail for support rather than a door that might
swing from his grasp.  Again, maintaining a firm grip on the
handhold at all times and stepping down firmly and steadily
are important in maintaining balance.  In addition, make sure
that the cab door is opened completely before dismounting.
Five employees had their hands caught by the closing door,
and one was struck on the side by the door, while they were
dismounting from the cab.

          Eight injuries were due to stepping on objects on
the ground, two were due to oily surfaces and five were due
to stepping in holes in the pavement.  Employees should watch
for these hazardous surface conditions when they are dismounting.
                              10

-------
          Another three injuries occurred as the employees
jumped out of the cab, and one employee's foot was run over
by the still-moving vehicle.  Employees should be instructed
against haste.  One user has a safety rule that makes the
driver responsible for the safety of his passenger.  The
driver does not allow his rider to get out of the cab unless
the vehicle is completely stopped.  Accidents can be reduced
by training the employees on each crew to work as a "team"
in looking out for each other's safety.

          Three other injuries were due to the employees'
clothing being caught while they were getting out of the cab.
Two employees caught their gloves in the door handle, and one
employee was tripped up when his pant leg caught on something.
Again, dismounting backwards might have prevented these acci-
dents by the employees relying on the handrails for support
rather than the door handles.  Employees should not wear pants
that are cuffed or excessively loose at the ankles, as they
will catch easily on protruding objects.

Standing or Walking (FIGURE 1-5)

          "Standing or walking" is an activity description
that is used only if the employee is not doing anything else.
For instance, if an employee is standing at the curb, waiting
for the packing cycle to end before he lifts the container to
dump it, his activity fits under this category.  Had he been
actually carrying the already dumped container back to the
curb, his activity would be categorized instead as "carrying
container."

          Standing or walking accidents accounted for 7% of
third quarter's OSHA recordable injuries, but the actual per-
centage of these accidents that were equipment related were
under 2%.

          The majority of the injuries were caused by being
struck by waste ejected from the hopper.  One user reduced
this hazard by installing "mud flaps"  (see FIGURE 1-1) over
the hopper.  When the hopper is packing, the rubber flaps
contain the waste and prevent waste from flying out of the
hopper or falling out.  In the time since this countermeasure
was discussed in first quarter's Accident Trends, several
other users decided on modifying their equipment with mud
flaps also.

          Other safety countermeasures include:

          1.   eye protection at all times.

          2.   spend as little time in front of the hopper
               as possible, and
                              11

-------
                      FIGURE 1-1
           USE OF RUBBER  "MUD GUARD" FLAPS
AS PROTECTION AGAINST OBJECTS EJECTED FROM THE  HOPPER

-------
          3.   stand to the side of the hopper with  head
               averted until the cycle is  finished.

In addition, the packer operator should be responsible  for
making sure that no one is at the back of  the vehicle when the
packer is operating.  A signal should be worked out  whereby he
informs his coworkers that he is going to  start the  packer
before operating the packer.  Three employees had  their fingers
caught by the packer blade while walking behind the  truck with
their hand resting on the hopper sill.

          A special mention also needs to  be made  on five cases
in which employees were struck by private  vehicles as they were
walking from around the back of the vehicle or walking  across
the street.  Employees should only pick up containers from one
side of the street at a time, thus eliminating the hazard of
them walking back and forth across busy thoroughfares.  The
driver should put on his emergency blinkers and pull off to
the side as much as possible when he is at a collection stop.
The blinkers warn motorists to proceed with caution.  Employees
should wear traffic vests that are bright  and easily noticed by
motorists, particularly during early morning and later  afternoon
hours and during inclement weather when visibility is poor.  In
addition, any employee who is walking from around  the vehicle
into oncoming traffic should look both directions  to make sure
the way is clear before stepping forward.

          One serious injury occurred when the employee was
struck by the tailgate as it flew open, fracturing his  hand.
His injury resulted in 16 days lost and $1,960 in  costs. Appar-
ently, the turnbuckles were not latched properly after  the load
had been dumped.  Employees should make sure that  all turnbuckles
are latched properly before leaving the landfill,  and,  once back
on the route, recheck them before dumping  into the hopper.  Em-
ployees should in addition check the turnbuckles as  a regular
part of checking the vehicle before leaving the yard.

Lifting-to-Dump Waste (FIGURE 1-6)

          Lifting-to-dump waste accidents  accounted  for 6% of
the OSHA recordable injuries for the third quarter.  However,
only a fifth of these injuries were directly related to the
vehicle.  Because the employees handle uncontained waste, many
of the injuries are puncture wounds to the hands from boards
with nails and cuts to the legs from carrying brush.

          Several equipment related injuries were  the result of
throwing.  Two employees fell when they thre chairs  onto the
open body truck.  They were on bulky item  collection.   One em-
ployee was throwing a vacuum cleaner.onto  the truck, and the
                               13

-------
hose struck his face.  Employees should not be allowed to throw
items.  This action is a twisting motion that not only puts
stress on the shoulders and back but also leaves the body off
balance.

          One of the most serious injuries that occurred during
third quarter was when an employee was loading a washing machine
onto an open body truck; it fell on his foot, fracturing it.
Another employee was loading an ice box when he set it down on
his finger.  When employees are required to collect heavy, bulky
items, the two-man crews should be trained on how to lift in
unison.  Many IRIS users have hydraulic lifts at the back of
the trucks because the increased sill height on the open body
trucks can easily cause strains.  Some users employ a ramp and
dolly method instead.

          Employees also need to keep their elbows close to the
body and to avoid sudden turning or jerking motions.  Four em-
ployees struck their elbows and hands against the truck while
loading.

          Special caution should be taken in handling ceramic
waste  (e.g., toilet bowls, wash basins).  In three cases, the
ceramic waste slipped when employees were lifting to dump; it
struck the edge of the truck, broke and cut the employee's hand
or arm.  If the item is too bulky or heavy, employees should
get help, and ceramic waste items should be placed in the truck
rather than thrown.

          Again, two employees were loading waste while the
hopper was operating.  They were struck by items that swung
around when the packer was operating.  No one should be dumping
in the hopper when it is operating.

Riding  (FIGURE 1-7)

          Riding on equipment accidents include riding on the
step and riding in the cab.  Riding accidents accounted for
5.4% of all accidents since IRIS began.  It was the eighth
highest in OSHA recordable injuries for the third quarter. The
average riding accident resulted in 15 days lost and $472 in
the third quarter.  However, the proportion of riding on the
step accidents to riding in the cab accidents was three to one.

          Riding on step.  Riding on the side or rear step
accidents have totaled 116 or 3.9%.  This is slightly higher
than the dismounting from step total.
                              14

-------
          When employees are riding on the  step  they  should:

          1.   maintain a firm grip on the  handhold with  both
               hands,

          2.   keep their bodies close to the  truck,  and

          3.   stand with feet placed squarely on  the step
               and slightly apart.

Employees should not ride on the step if the truck is moving
beyond two blocks' distance; they should ride  in the  cab.
Another consideration for safety and comfort of  the employee
while riding on the step is step and handrail  design  (see dis-
cussion under dismounting from step).

          A large percentage  (35%) of the riding on step  acci-
dents were due to the vehicle jerking suddenly and throwing the
rider off balance.  These accidents do not  include vehicle acci-
dents.  In 15 cases, the truck stopped suddenly  (three were
while avoiding pedestrians and cars).  The  sudden  stops resulted
in the employees falling off  (one fractured his  elbow), striking
against the truck (one fractured his ribs) , and  spraining their
backs.  One accident that was nearly serious occurred when the
employee's foot flew up in the air when the truck  stopped sud-
denly (his shoes had oil on them); the packer  was  operating at
the time and caught his foot, but his foot, luckily,  was  only
cut by the blade.  Eight accidents resulted when the  truck hit
a bump in the road, causing the employees to fall  off.  Seven
accidents occurred when the truck went over chuckholes, and the
employees fell off.  Three employees fell off  as the  vehicle
was making a turn; one fractured his foot.  In six cases  the
truck went over a curb.  In two cases the truck  "downshifted"
suddenly.

          All of the above accidents are related to the driving
ability of the driver.  He needs to be aware of  the fact  that
any jolts produced by the vehicle will affect  the  rider on the
step.  Several users require their driver to take  a defensive
driving course.  However, the drivers should in  addition  be
required to retake the course periodically, as they tend  to
relax their defenses with time.  Any defensive driving course
for sanitation truck drivers should include the  following com-
mon sense rules that could have prevented most of  the riding
on step accidents:

          1.   Observe the posted speed limit.

          2.   Slow down when approaching  any  bumps or holes
               in the road.
                              15

-------
3.   When shifting gears, be sure the speed range
     is in the correct zone for shifting in order
     to avoid jerks.

4.   When driving in residential neighborhoods, be
     on the lookout for children playing.

5.   Trucks should be in low gear when going down
     inclines, and drivers should "pump" the brakes.

6.   Drivers should be alert to low hanging and pro-
     truding branches when driving through narrow
     streets.  Warn employees by sounding horn.  If
     the limbs cannot be avoided, have the employees
     ride in the cab.  Fourteen accidents occurred
     as the employees were struck by tree limbs. In
     two cases, the truck broke off a limb that struck
     the employee.

7.   Drivers should not drive so close to the side
     of the road as to endanger their riders.  One
     case in point occurred when the driver drove
     too close to a parked car.  The employee riding
     on the side step had to resort to jumping over
     the car hood to avoid being caught between the
     two vehicles.

8.   When passing intersections, drivers should be
     on the alert for cars running the stop sign or
     light.

9.   Drivers should also be aware of the difference
     in truck movement produced by a truck with a
     full load as opposed to an empty truck.  The
     stopping distance required increases with in-
     creased weight, and drivers should turn corners
     slowly when carrying a full load, as the load
     may shift when turning.

10.  Drivers should maintain a distance of one car
     length per ten miles of speed between the sani-
     tation vehicle and the vehicle in front; in-
     crease this distance as the load increases.

11.  Drivers should decrease their driving speed
     during foul weather.

12.  Drivers and passengers in the cab should wear
     seat belts.
                    16

-------
          In addition, employees should not  be  allowed to ride
on the step any time while the vehicle is  backing.   Seven acci-
dents occurred due to this unsafe act.  The  employee was  caught
between the truck and a tree, a telephone  pole,  a  sign and
another truck in five cases.  One employee must  have been dis-
mounting at the same time since he caught  his foot  between the
step and the curb as the truck backed up.  One near-serious
accident occurred as the employee was riding illegally on the
step while the driver was backing.  The driver  started the
packing mechanism.  This startled the employee who  had his
hand and foot near the hopper.  He jumped  off and broke his
heel.

          Many users have safety rules against riding on  the
step while the driver is backing.  Their safety  rules specify
instead that:

          1.   the employee be visible to  the driver at all
               times, whether directly or  by means  of the
               side mirrors,

          2.   the employee directs the driver  in his backing
               by means of hand signals, rather  than verbal,

          3.   the employee is not walking backwards as he
               directs,

          4.   the employee has a clear view of  the ground
               that the driver is backing  over,  and

          5.   the driver utilize the horn or back-up alarms
               when backing.

In addition, they specify that drivers are not to back up in-
clines.  One user also suggests that instead of  backing out of
alleys into the flow of traffic, that the  driver backs into the
alley or dead-end street.

          Drivers should not allow their riders  to  ride on vehicle
parts that were not designed for riding.   One employee was riding
on the hopper sill.  The packing mechanism was malfunctioning and
threw him to the ground.  Another employee was  illegally  riding
on the step of the bin in front of the front loader.  The step
broke off, and the driver fortunately was  able  to  stop short of
running him over.  Employees need to be supervised  to make sure
that they are not disobeying the safety rules.   Once caught in
violation, immediate action should be taken  to  reprimand  the
employee, since safety rules are only effective  if  they are
enforced.
                              17

-------
          Two accidents occurred from the step collapsing.  The
welds and/or braces on the steps need to be periodically checked
for cracks.

          Employees should not be engaged in other activities
while they are riding on the step.  One employee turned around
to see who was shouting and struck his head against a cement
pole.  Another employee was waving at a car and caught his hand
in the packer blade.  Another employee was trying to knock some
mud off his boots as the truck was going up an incline. He fell
off the side step and the truck ran over his leg.  He sustained
a bruise.  In one other case the employee was leaning around
the side, trying to operate the packing mechanism, when he was
struck by a telephone pole.  In one last case, the employee
was packing the garbage when his glove became caught in the
blace and trapped his arm in the hopper.

          Because of the inherent danger of being next to the
hopper when it is packing, employees should not be allowed to
operate the packing mechanism if anyone is riding on the step.
Several employees were careless of where they placed their hands
or feet as the packer was operating.  One employee was standing
oh the step with his foot on the hopper rail when the blade
fractured his foot.  Another employee had his toe bruised badly
in a similar accident.  Then there was the case mentioned earlier
of the employee jumping off and fracturing his heel when the
driver started the packing mechanism.  Step and grab handle
designs need to be re-examined to determine whether employees
can ride comfortably on the steps.  It may be that employees
are resorting to riding with their hand on the side of the
hopper and their foot on the hopper sill because it is more
comfortable.

          Several vehicle accidents occurred while employees
were riding on the step.  In five cases the sanitation truck
was struck by private vehicles, and in two cases the truck hit
light poles.  Equipment design must be considered to make sure
that when the employees are riding on the step, they do not
block the rear signal lights.  Drivers should be cautious when
pulling back into traffic.  They should make sure the way is
clear before moving forward and should use their turn signals.
Drivers should check their brake, signal and emergency lights
on a regular basis, and any malfunction should be reported
and repaired immediately.

          Riding in cab.  Forty-four accidents occurred while
employees were riding in the cab since users began reporting
injuries to IRIS.  This was 1.5% of all injuries.
                              18

-------
          Of these, 60% were due to vehicle  accidents.   In five
cases employees were injured when the  sanitation truck  struck
another vehicle; in eleven cases, the  sanitation truck  was struck
by a private vehicle.  Three other accidents were due to the
driver losing control of his vehicle and overturning; in one
case excessive speed was at fault.  Two other  cases  were that
the truck swerved to avoid a car and ran into  a  post.   It is
highly recommended that employees wear seat  belts when  they
ride in the cab, as this reduces the severity  of vehicle acci-
dents.  Defensive driving courses are  again  recommended for
drivers.

          Employees should make sure that  they latch the door
properly when they close the cab door.  In two cases, the em-
ployees fell out of the door when it opened  while the truck
was turning a corner.  If the door locking mechanism is defec-
tive, employees should report it to the garage immediately.

          Five other injuries were due to  sudden jerking motions
of the vehicle.  In three cases the snowplow blade struck the
curb, in one case the snowplow blade struck  a  manhole cover and
in one case the truck struck a rock.

          When the truck is at the landfill  or transfer station
to dump, the windows should be kept closed.  Two employees re-
ceived objects in their eyes when another  vehicle drove by.
Windows should also be kept closed when driving  in areas with
overhanging limbs.  Two employees were struck  in the eye by
limbs when the vehicle passed through  an alley.

Mounting (FIGURE 1-8)

          Mounting equipment injuries  resulted in the tenth
highest number of OSHA recordable injuries (3.5%)  for the third
quarter.  The average mounting injury  resulted in 10 days lost
and $296 during the third quarter so far.  Approximately half
the mounting injuries occurred while the employee was getting
on the step and half while the employee was  getting  in  the cab.

          Mounting step.  A total of 41 accidents occurred while
the employee was getting on the step in the  last three  quarters.

          A prominent factor in mounting the step injuries was
interaction between the driver and the injured employee. In
eight cases, the employees were hurrying to  get  on the  step
because the truck was pulling away.  The employees either fell
off or struck against the truck.In one case  the truck was
backing while the employee was mounting, and the employee
slipped off the wet step, striking his knee  on the step. That
                              19

-------
employee could easily have been run over by the truck. Driver-
rider coordination needs to be established.  The driver should
not move the truck until both employees are securely placed on
the steps.  The employees should signal to him that they are
prepared for him to move forward.

          When mounting the step employees should:

          1.   not get on until the truck is at a complete
               stop,

          2.   grasp the handrail firmly,

          3.   watch where they place their feet, and

          4.   step up firmly and steadily.

Employees should not be allowed to jump on.  Extra caution
should be observed when mounting onto a known wet or icy step.
Again, step and handrail design  (see dismounting step discussion)
must be considered.

          Eighteen injuries occurred when the employees slipped
on the step as they were getting on.  Five accidents were due to
the employee misstepping when getting on the step and striking
their legs on the step.

          Two additional mounting step injuries occurred when
the step collapsed.  As mentioned previously, the welds and
braces supporting the steps should be periodically inspected
for cracks.

          Getting in cab.  A total of 45 accidents have been
reported in which the employees were injured while they were
getting into the cab.  This accounts for 1.5% of all accidents
reported.

          Fourteen employees slipped on the running board and
struck against the vehicle as they lost their balance.  Another
11 injuries were due to striking against the vehicle while
mounting.  In another four cases, the employees were struck by
the closing door.  As mentioned under dismounting from the cab,
to help employees maintain their balance while mounting, equip-
ment should have convenient grab handles and slip resistant
running boards.

          When getting into the cab the employees should:

          1.   not mount unless the vehicle is completely
               stopped,
                              20

-------
          2.   make sure the cab door  is  completely opened
               before mounting,

          3.   maintain a firm grasp on the  handrail at all
               times,

          4.   watch to make sure their feet clear the step,
               and

          5.   step up firmly and steadily.

Driving  (FIGURE 1-9)

          There were 92 total driving  accidents,  which is  3%
of all accidents reported.  The average driving accident in
the third quarter resulted in 7 days lost and $308.

          A third of the injuries were due to sudden jerking
movements of the vehicle.  Six cases involved the steering
wheel spinning when the truck struck a curb, rock, brick or
hole, one employee's thumb was fractured.  Five accidents
occurred at the landfill.  The compactor  and dozer operators
sustained strains when the equipment jerked  as it struck a
rock or log; one dozen operators slipped  a disc in his back
when driving over rough terrain.  One  truck  and trailer jack-
knifed at the landfill.  Another truck was enroute from the
incinerator to the landfill with a load of ashes  when the  truck
overturned due to the ashes shifting,  and yet another sweeper
truck overturned when attempting a U turn.   As recommended under
the riding on step discussion, drivers should be  made aware of
the above hazards of driving through training.  Defensive  driving
not only will reduce injuries to the drivers but  also to their
passengers.

          Eleven accidents were due to collisions in which a
private vehicle struck the sanitation  truck, and  only three
accidents occurred in which the truck  struck a car.   One vehicle
became out of control during rainy weather and collided with
three cars before coming to a standstill.  In two other cases,
the drivers were injured when avoiding collision  with another
vehicle.  One driver braked suddenly,  but the other slid out
of control.   He was fired for drunk driving  and for "tailgating."
Drivers should be particularly careful driving when the road con-
ditions are slippery and be on the lookout for swerving vehicles-

          While driving, the employee  should not  be distracted;
he should keep his attention on the road.  One employee was ad-
justing the side mirror while driving  and had his hand scraped
when it was caught between the wall ramp  and the  mirror. Another
driver turned to look out the window.  His cigarette hit the
steering wheel, throwing ashes into his eyes.  He could have
lost control of the vehicle.
                               21

-------
          Several drivers received objects in their eye while
at the landfill and on windy days.  They should keep their
windows closed when excessive dust is encountered.

          Three accidents to landfill equipment operators
occurred when their vehicles' tires threw up objects.  Eye
protection is essential to these equipment operators since
the cab of their vehicles are not enclosed.  In addition,
equipment modifications should be considered in order to
provide screen guards for the vehicles.

          A special mention should be made of the accidents
that were due to equipment malfunction.  In one case, the
packer lid on the front loader was partially up.  The lid
caught on an overhead cable while the truck was going around
a corner, causing the truck to overturn.  The driver was se-
verely bruised.  Another accident was due to brake failure
when the driver was attempting to stop at a red light; the
truck rolled forward and struck a vehicle.  In another case
the hand brake broke off when the driver pulled on it at the
stop; the truck rolled forward and was struck by a car.  The
drive shaft broke in another accident, causing the driver to
lurch forward into the windshield.  When the brakes locked
on another driver, he drove off the road to avoid striking
other vehicles and overturned.  In another case, the seat
fell in and the driver immediately slammed on his brakes,
causing a sprain to his back.  The accelerator stuck on
one driver and his truck struck a fence.  In one case, the
back end of the vehicle fell off, causing the truck to stop
suddenly and injuring all three crew members.  All of these
accidents could have resulted in very serious injuries.  It
must be emphasized that any problems with the vehicle should
be reported immediately.

Operating Controls  (FIGURE 1-10)

          Almost all operating controls accidents were accidents
that occurred as the employees were operating the packing mecha-
nism.  Although this activity resulted in less than 1% of the
overall injuries, it caused several serious dismemberment in-
juries that were very high in days lost and costs.

          All of the caught in packer accidents need to be dis-
cussed in detail.  One fatality occurred in the second quarter
to an employee who was cleaning behind the blade on a side
loader.  The driver claims that the employee told him to go
ahead and operate the packing mechanism, but the employee was
apparently still in the body, attempting to climb out, when
the blade caught him.  Another employee was attempting to
dislodge a box that became caught between the blade and bed.
                              22

-------
He was backing the blade up in order to push  the  box in,  but
he did not take his right hand off the lever.   His  hand, slipped
and activated the packing mechanism which amputated his hand.
Another employee was reaching for paper that  had  fallen in front
of the blade while the hopper was operating;  it resulted  in an
amputation to his forearm.  In another case,  the  employee was
pushing garbage into the hopper when a coworker started the hop-
per; he bruised his hand. In still another  case,  the employee was
rearranging boxes in the hopper while the packer  was operating;
he fractured his arm.  Another employee was pushing garbage in
with his left hand while his right hand rested  on the lever;
his hand slipped and activated the packing mechanism which
fractured his hand.  All of these injuries  could  easily have
been prevented through adequate training and/or equipment
modifications aimed at preventing caught-in-packer  accidents.

          The American National Standards Institute Z245.1-1975
Standard entitled "Safety Requirements for  Refuse Collection and
Compaction Equipment" has several standards relevant to caught-
in-packer accidents.  Section 7.3.3,"Controls"  prescribes:

          7.3.3     Controls

          7.3.3.1   Each control shall be conspicuously
                    labeled as to its function.

          7.3.3.2   Controls (for example,  for  operating
                    packer panel, tailgate, point-of-operation
                    guards, ejector panel,  container hoists)
                    shall be designed and located to prevent
                    unintentional activation.

          7.3.3.2.2 Stop button controls shall  be red,  dis-
                    tinguishable from all other controls  by
                    size and color, and not be  recessed.

          7.3.3.3   Packing cycle controls  shall  be located
                    so that the operator has  a  view of  the
                    loading sill.  In order to  minimize ex-
                    posure to normal traffic, the packing
                    cycle operating controls  shall  be lo-
                    cated on the side of the  vehicle opposite
                    the normal traffic side of  the  vehicle.
                    Two sets of packing cycle controls  shall
                    not be permitted except for additional
                    dock height controls located  on the same
                    side and above the packing  cycle controls.
                              23

-------
          7.3.3.4   Controls for raising the tailgate and
                    unloading the compacted load shall be
                    located away from the rear of the
                    equipment.

          7.3.3.5   For emergencies a means of stopping and
                    moving the packer panel away from the
                    pinch point (prior to the pinch point)
                    shall be provided.  Emergency stop con-
                    trols shall be red, distinctly labeled
                    as to function, and not be recessed.

Section 7.3.6, "Point-of-Operation Protection," of the standard
is also designed to protect against caught-in-packer accidents:

          7.3.6     Point-of-Operation Protection.  The em-
                    ployee shall be protected from pinch
                    points during the packing cycle by one
                    of the following means:

               (1)   Deadman control from the initiation of
                    the packing cycle until the packer panel
                    clears the loading sill.

               (2)   An elevating hopper that raises any pinch
                    point during the packing cycle at least 5
                    feet above the working surface.

               (3)   A movable guard that is interlocked with
                    the lacking cycle so that it is in place
                    before the packer panel is within 6 inches
                    of the pinch point.  The movable barrier
                    shall be designed so that it shall not be
                    hazardous in itself.

               (4)   A control that provides an interrupted
                    cycle.  Actuation of the control shall
                    cause the packer panel to stop not less
                    than 6 inches or more than 16 inches
                    from the pinch point created by the
                    packer panel as it moves past the hopper
                    loading sill.  The control shall require
                    reactivation to complete the packing
                    cycle by a subsequent motion by the
                    operator.

               (5)   Other means, at least as effective as
                    those given in 7.3.6(1) through 7.3.6(4),
                    that will protect an employee from the
                    pinch point.
                              24

-------
          One IRIS user modified their packer controls such
that the operator is required to use both hands to operate
the packing mechanism.  Therefore, he will not have a free
hand to insert in the hopper.  However, employees must not
be allowed to jam the controls so that it can be operated
with one hand.  Other industry equipment manufacturers solved
this problem by programming the controls to not function un-
less the pressure on the controls are periodically relieved.

          Several IRIS users have safety rules aimed at re-
ducing the caught-in-packer accidents.  They train their em-
ployees to:

          1.   operate the controls with the left hand if
               the controls are located on the right side,

          2.   keep head averted from the hopper,

          3.   wear eye protection,

          4.   never try to dislodge, catch or push back
               waste while the packer is operating,

          5.   signal to coworkers that he is starting the
               packer before operating, and

          6.   keep all employees away from the hopper while
               it is in operation.

In addition, the packer should be activated as soon as the
hopper becomes filled.  Overfilling the packer results in the
excess garbage being pushed out and jamming in the blade as
the packer is pushing the load into the body of the vehicle.

          Twelve cases occurred in which the packer operator
was struck by objects ejected from the hopper.  One employee
was avoiding a board that was ejected when he fell.  Employees
in addition need to be aware of objects that may swing around
in the hopper when packed, such as branches.

          Two other employees were struck by the tailgate when
it broke loose as they were operating the packing mechanism.
As mentioned previously, the employees should recheck the turn-
buckles or latches after returning to the collection route from
the landfill.  Be certain that they are latched securely before
approaching the rear of the truck.
                               25

-------
Other Equipment Related Activities  (FIGURES 1-11 to 1-17)

          A brief discussion follows on other activities that
were related to working with the equipment.  Each resulted in
less than 1% of the OSHA recordable injuries.

          Repairing equipment  (FIGURE l-llj_.  Although this
activity resulted in less than 1% of the OSHA recordable in-
juries during third quarter, the average injury resulted in
12 days lost and $366.  The equipment maintenance section's
employees account for less than 10% of the IRIS workforce.
Therefore, the frequency of repairing equipment injuries was
quite high.  Employers should reevaluate their safety rules
for the maintenance shop.  Perhaps the supervision has de-
clined and employees need to be retrained.

          Nearly 20% of the injuries were objects in the eye.
Since employees frequently work under the vehicle, they are
likely to receive dislodged particles in the eye while repairing.
Rust particles were mentioned in four of the cases.  Eye pro-
tection is recommended for all personnel repairing equipment.
Face masks are recommended when welding, for additional pro-
tection to the face.

          Six cases involved the handtool slipping from the
employee's grasp and four cases involved vehicle parts falling.
Employees should apply firm, steady pressure as wrenches are
used.  They should also ask for help in handling heavy or
awkward vehicle parts.

          Three cases involved the  jack slipping.  Whether the
employees are positioning the  jacks under the frame correctly
and whether they block the wheels need to be examined.

          Checking equipment malfunction  (FIGURE 1-12).  Four
injuries occurred as the employees  were burned by the hot
radiator water when they were  checking the overheating engines.
Employees should be trained to not  open the radiator cap while
the engine is still hot.  When the  engine has cooled, the radia-
tor cap can be removed with caution.  Employees should cover the
cap with a cloth, turn the cap a quarter of a turn to release
pressure first and then slowly remove the cap, standing  to one
side.  In addition, the radiator water level should be checked
periodically, the radiator should be flushed regularly and the
proper proportion of antifreeze added.  A radiator overflow
system can be installed also to reduce evaporation and to by-
pass having to open the radiator cap to check the water  level.
                               26

-------
          Two other accidents were due to the employees being
struck by the hood.  Employees should use the safety catch to
support the hood before placing any part of their body under
the hood.

          Opening equipment part  (FIGURE 1-13) .  The employees
were opening the tailgate or rear door in three quarters of the
cases.  The compacted load in the truck is under tremendous
pressure.  Therefore, employees must relieve the pressure be-
fore attempting to open the tailgate.  Employees should relieve
pressure by pulling the ejector blade forward toward the cab
before unlatching the turnbuckles.  In addition, when opening
the tailgate, keep all body parts away from the swing arc of
the back door.

          Additional caution should be used when unlatching a
rear door that hinges on the side rather than the top, since
they are usually not hydraulically opened and tend to spring
open once unlatched.  One employee had his hand fractured in
this manner.  Four employees were struck by the turnbuckles
or latches while unlatching the tailgate.  Employees should
unlatch the tailgate slowly and with steady pressure.

          Control design modifications should be considered in
reducing opening and closing the tailgate accidents.  Several
new front end loader models hydraulically unlatch the tailgate
from the cab.  Although this may reduce latching and unlatching
tailgate injuries, it is recommended that the lever used to
raise the tailgate be located on the side of the vehicle such
that the operator may have a partial view of the rear of the
truck.  This will reduce injuries to other employees from the
opening tailgate.  Some sort of warning device such as flashing
lights should also be operated when the tailgate is raised or
lowered.

          Two employees strained their backs when opening the
tailgate.  Employees should be utilizing their legs while lift-
ing and avoid any jerking motions.  Employees should also be
sure they have a firm footing before beginning the lift.

          In four other cases the employees strained their
backs lifting the cab of the vehicle.  This activity should
be re-examined to determine if two-man lifts should be a
requirement.

          Emptying equipment  (FIGURE 1-14) .  Almost all the
injuries sustained while unloading the packer were due to the
hazards of the location.  Eight employees received objects in
their eyes, and two employees slipped while walking to the
                               27

-------
levers.  Eye protection should be required, and employees should
watch their step in walking on uneven terrain.

          Employees should NOT stand beneath the lifted tailgate,
One accident occurred in which three people were injured by the
tailgate.  After dumping the load, the hinge on the tailgate
collapsed, and the door swung shut, hitting the ejector blade
which was still out.  The door bounced back, striking three
employees who were standing next to it.

          When backing the vehicle to position it for unloading,
employees should follow the backing vehicle procedures outlined
under the riding on step discussion.  One employee was run over
by another vehicle as he stepped back after operating the un-
loading mechanism.  That IRIS user has since decided to install
backup horns instead of bells in order to provide a louder
warning device.

          Washing vehicle  (FIGURE 1-15).  A total of ten acci-
dents occurred as employees were washing vehicles.  Three falls
from the wet vehicle occurred as employees were attempting to
wash the windshield.  Employees should not be climbing on the
vehicle to clean; they should be provided with cleaning tools
that have long handles to eliminate this hazard.  They should
also be aware of the slippery conditions of the surface produced
by the mixture of water and detergent.  They should be provided
with slip resistant footwear.  In addition, the washing area
should be inspected for adequate drainage.

          Two other employees were injured by the water hose.
One employee dropped it on his foot, cutting his ankle.  The
other burned his foot with the steam hose while turning it off;
he was disobeying his organization's safety rules by not wearing
boots.

          Closing equipment part (FIGURE 1-16) .  Nine accidents
occurred while employees were securing an equipment part. Eight
injuries involved closing the tailgate; four employees had their
fingers caught while latching the turnbuckle.  One of these em-
ployees fractured three of his fingers while pushing the tail-
gate into the lock pin with the help of a coworker.  Another
got on the truck to secure the tailgate and fell off.  In a
third case, the employee was on the truck fastening the turn-
buckle while the truck was in motion and fell off.  Employees
should be reminded not to climb  on the vehicle to close the
turnbuckle, especially when THE VEHICLE IS iMOVING.  Again,
control designs should reevaluated to determine if manual
latching can be eliminated.
                              28

-------
          Hooking or unhooking  equipment part (FIGURE 1-17).
Eight out of 11 of the hooking  or  unhooking equipment part
accidents involved trailers.  In three  cases the trailer tongue
slipped, causing strains to the employees.   In one case, the
trailer tongue fell on one employee's ankle.  In the other four
cases, the employee strained his back or hand.   When handling
trailers, employees should obtain  help.   Extra caution should
be taken to avoid hooking or unhooking  the  trailer on an un-
even surface that would cause the  trailer tongue to jerk sud-
denly while being handled.

          One very serious accident  occurred when a commercial
collection crew employee was hooking a  bulk container by having
the vehicle back up.  The truck fork struck his hand, resulting
in an amputation to his finger.  This practice should not be
allowed.  The employees should  position the bulk container into
the forks rather than positioning  the vehicle into the bulk
container.

Preliminary Task/Hazard Analysis

          The hazards and countermeasures that relate to equipment
have been systematically compiled  in outline form in a Preliminary
Task/Hazard Analysis  (FIGURE 1-18) .  IRIS collects injury data
from many users in order that general industry injury trends can
be analyzed and countermeasures developed.   Each user is encour-
aged to analyze their injury patterns by separating the injuries
as to what task the employee was performing at the time of the
injury.  Not only nay IRIS be used to correct problem areas,
but it is also an excellent source for  designing an accident
prevention system.  Individual  users, by reviewing the data in
Accident Trends may be alerted  to  problems  that other users have
experienced and which are possibly potential high risk areas for
them.  Necessary steps may :-hen be taken in order to prevent the
need for countermeasures.  A final way  IRIS data can help users,
is in the collection of data on serious but infrequent accidents.
By increasing users' awareness  of  accidents of this type they
hopefully may be prevented before  they  occur.  Any suggestions
or comments you may have regarding Accident Trends or any other
facet of IRIS are welcomed.
                               29

-------
      REPORTING PERIOD: JULY - SEPTEMBER 1976
                                                                  USER NO. ALL
                                                            DETAILED DESCRIPTION OF
                                                      LIFTING-TO-DUMP CONTAINER ACCIDENTS
      THIS PROFILE IS A FORMATTED SENTENCE CONSISTING OF ACTIVITY, ACCIDENT SITEr ACCIDENT TYPE* NATURE OF INJURY AND PART OF BODY.
OJ
o
                                                     PROFILE
EMPLOYEE WAS LIFTING TO DUMP PLASTIC BAG IN CUSTOMER'S YD FELL FROM WET LOADING DOCK ONTO PAVEMENT
     RESULTING IN SPRAIN OR STRAIN TO MULTIPLE BODY PARTS.
EMPLOYEE WAS LIFTING TO DUMP STD MTL CONT IN ST AT BACK OF TRUCK OVEREXERTED SELF WITH STD MTL CONT
     WHICH WAS FULL RESULTING IN SPRAIN OR STRAIN TO ARM.
EMPLOYEE WAS LIFTING TO DUMP STD MTL CONT IN ST AT BACK OF TRUCK OVEREXERTED SELF WITH STD MTL CONT
     WHICH WAS UNUSUALLY HEAVY RESULTING IN SPRAIN OR STRAIN TO ABDOMEN.
EMPLOYEE WAS LIFTING TO DUMP STB MTL CONT IN ST AT BACK OF TRUCK GOT WASTE PARTICLES IN EYE
     RESULTING IN EYE IRRITATION TO EYES.
EMPLOYEE UAS LIFTING TO DUMP STD MTL CONT IN ST AT BACK OF TRUCK WAS STUNG BY INSECT RESULTING IN
     STING TO LEG.
EMPLOYEE WAS LIFTING TO DUMP PLASTIC BAG IN CUSTOMER'S YD INJURED SELF WITH PLASTIC BAG WHICH HAD
     PROTRUDING GLASS RESULTING IN CUT/PUNCTURE TO ARM.
EMPLOYEE WAS LIFTING TO DUMP CARDBD BOX IN ST AT CURB MADE SUDDEN MOVEMENT IN CATCHING CARDBOARD
     BOX WHICH WAS FULL AND WAS FALLING RESULTING IN SPRAIN OR STRAIN TO BACK.
EMPLOYEE WAS LIFTING TO DUMP STD MTL CONT IN ST AT BACK OF TRUCK OVEREXERTED SELF WITH STD MTL CONT
     WHICH WAS FULL RESULTING IN SPRAIN OR STRAIN TO BACK.
EMPLOYEE WAS LIFTING TO DUMP STD MTL CONT IN ST AT BACK OF TRUCK INJURED SELF WITH STD MTL CONT
     WHICH WAS UNUSUALLY HEAVY AND WAS WET RESULTING IN BRUISE TO TOES.
EMPLOYEE WAS LIFTING TO DUMP PLASTIC BAG IN ST AT CURB INJURED SELF WITH PLASTIC BAG WHICH UAS
     UNUSUALLY HEAVY AND HAD PROTRUDING GLASS RESULTING IN CUT/PUNCTURE TO ANKLE.
EMPLOYEE UAS LIFTING TO DUMP STD MTL CONT IN ST AT BACK OF TRUCK SLIPPED STEPPING ON PAVEMENT
     RESULTING IN SPRAIN OR S'lRAIN TO KNEE.
EMPLOYEE UAS LIFTING TO DUMP STD MTL CONT IN ST AT BACK OF TRUCK WAS CAUGHT BETWEEN CONT 3 EDGE OF
     HOPPER RESULTING IN CUT/PUNCTURE TO FINGERS.
EMPLOYEE WAS LIFTING TO DUMP STD MTL CONT IN ST AT BACK OF TRUCK WAS STRUCK BY STD MTL CONT WHICH
     WAS FULL RESULTING IN BRUISE TO LEG,
EMPLOYEE UAS LIFTING TO DUMP STD MTL CONT IN ST AT BACK OF TRUCK OVEREXERTED SELF WITH STD MTL CONT
     WHICH WAS FULL RESULTING IN SPRAIN OR STRAIN TO SHOULDER.
EMPLOYEE UAS LIFTING TO DUMP STD MTL CONT IN ST AT BACK OF TRUCK OVEREXERTED SELF WITH STD MTL CONT
     WHICH UAS HVY  (WOOD) RESULTING IN SPRAIN OR STRAIN TO SHOULDER.
EMPLOYEE WAS LIFTING TO DUMP STD MTL CONT IN ALLEY AT BACK OF TRUCK STRUCK AGAINST STEP OF VEH
     RESULTING IN DISLOCATION TO KNEE.
EMPLOYEE WAS LIFTING TO DUMP STD MTL CONT IN ST AT BACK OF TRUCK OVEREXERTED SELF WITH STD MTL CONT
     WHICH WAS FULL RESULTING IN DISLOCATION TO SHOULDER.
EMPLOYEE WAS LIFTING TO DUMP STD MTL CONT IN ST AT BACK OF TRUCK INJURED SELF WITH CONTAINER LID
     RESULTING IN BRUISE TO FINGERS.
EMPLOYEE WAS LIFTING TO DUMP PLASTIC BAG IN ALLEY AT BACK OF TRUCK WAS STRUCK BY SHARP OBJ WHICH
     FELL OUT OF CONT RESULTING IN CUT/PUNCTURE TO LEG.
EMPLOYEE UAS LIFTING TO DUMP PLASTIC BAG IN ST AT BACK OF TRUCK UAS STRUCK BY GLASS WHICH WAS EJTD
     FROM HOPPER RESULTING IN CUT/PUNCTURE TO ARM.
EMPLOYEE WAS LIFTING TO DUMP STD MTL CONT IN ST AT BACK OF TRUCK OVEREXERTED SELF WITH STD MTL CONT
     WHICH WAS HVY  (YARD CLIPPINGS) RESULTING IN SPRAIN OR STRAIN TO BACK.
EMPLOYEE WAS LIFTING TO DUMP STD MTL CONT IN ALLEY AT BACK OF TRUCK OVEREXERTED SELF WITH STD MTL
     CONT WHICH WAS UNUSUALLY HEAVY RESULTING IN SPRAIN OR STRAIN TO BACK.
NO. INJ  DAYS

    1

    1

    1

    1

    1

    1

    1

    5

    1

    1

    1

    1

    1

    1

    1

    1

    1

    1

   ,1

    1

    1

    1
ws
64-
0
29
14
0
0
13
35
26
11
0
0
5
4
O
4
0
0
0
22
0
4
COSTS
3029
0
454
866
12
50
617
1644
679
225
0
0
320
242
159
130
0
12
0
676
33
212

-------
                                                                                                                          PAGE  2


                                                           PROFILE                                               NO, INJ  DAYS   COSTS
      EMPLOYEE WAS LIFTING TO HUMP TOTE BARREL IN ST AT BACK OF TRUCK OVEREXERTED  SELF  WITH  TOTE BARREL
           WHICH WAS FULL AND WAS UNUSUALLY LARGE RESULT ING ••'! SPRAIN OR STRAIN  TO HACK.                              1       4      67
      EMPLOYEE WAS LIFTING TO DUMP PLASTIC BAG IN ST AT BACK OF TRUCK OVEREXERTED  SELF  WITH  PLASTIC BAG
           WHICH WAS UNUSUALLY HEAVY AND WAS BEING HNDL..D  U OTHER CONT RESULTING  IN SPRAIN  OR STRAIN TO SHOULBE        1       3     155
      EMPLOYEE WAS LIFTING TO DUMP PLASTIC BAG IN ST AT BACK OF TRUCK OVEREXERTED  SELF  WITH  PLASTIC BAG
           WHICH WAS HVY (YARD CLIPPINGS) RESULTING IN SPRAIN OR STRAIN TO BACK.                                      1      54     858
      EMPLOYEE WAS LIFTING TO DUMP CARDBD BOX IN ST AT BACK OF TRUCK FELL WHILE  ON OILY GROUND AND STRUCK
           AGNST RUNNING BOARD RESULTING IN BRUISE TO ELBOW.                                                         1       7     252
      EMPLOYEE WAS LIFTING TO DUMP PLASTIC BAG IN ALLEY AT BACK OF TRUCK INJURED SELF WITH PLASTIC BAG
           WHICH HAD PROTRUDING GLASS RESULTING IN CUT/PUNCTURE TO LEG,                                              4       A     415
      EMPLOYEE WAS LIFTING TO DUMP CARDBJi BOX IN ST AT BACK OF TRUCK OVEREXERTED SELF WITH CARDBOARD BOX
           WHICH WAS FULL RESULTING IN SPRAIN OR STRAIN TO BACK.                                                     1      16     415
      EMPLOYEE WAS LIFTING TO DUMP PLASTIC BAG IN ST AT BACK OF TRUCK STRUCK AGAINST BACK  OF VEH
           RESULTING IN CUT/PUNCTURE TO ARM.                                                                         1       6     164
      EMPLOYEE WAS LIFTING TO DUMP TOTE BARREL IN CUSTOMER'S YD INJURED SELF WITH  TOTE  BARREL WHICH WAS
           FULL AND HAD SHARP EDGES RESULTING IN ABRASIONS TO KNEE.                                                   100
      EMPLOYEE WAS LIFTING TO HUMP STD MTL CONT IN ST AT  BACK OF TRUCK INJURED SELF WITH STD MTL CONT
           WHICH WAS FULL AND HAD SHARP EDGES RESULTING IN CUT/PUNCTURE TO ADDOMEN.                                   1       0      30
      EMPLOYEE WAS LIFTING TO DUMP PLASTIC BAG IN ST AT BACK OF TRUCK OVEREXERTED  SELF  WITH  PLASTIC BAG
           WHICH WAS HVY (WOOD) RESULTING IN SPRAIN OR STRAIN TO NECK.                                               1      16     560
      EMPLOYEE WAS LIFTING TO DUMP STD MTL CONT IN ALLEY  AT BACK OF TRUCK WAS STRUCK BY VEH  RESULTING IN
           BRUISE TO CHEST.                                                                                           1       0      10
      EMPLOYCE WAS LIFTING TO DUMP PLASTIC BAG IN ST AT BACK OF TRUCK INJURED SELF WITH PLASTIC BAG WHICH
           HAD PROTRUDING GLASS RESULTING IN CUT/PUNCTURE TG LEG.                                                     6       4     324
      EMPLOYEE WAS LIFTING TO DUMP STD MTL CONT IN ST AT  BACK OF TRUCK INJURED SELF WITH STD MTL CONT
           WHICH WAS FULL AND WAS BEING HNDLD W OTHER CONT RESULTING IN FRACTURE TO FOOT.                             1      29     1324
M     EMPLOYEE ins LIFTING TO DUMP PLASTIC BAG IN ST AT CURB FELL  WHILE ON WET CURB AND STRUCK AGNST BACK
           Qi-'  VEH RESULTING  IN BRUISE TO CHEST.                                                                      1      55     234
      EMPLOYEE WAS LIFTING TO DUMP UNBUNDLED SHRUBBERY IN ALLEY AT BACK OF TRUCK WAS STUNG BY INSECT
           RESULTING IN POISONING OR ALLERGIC REACTION TO ARM.                                                        1       3      88
      EMPLOYEE WAS LIFTING TO DUMP TOTE BARREL IN ST AT BACK OF TRUCK WAS STRUCK BY TOTE BARREL WHICH WAS
           UNUSUALLY HEAVY AND HAD BOUNCED BACK FROM HOPPER RESULTING IN BRUISE  TO ELBOW.                             100
      EMPLOYEE WAS LIFTING TO DUMP STD MTL CONT IN ST AT  BACK OF TRUCK WAS STRUCK  BY CHEMICAL WHICH WAS
           EJTD FROM HOPPER  RESULTING IN CHEMICAL BURN TO MULTIPLE BODY PARTS.                                        1       2      155
      EMPLOYEE WAS LIFTING TO DUMP PLASTIC BAG IN ST AT CURB INJURED SELF WITH PLASTIC  BAG WHICH HAD
           PROTRUDING WASTE  RESULTING IN CUT/PUNCTURE TO  KNEE.                                                         100
      EMPLOYEE WAS LIFTING TO DUMP CARDBD BOX IN ALLEY AT BACK OF  TRUCK OVEREXERTED SELF WITH CARDBOARD
           BOX WHICH WAS HVY (PAPER)  RESULTING IN SPRAIN  OR STRAIN TO BACK.                                           1       5      170
      EMPLOYEE WiV-'- i IFTING TO DUMP CARDBD BOX IN ST AT BACK OF TRUCK OVEREXERTED SELF WITH CARDBOARD BOX
           WHICH WAS UNUSUALLY HEAVY RESULTING IN SPRAIN  OR STRAIN TO BACK.                                            1       12      100
      EMPLOYEE WAS LIFTING TO DUMP WHEELED CART IN ST AT  BACK OF TRUCK OVEREXERTED SELF WITH WHEELED CART
           WHICH WAS FULL AND WAS UNUSUALLY LARGE RESULTING IN SPRAIN OR STRAIN  TO BACK.                               1       6      409
      EMPLOYEE WAS LIFTING TO DUMP CARDBD BOX IN ST AT BACK OF TRUCK WAS HURT BY HANDLING  CARDBOARD BOX
           WHICH HAD PROTRUDING GLASS RESULIIN-3 IN CUT/PUNCTURE TG ARM.                                               1       0       48
      EMPLOYEE WAS LIFTING TO DUMP STD MTL CONT IN CUSTOMER'S YD WAS STUNG BY INSECT RESULTING IN  STING
           TO  ARM.                                                                                                   1       0       36
      EMPLOYEE WAS LIFTING TO DUMP STD MTL CONT IN ST AT  BACK OF TRUCK STRUCK AGAINST SIDE OF VEH
           RESULTING IN BRUISE TO FINGERS.                                                                           1       10     276
      EMPLOYEE UAS LIFTING TO DUMP PLASTIC BAG IN ST AT BACK OF TRUCK WAS STRUCK BY CHEMICAL WHICH FELL
           OUT OF CONT RESULTING IN BERHATITIS TO LEG.                                                               1       2      &
           RESULT ING  IN  BRUISE TO PkRM.

-------
NJ
                                                     PROFILE
EMPLOYEE WAS LIFTING TO DUMP PLASTIC BAG IN ST AT BACK OF TRUCK OVEREXERTED SELF WITH PLASTIC BAG
     WHICH WAS UNUSUALLY HEAVY RESULTING IN SPRAIN OR STRAIN TO BACK.
EMPLOYEE WAS LIFTING TO DUMP PLASTIC BAG IN ST AT BACK OF TRUCK WAS HURT BY HANDLING PLASTIC BAG
     WHICH HAD PROTRUDING GLASS RESULTING IN CUT/PUNCTURE TO HAND.
EMPLOYEE WAS LIFTING TO DUMP CARDED BOX IN ST AT BACK OF TRUCK WAS STUNG BY INSECT RESULTING IN
     STING TO ARM.
EMPLOYEE WAS LIFTING TO DUMP PLASTIC BAG IN ST AT BACK OF TRUCK INJURED SELF WITH PLASTIC BAG WHICH
     HAD A PROTRUDING HYPODERMIC NEEDLE RESULTING IN CUT/PUNCTURE TO KNEE.
EMPLOYEE WAS LIFTING TO DUMP STD MTL CONT IN ST AT BACK OF TRUCK WAS STRUCK BY ACID WHICH FELL OUT
     OF CONT RESULTING IN CHEMICAL BURN TO EYES.
EMPLOYEE WAS LIFTING TO DUMP STD MTL CONT IN ST AT BACK OF TRUCK SLIPPED WHILE ON WET PAVEMENT AND
     STRUCK AGNST EDGE OF HOPPER RESULTING IN FRACTURE TO ELBOW.
EMPLOYEE WAS LIFTING TO DUMP STD MTL CONT IN ST AT BACK OF TRUCK STRUCK AGAINST EDGE OF HOPPER
     RESULTING IN BRUISE TO THUMB.
EMPLOYEE WAS LIFTING TO DUMP STD MTL CONT IN ST AT BACK OF TRUCK SLIPPED WHILE ON STEP OF VEH AND
     STRK AGNST STD MTL CONT RESULTING IN BRUISE TO KNEE.
EMPLOYEE WAS LIFTING TO DUMP PLASTIC BAG IN ST AT CURB INJURED SELF WITH PLASTIC BAG WHICH HAD
     PROTRUDING GLASS RESULTING IN CUT/PUNCTURE TO LEG.
EMPLOYEE WAS LIFTING TO DUMP STD MTL CONT IN ST AT CURB OVEREXERTED SELF WITH STD MTL CONT WHICH
     WAS UNUSUALLY HEAVY RESULTING IN SPRAIN OR STRAIN TO BACK.
EMPLOYEE WAS LIFTING TO DUMP PLASTIC BAG IN CUSTOMER'S YD SLIPPED STEPPING ON WET PAVEMENT
     RESULTING IN SPRAIN OR STRAIN TO BACK.
EMPLOYEE WAS LIFTING TO DUMP STD MTL CONT AT UNK SITE OVEREXERTED SELF WITH STD MTL CONT WHICH WAS
     UNUSUALLY HEAVY RESULTING IN SPRAIN OR STRAIN TO BACK.
EMPLOYEE WAS LIFTING TO DUMP STD MTL CONT IN CUSTOMER'S YD WAS STUNG BY INSECT RESULTING IN STING
     TO HAND.
EMPLOYEE WAS LIFTING TO DUMP STD MTL CONT IN ST AT BACK OF TRUCK STRUCK AGAINST EDGE OF HOPPER
     RESULTING IN BRUISE TO CHEST.
EMPLOYEE WAS LIFTING TO DUMP STD MTL CONT IN ALLEY AT CURB OVEREXERTED SELF WITH STD MTL CONT WHICH
     WAS FULL RESULTING IN SPRAIN OR STRAIN TO SHOULDER.
EMPLOYEE WAS LIFTING TO DUMP PLASTIC BAG IN ALLEY AT BACK OF TRUCK INJURED SELF WITH PLASTIC BAG
     WHICH HAD PROTRUDING GLASS RESULTING IN CUT/PUNCTURE TO ARM.
EMPLOYEE WAS LIFTING TO DUMP PLASTIC BAG IN ST AT FRONT OF TRUCK OVEREXERTED SELF WITH PLASTIC BAG
     WHICH WAS UNUSUALLY HEAVY RESULTING IN SPRAIN OR STRAIN TO BACK.
EMPLOYEE WAS LIFTING TO DUMP PLASTIC BAG IN ALLEY AT BACK OF TRUCK OVEREXERTED SELF WITH PLASTIC
     BAG WHICH WAS FULL RESULTING IN SPRAIN OR STRAIN TO BACK.
EMPLOYEE WAS LIFTING TO DUMP PLASTIC BAG IN ALLEY AT BACK OF TRUCK OVEREXERTED SELF WITH PLASTIC
     BAG WHICH WAS HVY (ROCKS) RESULTING IN SPRAIN OR STRAIN TO BACK.
EMPLOYEE WAS LIFTING TO DUMP PLASTIC BAG IN ST AT BACK OF TRUCK WAS HURT BY HANDLING PLASTIC BAG
     WHICH HAD PROTRUDING GLASS RESULTING IN CUT/PUNCTURE TO ARM.
EMPLOYEE WAS LIFTING TO DUMP PLASTIC BAG IN ST AT BACK OF TRUCK STRUCK AGAINST EDGE OF HOPPER
     RESULTING IN FRACTURE TO WRIST.
EMPLOYEE WAS LIFTING TO DUMP STD MTL CONT IN ST AT BACK OF TRUCK OVEREXERTED SELF WITH STD MTL CONT
     WHICH WAS HVY (WOOD) RESULTING IN SPRAIN OR STRAIN TO BACK.
EMPLOYEE WAS LIFTING TO DUMP STD MTL CONT IN ST AT BACK OF TRUCK WAS CAUGHT BETWEEN CONT X EDGE OF
     HOPPER  (CONT WAS FALLING) RESULTING IN BRUISE TO HAND.
EMPLOYEE WAS LIFTING TO DUMP P'.ASTIC BAG IN ST AT BACK OF TRUCK OVEREXERTED SELF WITH PLASTIC BAG
     WHICH WAS FULL RESULTING IN SPRAIN OR STRAIN TO BACK.
EMPLOYEE WAS LIFTING TO DUMP STD MTL CONT IN ALLEY AT BACK OF TRUCK WAS STRUCK BY CONT HANDLED BY
     COWORKER RESULTING IN ABRASIONS TO SHOULDER.
EMPLOYEE WAS LIFTING TO DUMP STD MTL CONT IN ST AT BACK OF TRUCK STRUCK AGAINST BACK OF VEH
     RESULTING IN BRUISE TO ELBOW.
EMPLOYEE WAS LIFTING TO DUMP STD MTL CONT IN ST AT BACK OF TRUCK WAS STRUCK BY CHEMICAL WHICH FELL
     OUT OF CONT RESULTING IN CHEMICAL BURN TO LEG.
INJ
1
2
1
1
1
1
1
1
3
1
1
1
1
2
1
2
1
1
1
2
1
1
1
2
1
1
1
DAYS
4
12
0
0
0
2-
25
6
0
13
14
0
0
33
41
0
0
0
11
3
17
10
0
6
1
0
0
UUSIb
185
297
20
6
24
80
1144
448
119
677
492
38
30
1549
1443
77
0
22
515
146
750
469
0
318
65
0
10

-------
                                                                                                                          PAGE   4


                                                          PROFILE                                               NO.  IK'J   DAYS   COSTS
     EMPLOYEE WAS LIFTING TO DUMP PLASTIC BAG IN ST AT BACK OF TRUCK INJURED SELF WITH PLASTIC BAG  WHICH
          HAD PROTRUDING GLASS RESULTING IN CUT/PUNCTURE 10 !
-------
                                                         PROFILE
    EMPLOYEE WAS LIFTING TO DUMP PLASTIC BAG IN ST AT BACK OF TRUCK STRUCK AGAINST EDGE OF HOPPER
         RESULTING IN BRUISE TO ELBOU.
             WAS LIFTING TO DUMP STD HTL CONT IN ST AT BACK OF TRUCK UAS HURT BY HANDLING STD MTL CONT
         WHICH HAD PROTRUDING GLASS RESULTING IN CUT/PUNCTURE TO FINGERS.

                  TOTAL
NO. INJ  DAYS   COSTS

    1       0       0

    1      12     355

  128     779   28185
U)

-------
       MAST3SALL 63
                                                                   FIGURE  1-3
                                                                   USER NO,  ALL
                                                             DETAILED DESCRIPTION  OF
                                                           DUMPING CONTAINER ACCIDENTS
                                                                                                                           PAGE  1
       REPORTING PERIOD? JULY - SEPTEMBER 1976
       THIS PROFILE IS A FORMATTED SENTENCE CONSISTING OF ACTIVITY*  ACCIDENT SITE,  ACCIDENT  TYPE. NATURE OF INJURY AND PART OF BODY.
LO
                                                     PROFILE
EMPLOYEE  WAS  DUMPING  STD  MTL  CONT  IN  ST AT BACK OF TRUCK FELL ON DEPRESSION RESULTING IN SPRAIN OR
      STRAIN TO  ANKLE.
EMPLOYEE  WAS  DUMPING  STD  MTL  CONT  IN  ST AT BACK OF TRUCK STRUCK AGAINST BACK OF VEH RESULTING IN
      BRUISE TO  WRIST.
EM°LOYEE  WAS  DUMPING  STD  MTL  CONT  IN  ALLEY AT BACK OF TRUCK MADE SUDDEN MOVEMENT RESULTING IN
      DISLOCATION TO HIPS.
EMPLOYEE  WAS  DUMPING  STD  MTL  CONT  IN  CUSTOMER'S YD WAS STRUCK BY SHARP OBJ WHICH FELL OUT OF CONT
      RESULTING  IN  CUT/PUNCTURE  TO  ARM.
EMPLOYEE  WAS  DUMPING  STD  MTL  CONT  IN  ST AT BACK OF TRUCK WAS CAUGHT BETWEEN CONT X EDGE OF HOPPER
      RESULTING  IN  BRUISE  TO HAND,
EMPLOYEE  WAS  DUMPING  STD  MTL  CONT  IN  ST AT BACK OF TRUCK WAS STRUCK BY CHEMICAL WHICH FELL OUT OF
      CONT RESULTING IN DERMATITIS  TO  UNK BODY PART.
EMPLOYEE  WAS  DUMPING  PLASTIC  BAG IN ST AT BACK OF TRUCK WAS STRUCK BY CERAMIC WASTE WHICH FELL OUT
      OF CONT  RESULTING IN CUT/PUNCTURE TO LEG.
EMPLOYEE  WAS  DUMPING  STD  MTL  CONT  IN  ST AT BACK O^ TRUCK WAS STRUCK BY PIECE OF METAL WHICH WAS
      EJTD FROM  HOPPER RESULTING IN CUT/PUNCTUkL TO EYES.
EMPLOYEE  WAS  DUMPING  STD  MTL  CONT  IN  ST AT BACK OF TRUCK OVEREXERTED SELF WITH STD MTL CONT WHICH
      WAS  UNUSUALLY HEAVY RESULTING IN SPRAIN OR STRAIN TO SHOULDER.
EMPLOYEE  WAS  DUMPING  STD MTL  CONT  IN  ST AT BACK OF TRUCK STRUCK AGAINST BACK OF VEH RESULTING IN
      BRUISE TO  ELBOW.
EMPLOYEE  WAS  DUMPING  STD MTL  CONT  IN  ALLEY AT BACK OF TRUCK OVEREXERTED SELF WITH STD MTL CONT
      WHICH WAS  FULL RESULTING IN SPRAIN OR STRAIN TO KNEE.
EMPLOYEE  WAS  DUMPING  STD MTL  CONT  IN  ST AT BACK OF TRUCK CONTACTED CAUSTIC OR TOXIC CHEMICAL
      RESULTING  IN  CHEMICAL BURN TO HAND.
EMPLOYEE WAS  DUMPING  STD MTL  CONT  IN  ST AT BACK OF TRUCK GOT AIRBORNE PARTICLES IN EYE RESULTING IN
      EYE  IRRITATION TO EYES.
EMPLOYEE  WAS  DUMPING  300 GAL  PLASTIC  CONT IN ST AT CURB OVEREXERTED SELF WITH 300 GAL PLASTIC CONT
      WHICH WAS  UNUSUALLY HEAVY AND WAS UNUSUALLY LARGE RESULTING IN SPRAIN OR STRAIN TO CHEST.
EMPLOYEE  WAS  DUMPING  STD MTL  CONT  IN  ST AT FRONT OF TRUCK WAS STUNG BY INSECT RESULTING IN STING TO
      CHEST.
EMPLOYEE WAS  DUMPING  WHEELED  CART  IN  ST AT BACK. OF TRUCK OVEREXERTED SELF WITH WHEELED CART WHICH
      WAS UNUSU.-M.LY HEAVY AND  WAS UNUSUALLY LARGE RESULTING IN SPRAIN OR STRAIN TO BACK.
EMPLOYEE WAS  HUMPING  PLASTIC  BAG IN ST AT BACK OF TRUCK FELL ON ROCKY GROUND RESULTING IN
      CUT/PUNCTURE  TO  CHEEK.
EMPLOYEE  WAS  DUMPING  STD MTL  CONT  IN  ST AT BACK OF TRUCK WAS STRUCK BY TAILGATE RESULTING IN
      CUT/PUNCTURE  TO  FOREHEAD.
EMPLOYEE  WAS  DUMPING  PLASTIC  CAN IN CUSTOMER'S YD OVEREXERTED SELF WITH PLASTIC CAN WHICH WAS HVY
      (TIGHTLY PACKED) RESULTING IN SPRAIN OR STRAIN TO BACK.
EMPLOYEE  HAS  BUMPING  STD  MTL  CONT  IN  ST AT BACK OF TRUCK GOT WASTE PARTICLES IN EYE RESULTING IN
      EYE  IRRITATION TO EYES.
EMPLOYEE  WftS  DUMPING  STB  MTU  CONT  IN  ST AT BACK OF TRUCK WAS STUNG BY INSECT RESULTING IN STING TO
      EYES.
 EMPLOYEE WAS CUMPING STD MTL CQNT IN  ALLEY AT BACK OF TRUCK UIAS CAUGHT
      HOPPER RESULTING IN SRUISEI TO p-INGELKS.
INJ
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
2
1
1
1
2
1
1
1
1
1
1
2
3
DAYS
0
1
83
0
0
1
2
6
12
0
12
23
0
0
0
14
8
0
3
1
&
COSTS
61
48
4429
37
0
33
156
324
456
12
94
1055
48
57
26
440
48
22
186
133
*J3-4
                                                                              BEZTWEEIN CONT &

-------
UJ
tnf-'LUrtt WAS, DUMPING STD MIL CONT  IN CUSTOMER'S YD STEPPED ON NAIL RESULTING IN UUI/t-UNU I UKC. m ruu,.
EMPLOYEE WAS DUMPING STD HTL CONT  IN ALLEY AT BACK OF TRUCK WAS STRUCK BY WASTE HANDLED BY COWORKER
     RESULTING IN ABRASIONS TO EYES.
EMPLOYEE WAS DUMPING STD MTL CONT  IN ST AT BACK OF TRUCK WAS HURT BY HANDLING STD MTL CONT WHICH
     WAS FULL AND HAD SHARP EDGES  RESULTING IN CUT/PUNCTUKE TO WRIST.
EMPLOYEE WAS DUMPING STD MTL CONT  IN ST AT BACK OF TRUCK OVEREXERTED SELF WITH STD MTL CONT WHICH
     WAS UNUSUALLY HEAVY RESULTING IN SPRAIN OR STRAIN TO HAND.
EMPLOYEE WAS DUMPING STD MTL CGNT  IN ALLEY AT BACK OF TRUCK MADE SUDDEN MOVEMENT IN CATCHING STD
     MTL CONT WHICH WAS EMPTY AND  WAS FALLING RESULTING IN SPRAIN OR STRAIN TO SHOULDER.
EMPLOYEE WAS DUMPING STD MTL CONT  ON STEP OF VEH FELL FROM SLIPPERY STEP OF VEH ONTO PAVEMENT
     RESULTING IN BRUISE TO BACK.
EMPLOYEE WAS DUMPING STD MTL CONT  IN ST AT BACK OF TRUCK STRUCK AGAINST SIDE OF VEH RESULTING IN
     BRUISE TO ELBOW.
EMPLOYEE WAS DUMPING STD MTL CONT  IN ALLEY AT BACK OF TRUCK WAS CAUGHT BETWEEN CONT & EDGE'OF
     HOPPER RESULTING IN BRUISE TO HAND.
EMPLOYEE WAS DUMPING STD MTL CONT  IN ST AT CURB WAS INJURED IN OTHER TYPE OF ACCIDENT RESULTING IN
     ELECTRIC SHOCK TO LEG.
EMPLOYEE WAS DUMPING STD MTL CONT  IN ST AT BACK OF TRUCK OVEREXERTED SELF WITH STD MTL CONT WHICH
     WAS FULL RESULTING IN SPRAIN  OR STRAIN TO SHOULDER.
EMPLOYEE WAS DUMPING STD MTL CONT  IN ST AT BACK OF TRUCK WAS CAUGHT BETWEEN CONT £ EDGE OF HOPPER
     RESULTING IN CUT/PUNCTURE TO  FINGERS,
EMPLOYEE WAS DUMPING STD MTL CONT  IN ST AT BACK OF TRUCK WAS STRUCK BY CONT HANDLED BY COWORKER
     WHICH WAS FULL RESULTING IN CUT/PUNCTURE TO FINGERS.
EMPLOYEE WAS DUMPING STD MTL CONT  IN ST AT BACK OF TRUCK GOT AIRBORNE PARTICLES IN EYE RESULTING IN
     ABRASIONS TO EYES.
EMPLOYEE WAS DUMPING STD MTL CONT  IN ST AT BACK OF TRUCK WAS STRUCK BY GLASS WHICH FELL OUT OF CONT
     RESULTING IN EYE IRRITATION TO EYES.
EMPLOYEE WAS DUMPING LITTER CAN IN ST AT BACK OF TRUCK WAS CAUGHT BETWEEN CONT & EDGE OF HOPPER
     (CONT WAS UNUSUALLY HVY) RESULTING IN BRUISE TO HAND,
EMPLOYEE WAS DUMPING STD MTL CONT  IN MIDALLEY WAS STRUCK BY COWORKER (UNINTENTIONALLY) RESULTING IN
     BRUISE TO CHEST.
EMPLOYEE WAS DUMPING STD MTL CONT  IN ALLEY AT BACK OF TRUCK STRUCK AGAINST EDGE OF HOPPER  RESULTING
     IN BRUISE TO ELBOW.
EMPLOYEE WAS DUMPING TOTE BARREL IN ST AT BACK OF TRUCK STRUCK AGAINST EDGE OF HOPPER RESULTING IN
     BRUISE TO MOUTH,
EMPLOYEE WAS DUMPING STD MTL CONT  IN ST AT BACK OF TRUCK WAS STRUCK BY VEH RESULTING IN BRUISE TO HIPS.
EMPLOYEE WAS DUMPING STD MTL CONT  IN ST AT BACK OF TRUCK MADE SUDDEN MOVEMENT IN CATCHING  STD MTL
     CONT WHICH WAS UNUSUALLY HEAVY AND l!AS FALLING RESULTING IN SPRAIN OR STRAIN TO ARM,
EMPLOYEE WAG DUMPING STD MTL CONT  IN ST AT BACK OF TRUCK WAS HURT BY HANDLING STD MTL CONT WHICH
     HAD PROTRUDING WASTE RESULTING IN CUT/PUNCTURE TO WRIST.
EMPLOYEE WAS DUMPING STD MTL CONT  IN ST AT BACK OF TRUCK STRUCK AGAINST CONT HANDLED BY COWORKER
     WHICH WAS FULL RESULTING IN SPRAIN OR STRAIN TO WRIST.
EMPLOYEE WAS DUMPING STD MTL CONT  IN ALLEY AT BACK OF TRUCK WAS STRUCK BY ROCKS/CONCRETE/DIRT WHICH
     FELL OUT OF CONT RESULTING IN CUT/PUNCTURE TO FINGERS.
EMPLOYEE WAS DUMPING OIL DRUM IN CUSTOMER'S YD OVEREXERTED SELF feITH OIL DRUM WHICH WAS UNUSUALLY
     HEAVY AND WAS UNUSUALLY LARGE RESULTING IN SPRAIN OR STRAIN TO BACK.
EMPLOYEE WAS DUMPING STD MTL CONT  IN ST AT BACK OF TRUCK WAS CAUGHT BETWEEN CONT & EDGE OF HOPPER
     RESULTING IN BRUISE TO WRIST.
EMPLOYEE WAS DUMPING WHEELED CART  IN ST AT BACK OF TRUCK WAS STUNG BY INSECT RESULTING IN  STING TO
     WRIST.
EMPLOYEE WAS DUMPING BULK CONT (1-10 YD) IN ALLEY AT BACK OF TRUCK WAS STRUCK BY PARTICLES IN WASTE
     UHICH WAS EJTD FROM HOPPER RESULTING IN EYE IRRITATION TO EYES.
EMPLOYEE WAS DUMPING STD MTL CONT  IN ALLEY AT BACK OF TRUCK OVEREXERTED SELF WITH STD MTL  CONT
     WHICH WAS FULL RESULTING IN SPRAIN OR STRAIN TO SHOULDER.
1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

3

1

1

1

1

1
1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1
2
0
38
48
36
0
17
0
7
0
2
6
0
5
2
0
158
0
1714
1604
1295
54
580
24
43
55
67
229
20
177
86
90
                                                                                                                            0
                                                                                                                            0

                                                                                                                            0

                                                                                                                            6

                                                                                                                            9

                                                                                                                            1

                                                                                                                            0

                                                                                                                            0

                                                                                                                            0

                                                                                                                            1

                                                                                                                            3
  0
  0

 20

147

548

139

 86

 20

 31

 16

143

-------
                                                                                                                          A.GE  3
U)
-J
                                                      PROFILE
 EMPLOYEE WAS DUMPING STD MTL CONT IN ST AT BACK OF TRUCK STRUCK AGAINST EDGE OF HOPPER  RESULTING IN
      BRUISE TO ELBOW,
 EMPLOYEE WAS DUMPING STD MTL CONT AT UNK SITE OVEREXERTED SELF WITH STD MTL  CONT WHICH  WAS FULL
      RESULTING IN SPRAIN OR STRAIN TO BACK.
 EMPLOYEE WAS DUMPING LITTER CAN IN ST AT BACK OF TRUCK WAS CAUGHT BETWEEN CONT  X EDGE OF HOPPER
      (COIfT WAS UNUSUALLY HVY) RESULTING IN FRACTURE TO FINGERS,
 EMPLOYEE WAS DUMPING BULK CONT (1-10 YD) IN CUSTOMER'S DRIVEWAY WAS STRUCK BY CABLE  RESULTING  IN
      BRUISE TO CHEST.
 EMPLOYEE WAS DUMPING STD MTL CONT IN ST AT CURB OVEREXERTED SELF WITH STD MTL CONT UHICH WAS FULL
      RESULTING IN SPRAIN OR STRAIN TO BACK,
 EMPLOYEE WAS DUMPING STD MTL CONT IN ST AT BACK OF TRUCK CONTACTED CAUSTIC OR TOXIC  CHEMICAL
      RESULTING IN EYE IRRITATION TO EYES.
 EMPLOYEE UAS DUMPING BULK CONT (11-25 YD) ON STEP OF VEH WAS STRUCK BY STD MTL  CONT  WHICH WAS  EMPTY
      AND WAS FALLING RESULTING IN BRUISE TO TOOT.
 EMPLOYEE WAS nUMTTdfj BULK  f)NT (1-10 YD) IN ST AT BACK OF TRUCK MADE SUDDEN  MOVEMENT IN CATCHING
      BULK CONTAlNF.itd-lO YD WHICH WAS UNUSUALLY HEAVY AND WAS UNUSUALLY LARGE  RESULTING IN SPRAIN OR ST
 EMPLOYEE WAS DUMPING STD MTL CONT IN CUSTOMER'S YD WAS STUNG BY INSECT RESULTING IN  STING TO CHEEK.
 EMPLOYEE WAS DUMPING STD MTL CONT IN ST AT BACK OF TRUCK WAS STRUCK BY WOOD  RESULTING IN
      CUT/PUNCTURE TO MOUTH,
 EMPLOYEE WAS DUMPING STD MTL CONT IN ST AT BACK OF TRUCK UAS BITTEN BY ANIMAL RESULTING IN
      CUT/PUNCTUR:. TO LEG.
•EMPLOYEE WAS DUMPING STD MTL CONT IN ALLEY AT BACK OF TRUCK WAS CAUGHT BETWEEN  TWO OBJFCTS
      RESULTING IN SPRAIN OR STRAIN TO GROIN,
 EMPLOYEE UAS DUMPING STD MTL CONT IN ALLEY AT BACK OF TRUCK WAS STUNG BY INSECT RESULTING IN STING
      TO ARM.
 EMPLOYEE UAS DUMPING PLASTIC BAG IN ST AT CURB UAS STRUCK BY CHEMICAL WHICH  FELL OUT OF VEH
      RESULTING IN ABRASIONS TO EYES.
 EMPLOYEE WAS DUMPING STD MTL CONT IN ST AT BACK OF TRUCK WAS HURT BY HANDLING STD MTL CONT WHICH
      HAD A PROTRUDING HYPODERMIC NEEDLE RESULTING IN CUT/PUNC7iJK£ TO URlbT.
 EMPLOYEE WAS DUMPING STD MTL CONT IN ST AT BACK OF TRUCK WAS CAUGHT BETWEEN  CONT & EDGE OF HOPPER
      RESULTING IN BRUISE TO FINGERS,
 EMPLOYEE WAS DUMPING PLASTIC BAG IN ST AT BACK OF TRUCK WAS HURT BY HANDLING PLASTIC BAG WHICH HAD
      PROTRUDING GLASS RESULTING IN CUT/PUNCTURE TO ARM.
 EMPLOYEE WAS DUMPING STD MTL CONT IN ST AT CURB UAS STRUCK BY GLASS WHICH FELL  OUT OF VEH RESULTING
      IN CUT/PUNCTURE TO  ARM.
 EMPLOYEE WAS DUMPING STD MTL CONT IN ST AT BACK OF TRUCK WAS CAUGHT BETWEEN  CONT X EDGE OF HOPPER
      RESULTING IN BRUISE TO THUMB.
 EMPLOYEE WAS DUMPING STD MTL CONT IN ST AT BACK OF TRUCK OVEREXERTED SELF WITH  STD MTL  CONT WHICH
      UAS FULL RESULTING  IN SPRAIN OR STRAIN TO BACK,
 EMPLOYEE UAS DUMPING STD MTL CONT IN ALLEY AT BACK OF TRUCK UAS STRUCK BY WOOD  RESULTING IN BRUISE
      TO HAND.
 EMPLOYEE WAS DUMPING STD MTL CONT IN ALLEY AT BACK OF TRUCK WAS STUNG BY INSECT RESULTING IN STING
      TO NECK.
 EMPLOYEE WAS DUMPING TOTE BARREL IN ST AT BACK OF TRUCK UAS STRUCK BY CHEMICAL  UHICH UAS EJTD  FROM
      HOPPER RESULTING IN CHEMICAL ! c!,',-i TO EYt. .
 EMPLOYEE UAS DUMPING STD MTL CONT IN ST AT BACK OF TRUCK wAS STUNG BY INSECT RESULTING  IN STING TO
      HAND.
 EMPLOYEE UAS DUMPING STD MTL CONT IN CUSTOMER'S YD OVEREXERTED SELF UITH STD MTL CONT UHICH WAS
      FULL RESULTING  IN SPRAIN OR STRAIN TO SHOULDER.
 EMPLOYEE WAS DUMPING STD MTL CONT IN ST AT BACK OF TRUCK UAS STRUCK BY VEH RESULTING IN
      CUT/PUNCTURE TO EL&OW.
 EMPLOYEE UAS DUMPING ST0 MTL CONT IN ST AT BACK OF TRUCK OVEREXERTEB SELF UITH  STD MTL  CONT WHICH
      UAS UNUSUALLY HEAVY RESULTING IN SPRAIN OR STRAIN TO BACK.
 EHPLOYEE WAS DUMPING STB MTL CONT IN ALLEY AT BACK OF TRUCK OVEREXERTED SELF WITH STD MTL CONT
      UHICH UAS FULL RESULTING IN SPRAIN OR STRAIN TO BACK.
                                                                                                                NO.  INJ  DAYS   COSTS

                                                                                                                    2      19    1199
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
2
I
1
I
1
2
1
1
1
3
1
1
1
1
1
1
i
i
13
1
6
7
0
0
8
0
2
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
5
2
A
8
0
0
0
0
2
10
7-
499
108
314
76
7
0
322
20
111
33
72
39
36
0
57
38
99
96
219
297
33
0
0
72
147
54S
302

-------
          WHICH 'WAS FULL RESULTING IN SPRAIN OR STRAIN TO WRIST,                                                     1       5     260
     EMPLOYEE WAS DUMPING STD MIL CONT IN CUSTOMER'S DRIVEWAY WAS BITTEN BY ANIMAL RESULTING IN
          CUT/PUNCTURE TO LEG.                                                                                       1       1      43
     EMPLOYEE WAS DUMPING STD MTL CONT IN ALLEY AT BACK OF TRUCK INJURED SELF WITH STD MTL CONT WHICH
          WAS FULL AND HAD BOUNCED BACK FROM HOPPER RESULTING IN BRUISE TO GROIN.                                    1       0      27
     EMPLOYEE WAS DUMPING STD MTL CONT IN ALLEY AT BACK OF TRUCK WAS STRUCK BY GLASS WHICH BROKE AGAINST
          THE VEH RESULTING IN CUT/PUNCTURE TO EYES.                                                                 1       0      22
     EMPLOYEE WAS DUMPING PLASTIC BAG IN ST AT BACK OF TRUCK WAS STRUCK BY CERAMIC WASTE WHICH FELL OUT
          OF VEH RESULTING IN CUT/PUNCTURE TO ARM.                                                                   1       1     108
     EMPLOYEE WAS DUMPING WHEELED CART IN ST AT BACK OF TRUCK OVEREXERTED SELF WITH WHEELED CART WHICH
          WAS FULL AND WAS UNUSUALLY LARGE RESULTING IN SPRAIN OR STRAIN TO ELBOW,                                   1       0      20
     EMPLOYEE WAS DUMPING STD MTL CONT IN ST AT BACK OF TRUCK WAS CAUGHT BETWEEN CONT X EDGE OF HOPPER
          (CONT WAS UNUSUALLY HVY) RESULTING IN BRUISE TO HAND,                                                      1       6     289
     EMPLOYEE WAS DUMPING STD MTL CONT IN ST AT BACK OF TRUCK STRUCK AGAINST SIDE OF VEH RESULTING IN
          BRUISE TO HAND.                                                                                            100
     EMPLOYEE WAS DUMPING STD MTL CONT IN ST AT BACK OF TRUCK WAS STUNG BY INSECT RESULTING IN STING TO
          FOREHEAD.                                                                                                  100
     EMPLOYEE WAS DUMPING STD MTL CONT IN ST AT BACK OF TRUCK WAS CAUGHT BETWEEN CONT X EDGE OF HOPPER
          (CONT WAS UNUSUALLY HVY) RESULTING IN BRUISE TO FINGERS.                                                   1       0      12
     EMPLOYEE WAS DUMPING PLASTIC BAG IN ST AT BACK OF TRUCK WAS STRUCK BY BOTTLE WHICH WAS EJTD FROM
          HOPPER RESULTING IN CUT/PUNCTURE TO FOREHEAD.                                                              1       4     372
     EMPLOYEE WAS DUMPING STD MTL CONT IN ALLEY AT BACK OF TRUCK WAS STRUCK BY ACID WHICH FELL OUT OF
          CONT RESULTING IN CHEMICAL BURN TO   .J PH ,                                                                  100
     EMPLOYEE WAS DUMPING STD MTL CONT IN CUSTOMER'S YD INJURED SELF WITH STD MTL CONT WHICH WAS FULL
          RESULTING IN BRUISE TO TOES,                                                                               100
     EMPLOYEE WAS DUMPING WHEELED CART IN ST AT BACK OF TRUCK OVEREXERTED SELF WITH WHEELED CART WHICH
          WAS FULL AND WAS UNUSUALLY LARGE RESULTING IN SPRAIN OR STRAIN TO SHOULDER.                                1      11     562
ijj    EMPLOYEE WAS DUMPING CARDPD BOX IN ST AT BACK OF TRUCK WAS STUNG BY INSECT RESULTING IN STING TO ARM.            1       0      50
00    EMPLOYEE WAS DUMPING STD MTL CONT IN ST AT BACK OF TRUCK WAS STRUCK BY VEH RESULTING IN BRUISE TO
          MULTIPLE BODY PARTS.                                                                                       1       6     181
     EMPLOYEE WAS DUMPING STD MTL CONT IN ST AT CURB INJURED SELF WITH STD MTL CONT WHICH WAS FULL AND
          (IAD SHARP EDGES RESULTING IN CUT/PUNCTURE TO ARM.                                                          1       0      20
     EMPLOYEE WAS DUMPING STD MTL CONT IN ALLEY AT BACK OF TRUCK WAS STUNG BY INSECT RESULTING IN STING
          TO HAND.                                                                                                   100
     EMPLOYEE WAS DUMPING STD MTL CONT IN ST AT BACK OF TRUCK WAS STRUCK BY STD MTL CONT WHICH WAS EMPTY
          AND HAD BOUNCED BACK FROM HOPPER RESULTING IN BRUISE TO FINGERS.                                           100
     EMPLOYEE WAS DUMPING PLASTIC BAG IN ALLEY AT BACK OF TRUCK OVEREXERTED SELF WITH PLASTIC BAG WHICH
          WAS FULL RESULTING IN SPRAIN OR STRAIN TO SHOULDER.                                                        1      10     662
     EMPLOYEE WAS DUMPING STD MTL CONT IN ST AT BACK OF TRUCK WAS STUNG BY INSECT RESULTING IN STING TO ARM.          1       3     2B4
     EMPLOYEE WAS DUMPING PLASTIC CAN IN ST AT BACK OF TRUCK WAS HURT BY HANDLING PLASTIC BAG WHICH HAD
          PROTRUDING GLASS AND WAS FALLING RESULTING IN CUT/PUNCTURE TO ARM.                                         1       0      25
     EMPLOYEE WAS. DUMPING STD MTL CONT IN ST AT BACK OF TRUCK WAS CAUGHT BETWEEN CONT S EDGE OF HOPPER
          (CONT WAS UNUSUALLY HVY) RESULTING IN SPRAIN OR STRAIN TO FINGERS.                                         1       0      44
     EMPLOYEE WAS DUMPING WHEELED CART IN ST AT BACK OF TRUCK SLIPPED STEPPING ON WET GROUND RESULTING
          IN HERNIA TO ABDOMEN,                                                                                      1       2      70
     EMPLOYEE WAS DUMPING STD MTL CONT IN CUSTOMER'S YD OVEREXERTED SELF WITH STD MTL CONT WHICH WAS
          FULL RESULTING IN SPRAIN OR STRAIN TO BACK.                                                                1       2     154
     EMPLOYEE WAS DUMPING TOTE BARREL IN ST AT BACK OF TRUCK OVEREXERTED SELF WITH TOTE BARREL WHICH WAS
          UNUSUALLY HEAVY AND WAS UNUSUALLY LARGE RESULTING IN SPRAIN OR STRAIN TO BACK.                             1      10     100
    , EMPLOYEE WAS DUMPING TOTE BARREL IN ST AT BACK OF TRUCK WAS CAUGHT BETWEEN CONT X EDGE OF HOPPER
          (CONT WAS HVY-WATER FILLED) RESULTING IN BRUISE TO THUMB.                                                  1       2     154

                   TOTAL                                                                                           117     512   23741

-------
                                                               FIGURE  1-4
                                                                                                                         PAGE
                                                                   ALL USERS
                                                           DETAILED DESCRIPTION OF
                                                            DISMOUNTING ACCIDENTS
     REPORTING PERIOD: JULY - SEPTEMBER 1976
     THIS PROFILE  IS A FORMATTED SENTENCE CONSISTING OF ACTIVITYr ACCIDENT TYPEr NATURE OF INJURY  AND  PART OF BODY.
U>
                                                     PROFILE
EMPLOYEE  WAS  GETTING  OFF  RUNNING  BOARD  AND HE SLIPPED STEPPING ON SLIPPERY PAVEMENT WHILE STEPPING
      DOWN RESULTING IN  SPRAIN  OR  STRAIN TO ANKLE,
EMPLOYEE  WAS  GETTING  OFF  RUNNING  BOARD  AND HE MADE SUDDEN MOVEMENT RESULTING IN UNKNOWN TYPE OF
      INJURY TO  LEG.
EMPLOYEE  WAS  GETTING  OFF  STEP  OF  VEH AND HE SLIPPED STEPPING ON WET GROUND WHILE STEPPING DOWN
      RESULTING  IN  SPRAIN  OR  STRAIN  TO KNEE.
EMPLOYEE  WAS  GETTING  OFF  CAB DF VEH AND HE MADE SUDDEN MOVEMENT RES'J' TTNG IN SPRAIN OR STRAIN TO KNEE,
EMPLOYEE  WAS  GETTING  OFF  STEP  OF  VEH AND HE MADE SUDDEN MOVEMENT RESULTING IN SPRAIN OR STRAIN TO
      ANKLE.
EMPLOYEE  WAS  GETTING  OFF  TRUCK BED  AND  HE SLIPPED WHILE ON TRUCK BED AND STRUCK AGNST SIDE OF VEH
      RESULTING  IN  DRUISE  TO  ARM.
EMPLOYEE  WAS  GETTING  OFF  STEP  OF  VEH AND HE SLIPPED STEPPING ON OBJ ON GROUND WHILE STEPPING DOWN
      RESULTING  IN  SPRAIN  OR  STRAIN  TO ANKLE,
EMPLOYEE  WAS  GETTING  OFF  RUNNING  BOARD  AND HE FELL WHILE ON STEP OF VEH AND STRUCK AGNST RUNNING
      BOARD RESULTING  IN SPRAIN OR STRAIN TO WRIST.
EMPLOYEE  WAS  GETTING  OFF  CAB OF VEH AND HE STRUCK AGAINST CAB DOOR RESULTING IN BRUTSE TO ELBOW.
EMPLOYEE  WAS  GETTING  OFF  STEP  OF  VEH AND HE SLIPPED STEPPING ON DEPRESSION RESULTING IN SPRAIN OR
      STRAIN TO  ANKLE.
EMPLOYEE  WAS  GETTING  OFF  STEP  OF  VEH AND HE MADE SUDDEN MOVEMENT RESULTING IN SPRAIN OR STRAIN TO
      INTERNAL ORGANS.
EMPLOYEE  WAS  GETTING  OFF  TRUCK BED  AND  HE FELL FROM TRUCK BED ONTO PAVEMENT RESULTING IN SPRAIN OR
      STRAIN iP  ELBOW.
EMPLOYEE  WAf:  'luTTING  OFF  STEP  OF  VEH AND HE WAS INJURED IN OTHER TYPE OF ACCIDENT RESULTING IN BURN
      FROM HEAT  TO  FOOT,
EMPLOYEE  WAS  GETTING  OFF  CAB OF VEH AND HE STRUCK AGAINST CAB DOOR RESULTING IN BRUISE TO KNEE,
EMPLOYEE  WAS  GETTING  OFF  STEP  OF  VEH AND HE SLIPPED STEPPING ON CURB WHILE STEPPING DOWN RESULTING
      IN SPRAIN  OR  STKAIN  TO  ANKLE.
EMPLOYEE  WAS  GETTING  OFF  RUNNING  BOARD  AND HE MADE SUDDEN MOVEMENT RESULTING IN SPRAIN OR STRAIN TO
      ANKLE,
EMPLOYEE  WAS  GETTING  OFF  RUNNING  BOARD  AND HE FELL WHILE ON RUNNING BOARD AND STRUCK AGNST RUNNING
      HUARP RESULTING  IN BRUISE TO LEG.
EMPLOYEE  WAS  GETTING  OFF  RUNNING  BOARD  AND HE SLIPPED STEPPING ON OBJ ON GROUND WHILE STEPPING DOWN
      RESULTING  IN  SPRAIN  OR  STRAIN  TO TRUNK,
EMPLOYEE  WAS  GETTING  OFF  TAILGATE AND HE FELL FROM TAILGATE ONTO PAVEMENT RESULTING IN CONCUSSION
      TO SKULL.
EMPLOYEE  WAS  GETTING  OFF  RUNNING  BOARD  AND HE SLIPPED STEPPING ON OBJ ON GROUND WHILE STEPPING DOWN
      RESULTING  IN  SPRAIN  OR  STRAIN  TO ANKLE,
EMPLOYEE  WAS  GETTING  OFF  STEP  OF  VEH AND HE SLIPPED STEPPING ON UNEVEN PAVEMENT WHILE STEPPING DOWN
      RESULTING  IN  SPRAIN  OR  STRAIN  TO ANKLE.
EMPLOYEE  UAS  GETTING  OFF  RUNNING  BOARD  AND HE SLIPPED WHILE ON WET RUNNING BOARD AND STRUCK AGNST
      SIDE OF  VEH RESULTING  IN  BRUISE TO LEB.
EMPLOYEE  WAS  GETTING  OFF  RUNNING  BOARD  AND HE UAS STRUCK BY VEH RESULTING IN BRUISE TO ROOT.
EMPLOYEE  WAS  GETTIMG  OFF  RUNNING  BOARD  AND HE SLIPPED STEPPING ON DEPRESSION WHILE: STEPPING DOWN
      RESULTING IN  SH-RAIN  OR STRAIN  TO ftNKLEI .
NO. INJ
1
1
1
1
7
1
2
1
1
1
1
1
1
•!
4
1
3
1
1
1
1
1
l
i
DAYS
o
1
0
8
29
0
6
39
0
0
0
7
0
2
0
14
19
3
1
1
11
21
2.3
COSTS
151
16
0
618
942
8
471
1061
0
60
20
96
44
109
43
233
607
168
65
50
27S
5&G
5S><4

-------
                                                      PROFILE
 EMPLOYEE: WAS GETTING OFF STEP OF VEH AND HE STRUCK AGAINST SHARP OBJ RESULTING IN CUT/PUNCTURE  TO  LEG.
 EMPLOYEE WAS GETTING OFF RUNNING BOARD AND HE STEPPED ON BOARD WITH NAIL RESULTING IN  CUT/PUNCTURE
      10 FOOT.
 EMPLOYEE WAS GETTING OFF RUNNING BOARD AND HE STEPPED ON NAIL RESULTING IN CUT/PUNCTURE TO  FOOT.
 EMPLOYEE WAS GETTING OFF STEP OF VEH AND HE FELL FROM STEP OF VEH ONTO CURB RESULTING  IN SPRAIN OR
      STRAIN TO WRIST.
 EMPLOYEE WAS GETTING OFF STEP OF VEH' AND HE SLIPPED FROM OILY STEP OF VEH ONTO PAVEMENT RESULTING
      IN SPRAIN OR STRAIN TO NECK.
 EMPLOYEE WAS GETTING OFF STEP OF VEH AND HE FELL ON DEPRESSION WHILE STEPPING DOWN RESULTING  IN
      SPRAIN OR STRAIN TO BACK.
 EMPLOYEE WAS GETTING OFF RUNNING BOARD AND HE FELL ON WASTE ON GROUND WHILE STEPPING DOWN RESULTING
      IN BRUISE TO MULTIPLE BODY PARTS,
 EMPLOYEE WAS GETTING OFF RUNNING BOARD AND HE MADE SUDDEN MOVEMENT RESULTING IN UNKNOWN TYPE  OF
      INJURY TO FOOT.
 EMPLOYEE WAS GETTING OFF RUNNING BOARD AND HE SLIPPED STEPPING ON METER WHILE STEPPING DOWN
      RESULTING IN SPRAIN OR STRAIN TO ANKLE.
 EMPLOYEE WAS GETTING OFF STEP OF VEH AND HE STEPPED ON UNK OBJECT RESULTING IN CUT/PUNCTURE TO  FOOT.
 EMPLOYEE WAS GETTING OFF RUNNING BOARD AND HE MADE SUDDEN MOVEMENT RESULTING IN SPRAIN OR STRAIN TO
      BACK.
 EMPLOYEE WAS GETTING OFF STEP OF VEH AND HE STEPPED ON PALM FRONDS RESULTING IN CUT/PUNCTURE  TO FOOT.
 EMPLOYEE WAS GETTING OFF RUNNING BOARD AND HE STRUCK AGAINST SHRUBBERY RESULTING IN ABRASIONS TO EYES.
 EMPLOYEE UAS GETTING OFF RUNNING BOARD AND HE SLIPPED STEPPING ON SLIPPERY FLOOR WHILE STEPPING
      DOWN RESULTING IN SPRAIN OR STRAIN TO BACK.
 EMPLOYEE WAS GETTING OFF RUNNING BOARD AND HE MADE SUDDFN MOVEMENT RESULTING IN SPRAIN OR STRAIN TO
      GROIN.
 EMPLOYEE WAS GETTING OFF RUNNING BOARD .AND HE WAS CAUGHT IN CAB DOOR RESULTING IN BRUISE TO FINGERS.
 EMPLOYEE WAS GETTING OFF STEP OF VEH AND HE MADE SUDDEN MOVEMENT RESULTING IN SPRAIN OR STRAIN  TO  BACK.
 EMPLOYEE WAS GETTING OFF STEP OF VEH AND HE SLIPPED WHILE ON OILY STEP OF VEH AND STRUCK AGNST  SIDE
      OF VEH RESULTING IN BRUISE TO CHEST.
 EMPLOYEE WAS GETTING OFF STEP OF VEH AND HE MADE SUDDEN MOVEMENT RESULTING IN SPRAIN OR STRAIN  TO
      MULTIPLE BODY PARTS.
 EMPLOYEE WAS GETTING OFF RUNNING DOARD AND HE FELL ON OBJ ON GROUND WHILE STEPPING DOWN RESULTING
      IN SPRAIN OR STRAIN TO ANKLE,
 EMPLOYEE WAS GETTING OFF RUNNING BOARD AND HE FELL WHILE ON STEP OF VEH AND STRK AGNST FENDER
      RESULTING IN BRUISE TO BACK.
 EMPLOYEE WAS GETTING OFF RUNNING BOARD AND HE SLIPPED FROM RUNNING BOARD ONTO PAVEMENT RESULTING IN
      SPRAIN OR STRAIN TO BACK.
 EMPLOYEE WAS GETTING OFF RUNNING BOARD AND HE SLIPPED STEPPING ON PAVEMENT WHILE STEPPING DOWN
      RESULTING IN SPRAIN OK' STRAIN TO NECK'.
 EMPLOYEE WAS GETTING OFF STEP OF VEH AND HE SLIPPED STEPPING ON COLLAPSING PAVEMENT WHILE STEPPING
      DOWN RESULTING IN SPRAIN OR STRAIN TO ANKLE.
 EMPLOYEE WAS GETTING OFF STEP OF VEH AND HE MADE SUDDEN MOVEMENT RESULTING IN SPRAIN OR STRAIN  TO  KNEE.
 EMPLOYEE WAS GETTING OFF RUNNING BOARD AND HE STRUCK AGAINST UNK VEH PART RESULTING IN CUT/PUNCTURE
      TO FINGERS.
 EMPLOYEE WAS GETTING OFF CAB OF VEH AND HE STRUCK AGAINST CAB DOOR RESULTING IN UNKNOWN TYPE OF
      INJURY TO ELBOW,
 EMPLOYEE WAS GETTING OFF STEP OF VEH AND HE SLIPPED STEPPING ON SLIPPERY GRAVEL WHILE  STEPPING  DOWN
      RESULTING IN SPRAIN OR STRAIN TO ANKLE.
'EMPLOYEE WAS GETTING OFF RUNNING BOARD AND HE SLIPPED FROM RUNNING BOARD ONTO PAVEMENT RESULTING IN
      SPRAIN OR STRAIN TO SHOULDER.
 EMPLOYEE WAS GETTING OFF RUNNING BOARD AND HE WAS INJURED WHEN VEH WAS HIT BY ANOTHER  VEH RESULTING
      IN BRUISE TO LEG.
 EMPLOYEE WAS GETTING OFF STEP OF VEH AND HE UAS INJURED IN OTHER TYPE OF ACCIDENT RESULTING IN
      UNKNOWN TYPE OF INJURY TO FOOT,
                                                                                                             NO.  INJ   DAYS
1
2

1

1

1

1

1

1
1

1
2
1

1

1
1
2

1

1

1

1

1

1

1
1

1

1

1

1

1

1
 0
 4

 0

 3

 0

13

 0

 5
 0

 0
 1
 0
COSTS
   £.^_

    0
  364

   20

   3V

   20

  715

   16

  106
   37

    0
  107
   53

  655
0
0
2
0
0
10
17
0
0
5
13
0
3
0
0
27
15
9^
0
157
8
30
366
1272
20
0
407
246
35
447
59
132
406
66

-------
                                                                                                                     PAGE  3
EMPLOYEE WAS GETTING  Ui-T  STEP  OF  VEH AND HE
     OR STRAIN  TO  WRIST.
EMPLOYEE WAS GETTING  OFF  STEP  OF  VEH AND HE
EMPLOYEE WAS GETTING  DFF  RUNNING  BOARD AND
     SPRAIN OR  STRAIN  TO  ANKLE.
EMPLOYEE WAS GETTING  OFF  RUNNING  BOARD AND
     BACK OF VEH RESULTING  IN  CUT/PUNCTURE
EMPLOYEE WAS GETTING  OFF  STEP  CF  VEH AND HE
     RESULTING  IN  SPRAIN  OR STRAIN TO ANKLE
EMPLOYEE WAS GETTING  OFF  RUNNING  BOARD AND
     FOOT.
EMPLOYEE WAS GETTING  OFF  STEP  OF  VEH AND HE
     RESULTING  IN  SPRAIN  OR STRAIN TO ANKLE
EMPLOYEE WAS GETTING  OFF  STEP  OF  VEH AND HE
     FRACTURE TO ANKLE.
EMPLOYEE WAS GETTING  OFF  SU:P  OF  VEH AND HE
     VEH RESULTING  IN  BRUISE TO ANKLE.
EMPLOYEE WAS GETTING  OFF  STEP  OF  VEH AND HE
EMPLOYEE WAS GETTING  OFF  STEP  OF  VEH AND HE
     TO ANKLE,
EMPLOYEE WAS GETTING  OFF  STEP  OF  VEH AND HE
     SPRAIN OR  STRAIN  TO  KNEE,

              TOTAL
          PROFILE
 FELL FROM STEP OF VEH ONTO PAVEMENT RESULTING  IN  SPRAIN

 STRUCK AGAINST STEP OF VEH RESULTING IN BRUTRE TO FOOT.
HE FELL FROM RUNNING BOARD ONTO PAVEMENT RESULTING IN

HE SLIPPED WHILE ON WET RUNNING BOARD AND STRUCK AGNST
TO SCALP,
 SLIPPED STEPPING ON PAVEMENT WHILE STEPPING DOWN

HE MADE SUDDEN MOVEMENT RESULTING IN SPRAIN OR  STRAIN TO

 SLIPPED STEPPING ON DEPRESSION WHILE STEPPING  DOWN

 FELL ON OBJ ON GROUND WHILE STEPPING DOWN RESULTING  IN

 FELL WHILE ON WET STEP OF VEH AND STRUCK AGNST STEP  OF

 STRUCK AGAINST SIDE. OF VEH RESULTING IN BRUISE TO KNEE.
 SLIPPED STEPPING ON CURB RESULTING IN SKr.AiN OR STRAIN

 FELL ON PAVEMENT WHiLE STEPPING DOWN RESULTING IN
                                                                                                            NO,  INJ  DAYS   COSTS
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1-
79
18
1
2
1
6
4
0
20
0
0
7
1
3Q5
404
48
106
115
338
241
16
668
41
38
61
65
14257

-------
    REPORTING  PERIOD:  JULY  -  SEPTEMBER  1976
                                                                 USER NO. ALL
                                                           DETAILED  DESCRIPTION OF
                                                        STANDING  OR  WALKING ACCIDENTS
    THIS PROFILE  IS  A  FORMATTED  SENTENCE  CONSISTING OF ACTIVITY, ACCIDENT SITEr ACCIDENT TYFEr NATURE OF INJURY AND PART OF BODY,
NJ
                                                     PROFILE
EMPLOYEE WAS STANDING OR WALKING IN OFFICE WAS STRUCK BY OTHER OBJECT RESULTING IN BRUISE TO KNEE,
EMPLOYEE WAS STANDING OR WALKING AT HEADQUARTERS SL.IPPED FROM WET STAIRS RESULTING IN SPRAIN OR
     STRAIN TO ANKLE.
EMPLOYEE WAS STANDING OR WALKING IN ST AT CURB STEPPED ON HYPODERMIC NEEDLE RESULTING IN
     CUT/PUNCTURE TO FOOT.
EMPLOYEE WAS STANDING OR WALKING IN ST AT CURB WAS BITTEN BY ANIMAL RESULTING IN CUT/PUNCTURE TO ARM.
EMPLOYEE WAS STANDING OR WALKING IN ST AT CURB WAS STRUCK BY WHEELED CART RESULTING IN FRACTURE TO
     KNEE,
EMPLOYEE WAS STANDING OR WALKING IN ST AT BACK OF TRUCK SLIPPED STEPPING ON DEPRESSION RESULTING IN
     SPRAIN OR STRAIN TO ANKLE.
EMPLOYEE WAS STANDING OR WALKING IN YARD FELL ON OBJ ON GROUND RESULTING IN SPRAIN OR STRAIN TO ARM.
EMPLOYEE WAS STANDING OR WALKING IN ST AT BACK OF TRUCK FELL ON OBJ ON GROUND RESULTING IN FRACTURE
     TO SHOULDER.
EMPLOYEE WAS STANDING OR WALKING IN YARD WAS STRUCK BY FURNITURE WHICH FELL OUT OF VEH RESULTING IN
     SPRAIN OR STRAIN TO BACK.
EMPLOYEE WAS STANDING OR WALKING IN ALLEY AT CURB WAS BITTEN BY ANIMAL RESULTING IN CUT/PUNCTURE TO
     HIPS.
EMPLOYEE WAS STANDING OR WALKING IN ST AT CURB SLIPPED STEPPING ON DEPRESSION RESULTING IN SPRAIN
     OR STRAIN TO ANKLE.
EMPLOYEE WAS STANDING OR WALKING IN CUSTOMER'S YD WAS BITTEN BY ANIMAL RESULTING IN CUT/PUNCTURE TO
     LEG.
EMPLOYEE WAS STANDING OR WALKING IN YARD STRUCK AGAINST BACK OF VEH RESULTING IN BRUISE TO LEG,
EMPLOYEE WAS STANDING OR WALKING NEXT TO VEH AT DUMP SITE STEPPED ON GLASS RESULTING IN
     CUT/PUNCTURE TO FOOT.
EMPLOYEE WAS STANDING OR WALKING IN MIDSTREET FELL ON SLIPPERY WASTE ON GROUND RESULTING IN SPRAIN
     OR STRAIN TO ARM.
EMPLOYEE WAS STANDING OR WALKING IN- ST AT CURB FELL FROM WET CURB ONTO PAVEMENT RESULTING IN SPRAIN
     OR STRAIN 10 ANKLE.
EMPLOYEE WAS STANDING OR WALKING IN CUSTOMER'S DRIVEWAY GOT WASTE PARTICLES IN EYE RESULTING IN EYE
     IRRITATION TO EYES,
EMPLOYEE WAS STANDING OR WALKING IN CUSTOMER'S -YD STEPPED ON BOARD WITH NAIL RESULTING IN
     CUT/PUNCTURE TO FOOT.
EMPLOYEE WAS STANDING OR WALKING IN ALLEY AT BACK OF TRUCK STEPPED ON NAIL RESULTING IN
     CUT/PUNCTURE TO FOOT.
EMPLOYEE WAS STANDING OR WALKING IN CUSTOMER'S DRIVEWAY SLIPPED STEPPING ON OILY PAVEMENT RESULTING
     IN SPRAIN OR STRAIN TO ANKLE.
EMPLOYEE WAS STANDING OR WALKING IN MIDSTREET STEPPED ON NAIL RESULTING IN CUT/PUNCTURE TO FOOT.
EMPLOYEE WAS STANDING OR WALKING IN ST AT BACK OF TRUCK WAS STRUCK BY GLASS WHICH WAS EJTD FROM
     HOPPER RESULTING IN CUT/PUNCTURE TO EYES.
EMPLOYEE WAS STANDING OR WALKING IN ST AT BACK OF TRUCK SLIPPED STEPPING ON OBJ ON GROUND RESULTING
     IN SPRAIN OR STRAIN TO ANKLE.
EMPLOYEE WAS STANDING OR WALKING IN ST AT CURB MADE SUDDEN MOVEMENT RESULTING IN SPRAIN OR STRAIN
     TO ANKLE.
EMPLOYEE WAS STANDING OR WALKING IN ST AT CURB WAS STRUCK BY GLASS WHICH WAS EJTD FROM HOPPER
     RESULTING IN CUT/PUNCTURE TO ARM.
                                                                                                                NO, INJ  DAYS
                                                                                                                    1       0

                                                                                                                    1       4
                                                                                                                    1
                                                                                                                    2
37
 0
COSTS
    0

  24?

 5004
   36

  170
1
1
1
1
1
3
3
1
1
1
1
1
2
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
0
0
0
15
0
19
1
2
24
0
1
0
0
12
0
4
0
4
0
0
25
0
178
867
37
327
83
210
646
20
92
0
52
459
B3
200
20
238
0
82

-------
                                                                                                                         PAGE   2


                                                         PROFILE                                                NQ.  INJ  DAYS   COSTS
    EMPLOYEE WAS STANDING OR WALKING IN CUSTOMER'S YD WAS BITTEN BY ANIMAL RESULTING IN CUT/PUNCTURE TO
         ARM.                                                                                                       1        0       27
    EMFLOYKE WAS STANDING OR WALKING NEXT TO VEH AT DUMP SITE GOT WASTE PARTICLES IN EYE RESULTING IN
         EYE IRRIGATION TO EYES.                                                                                    1        0       67
    EMPLOYEE WAS STANDING OR WALKING IN ST AT BACK OF TRUCK WAS STRUCK BY PARTICLES IN WASTE WHICH WAS
         EJTD FROM HOPPER RESULTING IN CHEMICAL BURN TO FACE.                                                       1        i       73
    EMPLOYEE WAS STANDING OR WALKING IN MIDSTREET STEPPED ON GLASS RESULTING IN CUT/PUNCTURE TO FOOT.               1        1       46
    EMPLOYEE WAS STANDING OR WALKING IN CUSTOMER'S YD FELL FROM GRASS INTO DEPRESSION RESULTING IN
         BRUISE TO LEG.                                                                                             1       17      737
    EMPLOYEE WAS STANDING OR WALKING IN ST AT BACK OF TRUCK STRUCK AGAINST BACK OF VEH RESULTING IN
         BRUISE TO CHEST.                                                                                           1       10      470
    EMPLOYEE WAS STANDING OR WALKING IN MIDALLEY STEPPED ON NAIL RESULTING IN CUT/PUNCTURE TO TOES,                 1        0       32
    EMPLOYEE WAS SI V-'niNG OR WALKING ON STEP OF VEH FELL I'ROM STAIRS RESULTING IN BRUISE TO ANKLE.                  1        1      142
    EMPLOYEE WAS STANDING OR WALKING IN ST AT BACK OF TRUCK STEPPED ON NAIL RESULTING IN CUT/PUNCTURE
         TO FOOT.                                                                                                   2        2      129
    EMPLOYEE WAS STANDING OR WALKING IN CUSTOMER'S YD WAS BITTEN BY ANIMAL RESULTING IN CUT/PUNCTURE TO
         KNEE.                                                                                                      1        0       24
    EMPLOYEE WAS STANDING OR WALKING IN ST AT PACK OF TRUCK WAS STRUCK BY WOOD WHICH WAS EJTD FROM
         HOPPER RESULTING IN CUT/PUNCTURE TO FOREHEAD,                                                              2        1       43
    EMPLOYEE WAS STANDING OR WALKING IN ALLEY AT CURB STRUCK AGAINST SIDE OF VEH RESULTING IN BRUISE TO
         CHEST.                                                                                                     1        3      209
    EMPLOYEE WAS STANDING OP ••',.:<, KING IN OFFICE FFLL FROM STAIRS RESULTING IN BRUISF ",* MULTIPLE BODY PARTS.          1       10      900
    EMPLOYEE WAS SiAiUUNG Or  '.•;, ..KING IN :-. j  AT BACK OF TRUCK WAS STRUCK BY WASTE HANDLED BY COWORKER
         WHICH FELL OUT OF CONT RESULTING IN BRUISE TO MOUTH,                                                       \        1       87
    EMPLOYEE WAS STANDING OR WALKING IN ALLEY AT CURB WAS STUNG BY INSECT RESULTING IN STING TO LEG.                1        5      453
    EMPLOYEE HAS STANDING OR WALKING IN CUSTOMER'S YD STEPPED ON NAIL RESULTING IN CUT/PUNCTURE TO FOOT.             1        0       31
    EMPLOYEE WAS S :Y .-."I/O OR WALKING IN ST AT CURB STEPPED ON NAIL RESULTING IN CUT/PUNCTUAL: TO FOOT.               1        1       64
   ^EMPLOYEE WAS STANDING OR WALKING IN CUSTOMER'S YD STEPPED ON FLUORESCENT BULB RESULTING IN
J^        CUT/PUNCTURE TO FOOT.                                                                                       100
    EMPLOYEE WAS STANDING OR WALKING IN CUSTOMER'S DRIVEWAY STEPPED ON BOARD WITH NAIL RESULTING IN
         CUT/PUNCTURE TO TOOT,                                                                                       100
    EMPLOYEE WAS STANDING OR WALKING ON SIDEWALK WAS INJURED FROM AGGRESSIVE ACT RESULTING IN BRUISE TO
         MULTIPLE BODY FARTS.                                                                                        1        0      47
    EMPLOYEE WAS STANDING OR WALKING IN ALLEY AT BACK OF TRUCK WAS BITTEN BY ANIMAL RESULTING IN
         CUT/PUNCTURE 'rr  '.L?;.                                                                                       1        0      33
    EMPLOYEE WAS STf,;.:' :  •    WALKING IN YARD STEPPED ON BOARD WITH NAIL RESULTING IN CUT/PUNCTURE TO FOOT.          100
    EMPLOYEE WAS STANDING OR WALKING IN ST  AT BACK OF TRUCK STEPPED ON GLASS RESULTING IN CUT/PUNCTURE
         TO FOOT.                                                                                                    1        4      50
    EMPLOYEE WAS STANDING OR WALKING IN CUSTOMER'S DRIVEWAY WAS STRUCK BY CHEMICAL WHICH WAS EJTD FROM
         HOPPER RESULTING IN CHEMICAL BURN  TO EYES.                                                                 100
    EMPLOYEE Wfo yrflNPrNG OR WALKING IN ST  A'f BACK OF TRUCK WAS STRUCK BY GLASS WHICH WAS EJTD FROM
         HOPPER RESULTING IN EYE IRRITATION TO EYES.                                                                1       0      33
    EMPLOYEE WAS STANDING OR WALKING IN ST  AT BACK OF TRUCK WAS HURT BY HANDLING SHRUBBERY RESULTING IN
         CUT/PUNCTURE TO HAND,                                                                                       100
    EMPLOYEE WAS STANDING OR WALKING IN ST  AT BACK OF TRUCK WAS STRUCK BY GLASS WHICH UAS EJTD FROM
         HOPPER RESCUING IN CUT/PUNCTURE TO JAW.                                                                   1       0      22
    EMPLOYEE WAS STANDING OR WALKING IN ST  AT BACK OF TRUCK WAS STUNG BY INSECT RESULTING IN STING TO
         SHOULDER.                                                                                                   1        -0      1&
   "EMPLOYEE WAS STANDING OR WALKING IN'MIDSTREET WAS STRUCK BY VEH RESULTING IN FRACTURE TO ANKLE.                 i       51     1753
    EMPLOYEE '''AS STANDING OR UALKING IN CUSTOMER'S YD WAS STUNG BY INSECT RESULTING IN STING TO ELBOW.              1        0       21
    EMPLOYEE '.JAS STANDING OR UALKING IN CUSTOMER'S YD WAS BITTEN BY ANIMAL RESULTING IN CUT/PUNCTURE TO
         MULTIPLE BODY PARTS.                                                                                       1        <4      3-16
    EMPLOYEE WAS STANDINO OR MALKINO IN YARD SLIPPED WHILE ON COLLAPSING OTHER SURFACE AND STRK AGNST
         FENCE  RESULTING IN BRUISE TO CHEST.                                                                        1        O       O

-------
     SRUIFE TO KNEE.
EMPLOYEE WAS STANDING OR
     RESULTING IN BRUISE
EMPLOYEE UAS STANDING OR
     CUT/PUNCTURE TO LEG.
EMPLOYEE WAS STANDING OR
     SPRAIN OR STRAIN TO
EMPLOYEE UAS STANDING OR
     FRACTURE TO KNEE.
EMPLOYEE UAS STANDING OR
     SPRAIN OR STRAIN TO
EMPLOYEE WAS STANDING OR
     SPRAIN OR STRAIN TO
EMPLOYEE WAS STANDING OR
     MULTIPLE BODY PARTS.
EMPLOYEE WAS STANDING OR
     CUT/PUNCTURE TO FOOT
EMPLOYEE UAS STANDING OR
     INJURY TO LEG.
EMPLOYEE WAS STANDING OR
     CUT/PUNCTURE TO FOOT
EMPLOYEE WAS STANDING OR
EMPLOYEE WAS STANDING OR
EMPLOYEE WAS ST/.NDING OR
EMPLOYEE WAS STANDING OR
     SPRAIN OR STRAIN TO
EMPLOYEE WAS STANDING OR
     SPRAIN OR STRAIN TO

              TOTAL
WALKING IN MIDSTREET STRUCK AGAINST MATTRESS WHICH FELL OUT  OF  VEH
TO KNEE.
WALKING ON VEHICLE FELL FROM COLLAPSING TRUCK BED RESULTING  IN

WALKING ON COLLECTION ROUTE SLIPPED STEPPING DM DEPRESSION RESULTING  IN
ANKLE.
WALKING AT DUMP SITE FELL ON OBJ PROTRUDING FROM GRND RESULTING IN

WALKING IN YARD PARKING LOT SLIPPED STEPPING ON OBJ ON GROUND RESULTING  IN
ANKLE.
WALKING IN CUSTOMER'S YD WAS INJURED FROM AGGRESSIVE ACT RESULTING  IN
LEG.
WALKING IN MIDSTREET WAS STRUCK BY VEH RESULTING IN SPRAIN OR STRAIN  TO

WALKING IN ALLEY AT BACK OF TRUCK STEPPED ON GLASS RESULTING IN
<
WALKING IN SHOP/GARAGE FELL ON OILY FLOOR RESULTING IN UNKNOWN  TYPE OF

WALKING IN ST AT BACK OF TRUCK STEPPED ON BOARD WITH NAIL RESULTING IN

WALKING NEXT TO VEH WAS STRUCK BY TAILGATE RESULTING IN FRACTURE TO HAND.
WALKING IN YARD STEPPED ON GLASS RESULTING IN CUT/PUNCTURE TO FOOT.
WALKING IN CUSTOMER'S YD WAS BITTEN BY ANIMAL RESULTING IN BRUISE TO  LEG.
WALKING IN CUSTOMER'S YD SLIPPED STEPPING ON WET GROUND RESULTING IN
MULTIPLE BODY PARTS.
WALKING IN ST AT CURB SLIPPED STEPPING ON .OBJ ON GROUND RESULTING IN
ANKLE.
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
81
2
0
2
10
9
2
0
0
11
0
16
1
0
0
A
304
160
46
88
542
902
20
20
19
295
0
1960
40
16
0
108
19234

-------
 l)AOT3tALL
 REPORTING PERIOD: JULY - SEPTEMBER
                                                            FIGURE  1-6
                                                             USER NO.  ALL
                                                       DETAILED DESCRIPTION  OF
                                                   LIFTING-TO-IIUMP WASTE ACCIDENTS
                                                                                                                     PAGE
 THIS PROFILE IS A FORMATTED SENTENCE CONSISTING OF ACTIVITYr  ACCIDENT SITE,  ACCIDENT TYFEy NATURE OF INJURY AMD PART OF BODY,
                                                      PROFILE
 EMPLOYEE WAS LIFTING TO DUMP BOARD WITH NAIL IN ALLEY AT BACK OF TRUCK  WAS  HURT  BY  HANDLING BOARD
      WITH NAIL RESULTING IN CUT/PUNCTURE TO HAND.
 EMPLOYEE WAS LIFTING TO DUMP PALM FRONDS IN ALLEY  AT BACK OF TRUCK WAS  HURT BY HANDLING PALM FRONDS
      RESULTING IN CUT/PUNCTURE TO FINGERS.
 EMPLOYEE WAS LIFTING TO DUMP UNBUilDLED SHRUBBERY ON COLLECTION ROUTE STRUCK AGAINST SIDE OF VEH
      RESULTING IN CUT/PUNCTURE TO LEG.
 EMPLOYEE WAS LIFTING TO LUMP UNKNOWN WASTE  AT OTHER SITE GOT WASTE PARTICLES IN  EYE RESULTING IN
      EYE IRRITATION' TO EYES.
 EMPLOYEE WAS LIFTING TO DUMP CERAMIC WASTE  IN ST AT PACK OF TRUCK WAS STRUCK BY  CERAMIC WASTE WHICH
      BROKE AGAINST THE VEH RESULTING IN CUT/PUNCTURE , fj ARM,
 EMPLOYEE WAS LIFTING TO DUMP UNBUNDLED SHRUBBERY IN ST  AT CURB GOT WASTE  PARTICLES  IN EYE RESULTING
      IN EYE IRRITATION TO EYES.
 EMPLOYEE WAS LIFTING TO DUMP WOOD IN ST AT  BACK OF TRUCK STEPPED ON NAIL  RESULTING  IN CUT/PUNCTURE
      TO FOOT.
 EMPLOYEE WAS LIFTING TO DUMP UNKNOWN WASTE  IN ALLEY AT  BACK OF TRUCK STEPPED ON  BOARD WITH NAIL
      RESULTING IN CUT/PUNCTURE TO FOOT,
 EMPLOYEE WAS LIFTING TO DUMP BOARD WITH NAIL IN ST AT BACK OF TRUCK WAS HURT BY  HANDLING BOARD WITH
      NAIL RESULTING IN CUT/PUNCTURE TO HAND.
 EMPLOYEE WAS LIFTING TO DUMP WOOD IN ST AT  CURB STEPPED ON BOARD WITH NAIL  RESULTING IN
      CUT/PUNCTURE TO FOOT.
 EMPLOYEE WAS LIFTING TO DUMP GLASS IN ST AT BACK ur  TRUCK WAS HURT BY HANDLING GLASS RESULTING IN
      CUT/PUNCTURE TO FINGERS.
.EMPLOYEE WAS LIFTING TO DUMP FURNITURE IN ALLEY AT BACK OF TRUCK WAS STRUCK BY FURNITURE WHICH FELL
      OUT OF VEH  RESULTING IN ABRASIONS TO LEG.
 EMPLOYEE WAS LIFTING TO DUMP UNBUNDLED SHRUBBERY IN ST  AT BACK OF TRUCK WAS STRUCK  BY UNBUNDLED
      SHRUBBERY WHICV ""3 EJTD  FROM HOPPER RESULTING IN  ABRASIONS TO EYES.
 EMPLOYEE WAS LIFTING , •  DUMP WOOD IN ALLEY  AT BACK OF TRUCK WAS STRUCK  BY WOOD WHICH FELL OUT OF
      VEH RESULTING IN 1'RUISE TO FOOT.
 EMPLOYEE WAS LIFTING TO DUMP POISON IVY/OAK IN  ST  AT BACK OF TRUCK CONTACTED ALLERGENIC POISON
      IVY/OAK RESULTING IN DERMATITIS TO ARM.
 EMPLOYEE WAS LIFTING TO DUMP FURNITURE IN ST AT BACK OF TRUCK WAS STRUCK  BY PIECE OF METAL WHICH
      FELL OUT  OF >VEH RESULTING IN BRUISE TO HECK.
 EMPLOYEE WAS LIFTING TO BUMP UNBUNDLED SHRUBBERY IN ALLEY AT BACK OF TRUCK  OVEREXERTED SELF WITH
      UNBUNDLED SHRUBBERY RESULTING IN SPRAIN OR STRAIN  TO BACK.
 EMPLOYEE WAS LIFTING TO DUMP OTHER WASTE ON TRUCK  BED AT DUMP SITE WAS  INJURED IN UNK ACCIDENT
      RESULTING IN BRUISE TO FOOT.
 EMPLOYEE UAS LIFTING TO BUMP UNBUNDLED SHRUBBERY IN ST  AT BACK OF TRUCK STEPPED  ON  NAIL RESULTING
      IN CUT/PUNCTURE TO FOOT.
 EMPLOYEE UAS LIFTING TO DUMP UNBUNDLED SHRUBBERY IN ST  AT BACK OF TRUCK CONTACTED ALLERGENIC
      UNBUNDLED SHRURBF.RY RESULTING IN DERMATITIS TO MULTIPLE BOI.Y P^RTS.
NO. INJ  DAYS   COSTS
1
1
1
1
2
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
I
i
0
0
i
1
5
0
0
0
0
1
0
0
0
1
2
0
1
14
o
o
35
37
138
91
286
19
20
35
28
27
32
35
20
35
82
35
65
127S
19
1 2

-------
CTl
 EMPLOYEE: WAS LIFTING TO DUMP FURNITURE IN ST AT BACK OF TRUCK OVEREXERTED SELF WITH FURNITURE
      F,T:SULTING IN SPRAIN OR STRAIN TO BACK.
 EMPLOYEE UAS LIFTING TO DUMP WOOH IN ST AT BACK OF TRUCK WAS HURT BY HANDLING BOARD WITH  NAIL
      RESULTING IN CUT/PUNCTURE TO HAND.
 EMPLOYEE UAS LIFTING TO DUMP HOARD WITH NAIL IN ST AT BACK OF TRUCK WAS HURT BY HANDLING  BOARD  WITH
      NAIL RESULTING IN CUT/PUNCTURE TO FINGERS.
 EMPLOYEE UAS LIFTING TO DUMP PRINTED MATTER  IN ST AT BACK OF TRUCK OVEREXERTED SELF WITH  PRINTED
      MATTER RESULTING IN SPRAIN OR STRAIN TO GROIN.
 EMPLOYEE WAS LIFTING TO DUMP UNBUNDLED SHRUBBERY IN  ST AT BACK OF TRUCK INJURED SELF WITH UNBUNDLED
      SHRUBBERY RESULTING IN ABRASIONS TO EYES.
 EMPLOYEE WAS LIFTING TO DUMP CF.RAMIC WASTE IN ST AT  BACK OF TRUCK WAS STRUCK BY CERAMIC WASTE WHICH
      BROKE AGAINST THE VEH RESULTING IN CUT/PUNCTURE TO FINGERS,
 EMPLOYEE UAS LIFTING TO DUMP PRINTED MATTER  IN YARD  FELL ON OBJ ON GROUND RESULTING IN BRUISE TO  BACK.
 EMPLOYEE WAS LIFTING TO DUMP FURNITURE IN ALLEY AT BACK OF TRUCK  WAS CAUGHT BETWEEN TWO OBJECTS
      RESULTING IN BRUISE TO FINGERS.
 EMPLOYEE WAS LIFTING TO DUMP APPLIANCE IN ST AT CURB INJURED SELF WITH APPLIANCE RESULTING IN
      BRUISE TO FOOT.
-EMPLOYEE UAS LIFTING TO DUMP UNBUNDLED SHRUBBERY IN  ALLEY AT BACK OF TRUCK INJURED  SELF WITH
      UNBUNDLED SHRUBBERY RESULTING IN CUT/PUNCTURE TO EYES.
 EMPLOYEE WAS LIFTING TO DUMP WOOD IN YARD OVEREXERTED SELF WITH WOOD RESULTING IN SPRAIN  OR STRAIN
      TO NECK.
 EMPLOYEE UAS LIFTING TO DUMP UNBUNDLED SHRUBBERY IN  ALLEY AT BACK OF TRUCK WAS STRUCK BY  UNBUNDLED
      SHRUBBERY WHICH WAS SWINGING AROUND IN  HOPPER RESULTING IN SPRAIN OR STRAIN TO WRIST.
 EMPLOYEE WAS LIFTING TO DUMP FURNITURE IN ALLEY AT BACK OF TRUCK  INJURED SELF WITH  FURNITURE
      RESULTING IN BRUISE TO SHOULDER.
 EMPLOYEE WAS LIFTING TO DUMP WOOD IN ST AT BACK OF TRUCK OVEREXERTED SELF WITH WOOD RESULTING IN
      SPRAIN OR STRAIN TO CHEST.
 EMPLOYEE WAS LIFTING TO DUMP UNBUNDLED SHRUBBERY IN  ALLEY AT BACK OF TRUCK INJURED  SELF WITH
      UNBUNDLED SHRUBBERY RESULTING IN ABRASIONS TO EYES.
 EMPLOYEE WAS LIFTING TO DUMP EQUIPMENT FART  IN ALLEY AT BACK OF TRUCK OVEREXERTED SELF WITH
      EQUIPMENT PART RESULTING IN SPRAIN OR STRAIN TO BACK.
 EMPLOYEE UAS LIFTING TO DUMP UNBUNDLED SHRUBBERY IN  ALLEY AT BACK OF TRUCK UAS STUNG BY INSECT
      RESULTING IN STINO TO BACK.
 EMPLOYEE WAS LIFTING TO DUMP BUNDLED SHRUBBERY IN ALLEY AT BACK OF TRUCK OVEREXERTED SELF WITH
      BUNDLED SHRUBBERY RESULTING IN SPRAIN OR STRAIN TO SHOULDER,
 EMPLOYEE WAS LIFTING TO DUMP KURNITURE IN ST AT BACK OF TRUCK WAS HURT BY HANDLING  FURNITURE WHICH
      FELL OUT OF VEH RESULTING IN CUT/PUNCTURE TO FINGERS.
 EMPLOYEE UAS LIFTING TO DUMP BOARD WITH NAIL IN ALLEY AT BACK OF  TRUCK WAS HURT BY  HANDLING BOARD
      WITH NAIL RESULTING IN CUT/PUNCTURE TO  FINGERS,
 EMPLOYEE UAS LIFTING TO DUMP APPLIANCE IN ST AT BACK OF TRUCK FELL ON WET PAVEMENT  RESULTING IN
      FRACTURE TO FOOT.
 EMPLOYEE UAS LIFTING TO DUMP BUNDLED SHRUBBERY IN ST AT CURB WAS  HURT BY HANDLING BUNDLED SHRUBBERY
      RESULTING IN CUT/PUNCTURE TO ARM.
 EMPLOYEE UAS LIFTING TO DUMP UNBUNDLED SHRUTUERY IN  ST AT BACK'OF TRUCK INJURED SELF WITH UNBUNDLED
      SHRUBBERY RESULTING IN BRUISE TO ANKLE.
 EMPLOYEE WAS LIFTING TO DUMP EQUIPMENT PART  ON VEHICLE WAS STRUCK BY ACID RESULTING IN CHEMICAL
      BURN TO EYES.
 •EMPLOYEE: UAS LIFTING TO DUMP RUG IN ALLEY AT BACK OF TRUCK OVEREXERTED SELF WITH RUG RESULTING  IN
      SPRAIN OR STRAIN TO BACK.
 EMPLOYEE UAS LIFTING TO BUMP WOOD IN ALLEY AT CURB SLIPPED STEPPING ON PAVEMENT RESULTING IN SPRAIN
      OR STRAIN TO SHOULDER.
 EMPLOYEE UAG LIFTING TO DUMP BUNDLED SHRUBBERY IN ST AT BACK OF TRUCK INJURED SELF  WITH BUNDLED
      SHRUBBERY RESULTING IN ABRASIONS TO ARM,
 EMPLOYEE UAS LIFTING TO DUMP UNKNOWN WASTE IN ST AT  CURB SLIPPED  STEPPING ON PAVEMENT RESULTING IN
      SPRAIN OR STRAIN TO ANKLE.
NO. INJ
2
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
2
1
1
1
DAYS
9
0
0
11
2
0
0
2
0
1
18
0
0
0
1
2
0
38
8
0
34
0
1
0
23
0
0
3
COSTS

  498


    0


    0


  515


  196


   20

    0


  136


    0


   52


  440


   89


   43


   20


   59


   35


    0


 1229


   16


   35


 3030


   23


   57


   60


  281


    0


    0


   74

-------
                                                                                                                     PAGE   3
                                                     PROFILE
EMPLOYEE WAS LIFTING TO DUMP GLASS IN CUSTOMER'S DRIVEWAY WAS HURT BY HANDLING GLASS RESULTING  IN
     CUT/PUNCTURE TO HAND,
EMPLOYEE WAS LIFTING TO PUMP WOOD IN ST AT BACK OF TRUCK STEPPED ON BOARD WITH NAIL RESULTING IN
     CUT/PUNCTURE TO FOUT.
EMPLOYEE WAS IIFTING I'D DUMP UNBUNDLED SHRUBBERY IN ALLEY AT BACK OF TRUCK INJURED SELF WITH
     UNBUNDLED SHRUBBERY RESULTING IN BRUISE TO KNEE,
EMPLOYEE WAS LIFTING TO DUMP PALM FRONDS IN ST AT BACK OF TRUCK WAS HURT BY HANDLING PALM FRONDS
     RESULTING IN CUT/PUNCTURE TO WRIST,
EMPLOYEE HAS LIFTING TO DUMP UNBUNDLED SHRUBBERY IN ST AT BACK OF TRUCK WAS STRUCK BY UNBUNDLED
     SHRUBBERY WHICH FELL OUT OF VEH RESULTING IN CUT/PUNCTURE TO KNEE.
EMPLOYEE WAS LIFTING TO DUMP CERAMIC WASTE IN ST AT BACK OF TRUCK WAS HURT BY HANDLING CERAMIC
     WASTE RESULTING IN CUT/PUNCTURE TO HAND,
EMPLOYEE WAS LIFTING TO DUMP BUNDLED SHRUBBERY IN ST AT BACK OF TRUCK OVEREXERTED SELF WITH
     UNBUNDLED SHRUBBERY RESULTING IN SPRAIN OR STR.'uM TO BACK.
EMPLOYEE WAS LIFTING TO DUMP PALM FRONDS IN ST AT BACK OF TRUCK INJURED SELF WITH PALM FRONDS
     RESULTING IN CUT/PUNCTURE TO LEG,

              TOTAL
NO. INJ  DAYS   COSTS
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
61
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
135
16
32
32
20
69
35
40
6
9527

-------
       REPORTING PERIOD: JULY - SEPTEMBER 1976
                                                                  FIGURE  1-7

                                                                     ALL USERS
                                                             DETAILED DESCRIPTION OF
                                                                 RIDING ACCIDENTS
                                                                                                                            t-Tibt  1
       THIS PROFILE IS A FORMATTED SENTENCE CONSISTING OF ACTIVITY.- ACCIDENT TYPEr NATURE OF INJURY AND PART OF BODY.
CO
                                                     PROFILE
EMPLOYEE WAS RIDING ON CAB OF VEH AND HE GOT WASTE PARTICLES IN EYE RESULTING IN EYE IRRITATION TO
     EYES.
EMPLOYEE WAS RIDING ON CAB OF VEH AND HE WAS INJURED WHEN VEH WAS HIT BY ANOTHER VEH RESULTING IN
     SPRAIN OR STRAIN TO NECK,
EMPLOYEE WAS RIDING ON TRUCK BED AND HE WAS STRUCK BY APPLIANCE RESULTING IN CUT/PUNCTURE TO LEG,
EMPLOYEE WAS RIDING ON RUNNING BOARD AND HE FELL FROM RUNNING BOARD ONTO GROUND RESULTING IN
     FRACTURE TO MULTIPLE BODY PARTS.
EMPLOYEE WAS RIDING ON STEP OF VEH AND HE FELL WHILE ON COLLAPSING GROUND AND STRUCK AGNST BACK OF
     VEH RESULTING IN BRUISE TO SHOULDER.
EMPLOYEE WAS RIDING ON STEP OF VEH AND HE WAS INJURED WHEN VEH WENT OVER A DUMP OR DEPRESSION
     RESULTING IN BRUISE TO BACK.
EMPLOYEE WAS RIDING ON STEP OF VEH AND HE WAS STRUCK BY SHRUBBERY RESULTING IN CUT/PUNCTURE TO FACE.
EMPLOYEE WAS RIDING ON RUNNING HOARD AND HE WAS STRUCK BY VEH RESULTING IN UNKNOWN TYPE OF INJURY
     TO LEG.
EMPLOYEE WAS RIDING ON STEP OF VEH AND HE FELL FROM STEP OF VEH ONTO PAVEMENT RESULTING IN BRUISE
     TO MULTIPLE BODY PARTS.
EMPLOYEE WAS RIDING ON CAB OF VEH AND HE WAS INJURED WHEN VEH BECAME OUT OF CONTROL RESULTING IN
     BRUISE TO BACK.
EMPLOYEE WAS RIDING ON STEP OF VEH AND HE WAS INJURED WHEN VEH WENT OVER A BUMP OR DEPRESSION
     RESULTING IN BRUISE TO MULTIPLE BODY PARTS.
EMPLOYEE WAS RIDING ON RUNNING BOARD AND HE WAS INJURED WAS INJURED WHEN VEH WAS HIT BY ANOTHER VEH
     RESULTING IN BRUISE TO KNEE.
EMPLOYEE WAS RIDING ON RUNNING BOARD AND HE WAS STRUCK BY SHRUBBERY RESULTING IN BRUISE TO SHOULDER.
EMPLOYEE WAS RIDING ON RUNNING BOARD AND HE GOT AIRBORNE PARTICLES IN EYE RESULTING IN 01 HER TYPE
     OF INJURY TO EARS.
EMPLOYEE WAS RIDING ON STEP OF VEH AND HE WAS STRUCK BY SHRUBBERY RESULTING IN BRUISE TO FACE.
EMPLOYEE WAS RIDING C1N RUNNING BOARD AND HE WAS STRUCK BY VEH RESULTING IN BRUISE TO SHOULDER,
EMPLOYEE WAS RIDING ON STEP OF VEH AND HE SLIPPED WHILE ON STEP OF VEH AND STRUCK AGNST BACK OF VEH
     RESULTING IN BRUISE TO MULTIPLE BODY PARTS.
EMPLOYEE WAS RIDING ON STEP OF VEH AND HE WAS INJURED WHEN VEH WENT OVER A BUMP OR DEPRESSION
     RESULTING IN SPRAIN OR STRAIN TO FOOT.
EMPLOYEE WAS RHUMB ON STEP OF VEH AND HE WAS INJURED WHEN VEH MADE SUDDEN STOP RESULTING IN BRUISE
     TO MULTIPLE BODY PARTS,
EMPLOYEE WAS RIDING ON STEP OF VEH AND HE WAS INJURED WHEN VEH WENT OVER ROUGH TERTCAIN RESULTING IN
     CUT/PUNCTURE TO KNEE.
EMPLOYEE HAS RIDING ON STEP OF VEH AND HE WAS INJURED WHEN VEH WENT OVER ROUGH TERRAIN RESULTING IN
     CUT/PUNCTURE TO HAND.
EMPLOYEE WAS RIDING ON STEP OF VEH AND HE WAS CAUGHT BETWEEN MOVING VEH AND OBJ RESULTING IN BRUISE
     TO SHOULDER.
EMPLOYEE WAS RIDING ON STEP OF VEH AND HE STRUCK AGAINST BACK OF VEH RESULTING IN BRUISE TO FOOT.
EMPLOYEE WAS RIDING ON STEP OF VEH AND Hi£ WAS CAUGHT BETWEEN MOVING VEH AND OBJ RESULTING IN BRUISE
     TO HIPS.
EMPLOYEE WAS RIDING ON STEP OF VEH AND HE WAS CAUGHT IN PACKER BLADE RESULTING IN CUT/PUNCTURE TO FOOT.
EMPLOYEE WAS RIDING ON CAB OF VEH AND HE WAS STUNG BY INSECT RESULTING IN POISONING OR ALLERGIC
     REACTION TO KNEE,
INJ
1
2
1
1
1
1
1
2
1
1
2
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
DAYS
0
7
0
72
8
19
0
0
0
35
7
0
1
0
0
1
0
6
0
0
6
0
7
0
2?
3
COSTS
35
312
49
3970
218
633
0
70
84
2008
464
73
71
35
47
69
0
100
10
15
184
20
474
9
1605
100

-------
                                                                                                                     PAGE   2
                                                     PROFILE
 EMPLOYEE  UAS  RIDING  ON  RUNNING  BOARD  AND  HE CONTACTED HOT EXHAUST PIPE RESULTING IN BURN FROM HEAT
      TO ARM.
 EMPLOYEE  WAS  RIDING  ON  STEP  OF  VEH  AND  HE FELL  FROM STEP OF VEH ONTO PAVEMENT RESULTING IN BRUISE
      TO HAND.
 EMPLOYEE  WAS  RIDING  ON  STEP  OF  VEH  Mil)  HE UAS INJURED WHEN VEH WAS HIT BY ANOTHER VEH RESULTING IN
      MULTIPLE  INJURIES  TO  MULTIPLE  BODY PARTS,
 EMPLOYEE  UAS  RIDING  ON  STEP  OF  VEH  AND  HE WAS INJURED WHEN VEH MADE SUDDEN TURN RESULTING IN
      FRACTURE  TO  FOOT.
 EMPLOYEE  UAS  RIDING  ON  STEP  OF  VEH  AND  HE FELL  FROM STEP OF VEH ONTO PAVEMENT RESULTING IN BRUISE
      TO LEG.
 EMPLOYEE  WAS  RIDING  ON  STEP  OF  VEH  AND  HE WAS INJURED WHEN VEH JERKED SUDDENLY RESULTING IN SPRAIN
      OR STRAIN TO WRIST.
 EMPLOYEE  WAS  RIDING  ON  STEP  OF  VEH  AND  HE FELL  FROM WET STEP OF VEH ONTO,PAVEMENT RESULTING IN
      CUT/PUNCTURE TO HAND.
 EMPLOYEE  WAS  RIDING  ON  STEP  OF  VEH  AND  HE STRUCK AGAINST BACK OF VEH RESULTING IN CUT/PUNCTURE TO
      SCALP.
 EMPLOYEE  WAS- RIDING  ON  STEP  OF  VEH  AND  HE UAS STRUCK BY SHRUBBERY RESULTING IN CUT/PUNCTURE TO EYES.
 EMPLOYEE  WAS RIDING  ON  CAB OF VEH AND HE  UAS INJURED WHEN VEH COLLIDED WITH OBJ RESULTING IN
      CUT/PUNCTURE TO FOREHEAD,
 EMPLOYEE  WAS RIDING  ON  CAB OF VEH AND HE  WAS INJURED WHEN VEH MADE SUDDEN TURN RESULTING IN BRUISE
      TO SKULL,
 EMPLOYEE  WAS RIDING  ON  STEP  OF  VEH  AND  HE GOT AIRBORNE PARTICLES IN EYE RESULTING IN EYE IRRITATION
      TO EYES.
EMPLOYEE  WAP P'TDTNG  ON  STEP  OF  VEH  AND  HE UftS STRUCK BY SHRUBBERY RESULTING IN EYE IRRITATION TO EYES,
EMPLOYEE  UA°  .'I.;:ING  ON  STEP  OF  VEH  AND  HE UAS STRUCK BY SHRUBBERY RESULTING IN BRUISE TO HAND,
EMPLOYEE  WAS KIDING  ON  STEP  OF  VEH  AND  HE WAS INJURED WHEN VEH MADE SUDDEN STOP RESULTING IN BRUISE
      TO BACK.
EMPLOYEE  UAS RIDING  ON  STEP  OF  VEH  AND  HE WAS INJURED WHEN VEH MADE SUDDEN STOP RESULTING IN OTHER
      TYPE OF INJURY  TO  BACK.
EMPLOYEE  UAS RIDING  ON  STEP  OF  VEH  AND  HE  UAS INJURED WHEN VEH MADE SUDDEN STOP RESULTING IN
      FRACTURE  TO  CHEST.
EMPLOYEE  UAS RIDING  ON  CAB OF VEH AND HE  WAS INJURED WHEN VEH HIT ANOTHER VEH RESULTING IN BRUISE
     TO MULTIPLE  BODY PARTS.
EMPLOYEE  UAS RIDING  ON  CAB OF VEH AND HE  WAS INJURED WHEN VEH HIT ANOTHER VEH RESULTING IN BRUISE
      TO LEG,
EMPLOYEE  WAS RIDING  ON  RUNNING  BOARD AND  HE WAS INJURED WHEN VEH HIT CURBING RESULTING IN BRUISE TO
     LEG.
EMPLOYEE  UAS RIDING  DM  STEP  OF  VEH  AND  HE  WAS INJURED WHEN VEH COLLIDED WITH OBJ RESULTING IN
      BRUISE TO NECK.
EMPLOYEE  WAS RIDING  ON  STEP  OF  VEH  AND  HE  WAS INJURED WHEN VEH WAS HIT BY ANOTHER VEH RESULTING IN
     BRUISE TO LEG.
EMPLOYEE  WAS RIDING  ON  TRUCK BED AND HE UAS STUNG BY INSECT RESULTING IN STING TO EYES.
EMPLOYEE  WAS RIDING  ON  STEP  OF  VEH  AND  HE UAS INJURED WHEN VEH MADE SUDDEN STOP RESULTING IN BRUISE
      TO LEG.

               TOTAL
NO. INJ  DAYS

    1

    1

    1

    1

    1

    1

    1

    1
    1

    1

    1-

    1
    1
    1

    1

    1

    1

    1

    1

    1

    1

    1
    1

    1

   53
YS
0
54
35
0
0
20
34
0
0
1
16
3
0
0
2
51
7
2
2
1
1
4
0
COSTS
55
1296
385V
50
9
1030
21^69
25
2
35
665
42
33
20
140
2992
110
177
152
72
130
157
40
  3

437
   45

24075

-------
     REPORTING PERIOD} JULY - SEPTEMBER 1976
                                                               FIGURE  1-8
                                                                   ALL USERS
                                                           DETAILED DESCRIPTION OF
                                                              MOUNTING ACCIDENT
                                                                                                                          PAGE
     THIS PROFILE IS A FORMATTED SENTENCE CONSISTING OF ACTIVITY* ACCIDENT TYPEr NATURE OF INJURY AND PART OF BODY.
Ui
O
                                                     PROFILE
EMPLOYEE WAS GETTING ON RUNNING BOARD AND HE SLIPPED WHILE ON RUNNING BOARD AND STRUCK AGNST SIDE
     OF VEH RESULTING IN MULTIPLE INJURIES TO MULTIPLE BODY PARTS,
EMPLOYEE WAS GETTING ON STEP OF VEH AND HE FELL FROM OILY STEP OF VEH ONTO PAVEMENT RESULTING IN
     SPRAIN OR STRAIN TO HIPS.
EMPLOYEE WAS GETTING ON CAB OF VEH AND HE STRUCK AGAINST INSIDE OF CAB RESULTING IN CUT/PUNCTURE TO
     KNEE.
EMPLOYEE WAS GETTING ON CAB OF VEH AND HE WAS STRUCK BY CAB DOOR RESULTING IN BRUISE TO FINGERS.
EMPLOYEE WAS GETTING ON STEP OF VEH AND HE STRUCK AGAINST STEP OF VEH RESULTING IN BRUISE TO TOES,
EMPLOYEE WAS GETTING ON RUNNING BOARD AND HE STRUCK AGAINST OTHER VEH PART RESULTING IN BRUISE TO
     WRIST.
EMPLOYEE WAS GETTING ON RUNNING BOARD AND HE SLIPPED WHILE ON WET RUNNING BOARD AND STRUCK AGNST
     SIDE OF VEH RESULTING IN BRUISE TO KNEE.
EMPLOYEE WAS GETTING ON STEP OF VEH AND HE SLIPPED WHILE ON STEP OF VEH AND STRUCK AGNST STEP OF
     VEH RESULTING IN CUT/PUNCTURE TO LEG,
EMPLOYEE WAS GETTING ON STEP OF VEH AND HE WAS INJURED WHEN VEH MADE SUDDEN STOP RESULTING IN
     BRUISE TO KNEE,
EMPLOYEE WAS GETTING ON STEP OF VEH AND HE STRUCK AGAINST BACK OF VEH RESULTING IN CUT/PUNCTURE TO
     KNEE.
EMPLOYEE WAS GETTING ON CAB OF VEH AND HE WAS CAUGHT BETWEEN TWO OBJECTS RESULTING IN SPRAIN OR
     STRAIN TO BACK.
EMPLOYEE WAS GETTING ON RUNNING BOARD AND HE FELL WHILE ON RUNNING BOARD AND STRUCK AGNST SIDE OF
     VEH RESULTING IN CUT/PUNCTURE TO HAND.
EMPLOYEE WAS GETTING ON RUNNING BOARD AND HE STRUCK AGAINST CAB DOOR RESULTING IN BRUISE TO KNEE.
EMPLOYEE WAS GETTING ON STEP OF VEH AND HE STRUCK AGAINST BACK OF VEH RESULTING IN BRUISE TO GROIN.
EMPLOYEE WAS GETTING ON RUNNING BOARD AND HE STRUCK AGAINST RUNNING BOARD RESULTING IN BRUISE TO KNEE.
EMPLOYEE WAS GETTING ON RUNNING BOARD AND HE FELL FROM RUNNING BOARD ONTO PAVEMENT RESULTING IN
     SPRAIN OR STRAIN TO KNEE.
EMPLOYEE WAS GETTING ON VEHICLE AND HE SLIPPED WHILE ON SLIPPERY VEHICLE AND STRK AGNST OTHER VEH
     PART RESULTING IN CUT/PUNCTURE TO FINGERS.
EMPLOYEE WAS GETTING ON STEP OF VEH AND HE FELL FROM STEP OF VEH ONTO PAVEMENT RESULTING IN SPRAIN
     OR STRAIN TO NECK.
EMPLOYEE WAS GETTING ON STEP OF VEH AND HE MADE SUDDEN MOVEMENT RESULTING IN SPRAIN OR STRAIN TO LEG.
EMPLOYEE WAS GETTING ON CAB OF VEH AND HE WAS CAUGHT IN CAB DOOR RESULTING IN SPRAIN OR STRAIN TO KNEE.
EMPLOYEE WAS GETTING ON RUNNING BOARD AND HE STRUCK AGAINST RUNNING BOARD RESULTING IN BRUISE TO ANKLE.
EMPLOYEE WAS GETTING ON RUNNING BOARD AND HE STRUCK AGAINST SIDE OF VEH RESULTING IN BRUISE TO LEG.
EMPLOYEE WAS GETTING ON VEHICLE AND HE MADE SUDDEN MOVEMENT RESULTING IN SPRAIN OR STRAIN TO HIPS.
EMPLOYEE WAS GETTING ON STEP OF VEH AND HE FELL WHILE ON SLIPPERY STEP OF VEH AND STRUCK AGNST BACK
     OF VEH RESULTING IN BRUISE TO BACK.
EMPLOYEE WAS GETTING ON RUNNING BOARD AND HE STRUCK AGAINST HANDLE ON VEH RESULTING IN FRACTURE TO
     THUMB.
EMPLOYEE WAS GETTING ON STEP OF VEH AND HE STRUCK AGAINST HANDLE ON VEH RESULTING IN BRUISE TO CHEST,
EMPLOYEE WAS GETTING ON TRUCK BED AND HE FELL FROM TRUCK BED ONTO GROUND RESULTING IN SPRAIN OR
     STRAIN TO BACK,
EMPLOYEE WAS GETTING ON STEP OF VEH AND HE SLIPPED FROM WET STEP OF VEH ONTO PAVEMENT RESULTING IN
     FRACTURE TO ANKLE.
                                                                                                                 NO. INJ  DAYS
1

1

1
1
2

1

1

1

1

1

1

1
1
1
1

1

1

i
1
1
1
1
1
 0

 7

 0
 0
 7

 0

 0

 0

19

 5

15

 &
 1
 6
 0

15

 0

 0
 5
 4
 0
 1
 0

 3

16
 0

 2

12
COSTS

   20

   30

   42
    0
  195

   51

   63

    0

  615

  211

  611

  216
   20
  121
   35

  830

   20

    0
  328
  372
   20
   35
    0

  254

  645
   55

  124

  450

-------
                                                                                                                         PAGE  2
                                                          PROFILE
     EMPLOYEE WAS GETTING ON RUNNING BOARD AND HE FELL WHILE ON WET RUNNING BOARD AND STRUCK AGNST  SIDE
          OF VEH RESULTING IN BRUISE TO BACK.
     EMPLOYEE WAS GETTING ON STEP OF VEH AND HE FELL FROM WET STEP OF VEH ONTO PAVEMENT RESULTING IN
          BRUISE TO KNEE.
     EMPLOYEE WAS GETTING ON RUNNING BOARD AND HE SLIPPED WHILE ON RUNNING BOARD AND STRUCK AGNST
          RUNNING BOARD RESULTING IN INFLAMMATION OF THE JOINTS TO KNEE.
     EMPLOYEE WAS GETTING ON STEP OF VEH AND HE WAS CAUGHT BETWEEN MOVING VEH AND OBJ RESULTING IN
          UNKNOWN TYPE OF INJURY TO FOOT.  .
     EMPLOYEE WAS GETTING ON RUNNING BOARD AND HE SLIPPED WHILE ON OILY RUNNING BOARD AND STRUCK AGNST
          SIDE OF VEH RESULTING IN BRUISE TO KNEE,
     EMPLOYEE WAS GETTING ON RUNNING BOARD AND HE STRUCK AGAINST CAB DOOR RESULTING IN SPRAIN OR STRAIN
          TO HAND.
     EMPLOYEE WAS GETTING ON RUNNING BOARD AND HE SLIPPED WHILE ON WET RUNNING BOARD AND STRUCK AGNST
          SIDE OF VEH RESULTING IN BRUISE TO BACK.

                   TOTAL
INJ
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
36
DAYS
2
0
4
50
0
19
16
215
COSTS
159
20
120
1270
16
1692
839
9479
U1

-------
       REPORTING PERIOD: JULY - SEPTEMBER 1976
                                                                   FIGURE  1-9
                                                                     ALL USERS
                                                             DETAILED DESCRIPTION OF
                                                                DRIVING ACCIDENTS
                                                                                                                            PAGE   1
       THIS PROFILE IS A FORMATTED SENTENCE CONSISTING OF ACTIVITY*  ACCIDENT TYPE»  NATURE  OF  INJURY  AND  PART OF  BODY.
Ui
                                                     PROFILE
EMPLOYEE WAS DRIVING AND HE WAS CAUGHT IN STEERING WHEEL RESULTING IN SPRAIN OR STRAIN TO HAND.
EMPLOYEE WAS DRIVING AND HE OVEREXERTED SELF WITH ACCELERATOR PEDAL RESULtlNG IN SPRAIN OR STRAIN
     TO ANKLE.
EMPLOYEE WAS DRIVING CAB OF VEH AND HE WAS STRUCK BY OBJ THROWN UP BY MOVING EQUIP RESULTING IN
     CUT/PUNCTURE TO HAND.
EMPLOYEE WAS DRIVING AND HE WAS STUNG BY INSECT RESULTING IN STING TO ARM.
EMPLOYEE WAS DRIVING CAB OF VEH AND HE WAS INJURED WHEN VEH BECAME OUT OF CONTROL RESULTING IN
     BRUISE TO LEG.
EMPLOYEE WAS DRIVING CAB OF VEH AND HE GOT AIRBORNE PARTICLES IN EYE RESULTING IN ABRASIONS TO EYES.
EMPLOYEE WAS DRIVING CAB OF VEH AND HE GOT AIRBORNE PARTICLES IN EYE RESULTING IN EYE IRRITATION TO
     EYES.
EMPLOYEE WAS DRIVING CAB OF VEH AND HE WAS STUNG BY INSECT RESULTING IN STING TO WRIST.
EMPLOYEE WAS DRIVING CAB OF VEH AND HE GOT AIRBORNE PARTICLES IN EYE RESULTING IN BURN FROM HEAT TO
     EYES.
EMPLOYEE WAS DRIVING AND HE WAS STRUCK BY STEERING WHEEL RESULTING IN BRUISE TO FINGERS.
EMPLOYEE WAS DRIVING AND HE WAS INJURED WHEN VEH COLLIDED WITH OBJ RESULTING IN SPRAIN OR STRAIN TO
     NECK.
EMPLOYEE WAS DRIVING AND HE WAS INJURED WHEN VEH HIT CURBING RESULTING IN BRUISE TO MULTIPLE BODY
     PARTS.
EMPLOYEE WAS DRIVING AND HE WAS INJURED WHEN VEH HIT CURBING RESULTING IN BRUISE TO ELBOW,
EMPLOYEE WAS DRIVING AND HE WAS INJURED WHEN VEH WENT OVER ROUGH TERRAIN RESULTING IN SPRAIN OR
     STRAIN TO GROIN.
EMPLOYEE WAS DRIVING CAB OF VEH AND HE WAS INJURED WHEN VEH COLLIDED WITH OBJ RESULTING IN BRUISE
     TO SHOULDER.
EMPLOYEE WAS DRIVING AND HE WAS STUNG BY INSECT RESULTING IN STING TO EARS.
EMPLOYEE WAS DRIVING AND HE WAS INJURED WHEN VEH OVERTURNED RESULTING IN BRUISE TO MULTIPLE BODY PARTS.
EMPLOYEE WAS DRIVING AND HE STRUCK AGAINST INSIDE OF CAB RESULTING IN BRUISE TO ELBOW.
EMPLOYEE WAS DRIVING AND HE WAS STRUCK BY OBJ THROWN UP BY MOVING EQUIP RESULTING IN BRUISE TO LEG.
EMPLOYEE WAS DRIVING AND HE WAS STRUCK BY OBJ THROWN UP BY MOVING EQUIP RESULTING IN CUT/PUNCTURE
     TO ARM.
EMPLOYEE WAS DRIVING AND HE WAS INJURED WHEN VEH OVERTURNED RESULTING IN MULTIPLE INJURIES TO
     MULTIPLE BODY PARTS.
EMPLOYEE WAS DRIVING AND HE WAS INJURED WHEN VEH MADE SUDDEN STOP RESULTING IN SPRAIN OR STRAIN  TO
     NECK.
EMPLOYEE WAS DRIVING CAB OF VEH AND HE WAS INJURED WHEN VEH WAS HIT BY ANOTHER VEH RESULTING IN
     SPRAIN OR STRAIN TO NECK.
EMPLOYEE WAS DRIVING CAB OF VEH AND HE WAS INJURED WHEN VEH HIT ANOTHER VEH RESULTING IN SPRAIN  OR
     STRAIN TO BACK.
EMPLOYEE WAS DRIVING CAB OF VEH AND HE WAS INJURED WHEN VEH WAS HIT BY ANOTHER VEH RESULTING IN
     BRUISE TO ELBOW.
EMPLOYEE WAS DRIVING AND HE WAS INJURED WHEN VEH WAS HIT BY ANOTHER VEH RESULTING IN BRUISE TO HIPS.-
EMPLOYEE WAS DRIVING AND HE WAS INJURED WHEN VEH WAS HIT BY ANOTHER VEH RESULTING IN MULTIPLE
     INJURIES TO MULTIPLE BODY PARTS.

              TOTAL
INJ
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
i
A
i
1
i
1
1
i
i
27
DAYS
0
6
0
0
17
0
0
4
1
0
2
0
0
4
2
0
15
0
0
0
8
4
12
0
8
4
0
87
COSTS
0
235
20
20
1454
22
22
144
65
39
98
0
0
372
137
24
2379
0
0
0
316
259
436
75
315
24
20
6476

-------
 MAST3
REPORTING  PERIOD:  JULY - SEPTEMBER 1976
                                                            FIGURE  1-10

                                                              ALL USERS
                                                      DETAILED DESCRIPTION OF
                                                    OPERATING CONTROLS ACCIDENTS
      PAGE   1
THIS PROFILE  IS A FORMATTED SENTENCE CONSISTING OF ACTIVITY, ACCIDENT TYPE*  NATURE OF INJURY AND PART OF BODY.
                                                     PROFILE
EMPLOYEE WAS OPERATING PACKING MECH LEVER AND HE WAS STRUCK BY PARTICLES IN WASTE WHICH  WAS  EJTD
     FROM HOPPER RESULTING  IN EYE IRRITATION TO EYES.
EMPLOYEE WAS OPERATING BOOM CONTROLS AND HE WAS STRUCK BY UNBUNDLED SHRUBBERY RESULTING  IN
     DERMATITIS TO EYES.
EMPLOYEE WAS OPERATING PACKING MECH LEVER AND HE WAS CAUGHT IN PACKER BLADE RESULTING IN BRUISE TO
     FINGERS.
EMPLOYEE WAS OPERATING PACKING MECH LEVER AND HE WAS STRUCK BY TAILGATE RESULTING IN BRUISE  TO ELBOW.
EMPLOYEE WAS OPERATING PACKING MECH LEVER AND HE WAS STRUCK BY UNKNOWN WASTE WHICH WAS EJTD  FROM
     HOPPER RESULTING IN EYE IRRITATION TO EYES.
EMPLOYEE WAS OPERATING PACKING MECH LEVER AND HE WAS STRUCK BY SHARP OBJ WHICH WAS EJTD  FROM HOPPER
     RESULTING IN CUT/PUNCTURE TO MULTIPLE BODY PARTS.
EMPLOYEE WAS OPERATING PACKING MECH LEVER AND HE WAS STRUCK BY GLASS WHICH WAS EJTD FROM HOPPER
     RESULTING IN CUT/PUNCTURE TO FOREHEAD.
EMPLOYEE WAS OPERATING PACKING MECH LEVER AND HE WAS STRUCK BY CHEMICAL WHICH WAS EJTD FROM  HOPPER
     RESULTING IN UNKNOWN TYPE OF INJURY TO EARS.
EMPLOYEE WAS OPERATING PACKING MECH LEVER AND HE GOT AIRBORNE PARTICLES IN EYE RESULTING IN  EYE
     IRRITATION TO EYES.
EMPLOYEE WAS OPERATING PACKING MECH LEVER AND HE WAS STRUCK BY TAILGATE RESULTING IN BRUISE  TO CHEST.
NO. INJ
3
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
DAYS
1
0
6
3
0
0
2
0
0
1
COSTS
141
15
289
320
44
22
117
16
24
65
              TOTAL
12
                                                                                                                       13
1053

-------
     REPORTING PERIOD:  JULY  -  SEPTEMBER  1976
                                                                 FIGURE 1-11
                                                                   ALL USERS
                                                           DETAILED DESCRIPTION OF
                                                        REPAIRING EQUIPMENT ACCIDENTS
                                                                                                                          PAGE
     THIS PROFILE  IS A FORMATTED  SENTENCE CONSISTING OF ACTIVITY* ACCIDENT TYPE. NATURE OF INJURY AND PART OF BODY.
Ui
                                                     PROFILE
EMPLOYEE WAS REPAIRING EQUIP U HANDTOOL AND HE WAS HURT BY HANDLING HANDTOOL RESULTING IN BURN FROM
    'HEAT TO EYES.
EMPLOYEE WAS REPAIRING EQUIP U HANDTOOL AND HE INJURED SELF WITH EQUIPMENT PART RESULTING IN BRUISE
     TO FINGERS.
EMPLOYEE WAS REPAIRING EQUIP U HANDTOOL AND HE CONTACTED HOT RADIATOR CAP RESULTING IN BURN FROM
     HEAT TO ARM.
EMPLOYEE UAS REPAIRING EQUIP U HANDTOOL AND HE FELL FROM VEHICLE ONTO PAVEMENT RESULTING IN BRUISE
     TO MULTIPLE BODY PARTS.
EMPLOYEE WAS REPAIRING EQUIP W HANDTOOL AND HE GOT AIRBORNE PARTICLES IN EYE RESULTING IN ABRASIONS
     TO EYES.
EMPLOYEE UAS REPAIRING EQUIP W HANDTOOL AND HE WAS HURT BY HANDLING EQUIPMENT PART RESULTING IN
     CUT/PUNCTURE TO FOREHEAD.
EMPLOYEE WAS REPAIRING EQUIP W HANDTOOL AND HE CONTACTED HOT HANDTOOL RESULTING IN BURN FROM HEAT
     TO ABDOMEN.
EMPLOYEE WAS REPAIRING EQUIP U HANDTOOL AND HE CONTACTED HOT EQUIPMENT PART RESULTING IN BURN FROM
     HEAT TO FOOT.
EMPLOYEE WAS REPAIRING EQUIP W HANDTOOL AND HE INJURED SELF WITH HAMMER RESULTING IN CUT/PUNCTURE
     TO HAND.
EMPLOYEE WAS REPAIRING EQUIP W HANDTOOL AND HE INJURED SELF WITH WRENCH RESULTING IN CUT/PUNCTURE
     TO CHEEK.

              TOTAL
                                                                                                                 NO. INJ  DAYS   COSTS
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
10
2
0
10
0
0
0
5
43
2
0
62
82
0
195
0
79
20
103
2380
49
20
2928

-------
    MAST3
                                                               FIGURE 1-12

                                                                  ALL USERS
                                                          DETAILED DESCRIPTION OF
                                                  CHECKING EQUIPMENT MALFUNCTION ACCIDENTS
    REPORTING PERIODS JULY - SEPTEMBER 1976
    THIS PROFILE IS A FORMATTED SENTENCE CONSISTING OF ACTIVITY*  ACCIDENT TYPE*  NATURE OF  INJURY AND PART OF BODY.
                                                                                                      PAGE  1
    EMPLOYEE WAS CHECKING EQUIP
         IRRITATION TO EYES,
    EMPLOYEE WAS CHECKING EQUIP
    EMPLOYEE WAS CHECKING EQUIP
         TOES.
    EMPLOYEE WAS CHECKING EQUIP
    EMPLOYEE WAS CHECKING EQUIP
    EMPLOYEE WAS CHECKING EQUIP
         EYE IRRITATION TO EYES
    EMPLOYEE WAS CHECKING EQUIP
    EMPLOYEE WAS CHECKING EQUIP
         RESULTING IN BRUISE TO
    EMPLOYEE WAS CHECKING EQUIP
                                       PROFILE
              MALFNCTN AND HE GOT AIRBORNE PARTICLES IN EYE RESULTING IN EYE

              MALFNCTN AND HE CONTACTED HOT WATER RESULTING IN BURN FROM HEAT  TO  HAND.
              MALFNCTN AND HE WAS CAUGHT BETWEEN TWO OBJECTS RESULTING IN FRACTURE  TO

              MALFNCTN AND HE STRUCK AGAINST UNK VEH PART RESULTING IN BRUISE  TO  ARM.
              MALFNCTN AND HE WAS CAUGHT IN HOOD OF VEH RESULTING IN BRUISE TO HAND.
              MALFNCTN AND HE CONTACTED CAUSTIC OR TOXIC HYDRAULIC FLUID RESULTING  IN

              MALFNCTN AND HE CONTACTED HOT WATER RESULTING IN BURN FROM HEAT  TO  ARM.
              MALFNCTN AND HE FELL FROM SLIPPERY VEHICLE'WHILE STEPPING DOWN
              ELBOW.
              MALFNCTN AND HE CONTACTED HOT GREASE RESULTING IN BURN FROM HEAT TO EYES,
                                                                                                               NO, INJ  DAYS   COSTS
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
9
5
24
0
0
1
2
i
0
309
325
929
0
62
126
106
167
60
Ul
Ul
TOTAL
                                                                                                         42
2084

-------
      REPORTING  PERIODt  JULY  -  SEPTEMBER  1976
                                                                 FIGURE 1-13
                                                                    ALL USERS
                                                            DETAILED DESCRIPTION OF
                                                        OPENING EQUIPMENT PART ACCIDENTS
                                                                                                                           PAGE  1
      THIS PROFILE  IS  A  FORMATTED  SENTENCE  CONSISTING OF ACTIVITYr ACCIDENT TYPE, NATURE OF INJURY AND PART OF BODY.
       EMPLOYEE WAS OPENING
            CUT/PUNCTURE TO
       EMPLOYEE WAS OPENING
       EMPLOYEE WAS OPENING
       EMPLOYEE WAS OPENING
       EMPLOYEE WAS OPENING
       EMPLOYEE WAS OPENING

                     TOTAL
TAILGATE AND
SCALP.
TAILGATE AND
TAILGATE AND
CAB DOOR AND
TAILGATE AND
TAILGATE AND
                   PROFILE
HE WAS STRUCK BY UNKNOWN WASTE WHICH FELL OUT OF VEH RESULTING  IN

HE WAS INJURED IN OTHER TYPE OF ACCIDENT RESULTING IN BRUISE  TO LEG.
HE STRUCK AGAINST BACK OF VEH RESULTING IN BRUISE TO FINGERS.
HE INJURED SELF WITH CAB DOOR RESULTING IN BRUISE TO KNEE.
HE WAS STRUCK BY TAILGATE RESULTING IN CUT/PUNCTURE TO CHEEK.
HE INJURED SELF WITH TAILGATE RESULTING IN BRUISE TO CHEST.
                                                                                                                  NO. INJ  DAYS   COSTS
1
2
1
1
1
1
0
2
1
0
0
0
0
121
44
58
20
61
                                                                                                        304
ui

-------
MAST3
                                                           FIGURE  1-14

                                                              ALL USERS
                                                      DETAILED DESCRIPTION OF
                                                    EMPTYING EQUIPMENT ACCIDENTS
REPORTING PERIOD? JULY - SEPTEMBER 1976
THIS PROFILE IS A FORMATTED SENTENCE CONSISTING OF ACTIVITY, ACCIDENT TYPE,  NATURE OF INJURY  AND PART OF BODY,
                                                                                          PAGE  1
EMPLOYEE WAS EMPTYING VEH
     MULTIPLE BODY PARTS.
EMPLOYEE WAS EMPTYING VEH
EMPLOYEE WAS EMPTYING VEH
EMPLOYEE WAS EMPTYING VEH
EMPLOYEE WAS EMPTYING VEH
EMPLOYEE WAS EMPTYING VEH
                           PROFILE
AND HE CONTACTED ALLERGENIC PARTICLES IN WASTE RESULTING  IN  DERMATITIS TO

AND HE CONTACTED HOT EXHAUST PIPE RESULTING IN BURN FROM  HEAT TO ARM.
AND HE GOT AIRBORNE PARTICLES IN EYE RESULTING IN EYE  IRRITATION TO EYES.
AND HE STEPPED ON NAIL RESULTING IN CUT/PUNCTURE TO FOOT.
AND HE WAS CAUGHT OTHER VEH PART RESULTING IN BRUISE TO FINGERS.
AND HE GOT WASTE PARTICLES IN EYE RESULTING IN EYE IRRITATION TO EYES,
                                                                                                           NO.  INJ  DAYS   COSTS
1
1
2
1
1
1
2
0
1
0
0
0
80
0
165
15
64
145
              TOTAL
                                                                                                   469

-------
                                                               FIGURE 1-lb
                                                                                                                        PAGE
   REPORTING PERIOD: JULY - SEPTEMBER 1974
                                                                 ALL USERS
                                                         DETAILED DESCRIPTION OF
                                                        WASHING VEHICLE ACCIDENTS
   THIS PROFILE IS A FORMATTED SENTENCE CONSISTING OF ACTIVITY, ACCIDENT TYPE, NATURE OF INJURY AND PART OF BODY.
   EMPLOYEE WAS WASHING EQUIP
   EMPLOYEE WAS WASHING EQUIP
   EMPLOYEE WAS WASHING EQUIP
   EMPLOYEE WAS WASHING EQUIP
   EMPLOYEE WAS WASHING EQUIP
   EMPLOYEE WAS WASHING EQUIP
        MULTIPLE BODY PARTS,
   EMPLOYEE WAS WASHING EQUIP

                 TOTAL
                          PROFILE
AND HE STRUCK AGAINST POST RESULTING IN BRUISE TO KNEE.
AND HE CONTACTED HOT STEAM RESULTING IN BURN FROM HEAT TO FOOT.
AND HE CONTACTED CAUSTIC OR TOXIC ACID RESULTING, IN CHEMICAL BURN TO EYES.
AND Ht CONTACTED CAUSTIC OR TOXIC DETERGENT RESULTING IN DERMATITIS TO  ARM.
AND HE FELL ON PAVEMENT RESULTING IN BRUISE TO ARM.
AND HE FELL FROM WET VEHICLE ONTO PAVEMENT RESULTING IN  BRUISE TO

AND HE FELL ON WET PAVEMENT RESULTING IN BRUISE TO CHEST.
INJ
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
DAYS
0
2
1
3
5
0
0
COSTS
0
94
139
60
237
0
20
                                                                                            11
550
Ln
oo

-------
   MAST3
                                                                FIGURE  1-16

                                                                 ALL USERS
                                                         DETAILED DESCRIPTION OF
                                                     CLOSING EQUIPMENT PART ACCIDENTS
         PAGE  i
   REPORTING PERIOD! JULY - SEPTEMBER  1976
   THIS PROFILE IS A FORMATTED SENTENCE CONSISTING OF ACTIVITY? ACCIDENT TYPEf NATURE OF INJURY AND PART  OF  BODY.
                                                        PROFILE
   EMPLOYEE WAS CLOSING CAB DOOR AND HE WAS CAUGHT IN CAB DOOR RESULTING IN CUT/PUNCTURE TO FINGERS.
   EMPLOYEE WAS CLOSING TURNBUCKLE AND HE WAS CAUGHT IN TAILGATE RESULTING IN FRACTURE TO FINGERS.
   EMPLOYEE WAS CLOSING TAILGATE AND HE WAS CAUGHT IN TAILGATE RESULTING IN FRACTURE TO FINGERS.
   EMPLOYEE WAS CLOSING TAILGATE AND HE WAS CAUGHT IN TAILGATE RESULTING IN BRUISE TO FINGERS.

                 TOTAL
NO. INJ  DAYS
           22
            0
           39
            0

           61
COSTS
  337
   41
 2255
   20

 2653
Ui
10

-------
                                                           FIGURE  1-17
                                                                                                                    PAGE
REPORTING PERIOD: JULY - SEPTEMBER 1976
                                                              ALL USERS
                                                      DETAILED DESCRIPTION  OF
                                              HOOKING UK UNHOOKING EQUIPMENT ACCIDENTS
THIS PROFILE IS A FORMATTED SENTENCE CONSISTING OF ACTIVITYr  ACCIDENT TYPE*  NATURE OF  INJURY AND PART OF BODY.
                                                     PROFILE
EMPLOYEE WAS HOOKING OR UNHOOKING TONGUE OF TRAILER AND HE OVEREXERTED SELF  WITH  TONGUE OF TRAILER
     RESULTING IN SPRAIN OR STRAIN TO BACK.
EMPLOYEE WAS HOOKING OR UNHOOKING TRAILER RAMP AND HE OVEREXERTED SELF WITH  TRAILER RAMP RESULTING
     IN SPRAIN OR STRAIN TO ARM.

              TOTAL
NO.;INJ  DAYS   COSTS

    2  :-    19     615

    1       0      20

    3      19     635

-------
                                           FIGURE 1-18

                                   EQUIPMENT RELATED ACCIDENTS
                                PRELIMINARY TASK/HAZARD ANALYSIS
       TASK
              HAZARDS
          POSSIBLE  COUNTERMEASURE(S)
1.  Driving
2„   Riding
a.  Struck by objects thrown up by
    wheels of moving equipment
    (e.g., compactors and bull-
    dozers operating at the
    landfill).

b.  Received objects in eye on
    windy days or while at landfill
    emptying equipment.

c.  Strained muscles from going
    over rough terrain, bumps in
    the road, rocks and bricks in
    the road, etc.

    Motor vehicle accidents (e.g.,
    being struck by another vehicle,
    colliding with other vehicle,
    hitting curb, making sudden
    stops)„

    Struck by tree limb.
Screen guards around cabs
                                                      Keep windows closed under those conditions
                                                      Drive  slower and try to avoid these hazards,
                                                      Wear seat belts.
                                                      Take defensive driving course,
                                                      belts.
                                Wear seat
                  b.  Received object in eye,
                  c.  Caught between truck and object
                      as truck was backing  (riding on
                            step) -
Keep body close to vehicle when riding on rea
or side steps for short distances.  Driver
should be aware of hazard to coworker and
should drive defensively.  Where hazard canno
be avoided  (narrow alleys) have employee(s)
ride in cab instead.

Wear eye protection, especially when environ-
mental condition is dusty.

Do not ride on step when truck is backing. Em-
ployee (s)  should be on the ground,  visible to

-------
                                      EQUIPMENT RELATED ACCIDENTS
                                   PRELIMINARY TASK/HAZARD ANALYSIS
         TASK
              HAZARDS
          POSSIBLE COUNTERMEASURE(S)
       Riding
       (contd.)
fO
       Mounting step
d.  Fell off step or struck against
    truck when truck went over a
    bump or depression.
                     e.   Fell off step when truck turned
                         corner,  made sudden stop,  made
                         sudden start or hit curb.

                     f.   Fell off wet step or fell  due
                         to wet handhold or gloves.
                         Fell when step collapsed.
h.  Caught hand or foot in packing
    mechanism,

i.  Motor vehicle accidents.

a.  Struck against truck when
    jumping on step to catch truck
    that was pulling away.
                     b.   Slipped on or fell  off  wet
                         step.
Defensive driver training.  Keep firm grip on
handhold.  Ride in cab if distance is more
than a couple of blocks.  Drive  slower on
roads known to be rough.

Defensive driver training.  Keep firm grip on
handhold.  Ride in cab if distance is more
than a couple of blocks.

On rainy days, ride in cab as much as possible
Slip resistant steps.  Replace material when
worn or install open-mesh steps that will not
accumulate water, snow or oil.

Check welds or braces for steps on a regular
basis.

Do not operate packing mechanism while anyone
is riding on the rear step.

Driver training.

Better coordination between driver and
rider(s): signal given by rider(s) when they
are secure on the step before driver pulls
away.

Slip resistant steps and replace material when
worn.  Or install open-mesh steps that will
not accumulate water, snow or oil.  Make sure
handhold is secure before mounting and step
up on step firmly.

-------
                                      EQUIPMENT RELATED ACCIDENTS
                                   PRELIMINARY TASK/HAZARD ANALYSIS
          TASK
                            HAZARDS
                                             POSSIBLE COUNTERMEASURE(S)
       Dismounting
       step
Ul
       Mounting cab
   6.
Dismounting
cat>
                  Sprained ankle when jumped off.
                  Stepped down on sharp object
                  (e.g., board with nail, glass)
                  puncturing foot.

                  Stepped on object on ground or
                  other uneven surface (e.g.,
                  rock, brick, uneven sidewalk,
                  drainage hole, edge of curb,
                  hole in ground) spraining ankle.

                  Stepped on slippery surface
                  (e.g., loose gravel, oil, wet
                  grass) spraining ankle or
                  falling.
              a.  Struck by door

              b.  Struck against door, door
                  handle or step while mounting

              c.  Slipped on running board and
                  struck against truck or fell.
a.   Foot run over by truck that was
    still moving forward.
                                    Safety rules against haste in jumping of f step,
                                    Extended hand rails.
                                                         Safety shoes.
                                                         dismounting.
                                                         Safety shoes
                                                         dismounting.
                                                   Look where stepping when
                                                   Look where stepping when
                                    Extended hand rails.  Use when dismounting.
                                    Look where stepping when dismounting.
                                    Make sure door is completely open.

                                    Make sure door is fully opened before mounting.
                                    Watch where stepping.

                                    Slip resistant running boards.  Install ex-
                                    tended hand rails.  Make sure handhold is
                                    secure before mounting and step up on running
                                    board firmly.
Safety rule against dismounting from truck
until truck has come to a complete stop and
has completed its back lurching motion.

-------
                                   EQUIPMENT RELATED ACCIDENTS
                                PRELIMINARY TASK/HAZARD ANALYSIS
       TASK
              HAZARDS
                                         POSSIBLE COUNTERMEASURE(S)
6.   Dismounting
    cab (contd.)
7.   Dumping
    container
a.



b.



c.

d.


e.
    Misstepped and fell.
                      Slipped on running board and
                      sprained ankle or back or fell
                      Stepped on sharp object on
                      ground puncturing foot.

                      Stepped on object on ground or
                      other uneven surface spraining
                      ankle.

                      Stepped on slippery ground
                      spraining ankle or falling.
Struck by waste that fell out
of the hopper or container.
                      Struck by container being
                      dumped by coworker or thrown
                      by coworkero

                      Object in eye  (not ejected).

                      Struck by packer that rolled
                      back when parked on an incline

                      Struck against truck when
                      turning to dump.
                                Extended hand rails.  Use when dismounting.
                                Dismount backwards rather than forwards, and
                                look where stepping.

                                Slip resistant running boards.  Replace when
                                material is worn.  Extended hand rails.  Have
                                firm grip on handhold before dismounting back-
                                wards, and look where stepping.
                                    Safety shoes.
                                    mounting.
                                               Look where stepping when dis-
                                    Extended hand rails.  Have firm grip on hand-
                                    hold before dismounting backwards, and look
                                    where stepping.

                                    Extended hand rails.  Have firm grip on hand-
                                    hold before dismounting backwards.
Do not overfill hopper.  Operate the packing
mechanism as soon as the hopper is full.
Avoid holding the container too high.

Better coordination between coworkers while
dumping at the back of the truck.  Safety
rule against throwing containers.

Eye protection.  Turn head when dumping.

Set emergency brakes when packer is stopped
on an incline.
                                Avoid haste.
                                action.
              Avoid the quick-jerk hoisting

-------
                               EQUIPMENT RELATED ACCIDENTS
                            PRELIMINARY TASK/HAZARD ANALYSIS
   TASK
          HAZARDS
         POSSIBLE COUNTERMEASURE(S)
Dumping con-
tainer (contd)
              m.
Threw plastic bag into hopper:
bag burst and was struck by
waste.

Hand caught between container
and edge of hopper.
                  Struck by waste ejected by the
                  hopper.
                  Falls against hopper due to
                  slipping on waste on ground.

                  Falls against hopper due to
                  wet, icy or oily surfaces.

                  Overexertion while lifting to
                  dump.

                  Overexertion while catching a
                  falling container.
Fell off step of side loader.
Eye protection.  Turn head when dumping.
Safety rule against throwing.
Avoid jerking the container up to dump.  Get
a firm grip on the handles, use the proper
stance, and lift to dump in one steady, con-
tinuous motion.  Help in lifting the container
should be obtained if container is overweight.

Stand clear of the back of the truck while the
packing mechanism is operating.  Eye protec-
tion.  Install "flaps."

Clean up waste as soon as it has fallen.
Avoid jerking the container up to dump.

Avoid jerking the container up to dump.
                                Avoid jerking the container up to dump.  Avoid
                                twisting while dumping.

                                Train employees to let container fall and to
                                step away from the path of the falling
                                container.
Slip resistant step.
tainer up to dump.
Avoid jerking the con-

-------
                                     EQUIPMENT RELATED ACCIDENTS
                                  PRELIMINARY TASK/HAZARD ANALYSIS
         TASK
                            HAZARDS
                                         POSSIBLE COUNTERMEASURE(S)
  8.
CTl
  9.
Dumping un-
contained
waste
Operating
packing
mechanism
  10. Opening  or
      closing
      equipment
      part
              a.
              b.
                     c.
Struck by sharp waste (e.g.,
ceramic toilet bowls, mirrors,
fluorescent bulbs) that
shattered as it struck the
hopper edge).

Struck against the back of the
truck.

Struck by furniture or
appliance while loading them
onto open bed truck.
Struck by waste ejected from
hopper o
                         Caught hand  in packing
                         mechanism.
Overexertion when lifting cab
of vehicle.

Struck by tailgate when
opening tailgate.

Caught fingers in tailgate
latch when closing tailgate.
Safety rule against throwing.  Train employee!
on the hazards of these specific wastes.
                                                         Safety  rule  against  throwing.
                                                        Use  lift  gate
Eye protection.  Keep head turned away from
the hopper.  Operate the lever with the left
hand.  Install "flaps" over packer blade.

Train employees not to try to push back waste
that is falling out.  Use two-handed operating
buttons.  Install emergency stop buttons.
Obtain aid of coworker in lifting; train em-
ployees on how to lift in unison.

Release pressure first.  Stand away from the
swing arc of the tailgate as it opens.

Check position of hands before closing
tailgate.

-------
                                      EQUIPMENT RELATED ACCIDENTS
                                   PRELIMINARY TASK/HAZARD ANALYSIS
          TASK
          HAZARDS
         POSSIBLE COUNTERMEASURE(S)
   11.  Hooking or
       unhooking
       equipment
   12.  Standing or
       walking be-
       hind vehicle
CTl
Overexertion when hooking or
unhooking trailer.

Overexertion when hooking or
unhooking bulk containers.
Struck by object ejected by the
packing mechanism.
                     b.  Overcome by exhaust fumes,
                         Struck by private vehicle.
Obtain aid of coworker.   Keep trailer from
slipping.  Do not attempt on incline.

Obtain aid of coworker.   Keep container from
slipping.  Do not attempt on incline.
Train employees to stay clear of the back of
the vehicle when the hopper is operating. In-
stall "flaps."  Eye protection.

Spend as little time behind the truck as
possible.  Check exhaust systems on a
regular basis.

Wear traffic vests.  Only pick up from one
side of street at a time.  Employ caution
when walking from the back of the truck into
the flow of traffic.  Turn on emergency
flasher lights when stopped.

-------
                         SECTION II
                   THIRD QUARTER IRIS USER
                     INDUSTRY-WIDE DATA
          The accidents received by IRIS from 44 users are
covered in this section.  The data is presented at two levels
of detail.  Part I compares the frequency, severity and costs
rates of individual users and compares their averages as they
relate to industry-wide trends.  Part II summarizes individual
accident characteristics for frequency, days lost and costs.

          FIGURE 2-1 gives operational background data on the
IRIS users.

PART I - FREQUENCY, SEVERITY AND COSTS RATES

          FIGURES 2-2 through 2-5 recap the frequency, severity
and costs of injuries for this quarter:

          •    FIGURE 2-2:  Summary of Injuries by Frequency,
               Severity and Costs.  Compares the solid waste
               management industry with the national average
               for all industries.

          •    FIGURE 2-3:  Number of Injuries Reported by
               Type of Severity.  Lists the IRIS users by
               number, and shows what percentage of injuries
               each user had in each severity level (e.g.,
               first aid case, nonfatal case without lost
               workdays, lost workday case, permanent dis-
               ability case and fatal case).

          •    FIGURE 2-4;  Comparison of Injury Rates and
               OSHA Days Lost for All Users.  Compares the
               rates and days lost for the first three
               quarters of 1976, for each user, in user
               number order.

          •    FIGURE 2-5:  Comparison of Direct Costs by
               Reporting Period for All Users.  Compares
               the total costs and costs rates for the first
               three quarters of 1976, for each user, in
               user number order.

          A few definitions of the terms used in the following
FIGURES are:
                               68

-------
OSHA Recordable Injury.  Defined  by  OSHA as
a non-first aid injury.

OSHA Incidence Rate.  It is  a measure  of the
frequency of injuries.  The  OSHA  incidence rate
is the number of OSHA recordable  injuries per
200,000 hours of exposure.   The base figure of
"200,000 hours" is the standard figure used in
OSHA statistics.  It is roughly equivalent to
100 full-time employees working a year or 100
man-years (i.e., 100 employees working 40 hours
per week for 50 weeks per year).

OSHA incidence rates can be  thought  of as being
roughly equivalent to the number  of  injuries
that will occur to 100 employees  during a year.
Therefore, an OSHA incidence rate of 37 means
that the organization is having 37 injuries
per year for each 100 employees or that, on
the average, 1 out of every  3 employees are
being injured.  The national average OSHA
incidence rate for all industries has  been
around 10 for the last several years.

Severity Rate.  The severity rate is similar
to the OSHA incidence rate,  except that it
reflects the number of OSHA  days  lost  (i.e.,
workdays lost and light duty days),  instead
of the number of injuries, per 100 man-years
worked.  For example, a severity  rate  of 500
would mean roughly that an organization is
losing 500 workdays for every 100 employees
per year, or that on the average  each  employee
is losing 5 days a year for  on-the-job injuries.

Direct Costs.  Direct costs  are normally those
for which money was actually expended  and in-
clude worker's compensation, medical expenses,
and wage continuation benefits  (e.g.,  injury
leave).  There are many indirect  costs such as
down time, replacement time, lost time by wit-
nesses and supervisors, etc., which  are not
included in these figures.   Indirect costs are
estimated to be 5 times the  direct costs in
cities according to the National  Safety Council.

Average Direct Costs per OSHA Recordable Injury.
An average direct cost per OSHA recordable injury
of $500 means that on the average each OSHA recor-
able injury  (i.e., a non-first-aid case) is costing
the organization $500!
                69

-------
          •    Direct Cost per Man-Year.  It shows the cost
               per 2,000 hours or the average cost per year
               per employee.  A direct cost per man-year of
               $200 would mean that on the average an organi-
               zation's injuries are costing $200 per employee
               per year.

          In reviewing these FIGURES, the data for the AVERAGE
(shown on the FIGURES as AVG)  is the most important because it
summarizes the results for all users combined.  After examining
the AVERAGES, it is important to examine how great the range
of rates between users is.  Wide ranges are important because
they show that it is possible to achieve lower rates of injury
under given operating systems and safety programs.
                               70

-------
                   FIGURE  2-1
DESCRIPTION OF USERS BY OPERATIONAL CHARACTERISTICS

User
Number
101

109
^jlll
M
125
136
140
146
148
161
171

172

179
X81

M=Municipal
P=Private
M

M
M
M
M
M
M
M
M
M

M

M
\

Geograph.
Area
South

Midwest
West
South
South
South
South
Northeast
Midwest
Midwest

West

Northeast
1 MdL
-------
OPERATIONAL CHARACTERISTICS CONTINUED,

Jser
umber
191

197
-J204
tvj
207
210
211
212
215

217
221
235
236


M=Municipal
P=Private
M

M
M
M
M
M
M
M

M
M
M
M


Geo graph.
Area
South

West
West
West
West
West
West
South

South
West
South
South


No. of
Employees
177

86
52
205
15
40
130
60

820
210
125
103

Point of Collection:
M=Mechanical
A= Alley
BY=Backyard w/o intermed. can
BYT=Backyard-Tub
BYC=Backyard-Cart
CS=Curbside
CS/A

CS
CS/A,M
BYC
CS
CS/A
CS/A
CS/BY/BYT

CS/A/ BY
CS
BYT/A/CS
CS


Type
of
Shift
Task/
Fixed
Task
Fixed
Task
Task
Task
Fixed
Task/
Fixed
Fixed
Task
Task
Task/
Fixed
Type of Service Provided

Coll. Crew Size(s)
Res id.
3

2
1,3
3

2

3

1,2,3
2
3
3

Comm.
1

2,1
1,3
2

2

1



3
1

Resid.
&
Conun.


2


1,2

2







Disposal
L=Landfill
I=Incinerator
T=Trans. Stn.
L

	
L
	
	
L
	
___

L,T
	
L
L


-------
OPERATIONAL CHARACTERISTICS CONTINUED,

User
Number
237

242

-j
w 244
260
261
265
272
275
283

285
286
292

M-Municipal
P=Private
M

M


M
M
M
M
M
M
M

M

Geograph.
Area
Midwest

South


West
West
Midwest
West
Northeast
Northeast
South

Midwest
M 1 West
M. 1 West
\ \

No. of
Employees
90

101


30
168
8
200
272
40
72

79
8
225

Point of Collection:
M=Mechanical
A=Alley
BY=Backyard w/o intermed. can
BYT=Backyard-Tub
BYC=Backyard-Cart
CS=Curbside
A/BYC

CS/BY/BYT/A


BYT/BYC
CS/BYT/A
CS/A
CS/BYT/BYC
CS
CS
CS/A

A/BYT/BYC

CS /A./BYT/BYC


Type
of
Shift
Task/
Fixed
Task/
Fixed

Task
Task
Task
Task
Task
Task
Task/
Fixed
Task
Fixed
Fixed
,
Type of Service Provided

Coll. Crew Size(s)
Res id.


3


2
1,2
3
1,2
3
3
2

3

1,3

Comm.


3


1,2
2,3

2
3

3,1



z
I
Resid.
&
Comm.
3,4





2










Disposal
L=Landfill
I=Incinerator
T=Trans. Stn.


L,T


	
L
L
L,T
L,I
	
L,T

L
L,T
•L.


-------
OPERATIONAL CHARACTERISTICS CONTINUED,

j User
umber
295

296
->316
*»
318
324
325
326
327
328

329
330
331

• •
M— Municipal
P=Private
M

M
M
M
P
M
M
M
M

P
M
M

Geo graph.
Area
South

West
Northeast
West
Midwest
West
South
South
Midwest

West
South
Midwest

No. of
Employees
179

43
475
48
17
45
23
140
33

20
60
35
Point of Collection:
M=Mechanical
A=Alley
BY=Backyard w/o intermed. can
BYT=Backyard-Tub
BYC=Backyard-Cart
CS=Curbside
CS/BY

CS/A/BY
CS/A/BYT
A/CS
CS/A/BYT/BYC
CS/A
CS
CS
CS

CS
A/CS
CS/A

Type
of
Shift
Task/
Fixed
Fixed
Fixed
Fixed
Fixed
Fixed
Task
Task
Task/
Fixed
Task
Fixed
Task
Type of Service Provided

Coll. Crew Size(s)
Resid.
4

1
2,3
3

2,3
3
3
2,1

3
3
3
Comia.
1

2,1
2,3
3

1,2,3
3
2,3
2

2
3

Resid.
&
Comm.




3
1,2






3

Disposal
L=Landfill
I=Incinerator
T=Trans. Stn.
L

	
	
L
	
L
L
L,I
T

	
L


-------
OPERATIONAL CHARACTERISTICS CONTINUED,

User
Number
333
337
338
-j
01339
341
343

M-Municipal
P=Private
M
M
M

M
M
M

Geo graph.
Area
Northeast
Northeast
Northeast

Northeast
West
West

No. of
Employees
43
141
120

151
35
17
Point of Collection:
M=Mechanical
A=Alley
BY— Backyard w/o intermed. can
BYT=Backyard-Tub
BYC=Backyard-Cart
CS=Curbside
BY
CS
CS

CS
CS/A
CS

Type
of
Shift
Task
Task
Task

Task
Task
Fixed
Type of Service Provided

Coll. Crew Size(s)
Resid.
3
3
3

3
2
1
Comm.


3

2
2

Resid.
&
Coitirn.







Disposal
IXLandfill
I=Incinerator
T=Trans. Stn.
	
	
__._


	


-------
                         FIGURE 2-2
                     SUMMARY OF INJURIES
              BY FREQUENCY, SEVERITY AND COSTS
FREQUENCY

•    There were 1,082 cases reported by 44 of the 52 IRIS users
     on-line:  171 first aid cases, 351 nonfatal cases without
     lost workdays, 559 lost workday cases and 1 permanent
     disability case.  Total man-hours for this quarter was
     3,795,819.

•    The AVERAGE OSHA incidence rate was 48 for this quarter,
     the highest of all previous quarters.  This means that one
     out of every two solid waste industry employees will exper-
     ience a non-first aid injury a year.The national OSHA in-
     cidence rate for all industries was 10.4.  Therefore, the
     solid waste industry was experiencing nearly five times as
     many injuries as the average industry.

•    IRIS users ranged in frequency rates from User No. 341
     that was experiencing 1.2 injuries per employee per year,
     to User No. 136 that was experiencing 3 injuries per 100
     employees per year.

SEVERITY  (Days lost given are not final.  These figures reflect
what was received from IRIS users by December 31, 1976, and may
be gross underestimates.  For example, in the six months since
the publication of the first quarter Accident Trends, the OSHA
severity rate has increased from 269 to 393, and not all cases
are final yet.)

•    So far, 560 cases this quarter incurred 5,366 workdays lost
     and light duty days.

•    53% of the total cases resulted in workdays lost and/or
     light duty days.  The national average for all industries
     is 33%.  This means that the solid waste industry has
     more than 1 1/2 times as many lost workday injuries as
     the average industry.

•    The AVERAGE OSHA severity rate  (number of lost workdays
     and light duty days) was 283.  This means that on the
     average, each employee is losing  2.8 days per year for
     injuries.  One user's rate was as high as 24 days lost
     per year per employee; several are losing zero days a
     year per employee.
                               76

-------
•    On the AVERAGE, each lost workday case was resulting in
     9.58 workdays lost so far.   This  was lower than the national
     average for all industries,  which was 10.5.

DIRECT COSTS (Costs given are not final.   These figures reflect
what was received from IRIS users by December 31,  1976, and may
be gross underestimates.  For example,  first quarter's AVERAGE
cost per OSHA recordable injury has gone  up from $296 to $454.)

•    Total direct costs so far for injuries that occurred
     during the third quarter was $252,753.

•    The AVERAGE cost per OSHA recordable injury was $277.

•    The AVERAGE cost per man-year was  $133.   This means that
     the average solid waste injury, that was non-first aid
     for this quarter, was costing $133 per full-time employee
     per year so far.
                               77

-------
                                                        PAGE  1
                                 FIGURE  2-3
               NUMBER OF INJURIES REPORTED BY TYPE OF SEVERITY
                          COMPARISON OF 'IRIS' USERS

EPORTING PERIOD: JULY - SEPTEMBER 1976

INSTRUCTIONS:  THE PERCENTAGES ARE A FRACTION OF THE TOTAL CASES
jEPORTED.  THEY TOTAL TO APPROXIMATELY 100% IF READ HORIZONTALLY,
PHPARE YOUR ORGANIZATION'S PERCENTAGES WITH THE AVERAGE AND WITH
THER IRIS USERS*  HIGHER THAN AVERAGE PERCENTAGES IN THE LOWER
EVERITY GROUPS»  I.E.» TOWARD THE LEFTr ARE DESIRED,  AS ARE LOWER
HAN AVERAGE PERCENTAGES TOWARD THE RIGHT,
RIS
SER
NO,
,VG
,01
.09
.11
.25
.36
L46
L48
L61
171
172
179
181
186
191
197
204
207
210
211
215
221
236
237
244
260
265
272
275
283
292
295
296
316
318
324
TOTAL
CASES
RPT ' D
If 082
45
72
68
105
1
33
3
28
39
101
24
48
28
31
6
6
32
2
7
3
9
24
17
3
33
49
6
6
11
12
' 6
8
117
18
3
FIRST NON-FATAL LOST WKDY
AID W/0 LST WKDAY CASES
NO,
171
1
0
5
10
0
7
0
12
0
0
6
3
10
1
0
0
0
0
3
0
5
1
7
0
0
22
1
0
2
7
0
2
46
7
0
%
16
2
0
7
10
0
21
0
43
0
0
25
6
36
3
0
0
0
0
43
0
56
4
41
0
0
45
17
0
IS
58
0
25
39
39
0
NO.
351
32
35
17
19
0
15
3
11
20
45
8
18
9
14
1
5
11
0
0
0
0
10
3
1
12
4
1
3
3
1
4
2
32
0
0
'•
32
71
49
25
18
0
45
100
39
51
45
33
37
32
45
17
S3
34
0
0
0
0
42
18
33
36
8
17
50
27
8
67
25
27
0
0
NO*
559
12
37
46
76
1
10
0
5
19
56
10
27
9
16
5
1
21
2
4
3
4
13
7
2
21
23
4
3
6
4
2
4
39
11
3
**/
52
27
51
68
72
100
30
0
18
49
55
42
56
32
52
83
17
66
100
57
100
44
54
41
67
64
47
67
50
55
33
33
50
33
61
100
PERM
DISAB
NO*
1
0
0
0
0
0
1
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
%
0.09
0.00
0.00
0,00
0,00
0,00
3.03
0,00
0.00
0,00
0,00
0,00
0,00
0,00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0*00
0,00
0,00
0,00
0.00
0,00
0,00
0,00
0,00
0,00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0*00
0.00
0.00
0.00
FATALITY
NO,
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
7.
0,00
0*00
0*00
0,00
0,00
0,00
0,00
0,00
0,00
0.00
0,00
0,00
0*00
0*00
0*00
0*00
0*00
0,00
0.00
0,00
0,00
0,00
0.00
0,00
0,00
0,00
0*00
0*00
0,00
0,00
0,00
0,00
0,00
0.00
0.00
0,00
                                         78

-------
                                                          PAGE  2
IRIS   TOTAL      FIRST      NON-FATAL    LOST WKDY    PERM        FAT<
USER   CASES       AID    W/0  LST  WKDAY    CASES      DISAB
 NO,   RPT'D     NO*   %     NO,      '/.    NO,    %    NO*    %      NO,
325
329
330
333
337
338
339
341
343
7
6
9
A
14
9
10
14
5
0
5
0
0
0
0
9
3
3
0
S3
0
0
0
0
20
21
60
3
0
5
3
0
0
0
1
0
43
0
56
75
0
0
0
7
0
4
1
4
1
14
9
8
10
2
57
17
44
25
100
100
80
71
40
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0,00
0.00
0,00
0,00
0.00
0.00
0,00
0.00
0,00
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
                                          79

-------
                   COMPARISON OF INJURY RATES AND OSHA DAYS LOST FOR ALL USERS
USER !
  OSHA INCIDENCE RATE
QTR 1  QTR 2  QTR 3  QTR 4 !
    SEVERITY RATE
QTR 1  QTR 2  QTR 3  QTR 4 !
  AVERAGE OSHA DAYS LOST
QTR 1   QTR 2   QTR 3   QTR 4
101 !
109 !
Ill !,
125 !
129 !
136 !
140 !
146 !
148 !
161 !
171 !
172 !
179 !
oo 181 !
0 186 !
191 !
197 !
204 !
207 !
210 !
211 !
212 !
215 !
217 !
221 !
235 !
236 !
237 !
242 !
244 !
260 !
261 !
265 !
12
35
69
31
0
15
47
24

13
43
50

44
19
58

81
78
103
9
79
0


34
89
45
4
140
69
48
34
34
48
78
35

0
55
22
37
44
62
55

50
24
47

139
97
0
68
44
0
45

56
105
34
0
59
55
0
47
46
51
83
42

3

35
5
68
57
70
34
64
25
96
59
50
72
49
34

22

36

75
43
0
44
103
0
66
48
192
1123
495
0
577
525
30

0
208
453

369
105
192

350
579
464
148
739
0


169
1492
106
99
256
659
145
252
310
175
816
348

0
680
139
237
35
228
684

148
279
153

86
253
0
281
444
0
194

0
672
154
0
206
525
0
308
72
200
556
358

24

144
0
106
290
444
241
264
102
236
493
58
429
926
94

419

163

253
94
0
190
1128
0
412
! 6.50
! 8.03
23.73
20.45
0,00
38,60
15.37
4.40

0,00
9.58
13,89

11.48
12.25
4.00

13.00
10.30
9.00
17.00
9.39
.0.00


6.00
18.53
3.50
25.00
2,75
16,67
3,00
! 8,64
20,92
8,15
16.97
12.07

0.00
16,56
20,60
12,86
1,60
5,96
16,84
)
4,26
22,00
5,11

8.00
5.35
0.00
4.71
10.00
0.00
10.89

0.00
8,86
6.40
0.00
3,50
16,20
0,00
7,80
5.75
7.65
9.17
10,58

8,00

9.82
0.00
5,00
10,53
11.39
12,70
6,89
8,22
4,62
10,00
7,00
9,05
19,00
2,75

19,00

4,50

6,00
3.14
0.00
6.50
17,29
0.00
7.30

-------
USER !
  OSHA INCIDENCE RATE
QTR 1  QTR 2  QTR 3  QTR A
    SEVERITY RATE
QTR 1  QTR 2  QTR 3  QTR A \
  AVERAGE OSHA DAYS LOST
QTR 1   QTR 2   QTR 3   QTR 4
272
275
283
285
286
292
295
296
316
318
324
325
326
oo 327
H 329
330
331
333
337
338
339
341
343
AVG.
! 17

34
20
0
9
26
56















40
15
182
50
0
0
11
20
76
81

79
66

0
106
73







46
19
59
51

0
7
20
58
60
79
71
50
0
0
17
70
0
101
68
50
36
118
76
48
196

0
39
0
594
98
1398















393
11
1944
134
0
0
20
20
1800
874

0
208

0
106
245







345
99
79
119

0
15
66
221
362
2456
236
372
0
0
102
78
0
50
633
391
186
1402
151
283
17.00

0.00
2.00
0.00
63.50
4.75
25.00















14.25
1.50
10.67
8.00
0.00
0.00
4.33
2.00
31,50
16,05

0.00
4,75

0.00
2.00
5.00







12,41
6.50
2.67
3,50

0,00
2.75
10.00
5.75
10.92
31.09
3.33
13.00
0.00
0.00
6.00
2,50
0.00
2,00
9,29
7.78
5.12
13,10
2,00
9,58

-------
     USER !   QTR 1
TOTAL INJURY COSTS
 QTR 2   QTR 3   QTR 4
  AVG.  COST PER OSHA REC,  INJ.
!   QTR  1   QTR 2  QTR 3  QTR 4 !
AVERAGE COST PER MAN YEAR
QTR 1  QTR 2  QTR 3  QTR 4
00
101
109
111
125
129
136
140
146
148
161
171
172
179
181
186
191
197
204
207
210
211
212
215
217
221
235
236
237
242
244
260
261
265
4*210
13*327
47*749
37*713
0
1*970
39*842
1*839

135
3*582
24*829

11*510
1*295
1*475

2*481
4*297
1*445
794
14*222
0


1*185
12*768
604
6*877
706
2*321
159
2*820
19*848
12*693
28*972
24*356

0
69*843
5*442
3*577
815
6*376
37*382

5*081
8*021
1*685

517
4*626
0
1*987
6*013
0
83*867

750
9*550
1*813
0
904
5*620
0
8*216
4*555
19*383
20*696
27*641

205

3*060
110
1*313
9*486
28*166
4*749
9*759
2*950
2*101
2*502
226
3*855
1*977
600

3*391

1*045

8*223
1*583
0
736
7*398
0
14*019
386
307
993
618
0
394
711
102

18
148
359

391
143
86

275
134
361
758
617
0


197
608
201
6*877
117
110
159
214
660
208
526
338

0
688
340
255
80
163
485

153
471
120

39
112
0
248
462
0
914

50
329
259
0
226
330
0
455
103
269
327
290

205

117
36
80
243
278
262
216
163
70
417
37
120
988
145

1*130

253

357
153
0
245
224
0
519
51
109
684
194
0
58
331
24

6
64
180

176
27
50

222
104
372
68
486
0


66
541
91
271
164
76
76
74
226
100
409
119

0
382
73
94
35
V101
266

76
113
56

55
109
0
168
205
0
414

27
345
87
0
133
181
0
216
47
137
272
123

6

40
1
55
137
196
90
138
40
66
246
18
87
481
51

249

94

266
67
0
107
229
0
343

-------
                    TOTAL INJURY COSTS
                                     QTR 4
oo
u>
JSER
272
275
283
285
286
292
295
296
316
318
324
325
326
327
329
330
331
333
337
338
339
341
343
AUG.
! QTR 1
! 1*313
!
119
61
0
5*439
911
2r006















250*004
QTR 2
109
1*437
1*205
0
0
894
578
9*534
34*048

92
2*159

0
153
1*053







399*216
QTR 3
1*224
277
1*028

0
483
1*092
1*312
19*999
14*061
491
4*736
0
0
378
480
0
223
11*442
6*431
3*152
5*874
341
252*753
  AVG,  COST PER OSHA REC. INJ.
!   QTR  1   QTR 2  QTR 3  QTR 4 !
              AVERAGE COST PER MAN YEAR
              QTR 1  QTR 2  QTR 3  QTR 4
     437
                                                         27
                                                        239
244
 46
59
61
0
2*719
177
1*003















454
132
0
0
127
96
1*191
558

30
359

0
66
351







437
114

0
96
182
218
281
1*278
163
676
0
0
338
53
0
55
817
714
394
534
170
277
! 75
i
! 20
! 12
! 0
! 254
! 46
! 560
!
!
!
i
!
I
!
!
l
!
j
!
!
!
!
! 180
4
436
67
0
0
13
19
907
452

24
236

0
81
257







201
46
27
58

0
6
36
125
170
1*009
115
339
0
0
64
37
0
56
557
359
143
628
128
133

-------
                                                                         FIGURE 2-6
                                                   SUMMARY OF ACCIDENT FACTORS FOR SELECTED  ACCIDENT
                                           CHARACTERISTICS WITH HIGHEST PERCENT OF OSHA RECORDABLE INJURIES,
                                                            OSHA DAYS LOST AND DIRECT COSTS
           Type of
       Characteristic
                                                                                Factors  With  The:
            Highest % of OSHA
            Recordable Injuries
               Highest % of
              OSHA Days Lost
               Highest % of
               Direct Costs
CO
*»
       Activity
       Accident Type
       Accident Site
       Nature of Injury
       Part of Body
Lifting or dumping container - 35%
Getting off equipment - 8%
Standing or walking - 7%

Overexertion involving container - 17%
Struck by waste - 7%
Struck self with container being
  handled - 5%

On collection route at back of truck - 39%
On collection route at curb - 16%
On collection route in/on vehicle - 14%

Sprain or strain - 37%
Cut or puncture - 23%
Bruise - 19%

Back - 18%
Leg - 9%
Arm - 7%
Lifting or dumping container - 39%
Riding on equipment - 8%
Carrying container - 8%

Overexertion involving container - 25%
Fall to a different level  - 7%
Caught between objects - 7%
On collection route at back of truck  -  48%
On collection route at curb - 18%
On collection route in/on vehicle - 14%

Sprain or strain - 48%
Bruise - 17%
Cut or puncture - 9%

Back - 26%
Multiple body parts - 9%
Ankle - 7%
Lifting or dumping container - 35%
Riding on equipment - 10%
Carrying container - 9%

Overexertion involving container - 23%
Caught between objects - 10%
Fall to a different level - 8%
On collection route at back of truck - 44%
On collection route in/on vehicle - 19%
On collection route at curb - 18%

Sprain or strain - 43%
Bruise - 16%
Cut or puncture - 11%

Back - 22%
Multiple body parts - 14%
Foot - 8%

-------
PART II - CHARACTERISTICS OF ACCIDENTS

          FIGURE 2-6 summarizes the frequency, days lost and
costs of third quarter's OSHA recordable injuries by accident
characteristics.  Each of the following FIGURES covers a dif-
ferent characteristic of the accident:

          •    FIGURES 2-7A to 2-7C:  Activity, e.g., lifting
               to dump container.

          •    FIGURES 2-8A to 2-8C:  Accident Type, e.g.,
               overexertion involving container.

          •    FIGURES 2-9A to 2-9C:  Accident Site, e.g.,
               on the collection route at the back of the
               vehicle.

          •    FIGURES 2-10A to 2-10C;  Injury Type, e.g.,
               cut or puncture.

          •    FIGURE 2-11:  Part of Body, e.g., back.
                              85

-------
                                 FIGURE  2-7A           PAGE  1
                                   ALL  USERS
                   ACTIVITIES  RANKED FROM HIGHEST TO LOWEST
                     PERCENT OF  OSHA RECORDABLE INJURIES

PORTING PERIOD: JULY - SEPTEMBER 1976
                                                                     »
FINITIONS: OSHA RECORDABLE  CASES INCLUDE MEDICAL TREATMENT
SES 
-------
                                                      THUJC.   £
                            OSHA RECORDABLE  INJURIES
                   ACTIVITY                 '       NO*      "/.

LIFTING VEH PART                                    2     0.22
LIFTING OBJECT                                      2     0*22
DUMPING WASTE                                       2     0,22
COMPACTING WASTE IN CONT                            2     0.22
MOWING                                              2     0,22
PUSHING OR PULLING VEH PT                           1     0.11
PUSHING OR PULLING OBJECT                           1     0*11
SHAKING WHILE DUMPING CONT                          1     0.11
CATCHING CONT                                       1     0*11
CATCHING WASTE                                      1     0*11
ARRANGING LOAD                                      1     0*11
COMPACTING WASTE IN VEH                             1     0,11
WASHING CONT                                        1     0*11
DIRECTING VEH                                       1     0*11
UNLOADING WASTE                                     1     0,11

TOTAL                                              911   100*00
                                          87

-------
                                   FIGURE  2-7B
                                                         PAGE
                                   ALL  USERS
                    ACTIVITIES RANKED FROM  HIGHEST TO LOWEST
                             PERCENT OF OSHA  DAYS LOST

 PORTING PERIOD: JULY - SEPTEMBER  1976

 :FINITIONS:  A LOST DAYS CASE is ONE IN  WHICH  THE EMPLOYEE INCURRED
 IRKDAYS LOST AND/OR LIGHT DUTY DAYS DUE TO  THE  ACCIDENT,
                               OSHA DAYS  LOST
                  ACTIVITY
NO,
AVG DAYS LOST/
LOST DAYS CASE
 :FTING CONTAINER
 :FTING TO DUMP CONTAINER
 JMPING CONTAINER
 [DING ON EQUIP
 DRYING CONTAINER
 ITTING OFF EQUIP
 JSHING OR PULLING CONTAINER
 FANEiING OR WALKING
 :TTING ON EQUIP
 [FTING TO DUMP WASTE
 DING REPETITIOUS WORK
 3ING OTHER TYPE OF ACTIVITY
 GIVING EQUIP
 [CKING UP LOOSE WASTE
 JSHING OR PULLING WASTE
 ^PAIRING EQUIP W HANDTOOL
 -OSING EQUIP PT
 SiRRYING WASTE
 HECKING EQUIP MALFNCTN
 DIMMING SHRUBBERY
 DUING
 IFTING OBJECT
 LEARING WASTE W HANDTOOL
 DOKING OR UNHOOKING EQUIP
 IFTING WASTE
 EFUELING VEH OR ROUTINE MAINT
 OING NO ONE ACTIVITY
MAKING WHILE DUMPING CONT
PERATING CONTROLS
 IFTING VEH PART
 ISLODGING WASTE FROM VEH
ASHING EQUIP
USHING OR PULLING VEH PT
ATCHING CONT
OING JANITORIAL WORK
RRANGING LOAD
OMPACTING WASTE IN CONT
MPTYING VEH
807
779
512
437
427
385
330
304
215
185
145
105
87
71
70
62
61
42
42
38
34
29
29
19
16
14
14
13
13
12
11
11
8
8
8
7
3
3
15,04
14,52
9,54
8,14
7,96
7,17
6,15
5,67
4.01
3,45
2,70
1.96
1.62
1,32
1,30
1.16
1.14
0,78
0,78
0,71
0,63
0,54
0,54
0,35
0.30
0.26
0.26
0,24
0,24
0,22
0.20
0.20
0.15
0,15
0.15
0.13
0,06
0.06
9.07
10.82
8.68
15.07
10.67
8.95
11,79
8,00
9,77
7.71
10.36
11.67
6.69
8,87
23.33
12.40
30.50
14.00
7.00
9.50
17.00
14.50
5,80
19,00
5.33
7.00
2.80
13.00
2.60
6.00
5.50
2,75
8.00
8.00
8.00
7.00
3,00
1.50
                                          88

-------
                                                        PAGE   2
                                  OSHA DAYS  LOST
                    ACTIVITY
OPENING  EQUIP PT
RUNNING
CARRYING OBJECT
CATCHING WASTE
COMPACTING  WASTE IN UEH
WASHING  CONT
TOTAL
  NO*
    3
    3
    1
    1
    1
    1
51366
                                                                    LOST
                                                                        DAYS
  0,06
  0.06
  0.02
  0.02
  0.02
  0,02
100.00
1.00
3.00
1.00
1.00
1.00
1.00
9,58
                                            89

-------
                                  FIGURE  2-7C
                                                        PAGE
                                   ALL USERS
                   ACTIVITIES RANKED FROM HIGHEST TO LOWEST
                            PERCENT OF DIRECT COSTS

 PORTING PERIOD:  JULY  -  SEPTEMBER 1976

 -INITIONSS OSHA  RECORDABLE CASES INCLUDE MEDICAL TREATMENT
 3ES (I.E. NON-FATAL CASES  WITHOUT LOST WORKDAYS)* AND LOST WORKDAY*
 \-MANENT DISABILITY AND  FATAL CASES.  FIRST AID INJURIES ARE NOT  INCLUDED.
 ^ECT COSTS INCLUDE MEDICAL EXPENSES* WORKER'S COMPENSATION BENEFITS AND
 3E CONTINUATION  BENEFITS  (E.G.*  INJURY LEAVE) ONLY.  INDIRECT COSTS
 E NOT INCLUDED.

 STRUCTIONSJ DETERMINE YOUR ORGANIZATION'S PROBLEM AREAS BY IDENTIFYING
 E AREAS WITH  THE HIGHEST  PERCENTAGES.
                                DIRECT COSTS
                  ACTIVITY
 FTING CONTAINER
 FTING TO  DUMP  CONTAINER-
 DING ON EQUIP
 MPING CONTAINER
 RRYING CONTAINER
 ANDING OR WALKING
 TTING OFF EQUIP
 UNO. OTHER TYPE OF  ACTIVITY
 ISHING OR  PULLING CONTAINER
 :FTING TO  DUMP  WASTE
 :TTING ON  EQUIP
 :IVING EQUIP
 iCKING UP  LOOSE WASTE
 PAIRING EQUIP  W HANDTOOL
 .OSING EQUIP  PT
 IING REPETITIOUS WORK
 1ECKING EQUIP MALFNCTN
 DRYING WASTE
 :FTING WASTE
 -EARING WASTE W HANDTOOL
 DIMMING SHRUBBERY   "
 JWING
 DERATING CONTROLS
 toKING WHILE  DUMPING CONT
 HNG NO ONE ACTIVITY
 JSHING OR  PULLING WASTE
 ISLODGING  WASTE FROM VEH
 JOKING OR  UNHOOKING EQUIP
 IFTING VEH PART
 ^FUELING VEH  OR ROUTINE MAINT
 ASHING EQUIP
 ETCHING CONT
1PTYING VEH
IFTING OBJECT
AMT,
                                         90
37 f 797
28*123
24 * 075
23*676
21*817
19*209
14*257
14*189
13*543
9*521
9*479
6*476
2*998
2*928
2*653
2*313
2*084
1*580
1*518
1*422
1*410
1*186
1*053
1*029
819
818
662
635
575
559
550
509
454
452
14.97
11.14
9.53
9.38
8.64
7.61
5.65
5.62
5.36
3.77
3.75
2.56
1.19
1.16
1.05
0.92
0,83
0,63
0.60
0,56
0.56
0,47
0.42
0.41
0.32
0.32
0.26
0.25
0,23
0.22
0.22
0.20
0.18
0.18
  AVG COSTS/
OSHA REC INJ


      315
      270
      472
      242
      352
      287
      201
    1*014
      356
      180
      296
      308
      231
      366
      663
      128
      260
      316
       95
      109
      282
      593
       88
    1*029
       68
      204
      331
      212
      287
      112
      110
      509
       91
      226

-------
                                                     PAGE  2
                                 DIRECT COSTS
                   ACTIVITY
   AMT,
DOING JANITORIAL WORK
OPENING EQUIP PT
ARRANGING LOAD
PUSHING OR PULLING VEH PT
CATCHING WASTE
CARRYING OBJECT
RUNNING
DISLODGING WASTE FROM CONT
PUSHING OR PULLING OBJECT
DUMPING WASTE
DOING UNK ACTIVITY
UNLOADING WASTE
WASHING CONT
COMPACTING WASTE IN VEH
COMPACTING WASTE IN CONT
DIRECTING VEH

TOTAL
336
304
255
205
165
156
136
106
97
95
70
60
56
50
36
12
0,13
0.12
0.10
0.08
0,07
0.06
0,05
0.04
0.04
0.04
0.03
0,02
0.02
0.02
0,01
0,00
252^508  100,00
                                          91

-------
                                                       PAGE   1
                                 FIGURE  2-8A
                                  ALL USERS
                 ACCIDENT TYPES RANKED FROM HIGHEST TO LOWEST
                     PERCENT OF'OSHA RECORDABLE INJURIES
 ORTING  PERIOD:  JULY - SEPTEMBER 1976
 INITIONS:  OSHA  RECORDABLE CASES INCLUDE MEDICAL TREATMENT
 ES (I.E.  NON-FATAL CASES WITHOUT LOST WORKDAYS), AND LOST WORKDAY,
 MANENT  DISABILITY AND FATAL CASES,  FIRST AID INJURIES ARE NOT  INCLUDED,
 ITRUCTIONSt  DETERMINE YOUR ORGANIZATION'S PROBLEM AREAS BY IDENTIFYING
  AREAS  WITH THE HIGHEST PERCENTAGES,
                          OSHA RECORDABLE INJURIES
              ACCIDENT TYPE                     NO,     %

 IK'EXERTIOM INVOLVING CONT                       155   17*01
 iUCK BY WASTE                                    62    6.81
 5UCK SELF WITH CONT BEING HANDLED                48    5,27
 \'UCK AGAINST VEH PART                            42    4,61
 [P ON SAME LEVEL                                 41    4.50
 JGHT BETWEEN OBJECTS                             36    3,95
 •IICLE ACCIDENT                                   34    3,73
 SECT BITE                                        34    3,73
 -L TO A DIFFERENT LEVEL                          31    3,40
 -L ON SAME LEVEL                                 31    3,40
 OILY REACTION                                    30    3,29
 IMAL BITE                                        23    2,52
 rl MOVEMENT INVOLVED ACCIDENT                     22    2,41
 3T BY HANDLING CONT                              22    2.41
 RT BY HANDLING WASTE                             21    2,31
 RTICLES IN EYE,                                   19    2,09
 EREXERTION                                       IS    1,98
 EPPED ON  SHARP WASTE                             17    1,87
 DILY REACTION IN CATCHING CONT                   16    1,76
 EREXERTION INVOLVING WASTE                       16    1.76
 EPPED ON  SHARP OBJ                               16    1.76
 RUCK SELF WITH WASTE BEING HANDLED               14    1,54
 NTACT WITH ALLERGENIC WASTE                      13    1,43
 LL AGAINST VEH PART                              11    1*21
 IP AND STRUCK AGAINST VEH PART                   11    1*21
 IP TO A DIFFERENT LEVEL                           9    0,99
 EREXERTION INVOLVING OBJ                          9    0,99
 RUCK BY VEH PART                                  8    0,88
 RUCK BY OBJ                                       8    0,88
 STE PARTICLES IN EYE                              8    0.88
RUCK AGAINST WASTE                                7    0,77
 POSURE TO WEATHER EXTREMES                        7    0,77
RUCK AGAINST OBJECT                               6    0,66
EREXERTION INVOLVING VEH PART                     6    0,66
 HER ACCIDENT TYPE                                 6    0,66
RUCK BY CONTAINER                                 5    0.55
RUCK SELF WITH OBJ BEING HANDLED                  5    0,55

                                        92

-------
                                                      PAGE   2
                            OSHA RECORDABLE INJURIES
                ACCIDENT TYPE

CONTACT WITH CAUSTIC OR TOXIC SUBSTANCE
CONTACT WITH HOT SUBSTANCE
STRUCK AGAINST CONTAINER-
STRUCK SELF WITH VEH PT BEING HANDLED
HURT BY HANDLING OBJ
SLIP AND STRUCK AGAINST CONT
CONTACT WITH HOT OBJ
DEVELOPED INJURY OVER TIME
FALL AGAINST OBJ
FALL AGAINST CONT
CONTACT WITH CAUSTIC OR TOXIC WASTE
CONTACT WITH ALLERGENIC SUBSTANCE
CONTACT WITH HOT VEH PART
RESULT OF AGGRESSIVE ACT
UNKNOWN ACCIDENT TYPE
HURT BY HANDLING VEH PART

TOTAL
NO,
5
5
A
3
3
3
3
3
2
2
2
2
2
2
9
1
0.55
0,55
0,44
0.33
0.33
0,33
0.33
0,33
0,22
0,22
0,22
0,22
0,22
0,22
0,22
0*11
911  100,00
                                         93

-------
6-B
                                FIGURE  2-8B
                                                       PAGE  1
                                  ALL USERS
                 ACCIDENT TYPES RANKED FROM HIGHEST TO LOWEST
                          PERCENT OF OSHA DAYS LOST

 ORTING PERIOD?  JULY  -  SEPTEMBER 1976

 INITIONSJ OSHA  RECORDABLE CASES INCLUDE MEDICAL TREATMENT
 ES  (I.E. NON-FATAL CASES WITHOUT LOST WORKDAYS>> AND LOST WORKDAYf
 MANENT DISABILITY AND  FATAL CASES*  FIRST AID INJURIES ARE NOT INCLUDED*

 TRUCTIONSJ  DETERMINE YOUR ORGANIZATION'S PROBLEM AREAS BY IDENTIFYING
  AREAS WITH THE HIGHEST PERCENTAGES.
                              OSHA DAYS LOST
               ACCIDENT TYPE
NO,     %      AVG DAYS LOST/
               LOST DAYS CASE
:REXERTION  INVOLVING  CONT
.L  TO  A  DIFFERENT  LEVEL
IGHT BETWEEN  OBJECTS
IICLE  ACCIDENT
IP  ON  SAME  LEVEL
\ MOVEMENT  INVOLVED ACCIDENT
»ILY REACTION
tUCK AGAINST  VEH PART
IUCK SELF WITH  CONT BEING HANDLED
[REXERTION
-L  AGAINST  VEH  PART
iHLY REACTION IN CATCHING CONT
*UCK BY  WASTE
IREXERTION  INVOLVING  WASTE
-L  ON  SAME  LEVEL
[P  TO  A  DIFFERENT  LEVEL
IPPED  ON SHARP  WASTE
?T  BY  HANDLING  CONT
<1TACT  WITH  HOT  OBJ
*UCK SELF WITH  VEH PT BEING HANDLED
4TACT  WITH  ALLERGENIC WASTE
[P  AND STRUCK AGAINST VEH PART
?UCK SELF WITH  WASTE  BEING HANDLED
iREXERTION  INVOLVING  VEH PART
EREXERTION  INVOLVING  OBJ
SECT BITE
IP  AND STRUCK AGAINST CONT
*UCK BY  VEH PART
^UCK AGAINST  OBJECT
iPPED  ON SHARP  OBJ
*TICLES  IN  EYE
MTACT  WITH  CAUSTIC OR TOXIC WASTE
*T  BY  HANDLING  WASTE
SOSURE TO WEATHER  EXTREMES
IHAL BITE
HER ACCIDENT  TYPE
1*359
390
360
294
267
239
929
203
198
158
156
149
146
138
132
90
75
72
63
60
51
44
37
37
35
33
29
26
25
24
23
23
21
21
18
17
25,33
7.27
6.71
5.48
4.98
4.45
4.27
3,78
3.69
2.94
2.91
2.78
2.72
2.57
2.46
1,68
1.40
1.34
1.17
1*12
0.95
0.82
0.69
0.69
0.65
0,61
0.54
0,48
0.47
0,45
0.43
0.43
0.39
0,39
0.34
0.32
                 10.30
                 16.25
                 16.36
                 11.76
                  8.34
                 14.06
                 10,90
                  7.25
                  8.61
                 10.53
                 17.33
                 12.42
                  5.03
                 11.50
                  8.80
                 12.86
                  8,33
                  5.14
                 21.00
                 60.00
                  8,50
                  8,80
                  5.29
                  9,25
                 11.67
                  3.67
                  9.67
                  6.50
                  8.33
                  4.00
                  2.87
                 23.00
                  5.25
                  4.20
                  3.00
                  5.67
                                        94

-------
                                                     PAGE   2
                                OSHA DAYS LOST
                 ACCIDENT TYPE
  NO.
STRUCK BY CONTAINER
WASTE PARTICLES IN EYE
UNKNOWN ACCIDENT TYPE
STRUCK AGAINST CONTAINER
HURT BY HANDLING OBJ
STRUCK BY OBJ
CONTACT WITH HOT VEH PART
CONTACT WITH HOT SUBSTANCE
CONTACT WITH CAUSTIC OR TOXIC SUBSTANCE
DEVELOPED INJURY OVER TIME
STRUCK AGAINST WASTE
FALL AGAINST OBJ
FALL AGAINST CONT
STRUCK SELF WITH OBJ BEING HANDLED
RESULT OF AGGRESSIVE ACT

TOTAL
16
16
16
12
11
10
10
10
5
5
3
3
3
2
2
0*30
0.30
0.30
0.22
0.20
0,19
0,19
0.19
0.09
0.09
0.06
0.06
0.06
0.04
0,04
5f366  100.00
                                          95

-------
                                 FIGURE 2-8C
                                                        PAGE
                                   ALL USERS
                  ACCIDENT  TYPES RANKED FROM HIGHEST TO LOWEST
                            PERCENT OF DIRECT COSTS

 PORTING PERIOD:  JULY  -  SEPTEMBER 1976

 FINITIONSJ OSHA  RECORDABLE CASES INCLUDE MEDICAL TREATMENT
 SES  (I.E. NON-FATAL CASES  WITHOUT LOST WORKDAYS)!- AND LOST WORKDAY?
 RMANENT DISABILITY AND  FATAL CASES.  FIRST AID INJURIES ARE NOT  INCLUDED.
 RECT COSTS INCLUDE MEDICAL EXPENSES* WORKER'S COMPENSATION BENEFITS  AND
 GE CONTINUATION  BENEFITS  (E.G., INJURY LEAVE) ONLY.  INDIRECT COSTS
 L: NOT  INCLUDED.

 STRUCTIONS:  DETERMINE YOUR ORGANIZATION'S PROBLEM AREAS BY IDENTIFYING
 E AREAS WITH THE HIGHEST  PERCENTAGES.
                                DIRECT COSTS
               ACCIDENT  TYPE
AMT.
 'EREXERTION  INVOLVING  CONT
 lUGHT  BETWEEN  OBJECTS
 iLL  TO A  DIFFERENT  LEVEL
 iH MOVEMENT  INVOLVED ACCIDENT
 :HICLE ACCIDENT
 .IP  ON SAME  LEVEL
 'RUCK  AGAINST  VEH PART
 IDILY  REACTION
 'RUCK  BY  WASTE
 IDILY  REACTION IN CATCHING CONT
 'RUCK  SELF WITH  CONT BEING HANDLED
 TPPED ON SHARP  WASTE
 »LL  ON SAME  LEVEL
 'EREXERTION  INVOLVING  WASTE
 ILL  AGAINST  VEH  PART
 -IP  TO A  DIFFERENT  LEVEL
 JRT  BY HANDLING  CONT
 TRUCK  BY  VEH PART
 3NTACT WITH  HOT  OBJ
 /EREXERTION
 ^SECT  BITE
 -IP  AND STRUCK AGAINST VEH PART
 INTACT WITH  ALLERGENIC WASTE
 -IP  AND STRUCK AGAINST CONT
 TRUCK  SELF WITH  WASTE  BEING HANDLED
 EREXERTION  INVOLVING  VEH  PART
 FEPPEB ON SHARP  OBJ
 MKNOWN ACCIDENT  TYPE
 4STE PARTICLES IN EYE
 ARTICLES  IN  EYE
XPOSURE TO WEATHER  EXTREMES
MIMAL  BITE
URT  BY HANDLING  WASTE
59r277
24? 379
19,420
13*927
12x173
11,730
11 y 026
10,456
9,929
7,742
7? 360
6,299
5,789
4? 834
4, 334
4,237
3,013
2,806
2,733
2,693
2,465
1,857
1 , 705
1,511
1,450
1,445
1,444
1,387
1,329
1,314
1,241
1,174
1,074
23.48
9.65
7.69
5.52
4.32
4.67
4.37
4.14
3.93
3.07
2.91
2.49
2.29
1.93
1.72
1.68
1.19
1.11
1.08
1,07
0.98
0.74
0.68
0.60
0.57
0.57
0.57
0.55
0.53
0.52
0.49
0.46
0.43
  AVG COSTS/
OSHA REC INJ


      332
      677
      626
      633
      353
      2S7
      263
      349
      160
      434
      153
      371
      137
      305
      394
      471
      137
      351
      913
      150
       72
      169
      131
      504
      104
      241
       90
      693
      166
       69
      177
       51
       51
                                         96

-------
                                                     PAGE  2
                                 DIRECT COSTS
                ACCIDENT TYPE
AMT,
CONTACT WITH CAUSTIC OR TOXIC WASTE
STRUCK AGAINST OBJECT
QVEREXERT10N INVOLVING OBJ
STRUCK AGAINST CONTAINER
CONTACT WITH HOT SUBSTANCE
STRUCK BY CONTAINER
HURT BY HANDLING OBJ
STRUCK BY OBJ
CONTACT WITH CAUSTIC OR TOXIC SUBSTANCE
STRUCK SELF WITH VEH PT BEING HANDLED
STRUCK AGAINST WASTE
OTHER ACCIDENT TYPE
CONTACT WITH HOT VEH PART
STRUCK SELF WITH OBJ BEING HANDLED
DEVELOPED INJURY OVER TIME
FALL AGAINST OBJ
FALL AGAINST CQNT
RESULT OF AGGRESSIVE ACT
HURT BY HANDLING VEH PART
CONTACT WITH ALLERGENIC SUBSTANCE
TOTAL
Ir062
If 051
961
761
695
682
568
494
429
369
353
292
250
236
190
163
149
67
39
34
252? 508
0,42
0,42
0,38
0,30
0,28
0,27
0,22
0,20
0,17
0.15
0,14
0,12
0,10
0,09
0,08
0 - 06
0 , 06
0,03
0.02
0,01
100,00
                                          97

-------
                                 FIGURE 2-9A            pAGE   1
                                  ALL USERS
                 ACCIDENT SITES RANKED FROM HIGHEST  TO  LOWEST
                     PERCENT OF OSHA RECORDABLE  INJURIES
        PERIOD:  JULY - SEPTEMBER 1976
  iNITIONS:  OSHA  RECORDABLE CASES INCLUDE MEDICAL  TREATMENT
  [S (I.E.  NON-FATAL CASES WITHOUT LOST WORKDAYS),  AND LOST WORKDAY*
  IANENT DISABILITY AND FATAL CASES.  FIRST AID INJURIES ARE  NOT INCLUDED.
  •RUCTIONS: DETERMINE YOUR ORGANIZATION'S PROBLEM  AREAS BY IDENTIFYING
  AREAS WITH THE HIGHEST PERCENTAGES.
                          OSHA RECORDABLE  INJURIES
              ACCIDENT SITE                      NO.      %

 COLLECTION ROUTE
  ST AT BACK OF TRUCK                            263    28.87
  ST AT CURB                                     111    12.18
  ALLEY AT BACK OF TRUCK                          88     9.66
  CUSTOMER'S YD                                   73     8.01
  STEP OF VEH                                     50     5.49
  VEHICLE                                         33     3.62
  ALLEY AT CURB                                   32     3.51
 ISIDE CAB OF VEH                                  29     3.18
 ! CUSTOMER'S DRIVEWAY                             24     2.63
  MIDSTREET                                       17     1.87
  RUNNING BOARD                                   13     1.43
  SIDEWALK                                        7     0.77
  TRUCK BED                                       5     0.55
  MIDALLEY                                        4     0.44
  ST AT FRONT OF TRUCK                            2     0.22
  ALLEY AT FRONT OF TRUCK                         1     0.11
  SUBTOTAL                                       782    85.84

 ;:OUTE BETWEEN SITES
 ^SIDE CAB                                         6     0.66
 M TRUCK BED                                       2     0.22
 N STEP OF VEH                                     1     0.11
  SUBTOTAL                                        9     0.99

 LANDFILL
 N YARD                                            11     1.21
 EXT TO VEH AT DUMP SITE                           9     0.99
 N VEHICLE                                         8     0.88
 EXT TO VEH                                        6     0.66
 T DUMP SITE                                       4     0.44
 NSIDE CAB OF VEH                                  3     0.33
 N STEP OF VEH                                     2     0.22
 NROUTE TO DUMP SITE                               2     0.22
 N OFFICE/GATEHOUSE                                1     0.11
 N SHOP/GARAGE                                     1     0.11
 NSIDE CAB AT DUMP SITE                            1     0.11
)N TRUCK BED AT DUMP SITE                          1     0.11
  SUBTOTAL                                        49     5.38
                                        98

-------
                                                          PAGE  2
                            OSHA RECORDABLE INJURIES
                ACCIDENT SITE
NO,
AT INCINERATOR
 IN PLANT
 IN YARD
 AT DUMPING FLOOR
 INSIDE CAB OF VEH
 IN OFFICE/GATEHOUSE
 IN SHOP/GARAGE
 ON VEHICLE AT DUMPING FLOOR-
    SUBTOTAL

AT TRANSFER STATION
 ON VEHICLE
 NEXT TO VEHICLE
 IN YARD
    SUBTOTAL

AT RECYCLING STATION
 IN PLANT
    SUBTOTAL

AT HEADQUARTERS
 IN YARD PARKING LOT
 IN SHOP/GARAGE
 ON VEHICLE
 NEXT TO VEH
 INSIDE CAB OF VEH
 AT WASHRACK
 ON STEP OF VEH
 IN OFFICE
 AT REFUELING STATION
    SUBTOTAL

IN ROADWAY/FIELD
    SUBTOTAL

AT OTHER SITE
 AT UNKNOWN SITE
    SUBTOTAL

 TOTAL
  6
  3
  2
  1
  1
  1
  1
 16
  1
  1
  1
  3
0,66
0,33
0.22
0,11
0,11
0,11
0,11
1,76
0.11
0,11
0,11
0,33
       0,11
       0,11
13
8
4
A
i
2
1
1
1
37
1,43
0,38
0,44
0,44
0,22
0,22
0,11
0,11
0,11
4,06
       0,99
  3    0,33
  5    0.55

911  100,00
                                          99

-------
                                 FIGURE 2-9B
       PAGE  1
                                   ALL USERS
                 ACCIDENT  SITES RANKED FROM HIGHEST TO LOWEST
                           PERCENT OF OSHA DAYS LOST
 ORTING PERIOD: JULY -  SEPTEMBER 1976
 'INITIONS: OSHA RECORDABLE CASES INCLUDE MEDICAL TREATMENT
 iES (I.E. NON-FATAL CASES  WITHOUT LOST WORKDAYS), AND LOST WORKDAY?
 IMANENT DISABILITY AND  FATAL  CASES,   FIRST AID INJURIES ARE NOT INCLUDED.
 JTRUCTIONSJ DETERMINE YOUR ORGANIZATION'S PROBLEM AREAS BY IDENTIFYING
 ; AREAS WITH THE HIGHEST PERCENTAGES,
                               OSHA DAYS LOST
              ACCIDENT  SITE
NO,
        AVG DAYS LOST/
        LOST DAYS CASE
  COLLECTION ROUTE
 v| ST AT BACK OF TRUCK
 N ST AT CURB
 N ALLEY AT. BACK OF  TRUCK
 N STEP OF  VEH
 N CUSTOMER'S YD
 N VEHICLE
 N ALLEY AT CURB
 N CUSTOMER'S DRIVEWAY
 NSIDE CAB  OF VEH
 N MIDSTREET
 N RUNNING  BOARD
 N MIDALLEY
 N SIDEWALK
 N ST AT FRONT OF TRUCK
 N TRUCK BED
 N ALLEY AT FRONT OF TRUCK
   SUBTOTAL

IROUTE BETWEEN SITES
JN STEP OF  VEH
-rNSIDE CAB
   SUBTOTAL

f LANDFILL
CN YARD
iNROUTE TO  DUMP SITE
3N VEHICLE
^EXT TO VEH AT DUMP  SITE
NEXT TO VEH
3N TRUCK BED AT DUMP SITE
ON STEP OF  VEH
ftT DUMP SITE
INSIDE CAB  AT DUMP SITE
IN OFFICE/GATEHOUSE
Ir















4?
327
778
732
383
290
225
164
156
113
79
42
37
36
10
2
*•>
543
24.73
14,50
13,64
7,14
5,40
4.19
3.06
2.91
2.11
1.47
0.78
0,69
0,67
0.19
0.04
0.04
34.66
 54
 32
 86
 61
 52
 50
 33
 19
 14
 13
 10
  6
  1
1.01
0,60
1,60
1,14
0,97
0.93
0,61
0,35
0,26
0.24
0.19
0.11
0,02
                  3,09
                  9,97
                 14.08
                 13.21
                  7.44
                 11.84
                 10.25
                  9.75
                  5,14
                  7,18
                  3,40
                 13,50
                  9,00
                 10,00
                  1,00
                  2,00
                  9.41
54,00
 6,40
14.33
10,17
26,00
10,00
 3,25
 6,33
14,00
13,00
10.00
 6.00
 1,00
                                         100

-------
                                                          PAGE  2
                                OSHA DAYS LOST
                ACCIDENT SITE
  NO,
    SUBTOTAL

AT INCINERATOR
 IN PLANT
 AT DUMPING FLOOR
 IN YARD
 INSIDE CAB OF VEH
 IN SHOP/GARAGE
    SUBTOTAL

AT TRANSFER STATION
 IN YARD
    SUBTOTAL

AT RECYCLING STATION
 IN PLANT
    SUBTOTAL

AT HEADQUARTERS
 IN YARD PARKING LOT
 IN SHOP/GARAGE
 ON VEHICLE
 INSIDE CAB OF VEH
 NEXT TO VEH
 IN OFFICE
 ON STEP OF VEH
 AT UASHRACK
    SUBTOTAL

IN ROADWAY/FIELD
    SUBTOTAL

AT OTHER SITE
 AT UNKNOWN SITE
    SUBTOTAL

 TOTAL
                                                  259
   23
   12
   10
    3
    2
   50
   43
   -43
   90
   13
   14
         4.83
0.43
0,22
0.19
0.06
0,04
0,93
         0,06
         0,06
0,80
0,80
147
41
32
22
20
10
1
1
278
2.74
0.76
0.60
0,41
0.37
0,19
0,02
0,02
5,13
1.6S
0,24
0.26
12,£
5,366  100,00
                                          101

-------
                                 FIGURE 2-9C
                                                        PAGE  1
                                  ALL USERS
                 ACCIDENT SITES. RANKED FROM  HIGHEST  TO  LOWEST
                           PERCENT OF DIRECT COSTS

 "ORTING PERIOD: JULY - SEPTEMBER  i??6

 -INITIONS: OSHA RECORDABLE CASES  INCLUDE  MEDICAL  TREATMENT
 BES 
-------
                                                          PAGE  2
                                  DIRECT  COSTS
                ACCIDENT  SITE
   AMT.
7.
 ON STEP OF VEH
 AT DUMP SITE
 INSIDE CAB AT DUMP SITE
 IN OFFICE/GATEHOUSE
 INSIDE CAB OF VEH
 IN SHOP/GARAGE
    SUBTOTAL

AT INCINERATOR
 IN PLANT
 INSIDE CAB OF VEH
 AT DUMPING FLOOR
 IN YARD
 IN SHOP/GARAGE
 ON VEHICLE AT DUMPING FLOOR
 IN OFFICE/GATEHOUSE
    SUBTOTAL

AT TRANSFER STATION
 IN YARD
 ON VEHICLE
 NEXT TO VEHICLE
    SUBTOTAL

AT RECYCLING STATION
 IN PLANT
    SUBTOTAL

AT HEADQUARTERS
 IN YARD PARKING LOT
 IN SHOP/GARAGE
 IN OFFICE
 ON VEHICLE
 NEXT TO VEH
 INSIDE CAB OF VEH
 AT UASHRACK
 ON STEP OF VEH
 AT REFUELING STATION
    SUBTOTAL

IN ROADWAY/FIELD
    SUBTOTAL

AT OTHER SITE
 AT UNKNOWN SITE
    SUBTOTAL

 TOTAL
    735
    623
    256
     79
     77
     20
 15*445
  2*002
    447
    398
    252
     82
     60
     20
  3*281
    168
     46
     20
    234
   1*380
   1*380
  6*762
    900
    845
    814
    757
    159
    142
     41
 12*586
  3*086
    557
    685
0.29
0,25
0,10
0,03
0.03
0,01
6.12
0,79
0,18
0,16
0,10
0,03
0.02
0,01
1,30
0,07
0,02
0,01
0,09
0.94
0.94
2.68
0.76
0.36
0,33
0,32
0,30
0.06
0.06
0.02
4.98
1.22
0,22
0,27
252*508  100,00
                                           103

-------
                                                        PAGE  1
                                 FIGURE 2-10A
                                   ALL  USERS
                  INJURY TYPES  RANKED  FROM HIGHEST TO LOWEST
                     PERCENT OF OSHA RECORDABLE INJURIES
PORTING PERIOD: JULY - SEPTEMBER 1976
FINITIONS: OSHA RECORDABLE CASES INCLUDE  MEDICAL TREATMENT
SES (I.E. NON-FATAL CASES WITHOUT LOST WORKDAYS),  AND LOST WORKDAY*
RMANENT DISABILITY AND FATAL CASES.  FIRST AID INJURIES ARE NOT INCLUDED.
STRUCTIONS: DETERMINE YOUR ORGANIZATION'S PROBLEM AREAS BY IDENTIFYING
E AREAS WITH THE HIGHEST PERCENTAGES.
                           OSHA  RECORDABLE INJURIES
              TYPE OF  INJURY                     NO.     %

•RAIN OR STRAIN                                   339   37.21
IT/PUNCTURE                                       206   22.61
;UISE                                             169   18.55
'ING                                               31    3.40
'E  IRRITATION                                      30    3.29
JACTURE                                            25    2.74
JRASIONS                                           18    1.98
[RMATITIS                                          16    1.76
JRN FROM HEAT                                      13    1.43
WNDWN TYPE OF INJURY                              10    1.10
JLTIPLE INJURIES                                    9    0.99
nSONING OR ALLERGIC REACTION                       8    0.88
HEMICAL BURN                                        7    0.77
EAT STROKErEXHAUSTION OR  CRAMPS                     7    0.77
[SLOCATION                                          5    0.55
FHER TYPE OF INJURY                                 4    0.44
3PHYXIATION OR DROWNING                            3    0.33
iPUTATION                                           2    0.22
DNCUSSION                                           2    0,22
iRNIA                                               .2    0.22
SECTION                                            2    0.22
^FLAMMATION OF THE JOINTS                          2    0,22
-ECTRIC SHOCK                                       1    0,11

DTAL                                              911  100,00
                                         104

-------
 IR-I-B
                                    FIGURE 2-1OB
                                                            PAGE  1
                                      ALL USERS
                      INJURY  TYPES RANKED FROM HIGHEST  TO  LOWEST
                                PERCENT OF OSHA DAYS LOST

 REPORTING PERIOD: JULY  -  SEPTEMBER 1976
 DEFINITIONS: A LOST  DAYS  CASE  is ONE IN WHICH THE EMPLOYEE INCURRED
 WORKDAYS LOST AND/OR LIGHT  DUTY  DAYS DUE TO THE ACCIDENT,
                                  OSHA DAYS LOST
                 TYPE OF INJURY
NO,
 SPRAIN OR STRAIN
 BRUISE
 CUT/PUNCTURE
 FRACTURE
 MULTIPLE INJURIES
 DISLOCATION
 BURN FROM HEAT
 UNKNOWN TYPE OF INJURY
 AMPUTATION
 OTHER TYPE OF INJURY
 EYE  IRRITATION
.DERMATITIS
 HERNIA
 STING
 CHEMICAL BURN
 POISONING OR ALLERGIC REACTION
 HEAT STROKE*EXHAUSTION OR CRAMPS
 ABRASIONS
 INFLAMMATION OF THE JOINTS
 CONCUSSION
 INFECTION
 TOTAL
27601
922
493
472
207
127
86
82
75
59
39
37
37
27
27
27
21
14
6
5
2
5»366
48.47
17.18
9,19
8.80
3.86
2,37
1,60
1.53
1.40
1.10
0.73
0,69
0.69
0,50
0.50
0,50
0.39
0.26
0.11
0.09
0,04
100.00
                  9,89
                  8,70
                  5,87
                 22.48
                 34,50
                 25,40
                  8,60
                 13,67
                 37.50
                 19,67
                  3,25
                  4,62 -
                 18,50
                  3,86
                  6,75
                  6,75
                  4,20
                  2,00
                  3,00
                  2.50
                  2,00
                  9,58
                                            105

-------
                              FIGURE 2-10C
                                                      PAGE
                                 ALL  USERS
                INJURY TYPES  RANKED  FROM HIGHEST TO LOWEST
                          PERCENT OF  DIRECT COSTS
      PERIOD: JULY -  SEPTEMBER  1976
 NITIONS: OSHA RECORDABLE  CASES  INCLUDE MEDICAL TREATMENT
 S  (I.E. NON-FATAL CASES WITHOUT LOST WORKDAYS)y AND LOST WORKDAYr
 ANENT DISABILITY AND  FATAL  CASES,   FIRST AID INJURIES ARE NOT INCLUDED,
 CT COSTS INCLUDE MEDICAL  EXPENSESy  WORKER'S COMPENSATION BENEFITS AND
 CONTINUATION BENEFITS  516
If 309
If241
lylSl
998
943
648
160
141
103
24
252>50S
42,84
16,37
11.37
8,82
7,68
3,13
1,53
1,29
1 , 1 1
0,91
0,39
0,75
0,60
0,52
0,49
0,46
0,40
0,37
0,26
0,06
0,06
0,04
0,01
100,00
  AVG COSTS/
OSHA REC INJ

      319
      245
      139
      891
    2f 156
    1*604
      298
      816
       93
      230
       73
      944
      217
       82
      177
       64
      125
      471
      324
       80
       47
       51
       24
      277
                                       106

-------
 IR-12B



                                                         FIGURE. 2-11                                           PAGE  1

                                                              ALL USERS
                                    PARTS OF BODY INJURED RANKED FROM HIGHEST TO LOWEST PERCENT  OF
                                       OSHA RECORDABLE INJURIESr WORKDAYS LOST AND DIRECT COSTS

REPORTING PERIOD: JULY - SEPTEMBER  1976

DEFINITIONS: OSHA RECORDABLE CASES  INCLUDE MEDICAL TREATMENT CASES ,  AND  LOST WORKDAY,
PERMANENT DISABILITY AND FATAL CASES,  FIRST AID INJURIES ARE NOT INCLUDED.
DIRECT COSTS INCLUDE MEDICAL EXPENSESf WORKER'S COMPENSATION BENEFITS AND WAGE CONTINUATION BENEFITS  (E.G.,  INJURY  LEAVE) ONLY,
INDIRECT COSTS ARE NOT INCLUDED.

INSTRUCTIONS: DETERMINE YOUR ORGANIZATION'S PROBLEM AREAS BY IDENTIFYING THE AREAS WITH THE HIGHEST PERCENTAGES.
OSHA RECORDABLE
PART OF BODY

BACK
LEG
ARM
EYES
ANKLE
FOOT
FINGERS
KNEE
SHOULDER
HAND
MULTIPLE BODY PARTS
WRIST
CHEST
NECK
ELKOU
GROIN
TOES
INTERNAL ORGANS
FOREHEAD
ABDOMEN
HIPS
THUMB
CHEEK
MOUTH
EARS
SKULL
FACE
TRUNK
SCAUP
JAU
NOSE
UMK BODY f*ART
INJURIES
OSHA REC INJ
NO,
160
78
68
63
60
57
51
50
48
43
41
27
26
19
19
17
14
11
8
8
8
7
5
4
4
3
3
3
2
1
1
i.
%
17.56
8.56
7.46
6.92
6.59
6.26
5.60
5.49
5.27
4.72
4.50
2,96
2.85
2.09
2.09
1,87
1.54
1.21
0.00
0.83
0.83
0.77
0.55
0.44
0.44
O.33
O.33
O.33
O.22
0.11
0*11
0 . ± 1.
WORKDAYS LOST
PART OF BODY UIKDYS LOST AVG/LOST

BACK
MULTIPLE BODY PARTS
ANKLE
HAND
FOOT
SHOULDER
LEG
KNEE
CHEST
ARM
WRIST
FINGERS
GROIN
TOES
HIPS
NECK-
EYES
ELBOW
THUMB
ABDOMEN
SKULL
INTERNAL ORGANS
TRUNK
CHEEK
FOREHEAD
EARS
MOUTH
FACE
OTHER BODY PART-
SCALP
UNK BODY PART
TOTftL
NO.
1,384
461
387
375
367
336
313
281
201
192
192
164
121
108
99
83
68
52
48
42
21
21
18
8
8
7
3
2
2
1
l
=5 r 3<&<&
DIRECT COSTS
PART OF BODY DIRECT COSTS AVG COSTS/
7. WKDY CASE
25.79
8.59
7.21
6,99
6.84
6,26
5.83
5,24
3.75
3.58
3.58
3.06
2.25
2,01
1.84
1.55
1.27
0.97
0 . 89
0.78
0.39
0.39
0.34
0.15
0.15
0.13
O.O6
O.O4
O.O4
O. 02
O . 02
1 OO - OO '
10.56
18.44
8.00
13.39
10.79
9.88
7,45
8,78
11.82
7,68
11.29
7.45
11.00
12.00
19.80
5.93
2.72
5.20
9.60
7.00
7.00
4.20
6.00
8.00
2.00
7.OO
1 .50
1 .00
2.OO
i .00
1 . OO
^ - 3<3
BACK-
MULTIPLE BODY PARTS
FOOT
SHOULDER
HAND
KNEE
LEG
ANKLE
WRIST
ARM
FINGERS
GROIN
CHEST
EYES
HIPS
NECK
ELBOW
TOES
THUMB
SKULL
INTERNAL ORGANS
ABDOMEN
TRUNK
FOREHEAD
MOUTH
FACE
EARS
CHEEK
3CALP
OTHER BODY PftRT
ISJCISE:-
LJMK^ &rtx3ir f=-s*F*-r
AMT.
56,327
34,083
20,976
16,801
16,128
15,438
14,636
13,696
8,619
6,892
6,719
6,594
6,249
5,134
4,780
3,754
3,388
3,199
2,258
1,603
1,402
931
922
772
262
249
241
142
14O
<6s*
-t-4
	 ^^ 	 .
7. OSHA REC INJ
22.31
13.50
8,31
6.65
6.39
6.11
5.80
5.42
3,41
2.73
2.66
2,61
2.47
2.03
1.89
1.49
1.34
'1.27
0.89
0.64
0.56
0,37
0.37
0.31
O.10
O.1O
o. 10
o . oe>
o. o
-------
            PROPOSED RECOMMENDED SAFE WORK RULES
                  FOR SOLID WASTE WORKERS
          The following work rules were compiled from the data
sent in from IRIS users.  All work rules received from users
were greatly appreciated, and any recommended improvements are
welcome.

          These work rules are intended only to be suggestions.
They may not represent all aspects of the safety problem in the
solid waste management industry and should be adapted to indi-
vidual user's needs.

-------
                           DRIVING
1.  Use seat belts.

2.  Drive slowly over bumpy roads, chuckholes or humps,  especially
    if carrying passengers.

3.  Watch out for low hanging branches  or wires as well  as other
    objects close to the path of vehicle.   Alert men riding on
    rear steps of any of these approaching hazards by sounding
    horn and reducing speed.

4.  Use four-way flashers while collecting.

5.  Loaded vehicles handle differently  and require additional
    caution when cornering and stopping.

6.  Park as close to curb as possible to  collect.  Do not block
    traffic.

7.  Do not move vehicle forward until both helpers indicate that
    they are securely standing on the steps.

8.  Report any malfunctions promptly to the maintenance  department,

9.  If necessary to stop on an incline, set emergency brakes.

10. Always drive with extreme caution and reduced speed  during
    poor weather, when roadways are slippery  due to rain, ice
    or snow.

11. When braking on slippery roads, apply the brakes lightly
    with a pumping action.

12. Maintain interval of one truck length between you and vehicle
    ahead for each ten miles per hour of  speed.

13. Drive in low gear on soft surfaces  and going up or down steep
    hills.

-------
                           RIDING
1.   Do not operate the packer while riding on the step.

2.   Do not ride on the hopper sill or in the hopper.  Do not
    ride on other vehicle parts that are not designed to carry
    passengers (e.g., fenders, lift gates, running boards).

3.   Only one person per step allowed.

4.   Use proper stance with both feet on the step and both hands
    firmly on the holding bar.

5.   Keep hands and feet away from the hopper.

6.   Containers should not be picked up while riding on the
    truck.

7.   Helpers should ride in cab if distance travelled is more
    than a couple of blocks,or if roadway is narrow.

8.   Keep steps free from waste, grease, ice and snow.

9.   Watch out for low hanging tree branches or other obstacles
    close to truck.

10. Do not give signal for truck to move until both you and your
    partner are safely set in position.

-------
                           LIFTING
1.  Size the weight by testing.  Rock container  with knee.  Get
    help if container is overweight.

2.  Watch for jagged edges and unbalanced loads.

3.  Remove any hazardous objects extending  from  container, e.g.,
    lumber, wire, fencing, palm fronds, etc.   Lighten load where
    necessary by removing magazines or other  heavy  refuse.

4.  In handling containers consider all of  the following:

    a.    Be sure of firm fo ting, with your  feet spaced about
          shoulder width apart for side to  side  balance and one
          foot slightly forward of the other  for front to rear
          balance.

    b.    Take a firm grip on the top edge  of the container or
          handle with one hand; tip the container,  and grasp
          the bottom edge with the other hand.

    c.    Keep your back straight. Bend your  knees.   Start the
          main lift with your feet, lower legs, and  arm; follow
          through with your large upper leg  muscles.   Keep the
          load close to your body.  Avoid twisting  your back to
          move the load.  When it is necessary to turn while
          lifting, take a step with the load  to  avoid twisting
          your back.  The upper part of your  leg may be used as
          an assist when boosting the weight  into the hopper.

    d.    Double or two-man lift should be  used  only when the
          shape or weight of the load make  it necessary, because
          a double lift increases the hazards.   When necessary
          to use a double lift, lift together on signal.

5.  Waterproof or plastic bags should be handled with care;

    a.    When lifting, keep the bags away from your body as
          much as possible.

    b.    Watch for holes and protruding objects in the bags.

    c.    Test the weight of the bags as there may  be heavy
          objects hidden from view.  In hot weather the bags
          may stretch and tear.

    d.    Avoid placing your hands underneath the bags.

-------
6.   Be extra careful of your grip when handling wet containers.

7.   Wear gloves and long-sleeved shirts.  It is also suggested
    that you wear protective clothing such as chaps and aprons
    for your legs.

8.   When handling brush or lumber, be careful of thorns and
    nails.

-------
                           LOADING
1.   Do not throw containers.

2.   Coordinate loading at the back of the packer  so  that not
    more than one person is dumping at a time.

3.   Wear eye protection.

4.   Do not dump containers when packer is operating.   Stand
    to side of hopper with head turned.

5.   Do not overload hopper; pack load as soon as  hopper is
    full.

6.   Watch out for objects protruding from the hopper or falling
    out.

7.   Place the container on the edge of the hopper and  roll or
    shake as needed to empty.

8.   When emptying containers, keep your fingers out  of positions
    where they can be pinched between the container  and the hopper,

9.   Do not load the packer body above the recommended  weight
    allowance.

10. Look both ways when walking from in back of truck  into
    traffic.

-------
                    MOUNTING/DISMOUNTING
1.   Never get on or off the vehicle if the vehicle is still
    in motion.

2.   Never jump on or off the vehicle.

3.   When stepping on the vehicle, obtain a secure grip on the
    handholds, step firmly and shift the body weight evenly.

4.   Keep steps free of waste, oil, ice and snow.

5.   Open the cab door completely before mounting or dismounting,

6.   Observe the surface you are dismounting onto for;

    a.    Loose objects (e.g., rocks, waste on ground).

    b.    Slippery substances (e.g., ice, oil, water).

    c.    Change in levels  (e.g., meter, drainage hole, curb,
          cracks in sidewalk, chuckhole).

7.   Wear safety shoes.

-------
                 OPERATING PACKING MECHANISM
1.  Other helpers are made aware by agreed  signal  that operator
    is ready to operate the packer.

2.  Other helpers are not at the back of the truck when the
    packer is operating.

3.  Operator should wear eye protection.

4.  Operator should turn head away from hopper.

5.  If lever is located on the right side,  use left hand to
    operate; if on left, use right hand.

6.  Never rest hand on hopper rail while packer is operating.

7.  Do not attempt to catch waste that is falling  out of the
    hopper when blade is in motion.

8.  Do not attempt to push waste that is falling out the back.

9.  Avoid branches or wood that may be swinging around when
    the packer is in motion.

-------
                           BACKING
1.  Drivers should back out of traffic rather than backing into
    it.   For example, back into dead end streets, and drive out.

2.  Do not back up an incline.

3.  In a one-man operation, driver should walk to rear of vehicle
    to see if area is clear; slowly back up, and blow horn; check
    both rear view mirrors while backing.

4.  In a two-or-more man operation;

    a.    Helper may not ride on step as truck is backing.

    b.    Use helper to guide in backing.

    c.    Helper should have clear view of ground over which
          truck is backing.

    d.    Helper should use hand signals rather than voice or
          whistle.

    e.    Helper should be located in a position that is visible
          directly to the driver or visible in one of the rear
          view mirrors.

    f.    Helper should maintain eye contact with the driver.

    g.    Where possible, helper should station himself at the
          point where the backing maneuver is to end.

    h.    Helper should not walk backwards while directing
          vehicle in backing.

    i.    Driver should not back up unless he also knows where
          additional helpers are located.

    j.    Back up slowly and blow horn.

    k.    if helper should disappear from view, stop the truck
          immediately and do not resume backing until he is
          again in view and in a position to signal properly.

-------
                       DUMPING VEHICLE
1.   Make sure truck is on level ground when raising back end
     to dump load/ as truck could tip over.

2.   Make sure no one else is standing near rear door.

3.   Release excess pressure in packer body before opening by
     pulling the ejector blade as far forward toward the cab
     as possible.

4.   Open tailgate with caution; stand clear of swing path of
     door when opening.

5.   When dumping the load, stay clear of the back; do not at
     any time stand under the open tailgate.

6.   Before moving vehicle from dump site, latches and turn-
     buckles must be secure.
                 \

7.   Whenever it is necessary to clear blade of waste, use
     extreme caution.  Use long object (e.g., wood), and at
     all times protect upper part of body by keeping it clear
     of tailgate.

8.   Wear eye protection.

9.   Allow at least distance of six feet between the next
     vehicle.

10.  Helpers should only ride in the cab, not on the step,
     while at the landfill or transfer station.

-------
Accident Trends
4th Quarter 1976

-------
                      EXHIBIT 5

                   ACCIDENT  TRENDS

      IN THE  SOLID WASTE MANAGEMENT INDUSTRY


            CONTAINER HANDLING ACCIDENTS


     QUARTER:   OCTOBER 1 TO DECEMBER 3L  1976
DEVELOPED BY SAFETY SCIENCES,  DIVISION OF  WSA, INC,
   FOR THE  U,S,  ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY
    OFFICE  OF SOLID WASTE  MANAGEMENT PROGRAMS
          UNDER  CONTRACT No,  68-03-0231
                          Division of VISA Inc. ,11772 Sorrento Valley Road
                          San 01ego, CA 92121  (7H) 755-9359 S 452-1010

-------
Accident Trends in the Solid Waste Management Industry is
developed quarterly using data from IRIS  (the Injury Re-
porting and Information System for Solid Waste Management).
Accident Trends is designed to summarize and discuss the
data from all IRIS users and to provide data and conclusions
which affect the industry as a whole.  A companion volume,
the QSMR (Quarterly Safety Management Report), is developed
individually for each IRIS user who reported injuries during
the quarter.  Each QSMR concentrates only on the injuries of
the individual IRIS user for which it is prepared.

IRIS is currently made up of 84 users.  All possible care is
taken to insure data quality.  The nature of the data and the
reports, however, precludes complete accuracy.  Not all cases
are closed by the end of the quarter.  These accidents con-
tinue to be monitored.  Occasionally, full lost time and cost
data is not available.  Consequently, the totals for these
categories may be underestimates.  A concerted effort is made
to correct the lost time and cost figures and improve IRIS
collection methods.  The recommendations and countermeasures
presented are suggestions that must be evaluated in terms of
individual user's needs.

The purpose of this and other IRIS publications is to dis-
seminate new ideas and alternative methods in the solid waste
field.  IRIS serves as a clearinghouse in this regard, but
does not promote or endorse any method or product.  Implemen-
tation of QSMR suggestions should be done only after careful
evaluation by each user and at each user's discretion.

-------
                        ACCIDENT TRENDS

            IN THE SOLID WASTE MANAGEMENT INDUSTRY


QUARTER:   OCTOBER 1 TO DECEMBER 31, 1976


                       TABLE OF CONTENTS

                                                             Page

INTRODUCTION .......................    V

I.        DISCUSSION OF CONTAINER HANDLING ACCIDENTS
          AND PREVENTION METHODS .............   1-1

          1.   Employee Training .............   1-1

               1.1  Testing the Container  ...» ....   1-2
               1.2  Proper Lifting Techniques  ......   1-5
               1.3  Proper Dumping Techniques  ......   1-5
               1.4  Proper Carrying Techniques ......   1-6
               1.5  Training for Intermediate
                    Containers . 	  .......   1-6
               1.6  Team Lifting and Dumping	   1-7
               1.7  Proper Bulk Container Handling . .  .  .   1-7

          2.   Protective Clothing ............   1-8

               2.1  Gloves ................   1-10
               2.2  Footwear 	  .......   1-11
               2.3  Eye Protection ............   1-12
               2.4  Leg Protection ............   1-13
               2.5  High Visibility Clothing	   1-14

          3.   Container Regulations ...........   1-14

               3.1  Container Weight Limit ........   1-14
               3.2  Container Size Limit .........   1-20
               3.3  Container Type ............   1-20
               3.4  Container Condition	   1-20
               3.5  Waste Regulations  .....  	   1-21
               3.6  Lid Requirement	   1-22
               3.7  Container Location	  .   1-22
               3.8  Public Acceptance Campaign ......   1-23
               3.9  Enforcement	   1-23
               3.10 Supervision on the Route .......   1-24
                               11

-------
                 TABLE  OF  CONTENTS (Continued)



                                                              Page

          4.   Altering. Operational Procedures ......   1-24

               4.1  Collection  Methods	   1-24
               4.2  Altering  Safety Rules  ........   1-27
               4.3  Employee  Performance Records	   1-27
               4.4  Redesigning Safety Program ......   1-27


II.       FOURTH QUARTER IRIS USER INDUSTRY-WIDE DATA  . .   2-1
                              ill

-------
                        LIST OF FIGURES
FIGURE 1-1

FIGURE 1-2

FIGURE 1-3

FIGURE 1-4

FIGURE 1-5

FIGURE 1-6



FIGURE 1-7


FIGURE 1-8



FIGURE 1-9


FIGURE 1-10


FIGURE 1-11


FIGURE 2-1


FIGURE 2-2



FIGURE 2-3


FIGURE 2-4



FIGURE 2-5
                                             Page

Employee Training 	 .......  1-3

Protective Clothing ............  1-9

Container Regulations ...........  1-15

Container Regulations of IRIS Users ....  1-16

Altering Operational Procedures ......  1-26

Container Related Accidents - Preliminary
Task/Hazard Analysis  ...........  1-29

Detailed Description of Lifting Container
Accidents .................  1-37

Detailed Description of Dumping Container
Accidents .................  1-48

Detailed Description of Lifting to Dump
Container Accidents ...... 	  1-59

Detailed Description of Carrying Container
Accidents	1-69

Detailed Description of Pushing or
Pulling Container Accidents ........  1-76

Description of Users by Operational
Characteristics ..............  2-4

Summary of Injuries by Frequency,
Severity, and Costs ............  2-11

Comparison of Injury Rates and OSHA
Days Lost for All Users	2-13

Comparison of Direct Costs by Reporting
Period for All Users  ...........  2-16

Summary of Accidents Factors for
Selected Accident Characteristics with
Highest Percent of OSHA Recordable
Injuries, Workdays Lost and Direct
Costs	2-19
                               IV

-------
                        INTRODUCTION
          This is the Accident Trends report for the fourth
quarter of 1976 (October 1 to December 31).  This report is
divided into two sections, a discussion of the special feature
topic, container handling accidents and their preventative
measures and a summary of the data for the quarter. Section I
includes a Preliminary Task/Hazards Analysis for container
handling accidents.  The discussion in Section I will encom-
pass all .container handling accidents since the instigation
of IRIS in December 1975, but Section II relates only the
rates and figures applicable to the fourth quarter of 1976.

          Of the 81 IRIS users on-line fourth quarter, 80
users reported 1,547 injuries.  Since the injury rates are
based on man-hours of exposure, they reflect the various
start-up periods of the IRIS users.

          The time lost and direct costs shown on the FIGURES
were provided as of May 1, the "closing date" for receiving
data for the fourth quarter.  Any cases where the time lost
or direct cost data are incomplete are being monitored for
updating.
                                v

-------
                          SECTION I

         DISCUSSION OF CONTAINER HANDLING ACCIDENTS

                   AND PREVENTION METHODS
          Since the solid waste industry deals almost solely in
handling containers of waste, IRIS is examining these activities
(e.g., lifting, dumping, carrying, etc.) that resulted in injury
in the fourth quarter Accident Trends report.  A condensed version
of the following discussion is given in FIGURE 1-6, the Prelim-
inary Task/Hazards Analysis for container handling accidents.

          During the 13 months (December 1975 - December 1976)
of operation of IRIS, container handling accidents resulted in
1,868 (50%)  OSHA recordable injuries, 14,111  (47%) days lost
and $638,481 (41%) in direct costs.  FIGURES 1-7 through 1-11
included at the end of Section I provide detailed descriptions
of the container handling accidents.  Each FIGURE features a
specific container handling task, and the FIGURES are ordered
from the highest frequency of injury to the lowest.  The descrip-
tions are given in profile form  (i.e., sentence) and includes the
activity, accident type, injury type and part of body.  The
FIGURES also provide the total number of injuries, days lost
and direct costs that correspond to each profile.

          The following discussion is divided into four types
of preventative measures that are components in reducing con-
tainer handling accidents:  employee training, protective
clothing, container regulations and altering operational
procedures.
1.        EMPLOYEE TRAINING

          Specific training in proper container handling should
be provided as part of the newly hired employee's orientation
program.  Preliminary training should be provided at the office
first rather than on the route and should be accompanied with
visual demonstrations.  Many users employ slides, films, charts
or props (e.g., models of the spine) to reinforce their training,
The newly hired employee should also "run through" the motions
of lifting or dumping the container with the instructor crit-
ically evaluating his motions until his movements are corrected.
Then the employee can be put on the route with an experienced
employee as his team mate for a set number of days to test what
                            1-1

-------
he learned.  The team mate, of  course,  should be an employee
who observes the prescribed container handling procedures.

          Another area of concern  in employee training is
supervision on the route to ensure that what the employees
learn is being used.  Supervisors  should take the attitude
that they are responsible for the  safety of their employees,
and, therefore, should correct  any unsafe acts observed by
demonstrating the correct methods.  Another reinforcement
technique tested by some users  is  to take "candid" photos
of the employees violating safe procedures and using them
in the weekly safety tailgate sessions.

          Specific areas of employee training for container
handling accidents are given in FIGURE  1-1.
1.1       Testing the Container

          Testing the container prior  to lifting is a simple
and quick operation that will prevent  the employee from being
"surprised" by a heavy container.   Since it is believed that
the unexpectedness of the occasional heavy container the em-
ployee encounters causes the employee  to overexert himself,
the employee should test the container for possible hidden
rocks or water at the bottom.  Once he has determined its
weight, he can decide whether to  leave the container if it
is above the weight limit regulation or to ask the aid of a
coworker if it is heavy but within  the weight limit. In 21.51
of the container handling accidents, the container was indi-
cated as heavy.  These accidents  resulted in 28% of the days
lost and 28% of the direct costs.

          Testing or "bumping" the  container to determine its
weight involves pushing the container  away from the body, near
the top, with the fingertips of the right hand, if right handed
It only requires tipping the container approximately 30% from
the vertical and observing its rocking motion as it steadies.
With practice, experienced waste  collectors can approximate
the container's weight within 5 Ibs.   They can determine its
weight by the amount of resistance  to  the push as well as
the angle of the rocking motion.  The  heavier the container,
the less it rocks.
                            1-2

-------
                         FIGURE 1-1

             CONTAINER HANDLING COUNTERMEASURES

                      EMPLOYEE TRAINING
1.    TESTING THE CONTAINER
     a.    feump container with hand
     b.    Observe rocking motion

2.    PROPER LIFTING TECHNIQUES
     a.    Avoid inclined or slippery surfaces
     b.    Feet placement - shoulder length apart,  one
          foot forward
     c.    Firm grip
     d.    Straight back
     e.    Knees bent
     f.    Slow steady lift
     g.    Keep container close to body, elbows tucked
     h.    Avoid jerking or twisting
     i.    D.o not throw

3.    PROPER DUMPING TECHNIQUES
     a.    Firm grip
     b.    Avoid twisting
     c.    Do not lift too high
     d.    Bring down on edge of hopper
     e.    Do not dump while hopper is operating
     f.    Do not shake
     g.    Do not overfill hopper

4.    PROPER CARRYING TECHNIQUES
     a.    Routing - avoid hazardous surfaces
     b.    Keep container close to body
     c.    Keep back straight

5.    TRAINING FOR INTERMEDIATE CONTAINERS
     a.    proper carrying of tote barrels
     b.    pushing or pulling training for wheeled carts
     c.    proper lifting techniques
     d.    proper dumping techniques

6.    TEAM LIFTING AND DUMPING
     a.    One person supervises
     b.    Done in unison on signal
                            1-3

-------
                   FIGURE 1-1  (Continued)
7.   PROPER BULK CONTAINER HANDLING
     a.   TWO man crew
     b.   One man directs
     c.   Push away rather than pull
     d.   Keep hands and feet away, from pinch points

8.   CLEANING SPILLED WASTE
                           1-4

-------
1.2       Proper Lifting Techniques

          Currently, there is a controversy concerning utilizing
deep knee bends in lifting due to possible knee injury as the
result of frequent practice.  The general consensus appears to
be the rule of  "if the container tests as being heavy, use the
deep knee bends." Otherwise, use the method "most comfortable"
for the individual.  But the other proper lifting technique
rules should be observed during any lifting procedure.  They
include keeping the feet shoulder length apart with one foot
forward, maintaining a firm grip at all times and keeping the
back straight with the elbows tucked.  At no time should the
employee throw the container, jerk the container up or twist
his body while lifting.

          Fifty-two percent  (52%) of the container handling
accidents occurred as the employee was lifting or lifting-to-
dump a container.  They resulted in 48% of the days lost and
50% of the direct costs.
1. 3       Proper Dumping Techniques

          Nearly a quarter of the container handling injuries
occurred as the employee was dumping the container.  This in-
dicates a need for specific dumping training, which is not
normally provided at an organization.

          Proper dumping training includes maintaining a firm
grip on the container, keeping the hands away from pinch points
 (e.g., caught between the container and the edge of the hopper
resulted in 10% of the dumping accidents) and not dumping with
the container held too high.  Several users train their em-
ployees to bang the edge of the container, with the container
upright, against the edge of the hopper.  This shakes the
waste out, thus not requiring the employee to hold and shake
the container to loosen stuck waste.  Shaking the container
puts strain on the back.  The container should not be held
high when dumping as this will allow waste to spill out onto
the employee and possibly cause overexertions when tilting
the body away from the center of gravity.  Employees should
avoid twisting motions; rather than lifting and dumping from
the curb, they should take a step closer to the hopper.

          Other dumping hazards include objects being ejected
from the hopper (5% of dumping accidents) and being struck by
waste falling from the hopper or the container  (8%) .  Employees
should not be allowed to dump into an operating hopper.  For
                            1-5

-------
packers with hoppers that raise when operating, it means em-
ployees are dumping into a higher  sill  height, thus increasing
overexertion accidents, if they attempt to dump into the hopper
before it finishes cycling.  For this reason,  also, employees
on side loader crews should be encouraged to use the loading
step, thus reducing the sill height.  Employees should not
overfill the hopper.  Overfilling  the hopper increases the
likelihood of objects falling from the  hopper  or bouncing out
of the container onto the employee and  objects being ejected
as the packer cycles.
1.4       Proper Carrying Techniques

          In 13% of the container handling accidents,  the em-
ployee was carrying a container, and  40%  of the carrying con-
tainer accidents resulted in slips  and  falls.

          The slips and falls that  occurred as employees were
carrying containers indicate routing  as a major training area
to concentrate.  Employees can be trained to first "look over"
the terrain for possible hazardous  areas  (e.g., oil spots, ice
patches, wet grass, sprinkler heads,  meter holes,  objects on
the ground, etc.) and plan their paths  to avoid the hazards.
In addition, they should keep the container close  to their
body with their elbows tucked and back  straight.
1.5       Training for Intermediate  Containers

          Because intermediate  containers were designed to
carry more than one container full of  waste,  they are nec-
essarily heavier and bulkier than regular household containers
handled by curbside collectors.  Therefore,  their handling re-
quires special training.  For instance,  with tote barrels, em-
ployees have one option of carrying  the  container on the
shoulder.  Without proper training,  the  employee is likely
to drop the container or sustain a back  strain maneuvering
it onto his shoulder.

          Intermediate containers were involved in 5% of the
container handling accidents.   But the numbers given for bulk
containers and intermediate containers,  although low, are
significant due to their low hours of  exposure.
                            1-6

-------
1.6       Team Lifting and Dumping

          IRIS encourages asking the aid of a coworker to help
handle a particularly heavy or bulky container.  However, IRIS
also recognizes the problems associated with coordination be-
tween coworkers in a mutual effort.  Therefore, IRIS encourages
specific training in team lifting and dumping.  In particular,
the effort must be a united one such that both employees are
lifting, pushing or dumping together.  This requires one em-
ployee to give the command signals and both employees to obey
the signals simultaneously-  Team coordination training is
particularly important for frequent two-man operations such
as in handling bulky items and commercial bins.
1.7       Proper Bulk Container Handling

          Half of the pushing or pulling container accidents
involved bulk containers which were not handled with a coworker.
Due to their massiveness many problems are encountered when
maneuvering the bulk containers into dumping position (e.g.,
wheels stuck in pot hole, lost control of it on incline,
rolling it over foot, caught between container and vehicle or
wall).  IRIS recommends that commercial bins be maneuvered by
two-man crews.  Of note is the increased severity and costs of
the overexertions while pushing or pulling bulk containers.  It
resulted in 24% of the pushing or pulling container accidents,
57% of the days lost and 56% of the direct costs.  As with any
team operation, one of the employees should give the signals
and both employees act in unison.

          In 11% of the pushing/pulling container accidents,
the employee was caught between the container and wall or
vehicle, and in another 4% the employee rolled the bin over his
foot.  The employees should push rather than pull the bins,
thus avoiding placing body parts in pinch points.  They should
push in increments in order to tilt their center of gravity as
little as possible.

          Another pinch point hazard is with the bulk container
lids falling and catching the employee's hand (4%).  The bins
should not be moved if the lid is in an open position; the lid
should be closed first, and hands should never be placed in
pinch points.

          To reduce slips and falls, employees should clean up
spilled waste immediately.  Each truck can be provided with a
broom and dust pan to facilitate this.
                            1-7

-------
          A last item  to  consider in employee training is
retraining.  With experience,  employees are not necessarily
safer.  Any training should be followed by periodic monitor-
ing and reinforcement.  Some users set a prescribed time
span such as six months for mandatory safety retraining of
their employees.  Others  require  that if an employee has been
given more than three  written  warnings for a specific safety
violation, such as not lifting correctly,  he has to re-enroll
in that safety training class.  Still others require that if
an employee sustains a back injury while lifting,  he has to
be retrained in the correct lifting methods.  Users can and
do incorporate variations of the  above methods as  well as
combinations of them in their  safety programs.
2.        PROTECTIVE CLOTHING

          When choosing personal protective  equipment for em-
ployees, several factors need to be considered:

          1.   The degree of protection  it affords.

          2.   The ease and comfort with which it can
               be worn.

          3.   Acceptance by the employees.   This includes
               employee awareness as to  its  necessity as
               well as policies for its  frequency of  use,

          4.   Supervision to insure that employees use and
               maintain the equipment properly.

          5.   Replacement when worn.

          IRIS is presently taking a poll of the users on what
types of protective clothing are being provided  to the employees,
their effectiveness, what users recommend, etc.   This more de-
tailed discussion of personal protective equipment will be pub-
lished later in a special report.

          In the following discussion of specific protective
clothing, the protective clothing will be related to  specific
accident hazards, and cost effectiveness may,  therefore, be
reviewed.
                            1-8

-------
            FIGURE 1-2
CONTAINER HANDLING COUNTERMEASURES
        PROTECTIVE CLOTHING
1.    GLOVES
     a.   Slip Resistant
     b.   Durable

2.    FOOTWEAR
     a.   Slip Resistant
     b.   Durable
     c.   High Ankled
     d.   Steel Toed

3.    EYE PROTECTION
     a.   Impact Resistance
     b.   Side Protection
     c.   Aeration

4.    HIGH VISIBILITY CLOTHING
     a.   Traffic Vest
     b.   Bright Colored Clothes
                1-9

-------
2.1       Gloves

          Obviously, cuts to the hands from sharp objects in
the plastic bag, sharp waste falling from a container when
dumping, and ragged edges on containers can be reduced through
the use of gloves by employees.  These accidents resulted in
2.8% of the direct costs ($18,031) for container handling
accidents during this reporting period.  However, it must be
emphasized that indirect costs such as the injured employee's
time, witness time, supervisory time, etc. is not taken into
consideration.

          Other accidents in which gloves could have been a
contributing factor in reducing their incidence were:  dropping
containers while carrying,  lifting, etc. and bruising fingers
or hand when caught hand between container and vehicle while
dumping.  These accidents resulted in 2% of the direct costs
($24,105).

          What users look for in a good pair of work gloves
is:

          1.   Slip resistance to provide adequate grip on
               containers,  especially during wet weather.
               What some users do to resolve this issue
               is to provide two pairs of gloves, one
               leather and one rubber, with the rubber pair
               to be used during wet weather.  The leather
               pair, or normal wear pair, is usually made of
               canvas material with leather or suede inset
               for slip resistance.

          2.   Durability is better provided by the leather
               or suede.  Users normally have a policy of
               replacing the gloves as soon as they are worn
               rather than on a regular schedule.

          3.   Protection to fingers and hands from sharp
               objects can be better provided with gloves
               that have wire mesh.  However, the degree of
               protection must be weighed against whether
               heavier gloves will interfere in the employees'
               movements as well as the added cost.  The
               length of the glove should also be considered.
               Gloves which expose the employees' wrists to
               cuts will not protect the employees during
               dumping operations where waste may puncture
               their wrists or fall into the gloves.
                             1-10

-------
2.2      Footwear

         Many users do not provide their employees with
safety shoes but do provide discounts on certain brands
of safety shoes, instead.   This was their compromise to
what they considered as exorbitant costs.  Of course,
their safety rules and regulations at least specify that
the employees wear leather shoes with hard soles, and not
allow canvas shoes or sandals.   Punitive measures for
violations for users include written reprimands and dis-
missals for the day.  Other users feel that the degree of
protection provided to their employees far outbalance
the cost.  Other side benefits  of providing protective
footwear is the increased  morale of the employees, which
can be a factor in reducing injury rates at an organization.

         When considering  purchasing footwear or providing
discounts, the following safety shoe characteristics should
be examined:

         1.   Slip resistance of the shoe is dependent
              not only on  the material of the shoe sole
              but also on  the pattern of grooves, notches,
              spikes, etc.  Climatic conditions (e.g.,
              snow, ice, rain)  at an organization must
              be considered when deciding on the degree
              of slip resistance required.  Several users
              provide more than one kind of safety shoes
              to allow for prolonged inclement weather,
              issuing shoes with higher slip resistance
              for the winter months.  Users also provide
              a separate pair of rubber boots for wet
              weather.  The problem with high slip
              resistance is that the shoes are adapted to
              a slippery surface and cannot be used in
              good weather.  Otherwise, the employees'
              feet will "stick" to the pavement and cause
              increased knee problems.  One user provides
              "ice creepers" or cleats that strap onto
              safety shoes to give better grip when
              walking on ice or snow.

              Slips and falls accounted for 12% of the OSHA
              recordable..injuries, 14% of the days lost,
              and 14% of the direct.costs as employees were
              handling containers.  A further discussion
              of slips and falls is planned for the first
              quarter Accident  Trends.
                           1-11

-------
         2.   Durability with  use,  depending on the
              type of terrain  an  employee  encounters
              on the route.  To test  durability,  many
              users test the different  safety shoes
              on the route with a certain  section of
              the employees wearing a certain type.

         3.   Ankle protection is provided by high
              ankled  safety shoes  not  only against
              sprained ankles  but also  against cuts
              to ankles from falling  waste.   There were
              59 cases of sprained  ankles,  resulting in
              324 days lost and $14,076  in direct costs.

         4.   Steel toed safety shoes are  standard equip-
              ment in industries  where  the  employees are
              handling heavy materials which may  fall and
              crush their toes.   In the  solid waste indus-
              try, toes may even  be amputated when an
              employee's foot  gets  caught  by the  hopper
              blade while riding.   Steel toe impact resis-
              tance is addressed  by ANSI  (American National
              Standards Institute)  standards covering
              safety shoes in  the "American  National Stand-
              ard for Men's Safety-Toe Footwear,"  (ANSI Z41.1-
              1967, reaffirmed 1972).
2.3      Eye Protection

         Eye injuries have the potential to be one of the most
costly injuries in the solid waste industry.  Fortunately,
most eye injuries only result in scratches and irritation.
The employees are frequently exposed to this injury when work-
ing near the hopper, where objects are being ejected from the
operating packing mechanism.  Eye protection is strongly
recommended for these employees.  In 2% of the OSHA recordable
injuries, the employees were struck in the eye by an object
ejected from the hopper.  These accidents resulted in  1% days
lost and  1% direct costs.  Another 10% of the accidents were
from waste or airborne particles getting into the employee's
eye.

         Many users recognize the need for this protection and
provide safety glasses or goggles to their employees free of
charge and replace them regularly.  Some users, however, only
provide safety prescription glasses.
                            1-12

-------
         Some guidelines  to  consider  in  choosing  eye  pro-
tection  include:

         1.   Its impact  resistance should  be  such  that
              it cannot easily be  shattered.   Safety
              glass lens  must be made of plastic  rather
              than glass  so  that glass slivers cannot
              penetrate the  eye upon  the lens  shattering.

         2.   Safety glasses can protect against  objects
              being ejected  from the  hopper but glasses
              with side protection would, in addition, aid
              in the reduction of  objects getting in  the
              eye on windy days or in unpaved  areas.

         3.   Aeration is important in gaining acceptance
              of goggles  by  the employees since a common
              complaint of goggles is that  they mist  up
              on hot days and become  wet and slippery,
              particularly to employees  unused to wearing
              glasses.  Some users find  that providing
              their employees with sweat bands reduces
              this problem.  Certain  types  of  goggles are
              provided with  holes  on  the sides to allow
              some air flow.  Another complaint that  has
              not resolved by glasses design is that  in
              arid climates, the glasses or goggles tend
              to have dust cling to them, which reduces
              visibility.  Eye protection also tends  to
              fog up on cold mornings or in cold  weather.
              Eye glass suppliers  do  have anti-fogging
              sprays or rubbing cloths to alleviate this
              problem.
 2.4       Leg Protection

          Leg protection can reduce the cuts to the legs
 caused by sharp objects  (mainly glass) protruding from plas-
 tic bags or from the ragged edges of cans.  These accidents
 resulted in 1% of the days lost and 2% of the direct costs.

          Two types of leg protection are in use:  leather^
 aprons and "chaps."  However, employee acceptance to them is
 low because they are bulky, heavy and tend to be hot on warm
 days.  For many users, these characteristics, along with the
 high costs, outweighed their effectiveness.  Users instead
 provide their employees with pants or jumpsuits of a certain
 weight of material that affords some degree of protection
 against cuts.
                            1-13

-------
2.5       High Visibility Clothing

          Although traffic accidents involving  private  vehicles
striking employees have not been frequent  (3% injuries,  23%
days lost and 2% direct costs) , the potential for  serious
injury such as death is very apparent.  Therefore,  high visi-
bility clothing for the employees is recommended,  particularly
if the employees are allowed to pick up from Doth  sides of the
street or are working during dawn or dusk  hours.

          Users utilize several types of high visibility clothing:

          1.   Orange traffic  vests.

          2.   Bright colored  (e.g., light blue, orange)
               jumpsuits.

          3.   Orange shirts.

          Providing appealing  as well as safety oriented
uniforms have proven to be effective in increasing  employee
morale, also.  Some users go a step further by  embroidering
the employee's name on his shirt or jumpsuit and providing
summer as well as winter uniforms.
3.        CONTAINER REGULATIONS

          Container regulations covering size, weight, con-
dition and location are standard at organizations.  However,
as to how specific the regulations are or what upper limits
are placed, they vary greatly from organization to organiza-
tion.  FIGURE 1-4 details the container regulations in use
by IRIS users.

          Detailed container regulations are necessary as
one of the components in making the work environment safer
for the sanitation employee, especially since the employee's
major task involves handling containers.
3.1       Container Weight Limit

          As shown in FIGURE 1-4, the container weight  limit
of IRIS users  (if there was one) ranged from a high of  130
Ibs. to a low of 45 Ibs. for a 32 gallon container.   In 21.5%
of the container handling accidents, the employee was lifting,
carrying or dumping a "heavy" container.  These accidents re-
sulted in 28% of the days lost and 28% of the direct  costs.

-------
                FIGURE 1-3
    CONTAINER HANDLING COUNTERMEASURES
           CONTAINER REGULATIONS
 1.    CONTAINER WEIGHT LIMIT
      a.   Maximum weight for cans
      b.   Maximum weight for plastic bags

 2.    CONTAINER SIZE LIMIT
      a.   Maximum gallons
      b.   Maximum dimensions

 3.    CONTAINER TYPE
      a.   Not allowing oil drums
      b.   Not allowing cardboard boxes
      c.   Plastic bags must be of a certain
          thickness

 4.    CONTAINER CONDITION
      a.   Replace if have ragged edges
      b.   Replace if have missing handles
      c.   Plastic bags must be tied
      d.   Replace if have holes on bottom

 5.    WASTE REGULATIONS
      a.   Bundle waste
      b.   Bulky waste require special collection
      c.   Handling of hazardous wastes

 6.    LID REQUIREMENT

 7.    CONTAINER LOCATION
      a.   Level surface
      b.   Public address announcements

 8.    PUBLIC ACCEPTANCE CAMPAIGN
      a.   Leaflets
      b.   Public address announcements

 9.    ENFORCEMENT
      a.   Tagging and leaving containers
          violating regulations
      b.   Citations for Repeated Violators

10.    SUPERVISION ON THE ROUTE
                    1-15

-------
      FIGURE 1-4
CONTAINER REGULATIONS
    OF IRIS USERS
USER NO.
101
103
109
111
113
115
125
133
140
141
146
148
149
152
157
161
170
171
172
178
179
181
182
183
CONTAINER SIZE
30 gal.
30 gal.
20-32 gal.
45 gal.
30 gal.
30 gal.
35 gal.
32 gal.
30 gal.
32 gal.
10-30 gal.
10-30 gal.
15 gal.
None
32 gal.
20 gal.
20-30 gal.
20-32 gal.
10-30 gal.
40 gal.
30 gal.
27 gal.
None
32 gal.
WEIGHT
LIMIT
60
65
100
80
60
60
75
70
100
None
50
70
65
None
75
60
70
100
60
82
50
60
100
75
LID
REQUIRED
Y
Y
Y
Y
N
Y
Y
Y
Y
Y
Y
Y
Y
Y
Y
Y
Y
Y
Y
Y
N
Y
Y
Y
HANDLES
REQUIRED
Y
Y
Y
N
N
N
N
Y
N
Y
Y
Y
Y
Y
Y
Y
N
N
Y
N
Y
Y
N
Y
         1-16

-------
FIGURE 1-4   (continued)
CONTAINER REGULATIONS
    OF IRIS  USERS
USER NO.
186
191
197
201
204
207
210
211
215
217
221
226
235
236
237
242
244
260
261
265
272
275
283
285
CONTAINER SIZE
30 gal.
10-32 gal.
32 gal.
32 gal.
80 gal.
31 gal.
20-40 gal.
None
None
30 gal.
20-45 gal.
32 gal.
32 gal.
10-30 gal.
20-32 gal.
30 gal.
32 gal.
32 gal.
20 gal.
30 gal.
None
32 gal.
32 gal.
35 gal.
WEIGHT
LIMIT
75
70
60
130
None
65
50
85
40
75
80
75
None
50
75
100
75
70
75
60
75
50
45
50
LID
REQUIRED
Y
Y
Y
N
Y
Y
Y
N
Y
Y
Y
Y
Y
Y
Y
Y
Y
Y
Y
Y
Y
Y
Y
Y
HANDLES
REQUIRED
Y
Y
Y
N
N
Y
N
N
N
Y
N
Y
Y
Y
N
N
Y
N
N
Y
N
Y
N
N
          1-17

-------
 FIGURE 1-4   (continued)

CONTAINER REGULATIONS
    OF IRIS USERS
USER NO.
342
343
344
345
346
347
348
349
350
351
352
353
354
355
357
358
359
360
362
363
CONTAINER SIZE
10-20 gal.
30 gal.
30 gal.
32 gal.
30 gal.
32 gal.
45 gal.
32 gal.
None
30-35 gal.
30 gal.
30 gal.
32 gal.
30 gal.
20 gal.
30 gal.
40 gal.
25 gal.
20 gal.
10-32 gal.
WEIGHT
LIMIT
60
70
50
60
60
60
50
60
50
50
40
50
80
None
70
50
75
50
50
None
LID
REQUIRED
Y
Y
N
N
N
Y
N
Y
Y
Y
N
Y
Y
Y
Y
Y
N
Y
Y
Y
HANDLES
REQUIRED
N
N
N
N
N
N
N
Y
N
Y
N
Y
N
Y
Y
N
Y
Y
N
Y
         1-18

-------
 FIGURE 1-4   (continued)
CONTAINER REGULATIONS
    OF IRIS USERS
USER NO.
292
295
296
299
316
318
323
324
325
326
327
328
329
330
331
333
334
335
336
337
338
339
340
341
CONTAINER SIZE
20-28" x
16-18"
30 gal.
20-40 gal.
32 gal.
2 cu. ft.
32 gal.
20" x 35"
20-30 gal.
32 gal.
30 gal.
20 gal.
20 gal.
32 gal.
20-32 gal.
32 gal.
30 gal.
10-25 gal.
None
None
None
None
None
27 gal.
20-32 gal.
WEIGHT
LIMIT
75
50
60
50
None
65
30
75
100
50
30
60
60
None
60
75
50
None
None
100
100
100
70
60
LID
REQUIRED
Y
Y
Y
N
Y
Y
N
N
Y
Y
N
Y
Y
Y
Y
Y
Y
Y
Y
Y
Y
Y
Y
Y
HANDLES
REQUIRED
Y
N
N
Y
N
N
Y
N
N
Y
Y
N
Y
N
Y
Y
Y
N
N
Y
Y
Y
N
Y
          1-19

-------
           The weight of  the  containers not only is a contribu-
 ting  factor to overexertion  accidents but also to slips and
 falls when carrying and  strains that develop over the course
 of  the day (not included in  calculations).

           Several  users  have also realized that lower weight
 limits should be set for plastic bags as opposed to galvanized
 or  plastic cans.   They set a 60 Ib.  weight limit for plastic bags.
 Problems  encountered with plastic bags include the bags tearing
 during hot weather or when something extra heavy is at the  bottom
 and the temptation on the employee's part to throw them.
3.2       Container Size Limit

          The size allowed for cans and cardboard boxes are
related both to how much waste a householder can pack in
(weight) and to how awkward it will be for the employees to
handle.  The average size limit for plastic or metal cans
among IRIS users was 30-32 gallons.

          Users that allow backyard collection with the use
of intermediate containers need to examine their practice
with these hazards in mind since 'intermediate containers are
approximately twice the size of a customer's container, and
thus twice the weight.
3.3       Container Type

          The type of container which is acceptable for pick
up should be specified in the container regulations in order
to rub out unsafe containers such as oil drums which are
heavy, bulky and without proper grip edges.  Many users also
do not allow cardboard boxes to be used as a receptacle.
Problems encountered with cardboard boxes include the box
falling apart in wet weather, glass protruding from the sides,
waste protruding from the top, and staples protruding.  If
cardboard boxes are allowed, the maximum accepted dimensions
should be specified.  Plastic bags should be of a minimum
thickness.  This not only reduces the number of injuries due
to the bags tearing but also better prevents objects from
protruding.  The Decision-Makers Guide in Solid Waste Manage-
ment developed by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency
recommends a change to the National Sanitation Foundation
standards on plastic bag minimum thickness from 1.5 to 2.0
mils.
3.4       Container Condition

          An organization can also have regulations  concerning
the condition of the container.  For instance, many  IRIS
users'.container regulations detail that containers  with un-
                             1-20

-------
 safe conditions  (e.g., ragged edges, missing handles, holes
 on the bottom, untied plastic bags, waste protruding) will
 not be dumped.  These conditions have to be corrected by  re-
 placing the unsafe container or by obeying the regulations.

          One organization, upon examining their  injury record,
 made the determination that they need not require handles to  be
 on containers.  Their injury record revealed that they had
 very costly injuries when handles broke as employees were
 lifting or dumping containers, resulting in back  strains.  There-
 fore, they decided to instruct their employees not  to maneuver
 the containers by the handles.  Each organization should  examine
 their injury records for similar trends.
3.5       Waste Regulations

          Wastes such as brush and furniture and appliances
which cannot be containerized require separate regulations.
Many users require that brush be bundled, which will facil-
itate its pickup by the regular collection crews or by a
special brush collection crew that comes by more infrequently.
Furniture and appliances, however, usually require special
handling, and many users require that customers call up, re-
questing this service.   The bulky item crew will then go out
and pick the item up, sometimes charging a fee.  Other cities
combine brush and bulky item collection, while some will allow
customers to put anything out.

          The National  Solid Waste Management Association
developed a preliminary draft of the "Recommended Draft Guide-
lines for Householders  in disposing of some difficult to
handle wastes on October 31, 1975:

   Discarded Item              Recommended Method

•  Aerosols         It  is recommended that the instructions on
                    the container be explicitly followed; for
                    example, "Do Not Puncture", "Do Not Incin-
                    erate", or whatever is noted.  Aerosols
                    in  addition to re-capped alcoholic beverage
                    and other bottles become a potential ex-
                    plosion hazard.

•  Broken Glass     Sweep with hand brush and dust pan, collect
                    in  paper sack, and deposit with trash.  Wet
                    paper towel to collect small slivers.

•  Cleaning and     Flush down toilet or drain.
   Washing
   Products

•  Gasoline         Call fire department or solid waste disposal
                    facility for advice.
                             1-21

-------
Discarded  Item            Recommended Method  (continued)
 (continued)

•  Hypodermic        Dispose  of in separate, specially marked
   Needles          boxes or containers.

•  Liquids          When  in  small quantities liquids can us-
                     ually be disposed of  by flushing them
                     down  the toilet or sink drain.  For
                     householders  with septic tanks and tile
                     fields and when disposing of more than
                     one-half gallon, it might be best to con-
                     sult  the local solid  wastes collection
                     and disposal  organization or fire department
                     for advice.

•  Razor Blades      Insert into slot on container for razor
                     blades.   Otherwise wrap in several layers
                     of facial or  toilet tissue and dispose with
                     other solid waste from household.
3.6       Lid Requirement

          Almost all users required  lids  to be on containers
(FIGURE 1-4).  The reasons behind  this  requirement are:

          1.   Lids will keep rain water  or snow from entering
               the containers,  thus  keeping containers from
               getting overly heavy-

          2.   Lids keep insects and rodents out of the waste.

          3.   Lids can be used by the  employees to compact
               down protruding  waste, thus avoiding the hazard
               of cutting their hands on  sharp waste.
3.7       Container Location

          Container location regulations  include both the acces-
sibility of the container and the  surface conditions of its
location.  For instance, surface conditions can specify that the
containers be located on a level surface.  Slips and falls occur
more frequently on inclined surfaces  which become even more
hazardous when the surfaces are wet,  icy, snow covered or oily-
                             1-22

-------
A level  surface requirement is especially important for bulk
containers  which will be difficult to control when the con-
tainer has  a tendency to roll.  Accidents such as straining
backs when  attempting to catch the bulk container and getting
hands caught between the container and wall can be reduced.
The surface should also not contain slippery material, such
as loose gravel.

         The containers must be accessible.  This means that
in backyard collection, regulations can include that the con-
tainers  cannot be inside fenced yards with loose dogs or be-
hind locked gates.  Neither should the containers be up a flight
of stairs or down in the basement.  Many users have also out-
lawed recessed containers,  which have resulted in back strains.

         Another container location regulation is the distance
the container is from the street, whether the collection is
curbside, alley or backyard.  Setting a maximum distance mini-
mizes how far the collector has to walk or carry.
3.8       Public Acceptance Campaign

          To instigate an effective change in the container
regulations, they must be accompanied by a comprehensive public
acceptance campaign.   Most users, when a customer starts collec-
tion service, provide the customer with a leaflet or brochure
on the rules and regulations.   Giving reasons for why the
regulations were deemed necessary (e.g., reducing overexertion
injuries with low weight limit, protruding brush from containers
can get in an employee's eye,  etc.)  will make them more under-
standable and acceptable.

          A separate  leaflet should be developed to announce
a change to a regulation, also with the reasoning behind it
(e.g., changing from  backyard to curbside to reduce operating
costs and therefore reduce fees to customers).  Any major changes
in collection or container regulations should also be announced
through other media such as radio, television, and local news-
papers.  Container rules and regulations that do not gain public
acceptance are useless.
3.9       Enforcement

          To be effective,  container regulations must also be
enforced,  and enforcement details should be described in hand-
outs and public address announcements.
                            1-23

-------
          Many users simply do not pick  up  containers or waste
that are in violation.  However, to curb customer protests,
they tag the containers with the reasons they were left checked.
Some users utilize a color-coded system  of  tags  denoting how
many times the same violation has occurred,  with the third time
being the last time before pick up is discontinued.   The users
also have the foreman of the area discuss violations with the
customers, to lessen the harshness as well  as to clarify the
violations.

          Some users go as far as to give out citations to
serious repeat offenders, levying a fine.   However,  what they
have found problems with is the slowness of their judicial
system which tended to negate the citation's effectiveness.

          Enforcement is another means of insuring a safer work
environment for the sanitation employee.  A tough enforcement
program boosts employee morale since they realize that their
safety is important to their employer.
3.10      Supervision on the Route

          The employees while working  should  feel  the  influence
of their supervisor.  Their immediate  supervisor can and  should
be made responsible for the safety of  their employees.  Super-
vision of the enforcement of container regulations includes not
allowing employees to pick up containers which  are in  violation
(e.g. have ragged edges, oil drums which are  not allowed, etc.).
The supervisor should project the image of principally having
the welfare of his employees on his mind.

4.        ALTERING OPERATIONAL PROCEDURES

          After reviewing the injury performance record at an
organization, management decisions to  modify  or alter  the exist-
ing procedures should be made with reducing injuries and  their
corresponding high costs in mind.  Accidents  which are frequent
with high costs(e.g. overexertions) as well as  accidents  that are
infrequent with high costs  (e.g. amputations, vehicle  accidents)
must be weighed against the projected  costs of  effecting  the
change.  Many users project eventual return on  their initial
investment as far as five or ten years in the future.

4.1       Collection Methods

          The following is a graduated listing  of  improvements
to a collection system.  A particular  organization can be located
at one or more steps  (if they are phasing in  a  new system):

          1.   If backyard collection,provide intermediate
               containers.  Reduces collection  time and
               exposure to'slips and falls  (average cost  per
               slip or fall injury was $583).   Preliminary


                            1-24

-------
     IRIS analysis indicates reduced rates for slips
     and falls for backyard collection with tubs or
     carts vs without:

                                                 OSHA
                                              Incidence
                                                 Rate
     Backyard without intermediate container  -   31
     Backyard with tub                        -   18
     Backyard with wheeled cart               -   13

2.    Reduce size of intermediate containers.
     Reduces weight and bulkiness in handling
     intermediate containers, particularly tote
     barrels.

3.    Provide wheeled carts instead of tote barrels.
     Reduces carrying accidents (e.g. slips and
     falls, overexertions).

4.    Change from backyard to curbside collection.
     Reduces incidence of slips and falls:

                                                 OSHA
                                              Incidence
                                                 Rate

     Curbside and alley collection            -   13
     Backyard collection                      -   17

5.    Change from task to fixed hour system or
     modified task system (e.g. crews in section can
     come in when all crews in section have finished).
     Reduction in injury rates (see IRIS News, August
     issue).

6.    Change from curbside to semi-mechanical
     collection (provide special wheeled carts to
     customers, adapt equipment). Reduces exposure
     to overexertion accidents (average cost per
     overexertion injury was $596).

7.    Change from semi-mechanical or curbside
     collection to mechanical collection  (provide
     special containers, adapt or buy new equipment,
     reduce crew size).  Virtually eliminates
     container handling (half of all accidents).
     Preliminary IRIS analysis substantiates this:
                                                 OSHA
                                              Incidence
                                                 Rate

     Mechanical collection                    -   29
     Curbside or alley collection             -   59
     Backyard collection                      -   94

                   1-25

-------
                          FIGURE  1-5

              CONTAINER HANDLING  COUNTERMEASURES

              ALTERING OPERATIONAL PROCEDURES
1.   COLLECTION METHODS

     a.   If backyard collection without intermediate
          containers, provide  intermediate  containers.

     b.   Reduce size of intermediate  containers.

     c.   Provide wheeled carts instead  of  tote  barrels.

     d.   Change from backyard to curbside  collection.

     e.   Change from task to  fixed hour system  or modified
          task system.

     f.   Change from curbside to semi-mechanical collection,

     g.   Change from semi-mechanical  or curbside collection
          to mechanical collection.

2.   ALTERING SAFETY RULES

     a.   Requiring two man operation  in handling bulk
          containers.

     b.   Collect from one side of street at a time.

3.   EMPLOYEE PERFORMANCE RECORDS

     a.   Safety rule violations.

     b.   Training given.

     c.   Injury record - mandatory retraining.

     d.   Periodic retraining.

     e.   Pre-employment physical.

4.   REDESIGNING SAFETY PROGRAM

     a.   Determining need.

     b.   Monitoring progress.
                              1-26

-------
4.2       Altering Safety Rules

          Altering safety rules can include requiring a two
man operation for the handling of bulk containers (an average
bulk container handling accident costs $1,191) and having employees
only collect from one.side of the street at a time (an average
struck by vehicle accident costs $1,549).

4.3       Employee Performance Records

          Many users that have active safety departments have
altered their personnel folders to include employee performance
records (e.g. safety rule violations, absenteeism, training
given, injury record, etc.)  or set up separate filing systems.
They feel that examinations of employees' employment history
can give better insight into the injury causal factors as well
as allowing the safety department to identify and correct problems
more effectively.

          Guidelines for effective corrective measure, however,
have to be developed also.  For instance, employees who have
received five written safety rule violations  (e.g. not wearing
safety shoes, collecting from other side of street,  jamming
safety controls,  etc.)  can be suspended from work for a set
number of days without pay or dismissed.

          What types of training and the dates an employee
received them should be kept track of in order to instigate a
thorough training and retraining program.  Once an employee
receives a specific injury such as overexertion while lifting,
he can be retrained  for correct lifting procedures.   However,
this program should not replace a periodic retraining program
aimed at correcting the employee who has slipped back into bad
habits.   This program is a long-termed and detailed program
that is done in-house.

          Many users also require pre-employment physicals
(including back x-rays)  that may show a previous back injury or
indicate congenital back problems.  For instance, once these
back problems have been identified,  these employees may be given
jobs that would reduce  strain to their backs,  or they may be
"targeted" for intensive overexertion training.

4.4       Redesigning Safety Program

          The elements  of a  dynamic  safety program include:

          1.    Determining need by examining injury records.
               Comparisons with previous time periods and
               other organizations with similar operations.

          2.    Effecting changes can include altering
               operational procedures or safety rules once
               a  problem has been identified.

                             1-27

-------
3.    Monitoring progress over time is necessary
     to determine the effectiveness of any change
     This is accomplished through the monitoring
     of injuries.
                  1-28

-------
                                                        CONTAINER RELATED ACCIDENTS*

                                                     PRELIMINARY TASK/HAZARD ANALYSIS
            TASK
                                      HAZARDS
                                                                                            POSSIBLE COUNTERMEASURES
     Percent of  Total "
% No.
           % Days
            Lost
                                    Percent of Task
% Direct
 Costs
% No.
% Days
 Lost
                                              % Direct
                                               Costs
EMPLOYEE TRAINING
PROTECTIVE CLOTHING
CONTAINER REGULATIONS
                                                                                                             OPERATIONAL CHANGES
1.   LIFTING CONTAINER

 14%      14%       13%

    % of Cont.  Accidents

 29%      29%       32%
                              a.  Overexertion
                                65%      67%       70%

                                  (1)  Heavy Container**
                                49%      54%       54%
                                (2)  Large Container
                                     (tote barrel,
                                     cart, etc.)**
                              11%      10%       10%
                                (3)  Interaction**
                               2%       3%        2%

                            b.  Slipped or fell on wet,
                                icy, or oily surface
                               3%       2%        2%

                            c.  Cut hand on rough
                                edges of cans or
                                objects protruding from
                                container
                               8%      15%        9%
                                      Proper lifting tech-
                                      niques

                                      Test weight.  Tag and
                                      leave heavy containers
                                      Ask aid of coworker.
                                      Train on proper lifting
                                      techniques and team
                                      lifting.

                                      Do not overfill inter-
                                      mediate container.  If
                                      heavy, obtain aid.
                                      Train on proper liftimj
                                      techniques and team
                                      lifting.

                                      Team lifting coordin-
                                      ation

                                      Proper foot placement.
                                                                          Container weight limit
                                                                          Public acceptance
                                                                          program.
                                                                                                      Container size limits.
                                                                                  Slip resistant, high
                                                                                  ankled safety shoes.
                                                                                  Gloves
                                                                                        Change to mechanical
                                                                                        or semi-mechanical
                                                                                        collection

                                                                                        Same as above.
                                                                                                                                Change  from backyard
                                                                                                                                to curbside or to
                                                                                                                                mechanical or semi-
                                                                                                                                mechanical collection
                                                                                                 Change  to mechanical
                                                                                                 or  semi-mechanical
                                                                                                 collection.

                                                                                                 Same as above.
                                                                                                                                Same  as  above.
                                                                                     Not allow containers
                                                                                     with ragged edges.
                                                                                     Require plastic  bags
                                                                                     to be of a certain
                                                                                     thickness.
                                                                               A recordable injuries,  30,258  days  lost  and  $1,563,888  in direct
* IRIS reporting period was December 1975 to December 1976.   It includes  3,763 OS	    ......      .
  costs.  Of these figures, 1,868 OSHA recordable injuries,  14.111  days lost and $638,481 in direct costs were incurred as employees were handling containers
** Overlapping numbers                                              -  1 -

-------
                                                                CONTAINER RELATED ACCIDENTS

                                                             PRELIMINARY TASK/HAZARD ANALYSIS
TASK
Percent of Total
% No. % Days % Direct
Inj. Lost Costs
1. LIFTING CONTAINER
continued

2. DUMPING CONTAINER
in 9% 8%
% of Cont. Accidents
23% 19% 18%



HAZARDS
Percent of Task
% No. % Days % Direct
Inj. Lost Costs
d. Struck self with
container or objects
protruding from plastic
bags
6% 5% 6%
e. Dropped can on foot
2% 1% 2%
a. Overexertion
23% 41% 43%
(1) Heavy Container**
10% 14% 14%
(2) Large Container**
4% 5% 6%
b. Object in eye (not
ejected)
15% 1% 4%
c. Caught hand between
container and vehicle
10% 11% 7%
d. Struck by waste falling
from container or
hopper
8% 8% 9%
POSSIBLE COUNTERMEASURES
EMPLOYEE TRAINING
Proper lifting tech-
niques.
Proper lifting tech-
niques.
Proper dumping tech-
nique.
Proper dumping tech-
nique.
Do not overfill inter-
mediate containers.
Avert head while
dumping.
Proper dumping tech-
nique.
Do not overfill hopper
Do not raise container
too high.
PROTECTIVE CLOTHING
Leather apron or chaps
to protect legs.
Steel -toed safety
shoes. Slip resistant
gloves.


Eye protection.
Gloves.
Gloves. Safety shoes.
CONTAINER REGULATIONS
Require separate
handling of glass and
other sharp wastes.

Container weight
limits.
Container size limits.



OPERATIONAL CHANGES
Change to mechanical
or semi-mechanical
collection.
Same as above.
Same as above.
Same as above.
Same as above.

Same as above.
Same as above.
 I
U)
o
        Overlapping  numbers
                                                                          - 2 -

-------
   CONTAINER RELATED ACCIDENTS
PRELIMINARY TASK/HAZARD ANALYSIS
TASK
Percent of Total
% No. % Days X Direct
Inj. Lost Costs
2. DUMPING CONTAINER
continued



















HAZARDS
Percent of Task
* No. X Days X Direct
Inj. Lost Costs
e. Struck against vehicle
756 4% 5X
f. Struck by waste ejected
from hopper
5% 1% 2%
g. Fell or slipped on wet,
icy or oily surface
3% 3% 4%
h. Struck by container
handled by coworker
2X 
-------
                                                                CONTAINER RELATED ACCIDENTS
                                                             PRELIMINARY TASK/HAZARD ANALYSIS
                    TASK
                             HAZARDS
                                                                        POSSIBLE COUNTERMEASURES
              Percent of Total
                         Percent of TasR
         % No.
         Inj.
% Days
 Lost
% DTrect
 Costs
%No.
 Inj.
% Days
 Lost
% Direct
 Costs
EMPLOYEE TRAINING
PROTECTIVE CLOTHING
CONTAINER REGULATIONS
OPERATIONAL CHANGES
         3.   LIFTING TO DUMP
             CONTAINER

          10%      10%        8%

             % of Cont.  Accidents

          20%      21%       19%
 I
u>
tO
                     .   Overexertion while
                        handling heavy
                        container
                      24%      40%       35%
                                     b.   Overexertion while
                                         handling  large  contain-
                                         er
                                        3%       1%       1%
                    c.   Overexertion while
                        handling multiple
                        containers.
                     
-------
                                                                   CONTAINER RELATED  ACCIDENTS

                                                                PRELIMINARY  TASK/HAZARD ANALYSIS
      TASK
Percent of Total
                                                HAZARDS
                                                                                                    POSSIBLE COUNTERMEASURES
           Inj.
    Lost
X Direct
 Costs
% No.
 Inj.
                                            Percent of Task
% Days
 Lost
% Direct
 Costs
                                                                     EMPLOYEE TRAINING
                                                                           PROTECTIVE CLOTHING
CONTAINER REGULATIONS
                                                                                                                                         OPERATIONAL CHANGES
 I
u>
U)
           3.   LIFTING TO DUMP
               CONTAINER
               continued
           4.   CARRYING CONTAINER

             6%       7%        6%

               % of Cont.  Accidents

            13%      15%       14%
           Overlapping numbers
                       g.   Twisting/ turning**
                          5%       8%       11%

                       h.   Throwing plastic  bags*1
                         14%      14%       12%

                       1.   Slipping or falling on
                           wet,  icy or oily
                           surfaces
                          4%       8%        8%

                       j.   Struck by  object
                           ejected from hopper
                          1%       \%        1%

                       k.   Dropped heavy container
                           on leg or  foot
                                   2%        2%
                       a.   Slipped or fell
                         40%      42%       43%
                           (1)   While handling
                                tote barrel**
                         13%       4%        3%
                                      Proper lifting tech-
                                      niques

                                      Not allowing.
                                                                   Proper  foot placement.
                                      Not allowing employees
                                      at back of truck while
                                      hopper is operating.

                                      Test weight.  Tag and
                                      leave heavy containers
                                      Routing.  Proper carry
                                      ing techniques.
                                       Do not overfill.
                                       Routing.  Proper carry
                                       ing  techniques.
                                                                             -  5  -
                                                              Slip resistant, high
                                                              ankled safety shoes.
                                                                                          Eye protection.
                                                   Slip resistant gloves.
                                                   Steel-toed safety
                                                   shoes.

                                                   Slip resistant, high
                                                   ankled safety shoes.
                                                                           Same as above.
                                                                  Container weight
                                                                  limits.   Public accept
                                                                  ance campaign.
                                                                                                                                        Same as above.
                                                                                                                                        Same as above.
                                                                                                                                        Same as above.
                                                                                                            Same as above.
                                                                                                                                        Same as above.
                                                                                         Change from backyard
                                                                                         to curbside with
                                                                                         mechanical  or semi-
                                                                                         mechanical  collection.

                                                                                         Change from tote
                                                                                         barrels  to  wheeled
                                                                                         carts  or to mechanical
                                                                                         or semi-mechanical
                                                                                         collection  at curbside

-------
                                                                  CONTAINER RELATED ACCIDENTS
                                                               PRELIMINARY TASK/HAZARD ANALYSIS
TASK
Percent of Total
% No. % Days % Direct
Inj. Lost Costs
4. CARRYING CONTAINER
continued






HAZARDS
Percent of Task
% No. % Days % Direct
Inj. Lost Costs
(.2) On wet, icy or
oily surfaces**
19% 22% 22%
(3) On waste on
ground**
9% 5% 6%
(4) On depression**
5% 4% 4%
(5) On inclined sur-
face**
3% 8% 10%
(6) On uneven sur-
face**
• 3% 4% 2%
b. Struck against vehicle
8% 3% 3%
c. Struck self with
container
14% 5% 5%
(1) Dropped container
on self**
3% 1% <1%
POSSIBLE COUNTERMEASURES
EMPLOYEE TRAINING
Routing. Proper
carrying techniques.
Routing. Clean spilled
waste immediately.
Proper carrying tech-
niques.
Routing. Proper
carrying techniques.
Routing. Proper
carrying techniques.
Routing. Proper
carrying techniques.
Proper carrying
techniques.
Proper carrying
techniques.
Maintain firm grip.
Proper carrying tech-
niques.
PROTECTIVE CLOTHING
Slip resistant, high
ankled safety shoes.
Same as above.
Same as above.
Same as above.
Same as above.

Steel toed safety
shoes. Slip resistant
gloves.
CONTAINER REGULATIONS







OPERATIONAL CHANGES
Change from backyard tt
curbside with mechan-
ical or semi -mechan-
ical collection.
Same as above.
Same as above.
Same as above.
Same as above.
Same as above.


U)
           Overlapping numbers
                                                                             -  6 -

-------
                                                                   CONTAINER  RELATED ACCIDENTS

                                                                PRELIMINARY TASK/HAZARD ANALYSIS
TASK
Percent of Total
% No. % Days % Direct
Inj. Lost Costs
4. CARRYING CONTAINER
continued










5. PUSHING OR PULLING
CONTAINER

4% 6% 5%
% of Cont. Accidents
8% 13% 13%







HAZARDS
Percent of Task
% No. * Days % Direct
Inj. Lost Costs
(2) Protruding
waste**
9% 3% 3%
d. Overexertlon while
handling heavy contain-
er
9% 12% 14%
e. Struck by vehicle
3% 12% 14%



a. Bulk containers

(1) Overexertion
24% 57% 56%
(2) Overexertion while
handling with
coworker
4% 3% 4%
(3) Caught between
container and wall
or vehicle
11% 12% 10%

POSSIBLE COUNTERMEASURES
EMPLOYEE TRAINING
Proper carrying tech-
niques.

Tag and leave heavy
containers. Proper
carrying techniques.

Collect from one side
of the street at a
time.

*


Handle with coworker.

Team pushing/pulling
training.


Push rather than pull
to keep body away from
pinch points.


PROTECTIVE CLOTHING
Leather aprons or
chaps to protect legs.





Traffic vests or other
high visibility
clothing.















CONTAINER REGULATIONS
Separate handling of
glass and other sharp
wastes.
Container weight
limits. Public accep-
tance campaign.














Container accessibil-
ity regulations. Con-
tainer location
regulations-level sur-
face requirement.
OPERATIONAL CHANGES







Rule to collect from
only one side of the
street. Change to
mechanical or semi-
mechanical collection.


Require two man
operation.









 I
UJ
Ul
         **  Overlapping numbers
                                                                             - 7 -

-------
                                                       CONTAINER RELATED ACCIDENTS

                                                    PRELIMINARY TASK/HAZARD ANALYSIS
           TASK
                    HAZARDS
                                                             POSSIBLE  COUNTERMEASURES
     Percent of Total
                Percent of Task
% No.'
        % Days
         Lost
% Direct
 Costs
% No.
% Days
 Lost
% Direct
 Costs
EMPLOYEE TRAINING
PROTECTIVE CLOTHING
CONTAINER REGULATIONS
OPERATIONAL CHANGES
5.  PUSHING OR PULLING
    CONTAINER
    continued
               (4)  Rolled bulk con-
                    tainer over foot
              4%       4%       11%

               (5)  Struck by bulk
                    container lid
              4%       n        3%

           b.  Wheeled cart

               (1)  Slipped or fell
             17%       7%        7%
                            Push  rather  than pull.
                                                        Keep  hands away from
                                                        pinch points.
                                                        Routing.
                                           Steel toed safety
                                           shoes.
                                                    Slip  resistant, high
                                                    ankled shoes.
                                                                                         Change to curbside
                                                                                         collection or to
                                                                                         mechanical or semi-
                                                                                         mechanical collection
                                                                  - 8 -

-------
                                                                  FIGURE  1-7
                                                                                                                          PAGE
                                                                  AM. II^ERT.
                                                           DETAIL ETi JJCSCRIPTION OF
                                                         LIFTING CHMTATNER ACCIDENTS
                                                        Or.HA RECORDABLE INJURIES ONLY
     REPORTING PERIOD* DECEMBER 1775   DECEMBER 1976
     THIS PROFILE IS A FORMATTED SENTENCE CONSISTING OF ACTIVITY*  ACCIDENT TYPE* NATURE OF INJURY AND PART OF BODY.
                                                          PROFILE
                                                          SELF WITH STO MTL.
CONT WHICH WAS UNUSUALLY
 I
U)
EMPLOYEE UAS LIFTING STD MTL CONT AND HE OVEREXERTED
     HEAVY RESULTING IN SPRAIN OR STRAIN TO PROIN.
EMPLOYEE UAS LIFT TNG PLASTIC DAG AND HE FELL ON OILY PAVEMENT IN STEPPING DOWN RESULTING IN SPRAIN
     OR STRAIN TO HACK.
EMPLOYEE WAS LIFTING STD MTL CONT AND HE OVEREXERTED SELF WITH STD MTL CONT WHICH WAS UNUSUALLY
     HEAVY RESULTING IN SPRAIN OR STRAIN TO BACK.
EMPLOYEE WAS LIFTING STP MTL CONT AND HE OVEREXERTED SELF WTTII STD MTL CONT WHICH WAS FULL
     RESULTING IN SPRAIN OR STRAIN TO GROIN.
EMPLOYEE UAS LIFTING STD MTL CONT AND HE OVEREXERTED SELF WITH QTD MTL CONT WHICH WAS STUCK OR
     FROZEN TO GRND RESULTING IN SPRAIN OR STRAIN TO BUTTOCKS,
EMPLOYEE UAS LIFTING STD MTL CONT AND HE OVEREXERTED SELF WITH STD MTL CONT WHICH WAS UNUSUALLY
     HEAVY AND HNDI.D WITH COWRKR RESULTING IN SPRAIN OR STRAIN TO GROIN.
EMPLOYEE WAS LIFTING PLASTIC DAG AND HE WAS HURT BY HANDLING PLASTIC BAG WHICH HAD PROTRUDING GLASS
     RESULTING IN CUT/PUNCTURE TO HAND,
EMPLOYEE WAS LIFTING 300 GAL PLASTIC CONT AND HE OVEREXERTED SELF WITH 300 GAL PLASTIC CONT WHICH
     UAS UNUSUALLY HEAVY AND UNUSUALLY L.6 RESULTING IN SPRAIN OR STRAIN TO BUTTOCKS.
EMPLOYEE UAS LIFTING STB MTL CONT AND HE FELL ON ICY GROUND RESULTING IN TORN CARTILAGE TO KNEE.
EMPLOYEE UAS LIPTTNG LINK CONT TYPE AND HE OVEREXERTED SELF WITH LINK CONT TYPE WHICH WAS UNUSUALLY
     HEAVY RESULTING IN SPRAIN OR STRAIN TO HIPS.
EMPLOYEE WAS LIFTING STD MTL CONT AND HE WAS HURT BY HANDLING STD MTL CONT WHICH HAD PROTRUDING
     GLASS RESULTING IN CUT/PUNCTURE TO FINGERS.
EMPLOYEE WAS LIFTING STD MTL CONT AND HE STRUCK SELF WITH STD MTL CONT WHICH WAS UNUSUALLY HEAVY
     RESULTING IN BRUISE TO FOOT.
EMPLOYEE UAS LIFTING PLASTIC DAG AND HE UAS HURT BY HANDLING PLASTIC BAG WHICH WAS FULL AND STRK
     AGNSr PACKING MECHANISM RESULTING IN CUT/PUNCTURE TO HAND,
EMPLOYEE WAS LIFTING STD MTL CONT AND HE WAS HURT BY HANDLING STD MTL CONT WHICH WAS FULL AND HAD
     SHARP EDGES RESULTING IN CUT/PUNCTURE TO FINGERS.
EMPLOYEE WAS LIFTING PLASTIC CAN AND HE WAS HURT BY HANDLING PLASTIC CAN WHICH HAD PROTRUDING GLASS
     RESULTING IN CUT/PUNCTURE TO WRIST.
EMPLOYEE WAS LIFTING TOTE BARREL AND HE OVEREXERTED SELF WITH TOTE BARREL WHICH WAS EMPTY RESULTING
     IN SPRAIN OR STRAIN TO BACK.
EMPLOYEE UAS LIFTING PLASTIC BAG AND HE WAS HURT BY HANDLING PLASTIC BAG WHICH WAS FULL AND HAD
     PROTRUDING GLASS  RESULTING IN CUT/PUNCTURE TO ANKLE.
EMPLOYEE WAS LIFTING PLASTIC DAG AND HE STRUCK SELF WITH PLASTIC HAG WHICH HAD PROTRUDING GLASS
     RESULTING IN CUT/PUNCTURE TO LEG.
EMPLOYEE WAS LIFTING PLASTIC BAG AND HE STRUCK SELF WITH PLASTIC HAG WHICH WAS FULL AND HAD
     PROTRUDING Gl ASS  RESULTING IN CUT/PUNCTURE TO LEG,
EMPLOYEE WAS ITFTING STD MTL CONT AND HE WAS HURT BY HANDLING STD MTL CONT WHICH HAD PROTRUDING
     OLASS RESULTING IN CUT/PUNCTURE TO HAND,
EMPLOYEE WAS LIFTING STD MTL CONT AND HE STRUCK AGAINST UNK OBJECT RESULTING IN CUT/PUNCTURE TO FACE.
EMPLOYEE UAS LIFTING STD MTL CONT AND HE OVEREXERTED SELF WITH STH MTL CONT WHICH WAS FULL
     RESULTING IN SPRAIN OR STRAIN TO ELBOW,
EMPLOYEE WAS LIFTING PLASTIC BAG AND HE STRUCK SELF WITH PLASTIC HAG RESULTING IN CUT/PUNCTURE TO LEG.
EMPLOYEE UAS LIFTING TOTE BARREL AND HE SLIPPED STEPPING ON PAVEMENT RESULTING IN SPRAIN OR STRAIN
     TO ABDOMEN.
NO. INJ  DAYS

    9

    1

   02

    2

    1

    1

    4

    1
    1

    1

    1

    2

    1

    3

    1

    1

    1

   10

    1
IAYS
84
5
960
4
1
1
10
3
15
4
3
7
0
253
0
2
20
15
4
COSTS
4093
152
47164
321
100
70
416
177
654
15
178
332
20
9209
20
33
668
952
172
                                                                                                                             7
                                                                                                                             0

                                                                                                                             5
                                                                                                                             0
                                                       139
                                                        30

                                                       195
                                                        20

                                                        20

-------
                                                                                                                         PAGE
00
                                                      PROFILE
 EMPLOYEE WAS LIFTING STD MTL CONT AND ME MADE SUDDEN MOVEMENT IN CATCHING STD MTL CONT WHICH WAS
      FULL AND SLIPPERY (WET) RESULTING IN SPRAIN OR STRAIN TO BACK.
 EMPLOYEE WAS LIFTING PLASTIC BAG AND HE STRUCK SELF WITH PLASTIC BAG WHICH WAS UNUSUALLY HEAVY AND
      HAD PROTRUDING GLASS RESULTING IN CUT/PUNCTURE TO LEG.
 EMPLOYEE WAS'LIFTING TOTE BARREL AND HE OVEREXERTED SELF WITH TOTE BARREL WHICH WAS UNUSUALLY HEAVY
      AND UNUSUALLY LG RESULTING IN SPRAIN OR STRAIN TO GROIN.
 EMPLOYEE WAS LIFTING PLASTIC BAG AND HE WAS HURT BY HANDLING PLASTIC BAG WHICH HAD A PROTRUDING
      HYPODERMIC NEEDLE RESULTING IN CUT/PUNCTURE TO HAND.
 EMPLOYEE WAS LIFTING PLASTIC BAG AND HE OVEREXERTED SELF WITH PLASTIC BAG WHICH WAS FULL RESULTING
      IN SPRAIN OR STRAIN TO BACK.
 EMPLOYEE WAS LIFTING STD MTL CONT AND HE OVEREXERTED SELF WITH STD MTL CONT WHICH WAS UNUSUALIY
      HEAVY RESULTING IN SPRAIN OR STRAIN TO CHEST.
 EMPLOYEE WAS LIFTING PLASTIC BAG AND HE WAS HURT BY HANDLING PLASTIC BAG WHICH WAS FULL AND HAD
      PROIRIIDING WASTE RESULTING IN CUT/PUNCTURE TO HAND.
 EMPLOYE? WAS LIFTING STD MTL CONT AND HE FELL WHILE ON WET PAVEMENT AND STRK AGNST WALL RESULTING
      IN SPRAIN OR STRAIN TO GROIN.
 EMPLOYEE WAS LIFTING OTHER CONT TYPE AND HE WAS INJURED IN UNK ACCIDENT RESULTING IN UNKNOWN TYPE
      OF INJURY TO ELBOW.
 EMPLOYEE WAS LIFTING STD MTL CONT AND HE WAS CAUGHT IN HANDLE OF CONT RESULTING IN BRUISE TO FINGERS,
 EMPLOYEE WAS LIFTING TOTE BARREL AND HE SLIPPED STEPPING ON OILY PAVFfMENT RESULTING IN SPRAIN OR
      STRAIN TO BACK.
 EMPLOYEE WAS LIFTING PLASTIC BAG AND HE: OVEREXERTED SELF WITH PLASTIC BAG WHICH WAS UNUSUALLY HEAVY
      RESULTING IN SPRAIN OR STRAIN TO BACK.
 EMPLOYEE WAS LIFTING STD MTL CONT AND HE OVEREXERTED SELF WITH STD MTL CONT RESULTING IN OTHER TYPE
      OF INJURY TO OTHER BODY PART.
 EMPLOYEE WAS LIFTING NSTD MTL CONT AND HE OVEREXERTED SELF WITH NSTD MTL CONT WHICH WAS UNUSUALLY
      HEAVY AND UNUSUALLY LG RESULTING IN SPRAIN OR STRAIN TO BACK.
.EMPLOYEE WAS LIFTING STD MTL CONT AND HE OVEREXERTED SELF WITH NSTD MTL CONT WHICH WAS FULL
      RESULTING IN SPRAIN OR STRAIN TO BACK,
 EMPLOYEE WAS LIFTING TOTE BARREL AND HE OVEREXERTED SELF WITH TOTE BARREL WHICH WAS UNUSUALLY HEAVY
      RFSIII.TING IN SPRAIN OR STRAIN TO BACK.
 EMPLOYEE WAS LIFTING PLASTIC DAG AND HE WAS HURT BY HANDLING PLASTIC BAG WHICH HAD PROTRUDING GLASS
      RESULTING IN CUT/PUNCTURE TO FINGERS,
.EMPLOYEE WAS LIFTING STD MTL CONT AND HE OVEREXERTED SELF WITH STB MTL CONT WHICH WAS UNUSUALLY
      HEAVY AND UNUSUALLY LG RESULTING IN SPRAIN OR STRAIN TO BACK.
 EMPLOYEE WAS LIFTING STD MTL CONT AND HF STRUCK SELF WITH STD MTL CONT RESULTING IN SPRAIN OR
      STRAIN TO ANKLE.
 EMPLOYEE WAS LIFTING STB MTL CONT AND HE OVEREXERTED SELF WITH STB MTL CONT WHICH WAS FULL
      RESULTING IN SPRAIN OR STRAIN TO BACK,
 EMPLOYEE WAS LIFTING STB MIL CONT AND HE FELL WHILE ON ICY PAVEMENT AND STRK AGNST GARBAGE CAN RK
      RESULTING IN BRUISE TO CHEST.
 EMPLOYEE WAS LIFTING STD MTL CONT ANB HE STRUCK SELF WITH STD MTL CONT WHICH WAS FULL AND HAD
      SLIPPED FROM HIS HANDS RESIJLTINO IN BRUISE TO TOES.
 EMPLOYF.tr WAS LIFTING STD MTL CONT ANH IIC WAS STRUCK BY ROCKS/CONCRETE/DIRT RESULTING IN BRUISE TO
      FOOT.
 FMPLOYEE WAS LIFTING HTD MTL CONT AND HE WAS CAUGHT IN HANDLE OF CONT RESULTING IN SPRAIN OR STRAIN
                 LIETIMC STH MTL  CON T AND HE MADE rilinDEN MOVEMENT TN CATCHTNR f!Tn MTL. CONT WHICfl WAR
          FULL  ANtl  HAD  ILIPPEII  FROM  HIS  IIAND13 RESULTING  IN HPRAT.N OR DTRAJM TO SHOULDER.
     EMPLOYEE WAI I IFTING PLASTIC  BAG AND I IE WAS  HURT  UY HANDLING PLASTIC »AO WHICH WAS FULL AND HAD
                     OLABS  REE51.ILTINO TN  CUT XF-IJNOTIJRE TO  LEG.
NO. INJ  DAYS

    1

    1

    1

    1

    6

    6

    1

    1

    1
    1

    1

   11

    1

    4

    1

    3

    7

    2

    1

   29

    1

    1
    1
    l
    1
YS
2
7
0
0
30
70
9
0
COSTS
117
289
20
20
2061
1541
493
20
  3
  4

 18

 95

  2

 69

  4

  6

 22

 16

  0

171

  2

 11

 12

  3
 4
 125
 173

 487

3052

 119

3699

 199

 232

1064

 554

  58

8376

 166

 268

 589
 3OB
24 a

-------
                                                                                                                        PAGE
I
Ul
ID
                                                     PROFILE
EMPLOYEE  WAS  LIFTING  PLASTIC  DAG  AND  HE  OVEREXERTED  SELF WITH PLASTIC BAG WHICH WAS UNUSUALLY HEAVY
     RESULTING  IN  SPRAIN  OR STRAIN  TO WRIST,
EMPLOYEE  WAS  LIFTING  PLASTIC  CAN  AND  HE  OVEREXERTED  SELF WITH PLASTIC CAN WHICH WAS FULL AND
     UNUSUALLY  LG  RESULTING IN SPRAIN OR STRAIN TO BACK.
EMPLOYEE  WAS  LIFTING  PLASTIC  DAG  AND  HE  OVEREXERTED  SELF WITH PLASTTC BAG WHICH WAS UNUSUALLY HEAVY
     AND  UNUSUALLY LG RESULTING TN  SPRAIN OR STRAIN  TO BACK.
EMPLOYEE  WAS  LIFTING  WHEELED  CART AND HE OVEREXERTED SELF WITH WHEELED CART WHICH WAS FULL AND
     UNUSUALLY  LG  RESULTING IN SPRAIN OR STRAIN TO SHOULDER.
EMPLOYEE  WAS  LIFTING  STD  MTL  CONT AND HE STRUCK AGAINST OTHER OBJECT RESULTING IN SPRAIN OR STRAIN
     TO NECK.
EMPLOYEE  WAS  LIFTING  STD  MTL  CONT AND HE WAS HURT BY HANDLING STD MTL CONT WHICH WAS FULL AND HAD
     SHARP F.DGES RESULTING IN CUT/PUNCTURE TO HAND.
EMPLOYEE  WAS  LIFTING  STD  MTL  CONT AND HE OVEREXERTED SELF WITH STD MTL CONT WHICH WAS UNUSUALLY
     HEAVY RESULTING  IN SPRAIN OR STRAIN TO NECK.
EMPLOYEE  WAS  LIFTING  STD  MTL  CONT AND HE OVEREXERTED SELF WITH STD MTL CONT WHICH WAS HVY (TIGHTLY
     PACKED)  RESULTING IN SPRAIN OR STRAIN TO BACK.
EMPLOYEE  WAS  LIFTING  STD  MTl..  CONT AND HE OVEREXERTED SELF WITH STD MTL CONT WHICH WAS UNUSUALLY
     HEAVY RESULTING  IN SPRAIN OR STRAIN TO SHOULDER.
EMPLOYEE  WA1'.  LIFTING  STD  MTL  CONT AND HE CONTACTED CAUSTIC OR TOXIC ACID RESULTING IN EYE
     IRRITATION TO EYES.
EMPLOYEE  WAS  LIFTING  CRATE AND HE OVEREXERTED SELF WITH CRATE WHICH WAS UNUSUALLY HEAVY AND
     UNUSUALLY  LG RESULTING IN SPRAIN OR STRAIN TO BACK.
EMPLOYEE  WAS  LIFTING  UNBUNDLED SHRUBBERY AND HE OVEREXERTED SELF WITH UNBUNDLED SHRUBBERY RESULTING
     IN SPRAIN  OR STRAIN  TO BACK.
EMPLOYFF  WAS  LIFTING  TOTE BARREL  AND  HE  OVEREXERTED  SELF WITH TOTE BARREL WHICH WAS FULL ANI"
     UNUSUALLY  LG  RESULTING IN SPRAIN OR STRAIN TO BACK,
EMPLOYEE  WAS  LIFTING  STD  MTL  CONT AND HE OVEREXERTED SELF WITH STD MTL CONT WHICH WAS UNUSUALLY
     HEAVY AND  RECESSED RESULTING IN  SPRAIN OR STRAIN TO BACK.
EMPLOYEE  WAS  LIFTING  CONT LID AND HE  WAS HURT BY HANDLING STD MTL. CONT WHICH HAD PROTRUDING GLASS
     RESULTING  IN  CUT/PUNCTURE TO FINGERS.
EMPLOYEE  WAS  LIFTING  STD  MTL  CONT AND HE SLIPPED FROM CURB ONTO PAVEMENT RESULTING IN SPRAIN OR
     STRAIN TO  BACK.
CMPLOYFF:  WAS  LIFTING  sin  MTL  CONT AND HE STRUCK AGAINST POST RESULTING IN CUT/PUNCTURE TO SCALP,
EMPLOYE):  WAS  LIFTING  OIL  DRUM AND HE  OVEREXERTED SELF WITH OIL DRUM RESULTING IN SPRAIN OR STRAIN
     TO BACK.
EMPLOYEE  WAS  LIFTING  STD  MTL  CONT AND HE OVEREXERTED SELF WITH STD MTL CONT WHICH WAS UNUSUALLY
     HEAVY AND  IINDLD  WITH COWRKR  RESULTING IN SPRAIN OR STRAIN TO BACK.
EMPLOYEE  WAS  LIFTING  PLASTIC  BAG  AND  HE  OVEREXERTED  SELF WITH PLASTIC BAG WHICH WAS HVY (YARD
     CLIPPINGS) RESULTING IN  SPRAIN OR STRAIN TO BACK.
FMPI.OYFF  WAS  LIFTING  CARDBD BOX AND HE STRUCK AGAINST SIDE OF VEH RESULTING IN BRUISE TO ELBOW.
EMPLOYEE  WAS  LIFTING  STD  MTL  CONT AND HE WAS STRUCK  BY ROCKS/CONCRETE/DIRT WHICH FELL OUT OF TOP OF
     CONT RESULTING IN BRUISE TO  LEG.
CMPLOYEt:  WAS  LIFTING  STD  MTL  CONT AND HE OVEREXERTED SELF WITH STD MTL. CONT WHICH WAS HVY (YARD
     CLIPPINGS) AND SLIPPERY  (WET)  RESULTING IN SPRAIN OR STRAIN TO SHOULDER.
EMPLOYEE  WAS  LIFTING  STD  MTL.  CONT AND HE SLIPPED FROM STEP OF VEH ONTO PAVEMENT RESULTING IN BRUISE
     TO GROIN.
EMPLOYEE  WAS  LIFTING  PLASTIC  BAG  AND  HE  STRUCK SELF  WITH PLASTIC BAG WHICH HAD PROTRUDING GLASS
     RESULTING  IN  CUT/PUNCTURE TO ANKLE.
FMPI OYFF  WAS  LIFTING  PLASTTC  BAG  AND  HE  OVEREXERTED  SELF WITH PLASTIC BAG WHICH WAS UNUSUALLY HEAVY
     AND  SLIPPERY  (WET) RESULTING IN  SPRAIN OR STRAIN TO BACK.
NO. INJ  DAYS

    1

    1

    1

    1

    1

    2

    2

    2

   13

    1

    1

    1

    1

    2

    1

    1
    1

    1

    3

    3
    1

    1

    1

    1

    1

    2
YS
0
3
2
7
1
A
6
17
65
0
16
12
73
18
1
COSTS
123
176
87
87
73
203
802
758
4998
53
547
789
345
677
59
                                                                                                                           0
                                                                                                                           0

                                                                                                                           0

                                                                                                                          24

                                                                                                                          25
                                                                                                                           0

                                                                                                                           1

                                                                                                                           5

                                                                                                                           3

                                                                                                                          14

                                                                                                                          28
  73
  67

   5

1115

 823
  51

  52

 196

 135

 799

2532

-------
                                                      PAGE
                                                      PROFILE
 EMPLOYEE WAS LIFTING TOTE BARREL AND HE OVEREXERTED SELF WITH TOTE BARREL WHICH WAS  UNUSUALLY  HFAVY
      AND UNUSUALLY LG RESULTING IN SPRAIN OR STRAIN TO BACK.
 EMPLOYEE WAS LIFTING PLASTIC CAN AND HE OVEREXERTED SELF WITH PLASTIC CAN WHICH WAS  HVY  (ROCKS)  AND
      HMDLD WITH COWRKR RESULTING IN SPRAIN OR STRAIN TO BACK.
 EMPLOYEE WAS LIFTING STD MTL CONT AND HE OVEREXERTED SELF WITH STD MTL CONT WHICH WAS  UNUSUALLY
      HEAVY RESULTING IN SPRAIN OR STRAIN TO ABDOMEN.
 EMPLOYEE WAS LIFTING STD MTL CONT AND HE OVEREXERTED SELF WITH STD MTL CONT WHICH WAS  FULL
      RESULTING IN SPRAIN OR STRAIN TO HAND.
 EMPLOYEE WAS LIFTING STD MTL CONT AND HE OVEREXERTED SELF WITH STD MTL CONT WHICH WAS  HVY (ROCKS)
      RESULTING IN SPRAIN OR STRAIN TO ABDOMEN.
 EMPLOYEE WAS LIFTING CARDBD BOX AND HE WAS HURT BY HANDLING CARDBOARD BOX WHICH HAD  PROTRUDING
      GLASS RESULTING IN CUT/PUNCTURE TO HAND.
 EMPLOYEE WAS LIFTING STD MTL CONT AND HE STRUCK SELF WITH GTD MTL CONT WHICH WAS FULL  AND HAD
      SLIPPED FROM HIS HANDS RESULTING IN BRUISE TO FOOT,
 EMPLOYEE WAS LIFTING STD MTL CONT AND HE OVEREXERTED SELF WITH STD MTL CONT WHICH WAS  FULL
      RESULTING IN SPRAIN OR STRAIN TO CHEST,
 EMPLOYEE WAS LIFTING TOTE BARREL. AND HE STRUCK  AGAINST BACK OF VEH RESULTING IN BRUISE TO KNEE,
 EMPLOYEE WAS LIFTING PLASTIC BAG AND HE OVEREXERTED SELF WITH PLASTIC BAG WHICH WAS  HVY  (ROCKS)
      RESULTING IN SPRAIN OR STRAIN TO BACK.
 EMPLOYEE WAS LIFTING NSTB MTL CONT AND HE OVEREXERTED SELF WITH NSTD MTL. CONT WHICH  WAS  UNUSUALLY
      HEAVY RESULTING IN SPRAIN OR STRAIN TO BACK.
 EMPLOYEE WAS LIFTING STD MTL' CONT AND HE OVEREXERTED SELF WITH STD MTL CONT WHICH WAS  HVY (WATER
      FILLED) RESULTING IN SPRAIN OR STRAIN TO NECK.
 EMPLOYEE WAS LIFTING PLASTIC BAG AND HE STRUCK  SELF WITH PLASTIC BAG WHICH HAD A PROTRUDING
      HYPODERMIC NEEDLE RESULTING IN CUT/PUNCTURE TO LEG.
 EMPLOYEE WAS LIFTING OTHER CONT TYPE AND HE OVEREXERTED SELF WITH OTHER CONT TYPE WHICH  WAS HVY
      (ROCKS) AND UNUSUALLY LG RESULTING IN SPRAIN OR STRAIN TO BACK,
 EMPLOYEE WAS LIFTING STD MTL CONT AND HE WAS STRUCK DY STD MTL CONT WHICH WAS EMPTY  RESULTING  IN
      BRUISE TO KNEE.
 EMPLOYEE WAS LIFTING STD MTL CONT AND HE SLIPPED STEPPING ON OBJ ON GROUND RESULTING IN  SPRAIN OR
      STRAIN TO ANKLE.
.EMPLOYEE WAS LIFTING STD MTL CONT AND HE OVEREXERTED SELF WITH ST.9 MTL CONT WHICH WAS  HVY (ROCKS)
      RESULTING TM SPPA1M OR STRAIN TO BACK.
 EMPLOYEE WAS L If i\l>G !.: 1H HI I. CONT AND HE OVEREXERTED SELF WITH STD Mil. CONT WHICH WAS  HVY (YARD
      CLIPPINGS)  RESULTING IN SPRAIN OR STRAIN TO BACK.
.EMPLOYEE WAS LIFTING TOTE BARREL AND HE MADE SUDDEN MOVEMENT TOTE BARREL WHICH WAS EMPTY RESULTING
      IN  SPRAIN OR STRAIN TO ANKLE.
 EMPLOYEE WAS I .TFTINO STD MTL CONT AND HE FELL ON PAVEMENT RESULTING IN SPRAIN OR STRAIN  TO  ARM.
 EMPLOYEE WAS LIFTING STB MTL CONT AND HE WAS STRUCK BY VEH RESULTING IN BRUISE TO KNEE.
 EMPLOYEE WAS LIFTING PLASTIC CAN AND HE OVEREXERTED SELF WITH PLASTIC CAN WHICH WAS  FULL RESULTING
      IN  SPRAIN OR STRAIN TO NECK.
 EMPLOYEE WAS LIFTING STD MTL CONT AND HE OVEREXERTED SELF WITH STD MTL CONT WHICH WAS  UNUSUALLY
      HEAVY RESULTING IN SPRAIN OR STRAIN TO WRIST.
 EMPLOYEE WAS LIFTING PLASTIC BAG AND HE OVEREXERTED SELF WITH PLASTIC KAG WHICH WAS  UNUSUALLY  HEAVY
      RESULTING IN HERNIA TO ABDOMEN.
 EMPLOYEE UAG LIFTING BTP MTL CONT AN» HE OVEREXERTED SELF WITH STD MTL CONT WHICH WAS  UNUSUALLY
      HEAVY  TM STEPPING IlflUN PEfJIJITINR TM OPRATN OR STRAIN TO WACK .
 FtlPLOYrr UAS LIFTING STB MTL CONT ANP ME OMEREXERTEP SELF WITH STO MTL CONT WHICH WAS  FULL
      RESULT rUC  TM SPRAIN OR STRAIN TO GIIOUI..DER.
      JYFE  WAS  LIFTING  BTD MTL CONT AND HE OVEREXERTED SELF" WITH
      FTLLCn>  RESULTING  IN  SPRAIN  OR  OTKAIN  TO PACK.
NO. INJ
5
1
A
3
1
1
1
3
1
2
1
1
1
1
1
1
10
6
1
1
1
1
3
J
1
DAYS
40
10
5
18
11
0
4
8
1
8
0
6
0
0
0
1
116
25
3
0
9
0
2
3
36
                                                             COSTS

                                                              3750

                                                               401

                                                               588

                                                              1011

                                                               216

                                                                64

                                                               164

                                                               436
                                                                45

                                                               311

                                                                34

                                                               407

                                                                56

                                                                35

                                                                28

                                                                64

                                                              4130

                                                              2007

                                                                71
                                                                25
                                                               258

                                                                20

                                                               269

                                                               345
STD If Tl  COWT WHICH UAS  MVY  (WATER

-------
                                                                                                                     PAGE
                                                     PROF 11 E
EMPLOYEE WAS LIFTING  TOTE  PARREL  AND  HE OVEREXERTED SELF WITH TOTE PARREL WHICH WAS UNUSUALLY HEAVY
     AND UNUSUALLY LO RESULTING IN  SPRAIN  OR  STRAIN TO AltJiriMFN.
EMPLOYEE WAS LIFTING  STD MTL CONT AND HE OVEREXERTED SELF WITH STD MTL CONT WHICH WAS UNUSUALLY
     HEAVY RESULTING  IN SPRAIN OR STRAIN TO ARM.
EMPLOYEE WAS LIFTING  STD MTL CONT AND HE OVEREXERTED SELF WITH STD MTL CONT WHICH WAS HVY  (YARD
     CLIPPINGS) RESULTING  IN SPRAIN OR STRAIN TO TRUNK,
EMPLOYEE WAS LIFTING  STO MTL CONT AND HE WAS  STRUCK BY BOTTLE WHICH FELL OUT OF TOP OF CONT
     RESULTING IN CUT/PUNCTURE TO LEG,
EMPLOYEE WAS LIFTING  DEAD  ANIMAL  AND  HE OVEREXERTED SELF WITH DEAD ANIMAL IN STEPPING DOWN
     RESULTING IN SPRAIN OR STRAIN TO BACK,
EMPLOYEE WAS LIFTING  PLASTIC BAG  AND  HE OVEREXERTED SELF WITH PLASTIC BAG WHICH WAS UNUSUALLY HEAVY
     RESULTING IN SPRAIN OR STRAIN TO ABDOMEN.
EMPLOYEE WAS LIFTING  STD MTL CONT AND HE STRUCK SELF WITH CSTD. MTL CONT WHICH WAS UNUSUALLY HEAVY
     AND HAD SLIPPED  FROM  HIS HANDS RESULTING IN CUT/PUNCTURE TO LEG.
EMPLOYEE WAG LIFTING  STD MTL CONT AND HE OVEREXERTED SELF WITH STD MTL CONT WHICH WAS UNUSUALLY
     HEAVY AND BEING  HNDLD W OTHER CONT RESULTING IN SPRAIN OR STRAIN TO BACK,
EMPLOYEE WAS t TFTING  TOTE  BARREL  AND  HE WAS CAUGHT BETWEEN CONT 8 EDGE OF HOPPER (CONT WAS HVY-YARD
     CLIPPINGS) RESULTING  IN FRACTURE TO FINGERS.
EMPLOYEE WAS LIFTING  OTHER CONT TYPE  AND ME OVEREXERTED SELF WITH OTHER CONT TYPE WHICH WAS HVY
     (ROCKS) RESULTING IN  SPRAIN  OR STRAIN TO TRUNK.
EMPLOYEE WAS LIFTING  STD MTL CONT AND HE WAS CAUGHT BETWEEN CONT 8 EDGE OF HOPPER (CONT WT SHIFTED)
     RESULTING IN BRUISE TO HAND.
EMPLOYEE WAS LIFTING  STD MTL CONT AND HE OVEREXERTED SELF WITH STD MTL CONT WHICH WAS HVY  (WATER
     FILLED) AND SLIPPERY  (WET) RESULTING  IN SPRAIN OR STRAIN TO BACK.
EMPLOYEE WAS LIFTING  STD MTL CONT AND HE SLIPPED STEPPING ON OBJ ON GROUND RESULTING IN SPRAIN OR
     STRAIN TO BACK.
EMPI.OYI.~E WAS LIFTING  STD MTL CONT AND HE FELL WHILE ON UNEVEN PAVEMENT IN STEPPING DOWN RESULTING
     IN BRUISE TO LEG.
EMPLOYEE WAS LIFTING  PLASTIC BAG  AND  HE WAS HURT BY HANDLING PLASTIC BAG WHICH HAD PROTRUDING GLASS
     IN STEPPING DOWN RESULTING IN CUT/PUNCTURE TO HAND.
EMPLOYfE WAG LIFT TNG  STD MTL CONT AND HE OVEREXERTED SELF WITH STD MTL CONT WHICH WAS HVY  (WATER
     FTLLEID RESULTING IN  SPRAIN  OR STRAIN TO GROIN.
EMPLOYEE WAS LIFTING  PLASTIC CAN  AND  HE OVEREXERTED SELF WITH PLASTIC CAN WHICH WAS FULL RESULTING
     IN SPRAIN OR STRAIN TO BACK.
EMPLOYFE WAS LIFTING  PLASTIC BAG  AND  HE STRUCK SELF WITH PLASTIC BAG WHICH HAD PROTRUDING GLASS AND
     KFING HNBLD U OTHER CONT RESULTING IN CUT/PUNCTURE TO LEG,
EMPLOYEE WAS LIFTING  STD MTL CONT AND HE GOT  WASTE PARTICLES IN EYE RESULTING IN EYE IRRITATION TO
     FYFS.
EMPLOYEE WAS LIFTING  OIL DRUM AND HE  OVEREXERTED SELF WITH OIL DRUM WHICH WAS UNUSUALLY HEAVY AND
     UNUSUALLY I..G RESULTING IN SPRAIN OR STRAIN TO BACK.
EMPLOYEE WAS LIFTING  CRAfE AND HE OVEREXERTED SELF WITH CRATE WHICH WAS FULL RESULTING IN SPRAIN OR
     STRAIN TO SHOULDER.
EMPLOYFE WAS LIFTING  STO MTL CONT AND HE WAS  STRUCK BY BOTTLE WHICH FELL OUT OF TOP OF CONT
     RESULTING IN CUT/PUNCTURE TO HAND.
EMPLOYFE WAS LIFTING  PLASTIC DAG  AND  HE WAS HURT BY HANDLING PLASTIC BAG WHICH HAD PROTRUDING WASTE
     RESULTING IN INFECTION TO FINGERS.
EMPLOYEE WAS LIFTING  TOTE  BARREL  AND  HE OVEREXERTED SELF WITH TOTE BARREL WHICH WAS UNUSUALLY HEAVY
     AND SLIPPERY (WET) RESULTING IN  SPRAIN OR STRAIN TO ABDOMEN.
EMPLOYEE WAS LIFTING  STD MTL CONT AND HE STRUCK SELF WITH STD MTL CONT WHICH WAS UNUSUALLY HEAVY
     RESULTING IN BRUISE TO TOES.
                                                                                                            NO. INJ  DAYS
1

2

1

1

1

1

2

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

2

3

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1
 2

12

 6

 4

25

 7

 2

 7

21

 3

 3

 5

 6

11

 0

 0

 8

 0

 3

17

 4

 0

 0

 0

 3
COST~

   4

  72

  25

  24

 173

  32;

  12;

  33;



  143

  178

  176

  207

  743

   27

  132

  863

   17

  171

  884

  870

   76

   69

   28

  134

-------
         PAGE
                                                         PROFILE
   EMPLOYEE  WAS  LIFTING  STD  MTL  CONT  AND  HE  WAS  STRUCK  BY  OTHER OBJECT RESULTING IN BRUISE TO FOOT.
   EMPLOYEE  WAS  LIFTING  CARDBB BOX  AND  HE WAS  HURT  BY HANDLING CARDBOARD BOX WHICH HAD PROTRUDING
         GLASS  RESULTING  IN CUT/PUNCTURE TO FINGERS.
   EMPLOYEE  WAS  LIFTING  STD  MTL  CONT  AND  HE  OVEREXERTED SELF  WITH STD MTL CONT WHICH WAS FULL
         RESULTING  IN  SPRAIN  OR STRAIN TO  WRIST.
   EMPLOYEE  WAS  LIFTING  CARDBD BOX  AND  HE WAS  HURT  BY HANBLING CARDBOARD BOX WHICH HAD PROTRUDING
         GLASS  RESULTING  IN CUT/PUNCTURE TO ARM.
   EMPLOYEE  WAS  LIFTING  PLASTIC  BAG AND HE CONTACTED CAUSTIC  OR TOXIC ACID RESULTING IN CHEMICAL BURN
         TO LEG.
   EMPLOYEE  WAS  LIFTING  STD  MTL  CONT  AND  HE  MADE SUDDEN MOVEMENT  IN  CATCHING STD MTL CONT WHICH WAS
         UNUSUALLY  HEAVY  AND  HAD  SLIPPED FROM HIS HANDS  RESULTING  IN  SPRAIN OR STRAIN TO BACK,
   EMPLOYEE  WAS  LIFTING  PLASTIC  CAN AND HE OVEREXERTED  SELF WITH  STD MTL CONT WHICH WAS FULL AND IN
         WHICH  WEIGHT  SHIFTED RESULTING  IN SPRAIN OR STRAIN TO BACK,
   EMPLOYEE  WAS  LIFTING  STD  HIL  CONT  AND  HE  STRUCK  SELF WITH  STD  MIL CONT WHICH WAS UNUSUALLY HEAVY
         ANN  SLIPPERY  (WET) RESULTING  IN BRUISE TO FOOT.
   EMPLOYEE  WAS  LIFTING  PLASTIC  BAG AND HE FELL  ON  GROUND  RESULTING  IN SPRAIN OR STRAIN TO BACK.
   EMPLOYEE  WAS  LIFTING  STD  MTL  CONT  AND  HE  WAS  CAUGHT  IN  HANDLE  OF  CONT (CONT WT SHIFTED) RESULTING
         IN SPRAIN  OR  STRAIN  TO FINGERS.
   EMPLOYEE  WAS  LIFTING  STD  MTL  CONT  AND  HE  STRUCK  SELF WITH  STD  MTL CONT WHICH WAS HVY (YARD
         CLIPPINGS) RESULTING IN  BRUISE  TO KNEE.
H-1  EMPLOYEE  WAS  LIFTING  PLASTIC  CAN AND HE OVEREXERTED  SELF WITH  PLASTIC CAN WHICH WAS UNUSUALLY HEAVY
^        RESULTING  IN  SPRAIN  OR STRAIN TO  BACK.
to  EMPLOYEE  WAS  LIFTING  STD  MTL  CONT  AND  HE  OVEREXERTED SELF  WITH STD MTL CONT WHICH WAS UNUSUALLY
         HEAVY  AND  RECESSED RESULTING  IN SPRAIN OR STRAIN TO SHOULDER.
   EMPLOYEE  WAS  LIFTING  TOTE BARREL AND HE OVEREXERTED  SELF WITH  TOTE BARREL WHICH WAS HVY (WATER
         FILLED)  AND SLIPPERY (WET)  RESULTING IN  SPRAIN  OR  STRAIN  TO  BACK.
   EMPLOYEE  WAS  LIFTING  CARDBD BOX  AND  HE OVEREXERTED SELF WITH CARDBOARD BOX WHICH WAS HVY  (YARD
         CLIPPINGS) AND HNDLD WITH COWRKR  RESULTING  IN SPRAIN  OR STRAIN TO BACK,
   EMPLOYEE  WAS  LIFTING 'STB  MTL  CONT  AND  HE  WAS  STRUCK  BY  BOTTLE  WHICH FELL OUT OF TOP OF CONT
         RESULTING  IN  CUT/PUNCTURE TO  ARM.
   EMPLOYEE  WAS  LIFTING  PLASTIC  BAG AND HE WAS HURT BY  HANDLING PLASTIC BAG WHICH HAD PROTRUDING WASTE
         RESULTING  IN  DERMATITIS  TO  ARM,
   EMPLOYEE  WAS  LIFTING  STD  MTL  CONT  AND  HE  STRUCK  SELF WITH  STD  MTL CONT WHICH WAS UNUSUALLY HEAVY
         AND  HAD  SLIPPED  FROM HIS HANDS  RESULTING IN BRUISE TO FOOT,
   EMPLOYEE  WAS  LIFTING  STD  MTL  CONT  AND  HE  STRUCK  AGAINST CERAMIC WASTE RESULTING IN CUT/PUNCTURE TO
         ARM.
   EMPLOYEE  WAS  LIFTING  STD  MTL  CONT  AND  HE  WAS  CAUGHT  BETWEEN CONT  8 EDGE OF HOPPER (CONT HANDLE
         BROKE! RESULTING IN  FRACTURE  TO FINGERS.
   EMPLOYEE  WAS  LIFTING  NSTD MTL CONT AND HE OVEREXERTED SELF WITH NSTD MTL CONT WHICH WAS UNUSUALLY
         HEAVY  AND  UNUSUALLY  LG RESULTING  IN  SPRAIN  OR STRAIN  TO SHOULDER.
   EMPLOYEE  WAS  LIFTING  STD  MTL  CONT  AND  HE  MADE SUDDEN MOVEMENT  IN  CATCHING STD MTL CONT WHICH WAS
         UNUSUALLY  IIFAUY  AND  HAD  THU BOTTOM FALL  OUT RESULTING IN  SPRAIN OR STRAIN TO ABDOMEN,
   FMPLOYlF  WAS  LIFTING  STD  MTL  CONT  AND  HE  STRUCK  SELF WITH  STD  MTL CONT WHICH WAS HVY (ROCKS) AND
         HAW  SI IPPED FROM HIS HANDS  RESULTING IN  BRUISE  TO  TOES.
   EMPLOYEE  WAS  LIFTIHI3  TOTE BARREL AND HE OVEREXERTED  SELF WITH  TOTE BARREL WHICH WAS FULL  RESULTING
         IN SPRAIN  OR  STRAIN  TO SHOULDER.
    EMPLOYEE  WAS  LIFTING  PLASTIC  BAG AND HE UAS STRUCK BY WOOD WHICH  FELL OUT OF BOTTOM OF CONT
         """"' JA^NLIFTTNGU10TETBARRELEANn HE OVEREXERTED  SELF UltTH  TOTE BARREL WHICH WAS HVY (WATER
         FXLLEIJ> RESULTING IN SPRAIN OR STRAIN TO BACK.
NO. INJ  DAYS
            5
1

1

3

1

1

1

1

1
1

1

1

2

1

1

1

1

1

1

 1

 1

1

1

1
i
i
            5

            6

            0

            0

            5

           53

            5
           10

            6

            0

            9

            0

            0

            9

            0

            0

            0

            1

            0

            0

            5

            O
COSTS
  294

  219

  369

   19

   56

  347

 7813

  132
  472

  203

   41

  592

   79

   50

  316

   38

   37

   38

   59

   153

   93

   203

   4O
   so

-------
         PAGE
         •x                                           PROFILE
EMPLOYEE WAS LIFTING  STD  MTL CONT  AND  HE  MADE SUDDEN MOVEMENT  TN CATCHING GTfi MTL CONT WHICH WAS
     UNUSUALLY HEAVY  AND  THE HANDLE  BROKE RESULTING IN SPRAIN  OR STRAIN TO BACK.
EMPLOYEE WAS LIFTING  OIL  DRUM  AND  HE OVEREXERTED  SELF WITH OIL DRUM WHICH WAS FULL AND SLIPPERY
     (WET) RESULTING  TN SPRAIN OR  STRAIN  TO BACK.
EMPLOYEE WAS LIFTING  PLASTIC BAG AND HE OVEREXERTED SELF WITH  PLASTIC BAG WHICH WAS HVY  (PAPER)
     RESULTING IN SPRAIN  OR STRAIN TO  BACK.
EMPLOYEE WAS LIFTING  CARDBD BOX AND  HE OVEREXERTED SELF WITH CARDBOARD BOX WHICH WAS UNUSUALLY
     HEAVY RESULTING  IN SPRAIN OR  STRAIN  TO GROIN.
EMPLOYEE WAS LIFTING  TOTE BARREL AND HE OVEREXERTED SELF WITH  TOTE BARREL WHICH WAS FULL RESULTING
     TN SPRAIN OR STRAIN  TO BACK.
EMPLOYEE WAS LIFTING  STD  MTL CONT  AND  HE  OVEREXERTED SELF WITH STD MTL CONT WHICH WAS HVY  (ROCKS)
     RESULTINO IN SPRAIN  OR STRAIN TO  SHOULDER.
EMPLOYEE WAS LIFTING  PLASTIC BAG AND HE FELL WHILE ON OILY PAVEMENT AND STRK AGNST POST RESULTING
     IN CRUISE TO SHOULDER.
EMPLOYEE WAS LIFTING  STD  MTL CONT  AND  HE  OVEREXERTED SELF WITH STD MTL CONT WHICH WAS UNUSUALLY
     HEAVY RESULTING  IN SPRAIN OR  STRAIN  TO OTHER BODY PART.
EMPLOYEE WAS LIFTING  STB  MTL CONT  AND  HE  SLIPPED  STEPPING ON WET GRASS RESULTING IN SPRAIN OR
     STRAIN TO BACK.
EMPLOYEE WAS LIFTING  STD  MTL CONT  AND  HE  WAS STRUCK BY GLASS WHICH FELL OUT OF TOP OF CONT
     RESULTING IN CUT/PUNCTURE TO  LEG.
EMPLOYEE WAS LIFTING  STD  MTL CONT  AND  HE  OVEREXERTED SELF WITH STD MTL CONT WHICH WAS UNUSUALLY
     HEAVY AND SLIPPERY (WET)  RESULTING IN SPRAIN OR STRAIN TO BACK.
EMPLOYEE WAS LIFTING  APPLIANCE AND HE  WAS CAUGHT  BETWEEN TWO OBJECTS RESULTING IN BRUISE TO FINGERS,
EMPLOYEE WAS LIFTING  OIL  DRUM  AND  HE OVEREXERTED  SELF WITH OIL DRUM WHICH WAS UNUSUALLY HEAVY AND
     UNUSUALLY LG RESULTING IN DISLOCATION TO BACK.
EMPLOYEE WAS LIFTING  STD  MTL CONT  AND  HE  MADE SUDDEN MOVEMENT  IN CATCHING STD MTL CONT WHICH WAS
     FULL AND THE HANDLE  BROKE RESULTING  IN SPRAIN OR STRAIN TO BACK.
EMPLOYEE WAS LIFTING  PLASTIC BAG ANB HE WAS HURT  BY HANDLING PLASTIC BAG WHICH HAD PROTRUDING WASTE
     RESULTING IN CUT/PUNCTURE TO  FINGERS.
EMPLOYEE WAS LIFTING  OIL  DRUM  AN!)  HE OVEREXERTED  SELF WITH OIL DRUM WHICH WAS UNUSUALLY HEAVY
     RESULTING IN SPRAIN  OR STRAIN TO  CHEST,
EMPLOYEE WAS LIFTING  LITTER CAN AND  HE OVEREXERTED SELF WITH LITTER CAN WHICH WAS HVY (WATER
     FILirCO AND IINDLI.I WITH COWRKR RESULTING IN SPRAIN OR STRAIN TO SHOULDER.
EMPLOYEE WAS LIFTING  CARDBD BOX AND  HE OVEREXERTED SELF WITH CARDBOARD BOX WHICH WAS HVY (YARD
     CLIPPINGS) RESULTING IN SPRAIN  OR STRAIN TO  SHOULDER.
EMPLOYEE WAS LIFTING  PLASTIC BAG AND HE OVEREXERTED SELF WITH  PLASTIC BAG WHICH WAS UNUSUALLY HEAVY
     RESULTING IN SPRAIN  OR STRAIN TO  ARM.
FMPLOYEE WAS LIFTING  STD  MTL CONT  AND  HE  OVEREXERTED SELF WITH STD MTL CONT WHICH WAS HVY  (YARD
     CLIPPING!"-) AND SLIPPERY  (WET) RESULTING IN SPRAIN OR STRAIN TO BACK.
EMPLOYEE WAS IIFTING  PLASTIC BAG AND HE OVEREXERTED SELF WITH  PLASTIC BAG WHICH WAS HVY (YARD
     CLIPPINGS) RESULTING IN SPRAIN  OR STRAIN TO  SHOULDER.
EMPLOYEE WAS LIFTING  CARDBD BOX AND  HE OVEREXERTED SELF WITH CARBBOARD BOX WHICH WAS HVY (PAPER)
     RESULTING IN SPRAIN  OR STRAIN TO  BACK.
EMPLOYEE UAS LIFTING  TOTE BARREL AND HE OVEREXERTED SELF WITH  TOTE BARREL WHICH WAS EMPTY RESULTING
     TN STRAIN OR STRAIN  TO NECK,
EMPLOYEE WAS LIFTING  STD  MTL CONT  AND  HE  OVEREXERTED SELF WITH STD MTL CONT WHICH WAS FULL
     RESIJI TING IN SPRAIN  OR STRAIN TO  ARM.
EMPLOYTF WAS LIFTING  STD  MTL CONT  AND  HE  OVEREXERTED SELF WITH STD MTL. CONT WHICH WAS HVY  (ROCKS)
     RESULTING IN SPRAIN  OR STRAIN TO  ARM.
EMPLOYEE WAS LIFTING  PLASTIC BAG AND HE WAS STRUCK BY GLASS WHICH FELL OUT OF BOTTOM OF CONT
     RESULTING IN CUT/PUNCTURE TO  ARM.
NO. INJ  DAYS
    1

    1

    1

    2

    7

    2

    1

    1

    1

    1

    1
    1

    1

    1

    4

    1

    1

    1

    1

    1

    2

    1

    1

    3

    1

    1
 8

 2

10

40

52

31

 0

 2

 3

 0

 0
 0

 7

18

10

 5

18

12

 0

 0

 0

 8

 5

10

 0

 0
COSTS

  434

  133

  204

 2318

 2880

 1757

   20

   69

   41

   38

  249
   35

  314

 1262

  394

  283

  949

  590

   30

  135

  130

   71

  313

  992

   12

   55

-------
                                                                                                                     PAGE  8
     Fiu_rn>
EMPLOYEE UAC
                                                      PROFILE
 EMPLOYEE  UAS  LIFTING.PLASTIC BAG AND  HE  WAS  STRUCK  BY ROCKS/CONCRETE/DIRT  WHICH FELL OUT OF BOTTOM
      OF CONT  RESULTING  IN BRUISE TO FOOT.
 EMPLOYEE  UAS  LIFTING  STD  MTL CONT AND HE OVEREXERTED  SELF  WITH  STD  MTL  CONT WHICH WAS HVY  (WATER
              RESULTING  IN SPRAIN OR STRAIN TO  ABDOMEN.
              LIFTING  STD  MTL CONT AND HE OVEREXERTED  SELF  WITH  STD  MTL  CONT WHICH WAS FULL AND
      RECESSED RESULTING IN SPRAIN OR  STRAIN  TO DACK.
 EMPLOYEE  UAS  LIFTING  STD  MTL CONT AND HE FELL  ON  GROUND  RESULTING IN  FRACTURE  TO KNEE.
 EMPLOYE!.:  UAS  LIFTING  TOTE BARREL AND  HE  OVEREXERTED SELF WITH TOTE  BARREL  WHICH WAS HVY  (ROCKS) AND
      HNBLD WITH COWRKR  RESULTING IN SPRAIN OR  STRAIN  TO  BACK.
EMPLOYEE  WAS  LIFTING  STD  MTL CONT AND HE OVEREXERTED  SELF  WITH  STD  MTL.  CONT WHICH WAS HVY  (TIGHTLY
      PACKED)  RESULTING  IN SPRAIN OR STRAIN TO  WRIST,
EMPLOYEE  WAS  LIFTING  OIL  DRUM AND HE  OVEREXERTED  SELF WITH OIL  DRUM WHICH  UAS  UNUSUALLY  HEAVY AND
     Sl.TPPERY (WET) RESULTING IN SPRAIN  OR STRAIN TO  BACK.
EMPLOYEE  UAS  LIFTING  STD  MTL CONT AND HE WAS HURT BY  HANDLING STD MTL. CONT WHICH WAS UNUSUALLY
     HEAVY AND HAD SHARP  EDGES  RESULTING IN  CUT/PUNCTURE TO WRIST,
EMPLOYEE  WAS  LIFTING  STD  MTL CONT AND HE SLIPPED  STEPPING  ON PAVEMENT RESULTING IN SPRAIN  OR STRAIN
     TO BACK.
EMPLOYEE  WAS  LIFTING  OTHER  CONT TYPE  AND HE  OVEREXERTED  SELF WITH OTHER CONT TYPE WHICH  UAS HVY
      (PAPER)  RESULTING  IN SPRAIN OR STRAIN TO  BACK.
EMPLOYEE  UAS  LIFTING  OTHER  CONT TYPE  AND HE  OVEREXERTED  SELF WITH OTHER CONT TYPE WHICH  WAS
     UNUSUALLY HEAVY  RESULTING  IN SPRAIN OR  STRAIN  TO BACK.
EMPLOYEE  WAS  LIFTING  PLASTIC  CAN AND  HE  STRUCK SELF WITH PLASTIC CAN  WHICH HAD A PROTRUDING NAIL
     RESULTING IN CUT/PUNCTURE  TO LEG.
EMPLOYEE  WAS  LIFTING  OTHER  CONT TYPE  AND HE  OVEREXERTED  SELF WITH OTHER CONT TYPE WHICH  UAS HVY
      (TIGHTLY PACKED) RESULTING IN  SPRAIN OR STRAIN TO DACK.
EMPLOYEE  UAS  LIFTING  PLASTIC BAG AND  HE  WAS  HURT  BY HANDLING PLASTIC  DAG WHICH HAD PROTRUDING GLASS
     RESULTING IN CUT/PUNCTURE  TO ELBOW.
EMPLOYEE  WAS  LIFTING  BULK CONT  (1-10  YD)  AND HE STRUCK SELF WITH BULK CONTU-10 YD) WHICH  UAS FULL
      AND  IINDLD WITH COURKR  RESULTING  IN  FRACTURE  TO ANKLE.
 EMPLOYEE  WAS  LIFTING  WHEELED CART AND HE MADE  SUDDEN  MOVEMENT IN CATCHING  WHEELED CART WHICH WAS
      UNUSUALLY HEAVY  AND  IINDLD  WITH COWRKR RESULTING  IN  SPRAIN  OR STRAIN TO UR.IST,
 EMPLOYEE  UAS  LIFTING  CARDBD BOX AND HE OVEREXERTED  SELF  WITH CARDBOARD  BOX WHICH UAS HVY (YARD
      CLIPPINGS) RESULTING IN SPRAIN OR STRAIN  TO  BACK.
 EMPLOYEE  WAS  LIFTING  STD  MTL CONT AND HE STRUCK AGAINST  FENCE RESULTING IN CUT/PUNCTURE  TO HAND.
 EMPLOYEE  WAS  LIFTING  CARBBD BOX AND HE MADE  SUDDEN  MOVEMENT IN  CATCHING CARDBOARD BOX WHICH UAS
      UNUSUAL!  Y HEAVY  AND  HAD THE BOTTOM  FALL OUT  RESULTING IN SPRAtN  OR STRAIN TO BACK.
EMPLOYEE  WAS  LIFTING  PLASTIC  BAG AND  HE  STRUCK SELF WITH PLASTIC BAG  WHICH HAD PROTRUDING  GLASS
     RESULTING IN CUT/PUNCTURE  TO ARM.
EMPLOYEE  WAS  LIFTING  STD  MTL  CONT AND I IE WAS HURT BY  HANDLING STD MTL CONT WHICH WAS FULL  AND HAD
     SHARP EDGES RESULTING  IN CUT/PUNCTURE TO  THUMB.
EMPLOYEE  WAS  LIFTING  CARBBD BOX AND HE OVEREXERTED  SELF  WITH CARDBOARD  BOX WHICH UAS FULL  RESULTING
      IN SPRAIN OR STRAIN  TO DACK,
EMPLOYEE  WAS  LIFTING  STD  MTL CONT AND HE SLIPPED  FROM STEP OF VEH ONTO  PAVEMENT RESULTING  IN SPRAIN
      OR STRAIN TO BACK.
EMPLOYEE  UAS  LIFTING  STD  MTL CONT AND HE MADE  SUDDEN  MOVEMENT IN CATCHING  STD  MTL. CONT WHICH
      FULI  AND HAD SIIPPED FROM  HIS HANDS RESULTING  IN SPRAIN OR STRAIN  TO  BACK.
 EMPl OYFF  UAG  I IFTING  WOOD AND HF. (IVI RITXF.R TED SELF WITH WOOD RESULT TNG TN SPRAIN OR STRAIN  TO BACK.
 EMPLOYEE  WAS  LIFTING  STD  MTL CCINT AND HE MADE  SUDDEN  MOVEMENT TN CATHHTNG  STD  MTL CONT WHICH WAS
      UH»"i':llrM LY I-IFAWY  AND  HAD SLIPPED  FROM HIS  HANDS RESULTING IN SPRATH OR STRAIN TO SHOULDER,
 EMPLOYEE'UAr.  LIFTING  STD  MTL CONT AND HE FELL  WHILE ON DEPRESSION AND STRK AGNST STD MTL CONT
      RESULTING  IN BRUISE  TO FINGERS,
                                                                                                            NO,  INJ  DAYS
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
 1
1
2
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
 0

 4

 4
23

 8

 3

 7

 4

 0

  1

 15

 3

 3

  0

124

 23

  2
  0

  3

  5

  3

  7

 34

  O
 15

 O
 o
COSTS

   57

  105

   71
 1070

  540

  180

  102

  303

   13

   20

  556

  199

  317

   79

 7764

 1955

  229
   53

  522

  474

  206

  309

 2344

   19
  604

   31
   73

-------
                                                                                                                          PAGE
Ui
                                                      PROFILE
EMPLOYEE  WAS  LIFTING  STD MTL  CfJNT AND HE  OVEREXERTED  SELF  WITH STD  MTL CONT WHICH WAS FULL
     RESULTING  IN  SPRAIN OR STRAIN TO NECK.
EMPLOYEE  WAS  LIFTING  WHEELED  CART AND HE  OVEREXERTED  SELF  WITH WHEELED CART WHICH WAS UNUSUALLY
     HFAVY RESULTING  IN  SPRAIN OR STRAIN  TO  NECK.
EMPLOYEE  WAS  LIFTING  CARDBD BOX  AND HE WAS HURT  BY  HANDLING CARDBOARD BOX  WHICH  HAD  PROTRUDING
     r.l ASS AND  SLIPPERY  ( WE T > REQUITING IN CUT/PUNCTURE  TO ARM.
EMPLOYrr  WAS  LIFTING  OIL  DRUM ANU I IE WAS  HURT  BY HANDLING  OIL DRUM  WHICH WAS  UNUSUALLY  HEAVY  AND
     HAD  SHARP  EDGES  RESULTING IN CUT/PUNCTURE TO FINGERS.
EMPLOYEE  WAS  LIFTING  OTHER CONT  TYPE AND  HE  STRUCK  SELF  WITH OTHER  CONT TYPE  WHICH HAD  PROTRUDING
     GLASS RESULTING  IN CUT/PUNCTURE TO LEG.
EMPLOYEE  WAS  LIFTING  OTHER CONT  TYPE AND  HE  WAS  HURT  BY  HANDLING  OTHER CONT TYPE WHICH  HAD
     PROTRUDING GLASS RESULTING  IN CUT/PUNCTURE  TO  THUMB.
EMPLOYEE  WAS  LIFTING  TOTE PARREL  AND HE MADE SUDDEN MOVEMENT RESULTING IN  SPRAIN OR  STRAIN  TO
     SHOULDER,
EMPLOYEE  WAS  LIFTING  PLASTIC PAG  AND HE MADE SUDDEN MOVEMENT IN CATCHING PLASTIC BAG WHICH  WAS FULL
     AND  HAD  SLIPPED  FROM HIS HAND:!  RESULTING  IN SPRAIN  OR STRAIN TO GROIN.
EMPLOYEE::  WAS  LIFTING  CARDED BOX  ANU  HE OVEREXERTED  SELF  WITH CARDBOARD BOX WHICH WAS HVY  (WATER
     FILLED)  RESULTING IN SPRAIN  OR  STRAIN TO  BACK,
EMPLOYEE  WAS  LIFTING  STD  MTL CONT AND  HE  STRUCK  AGAINST  STD MTL CONT RESULTING IN BRUISE  TO FINGERS,
EMPLOYEE  WAS  LIFTING  STD  MTL CONT AND  HE  MADE  SUDDEN  MOVEMENT RESULTING IN SPRAIN OR STRAIN TO WRIST,
EMPLOYrr:  WAS  LIFTING  BULK CONT LID AND HE OVEREXERTED SELF WITH BULK CONT  LID RESULTING IN  HEART
     ATTACK TO  INTERNAL  ORGANS.
EMPLOYEE  WAS  LIFTING  TOTE BARREL  AND HE STRUCK SELF WITH TOTE BARREL WHICH WAS EMPTY AND  HAD
     SLIPPED  FROM  HIS HANDS RESULTING  IN  NOSEBLEED  TO NOSE.
EMPLOYEE  WAS  LIFTING  CONT LID AND HE GOT  AIRBORNE PARTICLES IN EYE  RESULTING  IN  EYE  IRRITATION TO
     EYES.
EMPLOYEE  WAS  LIFTING  STD  MTL. CONT AND  HE  SLIPPED STEPPING  ON WET  GROUND RESULTING IN SPRAIN OR
     STRAIN TO  BACK.
EMPLOYEE  WAG  LIFTING  CARDED BARREL AND HE OVEREXERTED SELF WITH CARDBOARD  BARREL. WHICH  WAS
     UNUSUALLY  HEAVY  ANfi  UNUSUALLY LG  RESULTING  IN  SPRAIN  OR STRAIN TO BACK,
EMPLOYEE  WAS  LIFTING  STD  MTL CONT AMU  HE  OVEREXERTED  SELF  WITH STD  MTL CONT WHICH WAS UNUSUALLY
     HEAVY AND  RECESSED  RESULTING IN SPRAIN  OR STRAIN TO GROIN.
EMPLOYEE  WAS  LIFTING  TOTE BARREL  AND HE STRUCK SELF WITH TOTE BARREL WHICH WAS FULL  AND HAD SLIPPED
     FROM HIS HANDS RESULTING IN  BRUISE TO SHOULDER.
EMPLOYET:  WAS  LIFTING  CARDBD BOX  AND HE OVEREXERTED  SELF  WITH CARDBOARD POX WHICH WAS UNUSUALLY
     HEAVY AND  IINDLD  WITH COUIRKR RESULTING IN  SPRAIN  OR  STRAIN TO MULTIPLE BODY  PARTS.
EMPI OYEF  WAS  LIFTING  STD  MTL  CONT AND HE  STRUCK  SELF  WITH  STD MTL HONT WHICH  WAS FULL AND HAD
     SLIPPED  FROM  HIS HANDS RESULTING IN  BRUISE  TO  KNEE.
EMPLOYEE  WAS  LIFTING  PLASTIC  BAG AND HE GOT  WASTE PARTICLES IN EYE  RESULTING  IN  EYE  IRRITATION TO
     EYES.
EMPLOYEE  WAS  LIFTING  STD MTL  CONT ANU HE:  SLIPPED STEPPING  ON SLIPPKRY WASTE ON GROUND RESULTING IN
     SPRAIN OR  STRAIN TO BACK.
EMPLOYEE  WAS  LIFTING  PLASTIC  BAB ANO HE STRUCK AGAINST BUNDLED SHRUBBERY RESULTING IN ABRASIONS TO
                                                                                                                 NO.  INJ  DAYS
     EMPLOYEE WAS LIFTING TOTE BARREL ANB HE OVEREXERTED SELF WITH TOTF BARREL WHICH WAS FULL RESULTING
          IN SPRAIN OR STRAIN TO WRIST,
     EMPI OYff" WAS LIFTING STD MTL CONT ANn HE WAS STRUCK BY CONT HANDLHi BY COWORKER RESULTING IN
          CUT /PUNCTURE TO I CO .
     EMPI riYCt: UAS I TFTINR TOTET BARRfTI  AND HF.'HADr SUDDEN MOVEMENT Rf'SUITING IN SPRAIN OR STRAIN TO  ANKLE.
     EMPLOYE!." WAS LIFTING PLASTIC CAN ANn HU SLIPPED WIIII . E ON WET CURB ftND STRK AGNST BACK OF VEH
          RESULTING IN DENIAL INJURY TO MOUTH.
1


1


1


1


1


1


1


1


1

1

1


1


1


1


1


1


1





1


1


1.


1


1


1


1

1
                                                                                                                             0


                                                                                                                             2


                                                                                                                             5


                                                                                                                             0


                                                                                                                             5


                                                                                                                             0


                                                                                                                             0


                                                                                                                             0


                                                                                                                            12
                                                                                                                             0
                                                                                                                             0
COSTS


   40


  128


  419


   86


  264


   16


    0


   46


  847
   63
  115
0
3
2
20
0
17
0
50
0
0
7
0
2
125
242
88
919
214
334
16
1270
63
35
393
30
156
                                                                                                                         1
                                                                                                                         2
   53
  129

   65

-------
         PAGE 10
                                                      PROFILE
  EMPLOYEE  WAS  LIFTING  TOTE  BARREL  AND  HE  OVEREXERTED  SELF WITH  TCni. BARREL WHICH WAS UNUSUAI I. Y HEAVY
       RESULTING  IN SPRAIN OR  STRAIN  TO WRIST.
  EMPLOYEE  WAS  LIFTING  TOTE  BARREL  AND  HE  STRUCK  SELF  WITH TOTL  BARREL WHICH WAS FULL RESULTING IN
       BRUISE TO  SHOULDER,
  EMPLOYEE  WAS  LIFTING  OTHER CONT TYPE  AND HE OVEREXERTED SELF WITH OTHER CONT TYPE WHICH WAS EMPTY
       AND  UNUSUAL! Y  1.0 RESULTING IN  SPRAIN OR STRAIN  TO BACK.
  EMPLOYEE  WAS  LIFTING  BULK  CONT  (1-10  YD)  AND HE STRUCK SELF WITH BULK CONT(1~10 YD) WHICH  WAS FULL
       RESULTING  IN BRUISE TO  FOOT.
  EMPLOYEE  WAS  LIFTING  PLASTIC BAG  AND  HE  OVEREXERTED  SELF WITH  PLASTIC BAG WHICH WAS UNUSUALLY HEAVY
       RESULTING  IN SPRAIN OR  STRAIN  TO LEG.
  EMPLOYEE  WAS  LIFTING  PLASTIC BAG  AND  HE  OVEREXERTED  SELF RESULTING IN SPRAIN OR STRAIN TO  DACK.
  EMPLOYEE  WAS  LIFTING  STD MTL. CONT AND HE OVEREXERTED SELF WITH STD MTL CONT WHICH WAS HVY  (YARD
       CLIPPINGS)  RESULTING  IN SPRAIN OR STRAIN TO SHOULDER,
  EMPLOYEE  WAS  LIFTING  TOTE  BARREL  AND  HE  OVEREXERTED  SELF WITH  TOTE BARREL WHICH WAS HVY (WATER
       FILLED)  RESULTING  TN  SPRAIN  OR STRAIN TO ELBOW.
  EMPLOYEE  WAS  LIFTING  STO MTL. CONT AND HE WAS HURT BY HANDLING  STD MTL CONT WHICH HAD PROTRUDING
       WASTE RESULTING  IN CUT/PUNCTURE  TO  FINGERS.
  EMPLOYEE  WAS  LIFTING  OTHER CONT TYPE  AND HE STRUCK SELF WITH OTHER CONT TYPE WHICH WAS FULL AND
       IINDLD WITH  COWRKR RESULTING  IN BRUISE TO CHEST.
  EMPLOYEE  WAS  LIFTING  STP MTL CONT AND HE FELL ON WET PAVEMENT  RESULTING IN ABRASIONS TO KNEE.
  EMPLOYEE  WAS  LIFTING  STD MTL CONT AND HE STEPPED ON  NAIL RESULTING IN CUT/PUNCTURE TO FOOT,
 EMPLOYEE  WAS  LIFTING  STD MTL CONT AND HE  OVEREXERTED SELF WITH STD MTL CONT WHICH WAS HVY  (WATER
       FILLED)  RESULTING IN  SPRAIN  OR STRAIN TO SHOULDER,
  EMPLOYEE.  WAS  LIFTING  STD MTL CONT AND HE OVEREXERTED SELF WITH STD MTL. CONT WHICH WAS UNUSUALLY
       HEAVY RESULTING  IN SPRAIN OR STRAIN  TO TRUNK,
  EMPLOYEE  WAS  LIFTING  STD MTL CONT AND HE  SLIPPED STEPPING ON ICY GROUND RESULTING IN SPRAIN OR
       STRAIN TO BACK.
  EMPLOYEE  WAS  LIFTING  STD MTL CONT AND HE  STRUCK SELF WITH STD  MTL CONT- WHICH WAS FULL AND  HAD
       SLIPPED  FROM HIS HANDS  RESULTING IN  CUT/PUNCTURE TO LEG,
  EMPLOYEE  WAS  LIFTING  WHEELED CART AND HE  OVEREXERTED SELF WITH WHEELED CART WHICH WAS FULL AND
       UNUSUALLY LG RESULTING  IN SPRAIN OR  STRAIN TO BACK.
  EMPLOYEE  WAS  LIFTING  WHEELED CART AND HE OVEREXERTED SELF WITH WHEELED CART WHICH WAS UNUSUALLY
       HEAVY RESULTING  IN SPRAIN OR STRAIN TO GROIN,
 EMPLOYEE  WAS  LIFTING  PLASTIC BAG  AND  HE  WAS HURT BY  HANDLING PLASTIC BAG WHICH HAD PROTRUDING
       SHRUBBERY RESULTING IN  CUT/PUNCTURE  TO FINGERS,
-EMPLOYEE  WAS  LIFTING  CARDBD  POX AND HE OVEREXERTED SELF WITH CARDBOARD BOX WHICH WAS UNUSUALLY
       HEAVY RESULTING  TN SPRAIN OR STRAIN  TO BACK.
 EMPLOYEE  WAS  LIFTING  PLASTIC BAIi  AND  HE  OVEREXERTED  SELF WITH  PLASTIC BAG WHICH WAS FULL RESULTING
       IN SPRAIN OR STRAIN TO  ARM.
 EMPLOYEE  WAS  LIFTING  TOTE  BARREL  AND  HE  FELL ON GROUND RESULTING IN SPRAIN OR STRAIN TO BACK.
 EMPLOYEE  WAS  LIFTING  PLASTIC BAG  AND  HE  WAS STRUCK BY PLASTIC  BAG WHICH HAD PROTRUDING WASTE
       RESULTING»IN CUT/PUNCTURE TO LEG.
  EMPLOYEE  WAS  LIFTING  PLASTIC BAG  AND  HE  WAS HURT BY  HANDLING PLASTIC BAG WHICH HAD PROTRUDING GLASS
       RESULTING  IN CUT/PUNCTURE TO LEG,
  FMPLOYEE  WAS  LIFTING  TOTE  BARREL  AND  HE  OVEREXERTED  SELF MITII  TOTE BARREL WHICH MAS HVY (WATER
       FILLED)  ANU UNUSUALLY LG RESULTING  IN SPRAIN OR STRAIN TO TIVMMK,
  EMPI OYEE  UAS  LIFTING  PLASTIC BAG  AND  HE  FELL ON OBJ  ON GROUND  RESULTING IN CUT/PUNCTURE TO LEG.
  EMPLOYEE  WAS  LIFTING  PLASTIC BAG  AND  HE  WAS HURT BY  HANDLING PLASTIC BAG WHICH HAD PROTRUDING WASTE
       JYEE UAS LIFTING STD MTL CONT AND HE UAS STRUCK  HI                                  ~~-.~ •**,
       BRUISE  TJ8 KNEE.
NO, INJ  DAYS

    1       2

    1       5

    1      16

    1
    1
    1

    1

    1

    1

    1
    1
    2

    1

    2

    1

    1

    1

    1

    1

    1

    1
    1

    1

    1

    1
    i
25

10
 5

 0

 6

 0

 1
11
 1
 3

 0

 0

 1

 3

16

J3
 2

 1

 O

 3
 7
COSTS

   45

  331

  977

 1947

  900
  164

   24

  214

   41

   53
  503
  109

  107

  232

   94

   12

   37

   16

  202

  /.74

  686
  112

   71

   70

   37

  33

-------
                                                                                                                     PAGE 11


                                                     PROFILE                                                N0' 1NJ  DAYS   COSTS
EMPLOYEE  WAS  LIFTING  STD  MTL  CONT  AND  HE  OVEREXERTED SELF WITH STO MTL CONT RESULTING IN SPRAIN OR
     STRAIN TO  ARM.                                                                                             1        J
EMPLOYEE  UAS  LIFTING  STD  MTL  CONT  AND  HE  SLIPPED STEPPING ON WET CURB RESULTING IN SPRAIN OR STRAIN
     TO ANKLE.                                                                                                  1        5      147
EMPLOYEE  WAS  LIFTING  PLASTIC  BAG AND HE OVEREXERTED SELF WITH PLASTIC BAG WHICH WAS HVY (WATER
     FILLED)  RESULTING  IN SPRAIN OR STRAIN TO BACK.                                                             l       u      275
EMPLOYEE  UAS  LIFTING  OTHER CONT TYPE ANB  HE WAS STRUCK BY GLA::;
-------
                                                             FIGURE 1-8
                                                                                                                        PAGE  1
REPORTING PERIOD: DECEMBER 1975  - DECEMBER 1.976
                                                             AM  i.ir:r-Rs;
                                                      inn ATI. Em nt SCRIPT KIN or
                                                    DUMPING CONTAINER ACCIDENTS
                                                   OSHA RECORDABLE INJURIES ONLY
THIS PROFILE IS A FORMATTED SENTENCE CONSISTING OF ACTIVITY* ACCIDENT TYPEr NATURE OF INJURY AND PART OF BODY,
                                                        PROFILE                                                NO,  INJ  DAYS
   EMPLOYEE WAS DUMPING STD MTL. CONT AND HE GOT WASTE PARTICLES IN EYE RESULTING IN EYE IRRITATION TO
        EYES.                                                                                                      43      19
   EMPLOYEE WAS DUMPING STD MTL CONT ANB HE OVEREXERTED SELF WITH STB MTL CONT WHICH WAS UNUSUALLY
        HEAVY  RESULTING IN SPRAIN OR STRAIN TO TRUNK.                                                              2      12
   EMPLOYEE WAS DUMPING OTHER CONT TYPE AND HE STRUCK SELF WITH OTHER CONT TYPE WHICH WAS EMPTY AND
        HAD SLIPPED FROM HIS HANDS RESULTING IN FRACTURE TO FOOT.                                                  1      29
   EMPtOYEE WAS DUMPING STD MTL CONT AND HE STRUCK AGAINST BACK OF VEII RESULTING IN BRUISF TO SHOULDER.            1      17
   EMPLOYEE WAS BUMPING STB MTL. CONT ANB HE OVEREXERTEB SELF WITH STD MTL CONT WHICH WAS FULL
        RESULTING IN SPRAIN OR STRAIN TO HIPS.                                                                     1       1
   EMPLOYEE WAS DUMPING STD MIL CONT ANB HE OVEREXERTEB SELF WITH STB MTL CONT WHICH WAS UNUSUALLY
        HEAVY  RESULTING IN SPRAIN OR STRAIN TO BACK.                                                              14     120
   EMPLOYEE WAS DUMPING CARDJtri BOX AND HE WAS STRUCK BY VEII RESULTING IN FRACTURE TO FOOT.                         1       3
   EMPLOYEE WAS BUMPING BULK CONT <1-10 YB) AND HE WAS CAUGHT BETWEEN CONT & VEH (CONT WAS FALLING)
        RESULTING IN BRUISE TO HAND.                                                                               1      19
^ EMPLOYEE WAS BUMPING WHEELED CART ANB HE OVEREXERTEB SELF WITH WHEELED CART WHICH WAS UNUSUALLY
^      HEAVY  AND UNUSUALLY LG RESULTING IN SPRAIN OR STRAIN TO SHOULDER.                                          1       0
CD EMPLOYEE WAS DUMPING STD MTL CONT AND HE STRUCK AGAINST EDGE OF HOPPER RESULTING IN FRACTURE TO HAND,           1      52
   EMPLOYEE WAS DUMPING STD MTL. CONT AND HE WAS STRUCK BY CHEMICAL WHICH FELL OUT OF TOP OF CONT
        RESULTING IN CHEMICAL BURN TO EYES.                                                                        1       0
   EMPLOYEE WAS DUMPING STD MIL CONT AND HE OVEREXERTED SELF WITH STD MTL. CONT WHICH WAS FULL
        RESULTING IN HPRAIN OR STRAIN TO BACK.                                                                    16     160
   EMPLOYEE WAS BUMPING STD MTL CONT AND HE OVEREXERTED SELF WITH STD MTL CONT WHICH WAS FULL
        RESULTING IN SPRAIN OP STRAIN TO ARM,                                                                      2      10
   EMPLOYEE WAS DUMPING PLASTIC BAG AND HE GOT AIRBORNE PARTICLES IN EYE RESULTING IN ABRASIONS TO EYES.           1       0
   EMPLOYEE WAS BUMPING STD MTL CONT AND HE MABE SUDDEN MOVEMENT IN AVOIDING ANIMAL RESULTING IN OTHER
        TYPE OF INJURY TO BACK,                                                                                    1       3
   EMPLOYEE WAS DUMPING STB MTL CONT AND HE WAS STRUCK BY CHEMICAL WHICH FELL OUT OF TOP OF CONT
        RESULTING IN CHEMICAL BURN TO ABDOMEN.                                                                     2     181
   EMPLOYEE WAS DUMPING WHEELED CART AND HE STRUCK AGAINST SIDE OF HOPPER RESULTING IN BRUISE TO ELBOW.            1       1
   EMPLOYEE WAS BUMPING STD MTL CONT AND HE STRUCK AGAINST EDGE OF HOPPER RESULTING IN BRUISE TO ELBOW.    •        4       6
   EMPLOYEE WAS DUMPING BULK CONT O.-10 YD) AND HE WAS CAUGHT BETWEEN BULK CONT 8 VEH RESULTING IN
     .•••FRACTURE TO FTNOFRS.                                          •                                             1       3
   EMPLOYEE WAS BUMPING STB MIL CONT ANB HE SLIPPED STEPPING ON INCLINED GROUND RESULTING IN SPRAIN OR
        STRAIN TO BACK.                                                                                            1       0
   EMPLOYEE WAS DUMPING NSTB MTL CONT AND HE WAS STRUCK BY PARTICLES IN WASTE WHICH WAS EJTD FROM
        HOPPER RESULTING IN EYE IRRITATION TO EYES.                                                                1       O
   EMPLOYEE UAS DUMPING STD MTL CONT AND HE WAS CAUGHT BETWEEN CONT 8 EDGE OF HOPPER RESULTING IN
        CUT/PUNCTURE TO FINGERS.                                                                                   4       O
   EMPLOYEE WAS DUMPING STD MTL CONT AND HE WAS STRUCK BY STD MTL CONT WHICH WAS FULL AND HAD BOUNCED
        T.K FM HOPPER RESULTING IN BRUISE TO SCALP.                                                                 1-       4
   EMPLOYEE WAS DUMPING STD MTL CONT AND HE WAS STRUCK BY CONT HANDLED BY COWORKER RESULTING IN
                 DUMPING PLASTIC CAN AND HE SLIPPED WHILE! ON WET F-AVEMENT AND STRK AGNST BACK OF UEM               ^       ^
                   IN^SF-RAIN OR STRAIN TO FINOERS.
                                                                                                                            COSTS

                                                                                                                             3109

                                                                                                                              624

                                                                                                                             1391
                                                                                                                              917

                                                                                                                               67

                                                                                                                             5279
                                                                                                                              203

                                                                                                                              722

                                                                                                                              214
                                                                                                                             1218

                                                                                                                               22

                                                                                                                             9017

                                                                                                                              598
                                                                                                                                7

                                                                                                                              394

                                                                                                                             7550
                                                                                                                               (10
                                                                                                                             1549

                                                                                                                              191

                                                                                                                              760

                                                                                                                               OS

                                                                                                                              299
                                                                                                                              2OB

-------
                                                                                                                        PAOC
VD
                                                     PROFILE
EMPLOYEE WAS DUMPING  CARDED  BOX  AND FIE OVEREXERTED SELF WITH CARDBOARD BOX WHICH WAS UNUSUALLY
     HEAVY RESULTING  IN HERNIA TO GROIN.
EMPLOYEE WAS DUMPING  STD MTL CONT AND HE SLIPPED STEPPING ON PAVEMENT RESULTING IN SPRAIN OR STRAIN
     TO KNEE.
EMPLOYEE WAS DUMPING  STD MTL CONT AND HE WAS STRUCK BY DOTTLE WHICH FELL OUT OF TOP OF CONT
     RESULTING IN BRUISE TO FACE,
EMPLOYEE WAS DUMPING  STD MTL CONT AND HE STRUCK SELF WITH STD MTI. TONT WHICH WAS FULL AND HHDLD
     WITH COWRKR RESULTING IN UNKNOWN TYPE OF INJURY TO TOES.
EMPLOYEE WAS DUMPING  STD MTL CONT AND HE CONTACTED CAUSTIC OR TOXIC UNKNOWN WASTE RESULTING IN
     DERMATITIS TO HAND.
EMPLOYEE'WAS DUMPING  STD MTL CONT AND HE WAS CAUGHT BETWEEN CONT 8 EDGE OF HOPPER (CONT WAS
     UNUSUALLY HVY) RESULTING IN SPRAIN OR STRAIN TO FINGERS.
EMPLOYEE WAS HUMPING  STD MTL CONT AND HE WAS STRUCK BY GLASS WHICH WAS EJTD FROM HOPPER RESULTING
     IN CUT/PUNCTURE  TO CHF.EK.
EMPLOYEE WAS DUMPING  STD MTL CONT AND HE SLIPPED STEPPING ON WET GROUND RESULTING IN SPRAIN OR
     STRAIN TO PACK.
EMPLOYEE WAS DUMPING  PLASTIC DAG AND HE STRUCK AGAINST EDGE OF HOPPER RESULTING IN BRUISE TO ELBOW.
EMPLOYEE WAG DUMPING  STD MTL CONT AND HE WAS HURT BY HANDLING STD MTL CONT WHICH HAD PROTRUDING
     WASTE RESULTING  IN CUT/PUNCTURE TO HAND.
EMPLOYEE WAS DUMPING  NSTD MTL CONT AND HE GOT WASTE PARTICLES IN EYE RESULTING IN EYE IRRITATION TO
     EYES.
EMPLOYEE WAS DUMPING  STD MTL CONT AND HE STRUCK SELF WITH STD MTL CONT WHICH WAS FULL AND HAD
     SLIPPED FROM HIS HANDS RESULTING IN BRUISE TO TOES,
EMPLOYEE WAS DUMPING  PLASTIC BAG AND HE SLIPPED STEPPING ON ROCKY GROUND RESULTING IN SPRAIN OR
     STRAIN TO ANKLE,
EMPLOYEE WAS DUMPING  STD MTL CONT AND HE OVEREXERTED SELF WITH STD MTL CONT WHICH WAS FULL
     RESULTING IN SPRAIN OR  STRAIN TO SHOULDER,
EMPLOYEE WAS DUMPING  STD MTL CONT AND HE FELL FROM STEP OF VEH ONTO PAVEMENT RESULTING IN
     INFLAMMATION OF  THE JOINTS  TO LEG.
EMPLOYEE WAS DUMPING  PLASTIC BAG AND HE GOT AIRBORNE PARTICLES IN EYE RESULTING IN EYE IRRITATION
     TO EYES.
EMPLOYEE WAS DUMPING  STD MTL CONT AND HE WAS CAUGHT BETWEEN CONT X EDGE OF HOPPER (CONT HANDLE
     BROKF.) RESULTING IN BRUISE  TO FINGERS.
EMPLOYEE WAS DUMPING  STD MIL CONT AND HE OVEREXERTED SELF WITH f>TD MTL CONT WHICH WAS UNUSUALLY
     HEAVY AND BEING  HNDLD W OTHER CONT RESULTING IN SPRAIN OR STRAIN TO BACK,
EMPLOYEE WAG DUMPING  STD MTL. CONT AND HE WAS CAUGHT BETWEEN CONT 8 EDGE OF HOPPER (CONT WAS
     UNUSUALLY IIVY) RESULTING IN SPRAIN OR STRAIN TO ARM,
EMPLOYEE; WAS DUMPING  PLASTIC BAG AND HE STRUCK AGAINST UNBUNDLED SHRUBBERY WHICH WAS PROTRUDING FM
     VEII RESULTING  IN BRUISE TO  HAND.
EMPLOYEE WAS DUMPING  PLASTIC BAG AND HE GOT WASTE PARTICLES IN EYE RESULTING IN EYE IRRITATION TO
     EYES.
EMPLOYEE WAS DUMPING  STD MTL CONT AND HE WAS STRUCK BY CONT HANDLED BY COWORKER RESULTING IN BRUISE
     TO FOOT.
EMPLOYEE WAR DUMPING  STD MTL CONT AND HE WAS HURT BY HANDLING STD MTL CONT WHICH WAS FULL AND HAD
     PROTRUDING  GLASS RESULTING  IN CUT/PUNCTURE  TO HAND.
FMPLOYEE WAS DUMPING  STD MTL CONT AND HE WAS STRUCK BY VEH RESULTING IN BRUISE TO LEG.
EMPLOYEE WAS DUMPING  STD MTL CONT AND HE WAS STRUCK BY CONT HANDLED BY COWORKER RESULTING IN BRUISE
     TO ELBOW.
FMPt OYEE WAS DUMPING  STD MTL CONT AND HE OVEREXERTED SELF WITH FiTD MTL CONT WHICH WAS UNUSUALLY
     HEAVY AND HNDLD  WITH  COWRKR RESULTING  IN SPRAIN OR STRAIN TO BACK.
INJ
1
1
1
1
1
2
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
7
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
2
1
DAYS
•26
18
1
4
A
130
0
1
3
0
1
4
0
23
17
0
14
13
6
1
0
10
5
0
4
27
COSTS
1855
75
66
154
192
210
20
70
153
32
153
232
43
10 60
76
63
639
16
27(3
72
72
410
157
60
231
085

-------
                                                                                                                      PACE
                                                      PROFILE
 EMPLOYEE WAS DUMPING STD MIL CONT AND ME FELL ON OBJ ON GROUND RESULTING IN BRUISE TO SHOULDER,
 EMPLOYEE WAS DUMPING STD MTL CONT AND HE FELL ON GRAVEL RESULTING tN BRUISE TO SHOULDER.
 EMPLOYEE UA3 DUMPING STD MTL CONT AND HE WAS HURT BY HANDLING STD MTL CONT WHICH HAD PROTRUDING
      BLAGS RESULTING IN CUT/PUNCTURE TO FINGERS.
 EMPLOYEE UAS DUMPING STD MTL CONT AND HE WAS CAUGHT BETWEEN CONT « EDGE OF HOPPER RESULTING IN
      OTHER TYPE OP INJURY TO FINGERS.
 EMPLOYEE WAS DUMPING PLASTIC BAG AND HE WAS STRUCK BY PLASTIC DAG RESULTING IN CUT/PUNCTURE TO FACE.
 EMPLOYEE WAS DUMPING CARDBD BOX AND HE GOT WASTE PARTICLES IN EYE RESULTING IN EYE IRRITATION TO EYES.
 EMPLOYEE UAS DUMPING LINK CONT TYPE AND HE GOT AIRBORNE PARTICLES IN EYE RESULTING IN EYE  IRRITATION
      TO EYES.
 EMPLOYEE WAS DUMP[NO STD MTL CONT AND HE WAS HURT BY HANDLING STD MTL CONT WHICH HAD PROTRUDING
      WASTE RESULTING IN CUT/PUNCTURE TO FINGERS.
 EMPLOYEE WAG DUMPING BULK CONT (1-10 YD) AND HE OVEREXERTED SELF WITH BULK CONT(1-10 YD)  RESULTING
      IN SPRAIN OR STRAIN TO FINGERS.
 EMPLOYEE WAS DUMPING STD MTL CONT AND HE WAS STRUCK BY CHEMICAL WHICH FELL OUT OF TOP OF  CONT
      RESULTING IN DERMATITIS TO ARM,
 EMPLOYEE WAS DUMPING STD MTL CONT AND HE WAS HURT BY HANDLING STD MTL CONT WHICH WAS FULL AND HAD
      SHARP EDGES RESULTING IN CUT/PUNCTURE TO ARM.
 EMPLOYEE WAS DUMPING STD MTL CONT AND HE STRUCK AGAINST EDGE OF HOPPER RESULTING IN BRUISE TO WRIST.
 EMPLOYEE WAS DUMPING STD MTL CONT AND HE SLIPPED FROM RUNNING BOARD ONTO PAVEMENT RESULTING IN
      SPRAIN OR STRAIN TO LEG.
 EMPLOYEE WAS DUMPING OTHER CONT TYPE AND HE OVEREXERTED SELF WITH OTHER CONT TYPE WHICH WAS
      UNUSUALLY HEAVY AND UNUSUALLY LG RESULTING IN SPRAIN OR STRAIN TO SHOULDER,
 EMPLOYEE WAS DUMPING STD MTL CONT AND HE WAS STRUCK BY GLASS WHICH FELL OUT OF TOP OF CONT
      RESULTING IN CUT/PUNCTURE TO THUMB.
 EMPLOYEE WAS DUMPING STD MTL CONT AND HE GOT WASTE PARTICLES IN EYE RESULTING IN ABRASIONS TO EYES.
 EMPLOYEE WAS DUMPING STD MTL CONT AND HE STRUCK AGAINST SIDE OF VEH RESULTING IN BRUISE TO ELBOW,
 EMPLOYEE WAS DUMPING STD MTL CONT AND HE WAS STRUCK BY GLASS WHICH FELL OUT OF TOP OF CONT
      RESULTING  IN CUT/PUNCTURE TO HAND.
 EMPLOYEE WAS  DUMPING STD MTL CONT AND HE MADE SUDDEN MOVEMENT IN CATCHING STD MTL CONT WHICH WAS
      FULL AND  SLIPPERY  (WET)  RESULTING IN SPRAIN OR STRAIN TO BACK,
 EMPLOYEE WAS  DUMPING  STD MTL CONT AND HE STRUCK AGAINST EDGE OF HOPPER RESULTING IN BRUISE TO KNEE,
 EMPLOYEE WAS  DUMPING  STD MTL CONT AND HE STRUCK AGAINST EDGE OF HOPPER RESULTING IN BRUISE TO HAND.
 EMPLOYEE  WAS  DUMPING  WHEELED CART AND HE GOT WASTE PARTICLES IN EYE RESULTING IN EYE IRRITATION  TO
      EYES.
 EMPLOYEE  WAS DUMPING  STD MTL CONT AND HE STRUCK AGAINST BACK OF VEH RESULTING IN BRUISE TO ELBOW,
EMPI OYEE UAS DUMPING  STD MTL  CONT AND HE UAS STRUCK BY CONT HANDLED BY COWORKER RESULTING IN BRUISE
      TO  ARM,
EMPLOYEE WAS DUMPING  STD MTL. CONT AND HE MADE SUDDEN MOVEMENT RESULTING IN SPRAIN OR .STRAIN TO BACK.
EMPLOYEE WAS DUMPING  STD MTL CONT AND HE WAS CAUGHT BETWEEN CONT X EDGE OF HOPPER (CONT WAS
      FALLING) RESULTING  IN  CUT/PUNCTURE  TO FINGERS.
 FMPlOYEE  WAS  DUMPING  STD MTL CONT AND HE OVEREXERTED SELF WITH STD MTL CONT WHICH WAS UNUSUALLY
      HEAVY RESULTING  IN  SPRAIN OR STRAIN TO ABDOMEN.
 EMPLOYEE WAS  DUMPING STD MTL CONT AND HE OVEREXERTED SELF WITH STti MTL CONT WHICH WAS UNUSUALLY
      HEAVY  RESULTING IN  SPRAIN OR STRAIN TO SHOULDER.
 EMPLOYEE UAS DUMPING BULK CONT <1-1O YD) AND HE STRUCK AGAINST MECHANICAL ARM RESULTING IN BRUISE
      TO ARM.
 EMCl OYEE UAr, DUMPING BULK CONT <1-1O YD> AND HE WAS STRUCK BY CHEMICAL WHICH FELL OUT OF  TOP OF
      CONT RESULTING IN DERMATITIS TO ARM.
 EMFLOYEF UAS DUM^NB STD MTL CONT AND HE MADE SUDDEN MOVEMENT IN CATCHING STD MTL CONT WHICH Uf>S
      FULL AND HAff SLIPPED FROM HTR MC.Nr.ss a^**in -I-TM.* •, *, =^^^.T^I tin, «•>-».& T»I -rn B-=.r=
NO. INJ  DAYS
    1
    1
    1

    1

    1

    1

    1

    1
    1

    1

    1

    1
    2
    3
    1
    1
    1

    1
    2
    1

    1

    7

    1
            2
           11
 0
12
 0

 2

 3

 0

 1

 0
 0

 0

 0

 0
 0
 0
 9
 4
 0

 0
 9

 0
10

 4

 O

96

 O
COSTS
   62
  309

  200

   30
  297
   44

  101

  159

   66

   6B

   20
   44
   20

   84
  122
  176

   64

  677
  235
   57

   27
  254

   20
  641

   94

   63
                   56

                   •49

-------
                                                                                                                     PAGE
                                                     PROFILE
EMPLOYEE WAS DUMPING STD MTL CONT AND HE WAS STRUCK BY BLADE OF VEH RESULTING IN BRUISE TO FTNGERS.
EMPLOYEE WAS DUMPING STD MTL CONT AND HE WAS STRUCK BY PIECE OF METAL WHICH FELL OUT OF TOP OF CONT
     RESULTING IN CUT/PUNCTURE TO ARM.
EMPLOYEE WAS DUMPING STD MTL CONT AND HE OVEREXERTED SELF WITH GTD MTL CONT WHICH WAS UNUSUALLY
     HEAVY RESULTING IN DISLOCATION TO ELKOW.
EMPLOYEE WAS DUMPING STD MTL CONT AND HE WAS CAUGHT BETWEEN CONT 8 EDGE OF HOPPER RESULTING IN
     BRUISE TO FINGERS.
EMPLOYEE WAS DUMPING STD MTL CONT AND HE STRUCK SELF WITH STD MTL CONT WHICH HAD PROTRUDING WASTE
     RESULTING IN BRUISE TO ABDOMEN.
EMPLOYEE WAS DUMPING STD MTL CONT AND HE WAS STRUCK BY GLASS WHICH FELL OUT OF VEH RESULTING IN
     CUT/PUNCTURE TO LEG.
EMPLOYEE WAS DUMPING STD MTL CONT AND HE OVEREXERTED SELF WITH STD MTL CONT WHICH WAS FULL
     RESULTING IN SPRAIN OR STRAIN TO ABDOMEN.
EMPLOYEE WAS DUMPING STD MTL CONT AND HE WAS STRUCK DY PARTICLES IN WASTE WHICH WAS EJTD FROM
     HOPPER RESULTING IN EYE IRRITATION TO EYES.
EMPLOYEE WAS DUMPING STD MTL CONT AND HE WAS STRUCK BY BOTTLE WHICH WAS EJTD FROM HOPPER RESULTING
     IN CUT/PUNCTURE TO LEG.
EMPLOYEE WAS DUMPING WHEELED CART AND HE MADE SUDDEN MOVEMENT IN CATCHING WHEELED CART WHICH WAS
     UNUGl.mi.LY HEAVY AND HAD SLIPPED FROM HIS HANDS RESULTING IN SPRAIN OR STRAIN TO BACK.
EMPLOYEE WAS DUMPING STD MTL CONT AND HE I ELL WHILE ON PAVEMENT ANM STRK AGNST SIDE OF VEH
     RESULTING IN SPRAIN OR STRAIN TO HAND.
EMPLOYEE WAS DUMPING STp MTL CONT AND HE WAS CAUGHT BETWEEN CONT & EDGE OF HOPPER RESULTING IN
     SPRAIN OR STRAIN TO FINGERS.
EMPLOYEE WAS DUMPING NSTD MTL CONT AND HE WAS CAUGHT BETWEEN CONT X EDGE OF HOPPER (CONT WAS
     UNUSUALLY L.G) RESULTING IN BRUISE TO FINGERS.
EMPLOYEE WAS DUMPING PLASTIC CAN AND HE MADE SUDDEN MOVEMENT IN CATCHING PLASTIC CAN WHICH WAS FULL
     AND HAD THE POT TOM FALL OUT RESULTING IN SPRAIN OR STRAIN TO WRIST.
EMPLOYEE WAS DUMPING STD MTL CONT AND HE STRUCK AGAINST BACK OF VEH RESULTING IN SPRAIN OR STRAIN
     TO HAND.
EMPLOYEE WAS DUMPING STD MTL CONT AND HE WAS CAUGHT BETWEEN CONT » EDGE OF HOPPER (CONT WAS
     UNUSUALLY HVY) RESULTING IN BRUISE TO HAND.
EMPLOYEE WAG DUMPING STD MTL CONT AND HE WAS STRUCK BY VEH RESULTING IN CUT/PUNCTURE TO FOREHEAD.
EMPLOYEE WAG DUMPING STD MTL CONT AND HE WAS CAUGHT BETWEEN CONT « EDGE OF HOPPER RESULTING IN
     CUT/PUNCTURE TO HAND.
EMPLOYEE WAG DUMPING STD MTL CONT AND HE CONTACTED CAUSTIC OR TOXIC AMMONIA RESULTING IN
     ASPHYXIATION OR DROWNING TO INTERNAL ORGANS.
EMPLOYEE WAS DUMPING STD MTL CONT AND HE STEPPED ON NAIL RESULTING IN CUT/PUNCTURE TO FOOT.
EMPLOYEE WAS DUMPING STD MTL CONT AND HE WAS STRUCK BY CHEMICAL WHICH FELL OUT OF TOP OF CONT
     RESULTING IN INFECTION TO FOOT.
EMPLOYEE WAS DUMPING STD MTL CONT AND HE OVEREXERTED SELF WITH STD MTL CONT WHICH WAS UNUSUALLY
     HEAVY RESULTING IN SPRAIN OR STRAIN TO GROIN.
EMPLOYEE WAS DUMPING CARDDD BOX AND HE MADE SUDDEN MOVEMENT IN CATCHING CARDBOARD BOX WHICH WAS
     UNUGUALLY HEAVY RESULTING IN SPRAIN OR STRAIN TO BACK.
EMPLOYEE WAS DUMPING STD MTL CONT AND HE STRUCK SELF WITH STD MTL CONT WHICH WAS FULL AND HAD
     HOUNCED BK FM HOPPER RESULTING IN CUT/PUNCTURE TO FOREHEAD.
EMPLOYEE WAS! DUMPING STD MTL tlONT AND HE WAS CAUGHT BETWEEN CONT % EDGE OF HOPPER (CONT WAS
     UNUSUALLY HVY) RESULTING IN CUT/PUNCTURE TO FINGERS.
EMPLOYEE WAS DUMPING TOTE BARREL AND HE OVEREXERTED SELF WITH TOTE BARREL WHICH WAS FULL RESULTING
     IN SPRAIN OR STRAIN TO BACK.
EMPLOYEE WAS DUMPING STD MTL CONT AND HE WAS CAUGHT BETWEEN CONT & EDGE OF HOPPER (CONT WAS
     FALLING) RESULTING IN BRUISE TO HAND.
NO. TNJ  DAYS
    1       2
    1

    1

    4

    1

    1

    2

    3

    1

    1

    1

    1

    1

    1

    1

    2
    1

    1

    1
    2

    1

    1

    1

    1

    1

    2

    1
 0

 0

 1

 1

 1

 7

 1

 0

 2

 0

14

 2

25

 0

 7
 1

 0

 0
 0

11

 3

14

 5

 0

43

 0
COSTS
  174

   50

   32

  174

   28

   82

  537

  141

   58

  132

  100

  644

  152

 1413

   20

  347
   5S

   29

   33
   77

  269

  102

  494

  201

   55

 1731

   52

-------
                                                                                                                     PAGE  s


                                                      PROFILE                                                NO. INJ  DAYS   COSTS
EMPLOYEE  WAS  DUMPING BULK CONT 
-------
         PAGF
                                                        PROFILE
   EMPLOYEE WAS DUMPING STD MTL CONT AND' HE WAS STRUCK BY CHEMICAL WHICH FELL OUT OF TOP OF CONT
        RESULTING IN DERMATITIS TO UNK BODY PART.
   EMPLOYEE WAS DUMPING PLASTIC BAG AND HE WAS STRUCK BY CERAMIC WASTE WHICH FELL OUT OF BOTTOM OF
        CONT RESULTING IN CUT/PUNCTURE TO LEG.
   EMPl OYEE WAS DUMPING STD MTL CONT AND HE WAS STRUCK BY PIECE OF METAL WHICH WAS EJTD FROM HOPPER
        RESULTING IN CUT/PUNCTURE TO EYES.
   EMPLOYEE WAS DUMPING STD MTL CONT AND HE FELL ON WET GROUND RESULTING IN BRUISE TO ARM.
   EMPLOYEE WAS DUMPING STD MTL CONT AND HE OVEREXERTED SELF WITH STD MTL CONT WHICH WAS FULL
        RESULTING IN SPRAIN OR STRAIN TO KNEE.
   EMPLOYEE WAS DUMPING STD MTL CONT AND HE CONTACTED CAUSTIC OR TOXIC CHEMICAL RESULTING IN CHEMICAL
        HURN TO HAND.
   EMPLOYEE WAS DUMPING 300 GAL PLASTIC CONT AND HE OVEREXERTED SELF WITH 300 GAL PLASTIC CONT WHICH
        WAS FULL RESULTING IN SPRAIN OR STRAIN TO CHEST,
   EMPLOYEE WAS DUMPING STD MTL CONT AND HE WAS STRUCK BY CHEMICAL WHICH FELL OUT OF TOP OF CONT
        RESULTING IN CHEMICAL BURN TO ARM,
   EMPLOYEE. WAR DUMPING WHEELED CART AND HE OVEREXERTED SELF WITH WHEELED CART WHICH WAS FULL
        RESULTING IN SPRAIN OR STRAIN TO BACK,
   EMPLOYEE WAS DUMPING PLASTIC BAG AND HE FELL ON ROCKY GROUND RESULTING IN CUT/PUNCTURE TO CHEEK.
   EMPLOYEE WAS DUMPING STD MTL CONT AND HE WAS STRUCK BY TAILGATE RESULTING IN CUT/PUNCTURE TO FOREHEAD.
   EMPLOYEE WAS DUMPING PLASTIC CAN AND HE OVEREXERTED SELF WITH PLASTIC CAN WHICH WAS HVY (TIGHTLY
T"       PACKED) RESULTING IN SPRAIN OR STRAIN TO BACK.
Ln  EMPLOYEE WAS DUMPING STD MTL CONT AND HE WAS STRUCK BY WASTE HANBLFD BY COWORKER RESULTING IN
UJ       ABRASIONS TO EYES.
   EMPLOYEE WAS DUMPING STD MTL CONT AND HE OVEREXERTED SELF WITH HTD MTL CONT WHICH WAS UNUSUALLY
        HEAVY RESULTING IN SPRAIN OR STRAIN TO HAND.
   EMPLOYEE WAS DUMPING STD MTL CONT AND HE MADE SUDDEN MOVEMENT IN CATCHING STD MTL CONT WHICH WAS
        EMPTY AND HAM SLIPPED FROM HIS HANDS RESULTING IN SPRAIN OR STRAIN TO SHOULDER.
   EMPLOYEE WAS DUMPING STD MTL CONT AND HE FELL FROM SLIPPERY STEP OF VEH ONTO PAVEMENT RESULTING IN
        SPRAIN OR STRAIN TO BACK.
   EMPLOYEE WAS DUMPING STD MIL CONT AND HE FELL FROM STEP OF VEH ONTO PAVEMENT RESULTING IN BRUISE TO
        f LBOIJ.
   EMPLOYEE WAS DUMPING NSTD MTL CONT AND HE WAS CAUGHT BETWEEN CONT X EDGE OF HOPPER RESULTING IN
        SPRAIN OR STRAIN TO THUMB.
   EMPLOYEE WAS DUMPING STD MTL CONT ANH HE WAS CAUGHT BETWEEN CONT X EDGE OF HOPPER RESULTING IN
        BRUISE TO HAND.
   EMPLOYEE WAS DUMPING STD MTL CONT AND I IE WAS INJURED IN OTHER TYPE OF ACCIDENT RESULTING IN
        ELECTRIC SHOCK TO LEG.
   EMPLOYEE WAS DUMPING STD MTL CONT AND HE WAS STRUCK BY PIECE OF METAL WHICH FELL OUT OF TOP OF CONT
        RESULTING IN CUT/PUNCTURE TO FINGERS.
   EMPLOYEE WAS DUMPING STD MTL CdNT AND HE WAS STRUCK BY CONT HANDLED DY COWORKER WHICH WAS FULL
        RESULTING IN CUT/PUNCTURE TO FINGERS.
   FMPLOYEF WAP DUMPING STD MTL CONT AND HE STRUCK AGAINST SIDE OF VEH RESULTING IN BRUISE TO HAND.
   EMPLOYEE WAS DUMPING STD MTL CONT AND HE GOT AIRBORNE PARTICLES IN EYE RESULTING IN ABRASIONS TO EYES.
   EMPl OYEE WAS DUMPING STD MTL CONT AND HE WAS STRUCK BY GLASS WHICH FELL OUT OF TOP OF CONT
        RF.SUI  TING IN EYE  IRRITATION TO EYES.
   EMPLOYEE WAS DUMPING LITTER CAN AND HE WAS CAUGHT BETWEEN CONT S EDGE OF HOPPER (CONT WAS UNUSUALLY
        HVY)  RESULTING IN BRUISE TO HAND.
   EMPLOYEE WAS BUMPING STD MTL CONT AND HE WAS STRUCK BY COWORKER (UNINTENTIONALLY) RESULTING IN
        BRUISE TO CHEST.
   EMPLOYEE WAS DUMPING STB MTL CONT AND HE MADE SUDDEN MOVEMENT IN CATCHING STD MTL CONT WHICH WAS
        UNUSUALLY HEAVY AND HAD SLIPPED FROM HIS HANDS RESULTING IN SPRAIN OR STRAIN TO ARM.
NO. INJ  DAYS

    1       1

    1       2
    1
    1

    1

    1

    1

    1

    1
    1
    1

    1

    1

    1

    1

    1

    1

    1

    2

    1

    1

    1
    1
    3

    1

    1

    1

    1
 6
 0

12

23

 0

 0

14
 8
 0
 2
 0
 6
COSTS

   33

  156

  324
   37

   94

 1067

   57

   59

  440
   40
   22
3
2
33
4(3
5V
0
0
17
0
0
261
150
1770
1604
161)0
10(3
44
590
24
23
   67
   42
  264

   20

  177

   06

   27

-------
                                                                                                                     PARC
                                                      PROFILE
 EMPLOYEE WAS DUMPING STD MTL CONT AND' HE WAS HURT BY HANDLING STD MTL CONT WHICH HAH PROTRUDING
      WASTE RESULTING IN CUT/PUNCTURE TO WRIST,
 EMPLOYEE WAS DUMPING STD MTL CONT AND HE STRUCK AGAINST SIDE OF VEH RESULTING IN ABRASIONS TO  KNEE.
 EMPLOYE! WAS DUMPING STD MTL CONT AND HE STRUCK AGAINST CUNT HANDLED BY COWORKER WHICH WAS FULL
      RESULTING IN SPRAIN OR STRAIN TO WRIST.
 EMPLOYEE WAS DUMPING STD MTL CONT AND HE WAS STRUCK BY ROCKS/CONCRETE/DIRT WHICH FELL OUT OF TOP OF
      CONT RESULTING IN CUT/PUNCTURE TO FINGERS.
 EMPLOYEE WAS DUMPING OIL DRUM AND HE OVEREXERTED SELF WITH OIL DRUM WHICH WAS UNUSUALLY HEAVY  AND
      HNDLD WITH COWRKR RESULTING IN SPRAIN OR STRAIN TO BACK.
 EMPLOYEE WAS DUMPING PLASTIC BAG AND HE WAS STRUCK BY PLASTIC BAG WHICH HAD PROTRUDING WASTE AND
      HAD SLIPPED FROM HIS HANDS RESULTING IN CUT/PUNCTURE TO HAND.
 EMPLOYEE WAS DUMPING BULK CONT (1-10 YD) AND HE WAS STRUCK BY PARTICLES IN WASTE WHICH WAS EJTD
      FROM HOPPER RESULTING IN EYE IRRITATION TO EYES.
 EMPLOYEE WAS DUMPING STD MTL CONT AND HE WAS CAUGHT BETWEEN CONT X VEH (CONT WT SHIFTED) RESULTING
      IN BRUISE TO THUMB,
 EMPLOYEE WAS DUMPING LITTER CAN AND HE WAS CAUGHT BETWEEN CONT S EDGE OF HOPPER (CONT WAS UNUSUALLY
      HVY) RESULTING IN FRACTURE TO FINGERS.
 EMPLOYEE WAS DUMPING DULK CONT (1--10 YD) AND HE WAS STRUCK BY CABLE RESULTING IN BRUISE TO CHEST.
 EMPLOYEE WAS DUMPING STD MTL CONT AND HE CONTACTED CAUSTIC OR TOXIC CHEMICAL RESULTING IN EYE
      IRRITATION TO EYES.
 EMPLOYEE WAS DUMPING BULK CONT (1-10 YB) AND HE MADE SUDDEN MOVEMENT IN CATCHING BULK CONT (1-10  YD)
      WHICH WAS UNUSUALLY, HEAVY AND UNUSUALLY LG RESULTING IN SPRAIN OR STRAIN TO HAND.
 EMPLOYEE WAS DUMPING STD MTL CONT AND HE WAS STRUCK BY GLASS WHICH FELL OUT OF TOP OF CONT
      RESULTING IN CUT/PUNCTURE TO EYES.
 EMPLOYEE WAS DUMPING STD MTL CONT AND HE WAS STRUCK BY WOOD RESULTING IN CUT/PUNCTURE TO MOUTH.
-EMPLOYEE WAS DUMPING PLASTIC BAG AND HE WAS STRUCK BY CHEMICAL WHICH FELL OUT OF VEH RESULTING IN
      ABRASIONS TO EYES,
 EMPLOYEE WAS DUMPING STD MTL CONT AND HE WAS CAUGHT BETWEEN CONT * EDGE OF HOPPER RESULTING IN
      BRUISE TO ELBOW,
 EMPLOYEE HAS DUMPING PLASTIC BAG AND HE WAS HURT BY HANDLING PLASTIC BAG WHICH HAD PROTRUDING GLASS
      I'irSIII TING IN CUT/PUNCTURE TO ARM,
 EMPLOYEE HAS DUMPING STD MTL CONT AND HE WAS STRUCK BY GLASS WHICH FELL OUT OF VEH RESULTING IN
      CUT/PUNCTURE TO ARM.
 EMPLOYEE WAS DUMPING STD MTL CONT AND HE WAS CAUGHT BETWEEN CONT 8 EDGE OF HOPPER RESULTING IN
      BRUISE TO THUMB.
 EMPLOYEE WAS HUMPING STD MTL CONT AND HE WAS STRUCK BY WOOD RESULTING IN DRLIISE TO HAND.
 EMPLOYEE WAS DUMPING STD MTL CONT AND HE WAS STRUCK BY VEH RESULTING IN CUT/PUNCTURE TO ELBOW.
 EMPLOYEE WAS DUMPING STD MTL CONT AND HE MADE SUDDEN MOVEMENT IN CATCHING STD MTL CONT WHICH WAS
      FIJI I  RESULTING IN SPRAIN OR STRAIN TO WRIST.
 EMPLOYEE WAS DUMPING STD MTL CONT AND HE STRUCK SELF WITH STD MTL CONT WHICH WAS FULL AND HAD
      BOUNCFD BK FM HOPPER RESULTING IN BRUISE TO GROIN.
 EMPLOYEE WAS DUMPING STD MTL CONT AND HE WAS STRUCK BY GLASS WHICH DROKE AGAINST THE VEH RESULTING
      IN CUT/PUNCTURE TO EYES.
.EMPLOYEE WAS DUMPING PLASTIC BAB AND HE WAS STRUCK BY CERAMIC WASTE WHICH FELL OUT OF VEH RESULTING
      JH CUT/PUNCTURE TO ARM.
 EMPLOYEE WAS DUMPING WHEELED CART AND HE OVEREXERTED SELF WITH WHEELED CART WHICH WAS FULL
      RESULTING IN SPRAIN OR STRAIN TO ELBOW .
 EMPLOYEE WAS  DUMPING STD MTL CONT AND HE WAS CAUGHT BETWEEN CONT S EDGE OF HOPPER (CONT WAS
      UNUSUALLY HVY) RESULTING IN BRUISE TO FINGERS.
NO. INJ  DAYS   COSTS
    1
    1

    1

    1

    1

    1

    1

    1

    1
    2

    1

    1

    1
    1

    1

    1

    1

    1

    1
    1
    1

    1

    1

    1

    1
    l
 A
 0

 7

 1

 0

 0

 1

 2

 1
11

 0

 e

 0
 2

 0

15

 0

 5

 2
 8
 2

 5

 0

 O

 1
147
 20

548

139

 8A

 18

 1A

145

108
439

  7

408

 41
111

 3A

277

 38

151

 9A
297
147

300

 27

 22

1OB
20
  EMPLOYEE  WAS  DUMPING STD MTL CONT AND HE
       RESULTING IN CUTXPUNCTURE  TO ARM.
                                           3 STD MTL CONT WHICH

-------
                                                                                                                        PAGE  8
I
in
in
                                                      PROFILE
EMPLOYEE  WAS  DUMPING  PLASTIC BAG AND >
-------
                                                                                                                     PAGE
                                                     PROFILE
 EMPLOYEE  WAS  DUMPING  STD  MTL  CONT  AND  HE WAS CAUGHT BETWEEN CONT * EDGE OF HOPPER (CONT WAS
      UNUSUALLY  HVY) RESULTING IN FRACTURE  TO THUMB.
 EMPLOYEE  WAS  DUMPING.-  STD  MTL  CONT  AND  HE WAS CAUGHT BETWEEN CONT % EDGE OF HOPPER RESULTING IN
      FRACTURE TO  FINGERS.
 EMPLOYEE  WAS  DUMPING  STD  MTL  CONT  AND  HE WAS STRUCK BY OTHER WASTE WHICH FELL OUT OF TOP OF CONT
      RESULTING  IN CHEMICAL  BURN TO EYES.
 EMPLOYEE  WAS  DUMPING  UNBUNDLED SHRUBBERY AND HE WAS STRUCK BY UNBUNDLED SHRUBBERY WHICH FELl OUT OF
      VEH  RESULTING IN ABRASIONS TO EYi:S.
 EMPLOYEE  WAS  DUMPING  STD  MTL  CONT  AND  HE MADE SUDDEN MOVEMENT RESULTING IN SPRAIN OR STRAIN TO
      SHOULDER.
 EMPLOYEE  WAS  DUMPING  STD  MTL  CONT  AND  HE MADE SUDDEN MOVEMENT IN CATCHING STD MTL CONT WHICH WAS
      UNUSUALLY  HEAVY  AND  HAD  SLIPPED FROM  HIS HANDS RESULTING IN SPRAIN OR STRAIN TO HAND.
 EMPLOYEE  WAS  HUMPING  STD  MTL  CONT  AND  HE WAS STRUCK BY UNBUNDLED SHRUBBERY WHICH FELL OUT OF VEII
      RESULTING  IN ACRASIONS TO EYES.
 EMPLOYEE  WAS  DUMPING  UNK  CONT TYPE AND HE  FELL ON WET PAVEMENT RESULTING IN UNKNOWN TYPE OF INJURY
      TO HIPS,
 EMPLOYEE  WAS  DUMPING  PLASTIC  CAN AND HE OVEREXERTED SELF WITH PLASTIC CAN WHICH WAS UNUSUALLY HEAVY
      RESULTING  IN SPRAIN  OR STRAIN TO  BACK.
EMPl OYEE  WAS  DUMPING  STB  MTL  CONT  AND  HE WAS CAUGHT BETWEEN CONT X EDGE OF HOPPER (CONT WAS
      FALLING) RESULTING IN  BRUISE  TO FINGERS,
EMPLOYEE  WAS  DUMPING  STD  MTL  CONT  AND  HE OVEREXERTED SELF WITH STD MTL CONT WHICH WAS FULL
      RESULTING  IN DISLOCATION TO SHOULDER.
EMPLOYEE  WAS  DUMPING  CARDBD BARREL AND HE  WAS STRUCK BY BOTTLE WHICH WAS EJTD FROM HOPPER RESULTING
      IN CUT/PUNCTURE  TO EARS,
EMPLOYEE  UA;:;  DUMPING  STD  MTL  CONT  AND  HE WAS STRUCK BY PARTICLES IN WASTE WHICH WAS EJTD FROM
      IIOITT.R RESULTING  IN  CUT/PUNCTURE  TO EYES,
 EMPLOYEE  WAS  DUMPING  TOTE DARNEL AND HE WAS STRUCK BY PARTICLES IN WASTE WHICH WAS EJTD FROM HOPPER
      RESULTING  IN EYE  IRRITATION TO EYES.
 EMPLOYEE  WAS  DUMPING  STD  MTL  CONT  AND  HE SLIPPED WHILE ON PAVEMENT AND STRK AGNST EDGF OF HOPPER
      RESULTING  IN PRUISE  TO CHEST,
EMPLOYEE  WAS  DUMPING  PLASTIC  BAG AND HE WAS STRUCK BY CHEMICAL. WHICH FELL OUT OF TOP OF CONT
      RESULTING  IN EYF  IRRITATION TO EYES.
EMPLOYEE  WAS  DUMPING  BULK CONT (1-10 YD) AND HE GOT WASTE PARTICLES IN EYE RESULTING IN INFECTION
      TO EYES.
EMPLOYEE  WAS  DUMPING  STD  MTL  CONT  AND  HE MADE SUDDEN MOVEMENT IN CATCHING STD MTL. CONT WHICH WAS
      HVY  (YARD  CLIPPINGS) AND  SLIPPERY (WET) RESULTING IN SPRAIN OR STRAIN TO WRIST.
EMPLOYEE  WAS  DUMPING  TOTE BARREL AND HE STRUCK AGAINST BACK OF VCH RESULTING IN SPRAIN OR STRAIN TO
      HAND.
EMPLOYEE  WAS  DUMPING  STD  MIL  CONT  AND  HE STRUCK AGAINST BACK OF VF.H RESULTING IN SPRAIN OR  STRAIN
      TO THUMB.
EMPLOYEE  WAS  DUMPING  STD  MTL  CONT  AND  HE MADE SUDDEN MOVEMENT IN AVOIDING STD MTL CONT WHICH WAS
      FULL AND SLIPPERY (WET)  RESULTING IN  SPRAIN OR STRAIN TO BACK.
 EMPl OYEE  WAS  DUMPING  TOTE BARREL AND HE OVEREXERTED SELF WITH TOTE BARREL WHICH WAS FULL RESULTING
      IN UNKNOWN TYPE  OF INJURY TO  SHOULDER.
 EMPLOYEE  WAG  DUMPING  TOTE BARREL AND HE GOT WASTE PARTICLES IN EYE RESULTING IN EYE IRRITATION TO
      EYES.
 EMPLOYEE  WAS  DUMPING  STD  MTL  CONT  AND  HE WAS STRUCK BY CHEMICAL WHICH WAS EJTD FROM HOPPER
 EMPLOYEEUWASNDUMPINI3FPLASTIC  BAG  AND HE*STRUCK SELF WITH PLASTIC BAG WHICH HAH PROTRUDING GLASS
      RESULTING It* CUT/PUNCTURE TO LEG.
INJ
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
2
1
1
1
i
DAYS
13
12
0
0
9
10
1
5
0
17
145
0
0
0
20
0
0
1
0
0
0
2
0
o
COSTS
660
374
53
18
449
169
46
420
20
989
3603
41
80
If.
979
50
39
87
38
124
176
93
29
115

-------
                                                                                                                     PAGE 10
                                                     PROFILE
EMPLOYEE WAS DUMPING BULK CONT  (1-10 YD) AND HE GOT WASTE PARTICLES IN EYE RESULTING IN EYE
     IRRITATION  TO EYES.
EMPLOYEE WAS DUMPING TOTE BARREL AND HE WAS STRUCK BY CHEMICAL WHICH FELL OUT OF TOP OF CONT
     RESULTING IN EYE  IRRITATION TO EYES.
EMPLOYEE WAS DUMPING STD MTL CONT AND HE WAS STRUCK BY VEH RESULTING IN BRUISE TO FOOT.
EMPLOYEE WAS PUMPING STD MTL CONT AND HE WAS STRUCK BY GLASS WHICH FELL OUT OF TOP OF CONT
     RESULTING IN CUT/PUNCTURE  TO WRIST.
EMPLOYEE WAS DUMPING STD MTL CONT AND HE WAS INJURED IN UNK ACCIDENT RESULTING IN BRUISE TO EARS,
EMPLOYEE WAS DUMPING WHEELED CART AND HE WAS STRUCK BY GLASS WHICH WAS EJTD FROM HOPPER RESULTING
     IN CUT/PUNCTURE TO EARS.
EMPLOYEE WAS DUMPING CARDBD BARREL AND HE GOT WASTE PARTICLES IN EYE RESULTING IN EYE IRRITATION TO
     EYES.
EMPLOYEE WAS DUMPING CARDBD BARREL AND HE MADE SUDDEN MOVEMENT RESULTING IN SPRAIN OR STRAIN TO NECK.
EMPLOYEE WAS DUMPING STD MTL CONT AND HE WAS INJURED FROM AGGRESSIVE ACT RESULTING IN BRUISE TO SKULL.
EMPLOYEE WAS DUMPING OIL DRUM AND HE OVEREXERTED SELF WITH OIL DRUM WHICH WAS FULL RESULTING IN
     SPRAIN OR STRAIN  TO SHOULDER.
EMPLOYEE WAS DUMPING NSTD MTL CONT AND HE OVEREXERTED SELF WITH NSTD MTL CONT. WHICH WAS UNUSUALLY
     HEAVY RESULTING IN SPRAIN  GR STRAIN TO BACK.
EMPLOYEE WrtT DUMPING WHEELED CART AND HE STRUCK AGAINST STEP OF VEH RESULTING IN BRUISE TO KNEE.
E"MM OYrr WAG HUMPING STD MTL CONT AND HE SLIPPED STEPPING ON WET PAVEMENT RESULTING IN SPRAIN OR
     STRAIN TO BACK.
EMPLOYEE WAS DUMPING STD MTL CONT AND HE OVEREXERTED SELF WITH STD MTL CONT WHICH WAS UNUSUALLY
     HEAVY RET.UL. TING IN SPRAIN  OR STRAIN TO ARM,
FMPLOYEr WAS DUMPING STD MTL. CONT AND HE STRUCK SELF WITH STD MTL CONT WHICH WAS UNUSUALLY HEAVY
     AND HAD SLIPPED FROM HIS HANDS RESULTING IN BRUISE TO FOOT.
EMPLOYEE WAS DUMPING CARDBD BOX AND HE WAS CAUGHT IN PACKER BLADE RESULTING IN FRACTURE TO WRIST.
EMPLOYEE WAS DUMPING STD MTL CONT AND HE WAS STRUCK BY GLASS WHICH FELL OUT OF TOP OF CONT
     RESULTING IN CUT/PUNCTURE  TO ARM.
EMPLOYEE WAS DUMPINGNSTD MTL CONT AND HE GOT WASTE PARTICLES IN EYE RESULTING IN INFECTION TO EYES.
EMPLOYEE WAS DUMPING STD MTL CONT AND HE SLIPPED WHILE ON WET RUNNING BOARD AND STRK AGNST SIDE OF
     HOPPER RESULTING  IN BRUISE TO WRIST.
EMPLOYEE WAS DUMPING STD MTL CONT AND HE STRUCK SELF WITH STD MTL CONT WHICH HAD PROTRUDING
     SHRUBBERY RESULTING IN EYE IRRITATION TO EYES.
EMPLOYEE WAS DUMPING PLASTIC BAG AND HE FELL ON WET PAVEMENT RESULTING IN BRUISE TO KNEE.
EMPLOYEE WAS DUMPING BULK CONf  (1--10 YD) AND HE SLIPPED WHILE ON OBJ ON GROUND AND STRK AGNST BACK
     OF VEH RESULTING  IN BRUISE TO HAND.
EMPLOYEE WAG DUMPING TOTE BARREL AND HE WAS CAUGHT BETWEEN CONT 8 EDGE OF HOPPER (CONT HAD BOUNCED
     BK FM HOPPER) RESULTING IN SPRAIN OR STRAIN TO FINGERS.
FMPLOYEr WAS DUMPING STD MTL CONT AND HE WAS HURT BY HANDLING STD MTL CONT WHICH WAS FULL AND THE
     HANDLE BROKE RESULTING  IN  SPRAIN OR STRAIN TO WRIST.
EMPLOYEE WAS DUMPING STD MTL CONT AND HE STRUCK SELF WITH STD MTL CONT WHICH WAS FULL AND HAD
     BOUNCED BK  FM HOPPER RESULTING  IN BRUISE TO CHEST.
EMPLOYEE WAS DUMPING BULK CONT  (1-10 YD) AND HE WAS STRUCK BY BULK CONT(1-10 YD) RESULTING IN
     SPRAIN OR STRAIN  TO KNEE.
EMPLOYEE WAS DUMPING STD MTL CONT AND HE STRUCK SELF WITH STD MTL CONT WHICH WAS UNUSUALLY HEAVY
     AND HAD SLIPPED FROM HIS HANDS  RESULTING IN FRACTURE TO TOES.
EMPLOYEE WAS DUMPING STD MTL CONT AND HE WAS STRUCK BY GLASS WHICH WAS EJTD FROM HOPPER RESULTING
     IN EYE IRRITATION TO EYES..
EMPLOYEE WAS DUMPING STD MTL CONT AND HE SLIPPED WHILE ON PAVEMENT AND STRK AGNST BLADE OF VEH
     RESULTING  IN CUT/PUNCTURE  TO HAND.
                                                                                                            NO. INJ  DAYS
1
1

1

2

1
1

1
1
1
1

1

1

1

1

1

1

2

1
        8
       74

        8
        0
        0
        0
        0
15
 0

12

23

 6
93

 2
 9
 0
 6

 0

 0

 3

 0

 2

 1

 1

25
COSTS

   15

  469
 3821

  253
   20

   16

   85
   26
   16

  100

  768
   16

  903

  956

  219
 1630

  183
  351

  162

   20
  215

   16

   25

  289

   17

  144

  108

  128

  838

-------
                                                                                                                        PAGE 11
 I
cn
oo
                                                     PROFILE
EMPLOYEE WAS DUMPING HULK CONT  <1-10' YD) AND HE MADE SUDDEN MOVEMENT IN CATCHING BULK CONTU-10 YD)
     WHICH WAS FULL RESULTING IN SPRAIN OR STRAIN TO BACK,
EMPLOYEE WAS DUMPING STD MTL CONT AND HE WAS CAUGHT BETWEEN CONT S EDGE OF HOPPER RESULTING IN
     INFECTION TO FINGERS,
EMPLOYEE WAS DUMPTNG STD MTL CONT AND HE FELL ON GROUND RESULTING IN SPRAIN OR STRAIN TO BACK,
EMPLOYEE WAS DUMPING WHEELED CART AND HE SLIPPED STEPPING ON ICY GROUND RESULTING IN UNKNOWN TYPE
     OF INJURY TO UNK BODY PART,
EMPLOYEE WAS DUMPING NSTD MTL CONT AND HE OVEREXERTED SELF WITH NSTD MTL CONT WHICH WAS FULL AND
     UNUSUALLY L.C RESULTING IN  SPRAIN OR STRAIN TO ABDOMEN,
EMPLOYEE WAS DUMPING STD MTL CONT AND HE OVEREXERTED SELF WITH STD MTL CONT WHICH WAS HVY (ROCKS)
     RESULTING IN SPRAIN OR STRAIN TO SHOULDER,
EMPLOYEE HAS DUMPING STD MTL CONT AND HE SLIPPED WHILE ON ICY GROUND AND STRK AGNST BACK OF VEH
     RESUI TING IN BRUISE TO SHOULDER.
EMPLOYEE WAS HUMPING STD MTL CONT AND HE SLIPPED WHILE ON PAVEMENT AND STRK AGNST BLADE OF VEH
     RESULTING IN CUT/PUNCTURE  TO ARM.
EMPLOYEE WAS DUMPING PLASTIC DAG AND HE OVEREXERTED SELF WITH PLASTIC BAG WHICH WAS UNUSUALLY HEAVY
     RESULTING IN SPRAIN OR STRAIN TO NECK.
EMPLOYEE WAS HUMPING STD MTL CONT AND HE WAS STRUCK BY BOTTLE WHICH WAS EJTD FROM HOPPER RESULTING
     IN FRACTURE.TO NOSE,
EMPLOYEE WAS DUMPING PLASTIC CAN AND HE MADE SUDDEN MOVEMENT RESULTING IN SPRAIN OR STRAIN TO BACK.
EMPLOYEE HAS DUMPING STD MTL CONT AND HE WAS STRUCK BY UNKNOWN WASTE WHICH WAS EJTD FROM HOPPER
     RESULTING IN EYE I.RR] (ATION TO EYES.
EMPLOYEE HAS DUMPING STD MTL CONT AND HE STRUCK SELF WITH STD MTL CONT WHICH WAS UNUSUALLY HEAVY
     RESULTING IN BRUISE TO LEO.
EMPLOYEE WAS DUMPING NSTD MTL CONT AND HE OVEREXERTED SELF WITH NSTD MTL CONT WHICH WAS FULL
     RESULTING IN SPRAIN OR STRAIN TO BACK.
EMPLOYEE WAS DUMPING STD MTL CONT AND HE STRUCK AGAINST POST RESULTING IN BRUISE TO MULTIPLE BODY
     PARTS.
EMPLOYEE WAS DUMPING TOTE BARREL AND HE STRUCK AGAINST TOTE BARREL RESULTING IN DRUISE TO ELBOW.
EMPLOYEE WAS DUMPING PLASTIC CAN AND HE STRUCK AGAINST EDGE OF HOPPER RESULTING IN BRUISE TO SHOULDER.
EMPLOYEE WAS DUMPING STD MTL CONT AND HE SLIPPED WHILE ON ICY GROUND AND STRK AGNST STEP OF VEH
     RESULTING IN BRUISE TO KNEE.
EMPLOYEE WAS DUMPING TOTE BARREL AND HE WAS STRUCK BY BLADE OF VEH RESULTING IN ABRASIONS TO HAND.
EMPLOYEE WAS DUMPING STD MIL CONT AND HE MADE SUDDEN MOVEMENT IN AVOIDING ANIMAL RESULTING IN
     SPRAIN OR STRAIN TO WRIST.
EMPLOYEE WAS DUMPING STD MTL CONT AND HE MADE SUDDEN MOVEMENT IN CATCHING STD MTL CONT WHICH WAS
     FULl  AND HAD SLIPPED FROM  HIS HANDS RESULTING IN SPRAIN OR STRAIN TO THUMB.
EMPLOYEE WAS DUMPING STD MTL CONT AND HE WAS INJURED WHEN VEH MADE SUDDEN START RESULTING IN SPRAIN
     OR STRAIN TO BACK.
EMPLOYEE WAS DUMPING BULK CONT  (1-10 YD) AND HE WAS STRUCK BY BULK CONT(1-10 YD) RESULTING IN
     BRUISE TO HAND,
EMPLOYEE WAS DUMPING STD MTL CONT AND HE SLIPPED STEPPING ON DEPRESSION RESULTING IN SPRAIN OR
     STRAIN TO LEG.
EMPLOYEE WAS PUMPING STD MTL CONT AND HE WAS STRUCK BY UNKNOWN WASTE WHICH WAS EJTU FROM HOPPER
     RESULTING IN CUT/PUNCTURE  TO EYES.

              TOTAL
                                                                                                               NO. INJ  DAYS
                                                                                                                          12
              COSTS

                740
  1
  1


  1


  1


  1


  1


  1


  1


  1
  1


  1


  1


  1


  1
  1
  1


  1
  1


  1


  1


  1

  1

  1

  1

422
0
2
9
15
1
0
77
2
3
1
1
5
4
6
0
0
2
13
0
0
2
0
o
o
2451
43
196
489
2223
63
20
3692
100
284
144
108
200
220
346
20
20
142
750
24
37
118
49
16
3 if,
1171O1

-------
                                                               FIGURE  1-9
                                                                                                                         PAGE
                                                                  ALL USERS
                                                           DETAILED DESCRIPTION OF
                                                     LIFTING TO DUMP CONTAINER ACCIDENT S
                                                        OSHA RECORDABLE INJURIES ONLY
     REPORTING PERIOD I DECEMBER 1975 - DECEMBER 1976

     THIS PROFILE IS A FORMATTED SENTENCE CONSISTING OF ACTIVITY*  ACCIDENT TYPE rNATURE OF INJRURY  AND  PART  OF  BODY.
 I
01
                                                     PROFILE
EMPLOYEE WAS LIFTING TO DUMP STD MTL CONT AND H€ MADE SUDDEN MOVEMENT IN CATCHING STD MTL CONT
     WHICH WAS UNUSUALLY HEAVY AND HAD SLIPPED FROM HIS HANDS RESULTING IN SPRAIN OR STRAIN TO THUMB.
EMPLOYEE WAS LIFTING TO DUMP TOTE BARREL AND HE OVEREXERTED SELF WITH TOTE BARREL WHICH WAS FULL
     RESULTING IN SPRAIN OR STRAIN TO BACK.
EMPLOYEE WAS LIFTING TO DUMP STD MTL CONT AND HE OVEREXERTED SELF WITH STD MTL CONT WHICH WAS
     UNUSUALLY HEAVY RESULTING IN SPRAIN OR STRAIN TO BACK,
EMPLOYEE WAS LIFTING TO DUMP STD MTL CONT AND HE OVEREXERTED SELF WITH STD MTL CONT WHICH WAS FULL
     RESULTING IN SPRAIN OR STRAIN TO BACK.
EMPLOYEE WAS LIFTING TO DUMP STD MTL CONT AND HE SLIPPED STEPPING ON ICY PAVEMENT RESULTING IN
     SPRAIN OR STRAIN TO BACK.
EMPLOYEE WAS LIFTING TO DUMP PLASTIC BAG AND HE STRUCK SELF WITH PLASTIC BAG WHICH HAD PROTRUDING
     GLAf.S RESULTING IN CUT/PUNCTURE TO LEG.
EMPLOYEE WAS LIFTING TO DUMP STD MTL CONT AND HE SLIPPED STEPPING ON WET STAIRS RESULTING IN SPRAIN
     OR STRAIN TO ANKLE,
EMPLOYEE WAS LIFTING TO DUMP OTHER CONT TYPE AND HE OVEREXERTED SELF WITH OTHER CONT TYPE WHICH WAS
     UNUSUALLY HEAVY RESULTING IN SPRAIN OR STRAIN TO BACK.
EMPLOYEE WAS LIFTING TO DUMP TOTE BARREL AND HE OVEREXERTED SELF WITH TOTE BARREL WHICH WAS
     UNUSUALLY HEAVY AND STRK AGNST STEP OF VEH RESULTING  IN SPRAIN OR STRAIN TO SHOULDER.
EMPLOYEE WAS LIFTING TO DUMP STD MTL CONT AND HE OVEREXERTED SELF WITH STD MTL CONT WHICH WAS FULL
     RESULTING IN SPRAIN OR STRAIN TO TRUNK.
EMPLOYEE WAS LIFTING TO DUMP PLASTIC CAN AND HE OVEREXERTED SELF WITH PLASTIC CAN WHICH WAS FULL
             MISSING HANDLES RESULTING IN SPRAIN OR STRAIN TO SHOULDER.
             LIFTING TO DUMP STD MTL CONT AND HE CONTACTED CAUSTIC OR TOXIC EXHAUST FUMES RESULTING
                     OR DROWNING TO INTERNAL ORGANS.
EMPLOYEE WAS LIFTING TO DUMP STD MTL CONT AND HE MADE SUDDEN MOVEMENT IN CATCHING STD MTL CONT
     WHICH WAS UNUSUALLY HEAVY AND IN WHICH WEIGHT SHIFTED RESULTING IN SPRAIN OR STRAIN TO THUMB,
EMPLOYEE WAS LIFTING TO DUMP STD MTL CONT AND HE OVEREXERTED SELF WITH STD MTL CONT WHICH WAS HVY
     (WATER FILLED) RESULTING IN SPRAIN OR STRAIN TO BACK.
EMPLOYEE WAS LIFTING TO DUMP CARDED BOX AND HE MADE SUDDEN MOVEMENT IN CATCHING CARDBOARD BOX WHICH
     WAS HVY (WATER FILLED) AND HAD SLIPPED FROM HIS HANDS RESULTING IN SPRAIN OR STRAIN TO SHOULDER.
EMPLOYEE WAS LIFTING TO DUMP STD MTL CONT AND HE STRUCK SELF WITH STD MTL CONT WHICH WAS FULL AND
     HAD SLIPPED FROM HIS  HANDS RESULTING IN BRUISE TO FOOT,
EMPLOYEE WAS LIFTING TO DUMP STD MTL CONT AND HE OVEREXERTED SELF WITH STD MTL CONT WHICH WAS FULL
     RESULTING IN SPRAIN OR STRAIN TO GROIN.
EMPLOYEE WAS LIFTING TO DUMP STD MTL CONT AND HE OVEREXERTED SELF WITH STD MTL. CONT WHICH WAS FULL
     RESULTING IN SPRAIN OR STRAIN TO OTHER BODY PART,
EMPLOYEE WAS LIFTING TO DUMP STD MTL CONT AND HE OVEREXERTED SELF WITH STD MTL CONT WHICH WAS FULL
     RESULTING IN SPRAIN OR STRAIN TO SHOULDER.
EMPLOYEE WAS LIFTING TO DUMP STD MTL CONT AND HE OVEREXERTED SELF WITH STD MTL CONT WHICH WAS
     UNUSUALLY HEAVY RESULTING IN SPRAIN OR STRAIN TO GROIN.
EMPLOYEE WAS LIFTING TO DUMP CARDED BOX AND HE WAS HURT BY HANDLING CARDBOARD BOX WHICH HAD
     PROTRUDING GLASS RESULTING IN CUT/PUNCTURE TO WRIST.
EMPLOYEE WAS LIFTING TO DUMP CARDBD BARREL AND HE OVEREXERTED SELF WITH CARDBOARD BARREL WHICH WAS
     UNUSUALLY HEAVY RESULTING IN SPRAIN OR STRAIN TO ARM.
          AND HAD
     EMPLOYEE WAS
          IN ASPHYXIATION
NO. INJ
1
2
28
25
1
24
1
1
1
2
1
1
1
2
1
1
1
1
6
3
1
1
DAYS
17
4
340
229
0
75
0
12
0
18
0
4
35
8
2
1
7
14
68
17
6
0
COSTS
417
75
14269
10207
20
4256
49
509
49
361
46
120
2698
692
145
86
158
156
2457
785
243
12

-------
                                                                                                               PAGE
                                                     PROFILE
EMPLOYEE WAS LIFTING TO DUMP STD MTL CONT AND HE OVEREXERTED SELF WITH STD MTL CONT WHICH WAS
     UNUSUALLY HEAVY RESULTING  IN SPRAIN OR STRAIN TO ARM.
EMPLOYEE WAS LIFTING TO DUMP STD MTL CONT AND HE WAS STRUCK BY STD MTL CONT WHICH WAS FULL AND HAD
     BOUNCED BK FM HOPPER RESULTING IN BRUISE TO GROIN,
EMPLOYEE WAS LIFTING TO DUMP OIL DRUM AND HE OVEREXERTED SELF WITH OIL DRUM WHICH WAS UNUSUALLY
     HEAVY AND UNUSUALLY LG RESULTING IN SPRAIN OR STRAIN TO GROIN,
EMPLOYEE WAS LIFTING TO DUMP STD MTL CONT AND HE SLIPPED WHILE ON UNEVEN GROUND AND STRK AGNST STEP
     OF VEH RESULTING IN BRUISE TO LEG.
EMPLOYEE WAS LIFTING TO DUMP WHEELED CART AND HE OVEREXERTED SELF WITH WHEELED CART WHICH WAS
     UNUSUALLY HEAVY AND UNUSUALLY LG RESULTING IN SPRAIN OR STRAIN TO WRIST.
EMPLOYEE WAS LIFTING TO DUMP PLASTIC BAG AND HE WAS HURT BY HANDLING PLASTIC BAG WHICH HAD
     PROTRUDING GLASS RESULTING IN CUT/PUNCTURE TO THUMB.
EMPLOYEE WAR LIFTING TO DUMP ST11 MTL CONT AND HE SLIPPED STEPPING ON DEPRESSION RESULTING IN SPRAIN
     OR STRAIN TO ANKLE.
EMPLOYEE WAS LIFTING TO DUMP PLASTIC BAG AND HE STRUCK AGAINST SIDE OF VEH RESULTING IN BRUISE TO
     KNEE.
EMPLOYEE WAS LIFTING TO DUMP STD MTL CONT AND HE OVEREXERTED SELF WITH STD MTL CONT WHICH WAS FULL
     RESULTING IN SPRAIN OR STRAIN TO HIPS.
EMPLOYEE WAS LIFTING TO DUMP STD MTL CONT AND HE WAS STRUCK BY CHEMICAL WHICH FELL OUT OF TOP OF
     CONT RESULTING IN CHEMICAL BURN TO HAND.
EMPLOYEE WAS LIFTING TO DUMP TOTE BARREL AND HE SLIPPED STEPPING ON PAVEMENT RESULTING IN SPRAIN OR
     STRAIN TO KNEE.
EMPLOYEE WAS LIFTING TO DUMP PLASTIC BAG AND HE WAS HURT BY HANDLING PLASTIC BAG WHICH HAD
     PROTRUDING GLASS RESULTING IN CUT/PUNCTURE TO FINGERS.
EMPLOYEE WAS LIFTING TO DUMP PLASTIC BAG AND HE STRUCK SELF WITH PLASTIC BAG WHICH HAD PROTRUDING
     WASTE RESULTING IN CUT/PUNCTURE TO LEG.
EMPLOYEE WAS LIFTING TO DUMP PLASTIC BAG AND HE STRUCK SELF WITH PLASTIC BAG WHICH HAD PROTRUDING
     GLASS RESULTING IN CUT/PUNCTURE TO ARM,
EMPLOYEE WAS LIFTING TO DUMP STD MTL CONT AND HE FELL WHILE ON WET RUNNING BOARD AND STRK AGNST STD
     MTL CONT RESULTING IN BRUISE TO KNEE.
EMPLOYEE WAS LIFTING TO DUMP STD MTL CONT AND HE OVEREXERTED SELF WITH STD MTL CONT WHICH WAS HVY
     (YARD CLIPPINGS) RESULTING IN SPRAIN OR STRAIN TO BACK.
EMPLOYEE WAS LIFTING TO DUMP STD MTL CONT AND HE WAS HURT BY HANDLING STD MTL CONT WHICH UAS FULL
     RESULTING IN CUT/PUNCTURE TO HAND.
EMPLOYEE WAS LIFTING TO DUMP PLASTIC BAG AND HE STRUCK SELF WITH PLASTIC BAG WHICH HAD A PROTRUDING
     HYPODERMIC Nf TPIF ^ESULTING IN CUT/PUNCTURE TO ARM.
EMPLOYEE WAS LIFTINO 10 DUMP PLASTIC BAG AND HE OVEREXERTED SELF WITH PLASTIC BAG WHICH WAS HVY
     (YARD CLIPPINGS) RESULTING IN SPRAIN OR STRAIN TO ARM.
EMPLOYEE WAS LIFTING TO DUMP PLASTIC BAG AND HE OVEREXERTED SELF WITH PLASTIC BAG WHICH WAS HVY
     (YARD CLIPPINGS) RESULTING IN SPRAIN OR STRAIN TO SHOULDER.
EMPLOYEE WAS LIFTING TO DUMP STD MTL CONT AND HE STRUCK SELF WITH STD MTL CONT WHICH WAS FULL
     RESULTING IN CUT/PUNCTURE  TO LEG.
EMPLOYEE UAS LIFTING TO DUMP STD MTL CONT AND HE OVEREXERTED SELF WITH STD MTL CONT WHICH WAS
     UNUSUALLY HEAVY AND BEING  HNDLD U OTHER CONT RESULTING IN SPRAIN OR STRAIN TO BACK.
EMPLOYEE UAS LIFTING TO DUMP STD MTL CONT AND HE OVEREXERTED SELF WITH STD MTL CONT WHICH WAS FULL
     RESULTING  IN SPRAIN OR STRAIN TO HAND.
EMPLOYEE UAS LIFTING  TO DUMP STD MTL CONT AND HE GOT UASTE PARTICLES IN EYE RESULTING IN EYE
      IRRITATION TO  EYES.			, ,_m =„«,..»=^i»v RE-euL-rrNO xn SF-rtaxn
 EMPLOYEE WAS l^IFTXNO TO ULIMR STD MTL CONT AND HE STER
                                                                                                      NO.  INJ  DAYS

                                                                                                          1

                                                                                                          1

                                                                                                          1

                                                                                                          1

                                                                                                          1

                                                                                                          2

                                                                                                          1

                                                                                                          1

                                                                                                          i

                                                                                                          1

                                                                                                          1

                                                                                                          6

                                                                                                          3

                                                                                                          6

                                                                                                          1

                                                                                                          2

                                                                                                          1

                                                                                                          1

                                                                                                          1

                                                                                                          1

                                                                                                          1

                                                                                                          1
»YS
0
1
2
19
0
0
16
0
0
0
6
2
8
1
0
0
0
0
0
2
12
79
COSTS
45
47
16
770
43
43
543
45
20
35
20
338
461
284
55
83
64
32
72
334
458
•419O
                                                                                                                         32

                                                                                                                       Z4O
OR STRAIt
          TO ANKLE.

-------
                                                                                                                     PAGE
                                                     PROFILE
EMPLOYEE WAS LIFTING TO DUMP PLASTIC BAG AND HE OVEREXERTED SELF WITH PLASTIC BAG WHICH WAS FULL IN
     STEPPING DOWN RESULTING IN SPRAIN OR STRAIN TO GROIN.
EMPLOYEE WAS LIFTING TO DUMP STD MTL CONT AND HE OVEREXERTED SELF WITH STD MTL CONT WHICH WAS FULL
     RESULTING IN SPRAIN OR STRAIN TO APDOMEN.
EMPLOYEE WAS LIFTING TO DUMP STD MTL CONT AND HE OVEREXERTED SELF WITH STD MTL CONT WHICH WAS
     UNUSUALLY HEAVY RESULTING IN SPRAIN OR STRAIN TO HIPS.
EMPLOYEE WAS LIFTING TO DUMP PLASTIC DAG AND HE WAS HURT BY HANDLING PLASTIC BAG WHICH HAD
     PROTRUDING WASTE RESULTING IN CUT/PUNCTURE TO THUMB.
EMPLOYEE WAS LIFTING TO DUMP TOTE BARREL AND HE FELL ON GROUND RESULTING IN SPRAIN OR STRAIN TO KNEE.
EMPLOYEE WAS LIFTING TO DUMP STD MTL CONT AND HE WAS CAUGHT BETWEEN CONT 8 EDGE .OF HOPPER (CONT WAS
     UNUSUALLY HVY) RESULTING IN FRACTURE TO HAND,
EMPLOYEE WAS LIFTING TO DUMP STD MTL CONT AND HE STRUCK SELF WITH STD MTL CONT WHICH WAS FULL
     RESULTING IN BRUISE TO HAND.
EMPLOYEE WAS LIFTING TO DUMP CARDBD BOX AND HE OVEREXERTED SELF WITH CARDBOARD BOX WHICH WAS HVY
     (ROCKS) RESULTING IN SPRAIN OR STRAIN TO BACK.
EMPLOYEE WAS LIFTING TO DUMP STD MTL CONT AND HE STRUCK AGAINST SIDE OF VEH RESULTING IN BRUISE TO
     HAND,
EMPLOYEE WAS LIFTING TO DUMP STD MTL CONT AND HE OVEREXERTED SELF WITH STD MTL CONT WHICH WAS FULL
     RESULTING IN JiPRAIN OR STRAIN TO CHEST.
EMPLOYEE WAS LIFTING TO DUMP STD MTL CONT AND HE OVEREXERTED SELF WITH STD MTL CONT WHICH WAS
     UNUSUALLY HEAVY AND HNDLD WITH COWRKR RESULTING IN SPRAIN OR STRAIN TO NECK.
EMPLOYEE WAS LIFTING TO DUMP PLASTIC BAG AND HE OVEREXERTED SELF WITH PLASTIC BAG WHICH WAS FULL
     AND BEING HNDLD W OTHER CONT RESULTING IN SPRAIN OR STRAIN TO SHOULDER.
EMPLOYEE WAS LIFTING TO DUMP CARDBD BOX AND HE OVEREXERTED SELF WITH CARDBOARD BOX WHICH WAS FULL
     RESULTING IN SPRAIN OR STRAIN TO ABDOMEN.
EMPLOYEE WAS LIFTING TO DUMP STD MTL CONT AND HE WAS STRUCK BY BOTTLE WHICH WAS EJTD FROM HOPPER
     RESULTING IN CUT/PUNCTURE TO LEG.
EMPLOYEE WAS LIFTING TO DUMP PLASTIC DAG AND HE WAS STRUCK BY UNBUNDLED SHRUBBERY WHICH FELL OUT OF
     TOP OF CONT RESULTING IN CUT/PUNCTURE TO LEG.
EMPLOYEE WAS LIFTING TO DUMP PLASTIC BAG AND HE STRUCK SELF WITH PLASTIC BAG WHICH HAD A PROTRUDING
     HYPODERMIC NEEDLE RESULTING IN CUT/PUNCTURE TO LEG.
EMPLOYEE WAS LIFTING TO DUMP TOTE BARREL AND HE STRUCK AGAINST EDGE OF HOPPER RESULTING IN BRUISE
     TO KNEE.
EMPLOYEE WAS LIFTING TO DUMP STD MTL CONT AND HE OVEREXERTED SELF WITH STD MTL CONT WHICH WAS
     UNUSUALLY HEAVY RESULTING IN SPRAIN OR STRAIN TO SHOULDER.
EMPLOYEE WAS LIFTING TO DUMP PLASTIC BAG AND HE WAS STRUCK BY GLASS WHICH WAS EJTD FROM HOPPER
     RESULTING IN CUT/PUNCTURE TO SHOULDER,
EMPLOYEE WAS LIFTING TO DUMP STD MTL CONT AND HE OVEREXERTED SELF WITH STD MTL CONT WHICH WAS FULL
     RESULTING IN SPRAIN OR STRAIN TO ARM.
EMPLOYEE WAS LIFTING TO DUMP STD MTL CONT AND HE STRUCK SELF WITH STD MTL CONT RESULTING IN BRUISE
     TO KNEE.
EMPLOYEE WAS LIFTING TO DUMP STD MTL CONT AND HE OVEREXERTED SELF WITH STD MTL CONT WHICH WAS
     UNUSUALLY HEAVY RESULTING IN SPRAIN OR STRAIN TO ABDOMEN,
EMPLOYEE WAS LIFTING TO DUMP TOTE BARREL AND HE OVEREXERTED SELF WITH TOTE BARREL WHICH WAS
     UNUSUALLY HEAVY AND UNUSUALLY LG RESULTING IN SPRAIN OR STRAIN TO BACK,
EMPLOYEE WAS LIFTING TO DUMP OIL DRUM AND HE SLIPPED WHILE ON OILY PAVEMENT AND STRK AGNST OIL DRUM
     RESULTING IN SPRAIN OR STRAIN TO BACK,
                                                                                                            NO.  INJ  DAYS   COSTS
1

1

2

1
1

2

1

1

1

1

1

i

1

1

1

2

1

6

1

1

1

2

1

1
 2

 0

 2

 0
26

36

 1

29

 0

 1

 8

 0

 0

 0

 0

 0

 5

59

 5

 1

 4

28

 6

59
 14f

  42
123E

 955

  57

1450

  32

  71

  61

  36

  27

  52

  12

  30

  82

1639

 280

 125

 167

1432

 159

2784

-------
EMPLOYEE  MAS  I. IFTING  TO  DUMP  STD  MTL  I.70NT AND HE WAP CAUGHT HI TWtTM r»NT & VEH lfFRDI.TI.NO TN
     FRACTURE  TO  FINGERS
EMPLOYEE  WAS  LIFTING  STD MTL  CONT AND HE FELL WHILE ONSTEP OF VEH AND STRK AGNST STEP OF
              VEH  REJUU.TTNG  IN BRUISE  TO KNEE.
EMPLOYEE  WAS  LIFTING  TO  DUMP  PLASTIC  BAG AND HE WAS STRUCK BY CONT HANDLED BY COWORKER RESULTING IN
     BRUISE TO LEG.
EMPLOYEE  WAS  LIFTING  TO  DUMP  PLASTIC  BAG AND HE WAS HURT BY HANDLING PLASTIC BAG WHICH HAD
     PROTRUDING GLASS RESULTING IN CUT/PUNCTURE TO HAND.
EMPLOYEE  WAS  LIFTING  TO  DUMP  STD MTL  CONT AND HE STRUCK AGAINST EDGE OF HOPPER RESULTING IN BRUISE
     TO HIPS.
EMPLOYEE  WAS  LIFTING  TO  DUMP  STD MTL  CONT AND HE MADE SUDDEN MOVEMENT IN AVOIDING ANIMAL RESULTING
     IN SPRAIN OR STRAIN TO BACK.
EMPLOYEE  WAS LIFTING  TO  DUMP  OTHER CONT TYPE AND HE WAS STRUCK BY OTHER CONT TYPE WHICH WAS EMPTY
     AND  HAD  BOUNCED  BK  FM HOPPER RESULTING IN CUT/PUNCTURE TO ARM.
EMPLOYEE  WAS LIFTING  TO  DUMP  PLASTIC  BAG AND HE WAS HURT BY HANDLING PLASTIC BAG WHICH HAD
     PROTRUBING GLASS RESULTING IN CUT/PUNCTURE TO ARM.
EMPLOYEE  WAS LIFTING  TO  DUMP  STD MTL  CONT AND HE OVEREXERTED SELF WITH STD MTL CONT WHICH WAS HVY
     (WOOD) AND HNDLD WITH COWRKR RESULTING IN SPRAIN OR STRAIN TO BACK.
EMPLOYEE  WAS LIFTING  TO  DUMP  CARDBD BOX AND HE WAS STRUCK BY CARDBOARD BOX WHICH FELL OUT OF VEH
   .  RESULTING IN BRUISE TO THUMB,
EMPLOYEE  WAS LIFTING  TO  DUMP  STD MTL  CONT AND HE WAS STRUCK BY SHARP OBJ WHICH WAS EJTD FROM HOPPER
     RESULTING IN CUT/PUNCTURE TO EYES.
EMPLOYEE  WAS LIFTING  TO  DUMP  NSTD MTL CONT AND HE OVEREXERTED SELF WITH NSTD MTL CONT WHICH WAS
     UNUSUALLY HEAVY  RESULTING IN SPRAIN OR STRAIN TO BACK,
EMPLOYEE  WAS LIFTING  TO  DUMP  STD MTL CONT AND HE STEPPED ON NAIL RESULTING IN CUT/PUNCTURE TO FOOT.
EMPLOYEE  WAS LIFTING  TO  DUMP  PLASTIC BAG AND HE FELL FROM RUNNING BOARD ONTO PAVEMENT RESULTING IN
     SPRAIN OR STRAIN' TO BACK,
EMPLOYEE  WAS LIFTING  TO  DUMP  STD MTL CONT AND HE OVEREXERTED SELF WITH STD MTL CONT WHICH WAS HVY
      RESULTING IN BRUISE TO TOES.
EMPLOYEE  UAS  LIFTING  TO  DUMP  PLASTIC  DAG AND HE STRUCK SELF WITH PLASTIC BAG WHICH WAS UNUSUALLY
     HEAVY AND HAD  PROTRUDING GLASS RESULTING IN CUT/PUNCTURE TO ANKLE.
EMPLOYEE  WAS  LIFTING  TO  DUMP  STD  MTL  CONT AND HE WAS STRUCK BY STD MTL•CONT WHICH WAS FULL
      RESULTING IN BRUISE TO LEO.
          UAS LA FTINO TO  DUMP  STD  MTL  CONT AND HE OVEREXERTED SELF
          OD > RESULTING IN SPRAIN OR  STRAIN TO SHO.J. n«-~ -
                                             11

                                             . 1

                                             1

                                             6

                                             1

                                             1

                                             1

                                             4

                                             1

                                             1

                                             1

                                             1
                                             4

                                             1

                                             1

                                             1

                                             2

                                             1

                                             2

                                             1

                                             1

                                             1

                                             1

                                             1

                                             1
                                             1
                                             ±
26
0
3
26
0
53
0
17
18
1
1
195
5
53
8
2
2
84
13
0
88
29
14
13
26
ii
s
1265
50
163
900
74
3834
20
543
717
63
65
4512
299
2910
133
104
151
497
672
5
4140
454
s
864
730
A79
Z2S
3ZO
JITH STD
                   1ICH WAS

-------
                                                                                                                          PAGE
                                                          PROFILE
     EMPLOYEE  WAS  LIFTING  TO  DUMP  STD  MTL  CONT  AND  HE GOT AIRBORNE PARTICLES IN EYE RESULTING IN EYE
           IRRITATION  TO  EYES.
     EMPLOYEE  WAS  LIFTING  TO  DUMP  STD  MTL  CONT  AND  HE STRUCK AGAINST STEP OF VEH RESULTING IN
           DISLOCATION TO KNEE.
     EMPLOYEE  WAS  LIFTING  TO  DUMP  STD  MTL  CONT  AND  HE STRUCK SELF WITH CONTAINER LID RESULTING IN BRUISE
           TO FINGERS.
     EMPLOYEE  WAS  LIFTING  TO  DUMP  STD  MTL  CONT  AND  HE OVEREXERTED SELF WITH STD MTL CONT WHICH WAS HVY
               EMPLOYEE  WAS  LIFTING  TO  DUMP  PLASTIC  BAG AND HE STRUCK AGAINST BACK OF VEH RESULTING IN
w          CUT/PUNCTURE TO  ARM.
     EMPLOYEE  WAS  LIFTING  TO  DUMP  STD  MTL  CONT  AND  HE STRUCK SELF WITH STD MTL CONT WHICH WAS FULL AND
           HAD  SHARP EDGES  RESULTING IN CUT/PUNCTURE TO ABBOMEN.
     EMPLOYEE  WAS  LIFTING  TO  BUMP  PLASTIC  BAG ANB HE OVEREXERTED SELF WITH PLASTIC BAG WHICH WAS HVY
           (WOOD) RESULTING IN SPRAIN OR STRAIN  TO NECK.
     EMPLOYEE  WAS  LIFTING  TO  BUMP  STD  MTL  CONT  AND  HE WAS STRUCK BY VEH RESULTING IN BRUISE TO CHEST.
     EMPLOYEE  WAS  LIFTING  TO  DUMP  PLASTIC  BAG ANB HE STRUCK SELF WITH PLASTIC BAG WHICH HAD PROTRUDING
           GLASS RESULTING  IN  CUT/PUNCTURE  TO ANKLE.
     EMPLOYEE  WAS  LIFTING  TO  DUMP  STD  MTL  CONT  AND  HE STRUCK SELF WITH STD MTL CONT WHICH WAS FULL AND
           BEING HNDLD W  OTHER CONT RESULTING IN FRACTURE TO FOOT.
     EMPLOYEE  WAS  LIFTING  TO  DUMP  PLASTIC  DAG AND HE FELL WHILE ON WET CURB ANB STRK AGNST BACK OF VEH
           RESULTING  IN BRUISE TO  CHEST.
     EMPLOYEE  WAS  LIFTING  TO  BUMP  STD  MTL  CONT  ANB  HE WAS STRUCK BY CHEMICAL WHICH WAS EJTD FROM HOPPER
           RESULTING  IN CHEMICAL  BURN  TO MULTIPLE BODY PARTS.
     EMPLOYEE  WAS  LIFTING  TO  BUMP  CARDBD  BOX ANB HE OVEREXERTED SELF .WITH CARBBOARD BOX WHICH WAS HVY
           (PAPER)  RESULTING  IN  SPRAIN  OR  STRAIN TO  BACK.
     EMPLOYEE  WAS  LIFTING  TO  BUMP  CARBBD  BOX ANB HE OVEREXERTED SELF WITH CARBBOARD BOX WHICH WAS
           UNUSUALLY  HEAVY  RESULTING IN SPRAIN OR STRAIN TO BACK.
     EMPLOYEE  WAS  LIFTING  TO  DUMP  WHEELED  CART  AND  HE OVEREXERTEB SELF WITH WHEELED CART WHICH WAS FULL
           RESULTING  IN SPRAIN OR  STRAIN TO BACK.
     EMPLOYEE  WAS  LIFTING  TO  BUMP  CARDBB  BOX AND HE WAS HURT BY HANBLING CARDBOARD BOX WHICH HAD
           PROTRUDING  GLASS RESULTING  IN CUT/PUNCTURE TO ARM.
     EMPLOYEE  WAS  LIFTING  TO  DUMP  STD  MTL  CONT  ANB  HE STRUCK AGAINST SIDE OF VEH RESULTING IN BRUISE TO
           FINGERS.
     EMPLOYEE  WAS  LIFTING  TO  DUMP  PLASTIC  BAG AND HE WAS STRUCK BY CHEMICAL WHICH FELL OUT OF TOP OF
           CONT RESULTING IN  DERMATITIS TO  LEG.
     EMPLOYEE  WAS  LIFTING  TO  DUMP  STD  MTL  CONT  AND  HE STRUCK AGAINST BACK OF VEH RESULTING IN BRUISE TO
           ARM.
NO. INJ  DAYS

    3

    1

    1

    1

    1

    1

    1

    1

    1

    1

    2

    1

    1

    1
    1

    1

    1

    1

    1

    1

    1

    2

    1

    1

    1

    1
YS
0
4
0
0
22
0
0
3
54
7
26
6
0
COSTS
85
130
12
88
676
45
36
153
858
252
1200
164
30
16
 0

 8

29

55

 2

 5

13

11

 0

10

 2

 1
 5?3
  10

 374

1380

 234

 155

 170

 100

 722

  48

 276

  69

  70

-------
                                                                                                                         PAGE
I-1
 I
                                                     PROFILE
EMPLOYEE  WAS  LIFTING  TO  DUMP  STD  MTL  CONT  AND HE STRUCK AGAINST HANDLE ON VEH RESULTING IN BRUISE
      TO ARM.
EMPLOYEE  WAS  LIFTING  TO  DUMP  STD  MTL  CONT  AND HE SLIPPED STEPPING ON PAVEMENT RESULTING IN SPRAIN
      OR STRAIN  TO  ANKLE.
EMPLOYEE  UAS  LIFTING  TO  DUMP  PLASTIC  BAG AND HE OVEREXERTED SELF WITH PLASTIC BAG WHICH WAS
      UNUSUALLY  HEAVY  RESULTING  IN SPRAIN OR STRAIN TO BACK.
EMPLOYEE  WAS  LIFTING  TO  DUMP  PLASTIC  BAG AND HE STRUCK SELF WITH PLASTIC BAG WHICH HAD A PROTRUDING
      HYPODERMIC NEEDLE RESULTING  IN CUT/PUNCTURE TO KNEE.
EMPLOYEE  WAS  LIFTING  TO  DUMP  CARDBD BOX AND HE GOT WASTE PARTICLES IN EYE RESULTING IN EYE
      IRRITATION TO EYES.
EMPLOYEE  UAS  LIFTING  TO  DUMP  STD  MTL  CONT  AND HE WAS STRUCK BY ACID WHICH FELL OUT OF TOP OF CONT
      RESULTING  IN  CHEMICAL  BURN TO EYES.
EMPLOYEE  WAS  LIFTING  TO  DUMP  STD  MTL  CONT  AND HE SLIPPED WHILE ON WET PAVEMENT AND STRK AGNST EDGE
      OF HOPPER  RESULTING  IN FRACTURE  TO ELBOW.
EMPLOYEE  WAS  LIFTING  TO  DUMP  STD  MTL  CONT  AND HE STRUCK AGAINST EDGE OF HOPPER RESULTING IN
      INFLAMMATION  OF  THE  JOINTS TO THUMB,
EMPLOYEE  UAS  LIFTING  TO DUMP  STD  MTL  CONT  AND HE SLIPPED WHILE ON STEP OF VEH AND STRK AGNST STD
      MTL  CONT RESULTING  IN  BRUISE  TO  KNEE.
EMPLOYEE  WAS  LIFTING  TO DUMP  STD  MTL  CONT  AND HE FELL WHILE ON PAVEMENT AND STRK AGNST STD MTL CONT
      RESULTING  IN  SPRAIN  OR STRAIN TO BACK,
EMPLOYEE  WAS  LIFTING  TO DUMP  PLASTIC  DAG AND HE SLIPPED STEPPING ON WET PAVEMENT RESULTING IN
      SPRAIN OR  STRAIN TO  DACK.
EMPLOYEE  WAS  LIFTING  TO DUMP  STD  MTL  CONT  AND HE STRUCK AGAINST EDGE OF HOPPER RESULTING IN BRUISE
      TO CHEST.
EMPLOYEE  WAS  LIFTING  TO DUMP  PLASTIC  BAG AND HE OVEREXERTED SELF WITH PLASTIC BAG WHICH WAS FULL
      RESULTING  IN  SPRAIN  OR STRAIN TO BACK.
EMPLOYEE  WAS  LIFTING  TO r'MMF  f.TD MTL  CONT  AND HE WAS INJURED IN CITHER TYPE OF ACCIDENT RESULTING IN
      OTHER TYPE OF INJURY 10  NOSE.
EMPLOYEE  UAS  LIFTING  TO DUMP  PLASTIC  BAG AND HE OVEREXERTED SELF WITH PLASTIC BAG WHICH WAS HVY
      (ROCKS)  RESULTING IN SPRAIN  OR STRAIN TO BACK.
EMPLOYEE  WAS  LIFTING  TO DUMP  PLASTIC  BAG AND HE STRUCK AGAINST EDGE OF HOPPER RESULTING IN FRACTURE
      TO WRIST.
EMPLOYEE  WAS  LIFTING  TO DUMP  STD MTL  CONT  AND HE OVEREXERTED SELF WITH STD MTL CONT WHICH WAS HVY
      (WOOD) RESULTJN« TN  f^RAJ.N OR STRAIN  TO BACK.
EMPLOYEE  WAS  LIFTING  tO DUMP  STD MTL  CONT  AND HE WAS STRUCK BY CONT HANDLED BY COWORKER RESULTING
      IN ABRASIONS  TO SHOULDER.
EMPLOYEE  WAS  LIFTING  TO DUMP  STD MTL  CONT  AND HE WAS STRUCK BY CHEMICAL WHICH FELL OUT OF TOP OF
      CONT RESULTING IN CHEMICAL BURN  TO LEG.
EMPLOYEE  UAS  LIFTING  TO DUMP  STD  MTL  CONT  AND HE FELL ON PAVEMENT RESULTING IN BRUISE TO FOREHEAD.
EMPLOYEE  WAS  LIFTING  TO DUMP  STD MTL  CONT  AND HE OVEREXERTED SELF WITH STD MTL CONT WHICH WAS HVY
      (ROCKS)  RESULTING IN SPRAIN OR STRAIN TO SHOULDER.
EMPLOYEE  WAS  LIFTING  TO DUMP  STD  MTL  CONT  AND HE MADE SUDDEN MOVEMENT IN CATCHING STD MTL CONT
      WHICH WAS  UNUSUALLY  HEAVY  RESULTING IN SPRAIN OR STRAIN TO WRIST.
EMPLOYEE  UAS  LIFTING  TO DUMP  CARDBD BOX AND HE OVEREXERTED SELF WITH CARDBOARD BOX WHICH WAS FULL
      RESULTING  IN  SPRAIN  OR STRAIN TO TRUNK,
EMPLOYEE  WAS  LIFTING  TO DUMP  STD  MTL  CONT  AND HE WAS STRUCK BY PARTICLES IN WASTE WHICH WAS EJTD
      FROM HOPPER RESULTING  IN EYE IRRITATION TO EYES.
EMPLOYEE  UAS  LIFTING  TO  DUMP  STD  MTL  CONT  AND HE STRUCK AGAINST PACK OF VEH RESULTING IN BRUISE TO

EMPLOYEE  UAS  LIFTING  TO  DUMP  STD  MTL  CONT  AND HE UAS CAUGHT IN HANDLE OF CONT RESULTING IN SPRAIN
      ni? "STRAIN  TO  FINGERS.
INJ
1
1
3
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
2
7
1
1
1
2
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
i
i
DAYS
2
1
7
0
0
0
2
25
6
59
14
33
27
0
11
17
15
1
0
0
3
24
12
O
o
4
COSTS
90
108
331
6
18
24
80
1154
448
4937
494
1589
1475
13
527
750
665
65
10
37
145
493
594
39
AS
aio

-------
                                                         PROFILE
    EMPLOYEE WAS LIFTING TO DUMP PLASTIC CAN AND HE OVEREXERTED SELF WITH PLASTIC  CAN WHICH WAS
         UNUSUALLY HEAVY RESULTING IN SPRAIN OR STRAIN TO BACK.
    EMPLOYEE WAS LIFTING TO DUMP PLASTIC BAG AND HE CONTACTED CAUSTIC OR TOXIC EXHAUST  FUMES RESULTING
         IN ASPHYXIATION OR DROWNING TO INTERNAL ORGANS.
    EMPLOYEE WAS LIFTING TO DUMP STD MTL CONT AND HE FELL ON PAVEMENT RESULTING IN BRUISE  TO HIPS.
    EMPLOYEE WAS LIFTING TO DUMP STD MTL CONT AND HE OVEREXERTED SELF WITH STD MTL CONT WHICH  WAS
         UNUSUALLY HEAVY RESULTING IN SPRAIN OR STRAIN TO CHEST.
    EMPLOYEE WAS LIFTING TO DUMP STD MTL CONT AND HE WAS  CAUGHT BETWEEN CONT & EDGE OF  HOPPER  RESULTING
         IN BRUISE TO HAND.
    EMPLOYEE WAS LIFTING TO DUMP STD MTL CONT AND HE STEPPED ON BOARD WITH NAIL RESULTING  IN
         CUT/PUNCTURE TO FOOT.
    EMPLOYEE WAS LIFTING TO DUMP STD MTL CONT AND HE WAS  HURT BY HANDLING STD MTL  CONT  WHICH HAD
         PROTRUDING GLASS RESULTING IN CUT/PUNCTURE TO FINGERS.
    EMPLOYEE WAS LIFTING TO DUMP STD MTL CONT AND HE STRUCK SELF WITH STD MTL CONT WHICH WAS UNUSUALLY
         HEAVY  RESULTING IN BRUISE TO KNEE.
    EMPLOYEE WAS LIFTING TO DUMP STD MTL CONT AND HE STRUCK SELF WITH STD MTL CONT WHICH WAS FULL  AND
         HAD SLIPPED FROM HIS HANDS RESULTING IN BRUISE TO TOES.
    EMPLOYEE WAS LIFTING TO DUMP STD MTL CONT AND HE WAS  STRUCK BY UNBUNDLED SHRUBBERY  RESULTING IN
         CUT/PUNCTURE TO EYES.
    EMPLOYEE WAS LIFTING TO DUMP PLASTIC BAG AND HE WAS HURT BY HANDLING PLASTIC BAG WHICH HAD
         PROTRUDING GLASS RESULTING IN CUT/PUNCTURE TO WRIST,
    EMPLOYEE WAS LIFTING TO DUMP STD MTL CONT AND HE STRUCK SELF WITH STD MTL CONT WHICH WAS UNUSUALLY
         HEAVY' RESULTING IN ABRASIONS TO LEG.
    EMPLOYEE WAS LIFTING TO DUMP STD MTL CONT AND HE WAS  STRUCK BY STD MTL CONT WHICH WAS  FULL AND HAD
7        SLIPPED FROM HIS HANDS RESULTING IN CUT/PUNCTURE TO ARM.
cr>   EMPLOYEE WAS LIFTING TO DUMP STD MTL CONT AND HE WAS  STRUCK BY PIECE OF METAL  WHICH FELL OUT OF  VEH
Ui        RESULTING IN EYE IRRITATION TO EYES.
    EMPLOYEE WAS LIFTING TO DUMP STD MTL CONT AND HE STRUCK SELF WITH STD MTL CONT WHICH WAS UNUSUALLY
         HEAVY  RESULTING IN BRUISE TO ANKLE.
    EMPLOYEE WAS LIFTING TO DUMP PLASTIC BAG AND HE SLIPPED WHILE ON PAVEMENT AND  STRK  AGNST BACK  OF
         VEH RESULTING IN BRUISE TO LEG,
    EMPLOYEE WAS LIFTING TO DUMP PLASTIC BAG AND HE STRUCK AGAINST SIDE OF HOPPER  RESULTING IN BRUISE
         TO ELBOW.
    EMPLOYEE WAS LIFTING TO DUMP PLASTIC CAN AND HE STRUCK SELF WITH PLASTIC CAN WHICH  WAS FULL AND  THE
         HANDLE BROKE RESULTING IN BRUISE TO HAND.
    EMPLOYEE WAS LIFTING TO DUMP PLASTIC BAG AND HE STRUCK SELF WITH PLASTIC BAG WHICH  HAD PROTRUDING
         GLASS  RESULTING IN CUT/PUNCTURE TO ELBOW.
    EMPLOYEE WAS LIFTING TO DUMP STD MTL CONT AND HE STRUCK AGAINST STD MTL CONT WHICH  WAS FULL AND  HAD
         SHARP EDGES RESULTING IN CUT/PUNCTURE TO ANKLE.
    EMPLOYEE WAS LIFTING TO DUMP PLASTIC BAG AND HE OVEREXERTED SELF WITH PLASTIC  BAG WHICH WAS FULL
         RESULTING IN SPRAIN OR STRAIN TO SHOULDER.
    EMPLOYEE WAS LIFTING TO DUMP CARDBD HOX AND HE WAS STRUCK BY GLASS WHICH WAS EJTD FROM HOPPER
         RESULTING IN CUT/PUNCTURE TO FOREHEAD.
    EMPLOYfE WAS LIFTING TO DUMP STD MTL CONT AND HE OVEREXERTED SELF WITH STD MTL CONT RESULTING  IN
         SPRAIN OR STRAIN TO BACK.
    EMPLOYEE WAS LIFTING TO DUMP STD MTL CONT AND HE WAS  HURT BY HANDLING STD MTL  CONT  WHICH WAS FULL
         AND HAD SHARP EDGES RESULTING IN CUT/PUNCTURE TO ARM.
    EMPLOYEE WAS LIFTING TO DUMP CARDBB BOX AND HE OVEREXERTED PELF WITH CARDBOARD BOX  WHICH WAS EMPTY
         AND UNUSUALLY LG RESULTING IN SPRAIN OR STRAIN TO NECK.
    EMPLOYEE WAS LIFTING TO DUMP PLASTIC BAG AND HE OVEREXERTED SELF WITH PLASTIC  BAG WHICH WAS
         UNUSUALLY HEAVY AND BEING HNDLD W OTHER CONT RESULTING IN DISLOCATION TO  BACK.
NO. INJ  DAYS


    2      21
    2
    1

    1

    1

    1

    1


    1


    2


    1

    1

    1

    1

    1


    1

    1

    1


    1

    1


    1


    1


    1

    1


    1

    1

    1
 o
 o

 A

 A

 1

12

 0


 0


 1


 4

 0

 7


 0

 0

 1

 0

28


 3

 0


 0

 1

 0

 5

 0

BB
COSTS

  550

  1O4
   20

  258

  134


   67


  355


   57


   56


   39


  147


   35


  209


  141


   37


   71


  1122


  1749


  170


   43


   20


  116


   24


  341


   15


  358

-------
                                                                                                                     PAGE   8
                                                     PROFILE
EMPLOYEE WAS LIFTING TO DUMP PLASTIC BAG AND HE WAS STRUCK BY TAILGATE RESULTING IN FRACTURE TO ARM,
EMPLOYEE WAS LIFTING TO DUMP GTD MTL CONT AND HE STRUCK AGAINST STD MTL CONT WHICH WAS FULL
    . RESULTING  IN CUT/PUNCTURE  TO FINGERS,
EMPLOYEE UAS LIFTING TO DUMP STD MTL CONT AND HE STRUCK AGAINST BACK OF VEH RESULTING IN BRUISE TO
     FINGERS.
EMPLOYEE WAS LIFTING TO DUMP STD MTL CONT AND HE OVEREXERTED SELF WITH STD MTL CONT WHICH WAS
     UNUSUALLY  HEAVY RESULTING  IN SPRAIN OR STRAIN TO LEG.
EMPLOYEE WAS LIFTING TO DUMP STD MTL CONT AND HE STRUCK AGAINST STD MTL CONT RESULTING IN BRUISE TO
     KNEE.
EMPLOYEE WAS LIFTING TO DUMP STD MTL CONT AND HE STRUCK AGAINST EDGE OF HOPPER RESULTING IN BRUISE
     TO ELBOW.
EMPLOYEE WAS LIFTING TO DUMP STD MTL CONT AND HE OVEREXERTED SELF WITH STD MTL CONT WHICH WAS HVY
     (PAPER) AND HNDLD WITH COWRKR RESULTING IN SPRAIN OR STRAIN TO BACK.
EMPLOYEE WAS LIFTING TO DUMP CARDBD BOX AND HE MADE SUDDEN MOVEMENT IN CATCHING CARDBOARD BOX WHICH
     WAS FULL AND HNDLD WITH COWRKR RESULTING IN SPRAIN OR STRAIN TO BACK.
EMPLOYEE WAS LIFTING TO DUMP CRATE AND HE OVEREXERTED SELF WITH CRATE WHICH WAS EMPTY RESULTING IN
     SPRAIN OR  STRAIN TO BACK.
EMPLOYEE UAS LIFTTNG TO DUMP STD MTL CONT AND HE SLIPPED STEPPING ON OILY FLOOR RESULTING IN SPRAIN
     OR STRAIN  TO KNEE.
EMPLOYEE UAS LIFTING TO DUMP CARDBB BOX AND HE OVEREXERTED SELF WITH CARDBOARD BOX WHICH WAS FULL
     AND HNDLD  WITH COWRKR RESULTING IN SPRAIN OR STRAIN TO BACK.
EMPLOYEE UAS LIFTING TO DUMP STD MTL CONT AND HE STRUCK AGAINST GARBAGE CAN RACK RESULTING IN
     BRUISE TO  LEG/
EMPLOYEE WAS LIFTING TO DUMP STD MTL CONT AND HE WAS STRUCK BY STD MTL CONT WHICH WAS FULL AND HAD
     BOUNCED BK FM HOPPER RESULTING IN CUT/PUNCTURE TO FACE.
EMPLOYEE WAS LIFTING TO DUMP PLASTIC BAG AND HE STRUCK AGAINST SIDE OF VEH RESULTING IN BRUISE TO
     HAND.
EMPLOYEE UAS LIFTING TO DUMP PLASTIC BAG AND HE WAS STRUCK BY BOTTLE WHICH FELL OUT OF TOP OF CONT
     RESULTING  IN AVULSION TO ELBOW,
EMPLOYEE WAS LIFTING TO DUMP PLASTIC CAN AND HE FELL ON GROUND RESULTING IN SPRAIN OR STRAIN TO HIPS.
EMPLOYEE WAS LIFTING TO DUMP STD MTL CONT AND HE STRUCK SELF WITH STD MTL CONT WHICH WAS FULL AND
     HAD SLIPPED FROM HIS HANDS RESULTING IN CUT/PUNCTURE TO TOES.
EMPLOYEE WAS LIFTTNH TO DUMP STD MTL CONT AND HE SLIPPED FROM RUNNING BOARD ONTO PAVEMENT RESULTING
     IN SPRAIN  OR STRAIN TO ANKLE.
EMPLOYEE UAS LIFTING TO DUMP STD MTL CONT AND HE WAS CAUGHT IN HANDLE OF CONT (CONT UAS UNUSUALLY
     HVY) RESULTING IN RPIJTSf  TO HAND.
EMPLOYEE WAS LIFTING TO DUMP STD MTL CONT AND HE WAS STRUCK BY UNKNOWN WASTE WHICH WAS EJTD FROM
     HOPPER RESULTING IN CUT/PUNCTURE TO FOREHEAD,
EMPLOYEE WAS LIFTING TO DUMP STD MTL CONT AND HE OVEREXERTED SELF WITH STD MTL CONT WHICH WAS HVY
     (WATER FILLED) RESULTING IN SPRAIN OR STRAIN TO LEG.
EMPLOYEE WAS LIFTING TO DUMP PLASTIC BAG AND HE STRUCK SELF WITH PLASTIC BAG WHICH WAS UNUSUALLY
     HEAVY RESULTING IN BRUISE TO KNEE.
EMPLOYEE UAS LIFTING TQ DUMP STD MTL CONT AND HE WAS CAUGHT IN HANDLE OF CONT RESULTING IN SPRAIN
     OR STRAIN  TO THUMB.
EMPLOYEE UAS LIFTING TO DUMP PLASTIC BAG AND HE OVEREXERTED SELF WITH PLASTIC BAG WHICH UAS
     UNUSUALLY  HEAVY RESULTING  IN SPRAIN OR STRAIN TO GROIN.
EMPLOYEE UAS LIFTING TO DUMP STD MTL CONT AND HE STRUCK SELF WITH STD MTL CONT WHICH WAS FULL
EttPlOYEeUUASNLIFTINGUTOEDUMP WHEELED CART AND HE WAS STRUCK BY SHARP OBJ WHICH WAS PROTRUDING I-M
      VEH RESULTING IN  INFECTION TO HAND.
NO. INJ  DAYS
    1

    i

    1

    1

    1

    2

    1

    1

    1

    1

    1

    1

    1

    1

    1
    1

    1

    1

    1

    1

    1

    1

    1
    1
    i
lYS
50
0
1
18
0
38
4
7
41
0
0
0
0
0
25
3
18
0
7
0
2
0
O
2
1
COSTS
766
54
63
942
35
1480
106
389
1937
84
20
26
2
2
91
20
59
3
21
3
12
1
34
82
S7

-------
                                                                                                                         PAGE  9


                                                         PROFILE                                                N0« INJ  DAYS   COSTS
    EMPLOYEE  WAS  LIFTING  TO  DUMP  STD  MTL  CONT  AND HE WAS HURT BY HANDLING STD MTL CONT WHICH HAD
         PROTRUDING  GLASS RESULTING IN  CUT/PUNCTURE TO HAND.                                                        l       0      20
    EMPLOYEE  WAS  LIFTING  TO  DUMP  STD  MTL  CONT  AND HE SLIPPED WHILE ON  ICY PAVEMENT AND STRK AGNST BACK
         OF VEH RESULTING IN BRUISE TO  SCALP.                                                                       1       0      55
    EMPLOYEE  WAS  LIFTING  TO  DUMP  STD  MTL  CONT  AND HE GOT WASTE PARTICLES IN EYE RESULTING IN INFECTION
         TO EYES.                                                                                                   1       0      38
    EMPLOYEE  WAS  LIFTING  TO  DUMP  STD  MTL  CONT  AND HE STRUCK AGAINST SIDE OF HOPPER RESULTING IN BRUISE
         TO ARM.                                                                                                    1       5      212
    EMPLOYEE  WAS  LIFTING  TO  DUMP  PLASTIC  BAG AND HE WAS STRUCK BY GLASS WHICH FELL OUT OF BOTTOM OF
         CONT RESULTING IN CUT/PUNCTURE TO WRIST,                                                                   1       0      104
    EMPLOYEE  WAS  LIFTING  TO  DUMP  STD  MTL  CONT  AND HE SLIPPED STEPPING  ON ICY GROUND RESULTING  IN
         UNKNOWN  TYPE OF  INJURY TO KNEE,                                                                            1       13      345
    EMPLOYEE  WAS  LIFTING  TO  DUMP  WHEELED  CART  AND HE GOT WASTE PARTICLES IN EYE RESULTING IN EYE
         IRRITATION  TO EYES.                                                                                        1       0      23
    EMPLOYEE  WAS  LIFTING  TO  BUMP  STD  MTL  CONT  AND HE FELL ON WASTE ON  GROUND RESULTING IN CUT/PUNCTURE
         TO ARM.                                                                                                    1       0      62
    EMPLOYEE  WAS  LIFTING  TO  DUMP  PLASTIC  BAG AND HE FELL ON ICY PAVEMENT RESULTING IN SPRAIN OR STRAIN
         TO HAND.                                                                                                   1       4      271
    EMPLOYEE.WAS  LIFTING  TO  DUMP  PLASTIC  BAG AND HE STRUCK AGAINST BACK OF VEH RESULTING IN BRUISE TO ARM.          1       0      17
    EMPLOYEE  WAS  LIFTING  TO  DUMP  STD  MTL  CONT  AND HE OVEREXERTED SELF  WITH STD MTL CONT WHICH  WAS
,_,        UNUSUALLY HEAVY  RESULTING IN SPRAIN OR STRAIN TO WRIST.                                                    1       4      63
 I   EMPLOYEE  WAS  LIFTING  TO  DUMP  STB  MTL  CONT  AND HE OVEREXERTED SELF  WITH STD MTL CONT WHICH  WAS FULL
<^>        RESULTING IN SPRAIN OR STRAIN  TO WRIST,                                                                    1       0      20
^   EMPLOYEE  WAS  LIFTING  TO  DUMP  STB  MTL  CONT  AND HE OVEREXERTED SELF  WITH STB MTL CONT WHICH  WAS
         UNUSUALLY HEAVY  RESULTING IN SPRAIN OR STRAIN TO NECK.                                                     1       3      104
    EMPLOYEE  WAS  LIFTING  TO  DUMP  PLASTIC  BAG AND HE OVEREXERTED SELF WITH PLASTIC BAG WHICH WAS
         UNUSUALLY HEAVY  RESULTING IN SPRAIN OR STRAIN TO HIPS,                                                     1       6      171
    EMPLOYEE  WAS  LIFTING  TO  DUMP  PLASTIC  BAG AND HE WAS HURT BY HANDLING PLASTIC BAG WHICH HAB
         PROTRUDING  WASTE RESULTING IN  CUT/PUNCTURE TO FINGERS.                                                     1       0      32
    EMPLOYEE  WAS  LIFTING  TO  BUMP  TOTE BARREL ANB HE GOT WASTE PARTICLES IN EYE RESULTING IN EYE
         IRRITATION  TO EYES.                                                                                       1       0      16
    EMPLOYEE  WAS  LIFTING  TO  DUMP  TOTE BARREL AND HE OVEREXERTED SELF WITH TOTE BARREL WHICH WAS HVY
         (WATER FILLED) RESULTING IN  SPRAIN OR STRAIN TO BACK.                                                      1       4      213
    EMPLOYEE  WAS  LIFTING  TO  DUMP  STD  MTL  CONT  AND HE WAS STRUCK BY PIECE OF METAL WHICH FELL OUT OF TOP
         OF  CONT  RESULTING IN  CUT/PUNCTURE  TO  FOOT.                                                                 1       3      107
    EMPLOYEE  WAS  LIFTING  TO  DUMP  STD  MTL  CONT  AND HE SLIPPEB STEPPING  ON PAVEMENT RESULTING IN UNKNOWN
         TYPE OF  INJURY TO LEG.                                                                                     1       0      83
    EMPLOYEE  WAS  LIFTING  TO  DUMP  UNK  CONT TYPE AND  HE MADE SUDDEN MOVEMENT RESULTING IN SPRAIN OR
         STRAIN TO ANKLE.                                                                                          1       0      35
    EMPLOYEE  WAS  LIFTING  TO  BUMP  STD  MTL  CONT  AND HE WAS HURT BY HANDLING STD MTL CONT WHICH WAS FULL
         ANB  HAB  SHARP  EDGES RESULTING  IN CUT/PUNCTURE TO WRIST.                                                    1       0      20
    EMPLOYEE  WAS  LIFTING  TO  DUMP  NSTB MTL CONT AND  HE SLIPPED STEPPING ON ICY GROUND RESULTING IN
         SPRAIN OR STRAIN TO BACK,                                                                                  1       0      62
    EMPLOYEE  WAS  LIFTING  TO  DUMP  STD  MTL  CONT  AND HE STRUCK AGAINST WHEELEB CART RESULTING IN  BRUISE TO
         ELBOW.                                                                                                     1       0      16
    EMPLOYEE  WAS  LIFTING  TO  BUMP  STD  MTL  CONT  AND HE STRUCK SELF WITH  STD MTL CONT WHICH WAS UNUSUALLY
         HEAVY ANB HAD  SLIPPED FROM HIS HANDS  RESULTING  IN BRUISE TO KNEE.                                          1       0      20
    EMPLOYEE  WAS  LIFTING  TO  BUMP  PLASTIC  BAG AND HE WAS  HURT BY HANDLING PLASTIC BAG WHICH HAD A
         PROTRUDING  HYPODERMIC NEEDLE RESULTING  IN  CUT/PUNCTURE TO HANB.                                            1       0      39
    EMPLOYEE WAS  LIFTING  TO DUMP  STB  MTL  CONT  ANB HE SLIPPED STEPPING  ON OILY PAVEMENT RESULTING IN
         SPRAIN OR  STRAIN TO ANKLE.                                                                                 1       8      358

-------
                                                                                                                        PAGE 10
                                                        PROFILE
   EMPLOYEE WAS LIFTING TO DUMP STD MTL CONT AND HE WAS STRUCK BY UNKNOWN WASTE WHICH WAS EJTD FROM
        HOPPER RESULTING IN CUT/PUNCTURE TO ARM.
   EMPLOYEE WAS LIFTING TO DUMP STB MTL CONT AND HE WAS HURT BY HANDLING STD MTL CONT WHICH WAS FULL
        AND HAD SHARP EDGES RESULTING IN CUT/PUNCTURE TO THUMB.
   EMPLOYEE WAS LIFTING TO DUMP STD MTL CONT AND HE WAS STRUCK BY STD MTL CONT WHICH WAS FULL AND THE
        HANDLE BROKE RESULTING IN CUT/PUNCTURE TO FINGERS.

                 TOTAL
NO




. INJ
1
1
1
375
DAYS
0
0
0
2961
COSTS
20
60
20
121230
CTl
00

-------
                                                                 ALL USERS
                                                          DETAILED DESCRIPTION OF
                                                        CARRYING CONTAINER ACCIDENTS
                                                       OSHA RECORDABLE INJURIES ONLY
     REPORTING PERIOD:  DECEMBER  1975  -  DECEMBER  197*
     THIS  PROFILE  IS  A  FORMATTED SENTENCE CONSISTING OF ACTIVITYr ACCIDENT TYPE* NATURE OF INJURY AND PART OF BODY.
                                                         PROFILE
    EMPLOYEE WAS CARRYING STD MTL CONT AND HE SLIPPED STEPPING ON ICY PAVEMENT RESULTING IN SPRAIN OR
         STRAIN TO BACK.
    EMPLOYEE WAS CARRYING STD MTL CONT AND HE FELL WHILE ON ICY PAVEMENT RESULTING IN SPRAIN OR STRAIN
         TO ABDOMEN.
    EMPLOYEE WAS CARRYING STD MTL CONT AND HE SLIPPED STEPPING ON UNEVEN PAVEMENT RESULTING IN SPRAIN
         OR STRAIN TO KNEE.
    EMPLOYEE WAS CARRYING STD MTL CONT AND HE SLIPPED STEPPING ON UNEVEN CURB IN STEPPING DOWN
         RESULTING IN FRACTURE TO ANKLE.
    EMPLOYEE WAS CARRYING STD MTL CONT AND HE FELL ON INCLINED GROUND RESULTING IN BRUISE TO SKULL.
    EMPLOYEE WAS CARRYING STD MTL CONT AND HE FELL WHILE ON WET PAVEMENT AND STRK AGNST STEP OF VEH
         RESULTING IN BRUISE TO LEG.
    EMPLOYEE WAS CARRYING STD MTL CONT AND HE SLIPPED FROM WET CURB ONTO PAVEMENT RESULTING IN SPRAIN
         OR STRAIN TO BACK.
    EMPLOYEE WAS CARRYING STD MTL CONT AND HE FELL ON ICY PAVEMENT RESULTING IN SPRAIN OR STRAIN TO BACK,
    EMPLOYEE WAS CARRYING TOTE BARREL AND HE OVEREXERTED SELF WITH TOTE BARREL WHICH WAS FULL AND
         UNUSUALLY LG RESULTING IN SPRAIN OR STRAIN TO ANKLE.
    EMPLOYEE WAS CARRYING STD MTL CONT AND HE STRUCK SELF WITH STD MTL CONT WHICH WAS EMPTY AND HAD
,        SLIPPED FROM HIS HANDS RESULTING IN BRUISE TO TOES.
CTN   EMPLOYEE WAS CARRYING STD MTL CONT AND HE SLIPPED STEPPING ON UNEVEN PAVEMENT RESULTING IN SPRAIN
VO        OR STRAIN TO ANKLE.
    EMPLOYEE WAS CARRYING PLASTIC BAG AND HE MADE SUDDEN MOVEMENT RESULTING IN DISLOCATION TO SHOULDER.
    .EMPLOYEE WAS CARRYING STD MTL CONT AND HE FELL ON ICY GROUND RESULTING IN SPRAIN OR STRAIN TO BACK.
    EMPLOYEE WAS CARRYING STD MTL CONT AND HE STRUCK AGAINST STD MTL CONT RESULTING IN CUT/PUNCTURE TO
         LEG.
    EMPLOYEE WAS CARRYING STD MTL CONT AND HE SLIPPED STEPPING ON DEPRESSION RESULTING IN SPRAIN OR
         STRAIN TO ANKLE.
    .EMPLOYEE WAS CARRYING STD MTL CONT AND HE WAS STRUCK BY CONT HANDLED BY COWORKER RESULTING IN
         BRUISE TO ELBOW.
    .EMPLOYEE WAS CARRYING TOTE BARREL AND HE MADE SUDDEN MOVEMENT RESULTING IN SPRAIN OR STRAIN TO KNEE.
    EMPLOYEE WAS CARRYING STD MTL CONT AND HE OVEREXERTED SELF WITH STD MTL CONT WHICH WAS EMPTY
         RESULTING IN SPRAIN OR STRAIN TO NECK.
    -EMPLOYEE WAS CARRYING TOTE BARREL AND HE STRUCK AGAINST BACK OF VEH RESULTING IN BRUISE TO ELBOW.
    EMPLOYEE WAS CARRYING TOTE BARREL AND HE FELL ON DEPRESSION RESULTING IN SPRAIN OR STRAIN TO ANKLE.
    EMPLOYEE WAS CARRYING TOTE BARREL AND HE FELL ON INCLINED GROUND RESULTING IN BRUISE TO SHOULDER.
    -EMPLOYEE WAS CARRYING STD MTL CONT AND HE STRUCK SELF WITH STD MTL CONT RESULTING IN BRUISE TO TOES.
    EMPLOYEE WAS CARRYING STD MTL CONT AND HE WAS HURT BY HANDLING STD MTL CONT WHICH HAD PROTRUDING
         WASTE RESULTING IN CUT/PUNCTURE TO FINGERS.
    EMPLOYEE WAS CARRYING STD MTL CONT AND HE SLIPPED FROM CURB ONTO PAVEMENT RESULTING IN SPRAIN OR
         STRAIN TO ANKLE.
    EMPLOYEE WAS CARRYING OIL DRUM AND HE FELL  FROM WET CURB ONTO PAVEMENT RESULTING IN BRUISE TO BACK.
    EMPLOYEE WAS CARRYING PLASTIC CAN AND HE FELL ON OILY PAVEMENT RESULTING IN SPRAIN OR STRAIN TO BACK,
    EMPLOYEE WAS CARRYING STD MTL CONT AND HE SLIPPED STEPPING ON OBJ ON GROUND RESULTING IN SPRAIN OR
         STRAIN TO ANKLE.
    EMPLOYEE WAS CARRYING STD MTL CONT AND HE SLIPPED WHILE ON WET PAVEMENT AND STRK AGNST STD MTL CONT
         RESULTING  IN BRUISE  TO KNEE.
    EMPLOYEE WAS CARRYING PLASTIC BAG AND HE SLIPPED FROM WET CURB ONTO PAVEMENT RESULTING IN SPRAIN OR
         STRAIN TO ANKLE.
    EMPLOYEE WAS CARRYING HANDTOOL AND HE SLIPPED WHILE ON STEP OF VEH AND STRK AGNST BACK OF VEH
         RESULTING  IN BRUISE  TO ARM.
NO. INJ
3
1
1
1
1
1
1
2
1
1
4
1
1
1
1
2
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
DAYS
12
10
2
62
0
6
12
17
0
1
14
53
IS
0
5
99
10
13
8
3
4
3
10
8
2
4
3
10
14
0
COSTS
541
462
143
758
20
286
471
793
29
72
912
421
684
60
206
750
313
301
169
67
188
211
80
374
61
542
52
407
1024
20

-------
                                                                                                                   PAGE  2
                                                      PROFILE
 EMPLOYEE WAS CARRYING PLASTIC BAG AND HE FELL WHILE ON PAVEMENT  AND STRK AGNST PLASTIC BAG
      RESULTING IN CUT/PUNCTURE TO HAND.
 EMPLOYEE WAS CARRYING STD MTL CONT AND HE OVEREXERTED SELF WITH  STD MTL CONT WHICH WAS UNUSUALLY
      HEAVY RESULTING IN SPRAIN OR STRAIN TO LEG.
 EMPLOYEE WAS CARRYING TOTE BARREL AND HE FELL ON  OBJ PROTRUDING  FROM GRND RESULTING IN BRUISE TO
      FINGERS.
 EMPLOYEE WAS CARRYING UNK CONT TYPE AND  HE WAS STRUCK BY  UNK  CONT  TYPE WHICH WAS EMPTY RESULTING IN
      BRUISE TO KNEE.
 EMPLOYEE WAS CARRYING AND HE WAS STRUCK  BY HANDTOOL RESULTING IN CUT/PUNCTURE TO FACE,
 EMPLOYEE WAS CARRYING STD MTL CONT AND HE STRUCK  AGAINST  BACK OF VEH RESULTING IN BRUISE TO FINGERS.
 EMPLOYEE WAS CARRYING STD MTL CONT AND HE SLIPPED STEPPING ON COLLAPSING INCLINED GROUND RESULTING
      IN SPRAIN OR STRAIN TO KNEE,
 EMPLOYEE WAS CARRYING STD MTL CONT AND HE STRUCK  AGAINST  BACK OF VEH RESULTING IN BRUISE TO LEG.
 EMPLOYEE WAS CARRYING STD MTL CONT AND HE FELL FROM WET INCLINED GRASS RESULTING IN SPRAIN OR
      STRAIN TO BACK.
 EMPLOYEE UAS CARRYING STD MTL CONT AND HE FELL FROM COLLAPSING OTHER SURFACE ONTO PAVEMENT
      RESULTING IN FRACTURE TO ELBOW.
 EMPLOYEE WAS CARRYING PLASTIC BAG AND HE SLIPPED  WHILE ON DEPRESSION AND STRK AGNST SIDE OF VEH
      RESULTING IN BRUISE TO ELBOW.
 EMPLOYEE WAS CARRYING TOTE BARREL AND HE SLIPPED  STEPPING ON  OBJ ON GROUND  RESULTING  IN SPRAIN OR
      STRAIN TO ANKLE.
 EMPLOYEE WAS CARRYING STD MTL CONT AND HE SLIPPED STEPPING ON WET  PAVEMENT  RESULTING  IN SPRAIN OR
      STRAIN TO ANKLE.
 EMPLOYEE WAS CARRYING PLASTIC BAG AND HE WAS HURT BY HANDLING PLASTIC BAG WHICH HAD PROTRUDING
      GLASS RESULTING IN INFECTION TO THUMB.
 EMPLOYEE WAS CARRYING STD MTL CONT AND HE FELL WHILE ON SLIPPERY PAVEMENT AND STRK AGNST EDGE OF
      HOPPER RESULTING IN MULTIPLE INJURIES TO MULTIPLE BODY PARTS,
 EMPLOYEE WAS CARRYING STD MTL CONT AND HE WAS STRUCK BY GLASS WHICH WAS EJTD FROM HOPPER RESULTING
      IN CUT/PUNCTURE TO LEG,
.EMPLOYEE WAS CARRYING STD MTL CONT AND HE STEPPED ON HANDTOOL RESULTING IN  CUT/PUNCTURE TO FOOT.
 .EMPLOYEE WAS CARRYING PLASTIC BAG AND HE STRUCK SELF WITH PLASTIC  DAG WHICH HAD PROTRUDING GLASS
      RESULTING IN CUT/PUNCTURE TO LEG.
-EMPLOYEE WAS CARRYING Sfn MTL CONT AND HE STEPPED ON NAIL RESULTING IN CUT/PUNCTURE TO TOES.
-EMPLOYEE WAS CARRYING TOTE BARREL AND HE SLIPPED  STEPPING ON  OBJ ON GROUND  RESULTING  IN SPRAIN OR
      STRAIN TO WRIST,
-EMPLOYEE WAS CARRYING STD MTL CONT AND HE WAS STRUCK BY VEH RESULTING IN UNKNOWN TYPE OF INJURY TO
      CHEST,
.EMPLOYEE WAS CARRYING STD MTL CONT AND HE WAS STRUCK BY VEH RESULTING IN BRUISE TO MULTIPLE BODY
      PARTS.
 EMPLOYEE WAS CARRYING STD MTL CONT AND HE STEPPED ON BOARD WITH  NAIL RESULTING  IN CUT/PUNCTURE TO
      FOOT.
 EMPLOYEE WAS CARRYING STD MTL CONT AND HE SLIPPED WHILE ON UNEVEN  PAVEMENT  AND STRK AGNST STD MTL
      CONT RESULTING IN SPRAIN OR STRAIN  TO FINGERS.
 EMPLOYEE WAS CARRYING STD MTL CONT AND HE FELL ON PAVEMENT RESULTING IN SPRAIN OR STRAIN TO KNEE.
 EMPLOYEE WAS CARRYING TOTE BARREL AND HE OVEREXERTED SELF WITH TOTE BARREL  WHICH WAS  UNUSUALLY
      HEAVY AND UNUSUALLY LG RESULTING IN SPRAIN OR STRAIN TO  BACK.
 EMPLOYEE UAS CARRYING TOTE BARREL AND HE SLIPPED  STEPPING ON  DEPRESSION RESULTING IN  SPRAIN OR
      STRAIN TO FOOT.
 EMPLOYEE WAS CARRYING TOTE BARREL AND HE MADE SUDDEN MOVEMENT RESULTING IN  SPRAIN OR  STRAIN TO FOOT.
 -EMPLOYEE WAS CARRYING STD MTL_CONT AND HE SLIPPED STEPPING ON WET  PAVEMENT  IN STEPPING DOWN
                                               CAUGHT BETWEEN  MOVING VEH AND OBJ RESULTING IN
INJ
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
2
1
1
1
1
1
11
2
1
1
3
3
1
1
DAYS
0
28
0
0
1
0
148
0
0
8
32
6
10
0
88
0
1
37
0
2
10
127
6
0
6
COSTS
11
917
50
23
98
55
7439
36
20
519
1584
159
466
20
3394
77
32
2255
44
107
535
2263
369
55
289
                                                                                                               2
                                                                                                               1
                                                                                                                      34
 5
14
205O
  so
 sis
EMPLOYEE
     MULTIPLE INJURIES TO MULTIPLE BODY PARTS.
             CRRRYXNO STD 1
                              CONT  (=»NR

-------
                                                      PROFILE
 EMPLOYEE MAS CARRYING STD MTL CONT AND HE OVEREXERTED SELF WITH STD MTL CONT WHICH  WAS  HVY  (YARD
      CLIPPINGS) AND BEING HNDLD U OTHER CONT RESULTING IN SPRAIN OR STRAIN TO BACK.
 .EMPLOYEE WAS CARRYING TOTE BARREL AND HE STRUCK SELF WITH TOTE BARREL WHICH HAD PROTRUDING  GLASS
      RESULTING IN CUT/PUNCTURE TO LEG.
 EMPLOYEE WAS CARRYING STD MTL CONT AND HE SLIPPED WHILE ON PAVEMENT AND STRK AGNST  EDGE OF  HOPPER
      RESULTING IN BRUISE TO HAND.
 EMPLOYEE WAS CARRYING STD MTL CONT AND HE STRUCK SELF WITH STD MTL CONT WHICH WAS FULL  AND  HAD
      SLIPPED FROM HIS HANDS RESULTING IN OTHER TYPE OF INJURY TO TOES.
.EMPLOYEE WAS CARRYING STD MTL CONT AND HE FELL ON GROUND RESULTING IN SPRAIN OR STRAIN  TO KNEE.
 EMPLOYEE WAS CARRYING TOTE BARREL AND HE OVEREXERTED SELF WITH TOTE BARREL WHICH WAS HVY (WATER
      FILLED) RESULTING IN SPRAIN OR STRAIN TO BACK.
.EMPLOYEE WAS CARRYING CARDBD BOX AND HE FELL ON DEPRESSION RESULTING IN SPRAIN OR STRAIN TO ANKLE.
 EMPLOYEE WAS CARRYING NSTD MTL CONT AND HE SLIPPED STEPPING ON GRAVEL RESULTING IN  SPRAIN OR STRAIN
      TO BACK.
 EMPLOYEE WAS CARRYING TOTE BARREL AND HE FELL ON GROUND RESULTING IN SPRAIN OR STRAIN TO BACK.
.EMPLOYEE WAS CARRYING TOTE BARREL AND HE OVEREXERTED SELF WITH TOTE BARREL WHICH WAS UNUSUALLY
      HEAVY AND SLIPPERY 
-------
                                                                                                                         PAGE
N)
                                                      PROFILE
 EMPLOYEE WAS CARRYING TOTE BARREL AND HE OVEREXERTED SELF WITH TOTE DARREL  WHICH  WAS FULL RESULTING
      IN SPRAIN OR STRAIN TO BACK.
 EMPLOYEE WAS CARRYING CARDBD BOX AND HE SLIPPED STEPPING ON OBJ ON GROUND RESULTING IN  SPRAIN OR
      STRAIN TO ANKLE.
 EMPLOYEE WAS CARRYING STD MTL CONT AND HE SLIPPED STEPPING ON OBJ ON GROUND RESULTING IN SPRAIN OR
      STRAIN TO BACK.
 EMPLOYEE WAS CARRYING STD MTL CONT AND HE OVEREXERTED SELF WITH STD MTL CONT WHICH WAS  UNUSUALLY
      HEAVY AND BEING HNDLD W OTHER CONT RESULTING IN SPRAIN OR STRAIN TO NECK.
 EMPLOYEE WAS CARRYING STD MTL CONT AND HE WAS STRUCK BY VEH RESULTING IN BRUISE TO LEG.
 EMPLOYEE WAS CARRYING STD MTL CONT AND HE SLIPPED STEPPING ON PAVEMENT IN STEPPING DOWN RESULTING
      IN SPRAIN OR STRAIN TO LEG.
 EMPLOYEE WAS CARRYING STD MTL CONT AND HE FELL WHILE ON STEP OF VEH AND STRK AGNST SIDE OF  VEH
      RESULTING IN FRACTURE TO JAW.
 EMPLOYEE WAS CARRYING CARDBD BOX AND HE FELL WHILE ON GROUND AND STRK AGNST OBJ PROTRUDING  FRM GRND
      RESULTING IN CUT/PUNCTURE TO NECK.
 EMPLOYEE WAS CARRYING STD MTL CONT AND HE SLIPPED STEPPING ON SLIPPERY OBJ  ON GROUND RESULTING IN
      DISLOCATION TO KNEE.
 EMPLOYEE WAS CARRYING STD MTL CONT AND HE WAS STRUCK BY VEH RESULTING IN ABRASIONS TO KNEE.
 EMPLOYEE WAS CARRYING STD MTL CONT AND HE FELL FROM WET INCLINED GRASS RESULTING  IN BRUISE  TO BACK.
 EMPLOYEE WAS CARRYING STD MTL CONT AND HE OVEREXERTED SELF WITH STD MTL CONT WHICH WAS  FULL
    .  RESULTING IN DISLOCATION TO KNEE,
.EMPLOYEE WAS CARRYING COMPRSD WASTE BAG AND HE STRUCK SELF WITH COMPRESSED  WASTE  BAG WHICH  HAD
      PROTRUDING GLASS RESULTING IN INFECTION TO LEG.
.EMPLOYEE WAS CARRYING PLASTIC BAG AND HE WAS HURT BY HANDLING PLASTIC BAG WHICH HAD PROTRUDING
      GLASS RESULTING IN CUT/PUNCTURE TO ELBOW.
 EMPLOYEE WAS CARRYING STD MTL CONT AND HE SLIPPED STEPPING ON WET GRASS RESULTING IN SPRAIN OR
      STRAIN TO GROIN.
 EMPLOYEE WAS CARRYING STD MTL CONT AND HE MADE SUDDEN MOVEMENT RESULTING IN SPRAIN OR STRAIN TO
      SHOULDER.
:EMPLOYEE WAS CARRYING STD MTL CONT AND HE WAS INJURED IN OTHER TYPE OF ACCIDENT RESULTING  IN
      ASPHYXIATION OR DROWNING TO INTERNAL ORGANS.
 EMPLOYEE WAS CARRYING STD MTL CONT AND HE MADE SUDDEN MOVEMENT AND HNDLD WITH COWRKR RESULTING  IN
      SPRAIN OR STRAIN TO SHOULDER.
.EMPLOYEE WAS CARRYING STD MTL CONT AND HE SLIPPED STEPPING ON WASTE ON GROUND RESULTING IN  SPRAIN
      OR STRAIN TO ANKLE.
 EMPLOYEE WAS CARRYING STD MTL CONT AND HE FELL FROM CURB ONTO PAVEMENT RESULTING  IN SPRAIN  OR
      STRAIN TO KNEE.
.EMPLOYEE WAS CARRYING TOTE BARREL AND HE FELL ON PAVEMENT RESULTING IN BRUISE TO  BACK.
.EMPLOYEE WAS CARRYING STD MTL CONT AND HE WAS CAUGHT BETWEEN TWO OBJECTS RESULTING IN  SPRAIN OR
      STRAIN TO GROIN.
 EMPLOYEE WAS CARRYING STD MTL CONT AND HE OVEREXERTED SELF WITH STD MTL CONT WHICH WAS  EMPTY
      RESULTING IN SPRAIN OR STRAIN TO DACK.
-EMPLOYEE WAS CARRYING TOTE BARREL AND HE SLIPPED STEPPING ON DEPRESSION RESULTING IN SPRAIN OR
      STRAIN TO ANKLE.
 EMPLOYEE WAS CARRYING PLASTIC BAG AND HE STRUCK SELF WITH PLASTIC BAG WHICH HAD A PROTRUDING
      HYPODERMIC NEEDLE RESULTING IN CUT/PUNCTURE TO ARM.
.EMPLOYEE WAS CARRYING STD MTL CONT AND HE SLIPPED STEPPING ON OBJ ON GROUND RESULTING  IN SPRAIN  OR
      STRAIN TO LEG.
 EMPLOYEE WAS CARRYING STD MTL CONT AND HE WAS STRUCK BY BOARD WITH NAIL WHICH FELL OUT  OF TOP OF
      CONT RESULTING  IN CUT/PUNCTURE TO ARM.
 EMPLOYEE WAS CARRYING PLASTIC BAG AND HE MADE SUDDEN MOVEMENT IN CATCHING PLASTIC BAG WHICH WAS HVY
         AND HAD THE BOTTOM FALL OUT RESULTING IN SPRAIN OR STRAIN TO BACK.         „„,=.? -rn
 EMPLOYEE  WAS  CARRYING UNBUNDLED SHRUBBERY ANB HE STRUCK AGAINST BACK OF VEH RESULTING IN BRUISE TO
       KNEE.
NO. INJ
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
2
1
1
1
1
3
1
1
1
i
DAYS
28
46
4
5
17
34
0
3
2
2
9
31
0
0
7
8
0
14
24
10
0
0
4
3
0
13
O
•4
COSTS
1268
565
189
241
329
1568
55
143
234
111
610
2915
23
20
404
441
37
695
2015
911
0
72
151
205
10
1134
3A
21 Z

-------
                                                      PROFILE
 EMPLOYEE HAS CARRYING TOTE BARREL AND HE FELL OH GRAVEL RESULTING  IN  BRUISE TO KNEE.
 EMPLOYEE MAS CARRYING STD MTL CONT AND HE STRUCK SELF WITH STD  MTL CONT WHICH WAS EMPTY RESULTING
      IN BRUISE TO TOES.
 EMPLOYEE WAS CARRYING STD MTL CONT AND HE SLIPPED FROM WET STAIRS  RESULTING IN SPRAIN OR STRAIN TO
      WRIST.
 EMPLOYEE WAS CARRYING PLASTIC BAG AND HE SLIPPED STEPPING  ON WET PAVEMENT  RESULTING  IN SPRAIN OR
      STRAIN TO ARM.
 EMPLOYEE WAS CARRYING STD MTL CONT AND HE SLIPPED FROM WET CURB RESULTING  IN SPRAIN  OR STRAIN TO KNEE.
 EMPLOYEE WAS CARRYING STD MTL CONT AND HE STRUCK SELF WITH STD  MTL CONT WHICH WAS FULL AND  BEINQ
      HNDLD  W OTHER CONT RESULTING IN BRUISE TO TOES.
 EMPLOYEE WAS CARRYING STD MTL CONT AND HE SLIPPED STEPPING ON GROUND  RESULTING IN SPRAIN OR STRAIN
      TO BACK.
 EMPLOYEE WAS CARRYING TOTE BARREL AND HE STEPPED ON NAIL RESULTING IN CUT/PUNCTURE TO FOOT.
 EMPLOYEE WAS CARRYING STD MTL CONT AND HE SLIPPED STEPPING ON CURB IN STEPPING DOWN  RESULTING IN
      SPRAIN OR STRAIN TO ANKLE.
 EMPLOYEE WAS CARRYING STD MTL CONT AND HE SLIPPED STEPPING ON WET  WASTE ON GROUND RESULTING IN
      UNKNOWN TYPE OF  INJURY TO LEG.
 EMPLOYEE WAS CARRYING STD MTL CONT AND HE OVEREXERTED SELF WITH STD MTL CONT WHICH WAS UNUSUALLY
      HEAVY  RESULTING  IN SPRAIN OR STRAIN TO SHOULDER,
 EMPLOYEE WAS CARRYING PLASTIC BAG AND HE STRUCK AGAINST BACK OF VEH RESULTING IN CUT/PUNCTURE TO KNEE.
 EMPLOYEE WAS CARRYING STD MTL CONT AND HE FELL ON WET PAVEMENT  RESULTING  IN SPRAIN OR STRAIN TO CHEST.
 EMPLOYEE WAS CARRYING PLASTIC BAG AND HE STRUCK SELF WITH  PLASTIC  BAG WHICH HAD PROTRUDING  WASTE
      RESULTING IN CUT/PUNCTURE TO LEG.
.EMPLOYEE WAS CARRYING STD MTL CONT AND HE STRUCK AGAINST SIDE OF VEH  RESULTING IN BRUISE TO LEG.
 EMPLOYEE WAS CARRYING TOTE BARREL AND HE STRUCK SELF WITH  TOTE  BARREL WHICH WAS FULL RESULTING IN
      SPRAIN OR STRAIN TO NECK,
 EMPLOYEE WAS CARRYING TOTE BARREL AND HE FELL ON GROUND RESULTING  IN  ABRASIONS TO EYES.
 EMPLOYEE WAS CARRYING TOTE BARREL AND HE FELL ON WASTE ON  GROUND RESULTING IN CUT/PUNCTURE  TO KNEE.
 EMPLOYEE WAS CARRYING STD MTL CONT AND HE STRUCK SELF WITH STD  MTL CONT WHICH WAS UNUSUALLY HEAVY
      AND HAD SLIPPED  FROM HIS HANDS RESULTING IN BRUISE TO LEG.
 EMPLOYEE WAS CARRYING STD MTL CONT AND HE MADE SUDDEN MOVEMENT  RESULTING  IN SPRAIN OR STRAIN TO ANKLE.
.EMPLOYEE WAS CARRYING STD MTL CONT AND HE FELL ON OBJ ON GROUND RESULTING  IN DISLOCATION TO BACK.
.EMPLOYEE WAS CARRYING STD MTL CONT AND HE SLIPPED WHILE ON PAVEMENT AND STRK AGNST BACK OF  VEH
      RESULTING IN SPRAIN OR STRAIN TO CHEST.
 EMPLOYEE WAS CARRYING STD MTL CONT AND HE FELL ON OBJ ON GROUND RESULTING  IN BRUISE  TO SHOULDER.
 EMPLOYEE WAS CARRYING STD MTL CONT AND HE FELL ON WET DEPRESSION  IN STEPPING DOWN RESULTING IN
      SPRAIN OR STRAIN TO BACK.
.EMPLOYEE WAS CARRYING STD MTL CONT AND HE STRUCK AGAINST GROUND RESULTING  IN BRUISE  TO FOOT.
.EMPLOYEE WAS CARRYING STD MTL CONT AND HE FELL FROM WET INCLINED GRASS RESULTING IN  BRUISE  TO
      MULTIPLE BODY PARTS,
 EMPLOYEE WAS CARRYING PLASTIC BAG AND HE WAS HURT BY HANDLING PLASTIC BAG  WHICH HAD  PROTRUDING
      GLASS RESULTING IN CUT/PUNCTURE TO HAND.
 EMPLOYEE WAS CARRYING STD MTL CONT AND HE SLIPPED STEPPING ON OBJ  ON  GROUND RESULTING IN SPRAIN OR
      STRAIN TO ABDOMEN.
 EMPLOYEE WAS CARRYING STD MTL CONT AND HE OVEREXERTED SELF WITH STD MTL CONT WHICH WAS FULL AND
      BEING HNDLD W OTHER CONT RESULTING IN SPRAIN OR STRAIN TO  BACK.
 EMPLOYEE WAS CARRYING STD MTL CONT AND HE WAS STRUCK BY PLASTIC BAG WHICH  HAD PROTRUDING WASTE
      RESULTING IN BRUISE TO FOOT.
 EMPLOYEE WAS CARRYING STD MTL CONT AND HE SUPPED STEPPING ON INCLINED GROUND RESULTING IN  SPRAIN
      OR STRAIN TO ANKLE.
 EMPLOYEE WAS CARRYING STD MTL CONT AND HE SLIPPED STEPPING ON INCLINED GROUND RESULTING IN  SPRAIN
      OR STRAIN TO BACK.
 EMPLOYEE WAS CARRYING TOTE BARREL AND HE SLIPPED STEPPING  ON OBJ ON GROUND IN STEPPING DOWN
      RESULTING IN SPRAIN OR STRAIN TO ANKLE.
NO. INJ  DAYS
    1
    1

    1

    1
    1
     1
     2

     1

     1

     2
     1
     1

     1
     1

     1
     1
     1

     1
     2
     1

     1
     1

     1
     1

     1

     1

     1

     1

     1

     1

     1

     1
 o

 18

 19

  2
  A
128
  2

  4

  3

  2
  0
  9

  5
  0

  1
  0
  0

  0
 51
  3

 12
  0

  4
  1

 10

  O

  0

  2

  3

  0

  0

  2
COSTS
   20

   93

  941

  103
  377

   35

  5960
   74

  132

  107

  111
   69
  462

  273
    0

   66
   92
   37

   90
  1532
   29

   85
  115

  425
   92

  348

   69

   20

  118

  239

   26

   94

  107

-------
                                                                                                                    PAGE  6
                                                     PROFILE
EMPLOYEE WAS CARRYING STD MTL CONT AND HE MADE SUDDEN MOVEMENT IN STEPPING DOWN RESULTING  IN  SPRAIN
     OR STRAIN TO GROIN.
EMPLOYEE WAS CARRYING PLASTIC BAG AND HE SLIPPED STEPPING ON ICY PAVEMENT RESULTING IN SPRAIN OR
     STRAIN TO BACK.
EMPLOYEE WAS CARRYING STD MTL CONT AND HE STRUCK AGAINST SIDE OF VEH RESULTING IN BRUISE TO FOREHEAD.
EMPLOYEE WAS CARRYING STD MTL CONT AND HE SLIPPED WHILE ON PAVEMENT AND STRK AGNST EDGE OF HOPPER
     RESULTING IN BRUISE TO LEG.
EMPLOYEE WAS CARRYING TOTE BARREL AND HE FELL ON WET GRASS RESULTING IN SPRAIN OR STRAIN TO BACK.
EMPLOYEE WAS CARRYING TOTE BARREL AND HE FELL WHILE ON RUNNING BOARD AND STRK AGNST RUNNING BOARD
     RESULTING IN CUT/PUNCTURE TO LEG.
EMPLOYEE WAS CARRYING PLASTIC BAG AND HE WAS HURT BY HANDLING PLASTIC BAG WHICH HAD PROTRUDING
     WASTE RESULTING IN CUT/PUNCTURE TO HAND.
EMPLOYEE WAS CARRYING STD MTL CONT AND HE WAS STRUCK BY CONT HANDLED BY COWORKER RESULTING IN
     BRUISE TO THUMB.
EMPLOYEE WAS CARRYING STD MTL CONT AND HE SLIPPED STEPPING ON UNEVEN CURB RESULTING IN SPRAIN OR
     STRAIN TO MULTIPLE BODY PARTS.
EMPLOYEE WAS CARRYING STD MTL CONT AND HE STRUCK SELF WITH STD MTL CONT WHICH WAS EMPTY RESULTING
     IN BRUISE TO LEG.
EMPLOYEE WAS CARRYING STD MTL CONT AND HE SLIPPED WHILE ON CURB AND STRK AGNST STD MTL CONT
     RESULTING IN UNKNOWN TYPE OF INJURY TO HAND.
EMPLOYEE WAS CARRYING STD MTL CONT AND HE FELL WHILE ON BRICK WALKWAY AND STRK AGNST STD MTL  CONT
     RESULTING IN FRACTURE TO FOOT.
EMPLOYEE WAS CARRYING STD MTL CONT AND HE SLIPPED STEPPING ON OBJ ON GROUND RESULTING IN SPRAIN OR
     STRAIN TO GROIN.
EMPLOYEE WAS CARRYING TOTE BARREL AND HE FELL ON PAVEMENT RESULTING IN BRUISE TO HIPS.
EMPLOYEE WAS CARRYING PLASTIC BAG AND HE SLIPPED WHILE ON SLIPPERY WASTE ON GROUND AND STRK AGNST
     STEP OF VEH RESULTING IN BRUISE TO KNEE.
EMPLOYEE WAS CARRYING STD MTL CONT AND HE SLIPPED STEPPING ON OBJ ON GROUND RESULTING IN SPRAIN OR
     STRAIN TO KNEE.
EMPLOYEE WAS CARRYING PLASTIC BAG AND HE WAS STRUCK BY VEH RESULTING IN FRACTURE TO LEG.
EMPLOYEE WAS CARRYING TOTE BARREL AND HE OVEREXERTED SELF WITH TOTE BARREL WHICH WAS UNUSUALLY
     HEAVY AND UNUSUALLY LG RESULTING IN SPRAIN OR STRAIN TO SHOULDER.
EMPLOYEE WAS CARRYING STD MTL CONT AND HE FELL FROM STEP OF VEH ONTO GROUND RESULTING IN BRUISE TO
     BACK.
EMPLOYEE WAS CARRYING TOTE BARREL AND HE FELL WHILE ON ICY PAVEMENT AND STRK AGNST STEP OF VEH
     RESULTING IN BRUISE TO ELBOW.
EMPLOYEE WAS CARRYING STD MTL CONT AND HE SLIPPED STEPPING ON DEPRESSION RESULTING IN SPRAIN OR
     STRAIN TO KNEE,
EMPLOYEE WAS CARRYING TOTE BARREL AND HE SLIPPED STEPPING ON PAVEMENT RESULTING IN SPRAIN OR STRAIN
     TO KNEE.
EMPLOYEE WAS CARRYING STD MTL CONT AND HE STRUCK AGAINST OBJ PROTRUDING FROM GRND RESULTING IN
     FRACTURE TO TOES.
EMPLOYEE WAS CARRYING NSTD MTL CONT AND HE STRUCK SELF WITH NSTD MTL CONT WHICH WAS FULL AND HAD
     SLIPPED FROM HIS HANDS RESULTING IN BRUISE TO TOES.
EMPLOYEE WAS CARRYING PLASTIC BAG AND HE OVEREXERTED SELF WITH PLASTIC BAG WHICH WAS HVY (YARD
     CLIPPINGS) RESULTING IN SPRAIN OR STRAIN TO BACK.
EMPLOYEE WAS CARRYING OIL DRUM AND HE STRUCK SELF WITH OIL DRUM WHICH WAS UNUSUALLY HEAVY AND HAD
     SLIPPED FROM HIS HANDS RESULTING IN FRACTURE TO FOOT.
EMPLOYEE WAS CARRYING STU MTL CONT AND HE FELL WHILE ON WET GROUND AND STRK AGNST STD MTL CONT
     RESULTING IN SPRAIN OR STRAIN TO HIPS.
EMPLOYEE  WAS CARRYING TOTE BARREL AND HE CONTACTED CAUSTIC OR TOXIC OTHER SUBSTANCE RESULTING IN
 EMPLOYEDwI^CAR^YINB* STB MTL CONT AND HE FELL ON ICY BRICK WALKWAY RESULTING IN SPRAIN OR STRAIN
      TO CHEST*
INJ
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
i
i
DAYS
0
13
0
1
4
8
3
0
2
3
2
2
1
0
2
0
99
3
0
2
1
1
3
6
0
10
7
7
COSTS
20
721
69
49
208
235
207
15
10O
96
63
150
194
16
81
58
9947
37
63
125
83
248
264
20
182
513
30O
31 V

-------
                                                                                                                     PAGE
                                                     PROFILE
EMPLOYEE WAS CARRYING STD MTL CONT AND HE SLIPPED STEPPING ON WET GRASS RESULTING IN SPRAIN OR
     STRAIN TO ANKLE.
EMPLOYEE WAS CARRYING TOTE BARREL AND HE STRUCK AGAINST BACK OF VEH RESULTING IN BRUISE TO KNEE.
EMPLOYEE WAS CARRYING STD MTL CONT AND HE FELL ON ICY GROUND RESULTING IN BRUISE TO KNEE.
EMPLOYEE WAS CARRYING STD MTL CONT AND HE STRUCK AGAINST FENDER RESULTING IN BRUISE TO LEG.
EMPLOYEE WAS CARRYING TOTE BARREL AND HE FELL WHILE ON ICY OBJ ON GROUND AND STRK AGNST TOTE BARREL
     RESULTING IN SPRAIN OR STRAIN TO BACK.
EMPLOYEE WAS CARRYING PLASTIC BAG AND HE FELL ON INCLINED GROUND RESULTING IN SPRAIN OR STRAIN TO
     ANKLE.
EMPLOYEE WAS CARRYING TOTE BARREL AND HE SLIPPED STEPPING ON SLIPPERY CURB RESULTING IN SPRAIN OR
     STRAIN TO KNEE.
EMPLOYEE WAS CARRYING NSTD MTL CONT AND HE STEPPED ON NAIL RESULTING IN CUT/PUNCTURE TO FOOT.
EMPLOYEE WAS CARRYING TOTE BARREL AND HE FELL ON ICY PAVEMENT RESULTING IN FRACTURE TO HAND.
EMPLOYEE WAS CARRYING PLASTIC BAG AND HE SLIPPED STEPPING ON ICY GROUND RESULTING IN SPRAIN OR
     STRAIN TO FOOT.
EMPLOYEE WAS CARRYING TOTE BARREL AND HE SLIPPED STEPPING ON WET PAVEMENT IN STEPPING DOWN
     RESULTING IN SPRAIN OR STRAIN TO ANKLE.
EMPLOYEE WAS CARRYING STD MTL CONT AND HE SLIPPED STEPPING ON ICY GROUND RESULTING IN SPRAIN OR
     STRAIN TO FOOT.
EMPLOYEE WAS CARRYING PLASTIC BAG AND HE FELL ON ICY PAVEMENT RESULTING IN SPRAIN OR STRAIN TO BACK,
EMPLOYEE WAS CARRYING STD MTL CONT AND HE FELL ON ICY GROUND RESULTING IN FRACTURE TO LEG.
EMPLOYEE WAS CARRYING TOTE BARREL AND HE FELL ON ICY GRASS RESULTING IN SPRAIN OR STRAIN TO FINGERS.
EMPLOYEE WAS CARRYING'STD MTL CONT AND HE FELL ON ICY GROUND RESULTING IN CUT/PUNCTURE TO SCALP.
EMPLOYEE WAS CARRYING TOTE BARREL AND HE FELL ON DEPRESSION RESULTING IN BRUISE TO HIPS.
EMPLOYEE WAS CARRYING TOTE BARREL AND HE STRUCK SELF WITH TOTE BARREL WHICH WAS FULL AND HAD
     SLIPPED FROM HIS HANDS RESULTING IN CUT/PUNCTURE TO SHOULDER,
EMPLOYEE WAS CARRYING STD MTL CONT AND HE SLIPPED STEPPING ON ICY GROUND RESULTING IN SPRAIN OR
     STRAIN TO BACK.
EMPLOYEE WAS CARRYING TOTE BARREL AND HE OVEREXERTED SELF WITH TOTE BARREL WHICH WAS FULL RESULTING
     IN SPRAIN OR STRAIN TO SHOULDER.
EMPLOYEE WAS CARRYING STD MTL CONT AND HE WAS STRUCK BY VEH RESULTING IN BRUISE TO TOES.
                                                                                                            NO.  INJ  DAYS
1
1
1
1

1

1

1
1
1

1

1

1
1
1
1
1
1

1

1

1
1
 0
 4
 3
 2

 1

 0

25
 5
 0

 4

 9

 3
 5
73
 3
12
 0

 3

 O

 1
 1
COSTS

   16
   88
  127
   93

   65

   20

  105
  161
  134

  212

  273

  210
  380
 1863
  131
 1211
   20

   20

   35

   71
   58
               TOTAL
                                                                                                              239
     2086
     91641

-------
                                                             FIGURE 1-11
         PAGE
                                                              ALL USERS
                                                       DETAILED DESCRIPTION OF
                                                PUSHING OR PULLING CONTAINER ACCIDENTS
                                                    OSHA RECORDABLE INJURIES ONLY
 REPORTING PERIOD: DECEMBER 1975 - DECEMBER 1976
 THIS PROFILE IS A FORMATTED SENTENCE CONSISTING OF ACTIVITYr  ACCIDENT TYPE» NATURE OF  INJURY AND PART OF BODY.
                                                      PROFILE
 EMPLOYEE WAS PUSHING OR PULLING BULK CONT (1-10 YD)  AND HE STRUCK SELF  WITH  BULK  CONTU-10 YD)
      WHICH WAS EMPTY RESULTING IN BRUISE TO THUMB .
 EMPLOYEE WAS PUSHING OR PULLING BULK CONT (1-10 YD)  AND HE OVEREXERTED  SELF  WITH  BULK  CONTU-10 YD)
      WHICH WAS FULL RESULTING IN SPRAIN OR STRAIN TO BACK .
 EMPLOYEE WAS PUSHING OR PULLING WHEELED CART AND HE  FELL ON WET PAVEMENT RESULTING  IN  BRUISE TO BACK
 EMPLOYEE WAS PUSHING OR PULLING BULK CONT (1-10 YD)  AND HE OVEREXERTED  SELF  WITH  BULK  CONTU-10 YD)
      WHICH WAS EMPTY RESULTING IN SPRAIN OR STRAIN TO GROIN .
 EMPLOYEE WAS PUSHING OR PULLING BULK CONT (1-10 YD)  AND HE STRUCK SELF  WITH  BULK  CONTU-10 YD)
      WHICH WAS UNUSUALLY HEAVY RESULTING IN BRUISE TO FOOT .
 EMPLOYEE WAS PUSHING OR PULLING WHEELED CART AND HE  SLIPPED WHILE ON OBJ ON  GROUND  AND STRK AGNST
      WHEELED CART RESULTING IN BRUISE TO CHEST .
 EMPLOYEE WAS PUSHING OR PULLING BULK CONT (1-10 YD)  AND HE OVEREXERTED  SELF  WITH  BULK  CONTU-10 YD)
      WHICH WAS FULL AND BECAME STUCK RESULTING IN SPRAIN OR STRAIN TO BACK .
.EMPLOYEE WAS PUSHING OR PULLING WHEELED CART AND HE  FELL ON ICY PAVEMENT RESULTING  IN  UNKNOWN  TYPE
   '   OF INJURY TO UNK BODY PART .
 EMPLOYEE WAS PUSHING OR PULLING BULK CONT (1-10 YD)  AND HE MADE SUDDEN  MOVEMENT IN  CATCHING BULK
      CONTU-10 YD) AND HNDLD WITH COWRKR RESULTING IN SPRAIN OR STRAIN  TO SHOULDER  .
EMPLOYEE WAS PUSHING OR PULLING WHEELED CART AND HE  STRUCK SELF WITH WHEELED CART WHICH WAS FULL
      AND BECAME STUCK RESULTING IN BRUISE TO CHEST .
.EMPLOYEE WAS PUSHING OR PULLING WHEELED CART AND HE  FELL FROM ICY STAIRS RESULTING  IN  BRUISE TO
      SHOULDER .
.EMPLOYEE WAS PUSHING OR PULLING WHEELED CART AND HE  SLIPPED STEPPING ON ICY  PAVEMENT RESULTING IN
      SPRAIN OR STRAIN TO ANKLE .
 EMPLOYEE WAS PUSHING OR PULLING WHEELED CART AND HE  STRUCK AGAINST WHEELED CART RESULTING IN BRUISE
      TO LEG ,
 EMPLOYEE WAS PUSHING OR PULLING BULK CONT (1-10 YD)  AND HE STRUCK AGAINST BULK CONTU-10 YD)
      RESULTING IN BRUISE TO WRIST .
 EMPLOYEE WAS PUSHING OR PULLING BULK CONT (1-10 YD)  AND HE STRUCK SELF  WITH  CONTAINER  LID RESULTING
      IN BRUISE TO KNEE .
.EMPLOYEE WAS PUSHING OR PULLING BULK CONT (1-10 YD)  AND HE SLIPPED STEPPING  ON OILY PAVEMENT
      RESULTING IN SPRAIN OR STRAIN TO BACK .
 EMPLOYEE WAS PUSHING OR PULLING BULK CONT (1-10 YD)  AND HE WAS CAUGHT BETWEEN BULK  CONT & VEH
      RESULTING IN BRUISE TO HAND .
 EMPLOYEE WAS PUSHING OR PULLING WHEELED CART AND HE  FELL ON ICY GROUND  RESULTING  IN SPRAIN OR
      STRAIN TO ANKLE .
 EMPLOYEE WAS PUSHING OR PULLING WHEELED CART AND HE  FELL FROM ICY STAIRS RESULTING  IN  SPRAIN OR
      STRAIN TO BACK .
 EMPLOYEE WAS PUSHING OR PULLING WHEELED CART AND HE  FELL ON ICY PAVEMENT RESULTING  IN  BRUISE TO HIPS
 EMPLOYEE WAS PUSHING OR PULLING BULK CONT (1-10 YD)  AND HE OVEREXERTED  SELF  WITH  BULK  CONTU-10 YD)
      WHICH WAS EMPTY RESULTING IN SPRAIN OR STRAIN TO BACK .
 EMPLOYEE WAS PUSHING OR PULLING WHEELED CART AND HE  WAS STRUCK BY CONTAINER  LID RESULTING IN
      FRACTURE TO FINGERS .
 EMPLOYEE UAS PUSHING OR PULLING BULK CONT U-1O YD)  AND HE WAS CAUGHT BETWEEN BULK  CONT S LID
      RESULTING IN BRUISE TO FINGERS .
 EMPLOYEE WAS PUSHING OR PULUING STD MTL CONT AND HE SLIPPED STEPPING ON DEPRESSION  RESUUTING IN
 EMPLOYEE*iAS°PulHING%R%ULLINo'TOTE BARREL AND HE SLIPPED STEPPING ON  ICY PAVEMENT RESULTING  IN
       SPRAIN 0% STRAIN TO ANKLE .
NO. INJ  DAYS
    5
    1

    1

    1

    1

    2

    1

    1

    1

    1

    1

    1

    1

    1

    1

    2

    1

    1
    1

    2
    1
    1
42

64
 2
COSTS

   16

 1760
  198
5
18
29
262
8
IS
11
5
6
4
0
1
25
12
14
275
7738
1291
11142
426
968
32
265
370
193
57
60
337
853
652
  3
  8

55

  O

 o
   148
   484

  1865

   <40

   29
  ±03

-------
                                                      PROFILE
 EMPLOYEE WAS PUSHING OR PULLING BULK CONT (1-1O YD) AND HE OVEREXERTED SELF UITH BULK CONTC1-1O  YD)
      WHICH WAS UNUSUALLY HEAVY AND BECAME STUCK RESULTING IN SPRAIN OR STRAIN TO BACK .
 EMPLOYEE WAS PUSHING OR PULLING BULK CONT (1-1O YD) AND HE UAS CAUGHT BETWEEN TWO OBJECTS RESULTING
      IN BRUISE TO FINGERS .
 EMPLOYEE WAS PUSHING OR PULLING WHEELED CART AND HE MADE SUDDEN MOVEMENT IN AVOIDING ANIMAL
      RESULTING IN SPRAIN OR STRAIN TO BACK .
 EMPLOYEE WAS PUSHING OR PULLING BULK CONT (1-1O YD) AND HE WAS CAUGHT BETWEEN BULK CONT 8 WALL
      RESULTING IN CUT/PUNCTURE TO FINGERS .
 EMPLOYEE WAS PUSHING OR PULLING STD MTL CONT AND HE OVEREXERTED SELF WITH STD MTL CONT WHICH WAS
      FULL RESULTING IN SPRAIN OR STRAIN TO BACK .
 EMPLOYEE WAS PUSHING OR PULLING WHEELED CART AND HE STRUCK.AGAINST POST RESULTING IN BRUISE TO NECK
 EMPLOYEE WAS PUSHING OR PULLING BULK CONT (1-10 YD) AND HE WAS CAUGHT BETWEEN BULK CONT S WALL
      RESULTING IN BRUISE TO HAND .
 EMPLOYEE WAS PUSHING OR PULLING BULK CONT <1-10 YD) AND HE OVEREXERTED SELF WITH BULK CONTd-10 YD)
      WHICH WAS FULL RESULTING IN SPRAIN OR STRAIN TO CHEST .
 EMPLOYEE WAS PUSHING OR PULLING CARDBD BOX AND HE FELL ON PAVEMENT RESULTING IN BRUISE TO CHEST .
 EMPLOYEE WAS PUSHING OR PULLING WHEELED CART AND HE SLIPPED STEPPING ON UNEVEN GROUND RESULTING IN
      SPRAIN OR STRAIN TO ANKLE .
 EMPLOYEE WAS PUSHING OR PULLING WHEELED CART AND HE STRUCK SELF WITH WHEELED CART WHICH WAS
      UNUSUALLY HEAVY AND UNUSUALLY LG RESULTING IN SPRAIN OR STRAIN TO HAND .
-EMPLOYEE WAS PUSHING OR PULLING STD MTL CONT AND HE SLIPPED STEPPING ON DEPRESSION RESULTING IN
      SPRAIN OR STRAIN TO KNEE .
 EMPLOYEE WAS PUSHING OR PULLING BULK CONT <1-10 YD) AND HE WAS CAUGHT BETWEEN BULK CONT & WALL
      RESULTING IN BRUISE TO FINGERS .
 EMPLOYEE WAS PUSHING OR PULLING BULK CONT (1-10 YD) AND HE WAS CAUGHT IN HANDLE OF BULK CONTAINER
      RESULTING IN BRUISE TO HAND .
 EMPLOYEE WAS PUSHING OR PULLING TOTE BARREL AND HE SLIPPED WHILE ON PAVEMENT AND STRK AGNST BACK OF
      VEH RESULTING IN BRUISE TO ELBOW .
 EMPLOYEE WAS PUSHING OR PULLING BULK CONT (1-10 YD) AND HE FELL ON SLIPPERY PAVEMENT AND HNDLD WITH
      COWRKR RESULTING IN SPRAIN OR STRAIN TO NECK  .
 EMPLOYEE WAS PUSHING OR PULLING STD MTL CONT AND HE OVEREXERTED SELF WITH STD MTL CONT WHICH WAS
      HVY (YARD CLIPPINGS) AND BEING HNDLD W OTHER CONT RESULTING IN SPRAIN OR STRAIN TO NECK .
-EMPLOYEE WAS PUSHING OR PULLING BULK CONT (1-10 YD) AND HE OVEREXERTED SELF WITH BULK CONT(1-10 YD)
      RESULTING IN SPRAIN OR STRAIN TO GROIN .
 EMPLOYEE WAS PUSHING OR PULLING STD MTL CONT AND HE STRUCK SELF WITH STD MTL CONT WHICH WAS HVY
      (YARD CLIPPINGS) AND BEING HNDLD W OTHER CONT RESULTING IN CUT/PUNCTURE TO TOES .
.EMPLOYEE WAS PUSHING OR FULLING WHEELED CART AND HE OVEREXERTED SELF WITH WHEELED CART WHICH WAS
      UNUSUALLY HEAVY AND BECAME STUCK RESULTING IN SPRAIN OR STRAIN TO SHOULDER .
 .EMPLOYEE WAS PUSHING OR PULLING BULK CONT (1-10 YD) AND HE WAS CAUGHT BETWEEN BULK CONT & LID
      RESULTING IN BRUISE TO THUMB  ,
 EMPLOYEE WAS PUSHING OR PULLING BULK CONT (1-10 YD) AND HE OVEREXERTED SELF WITH BULK CONT(1-10 YD)
      RESULTING IN SPRAIN OR STRAIN TO BACK .
 EMPLOYEE WAS PUSHING OR PULLING WHEELED CART AND HE FELL ON OBJ ON GROUND IN STEPPING DOWN
      RESULTING IN UNKNOWN TYPE OF  INJURY TO HIPS .
 .EMPLOYEE WAS PUSHING OR PULLING BULK CONT (1-10 YD) AND HE STRUCK AGAINST BULK CONT(1-10 YD)
      RESULTING IN UNKNOWN TYPE OF  INJURY TO FOOT ,
.EMPLOYEE WAS PUSHING OR PULLING OIL DRUM AND HE OVEREXERTED SELF WITH OIL DRUM WHICH WAS UNUSUALLY
      HEAVY AND SLIPPERY (WET) RESULTING IN SPRAIN  OR STRAIN TO BACK ,
 EMPLOYEE WAS PUSHING OR PULLING BULK CONT (1-10 YD) AND HE OVEREXERTED SELF WITH BULK CONTd-10 YD)
      WHICH WAS EMPTY RESULTING IN  SPRAIN OR STRAIN TO KNEE ,
:EMPLOYEE WAS PUSHING OR PULLING BULK CONT (1-10 YD) AND HE WAS CAUGHT BETWEEN BULK CONT ft VEH
      RESULTING IN FRACTURE TO FINGERS  ,
;£MPJ-OYEE WAS PUSHING OR PULLING STD MTL CONT AND HE FELL ON OBJ ON GROUND RESULTING IN FRACTURE TO
      FOOT  .
                                                                                                            NO.  INJ  DAYS
1

1

1

1

1
1

2

2
1

1

1

2

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1
 0

 0

33

 0

 4
 O
78
23
COSTS

   12

   43

   101

   42

   197
   33

   542

  5554
  1202
12
0
2
0
1
O
18
0
6
3
1
0
209
5
7
4
3
0
10
529
32
129
41
99
43
601
20
204
154
76
51
11978
68
52
235
201
16
446

-------
                                                                                                                        PAGE  3
I-1
I
^J
00
                                                      PROFILE
 EMPLOYEE WAS PUSHING OR PULLING BULK CONT (1-10 YD) AND HE OVEREXERTED SELF WITH  BULK  CONT(1-10 YD)
      WHICH WAS EMPTY AND BECAME STUCK RESULTING IN SPRAIN OR STRAIN TO WRIST .
 EMPLOYEE WAS PUSHING OR PULLING BULK CONT (1-10 YD) AND HE OVEREXERTED SELF WITH  BULK  CONT(1-10 YD)
      WHICH WAS UNUSUALLY HEAVY AND HNDLD WITH COWRKR RESULTING IN SPRAIN OR STRAIN TO  SHOULDER  .
 EMPLOYEE WAS PUSHING OR PULLING PLASTIC BAG AND HE FELL FROM VEHICLE ONTO PAVEMENT RESULTING  IN
      CUT/PUNCTURE TO CHEEK .
 EMPLOYEE WAS PUSHING OR PULLING BULK CONT (1-10 YD) AND HE STRUCK AGAINST BULK  CONTU-10 YD)
      RESULTING IN BRUISE TO FOOT .
 EMPLOYEE WAS PUSHING OR PULLING BULK CONT (1-10 YD) AND HE STRUCK SELF WITH BULK  CONTU-10 YD)
      WHICH WAS EMPTY RESULTING IN BRUISE TO ANKLE .
 EMPLOYEE WAS PUSHING OR PULLING OIL DRUM AND HE OVEREXERTED SELF WITH OIL DRUM  WHICH WAS UNUSUALLY
      HEAVY AND BECAME STUCK RESULTING IN FRACTURE TO ELBOW .
 EMPLOYEE WAS PUSHING OR PULLING STD MTL CONT AND HE SLIPPED STEPPING ON GROUND  RESULTING IN SPRAIN
      OR STRAIN TO ANKLE .
 EMPLOYEE WAS PUSHING OR PULLING BULK CONT (1-10 YD) AND HE WAS CAUGHT BETWEEN BULK CONT 8 VEH
      RESULTING IN FRACTURE TO WRIST .
 EMPLOYEE WAS PUSHING OR PULLING OIL DRUM AND HE OVEREXERTED SELF WITH OIL DRUM  WHICH WAS UNUSUALLY
      HEAVY RESULTING IN SPRAIN OR STRAIN TO BACK .
.EMPLOYEE WAS PUSHING OR PULLING BULK CONT (11-25 YD) AND HE OVEREXERTED SELF WITH BULK CONT(11-25
   .   YD) WHICH WAS UNUSUALLY HEAVY AND BECAME STUCK RESULTING IN SPRAIN OR STRAIN TO MULTIPLE BODY  PARTS
..EMPLOYEE WAS PUSHING OR PULLING 300 GAL PLASTIC CONT AND HE OVEREXERTED SELF WITH 300 GAL PLASTIC
      CONT WHICH WAS EMPTY RESULTING IN SPRAIN OR STRAIN TO BACK .
 EMPLOYEE WAS PUSHING OR PULLING STD MTL CONT AND HE FELL FROM CURB ONTO PAVEMENT  RESULTING IN
      SPRAIN OR STRAIN TO BACK .
 EMPLOYEE WAS PUSHING OR PULLING BULK CONT (1-10 YD) AND HE WAS CAUGHT IN HANDLE OF BULK CONTAINER
      RESULTING IN CUT/PUNCTURE TO FINGERS .
 EMPLOYEE WAS PUSHING OR PULLING WHEELED CART AND HE STRUCK AGAINST GROUND RESULTING IN BRUISE TO  TOES
 EMPLOYEE WAS PUSHING OR PULLING STD MTL CONT AND HE SLIPPED STEPPING ON DEPRESSION RESULTING IN
      SPRAIN OR STRAIN TO ELBOW .
 EMPLOYEE WAS PUSHING OR PULLING PLASTIC BAG AND HE SLIPPED FROM RUNNING BOARD ONTO PAVEMENT
      RESULTING IN SPRAIN OR STRAIN TO ANKLE .
 EMPLOYEE WAS PUSHING OR PULLING BULK CONT (1-10 YD) AND HE OVEREXERTED SELF WITH  BULK CONTd-10 YD)
      WHICH WAS FULL RESULTING IN SPRAIN OR STRAIN TO SHOULDER .
 EMPLOYEE WAS PUSHING OR PULLING WHEELED CART AND HE STRUCK AGAINST STD MTL CONT RESULTING IN BRUISE
      TO KNEE .
 EMPLOYEE WAS PUSHING OR PULLING WHEELED CART AND HE WAS INJURED IN UNK ACCIDENT RESULTING IN
      UNKNOWN TYPE OF INJURY TO FOOT .
 EMPLOYEE WAS PUSHING OR PULLING BULK CONT (1-10 YD) AND HE WAS CAUGHT BETWEEN BULK CONT & VEH
      RESULTING IN MULTIPLE INJURIES TO MULTIPLE BODY PARTS .
 EMPLOYEE WAS PUSHING OR PULLING STD MTL CONT AND HE STRUCK SELF WITH STD MTL CONT WHICH WAS FULL
      RESULTING IN BRUISE TO TOES .
.EMPLOYEE WAS PUSHING OR PULLING WHEELED CART AND HE STRUCK SELF WITH WHEELED CART WHICH WAS FULL
      RESULTING IN BRUISE TO TOES .
 EMPLOYEE WAS PUSHING OR PULLING BULK CONT (1-10 YD) AND HE OVEREXERTED SELF WITH  BULK CONT(1-10 YD)
      WHICH WAS UNUSUALLY HEAVY AND UNUSUALLY LG RESULTING IN SPRAIN OR STRAIN TO  CHEST .
 EMPLOYEE WAS PUSHING OR PULLING BULK CONT (1-10 YD) AND HE WAS CAUGHT BETWEEN BULK CONT 8 LID
      RESULTING IN CUT/PUNCTURE TO ARM .
 EMPLOYEE WAS PUSHING OR PULLING BULK CONT (1-10 YD) AND HE OVEREXERTED SELF WITH  BULK CONT(1-1O YD)
      WHICH WAS UNUSUALLY HEAVY AND HNDLD WITH COWRKR RESULTING IN SPRAIN OR STRAIN TO BACK .
 EMPLOYEE WAS PUSHING OR PULLING BULK CONT LID AND HE MAS CAUGHT BETWEEN BULK CONT & LID RESULTING
      JN SPRAIN OR STRAIN TO FINGERS .
 EMPLOYEE WAS  PUSHING OR PULLINB WHEELED CART AND HE STRUCK AGAINST WHEELED CART WHICH  WAS FULL
NO. INJ  DAYS

    1
    1
    1
    1
    1
    1

    1

    1

    1

    1

    3
    1

    1
    1

    i

    1

    2

     1

     1

     1

     1

    2
     1
    1
    2
YS
A
&
0
0
0
16
0
31
2
0
38
2
COSTS
179
314
20
44
20
842
26
1287
278
48
1777
109
         RESULTING  IN SPRAIN OR STRAIN TO FINDERS
 25
  4

  2

  0

 30

  3

  2

106

  0

  5

  1

  O

 22
  i
 o
1334
 227

 109

  72

1497

 177

 238

3394

  25

 200

  79

  73

1303

 92
 •40
                                                                                     CART WHICH HAD
                         j

-------
                                                      PROFILE
  EMPLOYEE WAS PUSHING  OR PULLING WHEELED CART AND HE FELL ON OBJ ON GROUND RESULTING  IN MULTIPLE
       INJURIES TO MULTIPLE BODY PARTS  .
  EMPLOYEE WAS PUSHING  OR PULLINO BULK  CONT <1-1O YD) AND HE MAS STRUCK BY BULK CONT«1-1O  YD>  WHICH
       WAS FULL RESULTING IN BRUISE TO  CHEST .
  EMPLOYEE WAS PUSHING  OR PULLING OTHER CONT TYPE AND HE STRUCK SELF WITH OTHER CONT TYPE  RESULTING
       IN  SPRAIN OR STRAIN TO MULTIPLE  BODY PARTS .
  EMPLOYEE WAS  PUSHING  OR PULLING WHEELED CART AND HE STRUCK SELF WITH WHEELED CART WHICH  WAS  FULL
       RESULTING IN BRUISE TO FOOT .
 EMPLOYEE  WAS PUSHING  OR PULLING WHEELED CART AND HE FELL ON OBJ PROTRUDING FROM GRND RESULTING IN
      MULTIPLE  INJURIES TO MULTIPLE BODY PARTS .
 EMPLOYEE WAS PUSHING  OR PULLING STD MTL CONT AND HE OVEREXERTED SELF WITH STD MTL CONT WHICH WAS
      FULL AND BEING HNDLD W OTHER CONT RESULTING IN SPRAIN OR STRAIN TO HAND .
 EMPLOYEE WAS PUSHING OR PULLINO BULK CONT (1-10 YD) AND HE MADE SUDDEN MOVEMENT IN CATCHING  BULK
      CONT<1-10 YD)  WHICH WAS EMPTY AND HAD SLIPPED FROM HIS HANDS RESULTING IN SPRAIN OR STRAIN TO MULTI
 EMPLOYEE WAS PUSHING OR PULLING WHEELED CART AND HE SLIPPED STEPPING ON DEPRESSION RESULTING IN
      SPRAIN OR STRAIN TO ANKLE .
 EMPLOYEE WAS PUSHING OR PULLING STD MTL CONT AND HE OVEREXERTED SELF WITH STD MTL CONT WHICH WAS
      EMPTY RESULTING IN SPRAIN OR STRAIN TO BACK »
 EMPLOYEE WAS PUSHING OR PULLING PLASTIC CAN AND HE OVEREXERTED SELF WITH PLASTIC CAN WHICH WAS
      EMPTY AND UNUSUALLY LG RESULTING IN SPRAIN OR STRAIN TO BACK .
.EMPLOYEE WAS PUSHING OR PULLING WHEELED CART AND HE SLIPPED STEPPING ON OBJ ON GROUND RESULTING IN
      SPRAIN OR STRAIN TO ANKLE .
 EMPLOYEE WAS PUSHING OR PULLING STD MTL CONT AND HE MADE SUDDEN MOVEMENT IN CATCHING PLASTIC CAN
      WHICH WAS EMPTY AND HAD SLIPPED FROM HIS HANDS RESULTING IN SPRAIN OR STRAIN TO LEG ,
^EMPLOYEE WAS PUSHING OR PULLING BULK CONT (1-10 YD) AND HE WAS CAUGHT BETWEEN BULK CONT  » VEH (CONT
      WAS UNUSUALLY  HVY) RESULTING IN CUT/PUNCTURE TO HAND .
 EMPLOYEE WAS PUSHING OR PULLING BULK CONT (1-10 YD) AND HE WAS STRUCK BY VEH RESULTING IN
      AMPUTATION TO  FINGERS ,
 EMPLOYEE WAS PUSHING OR PULLING WHEELED CART AND HE MADE SUDDEN MOVEMENT RESULTING IN SPRAIN OR
      STRAIN TO ANKLE  .
 EMPLOYEE WAS PUSHING OR PULLING 300 GAL PLASTIC CONT AND HE OVEREXERTED SELF WITH 300 GAL PLASTIC
      CONT WHICH WAS FULL RESULTING IN SPRAIN OR STRAIN TO BACK .
 EMPLOYEE WAS PUSHING OR PULLING WHEELED CART AND HE FELL ON WET GRASS RESULTING IN BRUISE TO SHOULDER .
.EMPLOYEE WAS PUSHING  OR PULLING BULK CONT (1-10 YD) AND HE GOT WASTE PARTICLES IN EYE RESULTING IN
      EYE  IRRITATION TO EYES .
 EMPLOYEE WAS PUSHING  OR PULLING BULK CONT (1-10 YD) AND HE WAS CAUGHT IN HANDLE OF BULK  CONTAINER
      WHICH WAS FULL RESULTING IN BRUISE TO THUMB .
-EMPLOYEE WAS PUSHING  OR PULLING WHEELED CART AND HE SLIPPED STEPPING ON DEPRESSION RESULTING IN
       SPRAIN  OR STRAIN TO KNEE .
.EMPLOYEE  WAS  PUSHING  OR PULLING BULK  CONT (1-10 YD) AND HE OVEREXERTED SELF WITH BULK CONT(1-10 YD)
       WHICH WAS HVY  (WATER FILLED) RESULTING IN SPRAIN OR STRAIN TO WRIST .
  EMPLOYEE  WAS  PUSHING  OR PULLING BULK  CONT (1-10 YD) AND HE STRUCK SELF WITH BULK CONT(1-10 YD)
       WHICH WAS FULL RESULTING IN FRACTURE TO FOOT  .
  EMPLOYEE  WAS  PUSHING  OR PULLING WHEELED CART AND HE FELL ON WET GROUND RESULTING IN  SPRAIN OR
       STRAIN  TO FOOT ,
  EMPLOYEE WAS  PUSHING  OR PULLING TOTE  BARREL AND HE WAS STRUCK BY TOTE BARREL WHICH WAS FULL
       RESULTING IN ABRASIONS TO NECK ,
  EMPLOYEE WAS  PUSHING  OR PULLING BULK  CONT (1-10 YD) AND HE OVEREXERTED SELF WITH BULK CONTU-10 YD)
       WHICH WAS FULL AND BECAME STUCK  RESULTING IN OTHER TYPE OF INJURY TO CHEST .
  EMPLOYEE WAS PUSHING  OR PULLING BULK  CONT (1-10 YD) AND HE OVEREXERTED SELF WITH BULK CONT(1-10 YD)
       WHICH WAS FULL RESULTING IN HERNIA TO ABDOMEN .
  EMPLOYEE WAS PUSHING  OR PULLING BULK  CONT (1-10 YD) AND HE OVEREXERTED SELF WITH BULK CONTU-10 YD)
       WHICH WAS FULL AND STUCK OR FROZE TO GRND RESULTING IN SPRAIN OR STRAIN TO BACK .
  EMPLOYEE WAS PUSHING  OR PULLING BULK  CONT (1-10 YD) AND HE STRUCK AGAINST POST RESULTING IN  BRUISE
       TO  ELBOW .
NO. INJ
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
DAYS
1
O
O
3
0
6
4
3
11
0
6
1
0
15
3
0
6
0
1
0
2
55
25
5
47
0
91
0
'8 " COSTS
1
o
o
3
0
6
A
3
11
0
6
1
0
15
3
195
6O
O
248
51
295
257
16
605
68
216
81
49
398
192
  33
 224

 109

  54

  96

  30

1536

 918

  49

4184

  20

 993

  66

-------
                                                                                                                        PAGE
00
O
                                                     PROFILE
EMPLOYEE WAS PUSHING OR PULLING BULK CONT (1-10 YD) AND HE WAS CAUGHT BETWEEN BULK CONT & WALL
      (CONT WAS UNUSUALLY HVY) RESULTING IN BRUISE TO HAND .
EMPLOYEE WAS PUSHING OR PULLING WHEELED CART AND HE FELL FROM INCLINED GROUND RESULTING IN BRUISE
      TO HIPS .
EMPLOYEE WAS PUSHING OR PULLING BULK CONT (1-10 YD) AND HE STRUCK SELF WITH BULK CONTd-10 YD)
      WHICH WAS FULL RESULTING IN BRUISE TO TOES .
EMPLOYEE WAS PUSHING OR PULLING NSTD MTL CONT AND HE OVEREXERTED SELF WITH NSTD MTL CONT WHICH WAS
      EMPTY AND BECAME STUCK RESULTING IN SPRAIN OR STRAIN TO BACK .
EMPLOYEE WAS PUSHING OR PULLING BULK CONT (1-10 YD) AND HE WAS CAUGHT BETWEEN BULK CONT S VEH
      RESULTING IN CUT/PUNCTURE TO HAND ,
EMPLOYEE WAS PUSHING OR PULLING WHEELED CART AND HE FELL FROM INCLINED PAVEMENT RESULTING IN SPRAIN
      OR STRAIN TO SHOULDER ,
EMPLOYEE WAS PUSHING OR PULLING BULK CONT (1-10 YD) AND HE OVEREXERTED SELF WITH BULK CONTU-10 YD)
      WHICH WAS UNUSUALLY HEAVY AND UNUSUALLY LG RESULTING IN SPRAIN OR STRAIN TO LEG .
EMPLOYEE WAS PUSHING OR PULLING BULK CONT (1-10 YD) AND HE WAS CAUGHT BETWEEN BULK CONT & WALL
     .(CONT WAS UNUSUALLY HVY) RESULTING IN CUT/PUNCTURE TO HAND .
EMPLOYEE WAS PUSHING OR PULLING BULK CONT (1-10 YD) AND HE WAS CAUGHT BETWEEN BULK CONT & VEH
     RESULTING IN BRUISE TO THUMB .
EMPLOYEE WAS PUSHING OR PULLING WHEELED CART AND HE SLIPPED STEPPING ON ICY GROUND RESULTING IN
     SPRAIN OR STRAIN TO BACK .
EMPLOYEE WAS PUSHING OR PULLING BULK CONT (1-10 YD) AND HE WAS CAUGHT BETWEEN BULK CONT & WALL
     RESULTING IN BRUISE TO THUMB .
EMPLOYEE WAS PUSHING OR PULLING WHEELED CART AND HE OVEREXERTED SELF WITH WHEELED CART WHICH WAS
     UNUSUALLY HEAVY RESULTING IN SPRAIN OR STRAIN TO BACK .
EMPLOYEE WAS PUSHING OR PULLING WHEELED CART AND HE SLIPPED WHILE ON ICY GROUND AND STRK AGNST
     FENCE RESULTING IN BRUISE TO KNEE ,
EMPLOYEE WAS PUSHING OR PULLING BULK CONT (1-10 YD) AND HE STRUCK SELF WITH BULK CONTd-10 YD)
     WHICH WAS FULL RESULTING IN BRUISE TO FOOT .
EMPLOYEE WAS PUSHING OR PULLING BULK CONT (1-10 YD) AND HE OVEREXERTED SELF WITH BULK CONTU-10 YD)
     WHICH WAS EMPTY RESULTING IN SPRAIN OR STRAIN TO LEG .
EMPLOYEE WAS PUSHING OR PULLING WHEELED CART AND HE FELL ON DEPRESSION RESULTING IN SPRAIN OR
     STRAIN TO ANKLE .
EMPLOYEE WAS PUSHING OR PULLING CRATE AND HE MADE SUDDEN MOVEMENT RESULTING IN SPRAIN OR STRAIN TO
     BACK .
EMPLOYEE WAS PUSHING OR PULLING BULK CONT (1-10 YD) AND HE OVEREXERTED SELF WITH BULK CONTU-10 YD)
     WHICH WAS FULL RESULTING IN SPRAIN OR STRAIN TO GROIN .

              TOTAL
NO. INJ  DAYS

    1

    1

    1

    1

    1

    1

    1

    1

    1

    1

    1

    1

    1

    1

    i

    1

    1

    1

   142
lYS
25
1
0
10
0
9
17
20
5
7
3
19
1
1
89
4
0
1
COSTS
1575
44
16
48
16
327
700
1123
20
448
71
349
63
68
4828
88
271
20
                                                                                                                         1825   87403

-------
                        SECTION II
                 FOURTH QUARTER IRIS USER
                    INDUSTRY-WIDE DATA
    The accidents received by IRIS from 81 users are  covered
in this section.  FIGURE 2-1 gives operational background data
on the IRIS users.
FREQUENCY, SEVERITY AND COSTS RATES

     FIGURES 2-2 through  2-5 recap the  frequency,  severity
and costs of injuries  for this quarter:

     •    FIGURE 2-2;  Summary of Injuries by Frequency,
         Severity and Costs.  Compares  the  solid  waste
         management industry with the  national  average
         for all industries.

     •    FIGURE 2-3;  Comparison of  Injury  Rates  and
         OSHA Days Lost  for All Users.   Compares  the
         rates and days  lost for the first  four
         quarters of  1976, for each  user, in user
         number order.

     •    FIGURE 2-4;  Comparison of  Direct  Costs  by
         Reporting Period for All Users.  Compares
         the total costs and cost rates for the first
         four quarters of 1976, for  each user,  in
         user number  order.

     •    FIGURE 2-5;  Summary of Accident Factors for
         Selected Accident Characteristics  with Highest
         Percent of OSHA Recordable  Injuries, OSHA Days
         Lost and Direct Costs.

     A  few definitions of the terms used in  the  following
FIGURES are;

     •    OSHA Recordable Injury.  Defined by  OSHA as
         a non-first  aid injury.
                              2-1

-------
OSHA Incidence Rate.  It  is  a measure of the
frequency of injuries.  The  OSHA incidence rate
is the number of OSHA recordable injuries per
200,000 hours of exposure.   The  base figure of
"200,000 hours" is the standard  figure used
in OSHA statistics.  It is roughly equivalent to
100 full-time employees working  a year or 100
man-years (i.e., 100 employees working 40 hours
per week for 50 weeks per year).

OSHA incidence rates can  be  thought of as being
roughly equivalent to the number of injuries
that will occur to 100 employees during a year.
Therefore, an OSHA incidence rate of 37 means
that the organization is  having  37 injuries
per year for each 100 employees  or that,  on
the average, 1 out of every  3 employees are
being injured.  The national average OSHA
incidence rate for all industries has been
around 10 for the last several years.

Severity Rate.  The severity rate is similar
to the OSHA incidence rate,  except that it
reflects the number of OSHA  days lost (i.e.,
workdays lost and light duty days), instead
of the number of injuries, per  100 man-years
worked.  For example, a severity rate of 500
would mean roughly that an organization is
losing 500 workdays for every 100 employees
per year, or that on the  average each employee
is losing 5 days a year for  on-the-job injuries.

Direct Costs.  Direct costs  are  normally those
for which money was actually expended and in-
clude worker's compensation, medical expenses,
and wage continuation benefits  (e.g., injury
leave).  There are many indirect costs such as
down time, replacement time, lost time by wit-
nesses and supervisors, etc., which are not
included in these figures.   Indirect costs are
estimated to be 5 times the  direct costs in
cities according to the National Safety Council.

Average Direct Costs per  OSHA  Recordable Injury.
An average  direct cost per OSHA recordable injury
of $500  means  that on the average  each OSHA record-
able  injury (i.e.,  a non-first  aid case) is
costing  the organization $5001                *
            2-2

-------
         o    Direct Cost per  Man-Year.   It shows  the
             cost per 2,000 hours  or the average  cost per
             year per employee.  A direct cost per man-year
             of  $200 would mean  that on the average an
             organization's injuries are costing  $200
             per employee per year.

     In reviewing these FIGURES, the data for the AVERAGE
(shown on the FIGURES as AVG)  is the most important because
it summarizes the results for all  users combined.  After
examining the AVERAGES, it is important to examine how
great the range  of rates between users  is.  Wide  ranges are
important because they show that it is  possible to achieve
lower rates of injury under given  operating systems and
safety programs.
                           2-3

-------
               FIGURE  2-1




DESCRIPTION OF USERS BY OPERATIONAL CHARACTERISTICS

User
Number
101
103
NJ
jL 109
111
113
115
125
133
136
140
146
148
149
152

M=Municipal
P=Private
M
M

M
M
P
M
M
M
M
M
M
M
M
M »

Geograph.
Area
South
Midwest

Midwest
West
Midwest
South
South
Northwest
South
South
South
Northeast
Midwest
Midwest

No. of
Employees
325
80

500
280
33
300
650
86
140
844
295
267
65
63
Point of Collection:
M=Mechanical
A=Alley
BY=Backyard w/o intermed. can
BYT=Backyard-Tub
BYC=Backyard-Cart
CS=Curbside
CS/A
BY/CS/A

BY/BYC
CS
CS
CS/A
CS
CS/A/ BY
M/A
CS
CS/A
CS
CS
CS

Type
of
Shift
T/F
T

F
T
T
T/F
T
T
F
T
T
T
T
T
Type of Service Provided

Coll. Crew Size(s)
Resid.
4
3

4,3
2
1,2
3

2
3,1
3
1,2,3

2
Comm.
4




1
1,2
1
1,2
1

1,2

2
, / 1
Resid.
&
Cornm.





2

3




4

. i
Disposal
L=Landfill
I=Incinerator
T=Trans. Stn.
L



L

L,I
L,I
L
L

L,T




-------
OPERATIONAL CHARACTERISTICS CONTINUED

User
Number
157
161
170

ill 171
172
178
179
181
182
183
186
191
197
201

M-Municipal
P=Private
M
M
M

M
M
M
M
M
M
M
M
M
M
M

Geograph.
Area
West
Midwest
South

Midwest
West
South
Northeast
Midwest
Northeast
Midwest
South
South
West
Northeast

No. of
Employees
203
125
1481

370
700
629
532
278
470
308
297
177
86
120
Point of Collection:
M=Mechanical
A=Alley
BY=Backyard w/o interned, can
BYT-Backyard-Tub
BYC=Backyard-Cart
CS=Curbside
CS
CS/A
CS/BYC/A

A
M/CS/A
CS
CS
BY
CS
CS
CS
CS/A
CS
CS

Type
of
Shift
T
T
T

T/F
T/F
T
T
T
T
T
T
T/F
T
T
Type of Service Provided

Coll. Crew Size(s)
Res id.
2
3,1
1,2,3,4,
5
3
1,3,2
3
3
4
3
3
3
3
2
3
Coituti.
2

2,3,4,5



2
3


2
3
1
2,1

Resid.
&
Connn.
2












2

Disposa]
L=Landfill
I=Incinerat
T=Trans. St
L,T
L
T


L
L,I
I,T
L
L

L
L



-------
OPERATIONAL CHARACTERISTICS CONTINUED

User
Number
204
207
210
£211
212
215
217
221
226
235
236
237
242

M=Municipal
P-Private
M
M
M
M
M
M
M
M
M
M
M
M
M
244 \ M '

Geograph.
Area
West
West
West
West
West
South
South
West
South
South
South
Midwest
South
West

No. of
Employees
52
205
15
40
130
60
820
210
87
125
103
90
101
3O
Point of Collection:
M=Mechanical
A=Alley
BY-Backyard w/o intermed. can
BYT=3ackyard-Tub
BYC=Backyard-Cart
CS=Curbside
CS/A/M
BYC
CS
CS/A
CS/A
CS/BY/BYT
CS/A/BY
CS
CS
BYT/A/CS
CS
A/BYC
CS/ BY /BYT/ A
BYT/ BYC

Type
of
Shift
F
T
T
T
F
T/F
F
T
T
T
T/F
T/F
T/F
T
Type of Service Provided

Coll. Crew Size(s)
Res id.
1,3
3

2

3
1,2,3
2
3
3
3

3
2.
Comm.
1,3
2

2

1


1,3
3
1

3
1,2
Resid.
&
Comm.


1,2

2






3
Disposal
L=Landfill
I=Incinerator
T=Trans. Stn.
L


L


L,T


L
L

1 L,T
/

-------
OPERATIONAL CHARACTERISTICS CONTINUED

User
Number
260
261
K.265
i
^272
275
283
285
286
292
295
296
299
316
318


M-Municipal
P=Private
M
M
M

M
M
M
M
M
M
M
M
M
M
M


Geograph.
Area
West
Midwest
West

Northeast
Northeast
South
Midwest
West
Northwest
South
West
Northeast
Northeast
Northwest


No. of
Employees
168
8
200

127
40
72
79
8
225
179
43
113
475
48

Point of Collection:
M=Mechanical
A= Alley
BY=Backyard w/o intermed. can
BYT=Backyard-Tub
BYC=Backyard-Cart
CS=Curbside
CS/BYT/A/M
CS/A
CS/BYT/BYC

CS
CS
CS/A
A/BYT/BYC

CS/A/BYT/BYC
CS/BY
CS/A/ BY
CS
CS/A/ BYT
A/CS
I

Type
of
Shift
T
T
T

T
T
T/F
T
F
F
T
F
T
F
F

Type of Service Provided

Coll. Crew Size(s)
Res id.
1,2
3
1,2

3
3
2
3

1,3
4
1
3
2,3
3

Comm.
2,3

2

3

3,1


2
2
2,1
3
2,3
3

Resid.
&
Comm.














3

Disposal
L=Landfill
I=Incinerat
T=Trans. Si
L
L
L,T

L,I

L,T

L,T
L
L

L

L


-------
OPERATIONAL CHARACTERISTICS CONTINUED

User
Number
323
324
325
NJ
cL326
327
, 328
329
330
331
332
333
335
336
337

M-Municipal
P=Private
M
P
M

M
M
M
P
M
M
P
M
P
P
, M *

Geograph.
Area
Northeast
Midwest
Northwest

South
South
Midwest
West
South
Midwest
West
Northeast
Northeast
Midwest
Northeast

No. of
Employees
171
17
45

23
140
33
20
60
35
14
43
24
51
4O5
Point of Collection:
M=Mechanical
A=Alley
BY=Backyard Xtf/o intermed. can
BYT=3ackyard-Tub
BYC=Backyard-Cart
CS=Curbside
CS
CS/A/BYT/BYC
CS/A

CS
CS
CS
CS
A/CS
CS/A
-
BY
CS
-
CS

Type
of
Shift
T
T
F

T
T
T/F
T
F
T
F
T
T
T
F
1
Type of Service Provided

Coll. Crew Size(s)
Resid.


2,1

3
3
2,1
3
3
3

3
3

3
I
Comm.


1,2,3

3
2,3
2
2,1
3

2

1
2,1
/
Resid.
&
Contra.
3
1,2






3






Disposal
L=Landfill
1= Incinerator
T=Trans. Stn.
L

L

L
I,L
T

L



L



-------
OPERATIONAL CHARACTERISTICS CONTINUED

User
Number
338
339
340
341
342
343
344
345
346
347
348
349
350
351
352

M=Municipal
P=Private
M
M
M
M
M
M
M
M
P
M
M
P
M
M
M

Geograph.
Area
Northeast
Northeast
Midwest
West
Midwest
West
Midwest
Midwest
Midwest
Northeast
West
Midwest
West
West
Midwest

No. of
Employees
405
405
318
35
25
17
40
38
70
60
35
40
57
10
52
Point of Collection:
M=Mechanical
A=Alley
BY=Backyard w/o intermed. can
BYT=Backyard-Tub
BYC=Backyard-Cart
CS=Curbside
CS
CS
CS
CS/A
CS
CS
CS/A
-
A/CS
CS
CS/A
CS/BYT
CS
CS/A
CS/A

Type
of
Shift
F
F
T
T
T
F
F
F
T
T
T
T
T
T
F
Type of Service Provided

Coll. Crew Size(s)
Resid.
3
3
3
2
1
1
2,3

2

1,2,3
2
2
2
3
Corrun.



2,1
2

1




1
2
1
3
Resid.
&
Comm.








2
4


2
3

Disposal
L=Landfill
I=Incinerator
T=Trans. Stn.




L


L.I.T
L
T






-------
OPERATIONAL CHARACTERISTICS  CONTINUED

User
Number
353
354
355
CO
l 356
H
O
358
359
360
361
362
363

M=Municipal
P=Private
M
M
P
P


M
P
P
M
M
M

Geograph.
Area
Midwest
Northeast
Midwest
Northeast


South
Midwest
Northwest
West
Northeast
South

No. of
Employees
20
30
70
21


18
71
30
44
76
75
Point of Collection:
M=Mechanical
A=Alley
BY=Backyard w/o intermed. can
BYT=Backyard-Tub
BYC=Backyard-Cart
CS=Curbside
CS
BYT
CS/BY
_


BYC/CS
CS
-
-
CS
CS/A/BY

Type
of
Shift
F
T
T
F


T
T

F
T
T
Type of Service Provided

Coll. Crew Size(s)
Resid.

3
2



3
2


4,3
1,4
Conun.


1,2
1


2
1,2



1
Resid.
&
Comm.
3











Disposal
L=Landfill
I=Incinerator
T=.Trans. Stn.








L,T
L.T



-------
                        FIGURE 2-2

                    SUMMARY OF INJURIES
             BY FREQUENCY,  SEVERITY AND COSTS
FREQUENCY

•    There were 1,547 cases reported by 81 of the 84 IRIS
     users on-line:   348 first aid cases,  498 nonfatal cases
     without lost workdays, 695 lost workday cases and 6
     permanent disability cases.   Total man-hours for this
     quarter were 7,223,094.

•    The AVERAGE OSHA incidence rate was 33 for this quarter,
     the lowest of all previous quarters.   This means that
     one out of every three solid waste industry employees
     will experience a non-first aid injury a year.  The
     national rate for all industries was  10.4.  Therefore,
     the solid waste industry is experiencing more than
     three times as many injuries as the average industry.

•    IRIS users ranged in frequency rates  from User No. 210
     which was experiencing 1.5 injuries per employee per
     year, to User No. 362 which was experiencing 4 injuries
     per 100 employees per year.

SEVERITY (Days lost given are not final.  These figures
reflect what was received from IRIS users  by July 1, 1977
and may be gross underestimates.   For example, in the months
since the publication of the first quarter Accident Trends,
the OSHA severity rate has increased from 269 to 463, and not
all cases are final yet.)

•    So far, 699 cases this quarter incurred 8,713 workdays
     lost and light duty days.

•    45% of the total cases resulted in workdays lost and/or
     light duty days.  The national average for all industries
     is 33%.  This means that the solid waste industry has
     more than 1 1/3 times as many lost workday injuries
     as the average industry.

•    The AVERAGE OSHA severity rate was 242.  This means that
     on the average, each employee is losing 2.4 days per
     year for injuries.  One user's rate was as high as 42
     days lost per year per employee; several are losing
     zero days a year per employee.
                          2-11

-------
•    On the AVERAGE, each lost workday case  resulted in
     12.46 workdays lost so far.

DIRECT COSTS  (Costs given are not final.  These  figures
reflect what was received from IRIS users by July  1,  1977,
and may be gross underestimates.  For example, first quarter's
AVERAGE cost per OSHA recordable injury has  gone up  from
$296 to $509.)

•    Total direct costs so far for injuries  that occurred
     during the fourth quarter was $487,615.

•    The AVERAGE cost per OSHA recordable injury was  $405.

•    The AVERAGE cost per man-year was $135.  This means
     that the average solid waste injury (non-first  aid)
     cost $135 per full-time employee per year so far.
                          2-12

-------
                               FIGURE 2-3



         COMPARISON (DP INJURY RATES  AND  OSHA DAYS LOST FOR ALL USERS
OSHA INCIDENCE RATE
SEVERITY RATE
AVERAGE OSHA DAYS LOST
SER ! QTR 1
101 : 12
103
109 36
111 68
113
115
125 31
1.33
136 15
140 47
146 26
148
149
152
157
161 13
170
171 44
172 50
178
179
181 44
182
183
186 19
191 57
197
201
204 79
207 79
210 104
211 9
212 79
QTR 2 C
34

49
77


35

0
55
21
35



42

63
56


50


24
46


136
97
0
68
44
?TR 3
45

51
81


42

3

34
5



63

57
69

38
67


25
94
39

48
73
49
34

QTR 4 : QTR 1
20 48
109
21 194
54 1112
28
29
20 743
19
577
525
36 381
18
125
87
16
54 0
23
47 209
38 475
18
30
51 369
12
38
23 105
47 188
32
8
30 342
98 582
148 467
63 539
759
QTR 2
394

176
1203


375

0
680
138
224



34

230
1087


148


279
1 50


84
253
0
281
488
QTR 3 QTR 4 QTR 1 QTR 2 GTR 3 QTR 4
102 121 6,50 27,00 8,33 17.57
375 3.44
199 124 8,03 8.15 7,65 6.27
882 221 23,73 22,05 14,93 10,87
0 0,00
152 11,00
523 343 30,06 13,03 15,45 24,94
131 10.50
24 38.60 0,00 8,00
15.37 16.56
143 250 47.17 20.60 9.82 12,93
0 61 12,86 0,00 9,25
886 10,22
355 8,14
90 6,29
99 38 0,00 1,60 5,00 1,11
171 9.58
294 590 9.58 5,96 10.53 18.42
444 362 14.56 26.81 11.23 20.85
106 11.07
429 314 22.60 17,55
264 427 11,48 4,26 6,89 13.04
22 4.60
161 6.31
102 108 12.25 22,00 8,22 7,36
232 505 4,00 5,11 4,62 15.73
324 592 10,00 23,25
245 61,00
55 273 13,00 8,00 7,00 12,00
628 351 10.30 5.35 13.19 8.53
1347 3142 9.00 0,00 27,50 29,80
94 211 62,00 4,71 2.75 3.86
9.65 11. 00

-------
OSHA INCIDENCE RATE
SEVERITY RATE
AVERAGE OSHA DAYS LOST
USER QTR 1
215 t 0
217
221
226
235 66
236 89
237 45
242 4
244 135
260 68
261 48
265 34
N> 272 17
M 275
-** 283 34
285 20
286 J 0
292 J 9
295 : 26
296 t 56
299
316
318
323
324
325
326
328
329
330
331
333
336
QTR 2
0
44


56
105
34
0
57
54
0
47
15
182
50
0
0
11
20
76

80


79
62


106
73



QTR 3
22
60
33

40
74
47
0
42
104
0
65
19
59
51

0
7
20
58

60
79

71
47
0

17
71
0
1O1

QTR 4
0
43
78
18
36
57
36
5
56
117
48
70
40
93
19

39
5
29
55
45
29
46
8
46
46
24
0
50
44
0
99
23
QTR 1
0



330
1492
105
100
247
759
145
249
368

0
39
0
814
97
1398













QTR 2
0
195


0
671
153
0
199
519
0
305
11
.1.944
134
0
0
20
20
2943

907


0
196


106
245



QTR 3
419
.1.54
147

0
250
94
0
184
.1.190
0
407
99
79
118

0
15
102
221

426
2458

236
351
0

102
79
0
50

QTR 4
0
34
1022
0
51
51
129
18
183
1296
429
522
150
384
10

0
7
212
1765
158
300
346
54
23
771
48
0
17
850
O
1 2 :L 9
£2
QTR 1
0*00



6,00
18.53
3 . 50
25 . 00
2 , 75
19.42
3 . 00
8 , 64
32.00

0.00
2.00
0.00
86.00
4.75
25.00













QTR 2
0.00
11.22


0,00
8,86
6.40
0.00
3.50
16.20
0.00
7,80
1.50
10.67
8.00
0,00
0,00
4.33
2,00
51,50

17,05


0,00
4,75


2.00
5,00



QTR 3
19.00
12,38
4.50

0.00
6,00
3.14
0.00
6.50
17,64
0,00
7,30
6.50
2.67
3,50

0,00
2.75
15.50
5,75

12.82
3.1.09

3.33
13.00
0.00

6.00
2.50
O.OO
2.OO

QTR 4
0.00
4.19
13.07
0.00
2.80
1.78
4,83
3.50
6.50
14.26
9.00
10.55
6.83
9.25
2.00

0.00
3.00
13.33
32.17
28 , 00
16.32
7.57
13.00
1.00
23,60
2.00
0,00
1.00
23.40
O.OO
37.OO
2. £>7

-------
USER !












NJ
1
1,1
un








337
338
339
340
341
343
344
345
346
347
348
349
350
351
353
354
355
358
359
361
362
363
AVG,
  OSHA INCIDENCE RATE
QTR 1  QTR 2  QTR 3  (

                 67
                 48
                 36

                117
                 76
           40
46
                 '50

R 4
38
25
36
29
58
75
11
10
29
20
34
50
42
51
35
129
33
88
57
23
4
10
33
SEVERITY RATE
QTR 1 QTR 2 QTR 3
624
376
184

2073
151
















463 404 315

QTR 4 :
262
191
202
296
737
50
80
627
95
20
192
125
96
101
122
388
16
4230
447
0
305
0
9,49
                                                     AVERAGE OSHA DAYS LOST
                                                   QTR 1   QTR 2   QTR 3   QTR 4
9,29
7*78
5,12

19,50
2,00
















6,92
7,57
5,67
28,37
12,75
2,00
7,00
65,00
3,25
3 , 00
8,50
10,00
3,00
2,00
7,00
9,00
1,50
145,00
12,43
0,00
72.00
0,00
16,65
14.40
11,46
12,43

-------
                            FIGURE 2-4
      COMPARISON OF DIRECT COSTS BY REPORTING PERIOD FOR ALL USERS
TOTAL INJURY COSTS
AVG* COST PER OSHA REC. INJ.
AVERAGE COST PER MAN YEAR
USER !
ioi :
103 :
109 :
111 J
113 J
115 J
• 125 :
133 :
136 ;
1-40 :
to 146 J
' 148 :
c* 149 :
152 J
157 :
16.1. :
170 :
171 :
172 I
178 J
179 :
181 J
182 :
183 J
186 ;
191 :
197 :
201 :
204 J
207 J
21O t
21 1 J
212 t
QTR 1 QTR 2
4? 210 25*973

13*513 12? 994
53 t 238 41 y 227


48 * 0.1.0 25 F 734

1 * 970 0
39*842 69 y 843
12*010 5*442
3*577



135 815

3*582 6*376
26 y 708 42*735


11*510 5*081


1*295 8*021
1*475 1*685


2*481 517
4*523 9*636
±y445 O
' 794 1»987
14 r 297 7F130
QTR 3
5*735

19*851
29*520


43*854

205

3*060
110



1 * 526

9*486
27*413

8*499
9*833


2*950
2*101
2*654

300
12»908
3y218
600

QTR 4
4*271
3*627
12*834
11*963
102
6*336
28*740
638


8*171
2*092
2 * 952
3 * 056
2*957
663
21*541
20*018
71*487
7*087
20 * 983
15*322
1*032
7*505
3*370
3 * 702
43*237
2*571
2*142
& > 786
9 » 079
1 F6S7

QTR 1
386

312
1*108


787

394
711
632




18

148
387


391


143
86


275
141
361
758
S 
-------
USER !   QTR 1
TOTAL INJURY COSTS
 QTR 2   QTR 3   QTR A
AVG* COST PER OSIIA REC* INJ.
 QTR 1  QTR 2  QTR 3  QTR A  J
AVERAGE COST PER MAN YEAR
QTR 1  QTR 2  QTR 3  QTR A
215
217
221
226
235
236
237
242
244
260'
261
265
272
275
283
285
286
292
295
296
299
316
318
323
324
325
326
328
329
330
331
333
336
0



1*185
12*768
604
6*877
706
2*317
159
2*820
1*861
•
: H9
f 61
0
7*327
911
1*982













0
86*968


725
9 * 550
1*813
0
904
5*620
0
8 * 2 1 6
109
1*437
1 * 346
0
0
894
578
16*786

35*939


92
2*159


153
1*053



4*846
29*978
1*045

240
8*223
1*583
0
748
8*797
0
14*019
1*224
272
1*890

0
483
1*172
1*256

24*016
14*061

491
4*736
0

378
480
0
223

0
9*707
14*110
60
886
1*442
1 * 925
278
962
17*683
960
9*500
1 * 424
1*297
173

80
376
5*257
10*471
2*010
17*902
4*218
893
62
5*069
91
0
194
2*822
0
2*044
60
0



197
608
201
6*877
1 1 7
1 1 0
.1.59
214
620

59
61
0
3*663
177
991













0
948


48
329
259
0
226
330
0
455
27
239
147
0
0
127
96
2*098

598


30
359


66
351



1*615
211
253

21
357
143
0
249
258
0
519
2 4 4
45
210

0
96
195
209

338
1*278

163
676
0

338
53
0
55

0
86
491
20
88
80
218
139
240
442
960
306
129
144
43

80
94
477
1*745
125
511
587
205
31
716
91
0
64
470
0
340
20
0



130
54.1.
90
274
158
75
76
74
107

20
12
0
{ 346
J 46
554












>
0
418


26
344
86
0
128
180
0
213
4
436
75
0
0
13
19
1*598

478


24
222


81
257



356 0
128 37
85 393
3
8 31
263 45
67 85
0 7
105 135
269 518
0 457
339 213
46 52
26 134
106 8

0 30
6 4
38 139
120 957
56
204 149
1*010 275
18
115 14
319 331
0 22
0
64 32
37 205
0 0
56 336
4

-------
to
I
H
CO
     USER  !   QTR  1
337
338
339
340
341
343
344
345
346
347
348
349
350
351
353
354
355
358
359
361
362
363
        TOTAL  INJURY  COSTS
         QTR 2   QTR  3    QTR  4
                          AVG. COST PER OSIIA REC.  INJ,
                           QTR 1  QTR 2
                             11,442
                              6s-431
                              3.-152

                              9 y 864
                                341
                           7*664
                           4t968
                           6»265
                          10*803
                           4 ?644
                             453
                             318
                           1?670
                             619
                             331
                           1*172
                             729
                             393
                              64
                             238
                           1*193
                             165
                           3 .-953
                           2x061
                              40
                           1*934
                              31
     AVG.J
280:
4431-123 335? 214 487,,
R 3
817
714
394

896
170
















QTR 4
638
709
522
491
572
151
318
1 f 670
154
110
390
182
98
64
1 1 9
198
27
1» 317
187
20
i.i-934
31 J
                            AVERAGE COST PER MAN YEAR
                            QTR 1  QTR 2  QTR 3  QTR 4
                                                                          549
                                                                          345
                                                                          141

                                                                        1 s-048
                                                                          128
509
                                                   485
313
405 I
204
223
155
                                                   241
                                                   178
                                                   186
                                                   140
                                                   335
                                                   113
                                                     36
                                                   161
                                                     45
                                                     22
                                                   132
                                                     91
                                                     41
                                                     32
                                                     41
                                                   256
                                                      9
                                                  1,153
                                                   105
                                                     ,4
                                                     81
135

-------
                                                             FIGURE   2-5

                                             SUMMARY OF ACCIDENT FACTORS FOR SELECTED ACCIDENT

                                   CHARACTERISTICS WITH  HIGHEST PERCENT OF OSHA  RECORDABLE  INJURIES

                                                       OSHA DAYS  LOST  AND DIRECT COSTS
   Type of

 Characteristic
                                                                   Factors With The:
       Highest %  of OSHA
      Recordable  Injuries
    Highest %  of OSHA
          Days  Lost
           Highest %  of
           Direct Costs
Activity
Accident Type
Accident Site
Nature of injury
Part of Body
Lifting or dumping  container - 36%
Carrying container  - 8%
Getting off equipment  - 8%

Overexertion involving container - 17%
Slip on same level  - 7%
Fall on same level  - 6%

On collection route at back of truck - 31%
On collection route at curb - 15%
On collection route in customer's yard-11%


Sprain or strain  -  41%
Bruise - 22%
Cut or puncture - 17%

Back - 19%
Eyes - 9%
Leg - 8%
Lifting or dumping  container - 29%
Riding on equipment - 11%
Getting off equipment - 11%

Overexertion involving container - 22%
Vehicle accident  -  16%
Slip on same level  - 9%


On collection route at back of truck : 23%
3n collection route at curb -  12%
On collection route in customer's  yard-11%


Sprain or strain  -  51%
Bruise - 14%
Fracture - 14%

Back - 28%
_eg - 10%
 nee - 8%
Lifting or dumping container - 23%
Riding on equipment -  16%
Opening equipment part - 10%

Vehicle Accident - 21%
Overexertion involving container - ]7l
Struck by vehicle part - 10%

On collection route at back of truck - 20%
On collection route on step of vehicle - 13%
At landfill  next to veh. at dump site - 97,

Sprain or strain - 40%
Bruise -  14%
Fracture  - 11%

Back - 22%
Leg - 17%
Multiple  body parts  -  12%

-------
Accident Trends
1st Quarter 1977

-------
                       EXHIBIT 6
                   ACCIDENT TRENDS

      IN THE SOLID WASTE  MANAGEMENT  INDUSTRY

              CAUGHT IN PACKER ACCIDENTS
     QUARTER:   JANUARY 1  TO MARCH 31, 1977
DEVELOPED BY SAFETY SCIENCES, DIVISION  OF WSA INC,,
   FOR THE  U,S,  ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY
    OFFICE  OF SOLID WASTE MANAGEMENT  PROGRAMS
          UNDER CONTRACT  No,  68-03-0231
                         Division of USA Inc..11772 Sorrento Valley Roid
                         San Diego, CA 92121 (714) 755-9359 & 452-1010

-------
Accident Trends in the Solid Waste Management Industry is
developed quarterly using data from IRIS  (the Injury Re-
porting and Information System for Solid Waste Manage-
ment) .   Accident Trends is designed to summarize and
discuss the data from all IRIS users and to provide data
and conclusions which affect the industry as a whole.
A companion volume, the QSMR (Quarterly Safety Management
Report), is developed individually for each IRIS user who
reported injuries during the quarter.  Each QSMR concen-
trates  only on the injuries of the individual IRIS user
for which it is prepared.

IRIS is currently made up of 82 users.  All possible care
is taken to insure date quality.  The nature of the data
and the reports, however, precludes complete accuracy.
Not all cases are closed by the end of the quarter.  These
accidents continue to be monitored.  Occasionally, full
lost time and cost data is not available.  Consequently,
the totals for these categories may be underestimates.  A
concerted effort is made to correct the lost time and cost
figures and improve IRIS collection methods.  The recommend-
ations  and countermeasures presented are suggestions that
must be evaluated in terms of individual user's needs.

The purpose of this and other IRIS publications is to dis-
seminate new ideas and alternative methods in the solid
waste field.  IRIS serves as a clearinghouse in this regard,
but does not promote or endorse any method or product.
Implementation of QSMR suggestions should be done only after
careful evaluation by each user and at each user's discre-
tion.

-------
                      ACCIDENT TRENDS

          IN THE SOLID WASTE MANAGEMENT INDUSTRY

                CAUGHT IN PACKER ACCIDENTS


QUARTER:   January 1 through March 31, 1977



                     TABLE OF CONTENTS


                                                           Page

INTRODUCTION .......................    iv

I.        DISCUSSION OF CAUGHT IN PACKER ACCIDENTS
         AND PREVENTION METHODS .............   1-1

         1.   Equipment Modifications and the  ANSI
              Z245.1-1975 Standard   ...........   1-7

              1.1  Point of Operation Protection   .  .  .  .   1-7
              1.2  Packing Cycle Controls ........  1-10
              1.3  Riding Steps and  Handholds  ......  1-10

         2.   Employee Training and  Supervision  .  .  .  .  .  1-14

              2.1  Proper Riding Stance  . .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  1-15
              2.2  Operating the Packing Mechanism
                   Controls Safely   ...........  1-15
              2.3  Packer Operator Responsibility  .  .  .  .  1-16
              2.4  Supervision  .............  1-16

         3.   Altering Operational Procedures  ......  1-16

         4.   Conclusion  . . . . .  . .  . ,  .  .  .  „  .  .  .  1-17


JI.       FIRST QUARTER IRIS USER INDUSTRY-WIDE DATA  .  .  .   2-1
                             11

-------
                       LIST  OF  FIGURES
FIGURE 1-1


FIGURE 1-2


FIGURE 1-3

FIGURE 1-4

FIGURE 1-5

FIGURE 2-1


FIGURE 2-2


FIGURE 2-3


FIGURE 2-4


FIGURE 2-5
"Caught in Packer" Accident  Descrip-
tions	

Two Handed Packing Mechanism
Controls  .....'........,
1-3


1-9
Retractable Riding Step  .......... 1-12

Bi-Level Riding Step   ........... 1-13

Hopper Step and Guard  ........... 1-14

Description of Users by  Operational
Characteristics .........  .....  2-4

Summary of Injuries by Frequency,
Severity, and Costs ............ 2-11

Comparison of Injury Rates and  OSHA
Days Lost for All Users  .......... 2-13

Comparison of Direct Costs by Reporting
Period for All Users   ........... 2-19

Summary of Accident Factors for
Selected Accident Characteristics  with
Highest Percent of OSHA  Recordable
Injuries, Workdays Lost  and Direct
Costs ................... 2-25
                             111

-------
                        INTRODUCTION
         This is the Accident  Trends  report for the First
quarter of 1977  (January  1  to March  31).   This report is
divided into two sections,  a discussion of the special
feature topic, caught in  packer accidents, their preventa-
tive measures and a summary of  the data for the quarter.
Section I includes detailed descriptions  of the caught in
packer accidents since the  instigation of IRIS in December
1975, but Section II relates only the  rates and figures
applicable to the First quarter of 1977.

         Of the 82 IRIS  users  on-line first quarter, 80
users reported 1,595 injuries.   Since  the injury rates are
based on man-hours of exposure,  they reflect the various
start-up periods of the IRIS users.

         The time lost and direct costs  shown on the FIG-
URES were provided as of  June 1, the "closing date" for
receiving data for the first quarter.   Any cases where the
time lost or direct cost  data are incomplete are being
monitored for updating.
                              IV

-------
                         SECTION I

         DISCUSSION OF CAUGHT IN PACKER ACCIDENTS
                  AND PREVENTION METHODS
         Caught in packer accidents are one of the most
traumatic accidents that can occur to solid waste workers.
They are low in frequency, but because of their high sever-
ity  (including one fatality) an in-depth study of them can
help IRIS users to understand why they are occurring and
how they can be prevented.

         The IRIS injury reporting period of 12/75 through
3/77 was chosen, since most of the cases would have been
closed by now.  The closing date of the time lost and direct
cost data was the end of 1977.  A total of 36 "caught in
packer" accidents (.7%) occurred during this reporting period.
These accidents ranged in severity from cuts and bruises to
amputations and resulted in:

         •    A total of 1,326 days lost  (4%) and
              $147,907 in direct costs  (8%).  The
              percentages were derived from using
              total collection crew injuries.

         •    An OSHA incidence rate of .36, or 3.6
              employees out of 1,000 full time col-
              lection employees a year will sustain
              a caught in packer accident that is
              OSHA recordable (19,567,739 man-hours
              of exposure).

         •    An OSHA severity rate of 13.6.  This
              means that the users are losing an
              average of .14 days lost per employee
              on the payroll due to injuries from
              employees being caught by the packer
              blade.

         •    Direct costs per OSHA recordable injury
              of $4,108.

         •    Direct costs per man-year of $15,011.
              This means that each user is spending
              an average of $15 per employee on the
              payroll due to caught in packer accidents.

         •    Seven amputations, eight fractures and
              one fatality.
                           1-1

-------
          FIGURE 1-1 gives the actual descriptions of the
accidents.  With these particular accidents, often times
the employee was performing two activities at  the same time,
which is difficult to code in a manner that would describe
the accident completely.  For instance, the injured employee
may have been "riding on the step" as well as  "pushing waste
back into the hopper," but only one activity category can
be used.  Therefore, the actual injury decriptions are more
revealing.

          Upon examining the 36 "caught in packer" accident
descriptions, several notable accident causal  factors can
be singled out in order of highest to lowest frequency.   Note
that some accidents fall in more than one category:

          •    Improperly placed hand or foot  - 13

          •    Riding or standing on step - 10

          •    Operating packing mechanism - 8

          •    Catching and pushing back falling waste - 7

          •    Interaction with coworker - 5

          •    Clearing jammed packer blade -  4

          •    Dumping into hopper at the time - 4

          •    Pushing wrong control button -  1
                             1-2

-------
                        FIGURE 1-1

         "CAUGHT IN PACKER" ACCIDENT DESCRIPTIONS
 1.   Employee was walking behind packer with his hand on
     packer sill with packer operating.  Packer blade
     caught two fingers.

 2.   Dumping at the Landfill—cardboard lodged in hopper.
     He reached in to dislodge it, and bar fell down on
     his hand.

 3.   Standing on dock—kicking refuse into hopper.  Packer
     starting to move, caught foot, and fractured toe.

 4.   Employee was activating packer and speaking to fellow
     employee.  He forgot his hand was still on truck, and
     packer blade struck his index finger.

 5.   Employee activated the hopper to check to see if it
     was functioning correctly when he unconsciously put
     his hand on the inside of the hopper.  As the hopper
     came down, it cut him on the middle finger.

 6.   Cleaning trash out from behind compacter blade.  Engine
     was started by coworker, and he was crushed behind
     blade of side loader.  Fatality.

 7.   As hopper was coming down, employee got his skin caught
     between hopper and edge of blade.  Employee was stand-
     ing on rear step.

 8.   Standing with foot on bucket rail when hopper came down
     on it and fractured foot.  Unknown distraction.

 9.   Caught finger in blade; mashed finger.  Had hand resting
     back of truck while hopper was operating.

10.   Employee was riding on rear step, and had his hand on
     the packer blade.  Apparently the blade shifted, and it
     pinched his finger.

11.   Employee was riding on vehicle, had foot on edge of the
     hopper, and packer was operating.  Blade cut off his
     left big toe.  Driver had left power take-off on.  Em-
     ployee can operate packer from rear while riding when
     power take-off is on.
                            1-3

-------
12.   Employee was  getting a plastic bag which was stuck in
      the hopper.   When he was pulling the bag, he accidently
      pushed  the wrong button and caught his left arm and
      hand in the hopper.

13.   Employee was  putting brush into the hopper when the
      blade came down,, cutting his left arm and hand.

14.   Riding  on rear  step,  and while they were moving,  they
      were cycling  the hopper.   His hand got pinched between
      packer  blade  and hopper.

15.   Got hand caught in hopper.   Unknown activity.

16.   "Dogs"  fell and amputated his finger.   (Thinks it was
      caught  in the hopper because hopper was not operating
      smoothly).  Hopper was  jittering around.   He had  his
      hand where it shouldn't be.   He was operating  the hopper
      system  after  dumping garbage.

17.   Hopper  was stuck.    Tried to free it with hand, and when
      he did, the hopper moved and cut his finger.

18.   Packing truck—trying to  keep garbage  from falling from
      bucket.  Caught  right arm in packer blade and  cut it.

19.   Employee riding  on truck—sweeper blade had been  acti-
      vated—truck  made  left  turn,  employee  lost his balance.
      As he attempted  to regain his  balance,  he launched back
      into the truck.  His  foot was  placed on hopper, and
      blade fractured  his  foot.

20.   Employee activated sweep  blade on packing unit and a box
      got caught in the  hopper  between blade  and bed.   He
      backed blade  up  and pushed box in so blade would  clear.
      His right hand was on packing  lever, and while shoving
      the box in with  left  hand, the sweep blade activated,
      catching his  left  hand  between the blade  and bed.  Amput-
      ation.

21.   While dumping container,  employee hit return button on
      packer with knee.  Hopper went back the other  way catch-
      ing glove under hopper  inspection cover.   He had  stitches
      for severe cut—they  felt gloves  might  be factor  as to
      why it wasn't amputated.  This is a Shu-pak.

22.   Pushing garbage  into  hopper  with left hand.  Right hand
      slipped off lever, and  left  hand was caught between
      hopper and blade.  Garbage was  falling  out.  Fracture.
                             1-4

-------
23.   Standing on back of truck and packer blade caught his
     big toe mashing it.

24.   Employee had his foot on hopper of truck.  Another man
     started the packer, and it caught his right  foot and
     broke it.  Was just standing with foot on truck.

25.   Employee went to grab garbage which was falling out of
     hopper.  As he did so, his finger got caught in packer
     blade, resulting in the tips of two fingers  being cut
     off.

26.   Truck made right turn out of south end of alley  (truck
     steps drag at this point).  Employee was aware of this,
     and to assure himself that his foot would not accidently
     be caught between truck step and pavement, he put it on
     the edge of the hopper.  He was running packing unit
     through its cycle at the same time.  He misjudged the
     location of his foot, and the packing blade  caught the
     end of his left foot.  Employee did not take advantage
     of safety devices.  He ran packing unit through cycle
     without allowing it to stop.  The safety arm was jammed.

27.   Truck was packing.  He was holding the tailgate, and the
     packer blade caught his finger on right hand.

28.   Employee was pushing trash into hopper with  hand when
     coworker activated packer.  Resulted in contusion of hand.

29.   Rearranging boxes in packer when packer was  operating.
     Fractured arm.

30.   Employee was on bed of truck—going to bathroom.  Driver
     activated the packer and came around and found employee
     caught between blade and door.

31.   Putting boxes into truck.  Packer blade, caught right arm.

32.   The packer was packing and the blade came over and
     caught his finger, employee was pushing waste back into
     hopper at the time of the accident.

33.   Employee was pushing garbage into hopper, to keep it from
     falling out—when his finger was caught between the
     hopper and sill.

34.   Employee was making repairs to packing systems.  His foot
     slipped and bucket came down on hand, cutting finger.

35.   Curb trash fell in front of packer blade.  Employee
     reached in front of blade to get some paper, and blade
     caught his right arm On return stroke, resulting in loss
     of right arm from elbow down.

                            1-5

-------
36.    Employee had oil on shoes.  When driver stopped sud-
      denly,  employee on step slipped.  His foot went up in
      the air, and packer blade was coming down.  It cut his
      foot.
                             1-6

-------
         As  the  highest causal factor category  indicates,
many of  the accidents occur when employees  unconsciously
place their hand  or foot in the way of the  operating packer
blade.   Because of  the serious nature of the  injuries invol-
ved, the operating  packer panel has been the  target of many
equipment safeguards as well as intensive training methods.
No personal protective equipment is of aid, but  an opera-
tional procedures change (e.g., not allowing  "packing on the
run") would help  reduce the occurrence of this accident type,

         The following discussion is divided into these
three types of preventative measures to aid in the reduction
of caught in  packer accidents:  equipment modifications and
the ANSI Z245.1-1975 standard, employee training and super-
vision,  and altering operational procedures.
1.        EQUIPMENT MODIFICATIONS AND THE ANSI  Z245.1-1975
          STANDARD

          Three  types of equipment modifications  can be in-
stalled to provide protection against caught  in packer acci-
dents,  point-of-operation protection, altering  controls,  and
providing more  comfortable riding steps and handholds.  The
ANSI Z245.1-1975 standard entitled, "Safety Requirements  for
Refuse  Collection and Compaction Equipment" addresses these
areas.   It must  be remembered that this is a  consensus standard
developed by solid waste safety professionals for the industry -
It, however, does not address the chassis nor the maximum
hopper  sill height.  The standard applies to  mobile equipment
manufactured after March 1978.  Implementation  of the ANSI
Z245.1-1975 standard is voluntary, but it has been cited in
court cases and  can be adopted into federal and state standards
(see the June 1977 and March 1978 issues of the "IRIS News").
 1-1       Point-of-Operation Protection

          For point-of-operation protection,  the ANSI Z245.1-
 1975 standard states:

          7.2.6 Point-of-Operation Protection.  The employee shall
          be protected from pinch points during the packing cycle
          by one of the following means:

              (1)  Deadman control from the initiation of the
          packing cycle -until the packer panel clears the loading
          sill.  (Deadman controls are  such  that the control
          must be  continually depressed in  order to function.
          Problems  associated with this control is that the


                             1-7

-------
           workers jam  the control  in  place.)

               (2) An elevating hopper that raises any pinoh point
           during the packing cycle at least 5 feet above the working
           surface.   (An example of  this  is the Heil  rear
           loader truck.)

                (S)  A movable guard that  is interlocked with the
           packing cycle  so that it is in place before the packer
           panel is within 6 inches of the  pinch point.  The movable
           barrier shall  be designed so that it shall not be hazardous
           in itself.   (An example of this  was the  safety  door
           which came down whenever the  packer panel was oper-
           ated.   Problems associated  with this was  the  safety
           door malfunctioning and  coming down on the employee
           as  he was dumping into the  hopper.)

                (4)  A control that provides an interrupted cycle.
           Actuation of the control shall cause the packer panel  to
           stop not less  than 6 inches or more than 16 inches from
           the pinch point created by the packer panel as it moves
           past the hopper loading sill. The control shall  require
           reactivation to complete the packing cycle by a subse-
           quent motion by the operator.

               (5) Other means, at least  as effective as those  given
           in 7.3.6(1) through 7.3.6(4), that will protect an employee
           from the pinch point.

Combinations  of the points-of-operation protection  given above
can be  used.   For instance/ the deadman controls can be used
on a truck that has an elevating hopper.

           In  addition  to these points-of operation  protection
given in  the  standard, one IRIS user, the City of San Diego,
has installed a manually operated  second control on their rear
loading trucks that have a packer  blade that sweeps 360
(FIGURE 1-2).   When the second control  is not pushed before
the sweep blade comes  down to the  pinch point, the  two  metal
bars protruding into the side of the  hopper stops the blade.
Therefore, two hands are required  to  complete the packing
cycle.

           Another two-handed control  that San Diego has in-
stalled on their rear  loaders with push button controls is  a
separate  push button that has to be depressed along with the
start button  in order  for the packer  panel  to function
(FIGURE 1-2).   All controls are deadman controls.

           Two handed deadman controls have  an advantage over
only deadman  controls  in that the  packing mechanism operator
                               1-8

-------
is  not able to reach out unconsciously when he  sees  waste
falling out of the hopper and try to push  it back  in.   With
only deadman controls, the employee is still able  to reach
out with his left hand, as his right hand  keeps the  controls
depressed.  At least 8 of the caught in packer  accidents
involved the injured employee operating the packing  controls
as  he was at the same time pushing protruding waste  back in
or  clearing jammed waste.
                        FIGURE  1-2
    TWO HANDED PUSH
    BUTTON CONTROLS;

    ADDITIONAL SAFETY
    BUTTON MUST BE
    PRESSED BEFORE THE
    SWEEP BLADE WILL
    START AND GO PAST
    THE PINCH POINT
LEVER CONTROLS:
THE UPPER HANDLE MUST
BE PUSHED TO  RELEASE
A "DOG" IN THE HOPPER
SIDE AND ALLOW THE
SWEEP BLADE TO PASS
THE PINCH POINT
            TWO HANDED PACKING MECHANISM CONTROLS

                             1-9

-------
1.2        Packing  Cycle Controls

           For specifications on the packing cycle controls,
the ANSI  Z245.1-1975 standard states:

           7.3.3  Controls
                 7.3.3.1  Each  control  shall be conspicuously  labeled
           as to its function.
                 7.3.3.2  Controls (for example3  for operating the
           packer panel,  tailgate, point-oj--operation guards, ejector
           panel, container hoists) shall be designed and located to
           prevent unintentional activation.  (Unintentional acti-
           vation caused one  accident.)
                 7.3.3.2.1 Start buttons shall be recessed or located
           to prevent unintentional activation.    (One  user installed
           a guard  around the start buttons of their side load-
           ers such that they became recessed.)
                 7.3.3.2.2 Stop button controls shall be red,
           distinguishable from all other controls by size and  color,
           and not be recessed.
                 7.3.3.3  Packing cycle controls shall be located so
           that the operator has a view  of the loading sill,  In order
           to minimize exposure  to normal traffic, the packing  cycle
           operating controls shall be located on the side of the
           vehicle opposite the normal traffic side of the vehicle.
           Two sets of packing cycle controls shall not be permitted
           except for additional dock height controls located on the
           same side and above the packing cycle controls.
                 7. 3. 3.5  For emergencies a means of stopping  and
           moving the packer panel away  from the pinch point (prior
           to the pinch point) shall be  provided.  Emergency stop
           controls shall be red, distinctly labeled as to function,
           and not be recessed.
1.3        Riding Steps  and Handholds

           With  nearly a third of  the caught  in packer accidents
occurring as  employees  were riding  or standing on the rear steps,
an examination  of why these occurred is necessary.  It  is
particularly  important  to understand why the employees  were
unconsciously placing their hands on the sides of the hopper
or their feet on the hopper sill.   Apparently, they were attemp-
ting to attain  a more comfortable riding position.  Recognition
of this fact  has led many users to  modify  their riding  steps!
and  grab handles.  A more comfortable riding position can also
reduce other  riding related accidents, e.g., falling off the
step when the vehicle made a sudden start, stop, or swerve.

           The ANSI Z245.1-1975 standard does identify certain
criteria for  the step and handhold  design:
                               1-10

-------
         7.3. 7 Riding Steps and Grab Handles
               7. 3. 7. 1 The surface and edges of steps shall have
         a slip-resistant surface.  They shall be self-cleaning or
         be protected against the accumulation of mud, snow, and
         ice.
               7.3.7.2 Steps shall be designed to carry a uniformly
         distributed load of not less than 1,000 pounds.
               7.3.7.3 If steps are provided, they shall be mounted
         not more than 22 inches above the road surface.
               7.3.7.4 Steps shall have a depth of at least 8 inches
         and shall provide a minimum of 220 square inches of riding
         surface area.  (The  dimensions of the riding step  is
         important in providing the employee with a firm
         riding  stance, rather  than a precariously small
         and  narrow riding  step.)
               7.3.7.5 Grab handles shall be provided in conjunction
         with riding steps and be located so as to provide the employee
         with a safe and comfortable riding stance. Each grab handle
         shall be capable of withstanding a pull of at least 500 pounds.
          (Several  users have modified their grab handles'
         location  and design to provide added riding comfort
         by providing more  than one grab handle  and providing
         vertical  instead of horizontal grab handles.   If the
         grab handles are comfortable, employees are less
         likely  to place their  hands around the  edge of the
         hopper.)


         Modifications to grab  handles should be done in
conjunction with  improved step design modifications to provide
total  riding  comfort.  Several users have installed unique
step designs  on their collection vehicles to provide maximum
riding surface and  comfort.   One user installed a "retractable"
riding step which can be pulled  out or pushed in  by the use
of a pin  that  holds it in place  (FIGURE 1-3).   It lengthens
the step.   However, several  problems are associated with the
retractable step.   Employees will leave the  step  in the elong-
ated position  rather than push it in and out.  This can result
in the step being bent upwards as the vehicle dips from going
over bumps, causing increased maintenance,  as well as resulting
in unsafe riding  steps.  In  addition, when  the step is left in
the nonretracted  position, the employees can bang their shins
against it  when attempting to go around it  to get to the hopper
to dump.
                             1-11

-------
                         FIGURE  1-3
                                            RETAINING
                                            PIN
                  RETRACTABLE RIDING  STEP
          Another user provides bi-level steps on their
trucks (FIGURE 1-4) that allow the rider to place one foot
higher than the other.  The theory behind  this is that when
one foot is raised higher, it relieves pressure  from the
back, making the employee more comfortable.   This may be a
reason why employees will unconsciously place one foot on
the hopper sill, which is generally higher than  the riding
step.  In addition, if not enough riding step surface is
provided for the employee to place both feet  firmly on the
step, he may resort to placing one foot on the hopper sill.
                             1-12

-------
                         FIGURE 1-4
TWO
LEVEL
STEP
  STEP EXTENDED TO
  PROVIDE MORE
  RIDING SPACE
                    BI-LEVEL RIDING STEP
          The third step modification also provides a bi-
level  riding step, except  that the second level step is not
connected  to the side  step (FIGURE 1-5) .   This step design
takes  advantage of the  fact  that their employees prefer
placing one foot on the hopper sill and protects against
their  feet being caught by the packer blade by the added
installation of a hopper guard next to the second step.  It
was  only installed on  the  left side of the hopper, away from
the  pick up side to reduce problems of the employees hitting
against it when they are dumping into the hopper.
                           1-13

-------
                           FIGURE 1-5
                                       EXTRA STEP  (SELF-
                                       CLEANING OPEN MESH)
                                       WITH GUARD
                   HOPPER  STEP  AND GUARD
          An important safety concern with  riding  step modi-
fications that allow the employee  to ride further  back on the
vehicle  (nearer to the hopper opening)  is that employees may
be more likely to place one foot on the hopper.  And if a user
allows packing on the run, sustaining caught in packer acci-
dents is very likely.
2.
EMPLOYEE TRAINING AND SUPERVISION
          The "state of  the  art"  of  safety engineering on
collection vehicles is not such  that it can eliminate all
caught in packer accidents.   Therefore, training the employees
to increase their safety awareness and to use the equipment
properly goes in conjunction with providing safer equipment.
                             1-14

-------
         Three areas of training  are  indicated by  the  types
of caught in packer accidents occurring:

         •    Proper riding stance,

         •    Operating the packing mechanism controls safely,
              and

         •    Packer operator  responsibility

Written  rules developed and utilized by  an  establishment to
present  these safety awareness  issues  are much more effective
than verbal instructions.  In addition,  employee  training
should include more than just "on  the  job"  training.  The
newly hired employee or the retraining of employees should
ensure that the employees understand completely how to  operate
the equipment as well as the safe  procedures to follow  before
they are allowed to go on the route.
2.1      Proper Riding Stance

         1.   Maintain firm grip  on  grab  handles.   Do  not  use
              edge of hopper to hold.

         2.   Place  feet  firmly on the  riding  step  with  feet
              slightly apart for  better balance.  Do not place
              foot on hopper sill.

         3.   Do not place any body  parts within  the sweeping
              range of the packer panel,  including  getting
              hands pinched along the side  of  the hopper and
              elbows being struck by an elevating hopper.
2.2      Operating the Packing Mechanism Controls  Safely

         1.   Make sure no one is  in  front  of  the  hopper  before
              operating the packer.

         2.   On right sided controls,  operate with  the left
              hand.   (This makes it less likely  for  the opera-
              tor to  reach out to  push  back falling  waste or
              to unjam the packer  panel without  stopping  the
              packing mechanism first.)

         3.   Avert head from hopper.   (Reduce objects getting
              in eyes and being struck  by objects  ejected from
              the hopper.)
                           1-15

-------
          4.   Keep fellow employees  away from hopper when it
               is in operation.
2.3       Packer Operator  Responsibility

          As outlined above, not  only should the packer oper-
ator know and utilize safe operating procedures, he should
also be responsible for the safety  of his fellow employees.
He should not allow his coworkers to stand near the hopper,
as accidents have happened from a coworker pushing back waste,
avoiding objects  (e.g., boards, branches)  swinging around in
the hopper, or was unaware of  its activation.


2.4       Supervision

          Employee adherence to safety rules cannot be  achieved
from mere training.  Reinforcement  of the safety rules  is most
effective through on the job supervision.   Supervision,  however,
need not have connotations of  "policing" the routes.  Super-
vision can mean simply spotting incorrect behavior and  showing
the employee the safer procedure, but where repeated violations
of the safety rules occur, particularly when they might result
in a caught in packer accident, a means of enforcing the safety
rules must be available to the supervisor.

          Punitive measures are frequently used to enforce
adherence to safety rules.  These can range from written re-
primands, to suspension of pay for  a day,  to reviewing  job
performance after repeated violations, to denying of raises,
to firing from the job.  On the other hand, users also  employ
reward systems for safe behavior.   Sometimes this method proves
more effective.  Incentives can involve contests for the safest
crew or individual prizes, such as  cash awards for so many hours
worked without injury.  Incentives  do not necessarily require
monetary awards since acknowledgement of good work through pins
or safety certificates provide welcomed recognition.
3.        ALTERING OPERATIONAL  PROCEDURES

          The one operational procedure that was implicated as
contributing to caught  in packer accidents was allowing packing
on the run.  This is allowed by many users, in spite of the
safety hazards, to increase  productivity.  However, solid waste
safety professionals who recognize the hazard potential of this
procedure come out strongly  against packing on the run.  (In
fact, the solid waste safety manual being developed by SAFETY
SCIENCES under funding  by the National Science Foundation oppose
this activity.)
                             1-16

-------
         Accidents that occur  to  employees who are allowed to
pack  the refuse as the vehicle  is  in motion and the employee(s)
is on the riding step include not  only hands and feet caught
by the packer panel but also the employee being thrown into
the packer blade pinch point when  the vehicle swerved.
4.        CONCLUSION

         Any countermeasure  being considered for implementation
must be weighed  for  accident  reduction potential (cost effect-
iveness) as well as monitored to  ascertain effectiveness.   Some-
times altering procedures or  equipment can produce  unexpected
results that may require re-evaluation of the countermeasure.
Countermeasures given  in this IRIS report may or may not be
suited to an organization's operation and therefore, need to
be evaluated individually-
                            1-17

-------
                        SECTION II
                  FIRST QUARTER IRIS USER
                    INDUSTRY-WIDE DATA
    The accidents received by IRIS from  82 users are covered
in this section.  FIGURE 2-1 gives operational background data
on the IRIS users.
FREQUENCY, SEVERITY AND COSTS RATES

     FIGURES 2-2 through 2-5 recap the  frequency,  severity
and costs of injuries for this quarter:

     •    FIGURE 2-2:  Summary of  Injuries by Frequency,
         Severity and Costs.  Compares  the  solid waste
         management industry with the national average
         for all industries.

     •    FIGURE 2-3;  Comparison of  Injury  Rates and
         OSHA Days Lost for All Users.  Compares the
         rates and days lost for  the first  quarter of
         1977, for each user, in  user number order.

     •    FIGURE 2-4:  Comparison of  Direct  Costs by
         Reporting Period for All Users.  Compares
         the total costs and cost rates for the first
         quarter of 1977, for each user, in user
         number order.

     •    FIGURE 2-5;  Summary of Accident Factors  for
         Selected Accident Characteristics  with Highest
         Percent of OSHA Recordable  Injuries, OSHA Days
         Lost and Direct Costs.

     A few definitions of the terms  used in the following
FIGURES are:

     •    OSHA Recordable Injury.  Defined by OSHA  as
         a non-first aid injury.

     •    OSHA Incidence Rate.  It is a  measure of  the fre-
         quency of injuries.  The OSHA  incidence rate is
         the number of OSHA recordable  injuries per
         200,000 hours of exposure.  The base figure of
                            2-1

-------
"200,000 hours" is the standard  figure used
in OSHA statistics.  It is roughly equivalent
to 100 full-time employees working a year or
100 man-years  (i.e., 100 employees working
40 hours per week for 50 weeks per year).

OSHA incidence rates can be thought of as
being roughly equivalent to the  number of in-
juries that will occur to 100 employees  during
a year.  Therefore, an OSHA incidence rate of
37 means that the organization is having 37
injuries per year for each 100 employees or
that, on the average, 1 out of every 3 employees
are being injured.  The national average OSHA
incidence rate for all industries has been
around 10 for the last several years.

Severity Rate.  The severity rate is similar
to the OSHA incidence rate, except that  it
reflects the number of OSHA days lost  (i.e.,
workdays lost and light duty days), instead
of the number of injuries, per 100 man-years
worked.  For example, a severity rate of 500
would mean roughly that an organization  is
losing 500 workdays for every 100 employees
per year, or that on the average each employee
is losing 5 days a year for on-the-job
injuries.

Direct Costs.  Direct costs are  normally those
for which money was actually expended and in-
clude worker's compensation, medical expenses,
and wage continuation benefits  (e.g., injury
leave).  There are many indirect costs such as
down time, replacement time, lost time by wit-
nesses and supervisors, etc., which are  not
included in these figures.  Indirect costs are
estimated to be 5 times the direct costs in
cities according to the National Safety  Council.

Average Direct Costs per OSHA Recordable Injury.
An average direct cost per OSHA  recordable injury
of $500 means that on the average each OSHA
recordable injury  (i.e., a non-first aic case) is
costing the organization $5001

Direct Cost per Man-Year.  It shows the  cost per
2,000 hours or the average cost  per year per
employee.  A direct cost per man-year of $200
would mean that on the average an organization's
injuries are costing $200 per employee per year.
                   2-2

-------
     In reviewing  these  FIGURES,  the data for the AVERAGE
(shown on the FIGURES  as AVG)  is  the most important because
it summarizes the  results for  all users combined.  After
examining the AVERAGES,  it is  important to examine how
great the range  of rates between  users is.  Wide ranges are
important because  they show that  it is possible to achieve
lower rates of injury  under given operating systems and
safety programs.
                             2-3

-------
                      FIGURE 2-1




DESCRIPTION OF USERS BY OPERATIONAL CHARACTERISTICS

User
Number
101
103
109
NJ
1
*• 111
113
115
125
133
136
140
146
148
149
152

M=Municipal
P=Private
M
M
M


M
P
M
M
M
M
M
M
M
M
rf

Geograph.
Area
South
Midwest
Midwest


West
Midwest
South
South
Northwest
South
South
South
Northeast
Midwest
Midwest

No. of
Employees
325
80
500


280
3.3
300
650
86
140
844
295
267
65
63
Point of Collection!
M=Mechanical
A=Alley
BY=Backyard w/o intermed. can
BYT=Backyard-Tub
BYOBackyard-Cart
CS=Curbside
CS/A
BY/CS/A
BY/BYC


CS
CS
CS/A
CS
CS/A/BY
M/A
CS
CS/A
CS
CS
CS

Type
of
Shift
T/F
T
F


T
T
T/F
T
T
F
T
T
T
T
T
Type of Service Provided

Coll. Crew Size(s)
Res id.
4
3
4,3


2
1,2
3

2
3,1
3
1,2,3

2
2
Conun.
4





1
1,2
1
1,2
1

1,2

2

Resid.
&
Comnio






2

3




4


Disposal
L=Landfill
I=Incinerator
T=Trans. Stn.
L




L

L,I
L,I
L
L

L,T




-------
         FIGURE 2-1  (continued)



OPERATIONAL CHARACTERISTICS CONTINUED

User
Number
157
161
170
i
171
172
178
179
181
182
183
186
191
197
201

M=Municipal
P=Private
M
M
M

M
M
M
M
M
M
M
M
M
M
M

Geograph.
Area
West
Midwest
South

Midwest
West
South
Northeast
Midwest
Northeast
Midwest
South
South
West
Northeast

No. of
Employees
203
125
1481

370
700
629
532
278
470
308
297
177
86
120
Point of Collection:
M=Mechanical
A=Alley
BY=Backyard w/o intermed. can
BYT=Backyard-Tub
BYC=Backyard-Cart
CS=Curbside
CS
CS/A
CS/BYC/A

A
M/CS/A
CS
CS
BY
CS
CS
CS
CS/A
CS
CS

Type
of
Shift
T
T
T

T/F
T/F
T
T
T
T
T
T
T/F
T
T
Type of Service Provided

Coll. Crew Size(s)
Resid .
2
3,1
1,2,3,4
5
3
1,3,2
3
3
4
3
3
3
3
2
3
Comm.
2

2,3,4,5



2
3


2
3
1
2,1

Resid,
&
Comnu
2












2

Disposa
L=Land£il3
I=Inciner£
T=Trans . £
L,T
L
T


L
L,I
I,T
L
L

L
L



-------
         FIGURE 2-1 (continued)
OPERATIONAL CHARACTERISTICS CONTINUED

User
Number
204
207
210
IV)
<^ 211
212
215
217
221
226
235
236
237
242
244

. . _
M— Municipal
P=Private
M
M
M

M
M
M
M
M
M
M
M
M
M
K

Geograph.
Area
West
West
West

West
West
South
South
West
South
South
South
Midwest
SoutVi
West

No. of
Employees
52
205
15

40
130
60
820
210
87
125
103
90
101
3O
Point of Collection:
M=Mechanical
A= Alley
BY=Backyard w/o intermed. can
BYT=Backyard-Tub
BYC=Backyard-Cart
CS=Curbside
CS/A/M
BYC
CS

CS/A
CS/A
CS/BY/BYT
CS/A/BY
CS
CS
BYT/A/CS
CS
A/ BYC
CS/BY/BYT/A
BYT/ BYC

Type
of
Shift
F
T
T

T
F
T/F
F
T
T
T
T/F
T/F
T/F
T
Type of Service Provided

Coll. Crew Size(s)
Resid,
1,3
3


2

3
1,2,3
2
3
3
3

3
2.
Comm.
1,3
2


2

1


1,3
3
1

3
1,2
Resid.
&
Comm.


1,2


2






3

I
Disposal
L=Landfill
I=Incineratoi
T=Trans. Stn.
L



L


L,T


L
L

L,T


-------
         FIGURE 2-1  (continued)




OPERATIONAL CHARACTERISTICS CONTINUED

User
Number
260
261
265
^j 272
275
283
285
286
292
295
296
299
316
318

vr -u • •
M— Municipal
P=Private
M
M
M
M
M
M
M
M
M
M
M
M
M
M

Geograph.
Area
West
Midwest
West
Northeast
Northeast
South
Midwest
West
Northwest
South
West
Northeast
Northeast
Northwest

No. of
Employees
168
8
200
127
40
72
79
8
225
179
43
113
475
48
Point of Collection:
M=Mechanical
A=Alley
BY=Backyard w/o intermed. can
BYT=Backyard-Tub
BYC=Backyard-Cart
CS=Curbside
CS/BYT/A/M
CS/A
CS/BYT/BYC
CS
CS
CS/A
A/BYT/BYC

CS/A/BYT/BYC
CS/BY
CS/A/BY
CS
CS/A/BYT
A/CS

Type
of
Shift
T
T
T
T
T
T/F
T
F
F
T
F
T
F
F
Type of Service Provided

Coll. Crew Size(s)
Res id.
1,2
3
1,2
3
3
2
3

1,3
4
1
3
2,3
3
Comm.
2,3

2
3

3,1


2
2
2,1
3
2,3
3
Resid.
&
Comm.













3
Dispos;
L=Landfil
I=Inciner
T= Trans.
L
L
L,T
L,I

L,T

L,T
L
L

L

L

-------
         FIGURE 2-1  (continued)
OPERATIONAL CHARACTERISTICS CONTINUED

User
Number
323
324
325
i
00 326
327
328
329
330
331
332
333
235
336
337

M=Municipal
P=Private
M
P
M

M
M
M
P
M
M
P
M
P
p
\

Geograph.
Area
Northeast
Midwest
Northwest

South
South
Midwest
West
South
Midwest
West
Northeast
Northeast
Midwest
"NOT ttieas t

No. of
Employees
171
17
45

23
140
33
20
60
35
14
43
24
51
405
Point of Collection:
M=Mechanical
A= Alley
BY-Backyard w/o intermed. can
BYT=Backyard-Tub
BYC=Backyard-Cart
CS=Curbside
CS
CS/A/BYT/BYC
CS/A

CS
CS
CS
CS
A/CS
CS/A
-
BY
CS
-
CS

Type
of
Shift
T
T
F

T
T
T/F
T
F
T
F
T
T
T
*
Type of Service Provided

Coll. Crew Size(s)
Resid.


2,1

3
3
2,1
3
3
3

3
3

3
Corom.


1,2,3

3
2,3
2
2,1
3

2

1
2,1

Resid.
Comm,
3
1,2






3





i
Disposal
L=Landfill
I=Incineratoi
T=Trans. Stn
L

L

L
I,L
T

L



L



-------
        FIGURE 2-1 (continued)




OPERATIONAL CHARACTERISTICS CONTINUED

User
Number
338
339
340
NJ
I
vo 341
342
343
344
345
346
347
348
349
350
351
352

M=Municipal
P=Private
M
M
M


M
M
M
M
M
P
M
M
P
M
M
M

Geo graph.
Area
Northeast
Northeast
Midwest


West
Midwest
West
Midwest
Midwest
Midwest
Northeast
West
Midwest
West
West
Midwest

No. of
Employees
405
405
318


35
25
17
40
38
70
60
35
40
57
10
52
Point of Collection:
M=Mechanical
A=Alley
BY=Backyard w/o intermed. can
BYT=Backyard-Tub
BYC=Backyard-Cart
CS=Curbside
CS
CS
CS


CS/A
CS
CS
CS/A
-
A/CS
CS
CS/A
CS/BYT
CS
CS/A
CS/A

Type
of
Shift
F
F
T


T
T
F
F
F
T
T
T
T
T
T
F
Type of Service Provided

Coll. Crew Size(s)
Res id.
3
3
3


2
1
1
2,3

2

1,2,3
2
2
2
3
Comm.





2,1
2

1




1
2
1
3
Resid.
&
Comm.










2
4


2
3

Disposa]
L=Landfill
I=Incinerat
T=Trans. St






L


L,I,T
L
T






-------
           FIGURE 2-1   (continued)
OPERATIONAL CHARACTERISTICS  CONTINUED

User
Number
353
354
355
ro
I
£ 356
358
359
360
361
362
363


M-Municipal
P=Private
M
M
P


P
M
P
P
M
M
M
\

Geograph.
Area
Midwest
Northeast
Midwest


Northeast
South
Midwest
Northwest
West
Northeast
South


No. of
Employees
20
30
70


21
18
71
30
44
76
75

Point of Collection:
M=Mechanical
A=Alley
BY=Backyard w/o intermed. can
BYT=Backyard-Tub
BYC=Backyard-Cart
CS=Curbside
CS
BYT
CS/BY


—
BYC/CS
CS
-
-
CS
CS/A/BY


Type
of
Shift
F
T
T


F
T
T

F
T
T

Type of Service Provided

Coll. Crew Size(s)
Resid.

3
2



3
2


4,3
1,4

Comra.


1,2


1
2
1,2



1

Resid.
&
Co mm.
3











i
Disposal
L=Landfill
I=Incinerator
T=.Trans. Stn.








L,T
L,T •




-------
                         FIGURE 2-2

                     SUMMARY OF INJURIES
             BY  FREQUENCY;  SEVERITY AND COSTS
FREQUENCY
          There were  1,595 cases reported by 82 of the
          IRIS users  on-line:   296 first aid cases,  521
          non-fatal  cases without lost workdays, 774 lost
          workday cases,  3 permanent disability cases, and
          1  fatality.   Total man-hours for this quarter
          were 7,175,014.

          The AVERAGE OSHA incidence rate was 36 for this
          quarter.   This  means that one out of every three
          solid waste industry employees will experience
          a  non-first aid injury a year.  The national rate
          for all industries was 10.4.  Therefore, the
          solid waste industry is experiencing more  than
          three times as  many injuries as the average in-
          dustry.

          IRIS users  ranged in frequency rates from User
          No. 352 which was experiencing 1.25 injuries per
          employee per year, to User No. 242 which was
          experiencing 2  injuries per 100 employees  per
          year.
SEVERITY
     (Days  lost given are not final.   These figures reflect
what was  received from IRIS users by September 30,  1977 and
may be gross  underestimates.   For example, in the months
since the publication of the  first quarter Accident Trends
for 1976, the OSHA severity rate has increased from 269 to
413, and  not  all cases are final yet.)

     •   So  far,  778 cases this quarter incurred 10,198
         workdays lost and light duty days.

     •   49% of the total cases resulted in workdays
         lost and/or light duty days.   The national
         average for all industries is 33%.   This means
         that the solid waste industry has almost 1%
         times as many lost  workday injuries as the
         average industry-
                            2-11

-------
          The AVERAGE OSHA severity rate was  284.   This
          means that on the average, each employee  is
          losing 2.8 days per year for injuries.  One
          user's rate was as high as 29 days  lost per
          year per employee; several are losing  zero days
          a year per employee.

          On the AVERAGE, each lost workday case resulted
          in 13.12 workdays lost so far.
DIRECT COSTS

     (Costs given are not final.  These figures reflect
what was received from IRIS users by September 30, 1977,  and
may be gross underestimates.  For example, first quarter of
1976's AVERAGE cost per OSHA recordable injury has gone up
from $296 to $522.)

     •    Total direct costs so far for injuries that
          occurred during the first quarter was
          $545,935,

     •    The AVERAGE cost per OSHA recordable injury
          was $425.

     •    The AVERAGE cost per man-year was $154.  This
          means that the average solid waste injury
          (non-first aid)  cost $154 per full-time employee
          per year so far.
                            2-12

-------
Starting: January,  1976                 FIGURE 2-3



                   COMPARISON OF INJURY RATES  AND  OSIIA DAYS LOST FOR ALL USERS
          OSHA  INCIDENCE RATE
SEVERITY RATE
AVERAGE OSHA DAYS  LOST
SER !
101
103
1.09
111
113
1 1 5
1.25
133
136
1.40
1.46
1.48
149
1.52
1.57
1 6 1
1.70
1 7 1
1.72
1.79
179
1. 8 1
1.02
183
186
191
197
201
204
207
2 1 0
2 1 1
T> 1 1>
QTR 1
12

36
68


31

0
31
26




1 3

44
50


44


1.3
57


79
78
104
9
79
QTR 2
33

48
76


35

0
55
21
23



42

62
55


49


24
45


134
96
0
67
44
QTR 3
44

50
79


42

0

34
5



63

58
69

1.3
66


24
93
38

47
71
48
34

QTR 4 J QTR 1 QTR 2 QTR 3 QTR 4 QTR 1 QTR 2 QTR 3 QTK 4
20 : 47 387 1.01 145 6,50 27.00 8.33 21. .14
106 J 365 3.44
22 : 195 174 197 126 8,03 8.15 7.65 6.27
54 I 1089 1.182 667 292 23.39 22,05 11.. 59 14.62
28 J 0 0.00
29 1 1.60 10.55
20 I 876 370 560 446 35.54 1.3.03 16.72 32.48
12 J 86 10.50
t 0 0 0 0.00 0.00 0.00
t 347 673 15.37 16.56
36 : 537 136 1.42 250 66.50 20.60 9.82 12.93
18 J 149 0 61 12.86 0.00 9.25
125 J 1.146 13.22
87 *. 355 8,14
1.6 J 90 6.29
54 J 0 33 98 38 0,00 1.60 5.00 1.11
23 J 172 9.64
47 : 209 226 291 625 9,58 5.96 10,53 19.58
38 : 477 1104 439 570 14,28 27,51 11,23 32,79
18 t 1.06 1.1.07
29 I 142 431 1.9.1.7 24,21
51 I 369 147 261 427 11.48 4.26 6,89 13.04
12 t 22 4.60
38 I 161 6,31
23 t 69 276 101 108 12.25 22,00 8.22 7.36
47 : 188 1.49 230 505 4,00 5,11 4,62 15,73
31 J 31.7 1232 10,00 49,00
8 : 242 61.00
30 : 342 83 55 273 13.00 8,00 7,00 12,00
97 t 579 249 618 350 10,30 5.35 13.19 8,53
148 ; 467 0 1332 31.42 9,00 0,00 27,50 29.80
63 J 539 278 93 211 62,00 4.71 2.75 3.86
I 759 483 9,65 11,00

-------
FIGURE 2-3 (Continued)
                                    AVERAGE OSHA DAYS LOST
JSER
215
2 1 7
221
226
235
236
237
2 4 .2
244
260
261
265
272
275
283
285
286
29?
295
296
299
316
318
323
324
325
326
328
329
330
331.
333
336
! QTR 1
0



23
89
15
4
93
68
48
34
1 1

1 2
7
0
3
17
19













QTR 2
0
43


56
103
33
0
56
54
0
46
15
59
50
0
0
10
20
75

53


78
43


37
25



QTR 3
22
59
1 0

40
73
4 6
0
42
103
0
65
1 9
59
50

0
7
19
57

60
78

70
47
0

17
70
0
66

QTR 4 ?
o :
43 i
76 I
18 I
36 J
57 J
35 J
5 J
56 £
1 1 7 I
48 I
70 ;
40 i
93 ?
^ A *
.-•;. ' J t
*
39 J
5 J
29 ?
55 J
44 !
29 J
46 J
9 I
46 ?
46 I
1 8 ?
0 1
50 I
44 I
0 J
99 t
23 J
QTR 1
0



113
1492
35
.1.00
170
"7 1"' f*\
/ • J 7
145
249
243

0
13
0
284
64
476













QTR 2
0
192


0
6 6 •.:>
150
0
197
5.1.3
0
301
11
629
133
0
0
19
20
2911

606


0
135


37
83



QTR 3
1587
152
47

0
248
92
0
182
1178
0
403
98
78
1 1 7

0
14
10.1.
2 1 8

425
2431

234
347
0

101
78
0
33

QTR 4
0
70
993
0
51
51
128
1 8
183
1296
429
522
150
384
1 0

0
7
212
1765
155
336
346
56
23
732
36
0
1 7
748
0
.1. 2 1 9
62
QTR 1 QTR 2 QTR 3 QTR 4
0,00 0,00 72,67 0,00
11,22 12.38 8,67
4.50 13.07
0,00
6,00 0,00 0,00 2,80
18,53 8,86 6,00 1,78
3,50 6,40 3,14 4,83
25,00 0,00 0,00 3,50
2,75 3.50 6.50 6,50
19.42 16,20 17.64 14.26
3,00 0.00 0,00 9,00
8.64 7,80 7.30 10.55
32,00 1,50 6,50 6.83
10,67 2,67 9.25
0,00 8.00 3,50 2,00
2,00 0,00
0,00 0,00 0,00 0,00
86,00 4.33 2,75 3,00
4,75 2,00 15,50 13,33
25,00 51,50 5,75 32,17
28.00
17,05 12,82 18,14
31,09 7,57
13,00
0,00 3,33 1,QO
4,75 13,00 18,67
0,00 2,00
0,00
2.00 6.00 1.00
5,00 2,50 20.60
0.00 0,00
2,00 37,00
2,67

-------
                                                 (tjontinuea;
USER
  OS HA
QTR .1.














to
1
1— 1
Ul






337
338
339
340
341.
343
344
345
346
347
349
349
350
351
353
354
355
358
359
36:1
362
363
AVG.
INCIDENCE RATE
QTR 2  QTR 3  QTR  4

          44     38
          32     25
          "•> ~z     -z <-.
          A- O     ^..' *J
                 29
          77     58
          50     75
                 11
                 10
                 29
                 20
                 34
                 49
                 42
                 51
                 35

                 33
                 88
                 57
                 23
           34
          .44
45
33
                                       QTR
                  SEVERITY RATE
                  1   QTR 2  QTR
                         3  QTR 4
                                                410
                                                246
                                                .1.18
 19.1.
 198
 691
 737
  50
  80
 632
  95
  20
 192
 121
  96
 101
 •| '!>'!>
 388
  16
1230
 447
   0
 301
   0

 281
           AVERAGE OSIIA  DAYS LOST
         QTR 1   QTR  2    QTR 3   QTR 4
                                                                                          7.78
                                                                                          5,12

                                                                                         19.50
                                                                                          2.00
                                                        17,34
14,48
1.1. ,60
  6.92
  7.57
  5,67
 66.37
 12.75
  2.00
  7.00
 65.00
  3,25
  3,00
  8.50
 10.00
  3.00
  2,00
  7.00
  9.00
  1.50
145,00
 ,1.2,43
  0,00
 7.2,00
  0,00

 14,52

-------
STARTING: JANUARY? 1977
                                       FIGURE 2-3 (Continued)
                      COMPARISON OF INJURY RATES AND OSHA DAYS LOST FrOR ALL USERS
   USER !
           OSHA INCIDENCE RATE
         QTR 1  QTR 2  QTR 3  QTR -4
M
101
103
109
111
113
115
125
133
146
148
149
152
157
161
170
171
172
178
179
181
182
183
186
191
197
201
204
2O7
21O
211
215
21V
221
17
88
14
38
28
32
26
38
23
13
124
58
48
58
31
42
52
4
36
44
15
64
35
65
25
25
24
84
22
88
t o
t 41
s *?o
    SEVERITY RATE
QTR 1  QTR 2  GTR 3

   60
  175
   79
  346
  339
  516
  301
  608
  393
  163
 1197
  283
   97
  318
  276
  291
  237
   65
  426
  245
   86
  162
  158
  415
  130
   53
    O
  457
   22
  399
    O
            AVERAGE OSHA DAYS LOST
QTR 4 J    QTR 1   QTR 2   QTR 3   QTR 4
                                                                        13,00
                                                                         5.60
                                                                         5,83
                                                                        13.65
                                                                        24.00
                                                                        19.37
                                                                        13,81
                                                                        31.60
                                                                        30,30
                                                                        24.25
                                                                        17,86
                                                                         8.80
                                                                         4.18
                                                                        13.67
                                                                        10.19
                                                                         9,16
                                                                        13.00
                                                                        15.50
                                                                        17.05
                                                                         9.67
                                                                         8.90
                                                                         4.82
                                                                         7.31
                                                                         8.24
                                                                         5.25
                                                                         6.50
                                                                         O.OO
                                                                        12.47
                                                                         1 .00
                                                                         8. 33
                                                                         o. oo
                                                                         5. -40

-------
                                    FIGURE 2-3 (Continued)
          OSHA INCIDENCE RATE
USER !   QTR 1  QTR 2  QTR 3  QTR 4
    SEVERITY RATE
226 1
235
236
237
242
244
260
265
272
275
283
V 286
^ 292
296
299
316
318
323
324
325
326
328
329
330
331
333
336
337
338
339
340
341
343
35
46
61
45
0
54
80
54
11
62
24
0
9
27
72
46
33
17
23
73
51
0
17
21
30
49
16
35
33
45
36
101
J 72
QTR 1

  191
  502
  263
  683
    0
 2871
  714
  339
   11
  591
   34
    0
  195
   36
  144
  759
  273
  200
  680
  612
 2700
    0
    0
  332
    0
    0
   23
  216
  240
  329
  280
 1885
   24
QTR 3  QTR 4
   AVERAGE OSHA DAYS LOST
 QTR 1   QTR 2   QTR 3   QTR 4

 11.00
 12,91
  7.82
 33.40
  0.00
105.50
 14.24
 10.40
  1.50
 14,25
  2.33
  0.00
 26.17
  2.00
  5.20
 23.15
 13.67
 27.00
 29.00
  9.20
 52.67
  0,00
  0.00
 23.50
  0.00
  0.00
  3.00
  7.44
  8.12
  7.86
 18.55
 21.83
  1.00

-------
                                     FIGURE 2-3 (Continued)
 USER  !
  QSHA INCIDENCE RATE
QTR 1  QTR 2  QTR 3  QTR
00
344
345
346
347
348
349
350
351
352
353
354
355
358
361
362 !
363 j
69
59
118
34
62
94
77
52
125
18
83
11
58
11
21
33
    SEVERITY RATE
QTR 1  QTR 2  QTR 3

  552
  285
  213
   68
  718
 1175
 1902
    0
  589
  200
    0
    6
  232
    0
  267
   98
            AVERAGE OSHA DAYS LOST
QTR 4     QTR 1   QTR 2   QTR 3   QTR 4

           8.00
           5.80
           4,14
           3.33
          11.50
          25.00
          43.50
           0,00
          33.00
          11.00
           0.00
           1.00
           4.00
           0.00
          15.75
           5.00
 AVG.J
   36
  284
          13,09

-------
Starting:  January,
1976               FIGURE   2-4

  COMPARISON OF DIRECT COSTS BY REPORTING PERIOD FOR ALL USERS
                TOTAL  INJURY COSTS
SER
101
103
109
1 1 1
.1. 1 3
115
1.25
133
136
1.40
146 -
148
1.49
1.52
1.57
1 6 1
1.70
1 7 1
172
1.78
1.79
181
1.82
1.83
1.86
1.9.1.
197
201
204
207
210
211
21.2
QTR 1
4x2.1.0

13x513
59x293


50x760

0
39 x 842
9x041




135

3v582
27 x 167


1 1 x 5 1 0


1x295
1x475


2x481
4x523
1. »445
794
1.4x297
QTR 2
29x63.1

12x994
4 2 r034


25x734

0
69x843
5x442
3x577



81.5

6x376
58x431


5x081.


8x021
1x685


51.7
9x636
0
1x987
7x138
QTR 3
5 x 735

1.9x851
30x744


47x226

0

3x060
1 1 0



1 x 526

9x486
27x413

8x661
9x833


2x950
2 x 1 0 1
2x71.0

300
12?908
3 x 2 1 8
600

QTR 4
5x260
3x627
.1.2x958
14x888
102
6x895
36x174
638


8x171
2x092
4x202
3x365
2x977
683
22x212
21x455
39x375
7x107
35x411.
15x586
.1. x 032
7x505
3?550
4x879
64x080
2x571
2x142
6 x 786
9x667
1x687

QTR 1
386

3 1 2
1x234


832

0
711
475




1 8

148
393


391


1.43
86


275
1 4 1
361
758
621
                      AW,  COST  PER  OSHA  REC*  INJ,
                              QTR  2   QTR  3  QTR 4
          AVERAGE COST PER MAN YEAR
          QTR 1  QTR 2  QTR 3  QTR 4
                                                    213
                                                    764
                                                      0
                                                    688
                                                    340
                                                     80

                                                    163
                                                    749
                                                    133
                                                    471
                                                    120
235
  0
248
549
                                       130

                                       275
                                       487


                                       497

                                         0

                                       117
                                        93

                                       237
                                       274

                                       412
                                       209
                                       163
                                        70
                                       451

                                        50
                                       403
                                     1/609
                                       145
   263
   203
   345
   346
    51
   328
   753
   212
   291
   190
   323
   240
   372
    48
   325
   6 1 3
   263
   737
   432
    82
   312
   208
   304
12x816
 1*285
   535
   150
 1 x381
   195
 51

112
836
260

  0
219
121
            197
 18
 49
                                                                           217
                                                                           110
                                                                           374
                                                                            68
                                                                           488
                              326

                              103
                              577


                              123

                                0
                              378
       100
       411
        76
                              111
                               54
        53
       224
         0
       167
       241
 57

 138
 384
208

  0

 40
  1



 59

137
188

 53
.1.38
 40
 65
171

 23
288
779
 50
    51
   240
    78
   185
    14
    95
   150
   105
    34
   404
   209
    61
    26
    74
   285
   OK»O
   JU. V_" A"-
    48
   21 7
   '•' 21
    9
   119
    47
   142
4x028
   102
   162
   146
2x038
  131

-------
FIGURE 2-4  (Continued)

USER
2 1. 5
2 1. 7
221.
226
235
236
237
242
244
260
26.1.
V 265
K) '••> 7 '•)
O *" ""
275
283
285
286
2 9 2
295
296
299
3 1 6
3 1. 8
323
324
325
326
328
329
33O
331
333
33A

QTR :l
0



1. *185
.1.2*768
604
6*877
706
2*31.7
1.57
2*820
1*86.1.

1. 1. 9
61.
0
7*327
91.1.
1*982











*
*
TOTAL IN
QTR 2
0
87*664


725
9*550
1 * 8 1. 3
0
904
5*620
0
8*21.6
109
1*437
1 ?346
0
0
894
578
16*786

37*757


92
2*1.59


153
1 .053



JURY COS
QTR 3
5*725
36*71.3
1*045

240
8*223
1*583
0
748
8*797
0
.1.4*01.9
1*224
27.2
1. * 890

0
483
1*1.72
1*256

24*016
14*061.

491.
4*736
0

378
48O
O
*-* '-* 3

TS
QTR 4
0
1.8*3.1.7
1. 4 * 1. 1. 0
60
886
1*442
1. * 9.25
278
962
1.7*683
960
9*500
1*444
1*297
1.73

80
376
5*257
1.0*471
2*01.0
21*089
4 * 258
893
62
5*701.
91.
0
194
2 r 6 1 2
O
2 , O44
..:)
1.77
991 2













PER OS HA REC.
FR 2 QTR 3 Q
0 1*908
956 259
253

48 21.
329 357
259 1.43
0 0
226 249
330 258
0 0
455 51.9
27 244
239 45
147 210
0
0 0
127 96
96 1.95
*098 209 1

629 338
1*278

30 163
359 676
0

66 338
35.1. 53
O
55

INJ*
FR 4
0
1.63
491
20
88
80
2 1. 8
1.39
240
442
960
306
1. 3 1
1.44
43

80
94
477
*745
1.25
602
593
205
31
806
91
0
64
435
O
340
20 i
AVERAGE
QTR .1.
0



44
541
30
274
109
75
76
74
70

.7
4
0
121.
30
1.88













COST
QTR 2
0
415


26
340
85
0
127
1.78
0
2 1. 1
4
141
74
0
0
1 3
1 9
1*581.

335


23
153


28
87



PER MAM
QTR 3
41.6
155
27

8
261
66
0
104
266
0
335
46
26
105

0
6
38
119

203
999

1.14
316
0

63
37
O
36

YEAR
QTR 4
0
70
382
3
32
45
84
7
135
518
457
213
52
134
8

30
4
139
957
55
1.77
277
19
14
372
16
0
32
189
O
336
A

-------
                                  FIGURE 2-4  (Continued)
USER !   QTR 1
TOTAL INJURY COSTS        AVG,
 QTR 2   QTR 3   QTR 4  !   QTR
COST PER
.1  QTR 2










to
I
NJ
I-1










337
338
339
340
341
343
344
345
346
347
343
349
350
351
353
354
355
358
359
361
362
363
AVG,
                        11.442
                         6 i'4 31
                         3 y .1.52

                         9v864
                           341
                  7*664
                  4? 968
                  6*265
                 15*012
                  4»84S
                    453
                    318
                  1 ?670
                    619
                    331
                  1 y .1.72
                    729
                    481
                     64
                    238
                  1*193
       285»060 465*798 347*437
2*061
   40
1 *934
   31

' 5 * 5 21
                                    510
A REC
R 3
817
7 :!. 4
394

896
170
















324
* INJ,
QTR 4
638
709
522
682
597
15:1.
313
IF 670
154
1 1 0
390
132
120
64
1 1 9
198
27
1 v317
187
20
1*934
31
436
AVERAGE COST
QTR 1  QTR 2
PER MAN
QTR 3
360
226
90

691
84



YEAR
QTR 4
241
173
182
195
350
113
36
162
45
                            180
         223
147
                                                                                                 88
                                                                                                 51
                                                                                                 32
                                                                                                 41
                                                                                                256
                                                                                                  9
                                                                                              1*153
                                                                                                105
                                                                                                  4
                                                                                                 80
144

-------
                                 FIGURE 2-4  (Continued)
                     COMPARISON OF DIRECT COSTS BY REPORTING PERIOD FOR ALL USERS
USER !   QTR 1
                   TOTAL INJURY COSTS
                    QTR 2   QTR 3   QTR A
N>
101
103
109
111
113
115
125
133
146
148
149
152
157
161
170
171
172
178
179
181
182
183
186
191
197
201
204
2O7
210
211
215
217
221
2,808
2,399
9,361
19,743
1,286
17,674
26,994
9 , 022
21,552
3,669
7,598
3,265
3,006
3,770
32,198
10,280
23,439
3,233
22,753
10,171
3,337
6,558
4,388
4,182
1,124
741
350
6,857
SO
3»3O6
O
t 1 1 r 7197
   458
   584
   359
   130
   251
   353
   311
   282
   538
   392
   328
   222
   156
   168
   190
   281
   123
   116
   175
    8O
   3OO
     O
   10V
   70A
AVERAGE COST PER MAN YEAR
QTR 1  QTR 2  QTR 3  QTR 4
                                                                          150
                                                                           53
                                                                          249
                                                                          181
                                                                          247
                                                                          113
                                                                          346
                                                                          279
                                                                           61
                                                                          727
                                                                          210
                                                                           63
                                                                          146
                                                                          110
                                                                          130
                                                                          147
                                                                           22
                                                                          142
                                                                          143
                                                                           32
                                                                          100
                                                                           59
                                                                          124
                                                                           69
                                                                           30
                                                                           27
                                                                          147
                                                                           17
                                                                          264
                                                                            O

-------
                                    FIGURE 2-4  (Continued)
USER !   QTR 1
TOTAL INJURY COSTS
 QTR 2   QTR 3   QTR 4
226
235
236
237
242
244
260
265
272
275
283
M 286
it, 292
w 296
299
316
318
323
324
325
326
328
329
330
331
333
336
337
338
339
340
341
343
1 * 276
6*068
12*041
13*784
0
15*247
6*984
6*452
160
1*872
473
0
3*533
440
2*275
50*532
1*566
2*676
312
8*345
34*976
0
40
1*749
56
79
40
5*740
4*213
6*495
13*006
18*009
154
AVG, COST PER OSHA REC» INJ»
 QTR 1  QTR 2  QTR 3  QTR A
                                            466
                                            602
                                          1,253
                                              0
                                          3*811
                                            258
                                            258
                                             53
                                            312
                                             94
                                              0
                                            504
                                            146
                                             87
                                            918
                                            313
                                            380
                                            312
                                            758
                                         11*658
                                              0
                                             40
                                            583
                                             28
                                             26
                                             20
                                            521
                                            468
                                            433
                                            500
                                          1» 286
                                             51
AVERAGE COST PER MAN YEAR
QTR 1  QTR 2  QTR 3  QTR 4

   73
  214
  367
  564
    0
2r074
  206
  140
    6
  193
   22
    0
   43
   39
   63
  424
  104
   66
   73
  555
5*977
    0
    6
  123
    8
   12
    3
  185
  155
  194
  178
1*295
   37

-------
                                    FIGURE 2-4 (Continued)
USER !   QTR 1
TOTAL INJURY COSTS
 QTR 2   QTR 3   QTR 4
344 J
345 t
346 J
347 I
348 I
349 :
350 J
351 J
to 352 :
i 353 t
E 354 J
355 t
358 I
361 :
362 t
363 i
2,687
Ir672
IrlOl
662
3f870
2^833
6r595
20
3r593
252
206
108
495
20
2»888
715
AVG. COST PER OSHA REC. INJ.
 QTR 1  QTR 2  QTR 3  QTR 4

   447
   278
    68
   132
   645
   354
   942
    20
   256
   252
    51
    54
   247
    20
   577
   143
AVERAGE COST PER MAN YEAR
QTR 1  QTR 2  QTR 3  QTR 4

  308
  164
   81
   45
  402
  332
  720
   10
  320
   45
   42
    5
  143
    2
  122
   46
 AVG.J 547*400
                             420
                                 152

-------
                                                                        FIGURF. 2-5

                                                     SUMMARY OF ACCIDENT FACTORS FOR SELECTED ACCIDENT

                                              CHARACTERISTICS WITH HIGHEST PERCENT OF OSHA RECORDABLE  INJURIES

                                                              OSIIA DAYS LOST AND DIRECT COSTS
         Type of

     Characteristic
                                                                          Factors  with  the:
             Highest % of OSHA
            Recordable Injuries
             Highest % of OSHA
                Days Lost	
               Highest % of
               Direct Costs
 I
to
Ui
Activity



Accident Type



Accident Site



Nature of Injury



Part of Body
Lifting or dumping container - 35%
Getting off equipment - 9%
Standing or walking - 8%

Overexertion involving, container - 18%
Fall on same level - 10%
Slip on same level - 7%

On collection route at back of truck - 32%
On collection route at curb - 22%
On collection route in customer's yard - 11%

Sprain or strain - 43%
Bruise - 24%
Cut or puncture - 15%

Back - 22%
Eyes - 8%
Knee- 7%
Lifting or dumping container - 31%
Getting off equipment - 11%
Standing or walking - 10%

Overexertion involving container - 24%
Fall on same level - 13%
Fall to a different level - 9%

On collection route at back of truck - 26*
On collection route at curb - 18%
On collection route in customer's yard - 11%

Sprain or strain - 52%
Bruise - 17%
Fracture - 9%

Back - 35%
Ankle - 8%
Shoulder - 6%
Lifting or dumping container - 29%
Getting off equipment -  11%
Carrying container - 9%

Overexertion involving container - 22%
Fall on same level - 12%
Fall to a different level - 11%

On collection route at back of truck - 26%
On collection route ah curb - 22%
On collection route in customer's yard -  9%

Sprain or strain - 49%
Bruise - 15%
Fracture - 11%

Back - 34%
Leg - 11%
Shoulder - 6%

-------
Accident Trends
2nd Quarter 1977

-------
                      EXHIBIT  7
                   ACCIDENT TRENDS
       IN  THE SOLID WASTE  MANAGEMENT  INDUSTRY
                 "SLIPS AND  FALLS"
     QUARTER:   APRIL 1 TO  JUNE 30, 1977
DEVELOPED  BY SAFETY SCIENCES, DIVISION OF WSA  INC,,
   FOR THE U,S, ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY
    OFFICE OF SOLID WASTE MANAGEMENT  PROGRAMS
           UNDER CONTRACT No, 68-03-0231
                          Division of WSA Inc.,11772 Sorrento Valley Road
                          San Diego, CA 92121  (714) 755-9359 & 452-1010

-------
Accident Trends in the Solid Waste Management Industry is
developed quarterly using data from IRIS  (the Injury Re-
porting and Information System for Solid Waste Management).
Accident Trends is designed to summarize and dicuss the
data from all IRIS users and to provide data and conclu-
sions which affect the industry as a whole.  A companion
volume/ the QSMR  (Quarterly Safety Management Report), is
developed individually for each IRIS user who reported
injuries during the quarter.  Each QSMR concentrates only
on the injuries of the individual IRIS user for which it
is prepared.

IRIS is currently made up of 65 users.  All possible care
is taken to insure data quality.  The nature of the data
and the reports, however, precludes complete accuracy.  Not
all cases are closed by the end of the quarter.  These acci-
dents continue to be monitored.  Occasionally, full lost
time and cost data is not available.  Consequently, the tot-
als for these categories may be underestimates.  A concerted
effort is made to correct the lost time and cost figures
and improve IRIS collection methods.  The recommendations and
countermeasures presented are suggestions that must be eval-
uated in terms of individual user's needs.

The purpose of this and other IRIS publications is to dis-
seminate new ideas and alternative methods in the solid waste
field.  IRIS serves as a clearinghouse in this regard, but
does not promote or endorse any method or product.  Imple-
mentation of QSMR suggestions should be done only after
careful evaluation by each user and at each user's discre-
tion.

-------
                        ACCIDENT TRENDS

            IN  THE  SOLID WASTE MANAGEMENT INDUSTRY

                        SLIPS AND FALLS


 QUARTER:    APRIL L  1977 THROUGH JUNE 30,  1977



                       TABLE OF CONTENTS


                                                              Page

 INTRODUCTION ........................   iv

 I.         DISCUSSION OF SLIPS AND FALLS AND PREVENTION
           METHODS   .....................  1-1

           1.    Identifying the Problem ...........  1-1

                1.1  Hazardous Surface Conditions ......  1-2
                1.2  Task/Hazards Analysis  for Slips
                     and Falls  	 ..........  1-3
                1.3  Seasonal Variations in Injury
                     Rates for Slips and Falls  .......  1-9
                1.4  Type of Collection Injury Rates
                     for Slips and Falls	  1-10
                1.5  Type of Injury .............  1-12

           2.    Countermeasures for Slips and Falls
                (Prevention Methods)  ............  1-13

                2.1  Employee Training  ...........  1-13
                2.2  Personal Protective Equipment  .....  1-15
                2.3  Equipment Modifications  ........  1-17
                2.4  Altering Operational Procedures  ....  1-18


II.         SECOND QUARTER IRIS INDUSTRY-WIDE DATA ......  2-1
                               11

-------
                        LIST OF FIGURES
FIGURE 1-1


FIGURE 1-2


FIGURE 1-3


FIGURE 1-4


FIGURE 1-5


FIGURE 1-6


FIGURE 2-1


FIGURE 2-2


FIGURE 2-3


FIGURE 2-4


FIGURE 2-5
                                                   •
Slips and Falls  Injury Rates for                  ;':to
Collection Division ............. 1-2   ',
                                                   '5i
                                                   i[«i
Slips and Falls  Hazardous Surface Con-            ^
ditions for  the  Collection Division ..... 1-3   :fl5S
                                                   ,j[jlj
Slips and Falls  Preliminary Task/                 ./^
Hazard Analysis  Collection Division ..... 1-4   :'L

Injury Rates for Slips and Falls by
Quarter for  the  Collection Division ..... 1-10

Injury Rates for Slips and Falls by               :i!J_
Type of Collection   ............. l-ll  *''

Ten Most Common  Injuries  for Slips
and Falls .................. 1-12  'ap
                                                   :>:>i?
Description  of Users  by Operational               !'
Characteristics  ............... 2-4   "f

Summary of Injuries by Frequency,
Severity, and Costs ............. 2-11

Comparison of Injury  Rates and OSHA
Days Lost for All Users ........... 2-13

Comparison of Direct  Costs by Reporting
Period for All Users   ............ 2-19

Summary of Accident.  Factors for
Selected Accident Characteristics with
Highest Percent  of  OSHA Recordable
Injuries, Workdays  Lost and Direct
Costs .................... 2-25
                              111

-------
                        INTRODUCTION
          This is the Accident Trends report for the second
quarter of 1977 (April 1 to June 30).  This report is divid-
ed into two sections, a discussion of the special feature
topic,  slips and falls and their preventative measures and
a summary of the data for the quarter.  Section I includes a
Preliminary Task/Hazards Analysis for slips and falls.  The
discussion in Section I will encompass the data since the
instigation of IRIS in December 1975, but Section II relates
only the rates and figures applicable to the second quarter
of 1977.

          Of the 65 IRIS users on-line second quarter, 62
users reported 1,485 injuries.  Since the injury rates are
based on man-hours of exposure, they reflect the various
start-up periods of the IRIS users.

          The time lost and direct costs shown on the FIGURES
were provided as of September 30, the "closing date" for
receiving data for the second quarter.  Any cases where the
time lost or direct cost data is incomplete are being monitored
for updating.
                              IV

-------
                          SECTION I
                DISCUSSION OF SLIPS AND FALLS
                   AND PREVENTION METHODS
          The topic chosen for this quarter's Accident Trends
report for the solid waste management industry is the group
of injuries that occur from slips and falls.  Slips and falls
are the second most frequent group of accidents, second only
to overexertions.  For the IRIS reporting period of 1/76
through 3/77, slips and falls resulted in 957 OSHA record-
able injuries (14.6%), 9,932 days lost (19.7%), and $470,540
in direct costs  (17.7%).

          This report will first analyze the accident patterns
of the slips and falls in terms of hazardous surface condi-
tions, tasks, seasonal variation, type of collection, and
type of injury.  Then the discussion will cover preventative
measures for reducing slips and falls.  They include employee
training, personal protective equipment (safety shoes),  equip-
ment modifications, and altering operational procedures.
1.        IDENTIFYING THE PROBLEM

          Solid waste employees, particularly collectors, are
required to walk nearly constantly from collection stop to
stop and to get on and off the equipment.  This exposes them
to a variety of climatic and surface condition hazards that
cannot be controlled.  Therefore, other factors that enter
into their job must be considered to reduce their exposure to
slips and falls such as providing slip resistant safety shoes
or installing self-cleaning, slip resistant steps on the
vehicles.

          The following injury rates* were derived from using
man-hours of exposure for only the collection division:
*See Section II for explanations of the injury rates
                             1-1

-------
                          FIGURE 1-1

                        SLIPS AND FALLS

                         INJURY RATES

                    FOR COLLECTION DIVISION



           OSHA Incidence Rate                     9.9

           OSHA Lost Workday Cases                 7.0

           OSHA Severity Rate                      103

           Average  Workdays  Lost Per Lost
             Workday Case                         14.6

           Average  Direct Cost Per OSHA
             Recordable Injury                    $492

           Average  Direct Cost Per Lost
             Workday Case                         $673

           Direct Cost  Per Man-Year                $49
          The injury rates show that slips and  falls should
be of major concern to solid waste managers since  they cause
one out of ten collection employee's non-first  aid injuries
a year, and two-thirds of the slips and  falls result in lost
time.  Slips and falls on the average will result  in a day
lost per collection employee on the payroll per year and an
average days lost of 14.6 per lost workday injury-  This
group of injuries also cost the average  solid waste organi-
zation $49 per collection employee per year.
1.1       Hazardous Surface Conditions

          As the following chart indicates,  icy  and wet sur-
face conditions were by far the leading hazardous  surface con-
ditions.  However, if the columns were totaled,  the hazardous
surface condition categories given only account  for 61% of the
OSHA recordable injuries, $(.--•: of the days  lost,  and 52^- of the
direct costs for their respective totals for the slips and
falls.  This means that alloving for some  of the missing per-
centages to be categorized under miscellaneous categories  (e.g-
collapsing surface, object protruding from ground, etc.) nearl
a third of the injuries did not involve a  hazardous surface
condition.
                             1-2

-------
                          FIGURE 1-2

                          SLIPS AND FALLS

                    HAZARDOUS SURFACE CONDITIONS

                     FOR THE COLLECTION DIVISION
        Icy Surface

        Wet Surface

        Depression

        Rock on ground

        Oily surface

        Inclined surface

        Waste" on ground
                       24

                       14

                        8

                        7

                        4

                        2

                        2
% Days
Lost

 25

 14

  5

  5

  5

  1

  1
% Direct
 Costs

  25

  13

   4

   4

   4

   1

   1
        Total
                                957
                               9932
        $470,540
1.2
Task/Hazards  Analysis for Slips and Falls
          The Task/Hazards Analysis in FIGURE  1-3  is ordered
from the task with  the highest frequency of  slips  and falls
to the lowest.  Two types of percentages are given,  percent
of total (e.g., 38% OSHA recordable injuries for  "getting on/
off vehicle" is 38% of all slips and falls injuries)  and per-
cent of task  (e.g.,  18% OSHA recordable injuries  for "wet
surface" to the right of "cab or running board"  is 18% of all
slips and falls as  the employee was getting  on or  off the cab
or running board).   This type of analysis is especially useful
in identifying training needs, but each organization should
perform a similar analysis to identify their own  training needs
or to- tailor their  training programs to have added emphasis in
the problem areas identified.

          The Task/Hazards Analysis reveals  that,  surprisingly,
getting on and off  the vehicle had the highest frequency, days
lost and direct costs for slips and falls.   An examination of
the hazards column  indicates that for getting  in  and out of
the cab (or running board), the majority of  the  accidents were
due to the running  board being wet, icy or oily,  in that order.
Comparing hazardous conditions between the running board and
                              1-3

-------
         SLIPS AND FALLS
PRELIMINARY TASK/HAZARD ANALYSIS
      COLLECTION DIVISION*
TASK
1. Getting on/off vehicle
A. Cab or Running Board












PERCENT OF TOTAL
% No. % Days % Direct
Inj. Lost Costs
38% 40% 36%
20% 24% 20%












HAZARDS

1 . Wet Surface
a. Running Board
b. Ground
2. Icy Surface
a. Running Board
b. Ground
3. Object on Ground
4. Oily Surface
a. Ground
b. Running Board
5. Depression
6. Collapsing Running
Board
7. Waste on Ground
PERCENT OF TASK
% No. % Days % Direct
Inj. Lost Costs

1 8% 1 0% 1 6%
1 6% 9% 1 5%
O Ol *" 1  -\ Of
L-/0 ^1/0 ^1/0
1 7% 1 5% 1 4%
13% 12% 10%
4% 2% 4%
7% 3% 3%
5% 8% 8%
3% 6% 5%
3% 2% 3%
4% 9% 5%
1% <1% <1%
<1« 1% 1%

-------
                                                         MINU
                                          PRELIMINARY TASK/HAZARD ANALYSIS

                                                COLLECTION DIVISION
TASK
B. Riding Step









C. Truck Bed or Tail-
gate

2. Carrying Container



PERCENT. OF TOTAL
% No. % Days % Direct
Inj. Lost Costs
14% 12% 11%









1% 1% 1%

20% 1 9% 20%



HAZARDS
1 . Wet Surface
a. Riding Step
b. Ground
2. Depression
3. Object on Ground
4. Icy Surface
a. Ground
b. Riding Step
5. Oily Riding Step
6. Collapsing Step
1. Wet Truck Bed
2. Waste on Ground
1 . Icy Surface
2. Wet Surface
3. Collapsing Surface
4. Depression
PERCENT OF TASK
% No. % Days % Direct
Inj. Lost Costs
13% 16% 18%
1 1 % 15% 1 7%
2% <1% 2%
12% 8% 9%
8% 14% 7%
8% 6% 7%
4% 4% 5%
4% 2% 2%
4% 3% 4%
1% 3% 4%
1 3% 3% 4%
13% 2% 10%
34% 32% 36%
14% 9% 9%
11% 11% 13%
1 0% 8% 7%
I
(J1

-------
                                                 SLIPS AND  FALLS
                                        PRELIMINARY TASK/HAZARD ANALYSIS
                                               COLLECTION  DIVISION
TASK
2. Carrying Container (cont.'



3. Standing/Walking







4. Lifting Container



PERCENT OF TOTAL
% No. % Days % Direct
Inj. Lost Costs




14% 14% 15%







10% 10% 10%



HAZARDS
5. Object on Ground
6. Inclined Surface
7. Waste on Ground
8. Oily Surface
1 . Icy Surface
2. Depression
3. Wet Surface
4. Object on Ground
5. Oily Surface
6. Waste on Ground
7. Incl ined Surface
8. Collapsing Surface
1 . Icy Surface
2. Wet Surface
3.. Oily Surface
4. Object on Ground
PERCENT OF TASK
% No. % Days % Direct
Inj. Lost Costs
8% 8% 6%
3% 1% 1%
2% 1% 2%
1% <1% 1%
42% 49% 54%
1 3% 6% 6%
8% 7% 6%
8% 5% 5%
6% 8% 2%
2% <1% <1%

-------
         SLIPS AND FALLS
PRELIMINARY TASK/HAZARD ANALYSIS
      COLLECTION DIVISION
                                                                              y
TASK
4. Lifting Container (cont.)

5. Pushing/Pulling Container
A. Wheeled Cart




B. Bulk Container


6. Riding on Step


7. Dumping Container

PERCENT. OF TOTAL
% No. % Days % Direct
Inj. Lost Costs


6% 4% 4%
3% 2% 2%




1% 1% 1%


4% 4% 3%


4% 4% 3%

HAZARDS
5. Depression
6. Waste on Ground

1. Icy Surface
2. Inclined Surface
3. Wet Surface
4. Objects on Ground
5. Depression
1 . Oily Surface
2. Wet Surface
3. Icy Surface
1. Wet Step
2. Collapsing Step
3. Icy Step
1.. Wet Surface
2. Icy Surface
PERCENT OF TASK
% No. % Days % Direct
Inj. Lost Costs
2% 2% 1%
1% 0% <1%

21% 53% 61%
1 2% 7% 8%
9% 18% 14%
9% 6% 5%
9% 4% 2%
25% 40% 26%
25% 2% 3%
25% 0% 3%
15% 18% 25%
11% 6% 7%
6% 3% 5%
25% 8% 14%
18% 15% 18%

-------
                                              FIGURE  1-3  (Continued)
                                                  SLIPS AND FALLS
                                         PRELIMINARY TASK/HAZARD ANALYSIS
                                               COLLECTION DIVISION
TASK
7. Dumping Container (cont.)


PERCENT OF TOTAL
% No. % Days % Direct
Inj. Lost Costs



HAZARDS
3. Depression
4. Object on Ground
5. Inclined Surface
PERCENT OF TASK
% No. % Days % Direct
Inj. Lost Costs
1 0% 6% 3%
5% <1% <1%
1% 2% 5%
I
CO

-------
ground,  33%  of the injuries occurred due to the running board
being slippery while 21% of the injuries were due to hazardous
surface  conditions on the ground that the employees were step-
ping onto.   The missing percentage of approximately 45% of
the accidents while performing this activity did not cite any
hazardous conditions.

          Slips and falls while getting on and off the riding
step, however, cited less hazardous surface condition causes.
20% of the  accidents occurred due to wet, icy, oily and collap-
sing steps  while 26% were due to hazardous surface conditions
on the ground, and over 50% of the injuries did not report any
hazardous surface conditions.

          Knowing the frequency of the getting on and off vehi-
cle accidents is not only useful in analyzing training needs
but also in identifying equipment modifications needs.  However,
the discussion of the data in conjunction with prevention methods
will be  handled under the individual prevention methods sub-
sections.

          Two other activities, "carrying container" and "stand-
ing/walking" , require extensive walking and resulted in 20%
and 14%  of  the slips and falls injuries, respectively.  Counter-
measures for these injuries can include providing slip resistant
safety shoes or reducing the amount of carrying or walking by
altering some operational procedures (e.g., change from back-
yard to  curbside).  Ice was a causal factor in at least a third
of each  activity's slips and falls, and at least four-fifths
of these injuries cited a hazardous surface condition.

          Of the four remaining activities, three involved
handling containers ("lifting container", "pushing/pulling
container",  and "dumping container").  Ice was the major sur-
face condition responsible for slips and falls that occurred
while the injured employee was lifting the container and while
pushing/pulling containers, but wet surfaces caused more of the
riding on step and dumping container slips and falls.
1.3       Seasonal Variations in Injury Rates for Slips and
          Falls

          Analyzing the injury rates by the IRIS quarters of
first quarter equaling January through March, etc., the fol-
lowing chart shows that the first two quarters of the year has
the greatest incidence, severity and direct costs for slips
and falls.  In addition, the first quarter has more slips and
falls than the second quarter.  The majority of the slips and
falls occurring during the first two quarters of the year was
due to snowfall at most of the IRIS users.
                             1-9

-------
           The incidence rate, surprisingly,  is  only a quarter
higher between the high and low  quarters.  However, the sever-
ity and  direct cost  per man-year rates are nearly double for
the first  quarter when compared  to the third quarter.
                           FIGURE 1-4

                          INJURY RATES FOR

                      SLIPS AND FALLS BY QUARTER

                      FOR THE COLLECTION DIVISION
                            1st Qtr  2nd Qtr  3rd Qtr  4th Qtr
                            76 & 77    76      76      76

        OSHA Incidence Rate       11.7     9.6     8.2     8.6

        OSHA Lost Workday Cases
          Rate                  3.7     6.6     5.1     6.2

        OSHA Severity Rate        122     108      71      78

        Avg. Workdays Lost Per
          Lost Workday Case       15.2    16.4    14.1     12.7

        Avg. Direct Costs Per
          OSHA Recordable
          Injury                $541    $511    $429     $423

        Avg. Direct Costs Per
          Lost Workday Case       S713    $722    $669     $566

        Direct Costs Per
          Man-Year               $63     $49     $35     $36
1.4        Type of Collection Injury Rates  for Slips and Falls

           Of the four types of  collection  analyzed, backyard
collection,  as expected, has the  highest incidence, severity
and direct costs per  man-year rates for slips and falls.
Backyard collection employees have higher  exposure to slips
and falls not only because they walk more  but also because
they are carrying or  pushing/pulling containers as they walk
and type of  surface they have to  walk on  (e.g., wet grass).
Curbside employees also perform a great deal of walking from
stop to  stop, but because they  collect from a larger number
                               1-10

-------
of customers,  and hence a larger area, they have increased
slip and fall  hazards from getting on and off the vehicle,
stepping on spilled waste, and stepping on and off the curb.

          FIGURE 1-5 presents the injury rates for slips
and falls by type of collection.  The injury rates were
higher for backyard collection than for curbside collection,
and there were nearly five times more employees who collect
from the curbside and/or alley than from the backyard.  The
injury rates for the commercial and mechanized collection
(e.g., Rapid Rail)  were much lower in incidence but high in
severity and direct costs.


                         FIGURE 1-5

                  INJURY RATES FOR SLIPS AND

                 FALLS BY TYPE OF COLLECTION


                         Curbside
                         & Alley   Backyard  Commercial  Mechanized

OSHA Incidence Rate            12        16         6           2

OSHA Lost Workday Cases
  Rate                          8        13         4           2

OSHA Severity Rate            102       133       128         253

Avg. Workdays Lost Per
  Lost Workday Case          12.8      10.3      32.6         112

Avg. Direct Cost Per
  OSHA Recordable
  Injury                     $422      $406    $1,611      $2,257

Direct Cost Per Man-
  Year                        $49       $69       $97         $51

Man-Hours of Exposure   5,000,700 1,067,842   763,475      88,452


          The ranking of the incidence rates for the four types
of collection follows the employees' exposures to slips and
falls.  In commercial bulk collection, the employees would have
to climb out of the vehicle to position the bulk containers onto
the lifters while in mechanized collection, the employee seldom
is required to leave the cab.  The employee might be exposed to
slips and falls in having to turn a wheeled container around,
                             1-11

-------
 in changing from right to left hand drive/  to unjam the packer
 panel, or to unload at the landfill.   This  amounts  to  very
 little time walking, and this type of  collection only  received
 one slip or fall during this reporting period.
 1.5       Type of Injury

           The following FIGURE lists  the  ten  most common inj-
 uries that occurred from slips and  falls  in order of  highest
 to lowest frequency.  The days lost and direct costs  are also
 given.  As can be seen, the two most  common injuries  by far
 were sprained ankles and strained backs.   In  fact,  the common
 injury types were mostly sprains and  bruises,  although more
 serious injury types occurred also  (e.g.,  fractures,  dislo-
 cations, concussions, cuts, etc.).
                          FIGURE 1-6
                   TEN MOST COMMON INJURIES
                      FOR SLIPS AND FALLS
                        No.  % No... .No. ..Days   %Days   Direct  %Direct
                        Inj . Inj .   Lost     Lost    Costs   Costs

 1.   Sprained ankle     214   22   1,675      17    $68,246     15
 2.   Strained back      146   15   2,459      25    117,163     25
 3.   Bruised knee        58    6      392       4     21,228      5
 4.   Strained knee       47    5      671       7     35,183      7
 5.   Bruised back        39    4      241       2     14,885      3
 6.   Bruised leg         29    3      192       2      7,683      2
 7.   Bruised shoulder    28    3      148       1      5,765      1
 8.   Sprained shoulder   20    2      122       1      6,394      1
 9.   Sprained foot       19    2      131       1      6,674      1
10.   Bruised chest       18    2      278       3     10,764      2
        Total for slips
        and falls       957        9,932          $470,540


           Even though sprained  ankles were  much higher in fre-
 quency of occurrence to strained backs,  the strained backs re-
 sulted in far more days lost and direct  costs.   The average days
 lost and direct costs per OSHA  recordable  injury for the two
 were:
                               1-12

-------
                           Avg. Days      Avg. Direct
                             Lost            Costs

       Sprained ankle          7.8           $319
       Strained back          16.8           $802
2.         COUNTERMEASURES FOR SLIPS AND FALLS (PREVENTION
          METHODS)

          Now that the problem of slips and falls is better
defined,  the various prevention methods available can be
weighed for maximum impact, or accident reduction potential.
It should also be recognized that the countermeasures discussed
can not only make an impact on slips and falls but on other
types of accidents as well.  For instance, altering the col-
lection methods from curbside to mechanical collection not
only reduces the hazard of slips and falls but also of over-
exertions.
2.1       Employee Training

          Hazards recognition training is the main training
requirement for reducing slips and falls.  As mentioned previ-
ously,  the outdoors environment that the solid waste collector
is exposed to is largely uncontrollable when analyzing preven-
tion methods.  Therefore, if hazardous surface conditions cannot
be removed, they should be avoided where possible.  On the route,
the collector can slip off the riding step, fall when walking on
ice, water or oil, slip on waste at the back of the truck, step
onto a rock or depression, or slip off the curb.  Of these con-
ditions,  all except for slippery steps or inclement weather
can be avoided by looking ahead of where he is stepping and
avoiding these known hazardous surface conditions.  In particu-
lar, the employees need to look where they are stepping when
getting off the vehicle.  They must be discouraged from jump-
ing off,  especially if the vehicle is moving  (See IRIS News-
flash,  March 1978) .

          Hazards recognition training for the backyard collector
can include altering his routing to the backyard depending on
the surface conditions.  When the grass is wet early in the morn-
ing, he could walk up the driveway part of the way or stay on
the walkway to the backyard.  Also, if he has a choice between
walking on ice on the driveway or on a frosted lawn, the  lawn
may be less slippery.  If forced to walk on inclines or stair-
ways during inclement weather (wet, icy), the employee can slow


                             1-13

-------
down his pace and make  sure  of  his  footing.   He should avoid
walking on the edge of  the steps.   Also,  other studies on slips
and falls performed by  SAFETY SCIENCES indicate that the most
dangerous steps in a  flight  of  stairs  are the first and last
steps, when the employee  is  required to change his pace.

          The Task/Hazards Analysis can be used to determine
the impact of hazards recognition  training.   Presuming that
wet and icy surface conditions  are  marginally affected by
hazards recognition,  the  major  impact  of this training would
occur in reducing injuries that were caused by such hazardous
surface conditions as object on the ground (usually a rock) ,
a hole in the ground  (or  depression),  an oil spot, and waste
on the ground.  These conditions caused 9% of the slips and
falls while the employees were  getting on and off the vehicle,
4% of the carrying container, 4% of the standing/walking,  1.3%
of the lifting container,  .5% of the pushing/pulling container,
and .6% of the dumping  container.   (These are percentages of
the total slips and falls injuries.)   Therefore,  by recogniz-
ing and avoiding these  hazardous surface conditions, the em-
ployers would see a 19% reduction  in slips and falls injuries.

          Falls cannot  be eliminated completely,  and therefore,
another method for reducing  their  severity (and therefore their
costs) is training the  employees on how to fall safely.  The
natural tendency for  a  person who  is slipping or falling to do
is to resist the fall.  This can result in severe back injuries
from the strain imposed (15% of the injuries).   Therefore, fall-
ing safely training is  simply that  the employees relax and roll
with the fall and buffering  the fall with the shoulders rather
than putting out a hand to break the fall.  Rolling is important
in dissipating the energy from  the  impact of the fall.  Of
course, the employees may be reluctant to follow this method
if they are handling  a  container at the same time.  They will
probably unconsciously  attempt  to  hold the container upright so
that the waste does not spill.  However,  your training should
stress the fact that  it is more important for the employees to
avoid the injury than to  avoid  spilling the waste.

          Another area  of employee  training,  of course, is the
specific training on how  to  perform the task or activity cor-
rectly.  This is where  the Task/Hazards Analysis is invaluable.
Referring back to it, the major emphasis should be on getting
on and off the vehicle  (38%  of  the  slips and falls).  Points
in the training should  emphasize:

          1.   Do not jump on or off the vehicle.

          2.   Do not get on or off the vehicle if it is
               in motion.
                              1-14

-------
          3.    Avoid stepping on the edges of the
               steps,  where it is the most slippery -

          4.    Make sure footing is secure when dis-
               mounting before releasing the hand-
               hold.

          5.    Use the handhold(s)  available during
               the entire operation of getting on or
               off the cab or riding step.

          6.    Look at the ground surface conditions
               before stepping down and avoid such
               hazardous conditions as rocks of the
               ground, potholes,  oil spots,  drainage
               grates, meter holes, and spilled waste.

          7.    Dismounting from the cab should be
               backwards rather than forwards.

          8.    Do not step from the riding step or
               running board onto the edge of the curb.

These training points should have an impact on the slips and
falls injuries (50%) while getting on and off the vehicle
that did not cite any hazardous surface conditions, since
they may be due to improper techniques instead.

          Slips and falls training for the other tasks that
involved handling containers (e.g., carrying container, lift-
ing container, pushing/pulling container, and dumping contain-
er) mainly involves maintaining a firm grip on the container
and placing the feet squarely on the surface before lifting or
dumping.  However, for pushing bulk containers, IRIS  recommends
that it be done with the aid of a coworker and that they push
rather than pull the container.  Also, the bulk container
should be pushed in increments so that better control over the
container is maintained and so the employee does not place
himself in an awkward body position.
2.2       Personal Protective Equipment

          Slipping and falling occurs at the junction between
the employee and the surface, or the shoe sole and the surface.
The coefficient of friction generated by the two surfaces deter-
mine the likelihood of a slip or fall.  Factors that can vary
the coefficient of friction are:

          1.   The degree of wear or slip resistance
               of the shoes.

                             1-15

-------
          2.   The shoe sole material  (e.g.,  leather,
               neoprene, crepe, etc.)

          3.   The type of surface  (e.g.,  concrete,
               asphalt, wood, brick, dirt,  gravel,
               etc.)

          4.   The surface condition  (e.g., wet,  icy-
               oily, inclined, etc.)

          5.   The movement or exertion of the  employee
               (e.g., walking, running, jumping,  pushing,
               pulling, lifting, etc.)

          6.   And the movement of  the surface  (e.g.,
               vehicle in motion).


          As discussed previously,  some of these  factors can
be avoided through training the employee,  but the variable-
ness of the surface conditions cannot always  be avoided when
inclement weather prevails.  Therefore, a  very  necessary and
viable prevention method for reducing slips and falls  is
providing employees with slip resistant safety  shoes.  Refer-
ring back to the Task/Hazards Analysis, slip  resistant safety
shoes can have an impact on the accidents  that  occurred as
the result of water, ice and oil on the ground.   These resulted
in 2.6% of the getting on/off vehicle slips and falls, 9.8% of
the carrying container, 7.8% of the standing/walking,  55% of
the lifting container, 1.7% of the  pushing/pulling  container,
and 2.1% of the dumping container.  Therefore,  providing slip
resistant safety shoes can have an  impact  on  nearly 30% of
the slips and falls occurring.

          Once the need for slip resistant shoes  is determined,
the type of safety shoes which would provide  the  maximum slip
resistance, safety and comfort requires discussion.  There is
no one all-purpose slip resistant shoe.  This is  due to the
fact that climatic conditions, and  therefore  surface conditions,
vary from place to place, and an organization must  choose a
degree of slip resistance in the safety shoes to  be enough to
reduce slips on wet or icy surfaces but not too slip resistant
as to cause knee and ankle problems.  To protect  against dry as
well as slippery conditions would therefore require the provi-
sion of more than one type of safety shoes, depending  on the
weather.  Many solid waste organizations handle this situation
by providing a second pair of safety shoes depending on whether
their organization encounters mostly snow  or  rain.   For snow,
they provide safety shoes with cleats or strap-on cleats;  for
rain, they provide rubber boots with high  traction. Snow  boots
                              1-16

-------
are also  available.   In any case, any safety shoe chosen must
be tested on the route with a few crews before they are wide-
ly required.

          There are  no standards that have been developed for
the slip  resistance  of shoe sole materials.  The research that
has been  conducted only tested the materials on dry surfaces.

          Another consideration when determining whether to
require slip resistant safety shoes is their cost.  Many solid
waste organizations  are reluctant to require safety shoes for
fear that they might have to provide them free of charge to
the employees.  However, most solid waste organizations temper
cost effectiveness with accident reduction potential by pro-
viding discounts on  the approved shoes or allotting a certain
amount of allowance  a year per employee towards the purchase
of safety shoes.

          Providing  safety shoes is of no value unless employees
are required by rules and regulations to wear them on the job,
and this  requirement is enforced by their supervisors.

          There are  also many other safety features to the
safety shoes (e.g.,  steel toe, puncture protection, high ankle,
and metatarsal protection) that should be considered at the
time of purchase, since they also can be provided for a few
dollars more.   (Their injury reduction potential and cost effec-
tiveness  are discussed in an upcoming special report on personal
protective equipment.)  Since 22% of the slips and falls resulted
in sprained ankles,  high ankle support on the safety shoes is
recommended.  The February 1978 issue of IRIS News showed that
there can be at least a reduction of three sprained ankle
injuries  per 200 employees per year if employees who walk
continuously are required to wear safety shoes with ankle
support.

          Other personal protective equipment does not necess-
arily prevent slips  and falls but may aid in preventing inj-
uries (e.g., bump caps can protect the employee who hits his
head against the step when he falls from the riding step).
Therefore, their accident reduction potential cannot be easily
measured.
2.3       Equipment Modifications

          As discussed in previous IRIS reports,, step and
handhold designs on the collection vehicles should be evalu-
ated by each solid waste organization with the intention of
modifying them to allow easier access in and out of the cab
                             1-17

-------
and on and  off the riding  steps as well  as  be slip resistant.
IRIS recommends that the handholds be long  and vertical instead
of horizontal so that employees are able to slide their hands
up and down on them during the entire procedure of mounting
and dismounting.  The location of the handhold should also be
carefully considered and whether more than  one would be better.

          One set of standards, the ANSI Z245.1-1975 standard
entitled, "Safety Requirements for Refuse Collection and Com-
paction Equipment", addresses the step and  handhold designs
of the body but not the chassis:

          7.3.7  Riding Steps and Grab Handles
                 7.3.7.1  The surface and edges of steps
          shall have a slip-resistant surface.  They
          shall be self-cleaning or be protected against
          the accumulation of mud, snow, and ice.    (Many
          users have installed the diamond  patterned,
          open meshed steps  on their vehicles.)
                 7.3.7.2  Steps shall be designed to carry
          a uniformly distributed load of not  less than
          WOO pounds.
                 7.3.7.3  If  steps are provided, they shall
          be mounted not more than 22 inches above the road
          surface.  (A lower height for the steps
          reduces fatigue  as well as "missteps"
          that can cause slips and falls.)
                 7.3.7.4  Steps shall have a depth of at
          least 8 inches and  shall provide a minimum of
          220 square inches of riding surface  area.
           (Employees can therefore place their feet
          securely on the  step rather than  always
          use the edge of  the step, where it is the
          most slippery.)
                 7.3.7.5  Grab handles shall be provided
          in conjunction with riding steps and be located
          so as to provide the employee with a safe and
          comfortable riding  stance. Each grab handle
          shall be capable of withstanding a pull of at
          least 500 pounds.
2.4       Altering Operational Procedures

          Operational changes can be major or minor and can be
effected  immediately or  over the course  of several years.  Most
users do  not effect operational changes  at their solid waste
organization simply because of the safety  factor.  They have
to consider  cost effectiveness in terms  of productivity instead.
However,  simply to consider productivity and to ignore the
                               1-18

-------
health,  safety,  and happiness of the employees is not very
wise.  These  factors can also affect productivity.  Therefore,
when considering operational changes, their effect on the safe
working  environment of the employees should be considered.

          This  discussion centers on the effects of certain
operational  changes on slips and falls.  Obviously, the most
direct way would be to reduce the employees' exposure to
slips and falls.  As the injury rates in FIGURE 1-5 indicate,
slips and falls can be reduced by the following graduated
steps in altering the collection methods:

          1.    Provide wheeled intermediate containers
               for backyard collectors.

          2.    Change from backyard to curbside col-
               lection.

          3.    Change from backyard or curbside
               collection to semi-mechanical col-
               lection  (e.g., mobile Toter system),

          4.    Change from semi-mechanical to fully
               automated collection.
                             1-19

-------
                         SECTION II
                  SECOND QUARTER IRIS USER
                     INDUSTRY-WIDE DATA
     The accidents  received by IRIS from 65 users are covered
in this section.  FIGURE  2-1 gives operational background data
on the IRIS  users.
FREQUENCY,  SEVERITY AND COSTS RATES

     FIGURES  2-2  through 2-5 recap the frequency,  severity
and costs of  injuries  for this quarter:

     •    FIGURE  2-2;   Summary of Injuries by Frequency,
         Severity and Costs.  Compares  the solid waste
         management industry with the national average
         for all industries.

     •    FIGURE  2-3:   Comparison of Injury Rates and
         OSHA Days Lost for All Users.   Compares the
         rates and days lost for the first four
         quarters of  1976 and the first two quarters
         of  1977, for each user, in user number order.

     •    FIGURE  2-4:   Comparison of Direct Costs by
         Reporting Period for All Users.  Compares
         the total costs and cost rates for the first
         four quarters of 1976 and the  first two quart-
         ers of  1977, for each user, in user number
         order.

     •    FIGURE  2-5:   Summary of Accident Factors for
         Selected Accident Characteristics with Highest
         Percent of OSHA Recordable Injuries, OSHA Days
         Lost and Direct Costs.

     A  few  definitions of the terms used in the following
FIGURES are:

     •    OSHA Recordable Injury.  Defined by OSHA as
         a non-first  aid injury.
                             2-1

-------
e   OSHA Incidence Rate.   It  is  a measure of the
    frequency of injuries.  The  OSHA incidence rate
    is the number of OSHA  recordable injuries per
    200,000 hours of exposure.   The base figure of
    "200,000 hours" is the standard figure used
    in OSHA statistics.  It is roughly equivalent to
    100 full-time employees working a year or 100
    man-years  (i.e., 100 employees working 40 hours
    per week for 50 weeks  per year).

    OSHA incidence rates can  be  thought of as being
    roughly equivalent to  the number of injuries
    that will occur to 100 employees during a year.
    Therefore, an OSHA incidence rate of 37 means
    that the organization  is  having 37 injuries
    per year for each 100  employees or that,  on
    the average, 1 out of  every  3 employees are
    being injured.  The national average OSHA
    incidence rate for all industries has been
    around 10 for the last several years.

e   Severity Rate.  The severity rate is similar
    to the OSHA incidence  rate,  except that it
    reflects the number of OSHA  days lost (i.e.,
    workdays lost and light duty days), instead
    of the number of injuries, per 100 man-years
    worked.  For example,  a severity rate of 500
    would mean roughly that an organization is
    losing 500 workdays for every 100 employees
    per year, or that on the  average each employee
    is losing  5 days a year for  on-the-job injuries.

o   Direct Costs.  Direct  costs  are normally those
    for which money was actually expended and in-
    clude worker's compensation, medical expenses,
    and wage continuation  benefits  (e.g., injury
    leave).  There are many indirect costs such as
    down time, replacement time, lost time by wit-
    nesses and supervisors, etc., which are not
    included in these figures.   Indirect costs are
    estimated  to be  5 times the  direct costs in
    cities according to the National Safety Council.

•   Average Direct Costs per  OSHA Recordable Injury.
    An average direct cost per OSHA recordable inju:
    of $500  means that on the average each OSHA red
    able injury (i.e.,  a non-first  aid case) is
    costing  the organization $5001
                2-2

-------
         •    Direct Cost per Man-Year.   It shows the
             cost per 2,000 hours or the average cost per
             year per employee.   A direct cost per man-year
             of $200 would mean  that on the average an
             organization's injuries are costing $200
             per employee per year.

     In reviewing these FIGURES, the data for the AVERAGE
(shown on the FIGURES as AVG) is the most important because
it summarizes the results for all users combined.  After
examining the AVERAGES, it is important to examine how
great the range of rates between users is.  Wide ranges are
important because they show that it is possible to achieve
lower rates of injury under given operating systems and
safety programs.
                           2-3

-------
                   FIGURE 2-1



DESCRIPTION OF USERS BY OPERATIONAL CHARACTERISTICS

User
Number
101
103
M109
i
""111
113
115
125
133
136
140
146
148
149
152

M=Municipal
P=Private
M
M
M

M
P
M
M
M
M
M
M
M
M
M

Geograph.
Area
South
Midwest
Midwest

West
Midwest
South
South
Northwest
South
South
South
Northeast
Midwest
Midwest

No. of
Employees
325
80
500

280
33
300
650
86
140
844
295
267
65
63
Point of Collection:
M=Mechanical
A= Alley
BY=Backyard w/o intermed. can
BYT=Backyard-Tub
BYC=Backyard-Cart
CS=Curbside
CS/A
BY/CS/A
BY/BYC

CS
CS
CS/A
CS
CS/A/ BY
M/A
CS
CS/A
CS
CS
CS

Type
of
Shift
T/F
T
F

T
T
T/F
T
T
F
T
T
T
T
T
Type of Service Provided

Coll. Crew Size(s)
Res id.
4
3
4,3

2
1,2
3

2
3,1
3
1,2,3

2
2
COTtDTl.
4




1
1,2
1
1,2
1

1,2

2

Resid.
&
Cotnm.





2

3




4


Disposal
L=Landfill
I=Incinerator
T=Trans. Stn.
L



L

L,I
L,I
L
L

L,T




-------
       FIGURE  2-1  (Continued)



OPERATIONAL CHARACTERISTICS CONTINUED

User
iumber
157
161
ho170
CXJ
1
171
172
178
179
181
182
183
186
191
197
201

MM • ' 1
rl — rlunjLClpa J.
P=Private
M
M
M

M
M
M
M
M
M
M
M
M
M
M

Geograph.
Area
West
Midwest
South

Midwest
West
South
Northeast
Midwest
Northeast
Midwest
South
South
West
Northeast

No. of
Employees
203
125
1481

370
700
629
532
278
470
308
297
177
86
120
Point of Collection:
M=Mechanical
A=Alley
BY=Backyard w/o intermed. can
BYT=Backyard-Tub
BYC=Backyard-Cart
CS=Curbside
CS
CS/A
CS/BYC/A

A
M/CS/A
CS
CS
BY
CS
CS
CS
CS/A
CS
CS

Type
of
Shift
T
T
T

T/F
T/F
T
T
T
T
T
T
T/F
T
T
Type of Service Provided

Coll. Crew Size(s)
Res id.
2
3,1
1,2,3,4
5
3
1,3,2
3
3
4
3
3
3
3
2
3
Coroni.
2

2,3,4,5



2
3


2
3
1
2,1

Resid.
&
Conun.
2












2

Disposal
L=Landfill
I=Incineratc
T=Trans. Str
L,T
L
T


L
L,I
I,T
L
L

L
L



-------
      FIGURE 2-1 (Continued)



OPERATIONAL CHARACTERISTICS CONTINUED

User
Number
204
207
M210
i
^211
212
215
217
221
226
235
236
237
242
244

M=Municipal
P=Private
M
M
M

M
M
M
M
M
M
M
M
M
M
M

Geograph.
Area
West
West
West

West
West
South
South
West
South
South
South
Midwest
South.
West

No. of
Employees
52
205
15

40
130
60
820
210
87
125
103
90
101
3O
Point of Collection:
M=Mechanical
A= Alley
BY=Backyard w/o intermed. can
BYT=Backyard-Tub
BYC=Backyard-Cart
CS=Curbside
CS/A/M
BYC
CS

CS/A
CS/A
CS/BY/BYT
CS/A/BY
CS
CS
BYT/A/CS
CS
A/BYC
CS/BY/BYT/A
BYT/ BYC

Type
of
Shift
F
T
T

T
F
T/F
F
T
T
T
T/F
T/F
T/F
T ,
Type of Service Provided

Coll. Crew Size(s)
Resid.
1,3
3


2

3
1,2,3
2
3
3
3

3
2 ,
Comm.
1,3
2


2

1


1,3
3
1

3
1.2 1
Resid.
&
Cornm.


1,2


2






3

'
Disposal
L=Landfill
I=Incinerator
T=Trans. Stn.
L



L


L,T


L
L

L,T


-------
        FIGURE 2-1  (Continued)




OPERATIONAL CHARACTERISTICS CONTINUED

User
Slumber
260
261
M265
i
^ 272
275
283
285
286
292
295
296
299
316
318

M . .
ri— Municipal
P=Private
M
M
M

M
M
M
M
M
M
M
M
M
M
M

Geograph.
Area
West
Midwest
West

Northeast
Northeast
South
Midwest
West
Northwest
South
West
Northeast
Northeast
Northwest

No. of
Employees
168
8
200

127
40
72
79
8
225
179
43
113
475
48
Point of Collection:
M=Mechanical
A=Alley
BY=Backyard w/o intermed. can
BYT=Backyard-Tub
BYC=Backyard-Cart
CS=Curbside
CS/BYT/A/M
CS/A
CS/BYT/BYC

CS
CS
CS/A
A/BYT/BYC

CS/A/BYT/BYC
CS/BY
CS/A/BY
CS
CS/A/BYT
A/CS

Type
of
Shift
T
T
T

T
T
T/F
T
F
F
T
F
T
F
F
Type of Service Provided

Coll. Crew Size(s)
Res id.
1,2
3
1,2

3
3
2
3

1,3
4
1
3
2,3
3
Comm.
2,3

2

3

3,1


2
2
2,1
3
2,3
3
Resid.
&
Comm.

-












3
Disposal
L=Landfill
I=Incinerati
T=Trans. Sti
L
L
L,T

L,I

L,T

L,T
L
L

L

L

-------
        FIGURE 2-1  (Continued)




OPERATIONAL CHARACTERISTICS CONTINUED

User
Number
323
324
325
to
1
°°326
327
328
329
330
331
332
333
335
336
337

M=Municipal
P=Private
M
P
M


M
M
M
P
M
M
P
M
P
P
M

Geograph.
Area
Northeast
Midwest
Northwest


South
South
Midwest
West
South
Midwest
West
Northeast
Northeast
Midwest
NOT theast

No. of
Employees
171
17
45


23
140
33
20
60
35
14
43
24
51
405
Point of Collection:
M=Mechanical
A= Alley
BY=Backyard w/o intermed. can
BYT=Backyard-Tub
BYC=Backyard-Cart
CS=Curbside
CS
CS/A/BYT/BYC
CS/A


CS
CS
CS
CS
A/CS
CS/A
«
BY
CS
-
CS

Type
of
Shift
T
T
F


T
T
T/F
T
F
T
F
T
T
T
F
Type of Service Provided

Coll. Crew Size(s)
Resid.


2,1


3
3
2,1
3
3
3

3
3

3
Comm.


1,2,3


3
2,3
2
2,1
3

2

1
2,1
i
Resid.
&
Comm.
3
1,2







3






Disposal
L=Landfill
I=Incinerator
T=Trans. Stn.
L

L


L
I,L
T

L



L



-------
OPERATIONAL CHARACTERISTICS CONTINUED

User
Number
338
339
340
341
to
^342
343
344
345
346
347
348
349
350
351
352

M vr • • i
n riunicxpaj.
P=Private
M
M
M
• M

M
M
M
M
P
M
M
P
M
M
M

Geo graph.
Area
Northeast
Northeast
Midwest
West

Midwest
West
Midwest
Midwest
Midwest
Northeast
West
Midwest
West
West
Midwest

No. of
Employees
405
405
318
35

25
17
40
38
70
60
35
40
57
10
52
Point of Collection:
M=Mechanical
A= Alley
BY=Backyard w/o intermed. can
BYT=Backyard-Tub
BYC=Backyard-Cart
CS=Curbside
CS
CS
CS
CS/A

CS
CS
CS/A
-
A/CS
CS
CS/A
CS/BYT
CS
CS/A
CS/A

Type
of
Shift
F
F
T
T

T
F
F
F
T
T
T
T
T
T
F
Type of Service Provided

Coll. Crew Size(s)
Res id.
3
3
3
2

1
1
2,3

2

1,2,3
2
2
2 !
3
Coram.



2,1

2

1




1
2
1
3
Resid .
&
Comni.









2
4


2
3

Disposal
L=Landfill
I=Incinerat
T=Trans. St





L


L.I.T
L
T






-------
          FIGURE 2-1 (Continued)



OPERATIONAL CHARACTERISTICS  CONTINUED

User
Number
353
354
to355
i
o 356
358
359
360
361
362
363


M=Municipal
P=Private
M
M
P

P
M
P
P
M
M
M


Geograph.
Area
Midwest
Northeast
Midwest

Northeast
South
Midwest
Northwest
West
Northeast
South


No. of
Employees
20
30
70

21
18
71
30
44
76
75

Point of Collection:
M=Mechanical
A= Alley
BY=Backyard w/o intermed, can
BYT=Backyard-Tub
BYC=Backyard-Cart
CS=Curbside
CS
BYT
CS/BY

-
BYC/CS
CS
-
-
CS
CS/A/BY


Type
of •
Shift
F
T
T

F
T
T

F
T
T

Type of Service Provided

Coll. Crew Size(s)
Resid.

3
2


3
2


4,3
1,4
i
Comm.


1,2

1
2
1,2



1
i
Resid.
&
Comm.
3











Disposal
L=Landfill
1= Incinerator
T=Trans. Stn.







L,T
L,T




-------
                         FIGURE 2-2
                     SUMMARY OF INJURIES
              BY FREQUENCY,  SEVERITY AND COSTS
FREQUENCY
          There were 1,485 cases reported by 65 of the
          IRIS users on-line:   222 first aid cases,  537
          non-fatal cases without lost workdays, 723 lost
          workday cases and 3  permanent disability cases.
          Total man-hours for  this quarter were 6,079,504.

          The AVERAGE OSHA incidence rate was 42 for this
          quarter.  This means that over four out of every
          ten solid waste industry employees will experi-
          ence a non-first aid injury a year.  The national
          rate for all industries was 10.4.  Therefore, the
          solid waste industry is experiencing almost four
          times as many injuries as the average industry.

          IRIS users ranged in frequency rates from User
          No. 103 which was experiencing 2 injuries per
          employee per year, to User No. 272 which was
          experiencing 7 injuries per 100 employees per
          year.
SEVERITY
     (Days lost given are not final.  These figures reflect
what was received from IRIS users by September 30, 1977 and
may be gross underestimates.  For example, in the months
since the publication of the first quarter Accident Trends
for 1976, the OSHA severity rate has increased from 269 to
413, and not all cases are final yet.)

     •    So far, 726 cases this quarter incurred 7,055
          workdays lost and light duty days.

     •    49% of the total cases resulted in workdays
          lost and/or light duty days.  The national
          average for all industries is 33%.  This means
          that the solid waste industry has almost 1%
          times as many lost workday injuries as the
          average industry.

     •    The AVERAGE OSHA severity rate was 232.  This
          means that on the average, each employee is
                              2-11

-------
          losing 2.3 days per year for injuries.  One
          user's rate was as high as 20 days  lost per
          year per employee; several are losing  zero
          days a year per employee.

     •    On the AVERAGE, each lost workday case re-
          sulted in 9.72 workdays lost so far.

DIRECT COSTS

     (Costs given are not final.  These figures reflect
what was received from IRIS users by September 30, 1977, and
may be gross underestimates.  For example, first quarter of
1976's AVERAGE cost per OSHA recordable injury has gone up
from $296 to $522.)

     •    Total direct costs so far for injuries that
          occurred during the first quarter was
          $392,793.

     •    The AVERAGE cost per OSHA recordable injury
          was $311.

     •    The AVERAGE cost per man-year was $130.  This
          means that the average solid waste injury
          (non-first aid) cost $130 per full-time employee
          per year so far.
                             2-12

-------
Starting: January, 1976                FIGURE 2-3
                   COMPARISON OF INJURY RATES AND OSHA HAYS LOST FOR ALL USERS
         OSHA  INCIDENCE  RATE
SEVERITY RATE
AVERAGE OSHA DAYS LOST
SER !
101 ?
103
109
1 1 1
113
1.15
125
133
136
140
146
148
149
152
157
1 6 1
170
171
172
178
179
.1. 8 1
.1.82
183
186
1. 9 1
197
201
204
207
210
211
212
QTR 1
12

36
68


31

0
31
26




13

44
50


44


13
57


79
78
104
9
79
QTR 2
33

48
76


35

0
55
21
23



42

62
55


49


24
45


134
96
0
67
44
QTR 3
44

50
79


42

0

34
5



63

58
69

13
66


24
93
38

47
71
48
34

QTR 4 QTR 1
20 47
106
22 195
54 1089
28
29
20 876
12
0
347
36 537
18
125
87
1 6
54 0
23
47 209
38 477
18
op
/- /
51 J 369
12 ?
38 I
23 J 69
47 1 188
31 t
8 J
30 J 342
97 : 579
148 J 467
63 I 539
{ 759
QTR 2
387

174
1182


370

0
673
136
149



33

226
1104


147


276
149


83
249
0
278
483
QTR 3
101

197
667


560

0

142
0



98

.291
439

142
261


101
230
317

55
618
1332
93

QTR 4 J
145 I
365 <•
126 S
292 ,
0 J
160 J
446 J
86 I
4
4
4
4
250 J
61 J
1146 t
355 :
90 J
38 :
172 J
625 I
590 {
106 J
431 J
427 I
22 J
161 ;
108 J
nr A t:r 4
vj 0 i J *
.1. A*» O .w. 4
2 4 2 »
273 :
350 t
3142 J
211 :
4
4
QTR 1
6,50

8,03
23,39


35,54

0,00
15,37
66 , 50




0.00

9,58
14.28


11.48


12.25
4.00


13.00
10.30
9.00
62,00
9.65
QTR 2
27.00

8.15
22 . 05


13.03

0,00
1 6 , 56
20.60
12,86



1 , 60

5,96
27,51


4 , 26


22.00
5.11


8.00
5,35
0.00
4.71
11.00
QTR 3
8 . 33

7,65
11,59


16,72

0.00

9,82
0,00



5.00

10,53
1 1 . 23

19,17
6,89


8 , 22
4 . 62
10.00

7.00
13,19
27,50
2,75

RTR 4
21.14
3.44
6.27
14.62
0.00
10.55
32.48
10.50


12.93
9.25
13.22
8.14
6,29
1,1.1
9,64
19,58
32,79
1 1 . 07
24,21
13.04
4 , 60
6,31
7 . 36
15.73
49.00
61.00
12,00
8.53
29.80
3,86


-------
FIGURE 2-3 (Continued)
                                    AVERAGE OSHA DAYS LOST
JSER ! QTR 1
215 0
217
i1? •)
226
235 23
236 89
237 15
2-12 4
244 93
260 68
261 48
265 34
272 11
275
283 12
285 7
286 0
OOO "7
A- / Al. O
295 17
296 19
299
316
318
323 I
324 J
325 J
326 t
328 J
329 t
330 J
331 :
333 t
336 *,
QTR 2
0
43


56
103
33
0
56
54
0
46
15
59
50
0
0
10
20
75

53


78
43


37
25



QTR 3
,-><•)
59
10

40
73
46
0
42
103
0
65
.1.9
59
50

0
7
19
57

60
78

70
47
0

17
70
0
66

QTR 4 QTR 1 QTR 2 QTR 3 QTR 4 J QTR 1 QTR 2 QTR 3 QTR 4
0 00 1507 0 0*00 0*00 72.67 0.00
43 192 152 70 11.22 12*38 8.67
76 47 993 4.50 13.07
18 0 0.00
36 .1.13 0 0 51 6.00 0.00 0.00 2.80
57 1492 663 248 51 18.53 8.86 6.00 1.78
35 35 150 92 128 3,50 6.40 3.14 4.83
5 100 0 0 18 25.00 0.00 0.00 3,50
56 170 197 182 183 2,75 3.50 6.50 6.50
117 759 513 1178 1296 19.42 16.20 17.64 14.26
48 145 0 0 429 3.00 0.00 0.00 9.00
70 249 301 403 522 8.64 7.80 7.30 10.55
40 243 11 98 150 32.00 1.50 6.50 6.83
93 629 78 384 10.67 2.67 9.25
20 0 133 117 10 0.00 8.00 3.50 2.00
13 0 2.00 0.00
39 0 0 0 0 0.00 0,00 0.00 0.00
5 t 284 19 14 V 86.00 4.33 2.75 3.00
29 J 64 20 101 212 4,75 2.00 15.50 13.33
55 J 476 2911 218 1765 J 25.00 51.50 5,75 32,17
44 ? 155 t 28.00
29 J 606 425 336 t 17.05 12,82 18.14
46 J 2431 346 t 31.09 7.57
9 J 56 I 13.00
46 J 0 234 23 .* 0,00 3.33 1,00
46 J 135 347 732 J 4,75 13.00 18.67
18 t 0 36 J 0,00 2.00
0 t 0 J 0.00
50 J 37 101 17 1 2.00 6.00 1.00
44 t 83 78 748 J 5.00 2.50 20.60
0 t 0 0 t 0,00 0.00
99 ! 33 1219 : 2.00 37.00
23 J 62 J 2,67

-------
                                    FIGURE 2-3 (Continued)
USER .'














to
1
J— 1
U1





337 :
338
339
340
341
343
344
345
346
347
348
349
350
351
353
354
355
358
359
361
362 t
363 !
  OSHA INCIDENCE RATE
QTR 1  QTR 2  QTR 3  QTR 4
                         44
                         32
                         23

                         77
                         50
 AVG, I
   34
44
                        38
                        29
                        58
                        75
                        11
                        10
                        29
                        20
                        34
                        49
                        42
                        51
                        35
                       :L29
                        33
                        88
                        57
                        23
                         4
33
                        SEVERITY RATE
                    QTR .1.  QTR 2  QTR 3  QTR 4
                                       AVERAGE OSHA DAYS LOST
                                     QTR 1   QTR 2   QTR 3   QTR 4
4:1.0
246
1:1.8

1367
99
















262
191
198
691
737
50
80
63.2
95
20
192
121
96
101
.1 O/->
.1. .1.. A'..
388
.1.6
4230
447
0
301
0
<

















*
*
 o ':>
*•• / AM
281 \
17,34
14,48   11.60
  6,92
  7.57
  5,67
 66.37
 12.75
  2.00
  7.00
 65.00
  3,25
  3,00
  8,50
 10,00
  3,00
  2,00
  7,00
  9,00
  1,50
145,00
 12.43
  0,00
 72»00
  0.00

 14,52

-------
                                      FIGURE 2-3  (Continued)
                   COMPARISON OF INJURY RATES AND OSHA DAYS LOST FOR ALL USERS
Starting:  January, 1977
          OSHA INCIDENCE RATE             SEVERITY RATE                AVERAGE OSHA DAYS LOST
USER !   QTR 1  QTR 2  QTR 3  QTR 4 J  QTR 1  QTR 2  ttTR 3  QTR 4 :   QTR .1   QTR 2   QTR 3   QTR A
101 }
103 :
109 :
in :
113 J
us :
125 :
133 J
146 {
148 :
149 {
Mi52 :
i 157 :
£ 161 }
170 :
171 :
172 J
178 :
179 J
181 I
182 ,
183 J
186 :
191 :
197 t
201 .
204 :
207 J
210 :
211 t
215 t
217 :
221 t
17
88
14
38
28
32
26
38
23
13
124
58
48
58
31
42
52
4
36
44
15
64
35
65
25
25
24
84
22
88
O
41
90
25
208
18
47
0

26
30
15
10
145
76


42
51
64


37
25
72
17
87
12
47

58
92
37
O
55
72
60
175
79
346
339
516
301
608
393
163
1197
283
97
318
276
291
237
65
426
245
86
162
158
415
130
53
0
457
22
399
O
41
12<69
67
2035
252
205
0

188
141
70
21
835
467


206
358
220


311
154
256
41
277
129
317

313
369
73
0
48
1433
13*00
5*60
5.83
13.65
24.00
19.37
13.81
31.60
30.30
24.25
17.86
8.80
4.18
13.67
10.19
9.16
13.00
15.50
17.05
9.67
8.90
4.82
7.31
8.24
5.25
6.50
0.00
12,47
1.00
8.33
O.OO
5.40
14.18
23,00
14.29
16.26
7.68
0.00

9.20
6.17
8.00
3.25
9.20
10.57


6.50
8.16
11.94


8.33
7.36
5.24
3.87
4.18
10.50
16.00

9,12
5.00
3.33
O.OO
4.67
20.69

-------
                                       FIGURE 2-3  (Continued)
          OSHA INCIDENCE RATE
USER !   QTR 1  GTR 2  QTR 3  QTR 4
    SEVERITY RATE
QTR 1  QTR 2  QTR 3  QTR 4
  AVERAGE OSHA DAYS LOST
QTR 1   QTR 2   QTR 3   QTR 4
226 :
235 J
236 ,
237 ,
242
244
260
265
272
275
283
286 ,
292 ,
296 ,
299 t
316 .
318 t
323 J
324 I
325 J
326 J
328 t
329 t
330 .
331 I
333 I
336 :
337 {
338 :
339 :
340 J
341 :
343 :
35
46
61
45
0
54
80
54
11
62
24
0
9
27
72
46
33
17
23
73
51
0
17
21
30
49
16
35
33
45
36
101
72

47
62
24

94

84
7
0

37
14
8
93
51
38

0
64
16
121
48
20
15
16
15
26
18
54
48

96
191
502
263
683
0
2871
714
339
11
591
34
0
195
36
144
759
273
200
680
612
2700
0
0
332
0
0
23
216
240
329
280
1885
24

352
316
56

336

466
4
0

0
16
220
236
618
876

0
185
0
1048
0
13
0
0
15
293
89
248
302

72
11,00
12.91
7.82
33.40
0.00
105.50
14.24
10.40
1.50
14.25
2.33
0.00
26.17
2.00
5.20
23.15
13.67
27.00
29.00
9,20
52.67
0.00
0.00
23,50
0.00
0.00
3.00
7.44
8.12
7.86
18,55
21.83
1.00

7.57
18.67
4,67

4.17

7.77
1,00
0.00

0,00
7,00
26,00
8.71
18.27
27,40

0,00
4,14
0.00
13,00
0.00
1.00
0,00
0,00
2,00
11.37
4.80
6,38
12,69

1.50

-------
                                      FIGURE 2-3 (Continued)
          OSHA INCIDENCE RATE
USER !   QTR 1  QTR 2  QTR 3
                  49
                  40

                  59
                  50
                  46
                  50
                 153
                  48
                  27

                  32
                  17
AVG.:     36     42
    SEVERITY RATE
QTR 1  QTR 2  QTR 3
                                                          QTR 4
  AVERAGE OSHA DAYS LOST
QTR 1   QTR 2   QTR 3   QTR 4











Ni
1
h-1
00


344
345
346
347
348
349
350
351
352
353
354
355
358
361
362
363
*
*
*
*
+
+
*
t
*
*
:
•
«
*
»
*
»
*
»
«
#
*
•
•
#
«
»
»
»
4
»
69
59
118
34
62
94
77
52
125
18
83
11
58
11
21
33
552
285
213
68
718
1175
1902
0
589
200
0
6
232
0
267
98
284
312
20

388
249
0
299
612



263
0

394
0
232
8.00
5.80
4.14
3.33
11.50
25.00
43.50
0.00
33.00
11.00
0.00
1.00
4.00
0.00
15.75
5.00
6.40
1.00

9,83
8,33
0,00
7.50
6.00



16,33
0,00

20.00
0.00
                                                                     13,09
                                        9,72

-------
  Starting:  January,  1976               FIGURE   2-4

                        COMPARISON  OF  DIRECT COSTS DY REPORTING PERIOD FrOR ALL USERS
N)
I
USER !

 101
 103
 109
 111
 113
 115
 125
 133
 1.36
 140
 146
 148
 .149
 152
 157
 161
 170
 171
 172
 178
 179
 181
 .1.82
 183
 186
 191
 197
 201
 204
 207
 210
 211
 ^ 12
                  TOTAL INJURY COSTS
           OTR 1   QTR 2   QTR 3   QTR 4
                         AVG,  C09,T PER OSHA REC. INJ.
                       !   QTR  1   QTR  2  QTR 3  QTR 4
                                                                          AVERAGE COST PER MAN YEAR
            4*21.0  29x631

           13*513  12*994
           59*293  42r034
           50*760
              135
            1 * 295
            2*481
            4? 523
            1x445
              794
           .1.4*297
'734
                0       0
           39*842  69*843
            9s-04:1.   5*442
                    3v577
  815
            3*582   6*376
           27r167  58*431
           11t510   5*081
8 * 021
If 685
  5:1.7
9*636
    0
IF 987
7*138
 5 * 735

19*851
30*744
47y226

     0

 3*060
   110



 1 *52 6

 9*486
27*413

 8? 661
 9*833


 2*950
 2*10.1.
 2*7.1.0
   300
12*908
   '2
   600
                5*
                3*
               12*
               14*

                6*
               36 *
                8*
                2,
                4*
                3*
3*218
21*
39*
 7*
35*
15*
 1*
 7*
 3*
 4*
64 *
9*
1*
          260
          627
          958
          888
          102
          895
          174
          638
1.7:1.
092
202
365
977
683
212
455
375
107
41.1
586
032
505
550
879
080
571
142
786
667
687
                    386

                    3:12
                  1*234
           832

             0
           71.1.
           475
                    18

                   148
                   393
                           391
                   143
                    86
            275
            .1.41
            361
            758
            621
                  986

                  213
                  764
                   357

                     0
                   688
                   340
                   80

                  163
                  749
                          153
                  471
                  120
                            39
                           235
                             0
                           248
                           549
                           130

                           275
                           487
                                   497

                                     0

                                   .1.17
                                    36



                                    93

                                   237
                                   274

                                   41.2
                                   209
  1.63
   70
  451

   50
  403
1*609
  145
          263
          203
          345
          346
           51
          328
          753
          212
                                               291
                                               190
                                               323
                                               240
                                               372
                                                48
                                               325
                                               613
                                               667
                                               263
                                               737
                                               432
                                                82
                                               3.1.2
                                               208
                                               304
                                            12*816
                                             1*285
                                               535
                                               150
                                             1*381
                                               .1.95
QTR 1
51

112
836


260

0
2.1.9
121




5

65
.1.97


1 76


18
49


217
110
374
68
488
QTR 2
326

103
577


123

0
378
72
59



33

.1.00
4 1 1


76


1 1 1
54


53
224
0
167
241
QTR 3
57

138
384


208

0

40
1



59

.1.37
188

53
138


40
65
171

23
288
779
50

QTR 4
51
240
78
185
14
95
150
26


105
34
404
209
61
26
74
285
252
48
217
221
9
1 .1. 9
47
142
4*028
102
162
146
2*038
131


-------
FIGURE 2-4  (Continued)
TOTAL INJURY COSTS












to
i
to
o




















USER ! -QTR 1
215
217
.\\. ft- .1
226
235
236
237
242
244
260
261
265
2.72
275
283
285
286
292
295
296
299
3.1.6
318
323
324
325
326
328
329
33O
331
333
0



1*185
12*768
604
6*877
706
2*317
159
2 * 820
1*86.1.

1 1 9
61
0
7*327
911
1*982












-r-ar jf. *
QTR 2
0
87*664


725
9*550
1*8.1.3
0
904
5*620
0
8*21 6
109
1*437
1*346
0
0
894
578
16*786

37*757


92
2*159


153
1 , 053



QTR 3
5*725
36*713
1*045

240
8*223
1*583
0
748
8*797
0
14*0.1.9
1*224
f\ «y f\
A*.". / .V..
1*890

0
483
1 * 1 72
1*256

24*016
14*061

491
4*736
0

378
480
O
223

QTR 4
0
18*317
14*110
60
886
1*442
1 * 925
278
962
17*683
960
9*500
1*444
1*297
173

80
376
5*257
10*47:1.
2*010
21*089
4 * 258
893
62
5*701
91
0
194
2 9 6 1 2
O
2 , O44
60
1
4
fr
I
#
*
4
*
*
4
4
4
4
4
*
4
*
4
*
4
*
*
*
c-
4
4
4
4
*
t
4
*•
4
;
4
*
*
c-
*
t
4
»
*
*
4
4
4
4
4
*
4
*
J
•#•
*
AVG* COST PER
QTR 1
0



197
608
201
6*877
1 1 7
1 1 0
159
214
620

59
61
0
3*663
177
991













QTR 2
0
956


48
329
259
0
226
330
0
455
27
239
147
0
0
127
96
2*098

629


30
359


66
351



OSHA REC. INJ.
QTR 3
1*908
259
253

2.1.
357
143
0
249
258
0
519
244
45
210

0
96
195
209

338
1*278

163
676
0

338
1=53
O
55

QTR 4
0
163
491
20
88
80
218
139
240
442
960
306
131
144
43

80
94
477
1*745
125
602
593
205
31
806
91
0
64
435
0
34O
20
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
fr
{
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
J
*
t-
i
AVERAGE COST PER MAN
QTR 1
0



44
541
30
274
109
75
76
74
70

7
4
0
121
30
188













QTR 2
0
415


26
340
85
0
127
178
0
2.1.1
4
141
74
0
0
13
19
1*581

335


23
153


28
87



QTR 3
416
155
27

8
261
66
0
104
266
0
335
46
26
105

0
6
38
119

203
999

114
316
0

63
37
O
36

YEAR
QTR 4
0
70
382
3
32
45
84
7
135
518
457
213
52
134
8

30
4
139
957
55
177
277
19
14
372
16
0
32
189
o
33<6
A

-------
                                   FIGURE  2-4  (Continued)
USER !   QTR 1
TOTAL .INJURY COSTS
 QTR 2   QTR 3   QTR 4










to
i
NJ
H









337
338
339
340
34:1.
343
344
345
346
347
348
349
350
351
353
354
355
358
359
36.1.
362
363
                         11x442   7x664
                          6x43:1.   4x968
                          3x152   6x265
                                 15x0:1.2
                          9x864   4x848
                            34:1.     453
                                    318
                                  1x670
                                    619
                                    331
                                  1x172
                                    729
                                    481
                                     64
                                    238
                                  1x193
                                    165
                                  3 x 953
                                  2x061
                                     40
                                  1x934
                                     31

       285x060  465x798 347x437 525x521
AVG* COST PER OSHA REC*  INJ.
 QTR 1  QTR 2  QTR
R 3
817
714
394

896
170
















QTR 4
638
709
522
682
597
151
313
If 670
154
110
390
182
120
64
119
198
27
1x317
187
20
1x934
31 J
       AVERAGE  COST  PER MAN YEAR
       QTR  1  QTR  2   QTR 3  QTR 4
360
226
90

691
84















241
178
182
195
350
113
36
162
45
T-)
A.. /...
132
88
5.1.
32
41
256
9
1x153
105
4
80
                                     110
                 324
436 J
180
,,J ^J H,

IV. A., \,t
147
.1.44

-------
                                         FIGURE 2-4 (Continued)
                                               f

                         COMPARISON OF DIRECT COSTS BY REPORTING PERIOD FOR ALL USERS
    Starting:  January, 1976
    USER !   QTR 1
to
TOTAL INJURY COSTS
 QTR 2   QTR 3   QTR 4
  AVG,  COST  PER OSMA  REC.  INJ.
!   QTR  1   QTR  2  QTR  3   QTR 4
AVERAGE COST PER MAN YEAR
              QTR 3  QTR 4
101
103
109
111
113
115
125
133
146
148
149
152
157
161
170
171
172
178
179
181
182
183
186
191
197
201
204
207
21O
211
215
217
221
*
J
{
*
4
#
;
*
#
#
*
}
j
#
f
j
*
*
*
{
*
:
{
j
:
j
:
t
#
*
*
#
*
t
:
i
t
•
2*808
2*399
9*361
19*743
1 * 286
17*674
26*994
9*022
21*552
3*669
7*598
3*265
3*006
3*770
32*198
10*280
23*439
3*233
22*753
10*171
3*337
6*558
4*388
4*182
1*124
741
350
6*857
80
3*306
O
11 »798
24 r 1AQ
4*636
39*823
30*631
11*102
0

16*606
2*336
4*187
554
3*761
4*585


29*022
13*837
15*074


11*531
5*931
6*981
1*628
2*910
1*458
1*911

4*792
1*767
547
O
12»2O4
31 F783
: 147
167
356
658
643
734
442
902
1*197
458
584
359
130
251
353
311
282
538
392
328
222
156
168
190
281
123
116
175
80
30O
O
t 1O9
J 7O6
136
1*137
968
284
0

259
292
347
92
235
382


237
3.14
139


427
228
162
125
100
729
159

165
353
1O9
O
75
1 ,059
QTR 1
25
150
53
249
181
247
113
346
279
61
727
210
63
146
110
130
147
22
142
143
32
100
59
124
69
30
27
147
17
264
O
44
r 
-------
                                     FIGURE 2-4 (Continued)
USER !   QTR 1
TOTAL INJURY COSTS
 QTR 2   QTR 3   QTR 4
  AVG.  COST PER  OSHA REC.  INJ,
!   QTR  1   QTR 2   QTR 3  QTR 4 I
226
235
236
237
242
244
260
265
272
275
283
286
292.
296
to 299
N» 316
W 318
323
324
325
326
328
329
330
331
333
336
337
338
339
340
341
343
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
:
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
1,276
6,068
12,041
13,784
0
15,247
6,984
6,452
160
1,872
473
0
3,533
440
2,275
50,532
1,566
2,676
312
8,345
34,976
0
40
1,749
56
79
40
5,740
4,213
6,495
13,006
18,009
154

9,807
11,395
902

1,799

8,258
80
0

20
1,333
1,364
2,317
41,512
5,393

50
3,049
4
644
102
139
34
43
40
8,350
1,622
7,744
7,610

479
212
466
602
1 , 253
0
3,811
258
258
53
312
94
0
504
146
87
918
313
380
312
758
1 1 , 658
0
40
583
28
26
20
521
468
433
500
1 , 286
51

700
517
150

257

196
40
0

20
111
1 , 364
96
628
898

0
304
4
214
34
46
34
43
20
1,043
324
430
237

119
AVERAGE COST PER MAN YEAR
QTR 1  QTR 2  QTR 3  QTR 4
                                                                                 325
                                                                                 321
                                                                                  36

                                                                                 241

                                                                                 165
                                                                                   2
                                                                                   0

                                                                                   7
                                                                                  15
                                                                                 115
                                                                                  89
                                                                                 318
                                                                                 344

                                                                                  11
                                                                                 194
                                                                                   0
                                                                                 259
                                                                                  16
                                                                                   9
                                                                                   4
                                                                                   7
                                                                                   3
                                                                                 269
                                                                                  59
                                                                                 231
                                                                                 113

                                                                                 115
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
:
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
73
214
367
564
0
2,074
206
140
6
193
22
0
43
39
63
424
104
66
73
555
5,977
0
6
123
8
12
3
185
155
194
178
1 . •30'=:
                                                            37

-------
                                     FIGURE 2-4 (Continued)
USER !   QTR 1
TOTAL INJURY COSTS
 QTR 2   QTR 3   QTR
AVG, COST PER OSHA REC. INJ,
 QTR 1  QTR 2  QTR 3  QTR 4
AVERAGE COST PER MAN YEAR
QTR 1  QTR 2  QTR 3  QTR A
344
345
346
347
348
349
350
351
352
353
354
355
358
M 361
ro 362
*> 363
AVG.
2*687
1*672
1*101
662
3,870
2*833
6*595
20
3*593
252
206
108
495
20
2*888
715
547*400
1*265
322

2*067
1*086
181
1*907
800



3*199
8

9*407
129
394*058
{ 447
278
68
132
645
354
942
20
256
252
51
54
247
20
577
143
420
253
80

229
217
45
381
266



355
8

1*175
43
311
308
164
81
45
402
332
720
10
320
45
42
5
143
2
122
46
123
31

135
108
20
189
407



171
2

370
7
                                                                          152
                                                                  129

-------
                                                                    FIGURE  2-5

                                                    SLHWRY OF ACCIDENT FACTORS FOR SELECTED ACCIDENT

                                            CHARACTERISTICS WITH HIGHEST PERCENT OF OSHA  RECORDABLE  INJURIES

                                                             OSHA DAYS LOST AND DIRECT COSTS
          Type of


      Characteristic
 I
bj
On
Activi ty



Accident Type



Accident Site



Nature of Injury



Part of Body
                                                                                 Factors with the:
                                  Highest % of OSHA
                                 Recordable Injuries
Lifting or dumping container - 39%
Getting off equipment - 8%
Standing or walking - 7%

Overexertion involving container - 19%
Struck by waste - 5%
Slip on same level - 5%

On collection route at back of truck - 32%
On collection route at curb - 19%
On collection route in customer's yard - 11%

Sprain or strain - 41%
Cut or puncture - 21%
Bruise - 17%

Back - 18%
Leg - 10%
Eyes - 8%
                                                             Highest  %  of  OSHA
                                                                 Days Lost	
Lifting or dumping container - 40%
Getting off equipment - 14%
Carrying container - 8%

Overexertion involving container - 29%
Fall to a different level  - 8%
Slip on same level - 8%

On collection route at back of truck  - 31%
On collection route at curb - 24%
On collection route in customer's yard -  11%

Sprain or strain - 58%
Bruise - 14%
Fracture - 8%

Back - 31%
Knee - 8%
Foot - 7%
                                                              Highest % of
                                                              Direct Costs
Lifting or dumping container - 38%
Getting off equipment - 12%
Carrying container - 7%

Overexertion involving container - 27%
Vehicle accident - 12%
Slip on same level - 7%

On collection route at back of truck - 34%
On collection route at curb - 21%
On collection route in customer's yard - T

Sprain or strain - 55%
Bruise - 13%
Amputation - 8%

Back - 29%
Leg - 13%
Knee - 8%

-------
Accident Trends




  3rd Quarter 1977

-------
                      EXHIBIT 8
                   ACCIDENT TRENDS
      IN THE  SOLID WASTE MANAGEMENT INDUSTRY
        SPECIALIZED COLLECTION  ACCIDENTS
     QUARTER:   JULY 1 TO SEPTEMBER 30, 1977
DEVELOPED BY  SAFETY SCIENCES,  DIVISION  OF  WSA INC.,
   FOR THE  U,S,  ENVIRONMENTAL  PROTECTION AGENCY
    OFFICE  OF SOLID WASTE  MANAGEMENT PROGRAMS
          UNDER CONTRACT No, 68-03-0231
                         Division of USA Inc.,11772 Sorrento Valley Road
                         San Diego. CA 92121 (714) 755-9359 & 452-1010

-------
Accident Trends in the Solid Waste Management Industry is
developed quarterly using data from IRIS  (the Injury Re-
porting and Information System for Solid Waste Management).
Accident Trends is designed to summarize and discuss the
data from all IRIS users and to provide data and conclu-
sions which affect the industry as a whole.  A companion
volume, the QSMR (Quarterly Safety Management Report), is
developed individually for each IRIS user who reported
injuries during the quarter.  Each QSMR concentrates only
on the injuries of the individual IRIS user for which it
is prepared.

IRIS is currently made up of 65 users.  All possible care
is taken to insure data quality.  The nature of the data
and the reports, however, precludes complete accuracy.  Not
all cases are closed by the end of the quarter.  These acci-
dents continue to be monitored.  Occasionally, full lost
time and cost data is not available.  Consequently, the tot-
als for these categories may be underestimates.  A concerted
effort is made to correct the lost time and cost figures
and improve IRIS collection methods.  The recommendations and
countermeasures presented are suggestions that must be eval-
uated in terms of individual user's needs.

The purpose of this and other IRIS publications is to dis-
seminate new ideas and alternative methods in the solid waste
field.  IRIS serves as a clearinghouse in this regard, but
does not promote or endorse any method or product.  Imple-
mentation of QSMR suggestions should be done only after
careful evaluation by each user and at each user's discre-
tion.

-------
                       ACCIDENT TRENDS
           IN  THE  SOLID WASTE MANAGEMENT INDUSTRY
              SPECIALIZED COLLECTION ACCIDENTS

QUARTER:    JULY  1,  1977 THROUGH SEPTEMBER 30, 1977
                      TABLE OF CONTENTS


                                                         Page

INTRODUCTION  ........ 	  .....   iv

I.         DISCUSSION OF SPECIALIZED COLLECTION
          ACCIDENTS  AND PREVENTION METHODS .......  1-1

          1.    Commercial Collection ..........  1-2

               1.1   Accident Types	1-2
               1.2   Countermeasures  ..........  1-4

          2.    Brush Collection  . 	  ......  1-14

               2.1   Accident Types	1-15
               2.2   Countermeasures	  1-20

          3.    Bulky Waste Collection  	  ...  1-21

               3.1   Accident Types .	1-21
               3.2   Countermeasures  	  .....  1-22


II.        THIRD QUARTER IRIS USER INDUSTRY-WIDE DATA .  .  2-1
                             11

-------
                       LIST OF FIGURES
FIGURE 1-1


FIGURE 1-2
FIGURE 1-3
    to 1-5
FIGURE 1-6
FIGURE 1-7
    to 1-9
FIGURE 1-10
FIGURE 1-11
    to 1-13
FIGURE 2-1


FIGURE 2-2


FIGURE 2-3


FIGURE 2-4


FIGURE 2-5
Injury Rates for Specialized Col-
lection 	  . . 1-1

Common Commercial Collection Crew
Accidents  . .  . . «	 1-4
Injury Rates for Commercial  Collection
for All Users	1-5

Common Brush Collection Crew
Accidents	 1-15
Injury Rates for Brush Collection for
All Users  .....  	  ..... 1-17

Common Bulky Waste Collection  Crew
Accidents  . ............... 1-21
Injury Rates for Bulky Waste Collection
for All Users  .	 1-23

Description of Users by Operational
Characteristics	 2-4

Summary of Injuries by Frequency,
Severity, and Costs ........... 2-11

Comparison of Injury Rates  and  OSHA
Days Lost for All Users  ......... 2-13

Comparison of Direct Costs  by Reporting
Period for All Users   .......... 2-19

Summary of Accident Factors for
Selected Accident Characteristics with
Highest Percent of OSHA Recordable
Injuries, Workdays Lost and Direct
Costs	2-25
                              111

-------
                        INTRODUCTION
          This  is the Accident Trends report for the third
quarter  of 1977 (July 1 to September 30).  This report is
divided  into  two sections, a discussion of the special fea-
ture topic, specialized collection accidents (commercial,
brush and bulky waste collection) and their prevention
measures and  a  summary of the data for the quarter.  The
discussion in SECTION I will encompass the data since the
instigation of  IRIS in December 1975, but SECTION II relates
only the injury rates and figures applicable to the third
quarter  of 1977.

          Of  the 65 IRIS users on-line second quarter, 54
users reported  injuries.  Since the injury rates are based
on man-hours  of exposure, they reflect the various start-up
periods  of the  IRIS users.

          The time lost and direct costs shown on the FIGURES
were provided as of December 31, the "closing data" for
receiving data  for the second quarter.  Any cases where the
time lost or  direct cost data is incomplete are being monitored
for updating.
                             IV

-------
                            SECTION  I

       DISCUSSION OF SPECIALIZED COLLECTION  ACCIDENTS

                    AND  PREVENTION  METHODS
           In the past,  the Accident Trends  reports have  exa-
mined overall accident  patterns  for the whole collection
division.   However,  for specialized collection (bulky waste
collection,  brush collection, and commercial  collection  are
the main three), there  are unique accident  patterns associ-
ated with  the type of container  handled,  the  type of waste
handled, or the type of equipment used which  should be dis-
cussed separately.   In  addition,  some of  the  most serious
accidents  that occurred to IRIS  users were  in their spec-
ialized collection.

           FIGURE 1-1 presents the injury  rates for these
three specialized collection types, comparing them against
each other and against  the injury rates for the whole collec-
tion division.  The man-hours of exposure indicates that each
specialized collection  type does not comprise a large percent-
age of the overall collection exposure hours:   commercial col-
lection  (15%), brush collection  (11%), and  bulky waste collec-
tion (5%).   It is the residential collection's injury rates
which make the all collection's  injury rates  higher than the
individual specialized  collections.
                             FIGURE 1-1

                           Injury Rates For

                         Specialized Collection


                            All    Commercial   Brush    Bulky Waste
                         Collection  Collection Collection  Collection

          1. OSHA incidence
             rate               86        23       29       32

          2. OSHA lost work-
             day cases rate        51        14       12       18

          3. OSHA severity
             rate              579       278      166      245

          4. Days lost per
             lost workday
             case             11.42      20.45     13.84     13.76

          5. Average direct
             cost per OSHA
             recordable inj-
             ury               $359     $1,093      $280     $282

          6. Direct cost per
             man-year           $308      $256      $81      $89

          7. Man-hours of
             exposure      10,090,102   1,521,670  1,081,820    475,584
                                1-1

-------
          The following discussion  of  these three types of
specialized collection will  first describe their accident
patterns and then suggest countermeasures  to reduce specific
accidents.  The IRIS data reporting period examined was
October 1976 through September  1977.*
1.        COMMERCIAL COLLECTION

          Commercial collection  involves the collection of
waste from commercial establishments.   Frequently,  the type
of container being handled  is  a  bulk  container and  the type
of equipment used is a  front end loader.  Commercial  collec-
tion crews consist of either one or two men who usually work
on an hourly system rather  than  incentive.  The containers
they pick up are fewer  in number and  further apart  from stop
to stop than residential collection.   Therefore,  the  employees
spend less time actually handling containers and more time
riding in the cab  (there is no rear step for front  end loaders
and container delivery  trucks) than residential collectors.
The commercial collection division data examined does not in-
clude data from crews that  collect from both residential and
commercial establishments.
1.1       Accident  Types

          Figure  1-2  shows  the  top  five, accident types  that,
occurred on commercial  collection.   They comprised 71%  of the
OSHA recordable injuries,  85% of the days lost,  and 92% of the.
direct costs.

          Overexertion  accidents almost always occurred as the
injured employee  was  maneuvering a  bulk container.  Bulk con-
tainers, to begin with, weigh several hundred pounds.   There-
fore, if any circumstances  hinder the progress of the  container,
it can cause severe strains.   (There were three back strains
that resulted in  over 100  days  lost each, and overexertions
resulted in an average  of  18 days lost and $1,044 in direct
costs.)  Typical  causes for overexertions while pushing the
bulk containers were:

          •    the  surface  was  inclined

          •    the  wheel became stuck in a pothole
*A1 though the crew  types  of the injured employees were collected
prior to the fourth quarter of 1976,  the crew type collection
exposure hours were not.   Therefore,  all data analyses on crew
types are relevant  only from October  1976.

                              1-2

-------
          •    lack of team coordination between the
               two coworkers

          •    the wheel was defective, and the bulk
               container was harder to push

Another cause of back strains when maneuvering the bulk con-
tainers was "sudden body movements", most commonly as the
employee was attempting to catch and stop the rolling of the
container down an incline.  This is not considered an overex-
ertion accident because it resulted from "the assumption of
an unnatural position or from involuntary motions" (ANSI Z16.2
definition, "Method of Recording Basic Facts Relating to the
Nature and Occurrence of Work Injuries").

          Slips and falls were almost as frequent as overex-
ertions.  Approximately half of these occurred as the employee
was getting in and out of the cab  (the running board was wet,
icy or oily) .  Another quarter of the slips and falls occurred
when the employees were pushing or pulling the containers.

          Struck by accidents included two severe injuries.
One employee was struck by the sudden popping open of the
tailgate as he was opening the tailgate of a container deliv-
ery truck, and it paralyzed him from the neck down (IRIS News-
flash, Vol. 1, No. 1).  The second employee was struck by a
bulk container that fell off the lifters and fractured his
foot.  However, half the struck by accidents were due to ob-
jects ejecting from the hopper of rear loading commercial
collection equipment or objects that fell out of the container.
The struck by objects ejected from the hopper accidents are
more frequent  (3%) for commercial collection than for regular
collection (2%).  Another source of struck by accidents were
the turnbuckles as the employee was opening or closing the
tailgate (three accidents).  This is a high incidence of this
accident type since this activity requires only a small frac-
tion of the time during the day.

          The caught between accidents occurred mostly as the
employee was pushing or pulling the bulk container towards the
vehicle for dumping or back towards its storage location.  The
employees got caught between the vehicle or wall and bulk con-
tainer.

          The object in eye accidents occurred as the employees
were operating the controls on the vehicles for dumping the
bulk containers.
                             1-3

-------
                          FIGURE 1-2

         COMMON COMMERCIAL COLLECTION CREW ACCIDENTS
1.  Overexertions
2.  Slips and Falls
3.  Struck by
4.  Caught between
5.  Object in eye

          TOTAL
           No.
           In j .

            39
            33
            20
            18
            16

           178
%No.
Inj .

 22
 19
 11
 10
  9

100%
                                  No. Days  %Days  Direct  %Direct
                                    Lost    Lost   Costs   Costs
  721
  531
  416
  123
    4

2,115
 34
 25
 20
  6
$40,717
 39,898
 91,832
  5,062
    576
100% 194,578
21
21
47
 3
          100%
FIGURES 1-3 to 1-5  analyze  the injury rates for commercial
collection by user.   Therefore,  users can compare their injury
rates with other  similar  commercial collection operations as
well as the AVERAGES  for  all  users.
1.2
Countermeasures
          Requiring  two men  to maneuver the bulk containers.
In order to reduce the most  frequent and costly of the bulk
container handling injuries  (overexertions),  the employees
need to use help.  IRIS data indicates that the injury rates
for two man bulk container collection was lower than for one
man (OSHA incidence  rates of 27 and 23, respectively).  There-
fore,  an organization switching to two man bulk container col-
lection can expect a reduction of 4 non-first aid injuries per
100 employees per year.  In  addition, the two man-collection
should also be able  to collect from more stops.  Requiring two
men commercial collection crews can also aid in reducing the
caught between accidents which presumably occurred when the
employees lost control of the bulk container.

          Pushing bulk container training.  The employees should
push rather than pull the bulk container, and it should be done
in increments such that they maintain control of the bulk con-
tainer during the entire maneuver.  Pulling the bulk container
causes "struck self" accidents where the employees run the wheel
over their feet.  They are also less likely to get their hand
caught between the container and wall or vehicle.  In addition,
the bulk container lid should not be half-open, which could
cause it to swing shut on the employee's hand.  Coordination
between the two employees is essential in not introducing new
hazards such as strains caused by the uneven exertions of the
                              1-4

-------
                              FIGURE 1-3
                   AVERAGE  INJURY RATES BY  'IRIS'  USERS
                       RANKED FROM HIGHEST TO LOWEST
                               COMMERCIAL CREW

[PORTING PERIOD? OCTOBER  1976 - SEPTEMBER 1977

•FINITIQNS: AVERAGE RATIO = RATE / AVERAGE FOR THE RATE.
3HA INCIDENCE RATE = (NUMBER  OF OSHA RECORDABLE CASES  /
W-HOURS EXPOSURE ) X 200»000*   ROUGHLY EQUIVALENT TO
IE NUMBER OF CASES PER  100 FULL TIME EMPLOYEES PER YEAR*
)ES NOT INCLUDE FIRST AID INJURIES,  DOES INCLUDE MEDICAL
(EATMENT, LOST TIME? PERMANENT DISABILITY AND FATALITY CASES,
VERITY RATE = (NUMBER  OF WORKDAYS LOST / MAN-HOURS  EXPOSURE)  X  200.000,
HIGHLY EQUIVALENT TO THE  NUMBER OF WORKDAYS LOST PER 100 FULL  TIME
1PLOYEES PER YEAR,

ISTRUCTIONSJ FIND YOUR  ORGANIZATION'S USER NUMBER AND  COMPARE
)U IT RANKS WITH THE AVERAGE  AND OTHER IRIS USERS,
GOOD STANDING IS AN AVERAGE  RATIO OF LESS THAN ,50,
POOR STANDING IS AN AVERAGE  RATIO OF GREATER THAN 1

;IS
;ER
10,
.'10
;>25
;!99
;:n
;.49
?07
•529
!!41
"!55
::;5s
:>28
i'.25
:!60
,91
!36
101
:.46
5536
:?35
•;13
!.33
^15
W3
m
•:.V/
•;.S6
!59
.83
M4
OSHA INC
MAM --HOURS
EXPOSURE

6v570
19/606
4? 171
33 v 371
2,607
53,400
7,973
11 y 78 4
20,857
6:' 779
4.171
Si-343
106v 371
10*011
1 0 y 4 2 9
2 7 y. 1.1 4
112*629
52*873
13*766
22 y 421
29,965
67,577
8,350
1 c5?] i 670
34,675
18,771
11,395
23,881
12,514
IDENCE
NO,
IN. J

6
14
2
13
1
•">p
-r
»:>
4
""?
o
.c.
1
O
23
o
A..
2
5
18
8
2
T
o
4
9
1
178
4
•n
1
o
1
RATE
RATE
!

133
143
96
78
/ /
75
75
6S
67
59
48
43
43
40
33
37
32
30
29
27
27
27
24
T5T
'""I "T
.•^. •_.'
21
18
17
16

AVG
RATIO

7 , 8 1
6 , 1 0
4,10
~7. TT
•..r , \.J *J
•T O O
>..' , iU '-1
-y t~, f,
•^> , .>..-•:.
~r o -1
•..r , .<.. J.
2,90
2,87
o nr '"i
^ i- -.'.d
2,05
2,05
1,85
1,71
1,64
•1 nro
.1. V I..' W
1,37
.1. , 29
1,24
1,14
1 . 1 4
1.14
1 ,02
1 ,00
0,99
0,91
0,75
0,72
0,63
I NCI
IRIS
USER
NO,
210
325
149
341
211
2 0 7
323
125
353
133
329
146
1 c?~?
260
101
355
236
336
244
AVG
115
296
113
283
1S3
204
3 1 6
292

DENCE
NO,
INJ

/t
*v
11
^
0.
4
f">
7