PB83-258707
COMBINED TREATMENT OF LIQUID WASTES FROM INDUSTRIAL SWINE FARMS USING
BLWRS
J. Rybinski, et al
U.S. Environmental Protection Agency
Ada, Oklahoma
September 1983
                       U.S. DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE
                     National Technical Information Service

-------
                                                  EPA-600/2-83-080
                                                  September 1983
   COMBINED TREATMENT OF LIQUID WASTES FROM
      INDUSTRIAL SWINE FARMS USING BLWRS
                       by

                 Jerzy Rybinski
             Aleksandra Zelechowska
                Zbigniew Makowski
                Romuald Ceglarski
               Elzbieta Heybowicz
  Institute of Meteorology and Water Management
                 Maritime Branch
         Department of Water Protection
                  80-252 Gdansk
                   JB-5-534-6
                 Project Officer

                 Lynn R. Shuyler
            Animal Production Section
Robert S. Kerr Environmental Research Laboratory
              Ada. Oklahoma  74820
ROBERT S. KERR ENVIRONMENTAL RESEARCH LABORATORY
       OFFICE OF RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT
      U.S. ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY
              ADA, OKLAHOMA  .74820

-------
                                   TECHNICAL REPORT DATA
                            (Tl-jasc read Inunictioiis on the reverse before completing)
 1. REPORT MO.
    EPA-600/2-83-080
                                                          3. RECIPIENT'S ACCESSION-NO.
 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE
 Combined Treatment o^ Licmid Wastes  From
 Industrial Swine carms Using BLWRS
             b. REPORT DATE
                September  1983
                                                          6. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION CODE
7. AUTHOR(S)
 Jerzy Rybinski, Aleksandra Zelechowska,  Zbigniew
 Makowski,  Romuald Ceglarski, and Elzbieta  Hevbowicz
                                                          8. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION REPORT NO.
9. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME AND ADDRESS
 Institute of Meteorology and Water Management
 Maritime Branch
 Department of Water Protection
 80-252  ndansk, Poland
             10. PROGRAM ELEMENT NO.


                  APBC
             11. CONTRACT/GRANT NO.


                  .TB-5-534-6
 12. SPONSORING AGENCY NAME AND ADDRESS
                                                           13. TYPE OF REPORT AND PERIOD COVERED
 U.S.  Envrionmental Protection Agency
 Robert  S.  Kerr Environmental Research Laboratory
 P.O.  Box 1198
 Ada.  OK 74820	_^_^_
             14. SPONSORING AGENCY CODE

                  EPA/600/15
 15. SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES
 16. ABSTRACT                                                                     7
      The efficiency of Barriered Landscape Water Renovation (BLWRS), 1500 m  in  size,
 to renovate flushed slurry from the industrial  pig farm was studied during  two vears':
 of exploitation.   Applying annual loading rates of 1000 mm of slurrv pretreated  mech-
 anically and,  separately, coagualted with teh use of aluminium sulphate  resulted  in
 the  following  daily loading rates?of:  COD 0.0178-0.0604;  TN 0 0037-0 0079- TKN  0  0034
 0.0070:  and TP 0.0005-0.0034 kg/m , and the  following removed percentages-' COD  90 4-
 98.8%; TN 64.2-89:4%:  TKN 74.9-96.4%: and TP 96.6-99'.8%.   "
      A water budget for BLWRS was prepared,  transformations of volatile solids   COD
 TN   TKN,  organic  nitrogen, oxidized nitrogen forms and TP  occuring in the bed at the
 different BLWRS depths were described.  An oxygen balance  for the BLWRS was developed
 the  effect of  metals  removal was described,  and the influence of temperature on  the  '
 occuring  processes as  well as its influence  on  the possibilitv 0^ full-time operation'
 was  defined.   The obtained results were compared with similar', but carried out in  the
 .smaller  scale  investigations, which were published in 1974 by Erickson   This work
 was  done  within the Barnes of Maria Curie-Sklodowska Fund  in cooperation with the
 American  Environmental Protection Agency.  The"  experimental part of the work was
 completed on March 31, 1981.
17.
                               KEY WORDS AND DOCUMENT ANALYSIS
                  DESCRIPTORS
 Agricultural Wastes
 Waste Disposal
 Anaerobic Digestion
 Aerobic Processes
 Denitrification
                                             b.IDENTIFIERS/OPEN ENDED TERMS
  Animal Wastes
  Swine
  Aerobic Stabilization
  Land Application
                          C.  COSATI l-'icld/Group
021ACE
13. DISTRIBUTION STATEMfcNT
    Release Unlimited
                                              19. SECURITY CLASS (Tills Report/
                                                Unclassified
                           21 NO "F PAGES
                              215
20. SECURITY CLASS (Thispage!

  Unclassified
                                                                        22. PRICE
EPA Form 2220-1 (9-73)

-------
                                 DISCLAIMER


     Although the research described in this article has been funded wholly or
in part by the United States Environmental Protection Agency through grant No.
JB-5-534-6 to the Institute of Meteorology and Water Management, Maritime
Branch, Department of Water Protection, Gdansk, Poland, it has not been sub-
jected to the Agency's required peer and policy review and therefore does not
necessarily reflect the views of the Agency, and no official endorsement should
be inferred.  Mention of trade names or commercial nroducts does not constitute
endorsement or recommendation for use.
                                     11

-------
                               FOREWORD


     EPA is charged by Congress to protect the Nation's land, air and water
systems.  Under a mandate of national environmental laws focused on air and
water quality, solid waste management and the control of toxic substances,
pesticides, noise, and radiation, the Agency strives to formulate and imple-
ment actions which lead to a compatible balance between human activities and
the ability of natural systems to support and nurture life.  In partial
response to these mandates, the Robert S. Kerr Environmental Research Lab-
oratory, Ada, Oklahoma, is charged with the mission to manage research
programs to investigate the nature, transport, fate, and management of
pollutants in ground water and to develop and demonstrate technologies for
treating wastewaters with soils and other natural systems; for controlling
pollution from irrigated crop and animal production agricultural activities;
for controlling pollution from petroleum refining and petrochemical indus-
tries; and for managing pollution resulting from combinations of industrial/
industrial and industrial/municipal wastewaters.

     This project was initiated to investigate the use of the Barriered Land-
scape Water Renovation System (BLWRS) for the treatment of slurry wastes from
large scale hog production operations both in the United States and Poland.
The project was designed to study the operation of the BLWRS in conjunction
with the conventional treatment plant already in use at the industrial hog
farm near Gdansk, Poland.  The study investigated the overall efficiency of
the BLWRS using several pretreatment options from the conventional plant,
different energy sources and different phosphorus removal media on the BLWRS
surface.  The results indicated that the BLWRS could be used efficiently with
various components of the existing conventional treatment system acting as a
pretreatment system, and that the BLWRS could be operated 8 out of 12 months
in the cold climate of Northern Poland.  The results have provided most of
the design functions necessary to enlarge the BLWRS for full scale operations.
The information contained in this report will be very useful to both countries
in the evaluation of future conventional treatment systems for swine wastes and
for the design of full scale BLWRS units for any type of agricultural wastes.
                                   Clinton W. Hall, Director
                                   Robert S. Kerr Environmental
                                     Research Laboratory
                                111

-------
                                  ABSTRACT

     The efficiency of Barriered Landscape Water Renovation (BLWRS) - 1500 m
in size, to renovate flushed slurry from the industrial pig farm was studied
during two years of exploitation.  Applying annual loading rates of 1000 mm
of slurry pretreated mechanically and, separately, coagulated with the use of
aluminium sulphate, the following results were obtained:

                    _    Loading (kg/m .d)	Percent of Removal
          COD             0.0178 - 0.0604                 90.4 - 98.8
          TN              0.0037 - 0.0079                 64.2 - 89.4
          TKN             0.0034 - 0.0070                 74.9 - 96.4
          TP              0.0005 - 0.0034                 96.6 - 99.8
Water budget for BLWRS was prepared, transformations of volatile solids, COD,
TN, TKN, organic nitrogen, oxidized nitrogen forms and TP occurring in the
bed at the different BLWRS depths were described.  An oxygen balance for
the BLWRS was developed, the effect of metals removal was described, and the
influence o^ temperature on the occurring processes as well as its influence
on the possibility of full-time operation was defined.  The obtained results
were compared with similar, but carried out in the smaller scale investiga-
tions, which were published in 1974 by Erickson.  This work was done within
the frames of Maria Curie-Sklodowska T^und in cooperation with the American
Environmental Protection Agency.  The experimental part of the work was
completed on March 31, 1981.
                                     iv

-------
                                  CONTENTS
Foreword	iii
Abstract	iv
figures	   vi
Tables	vii
Abbreviations and Symbols 	 .  x
Acknowledgment	xii
     1.  Introduction	1
     2.  Conclusions 	 6
     3.  Recommendations	10
     4.  Experimental Procedures . . '	11
               System Description	'.....   11
               Materials and Methods	21
               Meteorological Data	26
     5.  Results and Discussion	29
               Hydraulic Loading of BLWRS 	   29
               Characteristic of Wastes Applied to BLWRS . .	32
               Characteristics of BLWRS Effluents	36
               Transformations of Impurities in BLWRS Vertical Profile . . 44
               Influence of Low Temperature on Processes Occuring in BLWRS 71
               Metals in Wastes 	   74
               Transformations of the Chemical Composition of BLWRS Soil . 84
References	95
Project Publications 	 97
Appendix	98

-------
                                    FIGURES
Number
                                                                            Page
  1  Location Map 	  2
  2  Schematic diagram of production building and slurry
       canals in th ni-Gi type form	12
  3  Schematic diagram of Vidus type purification plant	14
  4  Location of BLWRS	16
  5  BLWRS and external installations 	 17
  6  Range of ground granulation diagrams for eight samples
       from BLWRS	18
  7  Artificial earth basin prepared for 4 sections of BWLRS	20
  8  Installation of the additional energy sources	20
  9  Liquid's sampling principle	23
 10  Chart showing the operation of BLWRS	 30
 11  Oxygen demand for the biochemical processes as a function
       of BLWRS depth	69
                                       VI

-------
                                     TABLES

Number                                                                     gage
   1  Industrial Pig Farms in Poland 	   3
   2  Chararacteristics of the Slurry From the  Industrial
        Pig Farms	4
   3  Admissible Concentrations of the Pollutants  in  the
        Inland Surface Water 	   5
   4  Distribution of Hogs at Czernin Farm, End of Year  	  11
   5  Chemical and Physical Characteristics of  the Original
        BLWRS Soil	19
   6  Meteorological Data, Characteristics for  the Area of
        the Experimental BLWRS, 1974-1979 	  28
   7  Hydraulic Loading of BLWRS 	 31
   8  BLWRS Water Budget in 1979 and 1980	33
   9  Loadings of Impurities Applied to BLWRS	34
  10  Total Loading Rate for BLWRS 	 35
  11  Average Annual Concentration of the Selected Nitrogen
        Forms and COD in BLWRS Effluents . .'	37
  12  Average Annual N-NH. Concentrations i  Raw Wastes	38
  13  Average Annual N-NH. Concentrations in Effluents	38
  14  Percent of Organic Nitrogen Removal	38
  15  Loadings of Impurities Drained From BLWRS During
        the Experimental Period	41
  16  The Rates of Removal of Impurities in BLWRS	41
  17  Effect of Waste Purification in BLWRS	43
  18  Removal Efficiencies for Michigan State University BLWRS  	 42
  19  Correlation Between Removed and Applied Loading 	44
  20  Parameters of Equation 4 for the Respective  Indicators  	 46
  21  Parameters for COD:  Corg Correlation Equation  	 47
                                      VII

-------
Number                                                                      'Page
 ~22  Nitrogen Balance Within the BLWRS Expressed as
         a  Percentage of  the  Initial TN	46
   23  Results  of Equation IgC = b = am For P Transformation	52
   24  Results  of Langmuir Freudlich Isotherm on P Data  	 52
   25  Comparison of TP Loadings and TP Removed in BLWRS  .  . 	53
   26  The  Range of Correlation Coefficients for Equations
         13 - 17 and 19 - 22	60
   27  Parameters of the  Regression Equation y = b + ax,
         Characterizing Expression 18 at the Assumed Level
         of Correlation Probability 1 - a = 99%	61
   28  Chemical Composition of the Sludge Contained in the
         Wastes Applied to BLWRS	66
   29  Oxygen Demand for  Biochemical Processes Occurring  in
         the Selected 10  CM BLWRS Layers - Average Values
         Taken  at Several Depths in BLWRS - 12, Section 1  	 75
   30  Effect of Removal  of Impurities in BLWRS Before and
         after  the Coolness	72
   31  Average  Annual Concentrations of Metals in Wastes,
         Taken  at Several Depths in BLWRS - 12, Section 1	75
   32  Average  Annual Concentrations of Metals in Wastes,
         Taken  at Several Depths in BLWRS - 12, Section 2	76
   33  Average  Annual Concentrations of Metals in Wastes,
         Taken  at Several Depths in BLWRS - 34, Section 3	77
   34  Average  Annual Concentrations of Metals in Wastes,
         Taken  in Several Depths in BLWRS - 34, Section 4	78
   35  Summary  of Average Daily Loadings of Metals Applied
         and Drained and  Percent Removal of Metals for
         BLWRS  - 12, Section  1	80
   36  Summary  of Average Daily Loadings of Metals Applied
         and Drained  and Percent Removal of Metals for
         BLWRS  - 12, Section  2	81
   37  Summary  of Average Daily Loadings of Metals  Applied
         and Drained and  Percent Removal of Metals for
         BLWRS  - 34. Section  3	81
                                       viu.

-------
Number                                                                       Page
  38  Summary of Average Daily Loadings of Metals Applied
        and Drained and Percent Removal of Metals for
        BLWRS-34, Section 3	'	83
  39  Chemical Analysis of Soil Samples Taken From BLWRS-12,
        December 5, 1979, In PPM - Nutrients	86
  40  Chemical Analysis of Soil Samples Taken prom BLWRS-34,
        December 5, 1979, In PPM - Nutrients	87
  41  Chemical Analysis of Soil Samples Taken From BLWRS-12,
        December 5, 1980, In PPM - Nutrients	88
  42  Chemical Analysis of Soil Samples Taken From BLWRS-34,
        December 5, 1980, In PPM - Nutrients	89
  43  Chemical Analysis of Soil Samples Taken From BLWRS-12,
        Section 1, December 5,  1979 - Metals, In PPM	90
  44  Chemical Analysis of Soil Samples Taken From BLWRS-12,
        Section 2, December 5,  1979 - Metals, In PPM	90
  45  Chemical Analysis of Soil Samples Taken From BLWRS-34,
        Section 3., December 5,  1979 - Metals, In PPM	91
  46  Chemical Analysis of Soil Samples Taken From BLWRS-34,
        Section 4, December 5,  1979 - Metals, In PPM	91
  47  Chemical Analysis of Soil Samples Taken From BLWRS-12,
        Section 1, December 5,  1980 - Metals, In PPM	92
  48  Chemical Analysis of Soil Samples Taken From BLWRS-12,
        Section 2, December 5,  1980 - Metals, In PPM	92
  49  Chemical Analysis of Soil Samples Taken From BLWRS-34,
        Section 3, December 5,  1980 - Metals, In PPM	93
  50  Chemical Analysis of Soil Samples Taken From BLWRS-34,
        Section 4, December 5,  1980 - Metals, In PPM	93
  51  Coefficients of Distribution Solution/Soil For the
        Selected Metals and Organic Carbon - BLWRS-12 	    94
  52  Coefficients of Distribution Solution/Soil For the
        Selected Metals and Organic Carbon - BLWRS-34 	    94

-------
                     LIST OF ABBREVIATIONS AND SYMBOLS
ABBREVIATIONS
BLWRS
knol
mm
cm
m
m2
dm
m3
mg
mbar
kg
ppm
1
t
T
V
-- Barriered Landscape Water Renovation System
-- Mlomol
-- millimeter
-- centimeter
-- meter
-- square meter
-- cubic decimeter
-- cubic meter
-- milligram
-- millibar
-- kilogram
-- pars per million on a weight basis
-- liter
-- time
-- temperature
-- velocity
SYMBOLS
TN
TKN
N-NH4
Norg
N-N03
N-N02
Noxid

TP
 org
C.
 inorg
-- total nitrogen
-- total Kjeldahl nitrogen
-- ammonia nitrogen
-- organic nitrogen
-- nitrate nitrogen
-- nitrite nitrogen
-- oxidized forms of nitrogen
N-N0
               N-N0
           3    -2
-- total phosphorus
-- organic carbon
-- inorganic carbon

-------
VSS         -- volatile suspended solids
VSSQ        -- volatile suspended solids contained in the raw wastes
ortho P     -- orthophosphorus
SS          -- suspended solids
SS          -- content of the suspended solids, form the raw wastes, at
               "m" depth
VSS         -- volatile suspended solids at "m" depth
VSS         -- volatile suspended solids from the raw wastes at depth "m"
VSS'        -- volatile suspended solids of BLWRS biomass
TSS         -- total suspended solids
L           -- removed load of impurities
L           -- applied load of impurities
H           -- hydrogen
C           -- carbon
P           -- phosphorus
Cl-         -- chlorine
02          -- oxygen gas
K           -- potassium
N           -- nitrogen
Na          -- sodium
Ca          -- calcium
Mg          -- magnesium
Fe          -- iron
Zn          -- zinc
Cu          -- copper
Al          -- aluminium
Cd          -- cadium
Mn          -- maganese
T~        -- student's test  experimental value
 63CJJ
Tt          -- student's test, table value
BOD         -- biochemical oxygen demand
COD         -- chemical oxygen demand
CODsol      -- COD of the soluble fraction of wastes
CODm        "" COD o the wastes at "m"
TOD         -- total oxygen demand

                                   xi

-------
                              ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

     We express our gratitude to the managers of the industrial pig farm in
Czernin for making possible BLWRS construction, operation, and demonstration.

     We gratefully acknowledge the support, consultations, and overcoming
the difficulties (which neither we nor he could foreseeJ from the Project
Officer, Lynn R. Shuyler.

     We would like to thank the consultants Professor Raymond C. Loehr,
Professor Frank J. Humenik, William C. Galegar, Dr. James P. Law and all the
others from America, who thanks to their kindness and knowledge, in our
close contacts with them, contributed to the realization of this work.

     We also thank the large group of the employees of the Institute of
Meteorology and Water Management who in some way or another contributed to
this research.
                                     XII

-------
                                  SECTION 1
                                INTRODUCTION

     The modified soil filter with impermeable barrier called a Barriered
Landscape Water Renovation System (BLWRS) constitutes a solution which
enables the considerable elimination of organic substances and other nutri-
ents from the slurry.  The removal degree of these impurities indicated in
previous work suggests the possibility of BLWRS utilization even for the
renovation of water from the wastes and recycling it for the reuse on the
farm.  Moreover this system seems to be useful in these cases, where because
of the lack of available land for agricultural utilization of animal wastes,
it is necessary to use pretreatment or even complete treatment and discharge.

     The aim of this work is to demonstrate the operation of BLWRS at a
technical scale and in combination with a conventional treatment system
during the two-year period of investigations, using slurry from industrial
pier -earm using no bedding as the source of impurities.  The system combina-
tion consists of removing Suspended Solids (SS) from the slurry before applying
it to the BLWRS which was attained by filtering on the screens(, and
sedimentation as well as by coagulation.  These preliminary treatment
processes were foreseen to decrease the mechanical pollution of the BLWRS
surface.

     The first industrial pig farm in Poland was built in 1972.  Since then
the total number of the industrial size pig farms has increased to 145,   *
their scale and production are presented in Table 1.  The farm utilized for
this project is located near Gdansk at a small village called Czernin
(Figure 1).

-------
                                CZtfWIN
                                  BLWRS
         P    0    L    A   /V   D
Figure 1.  Location Map.

-------
	TABLE 1.  INDUSTRIAL PIG FARMS IN POLAND (Krasnodebski 1978)	
Production Scale                 Number                  Annual Production
  Thousands of                  of Farms                of Porkers of 110 kg
     Animals                     Units                    Weight; Animals

     6-10                        47                         322,000
    11 - 20                        73                       1,083,000
    21-30                         9                         252,000
    31-45                       J^                       _-616,000
	Total	145	2,273,000   	
The management of the slurry from the industrial farms runs according to the
four basic principles:
     1)   direct slurry transportation to the fields;
     2)   direct watering .of the fields with the liquid phase of the
          slurry and periodical solids removal;
     3)   lagooning of the slurry before agricultural utilization; and
     4)   purification of the slurry in the treatment plant and discharge
          of the effluent to the surface waters.

     The last method is applied in the case where the farm has no available
land for agricultural utilization of the slurry.  About 10 percent of the
animal -industrial farms are in this situation.
                                        c

     Slurry from each of the industrial farms differs mainly in quantity and
concentration; however, the quality differences, caused by the kind of diet
as well as by the method of feeding, also appear.  Water consumption in
industrial farms ranges from 5 to 40 liters (1) per day per pig, depending
on the farm type as well as on the way of cleaning the building and removing
the slurry.  The composition of the slurry obtained ^rom the data eiven by
Kutera (1980) and from our investigations are presented in Table 2.

-------
   TABLE 2.   CHARACTERISTICS OF THE SLURRY FROM THE INDUSTRIAL PIG FARMS
Parameter
Specific ..Gravity
Totals Solids
Ash
Volatile Solids
pH
BOD5
COD
Total Nitrogen
Phosphorus
Potassium
Calcium
Magnesium
Sodium
Unit
g/on
/ 3
g/m
g./m3
g/m3

g02/m3
g02/m3
g/m3
g/m3
g/m
g/m3
g/m3
g/m3
Value
0.90
9,000
2,000
7,000
7.1
2,500
6,000
600
250
500
300
120
150
- 1.015
- 80,000
- 22,000
- 58,000
- 7.4
- 16,000
- 46,000
- 4,800
- 1,500
- 4,000
- 2,000
600
600

The high concentration of the slurry and the location of the farms, generally
on lands situated far from the larger water ways, require a high degree of
waste purification to reach an effluent quality which will allow the dis-
charge of purified wastes to the surface waters.

     The regulations which are obligatory in Poland (Rozp. Rady Min., 1975)
divide surface waters, depending upon their utilization, into three classes,
i.e.:

     Class I   -  waters reserved for the supply of drinking water;
     Class II  -  waters designated for the animal husbandry, recreation,
                  and watering - places; and
     Class III -  waters designated for industry and agriculture.

     Each class has a definite permissible pollution level which can occur in
the river at the average low water level (Table 3), after the purified
wastes were discharged into this river.  Exceeding this level is punishable

-------
by fines.  Therefore, the larger the amount of slurry, the smaller the
receiver and the higher class of water, the higher the degree of purification
that is necessary.

 TABLE 3.  ADMISSIBLE CONCENTRATIONS OF THE POLLUTANTS IN THE INLAND SURFACE
           WATERS (ONLY PARAMETERS CHARACTERISTIC FOR THE SLURRY)

Parameter
Dissolved Oxygen
BOD5
COD
Chlorides
Sulphates
Ammonium Nitrogen
Nitrate Nitrogen
Organic Nitrogen
Phosphates


a!/
b^/
b
b
b
b
b
b
b

Unit
mg 02/1
mg 02/1
mg 02/1
mg Cl/1
mg s04/l
mg N/l
mg N/l
mg N/l
mg P0,/l


I
6.0
4.0
40.0
250.0
150.0
1.0
1.5
1.0
0.2 .

Purity Class
II
5.0
8.0
60.0
300.0
200.0
3.0
7.0
2.0
0.5


III
4.0
12.0
100.0
400.0
250.0
6.0
15.0
10.0
1.0

y,a - not less than
 b - not more than
     The present methods of slurry purification are based on filtration,
sedimentation, coagulation, biological cleaning in the tanks with activated
sludge or in the lagoons (one of these purification plants is described in
section 4), don't always give satisfactory results.  Therefore, using
the soil environment with the process modification for nitrogen and phos-
phorus removal, as the final stage of animal waste purification seems to be
sensible.  The combinations of BLWRS with" other methods of preliminary
purification of slurry constitutes the system studied.
                                      5

-------
                                  SECTION 2
                                 CONCLUSIONS

1.    The 2 year period of BLWRS operation indicated that temperature decrease
     in December, leading to the icing of BLWRS surface makes operation of
     the BLWRS system practically impossible.   Starting BLWRS again appeared
     to be iDossible only after a 4 month break which results in a period of
     system operation during the calendar year no longer than 8 months, i.e.
     from April to November.

2.    Independently from the stops in operation caused by the low temperature,
     it is necessary to apply breaks in feeding, resulting from the over-
     loading of BLWRS surface, which reduces the period of BLWRS feeding to
     about 200 days during the year.  Annual dose of the wastes applied to
     the adapted BLWRS, at the used loading, slightly exceeded 1000 mm,
     corresponds to about 4.0 mm/day in the 8-month period of favorable
     temperatures and about 5.0 mm/day on the average during the 200 days of
     effective waste feeding of the BLWRS.

3.    BLWRS water budget including applied wastes, precipitation, evaporation,
   .  and change of retention in BLWRS, closes with the losses amounting to 13
     percent on the average, which is recognized as a satisfactory result.

4.    The variation of the impurities in the waste composition and applied
     hydraulic loadings of the BLWRS were:  COD  0.0178 - 0.0604;
     TN  0.0037 - 0.0079; TKN  0.0034 - 0.0070; and TP  0.0005 - 0.0034
     	, depending on the BLWRS section and the calendar year.
     m .day

-------
          The obtained effect of the elimination of impurities from slurry
     equals on average for the whole demonstration period:
                   the Sections                     For the Sections With
          _  Without Energy Insert	.    the Additional Energy Source^
     COD            97.3%                                    95.5%
     TN             79.0%                                    77.4%
     TKN            91.2%                                    84.1%
     TP             99.2%                                    98.9%

          On the basis of the above presented information as well as the
     other results contained in this work, it can be concluded that using
     the energy insert for the denitrification process in the form of the
     sludges separated from slurry on the screens and composted, doesn't
     give expected results and on the contrary constitutes the source of
     the additional pollution. The definite relationship between the re-
     moved and applied loading was also stated and expressed by appropriate
     equations.

5.   The transformations of impurities in BLWRS vertical profile for
     different forms of Nitrogen (N), Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD), Total
     Phosphorus (TP) and Suspended Solids (SS), analyses based on the sets
     of average values from the whole exploitation period can be expressed
     by the equation:

                        ~  -  bma                                 (1)
                          o
6.   COD of slurry on the different BLWRS depths indicates correlation
     with Organic Carbon (C   ) with the slope coefficient equal 3.0987.

7.   The removal of phosphorus from the wastes can be expressed by Langmuir
     and Freundlich isotherms while in the second case the correlation is
     slightly higher.  The differences in the effects of phosphorus removal

-------
      from BLWRS purifying the wastes after coagulation with aluminium
      sulphate and from the BLWRS with the layer of blast-furnace slag fed
      with slurry without coagulation, were not observed.

      The trial of the kinetic approach to the process taking place in BLWRS
      on the basis of various order of kinetic reactions  for the whole data
      set didn't result in the satisfactory correlation coefficients.   These
      results can be arranged only by the Haseltine function, describing the
      relationship between the removed and applied loading,  which after appro-
      priate transformation leads to the expression:
                        m
      where:
           Q   - amount of wastes applied to BLWRS,  I/day,
           F   - BLWRS surface, on2
           m   - thickness, cm
           c   - concentration of the investigated parameter in the
                 waste applied to BLWRS,  mg/1
           c   - concentration of the investigated parameter in the
                 waste, after the BLWRS layer of m thickness, mg/1

           n   - purification efficiency = -
                                               co
           a,b - equation parameters
 9.   Oxygen balance for BLWRS indicates that oxygen demand for the processes
      of mineralization and oxidation,  proceeding in the bed,  can be covered
      by the exchange of soil air.

10.   The comparison of the effects of slurry purification on  the adapted
      BLWRS in the period of favorable temperatures (average value +12.7C)
      with the month of the average temperature equal +3.9C indicates  the
      decrease of the purification effect mainly in the range  of total
      nitrogen (TN).

-------
11.  The investigation of ions of metals in the slurry passing through BLWRS
     shows the fixation of considerable amounts of K,  Na,  Zn,  Cu,  Fe,  Al,  and
     Cd in bed while the degree of their removal decreases with the increase
     of the time of BLWRS exploitation.  However, the  elution of Ca and Mg
     ions from BLWRS bed was observed most clearly during the second year of
     the experimental object's exploitation.  The layer of blast-furnace
     slag increases, additionally, the amount of leached Mg.

          The influence of energy insert on the increased leaching of  iron
     compounds and to some degree potassium (KJ, from  BLWRS bed, was also
     noticeable.  The low Cd concentration in the applied wastes indicates
     that in Polish conditions this metal is not a problem.

12.  Loading BLWRS with wastes causes the increase in  concentration of most
     of the investigated parameters, most noticeable in the upper 30 cm of
     the soil profile. The accumulation of nutrients  is most evident  in
     the case of CQ  , Volatile Suspended Solids (VSS), and Total Kjeldahl
     Nitrogen (TKN).  The accumulation of substances in BLWRS bed at the end
     of 1979 and 1980 doesn't show significant differences, which reflects
     the development of some state of equilibrium.

13.  Comparing the total effects of purification, in the range of basic
     indicators, received in this work with the results of Erickson's  (1974J
     investigations, in the case of comparable section without energy
     insert, the compatibility of the results were obtained with a slightly
     worse TKN elimination and lower BLWRS loadings in the second year of
     the study.

-------
                                  SECTION 3
                               RECOMMENDATIONS

     It is recommended to continue the investigations on the system in the
application also to the wastes other than animal wastes, as well as in the
case of the animal farm as the final degree of water purification and reno-
vation after the biological stabilization of wastes with the process of the
partial nitrogen elimination.

     The system's sensibility to the negative influence of the low tempera-
ture and the limitations in the use of BLWRS during winter months in the
climate with the temperatures below 0C should be considered.

     However, it is recommended to test this system in unfavorable tempera-
ture conditions using a feeding system different from sprinkling.
                                    10

-------
                                  SECTION 4
                           EXPERIMENTAL PROCEDURES

SYSTEM DESCRIPTION
Farm Description

     The experimental BLWRS was situated on the grounds of the large, indus-
trial pig farm of the Gi-Gi type, in the Czernin State Collective Farm.
The pretreated wastes from this farm constituted the wastes applied to
BLWRS.  During the complete production cycle, this farm was inhabited by
27,500 hogs, the characteristic of this stock is presented in Table 4.
These numbers describe the stock at the end of the year, while the var-
iations during 12 months reach +10%.

      ' :  :TABLE 4.  DISTRIBUTION OF HOGS AT CZERNIN FARM. END OF :YEAR:

                                 Sows of
               Breeding   Left   7 Months    Young                     Other
Year   Boars    Boars     Sows   and Older   Pigs.    Piglets  . Sows   Pigs

1979     87       29        -        783     12,834    8185     2252   5125
1980 :   106  ::.::..-::. .1653 . : : . : :15Q3  ::  11,271.  : 8957 .   :_2165 . . 4227

     This farm includes the complete production cycle and with the annual
production reaching 36,000 porkers of an average weight of 110 kg per pig.
A schematic diagram of this farm is presented in Figure 2.  The energy con-
sumption of this farm is 289,000 KWh annually, while the average water
consumption reaches 800 m /day.

     In the Gi-Gi type farm the animal wastes from the pen and the waste
feed from troughs are removed each .day with flush water to the internal
                                     11

-------
1A, IB, 1C

4A, 4B, 4C

5A, 5B, 5C

8A - 8L

2
Buildings for covering and gestation

Buildings for delivery and feeding

Piglets' buildings

Buildings for fattening  (buildings  for porkers)

Building for quarantine  and breeding of the
little boars
n
 \
 JW

1A




1B





S
T Krem
FO-TfJ faint
r

tfdl
rftoriuta '
rdiar


4B_
5


~~
f

r 

W



i 

5fl



i 

SC_

*aoo




       leading
       platform
          Figure 2.  Schematic diagram of production buildings  and
                     slurry canals in the Gi-Gi type farm.
                                      12

-------
slurry canals.  Anijnal wastes are transported through the system of collec-
tive slurry canals, flushed with water, to the purification plant.  The
farm described has a complex purification plant, which includes mechanical,
chemical, and biological waste treatment.  This animal waste purification
plant was designed and constructed by the Hungarian firm "Tatabanyai-
Szenbanyak".
Description of the Purification Plant

     The diagram of the Hungarian purification plant of the Vidus type is
presented in Figure 3.  Slurry, averaging 800 m /day, flows by gravity
through collector canals to the pump station.  To protect the pumps against
damage, gratings were installed before the pump station tank.  The tank of
the pump station has a capacity of 54 m  and is equipped with two pumps and
a mechanical stirrer to prevent the settling of the impurities at the bottom.
From the pump station slurry is lifted into the distribution tank from which
it flows to the four dynamic screens of 0.4 - 0.6 mm sieve mesh.  The excess
slurry from the distribution tank is recirculated through an overflow back
to the pump station.  The effluent from the screens flows gravitationally
to the equalizing and preliminary aeration tank where the equalization of
the composition of the wastes takes place as well as preaeration with the
use of two deep aerators.  The surplus activated sludge is also recirculated
to this tank.  The chemical purification process is based on the coagulation
of the preaerated mixture of the raw slurry and the surplus of the activated
sludge with the aluminum sulphate using a dose of 1 kg of A12 SO. ^ . ISH-O
for 1 m  of waste.

     The wastes from the equalizing tank is pumped through the heat
exchanger, combined with the coagulant solution in the mixer and in the
reactor, and then the mixture flows to the two preliminary settling tanks.
The separated sludge is pumped to the sludge thickener.  Sludge supernatant
from the thickener flows to the pump station while the thickened sludge is
carried to the sludge sand beds.
                                   13

-------
  1.   Raw slurry pump station               12.
  2.   Tank for distribution into  the        13.
        dynamic screens                     14.
  3.   Dynamic screens                       15.
  4.   Preaeration tank
  5.   Tank for coagulant solubilization    ig.
  6.   Storage tank for coagulant            17.
        solution
  7.   Pump                                  18.
  8.   Coagulant dosing pump                 19.
  9.   Mixing tank for coagulant and        20.
        raw wastes
 10.   Reactor                               21.
 11.   Tank for distribution into  the
        preliminary settling tanks
Preliminary settling tank
Sludge thickener
Sludge pump
Tank for distribution into
  the aeration chambers
Aeration tank
Distribution tank for the
  activated sludge
Recirculation pump
Secondary  settling tank
Disconnected biological
  filter
Disinfection chamber
                                wotta
           Slurry to lagoons
               GnojoM'ca
           do login
i

r
* a
' '
7
   Gnojonrica
         i.
sunwa i ferny (
ffatv slurry from
   farm
                       Gnojowlca
                        oci(jszczono

                    Purified sturry
     Figure 3.   Schematic diagram of Vidus  type purification plant.
                                       14

-------
     The biological purification of the wastes is the first stage process and
runs in three parallel lines.  The waste purification is attained here by the
activated sludge method.  The clarified wastes in the preliminary settling
tanks flow gravitationally through distributor to the aeration tanks, 170 m
of capacity each, which are equipped with aerators.  The content of the
aeration tanks flows to the secondary settling tanks and after clarification,
it is directed to the disinfection chamber where the purified wastes can be
disinfected with sodium hypochlorite if necessary.  The activated sludge
separated in the secondary settling tank is pumped through the distributor
and some part of the recycled sludge returns to the aeration tank while the
surplus sludge flows to the equalizing and preliminary aeration tank.
BLWRS Description

     The experimental BLWRS is located near the treatment plant (Figure 4).
The BLWRS method of waste purification was tested on a 1500 m  area divided
into two filter beds, and fed with wastes independently (Figure 5).  Both
beds were formed from sand of a granulation shown in Figure 6 and of the
chemical characteristics contained in Table 5.  The filtration coefficient
of the applied sand was in the range of 2.57 - 4.63 x 10   cm/sec.  Both
beds were constructed in an artificially formed earth basin, which was
sealed with a waterproof barrier made of a double layer of polyethylene foil
with control drainage pipes laid between foil sheets.  Each of the two BLWRS
was further divided into two sections (Figure 7).  One section of each
BLWRS was equipped with a wooden channel to which the additional energy source
for denitrification was introduced (Figure 8).  The other section had no
energy insert.  Sludge separated from the animal wastes during filtration on
the dynamic screens and then stored for one year on the field was used as
the additional energy source in these investigations.  The elementary
composition of that sludge, for the basic constituents, was as follows:
C- 43.13%, H - 5.85%, and N - 1.87%.

     Sand above the foil was 1.8 m thick, the BLWRS beds were divided into
two horizontal zones:  an aerobic zone of 1.2 m and the underlying saturated
anaerobic zone of 0.6 m which was created by damming up the waste effluents
with the use of a siphon device.

                                    15

-------
1.   BLWRS
2.   Animal farm
3.   Existing chemical and biological
      waste purification plant
4.   Boiler room
5.  - Sludge lagoons
6.   Sewage ponds
          Figure 4.  Location of BLWRS.
                                16

-------
 1.   Waste inlet
 2.   Feeding tanks
 3.   Pump station
 4.   BLWRS-34 with additional energy source
 5.   BLWRS-12 with additional energy source
 6.   BLWRS-34 with no energy source
 7.   BLWRS-12 with no energy source
 8.   Additional energy source
 9.   Installation of sprinklers
10.   Effluent drain
11.   Effluent installation
12.   Effluent holding tanks
13.   Purified waste outlet
14.   Water - supply system
15.   Septic tank
      Figure 5.   BLWRS and external  installations.
                                 17

-------
           V*
oo
           $
i
 c>
AC

 i

1
I
               I
frakcje - Fractions
A
o ,
TO
2O

oO
SO -


80 -

r/aflU-
\amienit
afones





















ZMf

grave/












T>;
11











*"















w__











-*"






c









piasck
sand
^




V








t.
1
\



V

,
.










*



- -\
_ j












\

\


















u
^
I



















n
-i

b-










pyt
dust




















1


















































1
1









//
/Oof/17










7OO
90
80
70
SO
50
40
SO
20
ro
ft
                                                                        Ullllpi

                                                              ttymiar oczka site [mm]
        Figure 6.  Range of ground granulation diagrams for eight samples from BLWRS.

-------
TABLE 5.  CHEMICAL AND PHYSICAL CHARACTERISTICS O17 THE
	ORIGINAL BLWRS SOIL (CONCENTRATIONS IN PPM)

 Total Organic Solids                  43,700.0
 Organic Carbon                        10,750.0
 Inorganic Carbon                       7,300.0
 TKN                              .         55.0
 Total Phosphorus                         270.0
 Potassium                                890.0
 Sodium                                    18.8
 Calcium                               22,235.0
 Magnesium                       .       1,750.0
 Copper                                     4.75
 Zinc                                      15.0
 Iron                                   2,587.5
 Aluminium                                975.0
 Bulk Density                               1.55 g/on3
 Porosity^ solid 62.5%;     porespace  .=   37.51	
                         19

-------
Figure 7.  Artificial earth basin prepared for 4 sections of
               BLWRS.
                                   Figure
Installation of the
additional energy source.
                               20

-------
     Both BLWRS were fed with wastes from the described purification plant,
taken before and after coagulation.  A continuous process of sedimentation
was applied to the wastes before the coagulation.  This process was carried
on in an additionally installed vertical settling tank which had a detention
time of 2 hours.  The second type of wastes were drawn directly from the
treatment plant just after coagulation with the Al^ SO. , x 18 F^O used at
the dose of about 1.0 g/dm"5.  Wastes treated in the above described ways were
introduced into special tanks of 10 m  capacity each, from where they were
periodically spread on the top of the suitable BLWRS (2-5 minutes per hourJ.
Effluent from each of the four sections was obtained by an individual pipe
system to a separate tank of 10 m  capacity.  All tanks were equipped with
devices for measuring volume, and they were emptied by the use of pumps
started manually after the waste volume measurement had been done.

     To make the information more precise, the system fed with the animal
wastes after coagulation, consisting of Sections 1 and 2 are described as
BLWRS-12 and the second system consisting of Sections 3 and 4 are called
BLWRS-34.
     The BLWRS were equipped with thermometers for the measurement of ground
temperature at depths of 5, 10, 20, and 50 cm, and a meteorological station
was located near the BLWRS site.  The pluviometer, barograph, thermograph,
evaporimeter, anemometer, minimum thermometer, and maximum thermometer were
installed in that station.  Moreover in Section 2 of BLWRS-12, two membrane
probes for determination of the percentage of oxygen content in the soil air
were installed at the depth of 60-80 cm.

MATERIALS AND METHODS
System of Sampling and Waste Quantity Measurement

     The same quantity of samples, from the analogically situated points, was
taken from each section of BLWRS, which constituted four separate systems as
far as the technological parameters were concerned.  The samples from the
aerobic zone were taken at four places from two depths, 30 and 80 on, to
form an average sample for each layer, so the BLWRS supplied four samples

                                     21

-------
from the aerobic zone.  In the anaerobic zone the sampling took place also at
four places from two depths, 140 and 160 cm; however, two average samples
were formed for each depth and each section of the BLWRS.  Therefore at each
sampling time, samples from 64 points were collected and then 20 average
samples were formed.  At the same time, samples of the two kinds of wastes
fed to BLWRS and four samples of the BLWRS effluents were taken.

     A collecting plate and a container filled with gravel (8-10 mm granula-
tion) were installed at each sampling point in the aerobic zone.  The gravel
filled pot served as a container for the collection of the sampled liquid.
A PCV drain pipe ^ilter was installed in the gravel, on a conduit which was
led out above the BLWRS surface.  Percolating wastes were collected by a
special plate with sloping walls directed to the middle  (the shape of a
up-turned umbrella) where the plate met the upper edge of the gravel filled
container (Figure 9).

     The samples from the aerobic and anaerobic zones were taken by the use
of the vacuum pipette.  The system of sampling in the anaerobic zone was
simplified and consisted only of the inner plastic filter with an outlet
pipe.

     The quantity of wastes in the tanks was measured with a manometer.  An
                 
open vertical pipe reaching the tank's bottom was placed in the tank.  The
compressed air, necessary to overcome the pressure of the column of wastes
contained in the tanks, was introduced to that pipe.  That pressure was
measured by the liquid manometer.  The liquid levels in the pressure gauge
indicated the liquid level of the previously graduated tanks.  Those tanks
were scaled with an accuracy up to 15 dm  i.e. 0.3% at the least probable
filling.
Applied Analytical Techniques

     The treatment efficiency of the BLWRS was characterized by the
analysis of samples of wastes, soil, and sludges.
                                     22

-------
 1.   Plastic filter
 2.   Outlet PCV pipe
 3.   Cover for PCV pipe nozzle
 4.   Pot filled with gravel
 5.   Collecting PCV plate
 6.   Vacuum pipette
 7.   Igelite suction conduit connecting pipette 6 with filter
 8.   Rubber fabric hose connecting pipette with vacuum system
 9.   Anaerobic zone
10.   Aerobic zone
                Figure 9.  Liquid's sampling principle.
                                      23

-------
      The waste samples  were analyzed at different  frequencies.   Influents  and
 effluents were analyzed for the TKN and COD content everyday.   Testing the
 other parameters  of influents  and effluents as  well as  the analysis  of the
 wastes from inside the  BLWRS took place three times a week during the initial
 period of the investigation (July, August,  September, and October 1979)  and
 then once a week.

      The wastes were analyzed  for:  SS, TKN, Ammonia Nitrogen  (N-NH.),
 Nitrate Nitrogen  (N-N03J,  Nitrite Nitrogen  (N-N02), TP, Ortho  Phosphorus
. (ortho P), COD, BOD,-, Chlorine CC1-), C   , K,  Na, Mg,  Ca, Fe,  Cu, Zn, Al,
                    o                   org
 and Cd.   The analysis of the wastes for SS, TKN, N-NH4, N-NO^,  N-N02, TP,
 ortho P, COD, BODr, and Cl- were performed  according to the procedures
 given by the American Public Health Association (1965)  and Hermanowicz
 (1976).   Organic  carbon was analyzed by Total and  Inorganic Carbon Analyzer -
 Model 915 produced by Beckman.  The metal content  of the wastes was  deter-
 mined by atomic absorption spectrophotometry using AA Spectrophotometer
 Model SP-2900 produced  by Pye-Unicam.  The  electrothermal atomization was
 used for the samples of the low content of  the  tested metal.  The samples
 with the relatively high metal concentration were  analyzed in  flame.
                                                                     o

      The determination  of metal content in  the  wastes by atomic absorption
 spectrophotometry followed the preparation  of waste samples by dry and wet
 mineralization according to the procedures  given respectively  by Pinta (1977)
 and Brzezinska (1978).

      The samples  of the BLWRS  soil were taken three times, i.e. before
 starting the application of wastes and in the first and the second year of
 experiment.   In the last two examples the samples  were  taken from 11 levels.

      These soil samples were analyzed for TKN,  Inorganic Carbon (C-     ),
 CQr , TP, K, Na,  Mg, Ca,  Fe, Cu, Zn, Al, and Cd.

      The determination  of TKN, C-  0  ,  and  C   in the  soil samples  were,
 after they were dried at 105 C, averaged, and finely ground in a porcelain
 mortar.
                                      24

-------
     Determination of C-     was carried out according to the procedures
                           o
given by Bundy (1978).  The soil C    was determined on an Elemental Analyzer
produced by Perkin-Elmer - Model 240.  TKN in soil samples was determined
according to the procedures given by Bremner (1965).

     The content of metals in the soil samples was analyzed on the AA Spec-
trophotometer SP-2yOO.  The preparation of the soil samples for this type of
analysis consisted of two stages.  The first stage was analogous to the above
described preparation of the soil samples for the TKN, C.    , and C
          ^  *                       r               '  inorg'      org
determination.  The second stage was based on the solubilization of the
preliminary prepared soil samples with the use of the mixture of three acids
according to the procedures recommended by Pinta (1977).

     The soil samples prepared for the metal analysis were also used for the
determination of TP.  The detailed procedure for determination of TP is given
by the American Public Health Association (1965).

     The sludges from the BLWRS influents and effluents were also tested
analytically.  Carbon, nitrogen, and hydrogen content in the organic part
of the sludge samples was determined on the P-E Analyzer Model 240.  The
sample which was introduced into the apparatus was prepared by centrifugation
and drying the sludge at 105C to a constant weight,  then it was finely
ground in the porcelain mortar.  Simultaneously with the elemental analysis,
the same samples were tested for the content of VSS according to the method
recommended by Hermanowicz (1977).  The percent oxygen content of the soil
air was determined with the use of membrane probe equipped with the auto-
matic temperature compensation.
Preservation of Samples and Analytical Quality Control

     Waste samples were preserved according to the methods recommended by
Environmental Monitoring and Support Laboratory (1979) and Hermanowicz
(1976).

     To insure accuracy of the results, all analytical methods were checked
periodically with standard samples.  Moreover in each, series, consisting of
                                     25

-------
26 samples at most, two blanks were run to check for contamination.  The
samples were rerun if the results differed considerable from the level of
concentration characteristic for the tested sample and the period of
investigations.

METEOROLOGICAL DATA
General Characteristics of Zulawy Climate

     The study area was situated geographically at the south edge of Zulawy
Wislane.  The high instability of the weather condition from day to day and
year to year is'the characteristic quality of the Zulawy climate.  The
described area is under the definite influence of the air masses coming from
the Atlantic Ocean.  The relatively big annual amplitude and high average and
absolute air temperatures and a considerable number of hot days created are
characteristic of the Zulawy climate.  The Zulawy is relatively warm and dry;
the annual precipitation (based on many years of record) level is 600 mm.

     The influence of the neighboring (Baltic) sea is expressed by a rela-
tively high value of the average annual temperature oscillating around 7.5C
is evident in the Zulawy area.

     The winter period with the average temperature below 0C lasts for about
100 days.  Such a long winter is caused by the masses of the cool air coming
from the land.

     The summer period (T > 15C) lasts at Zulawy for 86-99 days.  The length
of the farming period (T > 0C) ranges from 260 to 290 days per year.

     The wind velocities in the area of Zulawy are considerably weaker than
at the seaside with average annual values of 3-4 m/sec.  The number of days
with strong and very strong winds (V ^ 10 m/sec) ranges from 20-40 yearly.

     The described area is within the range of the maritime - continental
type of the atmospheric precipitation.  This type of precipitation is
characterized by a small annual amplitude, the occurence of the largest

                                     26 \

-------
rainfall in July or August and by the predominance of the autumn precipita-
tion over the fall.  In July the sums of precipitation ranges between
80-90 mm.  The daily totals are mostly equal to 1 to 5 mm and then 0.1 to
0.9 mm.  These two totals cover 75% of the days with precipitation in the
year.  The number of the days with precipitation is in the range of 150-160
while the snow fall is noted during 40 days in the period from October to
April.  The snow cover is maintained for about 70 days.

     From October to December the greatest pressure loss is observed here,
and it is followed by the greatest variability of the weather.  The following
data illustrate how big the pressure changes can be; the lowest annual values
of the atmospheric pressure change is in the range of 950-960 mbars while the
highest level reached is 1040-1050 mbars.

     Data characterizing the meteorological conditions existing at the BLWRS
site in the period of investigations are shown in Table 6.
                                     27

-------
                  TABLE 6.  METEOROLOGICAL DATA,  CHARACTERISTIC  FOR THE AREA OF THE EXPERIMENTAL BLWRS
                           TIME PERIOD 1979 -  1980  (AVERAGE MONTHLY VALUES)
NJ
OO

Month 
Year Precipitation
(mm) .
8.79
9.79
10.79
11.79
12.79
4.80
5.80
6.80
7.80
8.80
9.80
10.80
11.80
12.80:
1.8
0.7
2.1
2.1
0.7
1.2
0.6
3.3
7.6
3.4
2.2
2.3
1.9
2.7
Evaporation
. (mm) .
-
2.7
1.8
0.3
0.3
1.2
1.0
2.1
1.6
2.6
1.7
1.4
-
'
Soil Temp.
at 5 cm
?c
16.0
14.7
7.2
2.5
1.5
5.3
7.0
12.1
13.8
17.2
13.1
7.3
2.5
:1.2
Soil Temp.
at 10 cm
Depth
(C) .
16.0
14.7
7.4
2.8
2.4
4.5
7.0
11.9
14.0
17.5
13.4
7.8
2.9
1.7
Soil Temp.
at 20 an
Depth
(C)
16.4
15.0
8.1
3.6
2.7
3.8
7.5
11.1
14.3
17.6
13.6
8.3
3.3
2.3
Soil Temp.
at 50 cm
Depth
TO
16.8
15.6
9.5
4.5
3.4
3.2
8.0
12.1
14.3
17.7
14.4
8.9
4.5
3.4
Average
Daily
Temperature
(C)
16.7
15.2
8.4
3.4
2.0
6.1
8.5
14.6
15.0
18.6
14.1
9.1
3.9
1.3


-------
                                   SECTION 5
                            RESULTS AND DISCUSSION

HYDRAULIC  LOADING OF BLWRS

      Observations at the BLWRS site were  started on July 19,  1979,  and were
carried on until  April  7,  1981;  however,  the  524 days which cover the  period
from July  24,  1979,  i.e. the day when systematic waste  feeding  to BLWRS-12
was  started,  to December 31, 1980, i.e. the last day of applying wastes  to
BLWRS,  constituted the  experimental period.   The investigations carried  out
before  and after  the above mentioned  time period were of an indicatory
nature.  Figure 10 summarizes the  operation until  December 1980.  Each line
represents one of the four BLWRS sections.  The  solid bars above the hori-
zontal  line illustrate  the amount  of  wastes applied each day.   The  open  bars
represent  the amount of daily precipitation.   The  solid bars  directly  below
the  line represent the  amount of effluent from each BLWRS section each day:
applied and obtained figures' are in millimeters  of depth.   The  wastes  were
applied to both BLWRS beds until the  moment when ponding started.   Then  the
wastes  feeding was stopped for the period necessary for the ponds to
disappear.   In 1979  for 128 days of system operation the wastes were fed to
BLWRS-12 for 75 days and to BLWRS-34  for  77 days.   In 1980 taking into
consideration 260 operational days one can notice  that  the wastes were fed
to BLWRS-12 for 208  days and to BLWRS-34  for  205 days.   The operating  period
of 260  days in 1980  resulted from  weather limitations.   The breaks  in
operation  of BLWRS were caused mostly by  the  necessity  of drying out the
.overloaded system and in some cases by organization and technical difficul-
ties.   Values  of  the average daily hydraulic  loading of BLWRS are presented
in Table 7.
                                      29

-------
*iamtii \tuaztatMtitt  LIVOHO ienvoitfjt isnadaaffl tarr
lfTM8U\ OCTQBf* \ MOMMSt* \ OfCXftaf* \ 3MUAKT I ftJJtU
                                                                                                      j.r.% MJUl r..A.fi
czetwifei  Ufiec   I  t'ttstr^  yr/fj/pf iJM/^avw>ci tntorAD t&uszwi  \gtc2fti t$*i
 Mug   I n SUIT   I AUGbtr*' \SF?TMWl\ O&Qtelt   I NQVfMK* \ OCCtMSe* \MHUAJff fl/
mxuttei iMJevfJfitit inrofAO  i CIVOI/M timtxiinao i utrr
         Figure  10.   Chart  showing the  operation of BLWRS.

-------
                    TABLE 7.  HYDRAULIC LOADING OF BLWRS
                                      BLWRS-12             BLWRS-34
                                   1979       1980     1979       1980
     Applied wastes (ram)          715.6     1016.8    700.0     1005.0
     Operational period (days)    128        260      128        260
     Number of days during
     which the wastes were         75        208       77        205
     applied - operation days
     Average daily dose of
     wastes in the operational      5.6        3.9      5.5        3.9
     period (mm)
     Average daily dose of
     wastes for the operation       9.5        4.9      9.1        4.9
     days (mm)	
     As mentioned, the experimental period was equal to 524 days, yet during
this time there was a four-month break which covers winter time because of
the temperature drop below 0C, and BLWRS operation was impossible.  BLWRS
operation diagrams differ among themselves mainly in regularity of the waste
application and draining.  In 1979 the largest possible amount of wastes,
which could be accepted by the system, was applied to both BLWRS beds.  The
coincidence of the high hydraulic loading and the high average content.of
impurities in wastes applied caused the high loading of pollutants and hence
ponds appearing very often at the surface of both BLWRS beds.  In these
cases it was necessary to employ the already mentioned stops in the waste
application.

     Profiting from the experience of the previous year in 1980, the daily
dose of wastes was considerably reduced (as seen in Table 7).  Simultaneously
the quality of the applied wastes was improved; thanks to the better results
of the preliminary treatment, BLWRS influent in 1980 was characterized by
lower average concentrations of pollutants and a smaller range of the extreme
concentrations than in 1979.
                                       31

-------
     Water balance for both BLWRb beds in the periods of July 26, 1979, to
November 30, 1979, and April 16, 1980 to December 31, 1980, are presented in
Table 8.

     Differences in the amount of wastes applied to BLWRS-12 and BLWRS-34
result from the differences in the pumps' output.  Change of retention in the
anaerobic zone was caused by damming up the wastes resulting from the
development of slimy aggregates of microorganisms in the drainage system.
This phenomenon occurred more intensively in the sections with energy
inserts.  The indicated balance differences averaged 13%, caused,
supposingly, by the intensified evaporation during irrigation and only
slightly exceeding the accuracy of the measurement of the applied waste
volume, should be acknowledged as exceptionally favorable and reflect the
tightness of BLWRS installation and BLWRS bottom.

CHARACTERISTIC OF WASTES APPLIED TO BLWRS

     The applied wastes were characterized by average and extreme concentra-
tions of the impurities presented in Table A-l through A-4.  Despite
relatively low hydraulic loading the BLWRS received high pollutant loadings
because of a high concentration of pollutants in the slurry applied to
them.  The data presented in Table 9 as well as in Figures A-l through A-10
show the cumulative load of respective nutrients, leading to the conclusion
that nutrient loads introduced to BLWRS in 1979 and in 1980 differ from each
other considerably in the case of TP and COD.  The comparison of the wastes
applied to BLWRS-12 and BLWRS-34 in 1979 leads to the conclusion that despite
the employment of the coagulation process, the preliminary treated wastes
contain more impurities than in the case when only sedimentation is used.
The reason for this seems to be the fact that wastes after sedimentation
were collected in the influent's tank for 20 hours, so they represent the
waste composition approximating the average daily waste composition, while
the wastes after coagulation filled their tank during 15 minutes and always
in the morning hours when the waste concentration from the pens was highest.
In 1980 the process of coagulation was used very irregularly until it was
completely given up.  It resulted in a very low-Al concentration in the
wastes applied to BLWRS-12, on the average 6.9 mg/L in 1980 compared to
                                     32

-------
TABLE 8.  BLWRS WAThR BUDGbT IN 1979 and 1980 (VALUES IN MM)


Applied wastes
Precipitation
Total influent
Drained wastes
Evaporation
Change of reten-
tion in BLWRS
anaerobic zone
Potential total
effluent
Losses
Percent of Losses

BLWRS- 1
715.6
215.0
93U.6
565.6
263.0
-
828.6
102. 0
11.0

BLWRS- 2
715.6
215.0
930.6
572.5
263.0
-
835.5
95.1
10.2
1979
BLWRS-3
700.0
215.0
915. U
524.7
263.0
-
787.7
127.3
13.9

BLWRS- 4
700.0
215.0
915.0
498.3
263.0
-
761.3
153.7
16.8

BLWRS -1
1,016.8
672.0
1,688.8
1,032.7
348.4
7.b
1,388.6
300.2
17.8

BLWRS -2
1,016.8
672.0
1,688.8
1,023.9
348.4
116.3
1,488.6
200. Z
11.9
1980
BLWRS-3
1,005.0
672.0
1,677.0
1,030.2
348.4
131.2
1,509.8
167.2
10.0

BLWRS- 4
1,005.0
67Z.O
1,677.0
1,016.8
348.4
60.0
1,425.2
251.8
15.0


-------
405.5 mg/L in 1979.  However, simultaneously, thanks to the better work of
the farm and the operators of the purification plant, the concentration of
impurities in wastes decreased.  Moreover, the daily amplitude of pollutants'
concentrations was also reduced.  Therefore, it could be expected that in
1980 both kinds of wastes introduced to BLWRS would not differ greatly among
themselves, and this is so in the case of TKN, Total Suspended Solids (TSSJ,
and TP.  While the difference in the average annual COD concentration results
from the application to BLWRS-34 (during the initial period i.e. from
April 19-23, 1980J of the wastes of very high COD concentration, that at
nearly identical volumes of the wastes applied to BLWKS-12 and BLWRb-34,
gives the characteristic jump in the COD loading introduced to BLWRS-3 and
BLWRb-4 (.Figure A-4).

                TABLE 9.  LOADINGS OF IMPURITIES APPLIED TO
	BLWRS (VALUES EXPRESSED IN kg)	

                                 BLWRS-12                        BLWRS-34

TN
TKN
COD
TP

TN
TKN
COD
TP

758.4
667.4
5,794.0
325.6

712.6
656.2
3,464.0
91.6
1979
656.0
615.0
4,672.0
- 222.0
1980
748.6
697.4
5,102.0
111.6

     The wastes introduced to BLWRS in 1980 contained on the average about
eight times less SS than those used in 1979; this fact results in .a decrease
of the N    fraction in TKN.  In 1979 N    constituted in the case of
BLWRS-1^ an average of 48.9% of the TKN and in the case of BLWRS-34, 42.5%,
while in 1980 the average fraction of N    in TKN in both kinds of wastes
amounted to, respectively, 26.4% and 28.5%.
                                     34"

-------
     The result of better preliminary purification of wastes in 1980 can be
observed as a decrease in COL) concentration.  In 1979 the wastes fed to
BLWRS-12 were characterized by an average CUD concentration equal to 9737
mg CL/1, while in the case of BLWRS-34 this concentration ivas 9545 mg O^/l.
In 198U the corresponding values were equal to 4844 mg 02/1 and 6488 mg 0^/
respectively.  The ratio of TKN:COU in 1979 was identical in the case of
BLWRS-12 and BLWRb-34, 0.12, while in 1980 the TKN:COD ratio was equal
to 0.19 for BLWRS-12 and 0.15 for BLWRS-34.

     The amount of impurities fed to the BLWRS as calculated on a surface
area basis is presented in Table 10.

                   TABLE 10.  TOTAL LOADING RATfc FOR BLWRS
m . day

TN
TKN
COD
TP
TN
TKN
COD
TP
BLWRS-12
1979
0.0079
0.0070
0.0604
0.0034
1980
0.0037
0.0034
0.0178
0.0005
BLWRS-34

0.0068
0.0064
0.0496
0.0023
0.0038
0.0036
0.0262
0.0006

Erickson
n OAI
nr
Tl07/1^ iicfvl TNI "I nii-1-inn- n-P 0 0067 - ...!_>. . nnrl PHT1
S fnr thr-n RTWR0;  MiHir- m ' ^
. day

                                     35

-------
CHARACTERISTICS OF BLWRS EFFLUENTS
     Effluent quality indicates the way in which the treatment process in
BLWRS is functioning.  In the search to obtain the whole picture of the
transformations, many different methods are presented in this section.

     The average and extreme values of the concentrations of impurities in
the effluents from each BLWRS section are presented in Tables A-5 though
A-16.  Division of the results into separate sets for each of two years of
experiment the increase of pollutants' concentrations in the second year of
operation.  To enhance those differences the average annual concentrations
of the selected nitrogen forms and COD in BLWRS effluents are presented in
Table 11.  Differences in TN content of BLWRS-1 and BLWRS-4 effluents in 1979
are negligible in comparison to such differences in 1980.  This shows more
clearly the influence of the additional energy source in the second year of
BLWeS operation.  In 1980 the level of TN in the effluents increased about
501 in relation to the 1979 concentrations for BLWRS without the energy
source (1 and 4) in the forms of oxidized nitrogen and for BLWRS 2 and 3 as
TKN.  The increase of TN wasn't caused by the higher loading or the higher
concentration of nitrogen in the slurry fed to BLWRS in 1980 which can be
noticed from the comparison of Tables A-l to A-3 and A-2 to A-4.  The slower
nitrification and denitrification rates as well as the smaller losses of
ammonia at the moment of waste sprinkling can be the other causes of TN
increase.  The last supposition is denied by the increase of the N-NH.
fraction in TKN in the wastes fed to BLWRS.  Average annual concentrations
of N-NH4 and N-NH4 fraction in TKN in the raw wastes during the study are
characterized in Table 12.  The discussed increase of N-NH. fraction appeared
also in the BLWRS effluents.  Average annual N-NH, fraction in TKN for the
BLWRS effluents amounted during the study period to the values shown in
Table 13.  The slower rate of the nitrification process could be caused by
the decrease in the mineralization rate.  This last supposition is confirmed
by the decrease of the results of the waste purification from N    which was
                                                               org
observed on BLWRS in 1980 in comparison with 1979 as observed in Table 14.
                                     36

-------
TABLE 11.  AVERAGE ANNUAL CONCENTRATIONS OF THE SELECTED NITROGEN
           FORMS AND COD IN BLWRS EFFLUENTS EXPRESSED IN mg/1

Parameter

N-NH4
TKN
oxid
TN
COU
1979
BLWRS- 1
57.5
104.6
112.6
217.2
281.2
BLWRS- 2
8U.9
155.8
92.6
248.4
551.2
BLWRS- 3
62.6
93.5
104.5
198.0
291.7
BLWRS- 4
44.8
80.3
108.6
188.9
260.8
BLWRS- 1
107.5
121.4
216.8
338. 2
299.0
1980
BLWRS- 2
195.5
226.1
91.0
317 . 1
470.4
BLWRS- 3
213.0
246.6
107.1
353.7
443.8
BLWRS- 4
120.0
US. 9
160 . 7
276.6
Z69.7


-------
   TABLE 12.  AVERAGE ANNUAL N-Nfy CONCENTRATIONS IN .RAW WASTES
Year
                BLWRS
 N-NH4
(mg/lj
                                                             N-NH/TKN
I97y

1980

12
34
12
34
535.6
548.0
625.5
677.7
50.5
57.9
71.7
71.7

    TABLE 13.  AVhRAGE ANNUAL N-NH4 CONCENTRATIONS IN EFFLUENTS
                                1979
                                                                   1980
BLWRS-1
BLWRS-2
BLWRS-3
BLWRS-4
                                     71.8%
                                     68.9%
                                     78.01
                                     54.81
                        78.61
                        84.21
                        82.51
                        78.6%
          TABLE 14.  PERCENT OF ORGANIC NITROGEN REMOVAL


BLWRS- 1
BLWRS- 2
BLWRS- 3
BLWRS- 4
1979
90.0%
83.9%
92.8%
87.7%
1980
85.1%
79.7%
76.9%
86.9%
                                38

-------
     The inhibition of the rate of mineralization, nitrification and denitri-
fication processes in the second year of experiment couldn't be caused by the
inhibiting activity of the concentration of H ions because both in 1979 and
in 1980 pH of raw wastes and effluents was maintained in the range of 6.5 -
8.5, considered as the optimum pH range for these processes (Alexander, 1965;
Clayfieid, 1974).  Moreover, the average and extreme annual pH values in
BLWRS effluents and influents in 1979 and 1980 were nearly identical.

     The slower rate of the mineralization and nitrification processes which
is followed by the decrease in denitrificatioh rate was, therefore, the cause
of increase of TN concentration in BLWRS effluents in 1980.  This statement
is confirmed also by the decrease of the results of TKN and TN removal from
the wastes which was observed on BLWRS in 1980 compared with 1979 (Table 17).

     The comparison of the concentrations of nitrogen forms and COD in the
effluents from the BLWRS section equipped in the additional energy source
with the corresponding values in the effluents from the sections without
energy insert indicates that.  However, the addition of this kind of energy
source which constituted the sludges, separated mechanically from the slurry,
accelerated process of denitrification, which was reflected by the decrease
in the oxidized nitrogen forms in BLWRS-2 and BLWRS-3 effluents in comparison
with concentrations of these forms in BLWRS-1 and BLWRS-4 effluents, but
simultaneously, at the same degree ft caused TKN to be washed out.  Moreover,
because of the Cashing out of carbon compounds from energy insert, the
concentration of COD in BLWRS-2 and -3 effluents increased.

     The average concentration of TP, which in 1979 maintained in all the
effluents at the same level ranging from 1.5 mg/1 to 2.7 mg/1, increased
considerably in 198U and oscillated from 5.9 mg/1 in BLWRS-1 effluent through
6.7 mg/1 in BLWRS-2 and -3 effluents to a 10.8 mg/1 in BLWRS-4 effluent.  The
increase of the average annual concentration of TP in BLWRS-4 effluent was
caused by a considerable jump in the TP content that was observed in
December 1980 when the average monthly TP concentration in the effluent
rose to 74.7 mg/1 in comparison with the average TP concentration for the
previous period, which equalled only 4.7 mg/1.  The increase of TP

                                     39

-------
concentration was caused by the high concentration of SS which amounted to
958.7 mg/1 for the month of December 1980, in comparison to the mean value
for the previous period (April 1980 to November 1980) which was 42.0 mg/1.
The similar symptom was observed in the case of BLWRS-1, -2, and -3 efflu-
ents.  Average monthly TP concentrations in these effluents in December 1980
were respectively 35.8, 29.0, and 32.0 mg/1, while during the whole period of
1980 which proceeded December, TP concentration in the effluents from BLWRS-1,
BLWRS-2, and BLWRS-3 were, respectively, 2.9, 4.4, and 4.1 mg/1.  The rise in
TP concentration resulted from the increased amount of SS which were torn
away from the pipe at the time of sampling because of the change in the
sampling technique, which was used in the winter months, i.e. when there was
no feeding of the BLWRS with slurry.  The effluent was so low that samples
were taken from the discharge pipes with a siphon device.

     Table 15 as well as Figures A-11 through A-28, shows the accumulation of
the loads of the particular nutrients in the course of the year, indicating the
considerable increase of the loadings of impurities in BLWRS effluents in
1980 compared with 1979.

     The comparison of the loadings of impurities introduced to and drained
away from BLWRS, during the experimental period leads to the conclusion about
the reduction of the efficiency of the waste purification in BLWRS in 1980.
A similar conclusion results from the review of the removal rates of some
nutrients in BLWRS which values are presented in Table 16.

     It should be added that at the calculated rates of impurities removal,
the following periods were taken into consideration:  July 26, 1979 to
November 30, 1979 and April 16, 1980 to November 30, 1980, while December
was disregarded as the month which differed too greatly from the rest of the
months.  The same experimental period, i.e. the one in which December 1979
and December 1980 were excluded, was taken into consideration while calcu-
lating parameters of the equations describing the relationship between the
loading of removed impurities and the loading of the applied impurities, as
well as during calculations of the efficiency of the waste purification in
BLWRS.

                                      40

-------
TABLE 15.  LOADINGS OF IMPURITIES DRAINED FROM BLWRS DURING THE
L../V1 J_a^il"UjlNirVl-i I Lil\.HJLI \L'U-JMV VrtUUi-nJ 1_^U !U-.iJUljJJ .Lit j
m .
j
day


1979
Parameter BLWRS-1
TKN 5.
TO 1.
COD 1.
TP 1.
63x10" 4
23xlO"3
43x10" 3
01x10" 5
BLWRS- 2
7. 55x10" 4
1. 04x10" 3
2. 26x10" 3
1. 62x10" b
BLWRS-3
3.42xlO"4
7.83xlO"4
1.02xlO"3
9. 38x10" b
BLWRS-4
2.97xlO"4
8.92xlO"4
8.52xlO"4
8.38xlO~b
BLWRS-1
5. 80x10" 4
1. 51x10" 3
1.37xlO"3
1. 94x10 "b
1980
BLWRS- 2
1. 00x10" 3
1.44xlO"3
2. 09x10 "3
2. 40x10 "b
BLWRS-3
1.07xlO"3
1.64xlO"3
1.94xlO~3
2. 50x10" b
BLWRS-4
5.32xlO"4
1. 20x10 "3
1.30xlO"3
3.lJ3xlO"b



TABLE
16. THE RATES OF REMOVAL OF IMPURITIES IN BLWRS
(MEAN ANNUAL VALUES EXPRESSED IN kg/day)


Parameter
TKN
TN
COD
TP

BLWRS-1
2.53
^.59
22.95
1.27

BLWRS- 2
2.45
2.62
22.67
1.27
1979
BLWRS-3
2.37
2.29
18.87
0.87
1980
BLWRS-4
2.39
2.27
18.97
0.87
BLWRS-1
1.21
0.98
7.03
0.19
BLWRS -2
1.05
1.02
6.74
0.19
BLWRS-3
1.11
1.00
10.41
0.23
BLWRS-4
1.31
1.16
10.65
0.23


-------
     The efficiency of animal waste purification in BLWRS is shown in
Table 17.

     The efficiencies of slurry purification of BLWRS studied bv Erickson
(1974) are demoted in Table 18.

             TABLE 13.   REMDVAL EFFICIENCIES FOR MICHIGAN STATE
	UNIVERSITY BLWRS (ERICKSON 1974)	

          Section With Hrain                      Section Without
            Energy Insert                          Energy Insert
TKN
TN
COD
TP
86.91
90.01
25.7%
99.8%
TKN
TN
COD
. TP
99.8%
76.6%
92.4%
99.9%

Data analysis indicates that we obtained slightly worse results in TN and
TKN removal while better effects as far as COD removals are concerned.

     The comparison of both, the level of concentration in the case of such
indicators as TKN, TN, and COD (excluding TP) in BLWRS effluents as well as
the efficiency of waste purification shows that BLWRS-34 fed with wastes
without aluminium sulphate constituted the part of the experimental BLWRS
which worked best.  BLWRS-4 appeared to be the best section, both in the
whole experimental period and each year.  The introduction of the additional
energy source didn't change the effect of the TN removal from the wastes;
however, it reduced the efficiency of the removal of carbon compounds and
TKN.  This fact makes the use of sludges as the additional energy source
for the process of denitrification in BLWRS undesirable.

     The relationship between monthly applied and removed loadings of TKN,
TN, COD, and TP during the experiment and for all BLWRS sections together are
presented in Figures A-29 through A-32.  In all the cases this relationship
can be described by the -straight line equation which parameters are as follows:
                                     42

-------
TABLE 17.  EFFECT OF WASTE PURIFICATION IN BLWRS  (VALUbS EXPRESSED IN  %)

1979
Parameter
TKN
'IN
COD
TP
BLWRS
1
93.9
87.4
98.2
99.8
BLWRS
2
91.0
88.4
97.0
99.6
BLWRS
3
95.5
89.4
98.3
99.6
BLWRS
4
96.4
89.4
98.8
99.7
BLWRS
1
86.2
65.1
94.3
97.7
1980
BLWRS
" 2
74.9
67.6
90.4
96.6
BLWRS
3
75.4
64.2
94.5
97.3
BLWRS
4
89.0
74.2
96.8
98.1
BLWRS
1
90. 1
76.8
96.8
99.3
1979 + 1980
BLWRS
'L
83.1
78.5
94.6
99.0
BLWRS
3
85.0
76.3
96.3
98.9
BLWRS
4
92.5
81.5
97.8
99.1


-------
Parameters of the equation are:
          y = b + ax                                                  (3)
     where:  y - applied loading, kg
             x - removed loading, kg

     As shown in the results from Table 19, the correlation between removed
and applied loadings is significant at the probability level of making the
mistake <_ 0.001.  During the whole experimental period, in the case of all
mentioned nutrients and for all BLWRS sections, the removedloading of
impurities increased together with the increase of the applied loading of
impurities.  As it results from the numerical values of a and b constants
(shown in Table 19) in the case of all four indicators i.e.:   TKN, TN, COD,
and TP at the invesitgated loading range, the degree of purification
increased together with the load.  It resulted, of course, from the higher
effects of purification obtained during the first year of BLWRS operation,
despite applying at this time higher loadings than in the following year.

         TABLE 19.  .CORRELATION BETWEEN REMOVED .AND APPLIED LOADING
                                                                 Theoretical
                                         r           1 - a       Correlation
           -,/                       Correlation   Correlation    Coefficient
Nutrient  N-'     b     .     a      .Coefficient.. Probability   for a = 0.001
TKN
TN
COD
TP
50
50
50
52
-6.8787
-8.9223,
-13.8673
-0.1369
1.0093
0.9533
1.0040
1.0004
0.9903
0.9866
0.9994
1.0000
0.999
0.999
0.999
0.999
0.449
0.449
0.449
0.443

-Number of pairs of monthly applied and removed loadings of impurities
  calculated for 4 BLWRS sections and 13 months of experiment.

TRANSFORMATIONS OF IMPURITIES IN BLWRS VERTICAL PROFILE
Basic Relationships

     Fixation, decomposition, and elution of applied impurities and of
generated products of transformations take place in the course of filtering
                                     44

-------
the wastes through a BLWRS bed, as a result of many different physical,
chemical, and biological processes.  Description of the kinetics of these
transformations for the respective constituents or indicators of pollution
should constitute the significant argument of the presented results.  As the
section dealing with kinetics will show, the results didn't meet the expec-
tations.  Therefore, this chapter, which was first foreseen as definitely
descriptive, had to be transformed into a form containing the trial of the
mathematical interpretation.

     The applied range of the transformations' control made possible the
analysis of only the choosen indicators, as the elements changed with the
increase of the percolation pathway "m", i.e. the thickness of the bed.
These analyzed indicators were as follows:

  -.  COD transformation could be considered as the process of mineraliz-
     ation of organic substances but that is not exact because COD,
     as determined in the nonfilter samples, includes also a solid and
     colloidal fraction; therefore, the indicated transformations may not
     necessarily have been caused by the decomposition of the organic
     substances.  However, if we accept that the results collected during
     the longer period of investigations, characterize some already
     stabilized state of equilibrium, COD transformations can be treated
     as the effect of mineralization; exclusively.
  -  N   , on the basis of the same principle, through its losses,
     characterizes the process of ammonification.
  -  TKN characterizes, through its losses, the nitrification process.
  -  TN describes in the same way the process of denitrification.
  -  TP describes the process of its elimination.
  -  The change in the content of SS supplements the analyzed processes.

     The above mentioned processes are presented in the form of definite
dependence on the thickness of the bed, which can be treated as the time
equivalent if the kinetic approach to the transformations is concerned.  The
mean values for both BLWRS from the periods of 1979 and 1980 constituted the
                                     45

-------
results, which were considered not in the physical but in the mathematical
description.  The arithmetic mean from each BLWRS and each year entered the
population of given level "m" as the degree of freedom.  These results were
referred to the correspondent thicknesses from the six investigated ones
i.e.:  0, 30, 80, 140, 160, and 180 cm.  Considering the logarithmic
relationships instead of m = 0, the close but bigger than zero value was
introduced.  Three of the given levels are situated in the anaerobic zone,
but the investigations on the correlation sigificance indicated their
compactness with the aerobic zone.

     The tested forms of the mathematic relationships indicated the highest
significance for the following equation:

         -!?- - b ma                                                  (4J
     where:  C  and C  initial concentration and concentration on the
             "m" level, a and b - equation parameters given in Table 20.

The presented equations and parameters constitute the basis for the further
considerations and calculations.
      TABLE 20.  PARAMETERS OF EQUATION 4 FOR THE RESPECTIVE INDICATORS
Indicator
COD
Norg
TKN
Noxid
TN
TP
SS
a
-0.6286
-0.4971
-0.4492
+0.6386
-0.2475
-0.7686
-0.6182
b
1.1748
1.1947
1.1850
0.8596
1.0323
1.3141
0.9152
r
-0.9248
-0.8476
-0.8976
+0.9633
-0.9229
-0.8730
-0.7697
T
exp
11.4
7.49
9.55
13.43
10.30
8.40
5.65
Tt
a = 0.001
3.73
3.73
3.73
4.14
3.73
3.73
3.73

     Presenting these considerations, we are conscious of the imperfection of
the statistical interpretation; however, this interpretation was the only one

                                     46

-------
that could be obtained, and the one which enables a relatively simple repro-
duction of the transformations picture.

     The form of equations limits their application to m > 1.5 cm.  There-
fore, the discussed equations do not include the transformations on the
surface and in the upper 1.5 cm layer of BLWRS bed.

COD - Organic Carbon Relation
     Oxidation of organic compounds to intermediate products or considerable
    Lzed final products should cause the decrease of tl
above statement was investigated for each BLWRS level.
oxidized final products should cause the decrease of the COD:C    ratio.  The
     Pairs for which the COD:Cor  ratio wasn't in the range of 1.5 - 5.3,
i.e. these results which were charged with random error, were eliminated
from the processed data set.  The rest of the data went through linear regres-
sion and the parameters in Table 21 were obtained for the correlation
equation:
          Correlation COD = a C    + b                                  (5)

           TABLE 21.  .PARAMETERS FOR.COD:C    CORRELATION EOUATION

Level m
0
30
80
140
160
180
Z '
I - 0
N
29
15
31
113
116
67
371
342
COD
g/1
7.2429
1.1503
0.6921
0.4046
0.4111
0.3227
0.9806
0.4495
org
g/1
2.5387
0.4023
0.2381
0.1672
0.1665
0.1421
0.3632
0.1788
; a
3.948
2.810
3.474
2.420
2.432
1.846
3.187
..2.745
b.
-2.781
0.020
0.135
0.000
0.006
0.060
-0.177
-0.041:
r
0.9401
0.8624
0.8819
0.8882
0.8704
0.8881
0.9580
0.8819
                                     47

-------
     All above mentioned relationships are statistically significant for
a = 0.001.  The fact that results for "0" level do not fit the rest of the
data is clearly shown in Table 21.  It is quite natural, as in the wastes
applied to BLWRS surface are also substances without carbon, i^hich undergo
oxidation in the conditions of COD determination and organic sustances
which are oxidized very easily or they are strained out on the BLWRS surface.
Therefore, these substances do not appear in the samples taken within the
BLWRS at lower levels.  However, value "b" is statistically insignificant
and can be omitted.  The value of regression coefficient decreases
considerably with 'the increase of the degree of elimination of impurities
or with the oxidation degree.

     The whole data set, with the high correlation coefficient, can also be
expressed by a single equation, which with the omission of the insignificant
constant "b" gives a straight line going through the origin of coordinates
and with a slope coefficient equal to 3.0987.

Quantitative Changes of Organic Substance in Solid Phase

     Depositing of the solid organic -substance (VSSJ takes place in BLWRS as
the result of application of impurities and their decomposition.  It is
expressed by the increase in tne biomass of microorganisms and depositing
of SS carried in by the wastes (VSS,,).  However, the endogenous decompo-
sition of the biomass and VSSg takes place in parallel to the other
processes.  This complex of processes leads to definite states of equilibrium
at the respective BLWRS levels.  Parameters, which form this state, were
determined using equations given in the proceeding sections as well as the
results of the transformations in the composition of soil used in the BLWRS.

     The scatter of the results of VSS transformations in the vertical
profile of BLWRS soil, taken from the direct measurements, is so big that
they are not as confident as TKN results.  That is why VSS was calculated
from TKN, assuming that VSS = TKN :  0.124, which corresponds to 12.4% of
nitrogen content in the suspended solids.
                                     48

-------
     TKN content in BLWRS vertical profile in relation to the thickness (m)
through which the wastes flow, can be described for the mean values from the
whole period of BLWRS operation by the equation with a correlation coeffi-
cient r = 0.9513, T    = 9.26 while T. = 5.04 for a = 0.001.
              -  '  exp               t
     This equation after recalculating into VSS gives the expression:
                        -0.8328
          VSS = 35,28b m
     where:  m - thickness, cm.
                                   dm
                 (6)
Looking for the correlation between the value of the increase of VSS in the
BLWRS soil and the removed COD load resulted in the following relationship:
-A
VSS
VSS . t





where
a
b
r
exp
Tt
AVSS0
w j. ^
VSS . t a

= 0.49
= 0.00229
= 0.999
= 132.2
= 5.04 '
                          A COD - 1.33 A VSS
                                            o
                                 VSS
                                               - b
dav
   -T
                 (7)
Resulting from this equation the rise of the unit biomass growth with "the
increase of the depth of BLWRS bed and the decrease of the unit COD loss is
caused, probably, by the variable rate of decomposition and depositing of
the suspended solids carried in by the wastes  (VSS ).

     Analogical correlation related to A COD of the unfiltered samples
without taking into consideration VSS , indicates the invariability of the
unit VSS growth in the bed along the whole vertical BLWRS profile with the
accuracy reaching the third place.  Simultaneously, after the period of
BLWRS adaptation, the increase of the VSS in the bed isn't observed, that
indicates the development of the state of equilibrium in the process of the
biomass synthesis, depositing and biochemical oxidation of the organic
matter.

                                     49

-------
Transformations of Nitrogen Compounds

     Discussion of the parameters of equation 4 for N   , TKN, and TN leads
to the conclusion that TN losses proceed with lower velocity but in a way
similar to the losses of other nitrogen forms.  Assuming that TN losses
result from denitrification, this course of the process is hardly probable
as it is hardly probable that intensive nitrification takes place in the
upper 30 cm BLWRS layer at the applied loadings.  Perhaps ammonia losses
constitute the dominant factor here.  Unfortunately the determinations of
initial concentrations on the surface of BLWRS were not conducted.  In each
case TN losses accompany proportionally the processes of mineralization and
nitrification.  The N balance expressed, for the particular forms, as the
percentage of the initial amount of TN are presented in Table 22.  This
balance was prepared on the basis of mathematical relations up to 2.0 m of
thickness and zero values obtained from the data characterizing wastes
applied to BLWRS.

          TABLE 22.  NITROGEN BALANCE WITHIN THE BLWRS EXPRESSED
                     AS A PERCENTAGE OF THE INITIAL TN

Thickness, cm
TN
N
org
N-NH4
TKN
N-N09 + N-NO, = Nn . ,
L 3 oxid
AN = TN - CTKN+N . ,)
N = A N
ammonif org
Nnitr I - A TKN
Ndenitr l = A 
0
100.0
43.5

56.0
99.5
0.5
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
10
58.4
16.5

25.4
41.9
3.7
12.8
27.0
57.6
41,6
50
39.2
7.4

12.9
20.3
10.5
8.4
36.1
79.2
60.6
100
33.0
5.3

9.6
14.9
16.3
1.8
38.2
84.6
67.0
200
27.8
3.7

7.2
10.9
25.3
-9.4
39.8
88.6
72.2

A N indicated in the balance is caused by the inaccuracy of the mathematical
description of TN, TKN, and NQxi(i transformations.   The presented N. balance
confirms the conclusions'which were previously brought forward.
                                     50

-------
Transformations of Phosphorus Compounds

     The phosphorus compounds applied to the BLWRS in the form of organic and
mineral substances were removed up to a very high degree.  The degree of TP
removal increases with the increase of BLWRS loading; in 1979 it exceeded
991, and in 1980 it was reduced to 941 -96%.  These effects were calculated
from the balance of monthly loadings.  The relationship between the removed
and applied loads can be expressed by the following equation:
     L  = 1.0004  L    - 0.1369                                       (8)
      r            app
with the very high correlation coefficient equal to 1.000.

     The transformation of phosphorus compounds, through P fixation in the
synthesis of the cellar mass, oxidation to phosphates and their fixation as
well as adsorption in BLWRS bed caused the reduction of P concentration in
BLWRS vertical profile.  This includes the concentration of TP in the liquid
phases as well as the concentration of this element in BLWRS soil.

     The relationship between these two parameters on the basis of laboratory
investigations can be expressed by the Freundlich isotherm according to
Erickson (1974).  In our investigations, conducted under field conditions,
such concentration of-the liquid samples in the vertical profile, as it was
in the case of soil samples, was impossible.  This is why, as we wanted to
test the above mentioned relationship, phosphorus concentrations in liquid
(c) at the corresponding levels of BLWRS soil were extrapolated, based on
the statistically adjusted (with the support of a regression equation)
results from the five levels and for the period of the month prior to the
day of the soil sampling.

     The following equation was applied here:
          IgC = b = am                                                (9)
     where:  c ^- ; m - cm
with the results shown in Table 23.
                                     51

-------
      TABLh 23.  RESULTS OF EQUATION IgC = b = am FOR.P TRANSFORMATION

Location

BLWRS-12-79
BLWRS-34-79
BLWRS-12-80
J3LWRS-34-80

r

-0.9502
-0.9408
-0.9637
-0.9403

T
exp
17.51
15.20
20.09
14.88
t
a = 0.001

3.65
3.65
3.65
3.65

a

-0.0107
-0.0097
-0.0101
-0.0092

b

2.1804
2.3729
2.0188
1.9899

N

35
32
33
31

These equations are not very good in the description of the transformations
occurring in the upper 25 cm layer of BLWRS soil, in which the experimental
concentration gradient is higher than the calculated one.
     Data adjusted in the described way were applied to:
     Langmuir isotherm
          1-1   +    1
          x     ^    Ex^T                                          (10J
     where:  x - P concentration in soil, ppm
            x_ - maximum P concentration for the given soil, ppm
     and Freundlich isotherm
                         1
          lg x = Ig k
                         n
lg c
CH)
     where:  c - P concentration in wastes, mg/1
             b, k, n - constants
gave the following results respectively as seen in Table 24.

      TABLE 24.  RESULTS OF LANGMUIR AND FREUNDLICH ISOTHERM ON P DATA

r

0.6461
0.6867
T
exp
4.13
5.26
Tt
a = 0.001

3.65
3.65
N

33
33


xm = 246.6
k = 28.87


b = 0.0367
n = 2.3981
                                     52

-------
     Analyzing the data in Table 24, one can see a slightly better approxima-
tion of the Freundlich isotherm.  BLWRS-34 data from 1980 were omitted in
these calculations as they determined the distribution of phosphorus in the
soil samples from BLWRS vertical profile in the completely random way, and
conducting the interpretation of these results is impossible.

     On the basis of phosphorus content in BLWRS soil, determined as the
weighed mean of the depths, the loading of TP retained in BLWRS was cal-
culated and then these values were compared with the TP loadings removed
from wastes during each year of BLWRS operation.  These comparisons are
shown in Table 25.

        TABLE 25.  COMPARISON OF TP LOADINGS AND TP REMOVED IN BLWRS

BLWRS

1
2
3
4
Total


TP
Removed
1979

162.4
162.1
110.8
110.8
546.1


TP
Found
1979

108.4
87.3
83.8
136.9
416.4


TP
Removed
1980
_____ VfT -
Kg
44.1
43.7
53.6
52.4
193.8


TP
Found
1980

77.9
77.8
116.8
58.0
330. S


TP
Removed
Total

206.5
205.8
164.4
163.2
739.9


TP
Found
Total

186.3
165.1
200.6
194.9
746.9

     Special satisfaction can be found in comparing total loadings for the
whole experimental period.  However, it should be realized that this compati-
bility is caused to a higher degree by chance, rather than by the balance
precision.  The results show clearly enough by comparing the rest of the pairs
of values, that the correlation is not statistically signficant:
          CTexp = 0.94; Tt =     2.45).                               (12}
                         a = 0.05
                                     53

-------
KINETICS OF POLLUTANTS' TRANSFORMATIONS IN BLWRS VERTICAL PROFILE
     Transformations of N and C compounds in vertical BLWRS profile were
described by matching the suitable mathematical model from the ones most
frequently applied to these transformations.  Ten equations, describing the
processes of waste purification, therefore processes resembling the ones
wnich were investigated in BLWRS, were selected from the accessible litera-
ture data.  Time was replaced by the thickness in all equations.  The
analyzed equations had the following form:
     Cm = CQ .  k .  m
                -km
     Cm ' Co '  e
     Cm = CQ .  b . m
     C  =    u
      m   1 + km
        m . F
                               r-_i
                             a  '  CGO + V
                                              (13)

                                              U4J

                                              (15)

                                              (16)

                                              (17)
         F . m
      m .  F .  y
* F
                             k2.C  Q
                              *  A
1    m .  F.
                   D = -2.51 + 1.85 Ig
                                                       .D
                                                                      (18)
                                                  C19J
      m .  F .
  '.T.C  Q
   m  . F  . Y
.   Q
TTTv^
                                           C  .  Q
                                              (20)
                                     54

-------
      C   =  C-  .  e-                                                     (21)
      m
     C0'  ' CONK -  -043  '  COC
                                                                       C22)

      In the  above mentioned ten  equations the  following symbols were used:

      C        -  concentration of  the  investigated parameter  in the wastes
                applied  to  BLWRS, mg/1
      Cm      -  concentration of  the  investigated parameter  after going
                through  the layer of  the "m" thickness, mg/1
      m        -  thickness,  cm
      k        -  reaction rate constant, cm"
      F        -  BLWRS surface = 750 . 104 on2
      Q        -  amount of wastes  applied to BLWRS, 1  . day "^
      a,b,n    -  equations'  parameters
      Y        -  bulk density of BLWRS soil = 1.55 . 10" 3 kg. cm"3

      z   =   8.92 . 10"1                 z'  =  4.64  . 10
      kj  =   2.16 . 10'3                 kj  =  1.62  . 10'3
      k2  =   2.70 . 10"2                 k^  =  2.38  . 10"1
      k3  =   3.92 . 10'1                 k^  =  -2.51  . 10

Values  z, k^, k2, k^, z', k|, k2', and k^ came from the computer model of
simulation of dynamic bio-physicochemical processes occurring in soil,
developed by Dutt et al. (1972).

     T  - average temperature for the given thickness, c
     GX - N    average concentration for the given thickness, mg/1
     C  - N-NH4 average concentration for the given thickness,  mg/1
     C  - N-NCL average concentration for the given thickness,  mg/1
      Z       O
     GC - average concentration of C    f0r the given thickness,  mg/1
                                    55

-------
     Average concentration of the analyzed parameters for the given thickness
was calculated by taking into consideration the percentage fraction of each
zone.
     LOTKN " T^ concentration in wastes applied to BLWKS mg/1
     Cnr   - C    concentration in wastes fed to BLWRS mg/i.
      wvj      \j i y

     Equations 13 - 16 are characteristic for the kinetics of the process of
biological treatment of waste.  The relationship between the process rate and
time was approximated here respectively by a pseudo-zero-order, pseudo-first-
order, and pseudo- second-order reaction, with the use of the generally applied
equations.  Equation 17 is the form of Michaelis-Menten (Michaelis-Menten,
1913J relationship in the development of Lineweaver-Burk (Dawes, 1967 ),
describing kinetics of enzymatic reactions.  Equation 18 expresses the
Haseltine function (Haseltine, 1957), defining the relation between the
removed and applied loading.  Equations 19 and 20 are the equations of
ammonification and nitrification developed from the computer model of the
simulation of dynamic bio-physicocnemical processes occurring in soil and
given by R. Dutt et al. (ly72j.  Equations 21 and 22 are the modifications
of equation characteristic for pseudo-first-order reaction; in Equation 2l
the influence of (J/N ratio (in the waste applied to BLWRS J on the rate of
nitrification was taken into account.  Here the relationships given by
Reddy et al. (lb>79 J were followed.  In Equation 22, based on the work of
Rolston et al. (lySOj, the influence of the concentration of C   , contained
in tne wastes, on the nitrification rate was taken into account.

     liquations 13 - 18 were checked for the following five parameters:  TKN,
N   , TN, COD, and C   .  Equation 19 was applied only for the transforma-
tions of N   .  Equations 2Q and 21 were employed exclusively tor TKN
transformations, and Equation 22 served for describing the process of deni-
trification as the loss of TN.

     Transformations of N and (J forms of pollutants in BLWRS vertical profile
were described based on the four control levels in the aerobic zone i.e. on
the depth of 0, U.3, 0.8, and 1.2 m, while the concentration of the investi-
gated compounds on the depth of 1.4 m, therefore already in the saturated

                                     56

-------
zone, but from the section without additional energy source, were assumed to
represent the concentration of the investigated parameters on the 1.2 m
level.  The mathematical interpretation of pollutants' transformations
occurring in the BLWRS anaerobic zone was impossible because there was not
enough controlled levels in the saturated part of the vertical profile.
                               \
     The usefulness of the above mentioned ten equations were checked by
applying the regression analysis.  Because of the complex form of "x" and
"y" expressions and their multicomponent composition, raw data were
complemented with the mean values for the time period when the gap existed,
in such a way as to keep the size of the sets identical before starting
the statistical analysis.  This was done to prevent the elimination of a
great number of data, as the result of missing data for one of the
elements.  Moreover, all data coming from the time periods in which the
average temperature for the analyzed level was equal or lower than 4 C were
excluded, because at this temperature the rate of several of the described
processes becomes equal to zero according to Dutt et al. (1972) and Gilmour
et al. (1977).  Therefore, the analyzed experimental period was reduced both
in 1979 and 1980 by eliminating December as inconclusive.  Independently
from this, the influence of the temperature was taken into account by
adjusting the rate constant (K) for changes in the temperature, using the
generally applied expression:

                       VT2
              = k,,  . Q L  *                                          (23)
                 1
     where:
              - rate constant corrected for temperature changes in the
            1   soil system;
          k-  - rate constant measured under optimum temperature;
           [2
          T,  - temperature of the system to which rate constant needs to
                be corrected,  C;
          T-  - temperature at which rate constant was measured, C; and
          Q   - 1.07, temperature correction coefficient.
                                     57

-------
     Expression Z3, as it was shown by Walter et al.  (1974), can be applied
for the mineralization only for the temperature range of 0 to 35C.

     The influence of pH was taken into consideration only for the process of
nitrification, which is sensible for the range of pH changes, that were
observed during BLWRS operation.  From the data reported by Dancer et al.
(.19 /3), Frederick and Broadbent (1966), and Hagin and Amberger (.1974), the
following relationship was obtained to estimate relative rate of nitrifica-
tion:  F H = 0.307 pH - 1.269 for 4.5 <_ pH <_ 7.0; F H = 1.00 for 7.0 <_
pH <_ 7.4; and F H = 5.367 - 0.599 pH for 7.4  pH  9.0.

     The influence of soil moisture on the rate of ammonification, nitrifica-
tion, denitrification, and decarboxylation was considered in the calculations
of the process rate constant, with the assumption that the rate constant is
not clean and contains element F , which expresses the relative rate (.ranging
from 0.0 to l.OOj of these processes.  The Fm value for the processes of
ammonification, nitrification, and decarboxylation was assumed to be constant
and equal to O.b6 of their optimum rate.  Daily moisture measurements were
impossible because they would have produced process disturbances.  Therefore,
the number of soil samplings was limited to several times during the experi-
ment.  That is why the calculations of the relative rate of the processes
"F " was based on the average moisture characteristic for the soil in the
aerobic BLWRS zone during the time of experiment.  Ihis moisture content was
equal to 7.70%, while the moisture corresponding to 60% of the soil satura-
tion, reported by Kononova (.1961) and Greaves and Carter (1920) as the
optimum in the processes of ammonification, nitrification, and decarboxyla-
tion, will be 11.69% for the BLWRS soil.

     The determination of F  value for the process of denitrification
appeared to be impossible because of the lack of data characterizing this
process in the aerobic zone conditions with anaerobiosis appearing only
locally.  The empirical curve of the dependence of Fm, for denitrification,
on relative soil-water content (water content/saturated water content)
given by Rolston et al. (1980) breaks off on the level of relative moisture
equal to 0.79 of the soil saturation.

                                     58

-------
     Statistical analysis carried for all mentioned parameters and equations
showed that Equation 18 was the only one that the correlation coefficient
exceeded 0.7.  The rest of the equations were characterized by the correla-
tion coefficients contained in Table 26.

     High correlation coefficients for Equation 18 were observed in the case
of all analyzed parameters, all combinations of BLWRS sections, and each
investigated period of experiment.  Moreover, in each of these cases correla-
tions appeared to be statistically significant because T    was always higner
                                                        c.xp
than T  read from the tables for the given signficance level and for the
described degrees of freedom.

     The results of the statistical analysis carried for the simple regres-
sion y = b + ax where:

          -u^Vii

                 s Q
          x - Ig --p                                               (2b)

are contained in Table 27.

     The investigations of the significance of the differences between the
regression coefficients of the equations (.derived on the basis of Equation
18J carried out based on the "T" test, showed the'lack of significant
differences between the sets of data characteristics for BLWRS-lZ and
BLWRS-34, both in 1979 and in 1980, in the case of such indicators of pollu-
tion as COD, C   , TKN, and N   .  Therefore, transformations of these
pollutants, in vertical profile of BLWRS aerobic zone during the whole
experimental period, can be described by a single equation, which is common
for all the sets of data concerning the investigated indicators of pollution.
Transformations of C compounds can be described by the following equations:
(COD0 - CUD"1) .  Q  a  8ufu ,COD .  Q.0.9755  3
                      >
                                               dm  .  day
C26)

-------
TABLE 26.  THE RANGE OF CORRELATION COEFFICIENTS
           FOR EQUATIONS 13 - 17 AND 19 - 22

Equation
Number
13




14




15




16




17




19

20
21
22
Parameter
COD
C
TOP
N
TNrg
COD
C
TKRS
N
TNrg
COD
C
l'KNg
N
TN"rg
COD
C
TOJg
N
Tftrg
1 COD
C 
Tgfig
N
TNrg
N
org
TKN
TKN
TN
r
From
-0.22
-0.06
-0.25
-0.10
-0.37
-0.27
-0.19
-0.31
-0.21
-0.57
-0.30
-0.12'
-0.27
-0.23
-0.36
0.15
0.21
0.23
0.04
0.33
-0.01
-0.03
0.01
0.00
0.06
0.01

0.06
-0.30
-0.26

To
-0.36
-0.18
-0.51
-0.19
-0.44
-0.57
-0.41
-0.71
-0.50
-U.5S
-0.51
-0.33
-0.65
-0.42
-0.52
0.44
0.38
0.66
0.39
0.56
-0.21
-0.21 -
-0.32
-0.13
-0.32
-0.77

0.40
-0.72
-0.56

                        60

-------
TABLE 27.  PARAMETERS OF THE REGRESSION EQUATION y = b + ax, CHARACTERIZING EXPRESSION 18
           AT THE ASSUMED LEVEL OF THE CORRELATION PROBABILITY 1 - a = 99%

Combination
ol- BI.1VRS
Nutrient Sections
1 2
TK.N 12
34
J2+34
12
34
12+34
.12
34
12+34
N I1
orp' 34
12+34
12
34
12+34
12
34
12+34
TN 12
34
12+34
12
34
12+34
\i
34
12+34

Year
3
79
79
79
80
80
80
79+81)
79+80
79+80
/9
79
79
80
80
80
79+80
79+80
79+80
79 
79
79
80
8(J
80
79+80
79+8U
79+80 
Degrees
of
Freedom
N-2
4
51
44
99
73
7.5
148
128
119
247
4/
40
89
5b
54
111
104
96
202
42
38
82
3/
12
51
81
52
1.55
Correlation
Coefficient
r
5
0.89
0.98
0.94
0.94
0.81
0.88
0.92
0.92
0.92
0.93
0.96
0.95
0.90
0.87
0.88
0.93
0.92
0.93
0.83
0.96
0.92
0.81
0.92
0.83
0.84
0.96
0.90
exp
6
14.02
30.51
26.39
23.65
11.89
22.05
26.92
24.99
36.83
18.01
21.13
29.01
15.54
13.05
20.0U
26.63
22.93
35.24
9.58
22.58
21.81
8.42
8.08
10.67
14.09
24.47
24.28
Tt
7
2.680
2.695
2.632
2.651
2.651
2.576
2.576
2.617
2.576
2.689
2.704
2.639
2.671
2.673
2.023
2.629
2.634
2.576
2.700
2.741
2.644
2.718
3.055
2.680
2.64b
2.678
2.576
Regression
Free
Coefficient Term
a
8
0.9157
0.9465
0.9087
0.9101
0.81)87
0.8588
0.8665
0.90/1
0.8850
0.9609
0.9849
0.9837
0.9999
0.9820
U.9897
0.9903
0.9896
0.9953
0.7781
0.9971
0.9148
0.8809
1.0192
0.9133
0.8694
1.0008
0.9306
b
9
-0.1252
-0.0607
-0.0747
-0.0439
-O.U032
-0.0237
-0.0350
-0.0587
-0.0463
-O.U631
-0.1225
-0.1005
-0.1094
-0.1579
-0.1330
-0.0975
-0.1456
-0.1234
-0.0259
-0.1785
-0.1407
-0.2094
-0.2176
-0.2087
-0.1597
-0.1873
-0.1821
Standard
Error Sum of the
of the Error
Regression Squares
Coefficient E$S = ,
s

0
0
' 0
0
0
0
0
t)
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
u
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
la)
10
.0653
.3102
.3443
.3848
.068U
.0390
.0322
.0363
.0240
.0533
.0466
.0339
.0643
.0752
.0495
.0372
.0432
.0282
.0812
.0442
.0419
.1046
.1261
.0856
.0617
.0409
.0383
U-4

0
11
19
7
7
14
17
19
36
11
15
29
13
15
28
31
32
65
4
11
15
4
1
6
10
13
23
my-yT
11
.8030
.1224
.4575
.0981
.0094
.1167
.6173
.1331
.9865
.9034
.8b90
.8199
.5807
.0323
.6623
.6138
.0792
.1542
.0293
.5111
.7592
.3243
.6430
.0430
.0209
.2497
.2/19
(Continued)

-------
TABLE 27 Continued
Combination
of BtWRs
Nutrient Sections
1 2
COD 12
34
12+34
\i
34
12+34
12
34
12+34
Cor Vi
34
L2+34
12
34
12+34
~\i
34
12+34


Year
3
7y
79
79
80
80
80
79+80
/9+80
79+80
79
79
79
80
80
8U
79+80
79+80
79+80
Degrees
of
Freedom
N-2
4
52
45
99
73
73
148
127
UO
Z49
41
45
88
6b
/O
137
108
117
227
Correlation
Coefficient
r
5
0.98
0.99
0.98
0.97
0.83
0.8/
0.98
0.93
0.9b
0.80
0.94
0.89 
0.89
0.94
0.92
0.86
0.94
0.90
T
exp
b
33.48
42.89
5f>.36
33.31
12.96
21.89
56.78
27.88
48.36
8.51
IB . b3
18.74
16.10
Ll.lb
26.94
17.61
^9.22
32. Ob
Tt
7
2.678
2.693
2.632
2.651
2.651
Z.576
2.b76
2.617
2.5/6
2.702
2.693
2.640
2.656
2.653
2.b76
2.625
2.62U
2.b76
Regression
Free
Coefficient Term
a
8
0.9969
0.9924
0.9900
0.8903
0.9484
0.91y4
0.9484
0.988b
0.9733
0.9923
1.0030
0.9899
1.0010
1.0470
1.0^47
0.9590
1.0198
0.9932
b
y
-0.0923
-0.0637
-0.0698
0.0441
-0.0483
0.0235
0.0056
0.0897
-0.0b04
-0.1908
-0.1640
-0.1678
-0.121b
-0.1784
-O.iSOl
-0.1056
-0.1626
-0.1390
Standard
Error
of the
Regression
Coefficient
s (a)
10
0.0298
0.0231
0.0176
0.0267
0.0732
0.0420
0.0167
0.035b
0.0201
0.116b
0.0541
0.0b28
0.0622
0.04/0
0.0380
0.0b45
0.0349
0.0310
Sum of the
Error
Squares
ESS =
(1-4 my-y)
il
9.4868
18.0869
28.5401
5.b908
12.75/9
18.3b37
21.3706
32.84b7
b4.8l3b
11.2706
18.9277
31.4581
12.0765
14.2114
26.4213
2S.b87y
33.1391
58.9989


-------
      - C   )   0
        LorgJ '  ^
     m .  F
                    =  U.7Z61
,u     0
"org '  ^}0.9932
                                     F
                                                      mg
                   dm  .  day
                                                                      (27)
Process of ammonification is characterized by the expression:
      '      )
     m
                    .  0.75,
                                    F
                                                    jng_
                                                  dm  .  day
Process of nitrification determined by reduction of TKN can be expressed by
the following equation:
      - TKN111) . Q  =
      m .  F
/i'KN0 .  CK U.8850
1 m . F  J
                                                     mg
                                                  dm   . day
                                      (29)
     in the case of TN in 1979 the significant difference between  the  set
of data characteristics for BLWRS-12 and BLWRS-34 was noted; however in  198U,
these differences were insignificant.  The comparison of 1979 and  1980 data
sets characteristics for BLWRS-12 and the same analyses carried out for
BLWRS-34 indicated that for TN differences between years are statistically
insignificant.  It was also shown, still based on the T test, that differ-
ences between data set characteristics for BLWRs-lZ for the whole
experimental period and the corresponding BLWRS-34 data set are insignifi-
cant.  This fact enables the description-of the TN transformations in  the
vertical profile of BLWRb aerobic zone, during the whole experimental  period,
with the help of the following equation, characteristics for the process of
denitrification in the aerobic zone of the vertical BLwRS profile:
CiN -  TN371)  .  Q =  Q 65./5    TN .Q 0.9306
    F .  m           "          F .  m
                                                 mg
                                              dm   . day
                                                                      C30)
                                      63

-------
For the practical use of the above described equations, the following forms
of these expressions are proposed:
           m      ,      ,-F . nul-b                                     / ?-, *
               =  1 - a. (7, - ft)                                        (.31 J
          Co
          C  - C
                   -     F 
                  m          '-a                                 C33J
     where:  n =
OXYGEN CONDITIONS IN BLWRS

     Oxygen conditions in the experimental bed were described by the  oxygen
balance.  The oxygen demand for the biochemical transformations  taking place
in 10 cm layers of BLWRS was estimated based on the following relationship:

02 = a' .A COD + c1 . A TKN + c"  . A TKN - d'  . A TN  - d"  .. A TN     (34)

     where:  a' = (1 - a . 1.42) = 1.0
             c' = k . 4.60
             c"  1 . 0.67 . 4.60
             d1 = k . 2.86
             d" = 1 . 0.67 . 2.86

Values of A COD, A TKN, and A TN for the selected layers were estimated  from
the equations given in the preceding section.  Coefficient  a' =  1.0 is the
consequence of A COD of unfiltered sample and results  also  from  the calcula-
tions presented in the kinetics section.  Values of 4.60  _2  ,  and
      e 0
2.86  ,5' 2.. are conversion factors generally applied in nitrification and
                                     64

-------
denitrification k and 1 values equal, respectively, 0.95 and 0.05, illus-
trate the average participation of N-NO, and N-NO^ in the above mentioned
processes.  The average ratio of N-NO,:N-N02 in BLWRS, calculated on the
values of both of these N forms in the wastes sampled at depths of U, 30,
8(J, 140, 160, and 18U on excluding the sampling points below the energy
source, equals iy.5.  Value 1.54 is the average from the value of 1.66 i.e.
the Total Oxygen Demand (TOD) of the raw wastes sludge calculated from
Table Z8 and the generally applied value of 1.42 i.e. TOD for the activated
sludge.  The sludge in BLWRS consists approximately in 50% of the sludge
carried with the wastes and in 50% from the sludge synthesized from the
wastes; therefore, it seems to be right to accept the average value of
    TOD
 ..  .	r^- equal to 1.54 as the one which illustrates the unit TOD of the
BLWRS sludge.

     Values of the oxygen demand for the biochemical processes occurring
in the selected lu cm BLWRS layers are given in Table 29.  Changes of the
oxygen demand (for the biochemical processes in BLWRSJ with the depth of
the bed are illustrated by Figure 11.  Average daily oxygen demand for
the biochemical processes in BLWRS, calculated on the basis of the values
from the whole experimental period, equals 76.6 kg 02 . day  .

     The amount of oxygen, which is transferred into the BLWRS, during the
day, with the assumption of molecular diffusion of one direction, was
calculated according to the equation describing the stream of diffusing gas
(.GAJ, given by Hobler (.1962):

     GA = NA . F' (kg A/day) =65.5 (kg 02 . day"1)                   (35)

     where:  F'      -  surface of the layer's cross section
                       = 0.37b . 0.345 . 1500 = 194.1 m2
             0.375  -  pore space of BLWRS soil
             0.345  -  percentage of pore space occupied by water at the
                       average (two-years) moisture content in aerobic
                       BLWRS zone equal 7.71
             150U   -  BLWRS surface, m2
                                     65

-------
               TABLE 28.   CHEMICAL COMPOSITION OF THE SLUDGE CONTAINED IN THE WASTES APPLIED TO BLWRS
cr>



Parameter








BLWRS-12










Mean
Value

Percentage Composition




N
C
H
P
6.95
41.09
b.4/
12.49
3.68
20.12
4.42
4.78
6.67
38.89
6.27
18.17
7.99
36.31
b.2U
23. bO
7
36
6
24
.47
.17
.14
.25
8.70
39. bl
6.18
26.61
7.02
42. Ib
b.3b
23.77
6.31
36.39
5.49
21.51
6.85
36.33
5.94
19.38
Elemental Composition




Sludge
Sludge

inn
1 V/U .
vss l
N
C
H
0
VSS (?-)
TOU fmg 2,
* 1 -*
go
A
g VSSJ
i.OU
6.90
13.03
1.57
113.0
228.5


2.02
l.UO
6.38
16.81
1.14
136.0
323.5


2.38
1.00
6.8U
13.16
2.38
108.0
191.8


1.78
I.OU
5.30
1U.86
2.57
500.0
738.4


1.48
1
5
11
2
1,064
1,499


1
.UO
.'65
.51
.84
.0
.U


.41
1.00
b.3U
9.9b
2.68
b88.0
961.7


1.40
I.OU
7.U1
12.68
2.96
348.9
b61.2


1.61
l.UO
6.73
12.18
2.98
69.7
1U8.7


I.b6
1.00
b.2b
12.52
2.39 '
378. S
57b.6


1.71
                                                                                           (Continued)

-------
TABLfc 28 Continued


Parameter
Mean
Value
BLWRS-34
Percentage Composition




N
C
H
0
6.83
40.22
6.38
16.57
6.47
38.59
6.34
21.13
8.06
33.64
5.36
25.94
8.05
37.37
6.01
26.14
6.90
43.86
6.7Z
11.52
6.67
36.58
6.UO
Z3.65
7.
40.
6.
26.
65
88
02
45
7
38
b
21
.23
.73
.1Z
.63
blemental Composition




Sludge

Sludge
Ti )D &
VbS ^
N
C
H
U
VSS (j^-J
mg 02
TOI > f t
IUJJ I, 1 
2
"VSS"J
l.OU
6.8/
13. U8
2.12
196.0

364.2

1.86
l.UO
6.96
13. TL
2.86
95. U

134.8

1.42
1.00
4.87
9.31
. 2.8Z
94U.O

1,194.4

1.27
l.OU
b.4Z
lU.4b
2.84
750.9

1,044.U

1.39
l.UO
7.42
13.63
1.46
7U8.U

I.bl2.4

2.14
1.00
6.40
12. b9
3.1U
233.3

395. U

1.69
1.
6.
U.
3.
Z59.

376.

1.
OU
23
OZ
U3
2

6

45
1
6
11
2
4b4

/17

1
.UO
.31
.97
.60
.6

.3

.60


-------
TABLE 29.
OXYGEN DEMAND FOR BIOCHEMICAL PROCESSES OCCURRING IN THE SELECTED 10 CM
BI.WRS LAYERS - AVERAGE VALUES FROM THE WHOLE EXPERIMENTAL PERIOD


Thick-
ness
(cm)
5
15
25
3b
55
7b
ys
115
155

Layer
(cm)
u- 111
10- 20
2u- 30
30- 40
bO- 60
70- 80
9(1-100
UO-120
150-160
A CUD
nig U2
, dm of -.
soil. day
306.10
33.20
13.70
/.8u
3.70
Z.2U
1.50
l.lll
0.70
A TKN
ing N
3
f dm f i
soil. day
34.90
5.16
2.3b
1.45
0.7s
0.47
0.3s
0.25
0.16
A TN
mg N
f dm of N
'soil, day-1
20.60
4.44
2.16
1.41
0.79
0.54
0.40
0.32
0.22
Oxygen Consumed or Produced in the Processes of
(mg 02/dm3 Qf BLWRS soil _ dayj
Carboxy-
iation
306.1
33.2
Is. 7
7.8
3.7
2.2
1.5
1.1
0.7
Nitrifi-
cation
N-NU3
152.5
22.5
10. S
6.3
3.2
2.1
1.4
1.1
0.7
Nitrifi-
cation
N-NO.,
5.4-
0.8
0.4
0.2
0.1
0.1
0.1
0.0
0.0
Uenitrifi-
cation
NO.-R,
56.0
12.1
5.9
S.8
2.1
1.5
1.1
0.9
0.6
Denitrifi-
cation
2.0
0.4
0.2
0.1
0.1
0.1
0.0
0.0
0.0
406.0
44.0
18.3
10.4
4.8
2.8
1.9
1.3
0.8
                                                                                                                    00

-------
               440
               400
               360-]
               320 H
               280 -\
            c  240 -]
            i/i
        00
          f '%  200 -I
       a
               160-1
        fr
        o
               120-1
                804
                40 J

                         30     60      90     12(3     150    ISO



                               Soil  depth (on)




figure 11.  Oxygen demand  for the biochemical processes as a function of

            BLWRS depth.
                                    69

-------
          N.   - density of the stream of the A component's mass,
                 m  .  day
          6    - dynamic gas diffusion coefficient at 10C (average daily
                 temperature from the whole experimental period)
                 in the oxygen - air system = 2.9109 x 10   kmol
                                                           m.hour

          S    - way of diffusion =0.5 height of the BLWRS
                 aerobic zone = 0.6 m


            - driving modulus of diffusion, quotient of the difference
          ^in    of the mass oxygen ratios in atmospheric air and BLWRS air
                 and the arithmetic mean value of the mass ratios of the
                 rest of the air components = 9.06 x 10


     The comparison of the amount of oxygen consumed in the biochemical

processes in BLWRS (7b.6 Kg CL/day) with the amount of oxygen which
theoretically should be transferred into BLWRS by molecular diffusion

(.65.5  *  2 ) doesn't allow us to exclude the possibility of an oxygen

deficit iX BLWRs with such an assumed system of 0^ transfer.


     However, it seems more probably that oxygen was transferred into BLWRS

by the gas exchange phenomenon.  In this case the frequency of an air

exchange (z) was calculated from the following expression:

         VB _   Mfe . Vj     _ 26S.8   	
     where:  VB  -  air volume equivalent of the oxygen volume used for
                    the biochemical processes in BLWRS, m /day
             Vp  -  air volume in free space of BLWRS, m
            TODB -  average daily oxygen demand for the biochemical trans
                    formations in BLWRS = 76.6 kg 02/day
            VQ   -  oxygen molecular volume, at p = 1 Atm and t = 10C
                    (.average daily temperature, from the experimental
                    period), equals to 23.24 m /kmol

             MO  -  oxygen molecular mass = 32 g


                                     70

-------
             A   -  volume traction ot" oxygen in air = Q.29Q3
                                                      2
             F1  -  free pore space in BLWRS = 149.1 m
             hfl  -  depth of aerobic zone in BLWRS = 1.2 m
              -A
and equals 1.14 day" , while air velocity in the interface layer amounts to:
          L VR
     5a = T^ = 2<74  10   Cm/sec)                                  (158)
INFLUENCE OF LOW TEMPERATURE ON PROCESSES OCCURRING IN BLWRS

     The influence of the decreased temperature on the processes occurring
in BLWRs was investigated by comparing the efficiency of the removal of
impurities in the periods before and after the cooling down.

     August, September, and October was assumed as the warm period in 197y
while July, September, and October was treated as the warm period in 1980
(August 198U was excluded because of the extremely low loadings of impurities
introduced on BLWRS during this month).  November was assumed to constitute
the cold period, as in this month the lowest average daily temperature was
noted; December was excluded as not characteristic because of a considerable
decrease of BLWRS loadings taking place in this month.  The effect of removal
of ijnpurities in BLWRS before and after the temperature decrease is
presented in Table 30.

     Table 60 shows the distinct decrease of the efficiency of the purifica-
tion process together with the decrease of temperature in the first year of
the experiment and in the case of all investigated parameters, however in
the second year of BLWRS work, the temperature decrease has the negative
influence only on the rate of TN removal.  These observations are confirmed
by the increase of COL) and TKN loadings, drained from BLWRS during the cold
period, which was observed in 1979 (Figure A-ll, A-13, A-15, A-17, A-19,
A-Zl, A-23, and A-25J.  By looking at the figures showing the cumulative
loads of impurities in BLWRS effluents in 1979, it can be seen that the
first temperature drops at the turn of October and November cause the
raising of the curve's course, while the change of the slope didn't result
from the increase of the loadings of impurities applied to BLWRS
                                     71

-------
Is)
                         TABLE 30.  EFFECT OF REMOVAL OF IMPURITIES  IN BLWRS  BEFORE
                                    AND AFTER THE COOLNESS  (VALUES EXPRESSED  IN  4)

Para-
meter
TO

TKN

COD

TP

Period
Cold
Warm
Cold
Warm
Cold
Warm
Cold
Warm

Average
Daily
Temper-
ature
3.4C
13.4C
3.4C
13.4C
3.4C
13.4C
7 /|Or-
3.4 C
13.4C

BLWRS
1
82.7
90.0
87.6
96.0
96.8
98.7
99.5
99.9
1979
BLWRS
2
84.6
90.0
79.5
94.5
^93.9
98.0
98.5
99.8

BLWRS
3
89.4
90.4
94.4
95.8
98.2
98.4
99.7
99.7

BLWRS
4
84.4
90.8
96.2
96.7
98.6
99.0
99.7
99.9

Average
Daily
Temper-
ature
3.9C
12.7C
3.9C
12.7C
3.9C
12.7C
3.9C
12.7C

BLWRS
1
64.7
71.0
91.9
84.3
97.5
94.5
97.1
96.1
1980
BLWRS
2
69.3
73.4
84.6
71.6
95.8
89.4
96.1
95.7

BLWRS
3
55.8
70.9
67.3
75.9
94.3
91.7
95.2
96.6

BLWRS
4
75.0
79.7
92.7
86.5
97.4
95.1
98.7
96.6


-------
 (Figure A-l, A-2, A-5, and A-7).  In 1980 the temperature decrease influenced
only the efficiency of TN removal.  In the case of TKN, COD, and TP the
decrease in the purification efficiency wasn't observed.  Diagrams of the
cumulative loads of TKN and COD drained from BLWRS in 1980 confirmed those
observations  (Figure A-12, A-14, A-16, A-18, A-20, A-22, A-24, and A-26). 
The slope of the curve, illustrating the relationship between the cumulative
TKN and COD loads in the effluents and time, doesn't change in November;
that indicates (with the unchanged BLWRS loadings which were observed in this
period - Figure A-2, A-4, A-6, and A-8) that the efficiency of the purifica-
tion process was maintained, on the average, at the same level as in the
period of time before the temperature decrease.

     If the reduction of denitrification rate in BLWRS in 1980 was caused
only by the temperature decrease and the rest of the factors influencing
this process were not changed, it should be followed by the increase of the
oxidized forms of N, that, indeed, was observed.

     The average concentration of the oxidized forms of N in the effluents
from the section with energy insert and from the section without the
additional energy source were as follows:  in the warm period, BLWRS-14 -
128.9 mg/1 and BLWRS-23 - 57.3 mg/1; in the cold period, BLWRS-14 -
242.9 mg/1 and BLWRS-23 - 134.0 mg/1.

     The above mentioned observations indicate high sensitivity of the
BLWRS microflora to the change of temperature during the initial period
of BLWRS work.  However, after an adaptation period, this microflora
seems to be considerably more resistant to the temperature reduction,
with the exception of microorganisms responsible for denitrification.
This last observation is consistent with the conclusions from the investi-
gations on the influence of temperature on the process of denitrification,
which were conducted by Focht (1974) and Baily and Beauchamp (1973).
     They found, that in the process of denitrification (with optimum
temperature equal to 65C - 75C) the effect of temperature upon the
process rate adheres to Arrenhius kinetics except for temperatures below

                                     73

-------
20C.  The rate is most drasically affected at lower temperatures, with
reduction of nitrate being more affected than reduction of nitrite.

METALS IN WASTES

     Animal fodder contains besides such basic components as C - 40.78%,
P - 7.9%, N -2.35%, several metals, i.e. K - 0.55%, Na - 0.27%, Ca - 0.28%,
Mg - 0.1%, Fe - 0.027%, Zn - 0.005%, Cu - 0.0009% as well as Cd - 0.00008%.

     To estimate displacement of metals in BLWRS the analytical control of
all samples taken from both systems was carried out.  However precise,
taking into account all aspects of phenomena, the analysis of the behavior
of the investigated metals in the soil profile of BLWRS appeared to be
practically impossible.  The chemical reactions which may occur with compo-
nents of the wastes and soil can be grouped conveniently, into ion exchange,
adsorption and precipitation, and complexation.  The mechanisms and rates of
most, if not all, of these reactions are dependent upon the type and amounts
of clay, hydrousoxides of metals, mainly Al, Mn, Fe, and organic matter, as
well as more dynamic properties including solute composition and concentra-
tion, exchangeable cations, pH and oxidation - reduction status.  The
latter reactions are often profoundly affected by the physical and biological
properties of soils.  Therefore, analysis of the processes occurring between
the BLWRS soil and metals contained in the wastes applied to the BLWRS seems
to be so complicated and wide that it is beyond the frame of this work.  The
result of the interpretation was limited only to the presentation of the
average annual concentrations of metals in the wastes taken from different
levels of BLWRS as well as in the effluents and influents.  These data are
contained in Tables 31 - 34.  Values presented in these tables were based
on the series that average numerical force was equal for 1979 - 5, and for
1980 - 15.  The balance of the metal loadings shows that during the investi-
gated period of time considerable amounts of K, Na, Zn, Cu, Fe, Al, and Cd
were removed by both systems.  Calcium and magnesium were removed from wastes
only in 1979.  The analysis of metal accumulation in vertical profile of
BLWRS indicates that most of the metals were removed in the top 30 cm of
BLWRS-12 and BLWRS-34.  This observation was confirmed by soil analysis.

                                     74

-------
TABLE 31.  AVERAGE ANNUAL CONCENTRATIONS OF METALS  IN WASTES, TAKEN AT
           SEVERAL DEPTHS IN BL1VRS-12, SECTION 1  (VALUES  IN mg/1)

Depth
(cm)

0
30
80
140
160
180

0
30
80
140
160
180

80
160
180
Na

458.0
291.1
310.3
270.8
274.0
263.7

87.0
88.8
78.0
82.3
88.1
68.0

39.5
61.5
44.9
K

629.6
651.3
355.9
301.6
255.9
204.0

334.1
216.8
253.4
222.3
204.4
207.5

285.5
237.0
207.0
Ca

925.8
333.9
380.8
354.0
446.9
423.9

172.0
255.5
383.4
433.2
432.3
351.7

225.0
250.0
165.0
Mg

207.4
60.6
57.4
64.0
144.9
72.3

49.6
71.8
54.4
55.4
64.3
48.6

55.5
48.0
49.8
Zn
1979
11.42
1.04
1.06
0.71
0.62
0.39
1980
1.52
1.66
0.56
0.58
0.56
0.59
1981
0.20.
0.25
0.40
Cu

1.24
0.45
0.52
0.35
0.36
0.32

0.30
0.20
0.27
0.40
0.26
0.30

0.10
0.18
0.13
Fe

34.0
8.6
8.6
20.6
19.4
9.7

6.3
5.5
3.8
6.5
6.1
6.0

3.0
5.3
6.8
Al

405.5
141.7
105.0
93.6
91.2
101.5

6.9
6.3
12.1
7.4
9.1
5.6

1.7
2.9
1.5
Cd

0.026
0.007
0.003
0.011
0.005
0.003

_
-
-
-
-
-

_
-
-
                                   75

-------
   TABLE 32.  AVERAGE ANNUAL CONCENTRATIONS OF iMETALS IN WASTES, TAKEN AT
              SEVERAL DEPTHS IN BLWRS-12, SECTION 2 (VALUES IN mg/1)

Depth
(on)

0
30
80
140 a
140 b
160 a
160 b
180

0
30
80
140 a
140 b
160 a
160 b
180

0
140 a
140 b
160 a
160 b
180

Na

458.0
291.1
310.3
284.3
165.2
267.6
219.2
260.7

87.0
88.8
78.0
79.2
75.9
106.6
78.8
77.8

39.5
49.3
64.0
56.5
323.0
49.1

K

629.6
651.3
355.9
293.8
212.1
243.7
181.5
181.0

334.1
216.8
253.4
216.5
280.9
177.2
290.3
174.5

285.5
247.8
299.0
252.8
55.0
210.6

Ca

925.8
333.9
380.8
383.5
272.5
410.2
401.8
340.0

172.0
255.5
383.4
315.3
159.0
358.5
183.1
302.4

225.0
122.5
.35.0
137.5
50.0
128.8

Mg

207.4
60.6
57.4
75.6
43.5
72.4
60.6
61.1

49.6
71.8
54.4
51.3
119.0
66.5
48.9
52.9

55.5
67.3
46.5
68.8
45.0
50.5

Zn
1979
11.42
1.04
1.06
0.61
1.13
0.86
0.65
0.89
1980
1.52
1.66
0.56
0.46
0.72
0.47
0.83
0.49
1981
0.20
0.13
0.10
0.18
0.60
0.93

Cu

1.24
0.45
0.52
0.34
0.42
0.39
0.34
0.26

0.30
0.20
0.27
0.27
0.19
0.31
0.24
0.24

'0.10
0.14
0.09
0.09
0.09
0.06

Fe

34.0
8.6
8.6
22.8
57.3
35.3
61.2
24.5

6.3
5.5
3.8
0.7
11.0
15.6
16.1
20.8

3.0
28.5
7.5
47.7
8.6
3.2

Al

405.5
141.7
105.0
91.2
83.2
90.5
101.2
89.9

6.9
6.3
12.1
4.0
2.6
4.8
4.3
3.0

1.7
1.4
2.6
1.8
4.7
1.2

Cd

0.026
0.007
0.003
0.006
0.011
0.007
0.005
0.004

_
-
-
-
-
-
-
-


-
-
-
-
-

,  before energy source
  after energy source
                                     76

-------
   TABLE 33.  AVERAGE ANNUAL CONCENTRATIONS OF METALS IN WASTES,  TAKEN AT
              SEVERAL DEPTHS IN BLWRS-34, SECTION 5 (VALUES IN mg/1)

Depth
(cm)

0
30
80
140 a
140 b
160 a
160 b
180

0
30
80
140 a
140 b
160 a
160 b
180

140 a
140 b
160 a
180

Na

263.5
267.4
517.8
275.2
247.8
248.8
224.1
261.5

91.6
81.6
95.6
100.1
105.2
127.0
112.7
102.1

62.0
36.25
63.5
59.3

K

744.0
626.2
540.5
104.7
330.9
94.1
149.4
210.6

327.0
291.5
243.0
160.9
264.3
178.8
285.3
232.9

202.5
171.5
180.0
207.0

Ca

623.0
186.5
271.3
357.1
308.0
394.2
284.4
306.4

184.9
193.3
245.0
246.3
162.8
334.5
'270.1
276.5

77.5
95.0
165.0
308.75

Mg

111.4
62.2
80.0
72.4
74.1
70.5
63.3
74.7

50.2
90.3
159.1
146.1
85.5
196.3
148.6
114.6

177.5
58.8
218.5
71.6

Zn
1979
22.72
1.00
3.91
0.39
1.46
1.15
0.85
0.66
1980
1.58
1.78
1.30
0.72
3.77
0.94
1.51
0.61
1981
0.25
0.28
0.50
0.79

Cu

3.40
0.47
0.72
0.35
0.58
0.71
0.27
0.32

0.44
0.41
0.27
0.30
0.28
0.30
0.26
0.06

0.13
0-16
0.13
0.19

Fe

69.4
6.5
11.2
10.4
17.5
11.4
17.6
16.1

7.7
10.8
5.0
9.5
10.3
5.8
14.2
12.7

28.7
22.9
13.9
7.8

Al

37.2
6.3
11.7
7.6
11.1
6.1
4.6
5.4

5.3
3.3
3.3
3.5
2.1
6.5
9.2
2.9

1.6
2.1
0.0
4.0

Cd

0.046
0.001
0.018
0.004
0.007
0.003
0.002
0.004

_
-
-
-
-
-
-
-

.
-
-
-

v before energy source
 after energy source
                                     77

-------
TABLE 34.  AVERAGE ANNUAL CONCENTRATIONS OF METALS IN WASTES, TAKEN AT
           SEVERAL DEPTHS IN BLWRS-34, SECTION 4 (VALUES IN mg/1)

Depth
(on)

0
30
80
140
160
180

0
30
80
140
160
180

140
160
180

Na

263.5
26.7
517.8
267.8
291.6
273.7

91.6
81.6
95.6
104.0
127.6
91.1

106.4
125.2
75.3

K

744.0
626.2
540.5
112.7
144.8
149.8

327.0
291.5
243.0
187.4
179.1
208.4

157.5
154.6
249.0

Ca

623.0
186.5
271.3
415.4
419.7
335.7

184.9
193.3
245.0
257.7
274.7
231.7

165.0
222.5
118.3

Mg

111.4
62.2
80.0
83.9
81.1
55.8

50.2
90.3
159.1
165.6
165.1
105.8

202.5
215.0
45.3

Zn
1979
22.72
1.00-
3.91
0.90
0.70
0.40
1980
1.58
1.78
1.30
0.40
0.52
0.57
1981
0.23
0.55
0.80

Cu

3.40
0.47
0.72
0.50
0.30
0.39

0.44
0.41
0.27
0.24
0.29
0.28

0.10
0.18
0.25

Fe

69.4
6.5
11.2
6.5
20.3
5.6

7.7
10.8
5.0
7.3
5.7
6.1

3.8
4.0
5.0

Al

37.2
6.3
11.7
8.1
8.2
4.2

5.3
3.3
3.3
4.8
4.7
5.0

4.7
2.1
8.3

Cd

0.046
0.001
0.018
0.004
0.004
0.003

.
-
-
-
-
-

.
-
-

                                  78

-------
Moreover, it seems that in 1979 both BLWRS removed larger average daily
loading of metals than in 1980 (Tables 35 - 38).   This could be caused by
the depletion of the accumulation capacity of the bed.

     The analysis of metals in wastes showed that Ca and Mg were leached
both BLWRS, as was observed by Ritter and Eastburn (1978) in their work.
The elution of Ca and Mg took place not earlier than in the second year of
the experiment.  In the effect of Mg elution from BLWRS, the influence of the
blastfurnace slag cover was indicated, the quantity of Mg leached from
BLWRS-34 in 1980 is more than two times higher than the Mg loading leached
from BLWRS-12.  The influence of the additional energy source on the change
of the concentration of metals is indicated in the most obvious way in the
case of Fe which is leached from the energy insert.  In 1980 the Fe elution
from BLWRS beds in Sections 2 and 3 was observed (Tables 36 and 37).
Potassium is also leached from the energy insert, however in this case,
the influence of the additional energy source is not so drastic.  The
statement concerning the elution of Fe and K from the energy insert was
partially confirmed by the analysis of soil profiles of both BLWRS.

     The concentration of Al in the wastes fed to BLWRS-12 in the period of
investigations indicates that the operators of the purification plant
applied aluminium sulphate for the coagulation of the wastes only in 1979.
The low values of Cd concentration in the applied wastes as well as in the
effluents show that under Polish conditions this metal is not a problem.
Therefore, the analysis of Cd concentration in wastes was not continuated in
1980.
                                    79

-------
 TABLE 35.  SUMMARY OF AVERAGE DAILY LOADINGS OF METALS APPLIED .AND DRAINED
 	AND PERCENT REMOVAL OF METALS FOR BLWRS-12, SECTION 1
Metal
Amount Applied
Average Daily
    Value
     Cg)
Amount Removed
Average Daily
    Value
     Cg)
                                                                     Removal

Na
K
Ca
Mg
Zn
Cu
Fe
Al
Cd

Na
K
Ca
Mg
Zn
Cu
Fe
Al

960.0
1320.0
1941.0
434.8
23.90
2.60
71.30
850.1
0.054

127.6
490.0
252.3
72.7
2.23
0.44
9.20
10.2
1979
462.7
358.0
744.0
126.9
0.68
0.56
16.99
178.20
0.0053
1980
105.0
320.5
543.4
75.1
0.91
0.46
9.28
8.57

51.8
72.9
61.7
70.8
97.2
78.5
76.2
79.0
90.2

17.7
34.6
-115.4
- 3.3
59.1
- 4.5
- 0.9
15.9

                                     80

-------
TABLE 36.  SUMMARY OF AVERAGE DAILY LOADINGS OF METALS APPLIED AND  DRAINED
           AM) PERCENT REMOVAL OF METALS FOR BLWRS-12. SECTION 2




Metal

Na
K
Ca
Mg
Zn
Cu
Fe
Al
Cd

Na
K
Ca
Mg
Zn
Cu
Fe
Al
Amount Applied
Average Daily
Value
(g)

960.0
1320.0
1941.0
434.8
23.90
2.60
71.30
850.1
0.054

127.6
490.0
252.3
72.7
2.23
0.44
9.20
10.2
Amount Removed
Average Daily
Value
(g)
1979
446.3
309.9
582.1
104.9
1.52
0.45
41.90
153.90
0.0068
1980
115.7
259.7
450.0
78.8
0.73
0.36
31.00
4.51


Removal
(*)

53.5
76.5
70.0
75.9
93.6
82.7
41.2
81.9
87.4

9.3
47.0
- 78.4
- 8.4
67.3
18.2
-237.0
55.8

                                    81

-------
 TABLE 37.  SUMMARY OF AVERAGE DAILY LOADINGS OF METALS APPLIED AND DRAINED
            AND PERCENT REMOVAL OF METALS FOR BLWRS-34, SECTION 5	
Metal
Amount Applied
Average Daily
    Value
     Cg)
Mount Removed
Average Daily
    Value
     (g)
                                                                     Removal
-
Na
K
Ca
Mg
Zn
Cu
Fe
Al
Cd

Na
K
Ca
Mg
Zn
Cu
Fe
Al

553.4
1562.4
1308.3
233.9
47.70
7.14
145.70
78.1
O.OCJ97

132.8
474.0
268.0
72.8
2.29
0.64
11.20
7.7
1979
400.1
322.2
468.8
114.3
1.01
0.49
24.60
8.29
0.0053
1980
152.8
348.7
413.9
171.6
0.91
0.09
19.00
4.34

27.7
79.4
64.2
51.1
97.9
93.1
83.1
89.4
45.4

- 15.1
8.4
- 54.4
-135.7
60.3
85.9
- 69.6
43.6

                                     82

-------
 TABLE 38.  SUMMARY OF AVERAGE DAILY LOADINGS OF METALS APPLIED AND DRAINED
            AND PERCENT.REMOVAL OF METALS FOR BLWRS-34, SECTION 3	
Metal
Amount Applied
Average Daily
    Value
     Cg)
Amount Removed
Average Daily
    Value
     (g)
                                                                     Removal

Na
K
Ca
Mg
Zn
Cu
Fe
Al
Cd

Na
K
Ca
Mg
Zn
Cu
Fe
Al

553.4
1562.4
1308.3
233.9
47.7
7.14
145.70
78.1
0.0097

132.8
474.0
268.0
72.8
2.29
0.64
11.20
7.7
1979
352.7
222.3
498.2
82.8
0.59
0.58
8.31
6.26
0.0039
1980
139.6
319.3
355.0
162.1
0.87
0.43
9.34
7.66

36.3
85.8
61.9
64.6
98.8
91.9
94.3
92.0
59.8

- 5.1
32.6
- 32.5
-122.7
62.0
32.8
16.6
0.5

                                     83

-------
TRANSFORMATIONS OF THE CHEMICAL COMPOSITION OF BLWRS SOIL

     The chemical analysis of the original BLWRS soil was presented in
Table 5.  The results of the subsequent analyses were made on samples
collected December 5, 1979, and December 5, 1980, from eleven levels in
each of the four sections of the BLWRS, all reported in Tables 39-50.  It
was observed that application of wastes on the BLWRS bed caused an increase
in concentrations of the.most of the investigated constituents, while the
most evident increase was noted in the first 30 cm of the soil profile.  The
change in the concentrations of metals and nutrients in the soil profile
of BLWRS in comparison to the values occurring in the original soil wasn't
enough to change the order of the concentration values.  The investigation
on the soil profiles of both BLWRS indicated the lack of essential differ-
ences between the concentrations of nutrients and metals in 1979 and the
concentrations of these constituents in 1980.

     Organic substance accumulated in the top 0-5 on is shown in the case of
TKN, while the profiles of C    and dry organic matter in the lower soil
layers don't show any regularity, the concentration of TKN decrease along
the soil profile reaching the original level at the depth of 40-45 on.  The
influence of the additional energy source is quite clear in the case of
C    and dry organic matter.  The concentration of both of these components
in the soil samples collected from the places situated below the energy
insert increases in comparison to the concentrations in the soil above
the energy source.

     The C-     profile, being disorderly, shows only the increase of the
C-     concentration in soil, in comparison with the values occurring in
the original BLWRS soil.

     The analysis of the P soil profile was difficult because the concen-
tration of this element in the original soil attained a very high level
equal to 270 ppm.  Therefore, this analysis indicates only the occurrence
of the same magnitude of the P concentration along the whole soil profile
that was conditioned by the initial P content in BLWRS soil.  It is

                                     84

-------
impossible to separate two special zones in any of the BLWRS beds, i.e. a
zone of precipitation and a zone lying immediately below it, or a zone of P
concentration in the waste samples from the inside of BLWRS and from the
effluents and influents, presented in Subsections:  "Characteristics of
BLWRS Effluents" and "Transformations of Impurities - BLWRS Vertical Profile"
indicates the occurrence of these layers.

     The analysis of the metal profile shows the occurrence of several times
higher concentrations of K, Na, Ca, Mg, Zn, Fe, and Al in the top 20-25 cm of
BLWRS-34 when compared with the corresponding BLWRS-12 layer.  This effect
was caused by the layer.of the blastfurnace slag with which BLWRS-34 was
covered.  Moreover, the profiles of metals indicate that most of metal
impurities is removed in the top 30 cm.  The elution of metals from the
energy insert can be observed quite clearly in the case of K and Fe - the
soil samples collected near the energy source, just as it is in the liquid
phase, have the higher concentrations of these elements than the samples
taken from the places situated above the energy insert.

     The comparison of the proportion of the concentrations of constituents
in the solution and soil made it possible to separate metals and nutrients,
coefficients of distribution for the four investigated levels in the soil
profile, indicating the relative stability.  The coefficients for Ca, K,
Mg, and C    in BLWRS-12 and BLWRS-34 are presented in Tables 51 and 52.
Examination of the values contained in these tables indicates the lack of the
essential differences between coefficients of distribution for solution/soil
for K, Ca, and Mg, in the same BLWRS, that would suggest the domination of
the sorption phenomenon.  The different conditions of sorption and desorption
of metals from the soil complex prevailing in both BLWRS are illustrated only
by the differences in the values of the coefficient of distribution observed
for Ca; in BLWRS-12 the coefficient of distribution is on an average twice
as high as in BLWRS-34.  The coefficient of distribution solution/soil for
C    in the case of both BLWRS shows the same regularity.  In the surface
layer this coefficient is an order of the magnitude higher than the coeffi-
cients in the layers below the first 5 cm of the soil profiles of all four
sections of the investigated BLWRS.

                                     85

-------
      TABLE 39.  CHEMICAL ANALYSIS OF SOIL SAMPLES TAKEN FROM BLWRS-12,
                 DECEMBER 5, 1979, IN PPM - NUTRIENTS

Depth
(cm)

a- 5
5- 10
10- 15
15- 20
20- 25
40- 45
60- 65
80- 85
100-105
120-125a
120-125b
140-145a
140-145b

0- 5
5- 10
10- 15
15- 20
20- 25
40- 45
60- 65
80- 85
100-105
120-125a
120-125b
140-145a
140-145b
r
inorg

11,000
12,100
16,200
-
10,800
9,900
10,900
9,200
5,400
11,300
11,300
7,800
7,800

7,200
9,200
10,400
15,500
1.1,100
-
12, -200
10,400
12,900
10,600
21,900
-
12,800
c
org

18,300
14,300
11,100 '
15,100
9,900
9,500
10,900
10,300
12,400
13,900
13,900
11,200
11,200

12,800
10,300
11,900
10,200
11,000
10,600
11,900
10,900
14,300
11,500
14,400
10,500
17,500
Organic
Solids
Section 1
60,400
54,800
43,000
59,000
43,100
39,000 '
42,500
41,500
50,200
54,800
54,800
48,500
48,500
Section 2
45,900.
44,800
47,800
43,900
46,300
42,300
49,000
44,600
59,100
45,900
56,600
43,800
68,600

. TKN

650
190
400
180
120
100
60
30
100
70
70
80
80

380
200
180
110
150
130
20
60
80
40
140
30
130
Total
P

587
527
552
482
397
312
328
392
387
252
-
267
-

362
347
312
417
307
312
342
332 
367
322
542
262
352

rbefore energy source
 after energy source
                                     86

-------
      TABLE 40.   CHEMICAL ANALYSIS OF SOIL SAMPLES TAKEN FROM BLWRS-34,
                 DECEMBER 5, 1979, IN PFM - NUTRIENTS

Depth
(cm)

0- 5
5- 10
10- 15
15- 20
20- 25
40- 45
60- 65
80- 85
100-105
120-125a
120-125b
140-145a
140-145b

0- 5
5- 10
10- 15
15- 20
20- 25
40- 45
60- 65
80- 85
100-105
120-125a
120-125b
140-145a
140-145b
c
inorg

9,900
12,800
12,500
17,000
15,100
11,000
15,500
7,400
12,200
12,200
11,600
11,100
9,400

10,100
10,100
11,400
11,900
14,000
15,300
9,100
8,700
12,800
11,600
11,600
11,300
11,300
C
org

12,100
14,300
13,400
12,200
13,700
11,300
9,000
11,000
8,500
10,500
10,000
13,300
8,800

21,200
12,700
13,700
9,800
12,400
9,000
8,300
11,700
10,600
9,800
9,800
9,200
9,200
Organic
Solids
Section 3
57,000
68,400
60,400
50,600
55,600
45,100
36,800
43,600
33,100
40,700
41,200
54,200
40,300
Section 4
71,600
54,900
59,200
42,300
52,200
38,000
33,400
46,700
40,700
39,500
39,500
36,800
36,800

TKN

630
440
450
260
270
190
50
50
50
50
80
40
40

2900
610
500
340
110
270
40
190
170
50
50
70
70
Total
P

347
362
412
422
402
312
287
342
297
402
297
247
302

1297
412
347
467
287
402
372
357
437
297
-
252
-

, before energy source
 after energy source
                                      87

-------
      TABLE 41.  CHEMICAL ANALYSIS OF SOIL SAMPLES TAKEN FROM BLWRS-12,
                 DECEMBER 5, 1980, IN PFM - NUTRIENTS

Depth
(cm)

0- 5
5- 10
10- 15
15- 20
20- 25
40- 45
60- 65
80- 85
100-105
120-125a
120-125b
140-145a
140-145b

0- 5
5- 10
10- 15
15- 20
20- 25
40- 45
60- 65
80- 85
100-105
120-125a
120-125b
140-145a
140-145b
r
inorg

12,900
13,200
9,500
9,000
8,600
12,100
9,100
9,400
12,400
10,500
10,500
6,100
6,100

7,300
11,300
9,700
10,300
7,700
10,600
9,500
9,000
9,600
9,000
14,200
8,000
13,200
r
org

21,000
14,800
11,200
10,700
10,900
12,200
11,800
10,700
11,200
13,300
13,300
11,300
11,300

10,200
14,400
9,200
13,300
10,500
11,100
11,600
12,000
12,000
11,400
13,600
9,800
15,100
Organic
Solids
Section 1
_
55,300
-
43,000
-
25,200
46,800
43,200
-
58,500
58,500
37,200
37,200
Section 2
42,900
-
-
-
-
-
58,000
45,300
48,800
;
50,200
-
59,500

TKN

980
440
160
80
70
60
40
60
40
40
40
70
70

450
290
250
190
100
80
30
100
120
50
60
50
50
Total
P

732
542
537
557
382
482
407
487
317
337
-
507
-

372
572
527
397
412
382
327
432
662
407
497
262
482

fbefore energy source
 after energy source
                                     88

-------
      TABLE 42.  CHEMICAL ANALYSIS OF SOIL SAMPLES TAKEN FROM BLWRS-34,
                 DECEMBER 5, 1980, IN PPM - NUTRIENTS

Depth
(on)

0- 5
5- 10
10- 15
15- 20
20- 25
40- 45
60- 65
80- 85
100-105
120-125a
120-125b
140-145a
140-145b

0- 5
5- 10
10- 15
15- 20
20- 25
40- 45
60- 65
80- 85
100-105
120-125a
120-125b
140-145a
140-145b
r
inorg

5,900
10,400
7,800
10,400
12,700
15,100
11,900
7,500
6,500
10,600
9,500
12,600
11,400

8,300
11,300
8,000
9,600
8,900
7,200
10,100
9,700
-
7,400
7,400
8,300
8,300
c
org

24,100
12,100
18,000
14,700
11,700
14,000
8,800
9,500
9,600
10,900
13,100
10,700
13,200

20,100
11,900
14,000
13,900
9,900
9,800
12,400
10,900
10,100
9,500
9,500
9,800
9,800
Organic
Solids
Section 3
89,600
55,100
67,500
-
-
-
35,500
-
38,200
-
-
41,400
51,800
Section 4
^
-
-
56,900
39,000
40,400
-
40,200
35,300
-
-
-
-

TKN

1610
480
210
110
110
80
80
110
100
50
50
50
100

1160
450
320
190
240
70
60
40
50
60
60
40
40
Total
P

1397
602
402
397
447
432
457
-
457
417
372
317
362

2227
597
622
302
297
417
377
307
432
382
-
372
-

fbefore energy source
 after energy source
                                     89

-------
     TABLE 43.  CHEMICAL ANALYSIS OF SOIL SAMPLES TAKEN FROM BLWRS-12,
                SECTION 1, DECEMBER 5, 1979 - METALS, IN PPM

Depth
(on)
0- 5
5- 10
10- 15
15- 20
20- 25
40- 45
60- 65
80- 85
100-105
120-125
140-145

1
1
1
1
1
1
6
1

1
1
K
,390.0
,358.8
,296.3
,015.0
,015.0
,046.3
,296.3
,140.0
938.8
,046.3
,077.5
Na
21.9
146.9
165.6
25.0
0.0
0.0
62.5
0.0
3.1
15.6
259.4
Ca
32,920
28,920
34,920
32,920
21,420
23,420
17,170
22,670
24,420
25,670
25,920
Mg
3,562
3,000
2,750
2,187
1,687
1,845
1,687
2,062
2,250
2,187
1,720

.5
.0
.0
.5
.5
.0
.5
.5
.0
.5
.0
Cu
65.00
14.25
19.75
9.00
9.00
14.25
212.50
7.25
9.00
250.00
15.25
Zn
0.0
35.0
17.5
0.0
17.5
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
12.5
310.0
Fe
4,762.5
3,962.5
3,812.5
3,237.5
2,737.5
2,937.5
1,912.5
3,137.5
3,137.5
3,212.5
2,337.5
. Al
3,200.
4,100.
2,425.
3,075.
1,400.
1,487.
2,750.
1,625.
2,237.
1,537.
1,750.

0
0
0
0
0
5
0
0
5
5
0

     TABLE 44.  CHEMICAL ANALYSIS OF SOIL SAMPLES TAKEN FROM BLWRS-12,
                SECTION 2, DECEMBER 5, 1979 - METALS, IN PPM

Depth
(cm)
0- 5
5- 10
10- 15
15- 20
20- 25
40- 45
60- 65
80- 85
100-105
120-125a
120-125b
140-145a
140-145b
K
1,108.
1,077.
1,140.
1,296.
1,265.
1,046.
952.
890.
1,233.
952.
1,483.
858.
1,140.

8
5
0
3
0
3
5
0
8
5
8
8
0
Na
3.1
87.5
9.4
153.1
40.6
34.4
0.0
6.3
96.9
271.9
212.5
53.1
18.8
Ca
21,420
23,420
25,670
27,920
31,670
25,170
25,170
22,420
32,170
31,420
31,860
27,170
33,420
Mg
1,687
1,812
2,345
2,407
2,625
2,375
1,970
2,095
3,062
2,157
2,533
2,125
2,907

.5
.5
.0
.5
.0
.0
.0
.0
.5
.5
.3
.0
.5
Cu
14.75
13.75
10.75
9.50
9.00
8.25
7.75
5.50
9.00
6.50
2.74
8.50
7.00
Zn
0.0
0.0
32.5
22.5
2.5
5.0
0.0
0.0
10.0
0.0
142.5
5.0
0.0
Fe
3,412.5
3,012.5
2,937.5
3,987.5
4,637.5
3,587.5
3,287.5
2,112.5
4,287.5
2,962.5
3,337.5
2,687.5
4,387.5
Al
975
925
2,775
1,850
2,325
3,800
1,750
1,437
2,187
2,537
2,500
1,250
2,112

.0
.0
.0
.0
.0
.0
.0
.5
.5
.5
.0
.0
.5

^before energy source
 after energy source
                                     90

-------
     TABLE 45.  CHEMICAL ANALYSIS OF SOIL SAMPLES TAKEN FRCM B.LWRS-34,
                SECTION 3, DECEMBER.5, 1979 - METALS, IN PPM

Depth
(on)
0- 5
5- 10
10- 15
15- 20
20- 25
40- 45
60- 65
80- 85
100-105
120-125a
120-125b
140-145a
140-145b
K
3,421.
4,295.
3,046.
2,140.
1,671.
827.
827.
1,015.
1,015.
858.
1,015.
890.
765.

3
0
3
0
3
5
5
0
0
8
0
0
0
Na
1,806
1,337
1,493
900
287
0
50
212
175
46
231
12
0

.0
.5
.8
.0
.2
.0
.0
.5
.0
.9
.3
.5
.0
Ca
93,670
54,670
74,420
49,170
36,670
22,670
18,170
36,670
33,420
30,670
35,920
21,170
23,670
Mg
22,968
23,218
1,696
9,687
6,595
1,845
1,782
3,187
3,095
2,532
2,970
1,875
1,625

.8
.8
.9
.5
.0
.0
.5
.5
.0
.5
.0
.0
.0
Cu
5.50
5.50
4.75
19.00
6.00
5.75
7.75
8.00
7.00
6.50
8.00
8.25
4.00
Zn
47.5
52.5
35.0
25.0
22.5
12.5
27.5
52.5
0.0
22.5
17.5
0.0
7.5
Fe
13,252.5
13,087.5
10,262.5
9,637.5
6,162.5
3,462.5
2,712.5
3,587.5
3,437.5
2,812.5
2,137.5
2,612.5
2,262.5
Al
44,750.0
47,250.0
24,500.0
20,000.0
6,000.0
1,875.0
1,875.0
2,375.0
2,750.0
1,562.5
2,125.0
2,375.0
1,375.0

fbefore energy source
 after energy source
     TABLE 46.  CHEMICAL ANALYSIS OF SOIL SAMPLES TAKEN FROM BLWRS-34,
                SECTION 4, DECEMBER 5, 1979 - METALS, IN PPM

Depth
(cm)
0- 5
5- 10
10- 15
15- 20
20- 25
40- 45
60- 65
80- 85
100-105
120-125
140-145
K
3,265.0
3,733.8
4,046.3
1,640.0
983.8
952.5
796.3
1,171.3
1,108.8
858.8
733.8
Na
1,743
1,900
2,087
650
112
15
112
190
181
109
18

.8
.0
.5
.0
.5
.6
.5
.6
.3
.4
.8
Ca
65,670
48,170
87,420
66,670
34,920
25,420
23,420
43,670
38,670
25,920
23,920

23
24
25
7
3
2
1
4
3
2
1
Mg
,093.8
,968.8
,218.8
,157.5
,157.5
,500.0
,470.0
,282.5
,845.0
,562.5
,937.5
Cu
5.25
4.50
8.75
8.75
3.50
6.75
7.25
7.75
6.75
9.00
17.50
Zn
57.5
52.5
65.0
7.5
45.0
0.0
37.5
17.5
37.5
7.5
52.5

8
9
14
4
2
3
2
3
3
3
2
Fe
,362.5
,262.5
,337.5
,937.5
,312.5
,112.5
,437.5
,537.5
,437.5
,212.5
,712.5
Al
20,500.0
36,750.0
27,750.0
8,750.0
1,500.0
1,375.0
800.0
2,775.0
1,750.0
1,300.0
475.0

                                     91

-------
     TABLE 47.  CHEMICAL ANALYSIS OF SOIL SAMPLES TAKEN FROM BLWRS-12,
                SECTION 1, DECEMBER 5, 1980 - METALS, IN PPM

Depth
(cm)
0- 5
5- 10
10- 15
15- 20
20- 25
40- 45
60- 65
80- 85
100-105
120-125
140-145
K
1,373
1,405
1,123
1,061
1,092
1,092
1,123
1,061
1,155
1,186
1,092

.8
.0
.8
.3
.5
.5
.8
.3
.0
.3
.5
Na
88.1
41.3
47.5
28.8
63.1
31.9
88.1
6.9
88.1
78.8
19.4
Ca
34,610
30,110
28,360
28,485
20,110
20,735
31,860
30,860
30,110
35,735
17,235
Mg
2,975
2,881
1,618
1,656
1,943
1,832
2,143
1,556
1,906
2,031
1,793

.0
.3
.8
.3
.8
.5
.8
. j
.3
.3
.8
Cu
8.87
9.01
8.51
8.21
4.26
4.26
6.08
33.45
10.95
12.77
4.26
Zn
87.5
O.Q
37.5
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
Fe
2,537
1,962
2,687
2,262
2,537
2,387
1,462
2,762
2,137
2,212
2,512

.5
.5
.5
.5
.5
.5
.5
.5
.5
.5
.5
Al
3,550.0
5,500.0
4,350.0
2,825.0
1,425.0
587.5
4,500.0
4,350.0
4,550.0
4,425.0
525.0

     TABLE 48.  CHEMICAL ANALYSIS OF SOIL SAMPLES TAKEN FROM BLWRS-12,
                SECTION 2, DECEMBER 5, 1980 - METALS, IN PPM

Depth
(on)
0- 5
5- 10
10- 15
15- 20
20- 25
40- 45
60- 65
80- 85
100-105
120-125a
120-125b
140-145a
140-145b
K
1,201.
1,108.
1,373.
1,202.
1,092.
1,030.
1,046.
1,185.
-
905.
998.
780.
1,405.

9
8
8
5
5
0
3
3

0
8
0
0
Na
144.4
71.9
0.0
212.5
0.0
88.1
115.6
0.0
-
0.0
0.0
13.1
41.3
Ca
34
18
30
40
29
20
14
34

21
22
28
16
,235
,735
,985
,985
,985
,610
,735
,360
-
,735
,860
,860
.360
Mg
2,438
2,095
2,356
2,062
1,668
1,943
1,437
1,593
-
1,506
1,643
1,593
3,243

.1
.0
.3
.5
.8
.8
.5
.8

.3
.8
.8
.8
Cu
6.67
12.00
4.26
50.00
5.47
5.17
9.00
6.69
-
5.78
2.74
3.95
3.35
Zn
20.0
12.5
5.0
10.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
2.5
-
0.0
0.0
5.0
5.0
Fe
3,837.5
3,037.5
4,237.5
2,837.5
2,037.5
1,712.5
1,812.5
2,537.5
-
2,062.5
2,687.5
2,412.5
3,187.5
Al
2,975.0
1,700.0
1,725.0
675.0
1,950.0
2,500.0
2,262.5
4,800.0
-
600.0
1,162.5
750.0
3,700.0

fbefore energy source
 after energy source
                                     92

-------
     TABLE 49.  CHEMICAL ANALYSIS OF SOIL SAMPLES TAKEN FROM BLWRS-34,
                SECTION 5, DECEMBER 5, 198Q - METALS, IN PPM

Depth
(cm)
0- 5
5- 10
10- 15
15- 20
20- 25
40- 45
60- 65
80- 85
100-105
120-125a
120-125b
140-145a
140-145b
K
3,874.
3,890.
2,546.
1,390.
-
1,327.
1,140.
1,015.
921.
905.
1,265.
983.
1,390.

4
0
3
0

0
0
0
3
0
0
8
0
Na
1,550.0
1,559.4
812.5
337.5
-
122.5
37.5
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
143.8
6.3
Ca
122,050
67,800
49,550
18,300
-
16,925
41,925
30,175
23,675
15,110
31,050
28,925
37,550

19
18
11
3

3
2
1
1
1
3
1
2
Mg
,657.5
,200.0
,250.0
,975.0
-
,225.0
,700.0
,725.0
,625.0
,456.3
,125.0
,532.5
,875.0
Cu
12.01
7.00
18.25
70.00
-
-
10.75
9.00
5.00
4.87
3.75
5.25
7.25
Zn
193.7
95.0
42.5
5.0
-
0.0
2.5
0.0
87.5
0.0
90.0
15.0
45.0

10
13
7
4

3
4
3
3
2
4
1
4
Fe
,850.0
,262.5
,912.5
,462.5
-
,726.5
,337.5
,062.5
,037.5
,262.5
,687.5
,862.5
,487.5
Al
7,900.0
2,875.0
5,800.0
4,625.0
-
4,075.0
1,087.5
850.0
1,287.5
600.0
1,600.0
812.5
1,725.5

rbefore energy source
 after energy source
     TABLE 50.  CHEMICAL ANALYSIS OF SOIL SAMPLES TAKEN FROM BLWRS-34,
                SECTION 4, DECEMBER 5, 1980 - METALS, IN PPM

Depth
(on)
0- 5
5- 10
10- 15
15- 20
20- 25
40- 45
60- 65
80- 85
100-105
120-125
140-145
K
2,671
3,921
3,108
4,296
-
1,046
890
796
-
983
952

.3
.2
.8
.3

.3
.0
.3

.8
.5
Na
1,056.3
1,187.5
981.3
693.8
-
18.8
0.0
0.0
-
9.4
0.0
Ca
100,175
91,425
58,050
126,300
-
48,800
36,625
49,925
-
30,925
44,800
Mg
16,
19,
15,
10,

1,
1,
1,

1,
1,
900.0
712.0
850.0
850.0
-
937.5
437.5
500.0
-
595.0
875.0
Cu
5.75
8.81
5.25
-
-
5.25
2.25
2.75
-
4.00
2.75
Zn
95.0
133.7
1025.0
20.0
-
22.5
255.0
52.5
-
52.5
0.0
Fe
6,537.
5,587.
6,112.
4,462.
-
2,512.
2,112.
2,387.
-
2,537.
2,562.

5
5
5
5

5
5
5

5
5
Al
3,550.0
5,500.0
10,500.0
4,150..0
-
700.0
1,162.5
562.5
-
762.5
.187.5

                                     93

-------
        TABLE 51..  COEFFICIENTS OF DISTRIBUTION SOLUTION/SOIL FOR THE
                   SELECTED METALS AND ORGANIC CARBON - BLWRS-12
Depth
K
   1979

Ca        Mg     C
                                     org
            1980

K       Ca       Mg
fbefore energy source
 after energy source
        TABLE 52.  COEFFICIENTS OF DISTRIBUTION SOLUTION/SOIL FOR THE
                   SELECTED METALS AND ORGANIC CARBON - BLWRS-34
                      1979

Depth      K       Ca        Mg     C
                                     org
                                               1980

                                   K       Ca       Mg
fbefore energy source
 after energy source
                                                             org

0
30
80
140

0
30
80
140a
140b

0.450
0.632
0.310
0.280

0.560
0.280
0.400
0.340
0.186

0.028
0.015
0.016
0.013

0.043
0.011
0.017
0.014
0.008

0.058
0.034
0.027
0.037

0.120
0.024
0.027
0.035
0.014
Section 1
0.243
0.190
0.240
0.200
Section 2
0.270
0.200
0.210
0.270
0.190

0.005
0.012
0.012
0.025

0.005
0.010
0.011
0.010
0.010

0.016
0.038
0.035
0.030

0.020
0.039
0.034
0.032
0.036

0.110
0.012
0.013
0.012

0.220
0.036
0.012
0.014
0.022

                                                            "org

0
30
80
140a
140b

0
30
80
140

0.217
0.501
0.533
0.118
0.433

0.028
0.647
0.461
0.154

0.007
0.006
0.007
0.017
0.013

0.009
0.006
0.006
0.017

0.005
0.015
0.025
0.039
0.046

0.005
0.022
0.019
0.043
Section 3
0.084
0.220
0.239
0.164
0.190
Section 4
0.122
0.279
0.305
0.197

0.002
0.011
0.008
0.009
0.004

0.002
0.004
0.005
0.006

0.003
0.028
0.092
0.095
0.030

0.003
0.047
0.106
0.088

0.102
0.032
0.046
0.018
0.021

0.122
0.042
0.040
0.011

                                     94

-------
                                REFERENCES
Alexander, M.  1965.  Nitrification.  In:  Soil Nitrification.  Eds.  W. N.
     Bartholomew, and F. E. Clark.  Amer. Soc. Agron., Madison, WT.  309-335.

APHA, AWWA, WPCF.  1965.  Standard Methods for the Examination of Water And
     Waste Water.  Twelfth Edition.  American Public Health Association, Inc.
     New York.

Bailey, L. D., and E. G. Beauchamp.  1973.  Effects of Temperature on NO,"
     and N02" Reduction, Nitrogenous Gas Production and Redox Potential in a
     saturated soil.  Can. J. Soil Sci.  53:  213-218.

Bremner, J. M.  1965.  Total Nitrogen.  Chapter 83 in Methods of Analysis.
     Agronomy No. 9., part 2.  Chemical and Microbiological Properties.  Ameri-
     can Society of Agronomy.

Brzeziiiska, A.  1978.  Bilans Wybranych Me tali S,ladowych w Basenie Gdaiiskim:
     Praca Doktorska, Gdynia, Polska.

Bundy, L. G., and J. M. Bremner.  1972.  A Simple Titrimetric Method for De-
     termination of Inorganic Carbon in Soils.  Soil Sci. Soc. Amer. Proc.
     36:  273-275.

Clayfield, G. W.  1974.  Respiration and Denitrification Studies on Laboratory
     and Works Activated Sludges.  J. WPCF (1):  51-76.

Dancer, W. S., L. A. Peterson, and G. Chesters.  1973.  Ammonification and
     Nitrification of N as Influenced by Soil pH and Previous N Treatments.
     Soil Sci. Soc. Am. Proc.  37:  67-69.

Dawes. E. A.  1967.  Quantitative Problems in Biochemistry 4 th Ed.  E. and S.
     Livingstone, Edinburgh and London.  106-174.

Dutt, G. R., M. J. Shaffer, and W. J. Moore.  1972.  Computer Simulation model
     of Dynamic Bio-physicochemical Processes in Soils.  Technical Bulletin
     196.  Dept. of Soils, Water and Engineering, Agricultural Experiment
     Station, University of Arizona, Tucson.

Environmental Monitoring and Support Laboratory.  1979.  Methods for Chemical
     Analysis of Water and Wastes.  EPA-600/4-79-020.  U. S. Environmental
     Protection Agency.  Cincinnati, Ohio, XV-XIX.
                                    95

-------
Erickson, A. E., et al.  1974.  Soil Modification for Denitrification and
     Phosphate Reduction of Feedlot Waste.  EPA-660/2-74-057.  U. S. Environ-
     mental Protection Agency, Ada, Oklahoma.

Focht, D. D.  1974.  The Effect of Temperature, pH and Aeration on the Pro-
     duction of Nitrous Oxide and Gaseous Nitrogen:  A Zero-order Kinetic
     Model.  Soil Sci.  118:  173-179.

Frederick, L. R., and R. E. Broadbent.  1966.  Agricultural Annhydrous Am-
     monia - Technology and Use.  Eds.  M. M. Me Vickar, W. P. Marin, I. E.
     Miles, and H. M. Tucker.  Amer. Soc. Agron.  Madison, WI.

Gilmour, C. M., R. E. Broadbent, and S. M. Beck.  1977:  Recycling of Carbon
     and Nitrogen Through Land Disposal of Various Wastes.  In:  Soils for
     Management of Organic Wastes and Waste Waters.  Eds.  L. F. Elliot et al.
     SSSA, ASA, CSSA.  Madison, WI.  178-180.

Greaves, I. E., and E. Carter.  1920.  Influence of Moisture on the Bacterial
     Activities of the Soil.  Soil Sci.  10:  361.

Hagin, J., and A. Amberger.  1974.  Contribution of Fertilizers and Manures
     to the N- and P-Load of Waters.  A Computer Similation Final Rept. to
     the Deutsche Forschungs Gemeinschaft from Technicon, Israel.

Haseltine, T.  1957.  Biological Treatment of Sewage and Industrial Waste.
     Vol. Reinhold Publ. Comp. New York.

Hermanowicz, W., W. Donzanska, J. Dojlido, and B. Koziorowski.  1976.  Fizy-
     czno-chemiczne Badanie Wody i Sciekdw.  Arkady.  Warszawa.

Hobler, T.  1962.  Dyfuzyjny Ruch Masy i Absorbery.  WNT. Warszawa.  58-97.

Kononova, M. M.  1961.  Soil Organic Matter.  2nd English Edition.  Pergamon
     Press.

Krasnodebski, B.  1978.  Stan i Kierunki Rozwojowe Technologii i Organizacji
     Produkcji w Przemyslowych Fermach Trzody Chlewnej.  Materialy Konferencji
     BPBW w Szczecinie, 1978.

Kutera, J., J. Trzmiel, and J. Zurek.  1980.  Rolnicze Wykorzystanie Gnojowicy.
     Instytut Melioracji i Uzytk9w Zielonych.  Materialy Instruktazowe Nr 37.
     Falenty.

Kwiecieh, K.  1972.  Warunki KLimatyczne Zulaw Wislanych i Pojezierza Kas-
     zubskiego.  Opracowanie Instytutu Met. i Gospodarki Wodnej.  Gdynia.

Michaelis, L., and M. L. Menten.  1913.  Die Kinetik der Inwertinwirkung.
     Biochem.  Zeitschrift 49, 33.

Pinta, M.  1977.  Absorpcyjna Spektrometria Atomowa.  Zastosowania w Analizie
     Chemicznej.  PWN, Warszawa.

                                   - 96

-------
Reddy, K. R., R. Khaleel, M. R. Overcash, and P. W. Weterman.  1979.  A Non-
     point Source Model for Land Areas Receiving Animal Wastes:  I. Mineral-
     ization of Organic Nitrogen.  Transactions of ASAE.  863-872.

Ritter, W. R., and R. P. Eastburn.  1978.  Treatment of Dairy Cattle Wastes
     by a Barriered Landscape Wastewater Renovation System.  J. WPCF 50 (1) :
     144-150.

Rolston, D. E. et al.  1980.  Denitrification as Affected by Irrigation Fre-
     quency of a Field Soil.  EPA-600/2-80-066.  U. S. Environmental Protection
     Agency, Ada, Oklahoma.

Rozporzadzenie Rady Ministrdw z dnia 29.11.1975 w Sprawie Klasyfikacji W6d,
     Jakim Powinny Odpowiadae" Scieki Oraz Kar Pienieznych za Naruszanie Tych
     Warunkow. Dz. U. 41 poz.  214.

Walter, M. R., G. D. Bubenzer, and J. C. Converse.  1974.  Movement and Trans-
     formation of Manurial Nitrogen Through Soils at Low Temperatures.  Sixth
     National Agricultural Waste Management Conference.  Rochester, NY.  March
     25-27, 1974.
                           PROJECT PUBLICATIONS
Rybiriski, J., A. Zelechowska, R. Ceglarski, Z. Makowski, and E. Porezynska,
     1981.  Use of a Barriered Landscape Water Renovation System on Pre-
     treated Swine Waste.  Proceedings 4th International Symposium on Live-
     stock Wastes - 1980.  Am. Soc. Agr. Eng.

Rybiiiski, J., and A. Zelechowska, 1981.  Studies on Purification of Animal
     Wastes.  In:  The Utilization of the Slurry and Sewage Sludge in Agri-
     culture.  Papers of the Polish-Danish Colloquium held at Experimental
     Station Baborowko.  Poland 11-15 August 1980.  Ed.  M. Fotyma.  86-92.
                                     97

-------
                                 APPENDIX A

     Waste  samples reported herein were taken in the BLWRS according to
the diagram of sampling points shown below and were averaged to form
representative samples for the investigated  BLWRS layer or location ac-
cording  to  the following composition:
A 8 C 0 A 3 C D
n a rj rs   ft 
0000 o e o o
0-4/5
o BJS
o GIS
BLWRS -4 *>f
O Ajg
o BIB
o Cit
e 5;2'
BLWRS-3 9n
9 8n
TI
Wktsdka energetyczna o"ti

|(^OSSOOOWi(OC^^*,".^"iW^XxV^^>".^L^XXX4xV'-J^^.^^-
0000 0000
A B C D. A B C D
2 t 2 2 1 1 1 1
oooo oooe
CA,
o^3
0/>J BLWRS-1
off*
:J;
^s BLWRS-2
l*r
o ^7 Energy insert
S^!?^^SSSS^8^5^:^^^^^
oooo oooo
A B C D A.B.C.O,'
                 A - poz/orn 30cm ,  30cm level
                 B - po:iom SO cm ;  80cm level
                 C - potiom 140cm ;  HOcm level
                 D - poziom 160cm ,  160cm level
Sample code
     500

     600
       Sampling points
pipelines introducing raw wastes
after coagulation into BLWRS-12;
pipelines introducing raw wastes
after mechanical  settling tank
into BLWRS-34;
                                    98

-------
518                             Ap  A2,  A3, A4, As, Afi, A?, Ag,
618                             Ag,  A10, An, A12, A13, A14, A15
528                             Bx,  B2,  B3, B4, BS, B6, B?, Bg
628                             Bg,  B1Q, Bn, B12, B13, B14, BIS
136                             Cp  C2
137                             C^  C4
146                             Dp  D2
147                             D3,  D4
236                             C5,  C6     .
237                             C7,  Cg
246                             D5,  D6
247                             Dy,  Dg
336                             Cg,  CIQ
337                              11>  12
346                             Dg,  D1Q
347                             Dn, D12
436                             C13, CM
437                             C15, C16
446                             D13, DM
447                             D15, Dlfi
105                             siphon overflow in the effluent
                                catchbasin for  BLWRS-1
205                             siphon overflow in the effluent
                                catchbasingfor  BLWRS-2
305                             siphon overflow in the effluent
                                catchbasin for  BLWRS-3
405                             siphon overflow in the effluent
                                catchbasin for  BLWRS-4
                               99

-------
                       TABLE A-l.  CHARACTERISTICS OF WASTES APPLIED TO BLWRS  (CONCENTRATION

                                   OF POLLUTANTS EXPRESSED IN PPM; WASTE VOLUME IN LITERS)
o
o

Location 500 - Raw Wastes After Coagulation - BLWRS- 12
Time Period - 01/01/79 to 12/31/79
Parameter
SS
TKN
N-NH3
N-NO-
N-NO-
Q Applied
COD
TP
Cl"
pH
K
Na
Ca
Mg
Cu
Zn
Fe
Al
Cd
Precipitation, mn
Evaporation, mm
Soil Temp at 5cm, C
Soil Temp at 10cm, C
Soil Temp at 20cm, C
Soil Temp at 50cm. C
Avg. Daily Temp, C
Percent, 0~
L>
Number of
Observations
18
55
40
17
17
128
65
17
17
38
5
5
5
5
5
6
5
5
4
117
77
157
157
157
157
154
88
Average
Value
8,660.222
1,182.556
535.600
8.018
0.295
4,192.547
9,736.615
320.782
195.747
7.008
629.644
457.956
925.800
207.400
1.242
11.417
34.000
405.500
0.026
1.537
1.242
9.082
9.324
9.812
10.590
9.829
56.420
Minimum
Value
.195.00
504.00
107.00
2.18
0.00
0.00
2,990.00
24.00
140.10
6.20
310.97
253.30
146.00
50.00
0.36
1.50
5.50
7.50
0.00
0.00
0.00
-2.50
-1.60
0.20
2.00
-7.90
40.00
Maximum
Value
42,260.00
4,480.00
987.00
36.00
1.16
9,999.00
49,402.00
1,700.00
261.30
8.40
1,287.57
1,039.50
2,620.00
484.00
2.84
31.80
73.60
930.00
0.07
11.60
5.30
19.30
19.10
19.00
18.40
24.00
73.00
Standard
Deviation
14,485.966
822.318
132.592
7.917
0.304
4,090.090
8,905.960
414.650
38.710
0.356
373.434
293.907
976.151
174.137
1.067
10.297
31.935
321.529
0.028
2.355
1.227
6.498
6.245
5.991
5.549
7.293
6.874

-------
TABLE A-2.  CHARACTERISTICS OF WASTES APPLIED TO BLWRS (CONCENTRATION
            OF POLLUTANTS EXPRESSED IN PPM; WASTE VOLUME IN LITERS)


Parameter
SS
TKN
N-NH.
/I
N-NCC
N-NO::
Q Applied
BOD5
COD
TP
cr
PH
K
Na
Ca
Mg
Cu
Zn
Fe
Al
Cd

Location 600 - Raw Wastes
Time Period - 01/01/79 to
Number of
Observations
21
59
45

20
19
125
1
54
21
21
31
5
5
5
5
5
6
5
5
4

After Setting
12/31/79
Average
Value
7,504.571
1,112.553
548.022

12.012
0.244
4,199.896
1,592.000
9,545.278
354.486
195.862
7.042
744.020
263.474
623.000
111.400
3.380
22.715
69.240
37.234
0.046

- BLWRS- 34
Minimum
Value
226.00
543.00
112.00

2.70
0.00
0.00
1,592.00
1,019.00
84.00
138.90
6.40
340.53
234.40
173.00
59.00
0.68
1.38
9.80
8.70
0.01


Maximum
Value
38,884.00
3,374.00
882.00

50.00
0.94
9,999.00
1,592.00
99,999.00
1,760.00
289.80
7.40
932.91
302.40
1,270.00
185.00
10.20
78.70
170.00
72.23
0.10


Standard
Deviation
11,431.404
605.900
110.114

14.992
0.209
4,170.954
0.000
13,298.467
367.904
42.100
0.204
231.153
22.082
438.871
46.461
3.689
27.979
65.274
28.866
0.035


-------
                       TABLE A-3.  CHARACTERISTICS OF WASTES APPLIED TO BLWRS  (CONCENTRATION

                                   OF POLLUTANTS EXPRESSED IN PPM; WASTE VOLUME IN LITERS)
o
to;

Location 500 - Raw Wastes After Coagulation - BLWRS-12
Time Period - 01/01/80 to 12/31/80
Parameter
SS
TKN
N-NH.
N-NO?
<
N-NO^
P-PO
Q Applied
C
BOD
COD
TP
Cl"
PH
K
Na
Ca
Mg
Cu
Zn
Fe
Al
Precipitation, mm
Evaporation, mm
Soil Temp at 5cm, C
Soil Temp at 10cm, C
Soil Temp at 20cm, C
Soil Temp at 50cm. C
Avg. Daily Temp, C
Soil 00, Percent Saturation

Number of
Observations
25
186
28
18

3
14
260
16
4
182
25
27
21
14
14
14
14
12
14
12
13
262
201
262
262
262
262
262
161

Average
Value
1,120.320
901.960
625.475
13.294

0.000
122.536
2,933.092
2,313.062
318.000
4,844.060
126.268
137.926
7.043
334.143
86.986
172.021
49.571
0.330
1.661
6.317
6.932
2.920
1.691
9.026
9.177
9.352
9.946
10.327
56.652

Minimum
Value
72.00
134.40
123.40
0.00

0.00
14.00
0.00
1,125.00
110.00
165.00
3.80
56.60
6.00
165.00
55.50
90.00
21.50
0.16
0.50
1.50
0.60
0.00
0.70
-2.50
-1.50
0.20
1.90
-4.10
32.00

Maximum
Value
5,360.00
3,556.00
1,519.00
120.00

0.00
180.00
5,283.00
3,800.00
451.00
11,820.00
204.80
226.90
8.50
488.50
160.50
400.00
86.50
0.56
3.40
19.10
42.75
30.00
3.00
19.50
19.10
19.00
19.00
24.00
82.00

Standard
Deviation
1,101.044
469.597
278.299
28.621

0.000
52.625
1,673.345
816.216
135.486
1,769.181
47.887
45.819
0.473
68.240'
26.890
86.344
15.592
0.122
0.782
4.652
10.786
4.243
0.590
5.615
5.527
5.346
5.187
6.124
10.371


-------
                      TABLE A-4.   CHARACTERISTICS OF WASTES APPLIED TO BLWRS (CONCENTRATION
                                  OF POLLUTANTS EXPRESSED IN PPM; WASTE VOLUME IN LITERS)
O
O4






Location 600 - Raw Wastes After Setting - BLWRS- 34
Time Period - 01/01/80 to 12/31/80
Parameter
SS
TKN
N-NH
N-NO.!
N-NO^
/
P-PO^
A
Q Applied
f\T*O"
B85f
COD^
TP
Cl"
PH
K
Na
Ca
Mg
Cu
Zn
Fe
Al
Number of
Observations
26
184
28
14
1

14

260
16
4
179
I25
26
21
14
14
14
14
12
14 '
12
14
Average
Value
1,041.808
961.121
677.714
4.432
0.000

119.943

2,898.562
2,448.687
425.375
6,487.997
143.372
137.408
6.976
327.000
91.607
185.736
50.200
0.440
1.579
7.717
6.194
Minimum
Value
78.00
112.00
195.00
0.00
0.00

16.00

0.00
1,340.00
112.50
465.00
5.30
28.30
6.10
170.00
62.50
85.00
28.00
0.22
0.20
2.60
1.90
Maximum
Value
4,210.00
4,452.00
1,234.80
12.00
0.00

172.80

6,126.00
5,400.00
883.00
68,646.00
432.00
222.20
7.60
415.00
161 . 00
460.00
65.00
1.24
3.30
19.60
25.60
Standard
Deviation
1,112.336
590.810
249.973
3.477
0.000

48.582

1,712.861
1,056.316
285.817
9,862.353
74.530
48.274
0.364
60.490
25.364
109.843
10.875
0.285
0.929
5.397
5.925


-------
TABLE A-5.  CHARACTERISTICS OF BLWRS EFFLUENTS (CONCENTRATIONS OF
            POLLUTANTS EXPRESSED IN PPM; WASTE VOLUME IN LITERS)






Location 105 - Effluent from HLWRS-1
Time Period - 01/01/79 to 12/31/79
Parameter
SS
TKN
N-NH.
n
N-NO^
N-NO^
Q Applied
Q Drained
BODr
COD*
TP
Cl~
PH
K
Na
Ca
Mg
Cu
Zn
Fe
Al
Cd
Number of
Observations
. 31
105
64

37
36
7
138
5
99
33
33
35
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
3
Average
Value
81.865
104.629
57.487

105.836
6.750
0.000
1,754.993
41.200
281.222
2.005
159.845
7.077
203.998
263.658
423.875
72.325
0.318
0.388
9.675
101.527
0.006
Minimum
Value
6.00
22.40
0.00

1.75
0.04
0.00
218.00
10.00
71.00
0.30
80.00
6.60
129.79
155.93
328.00
53.30
0.15
0.18
3.90
2.40
0.00
Maximum
Value
570.00
798.00
210.00

222.50
24.00
0.00
9,562.00
98.00
1,080.00
11.60
214.80
7.80
283.99
378.00
490.00
89.50
0.44
0.74
19.00
160.20
0.01
Standard
Deviation
99.594
92.767
34.139

70.517
5.040
0.000
1,242.811
32.701
170.611
1.962
35.228
0.251
61.227
79.263
59.498
14.096
0.134
0.212
6.013
60.966
0.003


-------
                          TABLE A-6.  CHARACTERISTICS OF BLWRS EFFLUENTS.  (CONCENTRATIONS
                                      OF POLLUTANTS EXPRESSED IN PPM; WASTE VOLUME IN LITERS)
o
Ul


Parameter
SS
TKN
N-NH,
N-NO^
N-NO-
Q Drained
BOD,-
COD
TP
Cl"
pH
K
Na
Ca
Mg
Cu
Zn
Fe
Al
Cd
Location 205 - Effluent
Time Period - 01/01/79
Number of
Observations
33
109
63
39
36
138
4
105
34
34
35
6
6
6
6
6
7
6
6
5
frcw BLWRS- 2
to 12/31/79
Average
Value
206.394
155.821
80.927
78.960
13.579
1,711.580
122.500
551.181
2.704
166.988
7.314
180.993
260.673
340.000
61.133
0.252
0.891
24.467
89.905
0.004

Minimum
Value
16.00
23.24
0.00
0.80
0.04
286.00
46.00
99.00
0.50
97.70
6.40
70.80
189.00
218.00
52.50
0.16
0.10
9.00
0.70
0.00

Maximum
Value
1,300.00
1,708.00
309.40
260.00
45.60
9,781.00
296.00
1,960.00
15.80
207.50
7.80
299.40
415.80
410.00
74.00
0.35
3.02
41.60
210.93
0.01

Standard
Deviation
267.249
169.809
56.590
76.046
13.591
1,294.073
100.830
452.972
3.089
28.226
0.327
83.586
72.513
81.851
7.410
0.082
1.041
10.803
65.334
0.002


-------
TABLE A-7.  CHARACTERISTICS OF BLWRS EFFLUENTS (CONCENTRATIONS OF
            POLLUTANTS EXPRESSED IN PPM; WASTE VOLUME IN LITERS)



Location 305 - Effluent Catchbasin -
Time Period - 01/01/79 to 12/31/79
Parameter
SS
TKN
N-NH,
/I
N-NO*
s
N-NO,
Q Applied
Q Drained
BODC
*-v
COD
TP
Cl"
PH
K
Na
Ca
Mg
Cu
Zn
Fe
Al
Cd
Number of
Observations
32
107
65

37

35
7
138
7

111
33
34
37
5
5
5
5
5
6
5
5
4
Average
Value
123.281
93.497
62.603

101.069

3.423
0.000
1,529.797
60.571

291.685
1.914
173.744
. 7.381
210.608
261.482
306.400
74.660
0.316
0.657
28.880
5.420
0.004

BLWRS- 3
Minimum
Value
8.00
24.00
0.00

1.45

0.06
0.00
500.00
2.00

87.00
0.67
117.20
6.20
92.52
217.35
260.00
48.80
0.19
0.10
4.00
2.10
0.00


Maximum
Value
610.00
299.60
203.00

430.00

11.40
0.00
9,714.00
188.00

1,468.00
5.20
537.10
7.90
295.55
349.65
350.00
96.00
0.40
1.72
71.00
8.69
0.01


Standard
Deviation
148.656
43.660
28.935

78.502

3.130
0.000
983.434
56.609

216.213
1.244
66.731
0.372
75.498
46.971
33.643
19.022
0.079
0.546
22.468
2.450
0.002


-------
                        TABLE A-8.   CHARACTERISTICS OF BLWRS EFFLUENTS (CONCENTRATIONS OF
                                    POLLUTANTS EXPRESSED IN PPM;  WASTE VOLUME IN LITERS)
o

Location 405 - Effluent Catchbasin -
Time Period - 01/01/79 to 12/31/79
Parameter
SS
TKN
N-NH,
f\
N-NO^
<
N-NO^
Q Applied
Q Drained
BOD,
COD
TP
Cl"
pH
K
Na
Ca
Mg
Cu
Zn
Fe
Al
Cd
Number of
Observations
30
106
57

34

32
6
138
5
104
29
31
38
6
6
6
6
6
6
6
6
5
Average
Value
89.830
80.267
44.758

102.274

6.267
0.000
1,484.188
39.600
260.827
1.460
162.768
7.529
150.072
273.745
335.750
55.800
0.392
0.402
5.650
4.220
0.003
BLWRS -4
Minimum
Value
5.00
0.00
0.00

0.00

0.08
0.00
286.00
10.00
67.00
0.30
93.00
6.80
61.94
160.65
200.00
33.00
0.20
0.17
3.60
2.00
0.00

Maximum
Value
801.00
322.00
257.60

257.50

17.40
0.00
9,714.00
123.00
1,725.00
5.30
193 . 70
7.90
327.70
567.00
430.00
78.50
0.59
1 .09
10.30
10.29
0.01

Standard
Deviation
150.742
66.047
50.536

77.410

5.341
0.000
1,177.964
42.027
300.415
1.239
27.173
0.360
92.556
136.857
85.198
17.698
0.116
0.323
2.504
2.858
0.002


-------
                   TABLE A-9.  CHARACTERISTICS OF BLWRS EFFLUENTS  (CONCENTRATIONS  OF

                               POLLUTANTS EXPRESSED IN PPM; WASTE VOLUME  IN  LITERS)
o
oo



Location 105 - Effluent Catchbasin -
Time Period - 01/01/80 to 12/31/80
Parameter
SS
TKN
N-NH.
N-NO^
\
N-NO^
p-pof
Q Drained
C
BOD?
COD5
TP
Cl"
PH
K
Na
Ca
Mg
Cu
Zn
Fe
Al
Number of
Observations
33
229
35
37

35
20
258
22
4
227
33
37
23
16
16
16
16
15
15
15
15
Average
Value
54.667
121.429
107.526
197.297

19.478
7.600
1,501.054
214.773
29.625
298.960
5.879
117.824
6.865
207.469
67.956
364.188
48.631
0.294
0.590
5.940
5.549

BLWRS- 1
Minimum
Value
4.00
16.80
21.00
16.00

0.52
0.50
520.00
42.50
22.00
32.00
0.40
22.50
6.10
145.00
37.50
230.00
32.80
0.07
0.10
1.50
1.02


Maximum
Value
220.00
688.80
445.20
520.00

196.00
52.50
2,785.00
1,450.00
40.00
2,726.00
52.50
182.10
7.40
280.00
107.50
605.00
67.50
0.90
1.25
14.60
18.42


Standard
Deviation
44.382
87.862
90.374
123.784

36.498
15.328
425.809
389.818
7.676
352.180
13.157
30.588
0.320
40.631
21.577
97.673
9.223
0.224
0.334
3.580
4.625


-------
                        TABLE A-10.  CHARACTERISTICS OF BLWRS EFFLUENTS (CONCENTRATIONS OF
                                     POLLUTANTS EXPRESSED IN PPM; WASTE VOLUME IN LITERS)
o


Parameter
SS
TKN
N-NH.
l\
N-NO^
N-NO^
L "" t\J *
Q Drained
C
Bo5f
COD
TP
Cl"
PH
K
Na
Ca
Mg
Cu
Zn
Fe
Al
Location 205 - Effluent
Time Period - 01/01/80
Number of
Observations
34
229
35

37
35
21
258
21
4
227
33
36
23
15
15
15
15
15
15
16
16
Catchbasin -
to 12/31/80
Average
Value
122.176
226.126
195.511

78.635
12.387
8.286
1,488.178
223.714
38.500
470.392
6.661
125.817
7.035
235.667
77.747
302.433
52.940
0.241
0.493
14.900
2.837
BLWRS- 2
Minimum
Value
26.00
28.00
53.20

3.80
0.15
1.10
520.00
80.00
14.00
111.00
0.70
24.80
6.20
172.50
56.00
130.00
23.80
0.07
0.00
1.00
0.42

Maximum
Value
1,120.00
834.40
588.00

670.00
35.84
46.00
2,394.00
1,425.00
75.00
2,672.00
55.50
213.60
7.60
368.00
114.00
515.00
95.50
0.40
1.25
89.80
11. 12

Standard
Deviation
192.978
113.691
117.099

109.683
9.515
11.961
442.451
279.218
23.476
388.661
12.492
35.481
0.333
50.929
13.397
104.336
19.253
0.125
0.352
21.129
2.806


-------
TABLE A-11.  CHARACTERISTICS OF BLWRS EFFLUENTS (CONCENTRATIONS OF
             POLLUTANTS EXPRESSED IN PPM; WASTE VOLUME IN LITERS)

Location 305 - Effluent Catchbasin - BLWRS- 3
Time Period - 01/01/80 to "12/31/80
Parameter
SS
TKN
N-NH,
ft
N-NO,
<
N-NO-
p-poj
Q Drained
C
BOD?
COD
TP
Cl"
PH
K
Na
Ca
Mg
Cu
Zn
Fe
Al
Number of
Observations
32
225
34

36

34
20
258
20
4
225
32
35
22
. 15
15
16
16
15
16
15
14
Average
Value
122.781
246.649
213.003

97.717

9.418
6.146
1,497.326
257.850
47.875
443.849
6.741
141.460
7.082
232.900
102.120
276.469
114.631
0.483
0.612
12.693
2.942
Minimum
Value
3.00
25.20
23.60

1.00

0.30
0.52
698.00
36.00
16.00
80.00
0.50
40.50
6.10
177.00
57.50
95.00
47.50
0.09
0.05
3.40
0.22
Maximum
Value
400.00
812.00
694.40

365.00

57.60
36.00
2,819.00
1,225.00
88.00
2,800.00
51.00
205.50
7.50
305.00
179.50
995.00
290.00
3.75
1.70
40.70
9.10
Standard
Deviation
80.762
121.297
130.072

93.665

11.092
9.268
425.477
306.519
26.520
382.161
11.763
31.067
0.327
34.698
34.644
204.070
55.113
0.888
0.484
9.588
2.447


-------
TABLE A-12.  CHARACTERISTICS OF WASTES FROM BLWRS INSIDE (CONCENTRATIONS
             OF POLLUTANTS EXPRESSED IN PPM; WASTE :VOLUME IN LITERS)
Location 4Ui> - tttiuent Catchbasm - iSLWRb-4
Time Period - 01/01/80 to 12/31/80
Parameter
SS
TKN
N-NH,
N-NO^
N-NO^
p-p4
Q Drained
f\~if*fr
B85f
COD
TP
Cl"
PH
K
Na
Ca
Mg
Cu
Zn
^e
Al
Number of
Observations
34
227
35
37
35
24
258
19
4
224
34
37
24
15
15
15
15
14
15
14
15
Average
Value
122.882
115.897
119.971
150.976
9.742
16.813
1,477.942
281.737
30.750
269.697
10.835
135.178
7.017
200.233
95.067
254.433
114.833
0.289
0.533
6.421
 4.279
Minimum
Value
5.00
8.40
22.40
19.00
0.55
0.30
652.00
44.50
2.00
25.00
0.30
27.00
6.10
50.00
57.50
130.00
47.00
0.11
0.05
1.70
0.02
Maximum
Value
1,528.00
845.60
660.80
325.00
34.40
136.00
2,523.00
2,125.00
65.00
2,996.00
150.00
319.50
7.70
395.00
164.00
540.00
220.00
0.88
1.55
22.00
22.80
Standard
Deviation
326.389
142.940
145.567
96.505
8.775
32.908
457.023
532.699
25.460
364.011
28.969
43.661
0.420
79.138
30.765
108.722
43.741
0.188
0.408
5.233
5.763

-------
                          TABLE A-13.  CHARACTERISTICS OF BLWRS EFFLUENTS  (CONCENTRATIONS OF
                                       POLLUTANTS EXPRESSED  IN PPM; WASTE VOLUME IN LITERS)
IS)


Parameter
SS
TKN
N-NH,
N-NO^
N-NOjJ
P-P04
TP
Cl
pH
K
Na
Ca
Mg
Cu
Zn
Fe
Al
Location 105 - Effluent
Time Period - 01/01/81
Number of
Observations
7
70
5
9
9
8
5
70
8
9
3
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
Catchbasin -
to 12/31/81
Average
Value
376.429
185.983
232.400
80.222
0.811
24.462
364.000
703.586
26.650
99.378
7.633
207.000
44.875
165.000
49.750
0.130
0.400
6.822
1.518
BLWRS- 1
Minimum
Value
30.00
0.00
47.60
0.00
0.00
7.20
85.00
51.00
8.20
72.70
6.80
145.50
37.00
10.00
46.00
0.02
0.20
0.63
0.75

Maximum
Value
732.00
604.80
291.20
520.00
2.70
52.00
665.00
3,065.00
52.50
145.40
8.20
237.00
49.50
280.00
54.00
0.31
0.70
19.17
2.00

Standard
Deviation
254.292
168.667
93.152
158.414
0.977
14.962
234.657
691.936
14.491
23.248
0.602
36.078
4.827
101.550
2.839
0.111
0.197
7.557
0.492


-------
TABLE A-14.  CHARACTERISTICS OF BLWRS EFFLUENTS (CONCENTRATIONS OF
             POLLUTANTS EXPRESSED IN PPM; WASTE VOLUME IN LITERS)


Parameter
SS
TKN
N-NH,
N-NO^
N-NO~
/
P-PO^
C 4
c85g
TP
Cl"
PH
K
Na
Ca
Mg
Cu
Zn
Fe
Al

Location 205 - Effluent
Time Period - 01/01/81
Number of
Observations
7
70
5
9
9

8
7
72
8
9
3
4
4
4
4
3
4
3
3

Ca.tchbas:ih -
to 12/31/81
Average
Value
443.000
277.814
193.200
62.222
6.100

28.425
281.286
776.986
33.375
95.689
7.800
210.625
49.125
128.750
50.500
0.067
0.925
3.177
1.167

BLWRS -2
Minimum
Value
15.00
33.60
84.00
0.00
0.00

12.00
75.00
137.00
17.50
72.10
7.40
157.50
34.50
95.00
45.50
0.03
0.15
2.63
0.16


Maximum
Value
870.00
697.20
322.00
420.00
47,20

42.00
420.00
3,424.00
43.00
137.20
8.30
258.50
60.50
215.00
55.50
0.11
1.90
4.19
1.80


Standard
Deviation
301.900
155.884
93.773
129.681
14.640

10.126
124.705
709.306
9.310
17.930
0.374
41.174
10.328
50.172
4.528
0.033
0.656
0.717
0.720


-------
TABLE A-15.  CHARACTERISTICS OF BLWRS EFFLUENTS (CONCENTRATIONS OF
             POLLUTANTS EXPRESSED IN PPM; WASTE VOLUME IN LITERS)

Location 305. - Effluent Catchbasin - BLWRS- 3
Time Period -01/01/81 to 12/31/81
Parameter
SS
TKN
N-NH,
N-NO^
N-NO~
P-POT
C 4
C85S
TP
Cl-

pH
K
Na
Ca
Mg
Cu
Zn
Fe
Al
Number of
Observations
7
70
5
9
9
8
7
70
8

9
2
4
4
4
4
3
4
3
3
Average
Value
522.857
251.360
227.800
33.333
2.467
34.713
469.143
805.357
38.587

98.300
8.100
207.000
59.250
308.750
71.625
0.187
0.788
7.840
4.023
Minimum
Value
150.00
39.20
100.20
0.00
0.00
15.00
250.00
93.00
22.00

84.20
7.80
131.50
43.50
85.00
31.50
0.14
0.35
6.28
0.82
Maximum
Value
900.00
456.40
333.20
180.00
10.80
56.00
685.00
2,621.00
57.00

122.50
8.40
344.50
76.00
945.00
141.00
0.28
1.35
9.06
9.45
Standard
Deviation
275.284
108.445
82.765
57.542
3.370
14.080
141.906
672.151
11.424

11.115
0.300
81.995
14.188
367.447
41.384
0.066
0.359
1.160
3.858


-------
TABLE A-16.  CHARACTERISTICS OF BLWRS EFFLUENTS (CONCENTRATIONS OF
             POLLUTANTS EXPRESSED IN PPM; WASTE VOLUME IN LITERS)


Parameter
SS
TKN
N-NH.
/I
N-NO^
N-NO^
/
P-PO^
c 4
COD
TP
Cl"
pH
K
Na
Ca
Mg
Cu
Zn
Fe
Al
Location 405 - Effluent
Time Period -01/01/81 to
Number of
Observations
5
67
3

6
7

6
5
67
6
7-
2
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
Catchbasin
12/31/81
Average
Value
1,110.800
551.397
560.000

2.500
0.271

49.500
1,672.500
2,791.306
53.583
118.314
7.600
249.667
75.333
118.333
45.333
0.250
0.783
4.960
8.313
- BLWRS-4
Minimum
Value
664.00
0.00
518.00

0.00
0.00

27.00
1,072.50
109.00
36.00
74.80
7.20
231.00
49.00
60.00
43.00
0.09
0.35
4.38
5.00

Maximum
Value
1,900.00
893.20
588.00

15.00
0.70

70.00
2,250.00
6,013.00
74.00
161.70
8.00 
264.50
104.50
160.00
47.00
0.36
1.50
5.80
10.92

Standard
Deviation
415.503
254.682
30.243

5.590
0.271

16.480
394.987
1,465.784
16.265
26.119
0.400
13.942
22.746
42.492
1.700
0.116
0.510
0.608
2.468


-------
TABLE A-17  CHARACTERISTICS OF WASTES FROM BLWRS INSIDE (CONCENTRATIONS OF
            POLLUTANTS EXPRESSED IN PPM; WASTE VOLUME IN LITERS)


Parameter
SS
TKN
N-NH,
n
N-NO:!
N-NO^
BOD/
t
COD
TP
Cl"
PH
K
Na
Ca
Mg
Cu
Zn
Fe
Al
Cd
Location 518 - 30 on
Time Period -01/01/79
Number of
Observations
25
25
26

27
26
3

29
27
24
35
7
7
7
7
7
7
7
7
5
Depth, Eight Points in BLWRS- 12
to 12/31/79
Average
Value
533.520
499.184
322.169

64.375
10.479
335.000

1,517.655
34.507
197.421
7.440
651.247
291.134
333.857
60.643
0.450
1.041
8.600
141.653
0.007
Minimum
Value
62.00
61.60
23.80

1.75
0.00
66.00

392.00
13.40
46.30
6.50
269.85
134.20
153.00
30.00
0.29
0.31
2.00
1.30
0.00
Maximum
Value
4,600.00
1,366.40
900.00

225.00
91.20
799.00

3,380.00
61.60
322.20
7.90
1,518.87
774.90
1,230.00
175.00
1.03
2.92
14.30
500.62
0.02
Standard
Deviation
901.212
286.042
186.692

76.405
21.551
329.485

751.796
13.756
61.477
0.316
391.731
205.423
366.473
47.350
0.243
0.851
4.024
159.628
0.008


-------
TABLE A-18. CHARACTERISTICS OF WASTES FROM BLWRS INSIDE (CONCENTRATIONS
            OF POLLUTANTS EXPRESSED IN PPM; WASTE VOLUME IN LITERS)



Location 528 - 80 cm Depth, Eight Points in
Time Period - 01/01/79 to 12/31/79
Parameter
SS
TKN
N-NH,
N-NO^
. N-NO,
BOD,
cor
TP
Cl"
PH
K
Na
Ca
Mg
Cu
Zn
Fe
Al
Cd
Number of
Observations
25
23
26
26
25
2
30
25
24
36
5
5
5
5
5
5
5
5
4
Average
Value
275.796
423.930
305.185
75.429
48.881
46.000
1,261.033
21.248
218.475
7.369
355.944
310.332
380.800
57.400
0.518
1.058
8.600
105.010
0.003

BlWRS-12
Minimum
Value
25.00
156.80
53.20
1.90
0.00
30.00
320.00
4.50
143.50
6.40
298.12
158.76
95.00
24.00
0.31
0.49
3.10
5.80
0.00


Maximum
Value
701.00
1,092.00 .
942.00
385.30
156.80
62.00
3,809.00
63.00
314.80
7.90
496.00
812.70
930.00
153.00
1.14
2.97
14.70
200.25
0.01


Standard
Deviation
173.899
226.300
220.175
98.230
53.775
16.000
915.191
13.993
43.645
0.289
72.277
252.226
296.927
48 . 102
0.313
0.961
4.452
73.511
0.002


-------
TABLE A-19. CHARACTERISTICS OF WASTES FRCM BLWRS INSIDE (CONCENTRATIONS
            OF POLLUTANTS EXPRESSED IN PPM; WASTE VOLUME IN LITERS)



Location 618 - 30 cm Depth, Eight Points in
Time Period - 01/01/79 to 12/31/79
Parameter
SS
TKN
N-NH,
N-NO^
N-NTC
BODC
COD
TP
Cl"
PH
K
Na
Ca
Mg
Cu
Zn
Fe
Al
Cd
Number of
Observations
13 
18
18
15
14
1
20
16
13
33
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
3
Average
Value
1,124.384
502.006
179.094
64.069
9.624
393.000
1,698.250
36.987
182.031
7.824
623.708
267.440
186.500
62.200
0.472
1.005
6.475
6.255
0.001

BLWRS- 34 "
Minimum
Value
57.00
112.00
26.30
2.18
0.26
393.00
103.00
9.80
46.30
7.10
257.00
192.80
120.00
48.00
0.33
0.55
2.50
4.50
0.00


Maximum
Value
3,681.00
1,904.00
336.00
216.00
62.40
393.00
4,959.00
60.00
299.20
8.80
1,038.28
336.42
263.00
82.80
0.68
1.74
8.80
9.28
0.00


Standard
Deviation
604.255
396.479
85.715
50.425
15.100
0.000
1,345.048
18.748
55.790
0.392
324.354
53.325
54.656
12.733
0.137
0.445
2.385
1.806
0.001


-------
TABLE A-20. CHARACTERISTICS OF WASTES FROM BLWRS INSIDE (CONCENTRATIONS
            OF POLLUTANTS EXPRESSED IN PPM; WASTE VOLUME IN LITERS)



Location 628 - 80 on Depth, Eight Points
Time Period - 01/01/79 to 12/31/79
Parameter
SS
TKN
N-NH. '
N-NOI
<
N-NOX
WDr
COD
TP
Cl"
PH
K
Na
Ca
Mg
Cu
. Zn
Fe
Al
Cd
Number of
Observations
12
13
13
12

12
1
14
10
11
31
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
Average
Value
656.917
291.208
128.969
100.658

2.709
210.000
1,215.929
40.560
177.100
7.774
540.557
517.860
271.333
80.000
0.720
4.243
11.267
11.780
0.018

in BLWRS -34
Minimum
Value
112.00
72.80
0.00
4.30

0.11
210.00
283.00
16.40
70.50
7.00
416.34
228.69
190.00
47.00
0.48
1.35
9.90
10.00
0.00


Maximum
Value
2,264.00
616.00
285.60
332.00

15.36
210.00
2,520.00
70.50
282.00
8.30
683.62
869.40
416.00
136.00
0.93
10.00
13.90
14.00
0.03


Standard
Deviation
573.847
152.636
85.995
103.174

3.942
0.000
708.239
15.389
56.219
0.314
109.927
265.261
102.558
39.808
0.185
4.071
1.862
1.662
0.014


-------
                 TABLE A-21. CHARACTERISTICS OF WASTES FROM BLWRS INSIDE (CONCENTRATIONS

                             OF POLLUTANTS EXPRESSED IN PPM; WASTE VOLUME IN LITERS)
t-o
o

Location 136 - 140 on Depth, Two Points
Time Period - 01/01/79 to 12/31/79
Parameter
SS
TKN
N-NH.
/I
N-NO!J
N-NO^
/
BODC
K
COD
TP
Cl"
PH
K
Na
Ca
Mg
Cu
Zn
Fe
Al
Cd
Number of
Observations
31
33
33

35
33

3

30
31
32
35
6
6
6
6
5
5
5
5
4
Average
Value
363.742
107.661
59.579

100.233
22.384

65.000

505.633
5.866
168.197
7.580
238.585
240.657
338.167
60.583
0.356
0.746
22.520
94.766
0.015
in BLWRS -1
Minimum
Value
86.00
14.00
0.00

1.90
0.06

11.00

87.00
0.60
103.70
7.10
52.69
174.83
128.00
53.00
0.18
0.50
4.40
2.70
0.00

Maximum
Value
1,873.00
408.80
281.00

830.00
320.00

107.00

2,153.00
70.50
214.80
8.10
438.20
321.30
495.00
69.00
0.58
1.32
37.80
160.20
0.05

Standard
Deviation
353.513
101.017
71.223

143.639
55.769

40.100

495.277
12.466
28.181
0.200
180.422
43.838
138.242
6.214
0.137
0.307
13.211
51.371
0.019


-------
TABLE A-2 2  CHARACTERISTICS OF WASTES FROM BLWRS INSIDE (CONCENTRATIONS
            OF POLLUTANTS EXPRESSED IN PPM; WASTE VOLUME IN LITERS)

Location 137 - 140 cm Depth, Two Points
Time Period - 01/01/79 to 12/31/79
Parameter
SS
TKN
N-NH,
N-NO^
N-NO-
BODC
K
COD5
TP
Cl"
PH
K
Na
Ca
Mg
Cu
Zn
Fe
Al
Cd
Number of
Observations
30
36
35
35
 31
4

32
32
30
38
6
6
6
6
6
6
5
6
5
Average
Value
252.400
195.267
130.126
139.459
27.181
107.500

355.500
3.719
215.563
7.329
364.682
300.978
369.750
67.300
0.343
0.668
18.580
92.350
0.006
in BLWRS -1
Minimum
Value
46.00
56.00
0.00
2.30
0.09
1.00

120.00
1.40
123.20
6.80
151.63
221.10
305.00
43.80
0.27
0.22
2.80
4.30
0.00

Maximum
Value
848.00
336.00
310.80
430.00
130.40
415.00

1,342.00
9.80
270.50
7.60
524.28
434.70
458.50
88.00
0.44
1.01
49.80
154.86
0.02

Standard
Deviation
226.207
82.971
77.983
138.275
33.485
177.603

289.746
1.798
36.336
0.215
145.488
79.286
53.746
13.624
0.056
0.336
16.299
45.069
0.005


-------
                 TABLE A-23. CHARACTERISTICS OF WASTES FROM BLWRS INSIDE (CONCENTRATIONS

                             OF POLLUTANTS EXPRESSED IN PPM; WASTE VOLUME IN LITERS)
r-o
to

Location 146 - 160 cm Depth, Two Points in BLWRS- 1
Time Period - 01/01/79 to 12/31/79
Parameter
SS
TKN
N-NH.
n
N-NO^
\
N-NO^
BOD,/
COD
TP
Cl"
pH
K
Na
Ca
Mg
Cu
Zn
Fe
'Al
Cd
Number o
Observations
36
37
36

40

38
2
34
36
36
46
6
6
6
6
6
6
6
6
4
Average
Value
296.306
58.892
24.281

73.221

10.532
86.500
364.250
2.516
159.586
7.374
143.235
229.395
440.000
206.217
0.348
0.577
19.300
74.388
0.004
Minimum
Value
27.00
6.00
0.00

0.53

0.05
56.00
99.00
0.60
46.50
6.40
35.79
119.55
365.00
52.00
0.24
0.43
4.50
4.40
0.00
Maximum
Value
1,242.00
207.20
103.60

216.00

48.80
117.00
1,760.00
7.20
228.10
8.40
380.40
302.40
565.00
925.00
0.41
0.90
36.80
141.51
0.01
Standard
Deviation
269.650
45.075
28.040

67.849

12.755
30.500
347.573
1.600
46.722
0.318
125.970
64.318
68.618
321.537
0.054
0.159
14.384
51.195
0.001


-------
                  TABLE A-24. CHARACTERISTICS OF WASTES FROM BLWRS  INSIDE  (CONCENTRATIONS

                              OF POLLUTANTS EXPRESSED IN PPM; WASTE VOLUME IN LITERS)
V-1
ro
Oi



Location 147 - 160 cm Depth, Two Locations
Time Period - 01/01/79 to 12/31/79
Parameter
SS
TKN
N-NH.
N-NO,
\
N-NO,
BOD/
k
COD*
TP
Cl"
PH
K
Na
Ca
Mg
Cu
Zn
Fe
Al
Cd
Number of
Observations
34
38
37
38

38
3

35
36
36
47
7
7
7
7
7
7
7
7
5
Average
Value
293.294
153.539
98.368
127.859

25.532
103.667

349.194
2.876
210.333
7.317
368.613
318.459
453.857
83.471
0.364
0.666
19.486
108.059
0.006

in BLWRS - 1
Minimum
Value
48.00
31.00
0.00
0.00

0.04
3.00

61.00
1.00
123.20
6.30
125.29
217.35
305.00
54.30
0.12
0.32
4.00
7.70
0.00


Maximum
Value
1,248.00
336.00
243.60
425.50

86.40
299.00

2 032.00
' 7.00
330.90
7.70
616.80
529.20
615.00
142 . 50
0.61
1.52
59.50
218.94
0.01


Standard
Deviation
319.997
81.790
59.046
129.462

27.995
138.143

433.629
1.769
38.665
0.285
192.160
92.955
98.636
26.221
0.141
0.387
18.713
77.170
0.003


-------
TABLE A-25.CHARACTERISTICS OF WASTES FROM BLWRS INSIDE (CONCENTRATIONS
           OF POLLUTANTS EXPRESSED IN PPM; WASTE VOLUME IN LITERS)






Location 236 - 140 cm Depth, Two Points in BLWRS -2
Time Period - 01/01/79 to 12/31/79
Parameter
SS
TKN
N-NH
N-NO^
N-NO-
BOD,/
. COD
TP
Cl"
pH
K
Na
Ca
Mg
Cu
Zn
Fe
Al
Cd
Number of
Observations
34 .
37
37
37
36
4
34
33
35
40
6
6
6
6
6
7
6
6
5
Average
Value
497.176
210.222
131.551
28.470
1.653
419.375
915.353
4.452
147.880
7.193
212.092
165.170
272.500
43.467
0.417
1.007
57.250
83.173
0.011
Minimum
Value
51.00 .
50.00
0.00
0.50
0.00
129.50
182.00
1.70
29.60
6.40
63.99
96.10
107.00
14.50
0.19
0.27
14.40
1.40
0.00
Maximum
Value
1,282.00
568.40
481.60
440.00
14.40
744.00
2,920.00
9.20
188.60
7.60
359.80
245.70
360.00
55.50
0.80
3.24
109.00
156.20
0.03
Standard
Deviation
268.302
130.317
108.037
77.549
3.183
235.459
563.444
2.207
32.668
0.268
104.626
53.631
86.569
14.538
0.191
0.937
34.719
45.243
0.008


-------
                    TABLE A-26.   CHARACTERISTICS OF WASTES FROM BLWRS INSIDE (CONCENTRATIONS

                                 OF POLLUTANTS EXPRESSED IN PIM; WASTE VOLUME IN LITERS)
ts)
in

Location 237 - 140 em Depth, Two Points
Time Period - 01/01/79 to 12/31/79
Parameter
SS
TKN
N-NH,
f\
N-NCE
\
N-NO^
BOD,^
COD
TP
Cl"
pH
K
Na
Ca
Mg
Cu
Zn
Fe
Al
Cd
Number of
Observations
3.4
38
38

38

36
1
35
36
35
37
5
5
5
5
5
5
5
5
4
Average
Value
226.971
147.437
106.189

66.739

19.963
431.000
244.400
2.724
179.034
7.251
293.820
284.266
383.500
75.560
0.344
0.612
22.820
91.170
0.006
in BLWRS - 2
Minimum
Value
10.00
30.80
0.00

5.10

0.09
431.00
73.00
0.60
69.80
6.40
213.95
170.10
226.00
43.00
0.19
0.22
4.70
11.10
0.01

Maximum
Value
772.00
384.00
245.00

305.00

88.00
431.00
823.00
7.30
240.80
7.80
466.46
519.75 '
765.00
160.50
0.49
1.10
50.50
181.56
0.01

Standard
Deviation
223.414
79.435
62.761

64.706

20.546
0.000
147.612
1.826
40.063
0.315
89.531
121.561
200.143
42.922
0.112
0.290
15.522
65.223
0.001


-------
                   TABLE A-27   CHARACTERISTICS OF WASTES FROM BLWRS INSIDE (CONCENTRATIONS
                                OF POLLUTANTS EXPRESSED IN PPM; WASTE VOLUME IN LITERS)
ro
OV

Location 246 - 160 on Depth, Two Points
Time Period - 01/01/79 to 12/31/79
Parameter
SS
TKN
N-NH
N-NO,
N-NO,
BOD,/
COD
TP
Cl"
pH
K
Na
Ca
Mg
Cu
Zn
Fe
Al
Cd
Number of
Observations
36
37
38
40
38
4
35
36
36
40
6
6
'6
6
6
6
6
6
5
Average
Value
669.361
172.138
90.492
23.403
0.630
267.250
868.029
4.467
152.386
7.142
181.507
219.482
401.750
60.633
0.337
0.647
61.200
101.167
0.005
in BLWRS - 2
Minimum
Value
63.00
64.40
0.00
0.15
0.00
69.00
158.00
1.40
65.10
6.10
94.45
104.42
260.00
39.00
0.18
0.34
13.30
13.50
0.00

Maximum
Value
2,822.00
543.60
240.80
396.00
3.20
591.00
3,360.00
8.00
212.70
8.00
327.68
308.10
540.50
87.00
0.41
0.95
102.00
173.55
0.0.1

Standard
Deviation
583.703
111.503
54.260
63.635
0.733
201.204
612.669
1.821
33.927
0.402
79.514
77.534
99.391
16.287
0.078
0.226
30.822
52.389
0.001


-------
TABLE A-28.   CHARACTERISTICS OF WASTES FROM BLWRS INSIDE (CONCENTRATIONS
             OF POLLUTANTS EXPRESSED IN PPM; WASTE VOLUME IN LITERS)



Location 247 - 160 cm Depth, Two Points
Time Period - 01/01/79 to 12/31/79
Parameter
SS
TKN
N-NH,
A
N-NO!!
N-NO^
BOD,
COD
TP
Cl"
PH
K
Na
Ca
Mg
Cu
Zn
Fe
Al
Cd
Number of
Observations
36
36
38

40
38
2
35
36
36
45
6
6
6
6
6
5
6
6
4
Average
Value
338.306
167.128
112.971

82.245
15.602
335.250
468.171
3.412
185.811
7.140
243.717
267.597
410.167
72.350
0.395
' 0.860
35.250
90.447
0.007

in BLWRS - 2
Minimum
Value
55.00
35.00
0.00

0.30
0.04
119.50
153.00
1.10
47.70
6.20
95.73
213.57
300.00
44.50
0.25
0.55
8.00
4.40
0.00


Maximum
Value
2,042.00 
565.00
336.00

244.00
146.40
551.00
1,890.00
9.30
243.10
7.70
412.49
396.90
545.00
99.00
0.62
1.64
73.50
162.87
0.01


Standard
Deviation
381.002
94.181
64.581

80.446
28.792
215.750
390.217
1.927
40.634
0.272
118.531
61.522
84.864
16.414
0.119
0.396
21.741
64.145
0.004


-------
                   TABLE A-29.  CHARACTERISTICS OF WASTES FRCM BLWRS  INSIDE (CONCENTRATIONS

                                OF POLLUTANTS EXPRESSED IN PPM; WASTE VOLUME IN LITERS)
r-o
oo



Location 336 - 140 cm Depth, Two Points
Time Period - 01/01/79 to 12/31/79
Parameter
SS
TKN
N-NH.
N-N03
\
N-NO^
BOD,-
COD
TP
Cl"
pH
K
Na
Ca
Mg
Cu
Zn
Fe
Al
Cd
Number of
Observations
30
26
31
33

32
4
29
29
31
31
5
5
5
5
5
5
5
5
4
Average
Value
410.633
193.854
141.368
66.632

5.825
246.000
699.069
6.942
169.832
7.516
330.880
247.784
308.000
74.100
0.580
1.456
17.460
11.116
0.007

in BLWRS - 3
Minimum
Value
86.00
106.40
16.80
1.45

0.06
25.00
163.00
1.40
112.70
6.60
105.37
190.89
250.00
57.50
0.26
0.35
6.20
3.24
0.00


Maximum
Value
1,136.00
448.00
378.00
220.00

51.20
765.00
3,294.00
15.30
206.30
7.90
463.89
302.40
465.00
83.50
1.07
4.10
26.50
30.50
0.01


Standard
Deviation
294.835
69.920
77.031
63.066

11.118
302.098
676.678
3.805
26.799
0.264
127.379
38.083
79.912
9.378
0.309
1.378
8.980
9.902
0.002


-------
                   TABLE A-30.   CHARACTERISTICS OF WASTES FROM BLWRS INSIDE (CONCENTRATIONS
                                OF POLLUTANTS EXPRESSED IN PPM; WASTE VOLUME IN LITERS)
t-O
10






Location 337 - 140 cm Depth, Two Points in BLWRS - 3
Time Period - 01/01/79 to 12/31/79
Parameter
SS
TKN
N-NH,
N-NCE
N-NO-
BOD,/
COD
TP
Cl"
PH
K
Na
Ca
Mg
Cu
Zn
Fe
Al
Cd
Number of
Observations
35
34
36
39
35
3
34
35
34
34
6
6
6
6
6
6
6
6
5
Average
Value
291.971
66.735
46.361
167.222
.3.648
47.000
180.176
4.367
215.709
7.638
104.713
275.155
357.083
72.417
0.347
0.515
10.483
7.538
0.004
Minimum
Value
44.00
8.40
0.00
4.10
0.10
1.00
62.00
0.50
67.40
6.60
46.90
218.30
260.00
48.00
0.27
0.25
3.30
4.03
0.00
Maximum
Value
2,341.00
176.00
195.00
487.00
14.10
136.00
813.00
24.30
1,541.00
8.50
169.62
330.75
467.50
108.50
0.64
1.03
31.50
13.30
0.01
Standard
Deviation
396.187
41.826
48.982
127.128
3.161
62.944
168.893
5.276
232.924
0.384
42.466
41.530
63.940
20.460
0.132
0.281
9.847
3.253
0.003


-------
                    TABLE A-31.   CHARACTERISTICS OF WASTES  FROM BLWRS INSIDE (CONCENTRATIONS

                                 OF POLLUTANTS EXPRESSED IN PPM; WASTE VOLUME IN LITERS)
Ul
o



Location 346 - 160 cm Depth, Two Points
Time Period - 01/01/79 to 12/31/79
Parameter
SS
TKN
N-NH4
N-NO.J
N-NO^
BOD/
COD3
TP
Cl"
PH
K
Na
Ca
Mg
Cu
Zn
Fe
Al
Cd
Number of
Observations
33
35
33
37
34
3
35
32
32
43
7
7
7
7
7
8
7
7
5
Average
Value
325.879
90.006
57.352
83.532
3.116
159.333
323.177
5.103
138.616
7.516
149.430
224.106
284.357
63.286
0.271
0.847
17.629
4.579
0.002

in BLWRS - 3
Minimum
Value
41.00
8.40
8.00
1.35
0.06
14.00
33.00
0.80
82.50
6.40
74.50
132.30
203.00
29.50
0.19
0.35
4.90
3.20
0.00


Maximum
Value
1,954.00
168.00
120.00
257.50
22.40
380.00
1,365.00
24.00
198.00
8.00
283.99
387.45
360.00
93.50
0.38
2.96
30.60
7.04
0.00


Standard
Deviation
364.504
31.812
27.867
79.764
4.346
158.630
302.448
5.651
34.415
0.340
64.290
78.821
48.515
19.801
0.057
0.819
9.063
1.403
0.002


-------
TABLE A-32.  CHARACTERISTICS OF WASTES FRCM BLWRS INSIDE (CONCENTRATIONS
             OF POLLUTANTS EXPRESSED IN PPM; WASTE VOLUME IN LITERS)



Location 347 - 160 on Depth, Two Points
Time Period - 01/01/79 to 12/31/79
Parameter
SS
TKN
N-NH.
N-NO,
\
N-NO^
BOD/
k
COD
TP
Cl"
PH
K
Na
Ca
Mg
Cu
Zn
Fe
Al
Cd
Number of
Observations
35
35
37
39

37
3

37
35
35
45
6
6
6
6
6
7
6
6
5
Average
Value
193.943
48.966
31.932
191.429

4.634
49.000

163.400
2.949
167.434
7.496
94.123
248.778
394.167
70.517
0.395
1.151
11.383
6.135
0.003

in BLWRS - 3
Minimum
Value
17.00
0.00
0.00
52.00

0.26
6.00

48.00
0.70
62.80
6.30
60.40
168.68
315.00
47.30
0.26
0.36
3.30
3.06
0.00


Maximum
Value
754.00
148.40
237.00
445.00

14.52
127.00

1,024.00
11.00
212.20
8.50
186.30
311.85
490.00
88.00
0.76
3.30
27.00
9.50
0.01


Standard ,
Deviation
184.747
36.183
38.949
113.410

3.492
55.251

185.554
2.273
36.840
0.423
43.913
48.158
67.046
14.595
0.180
0.949
7.678
2.006
0.002


-------
TABLE A-33.  CHARACTERISTICS OF WASTES FROM BLWRS INSIDE (CONCENTRATIONS
             OF POLLUTANTS EXPRESSED IN PPM; WASTE VOLUME IN LITERS)






Location 436 - 140 cm Depth, Two Points in BLWRS - 4
Time Period - 01/01/79 to 12/31/79
Parameter
SS
TKN
N-ML
N-NO;
N-NO,
BODr
COD
TP
Cl"
PH
K
Na
Ca
Mg
Cu
Zn
Fe
Al
Cd
Number of
Observations
31
33
34
35
33
3
32
35
32
39
4
4
4
4
4
5
4
4
2
Average
Value
265.419
41.167
16.318
191.121
13.103
28.000
169.281
3.106
183.556
7.521
107.558
264.130
477.250
84.375
0.348
1.228
12.475
11.743
0.005
Minimum
Value
59.00
11.20
0.00
23.50
0.20
15.00
40.00
0.90
128.40
6.60
66.50
212.62
358.00
53.50
0.24
0.35
5.60
8.38
0.01
Maximum
Value
949.00
188.00
63.00
587.50
160.00
47.00
677.00
10.80
527.80
8.20
134.93
342.10
590.00
113.50
0.54
3.60
26.40
13.39
0.01
Standard
Deviation
201.823
35.314
17.057
131.800
29.195
13.736
120.364
1.980
66.913
0.329
25.725
50.607
92.896
21.761
0.119
1.210
8.323
1.973
0.001


-------
TABLE A-34.  CHARACTERISTICS OF WASTES FROM BLWRS INSIDE (CONCENTRATIONS
             OF POLLUTANTS EXPRESSED IN PPM; WASTE VOLUME IN LITERS)

Location 437 - 140 on Depth, Two Points
Time Period - 01/01/79 to 12/31/79
Parameter
SS
TKN
N-NH,
A
N-NCC
N-NO^
BOD,.
COD
TP
Cl"
pH
K
Na
Ca
Mg
Cu
Zn
Fe
Al
Cd
Number of
Observations
34
34
33

38
36
2
33
35
35
40
5
5
'5
5
4
4
4
4
4
Average
' Value
279.835
59.229
35.200

242.283
11.513
84.000
178.697
3.357
189.494
7.467
117.836
318.466
353.600
83.420
0.635
0.658
13.475
4.413
0.003
in BLWRS - 4
Minimum
Value
49.00
14.00
0.00

11.00
0.12
41.00
48.00
0.80
102.30
6.60
41.12
165.38
245.00
39.30
0.28
0.31
2.90
3.15
0.00

Maximum
Value
1,340.00
204.40
114.80

545.00
42.40
127.00
602.00
9.90
240.80
7.70
228.73
529.20
450.00
130.00
1.44
0.85
34.60
6.85
0.01

Standard
Deviation
309.148
36.197
24.550

159.202
11.627
43.000
121.462
2.461
27.251
0.278
67.778
120.485
90.210
37.686
0.470
0.207
12.476
1.455
0.002


-------
                    TABLE A-35.
CA)
-pi
CHARACTERISTICS OF WASTES FROM BLWRS INSIDE  (CONCENTRATIONS
OF POLLUTANTS EXPRESSED IN PPM; WASTE VOLUME  IN  LITERS)

Location 446 - 160 cm Depth, Two Points
Time Period - 01/01/79 to 12/31/79
Parameter
SS
TKN
N-NH4
N-NO,
N-NO-
BOD,-
COD
TP
Cl"
pH
K
Na
Ca
Mg
Cu
Zn
Fe
Al
Cd
Number of
Observations
32
36
35
36
35
2
36
33
34
41
6
6
6
6
6
6
6
6
5
Average
Value
460.363
59.400
27.574
157.486
7.197
34.500
173.556
5.977
167.179
7.429
111.245
275.545
418.917
74.383
0.295
0.643
28.733
8.413
0.003
in BLWRS - 4
Minimum
Value
38.00
11.20
0.00
32.50
0.20
4.00
61.00
0.70
60.50
6.80
33.41
169.63
300.60
51.50
0.23
0.30
6.90
6.10
0.00

Maximum
Value
5,520.00
283.00
98.00
412.50
48.80
65.00
763.00
63.00
214.20
8.10
203.00
434.70
545.00
94.50
0.35
1.27
58 . 00
10.35
0.01

Standard
Deviation
935.936
45.401
25.144
101.641
10.527
30.500
132.582
10.947
30.523
0.312
53.440
84.809
82.641
16.088
0.039
0.323
17.059
1.587
0.002


-------
                   TABLE A-36.  CHARACTERISTICS OF WASTES FRCM BLWRS INSIDE (CONCENTRATIONS
                                OF POLLUTANTS EXPRESSED IN PPM; WASTE VOLUME IN LITERS)
tn

Location 447 - 160 cm Depth, Two Points
Time Period - 01/01/79 to 12/31/79
Parameter
SS
TKN
N-NH.
ft
N-NOI
<
N-NO-
BOD,
COD
TP
Cl"
PH
K
Na
Ca
Mg
Cu
Zn
Fe
Al
Cd
Number of
Observations
35
36
35

39

37
2
34
35
35
36
6
6
6
6
6
6
6
6
5
Average
Value
514.829
48.683
25.234

232.673

14.629
157.500
148.559
2.959
188.657
7.400
178.508
307.758
420.333
87.883
0.328
0.745
11.817
7.980
0.005
in BLWRS - 4
Minimum
Value
5.00
8.00
0.00

15.00

0.12
152.00
62.00
0.60
93.00
6.70
35.98
193.73
288.00
42.30
0.21
0.36
4.00
4.03
0.00

Maximum
Value
9,664.00
103.60
61.60

522.50

63.60
163.00
344.00
21.00
243.10
8.10
334.10
449.82
565.00
134.50
0.42
1.39
22.30
16.20
0.01

Standard
Deviation
1,601.057
18.991
19.523

160.245

13.976
5.500
65.138
3.333
33.525
0.254
102.215
77.174
100.994
36.515
0.074
0.407
5.637
4.063
0.003


-------
                   TABLE A-3 7   CHARACTERISTICS OF WASTES FROM BLWRS  INSIDE  (CONCENTRATIONS
                                 OF  POLLUTANTS EXPRESSED  IN PPM; WASTE VOLUME IN LITERS)
04



Location 518 - 30 oiTDepth, Eight Points
Time Period - 01/01/80 to 12/31/80
Parameter
SS
TKN
N-NH4
N-NO^
N-NO^
P-POj
C org
BODC
K
COD
TP
Cl"
pH
K
Na
Ca
Mg
Cu
Zn
Fe
Al
Number of
Observations
16
18
16
18
17
9
10
2

. 18
15
18
15
8
8
8
8
9
8
'9
9
Average
Value
402.438
251.000
154.988
128.786
14.367
29.100
395.000
129.500

961.722
34.313
117.183
7.173
216.813
88.825
255.412
71.788
0.238
1.660
5.467
6.278

in BLWRS - 12
Minimum
Value
14.00
75.60
30.80
12.30
0.21
8.00
144.00
84.00

246.00
8.40
26.80
6.10
147.00
38.50
100.00
43.50
0.16
0.80
3.30
1.30


Maximum
Value
714.00
431.20
349.00
430.00
67.20
45.60
937.50
175.00

2,390.00
65.00
280.20
8.00
345.00
132.50
465.00
122.50 -
0.3-5
3.55
8.00
18.80


Standard
Deviation
220.499
120.669
101.662
108.662
18.301
14.429
255.445
45.500

642.599
18.292
71.197
0.437
59.310
30.979
121.022
23.727
0.062
0.823
1.486
6.055


-------
                   TABLE A-38.  CHARACTERISTICS OF WASTES FROM BLWRS  INSIDE  (CONCENTRATIONS

                                OF POLLUTANTS EXPRESSED IN PPM; WASTE VOLUME IN LITERS)
O-)
--a



Location 528 - 80 cm Depth, Eight Points
Time Period - 01/01/80 to 12/31/80
Parameter
SS
TKN
N-NH,
N-NO^
\
N-NO^
p-p4
C org
BOD,
COST
TP
Cl"
PH
K
Na
Ca
' Mg
Cu
Zn
Fe
Al
Number o
Observations
30
32
31
33

32
20
22
5
32
30
33
22
14
14
14
14
14
14
11
14
Average
Value
167.700
118.584
99.361
187.858

36.340
18.130
142.773
57.500
497.875
22.030
123.376
7.023
253.357
78.000
423.357
54.429
0.270
0.564
3.764
4.971

in BLWRS - 12
Minimum
Value
32.00
44.80
39.20
37.50

0.26
5.50
54.00
13.00
149.00
8.80
80.90
6.40
150.00
40.00
225.00
30.00
0.10
0.00
1.60
1.40


Maximum
Value
566.00
260.40
221.80
535.00

288.00
47.00
334.00
143.00
1,534.00
47.50
208.60
7.50
350.00
173.00
876.00
89.50
0.56
1.30
6.70
12.60


Standard
Deviation
107.285
51.708
43.659
115.180

62.477
8.302
68.009
44.797
317.653
7.906
30.999
0.312
55.408
34.367
161.606
15.251
0.127
0.371
1.726
3.471
">

-------
                   TABLE A-39.
oo
CHARACTERISTICS OF WASTES FROM BLWRS INSIDE (CONCENTRATIONS
OF POLLUTANTS EXPRESSED IN PPM; WASTE VOLUME IN LITERS)


Parameter
SS
TKN
N-NHA
N-NO^
N-NO^
p-pA
C org
BODr
CODS
TP
Cl"
pH
K
Na
Ca
Mg
Cu
Zn
Fe
Al
Location 618 - 30 on Depth
Time Period - 01/01/80 to
Number of
Observations
15
17
16
17
16
9
12
2
17
14
17
10
11
11
11
11
10
11
10
11
, Eigth Points
12/31/80
Average
Value
872.333
367.000
231.700
57.282
5.106
87.989
416.958
217.500
1,331.706
88.636
204.476
7.360
291.455
82.555
193.345
67.645
0.408
1.775
10.820
- 3.325
in BLWRS - 34
Minimum
Value
21.00
168.00
0.00
5.60
0.64
22.00
194.00
175.00
304.00
30.00
109.10
7.10
70.00
43.50
80.00
48.00
0.17
0.95
4.60
0.30

Maximum
Value
2,880.00
716.80
630.00
176.00
24.00
200.00 '
1,020.00
260.00
3,809.00
205.00
821.90
8.10
517.50
129.00
435.00
108.00
0.75
4.25
24.70
7.38

Standard
Deviation
1,097.649
137.348
150.633
48.019
6.689
64.991
221.087
42.500
904.346
50.503
159.498
0.353
107.932
24.057
99.645
15.231
0.158
1.041
6.036
1.936


-------
                   TABLE A-40.   CHARACTERISTICS OF WASTES FRCM BLWRS INSIDE (CONCENTRATIONS
                                OF POLLUTANTS EXPRESSED IN PPM; WASTE VOLUME IN LITERS)
ID



Location 628 - 80 cm Depth, Eight Points in
Time Period - 01/01/80 to 12/31/80
Parameter
SS
TKN
N-NH,
N-NCE
<
N-NO^
p-p4
C org
BODr
COD^
TP
cr
pH
K
Na
Ca
Mg
Cu
Zn
Fe
Al
Number of
Observations
26
27
27
28

27
17
19
4
28
26
28
17
12
12
12
12
11
12
11
12
Average
Value
551.846
210.504
137.789
172.525

21.356
19.759
439.289
106.750
1,106.964
37.531
149.957
7.294
243.792
95.625
245.000
150.625
0.273
0.925
4.982
3.324

BLWRS - 34
Minimum
Value
57.00
28.00
0.00
56.00

0.49
7.50
67.00
36.00
106.00
4.40
100.00
6.00
150.00
65.50
90.00
99.00
0.09
0.05
2.10
0.50


Maximum
Value
2,340.00
498.40
435.80
493.00

288.00
60.00
3,176.00
251.00
3,854.00
153.00
275.00
8.20
457.50
146.30
545.00
213.60
0.80
2.05
9.30
10.00


Standard
Deviation
606.784
152.954
120.964
103.153

54.250
13.479
682.345
34.727
975.982
32.087
36.901
0.461
82.646
26.743
133.804
32.170
0.181
0.698
2.052
2.339


-------
TABLE A-41.
CHARACTERISTICS OF WASTES FROM BLWRS INSIDE (CONCENTRATIONS
OF POLLUTANTS EXPRESSED IN PPM; WASTE VOLUME IN LITERS)

Location 136 - 14U cm Depth, Two Points
Time Period - 01/01/80 to 12/31/80
Parameter
SS
TKN
N-NH,
N-NOI
<
N-NO^
p-p4
C org
BOD,
COD
TP
Cl"
pH
K
Na
Ca
Mg
Cu
Zn
Fe
. Al
Number of
Observations
29
32
31
32

30
16
18
5
32
29
32
23
13
13
13
13
13
14
13
13
Average
Value
69.103
132.700
94.639
166.091

33.251
2.156
160.139
22.700
259.438
 2.226
135.381
7.078
228.923
86.862
359.946
55.369
0.230
0.571
7.992
5.124
in BLWRS - 1
Minimum
Value
14.00
44.80
7.00
5.60

0.10
0.50
37.00
5.00
25.00
0.30
72.10
6.00
145.00
53.00
145.00
20.00
0.07
0.05
2.30
1.32

Maximum
Value
405.00
470.40
243.60
500.00

236.00
9.00
740.00
35.00
1,182.00
13.00
213.00
8.10
375.00
116.00
480.00
77.50
0.57
1.85
22.30
13.00

Standard
Deviation
84.194
83.658
49.974
115.788

. 57.872
2.067
166.237
9.958
222.059
2.335
28.890
0.441
73.377
17.366
102.249
13.539
0.149
0.476
5.938
3.720

-------
TABLE A-42.  CHARACTERISTICS OF WASTES FROM BLWRS INSIDE (CONCENTRATIONS
             OF POLLUTANTS EXPRESSED IN PPM; WASTE VOLUME IN LITERS]






Location 137 - 140 cm Depth, Two Points in BLWRS - 1
Time Period - 01/01/80 to 12/31/80
Parameter
SS
TKN
N-NH.
N-NO^
N-NO,
/
p-poj
C org
BODC
'k
COD
TP
Cl"
pH '
K
Na
Ca
Mg
Cu
Zn
Fe
Al
Number of
Observations
31
33
32
32
31

17
19
5

33
29
33
22
15
15
15
15
16
15
14
15
Average
Value
86.806
73.958
49.431
294.331
18.792

5.718
124.842
33.000

294.970
6.445
145.527
6.959
215.600
84.787
506.500
55.380
0.261
0.590
5.000
9.721
Minimum
Value
16.00
14.00
0.00
101.20
0.90

0.50
70.00
9.00

60.00
1.00
75.90
6.10
122.50
45.00
362.50
43.50
0.09
0.00
0.60
3.50
Maximum
Value
410.00
313.60
163.80
750.00
56.50

19.50
300.00
80.00

1,027.00
45.00
245.20
8.00
344.50
129.00
745.00
68.00
0.46
1.70
11.00
20.90
Standard
Deviation
89.015
56.936
32.901
130.347
14.756

4.723
54.431
27.275

224.986
8.898
41.253
0.413
66.980
23.918
115.768
6.907
0.103
0.425
2.507
4.853


-------
TABLE A-43.  CHARACTERISTICS OF WASTES FROM BLWRS INSIDE (CONCENTRATIONS
             OF POLLUTANTS EXPRESSED IN PFM; WASTE VOLUME IN LITERS)






Location 146 - 160 cm Depth, Two Locations in BLWRS - 1
Time Period - 01/01/80 to 12/31/80
Parameter
SS
TKN
N-NI-L
f\
N-N03
K
N-NO,
p-p4
C or|
BOD,
COD3
TP
Cl"
PH
K
Na
Ca
Mg
Cu
Zn
Fe
Al
Number of
Observations
34
36
34

36

34
20
22
5
36
33
36
21
16
16
16
16
16
15
15
16
Average
'Value
78.412
135.261
99.129

157.236

26.621
2.315
105.568
27.800
256.917
2.627
141.206
6.971
' 207.375
88.375
350.938
64.850
0.236
0.577
7.647
6.671
Minimum
Value
13.00
58.80
14.80

5.50

0.20
0.40
46.50
7.00
72.00
0.70
78.00
6.20
65.00
55.50
125.50
26.00
0.06
0.00
2.10
0.78
Maximum
Value
262.00
282.80
196.00

525.00

228.00
4.90
280.00
45.00
1,239.00
7.50
196.10
7.90
305.00
135.50
625.00
93.00
0.38
1.90
42.50
27.50
Standard
Deviation
48.217
52.452
41.422

135.913

55.057
1.222
59.155
12.258
234.936
1.535
27.864
0.373
57.652
28.712
139.930
16.198
0.088
0.474
9.573
6.787


-------
TABLE A-44.  CHARACTERISTICS OF WASTES FRCM BLWRS INSIDE (CONCENTRATIONS
             OF POLLUTANTS EXPRESSED IN PPM; WASTE VOLUME IN LITERS)



Location 147 - 160 cm Depth, Two Locations
Time Period - 01/01/80 to 12/31/80
Parameter
SS .
TKN
N-NH.
N-NO^
N-NO^
p-p04
C org
BODr
COD
TP
Cl"
PH
K
Na
Ca
Mg
Cu
Zn
Fe
Al
Number of
Observations
34
36
35
36
34
20
21
5
36
33
36
22
16
16
16
16
15
16
16
16
Average
Value
63,118
79.956
56.580
307.392
9.675
1.935
85.905
16.200
203.058
2.786
155.875
6.850
201.469
87.831
513.719
63.669
0.282
0.534
4.562
11.496

in BLWRS - 1
Minimum
Value
10.00
19.60
8.40
50.00
0.97
0.40
50.00
4.00
59.00
0.40
101.90
6.30
100.00
40.00
228.50
43.50
0.08
0.00
0.10
0.77


Maximum
Value
329.00
210.00
112.00
1,020.00
26.40
5.30
229.00
27.50
504.00
22.50
247.50
7.40
300.00
128.50
. 852.50
82.80
0.57
1.45
8.50
21.80


Standard
Deviation
58.538
39.764
24.121
179.742
7.648
1.177
38.535
8.262
91.060
3.778
35.259
0.304
67.374
25.269
142.094
10.755
0.118
0.394
1.988
5.989


-------
TABLE A-45.  CHARACTERISTICS OF WASTES FROM BLWRS INSIDE (CONCENTRATIONS
             OF POLLUTANTS EXPRESSED IN PPM; WASTE VOLUME IN LITERS)






Location 236 - 140 cm Depth, Two Points in BLWRS - 2
Time Period - 01/01/80 to 12/31/80
Parameter
SS
TKN
N-NH,
N-NO^
N-NO-
/
p-pof
C org
BOD,-
COD^
TP
Cl"
pH
K
Na
Ca
Mg
Cu
Zn
Fe
Al
Number of
Observations
32
34
33
34
32

16
19
5
34
31
34
24
16
16
16
16
15
16
15
15
Average
Value
284.906
. 504.888
423.903
13.565
1.006

40.200
330.447
68.800
794.647
36.874
153.435
7.121
280.938
75.894
158.969
46.150
0.197
0.700
10.967
2.574
Minimum
Value
44.00
260.40
39.40
1.20
0.09

14.00
50.00
5.00
120.00
9.10
73.40
6.60
200.00
50.00
85.00
28.50
0.03
0.05
2.60
1.10
Maximum
Value
1,286.00
739.20
725.20
190.00
11.60

83.00
690.00
111.00
1,794.00
83.50
249.80
7.60
370.00
107.50
330.00
71.30
0.35
1.65
31.00
8.10
Standard
Deviation
239.300
121.355
167.576
31.646
2.042

17.679
156.309
38.859
428.337
23.729
30.944
0.286
50.073
20.018
56.305
11.831
0.099
0.456
7.553
1.794


-------
TABLE A-46.
CHARACTERISTICS OF WASTES FROM BLWRS INSIDE (CONCENTRATIONS
OF POLLUTANTS EXPRESSED IN PPM; WASTE VOLUME IN LITERS)






Location 237 -.140 cm Depth, Two Points in BLWKS - 2
Time Period - 01/01/80 to 12/31/80
Parameter
SS
TKN
N-NH,
N-NO-J
N-NO,
p-P4
C or|
BOD.
CODb
TP
Cl"
PH
K
Na
Ca
Mg
Cu
Zn
Fe
Al
Number of
Observations
34
36
35
36
34
17
21
4
35
33
36
25
16
16
16
16
16
16
15
16
Average
Value
111.824
177.189
149.469
127.447 '
8.079
3.585
135.762
38.250
541.566
6.573
146.969
6.928
216.531
79.206
315.344
51.256
0.274
0.459
9.713
4.020
Minimum
Value
14.00
19.60
19.60
3.00
0.38
0.70
55.00
10.00
146.00
0.90
68.40
6.20
115.00
53.30
210.00
34.80
0.10
0.00
0.00
0.69
Maximum
Value
580.00
655.20
543.20
1,190.00
52.80
32.00
326.50
86.00
3,386.00
56.50
240.80
7.40
325.00
114.50
445.00
75.50
0.52
1.00
47.30
12.20
Standard
Deviation
134.567
139.072
110.211
195.258
13.064
7.139
70.428
28.604
618.889
10.073
36.871
0.327
59.915
20.347
57.201
10.791
0.113
0.291
13.093
3.136


-------
TABLE A-47   CHARACTERISTICS OF WASTES FRCM BLWRS INSIDE (CONCENTRATIONS
             OF POLLUTANTS EXPRESSED IN PPM; WASTE VOLUME IN LITERS)






Location 246 - 160 on Depth, Two Locations in BLWRS - 2
Time Period - 01/01/80 to 12/31/80
Parameter
SS
TKN
N-NH,
N-NO^
N-NO,
/
P-POf
C org
BOD,
COD3
TP
Cl"
PH
K
Na
Ca
Mg
Cu
Zn
Fe
Al
Number of
Observations
32
34
33
34
32

17
20
5
34
31
34
24
16
16
16
16
15
16
15
16
Average
Value
386.188
455.741
389.058
33.909
0.874

27.066
307.500
130.200
965.500
25.035
157.800
' 7.125
290.281
78.775
183.081
48.938
0.237
0.828
15.233
4.269
Minimum
Value
26.00
39.20
0.00
2.00
0.18

4.90
112.00
45.00
216.00
1.40
118.20
6.70
195.00
47.50
70.00
31.30
0.09
0.00
2.50
0.18
Maximum
Value
1,336.00
725.20
686.00
500.00
2.90

45.00
550.00
268.00
2,431.00
66.00
261.50
7.50
425.00
115.00
305.00
74.30
0.60
2.70
51.70
11.32
Standard
Deviation
275.147
172.475
187.824
83.038
0.578

10.253
105.472
73.904
548.531
14.812
30.305
0.218
62.854
19.446
68.722
10.726
0.133
0.572
13.937
3.437


-------
TABLE A-48.  CHARACTERISTICS OF WASTES FRCM BLWRS INSIDE (CONCENTRATIONS
             OF POLLUTANTS EXPRESSED IN PPM; WASTE VOLUME IN LITERS)






Location 247 - 160 cm Depth, Two Points in BLWRS - 2
Time Period - 01/01/80 to 12/31/80
Parameter
SS
TKN
N-NH,
N-NO,
<
N-NO^
p-p4
C org
BOD,
COD
TP
Cl"
PH
K
Na
Ca
Mg
Cu
Zn
Fe
Al
Number of
Observations
34
36
35
36

34
18
21
5
35
33
36
23
16
16
16
16
16
16
16
16
Average
Value
151.029
159.533
129.057
131.781

8.141
3.858
239.524
62.700
594.649
4.015
160.086
6.861
177.188
93.269
358.488
66.463
0.304
0.466
15.588
4.778
Minimum
Value
10.00
56.00
23.80
2.00

0.14
1.30
65.00
15.00
69.00
0.60
115.70
6.30
45.00
60.00
135.00
44.00
0.08
0.10
0.60
0.42
Maximum
Value
660.00
313.60
232.40
850.00

42.40
12.00
1,191.00
192.00
2,261.00
16.00
213.00
7.30
360.00
160.50
622.50
91.50
0.88
0.85
82.60
15.50
Standard
Deviation
149.188
64.936
57.111
160.710

13.988
3.005
272.522
65.634
591.874
3.352
26.920
0.293
86.643
30.330
109.392
12.159
0.223
0.207
19.478
4.475


-------
                 TABLE A-49.
oo
CHARACTERISTICS OF WASTES FROM BLWRS INSIDE (CONCENTRATIONS
OF POLLUTANTS EXPRESSED IN PPM; WASTE VOLUME IN LITERS)



Location 336 - 140 cm Depth, Two Points
Time Period - 01/01/80 to 12/31/80
Parameter
SS
TKN
N-NH,
N-NO^
N-NO,
p-p4
C org
BOD.
COD*
TP
Cl"
pH
K
Na
Ca
Mg
Cu
Zn
Fe
Al
Cd
Number of
Observations
31
33
32
33
31
17
18
5
32
30
33
23
15
15
15
15
14
15
14
12
1
Average
Value
208.484
354.509
313.563
42.009
57.657
22.547
273.639
72.000
796.156
20.850
142.306
7.239
264.333
89.180
190.467
85.520
0.263
0.377
10.279
2.352
0.920

in BLWRS - 3
Minimum
Value
40.00
168.00
42.00
1.25
0.10
8.70
155.00
60.00
369.00
6.00
91.70
6.60
175.00
40.00
80.00
40.00
0.06
0.00
0.20
0.58
0.92


Maximum
Value
736.00
515.20
512.40
245.00
1,056.00
40.00
444.00
81.00
2,015.00
42.00
217.60
8.00
394.00
152.80
305.00
150.00
0.55
0.65
36.60
5.10
0.92


Standard
Deviation
143.803
92.141
97.857
50.894
198.122
8.958
92.581
8.883
356.998
10.574
32.997
0.320
58.582
30.866
81.269
32.278
0.137
0.203
11.357
1.315
0.000


-------
TABLE A-50   CHARACTERISTICS OF WASTES FROM BLWRS INSIDE (CONCENTRATIONS
             OF POLLUTANTS EXPRESSED IN PPM; WASTE VOLUME IN LITERS)



Location 337 - 140 cm Depth, Two Points
Time Period - 01/01/80 to 12/31/80
Parameter
SS
TKN
N-NH,
ft
N-NO^
N-NO^
p-p4
C org
BOD,-
COD
TP
Cl~
PH
K
Na
Ca
Mg
Cu
Zn
Fe
Al
Number of
Observations
32
34
33

34
32
18
19
5
34
31
34
24
15
15
15
15
15
15
15
13
Average
Value
113.344
116.571
95.897

181.679
20.009
9.456
187.763
34.400
390.032
8.842
153.506
7.083
160.933
100.087
246.353
146.120
0.298
0.720
9.453
3.472

in BLWRS - 3
Minimum
Value
20.00
16.80
12.10

12.50
0.10
2.10
75.00
15.00
61.00
1.20
89.30
6.40
45.00
35.00
80.00
37.50
0.05
0.15
2.10
1.17

'
Maximum
Value
340.00
354.80
312.50

505.00
108.80
40.60
816.00
59.00
1,74.1.00
46.60
219.50
7.90
275.00
155.50
477.50
244.00
'0.78
2.00
54.40
8.60


Standard
Deviation
73.218
73.318
68.076

104.932
30.126
10.969
159.626
15.121
360.394
9.615
32.093
0.368
70.008
35.761
102.660
48.852
0.162
0.405
12.697
2.069


-------
                 TABLE A-51.   CHARACTERISTICS OF WASTES FROM BLWRS INSIDE (CONCENTRATIONS
                              OF :POLLUTANTS EXPRESSED IN PPM; WASTE VOLUME IN LITERS)
en
O






Location 346 - 16U cm Depth, Two Points in BLWRS - S
Time Period - 01/01/80 to 12/31/80
Parameter
SS
TKN
N-NH,
/I
N-NO,
<
N-NO,
p-p4
C or|
BOD,
COD
TP
cr
pH
K
Na
Ca
Mg
Cu
Zn
Fe
Al
Number of
Observations
28
31
30

31

29
15
16
5
31
28
30
23
13
13
14
13
14
14
14
13
Average
Value
279.964
442.716
304.513

87.623

20.556
14.360
289.969
84.000
809.774
18.473
187.937
7.309
285.269
112.738
270.129
148.654
0.261
1.514
14.229
9.175
Minimum
Value
28.00
126.00
19.60

6.00

0.35
2.00
140.00
7.00
312.00
1.70
55.60
6.70
135.00
42.80
122.00
70.50
0.09
0.41
0.20
1.32
Maximum
Value
648.00
728.00
686.00

420.00

118.40
43.00
720.00
301.00
1,482.00
54.00
444.50
7.90
432.00
223.00
500.00
257.50
0.84
6.00
51.20
50.00
Standard
Deviation
160.289
140.515
157.935

103.679

33.177
10.374
139.434
110.591
402.539
12.910
95.906
0.316
91.275
53.505
99.571
45.229
0.191
1.448
12.469
12.059


-------
TABLE A-52.  CHARACTERISTICS OF WASTES FROM BLWRS INSIDE (CONCENTRATIONS
             OF POLLUTANTS EXPRESSED IN PPM; WASTE VOLUME IN LITERS)






Location 347 - 16U cm Depth, Two Points in BLWRS - 3
Time Period - 01/01/80 to 12/31/80
Parameter
SS
TKN
N-NH,
N-NO^
N-NO^
P-POj
C org
BOD.
COD^
TP
Cl"
PH
K
Na
Ca
Mg
Cu
Zn
Fe
Al
Number of
Observations
32
34
32
34
32
19
19
5
34
31
34
24
15
15
15
15
14
15
15
15
Average
Value
154.688
98.400
73.141
297.159
34.252
7.016
133.921
25.600
330.797
7.094
165.294
7.067
178.800
126.973
334.533
196.287
0.304
0.941
5.753
6.499
Minimum
Value
21.00
14.00
8.40
20.00
0.39
2.20
55.00
4.00
78.00
1.50
83.30
6.30
50.00
75.00
120.00
76.00
0.14
0.00
1.30
1.29
Maximum
Value
506.00
263.20
234.40
696.00
313.60
18.60
220.00
43.00
1,128.00
20.50
354.90
7.80
390.00
189.00
427.50
510.00
0.66
5.40
12.40
12.20
Standard
Deviation
128.471
71.856
60.110
140.052
63.601
4.026
39.388
13.336
245.624
4.331
43.701
0.368
94.601
31.974
87.220
96.664
0.133
1.279
3.017
3.591

-------
                 TABLE A-53.
en
CHARACTERISTICS OF WASTES FROM BLWRS INSIDE (CONCENTRATIONS
OF POLLUTANTS EXPRESSED IN PPM; WASTE VOLUME IN LITERS)






Location 436 - 14U cm Depth, IVro Points in BLWKS - 4
Time Period - 01/01/80 to 12/31/80
Parameter
SS
TKN
N-NH,
N-NO^
N-NO^
p-p4
C org
BOD,
COD
TP
Cl"
pH
K
Na
Ca
Mg
Cu
Zn
Fe
Al
Number of
Observations
31
34
32
33
31
17
20
5
34
30
34
24
15
15
15
15
13
15
14
 : . '14
Average
Value
91.355
85.153
70.144
197.658
20.665
2.829
111.475
14.300
239.868
2.843
159.341
7.008
173.800
98.493
285.367
152.187
0.204
0.497
7.564
4.600
Minimum
Value
5.00
30.80
18.20
6.30
0.39
0.70
26.00
4.00
28.00
0.90
90.40
6.00
80.00
56.50
130.00
108.00
0.10
0.00
1.70
0.28
Maximum
Value
297.00
411.60
390.60
467.50
118.40
8.20
447.50
42.50
924.00
9.00
282.50
7.80
345.00
171.30
462.50
247.50
0.36
1.10
18.50
9.20
Standard
Deviation
72.711
70.982
70.823
139.967
29.018
1.870
89.936
14.260
178.789
2.099
38.318
0.394
75.226
35.113
108.517
35.248
0.084
0.334
5.769
2.773

-------
On
                 TABLE A-54.  CHARACTERISTICS OF WASTES FROM BLWRS INSIDE (CONCENTRATIONS
                              OF POLLUTANTS EXPRESSED IN PPM; WASTE VOLUME IN LITERS)






Location 437 - 140 cm Depth, Two Points in BLWRS - 4
Time Period - 01/01/80 to 12/31/80
Parameter
SS
TKN
N-NH,
/I
N-NO,
N-NO^
p-pof
C org
BOD,
CODS
TP
Cl"
PH
K
Na
Ca
Mg
Cu
Zn
Fe
Al
Number of
Observations
31
33
32

33
31
18
19
5
33
30
33
24
15
15
15
15
13
15
14
13
Average
Value
87.774
102.921
65.119

261.973
14.532
3.872
110.263
33.800
306.758
4.863
146.491
7.171
209.167
108.873
255.100
168.673
0.353
0.720
9.429
5.105
Minimum
Value
2.00
8.40
7.00

10.00
0.44
1.00
24.50
10.00
78.00
0.50
90.90
6.70
90.00
47.50
120.00
96.00
0.14
0.00
1.00
0.84
Maximum
Value
405.00
495.60
420.00

545.00
118.40
8.50
295.00
70.00
1,098.00
24.00
226.40
7.70
370.00
219.50
505.00
305.00
1.13
1.75
65.00
12.00
Standard
Deviation
84.991
98.197
75.021

155.642
24.039
2.123
74.446
19.853
*
4.339
35.164 
0.303
72.908
38.990
91 . 389
50.170
0.265
0.488
15.830
3.425
     *data missing

-------
                TABLE A-55.
CD
CHARACTERISTICS OF WASTES FROM BLWRS INSIDE (CONCENTRATIONS
OF POLLUTANTS EXPRESSED IN PPM; WASTE VOLUME IN LITERS)






Location 446 - 160 on Depth, Two Points in BLWRS - 4
Time Period - 01/01/80 to 12/31/80
Parameter
SS
TKN
N-NH.
/\
N-NO,
<
N-MT
p-p4
C org
BOD,
COD
TP
Cl~
PH
K
Na
Ca
Mg
Cu
Zn
Fe
Al
Number of
Observations
30
32
29

32

29
16
17
5
31
29
32
25
15
15
14
15
13
14
14
14
Average
Value
70.867
70.463
57.166

239.488

16.573
3.838
73.824
16.600
215.745
4.124
147.519
7.080
150.667
101.387
294.821
134.933
0.277
0.550
6.836
5.445
Minimum
Value
25.00
16.80
16.80

4.50

0.70
0.70
20.00
1.00
51.00
0.40
77.30
6.10
60.00
60.50
175.00
68.00
0.09
0.05
1.70
1.80
Maximum
Value
127.00
151.20
151.20

 587.50

124.80
11.00
191.50
44.00
689.00
12.30
231.80
7.90
340.00
148.50
405.00
196.50
0.75
1.20
20.30
11.90
Standard
Deviation
31.577
30.574
30.558

142.188

25.312
2.851
40.193
18.059
137.881
3.031
35.493
0.460
73.303
30.238
63.944
29.381
0.163
0.372
5.069
2.626


-------
                 TABLE A-56   CHARACTERISTICS OF WASTES FROM BLWRS  INSIDE  (CONCENTRATIONS

                              OF POLLUTANTS EXPRESSED IN PPM; WASTE VOLUME IN LITERS)
en
en






Location 447 - 160 on Depth, Two Points in BLWRS - 4
Time Period - 01/01/80 to 12/31/80
Parameter
SS
TKN
N-NR.
N-NO^
N-NO?
P-POf
C org
BOD,.
COD15
TP
Cl"
pH
K
Na
Ca
Mg
Cu
Zn
Fe
Al
Number of
Observations
33
35
34
35
33
19
20
4
35
32
35
24
15
15
15
15
11
15
14
13
Average
Value
87.000
122.994
84.624
193.509
23.730
3.653
108.050
60.875
270.714
3.875
166.906
7.079
214.067
114.073
270.733
181.453
0.340
0.500
5.150
: 4.394
Minimum
Value
18.00
18.00
8.40
20.00
0.20
0.40
56.50
17.00
43.00
0.80
90.90
6.50
85.00
52.00
134.00
120.80
0.10
0.00
2.10
0.54
Maximum
Value
280.00
966.00
315.00
497.50
208.00
10.20
255.00
82.50
958.00
11.30
224.60
7.70
385.00
171.30
570.00
280.00
1.12
1.75
9.20
16.90
Standard
Deviation
60.109
154.592
65.825
129.213
49.283
2.636
43.497
25.730
222.020
2.406
33.090
0.354
93.344
35.023
134.558
42.851
0.269
0.428
2.158
5.209

-------
                 TABLE A-57.   CHARACTERISTICS OF WASTES FROM BLWRS INSIDE (CONCENTRATIONS
                              OF POLLUTANTS EXPRESSED IN PPM; WASTE VOLUME IN LITERS)
Cn

Parameter
SS
TKN
N-NH.
N-NCC
N-NO^
p-p4
C org
COD
TP
Cl"
K
Na
Ca
Mg
Cu
Zn
Fe
Al
Location 528 -^30 cm Depth
Time Period - 01/01/81 to
Number of
Observations
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
, Eight Points
12/31/81
Average
Value
618.000
131.600
126.000
75.000
0.000
11.500
360.000
782.000
15.000
111.600
285.500
39.500
225.000
55.500
0.100
0.200
3.020
1.670
in BLWRS - 2
Minimum
Value
618.00
131.60
126.00
75.00
0.00
11.50
360.00
782.00
15.00
111.60
285.50
39.50
225.00
55.50
0.10
0.20
3.02
: 1.67

Maximum
Value
618.00
131.60
126.00
75.00
0.00
11.50
360.00
782.00
15.00
111.60
285.50
39.50
225.00
55.50
0.10
0.20
3.02
1.67

Standard
Deviation
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
0 . 000
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000


-------
TABLE A-58.  CHARACTERISTICS OF WASTES FROM BLWRS INSIDE (CONCENTRATIONS
             OF POLLUTANTS EXPRESSED IN PPM; WASTE VOLUME IN LITERS)


Location 146 - 160 cm Depth,
Time

Parameter
SS
TKN
N-NH,
N-NO^
N-NO^
P-PO^
C org
COD
TP
Cl




' 'IWo Points in BLWRS - 1
Period - 01/01/81 to 12/31/81
Number of
Observations
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
: 1
Average
' Value
200.000
44.800
33.600
100.000
14.400
2.400
145.000
194.000
2.600
103.600
Minimum
Value
200.00
44.80
33.60
100.00
14.40
2.40
145.00
194.00
2.60
103.60
Maximum
Value
200.00
44.80
33.60
100.00
14.40
2.40
145.00
194.00
2.60
103.60
Standard
Deviation
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
-. i .

-------
                TABLE A-59   CHARACTERISTICS OF WASTES FROM BLWRS INSIDE (CONCENTRATIONS
                             OF POLLUTANTS EXPRESSED IN PPM; WASTE VOLUME IN LITERS)
en
oo






Location 147 - 160 cm Depth, Two Points in BLWRS - 1
Time Period - 01/01/81/ to 12/31/81
Parameter
SS
TKN
N-NH.
N-N03
f.
N-NO,
P-POJ
C org
COD
TP
Cl"
PH
K
Na
Ca
Mg
Cu
Zn
Fe
Al
Number of
Observations
3
3
3
3

3
3
2
3
3
3
2
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
Average
Value
274.000
101.733
88.667
34.000

5.067
6.300
178.000
321.000
12.600
95.900
7.950
237.000
61.500
250.000
48.000
0.180
0.250
5.340
2.860
Minimum
Value
216.00
53.20
44.80
13.00

3.20
4.20
86.00
271.00
7.00
84.10
7.40
237.00
61.50
250.00
48.00
0.18
0.25
5.34
2.86
Maximum
Value
372.00
140.00
114.80
72.00

7.80
8.00
270.00
399.00
22.00
108.10
8.50
237.00
61.50
250.00
48.00
0.18
0.25
5.34
2.86
Standard
Deviation
69.685
36.172
31.207
26.920

1.975
1.577
92.000
55.881
6.687
9.802
0.550
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000


-------
               TABLE  A-60.  CHARACTERISTICS OF WASTES FROM BOWS-INSIDE  (CONCENTRATIONS
                            OF POLLUTANTS EXPRESSED  IN PPM; WASTE VOLUME IN LITERS)
on
vo






Location 236 - 140 on Depth, Two Points in BLWRS - Z
Time Period - 01/01/81 to 12/31/81
Parameter
SS
TKN
N-NH..
fl
N-NO!;
N-NO^
P-P04
C or|
COD
TP
Cl"
PH
K
Na
Ca
Mg
Cu
Zn
Fe
Al
Number of
Observations
2
 2
2

2
2
2
2
2
2
2
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
Average
Value
284.000
596.400
569.800

17.600
0.350
4.850
382.500
384.000
6.050
132.300
7.600
299.000
64.000
35.000
46.500
0.090
0.100
7.450
2.570
Minimum
Value
218.00
523.60
518.00

7.20
0.30
3.50
297.50
373.00
3.70
125.00
7.60
299.00
64.00
35.00
46.50
0.09
0.10
7.45
2.57
Maximum
Value
350.00
669.20
621.60

28.00
0.40
6.20
467.50
395.00
8.40
139.60
7.60
299.00
64.00
35.00
46.50
0.09
0.10
7.45
.2.57
Standard
Deviation
66.000
72.800
51.800

10.400
0.050
1.350
85.000
11.000
2.350
7.300
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000


-------
TABLE A-61.  CHARACTERISTICS OF WASTES FRCM BLWRS INSIDE (CONCENTRATIONS
             OF POLLUTANTS EXPRESSED IN PPM; WASTE VOLUME IN LITERS)






Location 237 - 140 on Depth, Two Points in BLWRS - 2
Time Period - 01/01/81 to 12/31/81
Parameter
SS
TKN
N-NH,
N-NO,
\
N-NO^
p-p4
C or|
COD
TP
Cl"
PH
K
Na
Ca
Mg
Cu
Zn
Fe
Al
Number of
Observations
4
4
4
4

4
4
3
4
4
4
3
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
Average
Value
255.500
187.600
158.900
21.000

0.975
4.300
379.167
836.750
7.625
93.875
7.467
247.750
49.250
122.500
67.250
0.135
0.125
28.495
1.400
Minimum
Value
210.00
154.00
120.40
3.00

0.10
2.70
155.00
746.00
3.60
73.70
7.20
230.00
49.00
40.00
57.50
0.09
0.10
17.09
1.30
Maximum
 Value
300.00
229.60
207.20
45.00

3.40
6.00
505.00
880.00
11.00
108.10
7.90
265.50
49.50
205.00
77.00
0.18
0.15
39.90
1.50
Standard
Deviation
37.480
28.486
35.823
15.937

1.401
1.465
158.907
53.513
2.637
13.209
0.309
17.750
0.250
82.500
9.750
0.045
0.025
11.405
0.100

-------
                  TABLE A-62.  CHARACTERISTICS OF WASTES FROM BLWRS  INSIDE  (CONCENTRATIONS
                               OF POLLUTANTS EXPRESSED IN  PPM; WASTE VOLUME  IN LITERS)
o\






Location 246 - 160 cm Depth, Two Points in BLWRS - 2
Time Period - 01/01/81 to 12/31/81
Parameter
SS
TKN
N-NH.
\
N-NO^
N-NO^
p-P4
C orf
COD
TP
Cl"
pH
K
Na
Ca
Mg
Cu
Zn
Fe
Al
Number of
Observations
2
2
2

2
2
2
2
2
2
2
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
Average
Value
456.000
652.400
600.600

42.500
0.550
16.750
337.500
432.000
20.450
124.500
7.400
323.000
55.000
50.000
45.000
0.090
0.600
8.590
4.720
Minimum
Value
266.00
560.00
520.80

25.00
0.30
11.00
232.50
405.00
11.70
109.40
7.40
323.00
55.00
50.00
45.00
0.09
0.60
8.59
4.72
Maximum
Value
646.00
744.80
680.40

60.00
0.80
22.50
442.50
459.00
29.20
139.60
7.40
323.00
55.00
50.00
45.00
0.09
0.60
8.59
4.72
Standard
Deviation
190.000
92.400
79.800

17.500
0.250
5.750
105.000
27.000
8.750
15.100
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000

-------
TABLE A-63.  CHARACTERISTICS OF WASTES FROM BLWRS INSIDE (CONCENTRATIONS
             OF POLLUTANTS EXPRESSED IN PPM; WASTE VOLUME IN LITERS)






Location 247 - 160 on Depth, Two Points in BLWRS - 2
Time Period - 01/01/81 to 12/31/81
Parameter
SS
TKN
N-NH.
N-NO^
N-NO-
p-p4
C org
COD
TP
Cl"
PH
K
Na
Ca
Mg
Cu
Zn
Fe
Al
Number of
Observations
4
4
4
4
4
4
3
4
4
4
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
Average
Value
396.000
201.600
175.700
156.875
3.075
3.350
496.667
648.750
4.275
107.575
7.750
252.750
56.500
137.500
68.750
0.085
0.175
47.700
1.835
Minimum
Value
328.00
123.20
98.00
25.00
0.50
2.30
425.00
130.00
3.00
73.70
7.60
252.00
54.00
70.00
63.50
0.06
0.15
41.30
1.80
Maximum
Value
566.00
322.00
296.80
290.00
6.70
4.50
640.00
1,565.00
7.20
126.10
7.90
253.50
59.00
205.00
74.00
0.11
0.20
54.10
1.87
Standard
Deviation
98.519
73.683
73.666
114.774
2.448
0.792
101.352
544.901
1.708
20.087
0.150
0.750
2.500
67.500
5.250
0.025
0.025
6.400
0.035


-------
                 TABLE A-64.
ON
CHARACTERISTICS OF WASTES FROM BLWRS INSIDE (CONCENTRATIONS
OF POLLUTANTS EXPRESSED IN PPM; WASTE VOLUME IN LITERS)






Location 336 - 140 cm Depth, Two Points in BLWKS - 3
Time Period - 01/01/81 to 12/31/81
Parameter
SS
TKN
N-NH.
N-NO^
\
N-NO,
p-pof
C org
COD
TP
Cl"
PH
K
Na
Ca
Mg
Cu
Zn
Fe
Al .
Number of
Observations
3
3
3
3

3
3
2
3
3
3
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2-
Average
.Value
546.667
368.667
332.267
56.333

2.400
5.967
521.250
715.000
7.167
111.033
8.050
171.500
36.250
95.000
58.750
0.155
0.275
22.935
2.060
Minimum
Value
420.00
257.60
221.20
9.00

0.50
1.00
387.50
221.00
2.40
79.50
7.70
106.00
17.50
60.00
51.50
0.14
0.25
9.43
1.00
Maximum
Value
708.00
448.00
389.20
125.00

4.10
12.50
655.00
1,281.00
14.60
144.20
8.40
237.00
55.00
130.00
66.00
0.17
0.30
36.44
3.12
Standard
Deviation
120.104
80.904
78.544
49.701

1.476
4.824
133.750
435.728
5.326
26.439
0.350
65.500
18.750
35.000
7.250
0.015
0.025
13.505
1.060


-------
TABLE A-65.
CHARACTERISTICS OF WASTES FROM BLWRS INSIDE (CONCENTRATIONS
OF POLLUTANTS EXPRESSED IN PPM; WASTE VOLUME IN LITERS)






Location 3I51/ - 14U cm Depth, 'IWo Points in BLWRS - 3
Time Period - 01/01/81 to 12/31/81
Parameter
SS
TKN
N-NH,
N-N03
^
N-NO,
p-poi
ft
C org
COD
TP
Cl"
pH
K
Na
Ca
Mg
Cu
Zn
Fe
Al
Number of
Observations
4
4
4
4

4
4

2
4
4
4
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2.
Average
Value
206.000
167.300
146.300
60.750

7.800
4.750

342.500
532.500
6.200
117.400
7.850
202.500
62.000
77.500
177.500
0.125
0.250
28.665
1.575.
Minimum
Value
40.00
100.80
70.00
15.00

0.60
2.70

305.00
177.00
4.50
93.50
7.60
137.50
60.50
30.00
150.00
0.10
0.25
17.83
1.15.
Maximum
Value
322.00
266.00
243.60
94.00

16.40
6.50

380.00
1,004.00
7.40
131.80
8.10
267.50
63.50
125.00
205.00
0.15
0.25
39.50
2.00
Standard
Deviation
102.849
70.290
67.006
31.043

6.924
1.440

37.500
324.261
1.056
15.860
0.250
65.000
1 . 500
47.500
27.500
0.025
0.000
10.835
0.425

-------
TABLE .A-66.

CHARACTERISTICS OF WASTES FROM BLWRS INSIDE (CONCENTRATIONS
OF POLLUTANTS EXPRESSED : IN PPM; WASTE VOLUME IN LITERS)





Location 34t> - IbU cm Depth in BLWRS - 3
Time Period - 01/01/81 to 12/31/81
Parameter
pH
Number of
.Observations
: 1
Average
Value
7.800
Minimum
Value
7.80
Maximum
Value
7.80
Standard
Deviation
0.000

-------
TABLE A-67.
CHARACTERISTICS OF WASTES FROM BLWRS INSIDE (CONCENTRATIONS
OF POLLUTANTS EXPRESSED IN PPM; WASTE VOLUME IN LITERS)






Location 347 - 160 cm Depth, Two Points in BLWRS - 3
Time Period - 01/01/81 to 12/31/81
Parameter
SS
TKN
N-NH,
A
N-NO^
N-NO^
P-PO^
A
C org
COD
TP
Cl"
PH
K
Na
Ca
Mg
Cu
Zn
Fe
Al
Number of
Observations
1
1
1

1
1
1

1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
Average
Value .
212.000
112.000
100.800

100.000
7.600
9.500

320.000
337.000
9.600
120.600
7.700
180.000
63.500
165.000
218.500
0.130
0.500
13.900
0.000
Minimum
Value
212.00
112.00
100.80

100.00
7.60
9.50

320.00
337.00
9.60
120.60
7.70
180.00
63.50
165.00
218.50
0.13
0.50
13.90
0.00
Maximum
Value
212.00
112.00
100.80

100.00
7.60
9.50

320.00
337.00
9.60
120.60
7.70
180.00
63.50
165.00
218.00
0.13
0.50
13.90
0.00
Standard
Deviation
0.000
0.000
0.000

0.000
0.000
0.000

0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000

-------
                TABLE A-68.  CHARACTERISTICS OF WASTES FROM BLWRS INSIDE (CONCENTRATIONS
                             OF POLLUTANTS EXPRESSED IN PPM; WASTE VOLUME IN LITERS)
CTv






Location 436 - 14U cm Depth, Two Points in BLWRS - 4
Time Period - 01/01/81 to 12/31/81
Parameter
SS
TKN
N-NH
N-NO^
N-NO-
p-p4
C org
COD
TP
Cl"
PH
K
Na
Ca
Mg
Cu
Zn
Fe
Al
Number of
Observations
4
4
4
4
4
4
2
4
4
4
3
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
..'...: 2
Average
Value
84.750
210.000
98.000
, 314.000
4.275
2.550
54.500
99.500
3.675
131.825
7.500
173.250
91.750
192.500
193.750
0.085
0.100
3.960
6.470
Minimum
Value
50.00
70.00
64.40
70.00
2.20
0.40
18.00
23.00
1.70
116.10
7.00
161.00
79.50
170.00
190.00
0.04
0.10
2.14
.. 2.70'
Maximum
Value
134.00
534.80
140.00
525.00
6.20
3.40
91.00
154.00
6.20
148.70
8.00
185.50
104.00
215.00
197.50
0.13
0.10
5.78
10.24.
Standard
Deviation
33.833
190.276
31.863
166.405
1.452
1.252
36.500
49.561
1.628
13.407
0.408
12.250
12.250
22.500
3.750
0.045
0.000
1.820
3.770

-------
                  TABLE A-69.
CO,
CHARACTERISTICS OF WASTES FROM BLWRS INSIDE (CONCENTRATIONS
OF POLLUTANTS EXPRESSED IN PPM; WASTE VOLUME IN LITERS)






Location 437 - 140 cm Depth, Two Points in BLWRS - 4
Time Period - 01/01/81 to 12/31/81
Parameter
SS
TKN
N-NH.
/I
N-NO^
N-NO-
~ z
p_pQ
COD 4
TP
Cl"
pH
K
Na
Ca
Mg
Cu
Zn
Fe
Al
Number of
Observations
2
2
2

1
2
2
2
2
2
1
2
2
2
2
. 2
2
2
2
Average
Value
136.000
 61.600
58.800

8.000
8.000
1.700
149.500
2.450
88.250
8.000
141.750
121.000
137.500
211.500
0.115
0.350
3.545
2.900
Minimum
Value
118.00
30.80
30.80

8.00
2.40
1.20
123.00
1.80
73.70
8.00
137.50
81.50
55.00
208.50
0.09
0.30
1.05
0.70
Maximum
Value
154.00
92.40
86.80

8.00
13.60
2.20
176.00
3.10
102.80
8.00
146.00
160.50
220.00
214.50
0.14
0.40
6.04
5.10
Standard
Deviation
18.000
30.800
28.000

0.000
5.600
0.500
26.500
0.650
14.550
0.000
4.250
39.500
82.500
3.000
0.025
0.050
2.495
2.200


-------
                TABLE A-70.   CHARACTERISTICS OF WASTES  FROM BLWRS INSIDE (CONCENTRATIONS
                             OF POLLUTANTS  EXPRESSED IN PPM;  WASTE VOLUME IN LITERS)
IO






Location 446 - 160 cm Depth, Two Points in BLWRS - 4
Time Period - 01/01/81 to 12/31/81
Parameter
SS
TKN
N-NH.
N-NO^
N-MT
P-Pof
C org
COD
TP
Cl~
pH
K
Na
Ca
Mg
Cu
Zn
Fe
Al
Number of
Observations
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
1
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
Average
Value
78.000
42.000
39.200
50.250
8.650
3.600
39.000
204.500
4.050
122.800
7.600
154.000.
99.750
247.500
197.500
0.235
0.450
4.280
3.410
Minimum
Value
32.00
0.00
0.00
37.50
6.10
1.60
13.00
127.00
1.70
113.80
7.60
134.50
98.00
190.00
185.00
0.09
0.20
3.02
2.24
Maximum
Value
124.00
84.00
78.40
63.00
11.20
5.60
65.00
282.00
6.40
131.80
7.60
173.50
101.50
305.00
210.00
0.38
0.70
5.54
4.58
Standard
Deviation
46.000
42.000
39.200
12.750
2.550
7.000
26.000
77.500
2.350
9.000
0.000
19.500
1.750
57.500
12.500
0.145
0.250
1.260
.1.170


-------
TABLE A-71.
CHARACTERISTICS OF WASTES FROM BLWRS INSIDE (CONCENTRATIONS
OF POLLUTANTS EXPRESSED INJPPM; WASTE VOLUME IN LITERS)






Location 447 - 160 cm Depth, Two Points in BLWRS - 4
Time Period - 01/01/81 to 12/31/81
Parameter
SS
TKN
N-NH.
N-NTC
N-NO^
p-p4
C or|
COD
TP
Cl"
PH
K
Na
Ca
Mg
Cu
Zn
Fe
Al
Number of
Observations
4
4
4
4
. 4
4
3
4
4
4
3
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
Average
Value
77.750
67.200
63.700
166.875
4.475
1.550
76.167
118.250
1.650
123.300
7.633
155.250
150.750
197.500
232.500
0.120
0.650
3.680
2.735
Minimum
Value
18.00
42.00
42.00
57.50
0.00
0.70
29.00
75.00
0.80
113.60
7.20
148.00
128.50
135.00
221.00
0.06
0.30
0.62
0.25
Maximum
Value
170.00
92.40
86.80
235.00
8.00
2.20
112.50
160.00
2.20
135.10
8.10
162.50
173.00
260.00
244.00
0.18
1.00
6.74
5.22
Standard
Deviation
56.464
18.254
16.609
71.181
2.894
0.626
34.939
32.927
0.589
8.166
0.368
7.250
22.250
62.500
11.500
0.060
0.350
3.060
2.485

-------
    8
    o
2500
2000  -
1500  -
1000  -
 500  '-
              August


             Figure A-l.
      September
October
November
December
Cumulative COD load in BLWRS-1 or BLWRS-2 influent
For the period of 07/30/79 - 12/31/79.

-------
N)
           April    May
June
July
August   September    October
                                                                                        November '  December
                       Figure A-2.   Cumulative COD load in BLWRS-1 or BLWRS-2 influent
                                     for the period of 0-4/16/80 - 12/31/80.

-------
2000
1500  .
1000  .
 500  ..
             August
September
October
November
December
               Figure A-3.   Cumulative COD load in BLWRS-3 or BLWRS-4  influent
                            for the period of 07/31/79 - 12/31/79.

-------
  2500-1
o 20004
  1500_
  1000
    500
      April     May
June
       i     ~i           i           i           r
July      August     September   October    November   December
                   Figure A-4.   Cumulative COD load in BLWRS-3 or BLWRS-4 influent

                                for the period of 0/4/19/80 - 12/31/80.

-------
 . En

300


250



200


150



100



 50



  0
     April
May
                               r  *       r
June       July       August     September  October
I          1
 Movember   December
                 Figure A-6.  Cumulative TKN load in BLWRS-1 or BLWRS-2 influent
                              for the period of 04/16/80 - 12/31/80.

-------
300
250
200
150   -
100  -
 50  -
       August
September
October
November
December
                Figure A-7.  Cumulative TKN load in BLWRS-3 or BLWRS-4 influent
                             for the period of 07/31/79 - 12/31/79.

-------
00
300


250

200

150


100

 50


  0
          April    May
                         June
July
August    September    October   November    December
                      Figure A-8.   Cumulative TKN  load  in BLWRS-3 or  BLWRS-4 influent
                                   for  the period  of  04/19/80 -  12/31/80.

-------
Nitrogen
H
nJ
-P
0
H



too-



,.



700-

Q

G
Q)
ho
0
FH
-p
H
2
0}
ro

.'
*
/ / ,500-
J973 1 !
,//
/
/
/" ' ^00-
: /
 
/ i
 *
/ /"
/' />X /00.
.' /
//
7
Q
V,.\ VM IX 1 * XI |



	 BLWRS-1 lub BLWR3-2 j "'
	 BLWRS-3 tub BLWRS-b /:'
f '
//
7960 / ';
i /
l"~'f /
s'/ 	
.** 
If
//
/:'
//
( /
//
//
/
IV I V l^/ I VII I //// /X I X X/ I X// I
Figure A-9.  Cumulative TN load in BLWRS influent.
                               179

-------
CO
h

ft
to
PH
H
-P
o
H





50-






n
?H
5
ft
O
^~. OH '^
bo k
^ ., cd ^  -
-P
O
*
7979
t*

ISO-
 i
* * 1QQ~

'"J 50-
r
.-*
/' /'
/ /
/ ****
r"
.-.''



3




M


* T3T IdlT^O T T w^. OT 1AFDO ^
	 BLWRS-1 lUD BLWno-<
~ '- 3LWRS-3 lub BLWRS-4
x- 
. . /-XC-X 	
J /-'
x:^-"-' 	
t//'f
x,;.<;:'''
;.^>:'
.--'*''
' va\  vui \
vti
                                                  ix I  x   x/
      Figure A-10.  Cumulative total phosphorus load  in BLWRS influent.
                                     180

-------
bo
A!
       August
September
October
November
            Figure A-ll.   Cumulative COD load in BLWRS-1 effluent

                          for the period of 07/30/79 - 12/31/79.

-------
oo
        0
                                                               r
                                                     r
           April
May
                                 June
July
                                 August    September   October
                                                                                       November    December
                              Figure A-12   Cumulative COD load  in BLWRS-1 effluent
                                           for the period of 04/16/80  - 12/31/80.

-------
CO
                   August
September
                                                       October
                                                                         November
                                                                                         December
                         Figure A-13.  Cumulative COD load in BLWRS-2 effluent
                                       for the period of 07/30/79 - 12/31/79.

-------
oo
-pi
  p.
  o
  o
180
160
140
120
100
 80
 60
 40
 20
  0
          April
               May
June
July
August
September
October   November   December
                        Figure A-14-  Cumulative COD load in BLWRS-2 effluent
                                      for the period of 04/16/80 - 12/31/80.

-------
oo
en
                       August
September   'October
November
December
                        Figure A-15.  Cumulative COD load  in BLWRS-3  effluent

                                      for the period of  07/31/79  -  12/31/79.

-------
oo
         g
         o
                                                                  September '    October '  November '  December
                        Figure A-16.  Cumulative COD load in BLWRS-3 effluent
                                      for the period of 04/19/80 - 12/31/80.

-------
 
 o
40


35


30


25


20

15


10


 5


 0
          August
September
October
November
December
                Figure A-17.
    Cumulative COD load in BLWRS-4 effluent
    for the period of 07/31/79 - 12/31/79.

-------
       fan
CO
       0
          April
May
June
July
August    September   October
November   December
                         Figure A-18.  Cumulative COD load in BLWRS-4 effluent
                                       for the period of 0/4/19/80 - 12/31/80.

-------
GO
UD
                         August
September
October
November
December
                          Figure A-19.  Cumulative TKN load  in BLWRS-1 effluent
                                        for the period of 07/30/79 - 12/31/79.

-------
10
o
            April
May
June
July      August     September'   October
November   December
                    Figure A-20.   Cuimilative  TKN  load  in BLWRS-1 effluent

                                   for  the period  of  04/16/80 - 12/31/80.

-------
10
           August

         Figure A-21.
     September
October
November
Cumulative TKN load in BLWRS-2 effluent
for the period of 07/30/79 - 12/31/79.
December

-------
May
June
July
August
i	i	r
 September     October    November   December
 Figure A-22.  Cumulative TKN load in BLWRS-2 effluent

               for the period of 04/16/80 - 12/31/80.

-------
            16
0-)
           12


           10


             8


             6
             0
                        August
September
October
November
                             Figure A-23.   Cumulative TKN load in BLWRS-3 effluent
                                           for the period of 07/31/79 - 12/31/79.
December

-------
80





60






40
 20
  0
     April
June
July
August   ' September "'  October    November ! Oecemoer
                 Figure A-24.  Cumulative TKN load in BL1RS-3 effluent
                 Figure A                      f 04/19/80 _ 12/3i/80.

-------
IO
cn
           0 -
                      August
September
October
November
December
                       Figure A-25.  Cumulative TKN load in BLWRS-4 effluent
                                     for the period of 07/31/79 - 12/31/79.

-------
April
May
June
July
August
September
October
November   December
            Figure A-26.  Cumulative TKN load in BLWRS-4 effluent
                          for the period of 04/19/80 - 12/31/80.

-------
2001
      C
      Q)
      tr

      g
      tH
      0)
150 \
WO
SO
          #79
iso A
wo A
 50 A
       fl
       0)
       K'*
       o"
       f-r
      -p
      H
                                   O
                                   H
          JS80
-BLWRS-1

-BLWRS-2

-BLWRS-3

-BLWRS-b
   vu \"\/w~l~7x~]  Y  I  >/  j  x// i    7/j  v  j  ^/  j  w/|-i////J  /x  j  x-  j  x/  |  x/Tj"
           Figure A-27.  Cumulative TN load in BLWRS  effluent.
                                      197

-------
3,0-
2,0-
 1tS
          1373
      3,0-
                            ,5.-
       2,0-
       J,S 
                             1,0-
                             0,5
WJ
g

t
M
O
                                        CO
                                        -p
                                        o
                                        H
                                        - BLWRS-1

                                        ........ BLWRS-2
                                             BLWKS-4
                 7980
   ///I//// I  AX  |  X


       Figure A-28.
XI  ! X//  j  /V I   V [  V7  I V//  I V/// I /X  j X   I X/  j  X//


Cumulative total phosphorus load in BLWRS effluent.


                  198

-------
ItO
             Figure A-29.  Relationship between removed and  applied
                           monthly TKN loading in the case of BLWRS.
                                        199

-------
                                            TN Applied (kg)

Figure A-30.  Relationship between removed and applied
              monthly TN loading in the case of BLWRS.
                      200

-------
Ai
Q)
O

-------
                                                   TP Applied(kg)
Figure A-32.  Relationship between removed and applied
              monthly TP loading in the case of BLWRS.
                          202

-------