4th Edition
               November 1991
Citizen's Guide
To Pesticides




 There is another important question to
 ask in making pest control decisions: is
 there something on your premises that
 needlessly invites pest infestations?
 The answer to this question may lead
 you to take some common-sense steps
 to modify pest habitat:

 • Remove water sources. All pests,
 vertebrate or invertebrate, need water
 for survival. Fix leaky plumbing and
 do not let water accumulate anywhere
 in your home. This means  no water in
 trays  under your houseplants
 overnight if you have a cockroach

 • Remove food sources (it the pest's
 food is anything other than the plant
 or animal you are trying to protect).
 For example, this could mean storing
 your food in sealed glass or plastic
 containers, avoiding the habit of
 leaving  your pet's food out for
 extended periods of time, and placing
 your refuse in tightly covered,
 heavy-gauge garbage cans.

 • Remove or destroy pest shelter.
 Caulk cracks and crevices to control
cockroaches; remove piles of wood
 from under or around your home in
 order to avoid attracting termites;
 remove and destroy diseased plants,
 tree prunings, and fallen  fruit that
 might harbor pests.

 • Remove breeding sites. The
 presence of pet manure attracts flies,
 litter encourages rodents, and standing
 water provides a perfect breeding
 place  for mosquitoes.

• Remove sources of preventable
stress to plants (flowers, trees,
vegetable plants, and turf). Plant at
the optimum time of year. Use mulch
to reduce weed competition and
maintain even soil temperature and
moisture.  Provide adequate water.
• Use preventive cultural practices,
such as careful selection of
disease-resistant seed or plant
varieties, companion planting to
exploit the insect-repellent properties
of certain plants, strategic use of
"trap" crops to lure pests away  from
crops you wish to protect, crop
rotation and diversification, and
optimum use of spacing. Make sure
you have good drainage and soil

If you practice preventive techniques
such as those mentioned above, you
will reduce your chances, or
frequency, of pest infestation.
However, if you already have an
infestation, are there any pest control
alternatives besides chemical
  The answer is an emphatic "yes."
One or a combination of several
non-chemical treatment alternatives
may be appropriate. Your best strategy
depends  on the pest and the site
where  the pest occurs.
  Non-chemical alternatives include:
• Biological treatments, including
predators such as purple martins,
praying mantises, and lady bugs;
parasites; and pathogens such as
bacteria,  viruses (generally not
available  to homeowners), and other
microorganisms like Bacillus
thuringiensis and milky spore disease.

  There is no way to be certain how
long predators will stay in target areas.
Contact your County Extension Service
for information about how to protect
desirable predators.
• Mechanical treatments, including
cultivating to control weeds,
hand-picking weeds from turf and
pests from plants, trapping to control
rodents and some insects,  and
screening living space to limit
mosquito and fly access.
  Non-chemical pest control methods
really work. They do have some
disadvantages: the results are not
immediate, and it requires some  work
to make a home or garden less
attractive to pests. But  the advantages
of non-chemical methods are many.
Compared to chemical  pesticide
treatments, such methods  are
generally effective for longer periods
of time. They do not create hardy,
pesticide-resistant pest populations.
And they can be used without
safeguards, because they pose virtually
no hazards to human health or the
If you decide that chemical treatment
can provide the best solution to your
pest problem, and you want to control
the pests yourself rather than turning
the problem over to a professional pest
control operator, then you have an
important decision to make: which
product to choose. Before  making that
decision, learn as much as you can
about a product's active ingredient—its
biologically active agent. Is it
"broad-spectrum" in its mode of action
(effective against a broad range of
pests), or is it "selective" (effective
against only a few pest species)? How
rapidly does the active ingredient
break down once it is introduced into
the environment? Is it  suspected of
causing chronic health effects? Is it
toxic to non-target wildlife and house
pets? Is it known, or suspected, to
leach through soil into ground water?
  Here again, your County Extension
Service, reference books, pesticide
dealers, your state pesticide agency, or
your regional EPA office may be able
to provide assistance. (Lists of State
and EPA pesticide contacts are
provided at the end of this booklet.)
  When you have narrowed your
choices of active ingredients, you are
ready to select a pesticide product.
Choose the least toxic pesticide that
can achieve the results you desire.
Read the label. It lists active
ingredients, the target pests (for
example, mites, flies, Japanese beetle
grubs, broad-leafed weeds, algae,
etc.), and the sites where the product
may be used (for example, lawns,

 specific vegetable crops, roses,
 swimming pools, etc.). Be sure the site
 of your pest problem is included
 among the sites listed on the label.
  Pesticide active ingredients are
 formulated in many ways. Choose the
 formulation best suited to your site
 and the pest you are trying to control.
 The most common  types of home-use
 pesticide formulations include:
• Solutions, which contain the active
ingredient and one or more additives,
and readily mix with water.

• Aerosols, which contain one or more
active ingredients and a solvent. They
are ready for immediate use as is.

• Dusts, which contain active
ingredients plus a  very fine dry inert
carrier such as clay, talc,  or volcanic
ash. Dusts are ready for immediate
use and are applied dry.

• Granulars,  which are similar to
dusts, but with larger and heavier
particles for broadcast applications.

• Baits, which are  active  ingredients
mixed with food or other substances to
attract the pest.

• Wettable powders, which are dry,
finely ground  formulations that
generally  are mixed with  water for
spray application. Some also may be
used as dusts.

  Depending on the type of
formulation you choose, you may
need to dilute or mix the product.
Prepare only the amount that you
need for each  application; don't
prepare larger amounts to store for
possible future use. (See "Determining
Correct Dosage.")
  Once you have identified the pest,
selected the right pesticide, and
determined proper dosage, you are
ready to use the product. Application
technique and timing are every bit as
important as the material used, so
read the label  for directions. That
advice—to read the label—is repeated
so often in this guide that it may
become tiresome. But in fact, the
advice cannot be repeated often
enough. Read the label before you buy
a product, and again before you mix
it, before you apply it, before you
store it, and before you throw it away.
The  directions on a label are there for
a very good  reason: to help you
achieve maximum benefits with
minimum risk. But these benefits
depend upon proper use of the
  Chemical pesticides also have their
disadvantages. They must be used
very carefully to achieve results while
protecting users and the environment.
The  results are generally temporary,
and  repeated treatments may be
  Therefore, to achieve best results
when you do use chemical pesticides,
use preventive and non-chemical
treatments along with them. This will
reduce the need  for repeated
  You  should always evaluate your
pesticide use, comparing pre-treatment
and  post-treatment conditions.  You
should weigh the benefits  of
short-term chemical pesticide control
against the benefits of long-term
control using a variety of techniques.
Knowledge of a range of pest control
techniques gives you the ability to pick
and  choose among them. Pests,
unfortunately, will always be around
us, and, if you know about all  pest
control options, you will know what to
do the next time THEY'RE THERE.

Tips for
Handling  Pesticides
   Pesticides are not "safe." They are
   produced specifically because they
are toxic to something. By heeding all
the following tips, you can reduce
your risks when you use pesticides.

• All pesticides legally marketed in
the United States must bear an
EPA-approved label; check the label to
make sure it bears an EPA registration

• Before using a pesticide, read the
entire label. Even if you have used the
pesticide before, read the label
again—don't trust your memory. Use
of any pesticide in any way that is not
consistent with  label directions and
precautions is subject to civil and or
criminal penalties.

• Do not use a  "restricted use"
pesticide unless you are a formally
trained, certified pesticide applicator.
These products  are too dangerous to
be used without special training.

• Follow use directions carefully. Use
only the  amount directed, at the time
and under the conditions specified,
and for the purpose listed. Don't think
that twice the dosage will do twice the
job. It won't. What's worse, you may
harm yourself, others, or whatever
you are trying to protect.

• Look for one of the following signal
words on the front of the label.  It  will
tell you how hazardous a pesticide is it
swallowed, inhaled, or absorbed
through skin.

     means highly poisonous;

     means  moderately hazardous;

     means  least hazardous.
• Wear the items of protective
clothing the label requires: for
example, long sleeves and long pants,
impervious gloves, rubber (not canvas
or leather) footwear, hat, and goggles.
Personal protective clothing usually is
available at home building supply

• If you  must mix or dilute the
pesticide, do so outdoors or in a
well-ventilated area. Mix only the
amount you need and use portions
listed on the  label.

• Keep children and pets away from
areas where you mix or apply

• If a spill occurs, clean it up
promptly. Don't wash it away.
Instead, sprinkle with sawdust,
vermiculite, or kitty litter; sweep into a
plastic garbage bag; and dispose with
the rest of your trash.

• Remove pets (including birds and
fish) and toys from the area to be
treated. Remove food, dishes, pots,
and pans before treating kitchen
cabinets, and don't let pesticides get
on these surfaces. Wait until shelves
dry before refilling them.

• Allow  adequate ventilation when
applying pesticides indoors. Go away
from treated areas for at /ciisf the
length of time prescribed by the label.
When spraying outdoors, close the
windows of vour home.

• Most surface sprays should be
applied only to limited areas; don't
treat entire floors, walls, or ceilings.
• Never place rodent or insect baits
where small children or pets can reach
• When applying spray or dust
outdoors,  cover fish ponds, and avoid
applying pesticides near wells. Always
avoid over-application when treating
lawn, shrubs, or gardens. Runoff or
seepage from excess pesticide usage
may contaminate water supplies.
Excess spray may leave harmful
residues on home-grown produce.
• Keep herbicides away from
non-target plants. Avoid applying any
pesticide to blooming plants, especially
if you see honeybees or other
pollinating insects around them. Avoid
birds' nests when spraying trees.
• Never  spray or dust outdoors on a
windy day.
• Never  smoke while applying
pesticides. You could easily carry
traces of  the pesticide from hand to
mouth. Also, some products are
• Never  transfer pesticides to
containers not intended for them,  such
as empty soft drink bottles.  Keep
pesticides in containers that clearly
and prominently identify the contents.
Properly  refasten all childproof caps.
• Shower and shampoo thoroughly
after using a pesticide product. Wash
the clothing that you wore when
applying the product separately from
the family laundry. To prevent
tracking chemicals inside, also rinse
boots and shoes before entering your
• Before  using a pesticide product,
know what to do in case of accidental
• To remove residues,  use a bucket to
triple rinse tools or equipment,
including any containers or utensils
used to mix the chemicals. Then pour
the rinse  water into the pesticide
container and reuse the solution by
applying it according to the pesticide
product label directions.

• Evaluate the results of your
pesticide  use.

Correct Dosage
   So much information is packed onto
   pesticide labels that there is usually
no room to include examples of each
dilution applicable to the multitude of
home-use situations. As  a result, label
examples may inadvertently encourage
preparation of more pesticide than is
needed. The excess may  contribute to
overuse, safety problems related to
storage and disposal, or  simply wasted
costs of unused pesticide.
  Determining the correct dosage for
different types of pesticides requires
some simple calculations. The
following information can help you to
prepare the minimum quantity of
pesticide needed for your immediate
use situation.
  For example, the product label says,
"For the control of aphids on tomatoes,
mix 8 fluid ounces of pesticide into 1
gallon water and spray until foliage is
wet." Your experience has  been that
your six tomato plants require only
one quart of pesticide to  wet all the
foliage. Therefore, only 2 fluid ounces
of the pesticide should be mixed into 1
quart of water. Why? Because a quart
is one-fourth of a gallon, and 2 fluid
ounces mixed into 1 quart make the
same strength spray recommended by
the label, but in a quantity that can be
used up all at once.
  Consumers can solve problems
similar to this one with careful
arithmetic, good measurements, and
intelligent use of the information
provided here.
to Measure
If you need to determine the size of a
square or rectangular area, such as a
lawn for herbicide application,
measure and  multiply the length and
width. For example, an area 10 feet
long by 8 feet wide contains 80 square
feet. Common area measurements may
involve square yards (1 square yard =
9 square feet) or square feet (1 square
foot = 144 square inches).
  If you need to determine the volume
of a space such as a room, measure
and multiply  the room's length, width,
and height. For example, a space 10
feet long, 8 feet wide, and 8 feet high
contains a volume of 640 cubic feet.
You would use this procedure, for
instance, for an aerosol release to
control cockroaches.
  Most residential-use pesticides are
measured in terms of volume. Some
common equivalents are:

1 gallon (gal.)  = 128 fluid ounces (fl. oz.)
             = 4 quarts (qt.)
             = 8 pints (pt.)
             = 16 cups
        1 qt.  = 32 fl. oz.
             = 2pt.
             = 4 cups
        1 pt.  = 16 fl. oz.
             = 2 cups
       1 cup  = 8 fl. oz.
                                        1 tablespoon  = Vi fl. oz.
                                                    = 3 teaspoons
                                         1 teaspoon  = 14 fl. oz.

  In measuring teaspoons or
tablespoons of pesticide, use only level
spoonfuls, and never use the same
measuring devices for food
  The following table provides
examples to help you convert label
information to your specific use
situations. "Amount" can be any
measure of pesticide quantity.
However, the same unit of measure
must be used on both sides of the
chart. For example, 8 fluid ounces per
gallon of water is equivalent to 2 fluid
ounces per quart of water.
  Not all dosage rates are included in
the examples given here. For rates not
included, remember that, for
pesticides not diluted with  water,
proportionally change both the
quantity of pesticide and the area,
volume, or number of items treated.
For example, one-half pound per 1,000
square feet is equivalent to one-quarter
pound per 500 square feet. For a
pesticide that is diluted with water,
proportionally change the quantity of
pesticide, the quantity of water, and
the area, volume, or number of items
treated. For example, one-half pound
of pesticide in 1 gallon of water
applied to 1,000 square feet is
equivalent to 1 pound of pesticide in 2
gallons of water applied to 2,000
square feet.
  There is a point at which
measurements needed for smaller
quantities of pesticides are too minute
to be accurately measured with  typical
domestic measuring devices. In such
cases, the user can either mix the
larger volume, realizing that there will
be leftover material; obtain a more
accurate measuring device, such as a
graduated cylinder or a scale which
measures small weights; or search for
an alternative pesticide or less
concentrated formulation of the same
      Pesticide Label Says Mix
      Amount Pesticide  *',?«<"*
    Amount of Pesticide'Per
              * |»t.,W»t«r  'J< £ - '&
i-  - • -,; -
   -/' Pesticide tabei Says Apply,"*''. ^ '•; ''*X^^Amowt*6f'PwHdae^P«.^^ *'* *'1
1   *J* 'Amount PM«rirf»   * P«    >  -         <'?^20,000«q. ft.' ,10,000 *sq. ft 'ZSOOsq^ ft.  >"''j
                its   1,000 sq,"ft,• EQUALSJ4.r20umtsC;Jtfunits",,"-'/2 unit  -  • )
                i,*,  t i"-rt/w «i_* c*.  rr/^t T A T iS*^ /* *rt\—liij^"*^*Srt M.-^:*.!   *"*'*% "^:r_;i,  « ~   I
      Pesticide Cabel'SayS Release  \ ,-" ;^-
r *,  * ; Aerosol Cans ,",4 *Pei'-  ,< „•»
                                t , -C  "i
                                  EQUALS ^


Correct Storage
and Disposal
   The following tips on home storage
   and disposal can help you handle
pesticides correctly.


• Buy only enough product to carry
you through the use season, to reduce
storage problems.

• Store pesticides  away from children
and pets. A locked cabinet in a
well-ventilated utility area or garden
shed is best.

• Store flammable liquids outside
living quarters and away from  an
ignition source.

• Never put pesticides in cabinets
with, or near, food, medical supplies,
or cleaning materials. Always store
pesticides in their  original containers,
complete with labels that list
ingredients, directions for use, and
antidotes in case of accidental
poisoning. Never transfer pesticides to
soft drink bottles or other containers
that children may  associate with
something to  eat or drink. Always
properly refasten child-proof closures
or lids.

• Avoid storing pesticides in places
where flooding is possible, or in  open
places where  they might spill or  leak
into the environment. If you have any
doubt about the content of a container,
dispose of it with your trash.

• The best way to dispose of a small,
excess amount of pesticide is to use
it—apply it—according to.directions on
the product label. If you cannot use it,
ask your neighbor whether he/she can
use it. If all the pesticide cannot be
used, first check with your local health
department or solid waste
management agency to determine
whether your community  has a
household hazardous waste collection
program or any other program for
handling disposal of pesticides.

• If no community programs exist,
follow label directions regarding
container disposal.  To dispose of less
than a full container of a liquid
pesticide, leave it in the original
container, with the cap securely in
place to prevent spills or leaks. Wrap
the container in several layers of
newspapers and tie securely. Then
place the package in a covered trash
can for routine collection with
municipal refuse. If you do not have a
regular trash collection service, take
the package to a permitted landfill
(unless your municipality has other
  Note: No more than one gallon of
liquid pesticide should be disposed  of
in this manner.

                                         How to  Choose a
                                         Pest Control  Company
• Wrap individual packages of dry
pesticide formulations in several layers
of newspaper, or place the package in
a tight carton or bag, and tape or tie it
closed. As with liquid formulations,
place the package in a covered trash
can for routine collection.

  Note: No more than 5 pounds of
pesticide at a time should be disposed
of in this manner.
• Do not pour leftover pesticides down
the sink or into the toilet. Chemicals in
pesticides could interfere with the
operation of wastewater treatment
systems or could pollute waterways,
because many municipal systems
cannot remove all pesticide residues.

• An empty pesticide container can be
as hazardous as a full one because of
residues remaining inside. Never reuse
such a container. When empty, a
pesticide container should be carefully
rinsed and thoroughly drained.
Liquids used to rinse the container
should be added to the sprayer or to
the container previously used to mix
the pesticide and used according to
label directions.

  Empty product containers made of
plastic or metal should be punctured
to prevent reuse. (Do not puncture or
burn a pressurized product
container—it could explode.) Glass
containers should be rinsed and
drained, as described above, and the
cap or closure replaced securely. After
rinsing, an empty mixing container or
sprayer may also be wrapped and
placed in the trash.

• If you have any doubts about
proper pesticide disposal, contact your
state or local health department, your
solid waste management agency, or
the regional EPA office.
HPermites are chomping away at your
 J. house. Roaches are taking over
your kitchen. Mouse droppings dot
your dresser drawer. You've got a pest
control problem, and you've decided
that it's too serious for you to solve on
your own. You've decided you need a
professional exterminator.
  If you find yourself in a situation
like this,  what can you do to be sure
that the pest control company you hire
will do a  good job? Here are some
questions you can ask:
1. Does the company have a good
track record?
Don't rely on the company salesman
to answer this question; research the
answer yourself. Ask around among
neighbors and friends; have any of
them dealt with the company before?
Were they satisfied with the service
they received? Call the Better Business
Bureau or local consumer office; have
they received any complaints about
the company?
2. Does the company have insurance?
What kind of insurance? Can the
salesman show some documentation
to prove that the company is insured?
Contractor's general liability insurance,
including insurance for sudden and
accidental pollution, gives you as a
homeowner a certain degree of
protection should an accident occur
while pesticides are being applied in
your home. Contractor's workmen's
compensation insurance can also help
protect you should an employee of the
contractor be injured while working in
your home.

  In most states, pest control
companies are not required to buy
insurance, but you should think twice
before dealing with a company that is

3. Is the company licensed?

Regulatory agencies in some states
issue state pest control licenses.
Although the qualifications for a
license vary  from state to state, at a
minimum the license requires that
each company have a certified
pesticide applicator present in the
office on a daily basis to supervise the
work of exterminators using
restricted-use pesticides. (Certified
applicators are formally trained and
"certified" as qualified to use or
supervise the use of pesticides that are
classified for restricted use.) If
restricted-use pesticides are to be
applied on your premises, make sure
the pest control operator's license is
current. Also ask if the company's
employees are bonded.
  You may want to contact your state
lead pesticide agency to ask about its
pesticide certification and training
programs and to inquire if periodic
recerrification is required  for pest
control operators.
  In addition to the licenses required
in some states, some cities also issue
pest control  licenses. Again,
qualifications vary, but possession of a
city license—where they are
available—is one more assurance that
the compa'nyyou are dealing with is
reputable and  responsible.
4. Is the company affiliated with a
professional pest control association?

Professional associations—whether
national, state, or local—keep
members informed of new
developments in pest control methods,
safety, training, research, and
regulation. They also haye codes of
ethics that members  agree to abide by.
The fact that a company, small or
large, chooses to affiliate itself with a
professional association signals its
concern for the quality of its work.

5. Does the company stand behind its
work? What assurances does the
company make?

You should think twice about dealing
with a company unwilling to stand
behind its work. Be sure to find out
what you must do to keep your part of
the bargain. For example, in the case
of termite control treatments, a
guarantee may be invalidated if
structural alterations are made without
prior notice to the pest control

6. Is the company willing, and able, to
discuss the treatment proposed for
your home?

Selecting a pest control service is just
as important as selecting other
professional services. Look for the
same high degree of competence you
would expect from a doctor or lawyer.
The company should inspect your
premises and outline a recommended
control program, including what pests
are to be controlled;  the extent of the
infestation; what pesticide formulation
will be used in your  home and why;

                                          How to Reduce Your
                                          Exposure to Pesticides
what techniques will be used in
application; what alternatives to the
formulation and techniques could be
used instead; what special instructions
you  should follow to reduce your
exposure to the pesticide (such as
vacating the house, emptying the
cupboards, removing pets, etc.); and
what you can do to minimize your
pest problems in the future.
  Contracts should be jointly
developed. Any safety concerns
should be noted and reflected  in the
choice of pesticides to be used. These
concerns could include allergies, age of
occupants (infants or elderly),  or pets.
You  may want to get two to three bids
from different companies—by  value,
not price. What appears to be  a
bargain may merit a second look.
  Even after you have hired a
company, you should continue your
vigilance. Evaluate results. If you have
reason to believe that something has
gone wrong with the pesticide
application, contact the company
and/or your state lead pesticide
agency. Don't let your guard down,
and  don't stop asking questions.
   Because chemical pesticides are so
   widely used in our society, and
because of the properties of many of
the chemicals, low levels of pesticide
residues are found throughout the
environment. Pesticides reach us in a
variety of  ways—through food, water,
and air.
  In regulating pesticides, EPA strives
to ensure that lawful use of these
products will not result in harmful
exposures. Proper use of registered
products should yield residue levels
that are well within established safety
standards. Therefore, the average
American's exposure to low-level
residues, though fairly constant,
should not cause alarm.
  Still, many people want to learn
what choices they can  make to further
reduce their exposure to any potential
risks associated with pesticides. By
limiting your exposure to these
products, you can keep your risks to a
  Below you will find descriptions  of
the main pathways of human exposure
to pesticides, as well as suggestions on
ways to reduce overall exposure and
attendant risks. If, however, you
suspect that you suffer from serious
chemical sensitivities, consult an
expert to develop a more personally
tailored approach to managing this

Through Food
Commercial Food

Throughout life—beginning even
before birth—we are all exposed to
pesticides.  A major source of exposure
is through  our diets. We constantly
consume small amounts of pesticides.
Fruits and  vegetables, as well as meat,
poultry, eggs, and milk, are  all likely
to contain measurable pesticide
  EPA sets standards, called
tolerances,  to limit the amount of
pesticide residues that legally may
remain in or on food or animal feed
marketed in U.S. commerce. Both
domestic and imported foods are
monitored  by the Food and Drug
Administration (FDA) and the U.S.
Department of Agriculture (USDA) to
ensure compliance with these
tolerances.  Further, since pesticide
residues generally  tend to degrade
over time and through processing,
residue concentrations in or  on most
foods are well below legal tolerance
levels by the time the foods  are
  Although EPA does limit dietary
pesticide exposure through tolerances,
you may wish to take extra
precautions. You can take several
steps to reduce your exposure to
residues in purchased food.

• Rinse fruit and vegetables
thoroughly with water; scrub them
with a brush and peel them, if
possible. Although this surface
cleaning will not remove "systemic"
pesticide residues taken up into the
growing fruit or vegetable, it will
remove  most of the existing surface
residues, not to mention any dirt.

• Cook or bake foods to reduce
residues of some (but not all)

• Trim the fat from meat and poultry.
Discard the fats and oils in broths and
pan drippings, since  residues  of some
pesticides concentrate in fat.

Home-grown Food
Growing some of your own food can
be both a pleasurable activity and  a
way to reduce your exposure  to
pesticide residues in  food.  But, even
here, there are some  things you may
want to do to assure  that exposure is

• Before converting land in an urban
or suburban area to gardening, find
out how the land  was used previously.
Choose a site that had limited (or  no)
chemical applications and where drift
or runoff from your neighbor's
activities will not result in unintended
pesticide residues on your produce.
Choose a garden site strategically  to
avoid these  potential routes of entry, if
  If you are taking over an existing
garden plot, be aware that the soil
may contain pesticide residues from
previous gardening activities. These

 residues may remain in the soil for
 several years, depending on the
 persistence of the pesticides that were
 used. Rather than waiting for the
 residues to decline naturally over time,
 you may speed the process.
 • Plant an interim, non-food crop like
 annual rye grass, clover, or alfalfa.
 Such crops, with their dense, fibrous
 root systems, will take up some of the
 lingering pesticide residues. Then
 discard the crops—don't work them
 back into the soil—and continue to
 alternate food crops  with cover crops
 in the off season.
 • During sunny periods, turn over the
 soil as often as every two to three days
 for a week or two. The sunlight will
 help to break down, or photodegrade,
 some of the pesticide residues.
   Once you do begin gardening,
 develop strategies that will reduce
 your need  for pesticides while
 maintaining good crop yields.
 • Concentrate on building your
 garden's soil, since healthy soil grows
 healthy plants. Feed the soil with
 compost, manure, etc., to increase its
 capacity to support strong crops.
 • Select seeds and seedlings from
 hardy, disease-resistant varieties. The
 resulting plants are less likely to need
 pesticides in order to flourish.

• Avoid monoculture gardening
techniques. Instead,  alternate rows of
different kinds of plants to prevent
significant pest problems from
• Don't plant the same crop in the
same spot year after year if you want
to reduce plant susceptibility to
over-wintered pests.
• Become familiar with integrated pest
management (IPM) techniques, so that
you can manage any pest outbreaks
that do occur without relying solely on
• Mulch your garden with leaves,
hay,  grass clippings,  shredded/chipped
bark, or seaweed. Avoid using
newspapers to keep down weeds, and
sewage sludge to fertilize plants.
Newsprint may contain heavy metals;
sludge may contain heavy metals and
pesticides, both of which can leach
into your soil.

Food from the Wild
While it might seem that hunting your
own  game, catching your own  fish, or
gathering wild plant foods would
reduce your overall exposure to
pesticides, this isn't necessarily so.
Wild foods hunted, caught, or
gathered in areas where pesticides are
frequently used outdoors may contain
pesticide residues. Migratory species
also may contain pesticide residues if
these chemicals are used anywhere in
their flyways.
  Tolerances generally are not
established or enforced for pesticides
found in wild game,  fowl, fish, or
plants. Thus, if you consume food
from the wild, you may want to take
the following steps to reduce your
exposure to pesticide residues.
• Because wild game is very lean,
there is less fat in which pesticides can
accumulate. However, avoid hunting
in areas where pesticide usage  is very
• Avoid fishing in water bodies where
water contamination  is known  to have
occurred. Pay attention to posted signs
warning of contamination.

• You may want to consult with fish
and game officials where you plan to
hunt or fish to determine whether
there are any pesticide problems
associated with that area.

• When picking wild plant foods,
avoid gathering right next to a road,
utility right-of-way, or hedgerow
between farm fields which probably
have been treated (directly or
indirectly) with pesticides. Instead,
seek out fields that have not been
used to produce crops, deep woods,
or other areas where pesticide use is

• When preparing wild foods, trim fat
from meat, and discard skin of fish to
remove as many fat-soluble pesticide
residues as possible. For wild plant
foods, follow the tips provided for
commercial food.
Through Water
Whether it comes from surface or
ground water sources, the water
flowing from your tap may contain
low levels of pesticides.
  When pesticides are applied to land,
a certain amount may run off the land
into streams and rivers. This runoff,
coupled with industrial discharges, can
result in low-level contamination of
surface water.  In certain hydrogeologic
settings—for example, sandy soil over
a ground water source that is near the
surface—pesticides can leach down
through the soil to the ground water.
  EPA's Water Program sets standards
and provides advisory levels for
pesticides and other chemicals that
may be found in drinking water.
Public municipal water systems test
their water periodically and provide
treatment or alternate supply sources
if residue problems arise. Private wells
generally are not  tested unless the well
owner requests such analysis.
  If you get your drinking water from
a private well, you can reduce the
chance of contaminating your water
 supply by following these guidelines:

• Be cautious  about  using pesticides
and other chemicals  on your property,
especially if the well is shallow or is
not tightly constructed. Check with
your EPA regional office or County
Extension Service before using a
pesticide outdoors, to determine
whether it is known or suspected to
leach to ground water. Never use or
 mix a pesticide near  your well head.
                                 AWBERC LIBRARY  US.  EPA

• To avoid pesticide contamination
problems, be sure your well extends
downward to aquifers that are below,
and isolated from, surface aquifers,
and be sure the well shaft is tightly
sealed. If you have questions about
pesticide or other chemical residues in
your well water, contact your state or
county health department.
• If your well water is analyzed and
found to contain pesticide residue
levels above established or
recommended health standards, you
may wish to use an alternate water
source such as bottled water for
drinking and cooking. The best choice
is distilled spring water in glass
bottles. Ask your local bottler for the
results of a recent pesticide  analysis.
Through Air

Outdoors, air currents may carry
pesticides that were applied on
adjacent property or miles away. But
there are steps you can take to reduce
your exposure to airborne pesticide
residue, or drift, outdoors. To reduce
your exposure to airborne pesticides:
• Avoid applying pesticides in windy
weather (when winds exceed  10 miles
oer hour).

• Use coarse droplet nozzles to reduce
• Apply the spray as close to the
target as possible.
• Keep the wind to your side so that
sprays and dusts do not blow into
your face.
• If someone else is applying
pesticides outdoors near your home,
stay indoors with your pets and
children, keeping doors and windows
closed. If it is very windy during the
pesticide application, stay inside for an
hour or two.
• If pesticides are applied frequently
near your home (if you live next to
fields receiving regular pesticide
treatment), consider planting a buffer
zone of thick-branched trees and
shrubs upwind to help serve as a
buffer zone and windbreak.
• Many local governments require
public notification in advance of
area-wide or broad-scale pesticide
spray activities and
programs—through announcements in
newspapers, letters to area residents,
or posting of signs in areas to be
treated. Some  communities have also
enacted "right to know" ordinances
which require  public notification,
usually  through posting, of lawn
treatments and other small-scale
outdoor pesticide uses. If your local
government does not require
notifications, either for large- or
small-scale applications, you may want
to work with local officials to develop
such requirements.

  Indoors, the air you breathe may
bear pesticide residues long after a
pesticide has been applied to objects in
your home or office, or to indoor
surfaces and crawl  spaces. Pesticides
dissipate more slowly indoors than
outdoors. In addition, energy
efficiency features built into many
homes reduce air exchange,
aggravating the problem. To limit your
exposure to indoor pesticide  residues:
• Use pesticides indoors only when
absolutely necessary, and then use
only limited amounts. Provide
adequate ventilation during and after
application. If you hire a pest control

company, oversee its activities

• If pesticides are used inside your
home, air out the house often, since
outdoor air generally is fresher and
purer than indoor air. Open doors and
windows, and run overhead or
whole-house fans to exchange indoor
air for outside air rapidly and

• If pesticides have been used
extensively and an indoor air
contamination problem has developed,
clean—scrub—all surfaces where
pesticides may have settled, including
cracks and crevices. Consult a
knowledgeable professional for advice
on appropriate cleaning materials  if
soap and water are insufficient.
Through Home Usage

Over a lifetime, diet is the most
significant source of pesticide exposure
for the general public. However, on a
short-term basis, the most significant
exposure source is personal pesticide
  An array of pesticide products,
ranging widely in toxicity and
potential effects, is available "off the
shelf" to the private user. No special
training is required to purchase or use
these products, and no one is looking
over the users'  shoulder, monitoring
their vigilance in reading and
following label instructions.Yet many
of these products are hazardous,
especially if they are stored, handled,
or applied improperly.
  To minimize the hazards and
maximize the benefits that pesticides
bring, exercise caution and respect
when using any pesticide product.

• Consider pesticide labeling to be
what it is intended to be: your best
guide to using pesticides safely and
• Pretend that the pesticide product
you are using is more toxic than you
think it is. Take special precautions to
ensure an extra margin of protection
for yourself, your family, and pets.

• Don't use more pesticide than the
label says. You may not achieve a
higher degree of pest control, and you
will certainly experience a higher
degree of risk.

• If you hire a pest control firm to do
the job, ask the company to use the
least toxic or any chemical-free pest
control means available that will
do the job.  For  example,
some home pest control companies
offer an electro-gun technique to
control termite and similar infestations
by penetrating infested areas and
"frying" the problem pests without
using any chemicals.

• And remember: sometimes a
non-pesticidal approach is as
convenient and effective as its
chemical alternatives. Consider using
such non-pesticidal approaches
whenever possible.

"Someone's Been Poisoned. Help!"
What To Do
in a Pesticide Emergency
   The potential for a pesticide to cause
   injury depends upon several
• Toxicity of the active ingredient.
Toxicity is a measure of the inherent
ability of a chemical to produce injury.
Some pesticides,  such as pyrethrins,
have low human toxicity while others,
such as sodium fluoroacetate, are
extremely toxic.
• Dose.  The greater the dose of a
specific pesticide, i.e. the amount
absorbed, the greater the risk of
injury. Dose is dependent upon the
absolute amount of the pesticide
absorbed relative to the weight of the
person. Therefore, small amounts of a
pesticide might produce illness in a
small child while the same dose of the
same pesticide in an adult might be
relatively harmless.
• Route of absorption. Swallowing a
pesticide usually  creates the  most
serious problem.  In practice, however,
the most common route of absorption
of pesticides is through the skin and
the most toxic pesticides have resulted
in death through this route of
• Duration of exposure. The longer a
person is exposed to pesticides, the
higher the level in the  body. There is a
point at which an equilibrium will
develop between the intake and the
output. Then, the level will no longer
continue to increase. However, this
point may be either above or below
the known toxic level.
• Physical and chemical properties.
The distribution and the rates of
breakdown of pesticides in the
environment significantly alter the
likelihood that injury might occur.
• Population  at risk. Persons who run
the greatest danger of poisoning are
those whose exposure is highest, such
as workers  who mix, load, or apply
pesticides. However, the general
public also  faces the possibility of
Pesticide Poisoning

Like other chemicals, pesticides may
produce injury externally or internally.

External irritants may cause
contact-associated skin disease
primarily of an irritant nature—
producing redness, itching, or
pimples—or an allergic skin reaction,
producing redness, swelling, or
blistering. The mucous membranes of
the eyes, nose, mouth, and throat are
also quite sensitive to chemicals.
Stinging and swelling can occur.

Internal injuries from any chemical
may occur depending upon where a
chemical  is transported in the body.
Thus, symptoms are dependent upon
the organ involved. Shortness of
breath, clear saliva, or rapid breathing
may occur as the result of lung injury.
Nausea, vomiting, abdominal cramps,
or diarrhea may result from direct
injury to the gastrointestinal tract.
Excessive fatigue, sleepiness,
headache, muscle twitching, and loss
of sensation may result from injury to
the nervous system. In general,
different classes of pesticides produce
different sets of symptoms.
  For example, organophosphate
pesticides may produce symptoms of

pesticide poisoning affecting several
different organs, and may progress
rapidly from very mild to severe.
Symptoms may progress in a matter of
minutes from slight difficulty with
vision to paralysis of the diaphragm
muscle, causing inability to breathe.
  Therefore, if someone develops
symptoms after working with
pesticides, seek medical help promptly
to determine if the symptoms are
pesticide-related.  In certain cases,
blood or urine can be collected for
analysis, or other specific exposure
tests can be made. It is better to be too
cautious than too late.
  It is always important to avoid
problems by minimizing your
exposure when mixing and applying
pesticides by wearing gloves and other
protective clothing.
  The appropriate first aid treatment
depends upon which  pesticide was
used. Here are some tips for first aid
that may precede, but should not
substitute for, medical treatment:

• Poison on skin. Drench skin with
water and remove contaminated
clothing. Wash skin and hair
thoroughly with soap and water. Dry
victim and wrap in blanket. Later,
discard contaminated clothing or
thoroughly wash  it separately from
other laundry.

• Chemical bum  on skin. Drench skin
with water and remove contaminated
clothing. Cover burned  area
immediately with loose, clean, soft
cloth. Do not apply ointments,
greases,  powders, or other drugs.
Later, discard or thoroughly wash
contaminated clothing separately from
other laundry.
• Poison in eye. Eye membranes
absorb pesticides faster than any other
external part of the body; eye damage
can occur in a few minutes with some
types of pesticides. Hold eyelid open
and wash eye quickly and gently with
clean running water from  the tap or a
hose for 15 minutes or more. Do not
use eye drops or chemicals or drugs in
the wash water.

• Inhaled poison. Carry or drag victim
to fresh air immediately. (If proper
protection is unavailable to you, call
for emergency equipment  from the
Fire Department.) Loosen  victim's
tight clothing. If the victim's skin is
blue  or the victim has stopped
breathing, give  artificial respiration
and call rescue  service for  help. Open
doors and windows so no one else will
be poisoned by  fumes.

• Swallowed poison. A conscious
victim should rinse his mouth  with
plenty of water and then drink up to
one quart of milk or water to dilute
the pesticide. Induce vomiting only if
instructions to do so are on the label.
If there is no label available to  guide
you,  do not induce vomiting. Never
induce vomiting if the victim is
unconscious or  is having convulsions.

  In  dealing with any poisoning, act
fast;  speed  is crucial.

First Aid
for Pesticide Poisoning

First aid is the first step in treating a
pesticide poisoning. Study the
"Statement of Treatment" on the
product label before you use a
pesticide. When you realize a pesticide
poisoning is occurring, be sure the
victim is not being further exposed to
the poison before calling for
emergency help. An unconscious
victim will have to be dragged into
fresh air. Caution: do not become
poisoned yourself while trying  to help.
You may have to put on breathing
equipment or  protective clothing to
avoid becoming the second victim.
  After giving initial first aid, get
medical help immediately. This advice
cannot be repeated too often. Bring
the product container with its label to
the doctor's office or emergency room
where the victim will be treated; keep
the container out of the passenger
space of your vehicle. The doctor
needs to know what chemical is in the
pesticide before prescribing treatment
(information that is also on the label).
Sometimes the label even includes a
telephone number to call for additional
treatment information.
  A good resource in a pesticide
emergency is NPTN, the National
Pesticide Telecommunications
Network, a toll-free telephone service.
Operators are  on call 24 hours a day,
365 days a year, to provide
information on pesticides and on
recognizing and responding to
pesticide poisonings. If necessary they
can transfer inquiries directly to
affiliated poison control centers.
  National Pesticide
  Telecommunications Network
  Call Toll-Free 1-800-858-7378
  NPTN operators answer questions
about animal as well as human
poisonings. To keep your pets from
being poisoned, follow label directions
on flea and tick products carefully,
and keep pets off lawns that have
been newly treated with weed killers
and insecticides.
  EPA is interested in receiving
information on any adverse effects
associated with pesticide exposure. If
you have such information, contact
Frank Davido, Pesticide Incident
Response Officer, Field Operations
Division (H-7506C), Office of Pesticide
Programs, EPA, 401 M Street, SW.,
Washington,  DC 20460. You should
provide as  complete information as
possible, including any official
investigation  report of the incident and
medical records concerning adverse
health effects. Medical records will be
held in confidence.

 EPA Regional  Offices and  States Covered
 EPA Region 1
 JFK Federal Building
 Boston, MA 02203
 (617) 565-3424
 Connecticut, Massachusetts,
 Maine, New Hampshire,
 Rhode Island,  Vermont

 EPA Region 2
 26 Federal Plaza
 New York,  NY  10278
 (212) 264-2515
 New Jersey, New York,
 Puerto  Rico, Virgin Islands

 EPA Region 3
 841 Chestnut Street
 Philadelphia, PA 19107
 (215) 597-9370
 Delaware, Maryland,
 Virginia, West Virginia,
 District of Columbia
EPA Headquarters
401 M Street S.W.
Washington, B.C. 20460
(202) 382-4454
EPA Region 4
345 Courtland Street, N.E.
Atlanta, GA 30365
(404) 347-3004
Alabama, Florida, Georgia,
Kentucky, Mississippi, North
Carolina, South Carolina,

EPA Region 5
230 South Dearborn Street
Chicago, IL 60604
(312) 353-2072
Illinois, Indiana, Michigan,
Minnesota, Ohio, Wisconsin

EPA Region 6
1445 Ross Avenue
Dallas, TX 75202
(214) 655-2200
Arkansas, Louisiana, New
Mexico, Oklahoma,  Texas

EPA Region 7
726 Minnesota Avenue
Kansas City,  KS 66101
(913) 551-7003
Iowa, Kansas, Missouri,
EPA Region 8
One Denver Place
999 18th Street, Suite 1300
Denver, CO 80202-2413
(303) 293-1692
Colorado, Montana, North
Dakota, South Dakota, Utah,

EPA Region 9
75 Hawthorne Street
San Francisco, CA 94105
FTS 8-848-1305
DDD (415) 744-1305
Arizona, California, Hawaii,
Nevada, American Samoa,
Guam, Trust Territories of the

EPA Region 10
1200 Sixth Avenue
Seattle, WA 98101
FTS 8-399-1107
DDD (206) 553-1107
Alaska, Idaho, Oregon,
                         United States Environmental Protection Agency
                                     Regional Organization

 State Pesticide Agencies
 Region 1
 Dept. of Environmental Protection
 Bureau of Waste Management,
 Pesticide Division
 State Office Building
 165 Capitol Avenue
 Hartford, CT 06106
 (203) 566-5148

 Board of Pesticide Control
 Dept. of Agriculture
 State House - Station 28
 Augusta, ME 04333
 (207) 289-2731

 Pesticides Bureau
 Dept. of Food and  Agriculture
 100 Cambridge Street, 21st Floor
 Boston, MA 02202
 (617) 727-3020

 New Hampshire
 Division of Pesticides Control
 Dept. of Agriculture
 Caller Box 2042
 Concord, NH 03302-2042
 (603) 271-3550

 Rhode Island
 Division of Agriculture
 and Marketing
 Dept. of Environmental
 22 Hayes Street
 Providence, RI 02908
 (401) 277-2781

 Plant Industry Laboratory
 of Standards Division
 Dept. of Agriculture
 116 State St., State Office Bldg
 Montpelier, VT 05602
 (802) 828-2431

 Region 2
Assistant Director,
Pesticide Control Program
NJ  Dept. of Environmental
380 Scotch Road CN 411
Trenton, NJ 08625
 (609) 530-4123

New York
Bureau of Pesticides
Dept. of Environmental Conservation
Rm. 404, 50 Wolf Rd.
Albany NY 12233-7254
(518) 457-7482
Puerto Rico
Analysis & Registration of
Agricultural Materials
Divison of Laboratory
Puerto Rico Dept. of Agriculture
P.O. Box 10163
Santurce, PR 00908
(809) 796-1715

Virgin Islands
Pesticide Programs
Division of Natural
Resources Management
Department of
Conservation and
Cultural Affairs
P.O. Box 4340
St. Thomas, VI 00801
(809) 773-0565

Region 3
Delaware Dept.  of Agriculture
2320 S. DuPont  Highway
Dover, DE 19901
(302) 739-4811

District of Columbia
Pesticide and Hazardous Waste
Management Branch,
Environmental Control Division
Room 203
2100 Martin Luther King
Avenue S.E.
Washington,  D.C. 20020
(202) 404-1167

Pesticide Regulation Section
Maryland Dept.  of Agriculture
50 Harry S. Truman Parkway
Annapolis, MD 21401
(301) 841-5710

Agronomic Services
Bureau of Plant Industry
PA Dept. of Agriculture
2301 N. Cameron Street
Harrisburg, PA 17110-9408
(717) 787-4843

Office of Pesticide Management
VA Dept. of Agriculture
and Consumer Service
P.O. Box 1163
Richmond, VA 23209
(804) 371-6558

West Virginia
Plant Pest Control Division
W VA Dept. of Agriculture
State Capitol Building
Charleston, WV 25305
(304) 348-2212
 Region 4
 Agricultural Chemistry/Plant
 Industry Division
 Alabama Dept. of Agriculture
 and Industries
 P.O. Box 3336
 Montgomery, AL 36109-0336
 (205) 242-2631

 Pesticide Registration Section
 Bureau of Pesticides
 Division of Inspection
 Dept. of Agriculture
 and Consumer Services
 3125 Conner Boulevard
 Tallahassee, FL 32399-1650
 (904) 487-0532

 Agricultural Manager
 Entomology and Pesticides Division
 Dept. of Agriculture
 19 Martin Luther King Jr. Drive, S.W.

 Atlanta, GA 30334
 (404) 656-4958

 Division of Pesticides
 Kentucky Dept. of Agriculture
 500 Metro Street, 7th Floor
 Frankfort, KY 40601
 (502) 564-7274
Division of Plant Industry
Dept. of Agriculture & Commerce
P.O. Box 5207
Mississippi State, MS 39762
(601) 325-3390

North Carolina
Food & Drug Pesticide Section
Dept. of Agriculture
P.O. Box 27647
Raleigh NC 27611-0647
(919) 733-3556

South Carolina
Dept. of Fertilizer/Pest Control
256 Poole Agriculture Center
Clemson University
Clemson, SC 29634-0394
(803) 656-3171

Plant Industries Division
Dept. of Agriculture
P.O. Box 40627, Melrose Station
Nashville, TN 37204
(615) 360-0130

Region 5
Bureau of Plant and
Apiary Protection
Dept. of Agriculture
State Fair Ground
P.O. Box 19281
Springfield, IL 62794-9281
(217) 785-2427

Office  of Health Regulation
Dept. of Public Health
535 West Jefferson
Springfield, IL 62761
(217) 782-4674

Office  of the State Chemist
Dept. of Biochemistry
Purdue University
West Lafayette, IN 47907
(317) 494-1492

Pesticide and Plant Pest
Management Division
Dept. of Agriculture
Ottawa Building
N. Tower, 4th Floor
611 W. Ottawa St.
P.O. Box 30017
Lansing, MI 48909
(517) 373-1087

Division of Agronomy Services
Dept. of Agriculture
90 West Plato Blvd.
St. Paul, MN 55107
(612) 296-1161

Specialist in Charge of Pesticide
Division of Plant Industry
Dept. of Agriculture
8995 East Main St.
Reynoldsburg, OH 43068
(614) 866-6361

Groundwater and Regulatory Service
Dept. of Agriculture
Trade and Consumer Protection
801 West Badger Rd.
P.O. Box 8911
Madison, WI 53708
(608) 266-9459
Region 6
Division of Feed, Fertilizer &
Arkansas State Plant Board
#1 Natural Resources Dr.
Little Rock, AR 72203
(501) 225-1598

Office of Agricultural and
Environmental Sciences
Louisiana  Dept. of Agriculture
P.O. Box 3596
Baton Rouge, LA 70821-3596
(504) 925-3763

New Mexico
Division of Agricultural and
Environmental Services
N.M. State Dept. of Agriculture
P.O. Box 3005-3AQ 1
N.M. State University
Las Cruces, NM 88003
(505) 545-2133

Pest Management Section
Plant Industry Division
Oklahoma State Dept. of Agriculture
2800 N. Lincoln Blvd.
Oklahoma City, OK 73105
(405) 521-3864

Division of Agricultural and
Environmental Sciences
Texas Dept. of Agriculture
P.O. Box 12847
Austin, TX 78711
(512) 463-7534

Region  7
Pesticide Control Bureau Section
Iowa Dept. of Agriculture
Henry A.  Wallace Building
E. 9th St.  & Grand Ave.
Des Moines, IA 50319
(515) 281-8591

Plant Health Division
Kansas State Board of Agriculture
109 S.W. 9th Street
Topeka, KS 66612
(913) 296-2263

Bureau of Pesticide Control
Dept. of Agriculture
P.O. Box 630
Jefferson City, MO 65102
(314) 751-2462
Bureau of Plant Industry
Nebraska Dept. of Agriculture
301 Centennial Mall South
Lincoln, NE 68509
(402) 471-2341

Region 8
Pesticide Applicator Section
Division of Plant Industry
Colorado Department of Agriculture
700 Kipling Street Ste 4000
Lakewood, CO 80215-5894
(303)  866-2838

Environmental Management Division
Montana Dept. of Agriculture
Agriculture-Livestock Building
Rm. 317  Capitol Station
6th & Roberts
Helena, MT 59620-0205
(406)  444-2944

North Dakota
Pesticide/Noxious Weed Division
N.D.  Dept. of Agriculture
600 East  Boulevard, 6th Floor
Bismarck, ND 58505-0020
(701)  224-4756

South Dakota
Division  of Regulatory Services
S.D. Dept. of Agriculture
Anderson Bldg.,
445 East  Capitol
Pierre, SD 57501
(605)  773-3724

Division  of Plant Industries
Utah Dept. of Agriculture
350 North Redwood Road
Salt Lake City, UT84116
(801)  538-7123

Pesticide Division
Wyoming Dept. of Agriculture
2219  Carey Avenue
Cheyenne, WY 82002-0100
(307) 777-6590

 Region 9
 Agricultural Chemical &
 Environmental Services Division
 AZ Commission of Agriculture
 and Horticulture
 1688 West Adam's, Suite 103
 Phoenix, AZ 85007
 (602) 542-4373

 State Chemist
 Office of the State Chemist
 P.O. Box 1586
 Mesa, AZ 85211
 (602) 833-5442

 Executive Director
 Structural Pest Control Commission
 1150 S. Priest, Suite 4
 Tempe, AZ 85281
 (602) 255-3664

 Department of
 Pesticide Regulation
 1220 "N" Street
 Sacramento, CA 98514
 (916) 322-6315

 Division of Plant Industry
 Hawaii Dept. of Agriculture
1428 South King Street
Honolulu, HI 96814-2512
(808) 548-7119

 Division of Plant Industry
 Nevada Dept. of Agriculture
 350 Capitol Hill Avenue
 P.O. Box 11100
 Reno, NV 89510-1100
 (702) 688-1180

 Pesticide Enforcement Officer
 Environmental Protection
 130 Rojas Street
 Harmon, GU 96910

 American Samoa
 Dept. of Agriculture
 P.O. Box 366
 Pago Pago, American Samoa 96799
Trust Territory of the Pacific Islands
Executive Officer
Trust Territory
Environmental Protection Board
Office of the High Commissioner
Trust Territory of the Pacific Islands
Saipan, Mariana Islands 96950

Commonwealth of the Northern
Mariana Islands
Environmental Engineer
Division of Environmental Quality
Commonwealth of the
Northern Mariana Islands (CNMI)
Dr. Torres Hospital
Saipan, Mariana Island 96950
Region  10
Bureau of Pesticides
Idaho Dept. of Agriculture
P.O. Box 790
Boise, ID 83701
(208) 334-3243

Assistant Chief
Plant Division
Oregon Dept. of Agriculture
635 Capitol Street, N.E.
Salem, OR 97310-0110
(503) 378-3776

                                   Assistant Director,
                                   Pesticide Management Division
                                   Washington Department
                                   of Agriculture
                                   406 General Administration
                                   Building (AX^l)
                                   Olympia, WA 98504
                                   (206) 753-5062

                                   Division of Environmental Health
                                   Alaska  Dept. of
                                   Environmental Conservation
                                   P.O. Box "O"
                                   Juneau, AK 99811-1800
                                   (907) 465-2609

                                   Pesticide Program Supervisor
                                   and Pesticide Specialist
                                   500 South Alaska Street, Suite A
                                   Juneau, AK 99645
                                   (907) 465-2696
                                                          ft US. OOVEWnlEHT PWBTrBQ OFFICE:  1992 - 622-330 - L302/60I