United States
          Environmental Protection
          Agency
                            EPA
                            September 1999
                            EPA-402-R-99-
&EPA
Annual Water Sampling
and Analysis at the
Salmon Test Site Area,
Lamar County, Mississippi
April 1999

-------
  Annual Water Sampling and Analysis
        at the Salmon Test Site Area

            Lamar County, Mississippi
                    April 1999
                         by

                      Max G. Davis
        Radiation and Indoor Environments National Laboratory
               Office of Radiation and Indoor Air
              U.S. Environmental Protection Agency
                     P.O. Box 98517
                 Las Vegas, NV 89193-8517
            prepared for the U.S. Department of Energy
                 under Interagency Agreement
                   DE-A108-96NV11969
RADIATION AND INDOOR ENVIRONMENTS NATIONAL LABORATORY
         U.S. ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY
                LAS VEGAS, NV 89193-8517

-------
                                    NOTICE

      The information in this document has been funded wholly or in part by the United States
Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) through Interagency Agreement (IAG) DE-A108-
96NV11969 from the United States Department of Energy (DOE).  It has been subjected to the
Agency's peer and administrative review, and it has been approved for publication as an EPA
document.  Mention of trade names or commercial products does not constitute endorsement or
recommendation for use.
                                        11

-------
                                    ABSTRACT

       In 1964 and 1966, nuclear explosives were detonated approximately 2,700 feet (823 m)
underground in the Salmon Test Site Area located in Lamar County, Mississippi. Drilling and
clean-up activities have resulted in tritium contamination in close proximity to the surface
ground zero. The Long-Term Hydrological Monitoring Program (LTHMP), directed by the EPA,
conducts annual water sampling on and around the Salmon Test Site Area and monitors
radiological sampling equipment on the site throughout the year.

       In this report the 1999 annual water sampling at the Salmon Site is described, and the
analytical results of the collected samples are given.  The highest tritium concentration onsite
was  2.53 x 104 pCi/L in water from one of the new wells added in 1997, see Appendix B, page
16. No radioactivity attributable to the test site was found in any offsite water sample. The
highest tritium concentration offsite was 11 ± 3.2 pCi/L at the Bill Ray Anderson residence.-
Tritium activities <800 -1,000 pCi/L were determined using a low-level enrichment method.

       All samples, with the exception of HMH-1 through HMH-16 and the 15 new wells added
in 1998 (see Appendix B), were analyzed for presence of gamma-ray emitting radionuclides.
None were detected above the minimum detectable concentration (MDC).
                                          in

-------
This page is left blank intentionally.
                 IV

-------
                                   CONTENTS
                                                                             Page
Notice  	  ii
Abstract	iii
Figures	vi
Acronyms and Abbreviations	  vii
Acknowledgments	viii

Introduction  	1
      History	1
      Historical Monitoring Results	1
      Sampling Collection	:... 4
      Sample Analysis  	7
      Water Analysis Results  	10
Conclusions	11
References  	12
Glossary of Terms 	13

Appendices
A.    Summary of Analytical Procedures	15
B.    Tritium Results for Water Samples Collected in April, 1999	16

-------
                                     FIGURES
Rgure Number	Page

1     General site location of Project Salmon Test Site Area	2
2     Topographic map of the Salmon Test Site Area showing the Surface
      Ground Zero and outline of Test Area at 2,700 feet below land surface	3
3     Test cavity and aquifers	4
4     Tritium concentration vs. Sampling year for HMH-1 (depth = 10 ft)	5
5     Tritium concentration vs. Sampling year for HMH-2 (depth = 10 ft)	5
6     Tritium concentration vs. Sampling year for HMH-5 (depth = 10 ft)	6
7     Tritium concentration vs. Sampling year for HM-S (depth = 30 ft) 	6
8     Tritium concentration vs. Sampling year for HM-L (depth = 200 ft) 	7
9     Locations on the Salmon Test Site Area sampled in 1999  	:... 8
10    Offsite locations sampled in 1999	9
                                          VI

-------
                    ACRONYMS AND ABBREVIATIONS
DCG
DOE
EPA
g
HpGe
IAG
keV
kg
kt
L
LTHMP
m
MDC
MeV
min
mL
ORIA
pCi/L

PHS
R&ffi
SGZ
USGS
3H
3H+
HMH
HM-L, HM-L2
HM-S
HM-1
HM-2a
HM-2b
HM-3
HT-2c
HT-4
HT-5
REECo
SA Wells
Derived Concentration Guide
U.S. Department of Energy
U. S. Environmental Protection Agency
gram
high purity germanium gamma detector
Interagency Agreement
kilo electron volts = thousand electron volts
kilogram, 1000 grams
kiloton (TNT equivalent)
liter
Long Term Hydrological Monitoring Program
meter
minimum detectable concentration
one million electron volts
minute
milliliter = one thousandth of a liter
Office of Radiation and Indoor Air
picocuries per liter = 10"12 curies per liter = 1/1,000,000,000,000 curies per
liter
U.S. Public Health Service
Radiation and Indoor Environments National Laboratory
surface ground zero
U.S. Geological Survey
Tritium
Enriched Tritium
Hydrological Monitoring Hole (1-16)
Hydrological Monitoring Well - Local Aquifer
Hydrological Monitoring Well - Surficial Aquifer
Hydrological Monitoring Well - Aquifer 1
Hydrological Monitoring Well - Aquifer 2a
Hydrological Monitoring Well - Aquifer 2b
Hydrological Monitoring Well - Aquifer 3
Hydrological Test Hole
Hydrological Test Hole
Hydrological Test Hole
Reynolds Electrical & Engineering Co
Source Area Wells
                                        vn

-------
                             ACKNOWLEDGMENTS

       The author would like to acknowledge Ken Giles, Dennis Farmer, Richard Flotard, Pat
Honsa, Rose Houston, and the staff of the Hydrological Monitoring Group, EPA, for their
dedication to quality and their tireless work in the execution of the sampling effort.  The author
would also like to thank Terry Mouck for her outstanding support in preparing the graphics and
for providing the desktop publishing in the production of this report.
                                         Vlll

-------
        INTRODUCTION

Under an Interagency Agreement (IAG) with
the DOE, the  EPA's  Radiation and Indoor
Environments  National Laboratory (R&IE)
located  in Las Vegas,  NV, conducts  a
LTHMP  to  measure  radioactivity concen-
trations in water sources near the sites of
underground nuclear explosions. The results
of  the LTHMP  provide   assurance  that
radioactive materials from the tests have not
migrated into drinking water supplies. This
report presents the results for samples  col-
lected in April 1999, on and around the
Salmon  Test Site Area,  in Lamar County,
Mississippi.

History

Project Dribble, consisting of two nuclear
explosions,  and  Project   Miracle  Play,
consisting of two non-nuclear gas explosions,
were conducted in the Salmon Test Site Area,
near Baxterville, Lamar County, Mississippi,
between  1964 and 1970. The general area is
depicted  in Figure 1. The Salmon Test  Site
Area (Figure 2) contains approximately 1,470
acres located in Sections  11,  12, 13, and 14,
Township 2 North, Range 16  West.
 Test Date   Name
Type
                                   Yield
                                   (kt)
  10-22-64   Salmon      Nuclear   5.3
  12-03-66   Sterling      Nuclear   0.38
  02-02-69   Diode Tube   Gas       0.32
  04-19-70   Humid Water Gas       0.32

These tests were part of the Vela Uniform
Program  of  the   U.S.  Atomic  Energy
Commission (a predecessor agency of the
DOE). The purpose  was to measure  and
evaluate the phenomena of seismic waves that
are induced
from the explosions as compared to those that
occur naturally from earthquakes.

The first explosion, the Salmon Event, created
a cavity in the salt dome underlying the test
area. The top of the cavity is 1,160 feet (360
m) below the top of the salt dome which lies
1,500 feet (460 m) below the  land surface
(Figure 3). The Salmon detonation cavity was
subsequently used to contain the next three
explosions.

Following each detonation, the surrounding
area was closely monitored by the U.S. Public
Health   Service   (PHS).   Radiological
monitoring became the responsibility  of the
EPA at  its inception in 1970, and after the
second site cleanup operation in 1971-72, the
LTHMP was instituted. In this  program, all
potable aquifers, several wells,  public water
supplies, and  some  surface waters in the
vicinity of the Salmon Test Site are sampled
and analyzed to  determine the presence of
tritium and other radioactive contaminants.

Historical Monitoring Results

The disposal of drilling mud and fluids near
the surface  ground  zero (SGZ) is  possibly
responsible for tritium (3H) contamination of
the soil zone and underlying shallow aquifer.
These waters lie at depths of 4 to 10 feet (1.3
to 3 m) and 30 feet (9 m), respectively, and are
not potable. Tritium contamination is  also
present  in the potable water  of  the  local
aquifer which lies at about 200 feet (62 m).
The observed 3H  concentration in the local
aquifer  is  well  below  the 20,000  pCi/L
guideline specified in the National Primary
Drinking Water Regulations (40CFR141), and

-------
                            Prentoss
                            -^
                        Monticello
                                   Bunker   sumrall
                                          Improve
                            Columbia
                            —'
                            Cheraw
                                                            Purvis
                                                           Talowah
Pinebur
     Baxterville
           MISSISSIPPI
           LOUISIANA
                                                                         McHenry
                   Major Highway
                   Test Site, SGZ
                      MLES
        MIS:
                             LAMAR
                            COUNTY
                                                             LOCATION MAP
Figure 1 General site location of Project Salmon Test Site Area.

-------
Wells with significant tritium contamination
 are found within this circle with a radius
         of 1400 feet (430m)
                                               SALMON TEST SITE AREA
                                                      BOUNDARY
   T
    CO
    _o>

    E
    CM
    I
    0.
    o.
    cc
                                        Half Moon
                                         Creek
                                        Overflow
                                          Pond
           To
        Baxterville
               300^           250/   ^25°

                     approx. 11/2 miles
      N
                                SCALE IN FEET
                           1000    2000   3000
                                 •
                                 •
                                500        1000
                              SCALE IN METERS
                                                       4000   5000
Figure 2  Topographic map of the Salmon Test Site Area showing the Surface Ground Zero and
         outline of Test Area at 2,700 feet below land surface.

-------
          CITRONELLE
            AQUIFER
                   HALF MOON CREEK
                   ALLUVIAL AQUIFER
                                                                         GROUND
                                                                         SURFACE
                                                                         LOCAL AQUIFER
                                              yr?;;i:i::s::;:::;:::::::s::::!:.:.:.:>^i^;i;:i:;ii:;:;i;i;iji AQUIFER 2A
                                                                     EM AQUIFER 2B

                                                                         AQUIFER 3A
                                                                         AQUIFER 38

                                                                         AQUIFER 4
                     ANHYDRITE
                                                                PS-1
                                                                  PS-1W
                                                                    PS-2W
                 TEST CAVITY
                 SALT DOME*
                                                                    FLUID LEVEL
                                        HIGHLY
                                     RADIOACTIVE
                                       MATERIAL
                                                         RECRYSTALLIZED
                                                          MELT PUDDLE
                        *The test cavity contains fission and activation products from the detonations plus
                         10,770 cubic yards of radioactive, contaminated soils and 1,305,000 gallons of
                         contaminated fluids and water from surface cleanup.
SANDSTONE
Figure 3  Test cavity and aquifers.

is thought to be due to drilling activities at the
site (Fenske and Humphrey,  1980;. Fordham
and Fenske, 1985).

Of the 55 wells sampled on the Salmon Site,
five regularly have tritium values above those
expected in surface water values. These include
three  soil  zone wells near the SGZ (wells
HMH-1, HMH-2, and HMH-5), well HM-S in
the shallow aquifer, and well  HM-L in the
underlying local  aquifer.   Plots  of tritium
concentration vs. time for these wells are shown
in Figures 4 to 8.  The solid line in the graph
                                     represents the normal radioactive  decay of
                                     tritium.  Surface water collected from the Half
                                     Moon Creek overflow pond adjacent  to the
                                     SGZ area, has tritium values above background
                                     as does the REECo Pit drainage area which was
                                     used for the disposal of drilling mud.

                                     Sample Collection

                                     According to  standard operating procedures
                                     agreed to by DOE (U.S. DOE 1981), the HMH
                                     wells  on  the  test  site were  first  sampled,
                                     pumped-dry, and sampled on the following day

-------
      90

      80

      70

      60

^ I  50

« |  40

      30

      20

      10

       0
                           +
                                 -t-
                                                         -t-  Measured
                                                       	Predicted by H-3 decay
                                          -f-
                                          Calendar Year
Figure 4 Tritium concentration vs. sampling year for HMH-1 (depth = 10 ft).
            40
            30
      A I  20
            10
                                                  -t-  Measured
                                                 	Predicted by H-3 decay
                                       -t-
                            tlllllllllll-L-L-lt
                                       Calendar Year
 Figure 5  Tritium concentration vs. sampling year for HMH-2 (depth = 10ft).

                                        5

-------
            12
            10

      co
      I
            6
                                             Calendar Year
                                                              +• Measured
                                                             — Predicted by H-3 decay
Figure 6 Tritium concentration vs. sampling year for HMH-5 (depth =10 ft).
                  40
                  30
            1J
            S
            S w  20
            n ^
            ± 1-
                  10
                             -t-
-t-
                                     -t-
                                        -t-
                                                        -t-  Measured
                                                           Predicted by H-3 decay
                                           -I-  -t-
                                                 -t-
                                                    -t-
                                                         -t-
                                                               i-  -)-
                                                                           •t-
                                             Calendar Year
   Figure 7 Tritium concentration vs. sampling year for HM-S (depth = 30 ft).

                                               6

-------
   3000


   2500


§• 2000
O

±  1500


   1000


   500
                                              X  Measured
                                             	Predicted by H-3 decay
                I  I   I   I   I  I   I   I   I  I   I   I  I   I   I   I  I   I   I   I
                                     Calendar Year
Figure 8 Tritium concentration vs. sampling year for HM-L (depth = 200 ft).
wells on the test site  were first sampled,
pumped-dry, and sampled on the following
day as were the 15 new wells added in 1997.
The 15 new wells added in 1998 were purged
three  volumes of water and then sampled.
Wells HM-1, HM-2A,  HM-2B, HM-3, and
HM-L, which lie adjacent to SGZ, were first
sampled  and then pumped  steadily while
further samples were  taken   at  30 min
intervals until the pH and conductivity of the
water stabilized. A final sample was taken
from  each well 30 min after stability was
reached. Water  samples  were  taken  from
sources near the SGZ area (i.e. Half Moon
Creek, Half Moon Creek Overflow, and the
Pond west of SGZ) before and  after the
pumping operations to identify any resulting
changes in tritium concentration. Well HM-L2
was first sampled and then pumped for one
hour before a second sample  was taken. All
other water supplies were sampled only once.

For wells with operating pumps, the samples
are collected at the nearest convenient outlet.
                                        If the well has no pump,  a truck-mounted
                                        sampling unit  is used.  With this unit it is
                                        possible to collect three-liter samples from
                                        wells as deep as 1800 meters (5,900 ft.). At
                                        the   sample  collection   sites,  the  pH,
                                        conductivity, water temperature, and sampling
                                        depth are measured and recorded when the
                                        sample is collected.

                                        The locations of all sampling sites are shown
                                        in Figures 9-10. Sampling also included
                                        three locations in Columbia, Mississippi (not
                                        shown). The sampling results are discussed in
                                        the following sections.

                                        Sample Analysis

                                        Radiochemical procedures used to analyze the
                                        samples collected for this report are described
                                        in Johns  et al.  (1979) and summarized in
                                        Appendix A. These include standard methods
                                        to identify  natural and man-made  gamma-
                                        emitting  radionuclides, tritium,  plutonium,
                                        strontium, and uranium in water samples.

-------
       • Well HM-L2

              "SA4-1-M
                        HMH-15   HMH-14 HMH-13

                                               HMH-12
      HMH-16B
Decontamination
Pad
                                                                         Hunting Tatum
                                                                         Club Well
\ Half Moon
 \ Creek
                                 HMH-6


                                      HMH-4
                                                                       SA1-8-L »SA1-9-2
                                                                     • SA1-10-2b0 SA1.
                 Pond West of GZ
                                                      HMH-10
                                                    Half Moon
                                                  Creek Overflow
                                                                      • SA1-3-H

                                                                      HMH-11
                                                                  HMH-2«HMH-9|
               SA1-7-H


            HMH-3 •
                                              SA3-4-H

                                              SA3-5-H
                                                    SA3-8-1
                                                  SA3-11-3

                                                   • SA3-10-2
                SA5-2-M
          Well HT-2C
        SA5-5-4
                                                                                       LAMAR
                                                                                      COUNTY
                                         Scale in Feet

                                            1000
          Surface Ground Zero

          Water Sampling Locations

          New Wells Added in 1998
                                      I   I    I    I
                                      0  100 200 300 400 500
                                           Scale in Meters
                                                                             LOCATION MAP
       This map is not to scale
Figure 9  Locations on the Salmon Test Site Area sampled in 1999.

-------
  • Columbia City  Little Creek #1-,
     Well 64B

             Lee Anderson ;—

 Lower Little Creek #2 -,
    rJames Lowe Crawfish Pond
      Mike Thompson
               Roswell Thompson
               ich Kiffe
                                        p Willie Burge
                                        I  r~Joe Surge
   Howard
   Smith Pond
                                               P.T. Lee
                                               R.H. Anderson
                                                  James Vines
                                                  Evelyn Noble
                                                    Arleene Anderson
                                                     Noble's Pond
    I Roy Mills
     D. Napier*
Anderson's fnnriT
   B.R.
                                                            Purvis City Well


                                                                   James Lowe
                         Dennis
                        Saucier Jr.
                                     R.L. Anderson Sr.
                                          R.L. Anderson Jr.
                Baxterville
                City Well
                                                                                         Lumberton
                                                                                         City Well 2
                     •  Surface Ground Zero

                     •  Water Sampling Locations

                    ;?xi  Tatum Dome Test Area
                                                                        Scale in Miles
                                                                           1      2
                                        01234
                                          Scale in Kilometers
Figure 10   Offsite locations sampled in 1999.

-------
Two type of tritium analyses were performed:
conventional and electrolytic enrichment. The
enrichment  method  lowers  the  minimum
detectable  concentration  (MDC)  from
approximately 300 pCi/L to about 5 pCi/L.
An the upper limit of activity of 700 - 800
pCi/L has been established for the  tritium
enrichment method because  sample cross-
contamination becomes a problem at higher
levels.

In late 1995, it was decided that a maximum
of 25 percent of all samples collected would
be  analyzed  by the low-level enrichment
method. This decision was based on the time
required for analysis, budgetary constraints,
and an assessment of past results.  Under the
current sampling and analysis protocol for the
site, all samples  are  initially screened  for
tritium activity by the conventional method
and selected samples enriched.  At this time
only sampling locations that are in position to
show migration are selected for enrichment.

Sufficient sample is collected from new
sampling  locations to perform all routine
analyses   and  a   full-suite   of   other
radiochemical determinations including assays
for strontium, plutonium, and uranium.

Water Analysis Results

Gamma-ray spectral analysis results indicated
that  no   man-made   gamma-emitting
radionuclides were detected in any onsite or
offsite samples. Tritium concentrations above
normal background values  were not detected
in any offsite samples. Long-term decreasing
trends in tritium concentrations are evident for
on-site locations that have shown detectable
tritium activity since monitoring began under
the LTHMP (wells HMH-1, HMH-2, HMH-5,
HM-S, and HM-L, depicted in Figures 4 thru
8).
Only five wells were above the MDC in the
samples collected from the offsite sampling
locations.  Tritium  activity  in  the  offsite
samples ranged from less than the MDC to 11
pCi/L (~ 0.5 Bq/L), 0.06 percent of the DCG.
These results do not exceed the natural tritium
activity expected in rain water in this area.

Due to the high rainfall in the area,  the
sampling procedure for selected onsite wells
is modified as follows: after collection of an
initial sample, the well is purged, and a second
sample taken after the well refills.  The second
sample is  representative of water that  has
infiltrated through the soil zone, whereas the
first sample may represent a mixture of direct
rainwater influx  at  top of  the well  and
infiltrated or soil zone water.

Of the 55 locations sampled onsite, 34 sites
were sampled twice (pre-and post-pumping),
25 yielded tritium activities greater than the
MDC in either the first or second sample. Of
these, 16 yielded results higher than normal
background (approximately 25 - 40 pCi/L
[1-1.5 Bq/L]) as shown in Appendix B. The
locations where the highest tritium activities
were measured generally correspond to areas
of known contamination.

In 1997 an additional  15 shallow wells were
added to the annual sampling, which range in
depth of 195'  to 2100',  increasing the total
wells  sampled onsite to  55. Five of  the
previous locations  regularly  have  tritium
values above those expected in surface water
samples; of the 15 new wells, tritium values
were all below the MDC. The water in these
wells  is  not  accessible to the  public,  nor
suitable for drinking due to it's brackishness.
                                           10

-------
Conclusions

No radioactive  materials from the Salmon
Test Site Area  were detected in any water
samples   collected  offsite  and   tritium
concentrations of water  samples collected
onsite and offsite are consistent with those of
past studies at the Salmon Site. The highest
tritium concentration found in water collected
in the offsite area was 11 ± 3.2 pCi/L, which is
typical of background tritium levels, and is
0.12 percent of the National Interim Primary
Drinking Water Regulations (40CFR141).

The highest tritium concentration found onsite
was 25,300  pCi/L.  This  was detected in a
water sample collected from Well SA1-1H
which is a shallow well (40') near SGZ. The
water from this well is not available to the
public nor is it potable.
The tritium concentrations, except for Well
SA1-1H, were  all well below  the  20,000
pCi/L level  defined  in  the EPA Drinking
Water Regulations (40CFR141).

All samples were analyzed for presence of
gamma-ray emitting radionuclides with the
exception of HMH-1 though HMH-16 and the
15 shallow wells that were  added to the
LTHMP  program in 1997.   None were
detected above the MDC (see Appendix B on
page 16).
                                          11

-------
                                REFERENCES
Code of Federal Regulations, Vol. 41, title 40,
Part  141, July 9, 1976, National Interim
Primary Drinking Water Regulations.

A Guide for Environmental  Radiological
Surveillance  at  U.S.   Dept.  of Energy
Installations, July 1981,Office of Operational
Safety Report. Las Vegas, NV:
U.S. Department of Energy; DOE/EP-0023.

Fenske, P. R.;  Humphrey, T. M., Jr. The
Tatum Dome   Project  Lamar   County,
Mississippi. Las Vegas, NV: U.S. Department
of Energy, Nevada Operations
Office; NVO-225; 1980.
Fordham, J. W. Fenske, P. R. Tatum Dome
Field  Study  Report and Monitoring Data
Analysis, Las Vegas, NV: U.S. Department of
Energy,  Nevada  Operations   Office;
DOE/NV/10384-03; 1985.

Johns, F., et al. 1979. Radiochemical and
Analytical  Procedures  for  Analysis  of
Environmental  Samples. Las  Vegas, NV:
U.S.  Environmental   Protection  Agency;
EMSL-LV-0539-17-1979.
                                        12

-------
                             GLOSSARY OF TERMS
Background Radiation

The radiation in man's environment, including
cosmic  rays and radiation from  naturally-
occurring and man-made radioactive elements,
both outside and inside the bodies of humans
and  animals.  The usually quoted average
individual   exposure   from  background
radiation is  125 millirem per year in mid-
latitudes at sea level (Shein & Terplak, 1984).

Curie (Ci)

The  basic unit used to describe the rate of
radioactive disintegration. The curie is equal
to 37 billion disintegrations per second, which
is the equivalent of 1 gram of radium. Named
for Marie and Pierre Curie who discovered
radium in 1898. One microcurie G^Ci) is one
millionth of a Ci.

Isotope

Atoms of the  same element with  different
numbers of neutrons in the nuclei. Thus 12C,
13C,  and  14C  are isotopes of the element
carbon, the numbers denoting the approximate
atomic weights. Isotopes have very nearly the
same chemical properties, but often different
physical properties (for example 12C and 13 C
are stable, 14 C  is radioactive).
Enrichment Method

A method of electrolytic concentration that
increases the sensitivity of the analysis of
tritium in water. This method is used by R&BE
in selected samples if the tritium concentration
is less than 700 pCi/L.

Minimum Detectable Concentration
(MDC)

The smallest amount of radioactivity that can be
reliably detected with a probability of Type I and
Type H errors at 5 percent each (DOE 1981).

Offsite

Areas exclusive of the immediate Salmon Test
Site Area.

Onsite

Refers to the immediate vicinity of the
Salmon Test Site Area.

Shallow ground water

Water found near the soil surface, caused by
precipitation  infiltration  of  the  soil. This
shallow ground water is not an aquifer.
                                           13

-------
                            GLOSSARY OF TERMS
                                     (Continued)
Surficial Aquifer

The ground water layer located closest to the
surface, generally at a depth of approximately
30 feet at SGZ.

Tritium

A radioactive isotope of hydrogen that decays
by beta emission. Its half-life is about 12.5
years.

Pre Sample

First sample taken from wells onsite (before
pumping).
Post Sample

Last sample taken from wells onsite (after
recharge).

Type I Error

The statistical error of accepting the presence
of  radioactivity  when  none  is  present.
Sometimes called alpha error.

Type II Error

The statistical error of failing to recognize the
presence of radioactivity when it is present.
Sometimes called beta error.
                                          14

-------
APPENDIX A
Summary of Analytical Procedures
Type of
Analysis
   Analytical
   Equipment
Counting
Period (Min)
  Analytical
  Procedures
 Sample   Approximate
 Size	Detection Limit'
HpGe
Gammab
HpGe detector          -150
calibrated at 0.5 keV/
channel (0.04 to 2 MeV
range). Individual detector
efficiencies ranging from
15 to 35%.
              Radionuclide concen-
              tration quantified from
              gamma spectral data by
              online computer program.
                      3.5L    Varies with radionuclides
                              and detector used, normally
                              counted to a MDC of
                              approx. 5 pCi/L for Cs-137
3H
Automatic liquid
scintillation counter
3H+        Automatic liquid
Enrichment scintillation counter
  300
                      300
Sample prepared by
distillation.
              Sample concentrated by   5 mL
              electrolysis followed by
              distillation.
5 to 10 mL   300 to 700 pCi/L


           5 pCi/L
   The detection limit is defined as the smallest amount of radioactivity that can be reliably detected, i.e., probability
   of Type I and Type H error at 5 percent each (DOE 1981).
   Gamma spectrometry using a high purity intrinsic germanium (HpGe) detector.
                         Typical MDA Values for Gamma Spectroscopy
                                     (100 minute count time)
Geometry*
Matrix
Volume
Isotope

Be-7
K-40
Cr-51
Mn-54
Co-57
Co-58
Fe-59
Co-60
Zn-65
Nb-95
Zr-95
Marinelli
Water
3.5 liter
MDA

4.56E+01
4.92E+01
5.88E+01
4.55E+01
9.65E+00
4.71E+00
1.07E+01
5.38E+00
1.24E+01
5.64E+00
9.06E+00
Model
Density
Units
Isotope
Ru-106
Sn-113
Sb-125
1-131
Ba-133
Cs-134
Cs-137
Ce-144
Eu-152
Ra-226
U-235
Am-241
430G
l.Og/ml
pCi/L
MDA
4.76E+01
8.32E+00
1.65E+01
8.28E+00
9.16E+00
6.12E+00
6.43E+00
7.59E+01
2.86E+01
1.58E+01
1.01E+02
6.60E+01
Disclaimer
The MDA's provided are for background matrix samples presumed to contain no known analytes and no decay
time. All MDA's provided here are for one specific *Germanium detector and the geometry of interest. The
MDA's in no way should be used as a source of reference for determining MDA's for any other type of detector.
All gamma spectroscopy MDA's will vary with different types of shielding, geometries, counting times, and decay
time of sample.
                                                15

-------
APPENDIX B
TRITIUM RESULTS FOR WATER SAMPLES COLLECTED IN APRIL. 1999
Sample
Location
Baxterville, MS
Anderson, Billy Ray
Anderson Pond
Anderson, Robert Harvey
Anderson, Robert Lowell, Jr.
Anderson, Robert Lee
Anderson, Tony
Burge, Joe
Daniels, Webster, Jr.
Daniels - Well #2 Fish Pond
Thompson, Mike
Half Moon Creek Pre
Post
Half Moon Creek Pre
Overflow Post
Hibley, Billy
Napier, Denice
Lee, Perry T., Jr.
Little Creek #1
Lower Little Creek #2
Mills, Roy
Collection Enriched Gamma
Date Tritium Tritium Spectrometry *'
1999 pCi/L±2SD (MDC) pCi/L±2SD (MDC) Comments (MDC)

4-20 11 ±3.2
4-20
4-20
4-22
4-20
4-19 10 ±3.2
4-20-
4-21
4-21
4-20
4-19
4-20
4-19 402 ±8.0
4-20 414 ± 8.0
4-19
4-20 9.2 ±3. 2
4-20
4-19
4-20
4-20 7.4 ± 3.4

(4.9)
44 ± 127(a)
44 ± 127(1)
-48 ± 125(a)
-19 ± 127(a)
(5.0)
2.1±126(a)


(208)
(208)
(208)
(208)

(208)

ND (5.0)
ND (4.6)
ND (5.0)
ND (5.0)
ND (5.0)
ND (4.8)
ND (4.1)
No sample HUB water

-48 ± 125(a)
-29 ± 127(a)
13 ± 128(a)
(5.2)
(5.0)
37 ± 137(a)
(5.0)
40 ± 127(a)
-19 ± 126(a)
38 ± 139Ca)
(5-3)
No sample - pump
(208)
(211)
(211)

(224)

(208)
(208)
(227)

inoperative
ND (4.9)
ND (5.0)
ND (4.8)
ND (4.6)
ND (5.0)
ND (4.8)
ND (4.1)
ND (4.9)
ND (4.3)
ND (5.0)
ND (5.0)

-------
APPENDIX B (Continued)
TRITIUM RESULTS FOR WATER SAMPLES COLLECTED IN APRIL. 1999
Sample
Location
Baxterville, MS (Cent)
Nobles Pond
Noble, Evelyn
Pond West of GZ Pre
Post
REECo Pit Drainage-A
REECo Pit Drainage-B
REECo Pit Drainage-C
REECo Pit Drainage-C Dup
Saucier, Dennis
Well Ascot 2
Baxterville Well City
Well E-7
Well HM-1 Pre
1st 30 Min
2nd 30 Min
3rd 30 Min
Post
WellHM-2A Pre
1st 30 Min
2nd 30 Min
Post
Collection Enriched
Date Tritium
1999 pCi/L±2SD (MDC)

4-20
4-20
4-19
4-20
4-19
4-19
4-19
4-19
4-19
4-19
4-19
4-21 -2.7±3.3(a) (5.5)
4-19
4-19
4-19
4-19
4-19
4-19
4-19
4-19
4-19
Tritium
pCi/L ±2SD

56 ± 127(a>
127 ± 129°"
-17 ± 128(a)
-21 ± 128(a>
117±137(a)
553 ± 144
1880 ± 170
1600 ± 160
-110±134(a>

-179 ± 133(a)

-8.3 ± 128(a)
-79 ±126(a)
-25 ±128(a)
-104 ± 126(a)
-88 ±126(a)
-54 ±127(a)
-13 ±128(a)
17 ±128(a)
-29 ±127(a)
(MDC) Comments

(208)
(208)
(211)
(211)
(222)
(222)
(223)
(222)
(224)
Not sampled
(224)

(211)
(211)
(211)
(211)
(211)
(211)
(211)
(211)
(211)
Gamma
Spectrometry w
(MDC)

ND (4.9)
ND (4.6)
ND (4.9)
ND (5.0)




ND (4.9)

ND (4.5)
ND (4.9)
ND (4.8)
ND (4.9)
ND (4.9)
ND (4.9)
ND (5.0)
ND (4.7)
ND (4.9)
ND (4.7)
ND (4.9)
00    Indicates results are less than MDC
(b)    No gamma radionuclides detected above MDC
ND  Non-detected, MDC for gamma represents 137Cs (pCi/L)
                                                17

-------
APPENDIX B (Continued)
TRITIUM RESULTS FOR WATER SAMPLES COLLECTED
Sample
Location
Collection Enriched
Date Tritium Tritium
1999 pCi/L±2SD (MDC) pCi/L±2SD
IN APRIL. 1999
(MDC) Comments
Gamma
Spectrometry 
169
168
155
157
155
157
137(a)
136(a)


153
159
(211)
(211)
(211)
(211)
(211)
(211)
(211)
(222)
(222)
(222)
(222)
(222)
(222)
(222)
(222)
(222)
(224)
(224)
(224)
(224)
(224)
(224)
No Sample
No Sample
(224)
(224)
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND












(5.0)
(4.2)
(5.0)
(5.0)
(4.9)
(5.0)
(5.0)
(4.5)
(5.0)
(4.9)
(4-9)
(4.9)
(5-0)
(4.9)












(a)
     Indicates results are less than MDC
(h)    No gamma radionuclides detecte
ND  Non-detected, MDC for gamma represents 137Cs (pCi/L)
                                                18

-------
APPENDIX B (Continued)
TRITIUM RESULTS FOR WATER SAMPLES COLLECTED IN APRIL. 1999
Sample
Location
Baxterville, MS
Well HMH-6
Well HMH-7
Well HMH-8
Well HMH-9
Well HMH-10
WellHMH-11
Well HMH-12
Well HMH-13
Well HMH-14
Well HMH-15
Well HMH-16
SA1-1H

(cont)
Pre
Post
Pre
Post
Pre
Post
Pre
Post
Pre
Post
Pre
Post
Pre
Post
Pre
Post
Pre
Post
Pre
Post
Pre
Post
Pre
Post
Collection Enriched
Date Tritium
1999 pCi/L±2SD (MDC)

4-19
4-19
4-18
4-18
4-19
4-19
4-19
4-20
4-19
4-20
4-19
4-20
4-19
4-19
4-19
4-20
4-19
4-19
4-19
4-19
4-19
4-20
4-21
4-22
Gamma
Tritium Spectrometry m
pCi/L ± 2 SD (MDC) Comments (MDC)

No Sample
No Sample
No Sample:
Well Underwater
No Sample:
Well Underwater
7.7 ± 136°" (224)
-11 ±136°° (224)
293 ± 141°° (224)
748 ±148 (224)
85 ± 137    No gamma radionuclides detected above MDC
ND  Non-detected, MDC for gamma represents B7Cs (pCi/L)
                                                19

-------
APPENDIX B (Continued)
TRITIUM RESULTS FOR WATER SAMPLES COLLECTED IN APRIL. 1999
Sample
Location
Baxterville,
SA1-2H

SA1-3H

SA1-4H
SA1-5H

SA1-6H
SA1-7H

SA1-8-L
SA1-9-2A
SA1-10-2B
SA1-11-3
SA2-1-L
SA2-2-L
SA2-3-L
SA2-4-L

MS (cont)
Pre
Post
Pre
Post
Pre
Post
Pre
Post
Pre
Post
Pre
Post








Collection Enriched
Date Tritium
1999 pCi/L±2SD (MDC)

4-21
4-22
4-21
4-22
4-21
4-22
4-21
4-22
4-21
4-22
4-21 24 ±3.7 (5.3)
4-22 23 ±3.6 (5.1)
4-20 -2.5 ±3.0(a) (5.0)
4-20 -2.0 ±3.0(a) (5.0)
4-20 -0.85 ± 2.9(a) (4.9)
4-20 -2.6 ±3.0(a) (5.0)
4-21 -1.3 ±3.0(a) (5.0)
4-21 -0.80±3.2
-------
APPENDIX B (Continued)
TRITIUM RESULTS FOR WATER SAMPLES COLLECTED IN APRIL. 1999
Sample
Location
Collection Enriched Gamma
Date Tritium Tritium Spectrometry w
1999 pCi/L±2SD (MDC) pCi/L ± 2 SD (MDC) Comments (MDC)
Baxtervillc, M S (cunt)
SA2-5-L
SA3-1M
SA3-3M
SA3-4H
SA3-5-H
SA3-8-1
SA3-10-2
SA3-11-3
SA4-1M
SA5-1M
SA5-2M
SA5-3M
SA5-4-4
SA5-5-4
00 Indicates

Pre
Post
Pre
Post
Pre
Post
Pre
Post



Pre
Post
Pre
Post
Pre
Post
Pre
Post


results
ia rnHin
4-20
4-20
4-22
4-20
4-22
4-20
4-22
4-20
4-22
4-22
4-22
4-22
4-21
4-22
4-20
4-22
4-20
4-22
4-19
4-22
4-22
4-22
are less than
innrliHpc c\p\p
-0.48
8.1
9.6
16
15
21
1.8
8.3
' 17



20
7.7
10
10
12

-0.59
-1.1
MDC
•r*t*»H nhnv
± 3.0(a)
±3.2
±3.2
±3.3
±3.7
±3.9
±3.1(a)
± 127(a)
± 127(a)



±3.4
± 3.2(a)
± 3.3(a)
±3.2
±3.3

± 3.0(a)
± 3.0(a)
•p. Mnr
(5.0)
(4.9)
(4.9)
(4.9)
(5.6)
(5.8)
(5.1)
(209)
(209)
.49 ±134(a) (222)
.56 ±134(a) (222)
-39 ±134(a) (222)
(4.9)
60 ± 142 (233)
(4.9)
(5.0)
(5.0)
(5.1)
54 ± 128(a) (209)
-46 ±126(a) (209)
(5.0)
(4.9)

. ND (5.0)




ND (4.8)
ND (4.8)
ND (5.0)




ND (4.9)
ND (4.9)

ND  Non -detected, MDC for gamma represents l"Cs (pCi/L)
                                           21

-------
APPENDIX B (Continued)
TRITIUM RESULTS
Sample
Location
Baxterville, MS (conL)
Well HT-2C
Well HT-4
Well HT-5
Columbia, MS
Well 64B City
Lumberton, MS
Anderson, Arleene
Anderson, Lee L.
James Lowe
James Lowe
Crawfish Pond
Powell, Shannon
Smith, Howard Pond
Thompson, Mike
Thompson, Roswell
Well 2 City
Burge, Willie
Kiffe, Richie & Patsy
FOR WATER SAMPLES COLLECTED
Collection Enriched
Date Tritium Tritium
1999 pCi/L ± 2 SD (MDC) pCi/L ± 2 SD

4-19
4-19
4-19

4-19

4-20 ' 47 ± 137(a)
4-19
4-20 -2.1 ±126°°
4-20 -15 ± 126(a)
4-19 -15 ±136(a)
4-19 30 ± 137(a)
4-20 -42 ± 135(a)
4-19 52 ± 127
-------
APPENDIX B (Continued)
TRITIUM RESULTS FOR WATER SAMPLES COLLECTED IN APRIL. 1999
Sample
Location
Collection  Enriched                                      Gamma
Date        Tritium             Tritium                    Spectrometry
1999      pCi/L±2SD (MDC)  pCi/L ± 2 SD (MDC) Comments   (MDC)
Hattiesburg, MS

Bomboy, David W.         4-19

Purvis, MS

City Supply Purvis         4-19

Rain Sample IT Compound  4-19
                                -69    ±135(a> (224)
          ND   (3.3)
              0.37  ± 3.3(a)(5.4)
          ND  (5.0)

No sample - no rain

-------