STUDY OF ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACTS

OF SELECTED DISPOSABLE VERSUS REUSABLE PRODUCTS

           WITH HEALTH CONSIDERATIONS
    This report (SW~lS2c) describes work performed
         for the Federal sol-id waste program
             under contract no. 4010-D
     and is reproduced as received in draft form
       from the contractor along with comments
            received from the reviewers
       Copies will be available from  the
    National Technical  Information Service
         -  U.S. Department of Commerce
          Springfield, Virginia  22161
     U.S.  ENVIRONMENTAL  PROTECTION AGENCY

                      1978

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This report has not been reviewed by the U.S. Environmental
Protection Agency for technical accuracy.  However, a-review
by industry and other experts resulted in divergent views
on the technical accuracy of the report.  Therefore, the report
should be viewed as technically incomplete and inappropriate
for the development of policy.

The mention of commercial products does not constitute
endorsement or recommendation for use by the U.S. Government.

An environmental protection publication  (SW-152c) in the
solid waste management series.

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                          Foreword
     Section 205(2) of the Resource Recovery Act of 1970
charged the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency with the
responsibility to study "changes in current product
characteristics and production ... which would reduce the
amount of solid waste."  This Act was amended by the
Resource Conservation and Recovery Act of 1976, which
continues the Agency's responsiblity in the area of resource
conservation.

     This study on disposable versus reusable products is
one of a series of studies that were undertaken as a result
of the directive given the Environmental Protection Agency
by the Resource Recovery Act.  The other studies in the
series examined beverage containers and milk containers.
This study was an attempt to compare the resource and
environmental impacts of reusable products with their
disposable counterparts.

     The resource and environmental impacts analyzed in
this study are:  raw material use, energy use, water use,
industrial solid waste, post-consumer solid waste, air
pollution emissions, and water effluents.  These impacts
are assessed at each step in the life cycle of a product.
The cycle begins with raw materials extraction and continues
through disposal.

     A draft of the report was carefully reviewed by
industrial and technical experts.   These experts provided
divergent views as to the accuracy of the report.  In an
attempt to provide as complete and descriptive a study as
possible, the comments of these experts have been footnoted
in the appropriate places in the study.

     The study is being printed as received from the
contractor, rather than attempt to rewrite the entire study.
Therefore, you should refer to the footnotes when reading
this study.

     The primary cause of the divergent opinions of the
experts lies in the assumptions upon which the resource
and environmental, impact data is developed.  For example,
a question was raised concerning the average number of
pounds of laundry in a washing machine.  This is a
significant factor for the cloth products.  It is in the
cleaning step that the largest percentage of impacts occur.
Therefore, a higher or lower average wash load will have a
definite affect on how the cloth products compare vis-a-vis
the disposable1 products.
                             111

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     In conclusion, those reading this study should pay
particular attention to the comments made by the experts.
Furthermore, the data presented in the study should be
examined in light of conflicting evidence and viewpoints.
Therefore, it would be inappropriate for an organization
to develop a policy position on this subject based on this
study.
                                      W. Plehn
                       Deputy Assistant Administrator
                          for Solid Waste  (WH-562)
                             IV

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                               PREFACE
          The objective of this research study is to describe the resource
and environmental, health, and economic aspects for selected disposable
and reusable products in the following product categories: (1) Towels; (2)
Napkins; (3) Diapers; (4) Bedding; (5) Containers (cups and tumblers); and
(6) Plates. Volume I contains the resource and environmental impact report,
while Volume II describes selected health and economic considerations.

          The research effort was conducted for the United States Environ-
mental Protection Agency (Resource Recovery Division - Office of Solid
Waste Management). The study was conducted under the general direction of
Mr. Robert Levesque, Manager of Techn©economics Programs at Midwest Research
Institute. The project leader for the study and a principal investigator
for the resource and environmental aspects was Mr. Richard 0. Welch, Senior
Industrial Research Analyst. The principal researcher for the health aspects
was Mr. Ron Fellman, aided by Ms. Mary Simister. Mr. Chuck Romine was the
principal investigator for the economic analysis. Mr. Dan Keyes assisted
in the preparation of the resource and environmental report.

          The co-principal investigator responsible for the paper products
considered in the study was Mr. Robert G. Hunt, Franklin Associates, Ltd.,
a subcontractor to MRI. Mr. William E. Franklin provided managerial review
functions for the subcontractor.

          The research team is greatly indebted to many companies and organi-
zations for the active support they provided for the study. Contributors
to the study are identified in the Bibliography section.

          This document is a draft report being circulated for comment on
technical accuracy and policy implications. The findings and conclusions
are tentative and subject to change in the final report.

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                              TABLE OF CONTENTS

             RESOURCE  AND ENVIRONMENTAL  PROFILE ANALYSIS
                                                                       Page

Chapter 1 - Introduction	   1

Chapter 2 - Summary of Study Results - Resource and Environmental
              Profile Analysis (REPA)   	   5

           A. Resource and Environmental Data Summaries 	   5

                1. Towels	   5
                2. Napkins	«	   7

                     a.  Home Use	   7
                     b.  Commercial Use. .  .  . . .	   9

                3. Diapers	   9
                4. Bedding	  12
                5. Containers	14

                     a.  Cold Drink (9 Fluid Ounce)	14
                     b.  Hot Drink (7 Fluid Ounce)	14

Chapter 3 - Resource and Environmental Profile Analysis 	  19

           A.  Description of REPA Technique. .......  	  19

                1. Basic Approach	20
                2. Organic Raw Materials—Unique Considerations  ....  23
                3. Methodology.	24
                4. Assumptions and Limitations.	  26

Chapter 4 - Analysis of  the Resource and Environmental  Summary Data  .  .  28

           A. Analysis of Resource Inputs  ..........  	  28

                1* Raw Materials	23
                2. Wastewater  Volume	  30
                3. Energy Breakdown Analysis.	  30

                     a.  Energy Type and Source. .......  	  30
                     b.  Energy as a Function  of Use Factors  and  Usage
                          Patterns*	41
                                 VI

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                       TABLE OF CONTENTS


                                                                     Page

Chapter 4 -  Concluded

          B.  Analysis of Environmental Outputs	   43

                1.  Atmospheric Emissions ..... 	   43
                2.  Waterborne Waste	   52
                3.  Industrial Solid Waste	   52
                4.  Post Consumer Solid Waste	   74

Chapter 5 -  REPA Profile Analysis for Each Product Category	   77

           A.  Interpretation of REPA Computer Tables	   77


 Appendix AA-  Introduction	A-l

 Appendix BF-  Basic Fuel  Factors.  .......  	  ... B-l

          I.    Mobile  and  Stationary  Sources	£-1
          II.  Electric  Energy  	  .............. B-6
          III. Transportation.	 B-6

 Appendix CC-  Disposables  	  .....  	  . C-l

          I.    Paper Towels.	C-l
          II.  Paper Napkins	C-20
          III. Diapers	C-24
          IV.  Non-woven  Bedding	C-57
          V.    Containers.	C-57
          VI.  Plates	C-73

 Appendix DD-  Reusables  	 D-l

          I.    Towels	D-l
          II.  Napkins	D-15
          III. Diaper	D-15
          IV.  Bedding	D-17
          V.    Containers. ......  	 D-17
          VI.  Plates	D-42

 Appendix EE-  Dishwashing and Cloth Laundering Processes	E-l

 Appendix FF-  Detailed Computer Tables for Process and Product
                Systems  .....  	  ...... F-l

 References	R-l

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                            TABLE OF CONTENTS

                        HEALTH  CONSIDERATIONS
                                                                       Page

  I.   Introduction and Methodology. ..... 	  S-l

  II.  General Sanitation Concerns Related to Cloth Products 	  S-2

          A. Contamination of Cloth by Microorganisms	S>-2
          B. Sanitation Mechanisms in the Laundering Process .....  S-8
          C. Effectiveness of Commercial Laundering. .. 	 S-16
          D. Effectiveness of Home Laundering.	 S-20

  III. Towels and Napkins	S-34

  IV.  Diapers	S-38

  V.   Sheets	S-59

  VI.  Disposable and Reusable Foodservice Ware	S-67

          A. Introduction	S-67
          B. Standards	'	S-69
          C. Compliance of Reusable Foodservice Ware (Permanent Ware). S-75
          D. Compliance of Disposable Foodservice Ware  (Single
               Service)	•	3-95

  Appendix A - Additional Testing Data	S-l08

  Appendix B - Bibliography and Contact List	S-117
                               REVIEW COMMENTS
C:
Review Comments 	
Final Comments - Midwest Research  Institute  	  T-t
    American Paper Institute  - Bleached Paperboar.d Division ....  i-A
    American Paper Institute  - Tissue Division	i-B
    American Restaurant China Council 	  i-C
    Diaper Service Accreditation Council   	  i-D
    Environmental Action Foundation  	  i-E
    Ethyl Corporation	i-F
    International Nonwoven  Disposables Association  	  i-G
    National Wildlife Federation   	  i-H
    Permanent Ware Institute	•  i-I
    Single Service Institute   	  i-J
    Society of the Plastics Industry  	  i-K

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                              INTRODUCTION
          This research study concerning six disposable and reusable product
categories is divided into three phases: Resource and Environmental Profile
Analysis, Health Aspects, and Economic Aspects (which was not completed
due to lack of data)•
                                                       1,2,3
          1. Resource and Environmental Profile Analysis; The purpose of
this phase is to provide a comparison of the resource inputs (raw materials,
energy, and water) and environmental outputs (air emission, waterbome
wastes, process solid wastes, and postconsumer solid wastes) associated
with the products within each product category. The analysis includes the
impacts from raw material extraction through product disposal,  including
the steps of materials processing, product manufacture and use*
                           3,4,5,6
          2. Health Aspects; This phase reports on the health concerns which
have been identified concerning the use and disposal of the disposable and
reusable products. The research involved literature searches and documenta-
tion of public health and sanitation laws,  ordinances, etc; interviews with
companies, organizations, public officials, and knowledgable professionals;
and site visits to laundries, hospitals, etc. The comments presented by
the Single Service Institute, February 1975, and the Tissue Division of
the American Paper Institute, March 1975,  to the U.S. Environmental Pro-
tection Agency were reviewed during this task.

          Summary - Public Health and Sanitation Concerns;  The products
included in this study—towels, napkins, sheets, diapers and foodservice
ware--are vital components In the American way of life. The average individ-
ual uses or comes into contact with the majority of these types of products
during the course of each day.  Accordingly, the relative sanitation of the
disposable and reusable variants within each product type is a significant
concern of all involved in delivering these items to the consumer.

          The "Public Health and Sanitation" component of this comprehen-
sive study of selected disposable versus reusable products examines con-
cerns that have been raised regarding the public health and sanitation as-
pects of these products. In accordance with the scope of work for this in-
vestigation, MRI conducted a literature review of relevant sanitation
studies, as well as of the U.S. Food and Drug Administration Sanitation
Code and selected state and local sanitation ordinances. A total of 85 ref-
erences were reviewed for this task.  Additionally, MRI contacted 32 public
health associations and industrial associations, &0 product manufacturers,
national and regional FDA officials, and 5 state health agencies. The re-
search effort resulted in the following general conclusions:
I/  See comment No. 1 Appendix B, page  3.
2/  See comment Appendix E,  pages 1-2.
3/  See comments Appendix J.
4/  See comments Appendix B,  pages  11-16.
5/  See comments Appendix C,  pages  1-2.
6/  See comments Appendix D.

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          Sanitation concerns related to the cloth products studied involve
a wide range of variables, and no definitive conclusions can be reached re-
garding absolute degrees of contamination or sanitation of a given product.
However, the following points are overwhelmingly supported by the literature:

          1.  Cloth products are potential disseminators of microorganisms;

          2.  Laundering at 160° for 25 minutes can reasonably ensure destruc-
tion of pathogenic bacteria (lesser time and temperature being effective for
some bacteria);

          3.  Commercial laundering methods are generally superior to home
laundering methods in sanitizing cloth products; and

          4.  The impacts of inadequate sanitation on the public health can-
not be definitively determined, since variables such as degree of contamina-
tion and susceptibility of the exposed populace significantly affect the.re-
lationship between contaminated fabrics and the development of disease.

          Additionally, no definitive conclusions could be drawn relative
to the comparable disposable products studied (paper towels and napkins,
disposable diapers and sheets); however, issues such as the effect of land-
fill disposal of contaminated diapers are addressed in the body of the re-
port .

          Regarding the use of foodservice ware in commercial and institu-
tional settings, it is extremely difficult to make direct comparisons be-
tween reusables and disposables. The impact of human variables, from day to
day, from restaurant to restaurant or institution to institution, negates
virtually every attempt to quantify differences in the sanitary status of
disposables versus reusables. As correctly stated by the Single Service In-
stitute, "the only precise way to assess the health values of disposables
versus reusables would be to survey the bacteriological quality of one ver-
sus the other by testing the utensils in food-serving establishments just
prior to their use." And even then, the scope of the investigation would
have to be massive in order to be equitable. Additionally, bacteriological
standards alone do not measure the capacity of foodservice ware (or any
other product) to transmit disease; the most such standards can do is to
indicate potential for disease transmission.

          The problem in assessing sanitation standards on foodservice ware
is summarized quite effectively by Bailus Walker, the author of several stud-
ies in this field:  "Questions involving the health effects of environmental
bioloads are particularly prone to uncertainty and the health impact of var-
ious environmental levels of microorganisms on food or beverage contact sur-
faces are often unknown, and not infrequently unknowable."

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                             1,2,3,4.
          3. Economic Aspects; The objective of the economic analysis was
to describe markets served,  annual quantities shipped, fixed capital assets,
annual capital investment rates; and employment rates for the industries
which manufacture the disposable and reusable products included in the study.
This was to be used to permit assessment of the impacts which would occur
in the national economy should any of the products be replaced or deleted
from the market place.

          However, the research team was unable to complete the objectives
of the economics analysis due to lack of detailed information available
from the industries representing the products. Several organizations did
submit summary data for the  study, but  the overall response was not ade-
quate to permit a fair comparison of the economic parameters. Therefore,
an economic analysis will not be a part of this report.

          Should policymakers want to pass legislation which could result
in deletions and additions of products  in the market place, a research study
which is sufficiently funded to evaluate the affects on the following should
be considered: employment, raw materials availability and demand shifts, new
capital investments required, cost to redirect existing capital equipment,
labor productivity, the gross national product, regional economic and social
effects, cost to the consumer, losses and gains in federal revenue, etc.

          4. General Comments; The six products studied along with a brief
description of their physical characteristics are presented in Table 1.
One or two disposable and reusable products were selected'for each category,
making a total of 23 products researched. The towel category includes cloth
and paper towels and'also sponges. Sponges were included in the towel cate-
gory due to similarity in use basis.

          The descriptions and weights of the products were chosen to repre-
sent the most prevalent sizes in the market place. The disposable paper and
plastic products were recommended by the American Paper Institute and the
Single Service Institute. The china products were selected by the American
Restaurant China Council. The remaining products were selected by MRI, with
assistance from EPA.

          The results of the study are presented in three separate volumes.
Volume I-A contains the results of the REPA study. Volume I-B contains the
appendix material for the information presented in Volume I-A. Volume II
is concerned with selected health considerations.

          Most of the detail data leading to the information presented in
Volume I-A is contained in Volume I-B. Also many scenarios of use factors
(times used before discarding) are presented through Volume I-A. The sce-
narios are used so that information will be available for a range of use
factors, since the factors can change from year to year.6
I/  See comments Appendix B, pages 18-19.
2/  See comments Appendix C, page 5.
3/  See comments Appendix H.
4/  See comments Appendix J, cover letter.
_5/  See comments Appendix J, pages 2 and 12-13.
6/  See comments Appendix E, pages 2-3.

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                                                       TABLE  1
                                                DESCRIPTION OF PRODUCTS
                                                        "N        v-

Product Weight
Category
1. Towels
Classification
R
D
R
Product
Cloth
Paper
Sponge
Product Description
16 x 27 inches, 100% cotton
11 x 11 Inches, two-ply
6-3/16 x 3-11/16 x 1-1/8 inches,
Grams
60.0
3.4
26.8
Pounds
0.132
0.0075
0.059
Comparison Basis
1,000 Spills
2. Napkins
Cloth-Home

Paper-Home
Cloth-Commercial
Paper-Commercial
Cloth
Disposable
Cloth

Disposable
Paper Cup
                               Plastic Cup
                               Glass Tumbler
                               Plastic Tumbler

                               Paper Cup
                               Plastic Cup
                               China
                               Melamlne Cup
                               Paper
                               Plastic
                               China
                               Melamine
R = Reusable, D = Disposable.

I/  See comments Appendix J, pages 3, 19 and 21.



3.

4.

5.




Diapers

Bedding

Containers
(cups and
D
R
D
R
D
R
D
D
tumblers)
(cold drink, 9 fl








6.



oz)


(hot drink
7 fl oz)



Plates
(9 inch)


D
R
R
1
D
D
R
R
D
D
R
R
  cellulose
17 x 17 Inches,  SOX rayon,  50%
  polyester
12-1/2 x 13 Inches, one-ply
18 x 18 Inches,  100% cotton
16 x 16 Inches,  two-ply
21 x 40 inches,  100% cotton
Industry composite paper/plastic
66 x 108 inches, 50% cotton,
  50% polyester
60 x 96 paper/plastic
Wax coated
                    Thermo formed polystyrene
                    Glass
                    Polypropylene

                    Low density polystyrene lined
                    Foam polystyrene
                    China
                    Melamine plastic
                    White, uncoated, pressed
                    Foam polystyrene
                    China
                    Melamlne plastic
                                                                                      44.2   0.097
1,000 Meals
2.4
45.4
9.5
62.0
47.6
510.0
108.0
6.62

6.33
132.0
40.0
6.64
2.00
290.3
120.5
10.60
11.84.
684.9
205.5
0.0053
0.100
0.021
0.137
0.105
1.124
0.238
0.01460

0.01396
0.291
0.088
0.01465
0.00440
0.64
0.266
0.02336
0.02610
1.51
0.453



100 Changes

1,000 Changes

1 Million
Servings







1 Million
Servings



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                                 CHAPTER 2

           SUMMARY OF STUDY RESULTS - RESOURCE AND ENVIRONMENTAL
                          PROFILE ANALYSIS (REPA)
           This chapter contains a summary of comparative REPA analyses for
 the disposable and reusable products within the six product categories iden-
 tified and described in Chapter 1. The summary data for each product repre-
 sents the resource inputs and environmental outputs for the entire system
 profile.  Each system profile is composed of all the processes involved from
 raw materials extraction to disposal of the final product. The summary data
 for the profile consists of impacts for the seven resource and environmental
 impact categories (raw materials, energy, water,  process solid wastes, atmos-
 pheric emissions, waterborne wastes, and postconsumer solid wastes).
 A.  Resource and Environmental Data Summaries1>2>3

           This section will present the summary tables which compare the
 values  of the seven impact categories for each disposable and reusable pro-
 duct comparison. The values will be discussed to assist the reader in achiev-
 ing an  understanding of the analysis technique. The summary will begin with
 the towel category and proceed through the other five product categories.
 The summary tables should be used with tables 39 through 62 when studying
 the impact data.

           1. Towels'; The comparison of the resource and environmental sum-
 maries  for products in the towel category  is  presented in Table 2. The
 data represent the impacts associated with using each product to clean up
 1,000 spills in the home kitchen area.

           Table 2 contains data for eight product scenarios; five for the
 cloth towel, two for the sponge and one for the paper towel. In the sce-
 narios, the cloth towel data are presented for a useful life (number of uses
 before  discarding the product to the postconsumer solid waste stream) of
 32  (U32) and 100 (UlOO) uses. These use values are MRI estimates based on
 industry averages for commercial kitchen towels. The information is also
 divided into data for one laundering after each use (LI) and one laundering
 after the towel has been used to clean up five spills (L5). Therefore, the
 column identified by cloth towel, U32, LI refers to a towel used 32 times
 before  discarding and the towel is laundered after each spill cleanup. Data
 for the cellulose sponge are presented in the same manner. With respect to
 paper towels, each towel is used one time and discarded. Data submitted
 by  the  American Paper Institute  state  that on the average, 1.83 paper towels
 are used for cleaning up one spill.
I/  See comment No.  1  Appendix B, page 3.
2/  See comments Appendix J, pages 1-2 and 11-12.
V  See comments Appendix B, pages 20-21.
4/  See comment No.  2  Appendix B, page 3.
5/  See comments Appendix B, page 17.
6/  See comments Appendix B, page 21.

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    Impact Category

 Baw Materials
 Energy
 Water
 Industrial Solid Waste
 Atmospheric  Emissions
 Waterborne Waste
 Postconsumer Solid Waste
                                                                      TABLE 2

                                              SUMMARY IMPACT DATA FDR 1.000 USES OF EACH TOWEL CATEGORY PRODUCT ^' 2'-*

                                                                            Towel Category Systems
"nits
Ib
106 Btu
103 Cal .
cu ft
Ib
Ib
cu f e
Cloth
Towel
1132 LI
10.31
1.19
0.64
0.21
4.89
1.30
0.08
Cloth
Towel
1132 1.5
7.69
0.44
0.20
0.10
2.00
0.62
0.08
Cloth
Towel
111 00 LI
5.53
1.02
0.58
0.16
4.03
1.00
0.03
Cloth
Towel
U100 1.5
2.91
0.27
0.14
0.05
1.13
0.31
0.03
Cloth Towel
Cold Wash
II 100 I.I
5.53
0.54
0.57
0.13
2.47
0.89
0.03
Cellulose
Sponge
111 00 LI
2.48
0.48
0.33
0.07
1.96
0.48
0.01
Cellulose
Sponge
U100 1.1
1.31
0.14
0.13
0.02
0.66
0.17
0.01
Paper Towel
Two-Ply
1,830 Towels
14.22
o.soi'
0.28
0.05
1.79
0.48
0.27
 Sources  Midwest Research Institute.
 Hotel  Refer to Volume IB, pages E-16 and E-17,  for suumary impacts based on 8 and  12
         pound home laundry loads.
 a_l  Includes energy derived from wood wastes. Total without  including wood wastes  energy
      la 0.37 million Dtu.
I/  See comments No. 3-5 Appendix B,  pages 5-6.
2/  See comments No. 8-14 Appendix  B, pages  7-9.
3/  See comment No.  1 Appendix B, pages  9-10.

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          The impact data in Table 2  show,  with the exception of raw mate-
rials and postconsumer solid waste, that the reusable cloth towel product
has higher impacts than the disposable paper towel unless the cloth towel
is used four to five times before laundering. The laundry impacts (included
in the cloth towel profile) are representative of home laundries and assume
12 pounds of laundry per load. The use of a cold water wash in the U100,
LI towel scenario reduces the energy value from 1.02 to 0.54 million Btu
(47 percent), which compares closely with the energy for the paper towel.

          The data for the cellulose sponge product shows that the UlOO,
Ll scenario has impacts very similar in magnitude to the paper towel, with
the exception of the raw material and PCSW values. The UlOO Ll sponge has
smaller impact values than shown by the UlOO Ll cloth towel. The UlOO L5
sponge scenario shows the most favorable REPA profile of the products de-
scribed in Table 2.

          The information in Table 2 shows that the resource and environ-
mental impacts for the reusable products aie heavily dependent upon the
number of times a product is used before it is laundered. The research team
was unable to locate open literature information identifying typical use
and laundering practices for cloth towels and sponge products used in the
home. Information from the Linen Supply Association of America shows that
in 1972, the typical kitchen towel in commercial use is used 16.3 times
before replacement is necessary. This value includes towels lost from their
intended service due to robbery and change in service application. The ex-
pected life of a kitchen towel used in the home is assumed to be greater
than 32. MRI assumption of home use factor based on commercial use of 16.3.
After' approximately 100 uses, the reduction in profile impact values becomes
very small. Again, the most important criteria affecting the REPA data is
the number o.f towel uses before laundering. With a life of 32 uses before
discard, the cloth towel energy category becomes equal to the energy for
the disposable paper towel when the cloth towel is used three to four times
before washing. At a useful life of 100, the cloth towel and paper energy
values become equal when the towel is used two to three times before laun-
dering (Figure 3, page 41 r. The extremely light reusable towels would approach
the energy level of the paper with one to two uses before laundering. In
some households, the reusable kitchen towel is used several times per day
for 2 or 3 days before laundering* At 15 uses before laundering the energy
value would approach 0.06 million Btu per spill cleanup, compared with
0.5 million Btu for the paper towel at 1.86 towels per spill, or 0.27 mil-
lion Btu at one towel used per spill.

          2. Napkins2'3'4

               a. Home Use (50 percent rayon, 50 percent polyester): The
impact data for the napkin product category (Table 3) are based on the pro-
duct profiles associated with 1,000 uses (or use at 1,000 meals). The re-
usable napkins are assumed to be used for one meal and then laundered. It
was assumed that one paper napkin (one ply) is used for each meal.
I/  Page 41 should be page 42.
2/  See comment No. 2 Appendix  B,  page 3.
_3/  See somments Appendix B, page  17.
4/  See comments Appendix B, page  22.

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                                                                        TABLE 3
00
    Impact Category

Raw Materials
Energy
Water
Industrial Solid Waste
Atmospheric Emissions
Water borne Waste
Postconsuraer Solid Waste
                                                 SUMMARY IMPACT DATA FOR 1.000 USES OF EACH HOME HAI'KTNO PRODUCT

                                                                                    Home Napkin  Systems
Units
Ib
106 Btu
103 Gal.
cu ft
Ib
Ib
cu f t
Cloth
Napkin
in
164.32
12. 4U
4.32
2.21
57.00
15.86
1.91
Cloth
Napkin
IJ27
8.36
1.13
0.55
0.18
4.67
1.20
0.07
Cloth
Napkin
US4.
5.39
0.91
0.48
0.14
3.67
0.92
0.04
Cloth
Napkin
tllOO
4.04
o.ai
0.45
0.12
3.22
0.79
0.02
Cloth Napkin
Cold Wash
U54
5.39
0.56
0.47
0.12
2.52
0.83
0.04
Cloth Napkin
Cold Wash
uioo
4.04
0.46
0.44
0.10
2.06
0.70
0.02
Paper Napkins
One-Ply
1,000 Napkins
4.66
0.17.2/
0.10
0.02
0.65
0.18
0.09
             Source!  Midwest Research  Institute.
             Note:  Refer to Volume  If, pages E-16 and E-17,  for sumaary impacts based on 8 and  12
                     pound home launcry loads.
             £/  Includes energy derived from wood wastes.  Total without including wood wastes  energy
                  is 0.12 million Btu.

            _!/   See comments No.  3-7 Appendix  B,  pages  5-6.
             2/   See comments No.  8-13 Appendix B, pages 7-9.
             3/   See comment No.  1 Appendix B,  pages 9-10.

-------
               Scenarios for the cloth napkin show the impacts for 1, 27,
54, and 100 uses before discarding. Profile impacts using a cold wash are
presented for the 54 and 100 use napkin. The expected life of the home nap-
kin is estimated to be greater than 54 uses before discarding. For the one
use napkin the energy used in laundering represents 5.6 percent of the total
system energy. With a life of 100 uses, the energy for laundering represent
93 percent of the total profile energy. Therefore only small impact reduc-
tions are realized after 100 uses. For the hot wash system, the cloth napkin
system value would approach 0.7 million Btu as the minimum energy, regardless
of the expected life of the napkin. The cold wash system would approach a
limiting value of 0.35 million Btu.

               The one-ply paper napkin system shows lower impact values
in five of the seven impact categories when compared with the most favor-
able cloth system. The reusable systems have lower impacts only in the post-
consumer solid waste category. The energy requirements of the paper system
are only 21 percent of the 100 use, hot wash napkin, and 37 percent of the
100 use cold wash napkin system. The water volume, industrial solid waste,
atmospheric emission and waterborne waste values for the paper system are
significantly lower than the reusable napkin systems.

               b. Commercial Use (100 percent cotton); In commercial use,
the cloth napkin is expected to achieve 27.1 uses (1972 average from Linen
Supply Association of America). The impact data in Table 4 show the profile
values for an expected life of 1, 27, and 54 uses. The cloth napkins are
assumed to be used for one meal and then laundered. One two-ply paper napkin
is assumed to be used per meal.

               The data in Table 4 shows the disposable paper napkin to have
lower values in five of the seven impact categories when compared with the
27 use cloth napkin (the industry use figure has varied from 40 to 27 from
1968 to 1972). The paper napkin has higher values in raw materials and post-
consumer solid waste. During meals where two paper napkins are used, the
impacts for the disposable and reusable products would be very similar except
for raw materials and postconsumer solid wastes. A commercial cold wash sys-
tem would be very competitive with the disposable product. However, commer-
cial laundries using cold water washes were not encountered during the research
work, and the data for cold wash is thus presented as a hypothetical situation
only.
                   1/2,3
          3. Diapers; The comparisons for the diaper products are based
on the impacts associated with 100 changes. One diapering change requires
1.47 cloth diapers and 1.03 disposable on the average. The cloth values
are based, on 37 percent double and 5 percent three or more diapers per
change, while 3 percent of the disposable diaper changes use two diapers.

          The summary impact data in Table 5 show scenarios for the cloth
system, home laundry, with a useful life of 25, 50, and 100 uses before
discarding. Cloth diapers are reported to last for over 100 uses with home
I/  See comment No.  2 Appendix B, page 3.
2/  See comments Appendix B, pages 18-19.
3/  See comments Appendix B, pages 22-23.

-------
                                               TABLE 4

                 SUMMARY IMPACT DATA FOR 1.000 USES  OF EACH COMMERCIAL NAPKIN PRODUCT1'2'3'4
    Impact Category
Raw Materials
Energy
Water
Industrial Solid Waste
Atmospheric Emissions
Waterborne Waste
Commercial Napkin Systems
»r^ Units
Ib
106 Btu
103 gal.
Waste cu ft
jions Ib
Ib
d Waste cu ft
Cloth
Napkin
Ul
172.28
6.65
2.58
1.80
33.20
11.24
1.96
Cloth
Napkin
U27
8.27
0.75
0.46
0.14
2.21
0.83
0.07
Cloth
Napkin
U54
5.12
0.64
0.42
0.11
1.61
0.63
0.04
Cloth Napkin
Cold Wash
U27
8.27
0.42
0.46
0.14
1.66
0.77
0.07
Paper Napkin
Two-Ply
1,000 Napkins
11.07
0.37-'
0.25
0.04
1.27
0.40
0.22
Source: Midwest Research Institute.
a/  Includes energy derived  from wood wastes.
       energy is 0.27 million Btu.
Total without including wood wastes
 I/  See comments No. 3-5 Appendix B, pages 5-6.
 2/  See comments No. 10-13 Appendix B,  pages  8-9.
 3/  See comment No. 15 Appendix B, page 9.
 4/  See comments No. 1-2 Appendix B, page 9-10.

-------
    Impact Category

Raw Materials
Energy
Water
Industrial Solid Waste
Atmospheric Emissions
Water borne Wastes
Postconsumer Solid Waste
                                                                 TABLE 5

                                            SUMMARY IMPACT DATA FOR 100 CHANCES  EACH DIAPER PRODUCT 1*2,3,4
Units
Ib
106 Btu
103 gal.
cu ft
Ib
Ib
cu ft

Cloth Diaper
Home
Laundered
U25
2.483
0.450
0.523
0.074
1.789
0.666
0.016

Cloth Diaper
Home
Laundered
U50
1.792
0.426
0.514
0.067
1.664
0.623
0.008

Cloth Diaper
Home
Laundered
U100
1.44S
0.413
0.510
0.064
1.602
0.601
0.004
Diaper Systems
Cloth Diaper
Connercial
Laundered
(11
35.932
1.350
0.562
0.371
6.543
2.331
0.338

Cloth Diaper
Commercial
Laundered
U50
1.124
0.164
0.129
0.031
0.388
0.177
0.008

Cloth Diaper
Commercial
Laundered
HI 00
0.773
0.152
0.125
0.027
0.326
0.155
0.004

Disposable
Diaper
103 Diapers
12.889
0.371
0.166
1.196
0.356
0.190
 Source! Midwest Research Institute.
 a/  Includes energy derived from wood wastes.
      energy is 0.271 million Dtu.
Total without Including wood wastes
I/   See comments No.  3-5 Appendix B, pages  5-6.
2/   See comments No.  8-13  Appendix B,  pages 7-9.
3_/   See comment No.  15 Appendix  B, page 9.
4/   See comments No.  1-2 Appendix B, page 9-10.

-------
 laundry. The other use systems are presented to show the effect of change
 in useful life. The expected  life of a diaper in the comraerical wash systems
 is reported to be around 75 uses. Some commercial laundries reported that
 on occation the expected life of the diaper is below five uses, due to theft
 and change in service application.

          The comparisons of  the most typical situation would include the
 100-use home laundered diaper, the 50-use commercial laundered diaper and
 the disposable diaper system. The commercial laundry diaper system shows
 the lowest impacts in each of the seven impact categories. With the excep-
 tion of raw materials and postconsumer solid waste, the disposable diaper
 shows impact levels lower than the home diaper system. However, all of the
 disposable diaper system impacts are.higher than the 50-use commercial
 diaper system.

          As the number of uses before discard increases, the impacts for
 the cloth systems approach the impacts represented by the laundering proces-
 ses of each cloth system. The home laundry diaper system will approach 0.4
million' Btu as its minimum energy value. After 25 uses the decrease in sys-
 tem energy becomes minimal. Therefore, when using a hot water wash, the home
 diaper system .energy requirements will only approach the disposable system
energy requirements. The commercial cloth system will approach a minimum
energy value of 0.14 million Btu. The energy requirements of the commercial
 and disposable systems are about the same for four to five uses before dis-
 card for the cloth diaper. Energy savings in the commercial system become
minimal after 15 to 20 uses.

          4. Bedding: The sheet systems were compared on the basis of 1,000
changes, one sheet per change. Normal life for the cloth sheet (50 percent
polyester and 50 percent cotton) is 300 uses before discard. The cloth sheets
were assumed to be laundered after each use. Impacts for the disposable
sheet are based on a nonwoven paper fiber sheet backed by a polyethylene
 film. The product manufacturing process impacts of the disposable system
profile are assumed to be similar to the disposable diaper converting im-
pacts. For this study, only commercial laundering for the cloth sheet is
considered.

          Table 6 contains the resource and environmental profile summaries.
In the raw materials and energy categories, the cloth sheet shows the smallest
 impacts. The disposable sheet system has the lowest wastewater volume and the
 least amount of waterborne wastes and industrial solid wastes. Atmospheric
emissions and postconsumer solid waste values favor the cloth system.

          The energy requirements for the reusable and disposable system
become equal at around 20 uses of the cloth sheet. Energy savings become
minimal after 100 uses.
                                   12

-------
                                            TABLE  6
                   SUMMARY IMPACT DATA FOR 1.000 CHANGES EACH SHEET PRODUCT
                                                          Sheet Systems
    Impact Category

Raw Materials
Energy
Water
Industrial Solid Waste
Atmospheric Emissions
Waterborne Wastes
Postconsumer Solid Waste

Units
Ib
106 Btu
103 gal.
cu ft
Ib
Ib
cu ft
Cotton
Sheets
Ul LI
1,166.48
98.03
29.33
18.34
455.61
114.21
21.99
Cotton
Sheets
U50 LI
36.91
7.10
4.19
1.18
18.99
6.45
0.44
Cotton
Sheets
U100 LI
25.39
6.17
3.93
1.00
14.53
5.35
0.22
Cotton
Sheets
U300 LI
17.71
5.56
3.76
0.88
11.56
4.61
0.07
Disposable
Sheets
1,000 Sheets
106.68
10.06-i/
2.32
0.61
28.64
4.35
3.74
Source: Midwest Research Institute.
£/  Includes energy derived from wood wastes.
      energy is 9.27 million Btu.
Total without  including wood wastes

-------
          5. Containers (cups and tumblers)t The container product category
is divided into cold drink and hot drink containers.

               a. Cold Drink Containers (9 fluid ounce)t The container sys-
tems were compared on the basis of 1 million servings in a commercial estab-
lishment. The reusable containers are assumed to be washed after each use
by a commercial dishwashing machine. The useful life of the reusable con-
tainers is expected to be around 1,000 uses based on information submitted
by the American Restaurant China Council.1 The data in Table 7 show impacts
for 100 and 1,000 uses to show the relation of useful life to impact sum-
maries.2

               The reusable containers show lower impact values for the
raw materials, energy, industrial solid waste, atmospheric emission and
postconsumer solid waste categories, when compared to the paper and plastic
disposable products. The disposable plastic cup has the smallest quantity
of wastewater volume. Both of the disposable products show less waterborne
wastes than the reusable products. After 100 uses, more than 97 percent
of the waterborne wastes from the reusable containers is due to the dish-
washing process. After 1,000 uses, more than 90 percent of the total impacts
are due to the washing process. The energy requirement for both reusable
container profiles become less than the energy for the disposable systems
between 10 and 20 uses before discard.3
                                                     i 4
               b. Hot Drink Containers (7 fluid ounce*? Table 8 presents
the impact summaries for the hot drink cups. Data submitted by the American
Restaurant China Council show the expected life for the china cup to be
1,360 uses before loss or discard. The scenarios presented for the reusable
cups include a use life of 100 and 1,000, for commercial use.2

               The comparison of the reusable systems (1,000 uses) with
the paper cup system, shows that the reusables have less impacts in the
raw materials, energy, industrial solid waste, atmospheric emissions, and
postconsumer solid waste categories. The paper system shows less wastewater
volume and waterborne wastes.

               The comparison of the reusable systems (1,000 uses) with the
plastic foam cup reveals the disposable product to have less raw materials,
wastewater volume, and waterborne waste, and less industrial solid waste.

               The resource and environmental benefits from reusing the
china and melamine products level out after 300 uses so that only minimal
advantages are gained with additional uses. At 100 uses the washing impacts
represent approximately 50 percent of the total, while at 1,000 uses most
of the impact categories show that greater than 90 percent of the impacts
are due to washing the cups.
I/  See comment No.  1 Appendix C, page  1.
2/  See comments Appendix J,  pages  32 and 34.
V  See comments No.  3 Appendix J,  page 39.
4_/  See comments Appendix J,  pages  3, 19 and 21.

                                     14

-------
                                                              TABLE 7

                           SUMMARY  IMPACT DATA FOR 1 MILLION SERVINGS—EACH 9 FLUID OUNCE  COLD DRINK PRODUCT1'2'3
    Impact Category

Raw Materials
Energy
Water
Industrial Solid Waste
Atmospheric Emissions
Waterborne Wastes
Postconsuraer Solid Waste



Units
Ib
106 Btu
103 gal.
cu ft
Ib
Ib
cu ft

Glass
Tumbler
U100
2,949.3
223.9
90.4
23.8
779.4
439.0
18.3

Glass
Tumbler
UljOOO
1,673.2
184.2
86.5
13.7
564.4
394. Q
1.8
Cold
Polypropylene
Tumbler
UlOO
1,636.6
270.7
93.9
14.1
1,159.5
427.7
14.1
Drink Systems
Polypropylene
Tumbler
Ul.OOO
1,541.9
188.9
86.9
12.8
602.4
392.8
1.4

Paper Cup
Wax Coat
(Million)
13,229.9
563.91'
145.5
55.2
1,614.4
266.7
241.4

Thermoformed
Polystyrene Cup
(Million)
1,484.2
696.8
50.9
30.5
1,963.4
266.0
186.8
Source:  Midwest Research  Institute.
Note:  Refer to page 16 of this Volume, and page E-2 of Volume IB, for a discussion on  energy
         reduction possible with chemical sanitization during dishwashing.
a/  Includes energy derived from wood wastes.  Total without including wood wastes energy is
      444 million Btu.

I/   See  comments Appendix J, pages 3 and 17-18.
2/   See  comments Appendix J, pages 3 and 18-20.
3/   See  comments Appendix J, pages 4, 22-31  and  33-34.

-------
                                                      TABLE 8

                 SUMMARY IMPACT DATA FOR 1 MILLION SERVINGS—EACH 7 FLUID OUNCE HOT DRINK PRODUCT1'2'3'4
    Impact Category
Raw Materials
Energy
Water
Industrial So
Atmospheric Emissions
Waterborne Waste



>ry Units
Ib
106 Btu
H>3 gal.
Waste cu ft
3 ions Ib
Ib
Id Waste cu ft

China
Cup
U100
15,233.8
680.5
249.3
160.4
3,080.4
1,567.0
32.6

China
Cup
Ul.OOO
4,777.7
434.1
200.0
41.8
1,408.0
1,142.0
3.3
Hot
Melamine
Cup
U100
4,632.6
550.8
256.1
34.6
1,719.4
1,147.0
35.2
Drink Systems
Melamine
Cup
Ul.OOO
3,717.5
421.1
200.6
29.3
1,272.0
1,100.0
3.5
Paper Cup
LDPE Lined
(Million)
19,057.1
568. 5i/
191.7
75.0
1,619.1
301.1
236.9
Foam Cup
Polystyrene
(Million)
1,655.0
571.0
29.6
16.2
1,853.7
253.1
761.2
&l  Includes energy derived  from wood -wastes.
      energy is 395 million  Btu.
Total without including wood wastes
I/  See comments Appendix J,  pages 3 and 17-18.
2/  See comments Appendix J,  pages 3 and 18-20.
3_/  See comments Appendix J,  pages 3, 19 and 21.
4/  See comments Appendix J,  pages 4, 22-31  and  33-34.

-------
          6. Plates; The impact summaries for the plate category represent
the values for 1 million uses (meals) for each plate. The expected life
 if the china plate is 6,900 uses based on commercial replacement data. Sce-
narios are shown for 100, 1,000, and 6,900 uses for the china plate and
100 and 1,000 uses for the melamine plate Hindus try data were not submitted
regarding the useful life of the melamine product; however,  the plate is
probably capable of withstanding well over 1,000 uses. The impact values
become fairly constant at the 1,000 use level, therefore a higher use rate
would have little effect on the comparisons*

          With reference to Table 9, the disposable paper plate compares
quite favorably with the china plate at the 100 use level, except for one
impact category—postconsumer solid waste. However, with the 1,000 and 6,900
use china plate, the paper system has smaller impacts only in the waterborne
waste category. In comparison with the paper plate, both melamine systems
(100 and 1,000 use) show lower impacts in all categories except waterborne
wastes.

          The disposable polystyrene foam plate requires higher energy levels
than the other plate systems. Also the atmospheric emissions for the foam
plate are relatively high due to the loss of hydrocarbon blowing agent. The
waterborne waste category shows less impacts for the foam plate than for
the reusable systems.

          The energy requirements for the reusable product systems (Table 9)
are based on an electrically heated hot water approach to sanitizing dishes.
An alternate method for sanitizing dishes would be to use a  chemical sanitiz-
ing agent with 140 F water for the rinse water, rather than  to heat the rinse
water from 140°F to 180°F with electric booster heaters. For 1 hour of dish-
washer operation, this would reduce the natural gas requirement by 66.3
cubic feet and the electrical requirement by 27.1 kilowatt-hours, for a
total savings of around 362,500 Btu per hour, or 134 million Btu per million
plates. This would reduce the total dishwashing energy by 42 percent. Refer
to Volume I-B, pages E-2, E-3, and E-4 for a more complete discussion of the
energy requirements of commercial dishwashing.
I/  See comments Appendix J,  page  32 and 34.
                                   17

-------
    Impact Category

Raw Materials
Energy
Water
Industrial Solid Waste
Atmospheric Emissions
Waterborne Wastes
Postconsumer Solid Waste
                                                               TABLE  9

                                  SUMMARY IMPACT DATA FOR 1 MILLION SERVINGS—EACH 9-INCH PLATE PRODUCT1«2f3
Plate Systems


Units
Ib
106 Btu
103 gal.
cu ft
Ib
Ib
cu ft
China
Plates
U100
29,295
968
300
329
5,226
1,839
77
China
Plates
Ul.OOO
5,820
422
185
56
1,500
915
8
China
Plates
U6.900
3,590
370
174
29
1,146
827
I
Melamlne
Plates
UlOO
4,805
599
277
36
1,876
891
60
Melamlne
Plates
Ul.OOO
3,371
385
183
26
1,165
• 820
6
Paper Plate
White Press
(Million)
27,346
748^'
289
98
2,031
364
368
Foam Plate
Polystyrene
(Million)
4,087
1,479
102
70
4,924
609
4,582
Source:  Midwest Research Institute.
jj/  Includes energy derived from wood wastes.
      million Btu.
I/  See  comments Appendix J, page 3 and 17-18.
2_/  See  comments Appendix J, pages 5 and 18-20.
3/  See  comments Appendix J, pages 4,  22-31  and  33-34.
Total without including wood wastes energy is 497

-------
                               CHAPTER 3

              RESOURCE AND ENVIRONMENTAL PROFILE ANALYSIS


 A.   Description of REPA Technique '

           In  the past,  most  environmental  analyses  have focused on a
 single pollution category such as the air  pollution caused by industry
 A or the water  pollution and solid wastes  associated with industry B.
 The pollution reported  for these industries  usually refers to one manu-
 facturing step, at a single  geographical  location.  This type of approach
 will generally  account  for less  than 25 percent of  the total impacts
 associated with a product. Accounting for  a  product's total environmental
 impact requires a systems approach,  beginning at the point of raw mate-
 rial extraction and ending with the final  disposal of the product. The
 systems approach includes  the  use  of  natural resources  and  the environ-
 mental pollution resulting from  disposal.

           The purpose of a total resource and environmental profile analy-
 sis (REPA)  is- to measure the resource and environmental impacts at each
 stage  of a product's life, and then  condense  the  data  into  several basic
 impact categories which  can  be used  to determine a product's overall im-
 pact relative to other products. The  REPA  (along with  other analysis tools)
 can be used to  encourage the use of  consumer products  which cause minimum
 resource and  environmental impacts.   The results of a  REPA  analysis must
 be  used with  the understanding that  the product may have much  smaller im-
 pacts  than its  competitor, and still  be a resource or  environmental villain.
 To  ascertain  a  product's absolute  impact status would  require  a rigorous
 treatment of  impact  data,  environmental desires or regulation, and the
 social values affected.  However, after the impact data have been  condensed
 into the seven  impact categories,  each category can be examined to see if
 abnormally high values exist.  Comparisons of  total impact values  from simi-
 lar products, or substitute  products  made  from other materials, should
 establish a reasonable  level of  confidence for estimating  the  relative de-
 sirability of a product  from a resource and environmental  impact viewpoint.

           Two broad classes  of environmental  impacts can be discerned:
 (1) quantifiable impacts;  and  (2)  those of a  more subjective,  qualita-
 tive nature?  The former category includes  impacts which can be measured,
 such as kilowatt-hours  of energy and pounds  of  air  pollutants, for vari-
 ous manufacturing processes. The latter category includes impacts for
 which  hard data do not  exist.  For example, it is impossible to assign
 precise numerical measures of  aesthetic blight  caused by mining activi-
 ties.  Another impact of the  latter type is that for which some data exist,
I/  See comments  Appendix E, page 1-2.
|2/  See comments  Appendix J, pages 8-9.
3/  See comments  Appendix E, page 3.
                                      19

-------
but which are of very poor quality.  Examples  of  this  are relative environ-
mental damage resulting from solid waste  disposal  of  various products, or
the relative environmental damage  caused  by various air or water pollutants.
This study is confined to the determination of the quantitative impacts
only. Qualitative aspects, although  referred  to  from  time to time in  this
study, are not part of this analysis.

          1.  Basic approach!  Much of the effort expended in this study
went into determining the quantifiable impacts of manufacture. The term
"manufacture" is used throughout this report in a general sense--it in-
cludes those activities associated with materials from the time they
are extracted from the earth as raw materials to  the point where they
are returned to the earth as wastes, including all transportation links
in the processing sequence. A summary of the impacts documented is shown
in Figure la.

          For each process and subprocess, a set  of  seven basic impact
categories was established. These are described below:

          Raw materials;  The quantity and type of virgin raw materials
input to each operation were calculated in terms  of a given product out-
put. Materials not intended to become part of the finished product, such
as cooling water and fuels, were excluded from raw materials.  Other raw
materials, such as additives, which aggregate to  less than 5 percent
of the total weight of the finished container were included in this cate-
gory by reporting their finished product weight.  Each raw material was
counted only one time—when it became a part of the product or entered
the process as a solvent, catalyst,  etc.

          No attempt was made to define a relative weighting of the various
virgin materials based on availability or scarcity. The possibility exists
for developing such a scheme based on the projected reserves or scarcity
of recoverable raw materials still in the earth.  However, examination
of the many raw materials consumed by these product systems shows that
none of these materials are in short supply.  The materials included are!
limestone, salt, sand, soda ash, feldspar, and wood fiber. Crude oil
and natural gas are in relatively short supply,  but they have been clas-
sified as energy resources, not as material resources. Wood fiber is
consumed, but timber growth exceeds the timber cut annually at present
in this country. Thus it is not a "short" material.

          Energy!  The energy used by each operation, including trans-
portation, for a given product output was reported. Process energy used
by the actual manufacturing operations was employed. That used for space
heating of buildings and other miscellaneous categories was excluded
wherever possible. Energy content of organic 'raw materials was also in-
cluded in energy summations. The second-order energy necessary to extract,


                                    20

-------
     E  W Tt
E  M  W Tr   E  M  W Tr
    LJ_i   M_LLJ_UJ
t     Ir
LJL


Row Materials
Mining/
Extraction






Materials
Processing
t
1
1
1
Recycled
Materials
Processing


-

Container
Fabrication
->~

__
- • v A • ' ' r X
* v *.')*.* * ,* f
« V V . y "y / *
•'. Use/
Discard
	 r • ' •
• . .'. 1. ',•'.'.
	 | • ' •
. . -.'.| . -•-•
..'.'.' ,r .', \ '
,. ' . '..';•-•'>{' •' \':/
• .- . v'.^VVv
L A. A. A, JL.k, ^ V v
V^" "*
i\j
^
X




«• •
X
\ .-
:-^:0:;;X-:\ •'
• ,• /• ^^ .•>
v""

^ Final
Disposal
i
1
   ITTTTITTTni
   AE TrE SW WW  AE  TrE SW WW  AE TrE SW WW
                                AE TrE   SW
               SUMMARY OF INPUT/OUTPUT CATEGORIES
             INPUT

   E = Energy (in all forms)
                        OUTPUT

                AE = Atmospheric Emissions
   M -Virgin Materials (consumed and unconsumed)    TrE = Transportation Effluents (for each fuel type)
   W = Water

   Tr = Transportation to Next Operation
     (including all modes, all fuels in each mode)
                SW=Solid Wastes

                WW = Woterborne Wastes
Figure la -  Summary of environmental impacts are shown for container manufacture.

-------
process and transport fuels was included, as well as the heating value
of  the specific fuels used in a system. In this report, the Btu equiva-
lents used for a unit of the following types of energy are; kilowatt-hour
- 10,720 Btu, standard cubic foot natural gas - 1,030 Btu, 1 pound of
steam - 1,400 Btu, coal - 13,300 Btu per pound.

          Water volume;  The volume of wastewater per unit of product
output from each operation was reported.

          Industrial solid wastes:  The volume of solid waste per unit
of product output which must be landfilled or disposed of in some other
way was determined. Three categories were measured:  process losses,
fuel combustion residues (ashes) and mining wastes. The first category--
process  discards--includes solids resulting from air pollution control
and waste materials from manufacturing operations.  Fuel combustion resi-
dues are ash generated by coal combustion. Mining wastes are primarily
materials discarded due to raw ore processing and do not include over-
burden.

          Atmospheric emissions;  This category includes only those emis-
sions generally considered to be pollutants, expressed in pounds per
unit of product .output. Thirteen identifiable pollutants were considered
for each operation--particulates, nitrogen oxides, hydrocarbons, sulfur
oxides, carbon monoxide, aldehydes, other organics, chlorine, odorous
sulfur compounds, ammonia, hydrogen fluoride, lead and mercury. The
amounts reported represent actual discharges into the atmosphere after
existing emission controls have been applied. All such atmospheric emis-
sions were treated as being of equal weight, and no attempt was made  to
determine the relative environmental damage caused by each of these pol-
lutants. However, we do recognize that there are differences in the rela-
tive harm caused by air pollutants.

          Waterborne wastes;  This category includes the water pollu-
tants from each operation expressed in pounds per unit product output.
These are effluents after wastewater treatment has been applied and rep-
resent discharges into receiving waters. Twenty-three specific pollutants
are included—BOD, COD, suspended solids, dissolved solids (oil field
brine), oil, fluorides, phenol, sulfides, acid, alkalinity, metal ions,
ammonia,  cyanide, and others. Some factors such as turbidity and heat
were not included because there was no acceptable way to quantify their
impacts.

          Postconsumer solid wastes:  The volume of solid wastes gen-
erated by disposing of the product was determined. This is the solid
waste which most likely would be discarded into municipal solid waste
streams.  It was assumed that 9 percent would be incinerated and 91 per-
cent would be landfilled.
                                     22

-------
           The first step in the REPA analysis is to determine the raw
 |/alues for each of the above seven categories attributed to the produc-
 tion of some unit quantity of a product. The data in these categories
 are used to determine a product's resource and environmental impact rela-
 tive to another product.

           2.  Organic raw materials--unique considerations:  A unique
 situation exists for products utilizing organic raw materials such as
 wood, crude oil and natural gas. These materials have alternative uses
 as feedstocks for material goods such as paper or plastic products, or
 as fuels for energy. In assessing resource depletion, then, use of or-
 ganic materials can be considered as depleting either material resources
 or energy resources.

           In the first option, the organic materials intended to become
 part of a finished product are simply measured in pounds and treated
 as any mineral resource. In the second option, the energy equivalent
 of the pounds of organics used is added to the energy required to process
 the materials. The pounds of organics used is not added to the raw mate-
 rials category.

           Another consideration regarding the fuel value of synthetic
 materials is that finished plastic and paper containers are a potential
 fuel even after they have been used and discarded. Thus, if the solid
fcxraste stream is incinerated and energy recovered, part of the original
 fuel value of the natural gas and wood fiber is reclaimed.

           Because of the importance of energy considerations, a strong
 case can be made for the second option, which counts organic materials
 as an energy resource rather than as a material resource. This treatment
 reflects more accurately the primary environmental concern of the plas-
 tics industry, which is the consumption of energy reserves in the form
 of natural gas and petroleum. These fuels at present, and in the near
 future, are in short supply to a greater extent than any other major
 natural resource. As mentioned earlier, the material resources considered
 in this study such as limestone and sand are much more abundant than
 natural gas and petroleum. Counting petroleum and natural gas use as
 equivalent on a pound-for-pound basis with limestone would not give as
 true an environmental picture as counting the energy value of these ma-
 terials. Because essentially no recovery of the intrinsic fuel value of
 finished plastic products is practiced at present, the impact on the
 nation's energy reserves due to plastics manufacture is the sum of the
 process energy required for plastics manufacture, and the inherent fuel
 value of the organic materials consumed. Thus, treating an organic mate-
 rial as an energy input, rather than as a physical quantity of material,
                                     23

-------
places the comparison of competitive product systems on a more logical
basis.*

          3.  Methodology;   The general approach used to carry out  the
calculations for the quantitative comparison follows a system approach.
All processes and subprocesses were first considered to be separate
and independent. For each process, a standard unit such as 1,000 pounds
of output was used as a basis for calculations.  A complete materials
balance was first determined. If marketable coproducts or by-products
were produced, the material inputs were adjusted to reflect only the
input attributable to the output product of interest.

          To illustrate this point, consider a hypothetical manufacturing
process that produces 1,000 pounds of product A in which we are interested.
At the same time, it produces 500 pounds of coproduct B and 100 pounds
of waste in the form of air emissions, water pollution, and solid waste.
The total input of raw materials is 1,600 pounds as shown in Figure lb.
An energy input of 3 x 10^ Btu is assumed for this example. The output
is 1,000 pounds of product A and 500 pounds of product B.

          A 500-pound credit has been applied to the input materials
because we are not interested in product B. This reduces the input  from
1,600 pounds to 1,100 pounds. In addition, because product B is one-third
of the product output of the process by weight,  one-third of the wastes,
or 33 pounds, is attributed to product B; a new waste figure of 67  pounds
(100 pounds - 33 pounds = 67 pounds) results. Thus, the raw material
input value for product A is 1,067 pounds (1,100 pounds - 33 pounds =
1,067 pounds).

          Once the raw impacts for the production of 1,000 pounds of
each process have been determined, a master flow chart can be established.
This chart will show the pounds of each process necessary to produce
1,000 pounds of the container systems being studied. At this point, the
raw data for a product system can be processed by the computer and  com-
bined with transportation,  postconsumer solid waste, and secondary  impacts
to provide calculations showing the resource environmental profile  for
the system. The calculated impact data can be used alone to demonstrate
the quantities of each impact category. Summary tables showing the  total
impacts for the processes and systems are provided and appear in the  Ap-
pendix.
   The same logic applies to wood fiber, even though cellulosic materials
     are not now a viable (fuel) energy source in the same way that plas-
     tics feedstocks are. Thus,  wood fiber was counted as  a raw material
     rather than its energy equivalent when it becomes part of  the  product.
     Wood materials or wastes burned were  counted as  their energy equi-
     valent.

                                    24

-------
                                             g
                                Energy 3 x 10  Btu
1,600 Ib raw materials-	>
Manufacturing Plant
                                                          •> 1,000 Ib product A
                                                           -> 500 Ib product B
                                  100 Ib wastes
          For analysis purposes, a new flow diagram would  be  established
as shown below.
                                Energy 2 x 10  Btu
1,067 Ib raw materials'      >
Manufacturing Plant
                                                          ->• 1,000 Ib product A
                                   67 Ib wastes
            Figure  Ib  -  Diagram illustrates coproduct credits.
                                     25

-------
          4.  Assumptions and limitations;  Some  assumptions  are  always
necessary to 'limit a study to a reasonable  scope.  It  is  important  for
the reader to be aware of these limitations in order  for him to  under-
stand fully the scope and applicability of  the study.

          In the course of this research, the following assumptions were
made:

          Data sources:  An attempt was made in  every case to obtain
data which were "typical" and which could be verified in the open litera-
ture. Extensive use was made of government agencies and publications,
technical associations and open literature sources. National average
data were used where possible. Certain sets of data involved proprietary
processes so that information was submitted to us on a confidential basis.
However, data in the public domain were used whenever possible.

          Geographic scope;  The "environment" was defined as the environ-
ment of the world. However, impacts occurring outside this country are
not well documented, so U.S. data were used to estimate foreign impacts.

          Secondary impacts;  Impacts resulting from extraction, proces-
sing and transporting fuels are secondary impacts and were considered
as well as the primary impacts of the fuel combustion. However,  secondary
impacts resulting from such processes as manufacturing the capital are
ment used in container manufacture are small per unit output and can
be excluded without significant error.

          Small quantities of materials:  The impacts associated with
materials which aggregate to less than 5 percent by weight of the con-
tainer were not included. The materials are simply counted as pounds
of raw materials. However, the list of materials which comprise  the "less
than 5 percent" category was examined to insure  that no known "high en-
vironmental impact" materials were excluded from the  analysis.

          Electricity;  Electrical energy is considered from the point
of view of its impact on the total energy resources of the nation. A
national average energy expenditure of 10,720 Btu is required for each
kilowatt-hour of electricity made available to the public. Hence, this
conversion factor is used rather than the direct use conversion factor
of 3,413 Btu per kilowatt-hour. The impacts from mining or extraction
of these fuels were included in the analysis.

          Usage of scrap materials;  Environmental impacts of scrap are
considered to be only those impacts incurred after the scrap is discarded
from the manufacturing site. Usually this includes only transportation
and scrap processing steps. The environmental impact of manufacture of

                                     26

-------
the material which subsequently becomes scrap is allocated to the prime
product.

          Point sources of pollution;  The burden on specific ecosystems
was not considered, i.e., at specific point sources or geographic loca-
tions. It was assumed the operations impacted the total environment every-
where, not just where specific manufacturing operations are presently
located.

          Availability of data;  Some industrial plants do not keep records
in sufficient detail to determine the data in the desired form for a
REPA study. For instance, if pollutant emission data are needed for a
specific subprocess in a plant, that information may not be available.
The plant may have data only for several combined processes or the entire
plant. In this event, allocation must be used for data on the particular
processes of interest. As the concept of resource and environmental pro-
file studies gains acceptance, it is likely that more industries will
make an effort to collect these types of data from their own operations
and on a unit process basis. Engineering calculations of materials balances
for subprocesses were used in some instances where actual operating data
were not available.

          Effluent data;  EPA 1977 guidelines were used where possible
for air, water and solid waste discharges to the environment. If actual
discharges are less than the guidelines, then the smaller values are used.
For example some of the processes in the paperboard profile show impacts
smaller than the 1977 guidelines. The application of future standards
has the effect of shifting effluents from one category into others. It
does not usually add or subtract from total amounts of effluents. For ex-
ample, air pollution control usually removes air pollutants from air which
are then discharged to water bodies or,the solid waste stream. Thus,  re-
ducing air pollution from a plant will .usually increase the water pollut-
ant and/or solid waste discharge.

          Consumer impacts;  Impacts related to consumer activities such
as transporting the milk home from the retail store were not included.
We have assumed that trips to retail stores are necessary for other rea-
sons and should not be attributed only to the product systems. 1
I/  See comments No.  4 Appendix  J, page 39.
                                     27.

-------
                                CHAPTER 4

         ANALYSIS OF THE RESOURCE AND ENVIRONMENTAL SUMMARY DATA


A. Analysis of Resource Inputs
                         1,2,3,4
          I. Raw Materials; The quantity of raw materials required for
each product is presented in the summary tables* Petroleum and natural
gas inputs which become part of the products are counted as their energy
equivalents rather than as pounds of raw materials. The raw materials
which are present in the plastic systems represent process additives and
packaging contributions. Wood fiber which becomes part of a product is
counted as pounds of raw material. As are cotton fiber and inorganic raw
materials. The quantities of raw materials for the reusable products are
generally less than the comparable disposable product .due to their multiuse
factor.

          Figure Ic demonstrates the raw material requirements for selected
reusable product systems as a function of the number of expected uses
the products will experience before discard. The raw materials for the
cloth towel system decrease sharply until the 10 use point. Thereafter,
the decrease is minimal with increase in expected life. The use points
for the other products where the decrease in raw materials becomes minimal
are: home napkins, 5 to 10 uses; cloth diapers,  5 to 10 uses; cloth sheets,
25 uses; china cups, 200 to 400 uses; and china plates, 500 to 1,000 uses.

          Table 10 compares the expected life of the products represented
in Figure Ic with the use factor at the breaking point of raw material
decrease vs. useful life.

                                TABLE 10

        EXPECTED LIFE VS. USE FACTOR AT RAW MATERIAL BREAK POINT
                           Expected Life  ,              Raw Material
    Product                  (Uses)                 Breaking Point (Uses)

 .Cloth Towel             Greater Than 32                   10
 Home Napkin             Greater Than 54                   10
 Cloth Diaper, Home           50-100                       10
 Cloth Sheet                 100-300                       25
 China Cup                    1,360                     100-200
 China Plate                  6,900                     500-1,000
 Source: MRI.

 I/  See comment No.  5  Appendix B, page 6.
 2/  See comments No. 8-9 Appendix B, pages 7-8.
 V  See comment No.  2  Appendix B, page 23.
 £/  See comments Appendix J, pages 2 and 11-12.

                                     28

-------
     20     40    60    80    100

        1000 Towel-Uses
                                                           20    40    60    80    100

                                                          1000 Home  Napkin- Uses
                                                      0    20     40    60    80   100

                                                        100 Changes Cloth Diapers-Uses
   1000

o
°   800
 1/1
 15

 |  600


 J  400

 3
    200


      0
0          100         200

        1000 Cloth Sheets-Uses
                                            18
                                         o
                                         '£  10
300        0    200   400   600    800  1000

                Million China Cups- Uses
                                                                                                0    2000  4000  6000  8000

                                                                                                    Million China Plates-Uses
                          Figure Ic - Raw Material Requirements  as a Function of Expected Uses

-------
          Based on Che relationships of useful life and raw materials
needed, the resource and environmental impact comparisons can be made
without knowing the exact outer limit of the use factors since the break
point of material increases occurs for below the expected life.

                              1,2
          2. Wastewater volume: The water volume reported in  this study
represents water discharged from  the various processes as wastewater Figure
2 shows the comparison of water use for reusable .and disposable products
in each product category. In  the  towel category, the disposable paper
product shows less wastewater  than the cloth towel except when the towel
is used five times before laundering. For the commercial napkin category,
the disposable paper napkin has the least water volume. In the diaper
comparisons, the disposable diaper shows less water use than  the home
laundry system but slightly more  than the commercial laundry  system. The
disposable sheet system has lower wastewater volume than the  reusable
cloth sheet. In the cold drink container comparison, the paper cup uses'
more water and the plastic cup less water than the reusable systems. The
plate comparisons also show wastewater volume for the paper system higher
than the reusables and water volume for the plastic system lower than
the reusables.
                                    1,2,3,4,5,6,7,8
          3. Energy Breakdown Analysis; This section will describe the
energy requirements of the product systems from the viewpoints of energy
type (process, transportation, material resource), energy source (petroleum,
natural gas, coal, wood fiber, etc.),  and product usage patterns. Usage pat-
terns refer to the times a product is used before discarded,  coupled with
the number of times used before washing.

               a. Energy Tvpe and Source; Tables 11 through 18 present the
energy breakdown information for the six product categories,  using the same
scenarios presented in the summary impact tables (Tables 2 through 9). The
individual energy values may not add exactly to the "total" values due to
computer rounding. Each table contains a percentage breakdown for fossil
fuel (petroleum,  natural gas, and coal), and wood fiber (energy derived
from burning wood residues).
                    (1) Table 11 - Towel Products; Process energy accounts
for over 90 percent of the total energy for each product. The material re-
source energy is low since none of the products are manufactured from hydro-
carbon raw materials. The energy source information shows that fossil fuel
accounts for more than 90 percent of the energy for the reusable systems.
The paper towel system derives 24.6 percent of its energy from burning wood
residues.

                    (2) Tables 12 and 13 - Napkin Products; For both dis-
posable and reusable systems, process energy represents over 90 percent of
the total with transportation accounting for around 2 percent and material
I/  See comments No.  8-9 Appendix  B, pages  7-8.
2/  See comments Appendix J,  pages 4 and 22-31.
V  See comments Appendix B,  page  9.
4/  See comments No.  1-2 Appendix  B, pages  9-10.
5/  See comments Appendix C,  pages 4-5.
6/  See comments Appendix J,  pages 2 and 11-12.
7/  See comments Appendix J,  pages 2 and 14.
8/  See comments Appendix J,  pages 3 and 17-18.

                                    30

-------
w 600
01
1
£ 400
*
j! OAA
O
~0
0 0

•
-











Cloth
U32L1













Cloth
U32L5













Sponge
U100L1













Sponge
U100L5













Paper
£ °00
"o
£ 400
i
§9(VI

0
0 0

•
-











Cloth
U27






Paper
                        Towel Category
                                                Commercial Napkin Category!
_  600
a
3

I  400
   200
Cloth    Cloth    Disposable
Home    Comm.
U50      U50

   Diaper Category *
Gallons Wastewarer
N) *. 0.
o o o
0880
-







Cloth Cloth Disposob
U100 U300
                                                           Bedding Category
S 300
1 TOO
S°
-' Q
O
- o

_


.


Glass, Pop
Polyprop. Co|
Tomb. Wa
9fl.oz. 9fl






er T Form
Polysty
K C Cop
. oz. 9 fl. oz






C
f
C






Ihina,
delam.
-UP
fl. oz






P
C
L
. 7






aper
op
DPE
fl. oz
5 300
•5 200

~i 100
O
I 	 1 "^ o
Foam
Polysty.
Cop
. 7fl. oz.













China,
Me lam
Plates













Paper






Foam
Polysty.
                         Container Category
                                                                     Plate Category
               Figure 2 - Wastewacer Volume for Representative  Produces in Each Category
         I/  See comment No. 4 Appendix B,  pages 5-6.

                                                 31

-------
OJ
fvJ
                                                                         TABLE 11


                                                    ENERGY ANALYSIS  -  TOWEL CATEGORY PRODUCTS - 1,000 USES




Energy Type 10 Btu
Process
Transportation
Material Resource
Total
Energy Source 10 Btu
Petroleum
Natural Gas
Coal
Nuclypwr
Wood Fiber
Fossil Fuel (7.)
Wood Fiber (%)
Cloth
Towel
U32 LI

1.169
0.007
0.01 1
1.188

0.258
0.457
0.389
0.083
0.001
92.9
0.1
Cloth
Towel
U32 L5

0.421
0.007
0.006
0.435

0.107
0.147
0.151
0.029
0.001
93.1
0.2
Cloth
Toue 1
II 100 M

1.010
0.00')
0.008
1.020

0.21 1
0.410
0.327
0.072
0.000
92.9
0.0
Cloth
Towc 1
Ul 00 L5

0.262
0.002
0.003
0.267

0.060
0.100
0.089
0.018
0.000
93.2
0.0
Cloth Towel
Cold Wash
11 100 LI

0.527
0.003
0.008
0.538

0.110
0.157
0.272
0.048
0.000
90.9
0.0
Cel lulose
Sponge
U100 LI

0.477
0.001
0.004
0.482

0.095
0.204
0.146
0.033
0.005
92.3
1.0
Cel lulose
Sponge
0100 L5

0.142 "
0.001
0.002
0.1 44

0.027
0.065
0.039
0.009
0.005
91.0
3.5
Paper Towe 1
Two-Pi v
1,330 Towels

0.450
0.032
0.014
0.496

0.157
0.137
0.067
0.014
0.122
72. fl
24.6
        Source: MRI.

-------
                                                          TABLE 12





                                     ENERGY ANALYSIS - HOME NAPKIN PRODUCTS - 1,000 USES


g
Energy Type 10 Btu
Process
Tr an spor ta ti on
Material Resource
Total
Energy Source 10 Btu
Petroleum
Natural Gas
Coal
Nuclhypwr
Wood Fiber
Fossil Fuel CO
Wood Fiber CO
Cloth
Napkin
Ul
11.366
0.299
0.816
12.480

3.568
3.383
4.503
0.521
0.505
91.8
4.0
Cloth
Napkin
U27
1.082
0.011
0.034
1.128

0.265
0.400
0.377
0.067
0.019
92.4
1.7
Cloth
Napkin
U54
0.886
0.006
0.019
0.911

0.202
0.343
0.298
0.058
0.009
92.5
1.0
Cloth
Napkin
U100
0.797
0.003
0.013
0.812

0.173
0.317
0.262
0.054
0.005
92.6
0.6
Cloth Napkin
Cold Wash
U54
0.530
0.006
0.019
0.555

0.128
0.156
0.221
0.041
0.009
91.0
1.6
Cloth Napkin
Cold Wash
U100
0.439
0.003
0.013
0.455

0.098
0.130
0.185
0.037
0.005
90.8
1.0
Paper Napkin
One-Ply
1,000
0.149
0.013
0.007
0.168

0.055
0.045
0.022
0.004
0.042
72.6
25.0
Source: MRI.

-------
                                    TABLE 13
               ENERGY ANALYSIS - COMMERCIAL NAPKINS - 1,000 USES

Energy Tvpe 10 Btu
Process
Transportation
Material Resource
Total
Energy Source 10 Btu
Petroleum
Natural Gas
Coal
Nuclhypwr
Wood Fiber
Fossil Fuel (%)
Wood Fiber (7.)
Cloth
Napkin
Ul
6.219
0.288
0.144
6.652
1.821
' 2.194
2.241
0.384
0.012
94.0
0.2
Cloth
Napkin
N27
0.732
0.013
0.007
0.752
0.080
0.553
0.100
0.018
. 0.000
7.5
0.0
Cloth
Napkin
U54
0.627
0.007
0.005
0.638
0.047
0.521
0.059
0.011
0.000
98.3
0.0
Cloth
Napkin
U27
0.398
0.013
0.007
0.417
0.080
0.218
0.100
0.018
0.000
95.4
0.0
Paper Napkin
Two-Ply
1,000 Napkins
0.359
0.013
0.002.
0.374
0.114
0.098" .
0.051
0.010
0.101
70.5
27.0
Source: MRI.
                                   34

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                                                     TABLE 14





                                    ENERGY ANALYSIS - DIAPER PRODUCTS - 100 CHANGES





Energy Type 10 Btu
Process
Transportation
Material Resource
Total
Energy Source 10 Btu
Petroleum
Natural Gas
Coal
Nuclhypwr
Wood Fiber
Fossil Fuel CO
Wood Fiber (%)
Cloth
Home
Laundered
U25

0.445
0.002
0.004
0.450

0.095
0.179
0.144
0.032
0.000
92.9
0.0
. Cloth
Home
Laundered
U50

0.422
0.001
0.003
0.426

0.088
0.172
0.135
0.030
0.000
92.7
0.0
Cloth
Home
Laundered
U100

0.410
0.001
0.003
0.413

0.084
0.169
0.131
0.029
0.000
93.0
0.0
Cloth
Commercial
Laundered
Ul

1.291
0.034
0.024
1.350

0.347
0.471
0.450
0.077
0.005
93.9
0.0
Cloth
Commercial
Laundered
U50

0.162
0.001
0.001
0.164

0.010
0.139
0.013
0.002
0.000
98.8
0.0
Cloth
Commercial
Laundered
U100

0.150
0.001
0.001
0,152

0.007
0.136
0.008
0.001
0.000
99.3
0.4

Disposable
1 Diaper
103 Diapers

0.332
0.013
0.036
0.382

0.095
0.112
0.063
. 0.008
0.103
70.7
27.0 •
Sourcet MRI.

-------
                                 TABLE 15
               ENERGY ANALYSIS - SHEET PRODUCTS - 1,000 USES

Sheet Systems



Energy Type 10 Btu
Process
Transportation
Material Resource
Total
g
Enersv Source" 10 Btu
Petroleum
Natural Gas
Coal
Nuclhypwr
Wood Fiber
Fossil Fuel (7.)
Wood Fiber (%)
Cloth
Sheet
Ul

80.638
3.575
13.822
98.034


34.634
32.343
26.338
4.582
0.138
95.2
0.1
Cloth
Sheet
U50

6.714
0.091
0.297
7.102


0.820
5.451
0.699
0.128
0.003
98.1
0.0
Cloth
Sheet
U100

5.960
0.055
0.059
6.174


0.475
5.177
0.438
0.083
0.002
98.6
0.0
Cloth
Sheet
U300

5.457
0.032
0.067
5.555


0.245
4.994
0.263
0.052
0.001
99.0
0.0
Disposable
Sheet
1,000 Sheets

5.907
0.492
3.659
10.059


2.025.
5.768
1.207
0.267
0.793
89.5
7.9 .
Source: MRI.
                                   36

-------
                                                  TABLE 16

                  ENERGY ANALYSIS - NINE FLUID OUNCE COLD DRINK PRODUCTS - MILLION SERVINGS
                                                              Cold Drink Systems
Energy Type 10  Btu

Process
Tran spor ta ti on
Material Resource
  Total

Energy Source 10  Btu

Petroleum
Natural Gas
Coal
Nuclhypwr
Wood Fiber

Fossil Fuel (%)
Wood Fiber (%)
                           Glass
                          Tumbler
                           U100
217.8
  1.8
  4.3
223.9
 29.7
138.1
 40.8
  8.3
  7.0

 93.1
  4.0
             Glass
            Tumbler
             Ul.QQO
179.4
  0.5
  4.3
184.2
 21.0
118.6
 35.8
  7.9
  0.8

 95.2
  0.6
           Polypropylene
              Tumbler
               U100
193.0
 50.8
 26.9
270.7
 70.6
153.1
 38.0
  8.4
  0.6

 96.7
  0.3
              Polypropylene
                 Tumbler
                  Ul.OOO
177.0
  5.4
  6.5
189.0
 25.2
120.1
 35.5
  7.9
  0.2

 95.7
  0.1
              Paper Cup
              Wax Coat
              (million)
420.3
 31.3
112.3
563.9
218.1
118.5
 97.6
  9.8
119.8

 77.0
 21.2
             Thermoformed
            Polystyrene Cup
               (million)
309.5
 43.4
343.9
696.8
375.8
243.1
 59.2
 12.7
  6.0

 97.3
  0.9
Source: MRI.

-------
                                                    TABLE 17





                  ENERGY ANALYSIS - SEVEN FLUID OUNCE HOT DRINK PRODUCTS - MILLION SERVINGS
co





6
Energy^ Type 10 Btu
Process
Transportation „
Material Resource
Total
6
Energy Source 10 Btu
Petroleum
Natural Gas
Coal
Nuclhypwr
Wood Fiber
Fossil Fuel (%)
Wood Fiber (7.)

China
Cup
U100


554.7
115.7
10.1
680.5


180.7
372.5
99.6
21.1
6.6
95.9
1.2

China
Cup
Ul , 000


411.7
12.3
. 10.1
434.1


59.4
274.3
81.4
18.1
0.9
95.6
0.3
Hot
Mel ami ne
Cup
U100


475.8
10.4
64.5
550.8


71.8
356.9
93.4
20.7
7.9
94.8
1.8
Drink Systems
Mel ami ne
Cup
Ul.OOO


403.8
1.8
15.6
421.2


48.5
272.7
80.8
18.0
1.0
95.4
0.3
Paper Cup
LDPE Lined
(million)


526.1
18.8
23.6
568.5


94.0
172.4
119.3
9.1
173.7
67.8
30.6
Foam Cup
Polystyrene
(million)


405.4
42.3
123.3
571.0


297.7
225.7
30.9
5.8
10.8
97.1
1.9
       Source:  MRI.

-------
                                                  TABLE  18
                         ENERGY ANALYSIS -  9 INCH PLATE PRODUCT'S  - MILLION SERVINGS





Energy Type 10 Btu
Process
to Transportation
0 Material Resource
Total
Energy Source 10 Btu
Petroleum
Natural Gas
Coal
Nuclhypwr
Wood Fiber
Fossil Fuel (%)
Wood Fiber (%)

China
Plates
U100

688.1
271.5
9.0
968.6

349.7
478.6
112.1
23.6
4.6
97.1
0.5

China
Plates
Ul ,000

385.4
27.8
9.0
422.2

71.7
258.6
74.7
16.5
0.7
95.9
0.2

China
Plates
U6.900

356.7
4.6
9.0
370.3

45.3
237.6
71.2
15.9
0.3
95.6
0.1
Plate
Mel ami ne
Plates
U100

488.3
9.5
101.8
599.6

77.4
393.4
95.4
21.2
12.2
94.4
2.4
System
Mel ami ne
Plates
Ul.OOO

365.4
1.6
18.3
385.3

44.5
250.0
73.1
16.3
1.4
95.4
0.5

Paper Plate
White Press
(million)

706.7
38.3
3.1
748.1

131.0
193.6
161.4
10.6
251.5
65.0
33.6

Foam Plate
Polystyrene
(million)

660.4
412.9
675.9
1,479.2

785.8
502.9
140.1
29.4
21.1
96.6
1.4
Source: MRI.

-------
resource energy from 3  to  7 percent. The material resource energy is asso-
ciated with  the polyester  component of the cloth napkin and with any plastic
packaging. The reusable systems rely on fossil fuels for over 90 percent of
their system energy, while the paper napkin requires 72.6 percent fossil
fuel and 25  percent wood-derived energy.

                     (3) Table 14 - Diapers; Again, process energy is the
dominant type for  the Diaper category. Transportation energy varies from
2  to 4 percent; for  the reusable products, the variation is directly related
to  the product use factor. The cloth systems dependance on fossil fuel is
greater than 90 percent. Commercial laundry systems use a higher percent-
age of fossil fuels  for water heating than the home systems, which will
use more electricity and thereby a higher percentage of nuclear and hydro-
power. The disposable diaper system derives 27 percent of its energy from
wood residues.

                     (4) Table 15 - Sheets: The cloth sheet systems show
substantial  amounts of materials resource energy (1 to 41 percent depending
on use factor)  due to the polyester fiber comprising 50 percent of the sheet.
The disposable sheet has around 35 percent material resource energy contri-
buted by the polyethylene backing for the nonwoven fiber.' For the cloth
sheets the natural gas energy percentage varies from 33 percent for a low
use factor to around 90 percent for the 300-use sheets. Again, the natural
gas used to  treat the wash water increases relative to electrical power
demand, as the use factor increases. The disposable sheet system derives
7.9 percent  of its energy requirements from wood residues while the reusable
sheets depend almost entirely on fossil fuels.

                    (5) Tables 16 and 17 - Containers; The reusable products
are heavily  dependent upon fossil fuels as their primary energy source.
The paper containers derive 20 to 30 percent of their energy requirements
from wood residues. The higher transportation energy for the china cup sys-
tems is primarily due to the energy used in transporting the postconsumer
waste to a landfill. The transportation energy varies from 20 percent of
the total at 100 uses of the china cup to 3 percent for 1,000 use of the
cup. Therefore,  transportation of raw materials and postconsumer solid waste
become important considerations in the china systems. Both the glass and
china manufacturing steps use primarily natural gas as their energy source
thereby increasing the percentage of fossil fuels required for the system.
The thermoformed plastic cup system shows 49 percent and the foam cup 21
percent material resource energy.

                    (6) Table 18 - Plates; High transportation energy for
the china products is again due to the energy required to dispose of the
postconsumer solid waste, and to transport raw materials. This energy de-
creases to less  than 2 percent for the expected life scenario of 6,900
uses for the china plate.
                                  40

-------
                    The material resource energy for the plastic foam plate
represents 46 percent of the total system energy, while the paper system
shows only 0.4 percent of the total. The melamine plate system varies from
5 to 17 percent for material resource energy depending on the use factor.

                    The reusable systems depend on fossil fuels for over
95 percent of their energy, while the paper plate system derives 33.6 percent
of its energy from wood wastes.

               b. Energy as a Function of Use Factors and Usage Patterns?
In this report, the use factor refers to the number of times the product
is used before discarding as solid waste. The usage pattern identifies the
number of times the product is used before it is washed. Only the towel
category has usage patterns greater than one throughout the report.

               Figure 3 presents the relationship of cloth towel usage pat-
terns and total system energy. The energy values are plotted for 1, 2, 3,
4 and 5 uses before laundering for cloth towels having use factors of 32
and 100.' The figure shows the two-ply paper towel system to have a constant
total energy of 0.496 million Btu. Both the 32 and 100 use cloth towel sys-
tems have larger total energy values at the usage pattern of one use before
laundering. The 32 use cloth towel energy value becomes equal to the paper
towel energy value at around 3.5 uses before laundering. The 100 use cloth
towel energy reduces to the energy of the paper system at around 2.3 uses
before laundering. If only one paper towel is used per spill, the paper
system energy becomes 0.271 million Btu per 1,000 spills.

               With a usage pattern of one, the paper towel has the most
favorable position with respect to energy use. As the usage pattern and/or
use factor for the cloth towel increases, the cloth towel energy position
becomes very competitive with the paper system. Taking into account the
varying use habits of households, there does not appear to be a disconcernible
difference in energy requirements between the reusable and disposable towel
products.

               Figure 4 compares the energy of the cellulose sponge, at
various usage patterns, with the paper towel system. With multiple uses before
laundering, the sponge displays a favorable position with respect to total
energy use.
                                   41

-------
                                                 	  Cloth Towel Use 32
                                                 	Cloth Towel Use 100
                                                 	Paper Towel (1830 Towels)
                                                 ———  Paper Towel ( Less Wood
                                                                     Wastes Energy )
                               234

                         Times Used Before Laundering (Reusables)
              Figure  3  -  Energy -  Cloth Towel Usage Patterns Versus  Paper Towel
                                             (1,000 Spills)
o
   0.5

   0.4


   0.3
    .      Sponge Use 100
   _„._ Paper  Towel
   ____. Paper  Towel ( Less  Wood
                      Wastes Energy)
0.1

  0
                               I
I
                   12345

                          Times Used Before Laundering (Reusables)

                 Figure  4 -  Energy  -  Sponge Usage Patterns Versus Paper  Towel
                                       42

-------
               The comparative energy analysis for the home and commercial
napkin systems is presented in Figure 5. The home napkin approaches a mini-
mum energy value of 0.695 million Btu. The 0.695 million Btu represents the
energy required to launder 1,000 napkins. As the use factor for the napkin
increases, the impacts for process other than laundering become very small.
The commercial cloth napkin system energy approaches 0.525 million Btu as
its minimum value. Therefore, both the one-ply and two-ply paper napkins
require the smaller amount of energy for 1,000 uses.

               Figure 6 contains the energy analysis for the diaper systems.
The cloth system using home laundry approaches the energy of the disposable
diaper system. However, the cloth system using the commercial laundry re-
quires less energy than the disposable system after a use factor of around
five. The commercial system approaches a minimum energy of around 0.14 mil-
lion Btu per 100 changes.

               Figure 7 shows the energy comparison of the cloth sheet and
nonwoven disposable sheet. Since energy estimates were made in the manu-
facturing step of the disposable sheet, the values in Figure 7 represent
our best estimate of the actual energy value. According to the data, the
reusable sheet requires less energy after around 20 uses. The estimate used
for the disposable sheet manufacturing step (0.157 million Btu per 1,000
sheets) represents 1.6 percent of the total disposable system. The estimate
used for the nonwoven fiber manufacture was 2.9 million Btu per 1,000 sheets
or 29 percent of the system total.

               The energy comparisons of the cold and hot drink container
systems are presented in Figure 8. The reusable systems show less energy
than the disposable systems after a use factor of around 20, considering
commercial dishwashing only.

               The energy analysis of the plate systems (Figure 9) .shows
that reusable systems use less energy after around 200 uses for the china
plate, and 50 uses for the melamine plate. The energy values represent re-
usable systems with commercial dishwashers.

     B. Analysis of Environmental Outputs
                                  1 2
          1. Atmospheric Emissions:' Tables 19 through 24 contain tabulated
data for atmospheric emission summaries. The values have been grouped in
six categories: particles, nitrogen oxides, hydrocarbons, sulfur oxides,
carbon monoxide, and others. The first five pollutants generally account
for more than 95 percent of the total emissions. The "other" category in-
cludes all other pollutants.
I/  See comments No.  8-9  Appendix B, pages 7-8.
2/  See comments No.  12-13  Appendix B, page 8.

                                  43

-------
   l.Or

   0.8

   0.6

I  0.4

   0.2
c
o
                                    	1-Ply Home Paper Napkin
                                    ————• Cloth - Home
                                    ~~~~~~ Cloth - Commercial
                                    	*~~* 2-Ply Comm. Paper Napkin
      )    10    20     30     40    50    60    70    80     90

                     Times Used Before Discard (Reusable*)

       Figure 5 - Energy - Cloth  Napkins Versus Paper Napkins
                                                                   100
D
CO
c
0
5
1.0
0.8
0.6
0.4
0.2
0

•""••—"• Cloth Comm. Laundry
	 Disposable Diaper
. Disposable Diaper
( Less Wood
^^^ Wastes Energy)

X

1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1
     0     10    20     30     40    50    60    70    80     90    100

                    Times Used Before Discard (Reusables)

      Figure 6 - Energy  - Cloth Diapers  Versus Disposable Diapers

-------
c
o
    12r
    10
    4




    2
     Cloth

•— Disposable

_.. Disposable ( Less Wood

                Wastes Energy)
      )             100             200            300


                    Times Used Before Discard (Reusables)



       Figure 7 - Energy -  Cloth Sheet Versus Disposable Sheet
                               45

-------
700

600

500

400

300

200

100

  0
                                               •--Thermoformed Polystyrene Cup
                                               — Paper Wax Coated Cup
_l\	Paper Wax Coated Cup
                                                  (Less Wood Wastes Energy)
  \
                                                  Polypropylene Tumbler
                                                  Glass Tumbler
                         I
               200         400         600
             Times Used Before Discard (Reusables)
                                               800
700

600

500

400

300


200


100

  0,
      Figure  8  -  Energy  -  Resuable Versus Disposable Containers  (9  fl  oz)
                                                	Polystyrene Foam Cup
                                                  Paper LDPE Lined Cup
                                                     China Cup
                                                     Melamine Cup

                                                     Paper LDPE Lined
                                                     (Without Wood
                                                      Waste Energy)
                         I
               200         400          600
            Times Used Before Discard (Reusables)
                                                800
       Figure 8a - Energy - Reusable Versus Disposable Containers (7 fl oz)
                                         46

-------
    1600r
    1400-4
    1200
    1000
CO
o
China Plate
Melamine Plate
Plastic Foam
Paper
Paper ( Less
Wood Wastes
Energy)
                   200
1000
             400          600         800

           Times Used Before Discard (Reusables)

Figure 9 - Energy  -  Reusable Versus Disposable Plates
6000
                                        47

-------
                                  TABLE 19
            ATMOSPHERIC EMISSIONS - TOWEL CATEGORY -  1,000  SPILLS


Pollutant
Particles
Nitrogen Oxides
Hydrocarbons
Sulfur Oxides
Carbon Monoxide
Other
Total
Cloth
Towel
• U100 LI
0.47
0.90
0.57
1.90
0.16
0.03
4.03
Cloth
Towel
U100 L5
0.16
0.25
0.15
0.50
0.06
0.01
1.13

Sponge
U100 LI
0.20.
0.41
0.27
0.86
0.07
0.15
1.96

Sponge
U100 L5
0.06
0.12
0.08
0.24
0.02
0.14
0.66

Paper
Towe 1
0.22
0.40
0.24
0.66
0.23
0.04
1.79
Source: MRI.
                                  TABLE 20
            ATMOSPHERIC EMISSIONS - NAPKIN CATEGORY -  1,000 MEALS



Pollutant
Particles
Nitroeen Oxides
Hydrocarbons
Sulfur Oxides
Carbon Monoxide
Other
Total
Cloth
U54
Home
0.46
0.77
0.52
1.71
0.07
0.04
3.67
Cloth
U100
1 Home
0.38
0.70
0.46
1.52
0.13
0.01
3.22
Paper
One-Ply
Home
0.09
0.14
0.09
0.27
0.10
0.01
0.65
Cloth
U27
Commercial
0.25
0.53
0.61
0.55
0.21
0.06
2.21
Paper
Two-Ply
Commercial
0.17
0.30
0.16
0.49
0.12
0.03
1.27
Source: MRI.
                                   48

-------
                    TABLE 21

               ATMOSPHERIC EMISSIONS
          DIAPER CATEGORY - 100 CHANGES
  Pollutant

Particles
Nitrogen Oxides
Hydrocarbons
Sulfur Oxides
Carbon Monoxide
Other
Total
   Cloth
    U50
Commercial

   0.03
   0.10
   0.14
   0.07
   0.03
   0.02
   0.39
Disposable

   0.19
   0.26
   0.18
   0.44
   0.09
   0.04
   1.20
Source: MRI.
                       TABLE 22

                ATMOSPHERIC EMISSIONS
          BEDDING  CATEGORY  - 1,000 CHANGES


Pollutant
Particles
Nitrogen Oxides
Hydrocarbons
Sulfur Oxides
Carbon Monoxide
Other
Total
Cloth
Sheet
U100
1.00
3.71
5.65
2.61
1.29
0.27
14.53
Cloth
Sheet
U300
0.56
3.20
5.05
1.57
0.93
0.25
11.56

Disposable
Sheet
2.38
6.32
9.41
8.07
2.17
0.29
28.64
   Source: MRI.
                        49

-------
o
                                                            TABLE 23





                                    ATMOSPHERIC EMISSIONS - CONTAINER CATEGORY (MILLION SERVINGS)

Glass Polypropylene


Pollutant
Particles
Nitrogen Oxides
Hydrocarbons
Sulfur Oxides
Carbon Monoxide
Other
Total
Tumbler
ui,ooo
9 Fl Oz
56
134
133
208
28

564
Tumbler
Ul.OOO
9 Fl. Oz
51
138
142
203
62

602
Paper
Wax
Cup
9 Fl Oz
191
293
260
568
262
40
1,614
Thermoformed
Polystyrene
Cup
9 Fl Oz
129
365
573
480
395
21
1,963
China
Cup
111,000
7 Fl Oz
145
320
318
471
140

1,407
Mel ami ne
Cup
Ul.OOO
7 Fl Oz
115
304
310
464
67

1,272
Paper
LDPE
Cup
7 Fl Oz
244
305
247
632
, 142
49
1,619
Foam
Polystyrene
Cup
7 Fl Oz
133
366
571
446
307
31
1,854
    Source: MRI.

-------
                                        TABLE 24
                 ATMOSPHERIC EMISSIONS - PLATE CATEGORY (MILLION SERVINGS)


Pollutant
Particles
Nitrogen Oxides
Hydrocarbons
Sulfur Oxides
Carbon Monoxide
Other
Total
China
Ul.OOO
172
317
316
436
239
20
1,500
China
U6.900
110
270
269
407
81
9
1,146
Melamine
uioo •
152
405
533
599
149
38
1,876
Melamine
Ul.OOO
105
277
288
422
64
9
1,165

Paper
272
391
274
782
253
59
2,031
Foam
Polystyrene
345
893
1,480
1,152
988
66
4,924
Source: MRI.

-------
          Figures  10  through  15 present  the atmospheric emissions data
graphically, for selected products  in each product category. Figure  10
shows  the primary  pollutant for the  towel category to be  sulfur oxides.
For  the cloth and  sponge products,  the sulfur oxides result from the burn-
ing  of coal used to generate  the electricity required in  the manufacturing
steps. In the paper profile the sulfur oxides result from both power genera-
tion and papemaking  process  losses.

          In Figure 11 the sulfur oxides emissions associated with  the com-
mercial napkin are less than  the home napkin due  to the more common use of
natural gas rather than electricity  to heat the laundry water.

          Figures  12  and 13 show that the pollutant profiles for the cloth
products are similar, in relative proportions,  to the cloth towels and nap-
kins.  The disposable  diaper profile  is similar  in makeup  to the other paper
products. The disposable sheet shows higher hydrocarbon emissions than a
typical paper product, due to the emissions from  the plastic film system.

          Figures  14  and 15 show that the atmospheric emissions are  fairly
evenly distributed between the five  primary pollutants.
                            1,2,3
          2. Waterborne Waste; The  analyses of  the waterborne waste  impact
categories are presented in graphic  form in Figures 16 through 21, and
numerically in Tables 25 through 30.

          For all  of  the products,  the primary  impacts are dissolved solids,
Biochemical Oxygen Demand (BOD), Chemical Oxygen  Demand  (COD), suspended
solids, and dissolved solids. The pollutants reported in  minor quantities
are  listed in the  "other" category.

          The waterborne waste impacts are broken down in Figures 16 through
19 according to the primary impacts. The waterborne waste for  the container
and  plate category are divided into  dissolved solids and  other, since  the
dissolved solids is so predominant  in the dishwashing process.
                                  1,4,5
          3. Industrial Solid Waste; The industrial solid waste category
is divided into three sections: those impacts resulting from process,  fuel
combustion, and mining/extraction operations. The results are presented
graphically in Figures 22 through 27, and numerically in  Tables 31  through
36.

          From Figure 22, the towel  category products industrial solid waste
breakdown shows that  process  and mining  wastes  account for the largest pound-
age. The same is true for Figure 23, except the process solid wastes are
more predominant for  the commercial  cotton napkin and paper napkin.  The
cotton napkin has more process wastes than the  cotton-rayon" home napkin
due  to the solids  resulting from the cotton ginning process.
I/  See comments  No.  8-9 Appendix B, pages 7-8.
2/  See comment No.  10 Appendix B, page 8.
3/  See comments  Appendix  J, pages 4, 22-31, and 33-34.
4/  See comment No.  11 Appendix B, page 8.
5/  See comments  Appendix  J, page 3 and 18-sO.
6/  Should be polyester-rayon.
                                      52

-------
POUNDS ATMOSPHERIC EMISSIONS
— ' S3 • Co ^w tr
• • • • .
O O o O O C

4





—

C
u
.13






:::f±
loth
100L1










••
i
1.13


»*•••••
Clc
i 10

1

I
5:4--
th
OL5
1.96
•••

: ; *: :|j :
• . .-.- •. . •
;i ?;;:;!
II

< II 1 1 1 i 1 ' I i
Sponge
u 100L
Carbon Monoxide
pWmd Sulfur Oxides
::::::::::::: Hydrocarbons
Nitrogen Oxides
g::::: Particles
• 1.8

M ;....-..•

"** '"'. '. '•'. '•'. '.' '• '•'
\\ 0.66 1 jj || Si!
j| baiiiaajj | |llllllll llj
i Sponge Paper
1 u 100L5
Figure 10 - Atmospheric Emissions Towel Category - 1,000 Uses
                       53

-------
    5.0
t/i

Z

o
1/1
t/i
u

oc
LU
X
Q.
(/I

O



1

VI
O
0.
    4.0
    2.0
    1.0
              3.7
    3.0
                           3.2
                                      0.65
                                                    Other

                                                    Carbon Monoxide


                                                    Sulfur Oxides


                                                    Hydrocarbons


                                                    Nitrogen Oxides


                                                    Particles
                                                   2.2
                                                               1.26
             Cloth

             u 54

             Home
                          Cloth

                          u  100

                          Home
Paper

Home
Cloth

 27

Comm
Paper

Comm
           Figure 11 - Atmospheric Emissions Napkin Category

-------
INDS ATMOSPHERIC EMISSIONS
o o — — K>
. • • • •
.N 00 KJ O O
2 o




i*
1
.6
:•:•:•:•:•:•:•:•:•:•:•:
:::::::::-:::::::v':;:
s:::z"

>••••••••
»•••••••
!!"••••

Cloth
Home
u 100

:• I


i*
0 39

•i
1
•i
•
•
2
••
:v:::::j:::|:|:x':::



II

1


m
:|:j
::;

Cloth Disposable
Comm
u 50
Figure 12 - Atmospheric Emissions Diaper Category
POUNDS ATMOSPHERIC EMISSIONS
— — ro to ro
4x oo ro o- o 4x oo
• . • • • • •
oooooo oo
H| Other
Carbon Monoxide
Is! Sulfur Oxides

-

/o.o

*
liljjl Hydrocarbons
Ijll Nitrogen Oxides :

14.5

•ixlvi-SSS-'iS:
!•!•••••••••••••••••'
>•••••••••••••••••••'
»•••••••»•••*••••••'
!•••••••••••»•••••••'
fliiiif'ff'liifffffi
iiiiiiiiiiiiiniiii
Cloth
u 100
les


11.6

•••••••••••»*•••••*
>••••••••••••••••••'
••••••••*••••••••*•<
!••••••••••••••••••
>*•»•••»*••••••»••*•
rfrlfflfffftiffftli
Cloth
u300





'•••ivSijilx


**•***•*••*•'
•••*>••••••••<



;X:-::

>**••
•••••'
•••••
>•*»•
!••••


Disposable
Figure 13 - Atmospheric Emissions Bedding Category
                         55

-------
   2500
   2000
Z
g
oo
oo
I
LU
u
Q£
UJ
X
Q.
00
o
Q
Z
D
O
Q.
1500
   1000
            564
    500
                   Other

                   Carbon Monoxide

                   Sulfur Oxides
                   Hydrocarbons

                   Nitrogen Oxides

                   Particles
                           1614
                                        1963
                                                                             1853
                  1619
1408
                                                       1271
            Glass     Polypr    Paper     TF      China    Melam
           u 1000    u 1000    Wax     Polysty    u 1000   u 1000
            90Z      90Z      90Z     90Z       70Z      70Z
                                                                Paper     Foam
                                                                LDPE    Polysty
                                                                70Z      70Z
                  Figure  li -  Atmospheric Emissions Container Category

                                         56

-------
POUNDS ATMOSPHERIC EMISSIONS
5 b> w £ oi o>
§ 8 S 5 o o
2 Q o o o C
0 a o s o o
BH Other
Carbon Monoxide


::::::

'••XX Sulfur Oxides
:::••:; Hy
Ni
drocarbons
hrogen Oxides




| ! 1 1 Ij !J| Particles
1




1500
•••••

ill

P
jiil

China
u 1000
1876


China Melomine
u 6900 u 100



^

165

:: ::
i iiil
tAelami
u 100C

;:•: : !i
1
ie
)
2031
TMf
1
Pap
Hi!

er
1

»
:i



4923
MM


*****
III! : JHH

Foam
Polyst)
•


i*rtj


f
Figure 15 - Atmospheric Emissions Plate Category



              57

-------
   1.2
  0.8
c
t»
o
« 0.6
o
 3
•e
  0.4

  0.2
            1.0
                                   0.475
                                                               Other
                                                               Suspended Solids
                                                               COD
                                                               BOD
                                                               Dissolved Solids
                                                            0.48
           Cloth        Cloth        Sponge      Sponge       Paper
          • U100L1      U100L5      U100L1      U100L5

           Figure  16  -  Waterborne Wastes  Towel Category (1,000 Spills)
                        Cloth
                        U100
                        Home
                                                Cloth
                                                U27
                                                Comm
                                                               Other
                                                               Suspended Solids
                                                               COD
                                                               BOD
                                                               Dissolved Solids
Paper
Comm
       Figure 17 - Waterborne Wastes Home and Commercial Napkin Category
                                   (1,000 Meals)
                               58

-------
    1.0
 o
 8 0.8
 0)
 I 0.6
•€
 £
I 0.4
 I  0.2
            0.36
                                Other
                                Suspended Solids
                                COD
                                BOD
                                Dissolved Solids
             Cloth       Cloth     Disposoble
             Home       Comm
             U100       U50

       Figure 18  - Waterborne Wastes Diaper Category (100 Changes)
   6.0

   5.0
 I 4.0
'
    3.0
    2.0
    1.0
             Cloth
             U100
Cloth
U300
Disposable
                                 Other
                                 Suspended Solids
                                 COD
                                 BOD
                                 Dissolved Solids
       Figure 19 - Waterborne Wastes Bedding Category (1,000 Changes)

                              59

-------
    1200
   1000
    800
 o

 E
1  600

I
 o
o.
    400
    200
394
                         Ofher
                         Dissolved Solids
                      393
                              267
                                       266
                                                1142
                                             1100
                                                                   301
            Glass    Polypro.   Paper    TF       China    Melam.
            U1000   U1000     Wax C   Polysty.  U1000   U1000
            9oz.    9 oz.      9oz.    9oz.    7oz.    7oz.
                                                               253
                                                      Paper    Foam
                                                      LDPE    Polysty.
                                                      7oz.    7oz.
          Figure 20 - Waterborne Wastes - Container Category  (million  servings)
                                         60

-------
   1200r-
   1000
    800
 v
    600

I

    400
   200
             915
                         827
                                                               Other
                                                               Dissolved Solids
                                      891
                                                 820
                                                                         609
                                                             363
            China
            U1000
China
U6900
Melam.
U100
Melam.
U1000
Paper
Foam
Poly sty.
           Figure  21  -  Waterborne  Wastes  -  Plate Category (million servings)
                                      61

-------
                              TABLE 25
          WATEKBORNE WASTES - TOWEL CATEGORY - 1,000 SPILLS

Pollutant
Dissolved Solids
BOD
COD
Suspended Solids
Alkalinity
Other
Total
Cloth
U100 LI
0.189
0.296
0.071
0.270
0.001
0.177
1.004
Cloth
U100 L5
. 0.046
4 0.064
0.063
0.096
0.000
0.314
Sponge
U100 LI
0.102
0,149
0.035
0.109
0.000
0.475
Sponge
U100 L5
0.039
0.045
0.032
0.031
0.000
0.167
Paper
Two-Plv
0.093
0.159
0.002
0.197
0.000
0.478
Source: MRI.
                              TABLE 26
          WATERBORNE WASTES - NAPKIN CATEGORY - 1,000 MEALS



Pollutant
Dissolved Solids
BOD
COD
Suspended Solids
Alkalinity
Other
Total
Cloth
U54
Home
0.162-
0.235
0.163
0.200
0.000
0.156
0.916
Cloth
U100
Home
0.147
0.225
0.092
0.182
0.000
0.142
0.788
Paper
One-Ply
Home
0.034
0.064
0.001
0.071
0.000
0.009
0.179
Cloth
U27
Commercial
0.149
0.123
0.216
0.253
0.000
0.088
0.829
Paper
Two-Ply
Commercial
0.067
0.139
0.001
0.171
0.000
0.022
0.400
Source:  MRI.
                                   62

-------
                        TABLE 27
    WATERBORNE WASTES - DIAPER CATEGORY - 100 CHANGES
  Pollutant

Dissolved Solids
BOD
COD
Suspended Solids
Alkalinity
Other
Total
0.075
0.249
0.013
0.198
0.000
0.066
0.601
  Cloth
   U50
Commercial

   0.035
   0.038
   0.033
   0.051
   0.000
   0.020
   0.177
            Disposable

               0.058
               0.103
               0.040
               0.129
               0.000
               0.026
               0.356
Source: MRI.
                       TABLE 28
  WATERBORNE WASTES - BEDDING CATEGORY - 1,000 USES
  Pollutant

Dissolved Solids
BOD
COD
Suspended Solids
Alkalinity
Other
Total
   Cloth
   U100

   1.286
   1.123
   0.966
   1.330
   0.002
   0.639
   5.346
 Cloth
 U300

M.177
 1.085
 0.618
 1.157
 0.002
 0.574
 4.613
                  Disposable

                    1.467
                    0.923
                    0.291
                    1.224
                    0.000
                    0.449
                    4.354
Source: MRI*
                                  63

-------
                                                       TABLE 29





                                   :WATERBORNE WASTES - CONTAINER CATEGORY  (MILLION SERVINGS)




Pollutant
Dissolved Solids
BOD
COD
Suspended Solids
Other
Total
Glass
Tumbler
111,000
9 Fl Oz
355
6
6
9
18
394
Polypropylene
Tumbler
1)1,000
9 Fl Oz
357
4
6
8
18
393
Paper
Wax
Cup
9 Fl Oz
104
70
2
69
22
267
Thermoformed
Pol ystyrene
Cup
9 Fl Oz
165
30
21
25
25
266
China
Cup
U 1,000
7 Fl Oz
1,022
13
19
41
47
1,142
Mel ami ne
Cup
Ul.OOO
7 Fl Oz
1,015
11
15
20
39
1,100
Paper
LDPE
Cup
7 Fl Oz
72
103
2
101
23
301
Foam
Polystyrene
Cup
7 Fl Oz
167
41
8
23
14
253
Source: MRI.

-------
                                   TABLE 30

              WATERBORNE WASTES - PLATE CATEGORY (MILLION SERVINGS)
                   China    China    Melamine   Melamine
  Pollutant        Ul,000   116,900     UIOO      Ul.OOP    Paper   Polystyrene

Dissolved Solids     760      743       774        743       92        356
BOD  .                 12        9        23         10      115         90
COD                   21       15        14         13        1         41
Suspended Solids      67       24        32         18      130         63
Other       "          55       36        49        36       22         59
Total                915      827       892        820      364        609
Source: MRI.
                                  65

-------
    12

    10
     6
 c
 I   4
           12.14
                              Mining
                              Fuel Combustion
                              Process
           Cloth
           U100L1
Cloth
U100L5
Sponge
U100L1
Sponge
U100L5
Figure 22 - Industrial Solid Waste  (Pounds)  Towel  Category (1,000 Spills)
    10

    8

1/1
  .  6
I
 VI
1  4
 3
<£
    2

    0
            10.61
                         10.68
                                            Mining
                                            FueJ Combustion
                                            Process
           Cloth
           U54
           Home
                                     Paper
                                     2-Ply
                                     Comm.
Figure 23 - Industrial Solid Waste  (Pounds) Napkin Category  (1,000 Meals)
                                    66

-------
       "I   2
       J
           1
                             Cloth
                             Comm.
                             U50
                                                 Mining
                                                 Fuel Combustion
                                                 Process
 Figure 24 - Industrial  Solid Waste (Pounds) Diaper Categery  UOO Changes)
                                                  Mining
                                                  Fuel Combustion
                                                  Process
                 Cloth
                 U100
Cloth     Disposable
U300
Figure 25 - Industrial  Solid Waste  (Pounds) Bedding Category (1,000 Changes)

                               67

-------
    6000 r-
    5000
    40001—
-o

J
    3000f-
    20001—
                                Mining
                                Fuel Combustion
                                Process
5558
    10001—
            Glass    Polypro.  Paper    TF        China    Melam.   Paper     Foam
            U1000   U1000    Wax C   Polysty.   U1000    U1000    LDPE     Pol/sty.
            9oz.    9oz.     9oz.    9oz.      7 oz.     7 oz.     7 oz.     7oz.
        Figure.26 -  Industrial Solid Waste (Pounds) Container Category  (Million Changes)

                                          68

-------
                                                          7243
7000 r-
                         Mining
                         Fuel Combustion
                         Process
         China
         U1000
China
U6900
Melam.
U100
                                          Melam.    Paper        Foam
                                          U1000     Uncoared     Polysty.
Figure 27 - Industrial Solid Waste (Pounds) Plate Category (Million Servings)

                                 69

-------
                                   TABLE 31

              INDUSTRIAL SOLID WASTE - TOWEL CATEGORY (1,000 SPILLS)
  Solid Waste Type

Process (lb)
Fuel Combustion (lb)
Mining/Extraction  (lb)
Total  (lb)
Total  (cu ft)
  Cloth
 U100 LI

   4.92
   1.91
   5.31
  12.14 '
   0.16
     Cloth
    U100 L5

      1.84
      0.50
      1.43
      3.77
      0.05
       Sponge
       U100 LI

         1.94
         0.86
         2.39
         5.19
         0.07
        Sponge
        U100 L5

          0.56
          0.23
          0.65
          1.44
          0.02
Source: MRI.
                                 TABLE 32
           INDUSTRIAL SOLID WASTE - NAPKIN CATEGORY (1,000 MEALS)
       Paper
      Two-Ply

        1.86
        0.46
        1.06
        3.38
        0.02
  Solid Waste Type

Process (lb)
Fuel Combustion (lb)
Mining/Extraction (lb)
Total (lb)
Total (cu ft)
Cloth
 U54
Home
IWl^HMMIH

 4.20
 1.63
 4.78
10.61
 0.14
Cloth
U100
Home

 3.58
 1.48
 4.23
 9.29
 0.12
 Paper
One-Ply
 Home

  0.78
  0.16
  0.34
  1.28
  0.02
  Cloth
   U27
Commercial

   8.55
   0.53
   1.60
  10.68
   0.75
  Cloth
 Two-Ply
Commercial

   1.92
   0.35
   0.79
   3.06
   0.37
Source: MRI.
                                   70

-------
                           TABLE 33

      INDUSTRIAL SOLID WASTE - DIAPER CATEGORY  (100 CHANGES)


Solid Waste
Type
Cloth
U100
Home
Cloth
U50
Commercial


Disposables
Processes  (Ib)
Fuel Combustion  (Ib)
Mining/Extraction  (Ib)
  Total  (Ib)
  Total  (cu ft)
1.81
0.77
2.13
4.71
0.64
1.99
0.07
0.21
2.27
0.03
1.58
0.39
0.85
2.82
0.04
Source: MRI.
                           TABLE 34

       INDUSTRIAL SOLID WASTE - BEDDING CATEGORY  (1,000 USES)
Solid Waste               Cloth
   Type                   U100

Process  (Ib)              64.50
Fuel Combustion (Ib)       2.38
Mining/Extraction          7.21
  Total  (Ib)              74.09
  Total  (cu ft)            1.00
              Cloth
              U300

              59.49
               1.47
               4.49
              65.45
               0.88
              Disposable

                18.80
                 7.34
                19.28
                35.42
                 0.61
Source: MRI.
                             71

-------
                                                  TABLE 35





                       INDUSTRIAL SOLID WASTE - CONTAINER CATEGORY (MILLION SERVINGS)




Pollutant
Process (Ib)
Fuel Combustion (Ib)
Mining/Extraction (Ib)
Total (Ib)
Total (cu ft)
Glass
Tumbler
Ul.OOO
9 Fl Oz
113
213
690
1,016
13.7
Polypropylene
Tumbler
Ul.OOO
9 Fl Oz
102
210
632
944
12.8
Paper
Wax
Cup
9 Fl Oz
2,280
1,031
775
4,086
55.16
Thermoformed
Polystyrene
Cup
9 Fl Oz
920
396
942
2,258
30.50
China
Cup
Ul.OOO
7 Fl Oz
421
483
2,195
3,099
41.8
Melamine
Cup
Ul.OOO
7 Fl Oz
246
476
1,446
2,916
29.3
Paper
LDPE
Cup
7 Fl Oz
3,432
1,355
771
5,558
75.03
Foam
Polystyrene
Cup
7 Fl Oz
437
280
486
1,203
16.23
Source;  MRI.

-------
UJ
                                                    TABLE 36




                          INDUSTRIAL SOLID WASTE - PLATE CATEGORY (MILLION SERVINGS)

Solid Waste
Type
Process . (Ib)
Fuel Combustion (Ib)
Mining/Extraction (Ib)
Total (Ib)
Total (cu ft)
China
Ul.OOO
653
446
3,038
4,137
55.8
China
U6.900
272
419
1,522
2,213
29.9
Melamine
U100
404
573
1,662
2,639
35.6
Melamine
Ul.OOO
227
430
1,305
1,962
26.5

Paper
4,503
1,883
857
7,243
97.78
Foam
Polystyrene
1,952
978
2,226
5,156
69.60
       Source:  MRI.

-------
           Figure  24 shows  a different profile  for the  home  and commercial
 diaper systems, which is attributed to the  larger quantity  of  detergents'
 per pound of home laundry  than for commercial  laundry. In Figure  25,  the
 high ratio of process wastes for cloth bedding is attributed to the raw
 materials required in the  washing process.  Figures 26  and 27 show a high
 ratio of mining wastes for the glass and china products.
                                       1,2,3,4,5,6
           4.  Postconsumer Solid Waste; Table  37 contains the  postconsumer
 solid waste data  for each  product. The first column shows the  rounded values
 for the weight of one product item,  in pounds. The second column  shows the
 pounds of packaging material associated with one product item. Corrugated
 materials were assumed to  be recycled and therefore not considered to enter
 the solid waste stream. In most instances,  packaging represents plastic
 wrapping film, with a small amount of paper wrapping and paper cartons. The
 comparison basis  describes the number of use situations selected  to compare
 the products; and the use  factor shows the  number of times  the product is
 used before entering the PCSW stream. The pounds of PCSW as product is ob-
 tained by multiplying the  weight per product item times the number of items
 required in the comparison. The pounds of packaging entering the  PCSW stream
 is  found by multiplying the items for comparison by the pounds of PCSW
 packaging per .product item.

           The total pounds column is the sum of the product and packaging
 contribution to PCSW. The  volume figures are taken from the computer
 out,  and represent the estimated landfill volume associated with  each
 duct,  with the comparison  basis and use factor values  taken into  considera-
 tion.  Since density values for the products vary from  source to source,
 and compaction values are  only estimates, the  PCSW volumes  represent  best
 estimates as to the actual landfill  volume  experienced.
I/  See comments No.  8-9 Appendix B, pages 7-8.
2/  See comment No.  11 Appendix B, page 8.
3/  See comment No.  1 Appendix B, page 23.
4/  See comments Appendix C, pages 2-3.
5/  See comment No.  3 Appendix J, page 2.
6/  See comments Appendix J, pages 4 and 33.
                                  74

-------
                                                                                   TABIB 37



                                                                   SUMMARY  OF POST CONSUMER SOI.lt> WASTE DATA
-J
Ui




Towels
Cloth
Sponge
Paper
Hepktng
II Cloth
II Cloth
II Paper
C Cloth
C Paper
Diapers
11 Cloth
C Cloth
Disposable
Bedding
Cloth
Cloth
Disposable
Containers
Cold
Class
Polypropylene
Papcr-Hai
Thermofotned Polystyrene
Hot
China
Hclamlne
Paper LDPK
Foam Polyatyrene
Plates
China
China
Me lamina
He lamlne
Paper
Foam Polyatyrene

Pounds
Per One
Product

0.132
0.059
0.010

0.097
0.097
0.0053
0.100
0.0137

0.137
0.137
0.105

1.124
1.124
0.238


0.291
0.088
0.0146
0.0140

0.64
0.266
0.01465
0.0044

1.51
1.51
0.453
0.453
0.0234
0.0261
Pounds
PCSU
Package Per Comparison
One Product Basis
1,000 Splits
0.002
0.0044
0.00015
1,000 Meals
0.002 <
0.002
0.00012
0.002
0.0002
100 Changes
0.0013
0.0013
0.028
1.000 Changes
0.0234
0.0234
-0-
Mllllun Servings

-0-
0.008
0.00016
0.00012

-0-
-0-
0.00039
0.00028

-0-
-O-
-0-
-0-
0.00010
0.00035



Use Factor

100
100
1

54
100
1
27
1

100
SO
1

too
300
1


1.000
1.000
1
1

1.000
1.000
1
1

1.000
6.900
too
1,000
I
1

Items
Per
Comparison

10
10
l.BoOi/

18.5
10
1,000
37.0
1.000

1.47H/
2.94
I03£/

10
3.3
1.000


1.000
1.000
Million
Million

1,000
1,000
Million
Million

1.000
145
10.000
1,000
Million
Million

Pounds
PCSH As
Product

1.32
0.59
18.60

1.79
0.97
5.30
3.7
13.7

0.20
0.40
10.82

11.24
3.75
238.0


291.0
88
14,600
14.000

640
266
14,650
4.400

1.510
219
4,530
453
23,400
26,100

Pounds
PCSH As
Package

0.02
0.04
0.28

0.04
0.02
0.12
0.07
0.20

0.00
0.00
2.88

0.23
0.08
-0-


-0-
8.0
160
120

-0-
-0-
390
280

-0-
-0-
-0-
-0-
100
350

Total
Pounds
PCSH

1.34
0.63
18.88

1.83
0.99
5.42
3.77
13.90

0.20
0.40
13.70

11.47
3.83
238.0


291
96
14,760
14,120

640
266
15,040
4.680

1,510
219
4.530
453
23,500
26.450

Volume
PCSU
Cu ft

0.026
0.009
0.266

0.035
0.019
0.089
0.073
0.221

0.004
0.008
0.190

0.220
0.073
3.737


1.833
1.413
241.4
186.8

3.26
3.52
236.9
761.2

7.70
1.12
60.0
6.0
367.7
4.582.5
          £/  1.86  paper towels are used per spill.

          b/  147 diapers are required for 100 changes due to double diapering, etc.

          £/  1.03  disposable diapers per change Is  average practice.

-------
                                TABLE  38

            VOLUME CALCULATIONS FOR  POSTCONSUMER  SOLID WASTE



Product/Material
Paper Cup
Cloth Products
Density
Pound Per
Cu Ft!/
58-72
45-52
Pounds To
Landfill Per
1,000 Ib PCSW^
910
910
Percent
Compaction
Assumed
100
100
Cubic
Feet in
Landfill
15.7
19.9
Thermoformed Polysty-
  rene Cup
Foam Polystyrene Plate
  Cup
Polypropylene Tumbler
Melamine, Plate, Cup
Sponge (Cellulose)
China Plate, Cup
Glass
Polyethylene
                             68.7
910
2.651
56.8
92.4
90.0
196.6
158.0
56.8
910
910
1,000
910
1,000
1,000
910
100
                                                           100
                                                           100
                                                           100
                                                           100
                                                           100
                                                           100
 13.2

172.0
 16.0
 10.8
 10.1
  5.1
  6.3
 16.0
a/
£/
I/
   Density values  given in the  open literature and those obtained from industry
      sources  show  wide  variations.   Therefore, the landfill volume attributed
      to  the products  as shown in this report,  are only approximations to actual
      landfill volume
   Approximately 9 percent of the combustible  products are incinerated.
   Estimate only.
I/  See comment No.  8 Appendix J, page 39.
                                   76

-------
                                CHAPTER 5

             REPA PROFILE ANALYSIS FOR EACH PRODUCT CATEGORY
          This chapter presents materials flow diagrams, detailed REPA
computer tables, and brief discussions of the product profiles. The fol-
lowing paragraph explains the data format in the computer tables*

     A. Interpretation of REPA Computer Tables

          The REPA profile tables present the inputs, outputs, summary
values, and environmental index'values for each product type. For example,
Table 39 represents REPA data for a cloth towel profile with a use factor
of 32 and laundry factor of 1. The input section shows the quantities of
raw materials, energy, and water required by the particular scenarios under
discussion. The output section identifies and quantifies the primary air,
water, and solid waste pollutants associated with the product profile.
In the summary section, the components of each impact category are combined
and expressed as the total quantity of a particular impact category. For
example, the sum of the 14 air emission pollutants is shown under air emis-
sion.

          The index values represent the percent contribution a process
in the total profile has relative to the total value of a particular impact
category* For example, in Table 39 the total values for each product profile
are presented in the last column "Cotton Towel Sys, Tot, 32 Uses." The
total amount of raw materials is 10.310 pounds, the total energy is 1.188
million Btu, etc. The energy contribution for the towel wash process (5th
column) is 0.941 million Btu. Under the index section, the percent contri-
bution of the towel wash process (79.2) to the total cloth towel system
energy (1.188 million Btu) is calculated by dividing the wash process energy
by the system total energy and converting to  percent (0.941 -r 1.188) x
100 = 79.2 percent. The index section is a valuable analysis aid, since
the reader can rapidly pick out the processes in the total profile which
contribute the highest or lowest percentages in each impact category.

          The detailed analyses of the tables are left to the reader. This
study involves 23 separate products with numerous scenarios presented for
the reusable items. An in-depth analysis of each product or product scenario
is beyond the intended scope of the contract. The important aspects of the
study results are presented in the summary chapter (Chapter 2). The detailed
computer printouts are presented in Chapter 5 to enable the reader to obtain
the analysis detail desired. These data can be used with the very detailed
appendix data to study the total system profiles in-depth.
                                   77

-------
          In general, the washing or laundering impacts for the reusable
items account for the majority of the impacts in their REPA profiles* Re-
garding the disposable paper products, the pulp manufacturing and paper-
making steps generally account for around 75 percent of the impacts. The
transportation processes for the disposable products account for 2 to 6
percent of the total system energy, with 2 or 3 percent being the most
common* The profiles for the disposable plastic products show that the
resin systems account for the majority of the impacts. The manufacturing
energy becomes an important part of the profile of the foam plastic
products.

          The material-flow diagrams and the REPA computer data for the
product profiles, are presented in Figures 28 through 50 and Tables 39
through 62.
                                  78

-------
Fertilizer System
        20.0
Cotton Growing,
Cultivating,
Harvesting
Cotton Spinning
& Weaving
134.6
Cotton Towel
Finishing
 One Thousand
•Cotton Towels
 (132lb)
                     Figure 28 - Flow Diagram for Cotton Towel System  (1,000 Towels)
                                                      (Pounds)

-------
Oo
O
                Natural Gas
                Production
                              Sodium Sulfate
                              Production
                                                                                  One Thousand
                                                                                  Cellulose Sponges
                                                                                  (59 Ib)
                      Figure 29 - Flow Diagram for Cellulose Sponge System (1,000 Sponges)
                                                         (Pounds)

-------
            Paper 10.43
       Core Stock 0.366 ib
    Pol/Wrappers 0.179 Ib
       Corrugated 0.984 Ib
   Inks, Adhesive* 0.169 Ib
 Manufacture of




1000 Sq Ft 2-Ply




Consumer Towels
                                                         Product 9.87 Ib
                                                        Packaging 1.16 Ib
                                          i
                               Scrap (for reuse) 1.095 Ib
   a/ Includes approximately 5 percent moisture.
Figure 30 - Materials Requirements for  1,000 Square Feet, Two-Ply Consumer Towels
                                    81

-------
OO
N)
Naturol Gas 27.9
Production
i
Natural
oo a *- > i 1 i o o
Gas "•-> _ Elhylene) IJ-V _
Processing """ Mfg 1 """ (
0.5

Cr
Pr

D-
H]
4.5
Sulfur 18.0 Corbon
Mining Bisulfide

19.4 "
8.2
Oxygen ''•" Acelaldehyde
Mfg *" Mfg
12.6

Methano!
Mfg . 	 1 	 .
Tereplitnalate ^o.o
Acid Mrg *
20.3

ude Oil
aduction P-xylene

21.0 i.
20.5

sti Motion 20-8_1 „ . .
. . . 	 H Reforming
^drolreal |


19.5
Mfg

Sulfuric 57.4
Elhylene 14-° Ethylene
Dxide Mfg ^ Glycol Mfg

.7 1
Dimethyl 55 g Polyetl
Mfg Resin ^
18.3] Melhanol |

». Polyf
Rayon 57-4 Rayo
Mfg Napl
Mfg
IB. 2
tylene
lhalate
%

;ster. One Thousand
n ^ Cloth Napkins
cin Home Use
(97.4lb)
* Acid Mfg "

Salt 29.3 Sodium
Mining "~ Hydroxide

IBJ.l
Wood Harvest 1 »•

(
1.0
OH UCS —

37.3
Mfg

pKf.?rf' 41.7
System




                                                  Figure 31 - flaw Diagram' for Polyescur-itayon Home Napkin System  (1,000 Napkins)
                                                                                          (founds)

-------
           Paper 5.59 IbS/
       Cartons 0.0539 Ib
  Poly Wrappers 0.154 Ib
     Corrugated 0.975 Ib
 Inks, Adhesives 0.099 Ib
 Manufacture of




 1000 Single-Ply




Consumer Napkins
                                                       Product 5.29 Ib
                                                       Packaging  1.18 Ib
                              Scrap (for reuse) 0.40 Ib
 a/  Includes approximately 5 percent moisture.
Figure 32 - Materials Requirements  for  1,000 Single-Ply Consumer  Napkins
                                   83

-------
         Fertilizer System
                15.2
oo
Cotton Growing,
Cultivating,
Harvesting
                                                     Cotton Spinning
                                                     & Weaving
102.0
Cotton Napkin
Finishing
One Thousand
Commercial
Cotton Napkins
(lOOIb)
                          Figure  33  -  Flow Diagram for Commercial Cotton  Napkin System  (1,000 Napkins)
                                                                 (Pounds)

-------
          Paper 14.46 Ib2/
       	£	,
        Cartons 0.179 Ib
 Poly Wrappers 0.0734 Ib
Paper Wrappers 0.0332 Ib
      Corrugated 1.18 Ib
 Manufacture of
   1000 2-Ply
Industrial Napkins
                                                       Product  13.71 Ib
                                                       Packaging 1.47 Ib
                             Scrap (for reuse) 0.753 Ib
 a/  Includes approximately 5 percent moisture
 Figure  34 - Materials Requirements for 1,000 Two-Ply Industrial Napkins
                                    85

-------
00
Cf-
        Fertilizer System
                0.2
Cotton Growing,
Cultivating,
Harvesting
                         16.0
Cotton
Ginning
15.2
Cotton Spinning
& Weaving
14.0
Cotton Diaper
Mfg
 One Hundred
•Cotton Diapers
 (13.7lb)
                          Figure  35 - Flow Diagram for Cotton  Cloth Diaper System  (100 Diapers)
                                                            (Pounds)

-------
            Tissue  1.50IB2/
           PEFilm0.98lb
            Rayon 0.46 Ib
      Acrylic Resin 0.33 Ib
        Polyester 0.018 Ib
   Crepe Wadding 0.110 Ib5/
      Fluffing Pulp 7.92 Ib2/
  Other Materials 0.015 Ib
        Corrugated 1.22 Ib
           Cartons 1.57 Ib
    Poly Wrappers 0.015 Ib
Other Non Woven 0.137
Manufacture of

100 Disposable

   Diapers
Product  10.5 Ib
Packaging 2.81 Ib
                               Waste
                               0.02 Ib
        Scrap (for reuse)
           0.781  Ib
 a/  Includes approximately 5 percent moisture.
 b/  Includes sulfite fiber, cotton, and nylon thread.
      Figure 36  - Materials Requirements for 100 Disposable Diapers
                                    87

-------
00
CO
                                             Terephthalic
                                             Acid Mfg
Dimethyl
Terephthalate
Mfg
834
Polyethylene
Terephthalate
Resin Mfg
                                                   307
       273
Methanol
                                              P-xylene
                                              Extraction
                                           Cotton Spinning,
                                           Weaving
                                                                            440
                                                                                                              One Thousand
                                                                                                              Cloth Sheets
                                 Figure 37 - Flow Diagram for Polyester-Cotton Sheet System  (1,000 Sheets)
                                                                        (Pounds)

-------
oo
                 Wood Harvest
                 Wood Residues
       Natural Gas
       Production
        Crude Oil
        Production
                                          Pulp and
                                          Paper System
131
Natural Gas
Processing
45
        Distillation
129
Ethylene
Mfg
121
              43
       Ethylene
       Mfg
            40
                                                             107.4
                                                                              Disposable
                                                                              Sheet Mfg
                                                                                   143.2
                                                       Low Density
                                                       Polyethylene
                                                       Film Mfg
                                                                     161
                                                                                   150.4
                                 Low Density
                                 Polyethylene
                                 Resin Mfg
                                                                         One Thousand
                                                                         Disposable Sheets
                       Figure 38 - Flow Diagram for Disposable Sheet System  (1,000 Sheets)
                                                         (Pounds)

-------
vO
o


Limestone
AAi ninn


Soda Ash
Mining

Glass Sand
Mining

C_ 1 J-— _,
relaspar

OlUor
\jit\eT

26,772 ^
4O 7X1
4r, /o 1


62,856


193,806


21,825


2,910

Lime
Mfa




















11 ODZ
IJ, OOO

1
Glass Tumbler
Manufacfure






One Million
Glass Tumblers
(291,000 Ib)
                 Figure 39 - Flow Diagram for 9 Fluid Ounce Glass Tumbler System (Million Tumblers)
                                                          (Pounds)

-------
Natural Gas
Production
76,032
Natural Gas
Processing
69,960
 Crude Oil
 Production
25,080
           Distillation
                                                                       Polypropylene
                                                                       Resin Mfg
                                                                              88,440
                                                                       Polypropylene
                                                                       Tumbler Mfg
                                                                       (9floz)
                                                                            T
                                                             One Million Polypropylene Tumblers
                                                                        (88,000 Ibs)
Figure  40  -  Flow Diagram for 9 Fluid Ounce Polypropylene  Tumbler System (Million Tumblers)
                                               (Founds)

-------
vO
ro
            Natural Gas
            Production
3,312
Natural Gas
Processing
3,050
            Crude Oil
            Production
13,494
           Distillation
                                          12,340
                                     Reforming
                                                         Toluene
                                                         Dealkylation
                                                                     Polystyrene
                                                                     Cup Mfg
                                                                     (9 fl oz
                                                                     Thermoformed )
                                                                                                   T
                                                                                             One Million
                                                                                             Polystyrene Cups
                                                                                             (13,960lb)
          Figure  41  - Flow Diagram for 9 Fluid Ounce Thermoformed Polystyrene Cup  System (Million Cups)
                                                           (Pounds)

-------
Bleached Fop.i/bi.ard 12,490
         Wax  f-..fating)  5,380 Ib
                Poly Bogs 160 Ib
                  Cartons 350 Ib
             Corrugated 1,270 Ib
      Inserts and Protectors 100 Ib
                                        Conversion of
                                      One Million Cups
Cups 14,600lb
Packaging  1,880 Ib
                                 Waste  170 Ib    Scrap  (for Reuse) 3,100 Ib

 a/ Includes Approximately 6 Percent Moisture
         Figure  42 - Materials Requirements for 9 Fluid Ounce Wax Coated Paper Cold
                                        Drink Cups  (Million Cups)
                                              93

-------
                   Bauxite Mining
                                    166,400
                    Clay Mining
                 Nepheline Syenite
                 Mining
                    Flint Mining
                   Feldspar Mining
                    Glaze System
                    Plaster System
Alumina Mfg
               99,968
                                                280,000
   99,968
                                                209,984
                                                 60,032
                                                 40,000
                                                 30,016
                                        One Million
                                        China Cups
                                        (640,000 Ib)
                  Figure 43 - Flow Diagram  for  7 Fluid Ounce China Cup System (Million Cups)1
                                                        (Pounds)
I/  See comments Appendix I, pages  3, 19 and  21.

-------
U)
        Natural Gas
        Production
238,070
Natural Gas
Processing
       Tree Harvest
                     72,981
       Wood Residue
                     45,898
                                             75,012
                                                           Ammonia Mfg
                                                      235,942
                                             99,484
                                                        Carbon Dioxide Mfg
                                      60,116
                                 Methanol
                                 Mfg
                         72,618
             Bleached
             Market
             Pulp Mfg
                        Formaldehyde
                        Mfg
                                               62,244
                          72,884
                                                                    410,172
Melamine
Resin Mfg
                                                                                        135,128
Melamine
Molding
Compound
Mfg
                                                                                        267,330
                                                                                   Melamine
                                                                                   Cup Mfg
                                                                              One Million
                                                                             1 Melamine Cups
                                                                              (266,000 Ib)
                 Figure 44 - Flow Diagram for  7 Fluid Ounce Melamine  Cup System (Million Cups)
                                                          (Pounds)

-------
    Natural Gas
    Production
1313
Natural Gas
Processing
1074
1004
vd
                                       Crude Oil
                                       Production
                                 4444
                                 Distillation
                                 Hydrotreat
                                                                  4064
                                                             Reforming
                                                                                 Toluene
                                                                                 Dealkylation
                                                                                  Polystyrene
                                                                                  Resin Mfg
                                                           Isopentane 220
                                                                                                          4650
                                                                                  Polystyrene
                                                                                  Foam Sheet
                                                                                  and Cup Mfg
                                                                                  (7fl oz)
                                                                                                         T
                                                                                                     One Million
                                                                                                     Polystyrene
                                                                                                     Foam Cups
                                                                                                     (4,400lb)
             Figure  45 - Flow  Diagram for 7 Fluid Ounce Foam Polystyrene  Cup System  (Million Cups)
                                                          (Pounds)

-------
vD
•J
           LDPE Coated  Paperboard 19,280
                             Paper Bags 390 Ib
                                Cartons 150 Ib
                           Corrugated 1,550 Ib
                                   Other 60 Ib
Conversion of One
  Million Cups
                                                                               Cups U,650lb
                         Packaging 1.990 Ib
                                                 Waste 380 Ib    Scrap (for Reuse) 4.410 Ib
                  a/ Paperboard is Approximately  6 Percent Moisture
                        Figure 46 - Material Requirements for 7 Fluid Ounce  LDPE Lined Paper

                                                    Hot Drink Cups  (Million Cups)

-------
\0
                      Bauxite Mining
                                       392,600,
                       Clay Mining
                     Nepheline Syenite
                     Mining
                       Flint Mining
                      Feldspar Mining
                       Glaze System
                       Plaster System
Alumina Mfg.
              229,973
                                                    690.070
  210,041
                                                    480,029
                                                    160,060
                                                     89,996
                                                     80,030
                            China
                            Plate
                            Mfg
One Million
China Plates
(1,510.000 Ib)
                          Figure 47 - Flow Diagram for China Plate System (Million Plates)
                                                          (Pounds)

-------
o
o
         Natural Gas
         Production
405,435
        Tree Harvest.
                     326,160
        Wood Residue
                     205,121
Natural Gas
Processing
                                              127,746
                                                            Ammonia Mfg
                                                       401,811
                                              169,422
                                                         Carbon Dioxide Mfg
                                       102,378
                                  Met ha no I
                                  Mfg
                         123,669
             Bleached
             Market
             Pulp Mfg
                        Formaldehyde
                        Mfg
                                               106,002
                                                           124,122
                                                                     698,526
Melamine
Resin Mfg
                                                                                          230,124
                                                    Melamine
                                                    Molding
                                                    Compound
                                                    Mfg
                                                                                          455,265
                                                                                     Melamine
                                                                                     Plate Mfg
                                                                                One Million
                                                                                Melamine Plates
                                                                                (453,000 Ib)
                         Figure  48 - Flow Diagram for Melamine Plate System  (Million Plates)
                                                           (Pounds)

-------
Natural Gas
Production
7,298
Natural Gas
Processing
                                                                                        7,664
                                                                                  Polystyrene
                                                                                  Resin Mfg
                                                                                        26,610
                                         Isopentane 1,040
                                                                                                Polystyrene
                                                                                                Foam Plate
                                                                                                Mfg
                                                                                  One Million
                                                                                  Polystyrene
                                                                                  Foam Plates
                                                                                  (26,100lb)
         Figure  49 -  Flow Diagram for Polystyrene Foam Plate System (Million  Plates)

-------
Paperboard  28, 165 Ib
                    S/
      Poly Bags 120 ib
     Corrugated 945 Ib
Conversion of  One
   Million  Plates
                          Plates 23,360 Ib
                                                        Packaging  880 Ib
                        Waste 20 Ib      Scrap  (for Reuse) 4,970 Ib

 a/ Includes  Approximately  6  Percent Moisture
   Figure 50  - Material Requirements  for  9-Inch Round Clay Coated  Pressed Paper
                                  Plates  (Million Plates)
                                      102

-------
           TABLE  39
• tlOUHCC INO tNVltONMlNTJL PROflLi ANALYSIS
     ONI TMOU CLOTH TOUILS UK It LI
INPUTS



































































SUPMAN













|NOl«














TO SYSTEMS
NAMC
NATCRUL COTTON
MATERIAL SULFATt IH1NC
MATERIAL .oou FIBER
MATCRUL LIMESTONE
MATERIAL IKON DDE
MATERIAL SALT
NATEMIAL uLASS SAND
MATERIAL NAT SUDA ASH
MATERIAL FtLOSPAN

ENtRGT SUUBCt PETMOLEUM
ENERGY SUU-Cf NAt in*
ENERGY SOOMCk COAL
ENERGY SOUMCE "ivt
ENERGY <0(t.CE .OOP FIRE'
ENERGY suuxct XYUHOBOHER
MATFR1AL POfASx
MATERIAL MxQSPxATE HOCK
MATERIAL CIA*
MATERIAL SILICA
MATERIAL x'ucets AOD
ENtRGY PMbCtSS
ENERGY TPAKSPU*T
tNIBAv Of MA7t. PfbOURCt
• ATFM VDLUMIl
>.AM(
SOLID »ASTtS Pt.OCf.SS
SOLID .ASUS fUEL CUMM
SOLID >AS7ES MINIMI-
SOt 10 »ASIl POST-CUMSUH
ATMOSPHERIC PtJTir.IOf
ATMOS PAMTICULATES
4TMOS NlTMOIiEN 0>IDES
ATxOS MYOMOCAR'iONS
tTMOS SUL'V- 0'IOIS
ATMOS CARHON MONOXIDE
ATMOS ALUtxTOES
ATMO« OTxtw UP1AN1CS
ATMOS OuOxuuS SULfUH
ATMOS AMMONIA
A1HOS HTllMQl.fN FLODRInf
AT.OS LCAU
ATMIIS MfRCuMt
AT.OSPMrMK CxLOMlNc
• ATF.MXUMNC UIS SULIUS
.ATfRDORNf FkUPM|nE%
• ATF.RHOXNt DISS SOLID*
• ATCBFiOBNE (tUD
*AT£R*OUNt MxENOL
•ATEBHOMMt SULFIDES
>AT;RP.OMNt OIL
>4TE*KOPNE COD
MATERRORNt SUSP SUL1DS
•ArERRuPNt ACID
•ATFRDOMNC MCTAL ION
• •TfPQOBNt C-IE.MICAI.S

•ATFMUOMNE IMON
•AIEMHOMNt ALUMINUM
•ATrHROfNL NICufL
MATEUp.OMNt MtMCUPY
.A7ERNOMNi LLAI,
• ATFBMORNt PXOSPx'ATES
.trEPPOMNI IINC
.ATFRHUMNt AMMONIA
.ATERP.OPNE NITROGEN
•ATFRflOMNE PISTIC10C
Y Of ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT*
NAME
HA. MATERIALS
EMfPOY
.ATEO
INDUSTRIAL SOLID MASTfS
ATM EMM ISS IONS
BATCRIOPNC (ASTCS
POIT'CONSUPtv SOL  MATERIALS
ENERGY
• ATER
INOUSTKIAL SOLID »ASTES
ATM CNMISSIONS
•ATtOBOPNt >ASTCS
POST-CONSUNCM SOL HASTE
ENERGY SOURCE PETROLEUM
ENERGY SOURCC NAT GAS
ENERGY SOURCE COAL
CMEBOY IOUSCE NUCL MTP>R
ENERGY SOURCE HOOD VASTC

UNITS
POUNU
POUND
POUND
POUND
POUNO
POUND
POUND
POUND
POUNO
POUND
POUNO
MILL RTU
MILL »TU
MILL R'u
MILL BTU
MILL BTU
MILL "TU
POUNO
POUND
POUND
POUND
"OUNO
POUNDS
MIL 8TU
MIL *Tu
MIL »TU
7MOU GAL
UNI7S
POUND
POUND
POUNO
CUBIC FT
POUNO
POUND
POUNO
POUNO
POUNO
POUNO
POUND
POUND
POUNO
POUNO
POUND
POUND
POUND
POUNO
POUNO
POUND
POUNO
POUND
POUNO
POUND
POUND
POUNO
POUNO
POUND
POUND
POUND
POUNO
POUNO
Mf)IINO
POUND
POUND
POUNO
POUND
POUNO
POUND
POUND
POUND
POUNO

UNITS
POUNDS
MIL BTU
THOU «AL
CUBIC FT
POUNDS
POUNDS
CUBIC FT
MIL ITU
NIL ITU
MIL ITU
MIL R.TU
Nil ITU

STANDARD
VALUES
10.110
1.168
.643
.tit
4.1*1
1.109
.011
.13*
.497
.11*
.011
.001
COTTON COTTON
TO»IL TOD
fllin IT MFJ
[L

If Ultl 11 UICI
.411
.001
.000
.000
.000
.000
.000
.000
• 000
.000
.000
.02?
.DOT
.001
.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
.001
0.000
0.000
0.000
.041
.0?'
.000
.00*
.005
.000
.000
.000
.000
.000
.711
.000
.000
.000
.000
.0.?
.010
.060
.090
.015
.000
.000
.000
.000
.000
.000
.000
.240
.295
>.ooo
1.000
.0*4
i.i» 2.16*
.010
.014
0.000
.011
.015
.055
.00
.01}
.033
.001
.001
0.000
.001
.000
.000
.000
o.ooo
• o.ooo
o.ooo
.Oil
.000
.000
.000
.000
.000
.111
.000
.000
.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
o.ooi
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
.000
.000
.001
4.040
.010
.009
.016
.105
.11*
0.000
.Oil
.to?
.001
.000
1.000 .
»«.!
t.6
.»
7.4
4.2
10.5
0.0
I.T
1.5
.<
.1
I.I
.454
.404
0.000
0.000
.211
.ler
.0°]
.41,7
• HI
.000
.001
0.000
.000
0.000
.000
.000
.007
0.000
0.000
.01*
.OIT
.000
.000
.000
.1*1
.040
.0?*
.006
0.000
0.000
0.000
.000
1.000
0.000
0.000
.000
.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.100
I. 001
.{OS
.0*4
.035
.**)6
.»»»
0.001
.01*
.OM
.0*0
.IIS
0.000
1».4
IT.!
11.0
13.
to.
».
0.
13.
11.
».
11.
0.
COTTON COTTON COTTON COTTON
TOUCl T0»(
•ft TRAI
L TOrtl T0«
HASH PCI
[U
1
it uses it uits it uses it u*is
0.000
0.000
.063
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
.001
.002
.001
.000
.001
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
• .0011
.003
.000
.00?
.000
.000 0.000
.000 .400
.000 0.000
.000 0.000
.000 0.000
.000 1.141
.000 .3*4
.000 .341
.000 0.000
.000 0.000
.000 .103
.006 .189
.000 .386
.000 .2*6
.000 .06T
.000 .000
.000 0.000
.000 0.000
.000 0.000
.000 0.000
.000 0.000
.000 0.000
.000 .3*3
.000 .*>4
.006 .000
.000 .006
.000 .559
.000
.000
.000
.000
.000
.000
.000
.000
.000
.000
.000
.000
.000
.000
.000
.000
.000
.000
.000
.000
.000
.000
.000
.000
.000
1.000
.000
.DO* o.ooo 3.630 o.ooo
,00k
.001
0.000
0.000
.004
.003
.004
.OOT
.001
.000
.001
0.000
.000
0.000
.000
.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
.001
.00'
.000
.000
.000
.000
.001
.000
.000
.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
oiooo
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
.OT|
.004
.000
.000
.01*
.004
1.001
.001
.oot
.001
.III
.001
.7
4
0
1
4
1
1 0
1
s
1
1
T6 1
.002 1.710
.000 4.135
B.OOO 0.000
1.000 0.000
.001 .3*0
.015 .620
.003 .526
.003 1.T42
.016 .123
.000 .002
.001 .003
0.000 .00?
.000 .001
9.000 0.000
.000 .000
D.OOO .000
I. 000 .010
9.000 .OOT
D.OOO 1.000
.003 .178
.000 .t«0
.000 .000
.000 .000
.000 .040
.000 .010
.000 .tin
.000 .04.1
.000 .03?
0.000 .000
0.000 0.000
0.000 .001
0.000 .000
0.000 0.000
0.000 0.000
0.000 . .000
0.000 .000
0.000 .000
0.000 0.000
0.000 .000
0.000 .002
0.000 .000
0.000 1.1T*
.006 .»•!
.000 .333
.000 .141
.040 1.61*
.001 .lot
0.000 1.001
.001 .16*
0.000 .1(1
0.1*1 .!««
0.000 .0*7
0.000 .110
0. 31. >
T«.t
16.0
66. T
T4.0
66.1
0. 0.0
t. Tl.O
0. 14.1
0. TO. 9
0. 11.1
0. tl.Z
.000
5.000
.061
0.000
.000
.000
.000
.000
.mo
.000
.001
0.000
.000
0.010
.000
0.000
0.000
0.010
0.000
.000
.000
.000
.000
.000
.000
.000
.000
.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
.000
.000
.000
.011
,000
.Oil
.0*0
o.ooo
0.000
0.000
0.100
0





110

0
0
1
0
COTTON
TO«IL
ITS TOT
it uses
4.»I3
.«00
.063
0.000
0.000
2.«S2
.3*4
.346
0.000
0.000
.143
.256
.49T
.36*
.061
.001
0.000
0.000
.001
0.000
0.000
0.000
.6*3
1.16*
.OOT
.011
.645
T.l»0
2.231
6.2K2
.0X1
.011
.631
1.0*0
.671
2.210
.234
.004
.OOM
.002
.002
.000
.000
.000
.01*
.00'
0.000
.»!«.
.30"
.000
.001
.940
.201
.110
.11*
.OIK
.000
0.000
.001*
.000
0.000
0.000
.000
.000
.000
0.000
.000
.00?
.00?
10.310
1.166
.643
.tit
4.6*1
1.103
.III
.136
.43T
.11*
.1*1
.Oil
100.
110.
100.
100.
106.
100.
111.
100.
111.
111.
loo.
lie.
                103

-------
             TABLE  40
• eSOUDCt AND EN»1»OI1N(NTAL PROFILE ANALYSIS
     ONI TMOU ciLLULOJt JPONIII UUOLI
INPUTS


















INOE«
TO SYSTEMS
NAME
MATERIAL COTTON
MATEUIAL SULFATE BRINE
MATERIAL «ooo FIBEU
MATERIAL LIMESTONE
MATERIAL SALT
MATERIAL ULASS SAND
MATERIAL SAT SOOA ASM
MATERIAL -i./.ITE ORE
ENERGY SOU"CF »ETMOLEuM
ENERGY SOUfCk NAT GAS
ENERGY 50U*Ct. COAL
ENERGY SOUMCE MI5C
ENERGY SUU"Ct wOOO FINER
ENERGY SOUKCI- -.YOROPOKEP
MATERIAL PWUCKSS *oo
EN£00» PH'JCESS
FNEPG* TRANSPORT
• ATP-' VOLUM.

SOLID KASTIS MINIM.
S.JLIO MASTS "osT-coNsuN
ATNUS PAMTICULATE*
ATNOS NIT"Or,f. OIIii£9
AI«OS ALOl-'OES
ATMOS OuO-DUS SUL'-UW
ATMOS AMMONIA
ATMI1S if A',
AT"OS MfwCUPY
• ATEHNORNL .^1S S*M IbS

• ATEPPOMNE COfJ
•ATE'ROUNF ACID

• ATEHP.ORN) IRON
•ATERHORNf ALUMINUM
•ATERHORNE MtHCUM*
.ATFR80BNE P-OSPMATES
.ATEPRORNt IINC
•AT£BMOHN£ AMMONIA
.ATERPORNL NITROGEN
•ATERHORNE PESTICIDE
NAM*
ENERGY
INOUS7UIAL SOLID lASTES
ATM F.MMISSIONS
•ATEPftORNE IASTES
POST-CONSUMER SOL IASTE
ENERGY SOURCE PETROLEUM
ENERGY iOUfCE NAT OAS
ENERGY SOUKCE COAL
ENERGY SOUMCE NUCL HYP.R
ENCROY SOUMCE «000 IASTC
OF ENYlflONMENTAL IMPACTS
NAME
HAM MATERIALS
ENERGY
MATER
INDUSTRIAL SOLID PASTES
ATM ENDISilONS
• ATEP.90RNE MASTES
POST-CONSUMER SOL MASTE
ENERGY SOURCE PETROLEUM
ENERGY SOURCE NAT (.AS
ENERGY SOUMCE COIL
ENERGY SOURCE NUCL HYPMR
ENERGY SOUMCE MOOO MASTC
UNITS
POUND
POUNO
POUND
POUND
POUND
POUNO
POUNO
POUNO
MILL CTU
MILL 8TU
•ILL 8TU
MILL »TU
MILL STU
MILL fTu
POUNH
POUND
POUNO
POUNO
POUNDS
MIL RTU
THOU GAL
UNITS
POUNO
POUNO
PltlNn
CUDIC FT
POUND
POUND
POUNO
POUND
POUNO
POUND
POUNO
POUNU
POUND
POUNI,
POUNO
ROUND
POUNO
POUNO
POUNO
POUND
POUNO
POUNO
POUND
POUNO
POUNU
POUNO
POUND
POUNO
POUNO
UNIM
MIL RTU
THOU GAL
CU8IC FT
POUNDS
POUNDS
CUBIC FT
MIL »TU
MIL 8TU
MIL BTU
MIL R'U
MIL 8TU
STANDARD
VALUES
2.A8S
.32
.07
1.99
.*7
.00
.099
.20*
.1*6
.033
.009
CF.UUU c
JPONOC i
RAM HAT N
100 UMJ 1
0.000
.2*6
.396
.039
0.000
.1*6
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
.00!
.003
.006
.002
.000
.00*
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
.016
.000
0.000
.105
.013
.09!
.011
.007
.016
.00?
.000
.000
.000
0.000
.000
0.000
0.300
.017
.003
.000
.000
.000
.004
.001
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
.919
.016
.007
.002
.0*5
.026
0.000
.00]
.006
.002
.000
.00*
36.
3.
1,
3.
I.
5.
0.
1.3
2.8
1.9
1.1
91.]
CLLULO CELLULO CELIULO CELL
PON« SPONOE SP3N4E SPON
00 U5CS 100 USES 1
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
.006
.022
.010
.002
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
.0*0
0.000
0.900
.103
.057
.199
.032
.026
.056
.001
.000
.000
.131
0.000
0.000
.004
.013
.000
.000
.031
.009
.003
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
.0*0
.00*
.262
.09*
0.000
.006
.022
.010
.002
0.000
0.0
8.2
22.1
6.0
11. •
12.1
0.0
6.0
10. 1
6.6
6.T
0.0
0.000
.389
v.OOO
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
.001
.002
.001
.000
.001
.000
.000
.000
.000
0.900
.003
.000
.001
.010
.007
.009
.001
.00*
.004
.001
.000
.001
0.300
0.000
0.000
.001
.003
.000
.000
.000
.001
.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
.100
.00*
.000
.023
.009
0.000
.001
.002
.001
.000
.001
«.o
.9
.1
t*
1.2
1.1
0.0
1.0
1.0
. ft
.1
19.2
oo uses too
0.000 0
0.000
0.000 0
0.000 0
0.000 0
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
.001
.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
9.000
.001
0.000

.000
0.000
0.000
.001
.001
.000
.001
.000
.000
0.000

0.000
.000
.000
.000
.000
.000
.000
.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
.001
.000
.00*
.000
0.000
.001
.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.0
.1
.0
.0
.2
.1
0.0
.7
.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0
0
0



2
9


ULO Ctlt
at SPO
»CI
uses 100
.000
.•03
.000
.000
.000
.911
.1S6
.000
.000
.0*6
.out
.17*
.133
.030
.000
.000
.000
.000
.000
.000
.AIR
.000
.003

.786
.173
.000
.3*7
.239
.7*0
.099
.001
.001
.001

0.000
.076
.130


.000
.018
.00*
.097
.0*2
.000
0.000
0.000
.000
.000
.000
0.000
.000
.001
.000
l.*68
.*21
.0*1
1.620
.396
0.000
.on*
.ir»
.13)
.010
.000
99.1
8T.9
79.
90.
82.
81.
0.
88.
99.3
VI. «
• 1.6
I.I
UIO CCLLULO
isc SPON«E
«TJ T07
uses 100 usu
.000 0.000
.000 .6*9
.000 .*69
.000 .039
.000 0.000
.000 .697
.000
.000
.000
.000
.000
.000
.000
.000
.000
.000
.000
.000
.000
.000
.000
.000
.000
.000
.000
.000
9.000
.009
3.000
.000
.000
.000
.000
.001
.000
.000
9.000
.000
9.000
0.000
.000
.000 .
.000
.000
.000
.000
.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
o.ooo
0.000
.300
.000
.00?
.000
.00*
.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.0
.0
loo!
o!
0.
0.
0.
.196
0.000
0.000
.051
.095
.20*
.1*6
.033
.009
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
.231
.•77
.001
.00*
.329
.169
2.39?
.009
0.000
.200
.*!•
.273
.•61
.066
.001
.003
.132
.001
0.000
.000
0.000
.099
.!»»
.000
.000
.019
.039
.199
.0*6
.919
0.000
.000
.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
.000
.000
.000
0.000
.000
.001
.000
2.48S
.*62
.129
.070
1.996
.•79
.009
.0*1
.20*
.1*6
.011
.009
100.
100.
100.
100.
100.
100.
100.
too.
100.
100.
100.
100.
                     104

-------
                                                            TABIZ   41A
                                              M*OU*CC >NO IN«IHONK|NT>L MOP! 1.1  «N»LTSI9


                                                    THOU 9.0 FT I PIT TO«»H PI OP I
iw'uts Til «rs'r-S
          *»*Tfip|»L  COTTON
fUTF»l*L LftSTONf
•AlE&lAi IMUI,  0-Jt
MATFwiAl -*LT
•**TF*1«L  *I.««S S*Mfi
MATERIAL **T  snn*  iv
i*TF<>Ml H.L -^OAW
««T>>IAl »BU*|TE O»£
                           •OU*''
                           0QUMP
                           *ILL «TU
                           ••ILL 8TU
                           *>1LL MU
                           MLI. -TU
(Nfcfpv O.MI.-C-  •OO[> rnf«  Mm *Tu
t*fpflr "-ou-vt  -»t>p-'vo«fB  **ILL *«TU
tkl»CiT SUU«Cr  MlT-OLfU-
FNfcM&v V'lU-Cf  NAT  (*•$
tNFfpv ^yy-C!1  C0*l
<*AT*P|AL ••vw.r-ll*  rOC-



••ATtWIAt SUtC*
M*TF*' *L »*™oi,t "*b  *L>"
          • •If '  VI U'*


U.IT UT< r-o-«  VM- •»
                           fOUNO
                           POIINO
                                     00Msr>«
                                     ML -TU
                                     -U -TU
                                     TtaHU T.Ai
          ^•.t. t^  «4iTtf w-'i« rS<      ^ftyf-n
          "j-'LH1  o-tTt'S f\if\. r<    pn^iNU

          MIL I'  ••»T* S **lNt'>-        POlfSO
          >»)Lin  -iSTf  iOST-r.UNS.i-   CUhIC  FT
           • TMO4  <>.-r ICuu-Tf -


           iT-OS  -Itn- it »«HO» t
           »T«»OS  «n ^tif .i« |, f.

           AT»O^  c»—"f* 'ONuM-'t-.
           *T-0<  *•>. .  { .
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                           ooii*ir>


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                           POUND
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                                     Pflu*'U
INCP07
VATFM
INOII9TMI41  SOLID .>S7rt
»T«  tN«r«bl01S
.«7C**ON»t  «"S7r*
P097-CONSUOH tOL »9T(
IXtaOl  90U'C( •fTaDLClM
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(NCPOT  SOU-Ct COIl
iitr.ni  90u»ct NUCI  NT***
(1t*OT  MUKCC »ODD «««te
IkDtl Or tMH«ON«rNTil.
          Pl>  M1TFXULS
                                     OOiJ-40

                                     BOllNP

                                     POUND
                                     POUNl>
                                     POUND
                                     POUND

                                     POUNH
                                     POUND
                                     POywi
                                     POUND
                                     H!L  R7U
                                     THOU ftAl
                                     CUH1C '7
                                     POUNDS
                                     POUNDf
                                     CUBIC 'T
                                     "It  «7U
                                     MIL  ITU
                                     »IU  STU
                                     mi  KTU
                                     HtL  KTU
                                      !T»ND»D
                                        vnuet
««TE»
INCIUSTRIil.  SOLID •4STFS
»T»  [""IS510HS
»»'fo»o»>«£  ««sirs
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CNCP9T  SOUHCt PfTROLEU*
INOO*  SOU»CC NIT G»
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CNCROr  JOUNCE NUCI X7POP
ChEB«T  *DWCt "OOP »«5Tt
                                         9.7»*9S
                                          .122*«
                                          .180*9
                                          .02912
                                         1.162'!
                                          .3111?
                                          .17122
                                          .10117
                                          .01*19
                                          .0*392
                                          .00112
                                          .07*09
O»T PULP
1.16 L*
0.00000

0.00000
0.00000
0.00000
0.00000
0.00000
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0.00000
0.00000
0.00000
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0.00000

0.00000
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0.00000
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0.00000
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0.00000
0.00000
0.00000
o.onooo
0.00000
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.00000
0.00000
0.00000
0.00000
0.00000
0.00000
.07107
.09161
.00771
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olooooo
.OM07
.01491
'.001**
.0110*
ll'.l
29.6
26.1
19.6
17.7
16.1
16.0
16.3
JLU9"
PULP
4.01 L>
0.00000
3.72316
0.00000
0.00000
0.00000
0.00000
0.00000
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.01*17
.01196
.00600
.00122
0.00000
0.00000
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0.00000
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0.00000
0.00000
0.00000
0.00000
0.00000
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0.00000
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0.00000
0.00000
0.00000
0.00000
0.00000
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1.00000
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44.2
20.7
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11.9
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42.4
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10.41 L(
0.00000
0.00000
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0.00000
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0.00000
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.00007
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.00180
0.00000
0.00000
0.00000
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0.00000
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.00072
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-------
TABLE  41B
                2 -M.Y  T0"lll  •

















SUMMA«T I
INOCI or
•ATER AL ^iJLFaTf *MNf
"ATE* AL I-ON 0-JE
MATER Al FEL'->R*fc
• ATER Al MJLFu*-
t'NERG Silu»Ct 1*ET-ULEUM
{NERO suu*c- »i«c
tNERG SOU-C-. .O'l^' Fl"fJ
CNERO "Utlxft -vnwnPOtER
"ATEH Al CL4V
"Att* Al MlIC*
• ATf. V .uu—
SULIO ..SltS P-orE'iS
$01 13 .ASItS -INtf,-.
• f'OS RA.TICulATEv
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A "OS SULtu- o«||.fs
A "OS C*t*«ON 'ONDAI.IE
A "OS AlUfc"*"^1-
• "OS UI'U-'JU- SUlf'J-
»T"OS LEAu
ATMOSPMC'IC OlO»INE
•ATEDHO'NC Mb SOLluS
"ATERP.Oi.Ni FCUORIOE-.
:!""£« J"?«ni
•ATERRORNC OIL
.ATERHOMNk SUSP Sitlin<
•ATFRROxNi >CID
«ATERRO»Nt METAL ION
•ATERRORNfc C'ANIC*
MATERHOMNt C^-XIMIIII
«ATERR.ORNk IWJN
ATCRdOMNt ALUMINUM
ATERRDxxE L£AO
ATCRROPNE JtNC
ATERR.ORNE A-MONIA
ATfRRORNt NITMOOEN
ATERRORNE !>£^TICIbE
F ENVIRONMENTAL 1MRACTC
NAMF
tNCRGT
• ATFR
INDUSTRIAL SOLID .ASTES
ATM EMM I SS IONS
•ATfRgORNC RASTES
ROST-€OH9UM(R SOI >ASTf
ENER4T SOURCE RCTROlIUO
CNfRIT SOURCE NAT IAS
INCDIT SOUMt COAL
ENCRtr SOUKCE «UCL HTR.R
EMM* SOURCE HOOD IASTE
ENVIRONMfMTAL IHRACTS
MAMC
RAM MATERIALS
INDUSTRIAL SOLID >ASTES
ATM EMMISSIONS
MATERbORNfc WASTES
ROST'COMSUMEH SOL RASTE
ENCROT SOURCE RETROLCUM
ENCRer SOu'CE NAT OAS
ENEROT SOURCE COAL
CNCROT JOURCC NUCL HTP«B
ENEROT SOUHCE HOOO »ASTE
POUNI'
ROIINH
POUNO
POUNO
POUND
POUNU
POUNO
POUNC
"ILL «'U
"ILL «TU
»'LL »'u
"ILL »'U
"ILL "U
POUND
POUND
POUNO
POUNDS
f*ou ';AL
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ROUND
ROUND
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POUNO
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POUNO
ROUNO
ROUNO
ROUNO
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POUNO
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POUND
POUNO *
ROUND
ROUND
ROUND
UNITS
ROUNDS
MIL RTU
TMOU OAL
CUBIC FT
ROUNDS
ROUNDS
CUBIC FT
MIL (ITU
MIL ITU
MIL ITU
MIL 8TU
fit. ITU
STANDARD
•ALUES
!l224«
.02962
1.16275
.11092
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         106

-------
              TABLE  42
otsnuitci AND nviHONMCNTtL noriuc ANALYSIS
     M
MATFBIAL PHOSPHATE »OCT
•ATEBI4L CLAY
HiTEBIAL ttYPMJM
M4TCBIAL SILICA
MAlCKIAt PHOCESS 400
E**tttGY "BUCESS
CNCDGY TUJNjPOBT
• ATF4 v.'LUHf
NAHf
lOtll (ASUS PBOCESS
SOI ID lASTES FUEL CUNB
SOL in • ASUS MINIM
SOLID ..ill -OST-COMSU"
ATMOSBHtMlC PESTICIDE
ATMOS PAtiTICULATES
4T«Ot MITHOUtM Ollnfl
4T»»OS MVtfMOCAMBOMS
ATMOS SULFUR OIIDIS
limn CAMON MONOIIM
•TMOS AlOt-YUES
4TMOS OTHt« OkliAMCS
ATMOS OUO«(M» SULFU*
•TMOS AMMO* 14
•TMOS MtOMOGEN FLOUMIDE
ATMO< LEAN
ATwOS MEBCUMY
ATMOSPMEOIC 1*1 OB | hi
MATEBMOMNE OIS SOLlOS
•4TEBHOMNE FLUUMIoei
»4TtB80BN( OISS SOLlOS
• ATEMBOBtiE 000
• ATEBMOBNIL PHENOL
• 4TE-MOMM OIL
•4Tf*40BNt COD
*4TFBMO4tMe SUSP SOLIDS
•4Tc>BOPNC ACin
•ATtlDOBNE METAL ION
•AlERROBhE CHEMICALS
•AtEUKbBNt CTANItE
hATEBaORht ALKALINITY
•ATEPdOBNE CMHOBIUM
•AIFBBOBNl IMON
•ATEBBOMNE 4LUMINUM
•ATEBNOBNE NlCufL
•ATEBBORNE MEBCUMY
•ATIBftOBNE LtAU
MATFBHOiINt PiuSPMATCS
• AtEHflOBNE ZINC
•ATfBHOHNt AHMDNIA
•ATtBIOBNl MITBOliEM
4ITEBHOBME PISTICIDE
Y .IF ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACTS
HAMt
BAB NATEBIll*
CNfMCT
B4TFB
INDUSTRIAL SOLID BASTIS
ITN CMUISIONS
•ITERIOBNI PISTII
POIT-CONIUMEll SOL BASTI
EN(BIY SOUMCI PET-OLEUM
INKMT SOUMCi NAT 141
INJBIT SOUNCI COIL
INIIST SOUKC! NUCL HTPV*
tNtMT SOUKE 1000 MSTt
OF CNVItONNtNTAL IMACTI
NAME

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1NOUSTBIU. SOLID HASTES
AT* EMMIStlONS
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POST-COMSUNEB SOL MSTC
ENCBIY SOUBCE PCTBOLEUH
ENEMCT SOUUCt NAT DAI
INCB8Y SOUBCE COIL
CMBIT SOUBCE NUCL MTP«B
ENEBJY SOURCE «ooo HASTE

UNITS
POUND
POUND
POUND
POUND
POUND
POUNO
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POUNO
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MILL BTU
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POUNO
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POUNO
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MIL IITU
NIL KTU
MIL 6TU
TMUU GAL
UNITS
POUNO
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pouxn
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POUNM .
POUNO
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pouwn
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UNITS
POUNDS
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THOU ML,
CUBIC FT
POUNDS
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0.000
o.oto
O.OIO
.000
.000
.000
.III
.101
.001
•III
9.1*1
.•II
.4lt
.14)
1.4TI
•*14
.019
.III
.141
.1*1
.III
.11*
101.
too.
too.
100.
100.
100.
100
III.
100.
III.
III.
101.
                      107

-------
            TABIE  43A
PfUIMCt >W> fNVIHOMtCIITAL HoriLF ANALMU

      THOU 1IKM.I  PLT COM NAP P| OF I
"ATtPlAL COTTON
•ATEPIAL .00" FIHfP
• ATtulAL LINtSIONf.
•ATEPIAL I"ON oat
•ATEPIAL SALT
MATERIAL '-LASS SAN'I
HATfPIAL NAT bODA AV
• ATEPIAL fiAUUTC 0*l.
•ATEPIAL »ULFU«
EMfPO» HOU-Cl PETfOLtUK
ENERGY SUU»Ct NIT OAS
F«*EP<*Y *OU"C» COAL
FNEH6Y SUUtC* *ISC
tNl'OY SOU°Ct .000 FIHCa
"AT'PIAL PUT1S-
•A7FP1AL PHOSPHATE «OCa
• ATMIAL CLAT
•ATEPIAL ***OCCSS AOb
""• ";"-U"t
•lA-f
SOLIl) ««STlS PROCESS
SOLID «ASTE »0!IT-CONSu>
.I-OSO-1-.IC *0>"'£ CUO
• ATEPaONht SU5P SDL 105
• ATFBROM'.t ACIP
•ATFUPOMNt HFTAL ION
• ATEUPOHNl C-'0*>IU>
• ATFP^OXNI; ALUMINUM
•ATFPMC-N^ i-»ONIA
•AlfH-ON.^ P!sTIC|D(
K.-f
ENtPsr
INOU9Tk|AL bOLlO .»STES
AT» EMISSIONS
I«E*«Y 50UXCE PtTPOLCMM
FIICPOT 50UPCE NAT 049
ENtPO* SnU"Ci COAL
CNCkOv SUU«CE NUCL 1TPKP
FNEPOY SOuxCI »000 HASTE
INOCI OP CN»IPON«rNTAL IHPACT9
MANE
exEOSr
• ATE"
INDUSTRIAL S'lLin "ASTES
ATK EMISSIONS
• ATEP.DOPNC «ASTE5
POST-CONSUNfeR SOL WASTE
• ENEPSf SOURCE PCTPOLEUN
ENEPSY SOu-CE NAT CAS
ENEP6Y SOURCE COAL
[NEPGY SOURCE NUCL nYP«a
FNCRGY suu**c£ HOOO VASTC
POUNO
POUNO
POUNO
POUNO
POUND
POUND
POUND
POUNO
POUNO
•ILL »TU
•ILL 9TU
•ILL BTU
•ILI "TU
•ILL "7U
•ILL "TU
POUNO
POUND
POUND
POUNDS
»ll »TU
•11 bTU
TWf>U *tAL
POUND
POUND
POUND
CU8IC FT
POUNO
POUNO
POUND
POUMD
POUND
POUNO
POUNO
POUND
POUNO
POUNO
POUNO
P0u»0
POUNn
ROUND
POUNO
POUNO
POUNH
POUND
POUND
POUNO
POUND
OOUNO
POUNO
POUND
POUND
POUND
POUND
POUND
POUND
POUNO
POUND
POUNO
POUND
UNITS
• IL "U
T"OU 5«L
CUBIC FT
POUNDS
BOUNDS
CUBIC FT
•IL ITU
MIL BTU
•IL 8TU
•IL BTU
•IL «TU
STANDARD
VALUE*
.16820
.09*20
.01730
.6507*
.17909
.08675
.05535
.04549
.02154
. .00409
.94173
I»T PULP
l.M L8
0.00000
1.11948
.11296
0.00000
.1331?
0.00000
0.00000
0.00000
.01420
.0093*
.002"
.00053
.011*1
0.00000
0.00000
0.00000
0.00000
.into
o.oonoo
.1*634
.01568
.0*049
0.00000
,oiio»
.01862
.00815
.02*10
.0000]
.0000*
.00101

.00065
0.00000
0.00000
.003M
.009*9
.00000
.00000
.00001
.Ol«»6
.00109
.0001*
0.00000
0.00000
0.00000
0.00000
0.00000
0.00000
.00000
.00000
0.00000
0.00000
0.00000
0.00000
1.511*6
.01905
.00297
.06606
0.00000
.00*67
. 00536
.0025T
.00053
.onus
32.*
16.0
19.*
16.6
10.3
16.6
0.0
12.1
11. 1
11. »
13.0
28. »
5LUO.N
PULP
0.00000
1.71505
.17200
0.00000
.20269
0.00000
0.00000
a. ooooo
.02162
.00622
.00323
.00066
.0180.
0.00000
0.00000
0.00000
0.00000
Q. OOOOO
.23*05
.01919
.05102
0.00000
.015*8
.02385
.00950
.03117
.00005
.00013

0.00000
0.00000
.00*35
.01596
.00000
.00001
.022**
.00139
-.00023
.00000
.00000
.00000
.00000
.00000
.00000
.00000
•ooooo
.00000
.00000
.ooooo
2.301*9
.02999
.00*16
.09720
0.0000*
.00771
.00621
. 0032J
.0006*
.0190*
»9.»
21.3
29.5
24.1
13.*
24. 3
0.9
13.9
13.7
19.0
16.0
*3.2
PAPf RMA*
0.00000
o.onooo
0.00000
0,00000
0.00000
0.00000
0.00000
0.00000
0.00000
.»»05"
.01070
.002*2
.005*1
0.00000
0.00000
o.onooo
0.00000
0.00000
.30692
.96663
.17115
0.00000
.01912
.OS041
.01031
.0176?
.OOO'I
.0001*

0.00000
4.00000
.01201
.01899
.00001
.00010
.0?390
.00310
.000*'
.00000
.00000
.00000
.00000
.00000
.onooo
•90000
.00000
.ooooo
.03929
.0*767
.0073*
.20*09
0.00000
.02192
.02099
.01070
.002*2
.00961
,«
36.3
*8.5
*2.5
11.*
13.0
0.0
39.*
• 5.3
*9,7
59.1
11.5
CONVEPT
0.00000
0.00000
0.00000
0.00000
0.00000
0.00000
0.00000
0.00000
0.00000
.00520
.00130
.00029
0.00000
0.00000
n. 09000
0.00000
0.00000
.00013
.00»«2
.00733
.0076*
.02042
0.00000
.00178
.00900
.00762
.007*7
.ooonl
.0000?
"•«!5!
o.oocoo
0.00000
.0010*
.00001
.00000
.00000
.00070
.00007
,000*0
.00010
0.00000
0.00000
0.00000
9.00000
0.00000
O.OOOflO
0.00000
0.00000
0.00000
0.90000
. 002*8
.000?*
.000*2
.0224*
0.00000
.0012*
.005?0
.00130
.90029
0.00000
.1
*.P
.3
2.*
3.5
1.9
0.9
2.2
11. »
6.0
7.1
9.0
CiPTONt
0.05,4 It
0.00000
.02*57
.00*31
0.00000
.012*5
0.00000
0.00000
0.00000
.0005*
.00072
.0002*
.00002
.00051
0.00000
0.00000
0.00000
0.00000
.00001
0.00000
.00709
.00116
.001*6
0.00000
.00052
.00063
.00037
.00118
.00000
.90001
0.90000
0.00000
0.00000
.00022
.0002*
.00000
.00000
.00000
.000*2
.oooor
•00001
0.00000
0,00000
0.00000
0.00000
.00000
.00000
0.00000
0.00000
0.00000
0,00000
.05092
.0005*
.00017
.00296
0.00000
.00038
.00022
.00019
.00002
.00051
l.l
.8
.6
1.0
.5
.5
0.0
.7
.5
1.3
.5
1.2
POLT
•BA»P>H«
0.00000
0.00000
0.00000
O.OOOOn
0.00000
0.00000
0.00000
0.00000
0.00000
.00507
.00076
.00017
0.00000
0.00000
0.00000
0.00000
0.00000
.00020
.00399
.0030.
.00*40
.01223
0.00000
.0011?
.00349
.009*2
.90*59
.90001
.00001
0.00000
0.00000
.00000
0.00000
9.00000
.0009?
.00004
.00000
.00000
.00001
.0003?
.00010
.00071
.00006
0.00000
0.00000
0.00000
0.00000
0.00000
0.00000
9.00000
0.00000
0.00000
o.ooono
0.00000
0.00000
.00*09
.00060
.00028
,01843
0.00000
,00119
,00107
,0007*
.00017
0.00000
.1
*.
i!
2.
0.0
2.2
11.2
3.9
*.2
0.0
                                                                             o.ooono
                                                                             o.ooono
                                                                             3.513*9
                                                                              .219)5
                                                                             o.ooono
                                                                              .3*»7A
                                                                             O.ooono
                                                                             0.00000
                                                                             0.00000
                                                                             o.ooono
                                                                              .01637
                                                                              .05515
                                                                              .0*5*9
                                                                              .0?1«*
                                                                              .On*09
                                                                              .0*173
                                                                             0.00000
                                                                             0.00000
                                                                             o.ooono
                                                                             0.00001)
                                                                             0.00000
                                                                             0.00000
                                                                              .•1071
                                                                              .1««7«
                                                                              .OI'-M
                                                                              .006-1
                                                                              .09*70
                                                                              ,l**17
                                                                              ,33*»4
                                                                              .n«875
                                                                             0.00000
                                                                              .087*3
                                                                              •13533
                                                                              .0861?
                                                                              .22453
                                                                              .098**
                                                                              .00125
                                                                              .012H*
                                                                              .002-.9
                                                                              • ooont.
                                                                             0.00000
                                                                              .nno'O
                                                                              .ooono
                                                                              .0^1*7
                                                                             o.ooono
                                                                             o.oonno
                                                                              .033»5
                                                                              .06*96
                                                                              .00002
                                                                              .Ooon?
                                                                              .0000*
                                                                              .00071
                                                                              .97111*
                                                                              .00*?*
                                                                              .001S]
                                                                              .0007*
                                                                             n.onooo
                                                                             o.oonno
                                                                             o.oonoo
                                                                             o.ooono
                                                                             o.ooono
                                                                             o.ooono
                                                                              .oooon
                                                                              .90000
                                                                             o.ooonn
                                                                             o.ooooo
                                                                             o.ooonn
                                                                             o.ooonn
                                                                             o.ooono
                                                                             *.65*70
                                                                               .l*«>o
                                                                               .0«*'0
                                                                               .01710
                                                                               .*507*
                                                                               .179H9
                                                                               .06875
                                                                               .05919
                                                                               .0*6*9
                                                                               .021«4
                                                                               •Oo*n9
                                                                               .0*17]
                                                                               100.0
                                                                               100.0
                                                                               100.0
                                                                               100.0
                                                                               ino.o
                                                                               100.0
                                                                               loo.n
                                                                               100.0
                                                                               100.0
                                                                               100.0
                                                                               100.0
                                                                               110.0
                      108

-------
      TABIE  43B
»t*OU»Ct MO (NVKONUCNTM. "OMLt tMLTtlS

      THOU IINKI  H.T COM N»P »»
INPUT! TO ST1TFNS
NME
»ITE»I«L COTTON
N»TE*UL lUL'.TC »»INf
"»TEB|»L .000 riBto
"•TCBIAL LINfiTONf:
N1TEBKL IHOK ORE
NtTEBKL SALT
"ATE6I4L UL4SS S*N»
N>TEB|»L N«T SOOt AS"
NITEBUL FEL?T 0«5
ENEBOY SOU'CE CO«L
ENEBGY SOUtfCt "ISC
ENCBGY SUUMCE .000 ri*CB
ENfPOY SOUKCE MYO»OBOKtS
"ATEBIAL POTAS-
••7EBIAL PHOSKHlU DOCK
"ATEBIAL LL»Y
MAfCUIAi .*>" *U**
H*Te»f.\L ML 1C*
«»TE»I*L **WOCE«S *OD
ENfftQT »riuCt^S
CNE0G* TB-NSPQOT
EN€»GT OF •••TL -f^.uocE
• *TfB VLLWr
UUTHUT* rJO-» SrSTt-»
*""
sot 10 i-sus •trrvess
SOLID »*srEs FUEL cn-«
SOLID HASTES -tNl-r,
SOLID .*brt »OST-CONSim
*T»*o$Pttc>ic PESTICIDE
iTMOS P*-*TtCUL*TE<-
• T«*OS h|TcUCt>« 0»f)tS
AT<*OS '•VOi4tiC*>*>HOMS
ftT«QS Syi*J»* Oxtt)*^
«T<*OS C*-»i*M -UNO»fO£
A TMOS *L Uf.M T £•€ S
ATNflS OTHtw oar.t*,ic<>
AT»OS OHo-OUS SUL'1^
AT**0* A**"«ON I "
*T«OS HTU"UOtN FLiUtMllE
•T«OS L§« i
ATMft« •."•(•rilHT
* T«*o^***ew i c C^UOT* i 'it
•«Tr»?n**«t nt$ sours
•*Tr-"«OHNt Fturwl -CS
»*TE>HO»*10>"4STES
POST-CONSUNEU SOL "STE
fNEBOY SOUNCE PCTBOLCUN
ENEBOY SOUXCC N«T 0«S
ENEBOY SOURCE CO>L
(NEBOY SOU-tCC NUCL NYP.B
CNCBGY soutcc .000 .«STE

UNITS
POUND
POUND
POUND
POUND
POUND
POUNO
POUNO
POUNO
POUNO
POUND
POUNO
NILL HTU
•ILL ITU
HILL KTU
"ILL l«T'<
"ILL *TU
"ILL *TU
POUNO
POUND
POUNO
POUNC
POUND
POUNDS
»IL «TU
NIL (TU
>IL (TU
THOU 6>L

UNITS
POUND
POUNO
POUND
CUBIC FT
POUNO
POUNO
POUNO
POUNO
POUND
POUNO
POUND
POUND
POUND
POUW>
POUND
POUND
POUND
POUND
POUND
poimn
POIINO
POUND
POUND
POUND
POUND
POUND
POUND
POUNO
POUND
POUND
VOUNU
POIIHO
POUNn
POUND
POUND
POUND
POUNO
POUND
POUND
POUNH
POUNO

IMITS
POUNDS
NIL BTU
THOU 0»L
CUBIC FT
POUNDS
POUNDS
CUBIC FT
NIL *TU
NIL BTU
NIL (TU
»1L ITU
NIL >TU

!T1NO«BO
VALUES
!l6«20
.09(20
.01710
.65071
.1740*
.08975
.OSS IS
.045**
.02134
.00409
.0417]
wmuo
0.071 IK
0.00000
0.00000
.47917
.00000
.00000
.00000
.00000
.00000
.00000
.00000
.00000
.00*47
.002*1
.00270
0.00000
.00571
0.00000
0.00000
0.00000
0.00000
0.00000
0.00000
.06*25
.01562
.00009
0.00000
.00011
.06512
.04422
.IMS]
0.00000
0.00000
.01(06
.015(2
.00951
.0540*
.00340
.00800
.007**
0.00000
.00001
0.00000
.00000
.00000
0.00010
0.00000
0.00000
.00515
.01***
.00000
.00000
.00000
.00002
.00*20
.00041
.00010
.00074
0.00000
0.00000
0.00000
0.00000
0.00000
0.00000
0.00000
0.00000
0.00000
0.00000
0.00000
0.00000
0.00000
.747*2
.01570
.00011
.00200
.110*4
.015*0
0.00000
.00** 7
.002(1
.00270
0.00000
.00571
16.
9.
.
11.
20.
20.
0.
(.
6.
It.
0.
11.7
OI1POHL

0.00000
0.00000
0.00000
0.00000
0.00000
0.00000
0.00000
0.00000
0.00000
0.00000
0.0(000
.0(055
0.00000
0.00000
0.000(0
0.00(00
0.00000
0.00(00
0.000(0
0.0(0(0
0.000(0
0.00000
0.00000
0.00000
.00(55
0.00000
.OOOSI
0.00000
.0021*
0.00000
.01(75
0.00000
.000*0
.00*11
.00*2*
.00221
.07221
.000*1
.000?
0.00000
.00002
0.00000
.00011
0.00000
0.00000
0.00000
0.00000
.00456
.00001
.00000
.00001
.00001
.000(5
.00001
.00001
.00000
0.00000
0.00000
0.00000
0.00000
0.00000
0.00000
0.00000
0.00000
0.00000
0.00000
0.00000
0.00000
0.00000
0.00000
0.00000
.00(55
.00051
.0000]
.0*900
.004*0
.01(7)
.00(55
0.000(0
0.0(0(0
0.000(0
0.000(0
0.0
5.1
.5
.2
15.2
2.6
100.0
15.9
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
TBftNOOB

0.00000
0.00000
0.00000
0.00000
0.00000
0.00000
0.00000
0.00000
0.00000
0.00000
0.00000
.003.11
0.00000
0.00000
0.00000
0.00000
0.00000
0.00000
0.00000
0.00000
0.00000
0.00000
0.00000
0.00000
.00111
0.00000
.00019
0.00000
.00076
0.00000
0.00000
0.10000
.00055
.007*7
.002*7
.001«(
.0946*
.00011
.000*0
0.00000
.00001
0.00000
.00010
0.00000
0.00000
0.01000
0.00000
.0016*
.00000
.00000
.01000
.00000
.00002
.00001
.00000
.00000
0.01000
0.00000
0.00000
0.00000
.00000
.01000
.00000
.00000
.00000
.00000
.00000
.00000
.00000
.00000
0.00000
.00311
.0001*
.00001
.01*1*
.00166
0.00(00
.00311
0.00000
0.00000
0.00000
0.00000
0.
2.
.
.
2.
.
0.
6.
0.
0.
0.
0.
                                              TOT4L
                                               0.00000
                                               0.00000
                                               1.5034*
                                                .2«*1S
                                               0.00000
                                                ,14«7lt
                                               0.00000
                                               0.00000
                                               0.00000
                                               0.00000
                                                .01017
                                                .05535
                                                .045*9
                                                .021»4
                                                .00409
                                                .04171
                                               0.00000
                                               0.00000
                                               0.00000
                                               0.00000
                                               0.00000
                                               0.00000
                                                .4007]
                                                .t»«7«
                                                .012*1
                                                .00651
                                                .0*«20
                                                .7*0*1
                                                .16417
                                                .31624
                                                .00875
                                               0.00000
                                                .o*rti
                                                .11511
                                                .0(612
                                                .22453
                                                .09054
                                                .00125
                                                .OI2>4
                                                .0025*
                                                .0000*
                                               0.00000
                                                .00020
                                                .00000
                                                .00167
                                               0.00000
                                               0.00000
                                                .033*5
                                                .06»>6
                                                .00002
                                                .00002
                                                .00004
                                                .00071
                                                .07106
                                                .006*6
                                                .001*3
                                                .00074
                                               0.00000
                                               0.00000
                                               0.00000
                                               0.00000
                                               0.00000
                                               0.00000
                                                .00000
                                                .00000
                                               0.00000
                                               0.00000
                                               0.00000
                                               0.00000
                                               0.00000
                                               4.M970
                                                .16*20
                                                .0«*20
                                                .01 no
                                                .6S07S
                                                .17*0*
                                                .00"7«
                                                .05535
                                                .0434*
                                                .02134
                                                .0040*
                                                .0*171
                                                  100.0
                                                  100.0
                                                  100.0
                                                  100.0
                                                  100.0
                                                  100.0
                                                  100.0
                                                  100.0
                                                  100.0
                                                  100.0
                                                  100.0
                                                  100.0
            109

-------
         TABLE 44
RESOURCE AND ENVIRONMENTAL "OHIt ANALYSIS
     ONC THOU CLOTH NAP-CONN  17 uses
INPUTS




























OUTPUTS












































SUMMARY













TO SYSTEM!
N4IIC
NATERIAL C07TOH
MATERIAL SULFATE BRINE
HATER1AL «OOU FIBER
NATERIAL LIMESTONE
NATERIAL IKON ORE
MATERIAL SILT
NATERIAL OLASS 91NO
NATERIAL N>7 900* 4SM
MATERIAL FELDSPAR
MATERIAL B>UI|TE ODE
MATERIAL SUL'UH
ENERGY SOURCE PETROLEUM
CHEROT SOURCE NAT OA9
ENERGY SOURCE COAL
CNEROV SOURCE RISC
ENERGY SOURCE DODO FIBER
ENERGY SOURCE HYOROPotER
MATERIAL POTASH
MATERIAL PHOSPHATE ROCK
MATERIAL CLAY
MATERIAL liYPSUH
MATERIAL SILICA
MATERIAL PDOCFSi 100
ENERGY PROCESi
fNEROY TRANSPC-T
ENERGY OF MATL RESOURCE
•ATCR VOLUME
F«OM SYSTEMS
NAME
SOLID »ASTES PVOCESS
SOLID IASTES FUEL COM|
SOLID HASTES MINING
SOLID >A97E POST-CONSUM
ATMOSPHERIC PESTICIDE
ATMOS PARTICULATES
ATHOS NITUOOEN OIIOES
ATMOS HVUHOCARBONS
AYMOS SULFUR OIIOES
ATMOS CAHBON MONOIIOE
ATHOS ALDEwYCCS
ATMOS OTHE" ORGANIC*
ATMOS 00060US SULFUR
ATHOS AMHON1A
ATKOS HYOROOEH FLOUR10E
ATMOS LEAU
ATMQS MENCURT
AT*OSP»E"K CKLORINE
• AMRBORNE UIS SOLIDS
•ATERBORNE FLUORIDES
•ATERBORNE OISS SOLIDS
HATERBORNE BOO
•ATERBOMHE P«ENOL
IATEP40RNI JULFIDES
•ATERPOPNE OIL
•ATERBORNE COO
•ATERBORNt SUSP SOL 109
•ATERPORNE ACID
MATEPBORNE METAL ION
•ATERRORNE CHEMICALS
•ATERBORNE CYANIDE
•ATERBORNt ALKALINITY
•ATERBOPNl CHROMIUM
•ATERBORNE IRON
•ATCOaORNE ALUMINUM
•ATERBORNE NICKEL
ttATCRMORNE MERCURY
•ATtRBOPNE LEAD
•ATERBOHNE PHOSPHATES
•ATERBDPNE ZINC
lATERBORNt AMMONIA
XTtRBORNt NITROOEN
•AICR80RNE PESTICIDE
or ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACTS
NAME
RAM MATERIALS
ENERGY
• ATER
INDUSTRIAL SOLID «AS7ES
ATM (MDllSIONf
•ATIRBORNE IAITCS
POST-CONSUMER SOL «ASTE
ENEP.OY SOURCE PCTROLCIM
ENEROT SOURCE NAT 4A1
ENERGY SOURCE COAL
ENEROY SOURCE NUCL »YP»R
ENEROY SOURCE woo WASTE

UNITS
POUND
POUND
POUND
POUND
POUND
POUNO
POUND
POUMO
POUND
POUND
POUNO
HILL ITU
MILL ITU
MILL BTU
MILL BTU
•ILL BTu
MILL BTU
POUNO
POUNO
POUNO
POUND
POUNO
POUNDS
•IL BTU
MIL BTU
MIL BTU
THOU GAL

UNITS
POUND
POUND
POUNO
CUIIC FT
POUNO
POUND
POUND
POUND
POUND
POUND
POUNO
POUNO
POUND
POUNO
POUNO
POUND
POUNO
POUND
•OUNO
POUND
POUND
POUNO
POUNO
POUND
POUNO
POUNO
POUND
POUNO
POUNO
POUNO
POUND
POUNO
POUNO
POUNO
POUNO
POUNO
POUNO
POUNO
POUNO
POUNO
POUNO
POUND
POUND

UNITS
POUNDS
NIL BTU
THOU OAL
CUIIC FT
POUNDS
POUNOS
CUBIC FT
•IL ITU
MIL ITU
MIL ITU
MIL ITU
MIL ITU
INOII OP ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACTS














NAME

RA> MATERIALS
ENEROY
>ATER
INDUSTRIAL SOLID IAS.TES
ATH EMISSIONS
•ATERBORNE IASTES
POST-CONSUNER SOL HASTE
ENFBdY SOURCE PETRXEUM
ENfOr SOURCE N»T OAS
ENEROY SOURCE COAL
ENERGY SOURCE NUCL HYPO*
ENEROY SOURCE 1000 HASTE
STANDARD
VALUES
I.2TO
.792
.461
.144
I.20B
.B24
.07]
.060
.9*3
.100
.Oil
.000
CLOTH CLOTH CLOTH CLOTH CLOTH CLOTH CLOTH
NAP-CONN NAP-COMH NAP-CONN NAP-CONN NAP-CONN NAP-COHN NAP-CONN
FIltR IT nro PKO TRAN HASH PCS« JYS TOT
IT UUS IT USES IT USES IT U9I1 IT USES IT USES IT USES
4.411
o.ooo
0.000
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0.000
0.000
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0.000
o.ooo
o.ooo
0.000
.020
.006
.001
.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
.001
0.000
0.000
0.000
.0*1
.O2t
.000
.00)
.009
1.010
.004
.011
.010
.022
.010
.010
.Oil
.050
.001
.001
0.000
.001
.000
.000
.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
.011
.000
.000
.000
.000
.000
.lot
.000
.000
.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
.0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
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.064
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0.000
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0.000
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0.000
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.019
.000
.000
.000
.171
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.013
.009
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0.000
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1100 .000
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.000 .092
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.000 .712
.OOt .011
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.000 .102 .000 .t41
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0.000 .121 0.000 1.603
0.000 0.000 .073 .073
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.
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009 ,t79
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000 .106
000 .000
000 .000
000 .030
000 .044
000 .107
000 .004
000 .000
000 .000
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000 0.000
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000 0.000
000 .000
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                  110

-------
                                                       TAME  45A

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                                                          TABLE  45B
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•OUNO
BOUND
POUNO
•OUNO
•AUNT)
"ILL "U
"TLL 870
"ILL *7U
"ILL »7U
"ILL »TU
"ILL »TU
POUNO
•ou«n
•OUNO
BOUND
«TL "Tu
"TL 870
•IL ITU

UNIT'
POUNf.
•OUNO
•OUNP
CUBIC FT
POUNO

BOU'JU
POUNO
POUNfi
PTIUNO
POUN<)
POUNft
on,, si,
BnUNO
BRUNO
BOU'IO
POUNO
fcOUNf,
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POIInr,
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•flUMn
BOUN"
POUNw
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pouNn
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POUND
pn.jNO
POUNO
BOU'lO

UNTTS
OOUNO?
THOU GAL
CUMC C7
•OUNOS
•OUNOS
CUKIC FT
•IL RTU
•IL «TU
•a ITU
*-«-<*' >wv"» -vvw MT0«a  NIL  *.TU
tN(Ba< IDUhCk1 .Ouu >«STt  "IL  ItU
I*W(> 0'  ENVIBOWF.NTAl  I"**
• ATtB
INUUS7PKL
I7N EWI9SION5

POST-CONSUNt" SOL "ASTE
ENEBS': iOU»CE PETPOL£U«
ENCBSr SOURCE NI7 GAS
EN£«Ot SOUOCE CO>L
ENtBOY SOUHCE NUCL BTPuB
          E'.f»OY
                        .000  XSTE
 .37*01
 .21121
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1.2690*
 .*0012
 .22(97
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 .09939
 .09071
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0.00000
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.01890
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.00000
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.00000
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.22097
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                                                                                                     .39(83
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                                                                                                     .00190
                                                                                                     .29121
                                                                                                    1.92*6*
                                                                                                     .31194
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                                                                                                     .00191
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                                                                                                    0.00000
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                                                                                                     .00(01
                                                                                                     .00*1*
                                                                                                    0.0(000
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                                                                                                      .*I011
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                                                                                                      .11191
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                                                                                                       100.
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                                                                                                       too.
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                                                                                                       100.
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                                                                                                       1(0.
                                                                112

-------
                                                        TABLE  46
                                           RttOUJKt UO CHVIRONHENT4L MO'Ut 1NU.TIII

                                                 III CMHKS CUT" Oil* HLIUNUIII
       n imt*s
          MTMIM.  COTTON
          MTCR1U.  SULFtTI t*INC
          •*TfR|M.  MOO  riKR
          MTCRIM.  LlMSTOMt
          MTCRIU.  |«M  OKI
          MTCRItL  SALT
          MTtRIM.  *.»11~S»NO
          WTERUL  MT SOOA ASM
          •ATCRIAL  rtvos'A*
          MTCRIAL  MUUTt out
          •ATCRIAL  SULFUR
          CWMT  SOURCC  •CTROLCUH
          tHtRIT  SOURCC  HIT MS
          CNtRIT  SOURCE  COAL
          iNtRtT  SOURCC  mtc
          tNCRit  SOURCE  HOOD nut*
          CHCRlr  SOURCE  HTO*0»0«f*
          MTCRIAl  »OT»S«
          HATCRIAL  •HOWHAU HOCK
          •ATERIAL  CLAT
          •ATCRIAL  «T»SUM
          MATCRIAL  SILICA
          MTERIAL  MOCISS AOO
          (NtMY  MOCKS
          CHCROv  TRANSPORT
          INMOT  or MIL RESOURCE
          MICR VOLUME
                                      UNIT*
                                   •OUHO
                                   •OUHO
                                   •OUHO
                                   •OUNO
                                   R8UHO
                                   FOUND
                                   •OUHO
                                   •OUNO
                                   •Ul ITg
                                   • 1U. ITU
                                   •ILL «TU
                                   • III «TU
                                   •ILL ITU
                                   HILL tTU
                                   •OUNO
                                   •OUHO
                                   •OUNO
OUTPUTS 'HOD ITSTC'S
          SOLID MSTC1 ••OCCSS
          SOLID XStCS rud.  COM*
          SOLID MSTCS «iNi«a
          SOLID MITE »OST-CttHSun
          •TMoiMCRic •csTiciot  '
          »t«o« •••TICUL«TCS
          ATCOS KITROIEN 0>IMS
          ttnOS HTOROCARIONS
          ATMOS sw.ru* oiiots
          itnoj :III*OH NONOitoc
          •'•05 tLOfHTDCS
          ATMOS OTMCR o*a>Nics
          •TKOS oooaout sw.ru*
          I>IC
          ICID
          •MfMOKHC HCT>L ION
          l»IC«*0*MC CKCMIOIS
                     etwioc
                     C»»O»IU«
                     ALUMINUM
                     NICKIL
          MTCMOMIC »t»CU«r
                     LHO
          MTCWOMC 1I1C
          MTtlltOMt 1IMOMU
          OTOtOWIt MIt«O»t«
          MTCMOIMC »ts- rcioc
                                   •OUNO
                                   •OUNO
                                   •OUNO
                                   •OUNO
                                   •OUNO
                                   •OUNO
                                   •OUMO
                                   •OUNO
                                   •OUNO
                                   •OUNO
                                   •OUNO
                                   •OUMO
                                   •OUNO
                                   •OUNO
                                   •OUNO
                                   •OUNO
                                   •OUNO
                                   •OUNO
                                   •OUNO
                                   •OUNO
                                   •OUNO
                                   •OUNO
                                   •OUNO
                                  .•OUNO
                                   •OUNO
                                   •OUNO
                                   •OUNO
                                   •OUNO
                                   •OUNO
                                   •OUNO
                                   •OUNO
                                   •OUNO
                                   •OUNO
          MKC



          »• MTtRIALS
          ENCRIT
          Mtc»
          INDUSTRIAL  SOLID MSTES
          ATM EMISSIONS
          MTCRSORNC  MSTES
          •OST-CONSUNC* SOL MITC
          CNEROT  SOURCE XTROLEUM
          CNERIT  SOURCC NAT MS
          CNCRIT  SOURCE COAL
          CNfRIT  SOURCC NUCL NT»MR
          INCRIT  SOURCC MOO MITE


INOCl tf CMIRONMCNTAL  IH*ACTS
          KM NlTtHIALS
          CNtTCT
          ««riP
          INOUSTRIAL SOLID MSTCS
          ' SOURCC COIL
          CNCR9T SOURCE NUCL MT»«R
          CNCRST SOURCC MOD MSTC
                                       UNITS
                                    •IL  ITU
                                    THOU ML
                                    cuiic rr
                                    •OUNOS
                                    •OUNOS
                                    cmic rt
                                    •IL  ITU
                                    •IL  ITU
                                    •IL  ITU
                                    •IL  ITU
                                    •IL  ITU
                                     STMOAIW
                                      MLUM
                                        l.**f
                                         .•11
                                         .sit
                                         .»»»
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TON COTTON COTTON COTTON COTTON COTTON COTTON
»» IT OIA«C* Ol»»t« OI**CR OUH» OltMR OIAHI
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1* 11 I.MI LI
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l.lll
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l.lll
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.100
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c
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111.
                                                                113

-------
                                                          TABIE  47
                                            •fiOUUCI ANO INVIMOtWINTAL  PROfILt  AHA.LTSU

                                                  100 CNAIMII CLOTH  01AP  CLAUN  U49
INPUT* TO ITSTtH*
          MM
          NtTtRIAL COTTON
          MATERIAL SULFATt BRINE
          NITER IAL 1000 FIBER
          MATERIAL LINESTOHf
          MATERIAL IRON OBt
          MATERIAL MIT
          MATERIAL GLASS UNO
          MATERIAL NIT SOOt ASH
          MATERIAL FELDSPAR
          MATERIAL BAUMTE OX
          MATERIAL SULFUR
          ENERGY SOURCE PETROLEUM
          CNCHOr SOURCE N«T GAS
          ENERGY SOURCE COIL
          ENEROY SOURCE RISC
          CNCR3T SOURCE ,000 FIBER
          CNEROT SOURCE HTOROPO»ER
          HATERIAL POTASH
          HATERIAL PHOSPHITE ROCK
          MATERIAL CLAY
          HATERIAL GYPSUH
          HATERIAL SILICA
          NATERIAL PROCESS 100
          ENERGY PROCESS
          ENEROT TRANSPORT
          ENERGY or NHL RESOURCE
          • A IE8 VOLUME
OUTPUTS 'RON STSTENS
          NANE
          SOL 10 HASTES PROCESS
          SOLID IASTES FUEL COM
          SOLIO KASTES HININO,
          SOLID M03 PART1CULATES
           TNOS N1TROOEN OIIOCS
           TNOS HYDROCARBONS
           TNOS SULFUR OI10ES
           TNOS CARSON HONOXIDE
           THOS ALOEHYOES
           TNOS OTHER OOGANICS
           moS ODOROUS SULFUR
           TWOS AMMONIA
           TMOS HTOROOEN FLOUPIOE
           TNOS LEAO
           TNOS MERCURY
           TNOS'MERIC CHLORINE
          •ATE&90RNE OIS SOLIOS
          •ATESBOINt FLUORIDES
          •ATEBBORNE OISS SOLIOS
          •ATERBORNC BOO
          •ATERBOBNE PifNOL
          •ATE'BORNE SULFIOES
          •ATERBORNE OIL
          •A7ERBORNE COO
          • ATERBORNE SUSP SOLIOS
          •ATERBORNE AC 10
          •ATERBOPNE HETAL ION
          •ATERBORNE CHENICALS
          •ATERBORNE CTANIOE
          •ATERBORNC ALKALINITY
          VATERBOBNE CHROM1UN
          •ATERBORNE IRON
          •ATERBORNE ALUN I NUN
          •ATERBORNE NICKEL
          •ATERBORNE NERCURT
          •ATERBORNE LEAO
          •ATERBORNI PHOSPHATES
          •ATERSORNt IINC
          • ATERBORNC AMMONIA
          •ATERBORNC NITRfEN
          •ATCRBODNE PCSTI.10I
SUMMARY OF ENVIRONMENTAL 1NPACT5
          NANE
          ENERGY
          • ATE R
          INDUSTRIAL SDL10 BASTES
          ATM CNN US IONS
          MTCR80RNE ««STES
          POST-CONSUMER SOL 1ASTE
          ENERGY SOURCE PETROLEUM
          ENERGY SOURCC NAT GAS
          ENERlY SOURCE COAL
          ENEROY SOURCE NUCL HY««R
          ENERGY SOURCE «000 »ITC

INOEI Of ENVIKONMCNTAL IMMCTJ
          NANE
POUND
POUND
POUND
POUND
POUND
POUND
POUND
POUND
POUND
POUND
POUND
MILL BTU
HILL BTU
HILL BTU
MILL BTU
NlLL BTU
HILL BTU
POUND
POUNO
POUND
POUND
POUNO
POUNDS
•IL BTU
NIL BTU
NIL BTU
THOU GAL
POUNO
POUNO
POUNO
CUBIC FT
POUND
POUNO
POUNO
POUNO
POUNO
POUNO
POUNO
POUNO
POUND
POUNO
POUND
POUNO
POUND
POUNO
POUNO
POUND
POUND
POUND
POUND
POUNO
POUNO
POUNO
POUNO
POUNO
POUNO
POUND
POUND
POUNO
POUND
POUNO
POUNO
POUND
POUND
POUND
POUNO
POUNO
POUNO
POUNO
POUNO
POUNOS
NIL BTU
THOU 0«L
CUBIC FT
POUNOS
POUNDS
CUBIC FT
MIL BTU
NIL ITU
NIL BTU
MIL ITU
MIL ITU
                                     STAHOASO
                                      VALUES
          RM MATERIALS                  l.ll«
          ENEROY                          .1*4
          •ATER                           .12«
          INDUSTRIAL SOLIO HASTES         .0)1
          ATM EMNISSIONS                  .3**
          •ATERBORNE «A5TES               .ITT
          POST-CONSUHER SOL »ASTE         .008
          ENEROY SOURCE PETROLEUM         .910
          ENERGV 10UPCE NAT GAS           .119
          ENERGY SOURCE COAL              .913
          ENERGY SOURCC NUCL HYP>8        .00!
          ENERBV SOURCE HOOD «ASTE        .000
COTTON
FIBER ST

O.tl LI
.«TB
.000
.000
.000
.900
.000
.000
.000
.000
!o9l
.091
.001
.000
.000
.900
.009
.009
.009
.090
.000
.090
.00*
.003
.099
.999
.091
.111
.901
.901
OiOOO
.0*1
.001
.015
.004
.091
.90S
.009
.000
0.099
.000
.090
.000
.999
9.900
9.909
0.000
.001
.000
.000
.009
.000
.009
.on
.000
.909
.000
.090
• 099
.909
.00*
.009
.909
.00*
.00*
.999
.09*
.9*1
.009
.000
.4*]
.09}
.091
.991
.910
.911
0.00*
.•11
.901
.999
.000
0.00*
«3.0
1.
.
5.
S.
T.
0.
11.
€
.
t
0.
COTTON COTTON COTTON COTTON COTTON COTTON
DIAPER 01 APE" OUPER 01A
MFB PKG TRAN ••11
.«0 LI
•ER DIAPER DIAPER
< PCS. SY1 TOT

9.999 9.999 .900 0.090 .00* .»'•
0.900 0.099 .090
0.000 .011 .099
9.999 9.999 .900
9.999 9.000 .000
.16* 0.000 .009
9.909 9.000 .000
9.999 9.000 .900
9.909 9.999 .000
.90* 0.009 .999
.99* .000 .001
.00* .090 .000
.09* .000 .900
.001 .000 .999
9.990 .099 .999
9.909 9.099 .090
9.999 9.909 .000
9.99* 9.999 .000
0.09* 0.099 .000
0.999 9.099 .009
0.000 0.090 .009
.024 .001 .000
.929 .099 .090
0.000 .099 .901
0.000 .000 0.000
.009 .000 .000
.113 .091 ' 0.000
.044 .901 .000
.11* .001 0.090
.04* .000 .091
.000 .009 .911
1.000 .000 9.009
.999 .999 9.900
.141 .909 .307
.OS2 .099 OS2
.046 .990 .946
.099 .999 9.999
!ou !ooo ion
.90) .999 .010
.13) .990 .13*
.904 .000 .013
.001 .000 .002
.000 .000 .999
.999 .000 .090
.000 .000 .900
.000 .000 .000
.009 .99* .999
.909 .000 .000
.000 .909 .090
.OB* .000 .116
.13V .009 .162
.001 .000 .091
.001 0.000 .991
.120 .099 .129
1.6*4 0.000 1.901
.921 .000 .067
.06B 0.000 .107
0.000 0.099 0.909 0.000 0.999 .901
.Ott .091 .900
.01* .099 .001
.00* .099 .009
.045 .001 .000
.093 .999 .902
.090 .009 .000
.000 .000 .909
0.000 0.090 0.000
.000 .090 .900
0.000 0.000 0.000
.000 .900 .000
.090 .000 0.000
.001 0.000 0.000
9.009 9.000 0.000
0.009 0.090 0.900
.002 .090 .009
.092 .999 • .000
.000 .000 .000
.090 .900 .000
.909 .000 .000
.01* .090 .900
.0*4 .000 .000
..0*2 .000 .900
.901 .990 .909
9.909 .099 .000
.00* .999 .032
.077 .909 .193
.12* .900 .142
.02) .000 .070
.921 .091 .932
.000 .000 .009
.901 .000 .001
.003 0.000 .093
.002 .000 .092
9.000 0.990 .900
.000 .009 .009
.909 9.900 .000
.001 0.900 .002
.001 0.900 .001
0.000 0.099 9.900
.031 .000 .934
.036 .009 .93*
.990 .900 .000
.000 .000 .990
.00* .000 .09*
.014 .009 .033
.036 .090 .051
.091 .009 .004
.002 .000 .003
.090 0.009 .909
0.090 0.099 .909 0.000 0.009 0.009
9.99* 0.099 .999 0.090 0.100 0.009
0.0*1 0.000 .000
0.000 0.900 .000
.*«* 0.009 .090
.009 0.990 .909
0.099 9.090 .000
9.000 0.090 .000
0.009 9.009 .000
0.09* 0.000 .000
0.00* 0.909 .099
.194 .913 0.09*
.929 .090 .001
• OOB .000 .000
.009 .000 .000
.orr .0*1 .004
.01« .901 .000
0.009 9.090 0.009
.094 .9*9 .091
.00* .909 0.009
.00* .000 0.000
.991 .900 9.09*
0.010 ,000 0.009
IT. 3 1. 0.0
lt.1 . .4
6.J . .0
IT. 4 . .0
24.* . 1.0
16.4 . .2
9.0 9. 9.0
3B.O 1. 0.2
4.2 . 1.0
49. « . 0.0
(.4.! . 0.0
».) 14. 0.9
0.909 9.000 0.000
0*000 0.000 9.099
.990 9.099 .909
.999 9.090 .900
.000 0.099 .999
9.990 0.000 0.00*
.000 0.000 .009
.9*3 9.900 .903
.009 9.900 .000
.434 0.009 1.124
.140 .999 .164
.129 .009 .129
.924 .999 .031
.2*4 .001 .31*
.133 .990 .ITT
9.009 .09* .00*
.•91 .990 .010
.11) 0.99* .13*
.104 0.90* .913
.991 9.9*9 .091
.099 9.090 .00*
3*. 9. 199.
99. . 199.
*3. . 199.
TT. . 109.
6*. . 199.
75. . 190.
9. 10*. 190.
32. . 109.
95. 9. 199.
29. 9. 109.
31. 9. 199.
19. 0. 1*0.
                                                                114

-------
                                                             TABLE  48A
                                            •flounce »"0 CNVIMNMMTM. firiLt ANALYSIS
                                                  out HUNOMO OISP oi«pf»s n or t
INPUTS TO STSTF«S
          N*»F.
 MATERIAL  COTTON            POUND
 MATERIAL  9ULFATE  fRINE     POlMK
 MATERIAL  »00l>  FtBEU        POUND
 MATERIAL  LIMESTONE         POu*"
 NATFRIAL  HON  DOC         POUND
 MATE*I*L  4ALT              POUNO
 MATERIAL  "LASS SANO        POUND
 NATErtlAL  NAT SOP* ASM     POUND
 M«TE»1*L  FEL'SPAP         POUND
 N»TE*IAL  «*U>ITE  ORE       pouNii
 MATERIAL  iULFUP            POUND
 ENER&T  SOURCE  PfTPOtfun   M|LL *7IJ
 ENERGT  SOu-Ct  NAT OAS     MILL »'U
 ENE»GT  SUU4CI  CO*L         »1LL VTU
 ENEPGT  sou^ct  msc         »ILI CTU
 INCPGr  iOu000 FIPE*   "In PTU
 ENE»OV  SUUPCE  HVOOOPMEP   "ILL *Tu
 »Alr«IAL  POTAS«
  NATERIAL  CLAT              POUNO
  »*TEBIAL  »VPSU*            POUNO
  "ATFRIAL  >IL1CA            PnUNO
  •ATF.'IAL  o-OCESS  ADO       POUNDS

  r^EoliT  7N.N5POUT           «IL  PT
  SOL 1C  .ASTEb  PNOCCS*      POUND
  5CLI3  .«SItS  FuE'.  CUMM     POUND
  SOLID  "ASTES  "INl-i,       POUND
  SOL 10  ««S7t "OST-C3NSU"   C'«IC FT
  AT'OSP**C':C PESTICIDE      POUND
  AT"OS  PA-*7 ICULA7E-;        POJNO

  AT"05  -^^-OC^^HONS        Of'UNP
  ATMO*  SULFU(«  Olir.t*       POUND
  AT<*OS  NTi)i>o6£N FLOU**U>E
  AT"OS  L£*'-

  A7MOSPMENIC C-LOPINC
  .ATE-MOPNE  01* SOLUS

  oTF.«an"Nt  i."=s sotirs
  •A7EP10PNE  tOl

  .A7F»«0«St  SUtFIOfS

  .»'EO^O".t  CUD
  • !Tf«0'"'t  SUSP SOLIDS
  ....--,»-,v  «EIAt.  ION
  >ATE°«1u>Nt  Ct«-IC«tS
  •ATCPDUUNt  C'ANIDE
   	   AI..ALINITT
                            POiriO
                            POUNO
POUNO

POUND
POUNO
PCUNf
POUNII

POUND
POUNP
POUNO
POUND
POUNO
  PATFfldOPNt  ALUNINUN
  (1IEU40XNC  ••IC'CL
  ^ATER^C-»Nt  "EOCUB*

  •ATFPaQVSL  P-USPNATCS
  >ATE«90l».P
  £NE»er
  kATE"
  INOUSTSIAL SOLID AITE
  INEPOT SOU'CE PETPOtBL*
  CNEHIT SOURCE MIT OAI
  ENC*OT SOU"C>. C04L
  (NtDOT SOURCE NUCU NTPKR
  ENE*OT SOU'CE «OOP «A«TE

            IL I"PACTS
          BA> NITE'IACS
  •ATER
  INOUSTPIAL SOLID >ASTES
  ATM E»»IS110NS
  MATERAOANE "ASTES
  POST-CONSUMER SOL PASTE
  ENEMY SOUHCE PETROLEUM
  tNEPGT iOJUCE NAT 6AJ
  ENEWT SUURCt COIL
  ENEMT SOU'CE NUtl MTP*«
  ESEBST SOURCE MOO MSTE
"IL PT.U
TNflU GAL
CURIC FT
POUNDS
POUNDS
CM 1C FT
MIL ITU
MIL ITU
MIL ITU
MIL RTU
'II. ITU
                                     STANDARD
                                      VALUES
   ll.MtT*
     .37109
     .1661*
     .03*10
   1.195VT
     .35577
     .1*911
     .0*11*
     .10**!
     .0605*
     .00*13
     .100*6
DJ**M
T t SSUC
1.41 L«
o.ooooo
0.00000
i.o«.iii
.10**!
0.00000
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0.08000
0.09000
0.00000
0.00000
.01111
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.0151*
.*0«.9«
.00131
.01015
0.00*00
0.00000
0.00000
0.00000
0.00000
0.00000
.12771
.0*1*1
9.00000
.105*0
.015*5
.0951T
0.00000
0.00000
,OI«0*
.0101*
.01*1*
.04*11
.0990?
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.0001*
.0009*
.90000
C. 00000
.00000
.09900
0.00000
0.00000
.00*90
.911*1
.00000
.00999
.90900
.09001
.01555
.0010*
.00045
0.10000
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0.00900
0.00000
0.00000
0.00*00
.00000
.90100
0.0900*
0.00001
0.00090
0.00000
1.0150
.0*10*
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.035*1
0.00000
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9.00000
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0.90000
0.00000
0.10000
0.00000
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0.00000
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.01*11
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0.00000
0.00000
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.00*35
.0000«
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0.00000
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0.90000
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0.00900
0.90000
.00576
.00056
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.99990
.00006
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.0006*
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.00037
0.00000
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0.000*0
0.00009
0.0000*
«. 000*0
0.00000
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0.0000*
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9.90000
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0.00000
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.00073
.00*15
0.00000
0.00*00
0.00010
0.00000
9.90900
9.00000
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0.00000
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0.00090
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.90010
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0.000*0
.00009
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0.00000
0.00000
.005*4
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.90001
.9000*
.03115
.00*74
.906*1
.00071
0.00000
0.00000
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0.00*0*
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0.00000
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0.90000
0.00000
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.0*147
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0.00000
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0.00000
0.00009
9.00000
0.90000
0.00000
.90191
.011*9
.00030
.00007
0.90000
0.00000
0.00000
0.00000
0.90000
0.00000
0.0000*
.00*10
.0034*
.00»7«
.007*1
.00176
.00418
0.00000
0.00000
.00044
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.00001
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0.00000
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0.00000
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0.00000
0.00000
.001*1
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.90000
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.00*55
.0001*
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.99002
0.90000
0.00000
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0.00000
0.00000
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9.90000
0.00000
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0.00090
0.000*0
.00*10
.01*04
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.00010
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0.00000
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.091*0
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0.00000
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0.00000
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0.0*100
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t. 00900
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                                                                                                                         TOT 1C
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                                                                                                                          0.0000*
                                                                                                                          9.119*9
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                                                                                                                          1.49*37
                                                                                                                          0.90900
                                                                                                                          0.00000
                                                                                                                          0.90009
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                                                                                                                           .I6S1*
                                                                                                                           .0*11*
                                                                                                                           .109*1
                                                                                                                           .960*9
                                                                                                                           .00113
                                                                                                                           .100*0
                                                                                                                          0.00900
                                                                                                                          0.00009
                                                                                                                          0.99900
                                                                                                                          0.00000
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                                                                                                                          1.91241
                                                                                                                           .321M
                                                                                                                           .0131*
                                                                                                                           .0151'
                                                                                                                           .1662*
                                                                                                                          1.50111
                                                                                                                           .1919]
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                                                                                                                           .43659
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                                                                                                                           .015?*
                                                                                                                           .01016
                                                                                                                           . OOO'O
                                                                                                                          0.00000
                                                                                                                           .00007
                                                                                                                           .00001
                                                                                                                           .006**
                                                                                                                          0.09000
                                                                                                                          o.otono
                                                                                                                           .05111
                                                                                                                           .10317
                                                                                                                           .0000;
                                                                                                                           .00001
                                                                                                                           .00011
                                                                                                                           .0199*
                                                                                                                           .1291T
                                                                                                                           .01911
                                                                                                                           .09)70
                                                                                                                           .OOOS3
                                                                                                                          0.00909
                                                                                                                          9.00000
                                                                                                                           .90000
                                                                                                                          0.00000
                                                                                                                          0.09909
                                                                                                                          0.00000
                                                                                                                           .09000
                                                                                                                           .00000
                                                                                                                          0.00000
                                                                                                                           .00075
                                                                                                                           .00001
                                                                                                                          0.00000
                                                                                                                          0.00009
                                                                                                                          ll.AMTI
                                                                                                                            .17100
                                                                                                                            . 166?*
                                                                                                                            .91820
                                                                                                                           1.1*597
                                                                                                                            .35577
                                                                                                                            . UVSI
                                                                                                                            .0*11*
                                                                                                                            .10*42
                                                                                                                            .0405*
                                                                                                                            .00023
                                                                                                                            .100*6
                                                                                                                             1*0.0
                                                                                                                             100.0
                                                                                                                             100.0
                                                                                                                             100.0
                                                                                                                             100.0
                                                                                                                             100.0
                                                                                                                             101.t
                                                                                                                             1*0.•
                                                                                                                             100.0
                                                                                                                             ltt.0
                                                                                                                             1*0.0
                                                                                                                             100.0
                                                                     115

-------
                                                               TABI£  48B
                                             0(40URC( ANO ENVIRONIKNTAL PROFILE ANALTSIS

                                                   ONI HUNORfD OUP BIAPCRI °l

                                                    COftRUAAT  CARTONS   *OLT      CONVERT   DISPOSAL   TRANSPOR
                                                    1.22 LB   1.47 La   DRAPPCR]
                                                                        9.91V LR
"ATEHIAL COTTON POUNO
MATER!
MATER!
"A7IR!
MATER!
MATE*!
MATFRI
MATERI
MATER!
MATERt
MATFRI
t ME RUT
EN( H«v
EN£Rli»
ENERG*
tNEPGT
CNEROT
MATF.WI
NATE6!
MiTE»t
"4TFP|
"ATE"!
MATE*!
ENFRGV
ENERG*
iNE»0-»
IL SULFATIT. N-INE
LL «000 FISE"
IL LIMESTONE
IL IkUN ORE
IL SALT
IL liLAfS SANn
IL NAT 4004 ASH
IL FELI'SPA"
IL riAUBITE OI,T .
>OUNO
>OUNO
>OUN"
>OUNO
>OUNO
"OUNO
OUNU
OUNC
OUNf.
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ILL «TU
ILL RTIP
ILL RTU
ILL I'TU
•ILL «Tu
•ILL "TU
'OUNO
OUNO
OUNO
flUNtf
OUNO
1UND4
IL i'TU
IL <4TU
UF HkTt 3f.iluRCE *!L *TU
OUTPUTS *"U* STSTt^
          S"L!U "AiTtb  WOCtSS
          S(.-LIO «lSrf  FUEL  COMH
          SOU;' »u>i  "INOMuF

          • T'-OS OThe.-* URr.4N|C5
          4T«OS 0- O-IUS iUl'l.-
          AT**OS Aixgo-fu

          ATH04 LE«.-

          *r-osP*-eMc c-AT'RRO»NC -4STE?
          POST-CON4ll"t" SOL  «ASTE
          ENEKOf 10UHCI PtTHOLIIM
          kNOOY iOu'Cl NAT  Oil
          INCWQT 10U"Cfc COAL
          CNFROV IOUMCE NUCL  i*v*«R
          iNfPOT MUHCE "000  «ASTE

INOlI OF CMVIROWEN7AL IMPACTS
POUNO
POUNH
CUPIC FT
POUNO

PPUNO
OOUN1
PfUjNll

POUNO
POIINU
K1UNA
POIINP
poi.sr
WOU'lO
PO'JMl
OOUNO
POUN1
POUNO
POUNf"
POUNO
POUNH
pnnNO
POUNO
POUND
30UNO
POUND
POUNO
POUND
POUNO
"OUNO
POUND

POUNO
POUNO
PflUNO
P"UNOS
*IL I'TU
THOU OAt.
CU8IC FT
POUNDS
POUN04
CUOTC 'T

»IL "TU
NIL RTU
NIL »TU
NIL 8TU
          PA> MATERIALS                12.00871
          FNEROT                         .3710*
          •ATE*                          .1662*
          INDUSTRIAL 40LIO  OOU HASTE       .10046
0.00000
0.00000
.•5014
0.00000
0.00000
0.00000
0.00000
0.00000
0.00000
0.00000
0.00000
.00460
.00154
.001.18
0.00000
• .00714
0.00000
0.00000
0.00000
9.00000
0.00000
.01540
.91944
.00011
.91174
.04511
.04421
0.00000
1.00000
,04761
.01980
.00645
,99010
« 00917
0,00000
,00001
0.01900
.09000
.00000
0,00000
9.00000
9.00000
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.92502
.90000
,00000
.00001
.011*1
.00051
.900*1
0.00000
0.00000
0.00000
0.00000
0.00000
0.09000
0.00000
0,00000
0.00000
0.00000
.91574
.01945
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.00790
.16185
.04492
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.00114
.00110
0.00000
.90714
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12.6
0.9
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.12960
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..010*6
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.00062
.01406
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.13526
.04058
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.04840
0.00000
0.00000
.01501
.01821
.00604
.00904
.90015
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0.00000
0.00000
0.00000
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0.90000
1.40120
.04102
.016*7
.00104
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.01121
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.010*0
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.90010
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0.00090
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.00040
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.00030
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                                                                                                                            0.00000
                                                                                                                            9.21949
                                                                                                                             .87277
                                                                                                                            0.00000
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                                                                                                                            0.00000
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                                                                                                                             .0929*
                                                                                                                             .10942
                                                                                                                             .0*04*
                                                                                                                             .00071
                                                                                                                             .10046
                                                                                                                            0.10000
                                                                                                                            0.00000
                                                                                                                            0.000(10
                                                                                                                            0.00000
                                                                                                                            0.00000
                                                                                                                            0.00000
                                                                                                                            1.03J-H
                                                                                                                             .12241
                                                                                                                             .01114
                                                                                                                             .9151*
                                                                                                                             .166'*
                                                                                                                            1.50111
                                                                                                                             .191*3
                                                                                                                             .444S4
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                                                                                                                            0.00000
                                                                                                                             .19071
                                                                                                                             .2606K
                                                                                                                             .111440
                                                                                                                             .41649
                                                                                                                             .0*041
                                                                                                                             .00094
                                                                                                                             ,01!>>4
                                                                                                                             .0101*
                                                                                                                             .00020
                                                                                                                            0.00000
                                                                                                                             .000117
                                                                                                                             .09001
                                                                                                                             ,00644
                                                                                                                            0,00900
                                                                                                                            0.00010
                                                                                                                             .95012
                                                                                                                             .10117
                                                                                                                             .00002
                                                                                                                             .00002
                                                                                                                             .00011
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                                                                                                                             .00170
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                                                                                                                            0.00000
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                                                                                                                            0.000(10
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                                                                                                                            0.00000
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                                                                                                                            12.09970
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                                                                                                                              ,1004*
                                                                                                                               100.0
                                                                                                                               100.0
                                                                                                                               100.0
                                                                                                                               100.0
                                                                                                                               100.0
                                                                                                                               100.0
                                                                                                                               100.0
                                                                                                                               100.0
                                                                                                                               100.0
                                                                                                                               100.0
                                                                                                                               100.0
                                                                                                                               100.0
                                                                          116

-------
                                                             TABIE  49

                                            •CIOUIICC MO IMVimcMCNTtl. PROFILE ANALYSIS
                                                  ONI THOU CLOTH IHCITS   10* USES
                                                   CLOTH     CLOTH     CLOTH     CLOTH
                                                   SMtET     SHttT     SHeeT     (HtCT
                                                   COTTM IT  POLYe ST  »r«       PUB
                                                   110 UUS  111 USCS  110 USei  100 USCt
                                                       CLOTH     CLOTH
                                                       IHCCT     SHEET
                                                       TPAN      HASH
                                                       100 uses  100 uses
CLOTH     CLOTH
IdttT     SHKT
• CSI      ITS TOT
100 uses  in uses
INPUTS TO STSTENJ
          NATIRIAL COTTON
          HATER IAL SULFA7E MINE
          NATERIAL HOOD rueii
          NATERIAl LIHCSTONE
          HATERIAL mo* one
          NATERIAL SALT
          NATERI4L CLASS SAND
          HATEPIAL HIT SOO< >SH
          HATERIAL FELDSPAR
          HATERIAL BAUAITC Ml
          HATERIAL SULFUR
          EHERIY SOURCE PCTHOLeuN
          ENEPOT SOURCE »«T eOOD FIBfP
          ENERBY SOUXCE HYDROPOVCP
          NATERIAL POTAS"
          HATCRIAL PHOSPHATE ROCK
          HATERIAL CLAT
          HATERIAL OYPSUN
          NATE*IAL SILICA
          NATERIAL PROCESS ADO
          ENEPOr PROCESS
          ENERGY TRANSPORT
          ENERGY OF NATL RESOURCE
          • *TFB VCLUHE
OUTPUTS FltO" SYSTENS
          101.10 PASTES PBOCESS
          SOLID HASTES rail, COM
          SOLIO MSTES H1NIH4
          SOLID «AST£ POST-CONSUN
          ATMOSPHERIC PESTICIDE
          ATHOS PAPMCULATES
          AI«OS NITROOEN 01 IOCS
          ATHOS HTOPOCARIONS
          ATHOS SULFUR OIIDES
          ATNOS CARBON NONOIIOE
          AT«OS ALDEHYDES
          ATHOS OTHER ORGANIC?
          ATNOS ODGHOUS SULFUtt
          ATHOS AHNONIA
          ATHOS HTOHQGEN FLOURIOE
          ATHOS LEAU
          ATHOS KRCURY
          ATHOSPMERIC CHLO'INE
          •ATERBOHNE OIS SOLIDS
          •ATERPORNE FLUORIDES
          HATERSORNE Dili SOLIDS
          •ATERBORNt >CO
          •ATE'RORNE »-£WL
          • ATEKOPSE SUL'iOES
          •ATERIORNt OIL
          •ATIRIOPNE COO
          •ATCRSORNt SUSP SOLIDS
          IATERBOPNE ACID  .
          •ATCRPOBNE HETAL ION
          •ATER10RNI CxE'lCALS
          •AtEXIORNE CTANIDE
          • ATER60RNE ALMLlxITT
                     CHOOHIU"
                     IPON
          •AtE»RORNt ALUHINUH
          ••TERRORNC NIC>EL
          •ATEABORNt NtRCORr
          •ATERBOUNE LEAD
          •ATCRBORHE PHOSPHATES
          •Arr'BOMiE IINC
          • ATE'IORNE AMONIA
          .ATERIODNt NITROtE
          •AtER|0*NE PtSTICI.i

SUHHART OP ENVIRONMENTAL  IHPACTS
          NAHE
          RA> HlTEPULS
          INEOT
          «AT|R
          INDUSTRIAL SOLIO >ASTES
          ATH EHRISSIOHS
          >ATE*IO*NC MSTCS
          POST-CONSUHER SOL KASTt
          (MEPOr SOURCE PCTIOLCUH
          ENEKBT SOUP.CC NAt OAS
          ENER8T SOURCE COAL
          ENSKIT SOURCE NUCL MTP«»
          CNCKOT SOUPCE (ODD «A$TE

INOtH OP ENVIPONHCHTAL IHPACTS
          NAHE
          RA. HATERULS
          ENER»T
          HATER
          INDUSTRIAL SOLID HASTCS
          ATH EMilSSIONS
          •ATEOBOPNE M.J7ES
          POST>CONSUHEII SOL "ASTE
          ENC»«T SOURCE PEIROLEUH
          ENEIOT S:i'»C£ HIT GAS
          EHEP.OT SOURCE COAL
          CNIP.OT SOURCE NUCL HTPI*
          ENEMY SOURCE MOO IASTC
POUND
POUND
POUND
POUND
POUND
POUND
POUND
POUND
POUND
POUND
POUND
HILL ITU
HILL ITU
HILL BTU
HILL BTU
HILL ITU
HILL ITU
POUND
POUHO
POUND
POUHD
POUND
POUNDS
"H BTU
"II BTU
HIL BTU
THOU BAL
POUND
POUND
POUND
CUBIC FT
POUNO
POUND
POUND
POUNO
POUND
POUNO
POUND
POUND
POUND
POUNO
•OUNO
POUNO
POUNO
POUND
POUND
POUHD
POUND
POUNO
POUNO
POUNO
POUND
POUNO
POUND
POUND
POUND
POUNO
POUNO
POUNO
POUNO
POUND
POUND
POUND
POUNO
POUNO
POUNO
POUNO
POUNO
POUND
POUND
POUNDS
NIL BTU
THOU IAL
CUBIC rr
POUNDS
POUNDS
CUBIC PT
NIL ITU
NIL BTU
NIL ITU
NIL BTU
NIL BTU
                                     STANDARD
                                      VALUES
    M.J9A
      6.IT*
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      I.000
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       .471
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0.100
0.000
0.000
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0.000
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0.000
0.000
0.000
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0.000
0.000
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.006
1.3J5
.012
.016
0.000
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.02*
.019
.011
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.065
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.002
0.000
.001
.000
.010
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0.000
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0.000
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.101
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.000
.10
.000
.000
.100
0.000
1.001
0.001
0.001
0.000
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0.101
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S.I32
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.001
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.»«2
.160
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0.101
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.000 0.100
.000 O.IIO
.000 I.IOI
.000 I.IIO
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.000 O.OII
.010 0.000
.000 1.001
.000 .114
.171 .107
.OfJ .164
.014 * .24S
.01) .141
.000 O.OII
.000 l.lll
.010 1.000
.000 0.101
.000 0.100
.000 0.000
.•TO .674
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.004 0.000
.121 0.000
.011 .22*
.20S S.RS2
.101 1.2)4
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t.OOO 0.000
1.000 0.000
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.2)7 1.261
.210 .OTI
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.001 .001
>.OOI 0.000
.000 .000
9.000 0.000
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.000 .000
g.ooo .0?)
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0.000 0.000
.OTI ,0!2
.007 ,04S
•000 «001
.000 .001
.101 .600
.001 .520
.005 .110
.004 .061
.001 .016
0.000 O.OII
0.000 O.lll
g.ooo o.ooo
.000 .001
0.000 0.001
1.000 O.OII
1.000 .Oil
0.000 .Oil
0.000 0.010
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.010 0.010
1.000 1.001
I.OII 0.060
.070 S.4M
.211 .931
.Oil .22*
.007 .141
1.144 2.TOI
.0*1 .11)
l.lll 0.000
.171 .107
.01) .164
.014 .24S
.10) .142
I.OII O.lll
.) 21.4
4.7 1.0
.9 9.1
.7 14.1
1.0 11. 1
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37.5 22.6
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3.2 S6.0
3.0 91. S
0.0 0.0
0.000
0.000
.163
1.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
0*000
0.000
0.000
0.000
.003
.001
.002
.000
.001
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
.023
.001
.000
.006
.001
.022
.017
.021
0.000
0 .000
.011
.001
.011
.020
.002
.000
.002
0.001
.001
0.001
.000
.000
0.000
0.001
0.000
.003
.009
.000
.000
.000
.002
.000
.000
.000
0.000
0.001
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.100
0.000
0.100
O.OII
.116
.019
.001
.101
.05*
.011
o.ooo
.003
.III
.112
.001
.001
7
2
0
1
4
2
6
2
4
)
71 4
O.IIO 0.001
0.000 3.173
I.IIO 0.000
0.000 .000
0.000 .000
0.000 .640
0.000 .635
0.000 .000
0.000 .000
0.000 .352
.017 .130
.000 .002
0.000 .176
0.000 .037
0.000 .001
0.000 .000
0.000 .000
0.000 .00*
0.000 .000
0.000 .000
0.000 .713
0.000 .209
.017 .010
0.000 .021
.001 3.677
0.000 56. Ml
.004 1.00*
0.000 3.12*
0.000 0.000
.002 .341
.037 2.*4)
.OIS 4.756
.007 1.057
.056 .797
.001 .011
.002 .02*
0.000 .064
.000 .OSI
0.000 0.000
.000 .000
0.000 .000
0.000 .040
0.000 .026
0.000 0.000
.00* 1.0*7
.110 1.06S
.000 .000
.110 .2*4
.101 .444
.000 I.OT1
.000 .0*0
.000 .011
0.000 .010
1.000 0.000
0.000 .002
0.001 .000
0.000 0.001
0.000 0.000
l.lll .III
0.100 .III
0.001 .019
0.000 0.001
0.001 .000
0.000 .101
0.000 .001
0.000 13.161
.017 9.24*
.011 3.677
.001 .129
.121 10.077
.00* 4.246
1.001 0.010
.017 .130
.000 4.V02
0.100 .171
O.OII .0)7
0.000 .101
0 0 t*. 6
) 19.0
0 *).9
0 12.9
* 6«.)
2 71.4
3 6 27.3
0 «4.T
0 0 40.2
00 45.1
0 0 21.6
0.010 5.777
.000 3.07)
.000 .163
.000 0.000
.000 1.000
.000 «.2*1
.*<>0 1.6)5
.000 0.000
.000 0.000
.000 .465
.014 .475
.000 9.177
.000 .431
.000 .013
.001 .002
.000 0.000
.000 0.000
.000 .001
.000 0.000
.000 ' 0.000
.'oOO 3^543
.000 5.<60
.014 .059
0.000 .1S«
.001 3.*33
0.000 64.50)
.003 2.311
0.000 7.214
.220 .220
.001 .<«4
.015 3.706
.019 5.65)
.004 2.607
.lit 1.21*
.001 .016
.oog .049
0.000 .064
.000 .05*
0.000 .000
.000 .001
0.000 .000
0.010 .06)
0.000 .026
0.000 0.000
.007 1.260
.000 1.123
.000 .001
.000 .2*5
.000 .066
.000 1.330
.000 .133
.000 .091
0.000 .001
0.000 0.000
0.000 ' .002
0.000 .001
0.000 0.000
0.000 0.000
0.000 .000
0.001 .100
O.lll .009
0.000 0.000
0.000 .000
0.000 .101
0.000 .003
0.000 25. 3*4
.014 6. 174
.001 3.*))
.000 1.000
.163 14.5)2
.007 S.)46
.220 .220
.014 .479
0.000 5.177
0.000 .4)1
0.000 .013
6.000 .012
0. 100.
100.
100.
. uo.
i. lie.
100.
2! no!
0. 100.
o. too.
0. 111.
0. 100.
                                                                     117

-------
                                                        TABLE   50
                                            •flounce AND ENVIRONMENTAL PROFILE ANALrsis
                                                  ONI THOUSAND DISPOSABLE IMCCTI
INPUT! TO SYSTEMS
          NAME
          MATERIAL COTTON
          MATERIAL SULFATI BRINC
          MATERIAL HOOD FIBER
          MATERIAL LINCITONt
          MATERIAL IRON ORC
          MATERIAL SALT
          MATERIAL GLASS S>NU
          MATERIAL NAT I00t ASH
          MATERIAL FELDSPAR
          MATERIAL BAUIITf OX
          MATERIAL SULFUR
          ENERGY SOURCE PETROLEUM
          ENERGY SOURCE NAT Of
          ENERGY SOURCE COIL
          ENERGY SOURCE "ISC
          ENERGY SOURCE 1000 HMO
          ENCROr SOURCE HVOROPOHCR
          MATERIAL POTASH
          MATERIAL PHOSPHATE »OC«
          MATERIAL CLAY
          MATERIAL GYPSUM
          MATERIAL SILICA
          MATERIAL PMOCCSS »00
          ENERGY PROCESS
          ENERGY TRANSPORT
          ENERGY OF MATL RESOURCE
          HATER VOLUME
OUTPUTS FROM SYSTEMS
          NAME
          SOL to BASTES PROCESS
          SOLID WASTES FUEL COM*
          SOLID HASTES "ININO
          S»L!D HASTE P03T-CONSUN
          ATMOSPHIRIC PESTICIDE
          ATNOS PARTICULATES
          ATMOS NITROGEN OIIOCS
          ATMOS HYDROCARBONS
          AT»OS SULFUR OXDES
          At»05 CARBON HONDA IDE
          ATMOS ALDtxTOCS
          ATMOS OTMl» ORGANICS
          ATMOS OOORUUS SULFUR
          ATHOS AMMONIA
          AT«OS HTUkOGEN FLOURIOE
          ATMOS LEAU
          ATMOS »E»CURT
          ATMOSPNCHIC CHLO»I«lE
          HATERBORNt ulS SOL10S
          •ATERRORNC FLUORIDES
          •ATERBOBNC DISS SOLIDS
          HATEBBORNC bOO
          •ATCBBORNC PHENOL
          •ATERBORNE SULFIOES
          •ATERBORNE OIL
          HATERBORNE COO
        •  HATERBORNE SUSP SOLIDS
          HATEBBORNC ACIO
          •AtERBORhC OCTAL ION
          •ATCB80MNL CHEN1CALS
          •ATER90RNE CYANIDE
          BATERBORNt ALKALINITY
          •ATERRORNE CHRONIUN
          HATERRORME IRON
          HATERBOMNE ALUMINUM
          • ATERRORNE NIOCL
          •ATEHSORNC MCRCURT
          KATERBORxe LEAD
          •ATERBORME PHOSPHATES
          •ATERBORNt ZINC
          •ATERBOBNl AXMONIA
          .ATERBOONE NITROM
          •ATfBSOBNt PESTtCI.^

SUHMART OF CNVIROHMCNTAL IMPACTS
          NAME
          RAH MATERIALS
          ENCROr
          • ATCR
          INDUSTRIAL SOLID HASTES
          ATM CMM1SSIONS
          •ATtRBORNC HAfTCI
          POST-CONSUMER SOL "ASTE
          tMIROT SOURCE PtTROLCUN
          (MROT SOURCE NAT 4>|
          CNCROr SOURCE COAL
          ENEROr SOURCt NUCL »'•<«
          ENIROT SOUMCI 1000 «ASTt

IMOEI OP CNVIRONMCNTAL IMPACTS
          NAME
          DM MATERIALS
          ENERGY
          • AT€B
          INDUSTRIAL SOLID VASTCS
          ATM EMMISSIONS
          •ATCRBORNE HASTCS
          POST-CONSUMER SOL HASTE
          ENERGY SOURCE PCTROLEUN
          ENERGY so. RCE NAT G>I
          ENERGY SOURCE COAL
          ENERGY SOURCE NUCL HYPVR
          EMERGT SOURCE 1000 "ASIC
POUND
POUND
POUND
POUND
POUND
POUND
POUND
POUND
POUND
POUND
POUND
MILL BTU
MILL ITU
MILL BTU
MILL BTU
MILL BTU
MILL BTU
POUND
POUND
FOUND
POUNO
POUND
POUNDS
MIL RTU
MIL BTU
MIL BTU
TMOU GAL
POUNO
POUND
POUNO
CUBIC FT
POUND
POUNO
POUNO
POUNO
POUNO
POUND
POUND
POUND
POUNO
POUNO
°OUMO
POUNO
POUND
°OUNO
POUNO
POUND
POUNO
POUND
POUNO
POUNO
POUND
POUNO
POUNO
•OUNO
POUNO
POUND
POUNO
POUNO
POUNO
POUNO
POUND
POUNO
POUNO
POUNO
POUNO
POUND
POUND
ROUND
POUNO
POUNDS
MIL BTU
THOU GAL
CUBIC FT
POUNDS
POUNDS
CUI 1C FT
MIL BTU
NIL ITU
MIL ITU
MIL ITU
NIL ITU
                                     STANDARD
                                      VALUES
     i.lit
      .611
    II.6JT
     ».J5»
     3.737
     2.029
     5.769
     1.20T
      .2»T
      .793
LOPE NONHOVCN OIIPOS OISPOI OISPOS OISPOS OISP01
FILM ST1 rilCR SHEET SHEET SHCET SMfCT IHtET
It*






















1 LI 107.4 LI 1110 LI «.l
.000 0.000 0.000
.000 0.000 .000
.000 73.431 .000
.000 7. lit .000
.000 0.000 .000
.000 B.63T .000
.000 0.000 .000
.000 0.000 .000
.000 0.000 .000
.000 .«21 .000
.0<> ,60« .012
.651 1.061 .032
.TOT .A20 .077
.160 .092 .017
.000 .769 .000
.000 0.000 .000
.000 0.000 ,000
.000 .000 .000
.000 .000 .000
.000 .000 .000
.040 .000 .000
.731 .««6 .090
.T65 2.»17 .137
.18« .016 .000
LB 211 LB N SHEETS N SHfETS
.000 .000 0.000 0.000
.000 .000 0.000 .000
.<5B .000 0.000 T6.7B9
.000 .000 0.000 T.129
.000 .000 0.000 0.000
.000 .000 9.900 9.637
.000 .900 0.000 O.OKO
.000 .000 9.000 0.000
.000 .000 0.000 0.000
.000 .009 0.000 .921
.019 .011 .262 2.925
.012 .000 .914 5.761
.911 .000 0.000 1.20T
.000 .009 0.000 .267
.024 .000 0.000 .791
.990 .900 0.000 0.000
.000 .090 0.900 0.000
.000 .000 0.000 0.000
.099 .000 0.900 0.000
.000 .000 0.000 0.000
.207 .000 0.000 11.004
.066 .000 0.000 3.907
.900 .013 .276 .492
.5*4 1.7S6 ,001 .001 .001 .019 2.125


>.10B 14.A1B .002
k.139 2.92> .450
11.321 6.6«S 1.227
.273 0.000 0.000 11. BO]
.196 .001 .061 7.335
.162 9.000 0.000 19.273
9.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000

.014 1.057 .093
.636 .331 .921



.90S .90S .000
.910 .910 ,000
1.900 .066 0.909
.dOO .000 9.000
.000 .030 0.000


.090 .000 .909
1.900 .042 0.000
0.000 0.000 0.000
.••I ,A1> .001








.OH .101 .000
.000 .000 .000
.000 .000 .000
.009 .000 .000
.219 .001 .000
.091 1.992 .000
.117 .146 .023
.034 ,012 .006
.169 .001 .038 2.175
.227 .003 .120 1.071
.023 .344 .994 2.16B
.900 .001 .011 .022
.033 .075 .022 .ISO
1.000 0.009 9.000 .066
.090 .900 .001 .001
.000 .000 .001 .002
.000 9.900 0.900 .000
.000 0.000 0.900 .042
.000 0.000 0.000 0.000
.022 .007 .132 1.A23
.904 .090 .009 .9|]
.090 .090 .000 .000
.000 .900 .000 .000
.000 .000 .000 .009
.009 .000 .001 .291
.939 .000 .001 1.224
.902 .000 .000 .396
.000 .090 .000 .09*
.000 0.000 .000 .003 0.000 0.000 .003
.000 0.000 .000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000









.000 0.000 .000
.000 9.900 .000
.000 0.000 .900
.000 0.000 .000
.000 .000 .000
.000 .000 .000
.000 0.000 .090
.000 0.000 .000
.000 0.000 .000
1.000 0.000 0.000 0.000
1.900 9.009 0.000 0.000
1.000 0.000 0.000 0.000
9.000 0.000 0.000 0.000
1.009 0.000 0.000 .000
1.000 0.000 0.000 .000
1.900 0.000 0.000 0.000
1.000 9.000 0.000 0.000
9.000 0.000 0.000 0.000
.000 9.000 .000 0.000 0.900 0.000 0.000
.000 0.000 .000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000
1.751 M.79A .000 3. 1*5 0.000 0.000 106. A80



1






J.612 2.932 .157
.349 1.736 ,002
.264 .319 .023
1.9*4 1.091 .76B
1.9*1 l.4»* .019
1.000 0.000 0.000
1.094 .609 .012
1.631 1.061 .011
.707 .420 .977
.160 .991 .917
0.001 .7t» 0.000












l.S 91.5 .0
63.7 29. 1.6
21. 73. .1
41. 32. 3.7
39. 2B. 2.7
19. ST. .9
0. 0. 0.0
34. 10.1 i.6
90. IB. A .6
3B. ]«.< 6.3
59, 14.4 6.3
0. 9T.O 0.0
.066 .011 .276 10.059
.001 .001 .015 2. 313
.008 .900 .001 .611
.331 .63] 1.702 2B.61T
.131 .007 .115 4.U4
0.000 3.T3T 0.000 1.737
.019 .011 .262 2.023
.Oil 0.001 .014 9.761
•Oil 0.909 0.000 1.20T
0.000 0.001 0.000 .167
.024 0.000 0.001 .'91
2.9 0. 0. 101.
.7 . 2. 100.
100.
1. . . 100.
1. 2. 5. 100.
1. . 1. 100.
0. 100. 0. 100.
. 12. 100.
. 9. . 100.
0. 0. 100.
0. 0. 0. 100.
3. 0. 0. 100.
                                                               118

-------
INPUTS TO SYSTEMS
          NAME
                                                TABLE  51
                                            RESOURCE AND ENVIRONMENTAL PROFILE ANALYSIS

                                                  CMC MILLION GLASS TUW 1000 USES

                                                   GLASS     GLASS     GLASS     CLASS
                                                   TUMBLER   TUMBLER   TUMBLER   TUW.ER
                                                   RAH Mt   Mf«       P««       TUMI SYS
                                                   1000 USC  1000 USE  1000 USE  1010 USE
GLASS     OLASB     GLASS
TUMBLER   TUMBLER   TUMBLER
HASH      PCSli      STS TOT
          1000 USE  1000 USE
          MATERIAL COTTON
          MATERIAL SULFATE MINE
          MATERIAL "ODD FIBER
          MATERIAL LINESTONC
          MATERIAL IBON ODE
          MATERIAL SALT
          MATERIAL GLASS SAND
          NATERIAL NAT SODA ISM
          NATERIAL FELDSPAR
          NATERIAL BAUIITE ORE
          MATERIAL SULFUR
          ENERGY SOURCE PETROLEUK
          ENERGY SOUHCE NtT GAS
          ENERGY SOURCE COAL
          ENERGY SOURCt MISC
          ENERGY SOUHCE HOOD F1RER
          ENERGY SOURCE HYOROPOHER
          MATERIAL POTASH
          NATERIAL PHOSPHITE HOCK
          MATERIAL CLAY
          MTERUL GYPSUM
          MATERIAL SILICA
          MATERIAL PROCESS AOD
          ENERGY PROCESS
          ENERGY TRANSPORT
          ENERGY Or NAIL RESOURCE
          HATER VOLUME
OUTPUTS F*OM SYSTEM*
          KANE
          SOLID BASTES PROCESS      POUMO
          SOLIO HASTES FUEL COM    POUND
          SOLID HASTES MINING       POUND
          SOLID HASTE POST-CONSUM   CUBIC FT
          ATMOSPHERIC PESTICIDE     POUND
          ATMOS PARTICULATES        POUND
          ATMOS NITROGEN OIIDES     POUND
          ATMOS HYDROCARBONS        POUND
          ATHOS SULrilM OIIDES       POUND
          ATIMJS CARIIUN NONOIIOE     POUND
          ATMOS ALDEHYDES           POUND
          ATMOS OTHEM OftOANICS      POUND
          ATMOS ODOMUUS SULFUR   .   POUMO
          ATMOS AMMO*I A             POUNO
          ATMOS HTUROGEN FLOUPIOE   POUND
          ATMOS LEAD                POUND
          ATMOS MERCURT             POUND
          ATMOSPHERIC CHLORINE      POUNO
          •ATERBOMNE 01S SOLIDS     POUNO
          tATERRORNE FLUORIDES      POUND
          •I'ERRORNE OISS SOLIDS    POUND
          •AlERflORNE HOD            POUNO
          •ATERHOXNE PHENOL         POUNO
          .A1EBRORNE SULF10E*       POUND
          t.TERBORNE OIL            POUND
          •ATEHBORNC COO            POUNO
          •ATERBORNE SUSP SOLlOS    POUND
          •ATERBORNE ACID           POUNO
          •ATERRORNE METAL ION      POUND
          •ATERBORNt CHEMICALS      POUNO
          •ATERBORNE CYANIDE        POUND
          •ATERRORNE ALKALINITY     POUND
          •ATERAORNE CHBONIUH       POUNO
          •ATERBORNE I"ON           POUNO
          •ATERBORNt ALUMINUM       POUNO
          •ATERRORNE N10EL         POUND
          •ATCRBORNE MERCURY        001*0
          •ATERRORNE L1AO           POUND
          •ATERRORNt PHOSPHATES     POUND
          •ATtRBORNf ZINC           POUND
          •ATCRBORHE AHHONIA        POUNO
          •ATERHORNE NITROGEN       POUNO
          •ATERRORNE PESTICIDE      POUND

        OF ENV1RONHENIAL IMPACTS
          NAHE                         UNITS
          RAH MATERIALS             POUNDS
          ENERGY                    NIL ITU
          •ATER                     THOU GAL
          INDUSTRIAL SOLID HASTES   CUBIC FT
          ATM EMMISSIONS            POUNDS
          •ATERBORNE HASTES         POUNDS
          POST-CONSUMER SOL HASTE   CUBIC FT
          ENERGY SOUPCt PETROLEUM   MIL BTU
          ENERGY SOUHCE NAT GAS     MIL RTU
          ENERGY SOURCE COAL        MIL BTU
          ENERGY SOUHCE NUCL HYP»R  NIL BTU
          ENERGY SOURCE HOOD >ASTE  NIL BTU

INDEI OF ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACTS
          NANE                       STANDARD
                                      VALUES
          RAH MATERIALS               1671.216
          ENERGY                       1**.1IB
          •ATER                         Bt.StZ
          INDUSTRIAL SOLID (ASTES       ll.T)*
          ATM EMISSIONS               Skt.lST
          •ATIRBORNE HASTES            »3.«]1
          POST-CONSUNER SOL HASTE        1.II1
          ENERGY SOURCE PETROLEUM       tl.OT*
          ENERGY SOUHCE NAT GAS        llB.tt*
          EHEROY SOURCE COAL            is.TBS
          ENERGY SOURCE NUCL HYKR       7.»1«
          ENERGY SOURCE HOOD HASTE        ,T*B
0.000
0.000
0.000
Zk.TTI
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
22.3T1
0.000
0.000
.110
.Z*4
.OAT
.00]
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
.0*
.002
0.000
.ZT8
».»)«
.IT«
S>.6»>
0.000
0.000
!.?»»
.2«6
.101
.110
.06*
.00?
.002
0.000
.000
0.000
.000
.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
.101
.000
.000
.000
.000
.001
.0*T
.009
.001
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
»».1«3
.0*
.?T«
.TT1
2.211
.211
0.000
.120
.2«t
.OAT
.001
0.000
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5


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.000
.000
.000
.000
.000
.000
.000
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.000
.000
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1.701
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1.041
1.000
1.000
.570
.2AS
I.SBO
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9.000
.000
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0.000
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.122
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.015
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0.000
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0.000
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.12*
0.000
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0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
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o.ieo
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0.000
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5.J07
4.t24
0.000
0.000
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l.BVI
1.141
(..««!
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.010
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0.000
.001
.000
.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
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.000
.000
.000
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1.111
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0.000
0.000
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0.000
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0.000
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0.000
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.000
.000
.001
.000
.000
.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
.110
.007
.000
.002
.066
0.000
.110
.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
0





0


0
0
0
.000
61 .054
.000
.000
.000
6 .2*6
27 ,*BB
2* .ISO
.000
.000
71.117
20. MS
II6.4B4
IS. 222
7.06«
.11*
.000
.000
.000
.000
.000
.000
211.S*B
17S.16S
.!••
4.291
86.091
9a.«»i
206. 76«
62B.S*6
0.000
0.000
*9.*aa
110.710
!?«.«'«
200.270
26.6B9
.ISO
.7?»
1.184
.6*1
.006
.001
.1?!
o.ooo
0.000
is], oa
«. 71
. 04
. 06
. 77
6.10T
7.9^6
12.211
2.685
.009
0.000
.380
.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
.000
.000
• OT«
0.000
.005
l.*2T
.008
1531. •?«
179.804
86.091
12.611
S40.46S
iaa.92T
0.000
20.115
116.484
IS. 222
7.869
.114
91.
47.
94.
91.
9S.
•a.
0.
45.
9«.
98.
99.
14.
.BOO
.000
.000
.000
.000
.000
.000
.000
.000
.000
.000
.006
.000
.000
.000
.000
.000
.000
.000
.000
.000
.000
.000
.000
.006
1.000
.000
9.000
.001
1.000
.81]
1.000
.001
.006
.006
.002
.042
.001
.002
9.000
.000
.000
0.000
0.000
g.ooo
0.000
.001
.000
.000
.000
.000
.000
.000
.000
.000
.000
.000
.000
.000
.000
.000
.000
.000
.000
.000
.000
.000
.000
.000
g.ooo
.006
.000
.000
.060
.00]
1.833
.006
0.000
0.000
g.ooo
g.aoo
0





100

0
0
0
0
o.oaa
aiT.osa
81.544
26.772
0.000
64.246
27B.ABB
146. ISO
22.171
O.OBO
71.917
21.0TS
110.648
1S.TB1
T.9I4
.798
.000
.000
.000
.000
.000
.000
244.648
1T9.411
.447
4.291
86.522
111.041
211.421
690. RTS
1.811
0.000
S5.926
114.41]
111.016
20B.S69
28.001
.372
1.699
1.1*4
.82*
!o07
.001
.121
0.000
0.000
IS*. 7*2
ft. 471
.005
.006
.077
6.391
9.188
.12.1*9
2.714
.048
0.000
.380
.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
.000
.000
.07*
0.000
.005
l.*27
.008
1671.216
ia*.2ia
B6.S22
11.71*
54.. 357
191.911
1.813
21.0T5
iia.6»a
1S.7B1
7.91*
.79B
100.
100.
100.
100.
100.
100.
100.
1*0.
100.
100.
100.
100.
                                                            119

-------
INPUT! TO SYSTEMS
          NAHC
                                                TABLE  52
                                            •ESOUBCE HMD ENVIRONMENTAL  PROFILE  ANALYSIS
                                       UMITI
                                                  OW HIILN POLYPPOP TUM 1000 USE
PXTPROP  POLYPMOP
TuNtxiR   TUPW.III
•CSIN SY  <"0
till US(  10M US(
POLTPROP
TUNIXER
PK1
1000 USC
                                                                                 POCYPPOP
                                                                                 TUNU.F.R
                                                                                 TIM
                                                                                 l«OI USI
POLYPNOP  POLYP«OP  POLYPPOP
TUNlLtR   TUN1LEB   TUHlLC*
•ASM      PCS*      SYI TOT
looo usc  1000 usi  1000 use
          •AIEBIAL COTTON           POUNO
          •ATtatAl SULFATE BRINC    POUND
          •ATERIAL "000 FI1CR       POUND
          MATERIAL LIMESTONE        POUND
          MATERIAL [DON ORE         POUND
          HATERIAL SALT             POUND
          MAUBIAL GLASS SANO       POUND
          NATEaiAL "AT »OD* ASM     POUND
          MATERIAL FELDSPAR         POUND
          KATE DIAL HAUIITC DM      POUNO
          MATF.RIAL SULPu*           POUNO
          ENEBOY SOUHCI PETROLEUM   HILL «TU
          ENERGY SOURCE NAT US     NfLL BTU
          ENERGY SOURCE COAL        NILL »'U
          ENEH8Y SOURCE "ISC        HILL S'U
          ENERGY SOURCE «ooo FIMR  KILL BTU
          ENERGY SOUMCk HYOROPOVCR  KILL «TU
          »AIE»I«L POTASH           POUND
          MATERIAL PMO4PHATE POC<   POUND
          MATERIAL CLAY             POUNO
          MATERIAL GYPiUM           POUNO
          MATERIAL SILICA           POUNO
          MATERIAL PNOCCSS ADD      POUNDS
          tMFBOY PRUCESS            NIL 8IU
          tNlROY TRANSPORT          MIL HTU
          ENERGY OF HAIL BtsOuacC   HIL ITU
          •ATEN VOLUME              THOU OAl
• 000
.000
.000
.000
.000
.000
.000
.000
.000
.000
.000
.o*r
.557
.11*
.010
.000
.000
.000
.000
.000
.000
.102
l.*06
.136
a. JIT
• 111
.000
.000
.000
.000
.000
.000
.000
.000
.000
.000
.000
.0*6
.0*7
.11]
.01S
.00<
.000
.000
.000
.000
.000
.000
.211
.000
.000
.161
.000
.000
.001
.000
.000
.000
.000
.000
.000
.000
.000
.0«»
.091
.027
.001
.049
.000
.000
.000
1.000
.000
• 60S
.ISO
.002
.022
.006
.000 0.000
.000 tlT.OSt
.000 0.000
.000 0.000
.000 0.000
.000 6«.2«t
.000 2T8.««8
.000 2*6. ISO
.000 0.000
.000 0.000
.000 TI.41T
.OAi 20. us
.00* 116.414
.000 IS. 211
.000 7.169
.000 .11A
.000 0.000
,000 0.000
.000 0.000
.000 0.000
.000 0. 0
.000 211. 1
.000 ITS. 3
.0*7 . 9
.000 ». 1
.001 S6. 1
.000 0.000
.000 617.054
.000 J.OOO
.000 0.000
.000 0.000
.000 64.246
.000 ITS. AW
.000 246.150
.000 0.000
.000 0.000
.000 71,«17
.034 IS. 143
.000 no. 10
.000 IS. 49*
.000 7.426
.000 .162
.000 0.000
.000 0.000
.000 0.000
.000 0.000
.000 0.000
.000 211.235
.000 176.452
.•S6 5.114
.000 4.549
.102 16.171
OUTPUTS *"ON SYSTIHH
MANE
SOLID PASTES PROCESS
SOL 10 MASTLS FUEL COMM
SOL in »STCS MINING
SOLID »«STt POST-CONSUM
•TM05PMEHIC PESTICIDE
AIMOS PAMT1CULATE3
ATMOS NtTMOiiEN 01 HIES
ATMOS MYUHOCAR10NS
•TMOS SULFUR OIIDES
ATMOS CARBON MONOllOC
ATMOS ALOCMVi>ES
ATMOS OTMtM UMGANICS
AIMOS OOOMUUS SULFUR
ATMOS AMMONIA
• TMOS HYIWOGEN FLOUBlnE
ATMOS Lt«l>
•TMO* MEHCUM*
•TMOSPMENIC CHLOBINE
•ATEHfcOBNt CIS SOLIDS
•ATEBMOBNi FLUORIOFS
•ATEBaORNt OISS SOLIDS
•ATEUhOUME BOU
•ATERRORNfc PHENOL
•AIEMbOPNt ^ULFIDES
•4IERMOMNE U1L
• AIERP-ORNE COO
•AIEHHORNE SUSP SOLIDS
••TfRBORNE ACID
•AIEBMORNE METAL ION
••TEBHRMNC CHEMICALS
• ATEUtlOMNC CYANIDE
•ATCBRURNC ALKALINITY
•ATERPORNfc CHROMIUM
•ATEURORNE 1MON
• ATCHBORNk ALUMlxtuM
•ATEBHORNE NICKEL
•ATERdOUNl MERCURY
• AIEBbORNt: LtAD
•ATERROPNt PHOSPHATES
••TERBORNC ZINC
• ATEBftORNC AMHONIA
••TtBBUSNE NITBOOIN
•AFCR00RNE PC^TICIOC

UNITS
POUNO
POUNO
POUNO
CUHIC FT
POUNO
POUNO
POUNO
POUND
POUND
POUNO
POUNO
POUNO
pnuNO
PrtUNO
POUND
POUNO
POUNO '
POUNO
POUNO
POUNO
POUNO
POUNO
POIINO
POUNO
POUNO
POUNO
POUNO
POUNO
POUNO
POUNO
POUNO
POUNO
POUND
POUNO
POUNO
POUNO
POUNO
POUNO
POUNO
POUNO
POUND
POUND
POUNO
2.111
.7*0
2. ISO
0.000
0.000
.141
1.672
6.6SS
1.012
.1*0
.001
.006
0.000
.000
0.300
.000 (
.000
1.000
.410
.OA)
.000
.000
.004
.1*6
• 111
.041
.010
.000
.000
. 00
. 00
. 00
. 00
. 00
.000
.000
.000
.000
.000
.000
.too
.441
.661
.006
1.000
>.ooo
.1*0
.24*
.o*s
.620
.010
.000
.001
.000
.000
.000
.000
.000
.000
.011
.000
.000
.000
.000
.000
.000
.03S
.009
.000
.000
.000
.000
.000
.000
.000
.000
.000
.000
.000
.000
.000
.000
.ST9 0
.•02
.iw o
1.000 0
g.ooo o
.111
.1S«
.127
,*«7
.041
.001
.067
1.000 0
.000
1.000 0
.000
.000 0
1.000 0
.051
.171
.000
.000
.000
.002
.0*0
.005
.001
.00*
.000
.000
.000
.000
.000
.000
.000
.000
.000
.000
.000
000
010
000
000
000
006
117
0*1
on
115
002
00*
000
000
000
000
000
000
02i
000
000
000
000
000
000
000
000
000
000
000
000
000
000
000
000
000
000
000
90. 90S
206.764
620.546
0.000
0.000
•».»•<,
110.730
12«.»7* <
200.270
26.6f« 3*
.ISO
.72«
1.1*4
.021
•0.000
.006
.001
0.000
35l!»0<
4.07
.00
.00
.07
6.1*
7.»5
12.231
2.6*5
.009
0.000
.1*0
.000
0.000
.000
.000
.074
0.000
.005
1.427
.001
).000 102.114
.213 20«.*47
.000 »1?.»90
.*ll l.«ll
1.000 0.000
.504 50.661
.114 1 11.1 01
.271 1*2.061
.261 201.670
.061 62.11*
.•16 .771
,3I« 2.125
.000 1.104
.3U .813
.000 0.000
.101 .106
. 0 .001
. 0 .121
. 0 0.000
! a 154. TH
. 7 «.242
.002 .007
.003 .004
.001 .00*
.027 6.402
.017 0.164
.005 12.117
.001 >.T07
.000 .015
.000 '0.000
.000 .110
.000 .000
.000 0.000
.000 .000
.000 .000
.000 .07*
.000 0.000
.000 .009
.000 1.41T
.000 .101
SuHHAPV OF ENVIMOHNCNTAL 1NPACTS
          NAME
          "I. XATEHIALS             POUNDS
          (NFRSY                    NIL *TU
          ••IfR                     IMOU IAL
          INDUSTRIAL SOLID ««SIFS   CUP.IC FT
          ATH EHMlSSIONS            POUNOS
          ••TEB10BNC BASTES         POUNOS
          POST-CONSWEK SOL «ASTE   cue 1C FT
          EMtBOY SOURCI PETROLEUH   HIL BTU
          ENEBOr SOUKCE MAI GAS     NIL ITU
          INfROY SUUBCE COAL        »IL BTU
          LNEROV souHCt NUCL MYPUR  HIL ITU
          EXE BOY SOURCE HOOD M3TC  HIL ITU

1NOEI OF ENVIPONHENIAL IMPACTS
          ȥȣ                        STANDARD
                                      VALUIS
4.102
1.774
.111
.071
4.414
.026
0,000
.057
3.557
.11*
.010
0,000
0.000
.212
.161
.014
1.111
.097
0.000
.046
.0*7
.111
.029
0.000
6.414
.171
.00*
.014
1.214
.116
0.000
.045
.052
.027
.001
.0*4
0.000
.047
.001
.000
.102
.021
0.000
.04]
.004
0.000
0.000
0.000
1511.424
174.104
06.041
12.611
540. *65
111.42T
0.000
20.115
116.414
15.222
7.164
.114
0.000
4.156
.102
.016
44.116
2.636
l.tll
• .136
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
1541.440
111.140
•6.171
12.79*
602.170
142.10*
l.tll
23.161
120. 10
15.446
7.426
.162
          OA* HATENIALS               1541.940
          CNEPOY                       111.1*0
          »ATE»                         16.171
          INDUSTRIAL SOLID >ASTES       12.751
          ATN CHHISS10NS               602.170
          •AICBBORNC HASTES            IK.IOA
          POST-CONSUMER SOL >ASTC        l.«ll
          ENERGY SOURCE PCTROLEUN       ss.ui
          ENERGY souxct NAT OAS        l?o.l»l
          ENERGY SOURCE COAL            is.496
          ENERGY SOURCE NUCL NYP«R       7.926
          CNEROY SOURCE nooo WASTE        .142
1 0
0
4
6
6
i
0 0
2
0
•
•
0 0
0 .4 0
1 .1
.0
.1
.2
.1
0.0 0
.2
.0
.1 0
1 .0 0
1 30.1 0
44.
45.
44.
4*.
14.
44.
0.
74.
47.
*«.
49.
69.
0
2


1

100
14
0
0
0
0
100.
100.
100.
100.
100.
100.
100.
100.
100.
100.
100.
100.
                                                           120

-------
INPUTS TO SYSTEMS
          NAME
                                             TABLE  53

                                           RESOURCE  AND ENVIRONMENTAL PROFILE ANALYSIS

                                                  ONE MILLION TMCRNOFORNCO «oz CUP

                                                  POLYSTY   POLYSTY   POLYSTY   POLVSTY
                                                  RESIN it  THERMO r  TBCRMO r  THERMO '
                                                            *ot cu»   toz CUP   90Z cur
                                                  14110 LI  M»«       P«4       TRAN
                                                       POLTSTV    POLVSTV
                                                       THERMO r   THERMO r
                                                       9oz  CUP    90z  cur
                                                       PCS>      STS  TOT
                                       UNIT!
          MATERIAL COTTON
          MATERIAL SUC'• It IRINE
          MATERIAL HOOD FUCK
          NATCRIAL LIHCSTOMC
          MATERIAL IRON ORC
          MATERIAL SALT
          NATCRIAL GLASS S»M>
          MATCR1AL N>T SOOt ASH
          MATERIAL FCLOSPAR
          MATERIAL IAUMTE ORC
          MATERIAL SULFUR
          CNCROV SOURCC PCTROLCUN
          CNtROY SOURCC NAT us
          CNC*IY SOURCC COAL
          CNCRIY SOURCC "11C
          CNCRIY SOURCC 1000 FIICR
          CNtROY SOURCC MYOROPO»CR
          NATCRIAL POTASH
          MATCRIAL PNOSPMATC ROCK
          NATCRIAL CLAY
          NATERIAL 4YPSUH
          MATCRIAL SILICA
          NATCRIAL PROCESS >00
          CNCROY PROCCSS
          CNCROiT TRANSPORT
          [NCROY OF NATL RCSOURCC
          •ATCR >OLU»C
POUNO
POUND
POUNO
POUNO
POUNO
POUNO
POUNO
POUNO
POUND
POUNO
POUNO
HILL tTu
NILL ITU
KILL ITU
NILL ITU
"ILL ITU
RILL ITU
POUNO
POUNO
POUND
POUNO
POUNO
POUNDS
NIL ITU
NIL ITU
MIL ITU
THOU SAL
.00 (.00
.00 0.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.51 1
.TT 1
.It 4
.75
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.41
.00 TI
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.95
.It
.5»
.15
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00 T
.00
.00
.«•
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.61 t
.«!
.»>
.11
.«T
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.99
.» 19.91 19.68
.IT 0.00 .19 I
.11 0.00 1.11
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.41
.11
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.1}
.00
.00 0.00
.00 0.00
.00 T10.94
.00 0.00
.00 0.00
.00 0.00
.00 0 00
.00 0.00
.00 0.00
.00 0.00
.00 0.00
.25 ITS. II
.00 »1.11
.00 S9.lt
.00 II.T4
.00 9.97
.00 0.00
.00 0.00
.00 0.00
.00 0.00
.00 0.00
.00 0.00
.00 773.17
.00 109.46
.n 4i.4o
.00 141.91
.TT 1.42 .T9 !.«« .49 90.91
OUTPUTS 'RON STSTCNS
SOLID tSTCS PROCCSS
SOLID ASTCS ruCl COKI
SOLID ASTCS NININO
SOLID 4STC POST-CONSUN
ATllOSP CRIC PCSTICIOC
ATNOS AR7ICUL1TCS
ATMOS ITDOOCN OIIDCS
ATNOS YOROCARIONS
ATNOS SULFUR OIIDCS
AT«OS CARBON MONOMOC
ATNOS ALOCHYDCS
ATHOS OTHCR OROAN1CS
ATNOS ODOROUS SULFUR
ATNOS ANNOHIA
ATN05 HTOBOOC" FLOURIDC
ATNOS LCAO
ATNOS NCRCURY
ATliOSPNCRIC CHLORINC
irATCRIORNC OIS SOLIDS
•ATCRIORNC FLUORIOCS
•ATCRSORNC OISS SOLIDS
•ATERIORNC aou
•ATCRIORNC P1CNOL
•ATCRIORNC SULF1DCS
•ATCRIORNC OIL
•ATCRIORNC COO
•ATCRIORNC SUSP SOLIDS
•ATCRIORNC ACIO
•ATCR80RNC NCTAL ION
•ATCRBORNC CHCNICALS
•ATCRIORNC CYAN10C
•ATCRIORNC 1LIALINITT
•ATCRIORNC CHROH1UN
ATCRRORNC IRON
ATCRIORNC ALUNINUN
ATCRIORNC NICKCL
ATCRIORNC NCRCURY
ATCRIORNC LCAD
ATCRIORNC PHOSPHATCS
•ATCRIORNC ZINC
•ATCRIORNC ANNONIA
•ATCRBb 1C NItROOCN
• ATCRIO*. DATCRIALS
          CNCRtY
          •ATCR
          INDUSTRIAL SOLID IASTES
          •TK ENNISSIONS
          •ATERIORNC «»STCS
          POST-CONSUNCR SOL KAITE
          ENCRBT SOURCE PCTROLEIM
          ENCRIY SOURCE NAT MS
          CNCRIY SOURCE COAL
          CNCR9Y SOURCC NUCL NTPUR
          CNCROT SOURCE MOO «MTC

INOO OF ENVIRONMENTAL IHPtCTS
          NANE
POUNDS
NIL ITU
TNOU IAL
CUIIC FT
POUNDS
POUNDS
CUIIC FT
NIL ITU
NIL ITU
MIL ITU
NIL ITU
NIL ITU
690. tt
551.26
44. TT
11.14
1110.10
111.10
0.00
119.90
I14.TT
It. 14
t.T*
1.00
0.00
•9.91
1.41
15.45
43T.01
11.99
1. 10
IT.9S
11.11
41.99
9.M
O.It
TIS.91
22.04
.79
t.ll
111.14
11.14
0.00
9.61
4.91
1.41
.11
9.IT
o.oo
tt.Tl
1.40
.01
119.9*
11. Ot
0.00
29.41
1.11
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
T.Z9
.49
.01
104.40
1.9T
llt.Tf
T.tS
0.00
o.oo
0.00
0.00
1414.11
144. T9
90.91
10.90
1941.40
269.40
III.TS
ITS. 11
243.11
91.14
1Z.T4
9.97
                                     STANDARD
                                      »ALUC»
          RA> MATERIALS
          CNCRIY
          • ATE*
          INDUSTRIAL SOLID IASTES
          ATM CMNISS10NS
          •ATCRIORNC tASTCS
          POST-CONSUME" SOL «»STC
          CNCRIY SOURCC PETROLEUM
          CNCRIY SOURCC NAT OAS
          CNCR9Y SOURCC COAL
          CNtROY SOURCE NUCL NTMR
          CNCR4T SOURCC >OOD >ASTE
1414.11
494. TI
90.91
10.90
1941.40
Z45.ll
114. TS
1T9.I1
141.11
54.11
U.T4
9.9T
4T.I
T9.1
41 .4
41.A
54.1
TO.T
0.0
15.0
14. t
to. 9
tl.l
0.0
0.0
12. «
2.1
50. T
ZZ.l
1.1
4.0
4.1
T.9
Tl.T
TT.4
O.I
52.
1.
j i
T.
T.
14.
0.
1.
2.
5.
1.
100.
I 0.
t 1.
2.
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1.
4.
0.
1.
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0.
0.
0.
0.
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I.
) 100.
1 1.
1 0.
) 0.
> 0.
D 0.
100.
100.
100.
100.
100.
100.
104.
100.
100.
100.
100.
100.
                                                    121

-------
                                                    TABLE  54A
                                            •MOU'CI  >M>  INVJ»ON»CNT«L  P»0'ILl  MKLT1I1

                                                  • IL 4 01 •«»•••«  CO CU»«  »t «»  2

                                                   •ULP«000  «UL' 4NC   >UL* •»"  • »«
                                                   MMVMT   MTCBIIL   12440 L«  91*0  LA
                                                   1*000  Lll  12*90  L*
                                                                                            • OLT
                                                                                            mas
                                                                                            160 L6
"*?lBt*L COTTON
MiTCBUL *ULPATG .WINIT
"•?€•*!*», vflOl1 Fmc«*
"•WO!*.. LI-H-.TO',*
•.*IC-UL v*tr
NMC-UL -r 50n. *v,
•»*Tt»?*C PtUMTC O-c
"4re*I At lULMjM
tltUOV SUU-C-. PCT-tHiU"
f*C*»(jT SOU-O MAT —.I
tNfct>G» ^oj-ct crui.
E*€Hii» SOu-Ct *[«C
C*ituOv *tOU*Ct "OOf- f I°£3
O|i*r,» suu-'C'i -*rf)»i)»'u«CH
*»T{ *1*H •*!»?•*•-
**«Tfwi»L f"U'.0M*Tf -»'JC"
«»TF»I»L '-L*T
[««: ;:"":.'.7
.41*. VI-L.I-P
POUW
POusn
POU«tO
pniixo
P0ti*»n
POUND
pflUNn
»nuNi
pnuNi<
• ILL '•ru
"ILL "TU
"ILL »TU
"ILL "TU
"ILL P7U
•ILL flu
POUNO
POUNO
»OUN"
POU**OS
"11 nTU
•IL MTU
TWIJ .--il.'
          *••'•. ID "t

          MIL 10 ..
                                    POU'IO
                                    POUNH
          «T-<>« HIT-U--' . 0>I.,6S
          • I»OS -»0toli'.l ".OSv
          • T«,s mn.r-.i.. ...|">*.
          4T-OS C4^I'U*< -flNO.Iu*.
                          Mr-.
                                    pnij^n
                                    POJN'l
                                    •*0u««0
                                    POU'fO
                                    "OU'rl
                                    P<)U«0
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.4TrUMOt*»r ^L-ALI'iIT*




• AFfQiSO-Nf -t>C'J..Y
          l-IOUS7-l»i. SOLIO -45Tt5
          »•. F<*»1JS1UN$
          »47FMo««t ••••res
          mjT-cnNsu«e- sou »STC
          llfBOr 5UU-CI 'CTxOLtU*
          mcx* sou»ci xtr no
          tXfOOT L-
          ft£»0»
          I10US7KHI. SOL in ««srts
                     »4ST£5
          fOST-COXSu»t- SOL »S7I
          (Near suuxcc ftn-ix-eu"
          tttOQt SUUMCE «U7 GAS
          CNCPGV SOURCE C041
         . Estooi SOUMCC NUCL MTP«O
          ChCRCT source 1000 MAHTC
                            13224.
                             563
                             14!
                              9S
                             1«1«
                             ?66
                             24I.
                             2M.
                             118
                              97
861
92S
4*1
164
16]

157
099
486
619
o.ooo
o.ooo
o.ooo
0.000
0.000 134
.000
.000
.000
.000
.000 11
.000
.000
.000
.000
.000
.000
.000
.000 6
.000 2
.0*3
.121
2.240 1
o.ono
.006
0.000
.043
0.000
0.000
0.000
1.101
.001
.001
.001
.011
,ont
.001
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
2.061 1
.12*
.007
3.121 11
jiooo
2.061
t.ooo
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.0
.4
.1
.0
1.4
.4
.1
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
.000 n.noo
.000 0.000
.000 M24.320
.000 0.000
.704 0.000
.000 0.000
.000 0.000
.000 0.000
.000 0.000
.44* 0.000
.4*0 74.224
.711 *».22»
.719 1.9*1
.000 0.000
.000 .000
.000 .000
.000 .ono
.977 8* .4.00
.561 273.50*
.001 0.000
.629 124.913
1.935 94.79]
1.000 -.4S1
.00* 0.000
1.000 0.000
.000 O.ono
k.914. 0.000
9.000 0.000
9.000 0.000
2.493 ?6.w46
.002 .001
.002 .001
.002 .001
.014 .011
.796 0.714
.166 .672
9.000 0.000
9.000 0.000
1.000 0.000
9.000 0.000
9.000 0.000
.000 0.000
.001 .000
0.000 .000
0.000 .000
9.000 .000
9.000 .000
9.000 .000
1.964 271. 90A
.629 12«.403
6.66] 34.136
0.07T 916.270
4.121 129.144
0.000 0.000
«..1T4 11.447
6.440 74.124
4.711 «4.IM
1.7H 1.411
9.000 104.07*
11.4 TO. 4
4.2 4*. t
4 «*,5
12 1 *2.2
9 1 32.0
1 4 47.0
I 4 14.7
9.9 67.6
10.0 "7.6
17.6 20.7
0.0 41.0
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
*.679 1
2.613 2
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
17.200 10
?2.0M 6.
l.»'39 (
10.6*5
•3.400 3
o.ono
.0*6
0.000
.001
0.000
0.000
0.000
40.11* 1
.00*
• on7
• •*»4
. l.M
.2C3
0.000
0.000
.00?
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
• 0*1
0.000
O.ono
10.195
.944
21D.471 21
41.1*7 |
0.000
120.204 2
0.67* 1
1.611 1
.9*1
o.ooo
.1
21.4
7.9
1 .7
13.9
16.2
95.1
7.3
2.7
6.0
0.0
.000
.000
.000
.000
.000
.000
.000
.000
.000
.000
.3*9
.416
.190
.000
.000
.000
.000
.000
.000
.000
.665 :
.000
069
'.004 1
.444
1.000
.030
9.000
.000
0.000
9.000
9.000
O.U63
.004
.010
.Oil
.9-9
.0*9
1.74.0
0.000
0.000
9.000
.000
.000
.000
.000
.000
.000
.000
.000
.000
0.000
1.961
4.106
0 . 959 1
4.09T
o.ooo
2.111
0.3*9
1.416
4.110
0.000
.9
12.2
1.1
16.5
17.4
7.1
10.2
15.9
21.9
o!o
.000
.000
.000
.000
.000
.000
• wo
.000
.000
.000
.271
Il79
.000
.000
.000
.000
.000
.000
.254
.119
.211
F.TII
1.749
.710
9.000
.000
1.000
.000
1.000
9.000
9.000
.000
.000
.010
• 3"
.10S
..lot
9.000
0.000
9.000
9.000
9.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
o.ooo
0.000
4.2*4
.619
.2*9
9.144
1.7*1
0.000
1.217
9.171
.796
olooo
.0
1.1
.*
.9
1.2
.7
.6
*.4
.9
o!o
                                                                                                                             0.000
                                                                                                                             0.000
                                                                                                                          9900.010
                                                                                                                           943.7>n
                                                                                                                             0.000
                                                                                                                          14«?.l-»
                                                                                                                             0.000
                                                                                                                             0.000
                                                                                                                             o.ono
                                                                                                                             o.nno
                                                                                                                           121.OI
                                                                                                                           310.0«S
                                                                                                                           119.9*6
                                                                                                                            97.614
                                                                                                                             9.7*9
                                                                                                                           114.045
                                                                                                                             o.ono
                                                                                                                             o.orn
                                                                                                                             o.ono
                                                                                                                             o.ooo
                                                                                                                             o.ooo
                                                                                                                             o.ono •
                                                                                                                          11M.W3
                                                                                                                           4?0.2»
                                                                                                                            11.2-0
                                                                                                                           \\i.3.'
                                                                                                                           l.V.4-1
                                                                                                                2710.10?
                                                                                                                10M.OM
                                                                                                                  775. «4|
                                                                                                                  241.317
                                                                                                                   o.ono
                                                                                                                  l»l.4|4
                                                                                                                  2J1.4IO
                                                                                                                  ?»0.«-4
                                                                                                                  964.. 144
                                                                                                                  >fcl ,9*4
                                                                                                                   ».2M
                                                                                                                   ?0. 3-*
                                                                                                                   i.««.1
                                                                                                                     .1-'
                                                                                                                   O.Ono
                                                                                                                     ..114

                                                                                                                   7 . r, . »
                                                                                                                   3.000
                                                                                                                   n.flnn
                                                                                                                  l'3.744
                                                                                                                   70.3K
                                                                                                                              0.000
                                                                                                                              o.nno
                                                                                                                               .08.1
                                                                                                                              0.000
                                                                                                                              n.ooo
                                                                                                                              0.000
                                                                                                                               .000
                                                                                                                               .001
                                                                                                                  I*S.**l
                                                                                                                   •.'1.144
                                                                                                                 16|4.3«3
                                                                                                                  l««.6"
                                                                                                                  I41.J17
                                                                                                                  J18.0.*
                                                                                                                  ll«.«»«
                                                                                                                   97.414
                                                                                                                    4. 7M4
                                                                                                                  114.«.«
                                                                                          100.0
                                                                                          100.0
                                                                                          100.0
                                                                                          100.0
                                                                                          100.0
                                                                                          100.0
                                                                                          100.0
                                                                                          100.0
                                                                                          100.0
                                                                                          100.0
                                                                                          100.0
                                                                                          180.0
                                                               122

-------
                                                    TABLE  54B
                                            BC*OIII>CC 4110 e"vmoN"tNt«i MOHL?
                                                  «ii  • or P4p-««i co CUP* P i
                                                             COPPUb
                                                             UTO I*
                                                                       OI«PO»4l  TIUNIPOI)
          «TIP|»L  COTTUN           POUNO
N»Ti»i4i .0011 >]-•-
"»TF«|«l l<"eSTONt
N4TFIIIAI JI»UN OPE
N«TE'I«L »4lt
•4aTFe|4L CLASS si*..!
          »4trB|»l  P4UOTE 'l-t
          •UTtblAl  HULFU-
          Ei.taG*  SUU"CF.  PETMOLtll"
          INtKOY  '.UU-CC  N4t ..45
                          POUND
                          POUNn
                          POUND

                          POUND
                          POUNO
                          POUNO
                          "ILL «Ti)
                          •ILL PTu
               - -         "III '"TU
BNfPOY SOu-CE «0nn FI»E*  "ILL PTU
                          POUNO
                          pou*n
                          "OUNO5
                          «ll -TU
                          »ll »TU
                          "II "TU
                          TNC.II r.4L
"•TEBUl P;-uCE*S «i>0
tNPVGY H*uCt~S
FNfcpftY TutN>»!i.«T
JNEPtiY t»F "etl wrviiu*"
0.000
0.600
I". 400 6«
24.000
0.000
4J.44S
0.000
0.000
0.000
0,000
1.533
2.444
1.402
1.M23
• 1**
.IK
.060
.000
.000
.000
.000
.000
30.15) 4
9.04* t
.ail
O.ooo
3.7KJ
.000
.060
.100
.000
.600
.000
.060
.066
.000
.000
.060
.626
.Ml
.51)
.060
.41)
.600
.000
.600
.060
.666
.060
.900
.340
.114
1.000
.443
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.600
0.006
0.000
0.006
0.000
0.000
0.000
9.62*
n.ooo
0.066
0.600
0.000
6.000
0.600
6.000
0.000
6.606
0.000
0.000
0.060
9.42*
0.000
.496
                    ,060
                    .606
                    .660
                    .006
                    .666
                    .006
                    .000
                    .060
                    .000
                    .000
                    .600
                    .112
                    .600
                    .606
                    .600
                    .006
                    .006
                    .000
                    .000
                    .600
                    .000
                    .660
                    .000
                    .000
                    .112
                    .060
                                                                                                        0.000
                                                                                                        0.000
                                                                                                     9500.010
                                                                                                      «4).7>0
                                                                                                        0.000
                                                                                                     14«2.l>>ft
                                                                                                        0.000
                                                                                                        O.O'O
                                                                                                        0.000
                                                                                                        0.000
                                                                                                      1I6.SH6
                                                                                                       97. 61"
                                                                                                        9.789
                                                                                                      119.045
                                                                                                        0.000
                                                                                                        0.000
                                                                                                        0.000
                                                                                                        0.000
                                                                                                        0.000
                                                                                                        0.000
                                                                                                     U»l.»«3
                                                                                                      410. tci
4T"OS NIT-ntfcN 0>!>ifS
                          r>J«!C FT
                          POUNO
                          POUND
IT-IS LFii
iT-riS.'MtP.IC f-lOw.o*
MTruM >LJO"MMS
k*1E*1<«0>H«t *•- 1 *0(
• ATP.*)«0"Nt Sui.Ft'*''
• •TK**>«0>-.« Ct'"
-ftr«fs.u-N( si iso sl (l-
»*Tf HI'O^Nt •**' f*t. I*1**
• •TrwMu>>Nc C-e-tC*f.S
•«T»«tirj— .t (.riNP>»
»4Mra- uw*fr. •t^»i.l»«lTt
• *1 tt*HO»»-«t >p"0«tt *| T**nfif N
.4TFB-U— .r i*tsTIC1Ut
*.««>F
**«• WATtnlit**'
f NtWijY
• Jtlff
I^DUST-UL SOLID -ASTRS
»Th CMNISStOKS
•ATFCWOMMC »«STCS
(•OST*CON$u**f** fcOL «*STC
CNtBOV SOUUCfc PCT^OUCU**
CHC»ar «u»ce N»T H«S
rwewr fcoo-ce C»>M
e«e*OY *ou*ct NUCL MT»H*
INCPOV WUfCt MOOD ««
POUNO
POUNP
POUNTi
POUND
UN1T<
POU«0<
"IL **TU
THOU OIL
CU4K FT
POUNDS
POUNDS
CUPIC PT
NIL *>TU
NIL PTU
•IL PTU
«IL PTU
«!L PTU
51.1191
20.440
10. "11
0.600
.1.347
4.0*9
7.40*
1.347
.011
.034
.140
.660
.0*2
.900
.207
0.000
0,006
1.4H7
1.542
.000
.000
.060
.002
».7»3
.447
.012
0.660
.060
.060
.000
.060
.000
.666
.000
.000
6.000
0.000
0.600
0.060
0.060
•5.090
57.661
40.1«6
0.000
49.574
20.607
71.461
7.11*
.!«•>
11.273
0.060
.014
.602
.600
0.060
0.606
6.066
4.941
21.042
.061
.66)
.664
.024
I>.0*1
.5W
.111
.«65
0.066
0.060
0.060
0.060
0.000
0.600
0.066
0.006
6.066
0.060
6.006
0.006
0.060
2.40*
0.006
241. 3«7
lioio
10.774.
2.304
V4.JT4
.C24
7.5*7
0.060
.0"
.!*»
0.600
0.006
0.006
0.666
l.IJS
.011
.00*
.004
.007
.033
.033
.910
.6(11
0.000
0.000
0.060
0.000
0.606
0.600
0.660
0.606
0.000
0.666
6.666
6.660
0.000
0.006
4.616
6.060
0.060
2.441
39.14U
7.719
14.3115
.700
1.474
0.000
.0.4
.n»x
0.000
0.000
0.060
6.006
A. 5*6
.622
.604
.016
.011
.0«6
.0*4.
.017
.004
0.060
6.000
0.000
0.000
0.006
6.600
6.660
0.000
O.OAO
0.666
0.000
0.000
0.000
6.606
336.636
1.141
1.7m
1.124
19.237
6.244
4.666
1.444
1.402
l.ttl
.114
1.1)1
974.066
20.454
.46)
2.664
170.561
44.740






.666
.Uf
.»«J
.51)
.660
.4)1
0.066
9.42«
.4411
.032
1)1.2)0
5.264
241.J37
4.62*
6.666
6.606
6.606
6.066
6.666
17.332
• 996
.054
163.135
P.T4t
0.660
17.1)2
6.066
0.666
6.066
6.666
                                                                                                     22*0. 10>
                                                                                                     1011.031
                                                                                                       '7>..0<1
                                                                                                       241.357
                                                                                                         0.000
                                                                                                       101.414
                                                                                                       293.471!
                                                                                                       240.4X4
                                                                                                       5H..144
                                                                                                       J61.9»9
                                                                                                         2.231
                                                                                                          .It'
                                                                                                         0.000
                                                                                                          .314
                                                                                                          .00*
                                                                                                         T.0>>
                                                                                                         0.000
                                                                                                         0.000
                                                                                                       lnj.746
                                                                                                        70.JI7
                                                                                                          .0]'
                                                                                                          .041
                                                                                                          .TIJ
                                                                                                         J.4»1
                                                                                                        6". 099
                                                                                                        If. 001
                                                                                                         0.000
                                                                                                         0.000
                                                                                                          .001
                                                                                                         o.ooo
                                                                                                         0.000
                                                                                                         0.000
                                                                                                          .000
                                                                                                          .003
                                                                                                         0.000
                                                                                                         0.000
                                                                                                          .041
                                                                                                         0.000
                                                                                                         0.000
                                                                                                     11W.6M
                                                                                                       *4).»2f
                                                                                                       U«.4P|
                                                                                                        ».1«4
                                                                                                      1614.16)
                                                                                                       P66.««6
                                                                                                       J41.357
                                                                                                       211.6*1
                                                                                                       itt.m
                                                                                                        9».41»
                                                                                                         *.r««
                                                                                                       119.K45
INDll OP INV1»ON"(NI»L
                                     JTiNH»PO
                                      V»LUE3
». >I>T("14LS               13224.463
EN(PST                        56).*>3
•17FP                         145.401
INDIISTP14L  SOLIO  .«iTFS        55.164
It" [NKISSIONS               1614.36)
•1TC8ROXNC  PISTES            266.696
POSt-CONSUNEK SOL «4S7E       241.)57
CNCPOT  SOU«CC »ETt"OLtU»       216.663
ENCPOY  SOU-Cl NIT 04S         11«.*«4
CNfROr  SOueCt COtL            47.614
ENCPOY  \OUkCE NUCL HTDVB       9.789
CNCBOY  SOUXCE «000 »15TE     119.643
                                               1.5
                                               1.6
                                               2.6
                                               2.6
                                               I.I
                                               2.4
                                               6.6
                                               1.1
                                               1.2
                                               1.4
 T.4
 ).
10.
17.
 6
 2
 3
 3.
 0
 6
0.0
1.7
0.6
1.1
 .T
 .1

1.1
6
7
0
0
0
0
                                                                                                         100.0
                                                                                                         160.0
                                                                                                         100.0
                                                                                                         100.6
                                                                                                         100.0
                                                                                                         100.0
                                                                                                         100.0
                                                                                                         160.6
                                                                                                         160.0
                                                                                                         160.0
                                                                                                         166.6
                                                                                                         160.6
                                                             123

-------
  TABLE  55
ntouKt NU.VIIS
     OM IMLLION CMIN4 eun leee uats




INPUTS TO SYSTEM
N4M
•ATtRtAL COTTON
•ITERUL SULFJTI BRINE
•ATERIAL MOO rilt*
•4TEII4L IKON OM
•ATIRIAL S4LT
NATERUL OL4SS S4NO
•ATERIAL N4T S004 4SM
•4T(I|«L FELOSP4*
•ATEP.IAL I4U«1IC OM
•4T(>I«L SULFUR
EMM" SOUKl RtTHOLtUN
ENEMY SOURCE N4T I4S
ENERGY SOURCE C04L
INCBOT tOUfCl RISC
INERGT SOUKC1 MOO FIBER
ENfROY SOUHCE HTOHOROVC*.
•4TERI4L POTASH
MATERIAL RHOiRHATE ROC*
•ATEMAL CL4T
•4TERI4L GTRSUN
•ATERIAL SILICA
•4TEBI4L PROCESS 400
ENCB8T PHOCESS
ENERGY TRAN1POMT
(NERGT 0* N4TL RESOURCE
•4TER VOLUNE
OUTPUTS FRO* SYSTEMS
N4Mf
SOLID «45TCS PROCESS
SOLID PASTES FUEL CO»P
SOLID H4STES NINIMO
SOLID 4ASTE POST-COhSU«
ATMOSPHERIC RESTICIOE
4TMS RARTICULtrt*
*T«OS NIMOGEN 01IOCS
ATMS HYDROCARBONS
ITNOS SULFUM GUIDES
4TMQS C4RHON NQNOIIOE
A7MOS 4LOEtY'JES
47<^)S OTHER GRG4NICS
AtMOS ODOROUS SULFua
A7*OS AMHON14
4TMOS HYOROGE* FLOURIDC
47HOS LI4U
4TOOS MERCURY
4T»05RHCBIC CHLORINE
• ATERItORNl DIS SOLIDS
•4iEB8o»«€ FLUORIDES
•ATE°«ORNE DISS SOLIDS
• 4TEMA.OONC BUO
•4TERRORN4 P*€NOL
•ATERBORNE SULFIOES
•ATEORORNl OIL
•4TERB041NE COD
• 4TERR.ORNC SUSP SOLIDS
•ATERBORNE 4CIO
•ATERBORNE NSI4L IUN
RAIER*JO«N4. CTANIOC
•ATERRORNE ALKALINITY
VATERQOAME CNP.OMIUN
.47ER«ORMC laON
•4TERBORN4. 4LUNINUH
•4TEWBORNE NICKEL
•4TERR-ORNC NCRCuRY
VATER90RNE LEAD
•4TCRROHNE RHOSRH4TES
•ATEatORNt ZINC
•ATERtOlINC AMMONIA
•AlERROUNt N1TROOCN
•ATER»0»NE RtSTIClOe
*UNN4PV OF ENVtRONMNTAL IMPACTS
14.C
»4. MATERIAL*
ENCRGY
• ATE'
INDUSTRIAL SOLID MSTCS
•TH EMISSIONS
•ATCRBORNE MASTE*
EWROT SOURCE RCTROLEUN
ENER«T SOWCE NA? r.4S
ENERBY SOUHCE COAL
EHCRttV SOUKCE NUCL HYP»R
CNL06T SOURCE MOO IASTE
IHOti OP EN«|*OHNEMTAL IMPACTS
NAK

»• NATERIALS
ENEIST
• 4tf1
INDUSTRIAL SOLID "457ES
AT> EMISSIONS
DATEReOONE DASTES
ROST>CON9UNER SOL HASTI
EHfR«Y SOUHCE PETR.OLEU*
ENERSY SOURCE NAT IAS
CMR9Y SOWCt COAL
ENEROT SOU«C( MICL HYPVR
ENEBDY SOURCE MOO lASTf





UNITS
ROUNO
ROUND
ROUNO
ROUND
POUND
ROUNO
POUND
ROUNO
ROUNO
ROUND
•ILL (TU
•ILL ITU
• ILL *TU
•ILL ITU
•ILL »TU
•ILL STU
ROUND
ROUNO
ROUND
ROUNO
ROUNO
ROUNDS
•IL BTU
•IL ITU
• IL «TU
THOU ML

UNITS
POUND
ROUND
ROUND
CUR ic FT
ROUNO
ROUND
ROUNO
ROUNO
ROUNO
RflllNO
ROUNO
POUND
ROUNO
POUND
ROUND
ROUND
POUND
ROUND
ROUND
POUND
POUND
ROUND
ROUNO
ROUND
ROUND
POUND
ROUND
ROUNO
ROUND
ROUND
ROUNO
ROUND
ROUNO
ROUNO
ROUNO
POUND
ROUNO
ROUNO
POUND
POUND
POUND
ROUNO
POUND

UNITS
POUNDS
•IL BTU
THOU »AL
CUBIC FT
ROUNDS
POUNDS
CUVjIC FT
• IL RTU
MIL tTU
•IL BTU
• IL ITU
NIL BTU

STANDARD
•ALUES
4TTT.661
4M.I2T
t**.*14
41.141
14IT.*SI
1141.111
1.164
S*. 429
2T4.30S
11.424
1B.1T2
• *tl
CHINA
CUR TOI
RAN MT
11*1 USC


0.100
1.100
IT. 611
I. Ill
l.lll
I.IIO
l.lll
t.tll

314.4*1

U31S
.1*4
.411
.1*1
.lit
O.OIt

l.lll
114. *2I
31.117
m .234
10.TTI
1,111
.lot
0.100
2.01T


1.611
4.46*
744. J87
O.llt

M! 744
1.450
1.741

ITTA
• 021
.447
1.000
.001
o.oot
.010
.000
0.000
o.eit
.124
••11
1.141
.112
.001
.104

21*414
.114
7.601
.621
0.010
O.Otl
0.0*4
l.ltl
1.011
I. Ill
l.lll
1.000
0.000
O.Otl
1.000
o.oot
1.000


1121.1*1
1.117
2.00T
10.22T
IT. 440
11.041
U315
.8*4
.611
.04*
.11*



21.
.
1.
24.
1.
2.
t.
2.

,
,
IS.
CNINA CHIN*
CUP TOI CUP TOZ
•ft m*
lilt UK lit! UM


l.ltl t.lll
l.lll 1.0*0
1.1*1 IT. Ill
l.lll .lit
t.llt .010
0.00* .000
0.011 .Oil
I.OII .1*0
0.000 .000
{.tit .010
.111 .III
.SI* .241
4. Ml .1ST
1.21) .14*
.11) .000
O.IOt .318
l.lll .001
0.100 .000
0.011 .100
0.001 .000
t.Oll .000
O.Otl .000
O.OOt .711
11.91) .164
0.011 .014
0.001 0.000
1.756 .017


1*0. Oil .618
7. ISA .444
10.064 .114
0.011 .001
O.OtO .000
3.4*1 .101
7.12) .176
9. IB* .516
4.441 1.946
1.412 .10)
•021 ,004
.044 ,4)T
0,000 0.000
0.000 .001
0.000 O.COO
0.000 .001
.Oil .010
O.llt 0.001
O.Otl t.OOO
0.000 0.010
1.TI2 .246
.7T5 1.107
.000 .001
.000 .000
.010 .011
1.530 .001
1.44T .514
.1*4 .011
.0*4 .006
•.000 O.IOt
0.001 0.001
0.000 O.Otl
1.111 0.000
0.001 0.000
0.100 .000
0.010 .000
O.llt .000
t.oot .ott
1.011 .Itt
1.111 ,ttt
0.100 .010
0.001 .000

v
O.llt 41.418
11. tl) .870
1.754 .017
l.lll .111
' 14.444 T.1S2
4.12) 1.4K*
.SI* .241
9.161 .1ST
1.24) .14*
.21) 0.0*1
0.1** .lit



0.0 .4
2.7 .1
1.4 .0
6.T .1
2.1 .4
.4 .1
O.I 0.0
.9 .4
3.4 .1
US .2
1.6 I.I
l.l 34.1
CHINA CHINA
CUP TOI CUP TOI
TRAN MSN
1100 USE 111! UK


1.000 l.ltl
.010 1514.14*
.011 O.Otl
.100 0.001
.111 191.6*1
.000 447.541
.000 SBI.1IT
.001 t.ttt
.111 t.tOO
.111 16*. 192
.IT* 49.44*
.111 2*1.1*1
.000 74.404
.001 IT. Tit
.000 .2*1
.000 0.000
.000 0.000
.000 O.OIt
.100 O.tll
.000 1.011
.000 O.tOO
.001 SSI. 412
.000 345.794
.174 .111
.000 10.111
.041 194.492


0.000 233.70*
.174 446. 11T
t.OOO 1411.440
0.000 0.000
1.000 0.000
.144 111.472
1.S01 2*4.14]
.400 141.441
.511 492.11*
1.111 41.19*
.049 .793
.113 1.4ST
0.000 1.79*
.001 1.439
0.000 0.000
.006 ,014
0.000 .001
0.000 .763
0.000 0.001
0.000 0,000
.414 1012.700
.001 9.412
.001 .010
.001 .011
.001 .110
.006 1S.OT4
.004 11.712
.Oil 27.72T
.100 8.042
.000 O.Ott
.000 .1*1
.000 .011
.000 0.001
.000 0.000
.000 0.000
.000 .000
.000 .000
.001 .174
.001 O.OtO
.000 .012
.001 3.161
.001 .111


0.010 1615.16)
1.174 406.740
.061 1*4.442
.004 2B.6T1
T.439 1222.101
.4** 11*4.44)
1.174 44.94*
.100 2*).)*)
0.000 7*. 40*
0.000 17.710
0.000 .26*



0. 74.7
41. T
. 47.
. 61.
84.
*4.
0. 1.
1. TT.
. 94.
1. 97.
1. 91.
1. 14.
CHIN*
CUP TOI
PCM
III* USE


.lit
.110
.010
BOfl
.110
.001
.111
.111
.lit
.til
.111
1 .201
.111
.•to
.lit
.111
.lit
.111
.111
.100
.000
.000
.000
.000
11.211
1.001
.4)4


t.OOO
1.541
0.101
1.144
0.000
l.OTO
10.1*1
11.074
1.694
73.308
.IT]
1.11)
0.000
.021
o.oot
.211
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.101
5.441
.014
.014
.114
,007
.096
.119
.011
.001
0.000
0.000
1.000
t.Oll
0.000
0.001
1.100
0.000
O.IOt
0.000
0.000
0.000
o.ooo


l.lll
10.201
.6)4
.014
101.242
9.9T*
Illltl
1.110
O.COO
l.llt
1.110



1.0
2.
,
.
T.
.
111.
IT.
0.
0.
0.
0.
CHINA
CUR TOI
SYS TOT
lit* UM


l.tll
1904. 1BI
7S.1T*
1*110
151.641
417.141
SBI.1IT
1*4.111
319. »ll
14*. 142
54.42S
1T4.3I9
11.424
11.071
.•10
o.oot
0.000
0.000
104.420
31.317
291.114
565.994
411.6*4
12.112
11.111
144.934


42t.»44
411. 41t
2199.4)6
1.164
1.001
144. OTO
320.0**
111.111
4T1.471
114.127
1.761
5.814
2.796
1.974
0.000
.111
.008
.76)
0.000
.014
1011.716
12.701
.01*
.021
.143
10.471
41.261
1B.1BI
13.81*
1*00*
.84*
.001
0.000
O.Ott
l.llt
• 111
.110
.174
1.101
.012
1.361
.01*


4TTT.661
434, 12T
194,434
41.44*
1407.438
1141. IB)
94^42*
174.10*
81.414
1B.1T2
.400



100.0
It*.
lot.
101.
111.
111.
III.
111.
100.
111.
III.
111.
             124

-------
       TABLE  56
RESOURCe »HO CNVIRONMCNTM.  PROFlLf IMLT11J
     ONI MILLN NCLWIM CUP 1000 USIf
INPUTS TO




























STSTENS
N4«rf
NITCRUL COTTON
•ITCRIIL SULFITE BRINE
NITERUL »000 FIBER
•ITERUL LINESTONE
•ITERUL IRON ORE
HITFRUL SILT
MTERIIL GLISS SIND
•47CR1IL NIT SOftl ISM
NITERUL FCLUSPIR
•ITERUL B4UIITE ORC
NITERUL SULFUU
ENERGY SOURCE PETROLEU*
ENERGY SOUMCC NIT 045
ENERGY SOURCE COIL
ENERGY SOUNCE RISC
ENERGY SOURCC >OOD FIRCR
CNCRGY sou»cc HTI>ROPO>CR
•ITERUL POTISH
N1TCRIM. PnOSPMTC ROCK
•ITERI4L CL4Y
•ITCRIIL GYPSUN
•ITCR1IL SILICl
•ITERIIL PROCESS 600
CNCRGY PRUCESS
ENERGY TRINSPORT
CNCROT OF NI7L RCSOURCC
•4TFB VOLUNC

UNITS
POUNO
POUNO
POUNO
POUNO
POUNO
POUNO
POUNO
POUND
POUNO
POUND
POUNO
•ILL BTU
•ILL ITU
•ILL ITU
•ILL ITU
•ILL RTU
•ILL BTU
POUNO
POUND
POUND
POUNO
POUND
POUNDS
•IL ITU
MIL HTU
•IL RTU
TMOU OIL
OUTPUTS FROM SYSTEMS












































•kUMMIHV f













INOCI OF














NI.F
SOLID ISttS PROCESS
SOLID ISIIS FUEL COMB
SOLID 1STCS MINING
SOLID ISIf POST-CONSUN
4T»OSP CRIC PESTICIDE
ITNOS IRTICULlTCS
ITNOS ITHOGtM OI10ES
• TXOS TOHOCIRIIONS
4T«OS SULFUR 0«IOES
ITKOS CIMtOM NONOIIDt
47WOS 4LDC**YUC4
ITnOS OTNl» OHG6N1CS
ITMS ODOROUS SULFUR
IT»OS INNONI6
ITNOS MTUHObCN FLOURIOC
ITNOS LEII'
Tuns •CRIUPY
T«OS»«CRIC CHLORINE
ITCRBORnC 01$ SOLIDS
ITCRRORNC FLUORIDES
ITCRRORNE OISS SOLIDS
ITCRRORNC 100
•ITERUORNl P-CNOL
•ITERROUNL SULMUCS
plTCRROMiC OIL
•ITCRBORNC COO
•ITERVORNC SUSP SOLIDS
•ITERBORNC ICID
•ITEPBORNC NETIL ION
•ITCRBO'NC CHENICILS
•itc»»oR»i CTiNtoe
««7(MO»«[ 1LKIL1NITT
•ITCRBOPNC CXRONIUN
•ITCRNORNE IRON
• l7C*(ttORNE ILUNINUH
.ItERHORNt NIC«tL
•ItERBORNC NCRCURT
• 1TF.RRORNC LElD
•ITFRBORNC PXOSPMITES
•iTERAORNi ZINC
•ITERRORNt IMNONII
• ITCRilORNC N17RDGCN
•1TERRORNC PCSTICIOC
tf FNVIBONMkMTIL IMP4CT*
NI.I
fll« H4TCRULS
CNCROT
• ITFR
INUUSTRI4L SOLID •«SIE5
• t» CMISSIONS
•ITERBORNC »STES
POST-CONSWCH SOL >ISTE
ENCRGT SOURCC PETROLEUN
ENCROT SOURCE NIT bIS
ENCRGT SOURCC COIL
INERGT SOURCE NUCL HYPVR
ENERGT SOURCE «000 VISTC
(NVIRONPZNTIL INPICTS
N1>C

Rl« NirCRIILS
ENERGY
VITCR
INDU5TRUL SOLID >4STCS
ITN CRNISS10NS
•ITCRBORNE >ISTES
POST-CONSUMER SOL >1STE
CNER9T SOURCE PCTROLCUPl
ENEROT SOUUCE 1IT GIS
ENCRGY SOURCE COIL
ENERGY SOURCE NUCL HYPM
ENERGY SOURCE HOOD HISTC
UNITS
POUND
POUNO
POUND
CIIRIC FT
POUND
POUND
POUND
POUNO
POUND
POUNO
POUNfl
POUNO
POUND
POUND
POUNO
POUND
POUNO
POUND
•OUNO
POUND
POUNO
POUND
POUMI
POUND
POUND
POUNO
POUND
POUND
POUND
POUND
POUNO
POUND
POUNO
POUND
POUNO
POUND
POUND
POUNO
POUND
POUNO
POUNO
POUNO
POUND

UNITS
POUNUS
•IL BTU
THOU GIL
CUBIC FT
POUNDS
POUNDS
CURIC FT
•IL «TU
NIL 8TU
•IL BTU
•IL ITU
NIL ITU

STINDIRO
VILUCS
1717.316
421.130
200.614
2«.2*4
1271.116
1099.171
1.317
4I.517
272.740
•0.112
11.029
1.011
NEL6NINC HELMINE MCLUHW «L»NINE
CUM CUPS CUTS CUPS
•U IUT NPI M« TRIN
IMI usi it to use iioo ust 1000 use
0.000
0.000
91.111
S.I10
t'.tn
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
.Til
1.130
9.04*
.00*
.100
.til
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.4»
*.314
.149
3.442
4.»«7
«.«!
5.001
12.927
0.000
0.000
1.712
».447
19. IM
T.ii*
4.2*4
.010
.021
.03?
1.161
.000
.000
.011
0.000
1.00
.32*
.001
.001
.009
.04*
.TB1
.2*2
.04,2
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
.000
.000
o.ooo
0.000
.2*9
0.000
0.000
•1.699
It. 109
4.MT
.JT4
16.410
1.699
o.ooo
1.690
*.046
,00»
.100
.til
1.2
I.
2.
1.
2.
•
1.
1.
1.
1.
39.
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
o.ooo
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
.219
.JIT
.922
.111
o.ioo
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
o.ooo
0.000
1.0T2
0.000
0.000
1.432
.311
3.070
«.1»0
0.000
0.000
.tso
l.llt
.440
2.ITO
.140
.002
.001
0.001
0.000
0.000
.000
0.000
0.000
.0*2
.000
.000
.000
.000
.001
.000
.1*0
.040
o.tot
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
o.ooo
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
1.0T2
1.432
.161
3.214
.2*1
0.000
.219
.21T
.922
.111
0.010
0 0
1
T
«
4
0
4
1
*
T
0 0
0.000
o.ooo
11.131
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
.110
.ft
.072
0.000
.132
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.001
1.121
.417
.002
0.000
.001
1.745
1.111
1.029
0.000
0.000
1.017
.42]
.234
1.449
.14*
.002
.211
0.000
.000
.000
.000
0.000
0.000
0. 000
.14]
.914
.000
.000
.000
.001
.241
.011
.001
.ore
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
o.oot
10.074
.419
.toe
.043
1.407
.039
0.000
.11*
.076
.072
0.001
.132









0
14
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
.311
.00*
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
1.000
o.ooo
0.000
0.000
.til
0.000
.014
0.000
.11*
0.000
0.000
0.000
.071
1.102
.4*1
.221
i.rio
.024
.0*0
0.000
.002
.001
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
.2«1
.001
.000
.000
.000
.001
.002
.001
.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
o.ooo
0.000
o.ooo
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
.592
.014
.002
1.1*2
.100
0.000
.911
.000
0.000
0.010
0.001
0 0
1
0
0
1
0
1 2
0
0 0
0 0
0 0
•ELININE MLININC
CUPS CUPS
• ISH PCS!
1000 use mo use
0.001
1904.1*0
0.000
0.000
1SU691
*37.34I
SSI. 117
0.000
0.000
169,052
43.949
2*1.1*1
79.40*
17.710
.2*1
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
391.412
193.79*
.171
10.111
194.412
211.709
4»*.127
1421.9*0
0.000
0.000
111.972
29S.241
291.931
432.109
*0.099
.795
1.647
2.79*
1.919
.014
.001
.701
0.000
1012.700
9.012
.010
.01]
.110
13.073
11.782
27.727
t.092
.020
0.000
.K9i
.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
.000
.000
.174
0.000
.012
1.1M
.oia
1*1*. 0*1
406.790
194.492
2*.»71
1222.101
1094. *4]
0.000
49.94*
2*1.191
79.409
17.710
.2*1
97.1
96.*
96.9
*«.
9*.
19.
94.
96.
91.
91.
26.
0.001
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
o.oto
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
.012
o.oto
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
.012
0.000
.001
0.000
.001
0.000
1.917
0.000
.001
.011
.011
.001
.591
.001
.083
0.000
.000
.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
.007
.000
.000
.000
.000
.000
.000
.000
.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
1.000
0.000
1.000
0.000
0.000
.012
.001
.000
.709
.007
1.317
.012
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
0






0
0
0
0
•CLMINC
CUPS
STS TOT
1000 USt
0.000
1904.1*0
74.964
9.110
0.000
131.9*2
*37.941
911.117
0.000
0.000
170.3*9
41.917
272.740
10.112
11.029
1.012
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
362.707
401.799
1.779
13.372
200.614
24 .916
»7 .925
144 .2*7
.317
.001
113.441
104.397
110.212
461.914
47. Ml
.041
2.0)7
2.141
1.110
!o|7
.001
.794
0.000
101»I»5?
10.679
.011
.014
.190
13.126
19.013
20.161
4.137
' .040
0.000
.1*1
.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
.000
.000
.174
0.100
.271
1.160
.Oil
1717.516
421.130
200.614
29.2t4
1271. Kit
1099.171
1.917
41.517
272.740
00.012
11.029
1.012
100.
100.
100.
100.
100.
100.
100.
100.
100.
100.
100.
100.
             125

-------
iwvn TO
                                                  TABIZ   57
                                                       tNVIIOMMNTU.
                                                 OMI HILLIOX
                                                                    row 101 eu*
                                                           »OLTSTT
                                                 •til* *T  row nt
                                                           HO eu«
                                                 4i4i i*   HM
                                                           rat* tot
                                                           MO CU»
                                                           •HI
•OLTtTT
POM »0l
HO eu>
TRIM
                                      win
•OLTSTY   MITSTT
row Tot  ro«» TQI
HO CU»    HO CU*
KIK      IT! TOT
          MTIIIU. COTTON
          •*.T(*UL si&rtTi m
          Mini4L *ooo rittn
          •4TIRI4L LIHtSTONI
          MTIIKL i MM DM
          MTtllU. SALT
          •4TOI4L UL4SS UNO
          WTtltM. MT 10M 1«"
          MTtllM. rtLM»ll
          UTIIIIW. UU1ITI OM
                         •OUNO
                         •OUNO
OUT»UT>
                       •tTHOLlUN
          (MMT  SOU*Ct HIT 1*1
          tMMT  SOIMCI COIL
          (N(Mf  SOU*Ct (ISC
          (MMT  sou*c( MOO rim
          tMMT  SOU*C( «YC*OPOvt*
          •ATtllAL  POTASH
          •ATIIIAL  »»OS»M*T( MCK
          U7(I|4L  CLAT
          H4TC1AL  IT»SU»
          «47f»U(.  SILICI
          •4T(»i*L  **oc(ss 400
          IMCMT  MO<(»
          (HCM7  T««m»O«7
          CMTM*  or BAIL MSOUNCt
          l«rt» »OLUM

         '•ON ITJTIHS
                         HILL ITU
                         HILL ITU
                         NILL ITU
                         •ILL ITU
                         HILL ITU
                         • ILL ITU
                         •OUNO
                         •OUNO
                             ITU
                         •IL ITU
                         •IL ITU
                         tHOU I*L
t.tt l.tl
.It
.11
.11
.11
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.» 14
.It t
• It
.11
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.00
.11
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• It
.11
t.ot
.11
.11
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.11
.11
.11
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.11
.11
.11
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.11
.41
.IT
.It
.It
.11
.11
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.It
.11
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4. II lll.l*
l.lt .41
t.t4 S.I*
1.41 It. SI
t.lt
l.lt
III4.4S
1.00
0.00
O.It
l.ll
l.ll
l.lt
••It
l.tl
11. tt
tt.TI
l.tl
.15
11.11
0.11
1.01
1.01
1.99
l.lt
l.lt
11S.49
M.9I
*4T
1.04
1 .44
l.ll
l.ll
1.90
1.91
9.99
9.99
• •••
O.It
O.It
9.91
l.lt
10.44 1
.44
t.lt
1.91
t.lt
t.ll
l.ll
t.lt
l.ll
l.ll
l.ll
9.91
9.91
11.10 1
l.lt
l.ll
.01
.tt
.11
.11
.01
.09
.99
.11
.It
.19
.It
.11
.99
.91
.11
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.01
.09
.91
.99
.99
.11
.11
.It
.11
.09
.9*
l.ll
l.lt
ttl*.41
1.01
9.99
9.91
'.II
l.lt
1.10
l.ll
l.tl
1*7.71
ttS.TI
11. If
l.ll
It. 11
t.lt
0.10
l.ll
l.ll
1.19
l.ll
111.17
401.14
41.14
Itl.tl
»».4«
sot. to usrti  raoctss
sot 10 i4STi>  ruci  cox
KH.U MST(S  HIHIM
im.10 xsri Kni-co*tim
•n«s»«c«ic •tsriciot
ITV«S rtiiicuLiris
•TM>S mritoaCH onoei
tTMOS «'0*OC4TCOI>I
•rues JOL'UO  oiiots
•I»0» C»««OH  HOHOItOC
4THOS >IOC«'OCI
• TKOS 0'-<" 0054MCJ
>IHOS ooo>ous sw.ru*
*T«OS AMMOHI*
tnej MTDMKCH JWCHJ«I«
4THOS LOO
«T«OJ H(«CU*T
                                   TCUMO
                                   XHJM
                                   mum
                                   vouw
                                   »OUMI
                                   >OUNO
                                   >OUMO
                                   >OUftO
                                   »OUNO
                                   rouxo
           on SOLIDS
           OISS  SOLIDS
>irt*«OM(  too
                                   MUM
                                   »OUHO
                                   TCUMO
                                   MIMO
          »«TC«tO«'lt OIL
          ••TtXOOOt COO
          MTfXOMC SUV SOL101
          •4Tt*IOMif 1C10
          MT(*IOm( H(TU. ion
          MTtnOMC CKtHfClLl
          .4Tt»»0«K CTUIOf
          »«tt«tO«»» U.I4LIHIT*
          • 4l|I
          • •IfXOKM »IOCL
          •4ICWOMC H(»CU*t
          • •IIWOMI LC»0
          I4T(»
          urt
          •trt
          •4Ttnoc«ic mm IDC
tIT.II
IT. 14
4».ll
l.ll
l.lt
*.«!
M.S4
Itl.tt
SS.ll
Tt.M
• tl
.tt
l.ll
.94
• 9.91
.91
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9.99
9.11
1.91
41.14
t.lt
.11
• 11
• U
t.tt
4.»1
I.t4
.31
t.lt
t.tt
t.ll
.01
t.tt
l.ll
l.lt
l.lt
l.tl
t.tt
l.tt
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l.lt
9.91
*t.ll
lit. 41
lll.tl
l.lt
l.lt
44. M
ti4.n
»».ll
ttl.lt
11.41
l.lt
1.11
t.lt
.14
1.91
.9t
.91
l.lt
t.ll
l.tt
*t.M
.11
• M
.tl
• It
.Tl
.44
I.4T
I.U
t.lt
t.lt
l.lt
l.ll
l.lt
l.ll
• •It
t.lt
l.lt
t.10
t.tl
t.tt
t.ll
I.M
IK.St
4I.4T
tl.*l
l.ll
• I.Ot
Tl.lt
W.I4
10.14
II«.1S
11. «9
.14
14.11
1.09
.It
9.31
.99
.99
9.91
9.11
9.91
11.41
11.91
.99
.91
• 9t
.»•
17.71
l.lt
.11
1.41
l.ll
9.19
9.91
«.tt
l.ll
1.11
l.ll
9.11
t.ll
l.ll
1.91
l.ll
l.lt
l.ll
4.T1
l.ll
l.ll
9.99
I. 41
4«.7t
IS.tl
l.lt
41.14
.79
1.41
1.19
.91
1.91
.97
t.tl
1.01
l.ll
1.99
19.17
.91
.11
.11
.91
.11
.IT
.It
.11
1.99
I.Ot
l.lt
1.99
l.ll
1.99
9.91
9.91
1.99
t.ll
l.ll
t.ll
9.09
l.lt
1.91
• •IT
9.99
Ttl.19
1.99
1.14
11. tl
11.91
4.SS
114. IS
l.St
4.71
l.tt
• IS
9.19
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9.99
9.91
l.ll
1.99
1.14
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.11
.01
.11
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.1*
.tt
.91
9.91
t.tl
9.91
9.91
t.ll
1.09
0.91
9.91
1.91
l.ll
l.lt
t.lt
l.lt
9.11
411.1*
tTt.lt
411.11
Ttl.tt
9.91
111.99
314.11
1T1.0I
441.91
J46.44
>.4t
t'.SI
9.01
.19
9.11
.4]
.99
9.01
1.01
0.91
Il4.lt
41.01
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.71
l.ll
ti.n
I.IT
l.ll
1.41
t.ot
t.ot
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1.99
1.90
l.ll
l.lt
0.01
t.OI
t.ll
.01
t.90
l.ll
        or (II«IIO
          •at
                  L IWICTI
                                       UM1TS
          IMtMt
          •47(1
          INOUSTHI4L SOLIO Ilirtl
          *T» CMIUKUIS
          I4TMOM M1TI3
          POST-COUUM* SOL USTf
          CWMT SOMKt >tT*Oktl«l
          CkOtT SOUKI MT Ml
                     Cf C04L
                          •II ITU
                          THOU Wt
                          cuatc rr
          IWMr MUMt MOO u*Tt

IMtl Or CmiMMBTJITAL IM*ICT1
                          CMIC n
                          •IL ITU
                          "IL ITU
                          HIL ITU
                          HtL ITU
                          •IL ITU
                                     J7»
                                      KU.UU
til. II
111.14
IS.4I
4.11
US. 74
ii.n
l.ll
1W.I4
Tt.M
4.11
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l.ll
l.ll
111.74
11. SI
T.T4
III. 4*
III. 41
t.tl
144.11
141.11
N.M
4.IT
l.ll
1414.*)
41.11
1.44
4.tl
tra.io
Tt.ST
1.01
ll.tt
tt.TI
4.13
.M
11.11
O.It
tt.fO
l.ll
.14
114. Tt
11.41
t.ll
tl.44
.44
1.01
l.ll
t.ll
l.lt
IT. SI
l.t*
.U
117.41
I.3T
711. tO
IT. SI
l.ll
l.lt
l.ll
l.ll
llSS.lt
sn.oo
t«.44
U.tl
1IS1.4I
tll.ll
Ttl.lt
KT.TI
Itl. 71
lt.lt
S.ll
11.11
*A> NATtltllLS 14U.lt U.
(MMT ST1.M 11.
•in* ti.** it.
INOVSMIAL SOLIO uins 11.11 TS.
ITH (MUSSIONS 1IU.I* 1*.
urtncoM Mins Ml. U »«.
•OST- SOL «*STI 141.11 t.
(MMT SOUKt KTIIOLIUN tIT.TI IS.
CMMT SOUCCt MT US IH.T1 11.
(MMT SOUIKC COIL M.n It.
OCMT SONKt NUCX MTM* 1.41 11.
(MM SOUrct MOO MSTX 11.11 1.
1.
14.
19.

41.
n.
t.
41.
*I.
M.
M.
1.
U.I l.<
7.1 1.1
4.* 4.1
n.* •<
14.* 1.
tr.t 4.
9.1 t.l
3.4 t.
S.T
tt.t 1.
1.1 1.
lll.l *.
l.<
1.
1.

it!
i.
in.
i.
i.
i.
i.
9.
III.
Itl.
Itl.
Itl.
tit.
Itl.
111.
111.
110.
lit.
III.
III.
                                                      126

-------
INPUT* TO S*STC*S
          »A«F
                                                        TABLE  58

                                             •tSOUBCC  *«0 C«WI»ON»tN7AL

                                                   •IL TO! M»-»e HOT 01 ru»1
                                                              CONVHT
                                            ANALYSIS
               COATIO
               •AB«D
               •AN S"S
               14210 LI
                            • A*f>      CARTONS
                            »AKS       iso  LI
                            1*0 LI
                                                                                            comun
                                                                                            IMC LI
                                                                                                      DISPOSAL   T«ANS»0«  TOTAL
          •ATOIAL COTTON
          NATFBIAL *ULFATt tWIHC
          "ATEBIAL «OOO r|§E»
          •ATC*IAL il*»TONC
          •ATCBJAL IKON 0»t
          •ATF*|AL »ALT
          •ATCHIAL »L»SS SMtl
          •ATC»|AL NAT SOOt »S»
          •ATCBIAL >U"S»A4
          •«Tt«IAL -lUIItt OOF.
          •ATCBIAL kM.ru*
          €HC«Ot SOU'CF BtTBOLEU"
          ENf»n SOU-Ct NAT Oil
          tie*a» »uu*ct COAL
          (MfR«T SIHI-Cl DISC
          INC»O» sou*cc >ooo '!>•(•
          t»t"9T SOU-ICE NTO»n»0«t«
          •ATF.BIAL •OT4S-
          •ATENIAL *-flS»«ATF *oc*
          •ATF*1AL LLA'
          •ATFHIAL t?T***W»
          NATEBIAL XH.ICA
          •ATF.BIAL *»»O
          FNe<*G* Tfc.NS"0»T
•OUNO
•OUNI)
•OUNI)
•OUNO
•OUNO
•OUND
BOUND
•DUMP
BOUNP
•OUNK
BOUNU
"ILL "TU
•ILL *TU
•ILL ItU
•ILL DTu
•ILL BTU
•ILL «TU
BOUND
•OUNO
•OUND
•OUNO
•OUNO
•OUNOS
•IL *TU

•IL «TU
T«mi GAL
0.166 0.000
0.000 0.000
I21IT.S2S 0.000 >•
1345.720
• .•00
20SS.S01
1.000
o.ooo
0.000
0.100
17. .049
64.221
141. TSO 1
100.317 |
4.200
160.2*4
0.001
•.too
6.101
0.000
0.000
0.000
I40T.TU 4
.51.951 3
4.250
21.5T5
.0(0
.000
.000
.000
.••0
.•go
.000
.110
.201
.11?
.632
.156
.000
.000
.000
.000
.000
.000
.000
.001
.001
.TIO
.000
.000
.100
.000
.000
.000
.•00
.000
.os«
.615
,2*T
.000
.89*
.000
.000
.000
.000
.000
.000
.000 27.100
.111 T.656
.000 .035
.000 ' 0.000
1IT.V9I) .601 .146
0.000
0.000
79.500 101
12.000
0.000
1S.TT1
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
1.51.
1.0.7
.601
• T*l
.060
1.42*
0.000
0.000
0.001
0.000
0.000
0.000
12. «2! 10
3.677 2
.000
.000
.350
.000
.000
.000
.000
.000
.000
.000
.000
.109
• 4N4
.208
.000
.072
.000
.000
.000
.001
.000
.000
.500
.•25
.042 .139
0.000 0.000
1.6»1 .492
0.000
.000
.000
.000
.000
.000
.000
.000
.000
,000
.000
.101 I
.000
.000
.000
.000
.000
.000
.000
.000
.000
.000
.000
.000
.000
.000
.000
.000
.000
.000
• 000
.000
.000
.000
.000
.529
.000
.000
.000
.000
.000
.000
.000
.000
.000
.000
.000
.000
.601 11.529
0.000 0.000
.350 .7(0
0.000
0.000
1)116.0*5
I3ST.T»0
0.000
2091. 2T2
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
ITS. 5*1
93.999
1T2.191
119. 100
9.115
1T1.696
0.000
0.000
O.OflO
0.000
0.000
0.000
1616.460
SJ6.I31
i».ai«
•1.575
1»1. 6«7
JUTBUT* HO"
          snj.19 ««»TES »»ociss
          SOLID »4STt» run. COW
          VL13 ••itti -INI-.
          4TM1S  SUL>U-  0
          47«QS  C4»-*u*  '
          • 7-0<  4LUt-r>>C
          *7-05  OT»t- u«
          4T-05  O 0»* "»
          4T«OS  *•»-«.(•
          4T**OS  •>*!•-. "»c*
          4T-«S  L14.
          • ltr»V^M  |<|<  SOL ID J
          »4TrQ«g»\«  rt.jo«l.-C»
          ,4T(I»0»H   "ATUULl
          CNC08T
          • ATFR
          INOUSTBIAL SOLID  -4JTCS
                     vASTFS
          •OST-CONSU-t-'  SOL  -AS'E
          E-.C«5I bOUHCC  Bf.TB.OLF.UK
          E-IJ6T SOU'CE  SAT  GAS
          CNCBST source  COAL
          ENCIGT SOIMCt  NUCL  "'••"
          tNCBCT SOU'Ct  >00u  >*STE
 1»0«,T,
   S6«,
   191
    TS,
   1619.
   301,
   736,
    93,
   1T2,
   119,
     9,
   1T3,
,11*
iSlO
,6IT
,021
 010
,104
 013
 999
 393
 106
 111
 646
91.1
• 4.4
91.1
•2.
6*
69
 0
•«.,
•6.
94
61
*2
1.6
1.4

U2
1.2
5.6
0.0
2.2
 .«
1.1
0.0
l.T
12
I*.
 0.
 T.
 2
 3
 0
 5
 2.

99
                     0.0
                     2
 5
 2
 0
14
 0.
 0.
 0.
 0.
100.
100.
100.
loo.
100.
100.
100.
100.
100.
100.
100.
100.
                                                             127

-------
                                                 TABLE 59
                                           Mtouwt MO imtMMCHTu. mornt MM.VS.M
                                                             CM|M X.4TI I4M Ml
                                      UNITS
          KATtllAL  COTTON
          NATtKIAL  WLFATt MINt
          MIIIIAL  MOO FIN*
               •OUNO
               •OUNO
               •OUNO
          •in* i At.
          •ATtUIAL
          •ATtHIAL NAT  SODA AIM
          •ATt.HI.AL »ELOS»««
          •AUDI* tAUAITt 0*C
          INCMT  SOUKt •miOLtUN
          tHUOT  SOUHCI NAT CAS
          CM44T  VMVCl COAL
          MOST  SOUKt NISC
          ENI**T  SOUKt 4000 MM*
          CNIOQY  MUKl xTIMM»0«t*
                             HOC*
          •A7IIIM.  SILICA
          •4714I4L  MOCISS  aOO
          CNt*IT MHXtlS
          •Att41«L
          •>Tt"IAL CLAT
               •OUNd
               •OUNO
               •OUNO
               •MM)
               •TUNO
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-------
                                               TABLE  60
                                            RESOURCE AND ENVtROXUNTAL PROFILE ANALYSIS

                                                  ONt "ILLN HCLANINE RITE  1000 USE
INPUTS TO SVSTENS
          NATERIAL COTTON
          NATERIAL SULFAtE fUlNC
          NATERIAL "000 FIOCO
          NATERIAL LINESIONE
          NATERIAL IRON one
          NATERIAL SALT
          NATEMIAI. GLASS SANO
          NATERIAL NAT SODA ASN
          NATERIAL FELDSPAR
          HATERIAL IAUIITE OM
          NATERIAL SULFUR
          ENEROV SOURCE RfTROLEUN
          ENERGY SOUHCC MT 8AS
          fNERBY SOUICC CO>L
          ENERGY SOURCE NISC
          EHERtV SOURCC MOO HOIK
          ENtBGT SOURCE NTOKOROHER
          •ATFRIAL POTASH
          MATERIAL PNOVRHATE R.OCK
          MATERIAL CLAY
          MATERIAL GTRSUH
          MATERIAL SILICA
          MATERIAL PROCESS ADD
          tNtROT PROCESS
          ENERGY TRANSPORT
          ENERI»Y or NATL RESOURCE
          VATEO VOLUMf
OUTPUTS FRO" SYSTEM*
          NAMf
          SOLID IASIES PROCESS
          SOLID HASTES FUEL CON*
          SOLID UlSlcIS MINING
          SOLID NASTE ROST-CONSUN
          ATMOSPHERIC ResTtctoc
          ATXOS PARTICIPATES
          ATMOS NITftOGEN 01 IOC (
          AIXOS MTDROCARHONS
          ATNOS SULFUR OX IDS*
          ATNOS CAROON NONDIIOC
          AIXOS UPCxtOtS
          AT«OS OTNtR OROAMICS
          ATNOS ouohoui SULFUR
          ATwOS ANWONIA
          ATNOS NT0400CN FLOURIOC
          ATNOS If AD
          ATNOS KCilCURt
          ATNOSRNfDIC CHLOBINC
          •ATCRRORNt OIS SOLIDS
          •AieR«o*N< FLUOR.IOCS
          •ATCRdORNt OISS SOLIDS
          • ATCMOBxt 1100
          • ATMHORNt RxCNOL
          •ATER40RNC SULFIDCS
          •ATCBBORht OIL
          •ATtOORNt COO
          •AtCRHONIK SUSP SOLIDS
          • ATERIORNfc ACIC>
          •ATEiaOMNe NETAL ION
          •ATERRORNi C«C>1CALS
          • ATEIROm* CTANIOF
          • ATEMOBNC ALHALINITT
          •ATERRORNI CxRONIUN
          • ATERNORNC IRON
          »AtFRaURN£ AI.UNINUN
          •ATEAtfORNC NICKEL
          • ATERR.ORNE -IDCUR'
          •ATERRORNC LEAD
          • ATF.RkORNf RNOSR1ATCS
          •AIEU80RNI 1INC
          •ATtMORNC A-UIONIA
          •tTEIBORNE NITBOOEN
          • ATCRR.OR.NE RCSTICIIU

<|»m«RT OF FNVIMNNENTAL INRACTS
          NAxf
          B» UTERIALS
          fNfRSY
          •ATFH
          INDUSTRIAL SOLID >ASTF.S
          ATN ENMISSIONS
          •ATCRDORNt IASTCS
          ROST-CONSUNER SOL >ASTE
          ENEROT SOURCE RCTHOLEUN
          ENERGT SOURCE NAT OAJ
          ENERGY SOuxCE COAL
          ENEPOY SOUUCt NUCl HTRM
          EHER6T SOURCE MOO «ASTE

INOCl OF EN>IROMN(NTAL INRACTS
          NANE
                                    POUND
                                    ROUNO
                                    ROUND
                                    ROUND
                                    ROUNO
                                    ROUNO
                                    ROUND
                                    POUND
                                    POUND
                                    POUND
                                    POUND
                                    NILL  ITU
                                    NILL  ITU
                                    MILL  BTU
                                    MILL  ITU
                                    NILL  ITU
                                    NILL  ITU
                                    ROUNO
                                    POUND
                                    POUND
                                    POUNO
                                    ROUNO
                                    ROUNDS
                                    MIL ITU
                                    NIL ITU
                                    NIL ITU
                                    TNOU  BAL
                                    ROUND
                                    ROUND
                                    ROUND
                                    CUBIC FT
                                    ROUND
                                    ROUNO
                                    ROUND
                                    POUND
                                    ROUNO
                                    ROUNO
                                    ROUNO
                                    ROUND
                                    ROUNO
                                    ROUND
                                    ROUND
                                    ROUNO
                                    ROUNO
                                    ROUND
                                    ROUNO
                                    ROUND
                                    ROUNO
                                    ROtINO
                                    ROUND
                                    ROUNO
                                    ROUNO
                                    ROUND
                                    ROUND
                                    ROUND
                                    ROUND
                                    ROUNO
                                    ROUNO
                                    ROUNO
                                    ROUNO
                                    ROUNO
                                    ROUNR
                                    ROUNO
                                    ROUNO
                                    ROUND
                                    ROUNO
                                    ROUNO
                                    ROUNO
                                    ROUNO
                                    ROUNO
                                    ROUNDS
                                    «U  (TU
                                    TNAU OAL
                                    CUBIC FT
                                    ROUNDS
                                    ROUNDS
                                    CUR 1C FT
                                    NIL  «TU
                                    Nil.  (TU
                                    NIL  ITU
                                    NIL  ITU
                                    NIL  ITU
                                      STANDARD
                                       VALUES
           RA«  HATEAIALS               31T1.000
           ENIRGT                        IOS.1IO
           • ATF.R                         UJ.OTT
           INDUSTRIAL  SOLID HASTES        M.A*0
           ATR  ENHISSIONS              1101.1*4
           •ATCmORNE  IASTES            U0.401
           ROST-CONSuNEk SOL HASTE         S.0*«
           INCRSY  SOURCE RETROLEUN        «*.A»T
           ENEROr  SOURCE NAT OAS         ZSO.OA4
           ENERBT  SOURCE COAL            TJ.ATO
           CNERBT  SOURCE NUCL NTMR       it.ioi
           ENEROT  SOURCE MOD HASTE        !.»>*
NELANINE NCLI
PLATE PL»
RAV NAT NFO
10*0 use loot
0.000
0.100
100.320
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0.000
11.711
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
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1.043
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0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
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12.114
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2.334
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1000 USE 100
• .••0
1336.041
0.000
0.000
0.000
134. T30
58«.OS1
516.231
0.000
0.000
150.840
40.034
234.104
70.50*
15.760
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351.745
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414.322
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261.266
401.054
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.000 510.231
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.021 .4.407
.000 150.04*
.000 T3.0TO
.000 10.301
.000 1.434
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.000 365.44*
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1.000 227.102
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t.OOO 1305.750
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.022 2T6.640
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.000 4.05*
1.000 0.000
.000 .015
1.000 .007
1.000 .735
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t.OOO 0.000
.Oil 7.3.050
.000 «.*T3
.000 .010
.000 .013
.000 .ITT
.000 13.4T3
.000 . IB. 7*0
.000 25.420
.000 5.567
.000 .03*
.000 0.000
.000 .7*8
.000 .000
.000 0.000
.000 0.000
.000 0.000
.000 .000
.000 .000
.000 .154
.000 0.000
.000 .«S2
.000 2.**2
.000 .01*
D.OOO 3371.0*0
.021 3(5.330
.001 1*3.077
.000 2*. 4*6
1.210 11*5.1**
.011 (20.401
5.*** 5.9**
.021 44. AIT
0.000 250.04*
0.000 T3.0TO
0.000 16.301
0.000 1.434
0. 100.
. 100.
100.
100.
100.
. 100.
10*. 1*0.
. 100.
o. too.
0. 100.
0. 100.
0. 100.
                                                            129

-------
      TABLE  61
KSOUOCI AND CNHIRONMNTAL PROPlLf ANALYSIS
     one muioN PDLTITT roi* PL*TCI
INPUTS




























TO STSTEHS
NAM
•ATCRIAL COTTON
•ATCRIM. SULPATC IR1NC
•ATCRIAL »OOO PHCR
•ATCRIAL LINCSTONC
•AtCRIAL IRON ORC
•ATCRIAL SALT
•ITCRIAL OLASS SAM
•ATCRIAL NAT SODA ASH
•ATCRIAL PCLOSPAR
•ATCRIAL IAUIITC ORC
•ATCRIAL SULFUR
CNCROY SOURCE PCTROLCUN
CNCRIY SOURCE NAT IAS
CNCRtY SOUPCC COAL
CNCROY source "ISC
ENCMY SOURCE »ooo PIMR
CNCRIY SOURCE •YDROPOlCR
HATER I AL POTASH
•ATCRIAL PHOSPHATC ROCK
•ATCRIAL CLAY
•ATCRIAL GYPSUN
•ATCRIAL SILICA
•ATCRIAL PROCCSS ADO
CNCPOY PROCCSS
ENCROY TRANSPORT
CNCROY OP 'ATL RCSOUTCE
•ATER ASTCS PUCL CON*
SOLID >ASTC9 HlNINfi
SOLID >ASTC •OSt-CONSUN
AT»OSP"CRIC »CST1CIOC
ATMS .'ARTICULATES
ATMS NlTROUN 01 IOES
ATMS HYOROCiRIONS
ATMS SUL'U* OIIOCS
ATMS CAUION NOMXIOC
ATMS ALDEHYUCS
ATMOS OTHER ORdA>«ICS
ATMS OOOROUS SULPUR
ATMS AHMftIA
ATNOS HYOROOEN rLOuRlOC
ATMS LEAD
ATMS "IPCURY
ATMSP*C*IC CHLORINE
• ATC10RNC OIS SOLI3S
•ATEBIORNC PLUORIOCS
•ATCRIORNC OISS SOLIDS
•ATCRIORNC 100

•ATCRIORNC SULFIOCS
•ATCMORNC OIL
•ATCRIORNC COO
• ATEMORNC SUSP SOLIDS
•ATCRIORNC ACID
•ATCRtORNC NCTAL ION
•ATCR*O*NC CHEMICALS
•ATCRIORNC CVANIOC
•ATCMORxf ALKALINITY
•ATCMOMf CHRONIUN
UTIIRRORNC IRON
•ATCRIORNC ALUNINUN
•ATCRIORNC NICKEL
•ATCRIORNC NCRCURY
• ATCMORMC LCAO
•ITCRIORNC PMSPHATCS
•ATCRWPMf 21NC
•4TCRIORNC APHONIA
•ATeM3>1ie NITROICN
•ATCMOKMC PC5TICIDC
IY OP CmlRONNCNTAL IMPACTS
NANC
RAI NATCRIALS
ENCRIY
•ATCR
INDUSTRIAL SOLID (ASTCS
ATN CMUtSlOMS
•ATCRWMNC IASTCS
POST-CONSUINIR SOL »ASTE
CNCMT source PCTROLCUH
ENEMY source NAT us
CMCMT SOURCE COAL
CNCROY source NUCL HYP«R
ENCMY SOUKC MOO »ASTE
OP ENVIRONNCNTAL ["PACTS
•INC

RA« ASTCS
ATN EMISSIONS
•ATERIOPMC ASTC
EHCRIY SOURCE PETROLCUN
CNEROY SOURCE NAT IAS
ENEMY SOURCE COAL
ENCRIY source NUCL NYPM
ENEMY SOURCE >000 >ASTE
UNITS
POUM
POUNO
POUM
CUIIC PT
POUM
POUM
POUND
POUNO
POUM
POUNO
POUND
•OUM
•OUM
POUM
POuM
POUM
POUM
POUM
POUM
POUNO
POUM
POUNO
POUNO
POUM
POUM
POUM
POUM
•OUM
•OUNO
POUM
POUM
POUM
POUM
POUND
POUNO
POUNO
POUM
•OUM
POUNO
POUM
POUM
POUNO
POUNO

UNITS
POUMS
•IL ITU
THOU ML
CUIIC PT
ROUMS
POUNDS
CUIIC PT
•IL ITU
•IL ITU
•IL ITU
• IL ITU
•IL ITU

STANDARD
YALUCS
4IIT.M
1479.21
101.59
19. tl
4911. IT
409.11
4512.91
715.71
502.17
140.0*
19.41
11.07
PXTSTT
•CSIN 1*

IMU LI
o.ot
0.0»
>.••
9.11
0.0*
o.»o
t.ot
0.00
0.00
t.lt
0.00
4«t.lT
••4.51
IZ.»1
S.ll
0.00
e.oi
O.It
0.01
1.00
1.00
e.ot
Illt.Tl
1T».3J
17. IT
**I.M
II. 1A
1I«I.I«
I».AO
11*. I*
o.«»
0.00
M.»I
J)«.«l
«n.*
2A.S4
.»
0.11
.at
.4*
l.ll
1.00
.01
I.Tt
• 0.2*
l.ll
1.34
.11
.01
0.00
.01
0.01
.01
.11
0.00
l.ll
1.10
l.ll
.01
.00
.01
.0*
.11
.11
.11
.11
0.11
l.ll
l.ll
l.ll
0.01
1.01
l.ll
1.00
l.ll
l.ll
l.ll
1.01
0.01
0.11
It. II
.11
.11
S4.M
1.44
l.ll
.14
It. 11
.14
.11
l.ll
I.I
1.
.
.
1.
.
1.
.
9.
.
.
1.
POLTSTT
rOA«
PLATC
•rt
.01
.00
.00
.01
.00
.01
.11
.01
.00
.00
.01
« .»3
• .11
11 .«»
1 .§»
.00
.01
.00
.11
.00
.10
.00
.00
114. SA
0.01
0.00
l.O
AIO.OO
411. 1A
1411.71
0.00
1.01
111.10
111.11
191. «l
5T»,T»
IS. II
.11
.SI
0.10
0.00
0.00
0.00
.11
• .00
0.00
0.10
11. »»
.01
.01
.01
.01
.11
.11
11.14
1.0*
0.01
0.01
0.01
0.10
o.to
0.01
0.11
0.00
0.01
0.01
• .00
0.00
0.01
l.ll
tlt.SA
3.A1
17.11
I127.lt
SI. 11
l.ll
41.4]
41.11
10S.44
11.14
l.ll
I.I
14. t
1.4
51.7
17.1
1.7
0.0
5.5
1.7
TS.l
11. 1
l.l
POLTS7T
POAN
PLATC
PHI
.00
.00
151 .20
.00
.00
.01
.00
.00
.01
.01
.01
1 .21
1 .47
1 .70
.1*
1 .07
.00
.00
.00
.01
.01
.11
111. 10
»4. Al
.79
1.01
I.JO
141. »«
171. •»
170.01
1.00
0.00
141.01
44.57
54.21
210.17
11.11
.11
»».!»
0.00
.04
0.00
.01
.01
0.01
0.01
0.00
11.12
71. «1
.01
.01
.01
.*«
14.41
2.09
.51
2.74
0.01
0.01
0.00
0.00
0.01
0.01
0.01
0.00
0.01
0.01
1.01
t.ot
2770.50
74. IS
2.51
1.01
5tS.lt
IM.lt
l.ll
l».2l
21.97
11.71
.It
11.17
47. »
5.1
2.5
11.5
11.7
12.4
O.I
1.4
4.4
1.1
1.1
101.0
POLT1TY POLT1TT POLTSTT
POAN POAN
PLATC PLATI
TRAM . PCSD
0.01
.01
.01
.01
.01
.01
.00
.01
.01
.00
.01
1 .1* 1
.51
.00
.01
.00
.00
.00
.01
.00
.00
.00
.01
.01
1 .11 1
.01
.OA
POAN
PLATC
STS TOT
.00 l.ll
.10 0.00
.00 2919.20
.00 0.01
.00 .00
.00 .00
.00 .00
.00 .00
.00 .00
.00 .00
.00 .00
.94 715.71
.00 Sit. 17
.00 140.09
.00 29.42
.00 11.07
.00 .00
.00 .00
.00 .00
.00 .00
.00 .01
.00 .00
.00 I9TI.02
.00 .410.41
.94 142.91
.00 479.90
.01 101.55
0.00 0.01 1151.10
?0.11
0.01
0.01 451
0.00
10.45
211.11 1
IS.!* 1
15.64
119. «0 29
2.15
5.11 1
0.00
.11
0.00
.21
0.00
0.00
0.01
0.00
41.11 1
.11
.04
.05
.04
.44
.11
.01
.01
1.01
0.01
0.01
0.01
0.01
0.01
0.11
0.00
0.01
I'. 90
0.90
0.01
0.00
0.11
19.11 3
5.04
.IT
525.01 11
44.44 1
0.00 4M
17.79 :
1.91
9.91
0.90
0.01
1.0
t.l
9.
,
10.
T.
0.
11.
.5
O.I
O.I
O.I
l.ll 177.77
1.00 2!2«.]T
r.52 4512.92
1.00 0.00
1.52 145.24
S.ll 191.44
S.«l 1410.11
1.71 1152.92
1.24 917.71
I.IT 7.119
9.19 54.9]
9.00 0.00
.09 .51
9.00 0.00
.49 .4]
9.00 .91
9.00 0.00
9.90 0.00
0.00 0.00
7.11 155.74
.09 90.19
.02 .12
.02 .15
.02 1.50
.19 41.11
.12 11.19
.04 41.44
.01 10.41
9.90 2.74
.00 ' 0.00
.00 0.00
.00 0.00
.00 0.00
.00 0.00
.00 0.00
.00 0.00
.00 0.00
.00 0.11
.00 .49
.00 9.00
.00 0.90
9.00 4017.21
1.54 1479.11
2.01 191.59
.11 49.41
11.74 4411.17
1.14 404.30
1.52 49*2.32
1.94 715.71
9.90 511.17
0.10 140,14
0.11 29.42
l.ll 11.17
I.I 111.
.2.1 111.
2.1 100.
.2 111.
1.1 111.
1.0 101.
00.0 110.
.1 101.
.0 101.
.1 101.
.0 111.
.0 111.
            130

-------
                                                      TABLE  62
                                           •C30UIICC AND ENVIRONMENTAL PROFILE  ANALYSIS

                                                 MIL 9IN HHU PLATES

                                                            CONVWT
                                                  •••ID
                                                  IVSTtN
                                                  till* Lb
•Of
IMS
110 L*
eoMua
94« LI
                                                                                         DISPOSAL   T»»HI»0«
INPUTS TO JVITC'S
NA«E
MATERIAL COTTON
MATERIAL 1ULFATE ttHINE
MATERIAL .000 FIBEU
MATERIAL Ll"t STONE
MATERIAL IXON OUT
MATERIAL SALT
MATERIAL oLASS SANU
MATERIAL NAT SOOA ASH
MATERIAL FELDSPAR
MATERIAL DAU>ITt OKI
MATERIAL SULFUR
CN(R6r SOURCt PC TSOLEU"
ENEROT SOUHCE NAT GAS
ENERGY SUUMCt COAL
ENEBGT SOUNCt MISC
ENERGY SOUKCt >OOD FlnER
ENERGY 90U«CE NYOROPO«ER
MATERIAL POTOS*
MATERIAL BlOSPHATE »OC«
"ATFRIAL CLAY
MATERIAL bvcsUM
MATERIAL >IL1CA
MATERIAL PROCESS ADD
ENERGY SUCCESS
ENE°GY THANSPUHT
ENERGY OF «ATL RESOURCE
MITER VIILU"*'
OUTPUTS F*0« SYSTF-b
N»E
SOL 10 »ASTES PUOCESS
siLio .ASUS FUEL COMR
SOLID .AST! POST-CONSUM
AT«OS»«E*IC PESTICIDE
ATMGS PA»TKULATES
AT-OS NIT-OGcN Oil )ES
AT»OS -Yu-uc«i*80Ns
AT-DS SUL»O» oil"l*
ATMOS CAHbUN -.ON01IUE
ATMOS ALOt-"Y1ES
AT«OS OTMl- OMOANIC--
ATHOS DOU-3U* SULFU- .
AT«OS AMMONIA
. ATMOS KTI.IMUGCN FLWHIPE
AT«OS LEAu
ATfc-05 rtEwLUSY
AT-insPHC'lC CNLOMIME
«ATERRORut OIS SOLIDS
•ATE'BOMNE FLUOBIuES
>ITER*0»I.E uliS SOLID*
«4TF.RBO»Nl dO')
•ATCRHOKnt buLMOES
•ATEBBORNE OIL
• ATER«OP<«t COil
• ATEB'Okli SUSP SOLIDS
•ATERBORxE >C!0
«ITCRP.OWNt; »tt*L 1UN
• fTERROBMe CiE»ICAL<>
•ATERRORNi CTANIOE
• ATEP-*0«i»t ALHALIMTV
• ATEf^OMNE C"(«0**lu«
• ATERROHNt IMUN
MATEBRObN^ ALUMINUM
•ATERrtOxNt MJCPEL
•ATERHOkNt M&RCURY
•ATERROwNC LfcAO
•ATF'xOUNt PHOSPHATES
•ATERHOXNt ZINC
• ATERHORNE A<*«tQNIA
«S.»M
0.000
0.000
o.ooo
o.ooo
0.000
0« 000
Z1Z3.I3'
6»9. »l»
4.460
0.080
7RS.626

4414.331
1TT3.*00
0.000
0.000
Z1I.3SO
riT.OM
210.611
461.0*5
es.«o4
.5«3
1.4TO
11. tH
.tit
0.000
.097
.00'
1S.41A
0.000
o.ooo
*0.t«5
45. Tit
• ooi
.010
.011
.00
110.601 '
17.504
.013
.000
.000
.000
.000
.000
.000
.000
.000
.007
.000
.000
.000
.000
.000


0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
3.070
3.906
«.3«6
2.124
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
l«.t*t
0.000
0.000


20.000
55.260
0.000
0.000
11.700
20.140
7.120
51.660
2.520
.014
.045
o.ooo
o.ooo
0.000
o.ooo
.001
0.000
0.000
0.000
1.113
.001
• 001
.001
.001
.012
.007
l.««2
.Til
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.0*0
o.ooo
o.oto
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000


0.000 I
0.000
0.000 *M
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
.9?e
3.9*3
.5<>5
.135
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
3.190 »
2.11* 1
.160
3.112


1.005 6
3.502 4
0.000
0.000
.1T2 3
2.»«T 1
6.561
3.5" 5
.539
.004
.008
0.000
.000
0.000
.000
.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
.T1S
.03? 1
.000
.000
.00*
.24*
.074
.113
.04*
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000


.000
.000
.665
.000
.000
.000
.000
.000
.000
.000
.000
.334
.740
.614
.000
.531
.000
.000
.000
.000
.000
i.150
i.135
.0*5
1.000


3.315
'.
                                                                                                                          0.000
                                                                                                                          0.000
                                                                                                                          0.000
                                                                                                                          0.000
                                                                                                                          0.000
                                                                                                                          0.000
                                                                                                                       ?19>.4t4
                                                                                                                        TA6.6A0
                                                                                                                         30.322
                                                                                                                          3.1U
                                                                                                                         3*7.710
                                                                                                                           0.000
                                                                                                                         ?T2.2?1
                                                                                                                         391. «?4
                                                                                                                         273. TAO
                                                                                                                         7«2.303
                                                                                                                         251.422
                                                                                                                            .1??
                                                                                                                           0.000
                                                                                                                            .340
                                                                                                                            .00*
                                                                                                                          15.. I.
                                                                                                                           0.000
                                                                                                                           0.000
                                                                                                                          92.537
                                                                                                                         115.11]
                                                                                                                            .0?
                                                                                                                            .03
                                                                                                                            .04
                                                                                                                            .54
                                                                                                                         124.79
                                                                                                                           3. M
                                                                                                                            .71
                                                                                                                            .000
                                                                                                                            .000
                                                                                                                            .000
                                                                                                                            .000
                                                                                                                            .000
                                                                                                                            .000
                                                                                                                            .000
                                                                                                                            .007
                                                                                                                           0.000
                                                                                                                           0.000
                                                                                                                           0.000
                                                                                                                           0.000
                                                                                                                           0.000
SUMMARY OF ENVIUONMtNTAL  IMPACTS
          NAME
          HA. MATERIALS
          ENEUOT
          • ATFR
          INDUSTRIAL  iOLIO 4ASTES
          ATM EMMISSIONS
          • ATFRBDIiNE  .ASTES
          PDST'CONSUMER SOL lAITC
          ENEBOY SOUUCt PET90LEUM
          ENEROf SOUMCC NAT HAS
          CNCROr SOU-CC COAL
          ENEROV SOURCE NUCL MY«»B
          ENERGY iOUMCE nOOO .A5TE

INOO OF ENVIRONMENTAL  IMPACTS
          NAME
          RAH MATERIALS
          ENERGY
          • >TER
          INDUSTRIAL  SOLID  .ASTES
          ATM EMMISSIONS
          • AH»BO»Nt  .ASTES
          POST-CONSUME"  SOL "ASTE
          TNCRCT SOURCE  PETROLEUM
          rNERGY SOuBCE  NAT GAS
          ENERGY SOUMCC  COAL
          ENERGY SOURCE  NUCL HYPIR
          ENERGY SOURCE  DODO »>STE
POUNDS
MIL «TU
TMOU GAL
CUBIC FT
BOUN05
POUNDS
CUHIC FT
Mil BTU
MIL ITU
Mtt STU
MIL BTU
MIL ITU
STANDARD
VALUES
2T346.SI5
T4(.12t
?BB.6S9
9T.T«2
2031. 4TT
363. (IT
367.730
131.026
191.612
161.191
10.601
»1.510
26611. 5B<
6T4.5«(
2B5.62I
52.471
1509. B0<
305.761
0.00
10.401
103.03:
140.741
0.341
245.471


9T.
90.
99.
94.
T4.
•4.
0.
67.
94.
11.
IS.
9T.
0.001
19.t9<
.101
1.04
94.22
4. 74
0.00
3.0T
1.901
9.39<
2.121
0.00


0.
I.
.
3.
4.
1.
0.
1.
I.
5.
20.
1 0.
1.190
5.611
t .464
.21T
14.159
1.308
0.000
.9(1
t 1.951
t .599
.115
0.000


.0
T
2
2
T
4
0 0
T
2 0
4
1 1
0 0
724.815
15.220
.100
1.911
126.911
14.T94
0.000
4.11*
1.740
1.614
0.000
5.511


2.T
2.
t
2.
6.
9.
0.
1.
1.4
1.6
0.0
2.2
1 0.000
T.MT
.4«(
.026
111.019
4.297
367.73*
T.I5T
o.ooo
0.000
o.ooo
o.ooo


0.0
1.1
.2
.0
6.5
1.
100.
6.
0.
0.
0.
0.
0.000
25.551
1.4T2
.0)0
155.136
12.961
0.000
21.593
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000


0.
3.

t
T,
3.
0.
19.
0.
0.
0.
0.
                                                 M346.5AS
                                                   T4I.U2
                                                   zee.655
                                                    "7.T4J
                                                  2031.»7T
                                                   341.OCT
                                                   14T.T10
                                                   131.0?*
                                                   191.61>
                                                   161.3«1
                                                    10.602
                                                   251.510
                                                     100.
                                                     100.
                                                     100.
                                                     100.
                                                     100.
                                                     100.
                                                     100.
                                                     100.
                                                     100.
                                                     100.
                                                     100.0
                                                     100.0
                                                          131

-------
                              APPENDIX A A

              RESOURCE AND ENVIRONMENTAL PROFILE ANALYSIS
          The following sets of appendices present the basic raw data used
to develop the resource and environmental profile analysis of the disposables
and reusables within the basic categories: towels, napkins, diapers, bedding,
drinking containers and plates*

          Appendix BBdiscusses the basic fuel factors used in this study and
identifies the impacts associated with the combustion of a unit quantity of
fuel, and the impacts for generating and delivering electric energy. The
impacts associated with the various modes of transportation are also in-
cluded.

          Appendix CCdiscusses the disposable systems: paper towels, paper
napkins (home and commercial), disposable diapers, nonwoven sheets, cold
drink containers (paper and thennoformed polystyrene), hot drink containers
(paper and foam polystyrene), and plates (paper and foam polystyrene).

          Appendix DDdiscusses the reusable systems: cotton cloth towels,
cloth napkins (home and commercial), cotton cloth diapers, cotton and
polyester sheets, glass and polypropylene tumblers, ceramic and melamine
hot cups, and ceramic and melamine plates.

          In Appendices 3>b and EE,the subsystems and processes of each sys-
tem are enumerated. Also, the environmental impacts associated with 1,000
pounds or specified unit (e.g., 1,000 sheets, 1 million drinking containers)
of each process are presented.

          Appendix FFpresents computer tables showing the total impacts
of each system and process.
                                   A-l

-------
                              APPENDIX BB

                          BASIC FUEL FACTORS
          This section contains data and information used to convert raw
fuel and electric energy input values into corresponding environmental
impact parameters* The basic factors are discussed in three sections:

          1* Mobile and Stationary Sources;

          2. Electric Energy; and

          3. Transportation*


I, Mobile and Stationary Sources

          A set of atmospheric emission factors resulting from the combus-
tion of fuels has been developed by the authors of this report in coopera-
tion with staff in the Physical Sciences Division of Midwest Research
Institute (MRI). They are reported in Table B-l. These data represent both
a comprehensive literature search and data collected from a nationwide
telephone survey* The primary source was Reference 6, but numerous other
literature sources were also used* The factors represent national average
emissions after pollution controls have been applied. They are representa-
tive of projections of levels which were experienced in 1975.

          The total impacts associated with using a given quantity of a
fuel are composed of: (1) precombustion impacts and  (2) combustion impacts.
Precombustion impacts refer to the resource and environmental impacts as-
sociated with extracting, refining and shipping the fuel to its location
of use. Combustion impacts represent the energy content of the fuel plus
the environmental pollutants (atmospheric emissions) discharged upon com-
bustion of the fuel. The sum of the precombustion and combustion impacts
are identified as "secondary impacts," and represent the basic fuel impact
factors associated with burning fossil fuels*

          Table B-l contains the basic fuel factors for 12 energy resources,
Tables B-2 and B-3 contain the precombustion impacts for natural gas and
refined fuels*
                                  B-l

-------
  TABLE B-l





FUEL FACTORS




lnergy-106 Btu
Solid V**t«* - Ib
P*rttcul*t*it
Nitrogen Oxide*
Hydrocarbon*
Sulfur O.ildei
C*rboo Honoilde
Aldehyde*
Other Organic*
Ajmonl*
Lead
Total Attucpbarlc
Uaterborne Waite* - tb
01**olv*d Solid* (oil
. - b
1 Other
fO Total Uaterborn*
Caao
Pra-
coaAuatlon
19.9
16.2
Ib
4.2
14.7
54.1
11.7
II. 1
0.4
0.5
0.4
0.001
117.5

(laid
rlna) 80. »
1.1
•4.0
In. (IOUO (.

Coronation
125.0

11.0
120.0
103.0
6.0
1010.0
12.0
44.0

1.0
1454.0





(1000 gal.)
Raaldual Oil Induatrla
Pra-

tncraj - 106 8tu
Solid Vaatea - Ib
AtHoapnarlc Kailaalona '
Partlculataa
tlltrosan Oxldca
ttydrocarbona
• Sulfur Oildaa
Carbon Monoxlda
llocbrdae'
Debar Organlca
jBBaonla
Load
Total ataoaplicrlc
Vaterboroe Ifaatea - Ib
Olaaolvad Sollda (oil
conbuatlon
19.9
36.2
Ib
4.2
14.7
54.1
11.7
11.1
0.4
0.5
0.4
0.001
117.5

(laid
Coabuatlon
150.0


23.0
72.0
3.0
250.0
4.0
1.0



351.0


brlna) 10.9
Acid
Hlial loo
Oihar
0.2
O.I
o.a
14.0



• > Dla.ul (1000 aal)

Pra-
Total cowbuatlon
144.
16.
15.
154.
157.
17.
1041.
12.
44.
0.
1.
1466.5


•0.9
3.1
•4.0


Total c
169.9
36.2

27.2
106.7
97.1
2B1.7
19.1
1.4
0.9
0.4
0.001
490.9


•0.9
0.2
0.1
•4.0
19.9
16.2
4.2
34.7
34.1
11.7
II. 1
0.4
0.5
0.4
0.001
137.5


•0.9
1.1
•4.0

Coabuatlon
119.0

11.0
170.0
17.0
27.0
225.0
1.0
1.0


678.0






Total
158.9
36.2
17.2
404.7
9 .1
5 .7
21 .1
.4
.5
0.4
0.001
115.5


•0.9
1.1
•4.0
(1000 gal.)

o-buat.on
19.9
16.2

4.2
14.7
94.1
11.7
11.1
0.4
0.5
0.4
0.001
117.5


80.9
0.2
0.1
2. A
84.0
Pta-
Coaa>iition
146.0


8.0
105.0
2.0
254.0
1.0
1.0



171.0







Total
167.
16.

12.
119.
56.
285.
14.
1.
0.5
0.4
0.001
110.9


•0.9
0.2
0.1
2.8
•4.0

Pra-
coajmatlon
19.9
16.2
4.2
34.7
54.3
11.7
11.1
0.4
0.5
0.4
0.001
137.5


•0.9
1.1
•4.0

Coa*uatlon
150.0

21.0
105.0
5.0
102.0
130.0
10.0



575.0






Total
169.9
16.2
27.2
119.7
59.1
111.7
141.1
10.4
0.5
0.4
0.001
712.5


•0.9
1.1
•4.0
(1000 J.I.)
Pra-
co«buatlon
19.9
16.2

4.2
14.7
54.1
31.7
II. 1
0.4
0.5
0.4
0.001
117.5


•0.9
0.2
0.1
2. a
•4.0

CoaJmatlon
139.0


15.0
72.0
1.0
142.0
4.0
2.0



21*. 0







Total
151.9
M.2

19.2
106.7
57.1
173.7
15.1
2.4
0.5
0.4
0.001
175.5


•0.9
0.2
O.I
2.8
84.0
(1000 it1)
Pra-
coabuatlon
0.056

0.001
0.157
1.024
O.OI2
0.104




1.9


0.19

0.19

Pra-
coafauatluo
0.2
190.0

2.0
0.9
0.5
1.5
2.5
0.01
0.02


7.0



2.0
0.5
0.5
1.0

Coabuatlon Total
1.01 1.086

0.003
6.0 6.157
0.8 1.824
0.012
1.6 1.704




8. 4 9.9


0.19

0.19


Coabuatloo Total
11.1 13.1
31.0 221.0

21.0 21.0
9.0 9.5
0.5 1.0
42.0 41.5
1.0 1.5
0.001 0.011
0.02


71.5 80.5



2.O
0.5
0.5
1.0
(1000
Pra-


coafcuatlon CoaaViatlc
0.056

0.001
0.197
1.024
0.012
0.104




1.9


0.19

0.19

Pra-
co»buatlon Ct
0.2
190.0

2.
0.
0.
1.
2.
0.01
0.02


7.0



2.0
0.9
0.5
1.0
1.01

0.018
0.214
O.O01

0.020
0.002
0.005


0.1







aabuatl
11.1
69.0

11.0
9.0
0.15
55.0
0.5
0.003



75.7








S Total
1.086

0.021
0.571
1.027
0.012
0.124
0.002
0.005


l.B


0.19

0.19
000 Ib)

>n Total
13.3
259.0

11.0
9.3
0.69
56.5
3.0
0.013
0.02


•2.7



2.0
0.5
0.3
3.0
(1000 It')
PTa-
coafcuatloo
0.036

0.003
0.357
1.024
0.012
0.104




1.5


0.19

0.19
Plaaal U
Pra-
coofcjatlo.
19.9
36.2

4.2
14.7
54.3
31.7
11.3
0.4
0.5
0.4
0.001
117.5


•0.9
0.2
0.1
2.8
84.0

Compilation Total
1.03 1.014

0.013 0.011
0.60O 0.957
0.001 1.024
0.012
0.017 0.121
0.001 0.001
0.003 0.001


0.6 2.1


0.19

0.19
»co«otl»« 11000 I.I)

Co-fau.tlon Total
119.0 131.
16.

13.0 29.
170.0 404.
94.0 HI.
57.0 18.
110.0 141.
5.5 5.
7.0 7.
0.4
0.001
68*. 5 (26.0


80.9
0.1
O.I
2.1
84.0

-------
TABLE B-l (concluded)

    FUEL FACTORS
  (in metric units)




*».„ - 10« ,
Solid Heetee - kg
AtMoepnerlc oerieetooe - kg
•ertlculetee
nitrogen Oxloee
Rrdroeerbone
Sulfur Oitdee
Cerbon Hono»toe
Aldchrdee
Other Orienlee
AeMjonle
Leed
Total Araoephertc
, Ueterborne Veetee - kg
^ Dleeolveil Satlde
(oil field brine)
Other
Totel Veterborne



Inerg, - I0» J
Solid Veetee - kg
Atex>epb«rle endeetone - kg
Perttculetee
nitrogen Oxlaee
Hjdrocerbooe
Sulfur 0»ld..
Cerbon Honoeldo
Aldebrdee
Other Orgenlee
Avnonte
lead
Totel Atpnepherte
Veterborne Veetee - kg
Dleeotved Sollde
(oil field brine)
Acid
Her el lone
Other
Totel Veterbomo
Source* nidweit geteercb 1
5"
Pre-
coabuetton
3.5
4.3

0.3
4.2
6.5
3.8
1.4
0.05
O.I
0.05 '
0.000*
16. 6004


9.3
I.I
10.4
Reelduol
Pr«-
eontxietlon.
J.
4.

0.
4.
t.
3.
1.4
0.03
O.I
0.03
0.0004
1C. 6004


9.)


I.I
10.4
netlcut*.
olloe (1.000 1>

Cononetlon
34.8


1.)
14.4
12.
0.
123.
1.
3.

0.4
139.2





(1.000 <)
(HI Induet.

taHi.lra
41.9


2.8
8.1
0.4
JO.O
0.3
O.I



42.4









Totel
40.3
4.1

1.8
18.6
18.8
4.3
124.8
1.43
5.4
0.05
0.4004
175.8004


9.3
I.I
10.4


IUH I
47.3
4.3

3.
12.
i.
)).
1.
0.15
O.I
0.05
0.000*
39.0004


9.3


I.I
10.4

Dleeel (1.000 f>
Pre-
oefcuetlon
5.5
4.3

0.3
4.2
6.5
3.8
1.6
0.05
O.I
0.05
o.ono*
16.6004


9.)
I.I
10.4

Pre-
.oefcuetlOB
.3
.)

.3
.2
.3
.9
.4
0.05
O.I
0.03
O.0004
It. 4004


9.3


I.I
10.4


Coabuetlon
38.7


l.t
44.
4.
3.
27.
0.
0.


81.)





(1.000 1)

£ojJj|Uloo,
41.2


1.0
12. t
0.2
30.4
0.4
O.I



44.7









Totel ._
44.2
4.)

2.1
48.3
10.9
7.0
28.4
0.43
0.3
0.03
0.0004
97.9004


9.)
I.I
10.4


Jttsl e
44.7
4.3

1.5
16.8
6.7
34.2
1.8
0.15
O.I
0.03
0.0004
61.3004


9.3


I.I
10.4

foel Oil Nobble Source
Pro-
jection Co»buetlon
5.3 41.8
4.)

0.3 2.
4.2 12.
4.3 0.
3.8 36.
1.4 13.
0.03 1 .
O.I
0.05
O.O004
16.6004 69.0


9.3
I.I
10.4
(1.000 i)
Pre-
MaVuetloft Coabuitlon
3. 38.7
4.

0. l.t
4. 8.6
t. 0.4
3. II. 0
1. 0.3
0.03 0.2
O.I
0.03
0.0004
16.4004 28.5


9.3


I.I
10.4

i.oooh

Totel
47.
4.


1 .

4 .
1 .
.2)
O.I
0.03
O.OOO*
•5.6004


9.3
I.I
IO.4


iciil
44.2
4.3

2.
12.
t.
20.
1.
0.23
O.I
0.03
0.0004
45.1004


9.3


I.I
10.4

(I.OOO cu e»
Pr.-
coehmtioo
2.1


0.03
S.I
16.6
0.2
I.I




24.03


3.0

3.0

Pre-
coabuetloo.
0.47
190.0

7.0
0.3
0.3
1.5
2.3
0.01
0.02


7.0)



2.0
0.3
0.3
3.0


Coefcuetlon Totel
38.4 40.3 •


0.03
96.1 101.8
12.8 29.2
0.2
25.6 27.)




134.5 159.53


).0

1.0
(1.000 t)

Cortuetlon Totel
>0.3 31.0
31.0 221.0

21.0 11.0
9.0 9.3
0.3 1.0
42.0 43.9
1.0 3.3
0.002 0.012
0.02


73.302 80.3)2



2.0
0.3
0.3
'3.0

(1.000 cu •)
Netofel Gee Industrie!
Pre-
coafaiietlco
2.1


0.03
3.1
It. 4
0.2
1.7




24.03


3.0

3.0
Coel Otlll
Pre-
confcqetlon
0.49
190.0

2.0
0.3
0.3
1.3
2.9
0.01
0.02


7.03



2.0
0.3
0.3
3.0


Conbuetlon
38.6


0.)
).4
0.05

0.)
0.03
0.08


4.16





Heetlot

totel
40.3


0.35
9.1
It. 45
0.2
2.0
0.03
0.08


28.21


3.0

3.0
tv Beet (1.000 kel

Cojenetlon
30.3
t9.0

II. 0
9.0
0.2
35.0
0.)
0.002



73.702









Totel
31.0
239.0

13.0
9.5
0.7
54.5
3.0
0.012
0.02


82.7)2



2.0
0.5
0.3
3.0

Heruret

confaoetton
2.1


0.05
3.7 •
It. 4
0.2
I.I




24.05


3.0

).o
DUeel L
Pro-
confcttetlon
5.
4.

0.
4.
t.
).
1.
0.05
O.I
0.05
0.0004
16.6004


9.)


I.I
10.4

(1.000 cu «)
Cee Dtllltt Heetlm

Cnetoetlon
38.4


0.2
9.t
0.02

0.)
0.02
0.03


10.19





oceontln (1.

Co«huetlo|i
39.7


3.
44.
11.
t.
13.
0.
0.


82.5









Tolel
40.5


0.25
15.3
It. 42
0.2
2.0
0.02
0.03


34.24


3.0

).o


*"*'
44.2
4.3

3.
48.
II.
10.
17.
0. 3
0.9
0.03
0.0004
99.1004


9.)


1.1
10.4


-------
                             TABLE B-2

  PRECCMBUSTION ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACTS RESULTING FRCM PRODUCTICN
        AND PROCESSING OF 1,000 CUBIC FEET OF NATURAL GAS
                                                         Total
Impact Category             Production   Processing   Precombustion

Energy - 10° Btu              0.021         0.035         0.056
Atmopsheric emissions - Ib
  Particulates                0.002         0.001         0.003
  Nitrogen oxides             0.119         0.238         0.357
  Hydrocarbons                0.495         0.529         1.024
  Sulfur oxides               0.010         0.002         0.012
  Carbon monoxide             0.038         0.066         0.104

    Total atmopsheric         0.66          0.84          1.50

Waterborne wastes - Ib
  Dissolved solids
    (oil field brine)         0.184         0.007         0.19
Source: Midwest Research Institute.
                               B-4

-------
                               TABLE  B-3

   PRECCMBUSTION ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACTS RESULTING FROM PRODUCTION,
          REFINING AND DELIVERY OF 1,000  GALLONS OF LIQUID
                          HYDROCARBON FUEL

Impact Category
Energy - 106 Btu
Solid wastes - Ib
Process •
Fuel combustion
Mining
Total
Atmospheric emissions - Ib
Particulate
Nitrogen oxides
Hydrocarbon
Sulfur oxide
Carbon monoxide
Aldehydes
Other organic s
Ammonia
Lead
Total atmospheric
Waterborne wastes - Ib
Dissolved solids (oil
field brine)
Suspended solids
BOD
COD
Phenol
Sulfide
Oil
Acid
Metal ion
Total waterborne
Production
1.4
4.2
2.6
3.9
10.7
0.34
3.02
10.83
2.14
1.63
0.04
0.01
__
18.0
77.33
--
--
.-
..
..
0.04
0.01
77.4
Refining
17.5
—
10.2
15.2
25.4
3.82
27.16
42.16
29.12
7.75
0.38
0.43
0.42
__
111.2
3.23
0.63
0.36
1.12
0.10
0.13
0.21
0.15
0.04
6.0
Transportation
1.0
--
0.06
""
0.06
0.07
4.53
1.34
0.48
1.92
0.02
0.01
0.003
8.4
0.31
--
.-
__
-.
--
..
.""
0.3
Total
19.9
4.2
12.9
19.1
36.2
4.2
34.7
54.3
31.7
11.3
• 0.4
0.5
0.4
0.0
137.6
80.9
0.6
0.4
1.1
0.1
0.1
0.2
0.2
0.1
84.0
Source:  Midwest Research Institute.

                                   B-5

-------
II, Electric Energy

          The environmental impacts associated with use of electrical energy
are summarized in Table B-4. The impacts were calculated on the basis of a
composite kilowatt-hour (kw-hr). A composite kilowatt-hour is defined as 1
kilowatt-hour generated by the U.S. national average mix of fossil fuels
and hydroelectric power. Data were obtained from the Edison Electric Insti-
tute for 1974 (Reference 84).

          Hydropower was assigned an energy equivalent of 3,413 Btu per
kilowatt-hour and nuclear energy was assigned an energy equivalent of
21,330 Btu per kilowatt-hour. The amounts of fuel required are the total
1974 U.S. fuel requirements for electric utilities, divided by the total
number of kilowatt-hours sold to customers. Impact factors from Table B-l
were combined with the fuel quantities to arrive at the impact values in
Table B-4.
III. Transportation

          Environmental impacts occur when goods are transported as a
result of the consumption of fossil fuels to provide the necessary energy.
In this study, the modes of transportation included are rail, truck, pipe-
line, and barge. These impacts were calculated by determining the kinds
and amounts of fuels used by each mode on a national average basis. Impacts
were then calculated for 1,000 ton-miles by mode.

     A. Rail

          A complete set of fuel consumption data indicates that diesel
fuel accounted for 98 percent of the energy expended by railroads in 1968
(Reference 85). We assumed that 100 percent of the energy was supplied by
diesel fuel and that 5.63 x lO^ gtu of fuel were used. This fuel use re-
sulted in 7.68 x 10^- ton-miles of transportation (Reference 86). The cor-
responding fuel consumption was 5.25 gallons per 1,000 ton-miles. This
value was combined with information in Table B-l to yield the impacts pre-
sented in Table B-5.

     B. Truck
                                       Q
          In 1967, a total of 9.29 x 10  miles were traveled by trucks
engaged in intercity highway hauling. This resulted in 1.10 x 10   ton-
miles of transportation (Reference 87). It is estimated that 35 percent
of these miles were traveled by gasoline engine trucks while 65 percent
were traveled by diesel-fueled trucks (Reference 85). National average
fuel mileage data are not available, but a reasonable assumption based on
actual experience is that this type of truck travel results in fuel con-
sumption rates of about 5 miles per gallon for either type of fuel. Thus,

                                   B-6

-------
                                       TABLE B-4

             ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACTS RESULTING FROM GENERATION AND DELIVERY OF
                   1,000 COMPOSITE KILOWATT-HOURS OF ELECTRICITY, 1972

Impact Category

Quantity 0
Percent of Btu
Impacts
Energy - 10 6 BtuS/
Solid wastes - Ib
Mining
Fuel combustion
Atmospheric emissions -• Ib
Particulates
Nitrogen oxides
Hydrocarbons
Sulfur oxides
Carbon monoxide
Other
Total atmospheric
Water borne wastes - Ib
Acid
Metal ion
Other
Total water borne
Coal
_ /
.23- ton 13
48.7

5.22

83.6
30.4

5.7
4.2
0.3
24.9
1.3
0.01
36.4

0.96
0.24
0.20
1.4
Source: Midwest Research Institute.
ill These values were derived fromi Monthly
Oil

.1— gal.
20.1

2.15

-
0.3

0.2
1.6
0.6
3.7
0.1
0.03
6.3

0.06
0.01
0.60
0.7-
Energy Review.
Natural gasa'
_ /
1,999-' cu ft
20.2

2.17

-
-

0.6
5.5
3.5
0.1

0.01
9.2

0.58
0.11
0.59
1.3
Federal Energy
Other Total


1 1 .0 100

1.18 10.72

83.6
30.7

6.5
11.3
4.4
28.7
1.4
	 0.05
52.0

1.6
0.4
	 1.4
3.4

Administration, August 1975.

-------
                              TABLE B-5

     FUEL  CONSUMPTION AND ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACTS RESULTING FROM
           1,000 TON-MILES OF TRANSPORTATION BY EACH MODE

Impact Category
Fuel
Gasoline - gal.
Diesel - gal.
Fuel oil - gal.
Natural gas - cu ft
Energy - 106 Btu
Solid wastes (fuel
combustion) - Ib
Atmospheric emissions - Ib
Particulates
Nitrogen oxides
Hydrocarbon
Sulfur oxides
Carbon monoxide
Aldehydes
Other organics
Ammonia
Lead
Total atmospheric
Waterborne wastes - Ib
Dissolved solids (oil
field brine)
COD
Acid
Metal ion
Other
Total waterborne
Rail


5.3


0.8

0.13

0.17
2.05
0.72
0.46
0.45
0.03
0.04

.
3.9


0.394
0.004
0.001

0.005
0.40
Truck

5.9
10.9


2.5

0.40

0.32
5.08
1.73
0.83
8.66
0.12
0.07

0.02
16.8


1.260
0.013
0.003
0.001
0.016
1.29
Barge


1.4
6.1

1.2

0.18

0.21
1.31
0.41
2.11
1.17
0.07
0.01

.
5.3


0.562
0.006
0.001

0.008
0.57
Pipeline




670
0.7



0.01
5.09
1.47
0.01
1.41



— ___
8.0


0.147
.


— —
0.15
Source:  Midwest Research Institute.
                               B-8

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6*5 x 10° gallons of gasoline and 1.20 x 10' gallons of diesel fuel were
used in 1967. From this, it was calculated that 5.9 gallons of gasoline
and 10*9 gallons of diesel fuel were consumed per 1,000 ton-miles. Using
data in Table B-l, impacts were calculated and reported in Table B-5.
          During 1966, barge traffic resulted in 5.0 x 1011 ton-miles of
transportation (Reference 88). Fuel consumption was 6.99 x 10  gallons of
diesel fuel and 3.09 x 10^ gallons of residual. Therefore, 1.4 gallons of
diesel fuel and 6.1 gallons of residual were consumed per 1,000 ton-miles,
Impacts were calculated and are listed in Table B-5.

     D. Crude Oil and Products Pipeline

          Sources in the pipeline industry report that, on the average,
about 30 cubic feet of natural gas fuel are required to transport one
barrel of oil 300 miles through a pipeline. This requirement translates
to 30 cubic feet for 45 ton-miles, or 0.67 cubic feet of natural gas per
ton-mile of crude petroleum transportation. This factor, combined with
information from Table B-l, gives the data necessary to calculate the
impacts for 1,000 ton-miles of pipeline transportation. Pipeline trans-
portation impacts for moving other types of liquids of interest in this
study were assumed to be approximately the same as for crude oil.

          According to the data in Table B-5, transportation by truck
has the greatest environmental impacts of the four transportation modes.
This is a result of the relative inefficiency of the gasoline engine.
Truck transportation ranks highest in every impact category. Computer
analysis comparing the four transport modes shows that the impacts for
trucks are more than double that of barge transportation, greater than
triple that of rail transportation, and nearly five times higher than
pipeline transport. Despite these rather high values for trucks, trans-
oortation per se is usually only a small percent (e.g., 10 percent) of
 he total impact of a particular product system.
                                   B-9

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                              APPENDIX C

                              DISPOSABLES
!• Paper Towels

          The processes necessary to accomplish the manufacture of paper
towels are: (1) pulpwood harvesting; (2) bleached kraft and sulfite pulp
production; (3) salt mining; (4) chlorine manufacturing; (5) caustic manu-
facturing; (6) limestone mining; (7) lime manufacturing; (8) sulfur mining;
(9) sulfuric acid manufacturing; (10) tissue papermaking; arid, (11) paper
towel conversion. A brief description of the steps in each process will
be given, along with environmental impact data. (Also, sources and assump-
tions will be enumerated when necessary.)

     A. Pulpwood Harvesting

          Impacts incurred during logging activities were determined from
specific company operating data (Reference 89). The primary impacts incur-
red are related to fuels required for the cutting of timber and hauling it
to a landing. The timber is then transported directly to a paper mill, or
in many cases, to a concentration point which serves as a point of origin
for shipping logs to the mill gathered from several landings.

          Impacts were considered here only from roundwood consumption.
The wood delivered to mills surveyed by the American Paper Institute for
this study is 61 percent roundwood, the remainder being wood chips or
wastes obtained from other types of wood processing mills. However, in
past years, chips and other wastes were burned, rather than used, so they
are treated here as being a waste by-product from another industry. Hence,
less environmental impact is attributed to wood harvesting than if the
wood was all supplied as roundwood. The impacts of harvesting wood which
•inci  up as chips is allocated to the primary product for which it was
harvested. Thus, wood ending up as sawdust is allocated to lumber products
3nd is not included here. In addition, in the case of the mills studied,
these residues were generated on-site or close by so the transport of
the residues was negligible.

          Table C-l summarizes the data pertaining to pulpwood harvesting.
The gasoline represents the fuel used for cutting and hauling the logs.
The atmospheric emissions were derived by estimating the effluents from
the burning of wood wastes left in the forest. The factors used were as
follows: (Reference 90)
                                   C-l

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                                TABLE C-l

              DATA FOR HARVESTING 1,000 POUNDS OF PULPWOOD
  Impact Category                     Quantities               Sources

  Energy                                                          89
    Gasoline                           0.89 gal.

  Atmospheric Emissions                0.14 lb                    89
          1. Ten percent of the harvested roundwood is left in the woods
as a residue.

          2. Seven percent of the amount left is presently burned.

          3. Two percent of the amount burned is emitted into the atmos-
phere as a particulate emission.

Thus, for 1,000 pounds wood harvested, there is 100 pounds of waste,  7
pounds of which is burned. Of this 7 pounds, 2 percent, or 0.14 pound
is emitted to the atmosphere.

          One item of possible significance is omitted from Table C-l.
An unknown amount of water pollution in the form of suspended solids  re-
sults from run-off of harvested forests. However,, at present, it is not
possible to accurately estimate to what extent these solids actually  reach
streams. Although perhaps 7 pounds of suspended solids are generated,
their final deposition is probably at other locations in the forest,  and
not in streams. Therefore, this category was not included at this time
because the amount of stream pollution from this source is quite likely
very small (Source:  Franklin Associates,  Ltd.).

     B. Bleached Kraft and Sulfite Pulp (for tissue manufacture)

          Tissue products (such as towels,  napkins and portions of dispos-
able diapers) are manufactured from wood pulp. Most of the wood pulp  uti-
lized in these products is prepared by the  kraft process, with the remainder
being prepared by the sulfite process.

          The raw materials required for pulp manufacture are shown in
Figure C-l.* The predominant raw material is wood, which comes from two
* These data are based on actual materials requirements for pulp used in
    manufacture of towels, napkins and disposable diapers (see Reference
    89).
                                   C-2

-------
o
I
       Roundwood
       Harvesting
     Wood  Residues
      Salt Mining
        Limestone
        Mining
      Sulfur Mining
                       2630 3/
(1315)V

 1654 3/
(827) V

  91
  80
                         10
         933 ( Fiber )V
                                            1209 (Fuel)V
Chlorine and
Caustic
Manufacture
Lime
Manufacture
              Sulfur Acid
              Manufacture
                                                     60 Chlorine
                             52 Caustic
40
                    29
                                                                                 Additives
                                                                                 and
                                                                                 Chemicals
                                                               75
                       Bleached Kraft
                       and Sulfite
                       Pulp
                       Manufacture
                                                                                                1000
                                                                  a/ As  Received,  Includes Moisture
                                                                     Dry Fiber Base
                                                                  Source: Based on Data in (1 )
                                       Figure C-l  -  Materials Flow  for  Pulp Manufacture
                                                                  (Pounds)

-------
sources: trees and wood residues. Sixty-one percent of the wood required
for pulp manufacture comes directly from trees,  while 39 percent comes
from by-products of other wood processing facilities. Typical of the wood
residues used are sawdust and trim from saw mills.

          The remaining raw materials are chemicals required to carry out
the wood pulping and bleaching but which are not,  for the most part, in-
tended to become part of the finished product. The impacts of manufacture
of these chemicals are discussed elsewhere in this report.

          Kraft pulping hinges on the chemical digestion of wood. The
digester is a closed container which holds wood chips and digestion li-
quors. The liquor is mainly an aqueous solution of sodium sulfide. In
order for digestion to take place, heat and pressure are applied to the
mixture of wood and liquor. The digestion process delignifies the wood
and removes other chemical components which hinder paper forming. After
pulp is "blown" from the digester by the steam used in the process, it
is washed free of the chemicals, screened and refined for entry into the
paper forming section of the mill. Sulfite pulp is made in a similar fash-
ion, although the chemical composition of the digestion liquor varies, de-
pending on the particular sulfite process employed.

          One of the most desirable features of the kraft (and some sul-
fite) pulping processes is that the used digestion liquor is burned. The
liquor contains a high percentage of flammable wood components and  so it
burns readily. The digestion chemicals are recovered and heat is released
from the organic components. Liquor combustion, plus the use of the bark
removed from the incoming logs as a fuel results in wood providing  a sig-
nificant amount of the energy required for a pulp mill. Auxiliary energy
is usually needed, and comes primarily from fuel oil, natural gas,  coal,
and electricity.

          A survey of operating mills was undertaken by the American Paper
Institute (API) to determine the extent to which pulp types were used in
the products studied, and to determine the environmental impacts of manu-
facture. In addition, various literature sources and other paper industry
organizations were utilized for consultation and sources of data. The re-
sults of this survey were combined with other confidential data on  energy
use and environmental impacts routinely reported to API and the National
Council on Air and Stream Improvement (NCASI) in order to develop data
to be used in this study. The data were combined into a wood pulp module
which includes both kraft and sulfite in the proportion actually used by
the industry. The survey was conducted for the 1975 production year and
included 27 pulp mills. The production composite was 74 percent kraft pulp,
20 percent sulfite pulp and 6 percent listed as other.
                                  C-4

-------
          Figure C-l shows the materials required for pulp manufacture
as determined by API, while Table C-2 contains the impact data for the
kraft and sulfite pulp. The unit selected is 1,000 pounds of market pulp
which is a dried and baled form of wood pulp. Market pulp is commonly used
by the tissue manufacturers* However, in many cases papermaking equipment
is located adjacent to a pulp mill, so pulp is used in the "slush" form,
avoiding the pulp drying stage. Revised energy values for slush pulp are
shown on Table C-2, reflecting the saving of 2 million Btu per 1,000 pounds  .
which results from using slush pulp.

          Air pollutants generated from pulp manufacture are of two types:
on-site pollutants and off-site pollutants. Table C-3 summarizes the on-
site pollutants which are actual measurements obtained from the API survey
(Reference 89). In addition to the on-site generation, pollutants (and
other impacts) result from secondary processes, such as transporting, min-
ing and refining of fuels. The impacts from these secondary off-site sources
are summarized in Table C-4 for the fuels consumed at the pulp mills. The
impacts associated with electricity generation are reported elsewhere.

     C. Salt Mining

          Salt (sodium chloride) is obtained primarily by the following
three methods:

          . Pumping water into salt deposits and recovering the salt as
            brine.

          . Mining rock salt.

          . Solar evaporation of seawater.

          The first method uses water to dissolve the salt and bring it
to the surface. About 320 gallons of water will dissolve 1,000 pounds of
salt. The saturated solution is removed from an adjacent well or by means
of an annular pipe. The brine will contain sodium chloride, calcium chlo-
ride and magnesium chloride plus traces of hydrogen sulfide and ferrous
ions. The purification required will vary and depends on the purity of
the deposits.

          Rock salt is "mined" by blasting the mineral and removing the
salt crystals. The crystals are crushed in the mine and then again at the
surface. The remaining processes consist of grinding and screening opera-
tions. The product is not as pure as salt from brine wells.

          Seawater contains about 3.7 percent solids of which about 77.8
percent is sodium chloride. The water is evaporated to various degrees
in several ponds. The evaporation steps serve to precipitate most of the
                                  C-5

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                              TABLE C-2

      DATA FOR MANUFACTURE OF 1,000 POUNDS (DRY BASIS) BLEACHED
                     KRAFT/SULPHITE MARKET PULP
Impact Category

Raw Materials
  Roundwood (Trees)
    (Dry Weight)
  Wood Residues (Sawdust, etc.)
    (Dry Weight)
  Chlorine
  Caustic
  Lime
  Sulfuric Acid
  Other Chemicals and Additives

Energy (Purchased)—
  Electricity
  Residual^/
  Distillate
  LPG
  Natural Gas
  Coal

Energy (Self-Generated)"
  Wood Wastes (Million Btu)

Water Volume

Industrial Solid Wastes

Process Air Pollutants—
  Particulates
  Sulfur Oxides
  TRS (Total Reduced Sulfur)

Water Pollutants
  Suspended Solids
  BOD
Quantities
 2,630 Ib
 1,315 Ib
 1,654 Ib
   807 Ib
    60 Ib
    52 Ib
    40 Ib
    29 Ib
    75 Ib
   221 kw-hr (161)
    21.5 gal. (15.7)
     0.6 gal. (0.44)
     0.1 gal. (0.073)
 2,539 cu ft (1,853)
     0.5 Ib (0.36)
     8.39 Btu (8.39)

13,400 gal.

    89 Ib
     2.07 Ib
     0.86 Ib
     0.72 Ib
    10.4 Ib
     7.0 Ib
Sources
                          89,90
                            91
   92

   96

   92
                            92
&l Values without parentheses are for dry pulp. Values in parentheses
     are for slush pulp.
Jb/ Includes 13.4 pounds of purchased steam at 150,000 Btu per gallon
     residual oil and 1,400 Btu per pound for steam.
_c/ See Table C-3 for more detail on the sources of air pollution.
Source:  Reference 89.
                                 C-6

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                              TABLE C-3

     EMISSIONS TO THE ATMOSPHERE FROM MILL SITES FOR MANUFACTURE
            OF 1,000 POUNDS BLEACHED KRAFT/SULPHITE PULP

Particulates
Sulfur Oxides
Nitrogen Oxides
TRS
Power .
_ a/
Sources—
1.82 (1.58)
5.00 (4.35)
7.39 (6.43)
Kraft/Sulphite
Process
2.07
0.86
0.72
Total-7
3.89 (3.65)
5.86 (5.21)
7.39 (6.43)
0.72 (0.72)
_a/ The first values are for dry pulp. The second values (in parentheses)
     are for slush pulp.
Source: Reference 89.

                              TABLE C-4

     ENERGY AND SECONDARY IMPACT FACTORS FOR FUEL PURCHASED AND
              CONSUMED ON-SITE FOR MANUFACTURE OF 1,000
               POUNDS OF BLEACHED KRAFT/SULPHITE
Impact Category                     Quantities               Sources

Energy                                                          90
  Fuel Oils (22.1 gal.)               3.75 gal.
  Natural Gas and LPG
    (2,625 cu ft)                     2.85 cu ft
  Coal (0.5 Ib)                       0.0067 Ib
    Total                             6.607

Solid Wastes (Secondary)              0.91 Ib                   90

Air Pollutants (Secondary)!/                             '      90
  Particulates                        0.10 Ib
  Nitrogen Oxides                     1.70 Ib
  Hydrocarbons                        3.89 Ib
  Sulfur Oxides                       0.73 Ib
  Carbon Monoxide                     0.52 Ib

Vater Pollutants (Secondary)                                    90
  Dissolved Solids                    2.29 Ib
£/ Energy is total energy from Table C-2.  Pollutants are from secondary
     sources which occur on-site in Tables C-2 and C-3.
                                    C-7

-------
compounds other than sodium chloride. After the final evaporation step,
the salt solids are crushed and washed with salt brine to produce an in-
dustrial grade material. Additional steps can be incorporated to produce
high purity salt.

          Table C-5 shows the data pertaining to mining 1,000 pounds of
salt. The values are, in most, national averages and inclv.de impacts from
each salt mining process.
                                 TABLE C-5

                   DATA FOR MINING 1,000 POUNDS OF SALT



   Impact Category     .                Quantities               Sources

   Raw Materials                       t                           19
     Salt Mineral                       1,036.00 Ib
     Additives                             43.0 Ib

   Energy                                                          .98
     Electricity                           11.7 kw-hr
     Steam                                270.0 Ib

   Mining Solid Wastes                    360.0 Ib                 98
          The raw materials category shows that 1,026 pounds of mineral
must be mined to ship 1,000 pounds of salt. The rock salt mining phase
of the industry experiences its losses in the form of fines. Some mines
have as much as 20 percent waste. The water-brine type of mine will ex-
perience losses from water discharge. The average purity of salt deposits
is around 98.5 percent.

     D. Chlorine Manufacture

          Approximately 97 percent of the chlorine produced in the United
States is manufactured by electrolytic caust-chlorine processes (Figure
C-2). The remainder comes from a nitrosyl chloride process, electrolysis
of hydrochloric acid, and as a by-product from the electrolytic production
of caustic potash, magnesium, and metallic sodium.

          The electrolysis of sodium chloride is performed by two proces-
ses: (1) mercury cathode cells; and (2) diaphragm cell. The mercury cell
produces about 24.2 percent of the electrolytic chlorine while the dia-
phragm cell accounts for about 75.8 percent.

                                  C-8

-------
                  Hydrogen
                    28
Wet
Sulfuric
Acid
Salt
       1765
Water
       5000
n
                              Chlorine
              H20
                     Sodium
                     Hydroxide
                     1142
                                                                                 1000 Pounds
                                                                                 Chlorine
              Figure  C-2.  Manufacture of 1,000 pounds of chlorine and by-products,  diaphragm cell.

-------
              !
          The .mercury cathode cell process can be described as follows:


                 NaCl + xHg  =1/2 C12 + Na (Hg)x and
                 Na(Hg)x +H20 = NaOH + 1/2 1^ + xHg


The salt is electrolyzed, producing chlorine gas at the graphite (or metal)
anodes; metallic sodium, released by the passage of current, reacts with
the mercury cathode to produce an amalgam* The amalgam is sent to another
compartment of the cell where it reacts with water to produce hydrogen and
very pure sodium hydroxide. The outstanding feature of the mercury cell is
the high grade and concentration of the caustic liquor, which may be used
in other industries without further purification. The disadvantages of the
mercury cell are its higher energy requirements and loss of mercury. Some
of the methods by which mercury can escape the plant are (Reference 101):

          1. Carryover in the hydrogen gas stream;
          2. Cell room ventilation air;
          3. Washing water from cell rooms;
          4. Purging of the brine loop;
          5. Disposal of brine sludges; and
          6. End box fumes.

Close attention to product and effluent stream is necessary to keep the
mercury loss at a minimum. The average mercury consumption from this type
of plant in 1972 was 0.183 pound per 1,000 pounds of chlorine produced
(Reference 102). This value is based on the 1972 production of chlorine
from mercury cells, which was 2,389,356 short tons, and mercury purchases
of 11,519 flasks (875, 444 pounds) .

          The diaphragm cell uses graphite anodes and steel cathodes. The
brine solution is passed to the anode compartment where chlorine gas is
formed and taken off through a pipe at the top of the cell. The other ions
in solution flow through an asbestos diaphragm and react at the cathode
to form sodium hydroxide and hydrogen. The diaphragm prevents back diffu-
sion of the cathode reaction products. The caustic-brine solution contain-
ing hydrogen is removed from the cathode compartment and processed to re-
cover hydrogen and caustic. The chlorine from the anode compartment is
cooled and then dried in a sulfuric acid scrubber. The gas is compressed
and cooled to form liquid chlorine. Shipment of chlorine is generally by
rail and barge.
                                   C-10

-------
          Table C-6 shows the data pertaining to the manufacture of chlo-
 rine. The manufacturing data are a combination derived by adding 24.2 per-
 cent of  the mercury cathode cell impacts to 75.8 percent of the diaphragm
 cell impacts.
                                  TABLE C-6
              DATA FOR MANUFACTURE OF 1,000 POUNDS OF CHLORINE
    Impact Category

    Raw Materials
      Salt
      Process  Additives
      SuIfuric Acid
Quantities
  786 lb
    1.68 lb.
   12.5 lb
Sources

   98
    Energy
      Electric
      Steam
 823 kw-hr
 229 lb
                            98
    Water Volume

    Process Solid Wastes
      (Mercury  - 0.019)

    Process Atmospheric Emissions
     Mercury Vapor
     Chlorine

    Waterborne  Wastes
     Mercury
     Suspended Solids
     Lead
 237.0 gal.

  80.0 lb
   0.0007 lb
   4.1 lb
   0.000035 lb
   0.32 lb
   0.019 lb
   98

 19,99


19,99,100



19,99,100
    Transp or ta t ion
     Rail
     Barge
 400 ton-miles
 400 ton-miles
                            19
          The largest impact is the amount of electrical energy required
to operate the cells. About 21 million Btu are required for the 2,170 pounds
of products. The amount allocated to chlorine is about 9.5 million Btu.
                                  C-ll

-------
          The solids value was estimated by calculating the amount of sludge
produced during the manufacturing process. The brine sludges contain about
50 parts per million mercury.

          The sodium content of the slat raw material represents part of
the by-product sodium hydroxide, and should not be counted as a raw material
for chlorine.

     E, Sodium Hydroxide Manufacture

          The electrolytic method for manufacture of sodium hydroxide (caus-
tic soda) accounts for more than 90 percent of the total U.S. production.
The caustic is actually a by-product of the chlorine manufacturing process
described in the previous section.

          Table C-7 contains the basic impacts for the production of 1,000
pounds of caustic.

     F. Limestone Mining

          Limestone is used by the glass industry as a source of calcium
oxide in glass furnace operations. The limestone is heated in the furnace
so that carbon dioxide is released, leaving calcium oxide behind. Calcium
oxides act as a chemical stabilizer in the finished glass product.

          Limestone is quarried primarily from open pits. The most econom-
ical method of recovering the stone has been blasting, followed by mechanical
crushing and screening. According to the Bureau of Mines, environmental
problems are greater for crushed-stone producers than for any other mineral
industry operation except sand and gravel (Reference: Mineral Facts and
Problems, U.S. Department of Interior, 1970). The reason for this is that
limestone typically is mined quite close to the ultimate consumer, which
frequently dictates that the mining operation be near, or even within,
heavily populated areas. Hence, environmental problems are accentuated
because of high visibility.

          The environmental consequences of limestone mining include: noise
from heavy equipment and from blasting; dust from mining, crushing and
screening; solid residues not properly disposed of; general unsightliness;
and occasional contamination of streams. None of these problems is insur-
mountable, and many quarries are presently operated in an environmentally
acceptable fashion.
                                  C-12

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                              TABLE C-7
      DATA FOR MANUFACTURE OF 1,000 POUNDS OF SODIUM HYDROXIDE
Impact Category

Raw Materials
  Salt
  Additives

Energy
  Electricity
  Steam

Water Volume

Process Solid Wastes
Process Atmospheric Emissions
  Mercury Vapor
  Chlorine

Waterborne Wastes
  Mercury
  Suspended Solids
  Lead

Transportation
  Rail
  Barge
  Truck
Quantities
   786 lb
     1.82 lb
   886.0 kw-hr
 4,302.0 lb

   237 gal.

    80.0 lb
     0.0007 lb
     4.10 lb
     0.000035 lb
     0.32  lb
     0.0019 lb
 109 ton-miles
  57 ton-miles
  12 ton-miles
Sources
                            98
                            98
   98

37,69,19,
99

37,69,71,
19,99,100
                         19,99,100
                            19
                                   C-13

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          Data concerning the quantifiable environmental impacts of lime-
stone mining are summarized in Table C-8. Even though the quarrying opera-
tions may be objectionable as a neighborhood problem, they produce relatively
low impacts on a tonnage basis (partly because of the inherently high density
of the stone). The major problem is dust, i.e., particulates. However, com-
pared to the other operations in the glass container system, the impacts of
limestone mining are quite small.
                                   TABLE C-8

                 DATA FOR MINING OF 1,000 POUNDS OF LIMESTONE



     Impact Category                     Quantities                Sources

     Energy                                                          103
       Coal                                0.12 Ib
       Distillate                          0.08 gal.
       Natural Gas                         4.65 cu ft
       Gasoline                            0.02 gal.
       Electricity                         1.0 kw-hr

     Water Volume                         45 gal.                    104

     Process Atmospheric Emissions                                   105
       Particulates                        6.5 Ib


     G. Lime Manufacture

          Lime is produced by calcining limestone. Limestone (calcium car-
bonate) is heated in a kiln to a high temperature so that any water present
is driven off and the carbonate is broken up by the evolution of carbon
dioxide. The product remaining is lime (calcium oxide). Significant environ-
mental impacts occur as a result of fuel combustion and material losses.
For 1,000 pounds of lime produced, approximately 800 pounds of carbon dioxide
are released. An additional 200 pounds of material impacts on the environ-
ment in the form of solid waste and as dust (particulate emission). The
data are summarized in Table C-9. This table was derived from U.S. Census
of Manufactures data for the year 1972, with the energy values adjusted
downward to reflect energy conservation through 1980. Energy-use was as-
sumed to decline at a compound rate of 1.4 percent per year from the base
year to 1980 (Reference 10).
                                   C-14

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                                 TABLE  C-9

                DATA FOR MANUFACTURE OF 1,000 POUNDS OF LIME
   Impact Category                     Quantities                Sources

   Raw Materials                         2,000  lb                  106

   Energy                                                         19
     Coal                                 113  lb
     Distillate                             0.63 gal.
     Residual                               0.27 gal.
     Natural Gas                         1,186  cu ft
     Electricity                            19.4 kw-hr

   Water Volume                            135  gal.                107

   Solid Wastes                            182  lb                 105,106

   Process Atmospheric Emissions                                 105,106
     Particulates                           16  lb


     H. Sulfur Mining

          The  Frasch process of mining sulfur  is  the most common type  of
operation employed in the United States. In consists basically of sulfur
being forced to the surface through a well shaft  by superheated water  that
has been previously injected into a sulfur-bearing rock formation. The
major requirements for mining sulfur by the Frasch process are a large
supply of water and fuel, a power plant to produce steam, compressed air,
electricity and a drilling apparatus.

          Environmental impacts generated from sulfur mining are due largely
to the use of fuels as an energy source for steam generation.

          Sulfur is considered one of the most versatile elements. Its
consumption, along with that of sulfuric acid  for which sulfur is the  basic
raw material,  is often used as a measure of economic activity in the U.S.
Table C-10 lists the data used in the study for the mining of 1,000  pounds
of sulfur. The significant impacts are the large  quantity of natural gas
consumed,  the  water used, the solid wastes, and the particulate air  emis-
sions.
                                   015

-------
                                 TABLE C-10

                   DATA FOR MINING OF 1,000 POUNDS OF SULFUR
    Impact Category                     Quantities               Sources

    Energy                                                       8,37,108,
      Electricity                        1.39 kw-hr              109
      Gas                            2,757.0

    Water Volume                       800.0 gal.                3,37,108,
                                                                 109

    Solid Wastes                       205 Ib                       19

    Process Atmospheric Emissions       10 Ib                       19

    Transportation                                               13,14,86,
      Rail                               262 ton-miles           88
      Water                              340 ton-miles
      Truck                               25 ton-miles


     I. Sulfuric Acid Manufacture

          There are two basic methods for manufacturing sulfuric acid--
the chamber process and the contact process.  Both methods utilize sulfur,
which is most often obtained from mineral sulfides,  smelter gas, gypsum,
petroleum or other sulfur-bearing compounds.  The sulfur is burned to yield
sulfur dioxide (S02> which is further oxidized to sulfur trioxide (803)
which is absorbed in weak sulfuric acid (H_SO,)  or water to form sulfuric
acid.                                     2  4

          In the chamber process the oxidation of sulfur dioxide to sulfur
trioxide is carried out by the catalytic action of nitrogen oxides, whereas
in the contact process the oxidation is performed by the catalytic (contact)
action of various catalysts such as platinum,  palladium, iron and various
vanadium oxides.

          Since more than 97 percent of the sulfuric acid produced in the
U.S. is made by the contact process and elemental sulfur is the raw material
used in most of these plants, a sulfur burning contact method of manufacture
is assumed for the study. Table C-ll presents  the raw data for sulfuric
acid manufactureo
                                 C-16

-------
                                TABLE C-ll

            DATA FOR MANUFACTURE OF  1,000 POUNDS OF SULFURIC ACID
   Impact Category

   Raw Materials
     Sulfur

   Energy
     Electricity
     Steam (Credit)

   Water  Volume

   Solid  Wastes

   Atmospheric Emissions
     Particulate  and  Acid Mist
     S02

   Waterborne Wastes
     BOD
     Suspended Solids
     Acid

   Transportation
     Water
     Rail
     Truck
 Quantities


    338 Ib


   12.0 kw-hr
  500.0 Ib (credit)

3,200.0 gal.

    3.5 Ib
    1.7 Ib
   20.0 Ib
    0.2 Ib
    0.6 Ib
    7.0 Ib
    6.0 ton-miles
   55.0 ton-miles
   13.0 ton-miles
Sources

   19


  109



  109

   19

6,110



   19
                          86,88
          The major sources of pollution generated from sulfuric acid manu-
facture are sulfur oxides and waste acid contained in the absorber exit
gases. Even though elaborate control methods are employed on absorber stacks
at most plants, approximately 2 pounds of acid per 1,000 pounds of acid pro-
duced is released to the atmosphere which,  along with hydrated sulfur trioxide
emissions, may form a visible plume of acid mist above the absorber stacks.
Sulfur dioxide is also contained in the absorber exit gases although the
amount that is released is somewhat dependent upon the amount of oleum (fum-
ing acid) produced by the plant. Sulfur dioxide emissions average approxi-
mately 20 pounds of SO^ per 1,000 pounds of acid produced.
                                  C-17

-------
          Waterborne  acid wastes,  averaging  7  pounds  acid per  1,000  pounds
_acid produced,  result primarily  from equipment washdowns,  handling losses
 |nd spills,  and constitute the majority  of  the waterborne  wastes  from con-
tact plants.

      J.  Tissue  Papermaking

          After wood  pulp has been produced  (and  bleached to achieve a
 specified brightness)  it  is  either dried, or sent to  a  paper-making machine
 in  slush form.  If  it  is dried, it  is baled and transported to  a paper-making
 site,  where  it  is  defibered  and  beaten into  a  slush pulp  by mixing with
 water in a large pulping  device. In  any  event,  the input material  for a
 paper machine is a slush  pulp.

          Papermaking equipment  consists of  a  paper machine which  utilizes
 an  endless wire or plastic mesh  screen,  sets of water removal  devices,
 and dryers.  The slush pulp is placed on  the  rapidly moving screen  where
 water drains out of the pulp and leaves  a fiber mat on  the screen. The
 fiber mat is p.icked up on rolls, and in  subsequent operations  additional
 water is removed.  The paper  is then  dried on steam heated  rolls until it
 is  dry enough to wind into large rolls.  These  rolls of  finished paper are
 the final product  of  the  paper-making operation.

          Table C-12  presents the  impact data  for manufacturing the  paper
 to  be used in towels.  These  data were obtained from a survey of paper mills
    ference 89),  which represents  89 percent of  the U.S.  towel production.
     data are complete  except for values  of air pollutants,  which were not
 available for all  mills.  The values  given in the  tables are based  on the
 percent  of total production  given  in parentheses.  However,  these values
 for air  pollution  were proportionately increased  so as  to  represent  all
 mills  by assuming  that air pollutants from mills  not  reporting is  the same
 as  from  those reporting air  pollution.

      K.  Conversion of Paper  to Consumer  Paper  Towels

          Rolls of paper  are transported to  converting  sites for manufac-
 ture into final products. In many  cases  the  converting  site is located
 quite close  to  the papermaking site,  but sometimes the  rolls are transported
 for a long distance.  In any  event, at the converting  site,  materials are
 assembled for the  converting operation.

          The converting  process is  a relatively  simple operation  where
 the rolls of paper are unwound,  with the product  being  cut to  proper size,
 decorated (if required),  rewound on  a core (if required) and packaged for
 shipment. The impacts of  converting  to 1,000 square feet,  two-ply  consumer
 towels are shown in Table C-13.
                                   C-18

-------
                             TABLE C-12

         DATA FOR PAPEFMAKING 1,000 POUNDS 2-PLY TOWEL STOCK

Impact Category
Virgin Pulp (Dry Basis)
Dry
Slush
Subtotal - Pulp
Waste Paper (Dry Basis)
Pulp Substitute
De inking
Broke (Mill Scrap)
Subtotal - Waste Paper
Total Fiber
Other Materials
Miscellaneous
Wet Strength
Total Other
Energy (Purchased)
Electricity
Natural Gas
Fuel Oil
Propane
Quantities

386 Ib
403 Ib
789 Ib

51.6 Ib
24.0 Ib
130 Ib
206 Ib
995 Ib

2.9 Ib
7.8 Ib
10.7 Ib

451 kw-hr
3,335 cu ft
19.0 gal.
0.12 gal.
Sources
89



1 89





89



89




Energy  (Self-Generated)
  Recovery Boiler  (Wood Wastes)

Air Pollutants^  1
  Particulates
  Sulfur Oxides
  Nitrogen Oxides

Water Volume

Water Pollutants
  BOD
  Suspended Solids

Solid Wastes
  Landfill
  Incineration
  Sludge
    0.749 Btu (Million)
    0.23 Ib (63%)
    3.62 Ib (63%)
    1.13 Ib (30.9%)
                             89
                             89
6,575 gal.
    2.35 Ib
    2.99 Ib
    9.8 Ib
    6.1 Ib
   14.7 Ib
89
                             89
                             89
a/ The pollutants listed represent projected industry  totals based on
     a fraction of mills which report pollutants. The  percent of pro-
     duction reported by reporting -nills is in parentheses.

V  See comment No. 9 Appendix J, page 39.
                                    C-19

-------
                             TABLE C-13

     DATA FOR CONVERTING L,000 SQUARE FEET 2-PLY CONSUMER TOWELS



Impact Category                     Quantities                Sources

Raw Materials                                                   89
  PaperS/                            10.43 Ib
  Core Stock                          0.366 Ib
  Poly Wrappers                       0.179 Ib
  Corrugated                          0.984 Ib
  Inks and Adhesives                  0.169 Ib

Energy                                                          89
  Electricity                         0.329 kw-hr
  Natural Gas                         1.37 cu ft

Scrap        .                         1.095 Ib          •        89
_a/ Includes approximately 5 percent moisture.


II* Paper Napkins

     A. Home

          The major processes in producing home paper napkins are: (1) pulp
wood harvesting; (2) bleached kraft and sulfite pulp production; (3)  salt.
mining; (4) chlorine manufacturing; (5) caustic manufacturing; (6) limestone
mining; (7) lime manufacturing; (8) sulfur mining; (9) sulfuric acid manu-
facturing; (10) tissue papermaking; and (11) converting" to home paper napkins.

          Processes 1 through 9 are discussed in the paper towel section
(Appendix C-I). A discussion of the remaining processes will follow.

          !• Tissue Papermaking; After wood pulp has been produced (and
bleached to achieve a specified brightness) it is either dried, or sent
to a papermaking machine in slush form. If it is dried, it is baled and
transported to a papermaking site, where it is defibered and beaten into
a slush pulp by mixing with water in a large pulping device. In any event,
the input material for a paper machine is a slush pulp.
                                  C-20

-------
          Papermaking equipment consists of a paper machine which utilizes
an endless wire or plastic mesh screen, sets of water removal devices, and
dryers. The slush pulp is placed on the rapidly moving screen where water
drains out of the pulp and leaves a fiber mat on the screen. The fiber mat
is picked up on rolls, and in subsequent operations additional water is
removed. The paper is then dried on steam heated rolls until it is dry enough
to wind into large rolls. These rolls of finished paper are the final product
of the p ape making operation.

          Table C-14 presents the impact data for manufacturing the paper
to be used in napkins. These data were obtained from a survey of paper mills
(Reference 89), which represents 62 percent of napkin production. The data
are complete except for values of air pollutants, which were not available
for all mills. The values given in the tables are based on the percent of
total production given in parentheses. However, these values for air pollu-
tion were proportionately increased so as to represent all mills by assum-
ing that air pollutants from mills not reporting is the same as from those
reporting air pollution.

          2." Conversion of Paper to Consumer Napkins; Rolls of paper are
transported to converting sites for manufacture into final products. In
many cases the converting site is located quite close to the papermaking
site, but sometimes the rolls are transported for a long distance. In any
event, at the converting site, materials are assembled for the converting
operation.

          The converting process is a relatively simple operation where
the rolls of paper are unwound, with the product being cut to proper size,
decorated (if required), rewound on a core (if required) and packaged for
shipment. The impacts of converting to 1,000 single-ply consumer napkins
are shown in Table C-15.

     B. Commercial

          The intermediate steps involved in manufacturing commercial napkins
are identical to those listed in'the home napkin discussions (refer to Ap-
pendix C-II), with the exception of the conversion process. A discussion
of this process shall follow.

          Conversion of Paper to Commercial Napkins; Rolls of paper are
transported to converting sites for manufacture into final products. In
many cases the converting site is located quite close to the papermaking
site, but sometimes the rolls are transported for a long distance. In any
event, at the converting site, materials are assembled for the converting
operation.
                                   C-21

-------
                  DATA FOR PAPERMAKING -  1,000  NAPKINS  (POUNDS)
Impact Category

 Virgin Pulp  (dry basis)
   Dry (Ib)
   Slush (Ib)
     Subtotal  -  Pulp

 Waste Paper  (dry basis)
   Deinking
   Pulp Sub
   Broke (mill scrap)
     Subtotal  -  Waste Paper
   Total Fiber

 Miscellaneous Materials
 Wet  Strength

 Energy -(purchased)
   Electricity
   Natural Gas
   Fuel Oil
   Propane

 Energy (self-generated)
   Recovery Boiler (wood wastes)
      »

 Air  Pollutants^
   Particulates
   Sulfur Oxides
   Nitrogen Oxides

 Water

 Water Pollutants
   BOD
   Suspended Solids

 Solid Wastes
   Landfill
   Incinerator
   Sludge
Quantities
   266 Ib
   405 Ib
   671 Ib
   214 Ib
    43 Ib '
   108 Ib
   365 Ib
 1,036 Ib

     4.2 Ib
     3.2 Ib
   386 kw-hr
 2,768 cu ft
    19.3 gal.
     0.33 gal.
 1,057 million Btu
     0.25 Ib
     1.81 Ib
     1.52 Ib

 8,688 gal.
     3.57 Ib
     4.49 Ib
    50.3 Ib
    19.8 Ib
     7.48 Ib
Sources

   89
                            89
   89
                            89
                            89
                            89
   89

   89



   89
&l Air pollutants were reported by mills accounting for 46.8 percent
     of the total production. The values listed were ratioed up so as
     to represent total industry pollutants.

I/  See comment No.  10 Appendix J, page 39.

                                   C-22

-------
                                 TABLE  C-15

            DATA FOR CONVERTING - 1,000 SINGLE-PLY CONSUMER NAPKINS

Impact Category
Materials
Paper*/
Cartons
Poly Wrappers
Corrugated
Inks, etc.
Energy
Electricity
Natural Gas
Oil
Quanti ties
5.590 Ib
0.0539 Ib
0.-154 Ib
0.975 Ib
0.099 Ib

0.18 kw-hr
1.53 cu ft
0.0009 gal.
Source-a
89




89



   Scrap                                 0.40  Ib                   89
  _a/   Includes  approximately  5  percent moisture.

          The converting process is a relatively simple operation where
the rolls of paper are unwound,  with the  product being cut to  proper size,
decorated (if required), rewound on a core (if required)  and packaged for
shipment. The impacts of converting to 1,000 two-ply industrial napkins
are shown in Table C-16.

                               TABLE C-16

         DATA FOR CONVERTING - 1,000 TWO-PLY INDUSTRIAL NAPKINS
  Impact Category                      Quanti ties               Sources

  Materials                                                        89
    Paper.1/                             14.46 Ib
    Cartons                              0.179 Ib
    Poly Wrappers                        0..0734 Ib
    Paper Wrappers                       0.0332 Ib
    Corrugated                           1.18 Ib

  Energy                                                           89
    Electricity                          0.649 kw-hr
    Natural Gas                          6.46 cu ft

  Scrap                                  0-.753 Ib                  89
  a_l Includes approximately 5 percent moisture.
                                  C-23

-------
til. Diapers

          The processes needed for the manufacture of disposable diapers
are: (1) wood pulp harvest; (2) pulp manufacturing! (3) salt mining; (4)
chlorine manufacturing; (5) caustic manufacturing; (6) limestone mining;
(7) lime manufacturing; (8) sulfur mining; (9) sulfuric acid manufacturing;
(10) paper manufacturing;  (11) ethylene manufacturing, including production
of .crude oil, natural gas production, natural gas processing, and ethylene
production;  (12) LDPE resin manufacturing; (13) LDPE film manufacturing;
(14) acrylic resin including the same processes as ethylene production,
ammonia production, acrylonitrile manufacturing, and acrylic resin manu-
facturing; (15) rayon manufacturing including wood pulp harvesting, pulp
manufacturing, salt mining, caustic manufacturing, natural gas production
and processing, sulfur mining, carbondisulfide manufacturing, sulfuric acid
manufacturing, and rayon production; (16) PET resin manufacturing including
ethylene oxide manufacturing, metha'nol manufacturing,  oxygen manufacturing,
acetaldehyde manufacturing, naphtha reforming, p-xylene extraction, tereph-
thalate manufacturing and PET resin production; and (17) the production
of diapers*

          Processes 1 through 9 are discussed in Appendix C-I (Paper Towels).
The remaining processes are discussed on the following pages.

     A. Tissue Papermaking

          After wood pulp has been produced (and bleached to achieve a
specified brightness) it is either dried, or sent to a papermaking machine
in slush form. If it is dried, it is baled and transported to a papermaking
site, where  it is defibered and beaten into a slush pulp by mixing with
water in a large pulping device. In any event, the input material for a
paper machine is a slush pulp.

          Papermaking equipment consists of a paper machine wHich utilizes
an endless wire or plastic mesh screen, sets of water removal devices, and
dryers. The  slush pulp is placed on the rapidly moving screen where water
drains out of the pulp and leaves a fiber mat on the screen. The fiber mat
is picked up on rolls, and in subsequent operations additional water is re-
moved. The paper is then dried on steam heated rolls until it is dry enough
to wind into large rolls. These rolls of finished paper are the final prod-
uct of the papermaking operation.

          Table C-17 present the impact data for manufacturing the paper to
be used in towels, napkins and diapers. These data were obtained from a sur-
vey of paper mills (Reference 89), which represent more than 90 percent of
disposable diaper production. The data are complete except for values of
air pollutants, which were not available for all mills. The values given in
    table are based on the percent of total production given in parentheses.
                                  024

-------
However, these values for air pollution were  proportionately  increased  so
as to represent all mills by assuming that air  pollutants  from mills not
reporting is the same as from those reporting air  pollution.  Table C-17T
contains transportation factors for tissue products.
                               TABLE C-17

          DATA  FOR PAPERMAKING - 1,000 DIAPER TISSUE  (POUNDS)



   Impact Category                     Quanti ties               Sources

   Materials           .                                            89
     Virgin Pulp  (dry basis)
        Purchased                        675 Ib
        Slush                            178. Ib
          Subtotal - Pulp                853 Ib

     Waste Paper - Deinking  (dry basis)  30 Ib                     89
     Broke  (mill scrap)                 125 Ib
        Subtotal - Waste Paper           155 Ib
          Total  Fiber                  1,008 Ib

     Other Materials                     16 Ib                     89

   Energy                                                         89
     Electricity                        463 kw-hr
     Natural Gas                      5,327 cu ft
     Residual Oil                         4.99 gal.
     Propane                              0.27 gal.

   Water  Volume                       4,621 gal.                   89

   Water  Pollutants                                      •          89
     BOD%                                 1.48 Ib
     Suspended Solids                     1.24 Ib

   Solid  Wastes                                                    89
     Landfill     .                       17.4 Ib
     Sludge                              22.4 Ib
                                   C-25

-------
                                                        TABLE C-17T
                                  TRANSPORTATION FACTORS FOR DISPOSABLE TISSUE PRODUCTS
i
N>
Material - locations

Wood to pulp mill
Pulp to towel papermaking
Waste paper to towel papermaking
Consumer towels to market

Pulp to napkin papermaking
Waste paper to napkin papermaking
Paper to napkin converting
Single-ply consumer napkins to market
2-ply industrial napkins to market

Pulp to diaper tissue papermaking
Waste paper to diaper tissue papermaking
Diaper tissue to converting
Polyethylene fiber to diaper converting
Non-woven fiber to diaper converting
Fluffing pulp to diaper converting
Diapers to market
       Unit

Thou pounds pulp
Thou pounds paper
Thou pounds1paper
Thou square feet

Thou pounds paper
Thou pounds paper
Thou pounds paper
Thou napkins
Thou napkins

Thou pounds paper
Thou pounds paper
Thou pounds paper
Hundred diapers
Hundred diapers
Hundred diapers
Hundred diapers
   Rail   .
(ton-miles)

   91
  324
    8
    2.44

  152
   33
   32
    1.37
    3.71

  408
    4
   40
    0.012
    0.152
    3.79
    2.00
                                                                                            Truck
                                                                                         (ton-miles)

                                                                                            22
                                                                                            56

                                                                                             0.198
11

 0.078
 0.18
                                                                                            35
                                                                                             0.066
                                                                                             0.018

                                                                                             0.49
                    Water
                  (ton-mil»
                                                                                                                 14

-------
     B. Ethylene Manufacturing

          1. Production of Crude Oil and Natural Gas; A production well
is classified as a gas or oil well, based on the ratio of oil production
to gas production. The definition of an oil well will typically cover those
wells which produce at least one barrel of oil to each 100,000 cubic feet
of natural gas. The gas well would be defined as a well having a lower crude
to gas ratio.

          Figure C-3 shows a flow diagram for f.he production of oil and
natural gas.

          Field processing is required to separate the oil, gas, and water.
The natural gas generally follows three routes: (1) the gas can be flared;
(2) some gas is returned to the underground formation to assist in future
production; and (3) the gas is transferred to a natural gas processing plant.

          The crude oil is treated in water separators, and oil-gas separa-
tors. The resulting crude is pumped to storage tanks and eventually to a
refinery.

          With respect to drilling for oil and gas, information is limited
concerning the ways in which drilling fluids, drilling muds, well cuttings,
and well treatment chemicals may contribute to pollution. Studies have been
made of well blowout and mixing of fresh water aquifers and oil bearing
sands. Several publications are available discussing oil field brine dis-
posal by subsurface injection.

          Materials added to the crude oil to assist in extraction represent
less than 2 percent of the oil produced.

          Acids represent the major chemicals used in oil and gas well treat-
ment. The amount consumed yearly is shown in Table C-18 (Reference 35).

                                 TABLE C-18

                        ACIDS USED FOR WELL TREATMENT
                                                            Gallons/Barrel
                             Gallons Per Year               Crude Produced

                                8.7 x 107                      26.9 x 10"2

                                2.0 x 106                       6.2 x 10"4

                                1.0 x 106               .        3.1 x 10~4
                                   C-27

-------
o
i
oo
                                      Field
                                      Separation
                                      Water
                                      Separator
                                                                            Flared

                                                                            Returned to Producing Strata
Natural Gas
Processing
Plant
                               Figure  C-3  -  Flow diagram  for  crude  oil  and natural  gas production.

-------
          Approximately 30 x 10  pounds of inhibitors  and 37 x 10  pounds  -
of additives are also used per year in well treatment. The total  domestic
crude production in 1972 was 3,234,600,000 barrels,  resulting in  a use  of
9.3 x ID'4 pounds of inhibitors and 11.4 x 10~4 pounds of additives per
barrel of oil. Since these products are injected into  the subsurface reser-
voir, the amount of pollution to fresh water aquifers  is probably very  small
(Reference 111). The drilling muds used prior to production are usually ex-
pensive and, therefore, merit special handling to prevent excessive losses.
However, most spent muds are left in open slush pits to permit evaporation
of liquids. Most pits are earth filled when evaporation is complete. Some
remain in limited service to contain the effluents from well servicing.

          Several sources of pollution resulting from oil field operations
are:

          a. Well blowout - resulting in surface and subsurface contamina-
tion.

          b. Dumping of oil-based drilling muds, oil soaked cuttings and
treatment chemicals.

          c. Crude oil escape from pipeline leaks, overflow of storage  ves-
sels and rupture of storage and transport vessels.

          d. Discharge of bottom sediment from storage vessels.

          e. Subsurface disposal of brine into a formation which  would  per-
mit migration of the brine into an area which could result in pollution, of
fresh water or contribute toward other natural disasters.

          f. Escape of natural gas containing hydrogen sulfide could pollute
fresh water supplies and local atmosphere.

          Crude losses from production are estimated to be 0.13 percent
based on information in the 1971 Minerals Yearbook* This loss has been  ac-
counted for by allocation to the energy of material resource and  to environ-
mental pollutants. The energy content of the crude oil was 19,500 Btu per
pound. This assumes an average API gravity of 35 which is equivalent to a
weight of 297 pounds per barrel of crude oil (Reference 50). Therefore, the
total energy of material resource assigned to the production of 1,000 pounds
of crude oil is 19,525,350 Btu (19,500,000 Btu + 25,350 Btu for crude losses
in production). The process energy requirements were taken from the 1972
Census of Mineral Industries.
                                  C-29

-------
          Natural gas losses were derived from 1971 and 1972 census data.
    losses are estimated to be 3.81 percent as follows: (1)  0.36 percent
from vents; (2) 0.36 percent from flares; (3)  1.69 percent in lease opera-
tions; and (4) 1.4 percent in transmission to  the consumer.  In the produc-
tion of 1,000 pounds of natural gas, this loss has been charged as 853,109
Btu (38.1 pounds x 0.046 cubic feet x 1,030 Btu per cubic feet) of material
resource energy, producing 25.88 pounds of atmospheric emissions (crude pro-
duction was charged with 8.62 pounds of atmospheric emissions since about
25 percent of the natural gas produced comes from oil wells). The 0.36 per-
cent burned in flares was not included in the  atmospheric emissions. The
total energy of materials resource assigned to natural gas production is
23,244,109 Btu (22,391,000 Btu for 1,000 pounds of natural gas + 853,109
Btu for the 38.1 pounds of natural gas lost in production).

          The principal waterborne wastes in oil and gas production are
dissolved solids and oils. Approximately 2.5 barrels of brine are produced
for each barrel of crude extracted. The brine  contains about 32 pounds of
dissolved solids (mostly chlorides) per barrel, and 0.59 pounds of oils
per barrel. Industry sources have estimated that approximately 10 percent
of the brine enters streams, rivers, etc., while 90 percent is disposed
of by methods which do not pollute water resources. Brine disposal methods
include evaporation ponds, subsurface injection, and brine water treatment
systems.

          The 0.25 barrels of brine (containing 8 pounds of dissolved solids
and 0.147 pound of oils) which enter waterways include 6.0 pounds of dis-
solved solids and 0.11 pounds of oils charged  to the production of 1,000
pounds of crude oil (3.367 barrels), and 2 pounds of dissolved solids and
0.037 pound of oil charged to the production of 1,000 pounds of natural
gas (75 percent allocated to crude oil production and 25 percent to natural
gas production).

          Table C-19 contains the raw impact data for the production of
1,.000 pounds of crude oil. Table C-20 contains the primary (raw) data for
natural gas production. The energy content of  these hydrocarbon products
appear in the table. Crude oil and natural gas inputs are counted as their
energy equivalents rather than pounds of raw materials. Table C-21 shows
the raw impact data for the production of 1,000 pounds of distilled and
hydrotreated crude. '

          2. Natural Gas Liquids Processing! Light straight chain hydro-
carbons are normal products of a gas processing plant. Compression, re-
frigeration and oil absorption are used to extract these products. Heavy
hydrocarbons are removed first. The remaining  components are extracted
and kept under controlled conditions until transported in high pressure
pipelines, insulated railcars, ships and barges. The primary nonsalable
  sidues from the natural gas stream are volatile hydrocarbons leaking into
    atmosphere. Figure C-4 shows a diagram of  a natural gas processing plant,

                                   C-30

-------
                            TABLE  C-19
         DATA FOR PRODUCTION OF 1,000  POUNDS OF CRUDE OIL
 Impact Category

 Energy of Material  Resource

 Raw Materials
  Material  Process  Additions
   (chemicals 0.29,  cement  1.0,
  muds  0.59)

 Energy
  Electric
  Residual  Oil
  Gasoline
  Natural Gas Internal Combustion

Water Volume

Solid Wastes

Process Atmospheric Emissions
  Hydrocarbons

Waterborne Wastes
  Dissolved Solids
  Oil and Grease

Transportation
  Barge
  Truck
  Pipeline
Quantities
  19.525 million Btu
  1.88 Ib


  6.18 kwhr
  0.47 gal.
  0.02 gal.
  287.2 cu ft

  72.0 gal.

  0.60 tb


  8.62 Ib
  6.05  Ib
  0.11  Ib
  28.0  ton-miles
  10.0  ton-miles
 110.0  ton-miles
Sources

   19

   19,35
  17,18,19
  19

  19

  19


  19,28,29



  19
a/  1,001.3 Ib oil x 19,500 Btu/lb - 19.525 million Btu  (includea  1.3  Ib  for  lot**
                                   C-31

-------
                              TABLE C-20
           DATA FOR  PRODUCTION OF  1,000 POUNDS OF NATURAL GASJ
Impact Category

Energy of Material Resource

Energy
  Electric
  Fuel Oil
  Gasoline
  Natural Gas Internal Combustion

Water Volume

Process Atmospheric Emissions
  Hydrocarbons

Waterborne Wastes
  Dissolved Solids
  Oil and Grease
                                     uantities
                                    23.244 million
                                     6.18 kw-hr
                                     0.1 gal.
                                     0.02 gal.
                                   541.2 cu ft

                                    29.0 gal.
                                    25.88 Ib
                                     2.0 Ib
                                     0.037 Ib
                                                             Sources

                                                              19,36

                                                              17,18
                                                                19


                                                             17,18,19

                                                             27,28,29
                          Ib
a/ 1,038.1 Ib NG + 0.046 c^pft  x 1,030  cu
     eludes 38.1 Ib losses.
                                        Btu  _
                                             = 23.244 million Btu (in-
                             TABLE C-21

          DATA FOR PRODUCTION OF 1,000 POUNDS  OF DISTILLED  AND
                          HYDRO TREATED CRUDE
 Impact  Category

Raw Materials
  Additives

Energy
  Electric
  Natural Gas

Water Volume
                                     Quantities
                                        1.0 Ib
                                       40 kw-hr
                                      340 scf

                                       29 gal.  '
                                                              Sources

                                                                 19


                                                               17,18



                                                                 19
I/  See comment No.  7 Appendix B, page 7.

                                    C-32

-------
                                                            Dryer
Refrigeration,
Separators
Co
U)








r~
                                                                                    Debutant zer
                                ' Ethane
                                • Propane

                                -Butanes

                                • Natural
                                 Gasoline
                             Figure C-4  - Flow diagram for a natural gas  processing plant.

-------
          Table C-22 contains a summary of  production  impacts. The process
energy values were obtained from the  1972 Census of Minerals Industries.
The amount of natural gas processed in 1972 was 18,530.8 x  10? cubic feet.
The total gas used as fuel was 632.1  x 10'  cubic feet  or 3.41 percent of
throughput.
                               TABLE C-22

                DATA FOR PRODUCTION PROCESSING 1,000 POUNDS
                          OF NATURAL GAS LIQUIDS
    Impact Category
Quantities
  Sources
    Energy
      Electric
      Natural Gas

    Water Volume

    Process Atmospheric Emissions
      Hydrocarbons
      SOX
   1.64 kwhr
   753.0 scf

   230.0 gal.
   10.0 Ib
   2.62 Ib
 17.18,19



 19

7,17.18,19
    Transportation
      Rail
      Truck
      Barge
      Pipeline
   42.0 ton-miles
   14.0 ton-miles
   14.0 ton-miles
   70.0 ton-miles
                        19
          This represents 742  cubic feet per  1,000 pounds of natural gas
processed or 753 cubic feet per 1,000 pounds  of natural gas liquids (al-
lowing for 1.5 percent loss and by-product credit for  the residue gas).
The 1971 Minerals Yearbook shows a loss  of 0.36 percent (0.15 in flaring
or venting + 0.21 percent unaccounted for)  in NGL production* Industry
sources report that losses in  gas processing  plants range between 1 and
2 percent. For this report, the total losses  (processing, storage, and
transportation) are estimated  to be 1.5  percent.

          With reference to atmospheric  emissions, the sulfur oxides emitted
from natural gas processing plants in 1971 were 1,036,000 metric tons or
2.62 pounds per 1,000 pounds of NGL produced  (with by-product credit). Hydro-
carbon emissions are estimated to be 10.0  pounds per 1,000 pounds of NGL.
                                  C-34

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          3. Pollution Factors-Petroleum Refining; The solid waste result-
ing from petroleum refining (Table C-23) was assumed to consist of the
solids resulting from air and water pollution-control techniques.  According
to Reference 30, the total residues from air and water pollution control
in 1975 is estimated to be 990 million kilograms (2.182 x 1012  pounds).
The United States petroleum refining capacity in 1975 was approximately  15
million barrels per calendar day, or 1.64 x 1012 pounds for the year 1975.
The quantity of solid wastes per 1,000 pounds of refinery products is cal-
culated to be 1.38 pounds (with 4 percent loss of throughput).
                                   TABLE C-23

          POLLUTION FACTORS FOR 1,000 POUNDS OF PETROCHEMICAL REFINING



      Impact Category                     Quantities                Sources

      Energy                                                           2 7
        Electric                            6.8 kw-hr

      Industrial Solid Waste                1.38 Ib                 19,30

      Atmospheric Emissions
        Particles                           0.22 Ib                    7
        Sulfur Oxides              .         0.42 Ib                    7
        Carbon Monoxide                    11.80 Ib                    7
        Hydrocarbons                        3.77 Ib                   5,7
        Nitrogen Oxides                     0.06 Ib                    7

      Waterborne Wastes                                                1
        BOD                                 0.029 Ib
        TSS                                 0.018 Ib
        COD                                 0.169 Ib
        Oil                                 0.009 Ib
        Phenolic                            0.0001 Ib
        Ammonia (N)                         0.017 Ib
        Sulfide                             0.0001 Ib
        Chromium                            0.0005 Ib
          The atmospheric emissions present after pollution control treat-
ment are shown in Table C-23. The process emissions from petroleum refining
were assumed to result from three sources.
                                   C-35

-------
          The  sources  and emissions breakdown are shown below:

                          Pounds of Emissions Per 1.000 Pounds of Products
         Source           Particles      SOX      CO      H-C          NOx

 1  - Catalyst Regeneration    0.22       0.42     11.8    0.18         0.06
 2  - Storage Tanks
 3  - Miscellaneous             --         —       --
      Total                   0.22       0.42     11.8    3.77         0.06

          These  emissions do not include fuel combustion pollutants. Process
 fuel  emissions are  secondary impacts  and are added  to  the impact categories
 during  the computer calculations.

          The  waterborne waste values for petroleum refining were obtained
 from  Reference 1. The  size  factor used in the calculations was 1.04  (100
 to 149.9 thousand barrels of feedstock per stream day). The process  factor
 used  was 1.27  (process configuration  of 6.75 to  8.74). A value of 300 pounds
 per barrel was used for the weight of the incoming  crude oil.

          Table  C-23. presents the solid wastes,  atmospheric emissions and
 waterborne waste for refining 1,000 pounds of products in a petrochemical
 refinery. These  values will be  combined with the resource requirements
 (virgin raw materials, energy,  and water) for the various petrochemical
 products in order  to obtain the  total resource and  environmental impacts
 associated with  various petrochemicals.

          4. Ethylene  Manufacture and Profile Analysis; The primary  proces-
 ses used for manufacturing  ethylene are ethane/propane pyrolysis, naphtha
 cracking, and  gas oil  cracking. Presently, the pyrolysis of light gases ac-
 counts  for 75  percent  of  the ethylene produced.

          Figure C-5 shows  a flow diagram for the manufacture of ethylene.
 The hydrocarbon  feedstock enters the  cracking unit  where decomposition occurs
 under the influence of heat and pressure. In the transition reaction that
 follows, ethylene and  by-products are formed. When  ethane is the principal
 feedstock, the final product distribution shows  80  percent ethylene  and 20
 percent by-products. For propane and  naphtha feeds, ethylene represents 44
 percent and 34 percent of  the total reaction products  (Hydrocarbon Proces-
 sing, February 1974).  Therefore, with the present feedstock mix  (75  percent
 ethane/propane,  25  percent  heavier feeds), ethylene represents about 60 per-
 cent  of the total reaction  products (assuming the light gas feed represents
 62 percent ethane and  38 percent propane).

          After  cracking  the feedstock, the products are sent through heat
 exchangers for the  recovery of  furnace heat. The Btu recovery for ethane,
 propane, and naphtha feeds  can  approximate 2,100, 3,300 and 4,000 Btu, re-
 spectively, per  pound  of ethylene produced. After heat exchange, the reaction
 products are purified  and  fractionated into methane, ethylene, propylene, etc.
I/  See comment No.  7 Appendix B, page 7.

                                     C-36

-------
          Feed
               1010
          Cracking,
          Pyro lysis
Heat
Recovery


Acid Gas
Remova 1
Drying


Fractionation


^•1000 Pounds
   Ethylene
i
OJ
Figure  C-5 - Flow diagram for manufacture of ethylene  (in pounds).1
         I/  See comment No.  1  Appendix F, page 1.

-------
           The  energy requirements  for  ethylene manufacture will depend upon
 the type  of fuel  used and  the  amount of  heat  recovery experienced. Based
 on Reference 21,  the total  process  energy  for manufacturing ethylene and
 coproducts in  1973  was 382.3 x 109  Btu.  With  an ethylene production in 1973
 of 23 x 10' pounds,  and assuming 60 percent of the  total energy for ethylene
 and coproducts manufacture  was used in the ethylene manufacture,  the energy
 used to manufacture 1 pound of ethylene  is 9.973  Btu  (as an ethylene manu-
 facturing process). This agrees closely  with  the  value stated  in  the article
 for ethylene manufacture corrected  for by-products. Based on Reference 20,
 the energy requirement for  manufacturing ehtylene from naphtha is about
 8,700 Btu per  pound. Reference 24  indicates that  ehtylene can be manufactured
 from ethane with  an energy  requirement of  approximately 3,000 Btu per pound.
 Confidential sources report that energy  values of 5,000 to 7,500 Btu per
 pound of  ethylene are representative of  many  ethylene plants. Reference 34
 gives an  excellent  account  of  ethylene manufacture. This report shows that
 the fuel  requirements for ethylene  manufacture vary from 7,410 (from ethane)
 to 11,400 Btu  per pound (from  gas  oil).  For this  report, the manufacture of
 ethylene  has been charged with the  following  energy sources per 1,000 pounds
 of ethylene in 1975: Electric  = 100 kilowatt-hours  and natural.gas = 6,800
 cubic feet. These values represent  11,200  Btu per pound of ethylene manu-
 factured  from  naphtha and  7,200 Btu per  pound for ethylene manufactured from
 ethane or propane,  resulting in a national average  of 8,200 Btu per pound of
 ethylene  (75.percent ethane/propane pyrolysis and 25 percent naphtha cracking)

           The  raw impacts  for  producing  1,000 pounds of ethylene  are shown
 in Table  C-24. The  hydrocarbon feed requirements  in the production process
 are approximately 1,071 pounds of  feed per 1,000  pounds of ethylene.1

           The  primary use of water  in  the  cracking process is  for dilution
 steam requirements  and for  quench waters required in the cooling  and primary
 separation of  the cracked gases. The major wastewater sources  are the quench
 tower effluents and acid gas scrubber  effluents.  A  common practice is to send
 the wastewater through a steam condensate  stripper  to remove hydrocarbons.
 The effluent water  from the stripper can be reused. Wastewater volume is
 355 gallons per 1,000 pounds of ethylene.  The EPA 1977 effluent limitations
 are 0.058 pound BOD and 0.088  pound TSS  per 1,000 pounds of ethylene. Atmo-
 spheric emissions are reported to be 0.79  pound per 1,000 pounds of product.

           The  energy requirement for pollution control is 5.23 kilowatt-
 hours per 1,000 pounds of ethylene, or about  0.7  percent of the total energy
 requirements.
I/  See comment No.  1 Appendix F, page 1.
                                   C-38

-------
                               TABLE C-24
            DATA FOR THE PRODUCTION OF 1,000 POUNDS OF ETHYLENE
  Impact Category
                                    Quantities
        Sources
Raw Materials
  Process additions
  (1,071 Ib hydrocarbon  fuel)

Energy
  Electric
  Natural Gas

Wastewater volume

Solid Waste

Atmospheric Emission
  Particulates
  Sulfur Oxides
  Carbon Monoxide
  Hydrocarbons
  Nitrogen Oxides

Waterborne Wastes
  BOD
  Suspended Solids
                                    5.0 Ib
                                    77.23 kwhr
                                    6,800 cubic

                                    335  gal.

                                    18.0 Ib
                                    0.01  Ib
                                    0.09  Ib
                                    0.01  Ib
                                    0.67  Ib
                                    0.01  Ib
                                    0.058 Ib
                                    0.088 Ib
          19,24



0   19,20,21,24,34


          4

          30

          8
     C, Low Density Polyethylene (LDPE) Resin Manufacture2

          LDPE manufacture generally requires high pressures (1,500 atmo-
spheres) and temperatures around 380°F. Catalysts (oxygen,  organic peroxides,
metal oxides, etc*) and ethylene are introduced into a reactor for polymeri-
zation. After reacting, the monomer and polymer are separated, with the un-
converted ehtylene being recycled. The polymer is extruded, chilled and
chopped into a granular product. Some catalysts can be used to produce the
full range of densities between 0.925 and 0.965 gram per cubic centimeter.

          The raw data used to calculate the environmental  impacts of LDPE
manufacture are shown in Table C-25. The values were taken  from the actual
operating data of two plants producing LDPE.

-------
                             TABLE C-25

    IDATA TOR MANUFACTURE OF 1,000 POUNDS OF LOW DENSITY POLYETHYLENE



 Impact Category                     guanti ties               Sources

 Raw Materials        .                                             11
   (ethylene -  1,050 lb)
   Additives                            20.0 lb

 Ener8y  ^
   Electricity                         605.0 kw-hr
   Natural Gas                       1,090.0 cu ft

 Water  Volume                        1,000.0 gal.                  19

 Process  Solid  Wastes                    4.5 lb                    19

 Process  Atmospheric Emissions                                     19
   Particulates                         0.87 lb
   Hydrocarbons                         5.0 lb

 Waterborne Wastes                                                 80
   BOD                                   0.2 lb
   COD                                   2.00 ib
   Suspended Solids                      0.55 lb


      D. Low Density Polyethylene Film Manufacture

           A common method for  fabrication of  polyethylene film is an extru-
 sion system using either a tubular air  blow or water bath process.  Typical
 rates for an air blown process are 125  pounds of plastic  per hour*  The  water
 bath process has been demonstrated to produce in excess of 600  pounds per
 hour. For this report, a process was  simulated,  using 245 kilowatt-hour per
 1,000 pounds of film produced. Processes  are  described in the literature
 using from 180 to 350 kilowatt-hour per 1,000 pounds of products. Water
 usage is estimated to be around 1,780 gallons per 1,000 pounds  of LDPE
 film. Waste plastic scrap is estimated  to be  5 pounds per 1,000 pounds  of
 product.

           Environmental impacts for 1,000 pounds of LDPE  film are shown in
 Table C-26.
I/  See comment No.  3 Appendix F, page 1.

                                   C-40

-------
                            TABLE C-26

         DATA FOR MANUFACTURING 1,000 POUNDS OF LDPE FILM



 Impact Category                     Quantities               Sources

Raw Materials                                                    19
  LDPE Resin                           1,005 Ib

Energy
  Electricity                            245 kw-hr               19

Water Volume                           1,780 gal.                19

Process Solid Wastes                       5 Ib                  19


     E. Acrylic Resin Manufacturing

          1. Ammonia; Ammonia is produced primarily by steam reforming natural
gas. Natural gas is fed with steam into a tubular furnace where  the reaction
over a nickel reforming catalyst produces hydrogen and carbon oxides. The
primary reformer products are then mixed with preheated air and  reacted in a
secondary reformer to produce the nitrogen needed in ammonia synthesis.  The
gas is then cooled to a lower temperature and subjected to the water shift
reaction in which carbon monoxide and steam are reacted to form  carbon dioxide
and hydrogen. The carbon dioxide is removed from the shifted gas in an absorb-
ent solution. Hydrogen and nitrogen are reacted in a synthesis converter to
form ammonia.

          In the ammonia manufacturing process, 7 pounds of natural gas will
theoretically produce 17 pounds of ammonia and 19 pounds of carbon dioxide.
The actual natural gas usage as process feed is 318 pounds per 1,000 pounds
of products from an ammonia (products being defined as 45 percent ammonia
and 55 percent carbon dioxide). The process data for ammonia manufacture are
presented in Table C-27.

          2, Acrylonitrile Manufacture: The most widely used process for
the manufacture of acrylonitrile involves the reaction of propylene, ammonia
and air in a fluidized bed reactor. The basic chemical equation  for the
process is:


             2CH = CH-CH  + 2NH  + 30 	»2CH =CH-CN + 6H.O
                ^       J      J     fc.       fm           t*
                                   C-41

-------
The reaction is exothermic with recovered heat being used to generate steam
for use in the process. The effluent from the reactor is first sent to a
water quench tower where the excess ammonia is neutralized by sulfuric acid.
After rejection on inert gases, the mixture is fractionated to remove HCN,
and then acetonitrile is removed by extractive distillation. The acryloni-
trile product is dried and then distilled to produce a product which is
99 percent pure.
                                   TABLE C-27

                 DATA FOR MANUFACTURE OF 1,000 POUNDS OF AMMONIA



      Impact Category                     Quanti ties               Sources

      Raw Materials                                                    39
        Process  Additions  (natural
         gas  318 Ib)                        4.55 Ib

      Energy
        Electric                            18.5 kw-hr                 19
        Natural  Gas                      2,363 cu ft             .    19,38

      Water  Volume                       5,000 gal.                  19,41

      Solid  Waste                           0.2  Ib                    19

      Atmospheric Emissions
        Ammonia                              1.0  Ib                19,40,44
        Hydrocarbons                         1.0  Ib                19,40,44

      Waterborne Wastes
        Ammonia  (as N)                       0.062                     44
          The REP A process data are shown in Table C-28.  The atmospheric
emission values are significant but represent typical emission in 1975 for
plants without incineration. The emission per 1,000 pounds of acrylonitrile
from new plants will be 0.5 pound of hydrocarbons and 9.8 pounds of NOX.
The waterborne waste values represent Bert Practicable Control Technology
currently available as defined by EPA. The solid wastes associated with
the process is reported to vary from 0.3 to 8.0 pounds per 1,000 pounds
of acrylonitrile.
                                   C-42

-------
                                  TABLE  C-28

              DATA FOR MANUFACTURING  1,000 POUNDS OF ACRYLONITRILE



     Impact Category                     Quanti ties               Sources

     Raw Materials
       Process Additions  (Ammonia            5.0 lb                  19,10
         510 lb,  propylene  1,260 lb)

     Energy
       Electric                            70.0 kw-hr                 19

     Water Volume                         505.0 gal.                  27

     Solid Waste, Process                    0.8 lb                    53

     Atmospheric  Emissions                                             53
       Hydrocarbons                       107.0 lb
       Nitrogen Oxides                      6.7 lb
       Carbon Monoxide                    122.0 lb

     Waterborne Wastes                                                27
       BOD                                  0.88 lb
       TSS                                  1.32 lb
       Acrylonitrile                         0.0005 lb
       Phenol                               0.02 lb
          3. Acrylic Resin; Acrylic resins are generally copolymers of acry-
lonitrile. Acrylics contain more than 85 percent acrylonitrile. The comonomers
are added to improve dyeability and dissolving characteristics in commercial
solvents. Common names for acrylic fibers are Creslan, Acrilan, Zefran, Orlong,
Verel and Dynel.

          Acrylonitrile is appreciably soluble in water and is usually poly-
merized in aqueous solution, using water-soluble, free-radial initiators.
The utility requirements are estimates based on the requirements for the
production of an acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene resin.

          Table C-29 presents the manufacturing data for production of 1,000
pounds of an acrylic resin. The polymer was assumed to be 100 percent acry-
lonitrile.
                                   C-43

-------
                                  TABLE C-29

            DATA FOR PRODUCTION OF 1,000 POUNDS OF AN ACRYLIC RESIN



    Impact Category       %               Quantities               Sources

    Raw Materials        .                                            11
      (Aerylonitrlie 1,020 Ib)
      Catalysts and Chemicals               5.2 Ib

    Energy                                                           11
      Electricity                          74.0 kw-hr
      Natural Gas

    Water Volume                        4,800.0 gal.                 19

    Solid Wastes                            5.2 Ib                   19

    Atmospheric Emissions                                           . 19
      Hydrocarbons                          1.2 Ib

    Waterbome Wastes                                           •     80
      BOD                                   2.75 Ib
      COD                                  13.8 Ib
      Suspended Solids                      1.1 Ib
      Phenol                                0.0083 Ib


     F.  Rayon Manufacturing

          1. Carbon Disulfide Manufacture: Most of the carbon disulfide manu-
factured in the world, and all that is manufactured in the U.S., is produced
by reacting methane or natural gas with vaporized sulfur at elevated tempera-
ture (1200*F to 1300°F).

          Molten sulfur is vaporized in a furnace and mixed with methane
(natural gas). The gases are transferred to a reactor containing activated
alumina or clay catalyst where carbon disulfide and hydrogen sulfide are
formed.

          The reacted gases  are transferred to a scrubber where unreacted
sulfur is removed and recycled. The carbon disulfide gas is then dissolved
in mineral oil in an  absorption column while the hydrogen sulfide is sep-
arated and sent to a sulfur  recovery unit.
                                  C-44

-------
          The carbon disulfide is purified (up to 994- percent)  by  a  series
of distillations and stored under water to prevent fire.

          The environmental impacts generated by carbon disulfide  manufacture
are not great and do not contribute greatly to the Rayon  system. The most
important impact associated with CS2 manufacture is the energy  consumption.

          Data for manufacture of 1,000 pounds of carbon  disulfide are  con-
tained in Table C-30.
                                  TABLE C-30
           DATA FOR MANUFACTURE OF 1,000 POUNDS OF CARBON DISULFIDE
    Impact Category
Quantities
Sources
    Raw Materials
      (Natural Gas - 5,500 cu ft)
      (Sulfur - 925 Ib)

    Energy
      Electricity
      Natural Gas
      Material Resource

    Water Volume

    Solid Wastes

    Atmospheric Emissions
      Hydrogen Sulfide
      Particulates

    Waterborne Solids
      Sulfides

    Transportation
      Rail
      Barge
      Truck
      Pipeline
  322.0 kw-hr
3,880.0 cu ft
    9.396 million Btu

1,000.0 gal.

    5.0 Ib
    0.01 Ib
    1.0 Ib
    0.01 Ib
  1.00.0 ton-miles
   50.0 ton-miles
   25.0 ton-miles
  148.0 ton-miles
                           109
                           109
   19

   19

   19



   19
                                  C-45

-------
          2. Rayon Manufacture; Rayon is manufactured from woodpulp or cotton
linters raw materials. The fibers are first steeped in a solution of caustic
soda form alkali cellulose. The sheets of cellulose are crumbled and mixed
with carbon disulfide to form the xantrate crumb. The resulting mixture is
dissolved in a dilute caustic solution to form a thick, honey-colored liquid
known as viscose. The viscose is extruded through.fine holes in a spinnoid
(into a sulfuric acid bath) to form rayon fibers. The fibers can now be spun
as continuous filament or cut into staple of desired length.

          The raw impacts for rayon manufacture are shown in Table C-31.-
The process requires a relatively high quantity of energy when compared to
other manufacturing steps.
                                   TABLE C-31

                DATA FOR MANUFACTURING  1,000 POUNDS OF RAYON


   Impact Category                     Quantities               Sources

  Raw Materials

    Dry pulp  .                          1,075.0 Ib
    Caustic                               650.0 Ib              '
    Sulfuric  acid                       1,000.0 Ib
    Carbon disulfide                      340.0 Ib
    Additive                               17.0 Ib

  Energy
    Coal                                2,220.0 Ib
    Electricity                           300.0 kw-hr
    Natural Gas                         5,180.0 set
    Distillate                              1.1 gal.
    Residual                               74.0 gal.

  Water Volume                          1,600.0 gal.             19

  Process Solid Waste                      41.0 Ib               19

  Atmospheric Emissions
    Odorous sulfur                          6.1 Ib               19

  Waterborne Wastes
    BOD                                     4.8 Ib               80
    COD                                    72.0 Ib
    TSS                                     8.8 Ib
    Zinc                                    0.534 Ib

                                   C-46

-------
     G.  Poly (Ehtylene Terephthalate) Regin Manufacturp.

          1. Ethylene Oxide and Glycol; Ethylene oxic... r- :.-•  .factored by
reacting ethylene feedstock with oxygen in  «:hc prese'v-    •  .  -•;.. /t.—-uasa
catalyst. The reaction is highly exothermic, produ.iv,, ..  _.....;; ^..-...ji- jt.
as a by-product. The reactor effluent is mixed with wa ;:er to  efface  removal
of unreacted gases. The water rich stream of ethylene  oxide is  fad  to  a '
stripper where EO is recovered. For the production of  e .1  •'..= - i  %-; .ol, the
ethylene oxide is conveyed directly to the  glycol reacto.   .  e  ;h^  EC re-
acts with the required amount of water to form ethylene glycol.

          Table C-32 contains the process data for manure:firing  ethylene
glycol including the manufacture of ethylene oxide as  an  intermediate  step.
                                   TABLE C-32

            DATA  FOR MANUFACTURE  OF 1,.QOO POUNDS OF ETHYLENE GLYCOL

 Impact Category                     Quantities               Sources
 Raw Materials
   Process  Additions  (Ethylene              1.0 Ib              19,12
     910  Ib,  oxygen 1,200  Ib)

 Energy
   Electric                              325 kw-hr             12

 Water                                    602 gal.               4

 Process  Solid Waste                        8.2                 14,19

 Atmospheric  Emissions
   Hydrocarbons                            28.0 Ib              4,53,54

 Waterborne Wastesi'
   BOD                                      0.12                 4
   TSS                                      0.19                 4
 a/  The waste water from the ethylene  oxide  plant contains about 2 percent
       glycols and is generally  routed  to the glycol plant for product re-
       covery.  Therefore, the wastewater output  from the ethylene oxide
       plant is assumed to be zero.
                                    C-47

-------
          2. Methanol; Methanol can be manufactured from gaseous and liquid
hydrocarbons by a steam reforming route. The hydrocarbons are first desul-
furized and then mixed with steam and carbon dioxide and reformed at about
840°C in the presence of a catalyst. The reforming reaction converts the
hydrocarbons into carbon monoxide and hydrogen.  The resulting gaseous mixture
is adjusted to obtain a ratio of about two volumes of hydrogen to one volume
of carbon monoxide. The mixture is reacted under pressure (50 to 80 atmospheres)
at a temperature of 250 to 260°C in the presence of a catalyst to form  methanol.
The reaction is exothermic, producing 24,620 calories per gram mole of  methanol.
The reactor gases are cooled in a heat exchanger,  resulting in the condensation
of methanol. The unreacted gases are either recycled to the compressor  or used
as fuel.

          The impacts from manufacturing 1,000 pounds of methanol are shown
in Table C-33.
                                  TABLE C-33
              DATA FOR MANUFACTURE OF 1,000 POUNDS OF METHANOL
   Impact Category

   Raw Materials
     Catalyst (natural gas
       829 Ib)

   Energy
     Electric
     Natural Gas

   Water

   Solid Wastes
Quantities
      1.0
     36.6 kw-hr
  1,395 cu ft

     50 gal.

      0.5 Ib
Sources
  19
  47
  19,43,47

   4

  19
   Atmospheric Emissions
     Hydrocarbons

   Waterborne Wastes
     BOD
     TSS
      5.0 Ib
      0.058
      0.088
  19

  27
                                   C-4S

-------
          3. Oxygen; Oxygen is extracted from air by cryogenic separation.
The process is essentially one of liquifying the air and then collecting
the oxygen by fractionation. The oxygen is produced in the form of a liquid
which boils at 300 F below zero at normal atmospheric pressure. Most oxygen
plants are located close to their point of use r.c minimize transportation
difficulties* Table C-34 contains the process information relevant to the
manufacture of oxygen.
                                  TABLE  C-34

               DATA FOR MANUFACTURE  OF 1,000 POUNDS  OF  OXYGEN


  Impact Category                     Quantities                Sources

   Energy
     Electric                           208 kw-hr                  19
     Natural Gas                        764 cu ft
     Residual  Oil                         0.3 gal.
     Distillate Oil                       0.1 gal.
     Gasoline                             0.25 gal.

   Water                              2,800 gal.                  • 19
          4. Acetaldehyde; Acetaldehyde can be manufactured by the oxidation
of ethylene by palladium chloride in the presence of water.


                    C.H. + 1/2 00  catalyst    CH_CHO
                     242                3


The reaction proceeds almost quantitatively and is very selective with re-
spect to product ouput. The catalyst solution is recycled after purifica-
tion and has a long life* In the process, ethylene and oxygen are fed to the
bottom of a reaction tower filled with the catalyst solution. The vaporized
reaction products are separated from the cata1"st solution by a demister.
Acetaldehyde is removed from unreacted gases by cooling and scrubbing with
water. The crude product is separated in an extractive distillation process*
The direct oxidation process produces a dilute waste stream ready for waste-
water treatment. In 1970, the ethylene oxidation process accounted for 56
percent of the U.S. acetaldehyde capacity.

          Table C-35 presents the impacts for acetaldehyde manufacture. The
process additions consist of catalyst and hydrochloric acid. The process
solid waste value is an estimate based on the amount of sewage sludges formed
during waste wastewater treatment.
                                  C-49

-------
                                  TABLE C-35

            DATA FOR MANUFACTURE OF 1,000 POUNDS OF ACETALDEHYDE


   Impact Category                     Quantities               Sources

   Raw Materials

   Process Additions (ethylene          12.0 Ib                  10,55
     670 Ib, oxygen 397 Ib)                                      19,55

   Energy
     Electric                           22.7 kw-hr               55
     Natural Gas                     1,631 cu ft                 19,55

   Water                               793 gal.                  55

   Process Solid Wastes                  1.8 Ib                  19,27

   Atmospheric Emissions
     Hydrocarbons                        0.5 Ib                  53

   Waterborne Wastes
     BOD                                 0.42                     4
     TSS                                 0.64                     4
          5. Naptha Re forming; The reforming processes are used to convert
parafinic hydrocarbon streams into aromatic compounds such as benzine,  toluene,
and xylene.

          The impact data for 1,000 pounds of naphtha reforming are shown in
Table C-36.
                                  TABLE C-36

                  DATA FOR  1,000 POUNDS OF NAPHTHA REFORMING


   Impact Category                     Quantities                Sources

   Energy
      Electric                          14.8 kw-hr                 19
      Natural  Gas                       502.0 scf


                                   C-50

-------
          6. Paraxylene Manufacture;  Reformate  feedstock rich in xylenes  is
fractionated to obtain a stream rich  in the paraisomer.  Further purifica-
tion is accomplished by heat exchange and refrigeration. The  solid paraxylene
crystals are separated from the feedstock by centrifugation.

          Table C-37 contains the raw impacts for separating  paraxylene
from a reformate feedstock.
                                   TABLE C-37

                DATA FOR MANUFACTURING 1,000 POUNDS OF PARAXYLENE


    Impact Category                     Quantities               Sources

    Raw Materials                            .    .                  H
      Crude Oil                          1,035.0 Ib
      Additives                              1.0 Ib

    Energy                            .                             11
      Electric                             2.6.8 kw-hr
      Natural Gas                        2,651.0 scf
      Residual Oil                          39.0 gal.

    Process Solid Waste                      1.38 Ib               19

    Atmospheric Emissions
      Particulates                       '   0.22 Ib
      Sulfur Oxides                          0.42 Ib
      Carbon Monoxide                       11.8 Ib
      Hydrocarbon                            3.77 Ib
      Nitrogen Oxides                        0.06 Ib

    Waterborae Wastes                                              19
      BOD                                    0.029 Ib
      COD                                    0.169 Ib
      TSS                                    0.018 Ib
      Oil                                    0.006 Ib
      Phenol                                 0.0001 Ib
      Ammonia                                0.017 Ib
      Sulfides                               0.0001 Ib
      Chromium                               0.0005 Ib
                                   C-51

-------
          7. Terephthalic Acid; Terephthalic acid (TPA) is manufactured
primarily by oxidation of p-sylene in the liquid phase*
                      2 C6H4+ 3°2	»C6H4(COOH)2 + 2H2°


The oxidation is carried out in an acetic acid medium in the presence of
manganese and cobalt bromides. Typical reaction conditions are 200°C and
400 psi. The reactor effluents are continuously removed from the reactor
and routed to a crystallizer, where they are cooled by flashing the reac-
tant liquids. The acetic acid used in the reaction is recovered by distil-
lation and then recycled. TPA of greater than 99 percent can be recovered
in the process.

          The REPA data for the process are shown in Table C-38. Process
solid wastes were estimated from raw waste loads to the wastewater treat-
ment plant. The stoichemetry of the reaction indicates that 3.4 percent of
the incoming p-xylene is unreacted during the process and is either recycled
or emitted as waste. By-product credit was not given for the acetic acid
which can be produced at 0.55 to 1.1 pounds per pound of TPA. The source
data for the utilities required in the TPA process did not include the puri-
fication requirements to refine the acetic acid.

          8. Dimethyl Terephthalate (DMT); DMT is produced by esterfication
of TPA. TPA and methanol are fed to a reactor at moderate pressure and tem-
perature. The reaction is;
              C6H4(COOH)2 + 2CH3OH	*. CgH^COOCH^ + 2^0


The ester is formed by replacing the hydrogen of the carboxyl group with
the methyl group of the alcohol. The crude DMT is purified in a distilla-
tion and recycled back to the reactor.

          Table C-39 presents the process data for manufacture of DMT. About
1.6 percent of the TPA and 3 percent of the methanol are lost in the process.
The solid waste value represents primarily sewage sludges estimated from the
DMT process raw waste load.

          9. Poly (Ethylene Terephthalate) (PET) Resin Manufacture; PET resin
is manufactured from dimethyl terephthalate (DMT) or terephthalic acid (TPA)
by an esterification reaction with ethylene glycol. The reaction produces
by product methanol which can be reused in the manufacture of DMT. The poly-
ester melt can be cooled and granulated or fed directly to a fiber spinning
machine.
                                   C-52

-------
                                TABLE C-38

      DATA FOR MANUFACTURE OF 1,000 POUNDS OF TEREPHTHALIC ACID (TPA)


Impact Category                     Quantities               Sources

Raw Materials                                .                  11
  Process Additions (p-xylene
    660 lb, acetic acid 890 Ib)        1.0

Energy                                                         11
  Electric                            36.4 kw-hr
  Residual Oil                        15.0 gal.

Water                                186 gal.

Process Solid Waste                    1.5                     19,27

Atmospheric Emissions
  Hydrocarbons                        13.3                     19., 53
  Particles                            0.18                    19,53
  Sulfur Oxides                        0.16                    19,53
  Carbon Monoxide                      7.7                     19,53

Waterbome Wastes
  BOD                                  0.12                    27
  TSS                                  0.19                    27
                                     C-53

-------
                               TABLE C-39

  DATA FCR MANUFACTURE OF 1,000 POUNDS OF DIMETHYL TEREPHTHALATE  (DMT)


Impact Category                     Quantities               Sources

Raw Materials
  Process addition  (TPA 870 Ib,        1.0                     19
    methanol 340 Ib)

Energy
  Electric                            40.8 kw-hr
  Residual Oil                        29.4 gal.

Water                                270 gal.                  27

Process Solid Waste                   12.2 Ib                  19,27

Atmospheric Emissions
  Hydrocarbons                        15.7                     19,53
  Particles                            0.22                    19', 53
  Sulfur Oxides                        0.16                    19,53
  Carbon Monoxide                      9.0                     19,53

Waterborne Wastes
  BOD                                  0.51                    27
  TSS                                  0.07                    27
                                     C-54

-------
          The raw impacts for PET manufacture are presented in Table C-40.


                                   TABIE C-40

              DATA FOR MANUFACTURING 1,000 POUNDS OF PET RESIN


   Impact Category                     Quantities               Sources

   Raw Materials                                .                  11
     DMT                                1,020 Ib
     Terephthalic Acid                    888 Ib
     Acetaldehyde                         230 Ib
     Oxygen                                87.7  Ib
     Methanol                              12.2  Ib
     Ethylene Oxide-Glycol                332 Ib
     P-xylene                             372 Ib

   Energy                                                         11
     Electric                              85 kw-hr
     Natural Gas                          819 scf
     Residual Oil                          19 gal.

   Water Volume                           950 gal                 19

   Process Solid Waste                      5.5  Ib                19

   Atmospheric Emissions
     Hydrocarbons                           1 Ib                  19

   Waterhorne Wastes
     BOD                                    0.78 Ib               80
     COD         '                          11.7 Ib
     TSS                                    0.52 Ib


     H.  Conversion of Paper to Diaper

          Rolls of paper are transported to converting sites for manufacture
into final products*  In many cases the  converting site is located quite close
to the papermaking site, but sometimes  the  rolls are transported for a long
distance. In any event, at the converting  site,  materials are assembled for
the converting operation.
                                  C-55

-------
          The converting process is a relatively simple operation where
the rolls of paper are unwound, with the product being cut to proper size,
decorated (if required), rewound on a core (if required) and packaged for
shipment. The impacts of converting to 100 diapers are shown in Table C-41,
                                  TABLE C-41

                      DATA FOR CONVERTING - 100 DIAPERS


   Impact Category                     Quantities               Sources

   Materials
     Fluffing Pulpi/                                              89
       Sulphate                         7.92 Ib
       Sulphite                         0.020 Ib
     Tissue3-/                                                     89
       Virgin                           1.28 Ib
       Deinked                          0.22 Ib
     PE Film                            0.98 Ib

     Non-woven Fiber                                              89
       Rayon                            0.45 Ib
       Resin                            0.19 Ib
       Polyester                        0.008 Ib
       Crepe Wadding                    0.110 Ib
       Other                            0.137 Ib

     Other Materials                    0.015 Ib                  89

       Total Materials                 11.31 Ib                   89

   Packaging
     Corrugated Containers              1.22 Ib                   89
     Cartons                            1.57 Ib
     Poly Wrappers                      0.015 Ib

   Energy                               1.31 kw-hr                89

   Solid Wastes                         0.020 Ib                  89

   Scrap                                0.781 Ib                  89
   £/  Includes approximately 5 percent moisture.


                                  C-56

-------
IV, Nonwoven Bedding

          The disposable bedding is made of paper tissue and LDPE film. The .
paper tissue manufacturing is identical to the tissue discussed in the diaper
section (Appendix C-III). Also, the steps for LDPE film are discussed in the
diaper section.

          Information regarding the manufacturing step for the disposable
sheets was not submitted by industry for this study. Therefore, we have used
the disposable diaper manufacturing impacts to represent the impacts for
manufacturing the disposable sheets. The impacts are shown in Table C-42.


                                 TABLE C-42

              DATA FOR MANUFACTURING 1,000 DISPOSABLE SHEETS
   Impact Category                      Quantities               Sources

  Virgin Materials                                                19
    Tissue Paper                        107.4  Ib
    LDPE Film                           143.2  Ib

  Energy
    Electricity                         13.1  Iw-hr                19

  Process Solid Waste                    0.002 Ib                 19

  Packaging
    Corrugated Containers                4.1  Ib                   19

  Transportation                                                  19
    Rail                                30 Ton-miles
    Truck                               30 Ton-miles
V. Containers

     A. Cold Drink

          1. Wax Coated Paper Cups; The major processes for producing wax
coated paper cups are: (1) pulpwood harvesting;  (2) bleached kraft paper-
board; (3) salt mining; (4) chlorine manufacturing; (5) caustic manufactur-
ing;  (6)  limestone mining; (7)  lime manufacturing;  (8) sulfur mining;  (9)
sulfuric  acid manufacturing;  (10) crude oil production; (11) distillation
and hydrotreating;  (12) dewaxing heavy oils;  (13) wax purification;  and
(14)  cup  manufacturing.

                                    C-57

-------
Roundwood
Harvesting

Wood
Residues

Salt Mining

Limestone
Mining

Sulfur Mining
27302/
(1365)£/
13142/
(65;
115 ft
80
10 ft

r)b/
Chlorine
Caustic
Manufacl
1064 (fiber)^
958 (fuel)k^

and
fure

Lime
Manufacture

Sulfuric Acid
Manufacture
68 Chlorine
74 Caustic
39
29


Additives
and
Chemicals
I™
Bleached Kraft innnb/
». Paperbc^"' *«- IUUU"/ ^
Cup and Plate
Stock

a/  As received, includes moisture.
b/  Dry fiber base.

Source: Based on data in (5).
   Figure C-6 - Materials  Flow for Bleached Paperboard Manufacture for
                       Cup and Plate Stock (in Pounds)
                                    C-58

-------
                                TABLE C-43

    DATA  FOR MANUFACTURE  OF  1,000  POUNDS  (DRY  BASIS)  BLEACHED PAPERBOARD
                          FOR  CUP AND  PLATE STOCK
  Impact  Category

Materials
  Roundwood  (trees)

  Wood Residues  (sawdust, etc)
  Chlorine
  Caustic
  Lime
  Sulfuric Acid
  Others

                  a/
Energy (purchased)—
  Electricity
  Residual Oil
  Coal
  Distillate Oil
  LPG
  Natural Gas

Energy (self-generated)
  Wood Wastes

Water - gal.

Industrial Solid Wastes  (Ib)
            Quantities
                      b/
Process Air Pollutants—
  Particulates
  Sulfur Oxides
  Nitrogen Oxides
  TRS

Water Pollutants - Ib
  Suspended Solids
  BOD
- Ib
Sources

 90,93
         2,730 Ib (1,365 Ib dry
           weight)
         1,314 Ib (657 Ib dry weight)
            68 Ib
            74 Ib
            39 Ib
            29 Ib
            75 Ib
           143 kw-hr
            14.2 gal.
           304 Ib
             0.078 gal.
             0.046 gal.
         5,532 cu ft
            9.29 million Btu

        10,700

           142
             0.32
             0.89
             0.46
             0.72
             4.49
             3.61
                                      94
90

96-

90,93
                                      93
£/  Includes 1,031 Ib of steam (calculated at 1,400 Btu/lb) which  is dis-
      tributed among the fossil fuels.
b/  See Table C-45 for more detail on sources of air pollution.
_!/  See comment No. .11 Appendix J,  page  39.

-------
                                  TABLE  C-44

          EMISSIONS  TO THE ATMOSPHERE FROM MILLS  FOR MANUFACTURE
         OF  1,000  POUNDS BLEACHED  PAPERBOARD FOR CUP AND  PLATE  STOCK
                                       Power        Kraft
                                       Source     —Process         Total
                                   I
 Particulates  -  Ib                  , -    1.67          2.32           3.99
 Sulfur  Oxides - Ib                     13.92          0.89          14.81
 Nitrogen  Oxides - Ib                    4.15          0.46           4.61
      - Ib                               —           0.72           0.72
 Source:   93,  except  as  noted.
 a/  Estimated from 90.
                                 TABLE C-45
ENERGY AND SECONDARY IMPACT FACTORS FOR FUEL PURCHASED AND CONSUMED  ON-SITE
            FOR MANUFACTURE OF  1,000 POUNDS BLEACHED PAPERBOARD
                          FOR CUP AND PLATE STOCK3-/
Energy  (total) - mil Btu
  Fuel  Oils  (14.24 gal.)                                      2.418
  Natural Gas and LPG  (5.536 cu ft)                           6.012
  Coal  (304  Ib)                                               4.043
    Total                                                     12.473

Solid Wastes (secondary) - Ib                                 58.8

Air Pollutants (secondary) - Ib
  Particulates                                                0.68
  Nitrogen Oxides                                             2.62
  Hydrocarbons                                                6.59
  Sulfur Oxides                                               0.97
  Carbon Monoxide                                             1.50

Water Pollutants (secondary)
  Dissolved Solids - Ib                                       2.20
Source:  90.
a/  Energy is total energy from Table C-44.  Pollutants are from secondary
      sources which occur off-site such as refining the fuel oil.  Primary
      factors which occur on-site are in Tables C-44 and C-45.
                                    C-60

-------
          Processes 1 through 9 are discussed in Appendix C-I (Paper Towel
Step 10 and 11 are covered in Appendix C-III (Diapers). Discussions of the
remaining processes will follow.

               a. Bleached Kraft Paperboard for Cups and Plate Stock: Paper
cups and plates are manufactured primarily from bleached kraft paperboard.
A discussion of the kraft process can be found in Section B and C,  to which
the reader is referred. Figure C-6 illustrates the materials flow for this
process as applied to cup and plate manufacture, while Tables C-43, C-44,
and C-45 show the data used to calculate the impact profiles for paperboard
manufacture*

               Paperboard used in the manufacture of plastic coated paper
hot drink cups is shipped to the converting plant as a plastic coated paper-
board. In order to estimate the effects of the coating, impacts for manu-
facture of 51 pounds of low density polyethylene resin were added per 1,000
pounds of paperboard required (Reference 95).

               Impacts of manufacture of the chemicals shown in Figure C-6
are discussed elsewhere in this report.

               b. Dewaxing Heavy Oils; Distillate or residual oils are used
as a stock material for dewaxing systems. The stock material is diluted,
chilled and filtered. The resulting products are dewaxed oils and a waxy
solution.

               The raw impacts involved with 1,000 pounds of dewaxed oils
are shown in Table C-46.
                                 TABLE C-46

                   DATA FOR 1,000 POUNDS OF DEWAXING OILS


   Impact  Category                      Quantities               Sources

   Virgin Material                                                 11
     Additives                            0.07 Ib

   Energy                                                          11
     Electric                            39.6 kw-hr
     Natural Gas                        179.0 scf
     Residual Oil                         5.6 gal.

   Water Volume                         760.0 gal.                 11
                                    C-61

-------
               c. Wax Purification; High oil wax materials are placed in
solution, cooled, filtered, then cooled and filtered again. The resulting
waxes are either parrafin waxes or tnicrocrystalline waxes.

               The impacts associated with deoiling 1,000 pounds of wax
are shown in Table C-47.
                                TABIE C-47

           DATA FOR MANUFACTURING 1,000 POUNDS OF DEOILED WAX


  Impacts                              Quantities               Sources

 Virgin Materials                                                11
   Additives                            0.07 Ib

 Energy                                                          11
   Electric                            29.7 kw-hr
   Natural Gas                        269 scf
   Residual Oil                         5.8 gal.

 Water Volume                         825 gal.                  ' 11
               d. Conversion of Paperboard to Wax Coated Paper Cups: The
process of conversion of paperboard consists essentially of unwinding rolls
of paperboard, decorating, coating with wax (where required), forming mech-
anically into the proper shape and packaging for shipment. The primary im-
pacts result from energy use.

               These data were based on a survey of cup and plate manufac-
turers by the Single Service Institute (SSI). The survey sample included
manufacturers of more than 50 percent of paper cups and paper plates manu-
factured in the U.S. (Reference 95). Environmental impact data are found
in Table C-48.

          2, Thermoformed Polystyrene Cup: The processes necessary for manu-
facturing thermoformed polystyrene cups are: (1) ethylene manufacturing (dis-
cussed in Appendix C-III, Diapers); (2) reforming; (3) benzene extraction; (4)
toluene dealkylation; (5) styrene manufacturing; and (6) cup manufacturing.

               a. Reforming, Benzene Extraction, and Toluene Dealkylation:
Reforming processes are used in converting parafinic hydrocarbon streams
into aromatic compounds such as benzene and toluene. The environmental im-
pacts associated with this procedure are shown in Table C-49.

                                   C-62

-------
                              TABLE C-48

DATA FOR CONVERTING ONE MILLION 9-OUNCE WAX COATED PAPER COLD DRINK CUPS
Impact Category

Materials
 Bleached Paperboard^'
 Wax
 LD Poly Bags
 Cartons
 Corrugated
 Inserts and Protectors

Energy
 Electricity
 Natural Gas
 Residual Oil

Solid Waste
Quantities
  12,490  Ib
   5,380  Ib
     160  Ib
     350  Ib
   1,270  Ib
     100  Ib
  4,390 kw-hr
  8,160 cu  ft
      75 gal.

      170  Ib  .
Sources
                           95
                           95
  95
a/  Includes approximately 6 percent moisture by weight.
                               TABLE C- 49
                 DATA FOR 1,000 POUNDS OF REFORMED FUEL
Impact Category

Energy
  Electric
  Natural Gas
 Quantities
   14.8 fcw-hr
  902.0 scf
Sources
                            10
                               C-63

-------
               The toluene produced in the reformer is treated in the toluene
dealkylation process to remove the methyl group and benzene. The benzene is
extracted. The resource inputs associated with these processes are shown in
Cables C-50 and C-51.
                                    TABLE C-50

                 DATA FOR  1,000 POUNDS OF TOLUENE DEALKYLATION


       Impact Category                     Quantities               Sources

       Energy                                                         10
        Electric                            40 kw-hr
        Natural Gas                         773 scf
        Residual                             5.3 gal.


                                    TABLE C-51

                   DATA FOR  1,000 POUNDS EXTRACTED BENZENE


       Impacts Category                      Quantities               Sources

       Virgin Materials                                                10
        Additives                           2  Ib

       Energy                                                         10
        Electric                            5.9 kw-hr
        Natural Gas                     1,126.0 scf
        Distillate                          7.8 gal.
               The environmental outputs associated with benzene manufacture
are expressed in Table C-52. The impacts represent the pollutants resulting
from the total refining process from crude oil distillation to benzene puri-
fication. The energy value represents the energy used in treating the water-
borne wastes.
                                   C-64

-------
                              TABLE C-52

               BENZENE SYSTEM ENVIRONMENTAL OUTPUT^  FOR
                      1,000 POUNDS OF BENZENE
Impact  Category                      Quantities               Sources

Energy
  Electric^/                          3.22 kw-hr               19

Water Volume                        100 gal.                   19

Solid Waste                           4.64 bl                  19

Atmospheric Emissions                                           7
  Particles                           0.24 Ib
  Sulfur Oxides                       0.55 Ib
  Carbon Monoxide                    14.60 Ib
  Hydrocarbons                        1.78 Ib
  Nitrogen Oxides                     0.06 Ib

Waterborne Waste                                                1
  BOD                                 0.029 Ib
  COD                                 0.169 Ib
  Oil                                 0.009 Ib
  Suspended Solids                    0.018 Ib
  Phenol                              0.0001 Ib
  Ammonia                             0.017 Ib
  Sulfides                            0.0001 Ib
  Chromium                            0.0005 Ib
JL/ Raw impacts resulting from the refining processes  (crude oil dis-
      tillation, hydrotreating, reforming, benzene extraction, and
      purification) used in the manufacture of benzene.
Jb/ Energy for processing wastes.
                                   C-65

-------
               b. Styrene Manufacture; Figure C-7 shows a flow diagram for
the manufacture of styrene. Dry benzene enters the alkylation reactor where
ethylene and benzene react in the presence of an aluminum chloride catalyst
to form ethylbenzene. Fractionation towers separate ethylbenzene from other
reaction products and unreacted feed components. The purified ethylbenzene
is then catalytically denydrogenated to form styrene. Additional fractiona-
tion towers separate the high purity styrene from unconverted ethylbenzene
and reaction by-products. Ethylbenzene is recycled to the dehydrogenation
reactor and benzene to the alkylation reactor. Toluene (52 pounds per 1,000
pounds of styrene) and aluminum chloride (2 pounds per 1,000 pounds of sty-
rene) are produced as by-products. The aluminum chloride is used for water
treatment applications.

               The raw impacts for producing 1,000 pounds of styrene are
presented in Table C-53. Chemicals for pollution control have been included
in process additions and the ethylene and benzene raw materials requirements
have been adjusted for a 6.1 percent by-product credit. Electricity use
of 43.8 kilowatt-hours includes 15.5 kilowatt-hours for pollution control.
The vent gases are treated for recovery of aromatics and removal of hydro-
chloric acid. Process condensate from the dehydrogenation step is stripped
to remove dissolved aromatics and then is used as boiler feed water.

               c. Cup Manufacturer The 9 fluid ounce polystyrene cup is
manufactured by thermoforming a plastic sheet. Basically, the process con-
sists of heating the polystyrene sheet to a formable plastic state and then
applying air and/or mechanical assists to shape it to the contours of a
mold.

               The raw impacts for manufacturing the cup are shown in Table
C-54.

     B. Hot Drink

          1. LDPE Coated Paper Cupst The paper manufacturing steps are iden-
tical to those discussed in Appendix C-I (Paper Towels) with the exception
of the paperboard manufacturing which was covered in the paper cold drink
section. The LDPE manufacturing processes are covered in Appendix C-III
(Diapers).

          A discussion of the manufacture of LDPE lined cups follows.

          Conversion of Paperboard to Cups and Plates; The process of con-
version of paperboard consists essentially of unwinding rolls of paperboard,
decorating, coating with wax (where required), forming mechanically into the
proper shape and packaging for shipment. The primary impacts result from
energy use.
                                  C-66

-------
           Benzene
                      773
           Ethylene
289

Alkylotion
Reactor


Water
Caustic
Wash


Ethylbenzene
Distillation
                                                          Ethylbenzene
                                                          Dehydroge nation
o
i
I
                                                            Styrene
                                                            Distillation
                 1000 Pounds
                 Styrene
                         Figure C-7 - Flow Diagram  for Styrene Manufacture (pounds)

-------
                              TABLE C-53

         DATA FOR THE PRODUCTION OF 1,000 POUNDS OF STYRENE
Impact Category
 Quantities
Raw Materials
  Process Additions
  Pollution Control Chemicals
  (289 Ib of ethylene and 773 Ib
  of benzene are allocated to
  the production of 1,000 Ib styrene)
   13.0 Ib
    7.0 Ib
Energy
  Electric
  Natural Gas
  Residual Oil

Wastewater Volume

Solid Wastes, Process

Atmospheric Emissions, Process
  Particulates
  Hydrocarbons
  Nitrogen Oxides

Waterborne Wastes
  BOD
  Suspended Solids
   43.8 kw-hr
2,489 cu ft
   15.3 gal.

1,733 gal.

   27 Ib
    0.01 Ib
    0.072 Ib
    0.02 Ib
    0.42 Ib
    0.64 Ib
Sources
                            10
 10,27
 10
 10
 31

  8
                              TABLE C-54
     DATA FOR MANUFACTURING ONE MILLION 9-OUNCE THERMOFORMED CUPS
Impact Category

Virgin Material
  PS Resin

Energy
  Electric

Process  Solid Waste

Packaging
  LDPE Bags
  Corrugated Containers
  Quantities


   14,120 Ib


    8,350 kw-hr

      190 Ib
      120  Ib
    1,020  Ib
Sources


 123


 123

  19


  19
                                   C-68

-------
          These data were based on a survey of cup and plate manufacturers
by the Single Service Institute (SSI). The survey sample included manufacturers!
of more  than 50 percent of paper cups and paper plates manufactured in the
U.S.  (Reference 95). Environmental impact data are found in Table C-55. Air
and water pollutants are negligible, and no process water is used.


                                 TABLE C-55

   DATA  FOR CONVERTING  ONE MILLION 7-OUNCE PAPER HOT  DRINK  CUPS  (LDPE  LINED)


    Impact  Category                     Quantities               Sources

   Materials -  Ib                      .           .                95
      Bleached Paperboard  (LDPE Coated)-    19,280^
      Paper  Bags                                390
      Cartons                                1,550
      Other                                      60

   Energy                                                          95
      Electricity                             2,420  kw-hr
      Natural Gas                           10,940  cu  ft

   Solid Waste                                 380  Ib               95
    a/   Paperboard  includes  approximately  6  percent moisture  by weight.   The
          coated  paperboard  is  5.1  percent coating  (by weight), and  94.9  percent
          paperboard.
          2. Foam Polystyrene Cups: The manufacturing processes for the 7
fluid ounce foam polystyrene cup are the same as those for the 9 fluid
ounce thermoformed polystyrene cup with the addition of: (1) polystyrene
resin manufacturing; (2) isopentane manufacturing; and (3) cup manufactur-
ing.

          A discussion of these three processes follows.

               a. Polystyrene Resin Manufacturer Styrene is normally poly-
merized by either suspension or bulk methods. Suspension polymerization re-
fers to an aqueous system with the monomer as a dispersed phase, resulting
in polymer as a dispersed solid phase. The dispersion is maintained by a
combination of agitation and the use of water soluble stabilizers. In bulk
polymerization, inhibitor-free styrene is prepolymerized in a stirred vessel
                                   C-69

-------
until the reaction mixture is approximately 30 percent polymer. The solution
is then transferred to a second reactor where the temperature is controlled
during final polymerization. The pure molten polymer is discharged through
spinnerets or into an extruder, producing small diameter rods which are
chopped into polystyrene pellets. Figure C-8 shows flow diagrams for both
suspension and bulk polymerization.

               Table C-56 contains the raw impact data for manufacturing
polystyrene resin. The process additives include solvents, plasticizers,
etc. The energy category includes 3.67 kilowatt-hours for pollution control.
Wastewater volume and pollutants are 1977 EPA guideline values. Atmospheric
emissions represent the current estimate for the national average emissions
from polystyrene manufacturing plants.
                                  TABLE C-56

        DATA FOR THE MANUFACTURE OF 1,000 POUNDS OF POLYSTYRENE RESIN


    Impact Category                     Quantities               Sources

    Raw Materials
      Process Additions                   24.0 Ib               '   25
      (1,010 Ib styrene monomer
         required)

    Energy                                                         19,25,27
      Electric                            53.67 kw-hr
      Natural Gas                      1,710 cu ft

    Wastewater Volume                <    650 gal.
                                    *)•

    Solid Waste, Process                   9.0 Ib                  19,33

    Atmospheric Emissions, Process                                  8
      Particulates                         0.08 Ib
      Sulfur Oxides                        0.24 Ib
      Hydrocarbons                         4.00 Ib

    Waterborne Wastes                                               3
      BOD                                  0.13 Ib
      COD                                  1.30 Ib
      Suspended Solids                     0.36 Ib
      Chromium                             0.001 Ib
                                  C-70

-------
                   Styrene


                  Additions
1U1U
10 -

Reactor 1
— ^
Reactor II


Degassing


Extrusion
Palletizing
^ 1000 Pounds
Polystyrene
o
I
                                                     Bulk Polymerization
Styrene 	 a»
Water 	 +•
...... 30
Additives 	 ^
Reactor


Hold
Tank


Centrifuge,
Dryer
~*
Extrusion
Pelletizing
1000 Pounds
** Polystyrene
                                                  Suspension Polymerization
                                  Figure C-8 - Flew Diagram For  the Manufacture of

                                                 Polystyrene  Resin (Pounds)

-------
               b. Isopentane Production (Blowing Agents); The hydrocarbon
blowing agents (isopentane, pentane, etc.) were assumed to be produced in
a natural gas liquids plant. In 1971, the total quantity of isopentane pro-
duced in NGL plants was approximately 5.6 million barrels (0.9 percent of
production). This can be compared with an ethane production of 80.5 million
barrels. The raw impacts for the production of 1,000 pounds of isopentane
are presented in Table C-57 and are identical to the impacts assigned to
NGL production.
                                 TABLE  C-57

           DATA FOR THE  PRODUCTION OF  1,000  POUNDS  OF  ISOPENTANE


   Impact  Category                      Quanti ties               Sources

   Energy                                                          17,18,19
     Electricity                         1.64 kw-hr
     Natural  Gas                       753 cu ft

   Waterborne Wastes                   280 gal.                    19

   Atmospheric Emissions                                          7,17,18,19
     Hydrocarbons                        10.0
     SOX                                 2.62
               c. Foam Cup Manufacture; Table C-58 contains the data sub-
mitted by the Single Service Institute for the polystyrene foam cup manu-
facturing steps.
                                   C-72

-------
                                   TABLE C-58

             DATA  FOR MANUFACTURING ONE MILLION 9-OUNCE FOAM CUPS1
     Impact  Category

     Virgin  Materials
       PS Resin
       Isopentane

     Energy
       Electric
       Natural Gas
       Residual
       Distillate

     Solid Waste Process

     Atmospheric Emissions
       Hydrocarbons

     Packaging
       LDPE  Bags
       Corrugated Containers
Quantities
  4,650 Ib
    220 Ib
  3,960 kw-hr
116,950 scf
     50 gal.
    800 gal.

     90 Ib
    150 Ib
    225 Ib
  1,850 Ib
Sources
                           123
  123
  19

  19



  19
VI.  Plates
           The  processes  necessary  for  the manufacture  of paper plates  are:
 (1)  pulpwood harvesting; (2)  paperboard manufacturing;  (3)  salt mining;  (4)
 chlorine manufacturing;  (5) caustic manufacturing;  (6)  limestone mining;
 (7)  lime manufacturing;  (8) sulfur mining;  (9)  sulfuric acid; and  (10) plate
 manufacturing.

           Processes  1  through 9  are covered in  Appendix C-I (Paper Towels).
 A discussion of  process  10  follows.

           1. Conversion  of  Paperboard  to Cups and Plates: The process  of
 conversion of  paperboard consists  essentially of unwinding  rolls of paper-
 board,  decorating, coating  with  wax (where  required),  forming mechanically
 into the proper  shape  and packaging for shipment. The  primary impacts  re-
 sult from  energy use.  For plates,  this is electricity  used  to mold and trans-
 port the product inside  the plant.
_!/  Heading should be for  7-cunce cups.

                                   C-73

-------
          These data were based on a survey of cup and plate manufacturers
by the Single Service Institute (SSI). The survey sample included manu-
facturers of more than 50 percent of paper cups and paper plates manufactured
in the U.S. (Reference 95). Environmental impact data are found in Table
C-59. Air and water pollutants are negligible, and no process water is used.
                                  TABUS  C-59

      DATA FOR CONVERTING ONE MILLION 9-INCH ROUND PRESSED  PAPER PLATES

Impact Category
Materials
Bleached Paper boa rdi/
Poly Bags
Currugated
Quantities
28,165 Ib
120 Ib
120 Ib
945 Ib
Sources
95
    Energy                                                         95
      Electricity                          1,800 fcw-hr

    Solid  Waste                               20 Ib                 95
   £/   Includes approximately 6 percent moisture by weight.
          2. Transportation for Disposable Paper Plates and Cups: Table C-60
shows the significant transportation steps for the manufacture of disposable
paper plates and cups.

     B. Foam Polystyrene

          The production steps for foam polystyrene plates are identical
to those for foam polystyrene cups.

          The manufacturing impacts for polystyrene foam plate production
represent industry averages submitted for the study by the Single Service
Institute. The data are shown in Table C-61.
                                    C-74

-------
                                              TABLE C-60
                     TRANSPORTATION FACTORS FOR DISPOSABLE PAPER PLATES AND CUPS


Material - locations
Paperboard to 9-oz wax coated cup conversion
Wax to 9-oz wax coated cup conversion
Shipping containers to 9-oz wax coated
cup conversion
9-oz wax coated cups to market
Paperboard to plate conversion
Shipping containers to plate conversion
n Plates to market
i
-j
Paperboard to 7-oz LDPE coated cup
conversion
Shipping containers to 7-oz LDPE coated
cup conversion
7-oz LDPE coated cups to market

Unit
Million cups
Million cups

Million cups
Million cups
Million plates
Million plates
Million plates

Million cups

Million cups
Million cups
Rail
(ton-miles)
4,930
1,860

--
980
10,000
--
520

4,150

—
454
Truck
(ton-miles)
330

82.5
2,920
1,410
57
3,240

--

110
2,220
Source:  (7)

-------
                              TABLE C-61
           DATA FOR MANUFACTURING ONE MILLION FOAM PLATES
Impact Category

Virgin Materials
  PS Resin
  Isopentane

Energy
  Electric

Process Solid Waste

Atmospheric Emissions
  Hydrocarbons

Packaging
  LDPE Bags
  Corrugated Containers
Quanti ties
   26,610 Ib
    1,040 Ib
   20,200 kw-hr

      460 Ib


      270 Ib
      350 Ib
    3,600 Ib
Sources
                           123
  123

   19


   19


   19
                                   C-76

-------
                                APPENDIX Dl>

                                REUSABLES
 I.  Towels

      A.  Cloth                       . ,:
                                    . «&,'
           The processes  necessary for manufacturing cloth towels are: (1)
 cotton growing (fertilizer);  (2)  cotton  ginning; and (3)  cotton cloth pro-
 duction.                          ••'  •   ••&.:
                                *  : -  - •
                                   ' . f    "
                                    ".•'.^fV
           A brief  discussion  of the steps  in each process will be given,
 along with environmental impact data.
                            1  2
           1. Cotton Growing:'The  main impacts generated by growing cotton
 are due  to the use of chemicals (pesticides  and fertilizers)  and the burn-
 ing of petroleum derived fuels  in farm machinery.

           The amount of  pesticides that  is used in cotton is  large. Cotton
 receives approximately 50 percent of  all insecticides  used annually in the
 U.S.  To  control insects, farmers  must dust or spray the growing cotton many
 times a  season; the number and  concentration is dependent upon the weather
 conditions and degree of infestation. The  pollution resulting from pesticide
 use is extremely hard to measure  due  to  the  different  methods of application,
 types of chemicals used, and  geographical  nature of the farmland.

           Fertilizer use also varies  with  the type of  cotton  grown, condi-
 tions of the soil, and region of  the  country, etc. Although data on the
 pollution  attributable to fertilizer  use are more readily available than
 that associated with pesticide  use,., the  amount of pollution depends upon
 a wide number of variables, making an  extremely accurate estimate of the
 impacts  difficult.

           The frequent application of pesticides, fertilizers, and other
 activities necessary in  cultivating cotton,  require a  relatively large
 amount of  fuel for the machinery  involved. This not only adds to the air
 pollution  of cotton growing,  but  also increases the energy requirement.
 Table D-l  lists the major impacts attributable to the  growing of 1,000
 pounds of  finished cotton.
I/  See comment No.  3  Appendix B, page 5.
2/  See comment No.  4  Appendix B, pages 5-6.
                                   D-l

-------
                              TABLE D-l

               DATA FOR GROWING 1,000 POUNDS OF COTTON
Impact Category                     Quantities
Sources
Raw Materials                                                   19
  Fertilizer                         152.5 Ib
  Pesticides                           8.6 Ib

Energy                                                          59
  Diesel                             23.34 gal.
  Gasoline                            5.38 gal.

Atmospheric Emissions                                           19
  Pesticides                          2.2 Ib
  Hydrocarbons                        4.2 Ib

Waterborne Wastes                                               19
  Pesticides                          0.46 Ib
  Hydrocarbons                        0.08 Ib

Transportation
  Diesel                              1.2 gal.                   59
          2. NP Fertilizer Manufacturing; NP fertilizers are manufactured
from phosphate rock, nitric acid, ammonia, and carbon dioxide. The phosphate
rock reacts with nitric acid resulting in calcium nitrate and phosphoric
acid; the calcium nitrate is removed and ammonia and carbon dioxide are
added to control the ratio of N:P.O .

          The environmental impacts for 1,000 pounds of NP fertilizer pro-
duction are shown in Table D-2.

               a. Phosphate Rock Mining; Phosphate rock is obtained chiefly
from deposits in Florida, Tennessee, and the western states. The deposits
are generally classified as residual, replacement and sedimentary. Residual
phosphate is derived from phosphatic limestone. Replacement phosphate is
phosphatized limestone  formed  by the reaction of phosphoric acid of organic
origin and  limestone. Sedimentary phosphates, believed to be derived from
marine organisms, occur in irregular pockets of many sizes embedded in clay
or sand.
                                   D-2

-------
                              TABLE D-2

           DATA FOR 1,000 POUNDS NP FERTILIZER MANUFACTURE



 Impact  Category                     Quantities               Sources

 Raw Materials                                                   10
  Phosphate                           430.0 Ib
  Nitric Acid                         690.0 Ib
  Ammonia                             230.0 Ib
  Carbon Dioxide                      160.0 Ib

 Energy                                                          10
  Electricity                          43.5 kw-hr
  Natural Gas             •          1,064.0 scf

 Atmospheric Emissions                 •.                          10
  Particulates                          9.0 Ib
  Nitrogen Oxide                        0.4 Ib
  Ammonia                               0.5 Ib
  Hydrogen Flouride                     0.02 Ib

 Waterborne Wastes                                               80
  Ammonia                             0.0375 Ib
  Nitrogen                            0.05 Ib
               The Florida and Tennessee phosphates are usually formed in
surface deposits and are worked by open-cut mining methods. Western phos-
phates are mined by underground methods*

               Most commercial deposits of phosphate rock are amorphous,
impure varieties of the mineral fluorapatite, CaigtPOJxF,. The deposits
contain 18 to 90 percent available tricalcium phosphate, 033(PO,)., known
as BPL (bone phosphate of lime). About three-fourths of the phosphate rock
marketed contains between 70 and 76 percent BPL.

               The general practice in open-pit methods is to strip the
overburden with electric pottered draglines and then remove the phosphate
rock. The rock is placed in a sluice pit where hydraulic monitors break
up the rock with 200 psi pressure. The slurry (40 percent solids) is pumped
through movable steel pipelines to the benefication plant.
                                   D-3

-------
               At the benefication plant, the first step is to separate
the coarse phosphate rock from clay, sand, and fine phosphate. The coarse
phosphate is removed and stocked as a marketable product* The fine mate-
rial is delimed to remove clays and sent to a flotation process to remove
fine phosphate. The sand tails and slimes, which contain 4 to 6 percent
solids, are pumped to slime ponds for settling. The slimes account for
about one-third of the total tonnage mined, and present a disposal problem.
The solids can be concentrated by settling, thickening with slow stirring,
freezing, and electrophoresis methods. The economics of rapid concentra-
tion are excessive at the present time.

               The chief impurities in domestic phosphate rock are iron,
aluminum, and silicon oxides. Most of the impurities are removed during
the washing and sintering operations prior to phosphoric acid manufacture.

               Elements that might be recovered as by-products from phos-
phate rock processing are fluorine, vanadium, uranium, scandium, and the
rare earths. Phosphorites contain about 3 percent fluorine. The fluorine,
released in part as a gas in the chemical processing, is a potential air
pollutant.

               The total marketed production of phosphate rock products
in the United States was 38,739,000 long tons in 1970. The total amount
of mineral which must be mined to market this amount is about 454,408,470
long tons.

               Table D-3 presents the raw data for mining 1,000 pounds
of phosphate rock.

               b. Nitric Acid Production; The necessary raw materials for
the modern production of nitric acid are ammonia, air, water and platinum-
rhodium (a catalyst). The series of reactions are:
                      4NH  4- 5D2	> HNO +

                           2NO + 0

                      3NO  + HO	>2HNO  + NO


               The environmental impacts of manufacturing 1,000 pounds
of nitric acid are shown in Table D-4.
                                   D-4

-------
                              TABLE D-3

           DATA FOR MINING 1,000 POUNDS OF PHOSPHATE  ROCK



Impact Category                     Quantities               Sources

Raw Materials                                                108,114
  Raw Ore                            2,920.0 Ib.
  Flotation Chemicals                    5.0 Ib

Energy                                                       103,108,
  Electric                            7.30 kw-hr              115
  Natural Gas                        25.9 cu ft
  Residual Fuel Oil                   0.04 gal.
  Distillate Fuel Oil                 0.8 gal.

Water Volume                        902.0 gal.                104

Solid Wastes, Mining                 1,523.0 Ib

Atmospheric Emissions                                        108,114
  Particulate   .                        21.0 Ib              19,114,115

Waterborne Wastes                                            19,114
  Suspended Solids                     376.0 Ib

Transportation                                                86,88
  Barge                              15.3 ton-miles
  Rail                               10.2 ton-miles
  Truck                               9.0 ton-miles
                                  D-5

-------
                              TABLE D-4

            DATA FOR 1,000 POUNDS OF NITRIC ACID PRODUCED
Impact Category                     Quantities               Sources
                                                             5!
Raw Materials           .                                       39
   (Ammonia 292 pounds)-

Energy                                                         39
  Electric                            5.0 kw-hr

Water Volume                        3,125.0 gal.               39

Atmospheric Emissions                                          39
  Nitrogen Oxide                      1.5 lb
_a/ Ammonia is discussed in the disposable diaper section in Appendix
"    C-III (Acrylic Resin).
               c. Carbon Dioxide Manufacture; More than 60 percent of the
carbon dioxide manufactured in the United States is produced by steam re-
forming of natural gas and is actually a by-product from ammonia manufac-
ture* The gas is desulfurized, preheated, and reacted in a tubular furnace.
The hydrocarbon gases are converted to hydrogen and carbon oxides. The
primary reformer gas is reacted with air to produce a synthesis ga.s having
a hydrogen to nitrogen rating of about 3.0. The exit gas from the secondary
reformer is reduced in temperature (generating steam through the use of
heat exchanges) and reacted with.steam to produce more hydrogen and also
carbon dioxide. The mixture of hydrogen and nitrogen is compressed in a
synthesis loop to produce ammonia.

               The carbon dioxide produced in the carbon monoxide shift
reaction is removed by absorption with activated carbonate solution or
other absorbent.

               The theoretical reaction for ammonia production from methane
shows that 7 pounds of methane (when reacted with steam and air) will pro-
duce approximately 17 pounds of ammonia and 19 gpunds of carbon dioxide.
Therefore, carbon dioxide represents 55 percent of the ammonia plant pro-
duction of useful products. The environmental pollutants are assumed to
be identical to these associated with ammonia plants.

               The environmental impacts are shown in Table D-5.


                                   D-6

-------
                              TABLE D-5

       DATA FOR MANUFACTURE OF 1,000 POUNDS OF CARBON DIOXIDE



Impact Category                     Quantities               Sources

Raw Materials                                                   39
  Chemicals (Natural Gas
  494 Ib)                             455 lb   •

Energy                                                        19,38
  Electric                           18.5 kw-hr
  Natural Gas                       2,363 cu ft

Water Volume                        5,000 gal.                14,41

Solid Waste                           0.2 lb                    19

Atmospheric Emissions                                        14,40,44
  Ammonia                             1.0 lb
  Hydrocarbons                        1.0 lb

Waterborne Wastes                                               44
  Ammonia (as N)                     0.062 lb
          3» Cotton Ginning; The primary job of a cotton gin is to take
raw seed cotton and separate the seed from the fibers* The amount of trash
(hulls, leaves, dirt, etc.) removed from the raw cotton to produce one 500-
pound bale of cotton fiber has increased from about 80 to 1,500 pounds due
to the increased use of mechanical harvesters.

          The basic machinery components for a cotton gin processing mechan-
ically harvested cotton in the order of use are:

          a. Suction unloading telescope.
          b. Green boll trap.
          c. Air line cleaner.
          d. Bulk feed control unit.
          e. Dryer, 3 million Btu, moisture sensitive control.
          f. Inclined cleaner.
          g. Burr machine.
          h. Green leaf and stick machine.
          i. Dryer, 3 million Btu.
          j. Inclined cleaner.
          k. Extractor feeders.

                                   D-7

-------
          1. Gin stands*
          m. Tandem saw-type cleaning.
          n. Press*

          The current disposal practice for gin wastes is to incinerate
37 percent, return 58 percent to land, and 5 percent is unaccounted for.  The
trash is used on land for its fertilizer and humus value. The waste trash
will consist of about 36 percent hulls, 54 percent leaf trash and dirt,
and 10 percent sticks and stems. The seeds are reclaimed for us-J as fuel
or processing for valuable oils.

          Table D-6 contains the raw data pertaining to the production
of 1,000 pounds of cotton from a cotton gin. Raw material inputs and water
pollution are assumed to be small and therefore were not researched.
                              TABLE D-6

       DATA FOR PRODUCING 1,000 POUNDS OF COTTON FROM GINNING



 Impact Category                     Quantities                Sources

 Energy                                                          59
  Electric                           23.5 kw-hr
  Natural Gas                        154.0 scf

 Solid Wastes                         138 lb                     61

 Atmospheric Emissions                                           57
  Particulates                       1.63 lb

 Transportation                                                  62
  Rail                               250 ton-miles
  Truck                              150 ton-miles
          In computing the impacts of growing and ginning cotton, credit
has been given for the cottonseed produced as a by-product of the cotton
lint. For every pound of cotton lint harvested, 1.65 pounds of cottonseed
is also harvested.

          The total fertilizer, pesticide, fuel and waste quantities have
been allocated between cotton lint and cottonseed on the basis of weight.
For example, a total of 404.3 pounds of fertilizer, used to produce 1,000
pounds of cotton lint and 1,650 pounds of cottonseed, was multiplied by
                                   D-8

-------
 a factor of 0.3773  (1.00/2.65)  to obtain the  amount of fertilizer which
 should be applied to the impacts  of cotton lint (152.5 pounds).  The  quanti-
 ties in Tables  D-l  and D-6 reflect the  amounts  allocated to  cotton lint
 only.

           4. Cotton Cloth Manufacture;  The conversion of raw cotton  fiber
 into the finished cloth involves  a series  of  steps  that can  be classified
 as either "dry" or  "wet." The "dry" processes are involved with  convert-
 ing the raw cotton  into cloth (spinning, weaving, etc.), while  the "wet"
 processes include chemical treatments such as bleaching,  scouring, desiz-
 ing, and mercerizing.

           The dry processes contribute  impacts  to the cloth  system through
 the use of electrical  energy that is required to operate the various weav-
 ing and spinning machines. Approximately 2,706  kilowatt hours of electricity
 are required to perform the dry processing of 1,000 pounds of finished
 cloth. Also, there  is  a significant amount of natural gas (5,708 square
 cubic  feet)  and coal (343 pounds)  consumed per  1,000 pounds  of cotton pro-
 cessed.

           The major impact of the  wet processing steps is on the water
 quality. The wastes characteristically  have a high  BOO, COD, phenols,  sul-
 fides, chromium,  and inorganic  salts. See  Table D-7 for raw  impact data.

           MRI has determined that  132 pounds of cotton cloth are used to
 manufacture  1,000 cloth towels  (16 x 27 inches  at 81 grams).2

     B. Sponges

           The required processes  for producing  sponges are:  (1)  natural
 gas production; (2)  natural gas processing; (3) sulfur mining; (4) carbon
 disulfide; (5)  wood harvest;  (6)  bleached  kraft pulp paper manufacturing;
 (7) sodium sulfate  production;  (8) salt mining; (9)  caustic  manufacturing;
 and (10)  sponge manufacturing.

           Processes  1,  2,  and 4 are discussed in Appendix C-I (Disposable
 Diapers); processes  3,  5,  6, 8 and 9 are discussed  in Appendix C-I (Paper
 Towels).   A  discussion of processes 7 and  10 follows.

           1. Sodium Sulfate Manufacture: Sodium sulfate (Na2SO,)  can be
 produced by  several  processes. It  is a  by-product of hydrochloric acid,
 rayon, phenol,  dichrornate  and other manufacturing procedures. Glauber's
 salt (Na«SO,  .  lOH.g)  and natural  brines are other  important sources for
 the compound.

           In this report we have used natural brines as the  raw  material
 for sodium sulfate  production. The Ozark-Mahoning plant,  located close
 to Monahans,  Texas,  was used as the source of raw production data.
I/  See comment No.  5  Appendix B, page 6.
2/  The correct weight is 60.0 grams, see Table 1.
                                    D-9

-------
                     TABLE D-7
DATA FOR PRODUCTION OF 1,000 POUNDS OF COTTON CLOTH
 Impact Category

 Raw Materials
  Material Cotton  (1109.0 Ib)
  Caustic
  Sulfuric Acid
  Additives

 Energy
  Electric
  Natural Gas
  Coal
  Distillate Oil
  Residual Fuel Oil

 Water  Volume

 Solid  Wastes

 Atmospheric Emissions
  Particulates

 Waterborne Wastes
  BOD
  COD
  Suspended Solids
  Chromium
  Phenol
  Sulfide

( Transportation
  Rail
  Truck
                           Quantities
                            510.0 Ib
                             30.0 Ib
                             42.0 Ib
 2,706.0 kw-hr
 5,708.0 cu ft
   343.0 Ib
     3.7 gal.
     6.6 gal.

19,600.0 gal.

   474.0 Ib


    20.6 Ib
                              4.0 Ib
                             46.4 Ib
                              9.6 Ib
                              0.05 Ib
                              0.05 Ib
                              0.10 Ib
                           80.0 ton-miles
                          370.0 ton-miles
                           Sources
                              63
                                                     56,65
                                            \\
  19

  19


46,65


63,65
                              19
                        D-10

-------
          The brine is removed from wells varying from 60 to 90 feet in
depth. It is transferred to a holding lake and then through a halite (NaCl
mineral) formation before entering the plant. The sulphate brine is satur-
ated with sodium chloride to reduce the solubility of the sodium sulfate
when the brine is chilled. The production steps are settling, chilling,
thickening, filtering, submerged combustion evaporation, and drying in
a rotary kiln (Figure D-l).

          The Glauber's salt precipitates during the chilling stage. The
remaining solids are discharged with the spent liquor. About 1.5 pounds
of sodium chloride are required per pound of sodium sulfate produced. Most
of this is in the natural brine, with approximately one-third added during
the passage through the halite well. About 500 tons of refrigeration are
required for the chilling step, of which 200 are produced from waste heat.

          The submerged combustion unit evaporates about 70 percent of
the total water load. Natural gas usage is 340 cubic feet per minute. A
200-horsepower compressor supplies air for the combustion. The final treat-
ment is drying in a gas fired rotary kiln. The energy requirements were
calculated from thennodynamic data.

          Table D-8 contains the raw data for manufacture of 1,000 pounds
of sodium sulfate, 994- percent.

          2. Sponge  (Cellulose) Manufacture; The primary ingredients used
in manufacturing  the cellulose sponge are wood pulp, sodium sulfate, sodium
hydroxide, and carbon disulfide. The wood pulp is used in the form of paper
sheeting.

          In the  sponge manufacturing process, the first step involves con-
verting the cellulose sheet into viscose. The cellulose is mixed in a solu-
tion of water, treated with carbon disulfide and sodium hydroxide until
the cellulose becomes the jelly-like substance called viscose. The second
step involves adding sodium sulfate crystals, vegetable or hemp reinforcing
fibers, and dyes  to  the viscose. Next, the mixture is poured in rectangular
block-shaped molds for cooking. After the cooking process (cellulose regenera-
tion), the sponge blocks are washed, processed, and cut into the desirable
size. The sponges are then packaged in plastic or cellophane wrapping and
shipped in corrugated containers.

          The raw impact data for  the manufacture of 1,000 pounds of sponges
is presented in Table D-9. The data are representative of the manufacturing
operations of a major supplier of  cellulose sponges. The 1,000 pounds of
sponges represents approximately 16,925 sponges (6-3/16 x 3-11/16 x 1-1/8
inches per sponge).
                                  D-ll

-------

, 	 , NojSC

O
10
Brine
1030
Gal.



NoCI




hjO
, I1AA t
i •>
1483


Chilling —











Toiling
Liquor
.Voslt
H2O
1

... .



Glauber's
Solt


Evaporation
(S.J>. Comb )


501": No2SO4



70^ No2SO4



Drying


— •» 1000 Lb
(99.9°:
h"1 I 11
L Toiling liqu,, ^ ^ J^


Figure D-l - Flow Diagram for Manufacture of Sodium Sulfate

-------
                              TABLE D-8

   DATA FOR PRODUCTION OF 1,000 POUNDS OF SODIUM SULFATE (99.94%)
Impact Category

Raw Materials
  Brine (1,080 gallons)
    Sodium Sulfate
    Sodium Chloride

Energy
  Electric
  Natural Gas

Water Volume

Solid Wastes Mining
     \

Waterborne Wastes
  Dissolved Solids

Transportation
  Rail
  Truck
   Quantities
    1,264 Ib
    1,483 Ib
   10.0 kwhr
3,631,0 cu ft

1,000.0 gal.

  100.0 Ib


   75.0 Ib
450.0 ton-miles
 50.0 ton-miles
Sources


  117



 19,117


 19,117

 19,117


 19,117
                                  D-13

-------
                              TABLE D-9

       DATA FOR MANUFACTURING 1,000 FOUNDS OF CELLULOSE SPONGES
Impact Category                     Qantities
Raw Materials
  Dry Pulp                           830.0 Ib                   19
  Caustic                            291.0 Ib
  Carbon Disulfide                   278.0 Ib
  Sodium Sulfate                     330.0 Ib

Energy
  Electricity                      3,130.0 kw-hr                19
  Natural Gas                     28,261.0 scf
  Residual Oil                        17.0 gal.

Water Volume                     121,738.0 gal.                 19

Process Solid Waste                  174.0 Ib                   19

Atmospheric Emissions
  Sulfur Oxides   -                     0.4 Ib                   19
  Odorous Sulfur                     221.7 Ib

Waterbome Waste
  BOD                                 21.7 Ib                   19
  COD                           .      52.2 Ib
  TSS                                  8.7 Ib

Packaging
  LDPE Bags                           85.0 Ib                   19
  Corrugated Containers              217.0 Ib
                                   D-14

-------
          The 1,000 pounds of sponges require 365 pounds of packaging  (78
pounds of plastic wrap, 70 pounds of cellophane wrap, and 217 pounds of
corrugated shipping containers).

          The sponges are transported an average of 600 miles,  40 percent
by  truck and 60 percent by rail.
II. Napkins

     A. Cloth-Home 1>2

          The processes needed for fabricating cloth napkins  (50 percent
rayon, 50 percent polyester) for the home are: (1) ethylene manufacturing;
(2) PET resin manufacturing; (3) rayon manufacturing; and  (4) napkin manu-
facturing*

          Processes 1 through 3 are discussed in Appendix C-III (Dispos-
able Diapers). The impacts for cloth napkin manufacturing are shown in
Table D-10.

     B. Cloth—Commercial

          The prinicpal processes for the production of commercial cotton
napkins are: (1) cotton growing (fertilizer); (2) cotton ginning;  (3) cotton
cloth napkin manufacturing; and (4) napkin working.

          Process 1 through 3 are discussed in the cloth towel section
(Appendix D-I).

          MRI determined that 100 pounds of cotton cloth would produce
1,000, 18 x 18 inch napkins. Therefore, only 10 percent of the impacts
discussed in the cloth manufacturing section of the cloth towel discussion
are applicable to the production of 1,000 napkins.
III. Diapers                                                    .

          The major processes for the manufacture of cloth diapers are:
(1) cotton growing (fertilizer); (2) cotton ginning; and (3) diaper cloth
manufacturing.

          Processes 1, 2, and 3 are covered in the discussion of cloth
towels (Appendix D-I).

          MRI has determined that 13.67 pounds of cotton cloth  are needed
to produce 100, 21 x 40 inch diapers. Therefore, only 1.367 percent of
the impacts discussed in the cloth manufacturing section of the cloth towel
discussion are applicable to the production of 100 diapers.
    See comment  No. 6 Appendix B, page 6.
    See comment  No. 7 Appendix B, page 7.

                                   D-15

-------
                             TABLE D-10

             DATA FOR MANUFACTURING 1,000 HOME CLOTH NAPKINS



Impact Category                     Quantities                Sources

Virgin Materials                                                19
  Rayon                                54.7  Ib   •
  PET Resin                            54.7  Ib
  Caustic                              49.7  Ib
  Sulfuric Acid                         2.9  Ib
  Additive                              4.09 Ib

Energy                                                          19
  Electricity                       263.67 kw-hr
  Natural Gas                       555.19 scf
  Coal                               33.4 Ib
  Distillate Oil                      0.36 gal.
  Residual Oil                        0.64 gal.

Water Volume                        1,909.8  gal.                19

Process Solid Waste                  46.2 Ib                    19

Atmospheric Emissions                                           19
  Particulates                       2.01 Ib

Waterborne Effluents                                            80
  BOD                            .      0.39  Ib
  COD                                  4.52  Ib
  Suspended Solids                     0.94  Ib
  Chromium                             0.005 Ib
  Phenol                               0.005 Ib
  Sulfides                             0.01  Ib

Packaging                                                       19
  LDPE Bag                             2.0 Ib
  Corrugated Container                 2.0 Ib
                                   D-16

-------
IV. Bedding

          The processes necessary for manufacturing bedding made of 35
percent cotton and 65 percent polyester are: (1) ethylene manufacturing;
(2) PET resin manufacturing; (3) cotton growing (fertilizer); (4) cotton
ginning; and (5) sheet manufacturing*

          Processes 1 and 2 are discussed in Appendix C-III (Disposable
Diapers); processes 3 and 4 are covered in the discussion of cloth towels
(Appendix D-I). The impacts for sheet manufacture are shown in Table D-ll,
V. Containers

     A. Cold Drink

          1. Glass; The processes needed for the fabrication of glass
tumblers are: (1) limestone mining; (2) lime manufacturing; (3) soda ash
mining; (4) glass sand mining; (5) feldspar mining; and (6) tumbler manu-
facturing.

          Processes 1 and 2 are discussed in Appendix C-I  (Paper Towels).
A discussion of the remaining processes follows.

               a. Natural Soda Ash Mining; Soda ash, which is the common
name for sodium carbonate, is used in glass manufacture as a fluxing agent.
Under the temperature conditions of a glass furnace, the carbonate is con-
verted to sodium oxide which lowers the melting and working temperature
and decreases the viscosity of the melt* Sodium oxide is the second most
abundant material in finished glass, constituting about 15 percent of the
finished glass weight.

               Soda ash is obtainable in either its natural form or in
a manufactured form* The glass industry has utilized manufactured soda
ash in the United States for most of this century. However, in the late
1950's, large beds of natural soda ash (trona) were discovered in Wyoming.
It is also mined in California. Since the 1950fs, trona has achieved con-
siderable market penetration; until 1973, trona accounted  for 38 percent
of the soda ash used by the glass industry.

               Since 1973, a combination of market, energy, and environ-
mental pollution factors have acted together to force the  closing of numer-
ous synthetic ash plants, thus increasing the penetration  of trona in the
market* There is general agreement that in the near future, the manufacture
of synthetic soda ash will practically cease in this country, and the glass
industry will be using only trona as a source of soda ash. We estimate that
by 1977, all' of the soda ash used to manufacture glass will be trona.
                                   D-17

-------
                             TABLE D-ll

               DATA FOR MANUFACTURING 1,000 CLOTH SHEETS
Impact Category                     Quantities              Sources
                                                             So
Virgin Materials                                                19
  PET Resin                           818.0 Ib '
  Cotton                              440.0 Ib
  Caustic                             571.2 Ib
  Sulfuric Acid                        33.6 Ib
  Additives                            47i04 Ib

Energy                                                          19
  Electricity                       3,031.0 kw-hr
  Natural Gas                       6,393.0 scf
  Coal                                384.2 Ib
  Distillate Oil                        4.14 gal.
  Residual Oil                          7.39 gal.

Water Volume                       21,952.0 gal.                .19

Process Solid Waste                   530.9 Ib                  19

Atmospheric Emissions                                           19
  Farticulates                         34.1 Ib

Waterborne Wastes                                               80
  BOD                                   4.48 Ib
  COD                                  52.0 Ib
  Suspended Solids                     10.75 Ib
  Chromium                              0.056 Ib
  Phenol                                0.056 Ib
  Sulfides                              0.112 Ib

Packaging                                                       1.9
  LDPE Bags                            23.4 Ib
  Corrugated Containers                23.4 Ib
                                  D-18

-------
               Table D-12 shows that natural soda ash mining produces rela-
tively low environmental impacts compared to the other operations in glass
manufacture. However, the substantially greater use of energy as compared
to the other mined minerals leads to higher atmospheric emissions than
experienced by other mineral mining operations.
                                 TABLE D-12

             DATA FOR MINING OF 1,000 POUNDS NATURAL SODA ASH (TRONA)



    Impact Category                     Quantities               Sources

    Energy
      Natural Gas                        2,900 cu ft               119

    Water Volume                           600 gal.                104

    Mining Wastes                           60 Ib                  118

    Process Atmospheric Emission                                   119
      Particulates                           5 Ib
               b. Glass Sand Miningt Glass sand is the predominant raw
material for glass manufacture. It comprises 53 percent by weight of the
raw materials used in  the production of glass and is the source of almost
all of  the  silicon dioxide present in finished container glass. Silicon
dioxide is  the major chemical constituent of glass and amounts to approxi-
mately  70 percent by weight of the finished container glass.

               Glass sand is a high purity quartz sand which usually con-
tains less  than  1 percent other minerals or foreign materials. These strin-
gent purity restrictions prevent  the use of most of the sand available
in this country. However, sizable deposits of glass sand do exist in New
Jersey  in the form of  unconsolidated sand banks, and as sandstones found
in the Alleghenies and the Mississippi River Valley. In addition, there
are smaller deposits of glass sand located in various other sections of
the country.

               The mining operations chosen depend on the nature of  the
deposit at  each  location. The mining operations range from simply scoop-
ing sand from a  pit or bank and loading it into a truck, to quarrying hard
sandstone in a fashion similar to the procedures used to extract limestone.
In  the  latter event, extensive crushing, washing and screening may be neces-
sary.
                                    D-19

-------
               Data pertaining to the mining of 1,000 pounds of glass sand
are shown in Table D-13 along with the sources of each number.
                                 TABLE D-13

                 DATA FOR MINING OF 1,000 POUNDS GLASS SAND



    Impact Category                     Quantities               Sources

    Energy                                                         103
      Coal                                5.8 Ib
      Distillate                          0.15 gal.
      Residual                            0.05 gal.
      Gas                                 216 cu ft
      Gasoline                            0.041 gal.
      Electricity                         2.0 kw-hr

    Water Volume                          900 gal.                 104

    Waterborne Wastes                                              119
      Suspended Solids                    0.5 Ib
               c. Feldspar Mining; Feldspar is an aluminum, silicate min-
eral which is used in glass manufacture to obtain aluminum oxide. This
oxide acts as a stabilizer and improves the stability and durability of
the glass microstructure. It is added in small quantitites and generally
makes up less than 3 percent of the total glass weight.

               Feldspar is mined in 13 states but North Carolina and
California produce 65 percent of the nation's total. Hence, transportation
expenses to bring feldspar to glass plants may be quite high. Feldspar is
mined primarily by open pit quarry techniques. Usually drilling and blast-
ing are required although this is not always so.

               The data pertaining to the raw impacts associated with feld-
spar mining are listed in Table D-14. The dominant impact is the consider-
able mining waste associated with feldspar mining. More solid waste is
associated with this operation per ton of material than any other operation
for glass manufacture. Also, there is a significant amount of air pollu-
tion which is primarily dust produced by mining and crude ore processing.
                                    D-20

-------
                                 TABLE D-14

                   DATA FOR MINING  OF 1,000 POUNDS  FELDSPAR
    Impact Category                     Quantities               Sources

    Virgin Raw Materials                  1,025  Ib                   103

    Energy
      Distillate                          30.0 gal.
      Gasoline                            0.12  gal.
      Electricity                        28.0 kw-hr

    Water Volume                         2,250 gal.                  104

    Mining Wastes                       2,300 Ib                     84

    Atmospheric Emissions                  7.5 Ib                     19

    Transportation                                                  19
      Rail                                765 ton-miles
               d. Glass Tumbler Manufacture; The glass tumbler manufactur-
ing process consists of three primary steps: (1) melting the raw materials;
(2) pressing or forming the product; and (3) annealing.

               Around 8 to 9 million Btu are required to melt 1 ton of glass.
The reject rate of molten material is about 10 percent. The press plant has
a total connected power of around 300 horsepower per line, producing 15 to
20 tons per day. The furnace requires some electrical energy. Fuel oil is
used as a stand by energy source. The total energy requirement per ton of
glass tumblers is 10 to 12 million Btu. The manufacture of glass beverage
containers is less energy intensive, generally requiring 8 to 9 million
Btu per ton.

               The impacts for manufacturing 1,000 pounds of glass tumblers.
are shown in Table D-15. Data for 1 million glass tumblers are presented
in Table D-16.

          2. Polypropylene Tumbler; The processes required for the produc-
tion of polypropylene tumblers are; (1) propylene manufacturing; (2) pro-
pylene resin manufacturing; and (3) tumbler manufacturing.
                                  D-21

-------
                             TABLE D-15
        DATA FOR MANUFACTURING 1,000 POUNDS  OF GLASS TUMBLERS
Impact Category

Raw Materials
  Glass Sand
  Limestone
  Lime
  Feldspar
  Soda Ash
  Addi tive

Energy
  Electricity
  Natural Gas
  Residual Oil

Water Volume

Process Solid Waste

Atmospheric Emissions
  Sulfur Oxides
  Particulates

Waterborne Wastes
  Suspended Solids
Quantities
  660.0 Ib
  263.0 Ib
   46.0 Ib
   75.0 Ib
  216.0 Ib
   10.0 Ib
  125.0 kw-hr
4,680.0 scf
    1.8 gal.

  125.0 gal.

   13.0 Ib
    0.8 Ib
    1.0 Ib
    0.07 Ib
Sources
                         124,19
                         124,19
   19

   19

   19



   19
                                  D-22

-------
                             TABLE D-16
           DATA FOR MANUFACTURING 1 MILLION GLASS  TUMBLERS
Impact Category

Raw Materials
  Glass Sand
  Limestone
  Lime
  Feldspar
  Soda Ash
  Additives

Energy
  Electricity
  Natural Gas
  Residual Oil

Water Volume

Process Solid Waste

Atmospheric Emissions
  Sulfur Oxide
  Particulates

Waterborne Wastes
  Suspended Solids

Packaging
  Corrugated Containers
  Quantities
  192,063.0 Ib
   76,534.0 Ib
   13,386.0 Ib
   21,825.0 Ib
   62,857.0 Ib
    2,910.0 Ib
   36,375.6 kw-hr
1,361,903.4 scf
      523.8 gal.

   72,751.3 gal.

    3,783.0 Ib
      232.8 Ib
      291.0 Ib
       20.4 Ib
  117,000.0 Ib
Sources

124,19
                           124,19
  19
                             19
                             19
                             19
                                 D-23

-------
          We have assumed that all the environmental impacts associated
with propylene manufacturing are identical to those associated with ethyl-
ene manufacturing (refer to Disposable Diapers,  Appendix C-III)•  A discus-
sion of processes 2 and 3 will follow*

               a. Polypropylene Resin Manufacture; The propylene  monomer
is fed into a polymerization reactor containing  catalyst and alkyl alumi-
num activator suspended in a hydrocarbon solvent. The reaction occurs at
10 atmospheres pressure and 60°C. The polymer slurry is extracted with
alcohol to deactivate and remove catalyst residues. The solvent is recov-
ered for reuse. The polypropylene product is dewatered and then dried with
hot air. The polymer is obtained in the form of  a powder which can be used
for molding purposes.

               The process data for manufacturing polypropylene are shown
in Table D-17.
                                TABLE D-17

       DATA FOR MANUFACTURE OF 1,000 POUNDS OF POLYPROPYLENE POWDER



   Impact Category                     Quantities               Sources

   Raw Materials                                                  10
     Solvents (Propylene
     1,060 Ib)                            41.0 Ib

   Energy                                                         10
     Electric                            200.0 kw-hr
     Natural Gas                       A,540.0 cu ft

   Water Volume                        2,520 gal.                  3

   Process Solid Wastes                    7.0 Ib                 19

   Atmospheric Emissions                                        53,54
     Hydrocarbons                         19.7 Ib

   Waterborne Wastes                                               3
     BOD                                   0.42 Ib
     COD                                   2.10 Ib
     SS                                    1.16 Ib
                                   D-24

-------
               b. Polypropylene Tumbler Manufacture; Polypropylene tumblers
can be manufactured by injection molding, blow molding,  etc. The injection
mold temperature would run 400°F to 475 F. A typical machine would use 650
to 750 tons of clamp force, requiring a motor with 110 horsepower.

               The impacts associated with the manufacture of 1,000 pounds
of polypropylene tumblers are presented in Table D-18.
                                 TABLE D-18
      DATA FOR MANUFACTURING 1 MILLION 9-OUNCE POLYPROPYLENE TUMBLERS
    Impact Category

    Virgin Materials
      Polypropylene Resin

    Energy
      Electricity

    Water Volume

    Process Solid Waste

    Packaging
      LDPE Bags
      Corrugated Containers
Quantities


 88,626 Ib


 21,600 kw-hr

157,000 gal.

    441 Ib
    833 Ib
  8,333 Ib
Sources

    19


    19


    19

    19

    19
     B. Hot Drink

          1. Ceramics; The necessary processes for manufacturing ceramic
cups are: (1) clay miningj (2) plaster (gypsum mining); (3) silica (flint
and glaze) mining; (4) feldspar mining; (5) nepheline syenite mining; (6)
bauxite mining; (7) alumina manufacturing; and (8) cup manufacturing.

          A brief description of the processes and their respective en-
vironmental impacts will be discussed.

               a* Clay Mining; There are several types of clay; kaolin,
bentanite, fire clay, Fuller's earth, and ball clay. The primary clays
used in the production of china are kaolin and ball clays; the respective
percentages are 40 percent and 60 percent.
\J  See comments Appendix J, pages 3, 19, 21.

                                  D-25

-------
               Kaolin clay is mined using conventional surface-mining tech-
niques and is processed via an air-floating or a water-washing procedure*
Air-floating involves primary crushing, drying, grinding, classifying,
bleaching, filtration, dewatering, drying and packaging (Reference 83).
               The energy use breakdowns for these two processes are shown
in Table D-19.
                                  TABLE D-19
                    KAOLIN: AIR—FLOATED (per 1,000 pounds)
   Mining
   Primary Crushing
   Drying

   Grinding and Classifying
   Packaging
Diesel Fuel Oil
Electricity
Electricity
Natural Gas
Electricity
Electricity
                    KAOLIN: WATER—WASHED  (per 1,000 pounds)
   Mining
   Degritting
   Centrifying and
     Blending
   Filtration and Dewatering
   Drying

   Packaging
Diesel Fuel Oil
Electricity
Electricity
Natural Gas
Electricity
Electricity
Natural Gas
Electricity
  1.2 gal.
  1.69 kw-hr
  7.89 kw-hr
890.0 scf
 14.26 kw-hr
  3.06 kw-hr
  1.2 gal.
 1.4.45 kw-hr
 15.7 kw-hr
315.0 scf
 12.86 kw-hr
  9.06 kw-hr
951.0 scf
  3.06 kw-hr
   Source:  Reference 83.
               Of the kaolin used in the U.S. in 1973, 29 percent was pro-
cessed using air-floating, with the remaining 71 percent processed by water-
washing (Reference 83). The combination of these valves and the energy
use figures in Table D-19 were used to help calculate the energy impacts
shown in Table D-20.

               Also  used in these calculations were the energies involved
in processing ball clay. We know that the average energy consumed per ton
of ball clay processed is 0.95 x 10 6 Btu (Reference 82). We assumed that
the processing and energy types consumed are the same as the air-floated
kaolin; further, the quantities of each type of energy is the same ratio.
                                   D-26

-------
                                TABLE D-20

              DATA FOR PROCESSING 1,000 POUNDS  OF KAOLIN CLAY



   Impact Category                     Quantities               Sources
   Virgin Raw Materials                                            19
     Clay                               1,089 Ib

.   Energy                                                          83
     Diesel Fuel Oil                    0.74 gal.
     Electricity                       23.64 kw-hr
     Natural Gas                      656.88 scf

   Atmospheric Emissions
     Particulates                      68.2  Ib                     46

   Transportation                     450 ton-miles                 19


               Table D-19 also shows the amount of emissions associated
with the drying, grinding and storage of ceramic clay (Reference: Marshall
Sittig, 1975). It was assumed that 70 percent of the processing facili-
ties use cyclones only, 10 percent use cyclones and scrubbers and 20 per-
cent have no controls. The air emissions are primarily particulates.

               To estimate the transportation involved in shipping the
processed kaolin the following information was used: (1)  89 percent of
the kaolin processed in 1973 came from Georgia and South Carolina (Refer-
ence 82); and (2) most of the china produced in the U.S.  is made in the
Northern Atlantic states.

               The significant impacts are the large amount of natural
gas consumed, the large quantity of particulate air emissions, and the
long transportation distance.

               b. Gypsum  (Plaster) Mining; Plaster is used to make the
molds  for chinaware. Plaster is dehydrated gypsum. Of the gypsum used in
1973,  13.9 percent was mined from Michigan, 12.5 percent from Texas, 12.4
percent from California,  11.2 percent from Iowa, and 9.7 percent from
Oklahoma. The major states where gypsum  is calcined are Texas  (10.7 per-
cent), California (10.4 percent), New York  (9.8 percent), Iowa  (7.7 per-
cent)  and Georgia (5.5  percent).
                                   D-27

-------
               The major processes involved in obtaining gypsum are:  min-
ing, crushing, grinding, drying and calcining. Underground mining or  quar-
rying techniques are generally used; then,  the gypsum is ground and dried
into a fine powder. The calcining process removes approximately 75 per-
cent of the water of hydration.

               The types and quantities of energy used to accomplish  the
above process are shown in Table D-21. The major portions of all the  energy
categories are used in the calcining step.
                                TABLE D-21

               DATA FOR PROCESSING OF 1,000 POUNDS OF GYPSUM



   Impact Category                     Quantities               Sources

   Raw Material                                                    19
     Gypsum                             1,077 Ib

   Energy                                                          82
     Natural Gas                        1,282.0 scf            .
     Heavy Fuel Oil                         1.87 gal.
     Electricity                           36.5 kw-hr
     Diesel Oil                             0.68 gal.
     LPG                                    0.29 gal.
     Gasoline                               0.05 gal.

   Atmospheric Emissions                                           46
     Particulate                           26.6 Ib

   Transportation                       683 ton-miles              19
               Also, Table D-21 shows the amount of emissions associated
with the drying, grinding, and calcining of the gypsum. It was assumed
that 70 percent of the processing facilities use fabric filters, 10 per-
cent use cyclones and electostatic precipitator, and 20 percent have no
controls. All of the air emissions are particulates.

               The processing of gypsum is very energy intense; therefore,
all the energy impacts of natural gas are of significant quantity. Also,
the particulate air emissions and impacts associated with transportation
are important considerations*
                                   D-28

-------
               c» Silica Miningt Silica is a quartz (SiO .   It is known
that flint is merely a hard quartz and that glaze is made primarily of
silica* Therefore, we are using the impacts associated with silica for the
processing of flint and glaze. The flint is used as a bonding/hardening
agent in the manufacture of chinaware.

               Silica is extracted using surface mining techniques or quar-
rying from limestone. In the latter case, crushing, washing eihd screening
may be necessary. The types of energy used and their respective quantities
per thousand pounds of silica are shown in Table D-22.


                                 TABLE D-22

                   DATA FOR MINING 1,000 POUNDS  OF SILICA
    Impact Category                     Quantities               Sources

    Virgin Raw Material                                             19
      Silica                             1,005  Ib

    Energy                                                          68
      Coal                                  5.8 Ib
      Distillate                            0.15 gal.
      Residual                              0.05 gal.
      Gas                                 216.0 cu ft
      Gasoline                              0.04 gal.
      Electricity                           6.9 kw-hr

    Water Volume                .          900.0 gal.                 68

    Waterborne Wastes                                               46
      Suspended Solids                       0.5 Ib

    Transporation
      Rail                               45  ton-miles                14
      Barge                               2  ton-miles                13
      Truck                              14  ton-miles               52-1
               There are significant amounts of natural gas and water used
in the mining and processing of silica.

               d. Feldspar Mining; Feldspar is an aluminum silicate mineral
which is used in ceramic manufacture to act as a fluxing agent.
                                  D-29

-------
               Feldspar is mined in 13 states but North Carolina and
California produce 65 percent of the nation's total. Hence, transportation
expenses to bring feldspar to ceramic plants may be quite high. Feldspar
is mined primarily by open pit quarry techniques. Usually drilling and
blasting are required, although this is not always so.

               The data pertaining to the raw impacts associated with feld-
spar mining are listed in Table D-23. The dominant impact is t,he consider-
able mining waste associated with feldspar mining. More solid waste is
associated with this operation per ton of material than any other opera-
tion for glass manufacture. Also, there is a significant amount of air
pollution which is primarily dust produced by mining and crude ore proces-
sing.
                                  TABLE D-23

                    DATA FOR MINING OF 1,000 POUNDS  FELDSPAR



     Impact Category                     Quantities                Sources

     Raw Materials                        1,025 Ib              •    MRI

     Energy                                                         103
       Distillate                          30.0 gal.
       Gasoline                             0.12 gal.
       Electricity                         28.0 kw-hr

     Water Volume                         2,250 gal.                104

     Mining Wastes                        2,300 Ib                  120

     Atmsopheric Emissions                  7.5 Ib                   19

     Transportation                                                  19
       Rail                                 765 ton-miles

               Nepheline syenite, a refractory ingredient,  is a type of
feldspar. Therefore, the impact data from feldspar will be  used.

               e* Bauxite Mining; Aluminum is the most widely distributed
metal in the earth's crust, with only the nonmetallic elements oxygen and
silicon surpassing it in abundance. However, bauxite ore is at the present
time the only commercially expolited source of aluminum. Although other
types of earth, including ordinary clay, contain aluminum,  industry eco-
nomics favor bauxite as the preferred ore.
                                   D-30

-------
               Bauxite is formed by the action of rain and erosion on mate-
rials containing aluminum oxide (alumina). The heavy rainfall and warm
temperatures of the tropics provide the most nearly ideal conditions for
this process, and most of the world's bauxite is mined in these regions.
Although the United States is the world's largest consumer of bauxite,
nearly 90 percent of the bauxite used here is imported.

               Most bauxite is mined by open-pit methods. In Jamaica, the
leading producer of bauxite, the ore lies close to the surface, and only
the vegetation and topsoil need to be stripped. In Arkansas, the top do-
mestic producing region, open-pit mining is also used, with stripping ratios
of 10 feet of overburden to 1 foot of ore considered minable. Underground
mining is employed at one location in Arkansas, and this method is the
most common in Europe.
                                  TABLE D-24

               DATA FOR  THE MINING OF 1,000  POUNDS OF  BAUXITE ORE



     Impact Category                     Quantities                Sources

     Energy                                                         103
       Distillate                          0.061  gal.
       Residual                   .        0.0378 gal.
       Gasoline                           0.082  gal.
       Natural  Gas                           199  cu ft
       Electric                           3.52 kw-hr

     Water  Volume                          7.85 gal.                  103

     Atmospheric Emissions                                           121
       Particulates                       3.35 gal.

     Transportation                                                  19
       Truck .                             5  ton-miles
            a/
       Barge—                           975  ton-miles
    _a/ Domestic  transportation of  imported  ore.
                Table D-24 presents  the  data  relating  to  the mining  of  1,000
 pounds  of bauxite  ore,  based on  domestic  data.
                                    D-31

-------
               Mining solid wastes which are often associated with ore
mining are not included here, but are instead counted in the refining opera-
tion, where they show up either as suspended solids in wastewater effluents
or as solid wastes*

               f • Refining of Alumina; Before it can be used in the manu-
facture of ceramics as a refractor ingredient, bauxite ore must be refined
to nearly pure aluminum oxide, Al»0_, usually called alumina. The method
used to accomplish this is called the Bayer process, which is used almost
exclusively. The bauxite is crushed and dissolved in digesters, using strong
caustic soda and lime solutions. The undissolved residue, known as red mud,
is filtered out and constitutes a major disposal problem for alumina refiners*
Sodium aluminate remains in solution, where it is hydrolyzed and precipitated
as aluminum hydroxide, which is then calcined to alumina, generally in a
rotary kiln.

               Waterborne wastes and solid wastes constitute the largest
parts of the environmental profile. Both of these categories consist largely
of mining wastes, the roughly 45 percent of bauxite that is discarded after
the sodium aluminate is removed in solution. The manner in which wastes are
handled determines whether they show up as waterborne wastes or as solid
wastes. If these red muds are simply discharged into a river, they are of
course a major water pollutant. In some cases, however, they are impounded
in settling ponds, where they end up as solid wastes on land. The figures
used in the present study are based on data reflecting current practice.
It should be noted, however, that there is an increasing tendency, in some
cases required by legislation, to impound the red muds as solids. Current
industry projections call for reductions of as much as 97 percent in the
waterborne wastes of alumina plants by mid-1975 (U.S. EPA).

               The virgin raw materials category reflects only that portion
of the bauxite ore which is mined domestically. The most recent data put
this amount at about 10.A percent of domestic consumption. Impact data
for alumina refining are presented in Table D-25.

               g. China Cup Manufacture; During the manufacturing process
the raw materials are first blended in mixing tanks and then prepared for
use in the dinnerware manufacturing line. The cups are molded and baked
in a kiln for the required amount of time. The final manufacturing steps
include decorating and firing to the final finish.

               At the current time, manufacturing wastes are being land-
filled. According to tests conducted at the Buffalo Testing Labs, Buffalo,
New York, in March 1972, the ceramic wastes from the china industry can
be used in many applications involving: (1) decorative cement panels for
architectural work;  (2) swimming pool construction, construction type con-
crete; and (3) commercial and home garden shops and hobbies.


                                   D-32

-------
                        TABLE D-25
DATA FOR THE PRODUCTION OF 1,000 POUNDS  OF REFINED ALUMINA
Impact Category

Raw Materials
  Bauxite
  Other

Energy
  Coal
  Distillate
  Residual
  Natural Gas
  Electric

Water Volume

Atmospheric Emissions
  Particulates

Solid Waste Mining

Waterborne Wastes
  BOD
  COD
  Suspended Solids
  Chemicals
  Metal Ions
  Fluorides ,
  Oil and Grease
  Penols

Transportation
  Rail
  Barge
  Truck
Quantities
                                1,523 Ib
                                   70 Ib
   140.0 Ib
     3.28 gal.
     6.1 gal.
 2,700 scf
   350.0 kw-hr

   240 gal.


    12.2 Ib

 3,722.0 Ib
                                   0.82  Ib
                                   19.9  Ib
                                  198.5  Ib
                                   5.8  Ib
                                   76.5  Ib
                                   0.245 Ib
                                   0.0349 Ib
                                   0.0178 Ib
                                378  ton-miles
                                378  ton-miles
                                 43  ton-miles
                                                        Sources
                                                           19
                                                          107
                                                           19

                                                          121
                                                          122
                                                          19
                            D-33

-------
               The  data  for manufacture of  1,000 pounds of  china  cups  are
 shown  in Table D-26,  and for  1 million cups  in Table D-27.

           2. Melamine Cup; The principal  processes  for  the  production  of
 melamine  (plastic)  cups  are:  (1)  natural  gas production;  (2)  natural gas
 processing;  (3)  ammonia  manufacturing;  (4)  carbon dioxide manufacturing;
 (5)  urea manufacturing;  (6) methanol manufacturing;  (7) formaldehyde manu-
 facturing; (8) melamine  resin manufacturing; (9) wood harvesting} (10)
 bleached pulp manufacturing;  (11) melamine molding  composite  manufactur-
 ing; and  (12) cup manufacturing. •

           Processes 1, 2, 3,  and  6  are discussed in the Disposable Diapers
 section (Appendix C-III). Process  4 is covered in the cotton  growing sec-
 tion of Cloth Towels  (Appendix D-I). Processes 9 and 10 are covered in
 the  Paper  Towel  section  (Appendix C-I). The  remaining processes will follow.

               a. Urea Manufacture; Urea  is  colorless crystalline compound
 which  is very soluable in water and has a melting point of  132.7°C. Urea
 is used in the manufacture of fertilizers, varnishes, dyes, flameproofing
 materials, resins,  and other  products.

               Commercially,  urea  is manufactured by reacting ammonia  and
.carbon dioxide at high temperature  and pressure to  form ammonium  carbamate,
 which  is  then dehydrated to form urea and water. The reactor  effluent  is
 stripped with carbon  dioxide. In  the stripper, the  nonconverted carbamate
 is decomposed into  ammonia and carbon dioxide and recycled  back to  the
 high pressure condenser  where partial conversion into ammonium carbamate
 occurs. This carbamate and the noncondensed  gases are fed to  the  reactor
 to begin another cycle.

               Urea plants normally have  these areas of pollution; urea
 dust,  gaseous ammonia, and wastewater containing urea and ammonia. The
 particulate contamination from pulling dust  is estimated  to be 0.24 pound
 per  1,000  pounds of urea. These particles will probably fall  from the  air
 in the vicinity  of  the urea plant and add to the waterbome waste load.
 Solid  wastes are estimated to be  0.05 percent of production.  The  atmos-
 pheric ammonia emissions come from  the urea  concentrator  and  represent
 estimates  based  on  open  literature  sources.  The waterborne  wastes repre-
 sent EPA effluent guidelines  for  1977.

               The  environmental  impacts  for 1,000  pounds of  urea are  shown
 in Table D-28.
                                    D-34

-------
                             TABLE D-26
          DATA FOR MANUFACTURING 1,000 POUNDS OF CHINA CUPS
Impact Category

Raw Materials
  Clay
  Nepheline Syenite
  Alumina
  Flint
  Glaze
  Plaster
  Bauxi te
  Feldspar

Energy
  Electricity
  Natural Gas

Water Volume

Process Solid Waste

Atmospheric Emissions
  Particulates  •

Waterborne Wastes
  BOD
  COD
  Suspended Solids
Quantities
   437.5 Ib
   156.2 Ib
   156.2 Ib
   328.1 Ib
    62.5 Ib
    46.9 Ib
   260.0 Ib
    93.8 Ib
   375.0 kw-hr
13,438.0 scf

 4,000.0 gal.

   281.25 Ib


     3.5 Ib
     1.21 Ib
     2.4 Ib
     2.26 Ib
Sources
                            19
   19



  .19

   19

   19


   19
                                  D-35

-------
                             TABLE  D-27
             DATA FOR MANUFACTURING 1 MILLION CHINA CUPS
Impact Category

Raw Materials
  Clay
  Nepheline Syenite
  Alumina
  Flint
  Feldspar
  Glaze
  Plaster
  Bauxi te

Energy
  Electricity
  Natural Gas

Water Volume

Process Solid Waste

Atmospheric Emissions
  Particulates

Waterborne Wastes
  BOD
  DOC
  Suspended Solids

Packaging
  Corrugated Containers
 Quantities
  280,000 Ib
   99,968 Ib
   99,968 Ib
  209,984 Ib
   60,032 Ib
   40,000 ib
   30,016 Ib
  166,400 Ib
  240,000 kw-hr
8,600,320 scf

2,560,000 gal.

  180,000 Ib


    2,240 Ib
      774.4 Ib
    1,536 Ib
    1,446 Ib
   54,000 Ib
Sources

   19
   19



   19

   19

   19


   19
                             19
                                  D-36

-------
                                TABLE  D-28
               DATA FOR MANUFACTURE OF  1,000 POUNDS OF UREA
   Impact Category

   Raw Materials
     Ammonia
     Carbon Dioxide
     Process Addition

   Energy
     Electric
     Natural Gas

   Water  Volume

   Solid  Wates

   Atmospheric Emissions
     Ammonia
     Particulates

   Waterborne Wastes
     Ammonia (as N)
     Organic Nitrogen  (as N)
Quantities
   575 Ib
   763 Ib
     2.0 Ib
    71.0 kw-hr
 1,359 cu ft

 1,720 gal.

     0.5 Ib
     2.0 Ib
     0.24 Ib
     0.05 Ib
     0.50 Ib
Sources

   45


   19

10,44,45



 10,46

   19
   46
 19,44

   44
               b. Formaldehyde Manufacture; About 90 percent of the formal-
dehyde manufactured in the United States comes from the oxidation of raeth-
anol. The oxidation process will use either a silver catalyst or iron-
molybdenum oxide catalyst.

               With the silver catalyst, methanol, air, and water are super-
heated and sent to the reaction vessel. The reaction proceeds upon contact
with the catalyst. At the catalytic bed outlet, the reaction gases are cooled
in a boiler which produces steam* Gases from the boiler are sent to an ab-
sorption tower. Absorption tower bottoms go to the distillation tower where
the formaldehyde is purified.

               In the iron-molybdenum oxide catalyst process, methanol
is mixed with air and preheated before entering the reactor. As the re-
action proceeds the heat of reaction is removed by heat transfer fluids
and used to prevent the incoming feed, and produce superheated steam. The
reactor effluent is sent to an absorption tower where the proper formal-
dehyde-water concentration is obtained.
                                   D-37

-------
               The total direct costs are generally higher for the silver
process; however, the iron-molybdenum process becomes less competitive
in the 20,000 to 25,000 metric tons per year capacity range.

               The impacts for formaldehyde manufacture shown in Table
D-29 are a combination of the silver and iron-molybdenum processes. The
iron-molybdenum process is a net producer of 4.9 x 10" Btu of steam per •
metric ton of 100 percent formaldehyde, while the silver proces,^ uses
6.78 x 10^ Btu. The net steam requirement when averaging the values for
the two processes are 0.43 x 10^ Btu per thousand pounds of formaldehyde.
                                TABLE D-29

     DATA FOR MANUFACTURE OF 1,000 POUNDS OF FORMALDEHYDE (100% BASIS)



   Impact Category                     Quantities               Sources

   Raw Materials                                                   19
     Chemicals (Methanol -
     1,168 Ib)                             1.0 Ib

   Energy                                                        10,42
     Electric                           74 kw-hr
     Natural Gas                       417 cu ft

   Water Volume                        262 gal.                     4

   Solid Wastes                          1.0 Ib                    19

   Atmospheric Emissions                                            8
     Hydrocarbons                       10.8 Ib
     Carbon Monoxide                    40.0 Ib

   Waterborne Wastes                                                4
     BOD                                 0.058 Ib
     TSS                                 0.088 Ib
               The wastewater volume is estimated to be 131 gallons per
1,000 pounds of 50 percent formaldehyde. The process wastewater streams
are intermittent and generally occur during washing of the absorber, re-
generation of the nonexchange units and effluents from an aqueous slip
stream exiting the bottom of the feed vaporizer. The waterborne wastes
represent EPA 1977 guidelines.
                                   D-38

-------
               The atmospheric emissions represent present-day quantities
being released. The new formaldehyde plants coming on stream will have
almost zero atmospheric emissions.

               The solid waste value is an estimate based on the quantities
of chemicals used and sludges produced during water pollution control.

               c. Melamine Manufacture; Melamine is formed from reacting
urea in a fluidized bed reactor with an aluminia catalyst. The first step
in the process involves heat exchange between the reactor gases and urea.
The molten urea  enters  the reactor and vaporizes spontaneously. The gaseous
urea reacts to form raelamine, ammonia and carbon dioxide. The conversion
rate is approximately 95 percent. The reaction products contain around
35 percent melamine, 37 percent carbon dioxide, and 28 percent ammonia.

               The product gases are cooled in stages to remove cyclic
polymeric by-products (melem and melon) and to condense the melamine gas
which is ultimately recovered as finely divided crystals.

               Part of the off-gas products remain in the urea cycle and
serve to heat the incoming urea and then cool the hot reaction gases. The
rest of the off-gases are returned to the urea plant and used as raw mate-
rials. By-product credit was not given for the off-gases.

               The environmental impacts for 1,000 pounds of melamine are
shown in Table D-30.

               d. Melamine Molding Compound; The melamine molding compound
used in the manufacture of melamine dinnerware is generally produced at
other locations. The materials profile diagram in Chapter 5 shows that urea
is manufactured from ammonia and carbon dioxide raw materials. The urea
is then reacted in a catalyst bed to form melamine.

               In manufacturing the melamine molding compound, chemical
melamine is mixed with alpha cellulose (wood pulp), formaldehyde, and a
catalyst. The mixture is reacted, requiring around 500 Btu per pound of
melamine molding compound. The reaction product is dryed, chopped, and sent
through a ball mill to produce the molding compound used in the manufacture
of melamine dinnerware.

               The raw impacts associated with manufacturing 1,000 pounds
of the molding compound are shown in Table D-31.

               e. Melamine Cup Manufacture; Melamine cups are typically
manufactured at the rate of 480 cups per hour. The molding powder is first
preheated with microwave heaters and then subjected to pressure in the com-
pression molding machines. Preheating requires approximately 10 percent
                                   D-39

-------
                             TABLE D-30

          DATA FOR MANUFACTURE OF 1,000 POUNDS  OF MELAMINE



Impact Category                     Quantities                Sources

Raw Materials                                                   37
  Catalyst                             1.8 Ib '

Energy                                                        19,37
  Electric                           603 kw-hr
  Natural Gas                      2,913 cu ft
  Residual Oil                        45 gal.

Water Volume                         160 gal.                    3

Solid Waste (Process)                  1.0 Ib    .               19

Atmospheric Emissions
  Hydrocarbons                         5.0 Ib

Waterborne Wastes
  BOD                                  0.06 Ib
  COD                                  0.30 Ib
  Suspended Solids                     0.04 Ib
                                  D-40

-------
                             TABLE D-31
     DATA FOR MANUFACTURING 1,000 POUNDS OF MELAMINE MOLD COMPOUND
Impact Category

Raw Materials
  Natural Gas
  Carbon Dioxide
  Ammonia
  Urea
  Methanol
  Formaldehyde
  Dry Pulp
  Additive

Energy
  Electricity
  Natural Gas
.  Residual Oil

Water Volume

Process Solid Waste

Atmospheric Emissions
  Hydrocarbons

Waterborne Wastes
  BOD
  COD
  Suspended Solids
Quantities
   890 Ib
 1,170 Ib
   881 Ib
 1,533 Ib
   272 Ib
   233 Ib
   273 Ib
     0.9 Ib
   303 kw-hr
 1,956 scf
    22.7 gal.

    80.8 gal.

     5.5 Ib


     2.53 Ib
     0.031 Ib
     0.152 Ib
     0.02 Ib
Sources

   19
                            19
   19

   19

   19


   19
                                   D-41

-------
of the total energy," while the molding step accounts for around 60 percent.
Preforming, conveyors, and mold heaters account for the rest of the energy.
melamlne cups*
               Table D-32 contains the data for manufacturing 1 million
                                 TABLE D-32
               DATA TOR MANUFACTURING 1 MILLION MELAMINE CUPS
    Impact Category

    Raw Materials
      Melamine Mold Comp

    Energy
      Electricity

    Water Volume

    Process Solid Waste

    Packaging
      Corrugated Containers
 Quantities


  266,953 Ib


  100,000 kw-hr

1,435,000 gal.

      531 Ib


   26,043 Ib
Sources

    19



    19

    19

    19


    19
VI. Plates

     A* Ceramic

          The processes needed for manufacturing ceramic plates are identical
to  those discussed in the ceramic hot cup section (Appendix D-V). The plate
manufacturing process is similar to the cup manufacturing process. Table
D-33 and D-34 contain the impact data for .the manufacture of china plates.

     B. Melamlne Plates

          The processes required for the production of melamine (plastic)
plates are identical to those discussed in the melamine hot cup section
(Appendix D-V). The plate manufacturing process is similar to the cup manu-
facturing process. The molding powder is preheated and subjected to pres-
sure in the compression molding mcahine. Approximately 240 plates per hour
are produced by the machine. The manufacturing impacts for 1 million mela-
mine plates are shown in Table D-35.
                                   D-42

-------
                             TABLE D-33

        DATA FOR MANUFACTURING 1,000 POUNDS OF CHINA PLATES



Impact Category                     Quantities               Sources

Raw Materials                                                   19
  Clay                                457.0 Ib '
  Nephetine Syenite                   139.1 Ib
  Alumina                             15.23 Ib
  Flint                               317.9 Ib
  Feldspar                            106.0 Ib
  Glaze                                59.6 Ib
  Plaster                              53.0 Ib
  Bauxite                             260.0 Ib

Energy                                                 •         19
  Electricity                         364.2 kw-hr
  Natural Gas                      12,980.0 scf

Water Volume                        3,947.0 gal.                .19

Process Solid Waste                   291.39 Ib                 19

Atmospheric Emissions                                           19
  Particulates                          3.5 Ib

Waterborne Wastes                                               19
  BOD                                   1.28 Ib
  COD                                   2.17 Ib
  Suspended Solids                      2.3 Ib
                                  D-43

-------
                             TABLE D- 34
             DATA FOR MANUFACTURING 1  MILLION CHINA PLATES
Impact Category

Raw Materials
  Clay
  Nepheline Syenite
  Alumina
  Flint
  Feldspar
  Glaze
  Plaster
  Bauxite

Energy
  Electricity
  Natural Gas

Water Volume

Process Solid Waste

Atmospheric Emissions
  Particulates

Waterborne Wastes
  BOD
  COD
  Suspended Solids

Packaging
  Corrugated Containers
  Quantities
   690,070.0 Ib
   210,041.0 Ib
   229,973.0 Ib
   480,029.0 Ib
   160,060.0 Ib
    89,996.0 Ib
    80,030.0 Ib
   392,600.0 Ib
   549,942.0 kw-hr
19,599,800.0 scf

 5,959,970.0 gal.

   439,999.0 Ib


     5,285.0 Ib
     1,932.8 Ib
     3,276.7 Ib
     2,473.0 Ib
    75,000.0 Ib
Sources
                              19
   19



   • 19

   19

   19


   19
                              19
                                    D-44

-------
                             TABLE D-35
           DATA FOR MANUFACTURING 1  MILLION MELAMINE PLATES
Impact Category

Raw Materials
  Melamine Mold Comp

Energy
  Electricity

Water Volume

Process Solid Waste

Packaging
  Corrugated Containers
 Quantities


  455,391 Ib


  198,208 kw-hr

2,440,000 gal.

      873 Ib


   26,042 Ib
Sources

   19


   19


   19

   19

   19
                                  D-45

-------
                              APPENDIX E £

              DISHWASHING AND CLOTH LAUNDERING PROCESSES
          It Piswashing; In this report, only commercial dishwashers
were considered in deriving the impact associated with washing dishes,
cups, glasses, etc.

          The capacity of commercial dishwashing machines can vary widely.
The small capacity machines will wash around 800 dishes per hour while
the larger widetrack conveyor units will process up to 14,250 dishes
per hour. In this study, the operations parameters for a single tank-
rack conveyor dishwasher, having a capacity of 150 racks per hour (2,700
plates, 5,400 tumblers, or 2,400 cups per hour) are used in calculating
energy, water, and detergent requirements for washing reusable dinnerware.

          The dishwasher requires approximately 20 gallons of water for
filling the wash tank (140°F) and 426 gallons per hour (continuous opera-
tion) for the final rinse water.  The wash tank water is heated to and
maintained at 160°F by electric immersion heaters. The final rinse water
is heated from 140°F to 180°F by booster heaters. In commercial foodservice
establishments, 94 percent of operations use natural gas to heat water
to the 140°F temperature. Regarding booster heaters, 36 percent are gas
and 64 percent are electric. The detergent concentration in the wash
tank is maintained at 0.3 percent. Some of the final rinse water is routed
to the wash tank to help maintain the 160°F temperature, and to purge
or skim the wash water in the tank of food particles and grease which
may accumulate on the surface of the water.

          In preparation for the washing process, the plates and cups
are scraped, rinsed, and placed on the conveyor racks. Each rack will
hold around 18 plates or 16 cups. At 150 racks per hour, the machine
will wash 2,700 plates, 2,400 cups, or 5,400 tumblers per hour. Energy
requirements for washing 2,700 plates are presented below in Table E-l.

          Regarding water pollution, EPA guidelines have not been estab-
lished for the waterborne wastes associated with commercial dishwashing.
In this study, the waterborne wastes were assumed to be comprised entirely
of the detergent components present in the wastewater. Municipal  treat-
ment was assumed to reduce the quantity of detergent (expressed as dis-
solved solids) by 80 percent.

          The impacts assigned to dishwashing are presented in Table E-2.
The energy and water requirements come from excellent data sources. The
waterborne waste values are rough estimates only. Both the National Restaur-
ant Association and the National Sanitation Foundation were contacted for

                                   E-l

-------
                                   TABLE E-l

       ENERGY DATA FOR WASHING 2,700 CHINA PLATES—COMMERCIAL DISHWASHER
                            (one hour of operation)
Natural Gas,
  Cubic Feet
Killowatt-
  hour


Heat
Wash
Water
20 gal.
55-140°F
Heat
Wash
Water
20 gal.
140-160° F
Emersion
Heaters


Heat
Rinse
Water
426 gal.
55-140°F
Heat
Rinse
Water
426 gal.
1 40-1 80° F
Booster
Heater



Power For
Dishwasher
Motor




Totals
17.25

 0.26
367.5

  5.4
66.3

27.1
1.14
451.0

 34.9
Note:  The above energy values represent one hour of continuous operation.
         The same energy is assigned to washing melamine plates (2,700 per
         hour), china and melamine cups (2,400 per hour), and glass and poly-
         propylene tumblers (5,400 per hour).  The energy .lost in heating the
     —  dinnerware is assumed to come from the rinse water.  The final ef-
         fluent rinse water is generally routed through the dishwasher to
         accomplish some heat recovery.  This heat recovery is assumed to
         offset the energy required to heat the dinnerware.  For example:
         to heat 2,700 china plates from 75°F to 160°F requires approximately
         70,000 Btu (specific heat of china plate = 0.2 cal per °C per gram).
         The rinse water contains about 467,000 Btu. Therefore, using the
         rinse water to heat the china plate represents an energy recovery
         factor of 15 percent.  The above figures are based on 75 percent
         efficiency for gas water heaters and 98 percent for electric water
         heaters.
                                  E-2

-------
information regarding water pollution resulting from commercial dishwashing;
however, no data were available for submission to the study. Also, the food
residues removed from the plates during the washing cycle were not considered.
(The food residues remaining on the disposable plates were not considered
when calculating the postconsumer solid waste attributable to disposable
dinnerware,)
                                    TABLE E-2

                      DATA FOR.WASHING ONE MILLION OF EACH
                           REUSABLE DINNERWARE PRODUCT
                                        Dinnerware Product
 Impacts

 Raw Materials

   Detergent,
     Thousand Pounds

 Energy

   Electric, Thous-
     and kilowatt hour
   Natural Gas, Thous-
     and Cubic Feet

 Water Volume, Thousand
   Gallon
    Glass
Polypropylene
   Tumblers
    1.44
    6.472

   83.517


   79.0
 China
Melamine
  Cups
  3.4
 14.562

187.912


178.0
 China
Melamine
 Plates
  3.02
 12.944

167.030


158.0
 Waterborne Dissolved
   Solids, Pounds
  288.0
860.0
604.0
 Source:  MRI calculations based on data submitted by industry sources<
                                    E-3

-------
           Energy reduction  through use of  chemical  sanitation rather  than
 180°F water, would  reduce the  total  energy to  requirements  of the  dishwashing
 system by around 42 percent. This would  reduce the  energy per tumbler from
 160 to 93 Btu,  per  cup  360  to  210 Btu and  per  plate 321  to  186 Btu (Table
 E-3).
                                     TABLE  E-3

                       ENERGY DATA COMPARISONS  FOR HOT WATER
                              AND  CHEMICAL  SANITIZATION
  Dinnerware                         Hot Water                   Chemical
     Item                          Sanitization                 Sanitization

  Tumblers                              160                           93
  Cups                                  360                          210
  Plates                                321                          186
  Source:  MRI.
                                   1
           2. Commercial Laundering; The primary  trade association for
 the  textile maintenance companies  in  this country is the Linen Supply
 Association of America (LSAA). The LSAA has a membership of around 855
 companies. Most of  the textile laundering information contained in this
 report was furnished by the LSAA or member companies.

          The typical commercial laundering facilities utilize washers
 having 800 pounds of textile  capacity (dry weight) per load, and dryers
 which process 400 pounds per  load. The smaller on-premise laundry would
 use  washers with approximately 60  pounds of capacity, and dryers with
 50 pounds of capacity per load. The resource and environmental data in
 this report are based on the larger commercial laundering companies.

          Table E-4 presents  a typical laundering schedule for kitchen
 towels. The flushing  operation is an initial rinse to remove readily
 loosened soil. The  suds operation  emulsifies the oils and greases and
 loosens most or all of the remaining  soil.
I/  See comment No.  2 Appendix B, page 10.

                                    E-4

-------
                                   TABLE E-4
          LAUNDERING  SCHEDULE FOR KITCHEN TOWELS, 100 PERCENT COTTON
 Operation
   Water       Time,
Temperature   Minutes
1.
2.
*>
_/ •

4.

5.

6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
Flush
Flush
Break/
Suds
Carry-
over
Carry-
over
Bleach
Rinse
Rinse .
Rinse
Rinse .
Sour
High
High

Low

Low

Low
Low
High
High
High
High
Few
                          Hot
                          Hot

                          190°F

                          160°F

                          160°F
                          160°F
                          Hot
                          Hot
                          Split
                          Split
                          100° F
                 2
                 2

                15

                 5

                 5
                10
                 2
                 2
                 2
                 2
                 5
Supplies/1,000 Pounds Towels
   40 pounds detergent
    5 pounds, 20 percent bleach
    1.3 pounds sour
          The carryover is an extension of the suds operation since much
of  the  detergent  still remains in the material. Carryover is followed
by  bleaching, rinsing and sour treatment. A sour is an acid chemical
added to neutralize any remaining alkalinity.

          The laundering schedules for napkins, sheets and diapers will
differ  slightly from the schedule in Table E-4. The many different launder-
ing formulations, coupled with the many different types of soil contained
on  the  textiles, will cause the raw wastewater to be highly variable
with respect to type and concentration of waterborne wastes.

          Table E-5 presents the detailed calculations used in deriving
the energy requirements for heating the wash water for laundering napkins,
sheets, and diapers in a commercial laundry. We used the assumption that
100 percent of the waste water is heated by natural gas with an efficiency
of  76 percent. The energy assigned to heating water for the various products
is  heavily dependent upon the gallons of water used in the washing process.
The energy varies from 3,168 Btu per pound for napkins to 4,726 Btu per
pound for diapers. In some commercial laundry establishments, the water
use will be much different than shown, and therefore will require more
or  less Btu per pound of laundry.
I/  Waste should be wash.
                                     E-5

-------
                                                         TABLE E-5

                                  ENERGY REQUIREMENTS  FOR HEATING WATER-COMMERCIAL LAUNDRY
                                CLOTH NAPKINS  (3,650 Gallons Water  Per  1,000 Pounds Uapktns)
Temperatures X of
of Wash Steps Water
T.(°F)
160
145
140
120
110
100 100



160
145
140
120
110
100

at T.
26.0
9.1
18.6
18.6
18.6
9.1
100.0


26.0
9.1
18.6
18.6
18.6
9.1
100.0
Gallons Temperature
of Water Difference
Btu to Heat
Water (At
Btu to Heat Water
at T. Wash Temperature-Incoming Temperature = AT 100% Efflctency) 76% Efficiency
949
332
679
679
679
332
3,650

CLOTH
816
286
584
584
584
286
3,140
160
145
140
120
110
100


SHEETS
160
145
140
120
110
100

55
55
55
55
55
55


(3,140 Gallons Water
55
55
55
55
55
55

105
90
85
65
55
45
2,
Total Btu
Per 1,000 Pounds
105
90
85
65
555
445
2,
831,039-
291,199
481,343
368,085
311,457
124,600
407,723

Sheets)
714,571
214,672
413,998
316,586
267,880
107,336
035,043
1,093,472
383,156
633,346
484,322
409,812
163,947
3,168,055


940,225
282,463
544,734
416,560
352,474
141,232
2,677,680
    160
    145
    140
    120
    110
    100
                                                                 Total  Btu
                            CLOTH DIAPERS (5,500 Gallons  of Water Per 1,000  Pounds  Diapers)
160
145
140
120
110
100
55
55
55
55
55
55
105
 90
 85
 65
 55
 45
1,253,127
  375,300
  752,204
  554,568
  469,250
  187,650
3,592,009
1,648,851
  493,816
  989,742
  729,694
  617,434
  241,908
4,726,445
Source:  MR I calculations from industry data.

-------
          Table E-6 contains a  summary of  the primary  energy consuming
 steps in a commercial  laundry-  The data are broken down into the various
 steps to permit the reader  to substitute alternative values and test
 the effect of  the new  value on  the total energy required per pound of
 laundry. The scope and funding  cf the study did not permit an indepth
 analysis of the commercial  laundry industry to pinpoint the low energy
 requirements of the more efficient laundries, or the high energy require-
 ments of the inefficient laundries. The values in this report represent
 averages found in the  open  literature.

          The  energy requirement of the gas dryer amounts to about 1,200
 Btu per pound  of laundry. The energy for drying primarily depends upon
 the amount and temperature  of the water left in the linen after the ex-
 tractor step.

          Regarding waterborne  wastes, EPA has not set 1977 guidelines
 for the commercial laundry  industry. At the present time, EPA is planning
 to study 21' industries concerning 65 classes of compounds (124 organic
 chemicals and  15-20 inorganic chemicals).  Laundries are among the 21
 industries. The studies are projected to begin in late 1977. The results
 will be included in the 1983 guidelines.

          For  this study we have used proposed EPA guidelines as follows;
 BOD-30 milligrams per  liter, suspended solids-30 milligrams per liter,
 oil and grease-10 milligrams per liter, and metals-2.2 milligrams per
 liter. These concentrations were used to calculate the waterborne wastes
 for the various product categories, based  on the volume of water discharged.

          The  REPA impacts  for  1,000 pounds of napkin, sheet and diaper
 laundering are shown in Tables  E-7, E-8 and E-9.

          3. Home Laundering!>2

               a. Cloth Diapers; Industry  data submitted for this study
 indicate that  4.264 pounds  of cloth diapers are washed in the average
 load, requiring 0.185  pounds of detergent  and 0.064 pounds of bleach
 and softener.  During the washing process,  the washing machine uses 0.35
 killowatts per hour of electricity and requires 25 gallons of hot water
 and 23 gallons of cold water? The drying process requires 1.91 killowatts
 per hour and 3.12 cubic feet of natural gas (at the 67 percent electric
 and 33 percent gas national average).

          The  impacts  for washing diapers  are calculated for 100 changes
 or diaperings. Industry data show 8.56 diapers used per day for 5.82
 changes per day, resulting  in 1.47 diapers per change. Due to double
 and triple diaperings, the  100  changes will result in 147 diapers being
 washed (20.09  pounds or 4.71 washer loads). Table E-10 contains the im-
 pact data for  laundering 100 changes (147  diapers).
I/  See comment No.  8 Appendix B, page 7.
2/  See comment Appendix H.
3/  See comment No.  9 Appendix B, pages 7-8.

                                    E-7

-------
                                                            TABLE  E-6
                                       ENERGY USE FOR 1,000  POUNDS  OF COMMERCIAL LAUNDRY-
                                                                                       .a/1


Cloth Product
Napkins
Sheets
Diapers

Heat Matey,
106 Btu^'
3.168
2.678
4.726

Operate Washer
kwhr
14.0
14.0
14.0
Operate
Extractor
kwhr
2.8
2.8
2.8
Operate
Dryer Motor
kwhr
7.0
7.0
7.0
Gas
Dryer
106 Btu
1.2
1.2
1.2
Iron
Linens
106 Btu
0.12
0.12
0.12
Total
Energy
106 Btu
4.48
4.00
6.05
Total,
Energy
CF NG
4,350
3,880
5,870
Type
kwhr
23.8
23.8
23.8
M   Source:   MRI  calculation using basic data supplied by the Linen Supply Association of America.
oo   a/   Using an  800 pound capacity washer and 400 pound capacity dryer.
    b/   76 percent efficient water heater.
    I/   See comment No. 15 Appendix B, page 9.

-------
                                    TABLE  E-7

         DATA FOR LAUNDERING 1,000 POUNDS  OF NAPKINS-COMMERCIAL LAUNDRY1

Impact Category
Raw Materials
Soap
Detergent
Bleach
Sour
Softener
Starch
Energy
Electric
Natural Gas
Quantities
5.6
6.9
1.2
1.0
1.2
3.8

23.8 kwhr
4, 3 SQ ft3
Source

75
75
75
75
75
75


 Water                                 3,650 gal.                   .  72

 Solid Waste                              52.0 Ib                     72

 Waterborne Wastes                                                    73

   BOD                                     0.9
   COD
   Suspended Solids                         0.9
   Dissolved Solids
   Oil and Grease                          0.3
   Metal  Ion                               0.07
£/  See comment No.   15  Appendix B, page 9.
                                    E-9

-------
                                    TABLE E-8
          DATA FOR LAUNDERING 1,000 POUNDS  OF SHEETS-COMMERCIAL LAUNDRY'
 Impact Category
 Quariti ties
Sources
 Raw Materials

   Soap
  • Detergent
   Bleach
   Sour

 Energy

   Electric
   Natural  Gas

 Water  •

 Solid Wastes

 Waterborne Wastes

   BOD
   COD
   Suspended Solids
   Dissolved Solids
   Oil and  Grease
   Metal  Ion
    5.07
    6.18
    1.20
    1.00
   23.8 kwhr
3.880 ft3

3,140 gal

   48 Ib
    0.8

    0.8

    0.26
    0.06
  73
  73
  73

  72  .

  73
I/  See comment No.  15 Appendix B, page 9.
                                   E-10

-------
                                TABLE E-9




 DATA FOR LAUNDERING 1,000 POUNDS OF CLOTH DIAPERS  (COMMERCIAL LAUNDRY)

Impact Category
Raw Materials
Soap
Detergent
Bleach
Sour
Softener/ Sanitizer
Energy
Electric
Natural Gas
Water
Solid Wastes
BOD
COD
Suspended Solids
Dissolved Solids
Oil and Grease
Metal Ion
Quantities

9.0 Ib
11.0 Ib
2.5 Ib
0.9 Ib
1.2 Ib

23.8 KWHR '
5,870 ft3 G?/
5,500 gal
78.0 Ib
1.4 Ib

1.4 Ib

0.46 Ib
0.10 Ib
Sources

72, 75
72, 75
72, 75
72, 75
72, 75
" i ' l • ''* -
- ' '
(o -yoc"
72
72






I/  See comment No.  15 Appendix B, page 9.
                                   E-ll

-------
                  TABLE E-10
DATA FOR HOME LAUNDRY OF DIAPERS (100 CHANGES)

Impact Category
Raw Materials
Detergent
• Bleach
Softeners
Energy
Electric
Natural Gas
Residual Oil
Water •
Solid Waste .
Waterborne Wastes
BOD
SS
Oil and Grease
Metal Ion
Quantities

0>87 Ibs
18.3 fl oz
4.58 fl 02

23.93 kwhr
97.64 ft3
0.15 gal
220 gal
1.5 Ib

0.12
0.085
0.01
0.002
Sources
19, 75



19, 75, 79


79
19, 72
19, 78




                      E-12

-------
          The energy requirements in Table E-10 are expanded into more
detail in Table E-ll. The latter table presents the energy requirement
for one washer load and for 100 changes (4.71 washer loads) according
to the energy source. The energy required per diapering change is 4,020
Btu.
                                   TABLE E-ll

                   ENERGY ANALYSIS FCR HOME LAUNDRY OF DIAPERS

Energy Source
Heat Water
(58% Nat. Gas
27% Electric
15% Fuel Oil)
Washer
Motor
Dryer
Motor
Dryer Heat
(33% Nat. Gas
67% Electric)
Total
Energy
 Per Washer Load (31.2 Diapers)

 Electric, kwhr       18.21        0.35    1.0         1.91         5.08
 Nat. Gas, Cu Ft      17.61                            3.12        20.73
 Fuel Oil, gal         0.031                                        0.031
   Total Btu                                                   85,350

 Per 100 Changes (147 Diapers)

 Electric, kwhr        8.57        1.65    4.71        9.0         23.93
 Nat. Gas, Cu ft      82.94                           14.7         97.64
 Fuel Oil, gal         0.146                                        0.146
   Total Btu                                                  402,000
          The water requirements (hot and cold) for home laundry repre-
sent average usage for washing machines currently on the market as re-
ported by Consumer Reports.

          Solid waste from the home laundering of diapers is primarily
sewage sludge formed during municipal waste treatment.

          Typical BOD and suspended solids values from home laundry waste
are 184 and 233 milligrams per liter respectively. For this report, we
assumed that 65 percent of the BOD and 80 percent of the suspended solids
are removed in sewage treatment plants* Oil and metal ion quantities
are estimates based on open literature values. Each water pollutant cal-
culation is based on 220 gallons of waste water.

          Table E-12 contains the impacts, based on 100 diaperings, which
pertain to diaper treatment prior to laundering. Industry data show
that 55 percent of the changes result in a rinse in, and flush of, the
I/  The number should  be  1.82.

                                    E-13

-------
toilet. At 5 gallons per flush,  275 gallons of water are used to  rinse
the 55 changes of diapers. Also, in each rinse approximately 2.96 grams
of feces are flushed to the sewer. At 65 percent removal efficiency and
assigning one pound of BOD to each pound of feces flushed,  100 changes
will result in 0.126 pounds of BOD entering receiving waters. The sus-
pended solid load was assumed to be 80 percent of the BOD load or 0.1
pounds per 100 changes. The solid wastes value is calculated from the
BOD level by assigning 20 percent of the BOD removed to sewage sludges
or 0.07 pounds per 100 diaper changes (2.96 x 55 x 0.2)/454 = 0.07 pounds
sewage sludge). The "use" impacts in Table E-12 are part of the home
diaper REPA profile and are added to the total system impacts during
the computer calculations.
                                  TABLE E-12

                  IMPACTS FOR CLOTH DIAPER USE  (100 CHANGES)



      Impact Category                       Values                  Sources

      Water Volume                         275  gal

      Solid Waste                             0.07 lb

      Waterborne Waste

         BOD                                  0.126 lb
         Suspended Solids                      0.10 lb


          Table E-13 contains the impact data for home laundry of cloth
towels,  cloth napkins, and sponges. The washer  load for linen used in
this report is 12 pounds. The energy values are based on the energy to
wash diapers in the home laundry with the heavier load of linen taken
into account. The water volume, solid waste,  and waterborne wastes are
also based  on industry data used in calculating the diaper washing impacts.
                                   E-14

-------
                              TABLE E-13

            DATA FOR HOME LAUNDRY OF 1.000 POUNDS OF LINENS
                      (Towels, Sponges, Napkins)
Impact Category                     Quantities                Sources

Raw Materials                                                75

  Detergent                           15.42 Ib
  Bleach                             333 fl oz
  Softener                            83 fl oz

Energy                                                       19, 75, 78
                                                                   »
  Electric                           423 kwhr
  Natural Gas                      1,727 ft3
  Fuel Oil                             2.55 gal

Water                              4,003 gal                 78

Solid Wastes                          27.3 Ib                19, 72.

Waterborne Wastes                                            19, 78

  BOD                                  2.15 Ib
  SS                                   1.56 Ib
  Oil                                  0.3 Ib
  Metal Ion                            0.07 Ib
                                  E-15

-------
          Table E-14 compares the total REPA summary data for Cloth Towels
(U100, L5) and Cloth Napkins Home Use (U100) with the laundering component
of the profile represented by data from 8 pound loads and 12 pound loads.
The older washing machines (home) would encourage the use of 8 pound loads
while the newer 18 to 20 pound capacity machines would probably result in
wash loads of 12 pounds and heavier* The values in Table E-14 represent
the total profile summary and not just the laundering component.

           The values in Table E-14 show a total system energy increase of
25 percent for the cloth towel system, and 29 percent for the home cloth
napkin system when decreasing the wash load from 8 pounds to 12 pounds.
A similar decrease in energy would be expected for those households using
16 pound loads rather than 12 pounds per load.
                                   E-16

-------
                                        TABLE E-14

          IMPACT SUMMARIES FOR THE CLOTH AND PAPER TOWEL AND CLOTH AND PAPER NAPKIN
                 SYSTEMS USING 8 AND 12 POUND WASH LOADS FOR THE REUSABLE
                     (Basis; Towels 1,000 Spills, Napkins 1,000 Meals)




Cloth Towel System
(U100. L5)


i
i— •
-»j




Impact Category
Raw Materials (Ib)
Energy (million Btu)
Water (thousand gallons)
Industrial Solid Waste (cu ft)
Atmospheric Emission (Ib)
Waterborne Wastes (Ib)
Postconsumer Solid Waste (cu ft)
8 Pound
3.23
0.36
0.20
0.06
1.49
0.40
0.03
12 Pound
2.91
0.27
0.14
0.05
1.13
0.31
0.03

Paper
Towel
2-Plv
14.22
0.50
0.28
0.05
1.79
0.48
0.26


Home Cloth Napkin System
(U100)
8 Pound
5.25
1.16
0.65
0.18
4.57
1.11
0.20
12 Pound
4.03
0.82
0.45
0.13
3.23
0.80
0.20

Paper
Napkin
1-PJ.y
4.66
0.17
0.10
0.01
0.65
0.18
0.09
Notes  The effect on other scenarios can be estimated by refering to Volume I-A, Tables 2 and 3.

-------
                              APPENDIX F F

       DETAILED COMPUTER TABLES FOR PROCESS AND PRODUCT SYSTEMS
          This appendix section contains the computer data for the  master
systems, comparing the scenarios in each product category, and computer  •
tables showing the resource and environmental impacts for 1,000 pounds
of selected primary processes.
                                   F-l

-------
                                                           TABLE F-l
                                            RESOURCE AND INVIRONXEMUL PROFILE AHALYSIS
                                                  ONt THOU SPILLS EACH SYSTEM
INPUTS TO SYSTEMS
          NAME
          MATERIAL COTTON
          MATERIAL SULFATE BRINE
          MATERIAL HOOD FIBER
          MATERIAL LIMESTONE
          MATERIAL IRON ORE
          MATERIAL SALT
          MATERIAL (iLASS SAND
          MATERIAL NAT SODA ASM
          MATERIAL FELDSPAR
          MATERIAL 8AUIITE ORE
          MATERIAL SULFUR
          ENEROY SOURCE PETROLEUM
          ENER»V SOURCE NAT OA$
          ENER9Y SOURCE COAL
          ENER6Y SOURCE MISC
          ENERBY SOURCE HOOD FIDE*
          ENERGY SOURCI UVOROPOWER
          MATERIAL F07JSM
          MATERUL PHOSPHATE ROCK
          NATEPIAL CLAY
          MATERIAL OrPSUM
          MATERIAL SILICA
          MATERIAL PROCESS ADO
          ENERGY PROCESS
          ENERGY TRA«S»OBT
          ENEROY OF KATL «SOURCE
          WATER VOLU*'.
OUTPUTS FRON SYSTEMS
          NAME
          SOLID HASTES PROCESS
          SOLID WASTES FUEL COMB
          SOLID HASTES MINING
          SOLID WASTE POST-CONSUM
          ATMOSPHERIC PESTICIDE
          ATMOS PARTICIPATES
          ATNOS NITROGEN 01IDES
          ATMOS HYDROCARBONS
          ATKOS SULFUR OXIDES
          ATMOS CARBON MONOXIDE
          ATMQS ALDEHYDES
          ATMOS OTHER ORSANICS
          ATKOS ODOROUS SULFUR
          ATMOS AMMONIA
          ATMOS HYDROGEN FLOURIOE
          ATMOS IEAO
          ATMOS MERCURY
          ATMOSPHERIC CHLORINE
          •ATERBORNE DIS SOLIDS
          WATERBMNE FLUORIDES
          VATCRBORNE DISS SOLIDS
          MAKRBORNE BOD
          WATERBORNE PHENOL
          WATEaBORNE SULFIDES
          HATER80RNE OIL
          WATERBORNE COO
          VATER8OHNE SUSP SOLIDS
          WA1CRSORNE ACID
          KtTERBORNE METAL ION
          VATERBOKNE CHEMICALS
          WATER80RNE CYANIDE
          WATERBORNE ALKALINITY
          WATERBORNE CHROMIUM
          UATERaORNE IRON
          HATCRBORSE ALUMINUM
          •ATCRBORNE NICKEL
          VATERBGRNE MERCURY
          KATERBORNE LEAD
          •ATERBORNE PHOSPHATES
          •ATER80RNE ZINC
          HATERBORNC AMMONIA
          BATERBORNE N1TROKN
          JIATERBORNE PESTICIDE

SUNN3&Y Of ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACTS
                                       UNITS
POUND
POUND
POUND
POUND
POUND
POUND
POUND
POUND
POUND
POUND
POUND
HILL BTU
MILL BTU
HILL >TU
MILL BTU
MILL «TU
MILL BTU
POUND
POUND
POUND
POUND
POUND
POUND!
MIL BTU
MIL BTU
MIL BTU
THOU «AL
                                       UNITS
POUNO
POUND
POUND
CUBIC FT
POUNO
POUND
POUNO
POUNO
POUND
POUNO
POUND
POUNO
POUNO
POUNO
POUND
POUNO
POUND
POUND
POUNO
POUND
POUND
POUND
POUND
POUNO
POUNO
POUNO
POUNO
POUND
POUND
POUNO
POUND
POUNO
POUND
POUND
POUND
POUNO
POUND
POUND
POUND
POUND
POUNO
POUND
POUNO
                                       UNITS
          RAk MATERIALS             POUNDS
          ENta&r                    MIL BTU
          HATER                     THOU ML
          INDUSTRIAL SOLID WASTES   CUBIC FT
          ATM [MM1SS10NS            POUNOS
          WATtRBORNE WASTES         POUNOS
          i*OST-CONSUMER SOL WASTE   CUIIC FT
          ENCaOY SOURCE PCTICOLEUM   MIL BTU
          ENERBY SOURCE NAT 3A1     MIL BTU
          ENEROY SOURCE COAL        MIL ITU
          EhtflAY SOURCE MUCL HYPWR  NIL BTU
          ENERiY SOURCE VOOO uiSTf  MIL ITU
CLOTH
TOWEL
U 31. L 1
M SPILLS
*.*!)
.Mi
.063
• .«*»
0.0*0
2.*8I
.3*4
.34*
«.*•«
*.*«»
.US
.IS*
.AST
.a**
.ou
.«•!
.000
•oo«
.001
.0*0
.0*0
.*••
.**s
1.164
.OOT
.011
.449
T.l*0
2.231
*.I8(
.0*1
.911
.631
1.0*0
.»T1
(.230
.(34
.00*
.00*
.002
.002
.000
.000
.000
.019
.OOT
*.*00
.COS
.30*
.000
.001
.0*0
.Z01
.31*
.11*
.03*
.000
0.0«*
.0*1
.00*
*.«••
0.000
t.oo*
.0*0
.•00
.0*0
ft. 00*
.000
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                                                            F-2

-------
                                                        TABLE  F-2

                                            MCSOUACI ANO ENVIRONMENTAL PROFILE ANALYSIS
                                                  OMC THOU NAPKINS HOME USE
INPUTS TO SYSTEMS
          NAME
          MATERIAL COTTON
          MATERIAL SULFATE
          MATERIAL HOOD FIBER
          MATERIAL LIMESTONE
          MATERIAL IRON OSE
          MATERIAL SALT
          MATERIAL GLASS SANO
          MATERIAL NAT SODA ASH
          MATERIAL FELDSPAR
          MATERIAL BAUXITE ORE
          MATERIAL SULFUR
          ENERGY SOURCE PETROLEUM
          ENERGY SOURCE N*T GAS
          ENERGY SOURCE COAL
          ENERGY SOURCE NISC
          ENERGY SOURCE HOOD FIBER
          ENERGY SOURCE HYOROPOHER
          MATERIAL POTASH
          MATERIAL PHOSPHATE ROCK
          MATERIAL CLAY
          MATERIAL GYPSUM
          MATERIAL SILICA
          MATERIAL PROCESS AOO
          ENEROY PROCESS
          ENERGY TRANSPORT
          ENERGY OF MATL RESOURCE
          HATER VOLUME
OUTPUTS FROM SYSTEMS
          NAME
          SOLID HASTES PROCESS
          SOLID HASTES FUEL COM8
          SOLID HASTES MININS
          SOLID HASTE POST-CONSUN
          ATMOSPHERIC PESTICIDE
          ATMOS PARTICULATES
          ATMOS NITROGEN OIIOES
          ATMOS HYDROCARBONS
          ATMOS SULFUR OXIDES
          ATMQS CARRON MONOIIDE
          ATMOS ALDEHYDES
          ATWOS OTHER OROANICS
          ATMOS ODOROUS SULFUR
          ATMOS AMMONIA
          ATMOS HYDROGEN FLOURIOE
          ATMOS LEAD
          ATMOS MERCURY
          ITMOSPHERIC CHLORINE
          BATER80RNE OIS SOLIDS
          HATER30RNE FLUORIDES
          HATER80RNE DISS SOLIDS
          HATERBORNE BOO
          HATERBQRNE PHENOL
          HATER80RNE SULFIOES
          (ATER80RNE OIL
          HATERBORNC COO
          HATERBORNE SUSP SOLIDS
          HATERBORNC ACID
          •ATERBORNE METAL IOH
          HATER80RNE CHEMICALS
                     CTANIOC
                     ALKALINITY
          HATER80RNC CHROMIUM
          HATER80RNE IRON
          HATER80RNE ALUMINUM
          HATE380RNE NICKEL
          HATERBORNE MERCURY
          HATER60HNE LEAD
          HATERBORNE PHOSPHATES
          HATERBORNE ZINC
          HATERSORNC AMMONIA
          HATER80RNC NITROGEN
          HATER80RNE PESTICIDE

SUMMARY OF ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACTS
          NAME
                                       UNITS
POUNO
POUND
POUNO
POUNO
POUND
POUNO
POUNO
POUNO
POUNO
POUND
POUND
MILL ITU
MILL 8TU
MILL 8TU
MILL 8TU
MILL 8TU
MILL BTU
POUNO
POUNO
POUNO
POUNO
POUND
POUNDS
MIL 8TU
MIL BTU
MIL BTU
THOU 8AL
                                       UNITS
POUNO
POUNO
POUNO
CU8IC FT
POUNO
POUNO
POUNO
POUNO
POUNO
POUNO
POUND
POUNO
POUND
POUNO
POUNO
POUND
POUND
POUNO
POUNO
POUNO
POUNO
POUNO
POUND
POUNO
POUNO
POUNO
POUNO
POUND
POUNO
POUND
POUND
POUNO
POUNO
POUNO
POUNO
POUNO
POUNO
POUNO
POUNO
POUNO
POUNO
POUNO
POUND
                                       UHITS
          RAH MATERIALS             POUNDS
          ENEROY                    MIL 8TU
          HATER                     THOU 8AL
          INDUSTRIAL SOLID HASTES   CUOIC FT
          ATM EMMISSIONS            POUMOS
          HATERBORNE HASTES         POUNOS
          POST-CONSUMES SOL HASTE   CUBIC FT
          ENEROY SOUPCE PETROLEUM   MIL BTU
          ENERSY SOURCE NAT GAS     MIL 3TU
          ENERGY SOURCE COAL        «lL ST'J
          ENERGY SOURCE NUCL HVPHR  MIL 3TU
          ENERSY SOURCE HOOD HASTE  »IL 9TU
CLOTH CLOTH CLOTH CLOTH CLOTH CLOTH PAPES
NAPKIN NAPKIN NAPKIN NAPKIN NAP HOWE NAP HOME NAPKIN
HOME HOME HOME HOME CLD HASH CLD BASH HCMf
USC1 LI USE27 LI USES* LI UK100L1 USE 3*Ll USE10UL1 •
9.000
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48.848
4.70*
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0.000
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13.611
11.366
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4.31T
74.338
19.221
68.3T8
1.913
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9.911
9.7S9
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1.3T7
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8.486
2.323
1.456
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4.670
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-------
                                              TABLE  F-3

                                            RESOURCE AND ENVIRONMENTAL PROFILE ANALYSIS

                                                  ONI TKOU NAPKINS COMMERCIAL USE
INPUTS TO SYSTEMS
          NAME
          MATERIAL COTTON
          MATERIAL SULFATE BRINE
          MATERIAL *000 FIBER
          MATERIAL LIMESTONE
          MATERIAL IRON ORE
          MATERIAL SALT
          MATERIAL GLASS SANO
          MATERIAL NAT SODA ASM
          MATERIAL FELDSPAR
          MATERIAL BAUXITE ORE
          MATERIAL SULFUR
          ENERST SOURCE PETROLEUM
          ENEROY SOURCE NAT OAS
          ENEROY SOURCE COAL
          ENERBY SOURCE MISC
          ENEROY SOURCE HOOD FIBER
          ENEROY SOURCE HYDROPOHER
          MATERIAL POTASH
          MATERIAL PHOSPHATE ROCK
          MATERIAL CLAY
          MATERIAL GYPSUM
          MATERIAL SILICA
          MATERIAL PROCESS ADD
          ENEROY PROCESS
          ENERSY TRANSPORT
          ENERSY OF MATL RESOURCE
          HATER VOLUME
OUTPUTS FROM SYSTEMS
          NAME
          SOLID HASTES PROCESS
          SOLID HASTES FUEL COMB
          SOLID HASTES MIMING
          SOLID HASTE POST-CONSUM
          ATMOSPHERIC PESTICIDE
          ATMOS PADTICULATES
          ATMOS NITROOEN OXIDES
          ATMOS HYDROCARBONS
          ATMOS SULFUR OXIDES
          ATMOS CARBON MONOXIDE
          ATMOS ALDEHYDES
          ATMOS OTHER ORSAMICS
          ATMOS ODOROUS SULFUR
          ATMOS AMMONIA
          ATMOS HYDROGEN FLOURIDE
          ATMOS LEAD
          ATMOS MERCURY
          ATMOSPHERIC CHLORINE
          .HATERBORNE DIS SOLIDS
          HATERBORNE FLUORIDES
          VATERBORNE DtSS SOLIDS
          HATERBORNE BOO
          HATERBORNE PHENOL
          HATERBORNE SULFIDES
          HATERBORNE OIL
          HATERBORNE COO
          HATERBORNE SUSP SOLIDS
          HATERBORNE ACID
          HATERBORNE METAL ION
          HATER80RNE CHEMICALS
          HATERBORNE CYANIDE
          HATERBORNE ALKALINITY
          HATERBORNE CHROMIUM
          HATERBORNE IRON
          HATERBORNE ALUMINUM
          MATERBORNE NICKEL
          HATERBORNE MERCURY
          HATERBORNE LEAD
          HATERBORNE PHOSPHATES
          HATERBORNE ZINC
          •ATERBORNE AMMONIA
          HATER«0«NE NITROOEN
          HATERBORNE PESTICIDE
SUMMARY OF ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACTS
          NAM:
          RAH MATERIALS
          ENEROY
          HATER
          INDUSTRIAL SOLID HASTES
          ATM EMMISSIONS
          HATERBORNE HASTES
          POST-CONSUMER SOL HASTE
          ENEROY SOURCE PETROLEUM
          ENERSY SOURCE NAT OAS
          ENERSY SOURCE COAL
          EKEROY SOURCE NUCL HYPHR
          ENEROY SOURCE HOOD HASTE
                                       UNITS
POUND
POUND
POUND
POUND
POUND
POUND
POUNO
POUND
POUND
POUND
POUND
MILL BTU
MILL ITU
MILL BTU
MILL BTU
MILL BTU
MILL BTU
POUND
POUNO
POUNO
POUND
POUNO
POUNDS
MIL BTU
MIL BTU
MIL BTU
THOU OAL
                                       UNITS
POUND
POUND
POUNO
CUI1C FT
POUNO
POUNO
POUNO
POUNO
POUNO
POUNO
POUNO
POUNO
POUNO
POUNO
POUNO
POUND
POUNO
POUNO
POUNO
POUND
POUNO
POUNO
POUNO
POUND
POUNO
POUNO
POUNO
POUNO
POUNO
POUND
POUNO
POUNO
POUNO
POUNO
POUNO
POUNO
POUNO
POUND
POUNO
POUNO
POUNO
POUNO
POUND
                                       UNITS
POUNDS
MIL BTU
THOU 8AL
CUBIC FT
POUNDS
POUNDS
CUBIC FT
MIL BTU
MIL BTU
MIL BTU
MIL BTU
MIL BTU
CLOTH CLOTH CLOTH CLOTH
NAPKIN NAPKIN NAPKIN NAP COMM
COMMER COMNER CONNER CLO HASH
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119.03*
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8.270
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0.000
0.000
0.000
0.00*
.095
.11*
.09*
.051
.010
.101
0.0*0
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
.933
.359
.013
.002
.251
1.925
.354
.794
.221
0.000
.171
.297
.162
.49Z
.116
.002
.017
.007
.000
0.000
.000
.000
.004
0.000
0.000
.067
• .139
.000
.000
.000
.001
.171
.017
.004
.001
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
.00*
.too
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
11.072
.374
.251
.041
1.269
.40*
.221
.114
.09*
.051
.010
.101
                                                 F-4

-------
INPUTS TO SYSTEMS
          NAME
                                                  TABLE   F-4
                                             RESOURCE  AND ENVJHONIMWTAL  'so,-at  ANALYSIS
                                                  OMC TMOU  SHMTS  I*CM  3YSTEN
                                       UNITS
                                                    CLDTH      CLOTH
                                                    SHEETS     SHEETS
                                                    INST       INST
                                                    USE 1 LI   USE50 LI
CLOTH
Jl.'KTS
CLOTH     OISSOSBL
SHEETS    SHEETS
INST      i:isr
USE3J01.1  USE!
          MATERIAL COTTON
          MATERIAL SULFATE SRtNE
          MATERIAL »OOB FIBER
          MATERIAL LIMESTONE
          MATERIAL IRON ORE
          MATERIAL SALT
          MATERIAL 8LASS SAND
          MATERIAL NAT SODA ASM
          MATERIAL FELDSPAR
          MATERIAL BAUXITE ORC
          MATERIAL SULFUR
          ENEROY SOURCE PETROLEUM
          ENEROY SOURCE NAT 345
          ENEMY SOURCE COAL
          ENES8Y SOURCE MISC
          ENERO.Y SOURCE «000 FIBER
          ENER3Y SCUPCE MYOROPOHER
          MATERIAL POTASH
          MATERIAL PHOSPHATE ROCK
          MATERIAL CLAY
          MATERIAL 5YPSUN
          MATERIAL SILICA
          MATERIAL PROCESS AOO
          ENERGY PROCESS
          ENERGY TRANSPORT
          ENERSr OF Mitt. RESOURCE
          HATE" VOLUME
POUND
POUND
POUND
POUND
POUND
POUND
POUND
POUND
POUND
POUND
POUND
MILL BTU
MILL BTU
MILL BTU
MILL BTU
MILL BTU
MIuL 8TU
POUND
POUND
POUND
POUND
POUND
POUNDS
NIL BTU
MIL 8TU
MIL BTU
THOU SAL
577.6*8
3.0T3
16.310
4.00*
0.400
469.768
1.638
1.4*5
6.004
4.404
11.706
34.634
12.3*3
26.338
4.582
.138
.009
.494
.111
.006
.444
.444
S .766
80.638
3.875
13.822
29.32*
11.5*2
3.073
.326
0.004
O.OCO
13.942
1.635
1.4*5
0.004
9.404
.579
.820
5.451
.699
.128
.003
4.040
0.000
.002
4.000
0.444
0.009
4.361
6.714
.091
.297
4.190
3.777
3,073
.16.1
0.000
0,000
9.2»1
1.638
1.448
0.009
0.000
.465
.478
5.17T
.438
.£83
.002
0.000
0.000
.001
0.000
0.900
0.000
3.543
5.960
.055
.159
• 3.933
l.«?6
3.073
.054
0.000
o.juo
6.188
1.635
1.445
0.000
0.000
.389
.248
4.994
.263
.052
.001
0.000
0.000
.000
0.000
0.004
0.000
2.996
5.487
.032
.067
3.762
O.B90
.:jo
76.749
7.J29
0.394
a. 637
0.099
0.000
0.000
0.400
.921
2.025
8.768
1.207
.267
.793
.000
.000
.000
.009
.000
.044
13.004
5.907
.492
3.689
2.328
OUTPUTS FROM SYSTEMS
          NAME
                                       UNITS
          SOL 10 HA STE S PRQCE SS
          SOLID HASTES FUEL COMB
          SOLID WASTES MININO
          SOLID HASTE POST-CONSUM
          ATMOSPHERIC PESTICIDE
          ATMOS PARTICULATES
          •TH05 NITROGEN OXIUES
          ATMOS WYDRCC»R80NS
          ATMOS SULFUR OKIOES
          ATMOS CARBON MONOXIDE
          ATMOS ALDEHYDES
          ATMOS OTHER OROANICS
          ATMOS ODOROUS SULFUR
          ATMOS AMMONIA
          ATMOS NYOROGSN FLOURIOE
          ATMOS LEAD
          ATMOS MERCUR*
          ATKCSPHERK CHLORINE
          HATER80RNE OIS S3LIDS
          "ATER80HNE FLUORIDES
          •ATERSOSNE 01SS SOLIDS
          •ATERBORNE 800
          HATERBORNE PHENOL
          HATER80RNE SULFCOE3
          HATEREORNE OIL
          HATEHBORNE CUD
          •ATERBORNE SUSP SOLIDS
          •ATER80RNE ACID
          ••7ER80RNE KET/IL ION
          HATSRBORNE CHEMICAL!)
          HATERBOANE CYANIDE
          HATERBOHNE ALKALINITY
          HATER80RNE CHROHtUM
          HATERBOP.NE IRON
          •ATERBORNE ALUMINUM
          HATERBOHNE MICHEL
          ••resacHNE MERCURY
          HATESBCRNE LEAD
          •ATERBORNE PHOSPHATES
          (ArERSORNE ZIMC
          •ATEBBOPIIE AM30NIA
          HATERBOBNE N1TSCSEM
          HATEP90BN* PSJT'CIDE
POUND
POUND
POUND
CUBIC FT
POUND
POUND
POUND
POUND
POUND
POUHO
POUND
POUND
POUND
POUND
POUND
POUND
POUND
POUND
POUND
POUND
POUND
POUND
POUND
POUND
POUND
POUND
POUND
POUND
POUND
POUND
POUND
POUND
POUND
POUND
POUND
POUND
POUHO
PWNO
POUND
POUND
POUND
POUND
POUND
806
138
411
21
1
65
79
94
156
53

1





2

a
IT
6



52
2T
7
1

«


0
0
0



0



.258
.223
.644
.990
.2T1
.850
.439
.473
.092
.879
.805
.581
.084
.198
.002
.050
.003
.382
.026
.000
.43*
.792
.066
.123
.3*7
.630
.018
.189
.8S4
.064
.004
.002
.056
.«»«
.00*
.004
.000
.001
.009
.00*
.012
.105
.m
72
3
11


1
4
6
4
1









0
1
1



1
1



0


0
0
0



0



.013
.753
.299
.440
.025
.647
.473
.850
.156
.820
.021
.060
.084
.061
.000
.001
.000
.087
.026
.000
.423
.180
.001
.003
.296
.488
.589
.206
.116
.001
.000
.002
.001
.000
.090
.000
.000
.000
.005
.000
.000
.101
.006
64
2
7



3
5
i
1









0
1
1




1



0


0
0
0



0



.503
.331
.214
.220
.013
.994
.708
.653
.607
.289
.016
.045
.034
.059
.000
.001
.000
.063
.026
.030
.260
.123
.00)
.001
.295
.966
.330
.133
.090
.001
.00*
.002
.001
.000
.008
.000
.900
.000
.005
.000
.000
.101
.003
59.443 It
1.466 1
4.489 19
.073 ]
.004 (
.558 !
3.198 e
5.054 t
1.573 t
.934 <
.013
.035
.084
.058
.000 0
.001
.000
.048
.026 (
0.900 C
1.151 1
1.085
.000
.000
.294
.618
1.157 I
.084
.086
.000
0.000
.002
.000
0.004
0.000
0.000
.000
.000
.005
0.000
.too
.101
.001
.803
.335
.275
.737
.000
.375
.325
.41!
.071
.168
.022
.ISO
.066
.001
.000
.002
.000
.042
.000
.000
.428
.923
.000
.000
.009
.291
.224
.386
.092
.003
.040
.000
.000
.000
.000
.000
.040
.000
.000
.400
.444
.044
.444
lUNHAftY OF
                                       UNITS
          AAV MATERIALS
          ENER9Y
          HATER
          INDUSTRIAL SOLID PASTES
          ATM EMM I SCIONS
          KATE^eORNE HA-'TES
          POST-CSNSIJMER SOL HASTE
          ENEROY SO'JBCE PETPOUtUM
          ENEROY SOUI'CE XAT 3AS
          ENER9Y SCURCE COAL
          EWPC-Y ?C'J?Ci IHlOtl HASTC
POUNDS
MIL »TU
TNOU SAL
CUBIC FT
POUNDS
POUNDS
CUilC FT
MIL BTU
MIL BTU
MIL HTU
NIL BTU
MIL BTU
11*6.479
98,034
29.329
18.338
43S.409
114.214
11.990
34,63*
32.34.1
26.358
4.588
.1M
36.908
7il02
4.140
1.175
18.986
6.44S
.440
.820
5.451
.699
.138
.003
25.394
6.174
3.933
l.oco
14.532
5.3*6
.220
.475
5.177
.436
.083
.002
17.70*
5.5S5
3.762
.884
11.560
4.613
.073
.24$
4.99*
.263
.052
.001
1 46.684
10.089
2.325
.613
28.637
4.35*
1.73T
2.028
5.768
1.207
.267
.793
                                                      F-5

-------
                                                        TABLE  F-5

                                            RESOURCE AW ENVIRONMENTAL  PROFILE ANALYSIS

                                                  1«( CMNW1 EACX OIAPZRIN* ITS
INPUTS TO SYSTEMS
          IMHC
          MATERIAL CPTTON
          MATERIAL SULFATE BRINC
          MATERIAL tlOOO FIBER
          MATERIAL LIMESTONE
          MATERIAL IRON ORE
          MATERIAL SALT
          MATERIAL GLASS SAND
          MATERIAL NAT SOOA ASh
          MATERIAL FELDSPAR
          MATERIAL BAUXITE ORE
          MATERIAL SULFUR
          ENERGY. SOURCE PETROLEUM
          ENEROY SOURCE NAT OAS
          ENERGY SOURCE COAL
          ENEROY SOURCE MISC
          ENER8Y SOURCE HOOO FIKR
          ENERGY SOURCE HVOROPOVER
          MATERIAL POTASH
          MATERIAL PHOSPHATE HOCK
          MATERIAL CLAY
          MATERIAL GYPSUM
          MATERIAL SILICA
          MATERIAL PROCESS ADO
          ENERGY PROCESS
          ENERGY TRANSPORT
          ENERGY OF MATL RESOURCE
          HATER VOLUME
OUTPUTS FROM SYSTEMS
          NAME
          SOLID HASTES PROCESS
          SOLID HASTES FUEL COMB
          SOLID HASTES MINING
          SOLID HASTE POST-CONSUN
          ATMOSPHERIC PESTICIDE
          ATMOS PARTICULATES
          ATMOS NITROGEN OIIOCS
          ATMOS HYDROCARBONS
          ATHOS SULFUB OXIDES
          ATMOS CARBON MONOXIDE
          ATMOS ALDEHYDES
          ATMOS OTHER ORGANIC5
        '  ATMOS ODOROUS SULFUR
          ATNOS~AMNONIA
          ATMOS HYDROGEN FLOURIDE
          ATMOS LEAD
          ATMOS MERCURY
          ATMOSPHERIC CHLORINE
          HATERBORNE OIS SOLIDS
          HAVIRBORNE FLUORIDES
          HATERBORNE DISS SOLIDS
          HATERBORNE BOO
          H1TERBORNE PHENOL
          HATERBORNE SULFIOES
          HATERBORNE OIL
          HATERBORNE COD
          HATERBORNE SUSP SOLIDS
          HATERBORNE ACID
          HATERBORNE METAL ION
          HATERBORNE CHEMICALS
          HATERBORNE CYANIDE
          HATERBOPNE ALKALINITY
          HATERBORNE CHROMIUM
          HATERBORNE IRON
          HATERBORNE ALUMINUM
          HATERBORNC NICKEL
          HATERBORNE MERCURY
          •ATERBORNE LEAD
          •ATERBORNE PHOSPHATES
          HATERBORNE ZINC
          HATERBORNE AMMONIA
          HATERBORNC NITR08EN
          HATCnORNE PESTICIDE
SUMMARY OF ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACTS
          NAME
          RAH MATERIALS
          ENERGY
          HATER
          INDUSTRIAL SOLID HASTES
          ATM EMMISSIONS
          HATERBORNE HASTES
          POST-CONSUMER SOL HASTE
          ENERGY SOURCE PETROLEUM
          ENERGY SOURCE NAT GAS
          ENEROY SOURCE COAL
          ENERGY SOURCE NUCL HYPVR
          ENERGY SOURCE HOOO HASTC
                                       UNITS
POUND
POUND
POUND
POUND
POUND
POUND
POUND
POUND
POUND
POUND
POUND
MILL BTU
MILL BTU
MILL BTU
MILL BTU
MILL BTU
HILL BTU
POUND
POUND
POUND
POUND
POUND
POUNDS
MIL BTU
MIL BTU
NIL BTU
THOU GAL
                                       UNITS
POUND
POUND
POUND
CUBIC FT
POUND
POUND
POUND
POUND
POUND
POUND
POUND
POUND
POUND
POUND
POUND
POUND
POUND
POUND
POUND
POUND
POUND
POUNO
POUND
POUND
POUND
POUNO
POUND
POUND
POUNO
POUND
POUNO
POUND
POUND
POUNO
POUNO
POUND
POUNO
POUNO
POUNO
POUND
POUND
POUND
POUND
                                       UNITS
POUNDS
MIL BTU
THOU GAL
CUBIC FT
POUNDS
POUNDS
CUBIC FT
MIL BTU
MIL BTU
MIL BTU
MIL BTU
MIL BTU
CLOTH
DI«P SY
N LAUN
use i»o
.23*
.3*5
.906
0.00*
0.000
.28«
.148
.149
0.09*
C.OOG
.0*6
.0*4
.I6t
.131
.029
.000
.000
.009
.000
.900
.000
.060
.16*
.010
.001
.003
.S10
1.B10
.TT1
2.131
.004
.001—
.1T«
.3*2
.231'
.766
.OS*
.001
.002
.001
.•01
.000
.000
.001
.0*2
.001
0.00*
.on
.249-
.000
.000
.010
.013
.!»«
.0*1
.012
.000
0.000
.000
.0*0
o.oo*
0.000
0.000
.000
.000
.000
0.000
.too
.001
.0*6
1.44S
.413
.910
.0*4
1.602
.401
.004
.0*4
.10*
.131
.019
.BIO
CLSTH
01 AP SY
H LAUN
USE 96
,*T»
.SOS
.011
0.009
o.eoo
.372
.16*
.144
0.000
0.0*0
.04*
.OB*
.172
.139
.030
.000
0.000
o.coo
.000
o.ouii
0.009
0.000
.lei
.422
.001
.003
.514
1.9T3
.795
z.zoi
.088
.001
.190
.J«
.23B
.790
.0*3
.001
.002
.001
.001
.000
.0*0
.000
.003
.001
0.000
.OT6
.2SO
.000
.000
.010
.023
.206
.042
.012
.0*0
0.000
.000
.000
o.ooo
o.ooo
0.000
.000
.000
.000
OvOOO
.000
.001
.000
1.792
.42*
.514
.0«T
l.««4
.623
.00*
.0**
.1T2
.139
«M»
.««*
CLCTH
DJAP sr
K LAUN
USE n
.*ST
.MS
.023
0.000
0.000
.539
.16*
.14*
0.000
0.000
.052
.095
.IT*
.144
.032
.0*0
0.000
o.oon
.090
0.000
0.000
0.000
.211
.445
.002
..004
.523
2.2«*
.«4|
Z.34Z
.016
.002
.213
.401
.253
.B3B
.OT4
.001
.002
.001
.001
.000
.000
.000
.003
.001
0.000
.080
.292
.000
.000
.010
.041
.222
.04S
.013
.00*
0.0*0
.0*0
.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
.000
.000
.000
0.00*
.000
.001
.000
2.4*3
.490
.523
.OT4
i.;*«
.6M
.016
.099
.179
.144
.•32
.000
CLCTM
D1AP SY
C LAUN
use 100
.233
.09*
.006
0.00*
0.000
.224
.052
.046
0.000
0.000
.013
.007
.136
.00*
.001
.00*
0.000
0.000
.000
0.000
0.000
0.00*
.101
.150
.001
.001
.125
l.«25
.044
.137
.004
.001
.020
.090
.135
.046
.026
.000
.001
.403
..002
.000
.00*
.000
.•02
.••1
0.000
.032
.037
.000
.000
.009
.023
.043
.003
.003
.00*
• .000
.000
.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
.00*
.000
.000
' 0.000
.•00
.003
.000
.773
.191
.125
.027
.326
.155
.•04
.•07
.136
.00*
.•01
.001
CLOTH
DIAP SY
C LAUN
US( 50
.4TS
.09*
.011
0.000
0.000
.307
.052
.046
0.000
0.000
.019
.010
.139
.013
.002
.000
0.000
0.000
.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
.116
.162
.001
.001
.129
1.960
.067
.Z07
.•OB
.001
.032
.103
.142
.070
.032
.000
.001
.003
.002
.000
.000
.000
.002
.001
0.000
.034
.03B'
.000
.000
.009
.033
.051
.•04
.•03
.000
• .000
.000
.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
.000
.000
.000
0.000
.000
.0*3
.000
1.124
.164
.12*
.031
.30
.177
.•OB
.010
.13*
.013
.•01
.000
CLOTH
OIAP SY
C LAUN
USE 1
24.100
.«**
.564
0.000
0.000
B.4*4
.052
.046
0.000
0.000
.215
.347
.471
.450
.077
.005
0.000
0.000
.005
0.000
0.000
0.000
1.569
1.291
.034
.024
.562
11.147
2.335
7.033
.3BB
.055
1.I9T
1.361
.846
2.423
.572
.008
.02T
.003
.006
.•00
.001
.000
.043
.001
0.000
-.205
.133
.001
.002
.010
.946
.854
.126
.032
.003
• .000
.000
.001
0.000
0.000
0.000
.000
.000
.000
• .000
.000
.•03
.011
35.932
1.350
.562
.371
6.543
2.331
.3B*
.34T
.471
.450
.077
.005
OISPOI
OIAPCR
SYSTEM

0.000
0.000
9.219
.173 '
0.000
1.49*
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
.265
.092.
.109
.061
.00*
.100
0.000
0.000
• 0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
1.033
.322
.013
.035
.16*
1.5B1
.394
.654
.190
0.000
.191
.261
.1B4
.437
.090
.001
.015
.010
.000
0.000
.000
.000
.006
0.000
• .000
.058
.103
.000
.000
.000
.040
.12*
.02*
.004
.001
0.00*
0.000
.000
0.004
0.000
0.000
.000
.000
0.000
.000
.000
o.ooo
0.000
12. BM
.371
.16*
.03*
1.1*6
.356
.190
.092
.109
.061
.000
.10*
                                                        F-6

-------
                                                          TABLE  F-6

                                            RESOURCE ANO WVISONWENTAL PRCFILZ ANALYSIS

                                                  ONE MILLION 4TLOZ COLO ORINK SYI
INPUTS TO SYSTEMS
          NAME
          MATERIAL COTTON
          MATERIAL SULFATE SNIME
          MATERIAL HOOO FIBER
          MATERIAL LIMESTONE
          MATERIAL IRON ORE
          MATERIAL SALT
          MATERIAL GLASS SANO
          MATERIAL NAT SOOA ASH
          MATERIAL FELDSPAR
          MATERIAL BAUXITE ORE
          MATERIAL SULFUR
          ENER6Y SOURCE PETROLEUM
          ENER8Y SOURCE NAT SAS
          ENEROr SOURCE COAL
          ENERSY SOURCE MISC
          ENER6T SOURCE MOOD FIBER
          ENER8Y SOURCE MYOROPOHER
          MATERIAL POTASH
          MATERIAL PHOSPHATE ROCK
          MATERIAL CLAY
          MATERIAL OYPSUN
          MATERIAL SILICA
          MATERIAL PROCESS 400
          ENERGY PROCESS
          ENEROr TRANSPORT
          ENERGY OF MATL RESOURCE
          HATER VOLUME
OUTPUTS FROM SYSTEMS
          NAME
          SOLID HASTES PROCESS
          SOLID HASTES FUEL COMB
          SOLID HASTES MINING
          SOLID HASTE POST-CONSUM
          ATMOSPHERIC PESTICIDE
          ATMOS PARTICULATES
          ATMOS NITROGEN OXIDES
          ATMOS HYOROCAR80NS
          ATMOS SULFUR OXIDES
          ATMOS CAH80N MONOnIOE
          ATMOS ALOENYOES
          ATMOS OTHER OH9ANICS
          ATMOS ODOROUS SULFUR
          ATMOS AHMONIA
          ATMOS HYDROGEN FLOURIOE
          ATMOS LEAD
          ATMOS MERCURY
          ATMOSPHERIC CHLORINE
          HATER80RNE OIS SOLIDS
          H»TER80RNE FLUORIDES
          •ATER30RME DISS SOLIDS
          •ATERBORNE 600
          1UTERBORNE PHENOL
          HATERBORNE SULMOES
          •ATERBOHNE OIL
          •ATERBOPNE COO
          HATERBORNE SUSP SOLIDS
          •ATERBORNE ACID
          •ATERBORNE METAL ION
          HATCRBORNE CHEMICALS
          HATERBORNE CTANIOE
          •ATERBORNE ALKALINITY
          •ATER80RNE CHROMIUM
          MATER80RNE IRON
          •ATER80BNE ALUMINUM
          •ATERBORNE NICKEL
          •ATERSORNE MERCURY
          •ATERBORNE LEAD
          HATERBORNE PHOSPHATES
          HATERSOANC ZINC
          HATERBOflNE AMMONIA
          HATERBORNE NITR08EN
          HATEABOHNE PESTICIOE

SUHHAAT OF ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACTS
          NAME
                                       UNITS
POUND
POUND
POUND
POUND
POUND
POUND
POUND
POUND
POUND
POUND
POUND
MILL BTU
MILL BTU
MILL BTU
MILL BTU
MILL BTU
MILL BTU
POUND
POUNO
POUND
POUNO
POUNO
POUNDS
MIL 8TU
MIL BTU
MIL BTU
THOU DAL
                                       UNITS
POUND
POUNO
POUNO
CUBIC FT
POUND
POUNO
POUNO
POUNO
POUNO
POUND
POUND
POUND
POUNO
POUNO
POUND
POUND
POUNO
POUNO
POUNO
POUND
POUNO
POUNO
POUNO
POUNO
POUNO
POUMO
POUNO
OQUNO
POUNO
POUNO
POUNO
POUNO
POUNO
POUNO
POUNO
POUND
POUNO
POUNO
POUNO
POUNO
POUNO
POUNO
POUNO
                                       UNITS
          RAH MATERIALS             fOUNOS
          ENEMY                    NIL BTU
          HATES                     THOU SAL
          INDUSTRIAL SOLID HASTES   CUBIC FT
          ATM EMNISSIONS            POUMOS
          HATERBORNE HASTES         POUNDS
          POST-CONSUMER SOL HASTE   CUBIC FT
          ENEMY SOURCE PETROLEUM   MIL BTU
          ENER8Y SOURCE NAT 6AS     MIL BTU
          ENERGY SOURCE COAL        MIL BTU
          EMIR9Y SOURCE NUCL HYPVH  MtL BTU
          EMfROY SOURCE HOOO HASTE  MIL BTU
6LASS
TUMBLED
9FLOZ
use loa
0.000
63T.OS6
819.440
267.720
0.900
27*1*4*
£46.150
£13.706
0.000
71.937
19.879
126.872
16.96*
£.930
6.962
0.000
0.000
0.00*
0.000
0.000
0.000
344.548
167.46*
1.62D
4.£*1
8*. 601
£39.565
132.935
669.617
18.333
0.008
84.149
115.399
139.930
152.035
33.295
.482
10.310
1.18*
.843
0.008
.015
.002
.323
0.000
0.0*0
73.S87
26.061
.006
.006
.079
6.»04
Z0.29*
6.077
1.147
.«»•
0.000
1910.380
.000
0.008
0.000
0.000
.0«0
.9*0
.or*
».98«
.035
1. 4*7
.041
£»»«.34l
173.607
89.601
16*769
537. 9«£
16*8.714
18.333
19. *T*
126.871
' 16.964
£.939
6. Ml
S'.ASS
"JFLOz"
USE 1900
0.099
637.096
81.549
£6.772
0.000
278.418
246.150
22.371
• .000
71.937
11.249
107.405
11.917
2.519
.798
0.000
0 ,000
O.POO
O.COO
0.000
0.000
2*4.6*6
129.097
.497
4.291
aS.7£2
113.041
73.061
308.656
1.833.
0.000
26.182
62.074
111.649
77.338
21.4*9
.282
1 .579
1.18*
.824
0.000
.007
.001
.323
0.000
0.000
63.683
6.464
.002
.003
.074
6.362
9.169
5.027
.884
.096
0.008
1510.360
.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
.000
.000
.074
0.000
.005
1.437
.006
1673.21*
133). 84*
85.72£
6.679-
32£.893
1603.660
1.833
11.2*5
107.405
11.917
£.519
.79«
PSLYPHOP
9FJ.O*
UfE K'V
0.000
637.036
53.C31
0.090
O.f'3
fTU.488
246.150
0.000
0.000
71.9?7
&S.757
141.830
14.098
3,1*2
.601
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
280.624
142..705
50.750
26.872
93.112
132.291
97.194
289.844
14.127
0.000
31.517
152.069
230.392
103.0*4
376.499
».*71
16.564
1.184
.957
0.000
1.013
.001
.323
G.OOO
0.000
93.618
6.270
.026
.033
.144
a. sio
10.017
5.767
1.06*
.072
0.000
1510.380
.000
0.000
0.000
0.800
.000
.000
.074
o.ioo
.885
1.427
.0*8
1636.962
220.327
93. U2
7.911
918.0*4
1*37.421
14.127
60.797
141.830
14.0*8
3.042
.401
POLfOROP
•Jf *.'"-• 2
USi 1000

AT, .056
5.. 306
9.000
0.003

Z4&.150
0.000
0.200
71.937
IS. 333
ICS.908
11.630
2.531
.162
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
238.255
126.619
5.389
6.549
66.073
102.314
69.487
290.679
1.413
0.000
20.920
85.743
120.696
72.439
55.774
.681
2.204
1.1B4
.635
0.000
.106
.001
.323
0.000
0.000
65.657
«.285
.004
.005
.060
6.573
8.1*6
4.996
.877
.015
0.000
1510.380
.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
.000
.000
.074
0.000
.009
1.427
.008
15*1.940
138.996
66.073
5.703
360.907
1602.530
1.413
15.333
108.900
11.630
2.931
.162
HAI COAT
9"^nZ
i : i
0.000
0.009
"ioo.oi a
943.7^0
O.COO
i Alt? I AA
1 + 'if » I Oo
:.ooo
0.000
o.coo
0.000
121.901
213.085
1:8.586
97.619
9. 789
119.345
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
1161.983
420.288
11.290
112.347
145.461
2280.102
1031.031
775.091
2*1.357
0.000
191. «l*
293. »70
260. «6*
568.344
261.969
2.231
20.364
8.593
.152
0.000
.314
.006
7.0*2
0.000
0.000
103.746
70.317
.032
.041
.713
1.593
68.699
16.901
3.592
.969
0.088
0.000
.003
0.000
0.000
0.000
.000
.003
0.000
0.040
.091
0.800
0.000
13229.863
963.925
1*5. *Bl
55.164
1614.363
266.696
241.397
216.085
118.566
97.61*
9.78*
119.845
PLASTIC

"*'
O.'OO
C. '1C
' 1 J.->49
•).COO
O.t ••)
o.n a
0.000
0.900
0.000
0.000
37!. 310
2*3.11*
59.160
12.735
5.970
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
773.275
309.442
*3.*01
3*3.926
50.908
920.298
396.239
942.584
186.750
0.000
129.110
36S.459
£73.2*6
480.240
39*. 869
2.557
17.466
0.000
.218
0.000
.228
.006
0.000
0.000
0.000
16*. 863
29.539
.0*6
.054
1.807
21.*92
2*. 406
17.789
*.»*7
.77S
0.000
0.000
.023
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
.2*0
0.000
0.000
1*84.219
696.789
50.908
30.*98
1963.398
265.98*
186.750
375.610
243.114
59.160
12.739
9.970
                                                      F-7

-------
                                                          TABLE F-7

                                            RESOURCE AND CNViaONNENTAL PROFILE ANALYSIS

                                                  ONE MILLION TFLOZ MOT DRINK SYS
INPUTS TO SYSTEMS

          NANC
          MATERIAL COTTON
          MATERIAL SULFATE BRINE
          MATERIAL HOOD FIBER

          MATERIAL LIMESTONE
          MATERIAL IRON ORE
          MATERIAL SALT
          MATERIAL CLASS SAND
          MATERIAL NAT SODA ASH
          MATERIAL FELDSPAR
          MATERIAL BAUXITE ORE
          MATERIAL SULFUR
          ENERGY SOURCE PETROLEUM
          ENEROY SOURCE NAT GAS

          ENERGY SOURCE COAL
          ENEROY SOURCE MISC
          ENERGY SOURCE MOO FIBER
          ENERGY SOURCE HVOROPOHER
          MATERIAL POTASH
          MATERIAL PHOSPHATE ROCK
          MATERIAL CLAY
          MATERIAL GYPSUM
          MATERIAL SILICA
          MATERIAL PROCESS AOO
          ENERGY PROCESS
          ENEROY TRANSPORT
          ENEROY OF NATL RESOURCE
          HATER VOLUME
OUTPUTS FROM SYSTEMS
          NAME
          SOLID (ASTES PHOCESS
          SOLID HASTES FUEL COMB
          SOLID HASTES MINING
          SOLID WASTE POST-CONSUM
          ATMOSPHERIC PESTICIDE
          ATMOS PARTICIPATES
          ATMOS NITROGEN OXIDES
          ATMOS HYDROCARBONS
          ATMOS SULFUR OXIDES
          ATMOS CARBON MONOXIDE
          ATMOS ALDEHYDES
          ATMOS OTHER OROANICS
          ATMOS OOOHOU& SULFUR
          ATHOS AMMONIA
          ATMOS HYOMOGEN FLOURIDE
          ATMOS LEAD
          ATMOS MERCURY
          ATMOSPHERIC CHLORINE
          MATERBORNE U1S SOLIDS
          HATERBORNE FLUORIDES
          HATERSORNE DISS SOLIDS
          MATERBORNE BOO
          •1TERBORNE PHENOL
          •ATERBORNE SULFIOES
          •ATERBORNE OIL
          •ATERBORNE COO
          •ATERBOHNE SUSF SOLIDS
          HATERBORNE ACID
          •ATERBORNE METAL ION
          •ATERBORNE CHEMICALS
          HATERBORNE CYANIDE
          •ATERBORNE ALKALINITY
          •ATERBORNE CHROMIUM
          •ATERSORNE IRON
          •ATERBORNE ALUMINUM
          •ATERBORNE NICKEL
          •ATERBORNE MERCURY
          •ATERBORNE LEAD
          •ATERBORNE PHOSPHATES
          MATERBORNE ZINC
          hATERBORNE AMMONIA
          kATERBORNE NITROGEN
          •ATERBORNE PESTICIDE

SUMMARY OF ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACTS
          NAME
                                       UNITS
POUND
POUND
POUND
POUND
POUND
POUND
POUND
POUND
POUND
POUND
POUND
HILL BTU
MILL BTU
HILL BTU
MILL STU
MILL BTU
MILL BTU
POUND
POUND
POUND
POUND
POUND
POUNDS
MIL BTU
MIL BTU
MIL BTU
TNOU GAL
                                       UNITS
POUNO

POUND
POUND
CUBIC FT
POUNO
POUNO

POUNO
POUNO
POUND

POUNO

POUNO
POUNO
POUNO
POUNO
POUNO
POUND
POUNO
POUNO
POUNO
POUNO
POUND
POUND

POUND
POUND
POUND
POUND
POUNO
POUNO
POUNO
POUNO

POUNO
POUNO
POUNO

POUNO
POUNO
POUNO

POUNO
POUNO
POUNO
POUNO

POUNO
POUNO
POUNO
                                       UNITS
          RAM MATERIALS             POUNDS
          ENERGY                    MIL BTU
          •ATER                     THOU 6AL
          INDUSTRIAL SOLID HASTES   CUBIC FT
          ATM EMMISSIONS            POUNDS
          •ATERBORNE HASTES         POUNDS
          POST-CONSUMES SOL HASTE   CUBIC FT
          ENERGY SOURCE PETROLEUM   MIL BTU
          ENERGY SOURCE NAT GAS     MIL BTU
          ENERGY SOURCE COAL        MIL BTU
          ENERGY SOURCE NUCL HYPHR  MIL BTU
          ENERGY SOURCE HOOD HASTE  MIL BTU
CHINA
CUP
TFLOZ
USE 100
o.ooo
ISO*. 140
TS2.T60
o.ooo
0.000
131.691
687.541
ati.iBT
14*0.000
3194.633
1*9.652
1SB.63T
1*6. 922
45.965
9.030
».5B9
0.000
0.000
0.000
30*9. 100
MI. m
Z512.339
497.009
4*1.306
115. TOT
10.131
247.4*7
(106.069
323.991
82BO.A11
32.640
0.000
3T6.149
425.955
4B7.Z43
Ml. 000
635.766
10.291
43.16T
2.T96
2.2GB
0.000
2. IBS
.004
.763
0.000
.2*5
233.930
40.479
.DBS
.086
.297
SO. 979
243.599
16.BU
79. BOO
6.639
0.000
3*00. B9B
.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
.000
.000
.174
0.000
.012
3.36B
.010
1SE33.645
547.14*
247.467
144.S91
2537.M4
4079.421
32.440
190.437
144.922
45.965
9.030
6.5*9
CHINA
CUP
7FLOZ
USE 1000
0.000
1504.160
75.276
0.000
0.000
151.691
657.541
5B1.1B7
164.000
319.483
169.852
37.361
249.054
27.BS4
5.962
.900
0.000
0.000
8.000
304.920
33.327
35 1.234
565.969
298.688
12.312
10.131
198.140
420.949
168.374
1337. 4B3
3.264
0.000
78.305
202.556
270.136
176.902
125.119
1.563
5. £65
2.796
1.974
0.000
.231
.003
.763
0.000
.024
154.8*8
12.684
.012
.013
.IBS
18.606
41.226
11.647
9.730
.682
0.000
3400.898
.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
.000
.000
.174
0.000
.012
3.368
.018
4777.661
321.130
198.140
26.012
865.911
3654.330
3.264
37.361
249.054
27.654
5.942
.900
NELAMINE
CUP
7FLOZ
USE' 100
0.000
1504.160
769.640
5B.303
0.000
220.398
657.541
361.187
0.000
0.000
177.180
49.770
331.6*9
39.870
B.604
7.907
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
66*. 186
362.872
10.38C
64.549
2S4.280
355. 9S2
245.069
789. 21Z
35.169
0.000
79.920
270.861
409.329
276.303
114.693
1.066
S.191
3.320
15.643
0.000
.052
.004
1.097
0.000
0.000
168.354
20.225
.013
.017
.272
15.517
29.070
15.636
2.992
.218
0.000
3400.898
.009
0.000
0.000
0.000
.000
.001
.174
0.000
2.602
3.366
.011
4*32.594
437. B01
254.260
18.769
1177.494
3659.375
35.169
49.770
331.649
39.870
6.604
7.907
MEL AM I NE
CUP
7FLOZ
USE 1000
0.000
1504.160
76.964
5.830
0.000
156.562
657.541
581.187
0.000
0.000
170.585
26.474
247.526
27.244
5.920
1.032
0.000
o.eoo
0.000
0.000
o.ooe
0.000
962.707
290.645
1,779
15.572
198.821
245.936
160.482
5(8.363
3.517
0.000
48.683
167.048
262.344
169.432
53.010
.640
1.767
2. 848
3.310
0.000
.017
.003
.796
0.000
0.000
146.090
10.659
.005
.007
.182
15.060
19.774
11.729
2.049
.040
0.000
3400.69*
.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
.000
.000
.174
0.000
.271
3.368
.018
3717.536
308.196
196.621
13.430
729.698
3612.326
3. 517
26.474
247.526
27.244
5.920
1.032
PAPER
LOPE CTD
TFLOZ
USE 1
0.000
0.000
13*16.085
1357.720
0.000
2091. ?72
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
175.563
93.999
172.393
119.306
9.115
173.696
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
1616.460
526.131
16.804
23.375
191.647
3432.039
1354.949
770.655
236.913
0.000
244.466
304.650
246.962
632.648
142.323
1.276
23.919
12.482
.076
0.000
.139
.006
10.133
0.000
0.000
72.387
'103.109
.018
. .023
.063
2.055
101.034
17.424
3.446
1.521
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
.000
.005
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
19057.119
566.510
191.667
75.028
1619.060
301.104
236.913
93.9*9
172.393
119.306
9.115
173.696
PLASTIC
FOAM PS
TFLOZ
USE 1
0.000
0.000
1289.450
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
297.713
225.706
30.917
5.832
10.826
0.000
0.000
o-.ooo
0.000
0.000
0.000
365.573
40S.391
42.343
123.263
29.639
436.991
279.156
486.300
761.200
0.000
133.002
366.499
571.082
446.026
306.660
4.«22
24.559
0.000
.902
0.000
.435
.003
0.000
0.000
0.000
166.982
41.033
.091
.117
.724
8.326
23.291
6.674
2.219
1.406
0.000
0.000
.007
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
.079
0.000
0.000
1655.023
570.997
29.639
16.228
1853.689
253.111
761.200
297.711
225.706
30.917
5.832
10.828
                                                           F-8

-------
                                                        TABLE  F-8

                                            ftZSOUftCI AND E(«t*ONM«NTAL PROFILE «NALYSIS

                                                  CMC MILLION 9!<«H Pt.*7E 3TS
INPUTS TO SYSTEMS
          NAME
          MATERIAL COTTON
          MATERIAL SULFATE BRINC
          MATERIAL HOOD FIBER
          MATERIAL LIMESTONE
          MATERIAL IRON ORE
          MATERIAL SALT
          MATERIAL GLASS SAND
          MATERIAL NAT SOOA ASH
          MATERIAL FELDSPAR
          MATERIAL BAUXITt ORE
          MATERIAL SULFUR
          ENEROT SOURCE PETROLEUM
          ENERGY SOURCE NAT GAS
          ENCR3Y SOURCE COAL
          ENEROY SOURCE MISC
          ENERSY SOURCE "000
          ENERSY SOURCE HYOROPMER
          MATERIAL POTASH
          MATERIAL PHOSPHATE ROCK
          MATERIAL CLAY
          MATERIAL GYPSUM
          MATERIAL SILICA
          MATERIAL PROCESS 400
          ENERSY PROCESS
          ENERBY TRANSPORT
          ENER9Y OF MATL RESOURCE
          HATER VOLUME
OUTPUTS FROM SYSTEMS
          NAME
          SOLID HASTES PROCESS
          SOLID HASTES FUEL COM8
          SOLID HASTES MININfl
          SOLID HASTE POST-CONSUM
          ATMOSPHERIC PESTICIDE
          ATMOS PARTICULATES
          ATMOS NITROGEN OIIOES
          ATMOS HYOROCAR60NS
          ATMOS SULFUR OXIDES
          ATMOS CARBON MONOXIDE
          ATMOS ALDEHYDES
          ATNOS OTHER OROANICS
          ATxOS ODOROUS SULFUR
          ATMOS AMMONIA
          ATMOS HYDROGEN FLOURIOE
          ATMOS LEAD
          ATHOS' MERCURY
          ATMOSPHERIC CHLORINE
          •ATERBORNE OIS SOLIDS
          HATE-iBORNE FLUORIDES
          kATERBORNE 01SS SOLIDS
          »«TERBOHN« BOD
          HATERBORNE PHENOL
          HATERBORNE SULFIDES
          MArERBORNE OIL
          HATERBORNE COO
          HATERBORNE SUSP SOLIDS
          HATERBORNE ACID
          HATCR80RNE METAL ION
          HATERBORNE CHEMICALS
          •ATCRBORNC CTANIOC
          •ATER80RNE ALKALINITY
          HATERBORNE CHROMIUM
          HATERBORNE I ROM
          HATERBORNE ALUMINUM
          HATERBORNC NICKEL
          HATER80RNE MERCURY
          HATERBORNC LCAO
          HATERBORNE PHOSPHATES
          HATERBORNC ZINC
          HATERBORNE AMMONIA
          HATERBORNE NITOOSEN
          HATCRRORNC PESTICIDE

SUMMARY Of ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACTS
          NAME
          RAH MATERIALS
          ENSRBY
          HATER
          INDUSTRIAL SOLID HASTES
          ATM ENM1SSIONS
          HATERBORNC HASTES
          POST-CONSUMER SOL HASTE
          ENERGY SOURCE PETROLEUM
          ENEROY SOURCE NAT GAS
          ENERGY SOURCE COAL
          ENEMY SOURCE NUCL MYPHR
          ENCR8V SOURCE HOOO HASTE




UNITS
POUND
POUND
POUND
POUND
POUND
POUND
POUND
POUND
POUND
POUND
POUND
MILL 8TU
MILL STU
MILL BTU
MILL BTU
MILL BTU
MILL BTU
POUND
POUND
POUND
POUND
POUND
POUNDS
MU BTU
MIL BTU
MIL BTU
THOU OAL
UNITS
POUNO
POUND
POUNO
CUBIC FT
POUNO
POUNO
POUNO
POUNO
POUND
POUNO
POUNO
POUNO
POUNO
POUNO
POUNO
POUNO
POUND
POUND
POUND
POUNO
POUND
POUND
POUNO
POUNO
POUNO
POUND
POUND
POUND
POUND
POUNO
POUND
POUNO
POUNO
POUNO
POUNO
POUNO
POUNO
POUNO
POUNO
POUNO
PCUNO
POUNO
PSUNO
UNITS
POUNDS
MIL OTU
THOU SAL
cue ic FT
POUNDS
POUNDS
CUBiC FT
MIL BTU
MIL BTU
OIL ITU
MIL BTU
MIL BTU
CHIN*
PLATES
9 INCH
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329.943
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3726.791
703.282
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18229.246
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464.939
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333.638
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PLATES
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0.000
1336.048
92.279
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384.031
916.231
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190.843
52.056
236.091
26.998
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86.192
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911.149
284.767
27.809
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692.613
165.659
2273.969
7.701
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226.129
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9.610
2.483
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25.693
219.266
23.493
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0.000
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106.990
12.301
83.086
492.897
236.101
4,658
6.946
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272.132
138.291
796.218
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226.521
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172.864
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1194.704
99,457
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916.231
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47.717
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403.527
292.350
897.679
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92.951
300.012
490.630
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136.161
1.317
5.496
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45.328
171.468
245.836
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50.511
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706.688
33.522
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1883.405
857.020
367.730
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272.221
391.424
273.740
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27346. SS5
746.122
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2031.477
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143.632
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PLASTIC
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•JSJ 1

0.000
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1152.517
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4923.864
609.305
4562.520
785.784
902.870
140.091
29.417
21.071
                                                           F-9

-------
                                                           TABLE F-9
                                            RESOURCE AND ENVIRONMENTAL PROFILE ANALYSIS

                                                  OISP »AP »ROO THOU LB EA "/IX PI
INPUTS TO SYSTEMS
          NAME
          MATERIAL COTTON
          MATERIAL SULFATE BRINE
          MATERIAL «OOD FIBER
          MATERIAL LIMESTONE
          MATERIAL IRON ORE
          MATERIAL SALT
          MATERIAL GLASS SAND
          MATERIAL NAT SODA ASH
          MATERIAL FELDSPAW
          MATERIAL 8AUMTE ORE
          MATERIAL SULFUR
          ENERGY SOURCE PETROLEUM
          ENERGY SOURCE NAT OAS
          ENERGY SOURCE CO*L
          ENERGY SOURCE MJSC
          ENERGY SOUHCE HOOD FIBER
          ENERGY SOURCE MYOROPOBEB
          MATERIAL POTASH
          MATERIAL P«OSPM«TE ROCK
          MATERIAL CLAY
          MATERIAL 6YPSUM
          MATERIAL SILICA
          MATERIAL PROCESS AOO
          ENERGY PROCESS
          ENERGY TKlNSPOHT
          ENERSY OF HATL RESOURCE
          HATER VOLUME
OUTPUTS FROM SYSTEMS
          NAME
          SOLID
          SOLID
          SOCI9
          SOLID
ASTES POQCESS
«STES FUEL COMB
ASTES "ININfi
ASTE POST-CONSUM
          ATHOSP EH1C PESTICIuE
          ATXOS PAHTICULATES
          AT»OS N1T90GEN OXIOES
          ATI-OS HYDROCARBONS
          ATHOS SULFUrf OXIDES
          «T*OS CARBON "ONOJIDE
          ATMQS ALDEHYOES
          ATHOS OTHER OKGANICS
          ATMOS OnOHOUS SULFUR
          ATMOS AM»OM*
          ATMQS MYONOGEN FLOUHIOE
          ATMOS LEA0
          AIHOS MERCUHY
          ATMOSPHERIC CiLORINE
          •ATEBSOHNt 015 SOLIDS
          • iTEBSiOfNE- FLUORIDES
          *ATE»BO»Ne DI4S SOLIDS
          HATERBOH'JE BOO
          •aTERBOPNt PHENOL
          •ATEHSORNi SULFIDFS
          HATERHOBNE OIL
          HATERBOWNE COU
          HATFBBORNE SUSP SOLIDS
          HATERBOHNi ACID
          H«TE«80RNE "ETAL ION
          HATEHBOSNE CHEMICALS
          HATERBOSNE CYANIDE
          HATEBBOKNE ALKALINITY
          HATFBRO*N|.. CADMIUM
          • ATERHOPNE IiJON
          HATEPBOBNE ALUMINUM
          HATERBOKNt NICKEL
          HATERROMNE MEHCURY
          •ATEPSOBNt LEAD
          HATERBOHNE PnOSPHATES
          •ATFBBCWNE ZINC
          HATERBOHNt AMMONIA
          •ATEBSOHNE NITROGEN
          HATEHHOPNE PESTICIDE

SUMMARY OF ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACTS
          NAME
          B«« MATERIALS
          ENF.HSY
          • ATF.w
          INDUSTRIAL SOLID HASTES
          AT- EMISSIONS
          HATERBOHNS HASTES
          POST-CONSUME" SOL HASTE
          ENERGY SOUHCE PETROLEUM
          ENERGY SOURCE NAT GAS
          ENEBGv SOUHCE COAL
          ENERGY SOURCE NUCL HYPKR
          ENERGY SOURCE HOOD HASTE
                                       UNITS
                   POUND
                   POUND
                   POUND
                   POUND
                   POUND
                   POUND
                   POUND
                   POUND
                   POUND
                   POUND
                   POUND
                   MILL  BTU
                   MILL  BTU
                   MILL  BTU
                   MILL  BTU
                   MILL  BTU
                   MILL  BTU
                   POUND
                   POUND
                   POUND
                   POUND
                   POUND
                   POUNDS
                   MIL  BTU
                   MIL  BTU
                   MIL  BTU
                   THOU  SAL
                                       UNITS
POUND
POUND
POUND
CUBIC FT
POUND
POUND
POUND
POUND
POUND
POUND
POUND
POUND
POUND
POUND
POUND
POUND
POUND
POUND
POUND
POUND
POUND
POUMf)
POUND
POUND
POUNO
DQU'ID
POUND
POUND
POUNO
POUND
POUNO
POUNO
POUND
POUND
POUND
POU'IO
POUNO
POUND
POUND
POUND
POUND
POUNO
POUND
                                       UNITS
                   POUNDS
                   MIL 3TU
                   THOU GAL
                   CUBIC FT
                   POUNDS
                   POUNPS
                   CUBIC FT
                   MIL BTU
                   MIL BTU
                   MIL BTU
                   MIL BTU
                   MIL BTU
PULPMOOO
HARVEST


0.00000
0.00000
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0.00000
0.00000
0.00000
.12896
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TRANSPOR
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0.00000
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0.00000
0.00000
0.00000
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0.00000
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S/S DRY
PULP
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0.00000
0.00000
807.00000
0.03000
0.00000
0.00000
0.00000
0.00000
0.00000
0.00000
0.00000
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1.15362
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8.39000
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0.00000
0.00000
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10.75912
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0.00000
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18.47560
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S/S DRY
PULP
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0.00000
0.00000
807.00000
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3.79462
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2.26883
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7.00684
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S/S SLSH
PULP
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0.00000
0.00000
807.00000
80.00000
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0.00000
10.05550
3.SB51S
2.89492
1.S02S2
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8.39000
0.00000
0.00000
0.00000
0.00000
0.00000
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79.10844
16.50805
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0.00000
13.48307
110.72209
9.01951
23.73080
0.00000
0.00000
7.20218
11.09225
4. .5515
14.49769
2.04362
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.72000
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0.00000
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0.00000
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2.023*7
7.00675
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10.45568
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.10918
0.00000
0.00000
0.00000
0.00000
0.00000
0.00000
0.00000
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0.00000
0.00000
0.00000
0.00000
0.00000
882.009001070.4399*1070.4399*
10.75912
13.»3757
1.5*251
15.21813
17.98211
0.00000
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.47957
1.1S362
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8.39000
19.10357
13.49327
2.03278
47.41924
21.02100
0.00000
4.72530
3.79462
1.81753
.37612
8.39000
16.67791
13.48307
1.93668
40.55612
20.24*66
0.00000
3.58515
2.89*92
1.50252
.30532
8.39000
S/S DRY
PULP
SYSM
TRANSPOR
0.00000
0.00000
0.00000
O.-OOOO
0.00000
0.00000
0.00000
0.00000
0.00000
0.00000
0.00000
.19397
0.00000
0.00000
0.00000
0.00000
0.00000
0.00000
0.00000
0.00000
0.00000
0.00000
0.00000
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0.00000
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0.00000
.0*46*
0.00000
0.00000
0.00000
.0279J
.*2267
.153*5
.10788
.»0*23
.00802
.01*83
0.00000
.00049
0.00000
.00064
0.00000
0.00000
0.00000
0.00000
.09533
.00025
.00009
.00011
.00012
.00099
.00062
.00019
.00005
0.00000
0.00000
0.00000
0.00000
0.00000
0.00000
0.00000
0.00000
0.00000
0.00000
0.00000
0.00000
0.00000
0.00000
0.00000
.19397
.01110
.00060
1.1*013
.0977*
0.00000
.19397
0.00000
0.00000
0.00000
0.00000
DIAPER
TISSUE
PAPER-
MAKING
0.00000
0.00000
688.37100
68.2*000
0.00000
80.41743
0.00000
0.00000
0.00000
0.00000
8.57734
5. 67099
9.89368
3.91114
.85457
7.15667
0.00000
0.00000
0.00000
0.00000
O'.OOOOO
0.00000
83.47950
27.34215
.14490
0.00000
16.34890
134.24594
23.49758
62.33497.
0.00000
0.00000
9.84226
19.69798
12.50706
28.85904
3.2H342
.04528
.09336
.61416
.00265
0.00000
.00302
.00045
.39170
0.00000
0.00000
3.85752
7.45856
.00087
.00112
.00124
.00993
10.16320
1.35711
.29487
0.00000
0.00000
0.00000
0.00000
0.00000
0.00000
0.00000
.00000
.00018
0.00000
0.00000
0.00000
0.00000
0.00000
929.08527
27.4H704
16.3*890
2.97106
75.3*038
23.1**61
0.00000
5.67099
9.89368
3.9111*
.85*57
7.1SA67
DIAPER
CONVERT
(HUNDRED
DIAPERS)
O.OCOOO
0.00000
0.00000
0.00000
0.00000
0.00000
0.00000
0.00000
0.00000
0.00000
0.00000
.00282
".0028*
.0068*
.00155
0.00000
0.00000
0.00000
0.00000
0.00000
0.00000
0.00000
.00001
.01*0*
0.00000
0.00000
.00022
.02000
.0*022
.10952
0.00000
0.00000
.00851
.01*80
.00576
.037*0
.00183
.00002
.00003
0.00000
0.00000
0.00000
0.00000
.00000
0.00000
0.00000
0.00000
.00081
.00000
.00000
.00000
.00000
.00001
.00001
.00210
.OOOS2
0.00000
0.00000
0.00000
0.00000
0.00000
0.00000
0.00000
0.00000
0.00000
0.00000
0.00010
o.ooono
0.00000
0.00000
.00001
.01*0*
.00022
.00229
.06857
.003*5
0.00000
.00282
.0028*
.00614
.00155
0.00000
                                                           F-10

-------
                                                            TABLE  F-10

                                            KtJOURCl  AND  ENVIRONMENTAL  PROFILE  ANALYSIS

                                                  OISP  PAP  PROD  THO'J  LB C<  »/tX P2
INPUTS TO SYSTE-S
          N»«F
          MATERIAL  COTTON
          HATEWIAL  SULFATE BRINE
          MATE=IAL  »ooo FIBER
          MATERIAL  LIMESTONE
          MATERIAL  IRON ORE
          MATERIAL  SALT
          MATERIAL  dLASS SANO
          MATERIAL  NAT SODA ASH
          MATERIAL  FELOSPAR
          MATERIAL  BAUXITE ORE
          MATERIAL  SULFUU
          ENERGY SOUKCt PETROLEUM
          ENERGY SOURCE NAT 6AS
          ENERGY SOURCE COAL
          ENERGY SOUPCE MISC
          ENERGY SOUHCE "000 FIBER
          ENERGY SOUHCE nYOROPOHER
          MATERIAL  ROTAS*
          MATERIAL  PHOSPHATE ROCK
          MATERIAL  CLAY
          MATERIAL  IjYPSUM
          MATERIAL  SILICA
          MATERIAL  PMOCESS AOO
          ENERGY PROCESS
          ENERGY TRANSPORT
          ENERGY OF MATL RESOURCE
          HATER VOLUME
OUTPUTS FHO* SYSTEMS
          NAME'
          SOLID HASTES PROCESS
          SOLID K4STES FUEL COMB
          SOLID »ASTES MINING
          SOLID .AST? POST-CONSUM
          ATMOSPHERIC PESTICIDE
          ATMOS PAMICULATES
          ATMOS NITHOGEN OXIDES
          ATMOS SULFUR OXIDES
          ATMOS CAPBON MONOXIDE
          ATMOS ALOE"YOES
          »T"05 OTMErt ORGANICS
          ATMOS ODOWOUS SULFUH
          ATMOS AMMONIn
          ATMOS HY.O<
0.00000
O."0000
0. 00000
0.00000
0.00000
o.oocoo
0.00000
0.00000
0.00000
0.00000
0.00000
.00140
.001342
.00339
.00077
0.00000
0.00000
0.00000
0.00000
0.00000
0.00000
0.00000
0.00000
.01397
0.00000
0.00000
.00023
0.00000
.01992
.05426
0.00000
0.00000
.00435
.01102
.00949
.01B70
.00171
.00003
.00005
0.00000
0.00000
0.00000
0.00000
.00000
0.00000
0.00000
0,00000
.00163
.00000
.00000
.00000
.00000
.00000
.00000
.00104
.00026
0.00000
0.00000
0.00000
0.00000
0.00000
0.00000
0.00000
0.00000
0.00000
0.00000
0.00000
0.00000
0.00000
0.00000
0.00000
.01397
.00023
.00100
.94535
.00294
0.00000
.00140
.00842
.00339
.00077
0.00000
PAP90
FOR CUPS
ANO PLAT
M.NUF
i . .; c. c i o
). 00000
71(3. 00000
•30300
o . o • o i o
o.ocooo
0. O'.'CCO
0.00000
0.00000
0.00030
o.ocooo
2.72*45
6.32231
4,78946
.16674
9.29100
0.000.00
C. 00000
0.00000
0.00030
0.00000
0.00000
75.00000
23.29696
0.30000
0.00000
10.72431
1«2. 00000
62.69010
11.95480
0.00000
0.00000
5.59950
8.84S90
7.21920
19.88410
1.70020
.00272
.00357
.72000
0.00000
0.00000
0.00000
.00007
0.00000
0.00000
0.00000
2.28843
3.M023
.00008
.00010
.00011
.00092
4.49057
.22897
.05724
0.00000
0.00000
0.00000
0.00000
0.00000
0.00000
0.00000
0.00000
0.00000
0.00000
0.00000
0.00000
0.00000
0.00000
PAPBD
FO? CUPS
«NO fL'.T
V TPM
0. 303HO
' . CCOCO
'13. J0300
7 3 , n 0 J 0 0
O.CIKOO
119. l»i )0
0.00! :o
0.03000
o.cocoo
-.00 :oo
U.3bv30
3.34219
ft.'JISO
•i. 61835
.31516
9. 20100
0.00000
0.30000
0.30000
0.00000
0.00000
0.00000
80.1°392
25.30392
.17631
0.00000
10.78851
166.81137
67.002X2
2«. 91637
0.00003
0.00000
P. 24741
10.84417
8.33324
24.96942
3.241113
.02240
.06309
.72000
.00090
0.00000
. 003*5
.00025
.SU220
0.00000
0.00000
2.594*9
3.616H5
.00031
.00039
,00044
.003SO
4.55554
.6*419
.1I3HI
0.00000
0.00000
0.00000
0.00000
0.00000
0.00300
0.00000
.00000
.00077
0.00000
0. 000(10
0.00000
0.00000
0.00300
793.000001005.42322
23.79696
10.72431
2.92471
43.97526
10.67666
0.00000
2.72545
6.32231
4.7B946
.16874
9.29100
2S. 48013
10.78851
3.49246
57.0?774
11.55000
0.00000
3.34219
6.91343
5.61831s
.31516
9.29100
                                                            F-ll

-------
                                                      TABLE  F-ll

                                            RESOURCE AND ENVlROWttHTtl.  PROFILE  ANALYSIS

                                                  OIS» PAP PRCU THCO L8 (A  N/CX PI
INPUTS TO SYSTEMS
          HAKE
          MATERIAL COTTON
          MATERIAL SULFATE BP1NE
          MATERIAL HOOD FIBER
          MATERIAL LIMESTONE
          MATERIAL IRON ORE
          MATERIAL SALT
          MATERIAL GLASS SAND
          MATERIAL NAT SODA ASH
          MATERIAL FELDSPAR
          MATERIAL BAUXITE ORE
          MATERIAL SUL'UR
          ENERGY SOUHCE PETROLEUM
          ENER8T SOURCE NAT GAS
          ENEROT SOUHCE COAL
          ENERGY SOUMCE MISC
          ENER6Y SOURCE HOOD FI4ER
          ENERGY SOURCE HYOROPOHER
          MATERIAL POTASH
          MATERIAL PnOSPHATC ROCK
          MATERIAL CLAY
          MATERIAL GYPSUM
          MATERIAL SILICA
          MATERIAL PROCESS ADO
          ENERGY PROCESS
          ENERGY TRANSPORT
          ENERGY OF MATL RESOURCE
          •ATER VOLUME
OUTPUTS FROM SYSTEMS
          NAME
          SOLID HASTES PROCESS
          SOLID HASTES FUEL CUM*
          SOLID HASTES -4ININI5
          SOLID HASTE POST-CONSUM

          ATMOSPHERIC PESTICIDE
          •THOS PARTICULATES
          ATMOS NITROGEN OXIDES
          ATMOS HYDROCARBONS
          ATMOS SULFUK OK IDES
          ATMOS CARBON MONOlIDE
          ATMOS ALDEHYDES
          ATMOS OTHER ORSANICS
          ATMOS 000»OUS SULFUR
          ATMOS AMMONIA
          ATMOS HYOfOGEN FLOUMtnE
          ATMOS LEAD
        1  ATMOS MERCUPr
          ATMOSPHERIC CHLORINE
          HATERRORNE 015 SOLIDS
       •   HATERao»NE FLUORIDES
          kATEPROMNE OISS SOLIDS
          •ATERBOHNE BOO
          HATER80HNE PHENOL
          HATERBORNE SULFIOES
          HATERBOWNE OIL
          •ATERBORNE CUO
          HATERSORNE SUSP SOLIDS
          HATER80RNE ACID
          HATERBORNE METAL ION
          HATERBOHNE CHEMICALS
          MATfRBORNE CYANIDE
          HATERBORNE ALKALINITY
          HATERBORNE CHROMIUM
          HATERRORNE IHON
          HATERBORNE ALUMINUM
          HATERBOWNE NICKEL
          HATEPBORNE MEMCURY
          HATERSORNE LEAO
          HATERBORNE PHOSPHATES
          HATERBORNE ZINC
          HATERBORNE AMMONIA
          •ATERKORNE NITROGEN
          HATERBORNE PESTICIDE


SUMMARY OF ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACTS
          NAME
          RAH MATERIALS
          ENERGY
          HATER
          INDUSTRIAL SOLID HASTES
          ATM EMMISSIONS
          HATERBORNE HASTES
          POST-CONSUMER SOL HASTE
          ENERSY SOURCE PETROLEUM
          ENEROY SOURCE NAT GAS
          ENER6Y SOURCE COAL
          ENERGY SOURCE NUCL MYPHR
          ENEOflT SOURCE HOOD HASTE




UNITS
POUND
POUND
POUND
POUND
POUND
POUND
POUND
POUND
POUND
POUND
POUND
MILL BTU
MILL BTU
MILL BTU
MILL STU
MILL BTU
MILL RTU
POUND
BOUND
POUND
POUND
POUND
BOUNDS
MIL BTU
MIL BTU
MIL BTU
THOU GAL
UNITS
POUND
POUND
POUNO
CUBIC FT
POUND
POUNO
POUND
POUNO
POUND
POUND
POUND
POUNO
POUNO
POUNO
POUND
POUND
POUNO
POUND
POUND
POUND
POUND
POUND
POUND
POUND
POUNO
POUND
POUNO
POUNO
POUND
POUND
POUND
POUND
POUND
POUNO
POUND
POUND
POUND
POUNO
POUND
POUNO
POUND
POUND
POUNO
UNITS
POUNDS
MIL BTU
THOU GAL
CUBIC FT
POUNDS
POUNDS
CUBIC FT
MIL BTU
MIL BTU
MIL BTU
MIL BTU
MIL BTU
90Z PAP-
VAX CO
CONV 
-------
INPUTS ro SYSTEMS
          NAME
                                         TABLE F-12

                                            RESOURCE ANO ENVIRONMENTAL PROFILE ANALYSIS

                                                  ANCILLARY SYSTEMS THOU L8 EACH
                                       UNITS
                                                   UN8LEACH  BLEACHED
                                                   KRAFT     KRAFT
                                                   PROD      CARTON
                                                   SYSTEM    SYSTEM
CORRUfiAT  RECYCLE
CONTAIN   PAP80
SYSTEM    SYSTEM
          MATERIAL COTTON
          MATERIAL SULF4TE BRINE
          MATERIAL «000 FIBER
          MATERIAL LIMESTONE
          MATERIAL IRON ORE
          MATERIAL SALT
          MATERIAL GLASS S«NO
          MATERIAL NAT SOOA ASM
          MATERIAL FEL'.'SPAR
          MATERIAL BAUXITE OPE
          MATERIAL SULFUR
          ENERGY SOUWCE PETROLEUM
          ENERBY SOURCE MAT GAS
          ENERGY SOUWCE COAL
          ENERGY SOUhCE MISC
          ENERGY SOUBCE 1.000 FIBER
          ENERGY SOURCE HYONOPOwE"
          MATERIAL POTASH
          MATERIAL P»OSPMATE ROCK
          MATERIAL CLAY
          MATERIAL GYPSUM
          MATERIAL SILICA
          MATERIAL PROCESS »00
          ENERGY PAUCESS
          ENERGY TRANSPOIJT
          ENERGY OF M«TL RESOURCE
          HATER VOLUME
POUND
POUND
POUND
POUND
POUND
POUND
POUND
POUND
POUND
POUND
POUND
"ILL BTU
MILL BTU
MILL BTU
MILL BTU
MILL BTU
MILL BTU
POUND
POUND
POUND
POUND
POUND
POUNDS
MIL BTU
MIL BTU
MR BTU
THOU SAL
0.000
0.000
689.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
5.333
3.629
3. 325
0.000
7.432
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
TO. 000
19.631
.089
0.000
.31*
0.000
0.000
530.000
80.000
0.000
238.471
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
10.09*
6.982
4.006
S.210
.397
9.530
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
86. ISO
35.8*6
.278
O.OOt)
10.808
0.000
0.000
697.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
3.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
4.5HT
2.900
2.766
0.000
5.853
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
70.000
16.016
.090
0.000
.317
0.003
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
2.829
2.944
3.S2B
.432
.827
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
28.120
10.560
0.000
0.000
11.891
OUTPUTS FROM SYSTEMS

          NOME
                                       UNITS
          SOLID HASTES PROCESS      POUND
          SOLID HASTES FUEL COMB    POUND
          SOLID HASTES «ININfi       POUND
          SOLID HASTE POST-CONSUM   CUBIC FT
          ATMOSPHERIC PESTICIDE     POUND
          ATMOS PAHTICULATES        POUND
          IT-OS NITHOGEN OXIDES     POUND
          ATMOS HYUrtOC««f»ONS        POUND
          iTMOS SULKUX OXIDES       POUNO
          ATMOS CARBON «ONOItJ£     POUNO
          ATMOS ALDEHYDES           POUND
          ATMOS OTH.IP ORGANKS      POUND
          ATMOS 000-OUS SULFUK      POUNO
          ATMOS AMMONT*             POUNO
          ATMOS HYOHOBEN FLOU"lnE   POUND
          ATMOS LEAU                POUND
         ' iTMOS MEHCUHY             POUND
          ATMOSPHERIC CHLORINE      POUNO
          HATERRORNC DIS SOLIDS     POUND
        •  HATEHRORNE FLUORIDES      POUND
          •ATERPOflNi DISS SOLIDS    POUND
          HATER80KNE BOO            POUNO
          MATER104NE PHENOL         POU'JO
          (ATER30RNE. SULFIOES       POUND
          HATERHORNt OIL            POUNO
          HATERBOSNE COO            POUND
          HATERBOaM: SUSP SOLIDS    POUNO
          HATER80RN6 ACID           POUND
          •ATERBORNb METAL ION      POUNO
          HATERBOi»N£ CHEMICALS      POUND
          HATERBOUNt C-:NIOE        POUNO
          HATER80*NE ALKALINITY     POUND
          • ATERBORNE CHROMIU.I       POUNO
          HATF.BRORNE HON           POUND
          HATERBORNi ALUMINUM       POUND
          HATERBORNE NICKEL         POUND
          •ATERBORNt MERCURY        POUND
          •ATER80RNE LEAD           POUNO
          HATERBORNE PHOSPHITES     POUNO
          HATERBORNt ZINC           POUNO
          KATFRRORNE A««ONIA        POUND
          •ATERBOHNE NITROGEN       POUND
          HATERRORNE PESTICIDE      POUND


SUMMARY OF ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACTS
          NAME                         UNITS
67.000
57.3S7
47.500
0.000
0.000
43.912
18.799
11.750
40.483
6.273
.097
10.665
0.000
.013
0.000
.002
.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
6.453
20.507
.002
.003
.003
.027
15.017
.SOS
.126
.880
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
148.260
58.685
30.889
0.000
0.000
9.562
H.S97
6.918
21.912
3.848
.033
.096
.400
.001
0.000
.006
.000
.590
0.000
0.000
4.164
4.407
.000
.001
.001
.005
7.867
1.277
.262
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
.000
.000
0.000
0.000
0.040
0.000
0.000
67.000
45.355
39.520
0.000
0.000
39.03*
16.226
9.749
55.481
5.618
.084
8.089
0.000
.012
0.000
.002
.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
5.4*3
20.506
.002
.003
.003
.023
9.514
.420
.105
.760
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
65.380
20.956
53.70?
0.000
0.000
6.2PO
7.714
4.454
19.387
1.367
.0*9
.027
0.000
.003
0.000
.000
.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
1.S32
12.973
.001
.001
.001
.012
19.117
.831
.208
0.000
0.000
0.000
o.ooo
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
          «A* MATERIALS
          ENERGY
          kATER
          INUUSTRIAL SOLID HASTES
          ATM EMMISSIONS
          HATERBORNE HASTES
          POST-CONSUME* SOL »ASTE
          ENERGY SOURCE PETROLEUM
          ENERGY SOURCE NAT GAS
          ENERGY SOURCE COAL
          ENERGY SOURCE NUCL HYP«R
          ENErCY SOURCE HOOD HASTE
POUND;:
MIL BTU
THOU GAL
CUBIC FT
POUNDS
POUNDS
CUBIC FT
MIL BTU
MIL BTU
MIL BTU
MIL BTU
MIL BTU
799.000
19.T19
.374
2.320
131.994
43.S24
0.000
5.333
3.629
3.3r:5
0.000
7.432
944,714
26.124
10.808
3.211
54.964
17.9«3
0.000
6.982
4.006
5.210
.397
9.S30
767.000
16.106
.317
2.050
134.300
36.819
0.000
4.5BT
2.900
2.766
0.000
5. 853
28.120
10.560
11.891
1.891
39.254
34.677
0.000
2.829
2.944
3.528
.432
.827
                                                    F-13

-------
                                                         TABLE  F-13
                                            RESOURCE  *NO  MVIHONHENTAL  PROFILE  ANALYSIS

                                                  THOU  LB CACH  PROCESS
INPUTS TO SYSTEMS
          NAME
          MATERIAL COTTON
          MATERIAL SULFATE BRINE
          MATERIAL MOOD FIBER
          MATERIAL LIMESTONE
          MATERIAL IRON ORE
          MATERIAL SALT

          MATERIAL GLASS SANO
          MATERIAL NAT SODA ASH
          MATERIAL FELDSPAR

          MATERIAL BAUXITE ORE
          MATERIAL SULFUR
          ENERGY SOURCE PETROLEUM
          ENERGY SOURCE NAT HAS
          ENERGY SOURCE COAL
          ENERGY SOURCE NISC
          ENERGY SOURCE HOOD FIBER
          ENERGY SOURCE HVOROPOHER
          MATERIAL POTASH
          MATERIAL PHOSPHATE ROCK
          MATERIAL CLAT
          MATERIAL GYPSUM
          MATERIAL SILICA

          MATERIAL PROCESS AOO
          ENERGY PROCESS
          ENERGY TRANSPORT
          ENERGY OF MATL RESOURCE
          HATER VOLUME
OUTPUTS FROM SYSTEMS

          NAME
          SOLID HASTES PROCESS
          SOLID CASTES FUEL COMB
          SOLID HASTES MINING
          SOLID HASTE POST-CONSUN
          ATMOSPHERIC PESTICIDE
          ATMOS PARTICIPATES
          ATMOS NITROGEN OKIDES
          ATMOS HYDROCARBONS
          ATMOS SULFUR OXIDES
          ATMOS CARBON MONOXIDE
          ATMOS ALDEHYDES
          ATMOS OTHER ORGANICS
          ATMOS ODOROUS SULFUR
          ATMOS AMMONIA
          ATMOS HYDROGEN FLOURIDE
          ATMOS LEAD
          ATMOS MERCURY
          ATMOSPHERIC CHLORINE
          HATERBORNE D1S SOLIDS
          HATERBOPNE FLUORIDES
       •   VATERBORNE OISS SOLIDS
          HATERBORNE BOO
          •ATERBORNE PHENOL
          •ATERBORNE SULFIDES
          •ATERBORNE OIL
          HATERBORNE COO
          HATERBORNE SUSP SOLIDS
          HATERBORNE ACIO
          HATERBORNE METAL ION
          HATERBORNE CHEMICALS
          HATERBORNE CYANIDE
          HATERBORNE ALKALINITY
          HATERBORNE CHROHIUH
          HATERBORNE IROK
          HATERBORNC ALUMINUM
          HATERBORNE NICKEL
          HATERBORNE MERCURY
          HATERBORNE LEAD
          HATERBORNE PHOSPHATES
          HATERBORNE ZINC
          HATERBORNC AMMONIA
          HATERBORNE NITROGEN
          HATERBORNE PESTICIDE

SUMMARY OF ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACTS
          NAME
                                       UNITS   -
POUND
POUND
POUND
POUND
POUND
POUND
POUND
POUND
POUND
POUND
POUND
MILL BTU
MILL BTU
MILL BTU
MILL BTU
MILL BTU
MILL BTU
POUND
POUND
POUND
POUND
POUND
POUNDS
NIL BTU
MIL BTU
MIL BTU
THOU OAL
                                       UNITS
POUND
POUND
POUND
CUBIC FT

POUND
POUND
POUND
POUND
POUND

POUND
POUND
POUND

POUND
POUND
POUND
POUND
POUND
POUND

POUND
POUND
POUND
POUND
POUND
POUND
POUND
POUND
POUND

POUND
POUND
POUND
POUND
POUND
POUND

POUND
POUND
POUND

POUND
POUND
POUND

POUND

POUND
POUND
POUND
                                       UNITS
          RAH MATERIALS             POUNDS
          ENERGY                    MIL BTU

          HATER                     THOU GAL
          INDUSTRIAL SOLID HASTES   CUBIC FT
          ATM EMMISSIONS            POUNDS
          HATERBORNE HASTES         POUNDS
          POST-CONSUMER SOL HASTE   CUBIC FT

          ENERBY SOURCE PETROLEUM   MIL BTU
          ENERGY SOURCE NAT GAS     MIL BTU
          ENERGY SOURCE COAL        MIL BTU
          ENERGY SOURCE NUCL HYPHR  MIL BTU
          ENERGY SOURCE HOOD HASTE  MIL BTU
CRUOt NATURAL
OIL MOD (AS PROD
1000 LB 1000 LB
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
19.621
.319
.012
.DOT
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
1.8BO
.129
.332
19.925
.083
.400
.20T
.SIT
0.000
0.000
.OS*
1.952
9.201
.319
.339
.002 '
.001
0.000
.000
0.000
.000
.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
6.1*6
.000
.000
.000
.110
.000
.000
.010
.002
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
o.ooo
0.000
0.000
l.BBO
19.986
.083
.018
12.069
6.2TO
0.000
19.621
.329
.032
.OOT
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
.033
23.84}
.032
.OOT
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
.066
.608
23.2**
.0*1
0.000
.19*
.517
0.000
0.000
.0*1
3.S2T
26.903
.218
.966
.001
.001
0.000
.000
0.000
.000
.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
2.116
.000
.000
.000
.03T
.000
.000
.010
.002
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
o.ooo
0.000
0.000
23.918
.0*1
.010
31.662
2.166
o.ooo
.033
23.8*9
.032
.OOT
0.110
BENKNC CTHYLENC AMMONIA
SYS SYS MFO
1000 LB 1000 LB 1000 LB
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
21.T32
J.S10
.29*
.066
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
5.0»7
9.2*8
.3*0
20.013
.*33-
1.T95
2.08T
«.TOT
0.000
0.000
.893
9.2*2
16.862
*.02Z
12.916
.030
.021
0.000
.00*
0.000
.000
.000
0.000
0.000
' 0.000
T.99S
.031
.001
.001
.123
.ITT
.023
.092
.023
0.000
0.000
0.000
.001
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
.017
0.000
0.000
9. OAT
29.602
.*33
.119
39.991
8.083
0.000
21.732
3.910
.2*4
.066
0.000
o.ooo
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
9.*99
2T.B9T
.*99
.10*
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
S.TT6
8.502
1.2*1
2*. 216
.839
18.162
2.708
T.391
0.000
0.000
.T3T
12.139
41.70*
*.860
2.9*8
.017
.038
0.000
.000
0.000
.000
.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
*.B69
.098
.000
.000
.060
.001
.0(8
.1*1
.039
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
S.TT6
33.960
.839
.381
62.463
9.292
0.000
9.499
2T.89T
.»99
.10*
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
.0*0
2.604
.09T
.022
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
4.550
2.T69
0.000
0.000
5.0*6
.200
.968
1.94T
0.000
0.000
.1TO
1.998
3.908
.999
.319
.009
.012
0.000
1.000
0.000
0.000
.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
.460
.000
.000
.000
.000
.000
.000
.030
.OOT
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
"0.000
.062
0.000
0.000
4.990
2.T69
9.0*6
.031
T.13E
.960
0.000
.0*0
2.606
.09T
.022
0.000
ACRYkON 9TYRENI POLL FAC
MFG MFG PETRO
CMEM REF
1000 LB 1000 LB 1000 LB
0.000
0.000
0.00"
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
.190
.192
.369
.083
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
9.000
.750
0.000
0.000
.917
.800
2.1*9
5.892
0.000
o.ooo
.*95
7.»91
107.308
2.009
122.098
.001
.002
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
.0*3
. .880'
.020
.000
.000
.000
1.320
.112
.028
.001
0.000 .
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
o.ooo
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
9.000
.750
.917
.119
239.36*
2.*09
0.000
.ISO
.192
.369
.063
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
2.69*
2.798
.229
.092
0.000
0.000
0.000
o.qoo
0.000
0.000
0.000
20.000
S.7T2
0.000
0.000
1.923
2T.OOO
1.899
3.662
0.000
0.000
.763
3.969
4.346
9.997
.60*
.027
.021
0.000
.006
0.000
.000
.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
1.663
.*23
.001
.001
.002
.013
.6*6
.072
.018
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
o.ooo
0.000
o.ooo
20.000
5.TT2
1.923
.**0
14.933
2.861
0.000
t.69*
2.T96
.229
.052
o.ooo
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
.019
• .«15
.039
.006
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
.100
.073
0.000
0.000
.001
1.380
.209
.968
0.000
0.000
.26*
.137
3.800
.615
11.810
.000
.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
.00*
.029
.000
.000
.009
.169
.018
.011
.003
0.000
0.000
0.000
.001
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
.017
0.000
0.000
.100
.073
.001
.029
16.626
.261
0.000
.019
.019
.035
.001
0.000
                                                            F-14

-------
                                                        TABLE  F-14

                                            RESOURCE AND ENVIRONMENTAL  PROFILE  ANALYSIS

                                                  1000  LS EACH PROCESS  OR  SYSTEM
INPUTS TO SYSTEMS
          NAME
          MATERIAL COTTON
          MATERIAL SULFATE BRINE
          MATERIAL HOOD FIBER
          MATERIAL LIMESTONE
          MATERIAL IRON ORE
          MATERIAL SALT
          MATERIAL GLASS SAND
          MATERIAL NAT SODA ASH
          MATERIAL FELDSPAR
          MATERIAL BAUXITE ORE
          MATERIAL SULFUR
          ENERGY SOURCE PETROLEUM
          ENEROT SOURCE NAT SAS
          ENERGY SOURCE COAL
          ENERGY SOURCE HISC
          ENERGY SOURCE HOOD FIBER
          ENERGY SOURCE MYDROPOWER
          MATERIAL POTASH
          MATERIAL PHOSPHATE ROCK
          MATERIAL CLAY
          MATERIAL GYPSUM
          MATERIAL SILICA
          MATERIAL PROCESS AOO
          ENERGY PROCESS
          ENERGY TRANSPORT
          ENERGY OF MATL RESOURCE
          HATER VOLUME
OUTPUTS FROM SYSTEMS
          NAME
          SOLID HASTES PROCESS
          SOLID HASTES FUEL COMB
          SOLID HASTES MINING
          SOLID HASTE POST-CONSUN
          ATMOSPHERIC PESTICIDE
          ATMOS PARTICULATES
          ATMOS NITHOOEN OXIDES
          ATMOS HYDROCARBONS
          ATMOS SULFUR 0>IOES
          ATMOS CARBON MONOXIDE
          ATMOS ALDEHYDES
          ATMOS OTHER ORGANICS
          ATMOS ODOROUS SULFUR
          ATMOS AMMONIA
          ATMOS HYDROGEN FLOURIOE
          ATMOS LEAH
          ATMOS MERCURY
          ATMOSPHERIC CHLORINE
          HATER80RNE OtS SOLIDS
          •ATERRORNE FLUORIDES
          HATE180RNE DISS SOLIDS
          H4TER80SNE BOO
          •ATERBORNE PHENOL
          •ATERBORNE SULFIDES
          •ATESSORNE OIL
          •ATERBORNE COO
          •ATERBORNE SUSP SOLIDS
          HATERBORNE ACID
          HATERBORNE METAL ION
          HATERBORNE CHEMICALS
          VATER60RNE CYANIDE
          HATERBORNE ALKALINITY
          •ATERBORNE CHROMIUM
          HATERBORNE IRON
          HATERBORNE ALUMINUM
          HATERBORNE NICKEL
          HATERBORNE MERCURY
          HATERBORNE LEAD
          HATERBORNE PHOSPHATES
          HATERBORNE ZINC
          HATERBORNE AMMONIA
          HATERBORNE NITROGEN
          •ATERBORNE PESTICIDE

SUMMARY OF ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACTS
          NAME
          RAH MATERIALS
          ENERGY
          HATER
          INDUSTRIAL SOLID HASTES
          ATM EMMISSIONS
          HATERBORNE HASTES
          POST-CONSUMER SOL HASTE
          ENERGY SOURCE PETROLEUM
          ENERGY SOUHCE NAT SAS
          ENERGY SOUHCE COAL
          ENERGY SOURCE NUCL MYPHR
          ENERGY SOURCE HOOD HASTE
                                       UNITS
POUND
POUND
POUND
POUND
POUND
POUND
POUND
POUND
POUND
POUND
POUND
MILL BTU
MILL BTU
MILL BTU
MILL BTU
MILL 8TU
MILL BTU
POUND
POUND
POUND
POUND
POUND
POUNDS
MIL BTU
MIL 8TU
MIL BTU
THOU GAL
                                       UNITS
POUND
POUND
POUND
CUBIC FT
POUND
POUND
POUND
POUND
POUND
POUND
POUND
POUND
POUND
POUND
POUNO
POUND
POUNO
POUNO
POUNO
POUNO
POUNO
POUNO
POUNO
POUNO
POUNO
POUND
POUND
POUND
POUNO
POUNO
POUND
POUND
POUNO
POUND
POUND
POUNO
POUNO
POUNO
PO'JNO
POUNO
POUNO
POUNO
POUND
                                       UNITS
POUNDS
MIL 8TU
THOU SAL
CUBIC FT
POUNDS
POUNDS
CUBIC FT
MIL BTU
MIL BTU
MIL BTU
MIL BTU
MIL BTU
POLYSTY POLYPROP MELAMINE PET HOPE LOPE LAS *CR»L!C,
RESIN RESiN MOLDING RESIN RESIN SESSN SYS RESIN
JYS SYS COMPOUND SYS SYS SYS SYS
SYS
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
22.63
15.35
.86
.19
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
49.48
14.25
.65
24.1*
3.31
46.67
5.84
13. T9
0.00
0.00
2.13
12.19
3».7T
11.84
17.20
.06
.06
0.00
.01
0.00
.00
.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
9.69
.60
.00
.00
.13
1.49
1.96
.27
.07
0.00
0.00
0.00
.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.90
0.00
0.00
0.00
.02
0.00
0.90
49.49
39.0*
3.31
.39
78.65
13.32
0.00
22.63
15.35
.86
.19
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
.65
40.1*
1.52
.34
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
46.30
15.87
' 1.53
25.24
3.51
26.08
a. 92
24.27
0.00
0.00
2.15
18.88
75.11
11.43
4.29
.03
.07
0.00
.00
0.00
.00
.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
4.86
.48
.00
.00
.04
2.10
1.25
.46
.12
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
46.30
42.65
3.51
.80
111.95
9.32
0.00
.65
40.14
1.52
.34
e.*o
0.00
0.00
220.31
21.84
0.00
Z5.74
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
2.75
6.21
33.89
3.03
.68
2.29
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
35.41
24.40
1.31
20.39
17.48
37.28
18.76
48.43
0.00
0.00
6.49
24.15
56.77
27.48
15.97
.07
.09
.20
5.13
0.00
.00
.00
.13
0.00
0.00
6.SS
1.98
.00
.00
.04
.17
2.93
.98
.23
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.09
0.00
0.00
.00
.00
0.00
0.00
.97
0.00
0.00
306.04
46.09
17.48
1.41
136.47
13.86
0.00
6.21
33.89
3.03
.68
2.M
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
23.01
IS. 09
2.54
.57
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
7.62
23.35
.54
17.32
3.17
27.78
17.74
40.70
0.00
0.00
5.83
19.47
67.46
36.78
23.72
.13
.08
0.00
.03
0.00
.00
.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
10.71
1.59
.01
.01
.07
11.83
1.04
.79
.20
0.00
0.00
0.00
.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
.01
0.00
0.00
7.62
41.21
3.17
1.16
153.49
26.25
0.00
23.01
15.09
2.54
.57
0.00
c.oo
0.00
0.00
0.00
a. 69
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
.6.74
31.11
2.82
.64
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
56.06
14.56
1.30
25.43
1.85
23.57
16.57
45.09
0.00
0.00
3.94
18.24
51.55
17.96
3.82
.03
.05
0.00
.00
0.00
.00
.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
5.54
.24
.00 '
.00
.06
1.76
.57
.86
.22
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
56.06
41.29
1.85
1.15
95.59
9.26
0.00
6.74
31.11
2.82
.64
0.00
0.09
0 • C 0
0.00
o.oc
o.co
0.00
0.01
0.00
0.00
0.30
0.00
7. OS
31.7*
3.64
.82
O.OC
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
26.06
16.60
1.30
25.43
2.00
23.57
21. 42
58.30
0.00
0.00
5.60
20.21
52.57
22.50
4.08
.03
.06
0.00
.00
0.00
.00
.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
5.69
..26
.00
.00
.06
2.00
.65
1.12
.28
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
26.06
43.33
2.00
1.39
105.04
10.07
0.00
7.08
31.79
3.64
.82
0.00
0..0
1. 0
0, .1
f. to
o jo
191. '.-6
0. 10
o.c :
0.00
0.30
249.78
18.13
8.60
1.94 "
.38
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
• 0.00
0.00
0.00
16.76
13.91
.25
14.90
4.21
82.13
11.10
30.64
0.00
0.00
7.05
10.94
21.30
29.»6
13.82
.04
.05
- 0.00
.01
0.00
.00
.00
.96
0.00
0.00
7.36
.20
.00
.00
.16
.27
.58
5.73
.14
.03
0.00
0.00
.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
.00
.00
0.00
0.00
.02
0.00
0.00
458.21
29.06
4.21
1.67
83.63
14.50
0.00
18.13
8.60
1.94
.38
0.00
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0.00
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0.00
0.00
0.01)
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.91
.20
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
13.03
11.62
1.40
29.68
7.80
23.96
5.33
14.49
0.00
0.00
1.34
15.18
52.27
7.43.
3.5J
• ol
.05
0.00
.42
0.00
.00
.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
S.44
a. si
.01
.00
.07
13.80
1.19
.28
.07
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
o.oo
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
.03
0.00
0.00
13.03
42.70
7.80
.59
80.27
24.09
0.00
5.84
35.75
•*li
.24
o.ol
                                                        F-15

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                                REFERENCES1
 1.  Development Document for Effluent Limitations Guidelines and New Source
     Performance Standards for the Petroleum Refining Point Source Category.
     EPA Report No. 440/1-74-014-a, April 1974.

 2.  Development Document for Effluent Limitations Guidelines and New Source
     Performance Standards for the Synthetic Polymer Segment of the Plastics
     and Synthetic Materials Manufacturing Paint Source Category. EPA Report
     No. 440/1-75/036-b, January 1975.

 3.  Development Document for Effluent Limitations Guidelines and New Source
     Performance Standards for the Synthetic Resins Segment of the Plastics
     and Synthetic Materials Manufacturing Point Source Category. EPA Report
     No. 440/1-74-010-a, March 1974.

 4.  Development Document for Effluent Limitations Guidelines and New Source
     Performance Standards for the Major Organic Products Segment of the
     Organic Chemicals Manufacturing Point Source Category. EPA Report No.
     44Q/l-74-009-a, April 1974.

 5.  Atmospheric Emissions from the Petroleum Refining Industry. EPA Report
     No. 650/2-73-017, August 1973.

 6.  Compilation of Air Pollutant Emission Factors. Second Edition, EPA
     Publication No. AP-42, April 1973.

 7.  Cost of Clean Air 1976. EPA Report No. 203/3-74-003, April 1974.

 8.  Engineering and Cost Study of Air Pollution Control for the Petrochemical.
     Volume 4, EPA Report No. 450/3-73-006-d, March 1975.

 9.  Capabilities and Costs of Technology for the Organic Chemicals Industry
     to Achieve the Effluent Limitations of P.L. 92-500. National Commission
     on Water Quality Report No. 75/03, June 1975.

10.  Hydrocarbon Processing. November 1975.

11.  Hydrocarbon Processing. September 1974.

12.  Hydrocarbon Processing. November 1973.

13.  "Estimating Costs for Baseload LNG Plants," The Oil and Gas Journal.
     November 1975.
 I/  See  comment No. 3 Appendix B, pages 3-4.

                                     R-l

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14.  "Ethane and LPG Recovery in LNG Plants," Hydrocarbon Processing,
     April 1970.

15.  1972 Census of Mineral Industries. "Natural Gas Liquids," SIC 1321,
     December 1974.

16.  "Gas Processors Assess Effects of Declining Gas Production," The
     Oil and Gas Journal. July 14, 1975.

17.  "Oil and Gas Field Operations," 1972 Census of Mineral Industries,
     SIC 1311, August 1975.

18.  Minerals Yearbook. 1971.

19.  MRI data and confidential sources.

20.  Woodhouse, G., D. Samols, and J. Newman, "The Economics and Technology
     of Large Ethylene Projects," Chemical Engineering. March 18, 1974.

21.  Saxton, J. C., et al., "Federal Findings on Energy for Industrial
     Chemicals," Chemical Engineering, September 2, 1974.

22.  Zdonik, S. B., E., J. Sassier, and L. P. Haller, "How Feedstocks
     Offset Ethylene,"  Hydrocarbon Processing. February 1974.

23.  lammartino, N. R., "Petrochemicals Sing to Ethylene"s Time," Chemical
     Engineering. April 28, 1975.

24.  Zdonik, S. B., E. J. Green, and L. P. Haller, Manufacturing Ethylene.
     Tulsa:  Petroleum Publishing Company.

25.  "Polystyrene," Hydrocarbon Processing. November 1971.

26.  "Benezene Recovery Process Offers Flexibility," The Oil and Gas Journal,
     August 18, 1975.

27.  Water Pollution Abatement Technology;  Capabilities and Cost Organic
     Chemicals Industry. National Commission on Water Quality, Report No.
     75/03, June 1975.

28.  Screening Report Crude Oil and Natural Gas Production Processes. EPA
     Report No. R2-73-285.

29.  Brine Disposal Treatment Practices Relating to the Oil Production
     Industry. EPA Report No. 660/2-74-037, May 1974.

                                    R-2

-------
 30. Forecasts of the Effects of Air and  Water Pollution Controls  on Solid
    Waste Generation. EPA Report No.  670/2-74-0956,  December 1974.

 31. Industrial Chemicals  Solid Waste Generation,  The Significance of
    Process Change,  Resource Recovery and  Improved Disposal, EPA  Report
    No.  670/2-74-078, November 1974.

 32. Marynowski, C. W., "Disposal of Polymer Solid Wastes by  Primary Polymer
    Producers and Plastics Fabricators," Stanford Research Institute,  1972.

 33. Incentives for Recycling and Reuse of  Plastics,  Arthur P.  Little,  Inc.,
    EPA  Report No.  SW-41C-72, 1972. *

 34. Stone, John C.,  et al.,  An Integrated  Power  Process Model  of  Water
    Use  and Wastewater Treatment in Olefins Production.  University  of
    Houston, May 27,  1975.

 35. Craft, B. C., W.  R. Holden,  and E. D.  Graves, Jr.,  Well  Design:  Drill-
    ing  and Production. Prentice-Hall, Inc.,  Englewood  Cliffs, New  Jersey
    (1962).

36. Monthly Energy Review. Federal  Energy  Administration,  November  1975.

37. Ellwood, Peter,  "Lower Investment, Easier Operation to Make Melamine,"
    Chemical Engineering, pp. 101-103 October 19, 1970.

38. Strelzoff, Samuel, "Make Ammonia From Coal," Hydrocarbon Processing
    October  1974.

39. Faith, Keyes, and Clark, Industrial  Chemicals.  4th Edition, New York:
    John Wiley and Sons.

 40. Welch, R. 0., R. G. Hunt, and J. A.  Cross, Resource and  Environmental
    Profile Analysis of Plastics and Competitive Materials.  Midwest Research
    Institute, Project No. 3714-D,  November 1974.

 41. Thompson, R. G., J. A. Galloway, and A. K. Schwartz, An  Integrated Power
    Process Model of Water Use and Wastewater Treatment in Ammonia Produc-
    tion. University of Houston, NSF (RANN) Grant GI 34459,  February 1974.

 42. Chauvel, A. R.,  P. R. Courty, R. Maux, and C. Petitpas,  "Select Best
    Formaldehyde Catalyst," Hydrocarbon  Processing,  September 1973.

 43. Hahn, Albert V.  G., The Petrochemical Industry,  New York:  McGraw-Hill
    Book Company (1970).
I/  Author should be Arthur D. Little, Inc.

                                    R-3

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44. Development Document for Effluent Limitations Guidelines  and New Source
    Performance Standards For The Basic Fertilizer  Chemicals  Segment of
    Fertilizer Manufacturing Point Source  Category,  EPA-440/l-74-011a,
    March 1974.

45. Lagana, V., and G. Schmid, "Snamprogetti's Newsest Area Process," Hy-
    drocarbon Processing. July 1975.

46. Sittig, Marshall, Environmental Sources  and  Emissions Handbook, Park
    Ridge, New Jersey: Noyes Data Corporation  (1975).

47. Hedley, W. H., et al., Potential  Pollutants  From Petrochemical Processes
    Monsanto Research Corporation, Westport, Connecticut, Technomic Pub-
    lishing Company (1975).

48. "Drilling to Remain High in U.S.  as Oil  Demand  Climbs in  1976," Oil
    and Gas Journal, January 26, 1976.

49. Development Document for Effluent Limitations Guidelines  and New Source
    Performance Standards for the Soap and Detergent Manufacturing Point
    Source Category, EPA No. 440/1-74-018-a, April  1974.

50. Hougen, O.A., K. M. Watson, and R. A.  Ragatz, Chemical Process Princi-
    ples, New York: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.  (1954).

51. MacFarlane, A. C« "Ethylbenzene Process  Proves  Out," The  Ore and Gas
    Journal. February 9, 1976.

52. Segales, Hercules A., "Synthetic  Detergents  - 1975," Hydrocarbon Pro-
    cessing, March 1975.

53. "Engineering and Cost Study of Air Pollution Control for  The Petrochemi-
    cal Industry, Volume 2, Acrylonitrite  Manufacture, EPA-450/3-73-006-b,
    February 1975.

54. "U.S. Chemical Industry," Chemical and Engineering News,  June 7, 1976.

55. Jira, Reinhard, W. Blau, and D. Gremin,  "Acetaldehyde Via Air or Oxygen,"
    Hydrocarbon Processing, March 1976.

56. Gatewood, L. L., Jr., "The Energy Crisis: Can Cotton Help Meet It?"
    National Cotton Council of America, January  1973.

57. "The Cost of Air Pollution Control to  Cotton Ginners," U.S. Department
    of Agriculture, Economic Research Service, ERS-536, February 1974.

58. "Chemical Industry Statistics," The Johnson  Redbook Service.
                                   R-4

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 59.  Cervinka, V., W. J. Chancellor, R. J. Goffelt, R. G. Curley and J. B.
     Dobie,  "Energy Requirements for Agriculture in California," California
     Department  of Food and Agriculture, University of California, Davis,
     January 1974.

 60.  "The  U.S. Food and Fiber Sector: Energy Use and Outlood," The Economic
     Research Service, USDA, September 20, 1974.

 61.  Pendleton,  Ann, V. P. Moore, "Ginning Cotton to Preserve Fiber Quality,"
     ESC-560, Federal Extension Service, USDA, September 1967.

 62.  Domestic Shipments of U.S. Cotton, 1970-71 Season Statistical Bulletin
     No. 483, USDA, ERS.

 63.  Ward, Kyle, Jr.  (ed.), "Chemistry and Chemical Technology of Cotton,"
     New York: Interscience (1955).

 64.  Jones,  H. R., Pollution Control in the Textile Industry, Park Ridge,
     New Jersey: Noyes Data Corporation (1973).

 65.  "Development Document for Effluent Limitations Guidelines and New Source
     Performance Standards for the Textile Mills Point Source Category,"
     EPA Report  No. 440/1-74-022-a, June 1974.

 66.  "Development Document for Effluent Limitations Guidelines and New Source
     Performance Standards for the Formulated Fertilizer Segment of the Ferti-
     lizer Manufacturing Point Source Category," EPA 440/1-75/042-a, January
     1975.

 67.  "Water  Pollution Control Act of 1972, Economic Impacts Fertilizer In-
     dustry," National Commission on Water Quality Report No. WQSAColl,
     November 1975.

 68.  "Development Document for Effluent Limitations Guidelines and New Source
     Performance Standards for the Major Inorganic Products Segments of the
     Inorganic Chemicals Manufacturing Point Source Category," EPA-440/1-
     74-007-a, March  1974.

 69.  "Analysis of Demand and Supply for Secondary Fibers in the U.S. Paper
     and Paperboard Industry," EPA Contract No. 68-01-2220, Arthur 0. Little,
     Inc., March 1976. l

 70.  "Line-Haul  Trucking Costs in Relation to Vehicle Gross Weights," High-
     way Research Board Bulletin 301 (1961).

 71.  Davidson, Jack R. and Howard W. Ottoson (eds.)> "Transportation Prob-
     lems  and Policies in the Trans-Missouri West," Lincoln, Nebraska: Uni-
     versity of  Nebraska Press (1967).
I/  Author should be Arthur D. Little,  Inc.

                                    R-5

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72. "Modular Wastewater Treatment System Demonstration  for  the Textile Main-
    tenance Industry," EPA-660/2-73-037,  January  1974.
73. Leut. Daniels, "Study on Power-Laundry Wastewater  Treatment," U.S.
    Mobility Equipment Research and Development Center,  Fort  Belvoir, Virginia,
    November 1974.

74. Personal Communi cation,  BASF Wyandotte Corporation,  Wyandotte, Michigan,
    February 1976.

75. American Paper Institute Correspondence,  April  1976.

76. International Fabricare  Institute  Correspondence,  July  7,  1975.

77. Linen Supply Association of America Meeting,  February 2,  1976.

78. National Automatic Laundry and Cleaning Council Correspondence  (1975).

79. Consumer Reports,  October 1974.

80. "Effluent Limitations Guidelines for  Existing Sources and Standards
    of Performance for New Sources, EPA/330/9-74/001,  August  1974.

81. Shreve, R. Norris, Chemical Process Industries  (3rd  Ed.),  McGraw-Hill
    Book Company, St.  Louis, Missouri  (1967).

82. Minerals Yearbook. Volume 1 (1973).

83. Battelle Columbus  Laboratories, Energy Use  Patterns  in Metallurgical
    and Nonmetallic Mineral  Processing. Bureau  of Mines, September  1975.

84. Statistical Yearbook, Edison electric Institute  (1972).

85. United States Department of Commerce, Census of Transportation,  1967,
    "Commodity Transportation Survey," Washington, D.C., Government  Print-
   ' ing Office.

86. Interstate Commerce Commission, Carload Waybill Statistics. Statement
    SS-2, Washington,  D.C.,  Government Printing Office (1966).

87. Interstate Commerce Commission, Transport Statistics in the United States.
    Part 7, Washington, D.C., Government  Printing Office (1969).

88. United States Department of the Army, Corps of Engineers,  Waterborne
    Commerce of the United States. 1966.  San  Francisco,  California,  U.S.
    Army Engineer Division,  Corps of Engineers.
                                   R-6

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89. In order to provide data for this study,  a survey of the tissue industry
    was made by the tissue division of the American Paper Institute (API).
    Questionnaires were developed by API in consultation with their member-
    ship and with Franklin Associates. The questionnaires were mailed to
    the membership, filled out and retruned to API. There, identification
    was removed and replaced with a number. Then they were inspected for
    errors and sent to Franklin Associates for analysis. The respondents
    represent 80 percent of the disposable diaper production in the U.S.,
    89 percent of the towel production, and 62 percent of the napkin produc-
    tion* These questionnaire responses form the basis for data concerning
    the paper products mentioned.

90. "Resource and Environmental Profile Analysis of Five Milk Containers,"
    draft report in preparation by Midwest Research Institute and Franklin
    Associates, Ltd., for Environmental Protection Agency, Office of Solid
    Waste Management Programs.

91. Reference 89, and API Energy Consumption Survey.

92. Reference 89, and the National Council for Air and Stream Improvement.

93. In order to provide data for this study,  a survey of paperboard mills
    was made by the bleached paperboard division of the American Paper Insti-
    tute. The survey sample was five mills, which in 1973 produced 80 per-
    cent of the cup stock and 74 percent of the plate stock produced in
    the U.S.

94. Reference 93, and the 1973 Energy Consumption Survey.

95. In order to provide data for this study,  a survey of plate and cup manu-
    facturing was made by the Single Service Institute. In each case, the
    survey sample included more than 50 percent of the U.S. production of
    that product. Questionnaires were developed by SSI, in consultation with
    their membership, Arthur D* Little, Inc., Midwest Research Institute and
    Franklin Associates, Ltd. Completed questionnaries were mailed to SSI,
    where they were coded and sent to Arthur D. Little, Inc. The question-
    naires were then analyzed and summarized before data were submitted
    to the research team.

96. Derived by Franklin Associates, Ltd., and the tissue division of API.

97. "Study of Solid Waste Management Practices in the Pulp and Paper Industry,"
    Gorham International, Inc., Gorham, Maine, for the U.S. Environmental
    Protection Agency, Office of Solid Waste Management Programs, Washington,
    D.C,, February 1974.

98. Battele Comumbus Laboratories, Energy Use Patterns in Metallurgical
    and Nonmetallic Mineral Processing, Bureau of Mines, June 27, 1975.

                                    R-7

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 99. Flewelling, F. J., Canadian Experience with the reduction of Mercury
     at Chlor-Alkali-Plants., Canadian Industriess  Ltc.,  Montreal  (1973).

100. Olotka, Fred T., Formal Discussion on "Canadian Experience with ':he
     Reduction of Mercury at Chlor-Alkali-Plants," International  Conference
     on Heavy Metals in the Aquatic Environment, December 6,  L97J.

101. Cabass, R., and T. W. Chapman, "Losses of Mercury fro:? Ohlorfne Fants:
     A Review of a Pollution Problem," AIGHE Journal,  Volume  18,  No. 5,
     September 1972.

102. The Chlorine Institute.

103. 1967 Census of Mineral Industries, Tables 3,  6, and 7,  Washington,
     D.C«, Government Printing Office.

104. Ibid, Water Use in Mining, Table I-A.

105. "Particulate Pollutant System Study," Vol. Ill, Air Pollution Control
     Office, Durham, North Carolina (1971).

106. "Lime and Limestone," Kirk-Othmer Encyclopedia of Chemical Technology,
     2nd.Edition, Vol. 12 (1963.

107. United States Department of Commerce, Census of Manufacturers,  1967,
     Washington, D.C., Government Printing Office.

108. United Stated Department of Interior, Minerals Yearbook  (1967).

109. Faith, Keyes, and Clark, Industrial Chemicals, 3rd Edition,  New York,
     Wiley & Son (1965).

110. Ross, Stephen S., environmental Regulation Handbook, Environmental
     Information Center, New York (1973).

111. Collins, Gene, "Oil and Gas Wells—Potential Pollutants  of the Environ-
     ment, Journal WPCF, December 1971.
112. Maryonowski,
112. Maryonowski, Chester W., Disposal of Polymer Solid Wastes by Primary
     Polymer Producers and Plastic Fabricators, EPA, Contract No. PH-86-
     68-160 (1972).

113. "Modern Plastics Special Report," Modern Plastics,  April 1973.

114. United States Environmental Protection Agency, Inorganic Fertilizerland
     Phosphate Mining Industries - Water Pollution and Control, September
     1971.
                                    R-8

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115* Shreve, R. Norris, Chemical Process Industries.  2nd Edition, New York,
     McGraw-Hill (1956).

116. Materials Flow for Renewable Fiber Resources  - Cotton, National  Cotton
     Council of America, Memphis, Tennessee, May  1975.

117. Weisman, V. I., and R. C. Anderson, "The  Production of Sodium  Sulfate
     from Natural Brines of Morrahans,  Texas," Mining Engineering.  July
     1953.

118. "Soda Ash," Kirk-Othmer Encyclopedia of Chemical Technology, 2nd Edition,
     Volume 12 (1963).

119. Franklin Associates, Ltd., and confidential  sources.

120. United States Department of Interior, Minerals Yearbook. 1969.

121. "Particulate Pollutant System Study," Volume  III, Air Pollution  Control
     Office, Durham, North Carolina (1971).

122* U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Refuse  Discharge Permit  Applica-
     tions.

123. Single Service Institute.

124. Census of Manufacturers.  1972.
                                   R-9

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                     I. INTRODUCTION AND METHODOLOGY


          The products included  in  this study—towels, napkins,  sheets,

 diapers  and  foodservice ware—are vital components  in  the American way  of

 life.  The average  individual uses or comes  into  contact with  the majority

 of  these types  of  products  during the  course of  each day. Accordingly,  the

 relative sanitation  of the  disposable  and reusable  variants within each

 product  type is a  significant concern  of all involved  in  delivering  these

 items  to the consumer.

          The "Public Health and Sanitation" component of this  comprehen-

 sive  study of selected disposable versus reusable products  examines  con-

 cerns  that have been raised regarding  the public health and sanitation  as-

 pects  of these  products.  In accordance with the  scope  of  work for  this  in-

 vestigation, MSI conducted  a literature  review of relevant  sanitation studies,

 as  well  as of  the  U.S. Food and  Drug Administration Sanitation  Code  and

                                              1 2
 selected state  and local  sanitation ordinances.'  A  total of  85 references

 were  reviewed for  this  task. Additionally,  MRI contacted  32  public health

 associations and industrial associations,  40 product manufacturers,  national

 and regional FDA officials, and  5  state health agencies.  A complete  list

 of  these contacts  is provided  in Appendix  B of this report.

          In accordance  with  the contract  scope  of work,  no original re-  •

 search was  to be conducted in  the  development  of information for this study.

 Yet,  MRI believes  that the  report  presents  a consensus of the available

 literature  and of the opinions of  industry and government officials  regard-

 ing the public health impacts  of these selected disposable and reusable

 products-i
_!/ See comments, Appendix B ,  pages  11-12.
"i_l See comments, Appendix J,  pages 37-38.
_3/ See comments, Appendix J,  page 21.
                                 S-l

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        II. GENERAL SANITATION CONCERNS RELATED TO CLOTH PRODUCTS







A. Contamination of Cloth by Microorganisms




          One of the central health concerns related to the use of cloth




products is their sanitation. Scientific studies have shown that fabrics




can harbor microorganisms which can be transmitted from person to person.




In light of this finding, it is especially significant to investigate the




presence of microorganisms on cloth—their persistence, transmittal from  •




fabric to humans, and their diminution or eradication via laundering.




          1* Mechanisms of Contamination; There are four basic mechanisms




by which microorganisms may be transmitted:




               a. Contactt In this type of contamination, bacteria may be




suspended in fluid or dispersed in a more dense medium. For example, a hos-




pital sheet could be contaminated by urine, a fluid medium; or through skin




lesions or feces, both of which are relatively dense.




               b. Droplet; Droplets are large moisture-laden particles which




can be spread by talking, coughing and sneezing. They remain airborne only




a short time but can contaminate fabrics as they fall.




               c. Droplet Nuclei; These are the residues resulting from




evaporation of moisture from droplets. They may remain airborne for long




periods of time but eventually fall, at which point contamination may occur.




(Droplet nuclei contamination is also called aerosol contamination.)




               d. Dust; In this type of contamination, microorganisms adhere




to particles of dust which may be dislodged, by sweeping or other similar
                                  S-2

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movements,  from the  fabric. These dust particles may  then become airborne

and subsequently lodge on  a surface or directly on a  person.

          2. Persistence of Microorganisms; Once fabrics have become  con-

taminated,  the  microorganisms may survive for a relatively  long period of

time under  favorable conditions  (e.g., rough-textured material and low hu-

midity). A  number of studies have been done on the persistence of micro-

organisms under normal conditions on certain types of fabrics. McNeil and

Greenstein  (38),  demonstrated that viable Staphylococcus aureus persisted

on  cotton for 84 days, E.  coli for 32 days and Mycobacterium butyricum for

70  days. The authors also  tested the persistence of the same microorganisms

on  wool and acetate  tricot, finding longer survival times on the wool and

shorter times on the tricot. They explained this result in  terms of the

construction of the  various materials, wool having a  scaly, rough texture

to  which microorganisms adhere quite easily and tricot being relatively

smooth and  more resistant  to such adherence. Survival times also varied

with degree of  humidity, with a fairly high humidity  (70 percent), usually

associated  with less persistence than a low humidity  (28 percent). McNeil

and Greenstein  concluded that "it is evident from the data...that the test

bacteria survived on the fabrics for sufficient periods of  time to be of

epidemiological significance."-  (38, Page 137).
_!/ Although the phrase "of epidemiological significance" is not precisely
     defined in this or in a subsequently cited study, the author's implica-
     tion is that longer survival times provide a greater opportunity for
     exposure to a potential human host, thus presenting greater public
     health significance. No evidence of actual infectiousness is presented.
                                   S- 3

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          A  series of studies performed by Sidwell, Dixon and McNeil (10,

 67, 68 and 69) examined the persistence of vaccinia virus and poliomyelitis

 virus on cotton and wool fabrics* Two types of wool material and three types

 of cotton, including cotton sheeting, were exposed to the virus strains
                                                    i
 by direct contact, aerosol, and dustj and then held in two varying condi-

 tions of humidity--at 35 percent and 78 percent. Vaccinia was found to sur-

 vive up to 14 weeks in the wool fabrics at low humidity. In cotton, the

 virus was recovered only up to 6 to 8 weeks at the low humidity, and for

 less than 6  weeks at the 78 percent humidity. Again, persistence of vac-

 cinia virus  on all fabrics was concluded to be of sufficient duration to

 be of epidemiological significance. The poliomyelitis virus persisted for

 1 to 4 weeks on cotton fabrics at 35 percent humidity. In higher humidity,

 the period of viral persistence was shorter, although the decrease in virus

 titer was less rapid. The authors note that "since the major source of polio-

virus in the human environment is feces of infected individuals (cases or

 carriers), the persistence of the virus on fabrics commonly used In cloth-

 ing and bedding is of major importance in considering possible virus dissemi-

nation by fomites," (10,  Page 183).

          Two studies done by Wilkoff, Westbrjok and Dixon (83 and 84),

demonstrate  that Staphylococcua aureus and Salmonella typhimurium also

remain on fabrics for significant periods of time. Staph aureus was found

 to survive on all fabrics, including cotton sheeting and cotton wash-and-

wear (exact composition not indicated) for sufficient periods to be of epi-

demioiogicai significance* Salmonella persisted on cotton sheeting for 24


                                  S--4

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weeks at 35 percent humidity and for 6 to 12 weeks under 78 percent humi-


dity. Both Staph aureus and Salmonella survived for relatively brief periods


on the cotton wash-and-wear*


          3* Release of Microorganisms from Cloth and Potential for Disease


Transmission! Obviously then, fabrics can harbor bacteria for a significant


period of time* However, the next step in the transmission process involves


the release of these resident bacteria into the environment or directly •


ontc a surface where they may impact negatively on humans* Sidwell et al.


(69) undertook a study to determine whether poli'ovirus and vaccinia could


be released in sufficient amounts to be capable of dissemination to sus-


ceptible hosts* A number of fabrics, including cotton, wool, and synthetic


blends, were exposed to these viruses by direct contact and by aerosolization,


allowed to dry and then randomly tumbled with sterile swatches of the same


fabrics for 30 minuses. Up to 10 *  CCID  —  of poliovirus per milliliter

      4,4
and 10    CCID n of vaccinia virus per milliliter were recovered from the


originally sterile fabrics as early as 1 to 10 minutes after contact. The


authors note that the exposed fabrics were contaminated with an extremely


large quantity of virus, greater than would be expected in domestic uses;


however, they believe that the rapid transfer of poliovirus and vaccinia


(considered to be sufficiently diverse to represent the most important human


viruses) from contaminated to sterile fabric indicates that the virus particles


adhere loosely to the fabric and would probably be disseminated rather easily


under normal usage conditions* But, they conclude that, "it is yet to be
II Critical Concentration Intradermal, causing reaction in 50 percent of

     test animals receiving intradermal injection.


                                  S-5

-------
 determined whether  a... human being would become clinically infected by

 the  quantity of virus  that was  transferred  to the sterile fabrics," (69,

 Page 953).

          In another study implicating fabrics as potential fomites, Duguid

 and  Wallace  (38), as reported in McNeil and  Greenstein, compared the number

 of bacteria released from the clothing of nasal carriers of Staphylococcus

 aureus  to the number transmitted via sneezing. Clothing is obviously subjected

 to significant agitation through the normal movements of the wearer; and

 such agitation is considered to be a factor in bacterial release. Duguid

 and  Wallace found a significantly greater amount of Staph aureus air con-

 tamination from dust particles  released from clothing than from droplet

 nuclei  emitted during  sneezing. Ten percent of the dust particles emanat-

 ing  from the clothing  and containing Staph  aureus remained airborne for

 at least 35 minutes, a sufficient period of time for contamination of per-

 sons or inanimate objects*

          Other authors have reported cases of illness directly traced to

 contaminated fabrics.  Oliphant, Gordon, Meis and Parker reported that laundry

 workers had contracted Q fever  (a rickettsial disease) from handling con-

 taminated clothing, presumably  by inhaling  infected lint. In 1951, several

 unvaccinated laundry workers in Great Britain contracted smallpox by handling

 the  soiled linen used  by persons suffering  from subclinical cases of the

 disease. And, Gonzaga  studied the effects of exposing newborn infants to

 linens  which had been  contaminated by known Staph aureus carriers. The in-

 fants contracted the infection  when exposed to heavily contaminated articles."
_!/ All of the studies described in this paragraph were reported in Refer-
     ence Number 43.
                                   S-6

-------
          These studies emphasize the potential for disease transmission




presented by contaminated cloth products. Although several of the investi-




gations focused on clothing rather than linens (Duguid and Oliphant), the




basic mechanisms of contamination and dissemination are the same.




          In our present study, the cloth products under investigation ex-




hibit the potential for significant contamination. A cloth towel, used in




the kitchen for wiping kitchen spills, can easily be contaminated by hand •




contact. The hands are major carriers of microorganisms because they touch




such a variety of potentially contaminated .surfaces (8). Additionally,  spilled




food or liquids can provide excellent media which can support the growth




of bacteria. Napkins present a different potential for contamination because




of their contact with the mouth, where a variety of microorganisms are har-




bored. Finally, the bed sheet used in institutions is subject to the most




severe contamination. Hospital patients, who often carry some type of infec-




tion, can contaminate sheets in a variety of ways: any type of wound or




lesion may emit blood or purulent discharge onto the sheet; the patient




may excrete, through urination or defecation, potentially pathogenic material;




or he may contaminate the linen merely through touching, sneezing, coughing




or talking.




          Despite the fact that fabrics can harbor microorganisms, that




these microorganisms can persist for a significant period of time, and that




cases of disease have been traced to contaminated fabrics, direct correla-




tion between contaminated fabrics and disease is not always clear. The  likeli-




hood of particular microorganisms causing disease when transmitted from one.








                                 S-7

-------
person to another, via fabric, is dependent on a variety 9? factors! the




numbers and types of organism involved, their degree of virulence., the mode




of entry, and the degree of immunity of the person involved* While these




factors are undeniably important in accurately assessing the overall health




threat represented by exposure to various microorganisms, definitive data




in these areas are sorely lacking. Most of the studies presented in the




following section, therefore, deal solely with the numbers of various bac-




teria found in fabrics, before and after laundering* While this measure




does not totally assess the associated health threat, the basic relationship




between the degree of exposure to potential pathogens and health jeopardy




is logically sound* In summarizing this topic, Davis mades the following




commenti




          "The phenomena of commmicability and invasiveness are complex




and controlled by many factors, but, other things being equal, the contact




with large numbers of potential pathogens must obviously increase the chance




of infection,"  (8,  Page  89). Consistent with this focus, the following sec-




tions investigate the laundering process in general and the effectiveness




of typical commercial, institutional and home laundering practices in elim-




inating microorganisms from fabric.






B. Sanitation Mechanisms in the Laundering Process




          Despite the foregoing conclusions regarding cloth products as




potential disease carriers, the inherent potential for disease transmission




can be virtually eliminated by proper laundering techniques* Laundering




represents the best single key to the achievement of sanitation in cloth





                                 S- 8

-------
products; and, for this reason, the practice of effective laundering methods




in the home, commercial and institutional facilities becomes highly sig-




nificant in producing products which meet acceptable public health standards.




          The laundering process provides three basic mechanisms by which




bacteria can b$ destroyedi




          . The mechanical action of water and detergent solutions;




          . The action of heat; and




          . The bactericidal action of reagents used for cleansing.




          1. Mechanical Actiont The first step Involves the physical removal




of bacteria-harboring soil from the fabric. The agitation of the washer,




coupled with detergent, lifts Che soil out of the fabric and suspends it




in the wash water. At this point, called the first "break," millions of




bacteria may be suspended in each milliliter of water in the average load.




As the contaminated water is flushed away and replaced by clean water, the




bacterial count is deerementally reduced through the dilution process. With




each flushing operation, the count further decreases* The effect of deter-




gency and dilution is illustrated in Figure 1. Although the lower curve




in the figure represents a higher temperature (125  to 140°),  the percent-





age of bacteria removal at each step is approximately the same as that of




the 100  temperature--a 50 percent reduction at each flush. However,  as




shown in the graph,, it was necessary to add bleach to effect total bacteri-




cidal action.




          2. Heati The action of heat alone can be effective in destroying




bacteria. Smith and Mack note that "water alone at 160  F causes almost




complete destruction of representative pathogenic organisms...(however)




                                  S-9

-------
     107
     10
£
o
<§
103


102



101


 1
      Detergency &

        Dilution Only

—«••  Bleach Added
        1
                            .Steps in.Laundering Process



                 Figure 1 - The Role of Detergency and Dilution

                                  in the Sanitation Process
                                 S-10

-------
where low or moderate temperatures are used in laundering, it is difficult




to attain complete sterilization," (71, Page 98). In addition to heat in




the washing process, dryers and ironing can provide some bactericidal action,




although the literature indicates that these latter heat sources should




not be relied upon to achieve fabric sanitation.




          A study done by Sidwell et al. (67) confirms the significance




of heat in bacterial destruction. Swatches of fabric were contaminated,




through direct and aerosol exposure,  with poliovirus and then laundered




at three different temperatures using two types of detergent and using no




detergent. Table 1 shows the results of these tests on cotton sheeting.




          As indicated in the table,  detergent usage made little difference,




but the hot wash water markedly reduced the amount of detectable virus.




The authors note that "the heat supplied by the wash water was one of the




most important factors in eliminating viable poliovirus from the contami-




nated fabrics, as shown by the fact that virus reductions were marked in




the hot water experiments, with little detectable virus remaining 'on the




fabrics," (67, Page 229). It is also interesting to note that drying had




a significant effect on virus reduction.





          Additionally, the study showed that ro virus was recovered from




the rinse water after hot water laundering; however, virus was recovered




from rinse water after warm and cold water laundering. Sterile fabrics laun-




dered with contaminated fabrics in hot water had a lower virus content than




similar fabrics laundered in warm or cold water. These results indicate




that warm and cold water physically remove the virus from the fabric, but




that hot water not only removes the virus but also inactivates it.




                                 S- 11

-------
                                                    TABLE  1
CO
4
                                       EFFECT  OF LAUNDERING AT DIFFERENT
                                  TEMPERATURES  ON CONTAMINATED  COTTON  SHEETING
     Water Temperature
    Hot C130-140°F)
    Barm (100-108* P)
     Cold (70-80° F)
Detergent
Anlonic
Monlonlc
None

Anlonic
Nonionlc
Rone

Anionic
Nonionlc
None
                                                             Hean Virus Tlters (CCID5Q/ml)
Direct Contact Exposure
                                              Virus   /
                                             Control"
             Test
 "
 io
 •IS
  o
4'0
"
 lO5'
                                               106.4
                                               105-9
 10
 io
 10
                                                 5'6
                                                 5-9
                                                 6'3
                                                          io
         to2-1
                  Test
                   io
                                                                     °-5
                                          0°
                                                                       '5
                      io
                     ,0.4

                     0.4
                     « *•
                   io°-6
                   101-2
                                           Aerosol Exposure
                                                           Virus
                                                          Control
                  Test.
w
  4-3

                                                                                       4-5
                                     to3-9
    Source: Sidwell et al. "Quantitative Studies on Fabrics as Disseminators of Viruses: V. Effect of Launder
              ing on Pollovlrus  - Contaminated Fabrics," (67).
    a/ Swatches which were exposed to virus, held 16 hours at 97°F In 35 percent relative tramidity and tesi:ed.
    bj Sane as a/, plus swatches were laundered.
    £/ Same as a/, plus swatches were laundered and allowed to dry for,20 hours.

-------
          Time is an inseparable component of temperature in effecting bac-
terial destruction. Davis (8) notes that the cumulative exposure time to
high temperatures is the best indicator of bactericidal effectiveness. Strin-
gent regulations on laundering, such as those established by the. Joint Com-
mission on the Accreditation of Hospitals for hospital laundries, dictate
that fabrics be held at 160° for 25 minutes. There is little doubt, according
to the literature, that fabrics would be effectively sanitized by such ex-
posure. However, some studies (34,8) indicate that with a few minutes ex-
posure to 140° temperature, fabrics become free of certain types of pathogens.
Figure 2 depicts thermal destruction of one strain of Staph aureus at 140 ,
130° and 120°; obviously, the 120° temperature was ineffective, leaving ap-
proximately 50 microorganisms after 25 minutes; whereas at 140 , all the
Staph was destroyed after 2 minutes. Thus, a slight increase in temperature
can markedly reduce kill time.
                 0  2   4   6   8  10  12  14  16  18  20 22  24
                                 Time (Minutes)
    Source:  Marmo, Anthony,  "Bacteria Control in the Laundry," (34)
                 Figure  2  -  Thermal Destruction of Staph Aureus
                               S-13

-------
          Two other significant factors in evaluating thermal destruction




are the particular type of bacteria and the type of soil to which it ad-




heres* For example, a strain of E. coli harbored in broth can be destroyed




at a considerably lower temperature than the same strain adhering to cream.




Also, whereas the strain of Staph aureus represented in Figure 2 could be




destroyed by a 2-minute exposure to a 140  temperature, another strain of




the same organism can survive up to 19 minutes of exposure to the same




degree of heat.




          3. Chemicals; Chemicals represent the third mechanism for bac-




terial destruction in the laundering process. There are four basic types




of chemical bactericides (disinfectants):




               a. Alkalies; Alkalies create a highly alkaline environment




in which many bacteria cannot survive and also neutralize the acidity present




in many soils, thereby enhancing the effect of detergents.




               b. Detergents (soaps); Soaps have varying effects on micro-




organisms* Pneumococci, meningococci, gonococci, and numerous other organ-




isms are easily destroyed by the chemical action of detergents. Others,




such as certain strains of Staphylococci and tubercle bacilli, are more




resistant and can be killed only by the combined action of heat and deter-




gent.




               c. Bleaches; Chlorine bleach is dependent on a number of




factors for its effectiveness: a low pH value, high temperature, and rela-




tively high bleach concentration. Figure 3 illustrates the significance




of each of these factors in the destruction of Bacillus metiens.





                                 S-14

-------
en
i
                1000
               £ loo
               c
               I  10
               ^   5

                   1
 1000
^ 100
c
I  10
>-   5

    1
                                                          I  I  II
                       6 7  8 9 1011 12 13
                               PH
       60  80  100  120  140
         Temperature (° F )
  140

  120
IMOO
+-
.1 80
~ 60
ai
| 40
   20
    0
      10 25  50  100    500 1000 ppm
          Concentration cf
         Available Chlorine
               Source: Marmo, Anthony, "Bacteria Control in the Laundry,"  (34).
                    Figure J - Time to Produce 99?<, Kill of Bacillus Metiens Spores Using Chlorine Ulsach

-------
               d. Sours; A sour produces an acidic condition which neutral-




izes residual alkali from earlier processes and also completes bacterial




destruction by creating a low pH condition deleterious  to many bacteria.




Sours are particularly useful as bactericides in colored loads where  lower




temperatures are used and no bleach is added.




               Because the many organisms which can be  found in fabrics re-




spond so differently to laundry chemicals, there is no  one substance  which




will kill all bacteria. Additionally, as illustrated in the case of chlorine




bleach, there are several variables which can alter bactericidal action.




However, proper combinations of agitation, heat, and chemicals should result




in almost complete elimination of microorganisms. Smith and Mack note that




"a good washing formula utilizing the successive actions of alkali, soap,




bleach, and sour at temperatures in the range of 160  for the break and




sudsing operations, with bleaching at 140  to 145 , can be expected to




effectuate the complete destruction of bacteria ordinarily encountered in




laundering" (71, Page 100).







C. Effectiveness of Commercial Laundering




          The cloth products being investigated in this study (towels, nap-




kins, diapers, and sheets) may be laundered by any one  of the following




methods:




          . Commercial laundry (household towels and napkins, commercially-




            used napkins,  diapers,  some institutional sheets).




          . Home laundry,  including self-service laundromats (household
                                 S- 16

-------
            towels and napkins, diapers).

          . Institutional laundry (sheets).

          Because of special considerations inherent in the laundering of

diapers and institutional (predominantly hospital) sheets, laundry proce-

dures for these products will be discussed in the respective projects se.-

tions.

          Towels and napkins, however, are generally treated by standard

laundry procedures. If sent to a commercial laundry, towels and napkins

would normally be handled by one of the following techniques recommended

by the International Fabricare Institute, which is one of the major associ-

ations representing commercial laundries:

          1. Standard White Work Washing Procedure;

                                                   iture
                                                                £H

                                                             11.2-11.4
                                                             11.0
                                                             10.8
                                                             10.5-10.6


Operation
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
Suds.
Suds
Suds
Bleach Suds
Rinse
Rinse
Rinse
Rinse
Sour
Starch
Time
(Min)
5-7
5-7
5-7
5-7
2
2
2
2
3-4
10
Level
(Inch)
5-6-8
5-6-8
5-6-8
5-6-8
10-12-15
10-12-15
10-12-15
10-12-15
5-6-8
2
Temperature
(°F)
180
160
160
155
160
140
120
100
90
90
                                                              5.0-5.5
                                   S-17

-------
          2. Wash Procedure for Polyester/Cotton Linens;
Operation Time
Number (Min)
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
_a/ Spin.

Break
Flush
Suds
Rinse
Bleach
Extract^/
Rinse
Extract
Rinse
Sour
3. Colored Loads
10
3
10
3
10
1
3
1
3
5
Level Temperature
(Inch) (°F)
6
8
6
12
6

12

12
6
(cotton) :
140 1
0
140
140 1
140
140 2

125

110
95 p
Same as standard
                                                      Per 100 lb. load

                                                    1.5 Ib Sodium Orthosilicate
                                                    0.4 lb Tripolyphosphate
                                                    0.75 lb Nonionic deter-
                                                      gent (1)(2)

                                                    1/2 of supplies as  listed
                                                      in step No. 1

                                                    2 qt 1% Av.  chlorine bleach
                                                      pH 10.4-10.5   (3)
                                                                    (4)
                                                    pH not lower than 5
that the .first suds is at 100 , subsequent suds are at 140 , and the rinses

are done-at 140°, 120°, 100°, and 100°, bleach is not used with the fourth

suds.

          4. Lightly Soiled White Loads; Same as standard white work except

that first suds is at 100  and subsequent sudsings may be at slightly lower

temperatures than for standard white work*

          5t Commercial Flatwork (Such as napkins); Handled in the same

manner as lightly soiled white loads*

          These recommended procedures all involve a minimum of 17 minutes

exposure to 140°F (colored loads) and a maximum of 30 minutes exposure to

155  or above (23 minutes to 160° or higher) for standard white work. Although

                                     S-18

-------
these time and temperature recommendations do not match those presented in




the literature (160° for 25 minutes), the addition of chemical bactericides




(alkalies, detergents, bleaches and sours) supplement the antibacterial




action of time and temperature*




          In order to determine if such commercial laundering techniques




produced reasonably sterile fabrics, Nicholes (43) performed bacteriologi-




cal studies of commercially laundered items from all over the world. The




products tested included continuous roll towels, napkins and dish towels.




Nicholes1 results were reported mainly on the continuous towels, which ini-




tially showed an average of 41,960 bacteria per square inch in one test




and over 3 million in another. After the laundries were advised to make




adjustments in time, temperature and chemicals, counts were reduced to <32




and to 160,000, respectively. Nicholes emphasizes, however, that even the




initial high counts proved to be mostly gram-positive spore-forming (and




thus heat-resistant) organisms which he feels do not present a great public




health nuisance. Marmo concurs that these organisms tend not to be pathogenic




but rather tend to be mold and mildew-producers (34). Nicholes also concluded,




from an extensive literature review, that laundered fabrics have never been




implicated in the transfer of disease.




          It is significant to note that in Nicholes1 study, bactericidal




effectiveness was considerably improved by instructing the laundries in




proper time, temperature, and chemical utilization. While standard practice




in the commercial laundry industry involves bactericidal techniques, the




human factor must be considered in evaluating the compliance of individual




laundries to industry standards*




                                    S-19

-------
          In another study conducted under the auspices of the American


Institute of Laundering (AIL now IFI), bacterial counts were taken at each


step of the white and colored laundry formulas, using temperatures consider-


ably lower than are now recommended by IFI. Even at these lower temperatures,


however, no bacteria were recovered at the end of the white washing procedure


and only 158 bacteria per cubic centimeter at the conclusion of the colored


method (again indicating the added effectiveness of bleach used in the white


wash). Tables 2 and 3 summarize these test results*
                                                                       /

          The American Institute of Laundering study also compared commer-


cially laundered loads with home washing* The average bacteria count in


the last rinse for colored loads as found in 109 commercial laundries was


71 organisms per cubic centimeter compared to 318,792 per cubic centimeter


as found in nine different randomly selected homes in a total of 180 tests*


For white loads in the same laundries, the average count was only 31 per


cubic centimeter*



D. Effectiveness of Home Laundering


          The results of the AIL study are consistent with the majority


of other literature on home laundering,  which indicates that such poor re-


sults from home laundries are attributable to a number of factors:


          1* Generally shorter wash times: an MRI survey of local service


centers for three home washer manufacturers indicates that the washing (de-


tergency and dilution) time in home laundry averages only 12 minutes for


a normal full load. However, most washers can be set for shorter wash times,
                                    S-20

-------
                                TABLE 2





      BACTERICIDAL EFFICIENCY OF A COMMERCIAL LAUNDRY WHITE FORMULA



Temperature
Bath
flush
1st Suds
2d Suds
jd Suds
4th Suds

1st Rinse
2d Rinse
3d Rinse
ith Rinse
Sour and
blue

Supplies Used
— —
Soap and alkali
Soap and alkali
Soap and alkali
Soap and alkali plus
Sodium hypochlorite
—
—
--
--

Sodium acid fluoride—'

(°F)
110
125
135
140

165-170
165
165
165
165

140 and
110 :.-.

Time
(Min)
5
10
10
10


3
3
3
3



Average
Bacterial Count
Per cu cai
200,428
9-^,314
42.518
3,382

5
1
0.5
0.4 •
0.2

Sterile

Source: American Institute of Laundering.
                                TABLE 3




     BACTERICIDAL EFFICIENCY OF A COMMERCIAL LAUNDRY COLORED FORMULA


Bath
Flush
1st Suds
2d Suds
3d Suds
4th Suds
1st Rinse
2d Rinse
3d Rinse
4th Rinse
5th Rinse
Sour


Supplies Used
..
Soap and alkali
Soap and alkali
Soap and alkali
Soap and alkali
--
—
—
--
--
Sodium acid fluoride

Temperature
(°F)
90-100
100
100
100
100
100
100
100
100
100
100

Time
(Min)
5-
10
10
10
10
3
3
3
3
3
5
Average
Bacterial Count
Per cu cm
3,674,055
1,979,862
1,248,758
255,579
221,293
88,966
67,461
43,809
35,278
24,441
158
S'urce: American Institute of Laundering.
                                S-21

-------
which are often recommended for synthetic fabrics. Coin-operated washers





in laundromats average a 10-minute washing time.




          2. Lower temperatures: McNeil (36) notes that average home laundry




temperatures at the hot water setting range from 120  to 130 , while at




the warm water setting, temperature averages about 100° (temperature being




dependent in both cases on the setting of the hot water heater in the home




or self-service laundry).




          3. Use of less water.




          4. Reuse of water.




          5. Use of less effective chemical reagents.




          According to the USDA, "Neither the water temperatures nor the




detergents used under today's home laundering conditions can be relied on




to reduce the number of bacteria in fabrics to a safe level," (66). Ethel




McNeil, formerly of the USDA Agricultural Research Service, has performed




several studies of home laundering. In one study, nine families brought




soiled laundry to the lab each week for several months. The bactericidal




effectiveness of three types of disinfectants (quaternary, phenolic and




sodium hypochlorite, also called chlorine bleach) was tested at varying




water temperatures and with varying types of detergents. The temperature




of the wash water at the "hot water" setting varied from 122  to 140°F at




the beginning of the wash cycle, and from 109° to 135°F at the end of the




cycle. The temperature of the wash water at the "warm water" setting varied




from 91°F to 118°F at the beginning of the wash cycle, and from 88°F to




108 F at the end of the wash cycle.
                                   S-22

-------
          Bacterial counts were made of treated and untreated wash and rinse




waters and of swatches of fabrics attached to an article of clothing* Detailed




test results are presented in Tables I through V, in Appendix A to this




report.




          The conclusions of the report were as follows:




          1* Large numbers of bacteria were recovered from many of the un-




treated wash and rinse waters, even at the "hot water" setting. Home launder-




ing temperatures and detergents cannot, therefore, be relied on for the




control of transmission of bacteria by textiles and clothing.




          2. The quaternary disinfectant at a concentration of 200 ppm,




added to either the wash or rinse water at the hot water setting,  consis-




tently reduced bacterial counts in the water and on the fabric swatches.




          3. The phenolic disinfectants also reduced bacterial counts in




the wash and rinse cycles when used at a concentration of 125 ppm or higher.




          4. The sodium hypochlorite (chlorine bleach) was effective at




160 and 320 ppm of available chlorine.




          5. Redeposition of bacteria did occur from soiled fabrics to the




attached swatches*




          As a corollary to the preceding study, McNeil investigated the




types of bacteria which had been isolated from the home laundering procedures*




Over 1,500 colonies of bacteria were described and gram stains were made.




Four hundred of these were retained for further study; 30 species  of 13




genera were identified, most of which were found in wash loads to  which




disinfectants were not added. These species are listed in Table 4. The most







                                  S-23

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                                 TABLE 4

    INCIDENCE OF 30 SPECIES OF BACTERIA IN THE LAUNDRY OF NINE FAMILIES

                                                      Number of Families
                                      Total Number    From Whose Laundry
                                       of Strains    Species were Isolated
               Species                 Identified         (Total of 9)

Staphylococcus aureus                      41                  7
Staphylococcus epidermidis                 58                  8
Micrococcus aurantiacus                     8                  4
Micrococcus candidus                        6                  5
Micrococcus caseolyticus                    5                  3
Micrococcus conglomeratus                   5                  4
Micrococcus flavus                          5                  4
Micrococcus freudenreichii                  1                  1
Micrococcus luteus                          5                  2
Micrococcus varians        .                 3                  3
Sarcina sp                                 16                  8
Pseudomonas aeruginosa                     21                  7
Escherichia coll                            4                  2
Escherlchia intermedia                      1                  1
Paracolbactrum aerogenoides                20          •        8
Paracolbactrum intermedium                 15                  7
Paracolbactrum coliforme                    7                  7
Aerobacter aerogenes                        3                  2
Aerobacter cloacae                          2                  2
Proteus- vulgaris                            2                  2
Flavobacterium sp                           5                  4'
Achromobacter sp                            1                  1
Alcaligenes fecalis                        55                  9
Alcaligenes bookerl                         5                  3
Alcaligenes marshallii                      1                  1    .
Alcaligenes recti                           6                  2
Alcaligenes viscolactis                     1                  1
Brevibacterium sp                          29                  7
Bacillus subtilis group                    27                  8
Bacillus megatherium-cereus group          43                  9
Source: McNeil, Ethel, "Studies of Bacteria Isolated From Home Laundering,"
           (36).
                                  S-24

-------
 significant bacteria from a household hygiene standpoint were Staphylococcus




 aureus, Pseudomonas acruginosa and Parac.olbactrum« In evaluating the health




 status of  families whose launtjerecl fabrics contained these bacteria, McNeil




 found that three of the seven families with Staph aureus reported skin lesions




 or upper respiratory infections during the period prior to laboratory laundry




 of their clothes| five of the eight with Paracolbactrum aerogenoides reported




 intestinal disorders} and three of the seven with Pseudomonas reported ear




 or genitourinary infections* In each cage, the bacteria isolated represent




 a common causative agent for the type of infections reported. It is clear




 from McNeil's study that pathogenic bacteria can be transmitted from in-




 fected humans to fabrics, and that these bacteria can survive home launder-




 ing, especially when disinfectants are not added*




          McNeil's work forms the basis for a USDA recommendation, contained




 in the bulletin, "Sanitation in Home Laundering," (66)  that disinfectants




 be employed whenevert




           1. There is illness in the family,  or




          2. Laundry facilities are shared.




Quaternary and liquid chlorine disinfectants are recommended by USDA for




 all temperatures; pine oil and phenolics, for hot and warm water.




          Witt and Warden (85) also studied the effectiveness of home launder-




 ing by using varying water temperatures (hot = 140 ,  warm = 100°, cold =




 60 ), and detergent concentrations (none, 0.1 percent,  0.2 percent,  0.4




percent)  on fabrics contaminated with Staph aureus. They found that none




of the combinations of temperatures and detergent concentrations removed
                                  S-25

-------
  (00 percent of the organisms) however,  as water temperatures and detergent

  concentrations increased,  bacterial survival decreased on the contaminated

  fabrics,  on the sterile fabrics following redepositipn of bacteria from

  contaminated fabrics,  and in the wash water* Figures 4 and 5 illustrate

  these results for the  fabrics and wash  waters*
   o>
   o

   o
   eg
   c
                   After Wash

                         'Redeposition
             60       100       140

             Water Temperature (°F)

Figure 4 - Count After Washing with
          Various Water Temperatures
                .1   .2   .3   .4

           Detergent Concentration (%)

Figure 5 - Count After Washing with
       Various Detergent Concentrations
           The  study points out factors which can cause redeposition  of  soil

 from contaminated  to uncontaminated fabrics:

           1. A high amount of soil;

           2. Adverse temperature conditions;

           3. A low volume of water; and

           4. A low detergent concentration.

                                   S-26

-------
Home laundries often exhibit all of these factors, with lower water tem-

peratures, overfilling of washers resulting in a low water-to-fabric ratio,

and misuse of- detergent's* Another problem emphasized in this study is the

removal of clothes from automatic dryers before they are completely dry.

This practice, often followed for no-iron fabrics, provides a warm, moist

environment which encourages bacterial growth*

          Tables VI and VII in Appendix A to this report provide complete

results of Vitt and Warden's experiments on two types of fabric.

          A fourth study which investigated noncommercial laundering was

performed by the Applied Biological Science Lab, Inc., for the Linen Supply

Association of America (LSAA)• The purpose of the study was to determine

the effectiveness of the washing procedure recommended by the American Hotel

and Motel Association (AHMA) for no-iron linens. This procedure involves

washing for 5 minutes at 100°F and adding a bacteriostat to achieve sanita-

tion. Both cotton muslin and 50 percent cotton/50 percent polyester blend

sheets were tested, using 100  and 160° temperatures, two types of detergents

and no detergent* The sheets had been innoculated with a 1 x 10  dosage of

Pseudomonas aeruginosa. The summary of the tests is presented in Figure 6.

          As indicated in the figure, the most effective results were ob-

tained from the 30-minute,  160  wash. The 5-minute washes (as recommended

by AHMA) at both temperatures left a significant bacterial residue, although

at 160°, with detergents, results were more favorable than at the lower

temperature. There was no measureable difference in results between the

cotton muslin and the cotton/polyester blend in terms of bacterial reten-

tion.
                                  S-27

-------
i ^ Control^/
£ 8 All
„ "" Enstaph HD
*g u- Control^/
•AS All
[ - Enstaph HD
•§ ^ Controls/
£ § All
1 -
J u- Control S/
1 k. A"
c*> *~ Enstaph HD
k


9
•*
T«
_J
^^T



T
«•••

T
•


T























                   0   100     300      500      700
                             Bacteria Count per Swatch

                '   £/ No Detergent Added
                    v  Median Value


Source: Linen Supply Association of America.
                                                     900
Figure 6 - Effect of Time and Temperature on Bacteria Kill
                        S-28

-------
          In contrast to the preceding study, a University of Iowa Hospital




comparison (2) of the same materials at the same temperatures and times




indicated that 5-minute, 100  washes were quite effective in producing sani-




tary linen. Table 5 shows the results of their microbiological testing.




As indicated, the no-iron sheets contained fewer bacteria prior to washing




than the conventional cotton sheets. (No explanation of this phenomenon




was offered.) Also, the 5-minute, 100  wash produced a level of sanitation




comparable to that resulting from the commercial method for the 100 percent




cotton sheets. It should be noted, however, that this was the only study




encountered in the literature which indicated favorable results for short-




time, low-temperature laundry procedures and which showed lower initial




bacteria counts on no-iron fabrics.




          The overwhelming evidence gathered during the course of this study




indicates that standard commercial laundering methods, using at least 140°




temperatures, 15- to 30-minute cycle periods, with the additition of chemicals,




produce far more sanitary fabrics than do typical home (short-time, low-




temperature)  laundering procedures.




          A final consideration in cloth product sanitation and laundering





is recontamination of fabrics after washing. Even though cloth may be totally




sanitized and free of microorganisms at the conclusion of the washing process,




it may be recontaminated during subsequent stages of laundering,  drying, iron-




ing and folding. Church and Loosli (6)  studied this recontamination problem




in one hospital and one commercial laundry. (For the purposes of this section,




only the results of the commercial laundry testing will be discussed.) They







                                  S-29

-------
                                                     TABLE 5
                       MICROBIOLOGICAL TEST RESULTS IN NUMBER OF COLONIES PER SQUARE INCH
en
I
U)
o
Run 2
  No iron
  sheets
  No sani-
  tizer

Run 1
                     Type Sheets and
                     Washing Method

                     50% cotton
                     50% polyester
                     sheets washed at 100°F
                     with one 5-min suds
                     and two 3-mln rinses.
                     Dried at 160°-165°F
                     using no bleach, no
                     sour or sanitizer
                     Same as A, except 1 pt
      Run 2          of 1% sodium hypochlorite
      No iron sheets bleach per 100 Ib added
      Sodium Hypo-   for wash cycle
      chlorite.

      Run 1
        Ironed
      Run 2          100% cotton sheets
                     washed by the usual
        Not ironed   commercial method at
        cotton       160°F, using bleach,
        sheets       sour and ironed on an
        Sodium Hypo- eight-roll ironer
        chlorite
Contact Plates
Before After
Washing Washing
19 0.47
2 0.08
71 1.34
3.0 0.11
148 0.24
5.0 0.03
Homogenize tlon Direct Plate Count
Before
Washing
1/100
1/1000
1/100
1/1000
1/100 6
1/1000 15
1/100
1/1000
1/100 2
1/1000 16
1/100 4
1/1000 5

479
667
133
500
,150
,500
846
917
,888
,500
,800
,750
After Before
Washing Washing
46 98
42
71 60
83
6.0 276
0
12.5 28
0
13 1,626
42
4.0 270
Con-
taminated
After
Washing
1.42
0.125
1
0.08
80
2.0
      Source: Bradley, L. A., The No-Iron Laundry Manual, (2).
      NOTE: Variation in bacteria counts on soiled sheets before washing, probably reflects the physical con-
              dition of different patients*

-------
found that the laundry process was efficient in removing bacteria from the

fabrics during washing, but that the materials became recontaminated during

water extraction in the spin dryer or while they were being folded. Figure

7 graphically depicts the results of air samples taken at various sites

in the laundry. As indicated, the highest counts were found near the sorting

table, near the extractor at the end of the extraction process, and near

the dryer and folding table.

          The authors found that the open-lid extractors were drawing in

large numbers of airborne bacteria which were subsequently harbored in the

textiles being spun-dry. Table 6 shows the relationship among the increase

in airborne bacteria, waterborne bacteria and linen contamination from the

beginning of the laundering cycle through the end of the extraction process.

Samples were taken at the time of maximum sorting activity, when movement

of the soiled clothes contributes heavily to airborne bioload. Samples taken

in the hospital laundry when no sorting was in process showed considerably

lower bacterial counts. The study also concluded that the heat of the iron-

ing process was insufficient to eliminate all the organisms built up during
                                                                     *
extraction.

          The extent to which the recontamination problems outlined above

occur in individual laundries related to the layout and operation of the

facility. Solutions to identified problems are dependent on an understand-

ing of potential trouble areas, so that precautions (e.g., ventilation,

screening, etc.) may be taken to minimize bacterial redeposition.
                                 S-31

-------
         103
      ^D
      *C
      9>
      t5
      J!
         102
         101
















^
\






i





/






/





/
r




/






1









1






•^






/






x^




A-
-
C-
D2-
n .
D4~
D6-
-
F-
G -
H-

              ABC D2D4D6D10D14D16E F  G H
                   Location of Air Samples
                                        Sorting Table
                                        Loading Washing Machine
                                        Unloading Washing Machines
                                       - Near Extractor,  2 Minutes
                                       - Near Extractor,  4 Minutes
                                       - Near Extractor,  6 Minutes
                                        - Near Extractor, 10 Minutes
                                        - Near Extractor, 14 Minutes
                                        - Near Extractor, 16 Minutes
                                        Near Extractor, Off
                                        Near Ironer
                                        Near Dryer
                                        Near Folding Table
Source: Church and Loosli,  "The Role of the Laundry in  the Recontamination
          of Washed Bedding," (6).
   Figure  7  -
Total Number of Bacteria  per Cubic Foot of Air Sampled at  Specific
                Sites During Routine Activities
                                    S-32

-------
                                               TABLE 6
     THE NUMBER OF ORGANISMS ISOLATED FROM DIFFERENT SOUCES IN LAUNDRY  B DURING MAXIMUM SORTING





CO
1
Ul
CO



ACTIVITY. 2:30 P.M.
Air
Location
Sorting Table
Near Washer
Near Extractor, 2 in.
Near Extractor, 6 in.
Near Extractor, 10 in.
Near Extractor, 14 in.
Near Extractor (off)

, THE FDLIN-BUBBLER WAS EMPLOYED FOR SAMPLING THE AIR

Organisms/
ft2
350
135
300
500
1040
2150
150

Water
Source
Before Washing
Final rinse
Extractor, 2 in.
Extractor, 6 in.
Extractor, 10 in.
Extractor, 14 in.
End of extraction,
16 in.

Organisms/
ml
200
250
12,200
45,400
601,000
1,080,000

1,940,000
AND LINEN
Linen
Organisms/
Step ml
Before washing 38,000
After rinse 350





After Extrac-
Near Ironer
Folding Table
140
300
  tion
After Ironing
After Folding
165,000
    250
  1,140
Source: Church and Loosli, "The Role of the Laundry in the  Recontamination  of Washed Bedding,"  (6).

-------
          In summaryi sanitation concerns related to cloth products in general




 involve a wide range of variables, and no definitive conclusions can be




 reached regarding absolute degrees of contamination or sanitation of a given




 product. However, the following points are overwhelmingly supported by the




 literaturet




          1. Cloth products are potential disseminators of microorganisms(




          2. Laundering at 160  for 25 minutes can reasonably ensure destruc-




 tion of pathogenic bacteria (lesser time and temperature being effective




 for some bacteria);




          3. Commercial laundering methods are generally superior to home




 laundering methods in sanitizing cloth products; and




          4. The impacts of inadequate sanitation on the public health cannot




 be definitively determined, since variables such as degree of contamination




 and susceptibility of the exposed populace significantly affect the relation*




 ship between contaminated fabrics and the development of disease.







                         III. TOWELS AND NAPKINS






          Despite an extensive literature search and comprehensive contacts




 with organizations,  manufacturers and public health officials, very little




 data could be gathered regarding towels and napkins in the applications




prescribed by this study (i.e., home use and laundry of cloth and paper




 towels and sponges;  home and commercial use and laundry of cloth and paper




napkins). Health and sanitation concerns related to toweling have focused




primarily on hand drying applications in commercial and institutional environ-




ments. In particular, the communal cloth towel has been the subject of the
  See  comments Appendix  B,  pages 17-18.
                                        S-34

-------
closest scrutiny. However, regarding the use of toweling or sponges for




cleaning up kitchen spills, there is neither a clearly defined basis for




public health concern nor any previous study which focuses on such applica-




tion. Data on napkima ar« even more sparse. In the absence of definitive




information, attention will be directed in this section to specific concerns




raised regarding the prescribed product applications, and, where possible,




to tfce IntarpolatfcM Of otter relevant data to these concerns.




          The chief concern in the use of towels or sponges for wiping up




kitchen spills is the possible transmission of microorganisms, which may




originate from food spills or hands and multiply in the favorable environ-




ment provided by the mutrient-enriched damp towel or sponge. Thus, if a




cloth towel or sponge is used to wipe up a spill containing bacteria (e.g.,




juices from raw meat), and allowed to retain the food residues within a




warm, damp environment, that towel or sponge could transmit a heavy bioload




onto kitchen surfaces or onto human hands. The offensive odor often emitted




by damp kitchen cloths or sponges, especially during warm weather, is indica-




tive of the bacterial content of these products when used in this manner.




          A major sponge manufacturer does not share this concern but indi-




cates that, based on its test data,"  "There is little concern with spread




of microorganisms since the product (is) usually well-rinsed or washed out




in use." None of the cloth towel manufacturers provided any data regarding




kitchen applications of their product. It would seem obvious from the fore-




going discuasioa that the public health threat posed by reuse of cloth towels
_!/ Stated to have been destroyed in a fire and hence not available to MRI.
                                   S-35

-------
or sponges would depend on the habits of the individual user; i.e., a sponge



or towel which is indeed rinsed thoroughly between uses, periodically washed



with some type of soap product, and allowed to dry sufficiently between



uses, would be less likely to transmit bacteria than a product not treated



so hygienically. But, the paper towel, used only once and then discarded,



would virtually eliminate this potential for cross-infection.



          Despite these observations and assumptions, the absence of labora-


tory data precludes a substantive or quantitative evaluation of the three



products in kitchen applications.


          Of primary concern in the use of napkins, both in the home and



in commercial establishments, is the potential for transmission of bacteria



from the hands and mouth of one user to those of the subsequent users* Again,



no laboratory data are available from which to make quantitative assessments,



but certain observations can be made. In the home setting, cloth napkins



are often used for several days before they are laundered, creating increased



potential for bacterial transmission. And, as discussed in the previous sec-



tion, if they are processed by normal home laundry techniques, they are un-



likely to be thoroughly sanitized prior to a new use cycle. If sent to a



commercial laundry, however, the napkins should have significantly lower


bacterial counts.



          Cloth napkins used in a commercial setting must be changed after



each usage, as prescribed in almost every local food sanitation ordinance.



Generally, these napkins are commercially laundered, and again may be as-



sumed to exhibit sanitation standards such as were described in the preced-



ing section.
                                  S—36

-------
          In terms of Che sanitary qualities of paper towels and napkins,




the literature does provide one piece of data on unused paper towels  which




can be presumed to relate to paper napkins as well.  Test data supplied by




the American Paper Institute (47) indicates that typical total bacterial




counts of paper toweling from one manufacturer average 180 organisms  per




square foot. This may be compared to the FDA Sanitation Code (14)  standard




of 100 organisms per foodservice product contact surface. Depending on  •




the size of the towel or napkin being considered, the API count could be




either slightly inferior or slightly superior to the FDA standard.  However,




it should also be pointed out here that the FDA standard itself may not




be based on any real evidence linking degree of microbial contamination




to attendant public health threat.




          The literature has also compared typical paper towel counts to




bacterial counts on commercially-laundered cloth products in hand-drying




applications (40, 47, 8); in each comparison, paper  toweling has been shown




to harbor significantly fewer bacteria than cloth toweling. While  this type




of data cannot be related directly to conditions likely to prevail  in the




home kitchen or commercial restaurant facility, it is still reasonable to




assume that paper would show fewer bacteria than would cloth towels or nap-




kins.




          However, in view of the lack of substantive evidence establishing




cloth towels, cloth napkins and sponges as sources of pathogenic organisms,




to which normal exposure would likely cause infection,  MRI can formulate




no definitive conclusion as to the relative health and sanitation  status




of paper versus cloth towels versus sponges, or paper versus cloth  napkins.
 See comment Appendix B,  pages  13-15,
                                    S-37

-------
                                           1,2,3,4
                                IV. DIAPERS
           The disposable diaper has become an increasingly popular product


  for infant  care in  the home. More than 2,800 hospitals have adopted the


  disposable  diaper for use in their newborn nurseries* Seventy-five percent


  of  all  babies born  in hospitals are first diapered in disposable  diapers


  (9),  and many parents continue this method of diapering in the  home situa-


  tion. Unquestionably, the disposable diaper provides an element of conveni-


  ence  not offered by the conventional cloth diaper. The disposable  is merely


  removed and discarded, whereas the cloth diaper must be soaked, laundered,


  dried,  folded, and returned to storage. In the hospital situation,  utiliza-


  tion  of cloth diapers adds a significant burden to the laundry  facility;


  in  the  home, parents either assume the extra work themselves  or employ a


  commercial  diaper service.


           Aside from convenience considerations, both disposable  and reus-


  able  diapers present certain health and sanitation concerns which  have been


  raised  in the course of this study:


           1. The possibility of increased skin irritation  or  rash  associated


  with  the use of disposable diapers.


           2. The ineffectiveness of home laundering of cloth  diapers compared


  to  commercial laundering.


           3. The health implications of disposing of single-use diapers


  contaminated with urine and feces.


           In order to understand the significance of diapering  in  the overall


  health  of the baby, it is important to understand the role  of the.diaper
  See comments Appendix  B, pages 11-13 and  pages  15-16.

2
  See comments Appendix  B, page 18.


  See comments Appendix  D.

4
  See comments Appendix  G.


                                       S-38

-------
 in  inhibiting or encouraging skin rashes. Grant, Street and Fearnow (19)




 list  two of the most common causes of diaper rash as: (1)  Monilial or bac-




 terial infection; and (2) Ammonial contact dermatitis. The diaper provides




 a moist, warm environment conducive to the growth of bacteria,  which may




 originate from an improperly laundered diaper,  from the infant's skin (es-




 pecially if the skin is not cleansed following  defecation),  and from the




 excreted stools and urine. Other factors in rash development are laundry




 chemical residuals in the diaper, maceration (softening of the  skin by wet-




 ness  causing increased permeability), marked changes in skin pH, and meta-




 bolic wastes in stools.




          Brown and Tyson (3), in studying diaper dermatitis,  found that




 a 2-stage process exists in the development of  dermatitis. In the first




 stage, bacteria act on the urea present in urine,  decomposing it into am-




monia, which is in itself irritating to the skin.  The infant who is not




 cleaned after defecation, not changed frequently,  or who wears  plastic pants




 over diapers (thereby enhancing the moist, warm environment  of  the diaper




 region) is much more susceptible to ammonia1 dermatitis.




          The second stage of the process involves the secondary invasion




 of already-irritated skin by pathogenic bacteria.  Brown isolated Staphy-




 lococcus aureus and Beta hemolytic streptococci (both known  pathogens)  in




babies with rash,  but only one  incident of Staph aureus and  two incidents




of Streptococci were found in the babies  without rash.




          Thus,  bacteria in the diaper region contribute to  dermatitis by




producing ammonia and also by invading the site of primary infections caused
See comment Appendix  D, page 39.



See comment Appendix  D, page 39.
                                      S-39

-------
by  the ammonia. Both the disposable and cloth diaper can produce conditions




favorable to bacterial growth; however, actual hygienic practices of changing




the baby frequently and cleaning him adequately are still of major import-




ance.




          1. The Possibility of Increased Skin Rash Associated with the




Use of Disposable Diapers; A 1968 study performed by Silverburg and Glaser




(70) at the Long Island Jewish Hospital showed that the incidence of diaper




rash was significantly greater with disposable diapers than with cloth dia-




pers* Two plastic-backed disposable diapers and one paper-backed disposable




were compared with cloth diapers in the newborn and premature nurseries*




Results are presented in Table 7.




          The results indicate that in all cases except one, cloth showed




a statistically significant improvement in protecting against diaper rash




over either plastic-backed or paper-backed disposables. Additionally,  only




9.4 cloth diapers were used per baby per day in the newborn unit, compared




to 10.A per day for the disposables; in the premature unit, 7.8 cloth diapers




were used per baby per day, compared to 10.0 disposables. However, the authors




did not attempt to explain the results of their study nor did they postulate




any reason for the difference.




          2. The Ineffectiveness of Home Diaper Laundering Compared to Com-




mercial Launderingr The effectiveness of the cloth diaper in retarding bac-




terial growth and diaper rash is based on how the diaper is laundered. Within




the home setting prescribed in this study, diapers would be laundered either




in the home (or in a self-service laundry comparable to home facilities)




or by a commercial establishment, in many cases a diaper service.
 See  comment Appendix  D,  corner letter.
                                     S—40

-------
                                  TABLE 7
          DIAPER RASH INCIDENCE IN DISPOSABLES COMPARED TO CLOTH
Type of Diaper
Plastic-backed
  disposable #1

Plastic-backed
  disposable #2

Paper-backed
  disposable

Cloth
Number       Number of
  of           Diaper
Babies        Changes

           Newborn Nursery
 225       2,752 (3 weeks)£'


 225       3,364 (4 weeks)


 225       1,668 (7 weeks)

 173       2,092 (4 weeks)

	Premature Nursery
                           /
                                   Percent of Babies
                                   Developing Rash
                                         4.57o
                                         1.07.^
                                         2.57.

                                         0.37o
Plastic-backed
  disposable #1

Plastic-backed
  disposable #2

Paper-backed
  disposable

Cloth
   67      2,648 (3 weeks)


   67      4,135 (4 weeks)


   67      3,864 (7 weeks)

   64      3,711 (4 weeks)
                                       10.27,


                                        5.87o


                                        2.67«

                                        0.97o
Source: Silverberg, Alvin and David Glaser, "Disposable Versus Reusable Linen
          in the Nursery--Results of a Comparative Study,"  (70).
a/ Inconsistencies in number of changes compared to number  of babies and  test
     time can be attributed to fluctuations in the length of stay  for each baby.
b/ Not statistically significant in comparison to cloth.
                                  S-41

-------
             The diaper service industry has been in existence since 1932.


   Through its association,  the National Institute of Infant Services (NIIS),


   this industry has monitored its operations through an independent medical


   laboratory—Philadelphia Medical Laboratory (formerly Usona Bio-Chem Labora-


   tory). The laboratory established the "Diaseptic Process," a specific method


   for laundering diapers so they will meet certain standards of sanitation,


   aesthetic quality, pH balance, softness, and absorbency.  This process has


   been considered standard in the industry, and its effectiveness is checked


   by taking regular samples of commercially laundered diapers and submitting


   them to the laboratory for testingo


             The 100 members (representing the most active  diaper services


   throughout the U.S.)  of NIIS must maintain .the following  standards:


             1. The service  must submit one random sample per month,  taken


   from a finished package of diapers, to a specified medical laboratory. The


   sample must be free of all pathogenic bacteria or fungi and may contain no


   more than 20 colonies of  hondisease-producing bacteria per 8 square  inches


   of fabric. (This compares to a standard of less than two  colonies  per square


   inch for disposable diapers." )


             2. The sample diaper must read within the range of 4.5 to  6.5


   pH by the colorimetric procedure (compared to pH of 7.0 in disposables prior


   to user- ).


             3. The sample will be tested for zone of inhibition (bacteriostatic


   effectiveness) against Staph aureus.
  _!/  Results  from individual  disposable  diaper manufacturers'  continuous quality
        con'trol  testing  programs,  as  reported  by  the American Paper Institute.
1
 See  comment Appendix  D, page 42.
                                       S-42

-------
          4. Diapers served to customers must be soft to the touch and free




from stiffness.




          5. Diapers served to customers must be so absorbent that water




added drop by drop enters the fabric immediately.




          6. Diapers served to customers must be free from stains, tears,




and excessive wear. (A package selected at random should show no greater




than 3 percent substandard diapers.)




          Additionally, in 1970, NIIS established a Diaper Service Accredita-




tion Council which is now composed of two pediatricians, a public health




director, a bacteriologist, and three, industry representatives. The Council




formulated an accreditation program which requires site inspection, self-




analysis procedures, and rigorous in-plant standards in order for a service




to merit accreditation. Although less than half of the NIIS member services




are currently accredited, the Institute plans to require accreditation for




all of its members within the next 3 years. In addition to administering




the accreditation program, the Council advises the industry on new laundry




detergents, new bacteriostats and other additives to ensure their safety




and effectiveness. This monitoring is especially important in light of several




laundry components found during the 1960's to cause adverse effects on infants.




Trichloro carbunibide (TCC),  a bacteriostat used in laundry softeners, was




found to produce free aniline, a known toxin, when exposed to high heat.




In premature nurseries where  diapers are autoclaved, this reaction led to




the development of cyanosis and methemoglobulinemia in some infants. Another




substance, sodium pentachlorophenate,' an antimildew agent, caused two deaths







                                  S-43

-------
and a number of cases of illness in two separate hospitals* Both of these




cases emphasize the need for careful evaluation and usage of chemicals in




laundering diapers*




          Diapers can, of courae, be laundered commercially outside of a diaper




service, or by a service which is not a NIIS member. In either case, the




diaper would be processed according to the standards described in the section




on general laundering. In most instances, as discussed in this section, the




commercially laundered diaper would be washed at higher temperatures for




longer periods of time and would be more effectively rinsed than a home-




laundered diaper.




          This conclusion is borne out by the Grant, Street and Fearnow study




in which the authors compared the incidence of significant diaper rash re-




ported by 1,197 mothers attending a well-baby clinic as it related to the




method of laundering (disposables, commercial diaper service,  or home wash-




ing) used more than 50 percent of the time. Diapers washed by  a diaper service




were associated with the lowest: incidence of diaper rash—24.4 percent. Dis-




posables showed about the same incidence as the commercially laundered cloth




diapers. However,  the home-laundered diaper was associated with the signifi-




cantly greatest incidence of diaper rash, at 35.6 percent. These results




are shown in Table 8.




          The authors attribute their findings to the fact that commercially




laundered diapers are virtually sterile and are thoroughly rinsed of all




chemical contaminants. Additionally, bacteriostatic agents such as bleach




and quaternpry ammonium compounds used in commercial diaper services are
See comment Appendix D, page 44.
                                       S-44

-------
                                                     TABLE 8

                         INCIDENCE OF DIAPER RASH ACCORDING TO METHOD OF DIAPER LAUNDRY

                                                Diaper Service       Disposable Diaper      Home Washed
             Total

             Diaper Rash (2 Days or Less)

             Diaper Rash (Over 2 Days)
O1
             Diaper Rash Total
Number % Number
74 — 236
11 14.9 37
7 9.5 24
18 24.4 61
% Number %
887
15.7 201 22.6
10.0 114 12.9
25.0 315 35.6
             Source:  Grant et al. "Diaper Rashes In Infancy:  Studies on the Effects of Various Methods of
                        Laundering,"  (19).

-------
cited as inhibitors of rash. Even with multiple rinses,  the hone-laundered

diaper failed to meet the standards of the commercially  washed product,  as

shown in Table 9. These results confirm the fact that home laundry does  not

render as sterile a product; i.e., adequate rinsing alone does not solve

the problem}


                                 TABLE 9

              EFFECT OF NUMBER OF RINSES OF HOME-LAUNDERED
DIAPERS ON INCIDENCE OF DIAPER RASH


Total
Diaper Rash
2 Days or Less
Diaper Rash
Over 2 Days
Diaper Rash Total
1 to
No.
692

162

86
248
3 Rinses
X
.»

23.5

12.4
35.9
Over
No.
195

35

28
67
3 Rinses
3
__

20.0

14.4
34.4
          Source: Grant et al.  "Diaper Rashes  in  Infancy: Studies on  the
                    Effects of  Various Methods of Laundering,"  (19).
          Brown and Wilson (4)  also tested the  performance  of  home  laundries

in washing diapers. Two loads of 12 soiled diapers each were soaked for  12 •

hours in water and detergent, washed in an automatic  washer at 140   to 144 F

for 20 minutes, given four spray rinses, a full-water rinse for 2 minutes

at 100 F, and two additional spray rinses. Each load  was then  dried for  40

minutes in a home gas dryer. Results from two samples taken from each load

are shown in Table 10.
See comment Appendix D, page 46.
                                      S-46

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                                 TABLE 10

                 TEST RESULTS FOR HOME-LAUNDERED DIAPERS
 Sample
  Organisms Isolated
Colony Count
                                                 Agar-Plate Test
 Load  1  -
    Diaper  1
    Diaper  2
Load 2  -
    Diaper  1
   Diaper 2
E_. coli. nonhemolytic
  streptococci, 4.
  subtilis

 I- colif nonhemolytic
  streptococci, J3.
  subtilis
Nonhemolytic strepto-
  cocci, gram positive
  and negative saprophytic
  bacilli

Gram positive and negative
  saprophytic bacilli
                              9,300 per sq in.
                                of fabric
                              11,100 per sq in.
8,200 per sq in.
9.700 per sq in.
                   A faint zone
                     of partial
                     inhibition

                   No zone of
                     inhibition
                                                 No  zone of
                                                   inhibition
                                                 No  zone  of
                                                   inhibition
Source: Brown, Claude, and Frederic Wilson, "Diaper Region Irritations:
          Pertinent Facts and Methods of Prevention," (4).

          These results show much higher bacterial counts than are allowed

by NIIS diaper services (no more than two colonies per square inch).

          It is important to note, however, that these bacterial counts were

not specifically correlated with the development of diaper rash in infants

wearing tested diapers. The significance of the results lies in the fact

that bacteria present in a diaper can break down urea into ammonia, a known

skin irritant which can initiate a chain reaction of rash development. But,

some factors other than bacteria can and do contribute to diaper rash develop-

ment,  notably frequency of changing. The bacteria present in home-laundered

diapers should therefore be viewed as one potential cause of rash.
 See comment Appendix  D, page 47.
                                       S-47

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          Brown and Wilson also indicate that "home-washed diapers may have


a pH of 9.5" (4) or higher from improper rinsing. This compares unfavorably


to the 4.5 to 6.5 pH required by the NIIS,  and the 7.0 pH reported for dispos-


ables. The higher or more alkaline pH is quite different from normal skin,

                     ±
which has a pH of 5.5*1.5, and can in itself be an irritant.


          A third study comparing home-laundered to commercially-laundered


diapers was done at the University of Illinois Medical College, for the •


American Institute of Laundering (now International Fabricare Institute)  (64).


Investigators tested diapers which had been laundered in six private homes.


In five of the homes diaper processing consisted of a cold soak followed


by one hot suds and three rinses. In the sixth home, a fourth rinse was added.


Results of the home diaper laundering are shown in Table 11. As indicated,


bacterial count after the third rinse was 168,388; when the fourth rinse


was added, average count was reduced to 149,400. As shown in Table 12, com-


mercially laundered diapers, by contrast, were rendered sterile after the


third suds,  to which two quarts of 1 percent sodium hypochlorite per 300-


pound load were added.


          As in Brown's study,  no direct correlation between diaper rash


incidence and bacterial count is made; again,  it can only be assumed that


a sterile diaper is less likely to produce  conditions favorable for diaper


rash development.


          Jordan et al. (25)  examined the effectiveness of sodium hypochlorite


in destroying Sabin type II poliovirus under household laundry conditions.


This virus,  known to be resistant to many germicides, was found to be suscept-


ible to the  virucidal action of sodium hypochlorite bleach,  when used at the
 See  comment Appendix D,  page  48.
                                     S-48

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                                    TABLE  11
                 BACTERICIDAL EFFICIENCY OF HOME DIAPER WASHING
                 Operation
                 Average Bacterial Counts Per
                       Cu Cm Wash Water	
                 Cold Soak
                 1st Suds
                 1st Rinse
                 2nd Rinse
                 3rd Rinse
                          2,248,033
                          1,983,000
                          1,171,033
                            719,940
                            168,388
                 Source:  "The Sanitary Aspects  of  Commercial Laundering,
                           Special  Report for  the  American Institute of
                           Laundering,  (64).
                                    TABLE 12
               BACTERICIDAL EFFICIENCY OF A COMMERCIAL DIAPER FORMULA-
                                                                     a/
  Operation

1st Cold Rinse
2nd Cold Rinse

1st Suds
2nd Suds
3rd Suds
    Supplies Used
  Soap and Alkali
  Soap and Alkali
  Soap and Alkali
    plus 2 quarts
    1% soldium hypo-
    chlorite per
    300 Ib load
Temperature
                         65° F
                         65° F
  110° F
  125° F
  145°F
Time in
Minutes

   5
   5

  10
  10
  10
 Average
Bacterial
  Other
Per Cu Cm

1,678,333
1,621,200

 • 720,300
   84,333
 Sterile
1st Rinse
2nd Rinse
3rd Rinse
4th Rise
5th Rinse
Sour
Boric acid bath
  plus bluing
Sodium acid fluoride
  165°F
  175°F
  175°F
  175°F
  140°F
  120° F
                        100°F
                                        3
                                        3
                                        3
            Sterile
            Sterile
                  1
            Sterile
            Sterile
            Sterile

            Sterile
 Source:  "The Sanitary Aspects of Commercial Laundering," Special Report for
           the American Institute of Laundering, (64).
                                    S-49

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recommended belach level of 200 ppm available chlorine. The authors note,




however, that the virus was destroyed at water temperatures of 130°F and




above without the addition of bleach; but at 110°F (the lower range of house-




hild laundry temperatures), bleach was requisite for viral destruction.




          3. The Health Implications of Disposal of Single-Use Diapers Con-




taminated with Urine and Feces; As a result of increased use and subsequent




discard of disposable diapers, general concern over the public health conse-




quences of fecal matter in solid waste has increased in recent years. The




basis for this concern centers around the occurrence of bacterial and viral




pathogens in fecal matter and the potential for these pathogens to leach




into ground or surface water supplies. In evaluating the potential threat




or lack thereof inherent in land disposal of single-use diapers, one must




first assess the occurrence (numbers and types) of pathogens involved, and




secondly, the resulting effect of such conditions as measured by their ability




to survive in and leach from the landfill environment and come into contact




with human beings*




               a. Occurrence of Pathogens in Disposed Diapers




               Bacteria; As the subject of several fairly recent studies




(1, 11, 59), the bioload of raw residential solid waste has been shown to




contain densities of fecal coliforms and fecal streptococci in excess of




one million organisms per gram. The presence of these organisms, which are




normal inhabitants of the large intestine of man and other warm-blooded ani-




mals, is commonly assumed to indicate a strong likelihood of the presence




of other intestinal organisms which may be pathogenic. One such bacterial




pathogen which has been observed in solid waste in Salmonellae.




                                   S-50

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               Viruses; In addition to bacteria, raw solid waste also contains




a variety of potential human viral pathogens, the leaching source of which is




fecal matter. Investigating the occurrence of viruses as a function of typical




soiled disposable diaper load in a sanitary landfill, Peterson (59) determined




that, by wet weight, soiled disposable diapers represent 0.6 to 2.5 percent




of mixed municipal wastes Finding one-third of these diapers to contain fecal




matter at an average of 60 grams of feces per diaper, Peterson calculated




the average amount of human fecal matter in solid waste to be about 0.04




percent by wet weight. In two separate areas of the country, viruses were




detected in 15 percent and 2.9 percent of fecal samples from area A (Ohio)




in February and April, respectively, and 16.7 percent of samples from area




B (Kentucky) in July. Poliovirus 3 was found in both sampling areas, and




echovirus 2 was found in two samples from area B. The poliovirus 3 density




ranged from 16 to 1,920 plaque-forming units (PFU)  per gram, with an average




of about 390 PFU per gram. Densities of the echovirus 2 (positive samples)




were 1,440 and 960 PFU per gram.




               Further perspective on the occurrence and potential signific-




ance of viruses in human fecal matter is provided by Dr. John Fox, an epi-





demiologist. Based on virus watch data that he collected across the U.S.,




Dr. Fox prepared an opinion statement on the "Viral Infection Hazard of Dis-




posable Diapers" (17), the results of which are summarized in Table 13.




               As shown in the table,  the most common virus group likely




to occur in human feces is poliovirus. However, the health threat posed by




these viruses is minimized by typically low virulence of vaccine-derived





                                  S-51

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                                                      TABLE 13
cn
ui
to
Virus Group

Poliovirus

Nonpoliovlrus

Hepatitis
  Type A
  Type B

Adenovirus
                                  PREVALENCE AND SIGNIFICANCE OF VIRUSES SHED IN FECES

                                Occurrence         Severity of       Population Immunity   Assumed
                            (Percent of Diapers)   Associated Disease   Level (Percent)  Health Threat
                                   20
                                 1 to 20
1 X 10
       -4
                           a/
                     Minor to severe
Moderate
Severe

 Minor
                      790            Small
                   13 to 75      Small to Moderate
"High"             Small
 "Low"             Small

  50               Small
          Source:  Fox, John P., "Viral Infection Hazard of Disposable Diapers—Opinion Statement,"
                   Professor of Epidemiology, University of Washington
          a/ While the potential for reversion of vaccine strains to wild types may exist to some
               limited extent on passage through man, normal disease potential of vaccine strains is
               very low.

-------
strains which presently make up practically all of existing poliovirus flora
in the U.S., and by the probably high prevalence of immunity of the popula-
tion* The nonpolio enterovirus group is diverse and potentially widespread
in occurrence in fecal matter. Furthermore, type-specific immunity is vari-
able and tends toward the low end of probability, thereby presenting a seem-
ingly great health threat potential. Fortunately, medical experience indicates
that only extremely infrequently are these viruses the cause of serious ill-
ness. In virus watch studies conducted by Dr. Fox, 50 percent of all detected
infections were subclinical and 80 percent of the related illnesses were
minor respiratory. The overall potential health threat posed by this group
of virus is therefore difficult to assess, but is certainly less than severe.
Type A hepatitis virus is a relatively benign pathogen causing temporary
disability and to which there is a high probability of immunity in the popula-
tion. Furthermore, the probability for its occurrence in soiled diapers is
quite low. On the other hand, Type B hepatitis virus is a tremendously virulent
pathogen to which there is a low probability of immunity in the population.
The health significance for this virus is, however, again minimized by the
extremely low probability of its occurrence in soiled diapers. Adenoviruses
are of little health concern because of the benign character of diseases
they may cause in humans and the relatively low probability of their occur-
rence in soiled diapers.
               b. Fate of Pathogens in the Landfill Environment; In the above
discussion, it has been shown that human bacterial and viral pathogens can
occur in and be isolated from solid waste, and that one potentially signifi-
cant source of such pathogens is human fecal matter discarded in disposable
                                    S-53

-------
diapers. However, to gain a better appreciation for the extent of the health




threat, it is necessary to look at the fate of microorganisms in the land-




fill environment and the extent to which viable organisms leach from this




environment.




               Bacteria; Blannon and Peterson (1) investigated the survival




of fecal coliforms and fecal streptococci in a full-scale sanitary landfill




over an 11-month leachate production period utilizing mixed municipal solid




waste. The results of this investigation revealed that high densities of




fecal coliforms and fecal streptococci occurred in leachates during the first




2-month leaching period, with a rapid die-off of fecal coliforms noted 3




months after placing the fill. Fecal streptococci persisted past the 3-month




sampling period. Furthermore, the 18-inch clay soil lining underneath the




solid waste was observed to offer poor filtration action on the bacteria.




In view of these findings, the authors concluded "...that leachate contamina-




tion, if not controlled, may add a pollutional load to the recreational and




groundwater supplies and present a risk to the public using these-waters."




               In an attempt to determine the effect on leachate bioload,




Cooper et al.  (7) added fecally contaminated diapers to a simulated sanitary




landfill. Overall, large numbers of bacteria of potential sanitary signifi-




cance were present.




               However, the high background levels of fecal coliforms and




fecal streptococci made it impossible to measure the impact of the addition




of feces and diapers. The low ratio of fecal coliform to fecal streptococci




in freshly collected and ground refuse indicated animal waste (cats, dogs,




etc.,) to be the most predominant source of these indicator organisms.



                                   S-54

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               Further information on bacterial decay rates is provided by





Engelbrecht  (11). Fecal coliforms, fecal streptococci and Salmonellae typhi-




murium was added to whole leachate at two different temperatures (22 C and




55°C) and at two different pH values (5.3 and 7.0). Persistence of enteric




bacteria in leachate was found to be less at the higher temperature and lower




pH value. The order of stability in the leachate at 55°C at both pH values




was: S.. typhimurium > Fecal streptococci » Fecal coliforms.




         ,     Viruses; In a continuation of the same study cited above,




Cooper et al. also assessed the presence of viruses in  leachate under normal




conditions and with the addition of fecally contaminated diapers. The dosage




of feces added was approximately 0.02 percent by weight, roughly equivalent




to the amount found by Peterson in the previously mentioned study. Virus




recovered from the leachate of the inoculated fill amounted to 150 and 2,310




PFU per gallon during the second and third weeks of leachate production,




respectively. The control landfill produced 380 PFU per gallon of leachate




the third week only.




               Noteworthy here is the fact that in each case where viruses




were detected in leachate,  the associated landfill had been brought to field





capacity (saturation point)  over a 3-week period to simulate exaggerated




rainfall conditions. No viruses were detected in leachate from fills brought




to field capacity gradually over a 15-week period to simulate normal rainfall




conditions for the area.




               After the third week of production, all samples were negative.




Since the control was also positive,  the authors concluded that the addition







                                   S-55

-------
 of viruses  through human  feces had no discemable effect on the recovery




 of viruses.




               At the  termination of the experiment, the contents of the




 control  fill and two fills  to which soiled disposable diapers had been added




 were removed and assayed  for the presence of  viable viruses. No viruses were




 recovered from these materials, indicating that both indigenous and added




 viruses  did not survive at  detectable levels  through the test period*




               In a study by Sobsey et al. (72) the survival and fate of




 two  enteroviruses (polioviruses type 1 and echovirus type 7) in simulated




 sanitary landfills was examined. After inoculating the  solid waste contents




 of the fills with large quantitites of the above enteroviruses, the fills




 were saturated with water over a 3-1/2 week period to produce leachate, which




 was  then analyzed for viruses. Although 80 percent of the total leachate




 produced by each fill over  the test period was so analyzed, no viruses were




 detected. Furthermore, analysis of the refuse itself following the conclu-




 sion of the leachate analysis revealed no detectable viruses.




               In part, this outcome is explained by the tendency of viruses




 to adsorb onto components of the solid waste and thus resist leaching. A




 further explanation lies in the determined natural toxicity of the leachate




 itself. The leachate was evaluated to determine the extent of its toxicity




 to viruses. More than 95 percent of inoculated viruses were inactivated




 over  a 2-week exposure period at 20°C and more than 99 percent were inacti-




vated within 6 days at 37°C.
                                   S-56

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                The results of the above  investigation were duplicated by




 Engelbrecht (11) in a similar experiment, using  poliovirus, reovirus and




 Rous  sarcoma to seed the simulated landfills.  No viruses were recovered from




 leachate  samples collected throughout  the 76-day test period. As was the




 case  above,  inactivation studies showed  the. leachate  to be toxic to viruses.




                                                               iadlca^-e^pha t
 fecal material in soiled disposable diapers may  represent as CT




 f=jg;gnanig^                                             nn ^ that they may be




 a  significant contributor of microorganisms of potential sanitary signifi-




 cance. However,  it has also been shown that the  normal  bioload of solid waste




 without  diapers  is extremely high, due mainly to the presence of fecal matter




 from domestic animals. This source also contains large  numbers of microor-




 ganisms  of potential sanitary significance.




               Due to this large naturally-occurring bioload in solid waste,




 fffeJVBJjHag^j^^                                                    ,fy£ . f e r.a I




                                       cen t— by— we-ight-T:Kave'.--b'cc Q ..... uneuc c cs s f u 1 .
                    ^                                                 con-




                                                   fi.i.ther.iibaslSCi.a.' °* viruses
       l-ejcha±e~wh£ch— ean~b& detected -over - and -.-above - the^backgrouad—level .




                              ^^rnun^^                                  of
        oad  frpnL^alld^^s:t^:.-have-.;cen.tere.d.._around occurrence of viable or-




        in. Jjeacha.T.fl . ; ln.-gene.ral, the_physical., characteristics, of the land-
,£i-U— environment-are— inhospitable to- survivaL and gr.owth_of_micr.oorganisms.




In ' ad*3lrtieftr.« the— leaeha^fi^emana-ting—grora-a- • ^lahdf i,LL. app.ear,s._.t.o_.be, .toxic.
                                     S-57

-------
However, it has  been  clearly demonstrated that viable bacteria can  and  do




leach from the landfill  in large numbers, thereby representing a  source of




contamination to ground  and/or surface water supplies and a possible  health




threat to anyone using this water as a potable water supply. Unlike bacteria,




experiments measuring virus occurrence in leachate have revealed  conflicting




re sul ts • nnf*"*jwf"n"1lBrg'n "las  ""•»- ° v>1 ° -to dejtect— viru ses f r_om -^jrap-t-dly *-"""^'>ffi
                                                  ^^        '""IT
              i!B*se8--6o  solid waste components does occur.
.6
^ niro c f -i
                                         iar'"l'^iiilf ifl 'leBa7StS^--Andetf- one
                     In view of the lack of consistency in the published
literature on  the  topic,  no clear understanding of the public health  threat




represented by viruses  in solid waste can be reached.




               With  regard to public health significance of disposing of




fecally contaminated disposable diapers in the solid waste stream,  conclu-




sions are even more  difficult to reach. However, to the extent  that such




material does  contain microorganisms which may leach into water supplies,




some potential for a public health threat to the consumers of that  water




may exist. However,  the actual bioload contribution from this source  is yet




unclear, as in the relationship between degrees of contamination of the water




supply and the relationship to disease development. ^saa5*:g%^Jtr3C^f jjtg:V;.g r****
                                  fe^^
into."•">th«"sul'id"'vas Luj s> Lt ttt
                                    S-58

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               Based on the foregoing data, several conclusions can be for-




mulated:




               1. Although disposable diapers were associated with a greater




incidence of diaper rash than hospital-laundered cloth diapers in one study,




they performed as well as commercially laundered diapers in another study.




On the basis of these conflicting results, no definitive statement can be




made regarding the relative effects of the two types of diapers in inhibit-




ing rash development.




               2. The average home-laundered diaper is inferior to both the




disposable and commercially laundered diaper in terms of sterility and pH




balance. Although no precise relationship exists between bacterial count




and type of bacteria present in a diaper and the development of diaper rash,




bacteria do contribute to the incidence of rash. An N1IS diaper service un-




doubtedly provides the superior laundering method, with its maximum allow-




able count of 20 colonies per square inch. A regular commercial laundry,




while probably not meeting this exacting standard, would likely produce a




more sterile diaper than a home laundry due to higher wash temperatures,




longer cycles, and types of additives used. Disposables also meet a high




standard of sanitation,  with less than two colonies of bacteria per square




inch; and they provide a favorable pH balance averaging 7.0.







                                V. SHEETS







          Health and sanitation concerns relating to institutional bedding




are among the most significant within the scope of this study. Not only are
See comments Appendix D,  page  59.
                                   S-59

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linens subjected to a greater degree of contamination in the hospital or

nursing home setting (the primary institutional environments being considered

here), but the users of these linens tend to be much more susceptible to in-

fection than is the general populace* Because of these considerations, bedding

for institutional applications must: meet rigorous standards of cleanliness
and sanitation to ensure that its role in cross-infection is kept to an absolute

minimum.
          The patient bed sheet, which is the focus of this investigation,
is a virtual repository of bacteria. Several studies have emphasized the
significance of skin desquamation in spreading microorganisms; the average
human desquamates an entire layer of skin over a 1- to 2-day period, which
is in large part deposited onto the bed sheet when the patient is hospitalized

or otherwise bedridden. These skin scales, as established in a study by Davis
and Noble, harbor a variety of potentially pathogenic bacteria. Additionally,

the patient may excrete urine or feces onto the sheet, or he may have wounds

which produce pus and/or blood. All of these factors interact to render the
bed sheet contaminated, and thus the object of intense scrutiny in evaluating

institutional standards of health and sanitation.
          Greene (20) states two general contamination control objectives
within the hospital:

          1. "(To)  minimize the microbial contamination level of the environ-

ment by curtailing dissemination of contaminants from soiled and used fabrics.

          2. (To) minimize the probability of microbial transmission from

infected reservoirs to susceptible hosts by destroying or removing microbes

on used linen before it is reissued to patients and personnel."
                                    S-60

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The first concern relates primarily to linen handling—making and stripping




of patient beds, transport of linens to, from and within the hospital laundry-




while the second issue focuses on the effectiveness of laundering techniques




in destroying bacteria.




          Greene notes that improper linen handling is a major cause of air-




borne contamination; he cites studies which have shown significant increases




in bacterial counts in areas where soiled linens were being shaken, removed




from laundry chutes, and stripped from patient beds. As discussed in an earlier




section, this type of agitation represents a major factor in the .release of




microorganisms from fabrics*




          A 1971 study by Litsky and Litsky compared bacterial shedding dur-




ing bed-stripping of reusable and disposable linens in a nursing home environ-




ment. The Litskys'  work was based on earlier studies which had concluded that




"measures adopted to stop fiber shedding from cotton goods must...assume a




high priority in the reduction of the hospital loads to which the debilitated




hospital patient is exposed," (28, page 33). The Litskys compared, the conven-




tional reusable cotton sheets to a newer disposable sheeting material to




determine whether the airborne particles generated during bed-making could




be minimized. Air samples were collected: (1)  prior to bed-making; (2)  during





bed-making; and (3) during bed-stripping, in an actual patient room housing




four ambulatory patients. Additionally, air samples were taken in a laboratory




chamber where clean and soiled reusable and disposable linens were shaken




to release adherent particles.
                                   S-61

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          Tables 14 through 17 present the results of these tests* As shown


in Table 14, airborne bacterial counts of viable organisms resulting from


bed-stripping of disposable sheets were approximately 86 percent less than


those taken during stripping of reusables; during bed-making, counts for


disposables were 60 percent less.. Counts of nonviable particles are shown


in Table 15; again, counts were markedly reduced for disposables* In labora-


tory chamber tests, the disposables again showed significantly lower counts


of viable microorganisms and nonviable particles, on three different types


of linen articles. Table 17 indicates that even the clean reusables shed


2 to 3 times more (nonviable) particles than did the clean disposables. The


authors venture the following suppositions to explain their findings: "(1)


The surface of the disposable linen is smoother and thereby produces fewer


particles of lint which may become airborne vectors bearing microorganisms;


and (2) the weave of the disposable fabric is such that the pore size is


smaller than cotton and thereby entraps more microbes," (Page 34).


          Repeated attempts during the course of this study to elicit addi-

                         i
tional data regarding sanitation of disposable sheets for patient beds were


largely unsuccessful. In the absence of data from the appropriate associa-


tion and from manufacturers, we can only observe that, although disposable


bed sheets may have an advantage over reusables in reduced bacterial shedding,


sufficient information is not available to formulate general conclusions


regarding their sanitation.


          Turning to reusable sheets, it is obvious that both of Greene's


concerns are relevant. Not only must they be properly laundered so that bac-


teria are destroyed, but they must be handled in such a way as to prevent

                                  EJ-62

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                                TABLE 14

       COUNTS OF VIABLE AIRBORNE MICROORGANISMS DURING BED-MAKING WITH
                      DISPOSABLE AND REUSABLE LINENS

                            Number of Microorganisms Per Ft3 of Air

         Activity           Reusable Linens       Disposable Linens
         None                     39                     21
         Bed-Making              103                     42
         Bed-Stripping           312                     47
         Source: Litsky, Bertha, and Warren Litsky,  "Bacterial Shedding
                   During Bed-Stripping of Reusable  and Disposable Linens
                   as Detected by the High-Volume Air Sampler," (28).

                               TABLE 15

      COUNTS OF NONVIABLE AIRBORNE PARTICLES DURING  BED-STRIPPING WITH
                     DISPOSABLE AND REUSABLE LINENS

                                Average Particle Count x 10^ per 100 _Seconds

Activity                        Reusable Linens            Disposable  Linens
Normal                              2,021                       579
Stripping of Bed 1                  2,088                       656
Stripping of Bed 2                  2,215                       756
Stripping of Bed 3                  2,355                       755

Source: Litsky, Bertha,  and Warren Litsky, "Bacterial Shedding During  Bed-
          Stripping of Reusable and Disposable Linens as Detected by the
          High-Volume Air Sampler," (28).

                                TABLE 16

       NUMBER OF VIABLE  MICROORGANISMS DISPERSED INTO THE AIR BY SHAKING
OF NATURALLY
Number of
Minutes After
Shaking
4
5
6
7
8
10
Pillow Case
Reusable
148
130
369
60
101
69
Disposable
61
37
21
23
45
8
SOILED LINENS
Microorganisms Per Fi:J
Bottom
Reusable
4,790
4,700
3,070
1,780
1,060
456
Sheet
Disposable
262
127
173
137
109
49
o £ A 1 r
Flat
Reusable
2,630
1,940
1,470
967
554
317

Sheet
Disposable
209
175
108
100
54
23
Source: Litsky,  Bertha,  and Warren Litsky,  "Bacterial  Shedding  During  Bed-
          Stripping of Reusable and Disposable  Linens  as  Detected  by  the
          High-Volume Air Sampler," (28).
                                   S-63

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                                                    TABLE 17
           NUMBER OF NONVIABLE AIRBORNE PARTICLES DISPERSED INTO THE AIR BY SHAKING OF LINENS FOR 1
                                            MINUTE IN LABORATORY CHAMBER
   Time in
Seconds After
  Shaking

      0
    200
    800
  1,300
                                          Average Particle Count x 103 Per 100 Seconds^'
          Pillow Case
                                 Bottom Sheet
                                                           Flat Sheet
  Disposable
          Reusable
                 Disposable
                           Reusable
                                  Disposable
                                            Reusable
Clean   Soiled   Clean   Soiled   Clean   Soiled   Clean   Soiled   Clean   Soiled  Clean    Soiled
  59
  54
  22
  10
77
56
16
38
60
51
25
17
87
57
49
38
62
65
60
50
185
180
164
 74
175
179
157
101
100
210
201
167
78
61
52
47
126
 90
 81
 62
187
180
166
 89
209
230
189
130
Source: Litsky, Bertha, and Warren Litsky, "Bacterial Shedding During Bed-Stripping of Reusable  and Disposable
          Linens as Detected by the High-Volume Air Sampler," (28).
£/ Expressed as counts x 10-* above the base line count of the chamber prior to installation of linen.

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recontamination. The Joint Commission on the Accreditation of Hospitals (JCAH)

requires that hospitals launder their linens at a temperature of 160° for

a total exposure time of 25 minutes. At this temperature and time, virtually

all pathogenic bacteria are killed without the necessity of using chemical

additives; however, many hospital laundries, such as one visited in Kansas

City, Missouri, do employ bleach, sour and softener, and some add a bacterio-

static agent as well. Hospitals are also required to have separate rooms

for clean and soiled linens, so that bacteria released during the sorting

process will not contaminate clean linens which are being folded and loaded

onto carts.

          The significance of water temperature in the laundering of hospital

linens is verified by a study performed by Walter and Schillinger in 1975

(80). As part of their investigation, bed linens from the isolation section

of a hospital were checked for bacterial counts before and after laundering,

with the laundering process employing a range of water temperatures. Table

18 shows the results of five of these tests.


                                TABLE 18

      NUMBERS OF BACTERIA PER SQUARE CENTIMETER FROM SOILED HOSPITAL
            ISOLATION PATIENT LINEN BEFORE AND AFTER LAUNDERING
                            Run 1    Run 2    Run 3    Run 4    Run 5

  Washing Temperature (F)    100      100      110      110      120

  Before Laundering
    Mean Bacterial Count      70      288      758    9,550        6

  After Laundering
    Mean Bacterial Count       0.0     23       0.0       3.98
  Source: Walter, William, and John Schillinger, "Bacterial Survival in
            Laundered Fabrics," (80).

                                    S-65

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          The exceedingly high bacterial count in Run 4 (prelaundering) was


the result of a patient's leg wound draining onto the linen; however, even

                                        Q
at the relatively low temperature of 110 , the postlaundering count was re-


duced to approximately 4 organisms per square centimeter. Overall, Walter


and Schillinger found that none of the water temperatures they employed gave


consistently adequate results in terms of bacterial destruction. They recom-


mend a water temperature of 140° for 10 to 13 minutes, followed by drying,  for


linens used in health care facilities. They also note that bleach provides


an added degree of safety.


          Recontamination is also of concern in the consideration of reusable


hospital linen. Although sheets may be rendered free of all pathogens by


the laundering process, they may be recontaminated during subsequent stages


of drying, ironing, folding, and distributing. The study by Church and Leosli


(6), which was referenced in the chapter on general sanitation concerns,


investigated recontamination problems in a hospital laundry as well as in


a commercial laundry. The findings were quite similar: fabrics became re-


contaminated during water extraction in the spin dryer and during the fold-


ing process, with high bacterial counts found near the sorting table, near


the extractor at the end of the extraction process and near the dryer and


folding tabl'.. As noted in the earlier reference to Church and Leosli's


study, these recontamination problems are related to laundry layout; measures


such as improved ventilation and screening of areas showing high bacterial


counts are recommended to decrease bacterial redeposition.
                                   S-66

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            In Che investigation of sheets in the institutional  setting,  as

  well as the examination of other cloth products within the  scope  of this

  study, it becomes obvious that adequate sanitation can be achieved,  given

  the proper elements of laundry technique,  handling methods  and prevention

  of recontamination. Undoubtedly, because of the regulations of the  JCAH,

  hospital linens achieve a higher and more  consistent degree of sanitation

  than any of  he other products,  with the possible  exception of diapers  laun-

  dered by a diaper service. This  emphasis is reassuring in light of  the  neces-

  sity for providing a relatively  aseptic environment for the hospital patient.


                VI. DISPOSABLE AND REUSABLE  FOODSERVICEl/ WARE


  A. Introduction

            Public health personnel have long been concerned  with the  role

  of improperly cleaned eating utensils in the spread of communicable  disease.

  Early evidence supporting this concern was presented by Ravenel and Smith

  in 1909 (26). Their investigation of a typhoid  fever outbreak  implicated

  eating utensils as the link in the chain of transmission between  the carrier

  host and the affected population.

            In 1919 and 1920,  Gumming (26)  and his associates reported the

  results of their extensive epidemiological investigations into utensil/disease

  relationships. Looking at influenza among  Army  troops,  patrons of commercial

  eating establishments, and influenza-pneumonia  occurrences  in  institutions,

  these investigators amassed a significant  amount of evidence indicating im-

  properly sanitized food utensils as a leading avenue of transmission of
  _!/ The term "foodservice,"  when  used  as  an  adjective,  is  considered  to  be
       one word,  in accordance  with contemporary usage.  However,  titles of
       references  and quotations cited  in  this  section often utilize the  orig-
       inal two word or  hyphenated format.
1 See  comments Appendix J, page 13-16.


                                       S-67

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sputumborne and intestinal infections. In 1933, MacDonald and Freeborn (26)

concluded a review of their own and others'work in this area by making the

following points:

          1. "There is undoubted evidence of the transmission of some of

the communicable diseases through the medium of improperly disinfected eat-

ing utensils in private homes and public eating places;

          2. There is lack of appreciation on the part of the public of the

possible danger of disease transmission through improperly sterilized eating

utensils;

          3. The sanitation of many restaurants, hotels,  etc., is far below'

the accepted standard of cleanliness and safety; and

          4. One of the best means of preventing many of the sputum-borne

and intestinal infections both sporadically and epidemically is by means
                          i
of proper sterilization."

          As a result of these and other similar findings, the U.S. Public
                          I
Health Service was prompted to draft regulations to govern the washing, stor-

age and use of foodservice utensils. After field trials,  this ordinance

and code was revised and published in 1940 under the title Ordinance and

Code Regulating Eating and Drinking Establishments—Recommended by the U.S.

Public Health Service. The code, subsequently revised in 1943 and again in

1962, has been adopted by the majority of the states and over 1,000 county

and municipal health jurisdictions. A proposed revision,  which would change

the method for recording sanitation violations and establish a new scoring

system for classifying restaurant sanitation, was published in the October

1974 Federal Register.
                                   S-68

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          This section of the report will examine the standards governing




foodservice ware, both reusable and disposable, and then will present the




results of the literature review undertaken to determine the compliance of




the products specified within the scope of this study (paper and plastic




cups and plates, melamine and china plates, and glassware).







B. Standards




          1. U.S. Public Health Service "Model Food Service Sanitation Or-




dinance and Code"; As an integral part of the foodservice industry, reus-




able and disposable utensils are regulated by certain standards to ensure




their sanitation. The most significant standard is the U.S. Public Health




Service "Model Food Service Sanitation Ordinance and Code (1962)." This stan-




dard was established as a guideline for states and municipalities to follow




in their regulation of the foodservice industry. Currently, 44 of the 50




states have adopted this Model Ordinance as the basis for their sanitation




codes. In turn, the states recommend the ordinance to municipalities as a




guideline in the establishment of local standards. Although municipalities




are not required to adopt the ordinance, their standards must be at least





as^ stringent. Additionally,  the states may receive assistance in regulating




foodservice establishments through the Food Service Sanitation Program (FSSP),




a voluntary, cooperative service provided by FDA. Generally, the states re-




tain jurisdiction over nursing homes,  interstate carriers,  and areas not




governed by a municipal or local health authority; additionally, the state




health agencies act in an advisory capacity to the municipalities within




their boundaries.




                                   S-69

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          The PHS Model Ordinance, as a generally accepted sanitation code,




provides specific regulations relating to foodservice ware,  both reusable




and disposable* The relevant provisions of the Ordinance are as follows:




               Section D; Food Equipment and Utensils




               1. Sanitary Design, Construction,  and Installation of Equip-




                  ment and Utensils.  This subpart provides that "all. ..utensil's




                  shall be so designed and of such material  and workmanship




                  as to be smooth, easily cleanable, and durable, and shall




                  be in good repair;  and the food-contact surfaces of such




                  ...utensils shall,  in addition, be easily  accessible for




                  cleaning, nontoxic,  corrosion resistant, and relatively




                  nonabsorbent." It also specifies that "single-service arti-




                  cles shall be made  from nontoxic materials." This regulation




                  is augmented by the  FDA's Food, Drug and Cosmetic Act,




                  which governs the composition of food packaging materials




                  under its food additive provision.




                  The Ordinance provides the following explanation for its




                  cleanability standard: "Items of equipment and utensils




                  which are poorly designed and constructed,  and which are




                  not kept in good repair, are difficult to  clean thoroughly




                  and are apt to harbor accumulations of food and other soil




                  which supports bacterial growth." The durability standard




                  is also expanded to  include the following:  "All...utensils




                  shall be so durable  under normal conditions and operations




                  as to be resistant  to denting,  buckling, pitting, chipping,



                                   S-70

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   crazing and excessive wear; and shall be capable of with-

   standing repeated scrubbing,  scouring,  and the corrosive

   action of cleaning and sanitizing agents and food with

   which they come in contact."

2. Cleanliness of Equipment and  Utensils.  The second subpart

   provides that:

   * All eating and drinking utensils shall be thoroughly

     cleaned and sanitized after each usage.

   * After cleaning and prior to use, all  food-contact surfaces

     of equipment and utensils shall be so stored and handled

     as to be protected from contamination.

   * All single-service articles shall be  stored, handled,

     and dispensed in a sanitary manner, and shall be used

     only once.

   * Foodservice establishments  which do not have adequate
     and effective facilities for cleaning and sanitizing

     utensils shall use single-service articles.

   The Ordinance provides the following explanation for its

   cleaning and sanitizing regulations: "Regular, effective

   cleaning and sanitizing of equipment, utensils, and work

   surfaces minimizes the chances for contaminating food dur-

   ing preparation, storage,  and serving,  and for the trans-

   mission of disease organisms  to customers and  employees.

   Effective cleaning will remove soil and prevent the ac-

   cumulation of food residues which may decompose or support
                    S-71

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                 the rapid development of food-poisoning organisms or toxins*




                 Application of effective sanitizing procedures destroys




                 those disease organisms which may be present on equipment




                 and utensils after cleaning, and thus prevents the transfer




                 of such organisms to customers or employees, either directly




                 through tableware, such as glasses, cups, and flatware,




                 or indirectly through the food*"




                 "Improper storage of equipment and utensils, subsequent




                 to cleaning and sanitizing, exposes them to contamination




                 and can nullify the benefits of these operations* Accord-




                 ingly, storage and handling of cleaned or sanitized equip-




                 ment and utensils, and single-service articles, must be




                 such as to adequately protect these items from splash,




                 dust, and other contaminating materials."




                 Subpart 2 describes the procedures considered adequate




                 in washing and sanitizing utensils* The initial washing




                 cycle involves preflushing or prescraping to remove excess




                 food particles, washing in suitable detergent either by




                 hand or by machine, and sanitizing by one of the following




                 methods:




                 a. Immersion for at least 1/2 minute in clean hot water




                    at a temperature of at least 170°F.




                 b. Immersion for at least 1 minute in a sanitizing solu-




                    tion containing:
See  comments Appendix  J,  pages 38-39.
                                     S-72

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                     . At  least 50 ppm of available chlorine at a temperature




                      not less than 75 F; or




                     . At  least 12.5 ppm of available iodine in a solution




                      having a pH not higher than 5.0 and a temperature .




                      of  not less than 75°F; or




                     . Other sanitizing solution determined by the health




                      authority  to be equivalent in strength to 50 ppm of




                      chlorine.




                 Other  types of machines, devices, facilities and procedures




                 may be approved if they provide bactericidal effectiveness




                 "as demonstrated by an average plate count per utensil




                 surface  examined, of not more than 100 colonies."




                 Specific regulations are promulgated for manual washing,




                 such as  the requirement for three sinks for washing, rins-




                 ing and  sanitizing utensils; and for machine washing, in-




                 cluding  the stipulation that wash-water temperature shall




                 be at  least 140 F (160 F in single-tank conveyor machines),




                 with 180°F water at the manifold for sanitization in the




                 final  rinse (if hot water sanitization is used).




                 This subpart also provides regulations regarding storage




                 of single-service articles, they must be stored in closed





                 cartons  or containers and handled and dispensed in such




                 a way  as to prevent contamination".
See  comments Appendix  J,  pages 26-27
                                     S-73

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          The health departments of the six states not using the PHS Model




Ordinance were contacted during this study to determine what regulations




they have adopted for foodservice ware. Only three states--Nebraska, Iowa




and Maine--responded to these inquiries* In these states, foodservice regula-




tions are basically similar to those of the Model Ordinance, except that




Iowa has not established standards for single service ware*




          2. National Sanitation Foundation Standards; In addition to the




mandatory standards adopted by local governments in accordance with the Model




Ordinance, many manufacturers of foodservice ware and equipment voluntarily




comply with standards established by the National Sanitation Foundation (NSF).




The Public Health Service, in order to encourage uniformity of standards,




cooperates wth NSF and other organizations in the development of consistent




criteria. Two NSF standards of special interest in this study are NSF Standard




No. 36 for Dinnerware and NSF Standard No. 3 for Commercial Spray-Type Dish-




washing Machines.




          The NSF Dinnerware Standard relates to new, reusable dinnerware




intended for use in foodservice establishments. It sets forth basic require-




ments of cleanability, durability, shape and contour much like the standards




found in the USPHS Model Ordinance. However, NSF establishes a testing pro-




cedure for determining cleanability and durability to which dinnerware must




be subjected in order to receive the NSF seal. Durability is determined by




exposing the dinnerware to 150 cycles of normal "use environment," including




washing, rinsing, sanitizing, stacking, and knife cutting,  and then testing




its cleanability. Cleanability following exposure must be not less than 98.5




percent of initial cleanability, tested by laboratory methods involving




                                    S-74

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precise soiling techniques, consistent washing procedures, and counting




of soil residuals by the use of radioisotopes.




          The NSF Standard for Commercial Dishwashing Machines designates




water temperature requirements} flow pressures, prewashing procedures, stack-




ing techniques and other variables for the different types of commercial




dishwashing machines on the market. The Standard basically follows the Model




Ordinance in its temperature specifications and related factors in achieving




acceptable levels of sanitation for permanent ware.




          3. Single Service Standards; The single, service industry has its




own policing mechanism--the Food Protection Laboratory of the Syracuse Re-




search Corporation. The Laboratory has been testing single service cups since




1947, and plates, since 1967, utilizing methods specified in Public Health




Service Publication 1465, Fabrication of Single Service Containers and Closures




for Milk and Milk Products. Both the laboratory and its testing personnel




are certified by the USPHS, under FDA.




          Single service container manufacturers routinely submit'product




samples to the Food Protection Laboratory, where their conformance with the




bacteriological standards of Publication 1465 is tested. Products may not




show evidence of coliform bacteria, and no more than one colony of noncoli-




form bacteria is allowable per square centimeter of food or beverage contact




surface (50 colonies per 8 square inches).







C. Compliance of Reusable Foodservice Ware (Permanent Ware)




          As is the case with cloth products, the major health concerns relat-




ing to permanent foodservice ware are its cleanability and the effectiveness




                                  S-75

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of washing procedures in producing sanitary cups, plates and glassware. And,

like fabric laundering, dishwashing encompasses a wide range of variables,

including water temperature, chemical additives, handling techniques and

the degree of competence exhibited by personnel* The history of foodservice

sanitation has been summarized in "Single Use Cups and Plates: A Review of

the Available Literature," (26) a brief synopsis of which follows:

          Since the early 1900's, when disease transmission was first linked

to unsanitary utensils, the literature has addressed virtually all of these

variables* In the 1940*s,  investigators noted that ignorance among foodservice

workers as to proper washing times, temperature's and detergents resulted in

sanitation problems* By the late 1940's, surveys of dishwashing practices in
                         I
commercial establishments continued to show high bacterial counts on washed


foodservice ware; however, at that time many facilities were still employing

manual washing procedures, while in cases where machines were being used,

workers often operated these machines improperly. Kleinfeld and Buchbinder

concluded at this time that "satisfactory dishwashing practice lies in con-

version to machine and the intelligent operation of this satisfactory equip-

ment."

          In 1950, "Minimum Requirements for Effective Machine Dishwashing"

were developed by the Committee on Sanitary Engineering and Environment of

the National Research Council* The Committee set a standard of less than

100 microorganisms per utensil surface, which they believed could be consis-

tently attained through current dishwashing methods* (This standard has been

continued through the USPHS Model Ordinance.)


                                  S-76

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          Within the institutional setting, inadequacies in foodservice ware




sanitizing practices have also been  found  to relate  to  poor processing  techniques




rather than to the type of ware or the equipment available to clean and sani-




tize it. Wehrle (32) reiterated the reliability of proper machine dishwashing




in his study of "Food Service Procedures on Communicable Disease Wards,"




in which he states that disposables,  though used for convenience, are not




necessary (even for patients with highly infectious diseases)  "since the




usual mechanical dishwasher, properly maintained and operated, will remove




hazardous microorganisms likely to be found on any eating utensil," (Page




466). Investigators such as Litsky, Lloyd,  Jopke and Hass in the late 1960's




and early 1970*s reemphasize the problems of poor sanitation techniques among




hospital foodservice workers, as well as improper environmental exposure




of clean utensils.




          The preceding synopsis suggests that the sanitation of foodservice




ware has remained an active concern of health professionals over the years.




In evaluating the sanitary status of permanent foodservice ware, three major




foci of discussion emerge:




          1. The cleanability of the permanent ware surface; i.e.,  its re-




sistance to cracking, scratching and chipping,  all of which render the product




less amenable to thorough cleaning;




          2* The effectiveness of dishwashing practices; i.e., the efficiency




of machines, water temperatures used, detergents added and the competence




of machine operators;




          3. Handling and storage of dishes after washing; i.e., impacts




of airborne contaminants and contamination from the soiled hands of hospital



                                  S-77

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personnel* Also involved in handling is the possibility of breakage of china




and glassware•




          The following sections of this report will address each of these




factors and will present the results of the numerous studies which have in-




vestigated permanent ware sanination.




               a* Surface Cleanability; The issue of cleanability was most




significant in the 1950's, when reusable plastic foodservice ware was initially




being marketed. Whereas china had been the dominant dinnerware product for




centuries, the new plastics were a relatively unknown entity which were closely




scrutinized to determine their comparability to chinaware.




               China has a very hard, nonporous, nonabsorbent, and highly




durable surface which is easily cleanable. In a 1953 study,  Ridenour and




Annbruster (63) compared the cleanability of china to that of plastic (type




not specified). They found char. 98 to 99 percent and over of various types




of test bacteria could be removed from the china surfaces, while plastic




showed only a 56 to 84 percent rate of bacteria removal. China surfaces also




provided a high degree of cleanability after a period of natural wear and




in the presence of a food film buildup, while plastic performed much less




favorably in these two areas. Presumably, the surfaces of the early plastic




dishes, unlike today's plastic utensils, were softer and more susceptible




to scratching, scoring and deterioration through normal usage, thus reducing




their degree of cleanability.




               Mailman et al. (33) found no significant differences between




melamine and vitreous china in cleanability, bacterial survival, and staining.
 See  comments Appendix  J.  pages 31-33.
                                     S-78

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Mailman's findings are consistent with the current status of the two products*




Refinements in the composition of melamine have resolved early cleanability




problems. The manufacturers of 99 percent and over of all melamine currently




marketed in the United States comply with the NSF Dinnerware Standard.—  As




previously described, this standard specifies that permanent ware must be




able to withstand rigorous testing of its durability, cleanability, shape




and contour.




               In light of this fact, early studies indicting plastic perma-




nent ware can no longer be considered relevant, and melamine should now be




viewed as equivalent to china in surface cleanability.




               b. Effectiveness of Washing and Sanitizing Procedures; The




effectiveness of washing and sanitizing procedures for permanent ware is




summarized by Mailman in his study of "Sanitation with Modern Detergents,"




(32) "Any discussion of cleaning and sanitizing must be prefaced by comment-




ing upon personnel...A cleaning procedure is no better than the worker. No




matter how good the cleaning agent is, its usefulness will depend .entirely




upon how the worker uses it—the concentration--the time of application—




the amount of brushing—collectively spell the degree of cleaning attained.




The cleaning attained is determined by the worker," (32, Page 54). Thus, the




human factor is ultimately of far greater significance than are the washing




and sanitizing procedures themselves. Although there is a trend toward mechani-




zation of detergent dispensing and other elements within the total process,




human variables still play a role in utensil sanitation.
_!/ Dave Ettinger of Silite, Inc., in telephone interview.





                                    S-79

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               With this understanding, it is important to present briefly




the factors which contribute to the washing and sanitizing of foodservice




ware:




               (1) Preflushing or Prescraping: This action is usually pro-




vided by water pressure during a prerinse cycle, which removes the gross




soil and excess food particles, thus assisting in the actual washing process*




               (2) Water Temperature; Maximum soil removal appears to occur




at temperatures from 130  to 140 F. Lower temperatures tend not to remove




fats, and higher temperatures can cook proteins, causing them to adhere to




utensil surfaces. Higher temperatures (170  or above) are, of course, required




in the final rinse for sanitation.




               (3) Chemical Detergents; The detergent supplements the action




of the water and enhances removal of the grease film left by fats. Types




and amounts of detergents should be selected in accordance with water com-




position, and detergent solutions should be maintained with a minimum of




suspended soil, so as to prevent redeposition of bacteria on cleaned utensils.




               (4) Rinsing/Sanitizing; This last step can be accomplished




with hot water at 170  or above or with chemicals. The latter method is ef-




fective only if the dishes have been thoroughly cleaned, since sanitizing




agents cannot penetrate food particles or food film (32).




               As discussed in the previous section on foodservice standards,




certain portions of the foregoing process are closely regulated by health




agencies. Though the type and amount of detergent and precise wash water




temperature are not specified in the Model Ordinance, sanitization procedures






                                    S-80

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are clearly defined and, of course, require proper preparation of the utensils

through washing so that sanitization will be effective*

               Despite the existence of fairly standardized washing and sani-

tizing procedures and of the regulatory activity supplied through FSSP, the

Model Ordinance, and state and local health agencies, concern continues to

exist over the degree of compliance of foodservice establishments with these

procedures and regulations* The major study of restaurant compliance encount-

ered during the course of this investigation was undertaken by the General

Accounting Office in 1974 (61). At GAO's request, the Food and Drug Administra-

tion inspected, from January through March 1974, 185 restaurants selected

at random from 14,736 restaurants in nine metropolitan cities. Results were

recorded on the Food Service Establishment Inspection Report, based on the

regulations stipulated within the FDA Model Ordinance. Sample results were

projected to apply to the 14,736 restaurants in the original inventory. Over-

all, 89.8 percent were considered to be "inadequate," and thus, according

to the GAO, "insanitary."

               The term "inadequate," as defined in the study, means that

"Significant public health violations exist. Restaurants could be operating

under conditions where food may have become contaminated with filth or rend-

ered injurious to health. Deficiencies should be corrected immediately."-

               In its response to the GAO Report, the National Restaurant

Association (NRA) (49) points out that: (1) The sample upon which the survey
_!/ It is important to note that a restaurant can exhibit many violations
     not related to foodservice ware; e.g., insect or rodent infestation,
     improper refrigeration, etc.
                                    S-81

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is based is not distributed proportionately to the distribution of the total




estimated universe; e.g., in city E, the total inventory of restaurants is




8,927, or 60.6 percent of the estimated universe (14,736), whereas the sample




size for city E was only 35, or 18.9 percent of total sample size (185).




While the sample within each city may be considered representative of res-




taurant conditions in that particular city, it is not valid to total the




samples and project an overall percentage of restaurants exhibiting "insani-




tary" conditions.—  The term "insanitary" is used synonymously with the word




"inadequate." Although the study did find a majority of restaurants sampled




in each city to be "inadequate," it does not necessarily follow that they




are unsanitary. By the GAQ's own definition, these restaurants "could be"




operating under conditions potentially injurious to human health. The dis-




tinction must be made, as it has throughout this report, between the potential




for health problems and the existence of definably pathogenic conditions*
                         I



Again, there is no clear relationship between "inadequate" foodservice sani-




tation and an attendant threat to the public health.




               Although the GAO study should not, in light of the preceding




discussion, be interpreted as a flawless indictment of restaurant sanitation,




its findings in regard to sanitation of foodservice ware are noteworthy for




the purposes of the present investigation. Table 19 shows the percentage




of the total restaurants sampled, exhibiting violations related to foodser-




vice ware.
JL/ This analysis of the statistical sampling procedure was confirmed by con-

     sultations with two MRI statisticians.
                                    S-82

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                                  TABLE 19

            SUMMARY OF SANITATION VIOLATIONS RELATING TO FOODSERVICE WARE

                                            Number of             Percent
                                            Violative            of Sample
              Item                         Restaurants          in Violation

 Tableware  clean  to sight and  touch             24                   12.9
 Utensils and equipment preflushed,
   scraped,  or soaked       .                     2                    1.0
 Tableware  sanitized                            52                   28.1
 Facilities  for washing and sanitizing
   equipment and  utensils approved,
   adequate,  properly constructed,
   maintained and operated                     100                   54.0
 Wash and sanitizing water clean                 9                    4.8
 Wash water  at proper temperature                7                    3.7
 Adequate and suitable detergents used           2'                   1.0
 Cleaned and sanitized utensils and
   equipment properly stored and
   handled;  utensils air-dried                116                   62.7
 Suitable facilities and areas provided
   for storing utensils and equipment           77                   41.6
 Single-service articles properly stored,
   dispensed and  handled                       117                   63.2
 Source: "Report  to  the Congress by the Comptroller General of the United
          .States: Federal Support for Restaurant Sanitation Found Largely
          Ineffective,"  (61).

               As shown in the table, the major violations (involving more

 than half the restaurants sampled)  relate to inadequate facilities for wash-

 ing and sanitizing equipment and utensils, inadequate storage and handling

 of utensils and equipment; and inadequate storage,  dispensing and handling

 of single service items. (The latter problem will be addressed in a later

 section on single service ware.) Since most facilities complied with the

 requirements regarding clean water,  proper water temperature and adequate

 detergents, the assumption can be made that the deficiencies centered around

 the design and/or layout of dishwashing machines and the human variables

previously mentioned.
                                    S-83

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                The implications of these violations are difficult to assess.


 While 54 percent of the restaurants were reported as having inadequate wash-


 ing and sanitizing facilities, only 28 percent showed failure to comply with


 the requirement that tableware be sanitized. This inconsistency would indi-


 cate, once again, that the ultimate level of sanitation of foodservice ware


 in commercial establishments is dependent upon a wide range of variables,


 which cannot be fully addressed through the vehicle of health inspection


 reports•


                The GAO, however, implies that these violations contribute


 substantially to the "100,000 persons (who) became ill from foodborne dis-


 eases contracted in restaurants during 1970," (Page 1). This statistic, cred-


 ited  to the Center for Disease Control (CDC), disagrees with the actual CDC


 report  (16) which shows a  total of 24,448 persons becoming ill in 1970 as a re-


 sult of 371 outbreaks, 114 of which occurred in foodservice establishments*


 Furthermore, very little information exists on the numbers and types of


 microorganisms typically found on serviceware utensils in foodservice estab-


 lishments  after washing.


                Relating to the practical relationship between the sanitary


 condition  of machine-washed utensils and the associated public health threat,


 Dr. Marcus Harowitz of the Center for Disease Control in Atlanta offered


 the opinion that "the inoculum count of microorganisms left on foodservice


 ware  after washing would likely be too low to cause disease," (52). However,


 the'entire area of dose/response relationships between pathogenic organisms


 and disease is poorly understood and little documented.
  See comments Appendix J. pages 27-30,

2
  See comments Appendix J. pages 30-31,
                                        S-84

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               Although it is accepted fact, even by the NRA,  that there




are problems in achieving total sanitation of foodservice ware in commercial




foodservice establishments,  inadequacies such as were found in the GAD study




cannot,be directly related to disease transmission. However, in the normal




tradition of protective public health measures,  precautions are taken to




protect and preserve the public health whenever  there is even a suspected




potential for harm*




               Another area in which foodservice ware has been studied is




the use of beverage glasses in hotels and motels* Dr. Bailus Walker of the




Environmental Health Administration undertook a  4-year bacteriological study




of such glasses (78), and found that over 90 percent were unacceptable fron




the standpoint of bacteriological and aesthetic  standards. The bacteriological




standard of 100 organisms per glass was exceeded in over SO percent of the




glasses examined; and over 50 percent of these glasses contained pathogenic




organisms, including streptococci and staphylococci.




               Dr. Walker attributes this finding to the fact that in 40




of the 66 hotels/motels surveyed, the glass washing procedure involved rins-




ing the glasses in the wash basin with "hot" water, drying them with a bath




towel and then repackaging them in bags labelled, "THIS WATERGLASS IS SANI-




TIZED FOR YOUR PROTECTION." Although such practice was not the established




policy of the hotel or motel, it was followed by the housekeepers as a time-




saving, convenience measure*




               Table 20 shows the bacterial count of beverage glasses rinsed




in the hotel or motel rooms. Standard plate counts ranged from 1,000 organisms




per glass to 100,000,000 organisms per glass, with Staphylococcus aureus



                                    S-85

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                                                      TABLE 20

                    BACTERIAL CONTENT OF BEVERAGE GLASSES HASHED AND SANITIZED IN  HOTEL/MOTEL ROOMS
OT
oo
a\
    Location

Chicago
Cleveland
Detroit
Frankfort, KY
Lexington, KY
Minneapolis
New Orleans
Newark
Nashville
Philadelphia
Pittsburgh
Washington, D.C.
(Maryland-Virginia)

Hotel/Motels
Surveyed
5
5
2
2
2
A
3
3
2
5
2
5
Number of
Glasses
Examined
25
25
10
10
10
20
15
15
10
25
10
25
Standard Plate Count (Per Class)
Arithmetic
Mean
3. A
A.I
6.0
3.6
5.3
A.3
9.1
3.3
6.0
8.3
1.0
5.0
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
I06
105
106
106
106
107
106
105
106
10?
103
106
2. A
1.0
A.O
2.5
3.1
2.3
5.6
2.0
2.0
A.O
1.0
3.0
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
106
105
106
106
10°
107
106
105
106
107
103
106
- 6.1
- 5.1
- 7.0
- 5.0
- 6.5
- 7.0
- 9.7
- 5.1
- 9.1
-10.0
- 2.0
- 7.0
Staphylococcus
Range
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
106
105
106
106
106
107
106
105
10°
107
103
106
AureusS'
10/25
5/25
5/10
2/10
10/10
5/20
15/15
8/15
««•
18/25
3/10
20/25
Streptococctg/

     5/25
     5/25
     2/10
     A/10
     7/10

     5/15
    11/15
    10/10
    20/25
    10/10
     8/25
   Source: Walker, Bailus, Jr., "Bacterial Content of Beverage Glasses in Hotels," (78).
   _a/ Number of glasses positive/number of glasses examined.

-------
and strepcococci appearing on from 20 percent to 100 percent of the glasses




tested. In contrast, as shown in Table 21, glasses washed in the central




commissary, using standardized washing and sanitizing procedures,  showed




considerably lower counts. Although standard plate counts were higher than




accepted bacteriological standards in all cases, no pathogenic organisms




were detected in the commissary-washed glasses. The author attributes this




finding to the possibility of unnecessary handling which occurs between wash-




ing, prepackaging and distribution of the glasses to the. rooms.




               Several investigators have studied foodservice ware sanita-




tion within the institutional setting. Lloyd et al. (30) surveyed the dish-




washing facilities of five large (500 to 1,000-bed) hospitals and one chil-




dren's orphanage in 1970 to determine the washing and sanitizing efficiencies




of dishwashing machines. Microbiological testing-was performed on the wash




water of the dishwashers, the rinse water, the dish surfaces following wash-




ing and rinsing, and the air surrounding the dishwashing area. Table 22 shows




the results of the wash and rinse water tests, in which staphylococci and




enterococci were noted in the wash water at two institutions; and one showed




staphylococci in the rinse water. The authors note that the water tempera-




tures during the wash and rinse cycles were lower than has been recommended,




attributing their microbiological findings to this fact. However,  as shown




in Table 23, dishware which had been washed and rinsed showed counts below




the accepted microbiological standard in every case but one. Additionally,




the number of airborne microorganisms was not found to be significantly af-




fected by either activity or inactivity in the area of the dishwashing mach-




ines, indicating that the processing of the foodservice ware did not produce




an increased bioload in the surrounding environment.
 See comments  Appendix J,  page  37.
                                    S-87

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                                                       TABLE 21
                          BACTERIAL CONTENT OF BEVERAGE GLASSES WASHED IN CENTRAL COMMISSARY
en
oo
oo
    Location

Chicago
Cleveland
Detroit
Frankfort, KY
Lexington, KY
Minneaspolis
Newark
New Orleans
Nashville
Philadelphia
Pittsburgh
Washington, D.C.
(Maryland-Virginia)

Hotel /Mote Is
Surveyed
2
3
3
1
2
2
1
2
2
3
2
3
Number of
Glasses
Examined
10
15
10
5
10
10
10
10
10
15
10
15
Standard Plate Count (Per Glass)
Arithmetic
Mean
1,000
900
600
750
800
900
700
550
670
1,000
1,200
1,000
Col i form (Per Glass)
Arithmetic

500
200
400
500
650
500
500
450
539
500
1,000
900
Range
- 1,500
- 1,000
- 1,000
- 1,200
- 1,700
- 1,270
- 1,460
- 1,060
- 1,560
-18,000
- 1,400
- 1,600
Mean
100
100
200
110
80
200
400
300
294
500
700
90

100
100
100
100
50
150
300
200
105
400
300
50

- 450
- 500
- 300
- 500
- 100
- 540
- 900
-1,000
- 550
-1,100
- 900
- 700
    Source: Walker, Bailus, Jr., "Bacterial Content of Beverage Glasses in Hotels," (78),

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                                     TABLE 22

   THE OCCURRENCES OF DIFFERENT TYPES OF MICROORGANISMS IN WASH AND RINSE WATER
   SAMPLES COLLECTED FROM DISHWASHING MACHINES IN SELECTED MEDICAL INSTITUTIONS
  Types of
  Organisms
   Tested

Total Count
Aerobic Spores
Anaerobic Spores
Coliforas
Staphylococci
Fseudomonas
EnterococciJy
Molds
Total Count
Aerobic Spores
Anaerobic Spores
Coliforms
Staphylococci
Pseudomonas
Enterococciii'
Molds
                                            Institution
A           B           C          D         E         F
Average Number Organisms per Millimeter of Water Samples^'

59
1
0
0
0
0
0
0

130
1
0
0
0
0
0
0

1,250
190
35
0
250
0
280
2

230
180
1
0
20
0
0
0
Wash
230
1
10
0
0
0
0
0.
Rinse
35
0
1
0
0
0
0
0
Water
155
138
—
0
0
0
0
0
Water
14
7
—
0
0
0
0
__

3
0
•• v
0
10
0
0
--

0
0
--
0
0
0
0
-_

„
45'
114
0
10
0
16
--


53
190
0
0
0
0
--
Source: Lloyd et al. "Bacteriological Observations of Hospital Commissary
        •  Environments," (30).
a/ Average bacterial counts obtained from the three collected wash and rinse
     water samples*
b/ Enterococci counts were based on most probably numbers per 100 millimeter
     of water samples.
                                  S-89

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                                 TABLE 23

             BACTERIAL CONTAMINATION ON PRETREATSD AND WASHED AND
RINSED EATING UTENSILS COLLECTED FROM SELECTED INSTITUTIONS
Institution
A
B
C
D
E
F
Average Number
From Duplicate
PretreatedS'
30
110
TNTC£'
180
TNTC
TNTC
Bacteria Recovered .
Samples of Dishwaref
Washed/Rinsed
20
45
45
120
20
20
       Source: Lloyd et al. "Bacteriological Observations of Hospital Commissary
                 Environments," (30).
       _a/ Counts obtained from membrane filters*
       _b/ The counts shown represents those taken right after scraping.
       c/ TNTC--too numerous to count.
                Wehrle  (82) in a previously mentioned study of foodservice

  on communicable  disease wards, reports that normal foodservice ware washing

  and sanitizing procedures are adequate in removing even highly infectious

  organisms  from utensils used for patients with communicable diseases. He

  stresses that the problems in handling these utensils lie with personnel

  who often  fail to wash their hands properly before and after touching the

  dishes, rather than with  the sanitizing procedures themselves. Wehrle sug-

  gests  a cycle involving prewash at 140° to 160°F, wash cycle of 160°F, and

  a flow rinse at  180°F. the significance of Wehrle!s study is that, given

  proper personnel training, the facilities and processes available in the

  institutional setting  are capable of producing sanitized foodservice ware,

  even when  that ware has been heavily contaminated.
1 See comments Appendix J, pages  24-26,
                                     S-90

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               Another study, by Jopke et al. (24) of 21 hospitals in the

Twin Cities area, reaffirms the effectiveness of institutional washing pro-

cedures. From a total of 6,600 samples from dinner plates, cups, and glasses

(among other products), the authors found very low microbial counts immedi-

ately after washing, reflecting the operating effectiveness of all dishwashing

machines. The results of this test are presented in Table 24.


                                TABLE 24

 MICROBIAL CONTAMINATION ON HOSPITAL TABLEWARE IMMEDIATELY AFTER WASHING
                             Mean
   Type of .    Number of   (Average)
Percentage Distribution of
  Microbial Counts 00
Tableware~
Plates
Trays
Cups
Glasses
Spoons
Forks
Knives
Samoles
627
627
315
313
105
105
105
Count
13.9
24.2
7.4
3.9
17.5
11.6
7.6
0
71
65
51
65
73
84
72
1-50
25
25
46
34
19
10
21
50
4
10
3
1
8
6
7
 Source: Jopke et al.  "Microbial  Contamination on Hospital  Tableware,"  (24).
 _a/ Expressed as colonies/utensils for the flatware  and colonies/rodac  plate
      for the other types of tableware (spoons, forks,  knives).
               c. Handling and Storage Factors: While Jopke's study found

that washing and sanitizing procedures in the hospitals studied were effec-

tive, "handling and environmental exposure emerged as the critical factors

in tableware contamination," (Page 31). The authors note that "the degree

of contamination increases with the length of time between after washing

and before use, a period when the tableware is exposed to both environmental

and personnel contamination," (Page 31).
                                  S-91

-------
               Table 25 shows the microbial counts of tableware during stor-




age* As shown, the mean counts on all items except dinner plates and trays




increased during storage. This can be explained by the fact that plates and




trays are often better protected from airborne contamination than cups, glasses,




and flatware, which may be stored on open shelves. Also, since plates and




trays are stacked, less individual surface area is exposed to personnel and




environmental contaminants* Finally, Table 26 indicates counts taken on tableware




immediately prior to use. As indicated, the three products of particular




concern to this study—plates, cups and glassware, showed slightly lower




mean counts at this point than during storage; however, there were fewer




samples showing a zero bacterial count prior to use than during the storage




period. Based on their findings, the authors recommend several improvements




to decrease microbial contamination of tableware. Included are decreased




handling of tableware by personnel, the storage of sanitized plates in mobile




bins or self-leveling storage bins, and the storage of sanitized cups, glasses




in the same rack and cylinder in which they were sanitized.




               In a sequel to the previous study, Jopke et al. (23) examined




the effects of air conditioning on microbial airborne contamination in hos-




pital dishwashing facilities and resultant contamination of tableware. They




found that the presence or absence of air conditioning was the one variable




with the greatest effect on airborne microbial quality, with air-conditioned




hospitals showing levels one-third less than those in nonair-conditioned




facilities. Results of these tests are shown in Table 27.
                                  S-92

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                           TABLE 25
  MICROBIAL CONTAMINATION ON HOSPITAL TABLEWARE DURING STORAGE
  Type of
Table war eJ/
  Plates
  Trays
  Cups
  Glasses
  Spoons
  Forks
  Knives
Number of
 Samples

  630
  629
  315
  314
  104  :
  105
  105
   Mean
(Average)
  Counts
                                       Percentage Distribution of
                                          Microbial Counts (7.)
5.5
10.4
15.2
15.8
30.3
35.4
42.4
64
60
34
38
59
57
55
                                                 1-50

                                                  34
                                                  35
                                                  59
                                                  55
                                                  31
                                                  32
                                                  36
12

 2
 5
 7
 7
10
11
 9
Source: Jopke et al. "Microbial Contamination on Hospital Tableware," (24).
_a/ Expressed as colonies/utensils for the flatware and colonies/rodac plate
     for the other types of tableware.
                           TABLE 26
   MICROBIAL CONTAMINATION ON HOSPITAL TABLEWARE BEFORE USE
             Number of
              Samples

                628
                629
                315
                313
                105
                105
                105
              Mean
           (Average)
             Counts
           Percentage Distribution of
              Microbial Counts (%)_
  Type ofa/
Tableware""

  Plates
  Trays
  Cups
  Glasses
  Spoons
  Forks
  Knives

Source: Jopke et al. "Microbial Contamination on Hospital Tableware," (24).
_a/ Expressed as colonies/utensils for the flatware and colonies/rodac place
     for the other types of tableware.
3.4
11.2
14.6
10.3
109.5
72.6
34.1
77
54
24
36
53
55
49
0
77
54
24
36
53
55
49
1-50
22
42
71
60
27
30
39
50
' 1
4
5
4
20
15
12
                            S-93

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                                                      TABLE  27

         MICROBIAL AIRBORNE CONTAMINATION WITH AND WITHOUT AIR CONDITIONING SYSTEMS IN HOSPITAL DISHWASHING FACILITIES
1st Visit
Type of
Ventilation
With Air
Conditioning
Without Air
Conditioning
Number of
Hospitals
14
7
Number of
Samples
1,075
555
Mean
(Average)
10.8
40.1
2nd Visit
Number of
Samples
1,109
553
Mean
(Average)
10.9
27.3
3rd Visit
Number of
Samples
277
138
Mean
(Average)
10.3
28.0
Total
Number of
Samples
2,461
1,246
Mean
(Average)
10.8
33.1
W
vo    Sources Jopke et al. "Air Conditioning Reduces Microbiologic Levels in Hospital Dishwashing Facilities,"  (23)

-------
               A final consideration in the handling of permanent foodservice




ware is breakage. Of the three types of products being considered in this




study—raelamine, china, and glass—glass undoubtedly presents the greatest




hazard from the standpoint of accidental breakage. Glass tends to shatter,




scattering splintered fragments over a wide area. China, although it also




may be broken, separates into a smaller number of pieces, which are predomi-




nantly of right angle formation. These pieces are not as sharp as the glassware




fragments and are therefore easier to pick up without risk of injury (18).




Melamine is resistant to breakage and although a.severe impact could cause




fracture, the pieces would be unlikely to cause injury.







D. Compliance of Disposable Foodservice Ware (Single Service)




          As discussed in the section on standards, single service container




manufacturers routinely submit samples of their products to the Syracuse




Research-Corporation (SRC) Food Protection Laboratory (an independent labora-




tory) for testing. Testing determines conformance with  the bacteriological




standard, stated in PHS Publication 1465, of no allowable coliform bacteria,




and no more than one colony of noncoliform bacteria per square centimeter




of food or beverage contact surface.




          As experts in the field of single service ware testing, SRC has




found that "these products consistently meet the standards of the PHS." Ac-




cording to Mr. Jack B. Friers, Manager of the Food Protection Laboratory,




"Based upon these results, it is our opinion that single service containers




have an excellent sanitary quality and are safe for their intended use."
                                  S-95

-------
Friers also believes that the difference in bacteriological standards be-




tween permanent ware (no more than 100 colonies per 8 square inch area) and




single service ware (no more than 50 for the same area) "are not significant




...and that both standards should be meaningful in their field of use," (51).




          In support of SRC's experience, a 1-month analysis of disposable




foodservice ware at Elmhurst Hospital in 1968 (21) showed all items tested




to be free of coliform organisms and well within the generally recognized




bacteriological standard. Table 28 shows these results.




          Two studies were submitted which question the sanitary quality




of single service food containers. The first, called the "Eight Hospital




Study," <15) tested disposable paper items taken from normal storage during




a 1-week period in eight hospitals. The results of the tests, done in the




hospitals' own laboratories, are presented in tabular form, as shown in Table




29. (Items applicable to the present study have been asterisked.) According




to the study results, microbial counts for the 9 ounce cold drink cup were




"too numerous to count" at one hospital, but were 0 in the other 7; all counts




for the hot drink cup were 0;. 4 of the 8 counts for the 9 inch plate were




unacceptable (2 being "too numerous to count"); and 2 of the foam cup counts




were above acceptable levels.




          The "Eight Hospital Study" is questionable for a number of reasons:




First, exact methodologies for testing are not included in the report. Second,




since each hospital performed its own tests in its own laboratory, conditions




could not be expected to be consistent among the eight facilities. Third,




the Rodac plate method used to determine microbial counts is intended for







                                  S-96

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                                                   TABLE 28


                 BACTERIOLOGICAL SAMPLING OF DISPOSABLE FOODSERVICE WARE AT ELMHURST HOSPITAL
I
VO

Sample
Number
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18

Area Tested in
Square Centimeters
185
131
108
169
132
44
138
75
200
314
47
99
133
934
140
169
133
185

Number of
Items Tested
7
7
7
7
7
7
7
7
7
7
7
7
7
7
7
7
7
7
Top
or
End
0
0
0
20
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
18
0
0
0
0
0
Bacterial
Number
Count Bottom of Items
Per Item
2
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
2
0
0
0
0
0
.3
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
2
0
0
0
0
0
.4
0
0
0
18
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
*&
0
0
0
0
0
I
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
4m
0
0
00
0
0
6
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
10m
0
0
0
0
0
or
End
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
Exceeding
Standard
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
Col i form
Test
Negative
Negative
Negative
Negative
Negative
Negative
Negative
Negative
Negative
Negative
Negative
Negative
Negative
Negative
Negative
Negative
Negative
Negative
Controls
Water
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
Air
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
Agar
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
     Source: "Hospital Study of Patient  Feeding on Single Service," Single.Service Institute,  (21).

     a/  Mold.

-------
                                  TABLE 29
       RESULTS OF THE "EIGHT HOSPITAL STUDY"  (20 COLONIES PER 16 CM
        MINIMUM ACCEPTABLE LEVEL) COLONIES PER 16 CM2  (RODAC PLATE)
   Sample
•(All Paper)

 4 ounce cup  ,
 9 ounce cup—  ,
 Hot drink  cupj
 9 inch plate-
 6-3/4  inch plate
 Soup bowl
 Vegetable  bowl

  Additional
 Items  Tested

 Foam cups-
 Individual
   sugar packets
 Individual salt
   packets
0
0
0
0 1
7
0
TNTC
9
0
0
27
0
0
0
 57

TNTC

TNTC
                0
                0
                0
                7
               15
                9
                0
                      Facility
0
0
0
0
9
0
0
TNTC
0
0
2
0
TNTC
31
TNTC
TNTC
0
31
54
5
0
0
0
0
TNTC
0
0
0
0
0
0
TNTC
11
9
0
      39

      TNTC

      57
17

TNTC

TNTC
 Source:  Foodborne Outbreaks;  Annual  Summary,  1970,  (15).
 a/  TNTC—too  numerous  to'count.
                                   S-98

-------
 testing flat surfaces; thus, its efficacy for rounded cup surfaces is ques-




 tionable.—  These reservations would suggest that the results of the "Eight




 Hospital Study" may not be scientifically acceptable.




          The second study is the Rosner-Hixon Report (65), in which dispos-




 able plates (type not specified) were tested to determine the degree of bac-




 terial contamination. Three cartons from each of six manufacturers were rep-




 resented in the test. One plate was taken from the top of the stack, one




 from the middle and one from the bottom; additionally, two more plates were




 removed from the top of other stacks from each carton. The plates were swabbed




 with sterile water, and plate counts were performed; the results appear in




 Table 30.




          As indicated, all of the plates from the bottom of the.stacks were




 sterile; however, two samples from the middle showed counts of 300 and 3,100




 respectively, while the top samples showed fairly high levels of contamination




 in three of the six cartons. The implication, of course, is that the top




 plates were more subjected to exposure and to contamination during packaging




 and handling. The Rosner-Hixon Report has been questioned because of its




 lack of detailed description of methodology, of personnel and facilities




 used in the testing, and for its limited number of samples, considered not




 to be representative of the total number of products under consideration.




 Additionally, for the purposes of the present study, there is concern over




 the fact that the type of "disposable" plates is not specified.
_U Confirmed by consultation with MRI bacteriologist.
                                  S-99

-------
                        TABLE 30

         TEST RESULTS FROM THE ROSNER-HIXON REPORT

                Carton
Manufacturer    Number       Top         Middle     Bottom

     A            1       0-200-0            0         0
                  2       200-0-0    '      300         0
                  3       200-0-0            0         0

     B            1       0-0-0              0         0
                  2       0-0-0              0         0
                  3       0-0-0              0         0

     C            1       0-0-80,000         0         0
                  2       0-0-0              0         0
                  3       0-0-0              0         0

     D            1       0-0-0              0         0
                  2       0-0-0              0         0
                  3       0-0-0              0       .0

     E            1       400-0-1,000    3,100         0
                  2       100-1,000-0        0         0
                  3       0-0-0              0         0

     F            1       0-0-0              0         0
                  2       0-0-0              0         0
                  3       0-0-0              0         0
Sources "The Sanitary Aspects of Single-Service (Disposable)
          Ware," Permanent Ware Institution, (65).
NOTE: 0 denotes a number less than 100.
                     S-100

-------
           SRC, in a response to these two studies, questions not only the




  scientific quality of the investigations, but also the results* According




  to  the manager of the Food Protection Laboratory, "Occasionally somewhat




  higher bacterial counts are found in the exposed top item of the stack than




  in  other parts of the stacks, but we have not encountered the extremely high




  counts reported in the study. We have found that single service items within




  a stack (other than the top item) are consistently low or zero in bacterial




  contamination levels."




           In light of the above reservations, the position of SRC, and the




  fact  that these were the only two studies encountered in an extensive litera-




  ture  review which indict disposable foodservice ware from a sanitation stand-




  point, the "Eight Hospital Study" and the Rosner-Hixon Report do not present




  substantial or conclusive evidence indicating the sanitary quality of single




  service items. However, in light of the finding by the GAD that 63.2 percent




  of  sampled commercial establishments do not properly store, dispense and




  handle single service articles, it is possible to conclude that problems




  may well exist in the handling of those products; and that these problems




  could represent the potential for disease transmission. Again, it is not the




  products themselves but the human factor which may threaten sanitation.




           In order to ascertain the attitudes of public health professionals




  toward disposable products, the Environmental Health Administration undertook




  a national survey in 1976, in which questionnaires were mailed to 3,000 indi-




  viduals, randomly chosen from the directory of state food and drug officials




  and the membership of public and environmental health organizations. These
  See comments Appendix J, pages  33-35
2
  See comments Appendix J, page 35.
                                    S-101

-------
 organizations  included  the National Environmental Health Association, the

 Association of Food and Drug Officials of the United States, the Conference

 of Local Environmental  Health Administrators, the Association of State and

 Territorial Health Officers, the International Association of Milk, Food

 and Environmental Sanitarians, Inc., and the American Public Health Associa-

 tion  (Section  on the Environment). About 2,760 persons returned question-

 naires, providing a 92  percent response rate.

          Table 31 categorizes the respondents according to their positions

 and organizations* As indicated, 45 percent of those returning questionnaires

 are public and environmental health administrators at the state and local .

 level, and 41  percent are state and local sanitarians* These categories rep-

 resent those individuals most directly responsible for health regulation in

 commercial and institutional foodservice establishments. Of the respondents,
                         I

 83 percent have at least 6 years experience in their respective fields, with

 57 percent indicating 11 or more years of experience*

                                   TABLE 31

                    POSITIONS AND ORGANIZATIONS OF RESPONDENTS

                                                  Number of       Percent of.
          Position and Organization              Respondents    Re-spon dents-*

Public/Environmental Health Administrators
  (State and Local)                                 1.245            45
Officials of Professional Public/Environmental
  Health Organizations                                 18             1
 Sanitarians (Field Level—State and Local Agencies) 1,145            41
Public/Environmental Health Academicians               67             2
 Environmental Health Scientists (State and Local)     240             9
Public Health Officials (In Federal Agencies)       	45           	2
          Total                                     2,760           100
 Source: Walker and Price, "The Health Profession's Attitude Toward Single-Use
          Food and Beverage Containers," (79).
£/ Percentages are rounded to the nearest integer*

                                   S-102

-------
          Table 32 presents a listing of the benefits  the  respondents  attribute




to single-use foodservice items* Of the public health  professionals, 69 per-




cent consider sanitation-related factors to be the main benefits  of these




products, including the reduction in the potential for cross-infection, the




reduction in disease transmission (if properly stored  and  handled),  the pro-




vision of a consistently high level of food sanitation,  and the reduction




in human involvement in the sanitizing process. Conversely,  71 percent of




the respondents recognize that disposables  present disadvantages  in terms




of solid waste volume,  litter, and disposal problems;  this breakdown is shown




in Table 33. However, 80 percent believe that the  benefits of disposables




are greater than the disadvantages, 11 percent feel  benefits and  disadvantages




are fairly equal, and only 6 percent think  the disadvantages outweigh  the




benefits* Finally, when asked how much disposable  foodservice ware  contributes




to sanitation levels in foodservice facilities, 74 percent of the respondents




felt they "contributed very much," 16 percent felt they "contributed somewhat,"




and 9 percent believed they "contributed slightly."  These  results are  presented




in Table 34. Accordingly, 74 percent of the respondents felt that sanitation




levels would definitely decrease if disposables were eliminated and that they




would definitely increase if disposables were, required.
See connents Appendix J, pages  35-36
                                   S-103

-------
                                  TABLE 32

     PUBLIC HEALTH BENEFITS DERIVED FROM PAPER AND PLASTIC SINGLE-USE PRODUCTS

                                                   Number of       Percent of.
                Benefit-                          Respondents    Respondents"

Reduce the possibility of cross-infection             421            15
If properly stored and handled, reduce trans-
  mission of diseases                                 866            31
Practical and economical means for food service
  facilities to operate when reusable products
  are impractical                                     208             8
Eliminate the need for dishwashing facilities         426            15
Provide a consistently high level of food
  sanitation                                          385            14
Reduce human involvement required for cleaning
  and sanitizing                                      243             9
Convenience                                           128             5
Conserve energy                                        47             2
No real public health benefit                          35            . i
     Total                                          2,760           100
Source: Walker and Price, "The Health Profession's Attitude Toward Single-Use
          Food and Beverage Containers," (79).
£/ Benefits were listed by respondents*
b/ Percentages are rounded to the nearest integer*
                                  TABLE  33

        DISADVANTAGES DERIVED FROM PAPER AND PLASTIC SINGLE-USE PRODUCTS

                                                  Number of      Percent of. .
                        a/                                                   of
           Disadvantage"                        Respondents    Respondents"

Contribute to  solid waste  disposal problems          782             28
Add to  the volume  and bulk of solid waste            485             18
Increase  litter                                      474             17
Contribute to  disposal  problems, especially
   with  plastics  that are nonbiodegradable            229              8
Increase  need  for  additional storage  space           237              9
Poor quality of  some of the disposable products        98              4
Limited acceptance in all  restaurants by con-
   suming  public                                      396             14
Increasing cost  of disposable products                 59            	2
      Total                                         2,760            100
 Source:  Walker and Price,  "The  Health Profession's Attitude Toward Single-Use
           Food and Beverage  Containers,"  (79).
 _a/ Disadvantages  were listed by respondents.
 b/ Percentages are rounded to the  nearest integer.

                                   S-104

-------
                                                          TABLE 3A

               CONTRIBUTION OF PAPER AND PLASTIC CUPS AND PLATES TO SANITATION LEVELS IN POOD SERVICE FACILITIES
    Public Health Professional

    Public/Environmental Health
      Administrators
    Officials of Professional
      Public/Environmental
      Health Organizations
    Sanitarians
^   Public/Environmental Health
£     Academicians
   Environmental Health Scientists
    Public Health Officials in
      Federal Agencies

    Total
                                         Contribute
                                          Very Much
                   Contribute
                    Somewhat
                         Contribute
                           Slightly
                                     Do Not
                                   Contribute
                                     At All
                                             Total
Number  Percent  Number  Percent   Number  Percent  Number  Percent  Number  Percent
  876
70
207
17
153
12
1,245
45
10
978
38
112
29
2,043
56
85
57
47
64
74
6
129
14
69
7
432 •
33
11
21
29
16
16
—
30
9
50
7
249
__
3
13
21
16
9
2
8
6
9
2
36
11
1
9
4
4
I
18
1,145
67
240
45
2,760
1
41



100
     Source:  Walker  and Price,  "The  Health Profession's Attitude Toward Single-Use Food and Beverage Containers," (79).
     Number:  Number  of respondents.
     Percent: Percent of  respondents (percentages  are  founded to the nearest integer).

-------
          The role of single-use foodservice ware in the overall realm of

sanitation cannot be denied. As specified in the Model Ordinance, single-

service items must be used in foodservice establishments (or institutions)

where there are inadequate facilities for washing and sanitizing permanent

ware* Single-service items may be recommended in isolation units of hospitals,

particularly if there is concern over the sanitary quality of permanent ware

being processed through the hospital kitchen* Single-service products are

also necessary at public events, outdoor gatherings, and other such occasions

when the "commercial foodservice establishment" may consist only of a small

booth or stand, certainly not equipped to wash and sanitize dishes.

          Within the commercial or institutional setting where there are

facilities for washing and sanitizing permanent ware, it is extremely dif-

ficult to make direct comparisons between reusables and disposables. As pre-
                       i
viously discussed, the impact of human variables, from day to day, from restaurant

to restaurant or institution to institution, negates virtually every attempt

to quantify differences in the sanitary status of disposables versus reusables*

As correctly stated by the Single Service Institute, "the only precise way

to assess the health values of disposables versus reusables would be to survey

the bacteriological quality of one versus the other by testing the utensils

in .food-serving establishments just prior to their use," (48). And even then,

the scope of the investigation would have to be massive in order to be equitable.

          Additionally, bacteriological standards alone do not measure the

capacity of foodservice ware (or any other product) to transmit disease;

the most such standards can do is to indicate potential for disease trans-

mission.
                                   S-106

-------
          The problem in assessing sanitation  standards  on  foodservice ware




is summarized quite effectively by Bailus Walker,  the  author of  several stud-




ies in this field: "Anderson in an extensive review of the  epidemiological




basis of environmental sanitation in  1943 stated  'I wish I  could cite evidence




that the lack of decent cleanliness in  handling dishes in food establishments




is likely to result in demonstrable diseases,  for I would welcome a  basis




for enforcing better dishwashing. And yet I know  of no evidence  of this char-




acter.' ...Almost four decades  later  there is  still little  or no evidence




of this character. Questions involving  the health effects of environmental




bioloads are particularly prone to uncertainty and the health impact of var-




ious environmental levels of microorganisms on food or beverage  contact sur-




faces are often unknown, and not infrequently  unknowable."  (78,  page 10;
 See comments Appendix J,  pages  16-20.
                                  S-107

-------
      APPENDIX A
ADDITIONAL TESTING DATA
       S-108

-------
                               TABLE I





EFFECTS OF THE USE OF DISINFECTANTS IN RINSE WATER AT THE HOT WATER SETTING
Number Bacteria

Participant
Number
1




3
















•4 '
















Treatment
None
Quaternary
Phenolic (B)
Phenolic (E)
Phenolic (E)
None
None
None
None
None
Quaternary
Quaternary
Quaternary
Phenolic (B)
Phenolic (B)
Phenolic (C)
Phenolic (C)
Phenolic (E)
Phenolic (E)
Phenolic (E)
Phenolic (E)
Phenolic (E)
None
None
None
None
None
Quaternary
Quaternary
Quaternary
Quaternary
Quaternary
Quaternary
Quaternary
Quaternary
Quaternary
Phenolic (B)
Active
Ingredients
(ppm)
0
200
125
250
250
0
0
0
0
0
200
200
200
125
250
125
125
125
125
250
250
250
0
0
0
0
0
200
200
200
135
135
135
135
135
33
125
per Milliliter
Wash
Water
80
640
90
40
40
1,400
1,130
8,200
1,300
1,000
14,000
2,100
2,100
4,600
700
1,300
180
2,700
1,200
760
17,000
2,100
4,400
5,400
1,150
31,000
330
3,900
650
1,800
2,500
2,200
7,600
170
6,700
1,550
1,900
Rinse
Water
30
< 10
10
20
< 10
180
6,400
4,600
610
340
70
<.io
20
30
< 10
220
10
50
30.
< 10
1,580
30 ,
1,670
2,800
1,660
20,300
1,070
20
0
0
10
< 10
0
0
30
610
10
Number Bacteria
per Square
Inch
50
0
< 10
0
25
—
—
925
3,500
550
--
225
100
50
< 25
25
< 25
< 25
125
< 25
1,200
75
—
1,500
710(M).
25,600
—
50
< 25
< 25
—
—
--
— ..
—
—
300

Detergent
Anionic
Nonionic
Anionic
Nonionic
Nonionic
Nonionic
Nonionic
Anionic
Anionic
Anionic
Nonionic
Nonionic
Anionic
Anionic
Anionic
Nonionic
Anionic
Nonionic
Anionic
Nonionic
Anionic
Anionic
Nonionic
Anionic
Anionic
Nonionic
Nonionic
Nonionic
Anionic
Anionic
Nonionic
Nonionic
Anionic
Anionic
Anionic
Anionic
Anionic
                                  S-109

-------
                                TABLE I (concluded)


Active
Participant Ingredients
Number









5







6






7


Treatment
Phenolic (B)
Phenolic (C)
Phenolic (C)
Phenolic (C)
Phenolic (C)
Phenolic (E)
Phenolic (E)
Phenolic (E)
Phenolic (E)
None
None
Quaternary
Quaternary
Phenolic (E)
Phenolic (E)
Phenolic (E)
Phenolic (E)
None
None
Quaternary
Quaternary
Phenolic (C)
Phenolic (C)
Phenolic (E)
None
None
Phenolic (C)
(pom)
250
65
125
125
125
250
250
250
250
0
0
200
200
125
250
250
250
0
0
200
200
125
125
250
0
0
125
Number Bacteria
per Milliliter
Wash
Vfatejr
2,600
4,600
84,000
17,400
16,900
460
1,000
1,000
6,200
10,500
500
690
20
230
510
90
940
180
770
240
470
120
120
60
851
410
2,900
Rinse
Water

-------
                                             TABLE II

             EFFECTS OF THE USE  OF  DISINFECTANTS IN WASH WATER AT THE HOT WATER SETTING
No. Bacteria per

Participant
Number Treatment
3 None
None
None
None
None
Quaternary
Quaternary
Quaternary
Quaternary
Phenolic (C)
Phenolic (C)
Phenolic (D)
Phenolic (E)
Phenolic (E)
Phenolic (E)
4 None
None
None
None
Quaternary
Quaternary
Quaternary
Phenolic (B)
Phenolic (C)
• Phenolic (C)
Phenolic (C)
Phenolic (D)
Phenolic (E)
5 None
None
Quaternary
Phenolic (C)
Phenolic (E)
Active
Ingredients
(ppm)
0
0
0
0
0
200
200
200
200
125
125
100
250
250
25 0^
0
0
0
0
200
200
200
25 <£/
250
125
125
100
375
0
0
200
125
250
Milliliter
Wash
Water
1,400
1,180
8,200
1,300
1,000
800
90
120
80
20
80
20
30
50
70
4,400
5,400
1,150
31,000
40
190
90
200
20
450
10
20
10
10,500
500
<10
100
<10
Rinse
Water
180
6,400
4,600
610
340
170
350
10
20
280
70
140
30
30
<10
1,670
2,800
1,660
20,300
<10
520
160
30
380
550
60
80
210
32,000
800
20
1,390
640
No. Bacteria per
Square Inch
of Swatch
* •
—
925
3,500
550
—
—
--
25
--
50
<25
0
100
0
--
1,500
710(M)
25,600
750(M)
300
50
<25
100
1,900
75 (M)
850
2,500
--
1,600
50
150
<25
                                                                                        Detergent

                                                                                         Nonionic
                                                                                         Nonionic
                                                                                         Anionic
                                                                                         Anionic
                                                                                         Anionic
                                                                                         Nonionic
                                                                                         Nonionic
                                                                                         Nonionic
                                                                                         Nonionic
                                                                                         Nonionic
                                                                                         Anionic
                                                                                         Anionic
                                                                                         Nonionic
                                                                                         Anionic
                                                                                         Anionic
                                                                                         Nonionic
                                                                                         Anionic
                                                                                         Anionic
                                                                                         Anionic
                                                                                         Nonionic
                                                                                         Nonionic
                                                                                         Nonionic
                                                                                         Anionic
                                                                                         Anionic
                                                                                         Nonionic
                                                                                         Anionic
                                                                                         Anionic
                                                                                         Nonionic
                                                                                         Nonionic
                                                                                         Nonionic
                                                                                         Nonionic
                                                                                         Nonionic
                                                                                         Nonionic
Source: "Disinfectants in Hone  Laundering," Paper presented May  16, 1962,
          during 48th midyear meeting, Chemical Specialties Manufacturers
          Association, Chicago,  by Ethel McNeil and Eva A. Choper.
aj Disinfectant used at concentration of 160 ppm in wash and  90  ppm in rinse.
                                               S-lll

-------
                                                    TABLE III




                   EFFECTS OF THE USE  OF DISINFECTANTS  IN  RINSE WATER AT THE WARM WATER SETTING



                                                       No. Bacteria per
en
i

Participant
Number
I













2

3



4



5





Treatment
None
None
None
None
None
None
Quaternary
Quaternary
Phenolic (D)
Phenolic (C)
Phenolic (C)
Phenolic (E)
Phenolic (E)
Phenolic (E)
None
Quaternary
None
Quaternary
Phenolic (D)
Phenolic (E)
None
. Quaternary '
Quaternary
Phenolic (E)
None
Quaternary
Phenolic (E)

Active
Ingredients
(ppm)
0
0
0
0
0
0
200
200
125
125
85
250
250
250
0
' 200
0
200
75
250
0
200
200
250
0
200
250

Milliliter
Wash
Water
12 , 300
8,400
20,500
2,810
14,000
2,120
5,700
64,000
12,000
4,200
6,300
8,300
6,100
7,800
117,000
83,000
340,000
324,000
1,250,000
• 33,000
340,000
141,000
417,000
270,000
72,000
11,500
6,500

Rinse
Water
1,900
7,000
3,300
1,130
1,200
870
0
<10
<10
70
370
50
80
100
2,800
<10
41,000
<10
35,700
170
38,000
30
<10
3,600
19,000
0
30

No. Bacteria per
Square Inch
of Swatch
— _
—
1,800
—
200
'
—
50(M)
50
<25
850
25
<25
25
650
0
3,750
75
850
<25
650
500
—
700
700
<25
275
*


Detergent
Anionic
Anionic
Anionir
Nonionic
Nonionic
Nonionic
Nonionic
Nonionic
Anionic
Anionic
Nonionic
Nonionic
Anionic
Anionic
Anionic
Anionic
Anionic
Anionic
Nonionic
Anionic
Anionic
Nonionic
Anionic
Anionic
Anionic
Nonionic
Nonionic

     Source: "Disinfectants in Home Laundering," Paper presented May 16,  1962,

               during 48th midyear meeting, Chemical  Specialties Manufacturers

               Association, Chicago, by Ethel McNeil  and Eva A. Choper.

-------
                                                     TABLE TV
en
i
                    EFFECTS OF THE USE OF DISINFECTANTS IN WASH WATRR AT THE WARM WATER SETTING

                                                       No. Bacteria per

Participant
Number
1














2

3

4





5



Active
Ingredients
Treatment
None
None
None
None
None
None
Quaternary
Quaternary
Phenolic (B)
Phenolic (C)
Phenolic (C)
Phenolic (D)
Phenolic (F)
Phenolic (F)
Phenolic (F)
None
QUjffternary — 	
None
Phenolic (E)
None
Quaternary
Quaternary
Phenolic (D)
Phenolic (E)
Phenolic (E)
None
Quaternary
Phenolic (E)
(ppm)
0
0
0
0
0
0
200
200
250
125
125
100
95
95
165
0
200
0
250
0
200
200
100
250
250
0
200
250
Milliliter No. Bacteria per
Wash
Water
12,300
8,400
20,500
2,810
14,000
2,120
20
120
<100
310
330
40
190
1,300
90
117,000
20
340,000
12,800
340,000
70
690
10,300
16,500
480
72,000
20
4,700
Rinse
Water
1,900
7,000
3,300
1,130
1,200
870
170
680
150
520
170
<10
60
1,000
20
35,000
10
41,000
3,700
38,000
2,000
2,400
2,900
13,300
4,700
19,000
40
580
Square Inch
of Swatch
•» •
—
1,800
--
200
•
125 (M)
1,300
—
25 (M)
675 (M)
25 (M)
l.QOO(M)
<25(M)
25
22,250
100
3,750
75
650
25
1,100
525
1,175
200
700
40
25

Detergent
Anionic
Anionic
Anionic
Nonionic
Nonionic
Nonionic
Nonionic
Nonionic
Nonionic
Nonionic
Nonionic
Nonionic
Anionic
Nonionic
Nonionic
Nonionic
Nonionic
Anionic
Nonionic
Anionic
Nonionic
Nonionic
Anionic
Anionic
Anionic
Anionic
Nonionic
Anionic
      Source: "Disinfectants in Home Laundering," Paper presented May  16,  1962,
                during 48th midyear meeting,  Chemical  Specialties Manufacturers
                Association, Chicago, by Ethel McNeil  and Eva A.  Choper.

-------
                                                   TABLE V
                                EFFECT OF THE USE OF CHLORINE BLEACH IN WASH WATER


Participant
Number
3

8





i
i

9





Available
Chlorine (ppm)
Beginning of
Wash Cycle
None •
320
None
None
320
320.
320
320
320
160
None
320
320
320
320
160
Number
Bacteria
per Milliliter
Wash
Water
210
10
160
5,500
< 10
< 10
< 10
< 10
< 10
< 10
36,000
100
< 10
< 10
10
10
Rinse
Water
620
10
650
3,900
< 10
< 10
< 10
< 10
< 10
< 10
41,000
60
10
< 10
< 10
30

Number Bacteria
per Square Inch
of Swatch
125
75
150
4,400
< 25
< 25
< 25
< 25
< 25
< 25
875
50
25
50
25
< 50


Available Chlorine
End of
6 Minutes
<••.
—
—
—
—
—
—
93
49




13.5
15
9
End of

(ppm)
End of
Wash Cycle Rinse Water
— —
—
~
--
—
—
—
78
40




10.6
11
8
*•••
—
—
—
—
—
—
3.5
18




0.1
0.1
0.07



Detergent
Synthetic Anionic
Synthetic Anionic
Synthetic Anionic
Synthetic Anionic
Synthetic Anionic
Synthetic Anionic
Synthetic Anionic
Synthetic Anionic
Soap
Synthetic Anionic
Synthetic Anionic
Synthetic Anionic
Synthetic Anionic
Synthetic Anionic
Synthetic Anionic
Synthetic Anionic
Source: "Disinfectants in Home Laundering," Paper presented May 16, 1962,
          during 48th midyear meeting, Chemical Specialties Manufacturers
          Association, Chicago,.by Ethel McNeil and Eva A. Choper.

-------
                                                                               TABLE VI
140°<
     Water
   Temperature
 Hot
 Hot
 Hot
 Hot
 Hot
 Hot
 Hot
 Hot
 Hot
 Hot
 Hot
 Hot
100°<
 60° <
 Warm
 Warm
 Warm
 Worm
 Warm
 Warm
 Warn
 Warn
 Warm
 Warm
 Warm
.Warm

 Cold
 Cold
 Cold
 Cold
 Cold
 Cold
 Cold
 Cold
 Cold
 Cold
 Cold
 Cold
COUNT OF STAPIIYI.OCOCCUS AUREUS AT VARIOUS WATER
Detergent
Concentration
(percent)
' none
none
none
0.1
0.1
0.1
0.2
0.2
0.2
0.4
0.4
0.4
none
none
none
O.t
0.1
0.1
0.2
0.2 ~
0.2
0.4
0.4
0.4
none
none
none
0.1
0.1
0.1
0.2
0.2
0.2
0.4
0.4
0.4
, "Can Home Laundries
-
(Numbers Are
Wash 0-Inoc.
Ho. x 106
1
2
3
1
2
3
1
2
3
1
2
3
I
2
3
I
2
3
1
2
3
1
2
3
1
2
3
1
2
3
1
2
3
1
2
3
Stop
850
2500
235
4900
252
236
4900
1300
168
4900
1400
41
1450
2500
236
6800
1500
168
6800
1500
168
6800
252
41
2500
2.36
41
252
168
90
252
41
90
1400
4100
895
the Spread of Bucter^
TEMPERATUIIES AND DETERGENT CONCENTRATIONS ON NYLONS AND COTTON FABRICS
Counts per Square Inch of Fabric)
Survival
Initial After
Count
x 10*
28
191
375
101
1231
2558
142
705
745
143
705
749
133
191
375
97
521
745
97
521
745
150
1232
749
22
2557
372
931
488
160
123
934
160
705
934
160
•v In Clothing?" (85).
Wash
x 106
V
0
0.005000
0
0.000048
0.000001
0
0.000014
0
0.000003
0.000005
0.000001
0.000001
13.000000
29.770000
1 . 100000
0.193000
2.030000
0.540000
0,240000
1.610000
0.070800
0.000225
0.131900
0.000301
10.400000
73.000000
34.320000
1.900000
1.840000
0.045600
31.500000
21.180000
3.870000
0.446900
12.200000
28.340000

Survival
After

Dryg RedepoHltlon
x 10 x 106
0
0.001000
0
0.000025
0.000001
0
0.000008
0.000001
0
' 0.000007
0.000001
0.00000 I
0.006560
0.102000
0.001320
0.007775
0.001597
0.004527
Q.,002915 	
0.001195
0.000524
0.000067
0.000842
0.000001
0.023266
0.478000
0.254000
0.000503
0.000502
0.011000
0.013337
0.011494
0.115000
0.000091
0.001526
0.000705

0.000001
0.003000
0.000001
0.000054
0.000002
0
0.000014
0.000001
0
0.000005
0
0
0.270000
0.235600
0.033000
0.055000
0.100500
0.041500
0.001200
0.030500
0.013900
0.000146
0.016800
0.000042
1.400000
5.600000
29.790000
0.061000
0.081400
0.006300
0.113700
30.230000
5.460000
0.008400
0.046500
0.039400


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                                                                            TABLE VII
                         ORIGINAL INOCULUM COUNT.  IHITIAL OOUKT BEFORE WASH. SURVIVAL AFTER WASH. SURVIVAL AFTER DRTING AND RKDEPOS1TIOH
   Water
Temperature





140',






CO
1
H"
<7»
100*.










60*






"Hot
Hot
Hot
Hot
Hot
Hot
Hot
Hot
Hot
Hot
Hot
_n»t
~Wana
Wane
Wara
Wana
Wara
Wara
Wara
Wara
Wara
Wara
Wara
Jrtra
Cold
Cold
Cold
Cold
Cold
Cold
Cold
Cold
Cold
Cold
Cold
Cold
COUNT OF STAFHYLOCOCCUS AUREUS AT VARIOUS HATER TEMPERATURES AND DETERGENT CONCENTRATIONS ON WOOL. NTLOH AND COTTON FABRIC
(Nuaber*
-
Detergent
Concentration Naah 0-Inoc.
(percent) . Jlo. x 106
none
none
none
0.1
O.I
0.1
0.1
0.2
O.Z
0.4
0.4
0.4
• none
none
none
0.1'
0.1
0.1
0.2
0.2
0.2
0.4
0.4
0.4
none
none
none
0.1
0.1
0.1
0.2
0.2
0.2
0.4
0.4
0.4
9900
202
41
9900
202
33
9900
161
34
9900
161
41
1450
202
41
1430
202
33
aso
161
41
830
161
41
202
41
41
702
33
41
161
41
41
161
41
10
Are Count* per Square Inch of Fabric)

Initial
Count
x 10*
16
658
341
16
1293
1560
1600
1073
16
16
2337
104
159
6586
341
159
1293
1560
32
1073
310
164
2337
104
66
1700
10
1293
1560
104
1073-
310
104
2337
310
217
Survival
After
Uaali
xip6
0
0.050000
0.069700
0.000001
0.028957
0
0
0
0.015000
0
0
0.000148
0.252200
0.669200
53.150000
0.333700
0.033700
13.440000
0.014228
0.039000
0.003771
0.627770
1.200000
0.357600
48.450000
48.400000
57.860000
37.840000
21.880000
31.260000
7.770000
3.433000
11.830000
26.040000
3.510000
0.183800
Survival
After
.•5.
0
0.003040
0.007483
0.000001
0.001037
0.000008
0
0
0.004339
0
0.000003
0.000001
0.016200
0.093000
0.030000
0.009213
0.017000
0.025240
0.000016
0.002919
0.000016
0.000188
0.000002
0.000163
4.700000
0.090000
0.803000
0.100000
0.002870
0.015187
0.001336
0.001219
0.205192
0.007615
0.004171
0.035000


•edepoeltlon
• x 10*
0
0.209500
0.075000
0
0.023540
0
0
0
0.003240
0
0.000370
0.000402
0.003000
0.050800
1.500000
0.053700
0.023600
2.574000
0.001128
0.071000
0.000337
0.130810
0.212000
0.049300
.960000
.260000
.430000
.490000
.140000
.880000
0.930000
0.060600
2.040000
2.700000
0.710000
0.038000
  Source, Witt and Warden,  "Can «o»e  Uundrle.  Stop the Spread of Bacteria  In Clothing?"  (85).

-------
                              APPENDIX:! IB
                                       't




                      BIBLIOGRAPHY AND G&NTACT LIST1
                                  ™"""""™"'i'ir   """"""""""*~
See  comments Appendix  B, pages 11-|12.
                                    S-117

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                                  BIBLIOGRAPHY
 1. Blarmon, Janet C., and Mirdza Peterson, "Survival of Fecal Coliforms and
      Fecal Streptococci in a Sanitary Landfill," U.S. Environmental Protec-
      tion Agency (1973).

 2. Bradley, L. A., The No-Iron Laundry Manual, prepared under the direction of
      the American Hotel and Motel Association, Research Committee and published
      by the Cornell Hotel and Restaurant Administration Quarterly, Ithaca,
      New York.

 3. Brown, Claude P., M.D., Ralph M. Tyson, M.D., and Frederic H. Wilson, M.T.
      "Dermatitis (Diaper Rash):  A Bacteriologic Study of the Diaper Region,"
      The Pennsylvania Medical Journal. Vol. 55, pp. 755-758, August 1952.

 4. Brown, Claude P., M.D., and Frederic H. Wilson, M.T., "Diaper Region
      Irritations:  Pertinent Facts and Methods of Prevention," Clinical
      Pediatrics. Vol. 3, No. 7, pp. 409-413, July 1964.

 5. "The Case of the Diaper Deaths," Hospital Practice, pp. 14-21, January
      1968.

 6. Church, Brooks D., and Clayton G. Loosli, "The Role of the Laundry in
      the Recontamination of Washed Bedding," Journal of Infectious Diseases,
      Vol. 93, pp. 6-74  (1953).

 7. Cooper, Robert C., et a,l., "Virus Survival in Solid Waste Leachates,"
      Water Research. Vol. 9, pp. 733-739, August 1975.

 8. Davis, J. G., "A Bacteriological Investigation of Tovels," The Medical
      Officer, pp. 89-95, February 1964.

 9." Disposable and Reusable Cloth Diapers," American Paper Institute, Tissue
      Division, April 2, 1976.

10. Dixon, Glen J., Robert W. Sidwell, and Ethel McNeil, "Quantitative Studies
      on Fabrics as Disseminators of Viruses:  II.  Persistence of Poliomyelitis
      Virus on Cotton and Wool Fabrics," Applied Microbiology. Vol. 14, pp. IBS-
      IBS, March 1966.

11. Engelbrecht, R. J., "Survival of Viruses and Bacteria in a Simulated Sani-
      tary Landfill," prepared for Diaper Research Committee, Tissue Division,
      Anerican Paper Institute, Urbana, Illinois, December 1973.

12. Fahlberg, Willson J., "The 'Kleenex1 Principle," The Journal of Environmental
      Sciences, pp.  22-25, September-October 1974.

                                     S-118

-------
13.  Farley,  Marilyn,  "Non-Woven Disposables  Vs. Traditional  Linens,"  Hospital
       Housekeeping, Vol.  3,  pp. 13-41,  January-February 1974.

14.  "Food Service Sanitation Manual Including a Model Food Service Sanitation
       Ordinance and Code:   1962 Recommendations of the Public  Health  Service,"
       U.S. Public Health  Service.

.15.  Foodborne  Outbreaks:  Annual Summary, 1970, Center for Disease Control,
       Atlanta,  Georgia.

16.  Foodborne  and Waterborne  Disease Outbreaks:  Annual  Summary.  1974. Center
       for Disease Control, Atlanta, Georgia.

17.  Fox,  John  P., "Opinion Statement—Viral  Infection Hazard of Disposable
       Diapers," University of Washington, School of  Public Health, Department
       of  Epidemiology.

18.  Gibson,  Josephine, "China is Tops in Cleanliness," Reprinted  from Food
       Service.  March  1954.

19.  Grant, Wilson W., M.D., Luther  Street, M.D., and Ronald  G. Fearnow, M.D.,
       "Diaper  Rashes  in Infancy:  Studies on the Effects  of  Various Methods
       of  Laundering," Clinical Pediatrics. Vol. 12, No. 12, pp. 714-716,
       December 1973.

20.  Greene,  V.  W ,  "Microbiological Contamination  Control  in Hospitals,"
       Hospitals.  Vol. 44, pp. 98-103, January 1970.

21.  "Hospital  Study of Patient  Feeding  on Single Service," Single Service
       Institute,  p. 14 (1976).

22.  Iowa,  State of, "Lavs and Rules of  Iowa  Relating to  the  Operation of
       Restaurants,  Hotels, Food Establishments  and Vending Machines Including
       Sanitation Laws," Bulletin No. 56C (1974).

23.  Jopke, W.  H., S. D. Sorenson, D. R. Hass,  and  A.  C. Donovan,  "Air Condi-
       tioning  Reduces Mlcrobiologic Levels in Hospital Dishwashing Facilities,"
       Hospital Progress, pp.  22-30, August 1972.

24.  Jopke, W.  H., S. D. Sorenson, D. R. Hass,  and  A.  C. Donovan,  "Microbial
       Contamination on Hospital Tableware,"  Hospital  Progress, pp. 30-33,
       June 1972.

25.  Jordan,  William E., Daniel  V. Jonea, and Morton Klein, "Antiviral Effec-
       tiveness  of Chlorine Bleach in Household Laundry Use," American Journal
       of  Diseases of Children.  Vol. 117, pp.  313-316, March  1969.

26.  Katz,  J.,  D.  Pfautsch, and  P. Brandford,  "Single-Use Cups and Plates:  A
       Review of the Available Literature," February  1976.

                                     •. S-119

-------
 27.   Koenig, John H., "Comparison of Some Properties of Plastic and China
        Tableware," Reprinted from Ceramic Age, April 1952.

 28.   Litsky, Bertha Y., and Warren Litsky, "Bacterial Shedding During Bed-
        Stripping of Reusable and Disposable Linens as Detected by the High-
        Volume Air Sampler." Health Laboratory Science. Vol. 8, No. 1, pp. 29-34
        January 1971.

 29.   Livesey, Ruth Perry, "Diapering for Good Skin Care," The Journal of Prac-
        tical Nursing. August 1973.

 30.   Lloyd, R. S., K. Kereluk, and D. G. Vogel, "Bacteriological Observations
        of Hospital Commissary Environments," Hospital Management, p. 31,
        August 1970.

 31.   Maine, State of, "Rules and Regulations Relating to Catering Establishments,-
        Establishments Preparing Foods for Vending Machines Dispensing Foods
        Other than in Original Sealed Packages, Eating and Lodging Places,
        Recreational and Overnight Camps," Department of Health and Welfare. .

 32.   Mailman, W. L., "Sanitation vith Modern Detergents," Proceedings of the
        Third Conference on Research - American Meat Institute (1950).

 33.   Mailman, W. L., David Kahler, and Frederick Butt, "Studies on the Cleaning
        and Sanitizing of Melamine Plastic and Vitreous China Dinnerware,"
        Reprint by the Society of the Plastics Industry, Inc. (1955).

 34.   Marmo, Anthony B., "Bacteria Control in the Laundry," Linen Supply News
        (1969-70).

 35.   McNeil, Ethel, "Dissemination of Microorganisms by Fabrics and Leather,"
        Developments in Industrial Microbiology. Vol. 5, pp. 30-35 (1964).

•36.   McNeil, Ethel, "Studies of Bacteria Isolated from Home Laundering,"
        Developments in Industrial Microbiology. Vol. 4, pp. 314-318 (1963).

 37.   McNeil, Ethel, and Eva A. Choper, "Disinfectants in Home Laundering,"
        Soap and Chemicals Specialties. Vol. 38, July-December 1962.

 38.   McNeil, Ethel, and Maurice Greenstein, "Control of Transmission ,of Bacteria
        by Textiles and Clothing," Proceedings of the 47th Mid-Year Meeting of
        the Chemical Specialties Manufacturers Association. May 1961.

 39.   Meyers, Jack R., "Short-Time, Low-Temperature Washing Procedure Inadequate,"
        Linen Supply Nevs. June 1968.
                                        S-120

-------
40.  Mood,  Eric W.,  "Microbiological Studies of Organisms Recovered from Paper
        and Cloth Hand Towels," Tissue Division, American Paper Institute, Inc.,
        September 1,  1967.

41.   "National Sanitation Foundation Standard No.  3 for Commercial Spray - Type
        Dishwashing Machines," National Sanitation  Foundation,  Ann Arbor, Michigan,
        April 1965.

42.   "National Sanitation Foundation, Standard No. 36 for Dinnerware," National
        Sanitation Foundation, Ann Arbor,  Michigan, July 23,  1970.

43.   Nicholes, Paul  S., "Bacteria in Laundered Fabrics," American Journal of
        Public Health. Vol. 60, No. 11, pp.  2175-2180, November 1970.

44.   "Ordinance and  Code Regulating Eating  and Drinking Establishments," Kansas
        City, Missouri, Health Department  (1962).

45.   "Paper and Cloth Napkins," Tissue Division, American Paper Institute,
        April 21, 1976.

46.   "Paper and Cloth Towels," Tissue Division, American Paper Institute, April
        2, 1976.
                                •
47.   "Paper Towel -  Cloth Towel:   Bacteria  Count Comparison,"  American Paper
        Institv.te.

48.   Personal Communication, Charles W. Felix, Single Service Institute, to
        Ronald S. Fellman, Midwest Research  Institute, May 28,  1976.

49.   Personal Communication, William P. Fisher, National Restaurant Association,
        to Gregory J. Ahart,  General Accounting Office, January 5, 1976.

50.   Personal Communication, Robert W. Foster, Single Service Institute, to
        Richard 0. Welch, Midwest Research Institute,  April 9,  1976.
                                •
51.   Personal Communication, Jack 3. Friers, Syracuse Research Corporation,
        to Ronald S.  Fellman, Midwest Research Institute, May 14,  1976.

52.   Personal Communication (telephone),  Dr. Marcus Horowitz,  Communicable Dis-
        ease Center,  to Ronald S. Fellman, Midwest  Research Institute, April 15, 1976.

53.   Personal Communication, John Malloy, The Society of the Plastics Industry,
        Inc., to Ronald S. Fellman, Midwest  Research Institute, April 6,1976.
                                      S-121

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54.   Personal Communication,  memorandum Co Midwest  Research  Institute  from
        Single Service Institute  regarding "Sanitation  and  Single-Service,"
        April 8,  1976.

55.   Personal Communication (telephone), Andy  Poledor, National  Restaurant
        Association,  to Ronald S.  Fellman, Midwest Research Institute,  April  16,
        1976.

56. .  Personal Communication,  Earl K.  Revell, Food Products Control Division,
        Iowa Department of Agriculture,  to Mary L. Sinister,  Midwest Research
        Institute,  April 27, 1976.

57.   Personal Communication,  H.  H. Wenant, Nebraska Bureau of Dairies  and  Foods,
        to Mary L.  Simister, Midwest Research Institute,  April 27, 1976.

58.   Peterson, M.  L., "Pathogens Associated with Solid Waste Processing,"
        Publications  SW-49r, U.S.  Environmental Protection  Agency, U.S.
        Government  Printing Office, Washington, D.C. (1971).

59.   Peterson, Mirdza L.,  "Soiled Disposable Diapers:  A Potential Source
        of Viruses,"  American  Journal  of Public Health. Vo