United States
Environmental Protection
Agency
Office of Radiation Programs
Eastern Environmental
Radiation Facility
1890 Federal Drive
Montgomery, AL 36109
EPA 520/5-88-054
June 1988
Radiation
Environmental Radiation
Data
Report 52

October - December 1987


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ENVIRONMENTAL




RADIATION




DATA
                   REPORT 52



              October - December 1987
     United States Environmental Protection Agency




             Office of Radiation Programs

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                                               Preface
    Environmental Radiation Data (ERD) is compiled and distributed quarterly by the Office of Radiation
Programs' Eastern Environmental Radiation Facility (EERF) in Montgomery, Alabama, and contains data
from  the Environmental Radiation Ambient  Monitoring System  (ERAMS). Data from similar networks
operated by contributing States, Canada, Mexico, and the Pan American Health Organization are reported
in the ERD when available.
    ERAMS was established in 1973 by the U. S. Environmental Protection Agency's Office of Radiation
Programs (ORP). The ERAMS is comprised of nationwide sampling stations that provide air, surface and
drinking water, and milk samples from which environmental radiation levels are derived. The major emphasis
for ERAMS is upon identifying trends in the accumulation of long-lived radionuclides in the environment.
    Sampling locations are selected to provide optimal population  coverage while functioning  to monitor
fallout from nuclear devices and other forms of radioactive contamination of the environment.  The radiation
analyses performed on these samples include gross alpha and gross beta levels, gamma analyses for fission
products,  and specific analyses for uranium, plutonium, strontium,  iodine,  radium, krypton, and tritium.
This monitoring effort also provides ancillary information on natural background levels and on routine and
accidental releases into the environment from  stationary sources.
    The radiochemical procedures used by the EERF  to analyze the ERAMS samples are contained  in
Eastern Environmental Radiation Facility Radiochemistry Procedures Manual (EPA 520/5-8^-006).
                                                 111

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                     Environmental Radiation Data









                                      Contents




                                                                                   Page




Data - Reporting Rationale and Procedures                                              ix




Data - ERAMS                                                                      1




       Section I.    Air Program                                                        1




                   1. Airborne Particulates and Precipitation                             1




                   2. Plutonium and Uranium in Airborne Particulates                     16




                   3. Krypton-85                                                     19




       Section II.   Water Program                                                     20




                   1. Surface Water                                                   20




                   2. Drinking Water                                                 23




       Section III.  External Gamma Ambient Monitoring Program                          26




       Section IV.  Milk Program                                                      28




                   1. Pasteurized Milk                                                28




                   2. Strontium-90 and Strontium-89 in Milk                             35




                   3. Carbon-14 in Milk                                               36

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                        Environmental  Radiation  Data









                                       List of Tables




Table                                                                                    Page




   1    ERAMS Reporting Increments and Minimum Detectable Levels                          xi




   2    Gross Beta Concentrations in Airborne Participates: October 1987                       2




   3    Gross Beta Concentrations in Airborne Particulates: November 1987                     4




   4    Gross Beta Concentrations in Airborne Particulates: December 1987                     6




   5    Gross Beta Concentrations in Precipitation:  October 1987                               8




   6    Gross Beta Concentrations in Precipitation:  November 1987                             10




   7    Gross Beta Concentrations in Precipitation:  December 1987                             12




   8    Tritium Concentrations in Precipitation: October  December  1987                       14




   9    Plutonium and Uranium In Airborne Particulates:  July - December 1987                 17




  10    Surface Water Tritium Concentrations:  October  December 1987                        21




  11    Drinking Water Tritium Concentrations: October  December  1987                       24




  12    Environmental Gamma Ambient Monitoring Program: October  December 1987          27




  13    Concentrations of Radionuclides in Pasteurized Milk: October 1987                      29




  14    Concentrations of Radionuclides in Pasteurized Milk: November 1987                    31




  15    Concentrations of Radionuclides in Pasteurized Milk: December 1987                    33




  16    Strontium-90 and Strontium-89 in Pasteurized Milk: EPA Regional Composites           35
                                               Vll

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                              DATA - Reporting Rationale and Procedures
    In  1973,  the  U.S.  Environmental Protection  Agency's Office  of Radiation Programs established  the
Environmental Radiation Ambient Monitoring System (ERAMS) to  provide continuous, accurate, and usable
environmental radiation data to the public.  For completeness, ERAMS data for all specific radionuclide
analyses are reported as the calculated results indicate, whether the numbers are negative, zero, or positive.

                                          Reporting Rationale

    Frequently, there is little or no radioactivity in environmental media.  Thus, the results of laboratory
analyses should statistically show a distribution of negative and positive numbers about zero. A negative
value occurs when a previously determined  background value is subtracted from a  sample value that is
less than that of the background. Prior to July  1975, ERAMS data were  not  reported  numerically when
the results were less than a specified reporting level or minimum  detectable level.  The present reporting
procedure allows all the data to be reported and evaluated statistically without  an arbitrary cutoff of small
or negative numbers. This approach will facilitate estimates of bias in the nuclide analyses and will allow
better evaluation of distributions  and trends  in environmental data.
    When reviewing the data in this report,  caution should be exercised in the  interpretation of individual
negative values. Obviously, a negative activity value has no physical significance. Such numbers,  however,
are significant when taken together with other observations  that indicate that the true value of a distribution
is near zero.  When an average of many measurements produces a result significantly less than zero, this
indicates a bias in the measurement procedure.
     (1)  Reported  Values
          Specific Analyses. All specific radionuclide analyses will be  reported as the counting results indicate,
    whether the value  is negative, zero, or positive. All reported values are corrected for radioactive decay
    to the collection date.
          Gross Analyses.   The actual value of gross radioactivity measurements will be reported,  unless
    the  value is below the minimum detectable level (MDL)  at the la confidence level, then < minimum
    detectable level will be reported.
          MDL is defined as the 3
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                                       Table 1
ERAMS Reporting Increments and  Minimum Detectable Levels
                           for  Radionuclide  Analyses
Radionuclide
Gross Alpha
t Gross Beta
Tritium
Carbon-14
Krypton-85
ft Plutouium-238,239,240
t Uranium-234,235,238
Radium-226
Stroiitium-90
tt Strontium-89
ft Iodine-131
Iodine-129
Cesium- 137
JJ Barium-140
Potassium
Potassium-40
Media
Water
Air
Water
Precipitation
Water
Milk
Milk
Ambient Air
Air
Milk
Water
Air
Milk
Water
Water
Milk
Water
Milk
Milk
Water
Water
Reporting
Units
pCi/1
pCi/m3
pCi/1
nCi/m2
nC'i/1
nCi/1
PCi/l
pCi/m3
aCi/m3
pCi/1
PCi/l
aCi/m3
pCi/1
PCi/l
pCi/1
PCi/l
pCi/1
pCi/1
PCi/l
PCi/l
pCi/1
Reporting
Increments
1 pCi/1
0.01 pCi/m3
] pCi/1
0.01 nCi/m2
0.1 nCi/1
0.1 nCi/1
1 pCi/1
0.1 pCi/m3
0.1 aCi/m3
0.001 pCi/1
0.001 pCi/1
0.1 aCi/m3
0.001 pCi/1
0.001 pCi/1
0.1 pCi/1
0.1 pCi/1
0.1 pCi/1
1 pCi/1
1 pCi/1
1 pCi/1
O.lpCi/1
Minimum
Detectable
Levels
2 pCi/1
0.01 pCi/m3
1 pCi/1
0.01 nCi/m2
0.2 nCi/1
0.2 nCi/1
15 pCi/1
2 pCi/md
0.015 pCi
0.015 pGi
0.015 pCi
0.015 pCi
0.015 pGi
0.015 pGi
0.1 pGi/1
1 PGi/l
1 PGi/l
5 pCi/1
10 pCi/1
10 pGi/1
0.4 pCi/1
(specific radiochemical analysis)
Milk
Milk
Water
Milk
Water
Milk
Water
Water
fCi/1
pCi/1
pCi/1
pCi/1
pCi/1
8/1
8/1
pCi/1
0.1 fCi/1
1 pCi/1
1 pCi/1
1 pCi/1
1 pCi/1
0.1 g/1
0.1 g/1
1 pCi/1
0.4 fCi/1
10 pGi/1
10 pCi/1
10 pGi/1
10 pGi/1
0.12 g/1
0.12 g/1
100 pCi/1
   f The value of MDL for precipitation in terms of nCi/m would be dependent on precipitation (mm).
  ff This value of MDL for air in terms of pCi/m would be dependent on the air volume. Measurement by alpha spectroscopy
    that includes contributions of plutonium-239 and plutonium-240. MDL for all media given per sample.
   t This value of MDL for air in terms of pCi/m would be dependent on the air volume. MDL for all media given per sample.
  J{ Activity as of the day of counting.
                                            XI

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                                                                                        DATA - EPA
                                  ENVIRONMENTAL RADIATION
                            AMBIENT MONITORING SYSTEM (ERAMS)
    Section I. Air Program

                                Airborne Particulates and Precipitation

    Gross beta radioactivity measurements and certain specific analyses are performed on air participates
and precipitation samples as indicator measurements in assessing the general (national) impact of all con-
tributing sources  on environmental levels of radiation.
    Airborne particulates are collected continuously at field stations representing wide geographic coverage,
including present  and potential sources of environmental radioactivity. Sampling sites are located throughout
the United States.
    Filters (10-c.m diameter synthetic fiber) from air samplers are changed twice weekly and field measure-
ments are made with a G-M survey meter ' at 5 hours and 29 hours after collection to allow for radon and
thoron daughter  product decay.  Field estimates are reported to appropriate EPA officials by telephone or
mail depending on the activity levels found.
    The filters are sent to  EERF for more sensitive analyses in a low background  beta counter.  Gamma
scans are performed on all filters showing gross beta counts greater than 1 pCi/m3. The laboratory obtained
values are usually lower than the field estimates due to the decay of naturally occurring radionuclides between
the times of the two measurements.
    Precipitation samples are collected  at those field  stations collecting air filters. These  samples are also
sent to  EERF where they are composited monthly for gamma scans, tritium, and gross beta activity mea-
surements. A composite of the March, April, and May precipitation samples is analyzed for plutonium-238,
-239, -240, and uranium-234, -235, and -238.
    A compilation of individual measurements is available from the  Eastern Environmental Radiation Fa-
cility, 1890 Congressman W.L. Dickinson Drive, Montgomery, AL  36109.
    Tables 2-4 contain the data in airborne particulate samples for October  December 1987.
    Tables 5-7 contain the data in precipitation sample for October - December 1987.
    Table 8  contains the data for  tritium in precipitation samples for October   December  1987 at the
selected sites.
   '  The counts at five hours for the Montgomery, Alabama, station are performed on a low background beta counter.

                                                  1

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         Table 2
  Airborne Particulates
Gross Beta Concentrations
       October 1987
Location
AL: MONTGOMERY
AR: LITTLE ROCK
CA: BERKELEY
CArLOS ANGELES
CO: DENVER
CT: HARTFORD
DE: WILMINGTON
FL: JACKSONVILLE
FL: MIAMI
GA: ATLANTA
HI: HONOLULU
IA:IOWA CITY
ID:BOISE
ID: IDAHO FALLS
IL: CHICAGO
IN: INDIANAPOLIS
KS:TOPEKA
KY: FRANKFORT
LA: NEW ORLEANS
MA: LAWRENCE
ME: AUGUSTA
MI:LANSING
MN: MINNEAPOLIS
MO: JEFFERSON CITY
MS: JACKSON
NC : CHARLOTTE
NC: WILMINGTON
ND: BISMARCK
NE: LINCOLN
NH: CONCORD
NJ:TRENTON
NM: SANTA FE
NV:LAS VEGAS
NY .-ALBANY
NY: NEW YORK CITY
NY: NIAGARA FALLS
NY: SYRACUSE
# Sam
9
9
9
9
7
9
9
9
9
4
9
9
8
9
9
8
9
3
4
8
8
9
9
8
9
8
8
8
8
9
9
5
9
4
9
9
3
5— Hr Field
Estimate
Max Min Ave
(pCi/m3)
2.5 0.6 1.5
1.2 0.2 0.5
0.1 0.0 0.0
0.5 0.1 0.3
1.1 0.4 0.8
0.2 0.0 0.1
0.4 0.0 0.2
0.2 0.0 0.1
0.1 0.0 0.0
0.8 0.4 0.6
0.4 0.2 0.2
1.3 0.1 0.4
0.7 0.1 0.4
0.0 0.0 0.0
1.5 0.2 0.5
0.6 0.3 0.5
2.1 0.4 1.3
0.5 0.4 0.4
0.2 0.1 0.2
0.3 0.0 0.1
0.3 0.1 0.2
0.4 0.1 0.2
2.0 0.0 0.5
1.2 0.2 0.6
0.9 0.3 0.5
0.6 0.1 0.3
0.0 0.0 0.0
2.2 0.5 1.0
9.1 0.1 2.0
0.3 0.0 0.1
1.0 0.2 0.4
0.4 0.1 0.3
0.4 0.1 0.2
0.2 0.0 0.1
0.3 0.1 0.2
0.3 0.1 0.1
0.1 0.0 0.0
EERF Lab
Measurment
Max Min Ave
(pCi/m3)
0.10 0.01 0.05
0.04 0.01 0.02
0.02 0.01 0.01
0.05 0.01 0.02
0.03 0.01 0.02
0.02 0.00 0.01
0.02 0.00 0.01
0.01 0.01 0.01
0.01 0.00 0.01
0.03 0.01 0.02
0.01 0.00 0.00
0.02 0.01 0.01
0.03 0.02 0.02
0.06 0.02 0.02
0.03 0.00 0.02
0.03 0.01 0.02
0.03 0.01 0.02
0.03 0.01 0.02
0.02 0.01 0.02
0.02 0.01 0.01
0.01 0.00 0.01
0.02 0.01 0.01
O.OS 0.00 0.02
0.05 0.00 0.02
0.05 0.01 0.02
0.03 0.01 0.02
0.02 0.01 0.01
0.03 0.01 0.02
0.03 0.01 0.02
0.01 0.00 0.01
0.02 0.01 0.01
0.02 0.01 0.01
0.05 0.01 0.03
0.02 0.01 0.02
0.02 0.01 0.01
0.02 0.00 0.01
0.01 0.01 0.01

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     Table 2 (continued)

   Airborne Participates
Gross Beta Concentrations
         October 1987
Location
NYrYAPHANK
OH : COLUMBUS
OH:PAINESVILLE
OH: TOLEDO
OK: OKLAHOMA CITY
OR: PORTLAND
PA:GOLDSBORO
PA:HARRISBURG
PA PHILADELPHIA
PA PITTSBURGH
PA: THREE MILE ISLAND
RI: PROVIDENCE
SC:BARNWELL
SC: COLUMBIA
SD: PIERRE
TN:KNOXVILLE
TN: NASHVILLE
TX: AUSTIN
TX:EL PASO
VA:LYNCHBURG
WA:OLYMPIA
WA: SPOKANE
WI:MADISON
WV: CHARLESTON
# Sam
8
9
9
9
8
8
9
9
9
9
9
9
2
9
9
8
8
9
9
9
9
9
8
4
5— Hr Field
Estimate
Max Min Ave
(pCi/m8)
0.5 0.1 0.2
0.6 0.1 0.3
0.2 0.0 0.1
1.4 0.1 0.4
1.0 0.2 0.6
0.0 0.0 0.0
0.7 0.1 0.2
0.6 0.0 0.2
0.7 0.1 0.2
0.2 0.2 0.2
1.2 0.1 0.4
0.5 0.1 0.2
0.0 0.0 0.0
0.8 0.2 0.5
1.4 0.3 0.6
0.8 0.2 0.5
1.2 0.2 0.5
0.5 0.2 0.3
0.8 0.3 0.6
1.9 0.4 0.8
0.5 0.2 0.3
1.2 0.6 0.8
1.6 0.2 0.5
0.6 0.0 0.3
EERF Lab
Measurment
Max Min Ave
(pCi/m3)
0.01 0.00 0.01
0.04 0.00 0.01
0.02 0.00 0.01
0.03 0.01 0.02
0.02 0.01 0.01
0.02 0.01 0.02
0.03 0.01 0.01
0.02 0.00 0.01
0.02 0.01 0.01
0.03 0.01 0.02
0.02 0.00 0.01
0.02 0.01 0.01
0.01 0.01 0.01
0.08 0.01 0.02
0.02 0.00 0.01
0.05 0.01 0.02
0.03 0.01 0.02
0.04 0.01 0.02
0.08 0.02 0.03
0.03 0.01 0.01
0.03 0.01 0.01
0.07 0.02 0.03
0.02 0.01 0.01
0.02 0.01 0.01
      for field estimates - 0.1 pCi/m3.
      for laboratory measurement - 0.01 pCi/m3
Minimum Detectable Limit
Minimum Detectable Limit

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         Table 3

  Airborne Participates
Gross Beta Concentrations
       November 1987
Location
AL: MONTGOMERY
AR: LITTLE ROCK
CA: BERKELEY
CA:LOS ANGELES
CO: DENVER
CT: HARTFORD
DE: WILMINGTON
FL: JACKSONVILLE
FL:MIAMI
GA: ATLANTA
HI: HONOLULU
IA:IOWA CITY
ID: BOISE
ID: IDAHO FALLS
IL: CHICAGO
IN: INDIANAPOLIS
KS:TOPEKA
KY: FRANKFORT
LA: NEW ORLEANS
MA: LAWRENCE
ME: AUGUSTA
MI: LANSING
MN: MINNEAPOLIS
MO: JEFFERSON CITY
MS: JACKSON
NC : CHARLOTTE
NC: WILMINGTON
ND: BISMARCK
HE: LINCOLN
NH : CONCORD
NJ:TRENTON
NM: SANTA FE
NV:LAS VEGAS
NY: ALBANY
NY: NEW YORK CITY
NY: NIAGARA FALLS
NY: SYRACUSE
# San
8
8
7
7
8
9
7
9
9
4
9
9
8
9
9
7
8
4
4
8
7
9
7
7
7
8
7
7
8
9
9
6
9
4
9
7
3
5— Hr Field
Estimate
Max Min Ave
(pCi/m3)
3.4 0.3 1.2
0.8 0.1 0.3
0.0 0.0 0.0
0.4 0.1 0.3
1.2 0.3 0.7
0.1 0.0 0.1
0.2 0.0 0.1
0.2 0.0 0.1
0.1 0.0 0.1
0.4 0.2 0.3
0.2 0.1 0.1
0.3 0.0 0.2
0.6 0.1 0.3
0.3 0.3 0.3
1.1 0.1 0.5
0.8 0.2 0.4
2.3 0.4 1.0
1.6 0.1 0.6
0.1 0.0 0.0
0.2 0.0 0.1
0.2 0.1 0.1
0.4 0.1 0.2
1.8 0.1 0.7
1.0 0.2 0.5
0.6 0.1 0.3
0.4 0.0 0.2
0.0 0.0 0.0
2.1 0.7 1.3
1.0 0.1 0.5
0.3 0.0 0.1
0.4 0.0 0.2
0.3 0.1 0.2
0.4 0.0 0.3
0.1 0.0 0.0
0.3 0.0 0.2
0.2 0.0 0.1
0.1 0.0 0.0
EERF Lab
Measurment
Max Min Ave
(pCi/m3)
0.07 0.01 0.03
0.03 0.01 0.01
0.01 0.00 0.01
0.03 0.01 0.02
0.04 0.00 0.02
0.02 0.01 0.01
0.02 0.01 0.01
0.02 0.00 0.01
0.02 0.00 0.01
0.03 0.01 0.02
0.00 0.00 0.00
0.03 0.01 0.02
0.04 0.01 0.02
0.02 0.01 0.01
0.06 0.01 0.02
0.04 0.01 0.02
0.02 0.01 0.01
0.07 0.01 0.03
0.01 0.01 0.01
0.03 0.01 0.01
0.02 0.01 0.01
0.03 0.01 0.01
0.03 0.01 0.02
0.04 0.01 0.02
0.06 0.01 0.02
0.03 0.01 0.01
0.01 0.00 0.01
0.08 0.01 0.03
0.03 0.01 0.02
0.02 0.01 0.01
0.02 0.00 0.01
0.02 0.01 0.01
0.02 0.00 0.01
0.03 0.01 0.02
0.03 0.01 0.02
0.02 0.01 0.01
0.01 0.01 0.01

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                 Table 3 (continued)

                Airborne Participates
             Gross Beta Concentrations
                     November 1987
Location
NY:YAPHANK
OH: COLUMBUS
OH:PAINESVILLE
OH: TOLEDO
OK: OKLAHOMA CITY
OR: PORTLAND
PA:60LDSBORO
PA:HARRISBURG
PA: PHILADELPHIA
PA: PITTSBURGH
PA: THREE MILE ISLAND
RI: PROVIDENCE
SC:BARNWELL
SC: COLUMBIA
SD : PIERRE
TN:KNOXVILLE
TN: NASHVILLE
TX: AUSTIN
TX:EL PASO
VA:LYNCHBURG
WA:OLYMPIA
WA: SPOKANE
WI: MADISON
WV : CHARLESTON
# Sam
7
7
8
9
6
8
9
9
8
9
9
9
1
7
8
8
7
S
7
8
8
8
9
7
5— Hr Field
Estimate
Max Min Ave
(pCi/m3)
0.6 0.1 0.2
0.7 0.1 0.3
0.3 0.1 0.2
0.6 0.1 0.4
0.7 0.4 0.5
0.0 0.0 0.0
0.8 0.0 0.2
0.5 0.0 0.2
0.1 0.1 0.1
0.0 0.0 0.0
0.6 0.0 0.2
0.2 0.0 0.1
0.0 0.0 0.0
0.7 0.2 0.4
1.5 0.5 0.8
1.4 0.1 0.4
0.8 0.1 0.3
0.3 0.1 0.2
1.3 0.2 0.6
1.3 0.1 0.4
0.5 0.0 0.2
0.8 0.2 0.4
1.1 0.1 0.5
0.7 0.0 0.3
EERF Lab
Meaeurment
Max Min Ave
(pCi/m3)
0.01 0.01 0.01
0.05 0.01 0.02
0.02 0.01 0.01
0.03 0.01 0.02
0.03 0.01 0.01
0.01 0.00 0.01
0.03 0.01 0.01
0.03 0.00 0.01
0.02 0.00 0.01
0.03 0.01 0.02
0.03 0.01 0.02
0.03 0.01 0.02
0.01 0.01 0.01
0.04 0.01 0.02
0.03 0.01 0.02
0.04 0.00 0.02
0.03 0.01 0.02
0.02 0.01 0.01
0.03 0.01 0.02
0.03 0.01 0.02
0.01 0.00 0.00
0.06 0.01 0.02
0.03 0.01 0.01
0.04 0.01 0.02
Minimum Detectable Limit
Minimum Detectable Limit
for field estimates - 0.1 pCi/m .
for laboratory measurement - 0.01 pCi/in3

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         Table 4

  Airborne Particulates
Gross Beta Concentrations
       December 1987
Location
AL: MONTGOMERY
AR: LITTLE ROCK
CA: BERKELEY
CA:LOS ANGELES
CO: DENVER
CT: HARTFORD
DE: WILMINGTON
FL: JACKSONVILLE
FL:MIAMI
GA: ATLANTA
HI: HONOLULU
IA:IOWA CITY
ID:BOISE
ID: IDAHO FALLS
IL: CHICAGO
IN: INDIANAPOLIS
KS:TOPEKA
KY: FRANKFORT
LA: NEW ORLEANS
MA: LAWRENCE
ME: AUGUSTA
MI:LANSING
MN MINNEAPOLIS
MO .-JEFFERSON CITY
MS: JACKSON
NC: CHARLOTTE
NC:WILMINGTON
ND: BISMARCK
NE:LINCOLN
NH: CONCORD
NJ:TRENTON
NM: SANTA FE
NV:LAS VEGAS
NY: ALBANY
NY: NEW YORK CITY
NY: NIAGARA FALLS
NY: SYRACUSE
# Sam
10
9
10
10
7
9
10
9
9
3
8
9
9
9
8
4
7
4
4
10
9
9
9
8
8
9
8
7
7
9
9
7
9
5
9
10
4
5— Hr Field
Estimate
Max Min Ave
(pCi/m3)
0.9 0.1 0.3
0.2 0.0 0.1
0.0 0.0 0.0
0.6 0.0 0.3
0.7 0.3 0.5
0.1 0.0 0.0
0.3 0.0 0.1
0.3 0.0 0.1
0.1 0.0 0.1
0.2 0.1 0.1
0.3 0.1 0.2
0.4 0.0 0.2
0.2 0.0 0.1
0.0 0.0 0.0
0.3 0.0 0.2
0.3 0.0 0.1
1.4 0.2 0.7
0.4 0.1 0.2
0.1 0.0 0.1
0.2 0.0 0.1
0.3 0.0 0.1
0.2 0.0 0.1
0.5 0.1 0.2
0.6 0.1 0.3
0.7 0.0 0.2
0.2 0.0 0.1
0.0 0.0 0.0
1.9 0.8 1.4
1.0 0.1 0.5
0.1 0.0 0.0
1.2 0.0 0.3
0.4 0.1 0.3
0.5 0.0 0.2
0.1 0.0 0.0
0.2 0.1 0.1
0.1 0.0 0.1
0.0 0.0 0.0
EERF Lab
Measurment
Max Min Ave
(pCi/m3)
0.02 0.01 0.01
0.03 0.00 0.02
0.01 0.00 0.00
0.02 0.00 0.01
0.02 0.01 0.01
0.01 0.00 0.01
0.01 0.00 0.01
0.02 0.00 0.01
0.01 0.01 0.01
0.02 0.01 0.02
0.01 0.00 0.00
0.02 0.01 0.01
0.02 0.00 0.01
0.03 0.00 0.02
0.01 0.01 0.01
0.01 0.01 0.01
0.02 0.01 0.01
0.01 0.00 0.01
0.02 0.01 0.01
0.02 0.00 0.01
0.02 0.00 0.01
0.02 0.01 0.01
0.02 0.01 0.02
0.02 0.01 0.01
0.02 0.01 0.01
0.02 0.01 0.01
0.01 0.00 0.01
0.04 0.01 0.02
0.02 0.00 0.02
0.02 0.00 0.01
0.04 0.00 0.01
0.01 0.01 0.01
0.04 0.01 0.02
0.02 0.01 0.01
0.02 0.01 0.01
0.02 0.00 0.01
0.01 0.01 0.01

-------
    Table 4 (continued)

  Airborne Participates
Gross Beta Concentrations

       December 1987


Location

NY:YAPHANK
OH: COLUMBUS
OH:PAINESVILLE
OH: TOLEDO
OK OKLAHOMA CITY
OR: PORTLAND
PA:GOLDSBORO
PA:HARRISBURG
PA: PHILADELPHIA
PA: PITTSBURGH
PA: THREE MILE ISLAND
RI: PROVIDENCE
SC:BARNWELL
SC: COLUMBIA
SD: PIERRE
TN:KNOXVILLE
TN: NASHVILLE
TX: AUSTIN
TX:EL PASO
VA:LYNCHBURG
WA:OLYMPIA
WA: SPOKANE
WI:MADISON
WV: CHARLESTON


# Sam

8
7
10
9
6
10
8
9
10
9
8
7
3
8
5
7
1
9
8
7
10
10
9
5
5— Hr Field
Estimate
Max Min Ave
(pCi/m3)
0.2 0.0 0.1
0.5 0.1 0.2
0.3 0.1 0.1
0.2 0.0 0.1
0.8 0.1 0.5
0.0 0.0 0.0
0.8 0.0 0.2
0.4 0.0 0.1
0.2 0.0 0.1
0.0 0.0 0.0
1.0 0.0 0.2
0.2 0.0 0.0
0.0 0.0 0.0
0.6 0.1 0.2
1.1 0.1 0.5
0.5 0.1 0.3
0.0 0.0 0.0
0.4 0.1 0.2
1.0 0.2 0.6
0.3 0.1 0.2
0.2 0.0 0.1
0.3 0.0 0.1
0.3 0.0 0.1
0.3 0.0 0.2
EERF Lab
Measurment
Max Min Ave
(pCi/ra3)
0.01 0.00 0.01
0.02 0.01 0.01
0.02 0.01 0.01
0.02 0.00 0.01
0.02 0.01 0.02
0.06 0.00 0.01
0.01 0.01 0.01
0.02 0.00 0.01
0.02 0.01 0.01
0.02 0.01 0.01
0.01 0.01 0.01
0.01 0.01 0.01
0.01 0.01 0.01
0.03 0.01 0.02
0.03 0.01 0.02
0.02 0.01 0.01
0.01 0.01 0.01
0.03 0.01 0.01
0.02 0.01 0.02
0.01 0.01 0.01
0.02 0.00 0.00
0.03 0.00 0.01
0.02 0.00 0.01
0.01 0.01 0.01
Minimum Detectable Limit for field estimates - 0.1 pCi/m3.
Minimum Detectable Limit for laboratory measurement - 0.01 pCi/m3.

-------
         Table 5
Gross Beta Concentrations
     in Precipitation

        October 1987
Location
AL: MONTGOMERY
AR: LITTLE ROCK
CA: BERKELEY
CO: DENVER
CT: HARTFORD
DE: WILMINGTON
FL: JACKSONVILLE
FL: MIAMI
IL: CHICAGO
LA: NEW ORLEANS
MA: LAWRENCE
ME: AUGUSTA
MI:LANSING
MN: MINNEAPOLIS
MO: JEFFERSON CITY
NC : CHARLOTTE
NH: CONCORD
NJ:TRENTON
NY: ALBANY
NY: NEW YORK CITY
NY: NIAGARA FALLS
NY: SYRACUSE
NY:YAPHANK
OH : COLUMBUS
OH:PAINESVILLE
OH: TOLEDO
PA:MIDDLETOWN
PA PHILADELPHIA
PA: PITTSBURGH
RI: PROVIDENCE
Depth
(mm)
54.8
29.0
37.2
42.0
81.6
64.0
2.0
75.0
54.2
13.0
51.0
47.0
84.4
25.0
27.0
32.0
103.1
71.0
73.6
31.9
70.0
8.0
49.0
43.4
154.0
18.0
88.0
87.0
36.0
44.0
Act. ±2ff
(nCi/m2)
0.12 0.03
0.08 0.02
0.12 0.02
0.09 0.02
0.40 0.06
0.14 0.04
0.01 0.00
0.03 0.03
0.02 0.02
0.01 0.01
0.18 0.03
0.12 0.03
0.10 0.04
0.07 0.02
0.04 0.01
0.06 0.02
0.63 0.08
0.15 0.04
0.23 0.05
0.09 0.02
0.12 0.04
0.01 0.00
0.12 0.03
0.04 0.02
0.26 0.08
0.01 0.01
0.10 0.04
0.15 0.04
0.19 0.03
0.20 0.03
Specific
Gamma
Activity
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND

-------
      Table 5 (continued)

  Gross Beta Concentrations
        in Precipitation

           October 1987
Location
SC: COLUMBIA
TN:KNOXVILLE
TN: NASHVILLE
TX: AUSTIN
VA:LYNCHBURG
WI: MADISON
Depth
(mm)
42.0
28.0
34.8
8.0
61.8
20.8
Act. ±2cr
(nCi/m2)
0.05 0.02
0.03 0.01
0.02 0.01
0.02 0.01
0.15 0.04
0.04 0.01
Specific
Gamma
Activity
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
   = Sigma Counting Error.
ND = No Gamma Activity Detectable.

-------
         Table 6

Gross Beta Concentrations
     in Precipitation

       November 1987
Location
AL: MONTGOMERY
AR: LITTLE ROCK
AZ: PHOENIX
CA: BERKELEY
CO: DENVER
CT : HARTFORD
DE: WILMINGTON
FL: JACKSONVILLE
FL: MIAMI
ID:BOISE
ID: IDAHO FALLS
IL: CHICAGO
LA: NEW ORLEANS
MA: LAWRENCE
MI:LANSING
MN: MINNEAPOLIS
MO: JEFFERSON CITY
NC: CHARLOTTE
NC: WILMINGTON
NJ:TRENTON
NM: SANTA FE
NV:LAS VEGAS
NY: ALBANY
NY: NEW YORK CITY
NY: NIAGARA FALLS
NY: SYRACUSE
NY:YAPHANK
OH : COLUMBUS
OH:PAINESVILLE
OH: TOLEDO
Depth
(mm)
58.6
163.0
31.0
54.4
18.0
78.0
41.0
131.2
83.0
25.6
17.9
63.3
80.0
42.0
23.4
57.6
24.0
47.0
8.0
55.8
17.0
78.2
48.8
16.8
23.0
14.0
120.0
18.0
36.0
78.0
Act. ±2
-------
       Table 6 (continued)

  Gross Beta Concentrations
        in Precipitation

          November 1987
Location
OR: PORTLAND
PA:HARRISBURG
PA:MIDDLETOWN
PA: PITTSBURGH
RI: PROVIDENCE
SC: COLUMBIA
TN:KNOXVILLE
TN: NASHVILLE
TX: AUSTIN
TX:EL PASO
VA:LYNCHBURG
WA:OLYMPIA
WI:MADISON
WV : CHARLESTON
Depth
(mm)
47.6
102.0
9.0
13.0
18.0
14.8
36.0
82.6
41.0
80.0
10.3
112.0
87.6
48.0
Act . ±2
-------
         Table 7

Gross Beta Concentrations
     in Precipitation

       December 1987
Location
AL: MONTGOMERY
AR: LITTLE ROCK
CA: BERKELEY
CT : HARTFORD
FL: JACKSONVILLE
FL: MIAMI
ID: BOISE
ID: IDAHO FALLS
IL: CHICAGO
LA: NEW ORLEANS
MA: LAWRENCE
MN MINNEAPOLIS
MO: JEFFERSON CITY
NC: CHARLOTTE
NC: WILMINGTON
NJ:TRENTON
NV:LAS VEGAS
NY: ALBANY
NY: NEW YORK CITY
NY: NIAGARA FALLS
NY: SYRACUSE
NY:YAPHANK
OH : COLUMBUS
OH:PAINESVILLE
OH: TOLEDO
OR : PORTLAND
PA:HARRISBURG
PA:MIDDLETOWN
PA: PHILADELPHIA
SC:BARNWELL
Depth
(mm)
85.0
90.0
98.6
29.0
3.0
44.0
25.8
12.6
108.2
43.0
80.0
15.4
40.0
148.0
43.0
41.0
10.8
73.0
39.4
124.0
8.0
58.0
19.0
78.6
80.0
208.8
55.4
88.0
66.0
24.8
Act. ±2
-------
      Table 7 (continued)

  Gross Beta Concentrations
        in Precipitation

          December 1987
Location
SC: COLUMBIA
TN:KNOXVILLE
TN: NASHVILLE
TX: AUSTIN
TX:EL PASO
VA:LYNCHBURG
WA:OLYMPIA
WI:MADISON
Depth
(mm)
134.8
69.0
33.6
78.0
280.0
79.8
267.0
72.0
Act. ±2
-------
        Table 8
     Precipitation
Tritium Concentrations
 October - December 1987
Location
AL: MONTGOMERY
AR: LITTLE ROCK
AZ: PHOENIX
CA: BERKELEY
CO: DENVER
CT: HARTFORD
DE: WILMINGTON
FL: JACKSONVILLE
FL: MIAMI
ID:BOISE
ID: IDAHO FALLS
IL: CHICAGO
LA: NEW ORLEANS
MA: LAWRENCE
ME: AUGUSTA
MI:LANSING
MN: MINNEAPOLIS
MO: JEFFERSON CITY
NC: CHARLOTTE
NC: WILMINGTON
NH: CONCORD
NJ:TRENTON
NM: SANTA FE
NV:LAS VEGAS
NY: ALBANY
NY: NEW YORK CITY
NY: NIAGARA FALLS
NY: SYRACUSE
NY:YAPHANK
OH: COLUMBUS
OH:PAINESVILLE
OH: TOLEDO
OR: PORTLAND
PA:HARRISBURG
PA:MIDDLETOWN
PA: PHILADELPHIA
PA: PITTSBURGH
October 1987
nCi/1 ±2cr
0.2 0.2
0.1 0.2
NS
0.2 0.2
0.2 0.2
0.3 0.2
0.2 0.2
0.1 0.2
0.1 0.2
NS
NS
0.1 0.2
0.2 0.2
0.2 0.2
0.4 0.2
0.1 0.2
0.2 0.2
0.2 0.2
0.1 0.2
NS
0.2 0.2
0.3 0.2
NS
NS
0.4 0.2
0.2 0.2
0.5 0.2
0.2 0.2
0.1 0.2
0.1 0.2
0.1 0.2
0.2 0.2
NS
NS
0.2 0.2
0.1 0.2
0.2 0.2
November 1987
nCi/1 ±2(7
0.2 0.2
0.2 0.2
0.2 0.2
0.2 0.2
0.2 0.2
0.1 0.2
0.2 0.2
0.1 0.2
0.1 0.2
0.1 0.2
0.2 0.2
0.3 0.2
0.1 0.2
0.1 0.2
NS
0.1 0.2
0.1 0.2
0.1 0.2
0.2 0.2
0.2 0.2
NS
0.2 0.2
0.2 0.2
0.1 0.2
0.2 0.2
0.2 0.2
0.2 0.2
0.4 0.2
0.2 0.2
0.1 0.2
0.2 0.2
0.1 0.2
0.1 0.2
0.3 0.2
0.1 0.2
NS
0.2 0.2
December 1987
nCi/1 ±2
-------
  Table 8 (continued)
     Precipitation
Tritium Concentrations
 October - December 1987

Location
RI: PROVIDENCE
SC:BARNWELL
SC: COLUMBIA
TH:KNOXVILLE
TN: NASHVILLE
TX: AUSTIN
TX:EL PASO
VArLYNCHBURG
WA:OLYMPIA
WI:MADISON
WV: CHARLESTON
October 1987
nCi/1 ±'2ff
0.4 0.2
NS
0.2 0.2
0.1 0.2
0.2 0.2
0.2 0.2
NS
0.2 0.2
NS
0.2 0.2
NS
November 1987
nCi/1 ±2
-------
                           Plutonium and Uranium in Airborne Pariiculates

    Environmental radiation levels of plutonium and uranium are determined  by the analysis of semi-
annually composited samples (air filters) collected from  the  continuously operating airborne particulate
samplers.
    Concentration of the specific isotopes of plutonium-238, -239, and -240 and uianium-234, -235, and
-238 are determined by alpha spectroscopy  following chemical separation. The volume of air represented by
the semiannual composite ranges from 25,000 to 40,000 cubic meters.
    Plutonium and uranium results are published when they become available.
    Table 9 contains the plutonium and uranium results for the period July  December  1987.
                                                 16

-------
                    Table 9
Plutonium and Uranium In Airborne Participates
          July - December 1987 Composites
Location
AL : ASHFORD
AL: MONTGOMERY
AR: LITTLE ROCK
AZ: PHOENIX
CA: BERKELEY
CA:LOS ANGELES
CO: DENVER
CT : HARTFORD
DE: WILMINGTON
FL: JACKSONVILLE
FL: MIAMI
GA: ATLANTA
HI: HONOLULU
IA-.IOWA CITY
ID: BOISE
ID: IDAHO FALLS
IL: CHICAGO
IN: INDIANAPOLIS
KS:TOPEKA
KY: FRANKFORT
LA: NEW ORLEANS
MA: LAWRENCE
ME: AUGUSTA
MI: LANSING
MN:MINNEAPOLIS
MO: JEFFERSON CITY
MS: JACKSON
NC: CHARLOTTE
NC: WILMINGTON
ND: BISMARCK
NE: LINCOLN
NH: CONCORD
NJ:TRENTON
NM: SANTA FE
NV:LAS VEGAS
NY: ALBANY
NY: NEW YORK CITY
238pu
aCi/m3 ±2
-------
               Table 9 (continued)
Plutonium and Uranium In Airborne Particulates
          July - December 1987 Composites
Location
NY: NIAGARA FALLS
NY: SYRACUSE
NY:YAPHANK
OH: COLUMBUS
OH:PAINESVILLE
OH: TOLEDO
OK: OKLAHOMA CITY
OR: PORTLAND
PA:GOLDSBORO
PA:HARRISBURG
PA: PHILADELPHIA
PA : PITTSBURGH
PA: THREE MILE ISLAND
RI: PROVIDENCE
SC:BARNWELL
SC: COLUMBIA
SD: PIERRE
TN:KNOXVILLE
TN: NASHVILLE
TX: AUSTIN
TX:EL PASO
VA:LYNCHBURG
WA:OLYMPIA
WA: SPOKANE
WI: MADISON
WV : CHARLESTON
238pu
aCi/m3 ±2cr
0.3 1.1
0.1 0.2
0.8 0.4
0.7 0.8
0.2 0.3
0.8 0.9
1.7 1.8
0.1 0.7
0.7 0.4
0.3 0.5
0.9 1.2
0.2 0.4
0.5 0.9
0.5 0.6
2.3 1.3
0.1 1.1
2.6 1.1
0.5 0.8
0.9 1.0
0.7 0.8
4.0 2.4
0.2 0.4
0.2 0.5
1.5 2.2
0.2 0.6
1.2 1.5
239 — 240pu
aCi/m3 ±2
-------
                                             Krypton-85

    Krypton-85 is a long-lived noble gas with a half-life of 10.8 years. It is released into the atmosphere
by nuclear reactor operations, fuel reprocessing,  weapons tests, and research and defense related activities.
Krypton-85 also occurs naturally in minor quantities primarily from the neutron capture of stable krypton-
84 as well  as spontaneous fission and neutron-induced fission of uranium. Krypton-85 in the atmosphere
has been monitored to identify and establish baseline levels and long-term trends.
    Krypton-85 analysis began in January 1973 with sample collections and analyses being performed for 12
sampling locations. These locations were selected to provide  atmospheric coverage of the United States with
considerations being given to the proximity to fuel reprocessing plants, nuclear reactors, and wide geographic
coverage.
    Dry compressed air samples, collected at each location, are purchased from commercial air suppliers and
shipped to the EERF where the krypton-85 is cryogenically separated and counted in a liquid scintillation
system.
    The last Kr-85 results were for 1976,  1977, and 1979.  They were published in Environmental Radiation
Data:  Report 30.
                                                   19

-------
                                                                                        DATA   EPA


                                 ENVIRONMENTAL RADIATION
                           AMBIENT MONITORING SYSTEM (ERAMS)


    Section II. Water Program

    The ERAMS water program provides data on ambient radiation levels in the nation's rivers, streams,
and drinking water supplies.

                                           Surface Water

    Quarterly grab samples are taken downstream from operating or future nuclear facilities at 58 stations.
    Surface water samples are analyzed for tritium quarterly and specific gamma activity annually. Tritium
is a primary radioactive pollutant from nuclear power plants and weapons production activities.
    Tritium concentrations  are determined  by liquid scintillation counting of distilled samples.  Gamma
scans are performed annually to determine levels of gamma emitting  radionuclides.
    Table 10 contains the data for tritium concentrations for October   December 1987.
                                                 20

-------
       Table 10
     Surface Water
Tritium Concentrations
 October - December 1987
Location
AL:DECATUR
AL: GORDON
AL:SCOTTSBORO
AR: LITTLE ROCK
CArCLAY STATION
CA:CLAY STATION
CA:CLAY STATION
CA: DIABLO CANYON
CA : EUREKA
CA:SAN ONOFRE
CO:PLATTEVILLE
CT:EAST HADDAM
CT : WATERFORD
FL: CRYSTAL RIVER
FL:FT. PIERCE
FL: HOMESTEAD
IA: CEDAR RAPIDS
ID: BUHL
IL: MORRIS
IL:ZION
KS:LeROY
LA: NEW ORLEANS
MA : PLYMOUTH
MD:CONOWINGO
MD:LUSBY
ME:WISCASSET
MI:BRIDGMAN
MI:CHARLEVOIX
MI: MONROE
MI: SOUTH HAVEN
MN:MONTICELLO
MN:RED WING
MS: PORT GIBSON
NC : CHARLOTTE
NC:SOUTHPORT
NE : RULO
NJ:BAYSIDE
Source
TENNESSEE RIVER
CHATTAHOOCHEE RIVER
TENNESSEE RIVER
ARKANSAS RIVER
FOLSOM S. CANAL
FOLSOM S. CANAL
FOLSOM S. CANAL
PACIFIC OCEAN
HUMBOLDT BAY
PACIFIC OCEAN
SOUTH PLATTE RIVER
CONNECTICUT RIVER
LONG ISLAND SOUND
GULF OF MEXICO
ATLANTIC OCEAN
BISCAYNE BAY
CEDAR RIVER
SNAKE RIVER
ILLINOIS RIVER
LAKE MICHIGAN
NEOSHO RIVER
MISSISSIPPI RIVER
CAPE COD BAY
SUSQUEHANNA RIVER
CHESAPEAKE BAY
MONTSEWAY BAY
LAKE MICHIGAN
LAKE MICHIGAN
LAKE ERIE
LAKE MICHIGAN
MISSISSIPPI RIVER
MISSISSIPPI RIVER
MISSISSIPPI RIVER
CATAWBA RIVER
ATLANTIC OCEAN
MISSOURI RIVER
DELAWARE RIVER
Date
Collected
10/07/87
10/15/87
10/08/87
10/15/87
12/31/87
12/15/87
11/28/87
12/23/87
10/08/87
11/18/87
10/05/87
11/13/87
11/13/87
10/12/87
10/15/87
10/14/87
10/06/87
12/01/87
10/04/87
11/01/87
12/23/87
10/06/87
10/05/87
10/20/87
10/13/87
10/06/87
10/12/87
10/09/87
10/12/87
10/03/87
10/06/87
10/12/87
10/08/87
10/07/87
10/09/87
10/13/87
10/14/87
nCi/1 ±2
-------
           Table 10 (continued)

              Surface Water
          Tritium Concentrations
           October - December 1987
Location
NJ:OYSTER CREEK
NV: BOULDER CITY
NY .-CHELSEA
NY:OSSINING
NY:OSWEGO
NY:OSWEGO
OH: TOLEDO
OR:BRADWOOD
PA: DANVILLE
SC:ALLENDALE
SC: BROAD RIVER
SC:HARTSVILLE
TN: DAISY
TN:KINGSTON
TN:OAK RIDGE
TX:EL PASO
TX:MATAGORDA
VA:DOSWELL
VA: NEWPORT NEWS
WA : NORTHPORT
WA:RICHLAND
WI:TWO CREEKS
WI: VICTORY
WV: WHEELING
Source
OYSTER CREEK
COLORADO RIVER
HUDSON RIVER
HUDSON RIVER
LAKE ONTARIO
LAKE ONTARIO
LAKE ERIE
COLUMBIA RIVER
SUSQUEHANNA RIVER
SAVANNAH RIVER
BROAD RIVER
LAKE ROBINSON
TENNESSEE RIVER
CLINCH RIVER
CLINCH RIVER
RIO GRANDE
COLORADO RIVER
NORTH ANNA RIVER
JAMES RIVER
COLUMBIA RIVER
COLUMBIA RIVER
LAKE MICHIGAN
MISSISSIPPI RIVER
OHIO RIVER
Date
Collected
10/22/87
12/01/87
10/07/87
10/29/87
10/05/87
10/16/87
10/05/87
10/22/87
10/21/87
10/30/87
10/29/87
10/12/87
11/12/87
10/06/87
11/15/87
12/28/87
10/15/87
10/15/87
11/09/87
11/10/87
10/05/87
10/21/87
10/13/87
11/16/87
nCi/1 ±2
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                                           Drinking Water

    This program monitors ambient radiation levels in drinking water at 78 sites.  These data serve to assess
trends and anomalies in concentrations, and to compare with standards set forth in the EPA "National
Interim Primary Drinking Water  Regulations."  These regulations provide for approval of supplies  when
the combined radium-226 and radium-228 levels do not exceed  5 pCi/1, when the gross alpha (excluding
radon and uranium) levels do not exceed 15 pCi/1, when tritium levels do not exceed 20,000 pCi/1, when the
strontium-90 levels do not exceed  8 pCi/1, and when  the gross beta levels do not exceed  50 pCi/1.
    Grab samples are taken at the 78 sites which are either major population centers or selected nuclear
facility environs.
    The analyses include (a)  tritium on a quarterly  basis;  (b) gross alpha, gross beta,  strontium-90, and
gamma on annual composites; (c) radium-226 if the gross  alpha exceeds 2 pCi/1 and  radium-228 if the
radium-226 falls between 3 and 5 pCi/1; (d) specific  iodine-131 on one quarterly sample per year for each
station; and (e) an annual composite for plutonium-238, -239, and -240 and uranium-234, -235, and -238
for stations that demonstrate  gross alpha levels greater than 2 pCi/1.
    Tritium  analyses are performed by scintillation  counting of the distilled samples.  Gross beta and al-
pha are determined by evaporating an aliquot on a  stainless steel planchet for  counting.  Radium-226 is
determined by the standard emanation technique. Strontium-90 is determined by beta counting a strontium
carbonate precipitate isolated by ion exchange.
    Table 11  contains the data in drinking water for  October  December 1987.

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       Table 11
    Drinking Water
Tritium Concentrations
 October - December 1987
Location
AK: FAIRBANKS
AL:DOTHAN
AL: MONTGOMERY
AL: MUSCLE SHOALS
AL:SCOTTSBORO
AR: LITTLE ROCK
CA: BERKELEY
CA:LOS ANGELES
CO: DENVER
CO:PLATTEVILLE
CT: HARTFORD
DC: WASHINGTON
DE: DOVER
FL:MIAMI
FL: TAMPA
HI: HONOLULU
IA: CEDAR RAPIDS
ID: IDAHO FALLS
IL: MORRIS
IL:W. CHICAGO
KS:TOPEKA
LA: NEW ORLEANS
MA: LAWRENCE
MD: BALTIMORE
MD:CONOWINGO
ME: AUGUSTA
MI: DETROIT
MI: GRAND RAPIDS
MN: MINNEAPOLIS
MN:RED WING
MS: JACKSON
MS: PORT GIBSON
MT: HELENA
NC : CHARLOTTE
NC: WILMINGTON
ND: BISMARCK
NE: LINCOLN
Date
Collected
10/05/87
10/16/87
10/29/87
10/07/87
10/08/87
10/15/87
10/08/87
10/08/87
10/06/87
10/05/87
10/06/87
10/15/87
10/15/87
10/02/87
10/13/87
10/20/87
10/06/87
11/03/87
10/02/87
10/02/87
10/02/87
10/16/87
10/07/87
12/03/87
10/20/87
10/07/87
10/12/87
10/09/87
10/07/87
10/12/87
10/09/87
10/08/87
10/02/87
10/07/87
10/09/87
10/05/87
10/20/87
nCi/1 ±2cr
0.2 0.2
0.1 0.2
0.1 0.2
0.3 0.2
0.2 0.2
0.2 0.2
0.2 0.2
0.1 0.2
0.1 0.2
0.3 0.2
0.3 0.2
0.2 0.2
0.1 0.2
0.1 0.2
0.2 0.2
0.2 0.2
0.4 0.2
0.2 0.2
0.1 0.2
0.1 0.2
0.1 0.2
0.2 0.2
0.3 0.2
0.2 0.2
0.3 0.2
0.2 0.2
0.4 0.2
0.2 0.2
0.3 0.2
0.2 0.2
0.2 0.2
0.1 0.2
0.2 0.2
0.6 0.2
0.1 0.2
0.1 0.2
0.2 0.2
           24

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      Table 11 (continued)
        Drinking Water
    Tritium Concentrations
     October - December 1987
Location
NH: CONCORD
NJ:TRENTON
NJ:WARETOWN
NM: SANTA FE
NV:LAS VEGAS
NY: ALBANY
NY: NEW YORK CITY
NY: NIAGARA FALLS
NY: SYRACUSE
OH: COLUMBUS
OH: EAST LIVERPOOL
OH:PAINESVILLE
OH: TOLEDO
OK: OKLAHOMA CITY
OR: PORTLAND
PA: COLUMBIA
PA:HARRISBURG
PA: PITTSBURGH
PC:ANCON
RI: PROVIDENCE
SC:BARNWELL
SC: COLUMBIA
SC:HARTSVILLE
SC:JENKINSVILLE
SC: SENECA
TN: CHATTANOOGA
TN:KNOXVILLE
TX: AUSTIN
VA:DOSWELL
VA:LYNCHBURG
VA: VIRGINIA BEACH
WA:RICHLAND
WA : SEATTLE
WI:GENOA CITY
WI: MADISON
Date
Collected
10/08/87
10/02/87
10/22/87
12/18/87
10/05/87
10/02/87
10/05/87
10/05/87
12/17/87
11/02/87
10/06/87
10/06/87
10/02/87
10/15/87
10/13/87
10/22/87
10/21/87
10/06/87
10/05/87
10/06/87
10/30/87
10/02/87
10/12/87
10/16/87
10/21/87
10/15/87
10/01/87
12/01/87
10/22/87
10/05/87
10/14/87
10/13/87
10/05/87
10/13/87
10/15/87
nCi/1 ±2ff
0.3 0.2
0.1 0.2
0.1 0.2
0.1 0.2
0.2 0.2
0.2 0.2
0.1 0.2
0.1 0.2
0.2 0.2
0.2 0.2
0.1 0.2
0.2 0.2
0.2 0.2
0.2 0.2
0.1 0.2
0.2 0.2
0.1 0.2
0.2 0.2
0.1 0.2
0.1 0.2
0.1 0.2
0.6 0.2
0.1 0.2
0.1 0.2
0.3 0.2
0.3 0.2
0.2 0.2
0.2 0.2
0.3 0.2
0.1 0.2
0.1 0.2
0.3 0.2
0.1 0.2
0.1 0.2
0.1 0.2
cr = Sigma Counting Error.
                25

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                                                                                       DATA  EPA


                                 ENVIRONMENTAL RADIATION
                           AMBIENT MONITORING SYSTEM (ERAMS)


    Section HI. External Gamma Ambient Monitoring Program

    The external gamma monitoring program, which began in October 1978, provides a continuous measure-
ment of ambient gamma exposure rates, including cosmic, at selected sites throughout the continental United
States. Data from this program are used to evaluate fluctuations in natural background due to variations in
environmental conditions and to provide a means of monitoring any significant increases in ambient gamma
levels. The program consists of approximately 22 sites representing wide geographic coverage throughout the
country.'  Although exposure measurements  at these  few sites are not totally representative of nationwide
exposures, they do indicate national trends.
    The monitoring program utilizes CaF2:Mn thermoluminescent dosimeters (TLD's). These dosimeters
are commercially available glass-bulb type dosimeters with energy compensating shields.  A group of three
TLD's is located at each station or site.  Dosimeters are annealed by the station operator prior to positioning
in the field. The dosimeters are returned to  EERF for readout approximately every three months.  Several
dosimeters are annealed by the station operator as controls and returned with the exposed field dosimeters
to correct for any exposures accumulated during shipment.
    Table 12 contains the data for environmental gamma ambient monitoring program October - December
1987.
    Some of these sites may not return dosimeters each period and consequently the number of sites listed may vary slightly.

                                                26

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                        Table 12
Environmental Gamma Ambient Monitoring Program
                 October - December 1987
Location
AL: MONTGOMERY
CO: DENVER
FL: ORLANDO
ID: BOISE
IL: CHICAGO
ND: BISMARCK
NJ:TRENTON
NM: SANTA FE
NV.-LAS VEGAS
NY: NEW YORK
OK: OKLAHOMA CITY
OR: PORTLAND
PA:HARRISBURG
PA: PITTSBURGH
RI: PROVIDENCE
SC:BARNWELL
SC: COLUMBIA
VA: RICHMOND
Date Range
09/30/87-01/19/88
10/01/87-01/26/88
09/30/87-01/19/88
10/02/87-01/19/88
10/13/87-01/19/88
10/01/87-01/15/88
10/01/87-01/15/88
09/30/87-01/22/88
09/30/87-01/14/88
11/24/87-01/21/88
10/02/87-01/22/88
09/30/87-01/29/88
10/02/87-01/15/88
10/05/87-01/15/88
10/01/87-01/15/88
10/15/87-01/28/88
09/29/87-01/15/88
09/30/87-01/15/88
Integrated
Exposure
mR
19.1
45.7
16.6
31.9
21.0
26.6
34.3
44.6
19.3
14.0
26.2
26.4
18.5
28.3
29.7
24.0
29.5
18.5
Exposure
Rate
ftR/hr ±2
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                                                                                        DATA - EPA


                                  ENVIRONMENTAL RADIATION
                           AMBIENT MONITORING SYSTEM (ERAMS)


    Section IV. Milk Program

                                          Pasteurized Milk

    This is a cooperative program with the Dairy and Lipid Products Branch, Milk Sanitation Section, Food
and Drug Administration.  Milk is  a reliable indicator of the general population's intake of radionuclides
since it is consumed fresh by a large segment of the population and  can  contain several of the biologically
important radionuclides that result from environmental releases from nuclear activities. A primary function
of this program is to  obtain  reliable monitoring data relative to current radionuclide concentrations and
determine any long-term trends.
    Monthly samples are collected at 65 sampling sites with one or more located in each state, Puerto Rico,
and the Panama Canal Zone.  The samples are composited, according to production, from the major milk
suppliers representing  more than 80 percent of the milk consumed in a given population center.
    The samples are analyzed for gamma emitting nuclides, which include iodine-131, barium-140, cesium-
137, and potassium.  All samples collected in July are analyzed for  strontium-89 and strontium-90.  Also,
for the first month of the  three quarters beginning January, April and October, 10 regional composite
samples of milk made up from the states within each of EPA's 10 regions are analyzed for strontium-89 and
strontium-90.
    Iodine-131, barium-140, cesium—137, and potassium are determined by gamma spectral analysis. Stron-
tium-89  and strontium-90 are determined by  beta counting a total strontium precipitate  that has been
chemically separated by ion exchange.
    Tables 13-15 contain the concentrations of radionuclides in pasteurized milk for October   December
1987.     Table 16 contains the  concentrations of strontium-90 and strontium-89 in pasteurized milk for
October - December 1987.
                                                 28

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            Table 13
Concentrations of Raclionuclicles
      in Pasteurized Milk
          October 1987
Location
AK: ANCHORAGE
AL: MONTGOMERY
AR: LITTLE ROCK
AZ: PHOENIX
CA:LOS ANGELES
CA: SACRAMENTO
CA:SAN FRANCISCO
CT: HARTFORD
DE: WILMINGTON
FL: TAMPA
GA: ATLANTA
HI: HONOLULU
IA:DES MOINES
IL: CHICAGO
IN: INDIANAPOLIS
KS: WICHITA
KY: LOUISVILLE
LA: NEW ORLEANS
MD: BALTIMORE
ME: PORTLAND
MI: DETROIT
MI: GRAND RAPIDS
MN: MINNEAPOLIS
MN:ST. PAUL
MO: KANSAS CITY
MO: ST. LOUIS
MS: JACKSON
MT: HELENA
NC : CHARLOTTE
ND:MINOT
NE: OMAHA
NH: MANCHESTER
NJ:TRENTON
NM: ALBUQUERQUE
NV:LAS VEGAS
NY: BUFFALO
NY: NEW YORK CITY
Date
Collected
10/29/87
10/08/87
10/05/87
10/07/87
10/09/87
10/04/87
10/08/87
10/05/87
10/05/87
10/06/87
10/23/87
10/03/87
10/05/87
10/05/87
10/02/87
10/08/87
10/05/87
10/09/87
10/02/87
10/02/87
10/08/87
10/05/87
10/05/87
10/05/87
10/09/87
10/07/87
10/13/87
10/02/87
10/20/87
10/27/87
10/09/87
10/13/87
10/13/87
10/05/87
10/26/87
10/05/87
10/05/87
K
g/1 ±2
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                   Table 13 (continued)

             Concentrations of Radionuclides
                   in Pasteurized Milk

                       October 1987
Location
NY : SYRACUSE
OH: CINCINNATI
OH: CLEVELAND
OK: OKLAHOMA CITY
OR: PORTLAND
PA: PHILADELPHIA
PA: PITTSBURGH
PC: CRISTOBAL
PR: SAN JUAN
SC: CHARLESTON
SD: RAPID CITY
TN: CHATTANOOGA
TN:KNOXVILLE
TN: MEMPHIS
TX: AUSTIN
TX:FT. WORTH
UT:SALT LAKE CITY
VA : NORFOLK
VT: BURLINGTON
WA : SEATTLE
WV : CHARLESTON
WY:LARAMIE
Date
Collected
10/08/87
10/16/87
10/06/87
10/06/87
10/05/87
10/05/87
10/05/87
10/21/87
10/16/87
10/07/87
10/05/87
10/05/87
10/05/87
10/27/87
10/05/87
10/01/87
10/05/87
10/30/87
10/05/87
10/01/87
10/26/87
10/07/87
K
g/1 ±2
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           Table 14
Concentrations of Raclionuclides
      in Pasteurized Milk
         November 1987
Location
AL: MONTGOMERY
AH: LITTLE ROCK
AZ: PHOENIX
CA:LOS ANGELES
CA: SACRAMENTO
CA:SAN FRANCISCO
CO: DENVER
CT : HARTFORD
DE: WILMINGTON
FLrTAMPA
GA: ATLANTA
HI: HONOLULU
IA:DES MOINES
IL: CHICAGO
IN: INDIANAPOLIS
KS: WICHITA
KY: LOUISVILLE
LA: NEW ORLEANS
MD: BALTIMORE
ME: PORTLAND
MI: DETROIT
MI: GRAND RAPIDS
MN: MINNEAPOLIS
MN:ST. PAUL
MO: KANSAS CITY
MO: ST. LOUIS
MS: JACKSON
MT: HELENA
NC: CHARLOTTE
ND:MINOT
NE: OMAHA
NH: MANCHESTER
NJ:TRENTON
NM: ALBUQUERQUE
NV:LAS VEGAS
NY: BUFFALO
NY: NEW YORK CITY
Date
Collected
11/06/87
11/09/87
11/09/87
11/09/87
11/03/87
11/17/87
11/02/87
11/02/87
11/03/87
11/03/87
11/10/87
11/05/87
11/04/87
11/02/87
11/02/87
11/11/87
11/03/87
11/06/87
11/06/87
11/06/87
11/04/87
11/02/87
11/02/87
11/02/87
11/06/87
11/04/87
11/02/87
11/06/87
11/16/87
11/30/87
11/09/87
11/10/87
11/04/87
11/02/87
11/16/87
11/09/87
11/02/87
K
g/1 ±2(7
1.48 0.09
1.42 0.13
1.38 0.12
1.52 0.13
1.57 0.13
1.55 0.13
1.47 0.12
1.58 0.13
1.42 0.12
1.46 0.12
1.36 0.12
1.65 0.13
1.46 0.12
1.45 0.08
1.46 0.12
1.47 0.13
1.62 0.13
1.64 0.13
1.46 0.09
1.51 0.13
1.41 0.13
1.61 0.13
1.44 0.13
1.52 0.13
1.58 0.09
1.49 0.13
1.44 0.12
1.45 0.09
1.61 0.24
1.58 0.13
1.56 0.13
1.52 0.09
1.41 0.12
1.37 0.08
1.44 0.09
1.53 0.13
1.44 0.13
l*7CB
pCi/1 ±2
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                   Table 14 (continued)

             Concentrations of Radionuclides
                   in Pasteurized Milk

                      November 1987
Location
NY: SYRACUSE
OH: CINCINNATI
OH: CLEVELAND
OK: OKLAHOMA CITY
OR: PORTLAND
PA PHILADELPHIA
PA: PITTSBURGH
PC: CRISTOBAL
PR: SAN JUAN
SC: CHARLESTON
SD: RAPID CITY
TN: CHATTANOOGA
TN:KNOXVILLE
TN: MEMPHIS
TX:FT. WORTH
UT:SALT LAKE CITY
VT: BURLINGTON
WA: SEATTLE
WV : CHARLESTON
WY:LARAMIE
Date
Collected
11/02/87
11/17/87
11/18/87
11/02/87
11/02/87
11/02/87
11/02/87
11/30/87
11/13/87
11/25/87
11/02/87
11/02/87
11/03/87
11/25/87
11/05/87
11/09/87
11/06/87
11/06/87
11/17/87
11/04/87
K
g/1 ±2
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           Table 15
Concentrations of Raclionuclides
      in Pasteurized Milk
         December 1987
Location
AK: PALMER
AL: MONTGOMERY
AR: LITTLE ROCK
AZ: PHOENIX
CA:LOS ANGELES
CA : SACRAMENTO
CA:SAN FRANCISCO
CO: DENVER
CT: HARTFORD
DE: WILMINGTON
FL: TAMPA
GA : ATLANTA
HI: HONOLULU
IA:DES MOINES
ID: IDAHO FALLS
IL: CHICAGO
IN : INDIANAPOLIS
KS: WICHITA
KT: LOUISVILLE
MD: BALTIMORE
ME: PORTLAND
MI: DETROIT
MI: GRAND RAPIDS
MN: MINNEAPOLIS
MN:ST. PAUL
MO: KANSAS CITY
MO: ST. LOUIS
MS : JACKSON
MT: HELEN A
NC: CHARLOTTE
ND:MINOT
HE: OMAHA
NH: MANCHESTER
NJ:TRENTON
NM: ALBUQUERQUE
NV:LAS VEGAS
NY: BUFFALO
Date
Collected
12/14/87
12/11/87
12/08/87
12/08/87
12/04/87
12/01/87
12/21/87
12/01/87
12/08/87
12/01/87
12/01/87
12/14/87
12/08/87
12/07/87
12/21/87
12/07/87
12/07/87
12/11/87
12/07/87
12/01/87
12/01/87
12/10/87
12/07/87
12/08/87
12/07/87
12/11/87
12/03/87
12/09/87
12/03/87
12/07/87
12/29/87
12/10/87
12/14/87
12/09/87
12/07/87
12/14/87
12/07/87
K
g/1 ±2
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                   Table 15 (continued)

             Concentrations of Radionuclides
                   in Pasteurized Milk

                      December 1987
Location
NY: NEW YORK CITY
NY: SYRACUSE
OK OKLAHOMA CITY
OR: PORTLAND
PA: PHILADELPHIA
PA: PITTSBURGH
PC:ANCON
PR: SAN JUAN
SD: RAPID CITY
TN: CHATTANOOGA
TN:KNOXVILLE
TN: MEMPHIS
TX: AUSTIN
TX:FT. WORTH
UT:SALT LAKE CITY
VA : NORFOLK
VT: BURLINGTON
WA : SEATTLE
WV : CHARLESTON
WY:LARAMIE
Date
Collected
12/07/87
12/07/87
12/01/87
12/07/87
12/07/87
12/07/87
12/01/87
12/15/87
12/07/87
12/07/87
12/08/87
12/17/87
12/14/87
12/14/87
12/07/87
12/01/87
12/07/87
12/01/87
12/22/87
12/08/87
K
g/1 ±2<7
1.59 0.13
1.66 0.13
1.63 0.24
1.66 0.13
1.54 0.13
1.53 0.09
1.44 0.13
1.29 0.12
1.48 0.13
1.58 0.09
1.64 0.13
1.37 0.12
1.33 0.12
1.47 0.13
1.43 0.13
1.46 0.12
1.56 0.13
1.50 0.13
1.53 0.24
1.60 0.13
187Cs
pCi/1 ±2
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                      Table 16

Strontium-90 and Strontium-89 in Pasteurized Milk
             EPA Regional Composites

                October - December 1987
EPA
Region
I
II
III
IV
V
VI
VII
VIII
IX
X
Date
10/06/87
10/09/87
10/11/87
10/13/87
10/07/87
10/05/87
10/08/87
10/08/87
10/09/87
10/03/87
00Sr
pCi/1 ±2(7
2.1 0.5
1.5 0.3
2.2 0.4
2.3 0.8
2.7 0.6
1.9 0.4
2.5 0.3
2.0 0.4
0.4 0.3
1.9 0.4
89Sr
pCi/1 ±2
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                                          Carbon-14 in Milk

    Nine stations, chosen for wide geographical distribution, contribute milk samples for annual analysis
of carbon-14. These samples are monitored for carbon-14 levels in the food chain resulting from nuclear
testing. Analysis consists of combusting the samples and measuring released carbon dioxide through liquid
scintillation.  The last carbon-14 results were for samples collected during May 1975 and May 1979. They
were published in Environmental Radiation Data: Report 29.
                                     AUGAFB, AL (890535) 500
                                     *U.S. GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE: 1988/631-002/83049
                                                  36

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    Environmental Radiation Data (ERD) is published quarterly (January, April, July, October)  by the
U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's Office of Radiation Programs.
    Requests for information concerning publication and distribution of ERD should be directed to:

                                          Charles M.  Petko
                                      Technical Support Branch
                               Eastern Environmental  Radiation Facility
                                          1890 Federal Drive
                                     Montgomery, Alabama 36109

    Requests for information concerning the operation of ERAMS should be directed to:

                                       Jon A. Broadway, Chief
                              Monitoring and Analytical Services Branch
                               Eastern Environmental  Radiation Facility
                                          1890 Federal Drive
                                     Montgomery, Alabama 36109
                                                or to:
                                         Robert S. Dyer, Chief
                              Environmental Studies and Statistics Branch
                               Analysis and Support Division (ANR-461)
                                U. S. Environmental Protection Agency
                                         Waterside Mall East
                                           401 M Street, SW
                                       Washington, DC  20460

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