United States     National Air and Radiation
    Environmental Protection   Environmental Laboratory
    Agency      1504 Avenue A     EPA 520/5-90-031
    Office of Radiation Programs  Montgomery, AL 36115-2601   September 1990

    Radiation
 x/EPA
    Environmental
    Data
    Report 61
    January - March 1990
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ENVIRONMENTAL




RADIATION




DATA
                    REPORT 61



                January - March 1990
     United States Environmental Protection Agency




             Office of Radiation Programs

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                                               Preface
    Environmental Radiation Data (ERD) is compiled and distributed quarterly by the Office of Radiation
Programs' National Air and Radiation Environmental Laboratory (NAREL) in Montgomery, Alabama, and
contains data from the Environmental Radiation Ambient Monitoring System (ERAMS).  Data from similar
networks operated by contributing States, Canada, Mexico, and the Pan American Health Organization are
reported in the ERD when available.
    ERAMS was established in 1973 by the U. S. Environmental Protection Agency's Office of Radiation
Programs (ORP). The ERAMS is comprised of nationwide sampling stations that provide air, surface and
drinking water, and milk samples from which environmental radiation levels are derived. The major emphasis
for ERAMS is upon identifying trends in the accumulation of long-lived radionuclides in the  environment.
    Sampling locations are selected to provide optimal population coverage while functioning to  monitor
fallout from nuclear devices and other forms of radioactive contamination of the environment. The radiation
analyses performed on these  samples include gross alpha and gross beta levels, gamma analyses for fission
products,  and specific analyses for uranium, plutonium, strontium, iodine,  radium, krypton, and  tritium.
This monitoring effort also provides ancillary information on natural background levels and on routine and
accidental releases into the environment from stationary sources.
    The radiochemical procedures used by the NAREL to  analyze the ERAMS samples are contained in
Eastern Environmental Radiation Facility Radiochemistry Procedures Manual (Er'A 620/5-84-006). Station
operation and sample collection are in accordance with procedures contained in the ERAMS  Manual  (EPA
520/5-84-007, 008, 009).
                                                 111

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                    Environmental Radiation Data









                                     Contents




                                                                                 Page




Data - Reporting Rationale and Procedures                                             ix




Data - ERAMS                                                                     1





      Section I.   Air Program                                                      1




                  1. Airborne Participates and Precipitation                             1




                  2. Plutonium and Uranium in Airborne Particulates                     10




                  3. Krypton-85                                                    11




      Section II.  Water Program                                                    12




                  1. Surface Water                                                  12





                  2. Drinking Water                                                17




      Section HI.  External Gamma Ambient Monitoring Program                         24




      Section IV.  Milk Program                                                     25




                  1. Pasteurized Milk                                                25




                  2. Carbon-14 in Milk                                              32

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                        Environmental  Radiation Data









                                       List of Tables




Table                                                                                    Page




  1      ERAMS Repotting Increments and Minimum Detectable Levels                          xi




  2      Gross Beta in Airborne Particulates:  January 1990                                     2




  3      Gross Beta in Airborne Particulates-  February 1990                                    4





  4      Gross Beta in Airborne Particulates:  March 1990                                      6





  5      Tritium in Precipitation: January - March 1990                                        8




  6      Tritium in Surface Water:  January   March 1990                                      13




  7      Surface Water Annual Gamma Analysis: March   July 1989                             15




  8      Tritium in Drinking Water: January   March 1990                                     18





  9      Iodine-131 in Drinking Water: January - December  1989                                21




  10    Radionuclides in Pasteurized Milk: January 1990                                      26




  11    Radionuclides in Pasteurized Milk: February 1990                                     28




  12    Radionuclides in Pasteurized Milk: March 1990                                        30
                                               VII

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                              DATA  Reporting Rationale and Procedures


    In  1973,  the  U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's Office of Radiation Programs established the
Environmental Radiation Ambient Monitoring System (ERAMS) to provide continuous, accurate, and usable
environmental radiation data to  the  public.  For completeness, ERAMS  data for all  specific radionuclide
analyses are reported as the calculated results indicate, whether the numbers are negative, zero, or positive.

                                          Reporting Rationale

    Frequently, there is little or  no radioactivity in environmental media. Thus, the results of laboratory
analyses should statistically show a distribution of negative and positive  numbers about zero. A negative
value occurs when a  previously  determined background value is  subtracted from  a sample value that is
less than that of  the  background.  Prior to July 1975, ERAMS data were not reported numerically when
the results were less than a specified reporting level or minimum detectable level.  The present reporting
procedure allows all the data to be reported and evaluated statistically without an arbitrary cutoff of small
or negative numbers.  This approach  will facilitate estimates of bias in the nuclide  analyses and will allow
better evaluation  of distributions and trends in environmental  data.
    When reviewing the data in  this  report, caution should be exercised in the interpretation of individual
negative values. Obviously, a negative activity value has no physical significance.  Such numbers,  however,
are significant when taken together with other observations that indicate that the true value of a distribution
is near zero.  When an average of many measurements produces a result significantly less than zero, this
indicates a bias in the measurement procedure.
     (1) Reported  Values
          Specific Analyses. All specific radionuclide analyses will be reported as the counting results indicate,
     whether  the value is negative, zero, or positive. All reported  values are corrected for radioactive decay
     to the collection date.
          Gross Analyses.   The actual value of gross  radioactivity measurements will be reported, unless
     the value is below the minimum detectable  level  (MDL) at the Iff confidence level, then < minimum
     detectable  level will be reported.
          MDL is  defined as the 3
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                                       Table  I
ERAMS  Reporting Increments and Minimum Detectable  Levels
                           for  Radionuclide Analyses
Radionuclide
Gross Alpha
f Gross Beta
Tritium
Carbon-14
Krypton-85
ft Plutonium-238,239,240
t Uranium-234,235,238
Radium-226
Strontium-90
JJ Strontium-89
Jt Iodine-131
Iodine-129
Cesium-137
tt Barium-140
Potassium
Potassium-40
Media
Water
Air
Water
Precipitation
Reporting
Units
pCi/1
pCi/m3
pCi/1
nCi/m2
Reporting
Increments
1 pCi/1
0.01 pCi/m3
1 pCi/1
0.01 nCi/m2
Minimum
Detectable
Levels
2 pCi/1
0.01 pCi/m3
1 pCi/I
0.01 nCi/mz
(specific radiochemical analyses)
Water
Milk
Milk
Ambient Air
Air
Milk
Water
Air
Milk
Water
Water
Milk
Water
Milk
Milk
Water
Water
Milk
Milk
Water
Milk
Water
Milk
Water
Water
nCi/1
nCi/1
pCi/1
pCi/m3
aCi/m3
pCi/1
pCi/1
aCi/m3
pCi/1
pCi/1
pCi/1
pCi/1
pCi/1
pCi/1
pCi/1
pCi/1
pCi/1
fCi/1
pCi/1
pCi/1
pCi/1
PCi/l
g/1
g/1
PCi/l
0.1 nCi/1^
0.1 nCi/1
1 pCi/1
0.1 pCi/m3
0.1 aCi/m3
0.001 pCi/1
0.001 pCi/1
0.1 aCi/m3
0.001 pCi/1
0.001 pCi/1
0.1 pCi/1
0.1 pCi/1
0.1 pCi/1
1 pCi/1
1 pCi/1
1 pCi/1
0.1 pCi/1
O.lfCi/1
1 pCi/1
1 pCi/1
1 pCi/1
1 pCi/1
0.1 g/1
0.1 g/1
1 pCi/1
0.2 nCi/1
0.2 nCi/1
15 pCi/1
2 pCi/m3
0.015 pCi
0.015 pCi
0.015 pCi
0.015 pCi
0.015 pCi
0.015 pCi
0.1 pCi/1
1 pCi/1
1 pCi/1
5 pCi/1
10 pCi/1
10 pCi/1
0.4 pCi/1
0.4 fCi/1
10 pCi/1
10 pCi/1
10 pCi/1
10 pCi/1
0.12 g/1
0.12 g/1
100 pCi/1
   j" The value of MDL for precipitation in terms of nCi/m  would be dependent on precipitation (nun).
   f This value of MDL for air in terms of pCi/m would be dependent on the air volume. Measurement by alpha spectroscopy
    that includes contributions of plutonium-239 and plutonium-240. MDL for all medja given per sample.
   J This value of MDL for air in terms of pCi/m would be dependent on the air volume. MDL for all media given per sample.
   J Activity as of the day of counting.
                                            XI

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                                                                                         DATA  EPA
                                  ENVIRONMENTAL RADIATION
                            AMBIENT MONITORING SYSTEM (ERAMS)
    Section I. Air Program

                                Airborne Particulates and Precipitation

    Gross beta radioactivity measurements  and certain specific analyses are performed on air participates
and precipitation samples as indicator measurements in assessing the general (national) impact of all con-
tributing sources on environmental levels of radiation.
    Airborne particulates are collected continuously at field stations representing wide geographic coverage,
including present and potential sources of environmental radioactivity. Sampling sites are located throughout
the United States.
    Filters (10-cm diameter synthetic fiber) from air samplers are changed twice weekly and field measure-
ments are made with a G-M survey meter '  at 5 hours and 29 hours after collection to allow for radon and
thoron daughter product decay.  Field estimates are reported to appropriate EPA officials by telephone or
mail depending on the activity levels found.
    The filters are sent  to NAREL for more sensitive analyses in a low background beta counter. Gamma
scans are performed on all filters showing gross beta counts greater than 1 pCi/m3.  The laboratory obtained
values are usually lower than the field estimates due to the decay of naturally occurring radionuclides between
the times  of the two measurements.
    Precipitation samples are collected  at those field  stations collecting air filters. These samples are also
sent to NAREL where  they are composited monthly for gamma scans,  tritium, and  gross beta activity
measurements. A composite of the March, April, and May precipitation samples is analyzed for  plutonium-
238, -239, -240, and uranium-234, -235, and -238.
    A compilation of individual measurements is available from  the National Air and  Radiation Environ-
mental Laboratory,  1504 Avenue A, Montgomery, AL  36115-2601.

    Tables 2-4 contain the data in airborne particulate samples for January - March 1990.  Table 5 contains
the data for tritium in precipitation samples for January   March  1990 at the selected  sites. The last Gross
Beta in precipitation results were published  in Environmental Radiation Data: Report 60.
    The counts at five hours for the Montgomery, Alabama, station are performed on a low background beta counter.

                                                   1

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              Table 2
Gross Beta in Airborne Participates
            January 1990
Location
AL: MONTGOMERY
AH: LITTLE ROCK
AZ: PHOENIX
CA: BERKELEY
CA:LOS ANGELES
CO: DENVER
CT: HARTFORD
DE: WILMINGTON
FL: JACKSONVILLE
FL: MIAMI
HI: HONOLULU
IA:IOWA CITY
ID:BOISE
ID: IDAHO FALLS
IL: CHICAGO
IN: INDIANAPOLIS
KS:TOPEKA
KY: FRANKFORT
LA: NEW ORLEANS
MA: LAWRENCE
ME: AUGUSTA
MI:LANSING
MN: MINNEAPOLIS
MO: JEFFERSON CITY
MS: JACKSON
NC : CHARLOTTE
NC: WILMINGTON
ND: BISMARCK
NE: LINCOLN
NH: CONCORD
NJ:TRENTON
NV:LAS VEGAS
NY: ALBANY
NY: NEW YORK CITY
NY: NIAGARA FALLS
NY: SYRACUSE
NY:YAPHANK
Number
of
Samples
8
9
9
9
6
9
9
9
2
9
8
9
8
9
9
9
9
4
6
5
9
9
9
9
9
9
9
8
9
9
10
9
5
9
9
3
9
5-Hour Field
Estimate
Max Min Avg
(pCi/m3)
0.5 0.2 0.4
0.5 0.1 0.3
6.7 1.3 3.0
0.0 0.0 0.0
0.3 0.1 0.2
2.5 0.2 0.9
0.2 0.0 0.1
0.6 0.0 0.2
0.2 0.1 0.2
0.1 0.0 0.0
0.2 0.1 0.2
0.6 0.0 0.2
1.0 0.3 0.7
0.0 0.0 0.0
0.8 0.2 0.5
4.2 0.1 1.4
4.3 0.6 2.4
0.9 0.4 0.6
0.2 0.0 0.1
0.1 0.0 0.1
0.1 0.0 0.1
0.3 0.1 0.2
0.8 0.2 0.5
1.2 0.5 0.8
0.2 0.1 0.1
0.2 0.0 0.1
0.0 0.0 0.0
0.2 0.1 0.2
3.8 0.2 1.5
0.1 0.0 0.1
0.7 0.0 0.3
0.9 0.1 0.4
0.2 0.0 0.1
0.3 0.0 0.2
0.3 0.0 0.1
0.1 0.1 0.1
0.2 0.1 0.1
NAREL Lab
Meaaurment
Max Min Avg
(pCi/m3)
0.02 0.01 0.01
0.03 0.01 0,02
0.04 0.01 0.02
0.01 0.00 0.01
0.02 0.00 0.01
0.02 0.01 0.01
0.02 0.00 0.01
0.02 0.01 0.01
0.01 0.01 0.01
0.01 0.00 0.00
0.00 0.00 0.00
0.03 0.01 0.02
0.06 0.00 0.02
0.04 0.01 0.02
0.03 0.01 0.02
0.05 0.01 0.02
0.04 0.01 0.02
0.03 0.02 0.03
0.03 0.01 0.01
0.02 0.01 0.02
0.03 0.01 0.02
0.03 0.01 0.02
0.05 0.01 0.02
0.24 0.01 0.05
0.02 0.00 0.01
0.03 0.01 0.02
0.02 0.01 0.01
0.01 0.00 0.01
0.04 0.01 0.02
0.02 0.01 0.01
0.02 0.01 0.01
0.05 0.00 0.02
0.03 0.02 0.02
0.02 0.01 0.01
0.03 0.01 0.02
0.02 0.02 0.02
0.01 0.00 0.01

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                   Table  2 (continued)

         Gross Beta in  Airborne Particulates
                        January 1990
Location
OH: COLUMBUS
OH:PAINESVILLE
OH: TOLEDO
OK OKLAHOMA CITY
OR : PORTLAND
PA:GOLDSBORO
PA:HARRISBURG
PA PITTSBURGH
PA: THREE MILE ISLAND
RI: PROVIDENCE
SC : BARNWELL
SC: COLUMBIA
SD: PIERRE
TN:KNOXVILLE
TN: NASHVILLE
TX: AUSTIN
TX:EL PASO
UT:SALT LAKE CITY
VA:LYNCHBURG
WA:OLYMPIA
WA: SPOKANE
WI: MADISON
WV : CHARLESTON
WY: CHEYENNE
Number
of
Samples
8 '
9
9
9
9
9
9
9
9
7
1
8
1
9
9
8
7
9
9
9
9
9
6
2
5-Hour Field
Estimate
Max Min Avg
(pCi/m3)
0.2 0.1 0.1
0.3 0.0 0.2
0.7 0.0 0.2
2.0 0.4 1.2
0.0 0.0 0.0
0.3 0.0 0.1
0.4 0,1 0.2
0.1 0.1 0.1
0.2 0.0 0.1
0.3 0.0 0.1
0.0 0.0 0.0
1.0 0.1 0.4
0.6 0.6 0.6
1.2 0.0 0.5
0.4 0.1 0.2
0.7 0.3 0.4
1.5 0.6 1.0
1.0 0.0 0.3
0.6 0.1 0.2
0.4 0.0 0.2
0.3 0.1 0.2
0.3 0.1 0.2
0.4 0.0 0.1
0.3 0.1 0.2
NAREL Lab
Measurment
Max Min Avg
(pCi/m3)
0.05 0.02 0.03
0.03 0.01 0.02
0.04 0.01 0.02
0.03 0.01 0.02
0.02 0.00 0.01
0.02 0.01 0.01
0.02 0.01 0.01
0.02 0.00 0.01
0.01 0.00 0.01
0.02 0.01 0.01
0.01 0.01 0.01
0.09 0.01 0.03
0.03 0.03 0.03
0.05 0.01 0.02
0.03 0.01 0.02
0.04 0.01 0.01
0.03 0.01 0.02
0.05 0.01 0.02
0.01 0.01 0.01
0.03 0.00 0.01
0.04 0.00 0.01
0.02 0.01 0.01
0.03 0.01 0.02
0.02 0.01 0.01
Minimum Detectable Limit
Minimum Detectable Limit
for field estimates - 0.1 pCi/m .
for laboratory measurement - 0.01 pCi/m3.

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              Table 3
Gross Beta in Airborne Participates
            February 1990
Location
AL:NOITGONERT
AR: LITTLE ROCK
AZ:PHOEIIX
CA:BERKELET
CA:LOS ARGELES
CO:DEIVER
CT: HARTFORD
DB:WILNIIGTOR
FL:JACKSOIYILLE
FL: MIAMI
HI:HOIOLULU
IA:IOWA CITT
ID: BOISE
ID: IDAHO FALLS
IL: CHICAGO
II:IIDIAIAPOLIS
KS:TOPEKA
KT:FRAKKFORT
LA:IEW ORLEAIS
MA:LAVREICE
ME: AUGUSTA
MI:LAISIIC
MI:MIIIEAPOLIS
MO:JEFFERSOM CITT
MS:JACKSOI
C: CHARLOTTE
fC:WILMIIGTOI
ID: BISMARCK
E:LIMCOLM
nhCORCORD
HJ:TREITOI
NT: LAS VEGAS
IT: ALB AIT
IT: REV TORK CITT
IT:IIAGARA FALLS
IT:STRACUSE
IT:TAPHAIK
lumber
of
Sample*
7
8
6
8
8
8
8
8
7
8
6
8
8
8
8
8
7
4
5
1
7
8
8
8
8
8
8
8
7
8
8
8
4
8
8
1
8
5-Hour Field
Estimate
Mat Min Avg
(pCi/m3)
0.7 0.4 0.5
0.8 0.1 0.3
6.2 0.2 3.4
0.0 0.0 0.0
0.5 0.2 0.3
2.1 0.7 1.2
0.2 0.0 0.1
1.1 0.1 0.4
0.2 0.1 0.1
0.1 0.0 0.0
0.2 0.1 0.2
0.4 0.1 0.2
1.0 0.3 0.6
0.0 0.0 0.0
0.8 0.1 0.4
5,1 0.1 1.1
3.4 0.4 1.6
0.8 0.4 0.6
0.1 0.0 0.0
0.0 0.0 0.0
0.2 0.0 0.1
0.3 0.1 0.2
0.8 0.1 0.3
1.3 0.3 0.7
0.2 0.1 0.1
0.5 0.1 0.2
0.0 0.0 0.0
0.3 0.2 0.2
4.6 0.7 2.1
0.1 0.0 0.1
1.1 0.1 0.5
1.0 0.2 0.5
0.1 0.0 0.0
0.2 0.1 0.2
0.1 0.0 0.1
0.0 0.0 0.0
0.2 0.1 0.2
NAREL Lab
Measurment
Max Min Avg
(pCi/m3)
0.02 0.01 0.01
0.03 0.01 0.02
0.03 0.01 0.02
0.01 0.00 0.00
0.01 0.00 0.01
0.03 0.01 0.02
0.02 0.00 0.01
0.02 0.01 0.01
0.01 0.01 0.01
0.01 0.00 0.00
0.00 0.00 0.00
0.04 0.02 0.02
0.03 0.01 0.02
0.03 0.01 0.02
0.03 0.02 0.02
0.04 0.01 0.02
0.03 0.01 0.02
0.03 0.02 0.03
0.02 0.01 0.01
0.01 0.01 0.01
0.04 0.01 0.02
0.05 0.01 0.02
0.03 0.02 0.03
0.04 0.01 0.02
0.02 0.01 0.01
0.03 0.01 0.02
0.02 0.01 0.02
0.02 0.00 0.01
0.03 0.02 0.02
0.02 0.01 0.02
0.02 0.01 0.01
0.04 0.01 0.02
0.02 0.02 0.02
0.02 0.01 0.02
0.03 0.02 0.02
0.01 0.01 0.01
0.02 0.00 0.01

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                   Table 3 (continued)

         Gross Beta in Airborne Participates
                       February 1990
Location
OH : COLUMBUS
OH:PAINESVILLE
OH: TOLEDO
OK: OKLAHOMA CITY
OR: PORTLAND
P A : GOLDSBORO
PA:HARRISBURG
PA PITTSBURGH
PA: THREE MILE ISLAND
RI: PROVIDENCE
SC:BARNWELL
SC: COLUMBIA
SD: PIERRE
TN:KNOXVILLE
TN: NASHVILLE
TX: AUSTIN
TX:EL PASO
UT:SALT LAKE CITY
VA:LYNCHBURG
WA:OLYMPIA
WA: SPOKANE
WI:MADISON
WV: CHARLESTON
WY: CHEYENNE
Number
of
Samples
5
8
8
6
8
5
8
8
5
8
2
8
7
8
8
8
8
8
8
7
8
8
8
4
S-Hour Field
Estimate
Max Min Avg
(pCi/m3)
0.2 0.1 0.1
0.2 0.1 0.1
0.4 0.1 0.2
2.5 0.2 1.2
0.0 0.0 0.0
0.6 0.0 0.2
0.9 0.1 0.3
0.1 0.1 0.1
0.4 0.0 0.2
0.3 0.0 0.1
0.0 0.0 0.0
0.9 0.2 0.5
1.7 0.4 0.7
1.3 0.1 0.5
0.3 0.1 0.2
0.6 0.2 0.3
2.0 0.1 0.7
0.4 0.0 0.2
0.3 0.1 0.2
0.3 0.0 0.1
0.3 0.1 0.2
0.4 0.0 0.2
0.5 0.1 0.2
1.3 0.6 1.0
	 	 	
NAREL Lab
Measurment
Max Min Avg
(pCi/m8)
0.04 0.02 0.03
0.03 0.01 0.02
0.03 0.01 0.01
0.03 0.01 0.02
0.02 0.00 0.01
0.01 0.01 0.01
0.02 0.01 0.01
0.01 0.00 0.01
0.01 0.01 0.01
0.02 0.00 0.01
0.01 0.00 0.00
0.07 0.01 0.02
0.03 0.01 0.02
0.02 0.01 0.02
0.03 0.01 0.02
0.02 0.01 0.02
0.03 0.01 0.02
0.04 0.01 0.02
0.01 0.00 0.01
0.02 0.00 0.01
0.02 0.00 0.01
0.02 0.01 0.01
0.03 0.01 0.02
0.04 0.03 0.04
Minimum Detectable Limit
Minimum Detectable Limit
for field estimates - 0.1 pCi/m3
for laboratory measurement - 0.01 pCi/m3.

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                       Table 4
       Gross Beta in Airborne Participates
                      March 1990
Location
AL: MONTGOMERY
AR: LITTLE ROCK
AZ: PHOENIX
CA: BERKELEY
CA:LOS ANGELES
CO: DENVER
CT: HARTFORD
DE: WILMINGTON
FL: JACKSONVILLE
FL: MIAMI
HI: HONOLULU
IA:IOWA CITY
ID: BOISE
ID: IDAHO FALLS
IL: CHICAGO
IN : INDIANAPOLIS
KS:TOPEKA
KY: FRANKFORT
LA: NEW ORLEANS
MA: LAWRENCE
ME: AUGUSTA
MI: LANSING
MN: MINNEAPOLIS
MO: JEFFERSON CITY
MS: JACKSON
NC: CHARLOTTE
NC: WILMINGTON
ND: BISMARCK
NE: LINCOLN
NH : CONCORD
NJ:TRENTON
NV:LAS VEGAS
NY: ALBANY
NY: NEW YORK CITY
NY: NIAGARA FALLS
NY: SYRACUSE
NY:YAPHANK
Number
of
Samples
5
9
7
9
9
9
9
9
9
9
9
9
9
9
9
8
9
4
4
7
7
9
9
9
9
9
7
9
8
9
9
9
4
9
9
4
9
5-Hour Field
Estimate
Max Min Avg
(pCi/m3)
0.0 0.0 0.0
0.5 0.2 0.3
4.1 0.9 2.8
0.0 0.0 0.0
0.4 0.1 0.2
2.4 0.1 1.2
0.2 0.1 0.1
0.7 0.0 0.3
0.3 0.1 0.2
0.0 0.0 0.0
0.2 0.1 0.1
0.5 0.1 0.3
1.6 0.6 1.2
0.0 0.0 0.0
1.2 0.2 0.4
*
4.9 0.3 1.4
1.1 0.8 0.9
0.2 0.0 0.1
0.2 0.1 0.2
0.2 0.0 0.1
0.5 0.0 0.2
1.1 0.0 0.3
1.2 0.3 0.8
0.5 0.1 0.3
0.2 0.0 0.1
0.0 0.0 0.0
1.3 0.3 0.7
3.2 0.6 1.5
0.2 0.0 0.1
1.0 0.1 0.6
0.9 0.3 0.6
0.1 0.0 0.1
0.3 0.0 0.2
0.5 0.0 0.2
0.1 0.1 0.1
0.2 0.1 0.2
NAREL Lab
Measurment
Max Min Avg
(pCi/m3)
0.08 0.02 0.04
0.03 0.01 0.02
0.04 0.01 0.02
0.01 0.00 0.00
0.02 0.00 0.01
0.03 0.01 0.02
0.02 0.01 0.01
0.02 0.01 0.02
0.02 0.01 0.01
0.01 0.00 0.01
0.01 0.00 0.00
0.03 0.01 0.02
0.04 0.01 0.02
0.03 0.01 0.02
0.02 0.01 0.02
0.03 0.01 0.02
0.02 0.01 0.02
0.03 0.02 0.03
0.02 0.01 0.01
0.01 0.01 0.01
0.03 0.01 0.02
0.02 0.01 0.02
0.03 0.01 0.02
0.03 0.01 0.02
0.03 0.01 0.02
0.03 0.01 0.02
0.02 0.01 0.02
0.02 0.00 0.01
0.02 0.01 0.01
0.02 0.01 0.02
0.02 0.01 0.02
0.06 0.01 0.03
0.02 0.01 0.01
0.03 0.01 0.02
0.02 0.01 0.02
0.02 0.01 0.02
0.02 0.01 0.02
* Instrumentation defective, no reading reported.

-------
        Table 4 (continued)
Gross Beta in Airborne Participates
             March 1990


Location

OH : COLUMBUS
OH:PAINESVILLE
OH: TOLEDO
OK: OKLAHOMA CITY
OR: PORTLAND
PA:HARRISBURG
PA PITTSBURGH
RI: PROVIDENCE
SC:BARNWELL
SC: COLUMBIA
SD: PIERRE
TN:KNOXVILLE
TN: NASHVILLE
TX: AUSTIN
TX:EL PASO
UT:SALT LAKE CITY
VA:LYNCHBURG
WA:OLYMPIA
WA: SPOKANE
WI: MADISON
WV: CHARLESTON
WY : CHEYENNE

Number
of
Samples
6
9
9
8
9
9
9
9
2
9
6
9
9
9
9
9
9
9
9
9
8
4
5-Hour Field
Estimate
Max Min Avg
(pCi/m3)
0.6 0.1 0.4
0.3 0.1 0.2
0.7 0.1 0.2
1.4 0.2 0.6
0.0 0.0 0.0
1.0 0.1 0.4
0.2 0.2 0.2
0.6 0.0 0.3
0.1 0.0 0.1
0.5 0.1 0.3
1.5 0.5 0.9
1.6 0.3 0.9
0.7 0.2 0.4
0.4 0.1 0.3
1.2 0.3 0.8
1.4 0.1 0.7
0.6 0.1 0.3
0.6 0.1 0.3
0.9 0.3 0.6
0.6 0.1 0.2
0.6 0.1 0.3
1.3 0.1 0,6
NAREL Lab
Measurment
Max Min Avg
(pCi/m3)
0.04 0.02 0.02
0.03 0.01 0.02
0.01 0.00 0.01
0.03 0.01 0.01
0.03 0.00 0.01
0.02 0.01 0.01
0.02 0.01 0.02
0.03 0.01 0.02
0.03 0.02 0.03
0.02 0.01 0.02
0.03 0.01 0.02
0.03 0.01 0.02
0.03 0.01 0.02
0.02 0.01 0.01
0.03 0.02 0.02
0.05 0.01 0.02
0.01 0.00 0.01
0.02 0.00 0.01
0.04 0.01 0.02
0.02 0.01 0.01
0.02 0.01 0.02
0.04 0.02 0.03
Minimum Detectable Limit for field estimates - 0.1 pCi/m3.
Minimum Detectable Limit for laboratory measurement - 0.01 pCi/m3

-------
        Table 5
Tritium in Precipitation
   January - March 1990
Location
AL: MONTGOMERY
AR: LITTLE ROCK
AZ: PHOENIX
CA: BERKELEY
CO: DENVER
CT: HARTFORD
FL: JACKSONVILLE
FL:MIAMI
HI: HONOLULU
ID:BOISE
ID: IDAHO FALLS
IL: CHICAGO
LA: NEW ORLEANS
MN: MINNEAPOLIS
MO: JEFFERSON CITY
MS: JACKSON
NC: CHARLOTTE
NC: WILMINGTON
ND:BISMARCK
NJ:TRENTON
NV:LAS VEGAS
NY: ALBANY
NY: NEW YORK CITY
NY: NIAGARA FALLS
NY:YAPHANK
OH: COLUMBUS
OH:PAINESVILLE
OH: TOLEDO
OK: OKLAHOMA CITY
OR: PORTLAND
PA:HARRISBURG
PA:MIDDLETOWN
SC: COLUMBIA
TN:KNOXVILLE
TN: NASHVILLE
TX: AUSTIN
TX:EL PASO
January 1990
nCi/1 1ff
0.2 0.2
0.2 0.2
0.2 0.2
0.2 0.2
NS
0.2 0.2
0.2 0.2
0.2 0.2
0.1 0.2
0.1 0.2
NS
0.3 0.2
NS
NS
0.2 0.2
0.2 0.2
0.2 0.2
0.1 0.2
NS
0.1 0.2
0.1 0.2
0.2 0.2
0.1 0.2
0.1 0.2
0,2 0.2
0.3 0.2
0.3 0.2
0.2 0.2
0.2 0.2
0.1 0.2
0.1 0.2
0.1 0.2
0.1 0.2
0.2 0.2
0.2 0.2
0.2 0.2
0.2 0.2
February 1990
nCi/1 2
-------
              Table 5 (continued)

           Tritium in Precipitation

              January - March 1990
Location
OT : SALT LAKE CITT
TA:LTMCHBOR6
WA:OLTNPIA
VltNADISOM
W: CHARLESTON
January 1990
nCi/1 2
-------
                  Plutonium and Uranium in Airborne Particulates and Precipitation

    Environmental radiation levels of plutonium and  uranium are determined  by the analysis of semi-
annually composited samples  (air filters) collected from  the  continuously operating airborne particulate
samplers.
    Concentration of the specific isotopes of plutonium-238, -239, and -240 and uranium-234, -235, and
-238 are determined by alpha spectroscopy following chemical separation. The volume of air represented by
the semiannual composite ranges from 25,000 to 40,000 cubic meters.
    Plutonium and uranium results are published when they become available.
                                                 10

-------
                                             Krypton-85

    Krypton-85 is a long-lived noble gas with a half-life of 10.8 years. It is released into the atmosphere
by nuclear reactor operations, fuel reprocessing,  weapons tests, and research and defense related activities.
Krypton-85 also occurs naturally in minor quantities primarily from the neutron capture of stable krypton-
84 as well as spontaneous fission and neutron-induced fission of uranium. Krypton-85 in the atmosphere
has been monitored to identify and establish baseline levels and long-term trends.
    Krypton-85 analysis began in January 1973 with sample collections and analyses being performed for 12
sampling locations. These locations were selected to provide atmospheric coverage of the United States with
considerations being given to the proximity to fuel reprocessing plants, nuclear reactors, and wide geographic
coverage.

    Dry compressed air samples, collected at each location, are purchased from commercial air suppliers and
shipped to the NAREL where the krypton-85 is cryogenically separated  and counted in a liquid scintillation
system.
    The last Kr-85 results were for 1976,  1977, and 1979.  They were published in Environmental Radiation
Data:  Report 30.
                                                   11

-------
                                                                                       DATA  EPA
                                 ENVIRONMENTAL RADIATION
                           AMBIENT MONITORING SYSTEM (ERAMS)


    Section II. Water Program

    The ERAMS water program provides data on ambient radiation levels in the nation's rivers, streams,
and drinking water supplies.

                                           Surface Water

    Quarterly grab samples are taken downstream from operating or future nuclear facilities at 58 stations.
    Surface water samples are analyzed for tritium quarterly and specific gamma activity annually. Tritium
is a primary radioactive pollutant from nuclear power plants and weapons production activities.
    Tritium concentrations are determined  by liquid scintillation counting of distilled samples.  Gamma
scans are performed annually to determine levels of gamma emitting radionuclides.
    Table 6 contains the data for tritium concentrations for January - March 1990.  Table 7 contains the
surface water annual gamma results for March - July 1989.
                                                12

-------
        Table 6
Tritium in Surface Water
   January - March 1990
Location
AL:DECATUR
AL:DOTHAN
AL:SCOTTSBORO
AR: LITTLE ROCK
CA:DIABLO CANYON
CA : EUREKA
CA:SAN ONOFRE
CO:PLATTEVILLE
CT:EAST HADDAM
CT : WATERFORD
FL: CRYSTAL RIVER
FL:FT. PIERCE
FL: HOMESTEAD
IA: CEDAR RAPIDS
ID: BUHL
IL:E. MOLINE
IL: MORRIS
KS:LEROY
LA: NEW ORLEANS
MA: PLYMOUTH
MD:CONOWINGO
MD:LUSBY
ME:WISCASSET
MI:BRIDGMAN
MI:CHARLEVOIX
MI: MONROE
MI: SOUTH HAVEN
MN:MONTICELLO
MN:RED WING
MS: PORT GIBSON
NC : CHARLOTTE
NC:SOUTHPORT
NE:RULO
NJ:BAYSIDE
NJ:OYSTER CREEK
NV: BOULDER CITY
NY: CHELSEA
Source
TENNESSEE RIVER
CHATTAHOOCHEE RIVER
TENNESSEE RIVER
ARKANSAS RIVER
PACIFIC OCEAN
HUMBOLDT BAY
PACIFIC OCEAN
SOUTH PLATTE RIVER
CONNECTICUT RIVER
LONG ISLAND SOUND
GULF OF MEXICO
ATLANTIC OCEAN
BISCAYNE BAY
CEDAR RIVER
SNAKE RIVER
MISSISSIPPI RIVER
ILLINOIS RIVER
NEOSHO RIVER
MISSISSIPPI RIVER
CAPE COD BAY
SUSQUEHANNA RIVER
CHESAPEAKE BAY
MONTSEWAY BAY
LAKE MICHIGAN
LAKE MICHIGAN
LAKE ERIE
LAKE MICHIGAN
MISSISSIPPI RIVER
MISSISSIPPI RIVER
MISSISSIPPI RIVER
CATAWBA RIVER
ATLANTIC OCEAN
MISSOURI RIVER
DELAWARE RIVER
OYSTER CREEK
COLORADO RIVER
HUDSON RIVER
Date
Collected
12/28/89
01/11/90
01/03/90
01/29/90
01/04/90
01/11/90
02/15/90
01/04/90
01/19/90
01/19/90
01/09/90
01/10/90
01/12/90
01/09/90
01/20/90
01/08/90
01/04/90
02/15/90
01/25/90
01/03/90
01/02/90
01/22/90
01/16/90
01/09/90
01/05/90
01/08/90
02/04/90
01/09/90
01/23/90
01/02/90
01/08/90
01/18/90
01/03/90
01/23/90
01/25/90
01/31/90
01/04/90
nCi/1 2
-------
               Table 6 (continued)
           Tritium in Surface Water
               January - March 1990
Location
NY:OSSINING
NY:OSWEGO
OH: TOLEDO
OR:BRADWOOD
PA: DANVILLE
PA PHILADELPHIA
PA: PHILADELPHIA
PA: PHILADELPHIA
SC:ALLENDALE
SC: BROAD RIVER
SC:HARTSVILLE
TN:KINGSTON
TX:MATAGORDA
VA: NEWPORT NEWS
VA: NEWPORT NEWS
WA : NORTHPORT
WA: HIGHLAND
WI:TWO CREEKS
WI: VICTORY
WV: WHEELING
Source
HUDSON RIVER
LAKE ONTARIO
LAKE ERIE
COLUMBIA RIVER
SUSQUEHANNA RIVER
SCHUYLKILL RIVER-BELMONT
SCHUYLKILL RIVER-QUEEN
DELAWARE RIVER-BAXTER
SAVANNAH RIVER
BROAD RIVER
LAKE ROBINSON
CLINCH RIVER
COLORADO RIVER
JAMES RIVER
JAMES RIVER
COLUMBIA RIVER
COLUMBIA RIVER
LAKE MICHIGAN
MISSISSIPPI RIVER
OHIO RIVER
Date
Collected
02/07/90
12/28/89
01/03/90
01/16/90
01/04/90
01/16/90
01/16/90
01/16/90
01/31/90
01/29/90
01/07/90
01/23/90
01/10/90
03/01/90
01/23/90
01/10/90
02/16/90
01/15/90
01/08/90
01/04/90
nCi/1 2
-------
        Table 7
     Surface  Water
Annual Gamma Analysis

    March - July 1989
Location
AL:DECATUR
AL:DOTHAN
AL:SCOTTSBORO
AR: LITTLE ROCK
CA: DIABLO CANYON
CA : EUREKA
CA:SAN ONOFRE
CO : PLATTEVILLE
CT:EAST HADDAM
CT : WATERFORD
FL: CRYSTAL RIVER
FL:FT. PIERCE
FL: HOMESTEAD
IA: CEDAR RAPIDS
ID: BUHL
IL:E. MOLINE
IL: MORRIS
IL:ZION
IL:ZION
KS:LEROY
LA: NEW ORLEANS
MA : PLYMOUTH
MD:CONOWINGO
MD:LUSBY
ME:WISCASSST
MI:BRIDGMAN
MI:CHARLEVOIX
MI:CHARLEVOIX
MI: MONROE
MI: SOUTH HAVEN
MN:MONTICELLO
MN:RED WING
MS: PORT GIBSON
NC: CHARLOTTE
NC : SOUTHPORT
NE:RULO
NJ:BAYSIDE
Source
TENNESSEE RIVER
CHATTAHOOCHEE RIVER
TENNESSEE RIVER
ARKANSAS RIVER
PACIFIC OCEAN
HUMBOLDT BAY
PACIFIC OCEAN
SOUTH PLATTE RIVER
CONNECTICUT RIVER
LONG ISLAND SOUND
GULF OF MEXICO
ATLANTIC OCEAN
BISCAYNE BAY
CEDAR RIVER
SNAKE RIVER
MISSISSIPPI RIVER
ILLINOIS RIVER
LAKE MICHIGAN
LAKE MICHIGAN
NEOSHO RIVER
MISSISSIPPI RIVER
CAPE COD BAY
SUSQUEHANNA RIVER
CHESAPEAKE BAY
MONTSEWAY BAY
LAKE MICHIGAN
LAKE MICHIGAN
LAKE MICHIGAN
LAKE ERIE
LAKE MICHIGAN
MISSISSIPPI RIVER
MISSISSIPPI RIVER
MISSISSIPPI RIVER
CATAWBA RIVER
ATLANTIC OCEAN
MISSOURI RIVER
DELAWARE RIVER
Date
Collected
04/06/89
04/13/89
04/07/89
04/04/89
05/15/89
04/10/89
06/22/89
04/05/89
05/26/89
05/26/89
04/03/89
04/11/89
04/18/89
05/08/89
04/12/89
04/11/89
04/16/89
06/30/89
03/31/89
05/15/89
04/13/89
04/05/89
04/17/89
04/11/89
04/04/89
04/11/89
04/07/89
04/07/89
04/10/89
04/11/89
07/19/89
04/18/89
04/04/89
04/06/89
04/29/89
05/03/89
04/11/89
Gamma
pCi/1 2cr
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
40K:263 32%
40K : 359 49 %
ND
ND
40K: 236 36%
ND
40K : 146 56 %
40K: 392 22%
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
40 K: 86 93%
40K: 202 41%
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
           15

-------
   Table 7 (continued)

     Surface Water
Annual Gamma Analysis

     March -  July 1989

Location
NJ: OYSTER CREEK
NV: BOULDER CITY
NY : CHELSEA
NY:OSSINING
NY:OSWEGO
OH: TOLEDO
OR:BRADWOOD
PA: DANVILLE
SC:ALLENDALE
SC: BROAD RIVER
SC.-HARTSVILLE
TN:DAISY
TN:KINGSTON
TX:EL PASO
TX:MATAGORDA
VA:DOSWELL
VA: NEWPORT NEWS
VT:VERNON
WA:NORTHPORT
WA:RICHLAND
WI:TWO CREEKS
WI: VICTORY
WV: WHEELING

Source
OYSTER CREEK
COLORADO RIVER
HUDSON RIVER
HUDSON RIVER
LAKE ONTARIO
LAKE ERIE
COLUMBIA RIVER
SUSQUEHANNA RIVER
SAVANNAH RIVER
BROAD RIVER
LAKE ROBINSON
TENNESSEE RIVER
CLINCH RIVER
RIO GRANDE
COLORADO RIVER
NORTH ANNA RIVER
JAMES RIVER
CONNECTICUT RIVER
COLUMBIA RIVER
COLUMBIA RIVER
LAKE MICHIGAN
MISSISSIPPI RIVER
OHIO RIVER
Date
Collected
04/13/89
04/05/89
04/03/89
04/14/89
04/28/89
04/03/89
04/06/89
04/12/89
04/27/89
04/12/89
04/03/89
04/01/89
04/10/89
06/13/89
04/12/89
04/13/89
04/12/89
04/05/89
05/05/89
04/20/89
04/03/89
04/10/89
04/04/89
Gamma
pCi/1 2
-------
                                           Drinking Water

    This program monitors ambient radiation levels in drinking water at 78 sites.  These data serve to assess
trends and anomalies in concentrations, and to compare with standards set forth  in the EPA  "National
Interim Primary  Drinking Water Regulations." These regulations provide for approval of supplies  when
the combined radium-226 and radium-228 levels do not exceed 5 pCi/1, when the  gross alpha (excluding
radon and uranium) levels do not exceed 15 pCi/1, when tritium levels do not exceed  20,000 pCi/1, when the
strontium-90 levels do not exceed 8 pCi/1, and  when the gross beta levels do not exceed 50 pCi/1.
    Grab samples are taken at the 78 sites which are either major population centers or selected nuclear
facility environs.
    The analyses include (a) tritium on a quarterly basis; (b) gross alpha, gross beta,  strontium-90, and
gamma on annual composites; (c)  radium-226 if the  gross alpha exceeds 2 pCi/1  and radium-228 if the
radium-226 falls  between 3 and 5 pCi/1; (d) specific iodine-131 on one quarterly sample per year for each
station; and (e) an annual composite for plutonium-238, -239, and -240 and uranium-234, -235, and -238
for stations that demonstrate gross alpha levels greater than 2 pCi/1.
    Tritium  analyses are performed by scintillation counting of the distilled samples.  Gross beta and ai
pha ate determined by evaporating an aliquot on a stainless steel planchet for counting.  Radium-226 is
determined by the standard emanation technique. Strontium-90 is determined by beta counting a strontium
carbonate precipitate isolated by ion exchange.
    Table 8 contains the data in drinking water for January  March 1990.   Table  9 contains the 1-131 in
drinking water results for January - December  1989.
                                                  17

-------
          Table 8
Tritium in Drinking Water
    January - March 1990
Location
AK: FAIRBANKS
AL:DOTHAN
AL: MONTGOMERY
AL: MUSCLE SHOALS
AL:SCOTTSBORO
AR: LITTLE ROCK
CA: BERKELEY
CA:LOS ANGELES
CO: DENVER
CO:PLATTEVILLE
CT : HARTFORD
DC: WASHINGTON
DE: DOVER
FL: MIAMI
FL:TAMPA
GA: SAVANNAH
HI: HONOLULU
IA: CEDAR RAPIDS
ID:BOISE
ID: IDAHO FALLS
IL: MORRIS
IL-.W. CHICAGO
KS:TOPEKA
LA: NEW ORLEANS
MA: LAWRENCE
MD: BALTIMORE
MD:CONOWINGO
ME: AUGUSTA
MI: DETROIT
MI: GRAND RAPIDS
MN:MINNEAPOLIS
MN:RED WING
MO: JEFFERSON CITY
MS: JACKSON
MS: PORT GIBSON
Date
Collected
01/11/90
01/11/90
01/26/90
01/03/90
01/03/90
01/31/90
01/03/90
01/05/90
01/03/90
01/03/90
01/02/90
01/08/90
01/03/90
01/03/90
01/03/90
01/16/90
01/16/90
01/09/90
01/03/90
01/22/90
01/04/90
01/02/90
01/02/90
01/11/90
01/05/90
01/04/90
01/02/90
01/18/90
01/04/90
01/11/90
01/19/90
01/23/90
01/03/90
01/02/90
01/02/90
nCl/1 2
-------
   Table 8 (continued)
Tritium in Drinking Water
   January - March 1990
Location
NC : CHARLOTTE
NC: WILMINGTON
ND: BISMARCK
NH: CONCORD
NJ:TRENTON
NJ:WARETOWN
NM: SANTA FE
NV:LAS VEGAS
NY: ALBANY
NY: NEW YORK CITY
NY: NIAGARA FALLS
NY: SYRACUSE
OH: CINCINNATI
OH: COLUMBUS
OH:PAINESVILLE
OH: TOLEDO
OK: OKLAHOMA CITY
OR: PORTLAND
PA: COLUMBIA
PA:HARRISBURG
PA PHILADELPHIA
PA PHILADELPHIA
PA: PHILADELPHIA
PA: PITTSBURGH
PC:ANCON
RI: PROVIDENCE
SC:BARNWELL
SC: COLUMBIA
SC: HARTS VILLE
SC:JENKINSVILLE
SC: SENECA
TN: CHATTANOOGA
TN:KNOXVILLE
TX: AUSTIN
VA:DOSWELL
Date
Collected
01/08/90
01/18/90
01/02/90
01/03/90
01/18/90
01/25/90
01/05/90
01/04/90
01/05/90
01/04/90
01/09/90
03/12/90
01/03/90
01/02/90
01/04/90
01/03/90
01/17/90
01/03/90
01/04/90
01/04/90
01/16/90
01/16/90
01/16/90
02/08/90
01/29/90
01/04/90
01/15/90
01/02/90
01/22/90
01/04/90
01/30/90
01/25/90
01/02/90
02/02/90
01/03/90
nCi/1 2
-------
       Table 8 (continued)
  Tritium in Drinking Water
       January - March 1990
Location
VA:LTNCHBURG
V A -.VIRGINIA BEACH
VI: ST. THOMAS
WA: HIGHLAND
WA: SEATTLE
WI: GENOA CITT
WI: MADISON
Date
Collected
01/02/90
01/03/90
01/22/90
02/16/90
01/03/90
01/08/90
01/03/90
nCi/1 2
-------
           Table 9
Iodine-131 in Drinking Water
    January - December 1989
Location
AK: FAIRBANKS
AL:DOTHAN
AL: MONTGOMERY
AL: MUSCLE SHOALS
AL:SCOTTSBORO
AR: LITTLE ROCK
CA: BERKELEY
CA:LOS ANGELES
CO: DENVER
CO:PLATTEVILLE
CT: HARTFORD
DC:WASHINGTON
DE: DOVER
FL: MIAMI
FL: TAMPA
GA:BAXLEY
GA: SAVANNAH
HI: HONOLULU
IA: CEDAR RAPIDS
ID:BOISE
ID: IDAHO FALLS
IL: CHICAGO
IL: MORRIS
KS:TOPEKA
LA: NEW ORLEANS
MA: LAWRENCE
MD: BALTIMORE
MD:CONOWINGO
ME: AUGUSTA
MI: DETROIT
MI: GRAND RAPIDS
MN MINNEAPOLIS
MN:RED WING
MO: JEFFERSON CITY
MS: JACKSON
MS: PORT GIBSON
MT: HELENA
Date
Collected
01/20/89
04/14/89
04/03/89
01/04/89
01/04/89
04/04/89
07/12/89
04/10/89
01/04/89
01/04/89
10/02/89
07/12/89
01/03/89
07/03/89
04/03/89
01/11/89
07/11/89
07/20/89
01/03/89
01/04/89
10/13/89
01/02/89
01/06/89
01/03/89
03/31/89
01/11/89
10/04/89
04/17/89
04/24/89
04/10/89
01/12/89
07/14/89
04/18/89
01/05/89
04/04/89
04/04/89
01/04/89
pCi/1 2
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     Table 9 (continued)
Iodine-131 in Drinking Water
    January - December 1989
Location
NC: CHARLOTTE
NC: CHARLOTTE
ND: BISMARCK
NE:LINCOLN
NH: CONCORD
NJ:WARETOWN
NM: SANTA FE
NV:LAS VEGAS
NY: ALBANY
NY: NEW YORK CITY
NY: NIAGARA FALLS
NY: SYRACUSE
OH:CINCINNATI
OH: COLUMBUS
OH: EAST LIVERPOOL
OH:PAINESVILLE
OH : TOLEDO
OK: OKLAHOMA CITY
OR: PORTLAND
PA: COLUMBIA
PA:HARRISBURG
PA: PHILADELPHIA
PA: PITTSBURGH
PC:ANCON
RI: PROVIDENCE
SC:BARNWELL
SC: COLUMBIA
SC:HARTSVILLE
SC:JENKINSVILLE
SC: SENECA
TN: CHATTANOOGA
TN:KNOXVILLE
TX: AUSTIN
VA.-DOSWELL
VA : LYNCHBURG
VA: VIRGINIA BEACH
VI: ST. THOMAS
Date
Collected
07/11/89
10/11/89
01/03/89
04/03/89
01/03/89
07/20/89
08/21/89
04/06/89
07/17/89
07/12/89
04/03/89
09/27/89
04/03/89
04/18/89
04/20/89
01/04/89
01/04/89
01/17/89
10/13/89
04/11/89
01/05/89
10/13/89
04/20/89
04/10/89
08/01/89
07/13/89
01/04/89
04/03/89
04/21/89
04/18/89
07/13/89
07/03/89
04/20/89
10/02/89
04/03/89
10/20/89
04/14/89
pCi/1 2(7
0.1 0.1
0.0 0.1
-0.3 0.1
-0.2 0.1
-0.1 0.1
-0.1 0.1
-0.1 0.1
-0.1 0.1
-0.1 0.1
-0.1 0.1
0.1 0.1
-0.2 0.2
-0.6 0.1
-0.5 0.1
-0.1 0.1
-0,1 0.1
-0.3 0.1
0.0 0.1
0.3 0.2
-0.2 0.1
0.0 0.1
0.2 0.1
-0.4 0.1
0.4 0.1
-0.1 0.1
-0.3 0.1
-0.1 0.1
-0.9 0.2
0.6 0.1
-0.2 0.1
-0.1 0.1
-0.1 0.2
-0.1 0.1
-0.2 0.1
-0.3 0.1
-0.1 0.2
-0.2 0.1
              22

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      Table 9 (continued)
Iodine-131 in Drinking Water
    January - December 1989
Location
UA: HIGHLAND
WA: SEATTLE
WItGEHOA CITY
WI: MADISON
Date
Collected
04/20/89
01/04/89
04/10/89
04/04/89
pCi/1 2cr
-0.1 0.2
-0.2 0.1
-0.5 0.2
-0.3 0.1
 
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                                                                                        DATA   EPA


                                  ENVIRONMENTAL RADIATION
                           AMBIENT MONITORING SYSTEM (ERAMS)


    Section III. External Gamma Ambient Monitoring Program

    The external gamma monitoring program, which began in October 1978, provides a continuous measure-
ment of ambient gamma exposure rates, including cosmic, at selected sites throughout the continental United
States. Data from this program are  used to evaluate fluctuations in natural background due to variations in
environmental conditions and to provide a means of monitoring any significant increases in ambient gamma
levels. The program consists of approximately 22 sites representing wide geographic coverage throughout the
country.'  Although exposure measurements at  these few sites are not totally representative  of nationwide
exposures, they do indicate national trends.
    The monitoring program utilizes  CaFjiMn thermoluminescent  dosimeters (TLD's).  These dosimeters
are commercially available glass-bulb  type  dosimeters with energy compensating shields. A group of three
TLD's is located at each station or site. Dosimeters are annealed by the station operator prior  to positioning
in the field. The dosimeters are returned to NAREL for readout approximately every three months. Several
dosimeters are annealed by the  station operator as controls and returned with the  exposed field dosimeters
to correct  for any exposures  accumulated during shipment.
    Publication of EG AMP data has been temporarily suspended until problems with the data are resolved.
    Some of thee sites may not return dosimeters each period and consequently the number of sites listed may vary slightly.

                                                 24

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                                                                                         DATA  EPA
                                  ENVIRONMENTAL RADIATION
                            AMBIENT MONITORING SYSTEM (ERAMS)


    Section IV. Milk Program

                                           Pasteurized Milk

    This is a cooperative program with the Dairy and Lipid Products Branch, Milk Sanitation Section, Food
and Drug Administration.  Milk is a reliable indicator  of the general  population's intake of radionuclides
since it is consumed fresh by a large segment of the population and can contain  several of the biologically
important radionuclides that result from environmental releases from nuclear activities.  A primary function
of this program is to  obtain reliable monitoring data relative to current radionuclide  concentrations and
determine any long-term trends.
    Monthly samples  are collected at 65 sampling sites with one or more located in each state, Puerto Rico,
and the Panama Canal Zone.  The samples are composited, according to production, from the major milk
suppliers representing  more than 80 percent  of the milk consumed in a given population center.
    The samples are analyzed for gamma emitting nuclides,  which include iodine-131, barium-140, cesium-
137, and potassium.  All samples collected in July are analyzed for strontium-89 and strontium-90.  Also,
for the first  month of the  three quarters beginning  January, April and October,  10  regional composite
samples of milk made  up-from the states within each of EPA's 10 regions are analyzed for strontium-89 and
strontium-90.
    Iodine-131, barium-140, cesium-137, and potassium are determined by gamma spectral analysis. Stron-
tium-89 and  strontium-90 are determined by  beta counting a total strontium  precipitate that has been
chemically separated by ion exchange.
    Tables 10-12 contain the concentrations of radionuclides in pasteurized milk  for January - March 1990.
The last Strontium-90 and Strontium-89 in  Milk results were published in Environmental Radiation Data:
Report 60.
                                                   25

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            Table 10
Radionuclides in Pasteurized Milk
           January 1990
Location
AL: MONTGOMERY
AR: LITTLE ROCK
AZ:PHOENIX
CA: SACRAMENTO
CA:SAN FRANCISCO
CO: DENVER
CT: HARTFORD
DE:WILMINGTON
FL: TAMPA
GA: ATLANTA
HI: HONOLULU
IA:DES MOINES
ID: IDAHO FALLS
IL: CHICAGO
IN: INDIANAPOLIS
KS:WICHITA
KY: LOUISVILLE
LA: NEW ORLEANS
MA: BOSTON
MD: BALTIMORE
ME: PORTLAND
MI: DETROIT
MI: GRAND RAPIDS
MN:MINNEAPOLIS
MN:ST. PAUL
MO:KANSAS CITY
MO: ST. LOUIS
MS: JACKSON
MT: HELENA
NC: CHARLOTTE
ND:MINOT
NE: OMAHA
NH: MANCHESTER
NJ: TRENTON
NM: ALBUQUERQUE
NV:LAS VEGAS
NY: BUFFALO
Date
Collected
01/04/90
01/02/90
01/11/90
01/31/90
01/05/90
01/31/90
01/08/90
01/10/90
01/03/90
01/08/90
01/03/90
01/08/90
01/19/90
01/11/90
01/10/90
01/16/90
01/09/90
01/05/90
01/03/90
01/05/90
01/02/90
01/11/90
01/08/90
01/08/90
01/04/90
01/11/90
01/02/90
01/02/90
01/02/90
01/15/90
01/30/90
01/12/90
01/22/90
01/03/90
01/04/90
01/08/90
01/09/90
K
g/1 2(7
1.38 0.12
1.48 0.09
1.59 0.13
1.36 0.08
1.58 0.13
1.47 0.16
1.48 0.13
1.42 0.12
1.50 0.09
1.45 0.12
1.35 0.08
1.62 0.13
1.45 0.12
1.63 0,23
1.43 0.12
1.33 0.12
1.64 0.23
1.46 0.13
1.50 0.13
1.52 0.13
1.30 0.08
1.45 0.09
1.53 0.13
1.39 0.12
1.67 0.23
1.49 0.13
1.41 0.08
1.50 0.13
1.43 0.08
1.70 0.23
1.58 0.13
1.47 0.13
1.47 0.08
1.45 0.12
1.49 0.13
1.40 0.12
1.53 0.13
137Ce
pCi/1 2
-------
       Table 10 (continued)
Radionuclides in Pasteurized Milk
           January 1990

Location
NY: NEW YORK CITY
NY: SYRACUSE
OH: CINCINNATI
OH: CLEVELAND
OK: OKLAHOMA CITY
OR: PORTLAND
PA: PHILADELPHIA
PA PITTSBURGH
PC: CRISTOBAL
PR: SAN JUAN
SC: CHARLESTON
SD: RAPID CITY
TN: CHATTANOOGA
TN:KNOXVILLE
TN: MEMPHIS
TX: AUSTIN
TX:FT. WORTH
VA : NORFOLK
WA: SEATTLE
WA: SPOKANE
WV : CHARLESTON
Date
Collected
01/08/90
01/08/90
01/24/90
01/23/90
01/08/90
01/08/90
01/08/90
01/08/90
01/25/90
01/10/90
01/11/90
01/04/90
01/08/90
01/03/90
01/09/90
01/14/90
01/05/90
01/28/90
01/02/90
01/08/90
01/22/90
K
g/1 2
-------
            Table 11
Radionuclides in Pasteurized Milk
           February 1990
Location
AL: MONTGOMERY
AR: LITTLE ROCK
AZ: PHOENIX
CA:LOS ANGELES
FL: TAMPA
GA: ATLANTA
HI: HONOLULU
IA:DES MOINES
ID: IDAHO FALLS
IL: CHICAGO
IN -.INDIANAPOLIS
KS: WICHITA
KY: LOUISVILLE
LA: HEW ORLEANS
MA: BOSTON
MD: BALTIMORE
ME: PORTLAND
MI: DETROIT
MI: GRAND RAPIDS
MN:ST. PAUL
MO: ST. LOUIS
MS: JACKSON
MT: HELENA
NC: CHARLOTTE
ND:MINOT
NE: OMAHA
NH: MANCHESTER
NJ:TRENTON
NM: ALBUQUERQUE
NV:LAS VEGAS
NY: BUFFALO
NY: NEW YORK CITY
NY: SYRACUSE
OH:CINCINNATI
OH: CLEVELAND
OK: OKLAHOMA CITY
OR: PORTLAND
Date
Collected
02/09/90
02/06/90
02/08/90
02/13/90
02/07/90
02/14/90
02/05/90
02/05/90
02/21/90
02/08/90
02/05/90
02/11/90
02/06/90
02/02/90
02/07/90
02/02/90
02/06/90
02/08/90
02/05/90
02/06/90
02/07/90
02/06/90
02/07/90
02/11/90
02/22/90
02/11/90
02/19/90
02/07/90
02/16/90
02/06/90
02/20/90
02/05/90
02/05/90
02/26/90
02/13/90
02/05/90
02/07/90
K
g/1 2
-------
                    Table 11 (continued)

            Radionuclides in Pasteurized Milk
                        February 1990
Location
PA: PHILADELPHIA
PA: PITTSBURGH
PC: CRISTOBAL
PR: SAN JOAN
SC: CHARLESTON
SD: RAPID CITT
TN: CHATTANOOGA
TN:KNOXVILLE
TN: MEMPHIS
TX:FT. WORTH
WA: SEATTLE
VV: CHARLESTON
Date
Collected
02/05/90
02/06/90
02/22/90
02/09/90
02/09/90
02/12/90
02/06/90
02/12/90
02/09/90
02/05/90
02/06/90
02/13/90
K
g/1 2
-------
            Table 12
Radionuclides in Pasteurized Milk
            March 1990
Location
AL: MONTGOMERY
AR: LITTLE ROCK
AZ: PHOENIX
CAtLOS ANGELES
CA: SACRAMENTO
CA:SAH FRANCISCO
CO: DENVER
CT: HARTFORD
DE: WILMINGTON
FL: TAMPA
GA : ATLANTA
IA:DES MOINES
ID: IDAHO FALLS
IL: CHICAGO
IN: INDIANAPOLIS
KS: WICHITA
KT: LOUISVILLE
LA: NEW ORLEANS
MA: BOSTON
MD: BALTIMORE
ME: PORTLAND
MI: DETROIT
MI: GRAND RAPIDS
MN:ST. PAUL
MO: KANSAS CITY
MO: ST. LOUIS
MS: JACKSON
NT: HELENA
NC : CHARLOTTE
ND:MINOT
NE: OMAHA
NJ:TRENTON
NV:LAS VEGAS
NY: NEW YORK CITY
NY SYRACUSE
OH CINCINNATI
OH CLEVELAND
Date
Collected
03/09/90
03/19/90
03/15/90
03/30/90
03/06/90
03/08/90
03/31/90
03/05/90
03/20/90
03/14/90
03/12/90
03/05/90
03/22/90
03/09/90
03/12/90
03/26/90
03/06/90
03/23/90
03/07/90
03/02/90
03/07/90
03/08/90
03/21/90
03/12/90
03/09/90
03/07/90
03/13/90
03/13/90
03/21/90
03/29/90
03/09/90
03/07/90
03/14/90
03/05/90
03/08/90
03/30/90
03/13/90
K
g/1 2(7
1.55 0.12
1.41 0.12
1.53 0.12
1.68 0.12
1.67 0.09
1.53 0.12
1.47 0.16
1.52 0.08
1.58 0.12
1.56 0.12
1.49 0.12
1.50 0.08
1.59 0.12
1.54 0.12
1.49 0.12
1.46 0.12
1.55 0.12
1.42 0.12
1.54 0.12
1.54 0.12
1.60 0.12
1.54 0.12
1.49 0.12
1.53 0.22
1.51 0.12
1.56 0.12
1.50 0.12
1.45 0.12
1.45 0.22
1.55 0.12
1.22 0.12
1.51 0.12
1.53 0.12
1.49 0.12
1.53 0.12
1.57 0.12
1.54 0.12
137C8
pCi/1 2
-------
                    Table 12  (continued)

            Radionuclides in Pasteurized  Milk
                          March 1990
Location
OK: OKLAHOMA CITY
OR: PORTLAND
PA: PHILADELPHIA
PA: PITTSBURGH
PC: CRISTOBAL
PR: SAN JUAN
SC: CHARLESTON
SD:RAPID CITY
TN: CHATTANOOGA
TN:KNOXVILLE
TN: MEMPHIS
TX:FT. WORTH
VA: NORFOLK
VT: BURLINGTON
WA: SEATTLE
WA: SPOKANE
WV: CHARLESTON
Date
Collected
03/12/90
03/13/90
03/05/90
03/06/90
03/27/90
03/16/90
03/07/90
03/07/90
03/05/90
03/05/90
03/05/90
03/05/90
03/01/90
03/16/90
03/01/90
03/12/90
03/12/90
K
g/1 2
-------
                                          Carbon-14 in Milk

    Nine  stations, chosen for wide geographical distribution,  contribute milk samples for annual analysis
of carbon-14. These  samples are monitored for carbon-14 levels in the food chain resulting from nuclear
testing. The pasteurized milk is freeze-dried and the resulting powder is pelletized for ease of combustion.
Analysis consists of combusting the samples and converting the released carbon dioxide through a series of
chemical conversions to benzene and finally measured by  liquid scintillation.
    The samples undergo three main steps in the chemical conversions to benzene prior to liquid scintillation
counting.  They include (1) combustion of the sample to carbon dioxide, (2) conversion of the carbon dioxide
to acetylene, and (3) trimerizations of the acetlyene to benzene. The last carbon-14 results were for samples
collected during 1983-1986. 1982 and March-May  1987.  They were published in Environmental Radiation
Data: Report 59.
                                                  32

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    Environmental Radiation Data  (ERD)  is published quarterly (January, April, July,  October) by the
U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's Office of Radiation Programs.
    Requests for information concerning publication and distribution of ERD should be directed to:

                                          Charles M. Petko
                                        Office  of the  Director
                         National Air and Radiation Environmental Laboratory
                                           1504 Avenue A
                                  Montgomery, Alabama 36115-2601

    Requests for information concerning the operation of ERAMS should be directed to:

                                      Vicki Lloyd, Acting Chief
                              Monitoring and Analytical Services Branch
                         National Air and Radiation Environmental Laboratory
                                           1504 Avenue A
                                  Montgomery, Alabama 36115-2601
                                                or to:
                                        Robert S. Dyer, Chief
                              Environmental Studies and Statistics Branch
                               Analysis and Support Division (ANR-461)
                                U. S. Environmental Protection Agency
                                         Waterside Mall East
                                          401 M Street, SW
                                       Washington, DC 20460

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