: £ i. n , L . Norueqian State Pol'ution Control Authority (>fT), Olsc, lorway Present dcrneqian Piactice and Ac*i¥i:ies tor lBpro»eaent of Cn-Site Uastevater Disposal Alternative h'ast^nater Treataen^, Lo»-Cost Saall Srsteis, Research and Developeent - Ptoceetl nz^ of the Conference )..eI3 at Olsc, Bor«a7, Sepr^«fcer 7-10, 1361 ',11 paq«s) 1982 A CL'ief suir«arT of Sorweqian regulations and guidelines concerning onsite uastewater disposal outlines current research to inprcre «a£.tei/ater treat«cnt snd dicpoJdl in onseuered areas. Uiaqrae of alternative srste»E for snail fik-ws jic (.coiitei. (AU/5«F) ;ccs AUTROS AFFIL TITLE SOOECE TEAS TEXT LC01U51 Harr, C. Engineering ard Contracting Coapany, Clso, Norway Present Technology in northern Europe on Uastewater TreataeEt Plants for Srall Flows Alternative fcastewiter Tr-eataeni, Lc<-Cost Small Sjstees, Sesearch and E«relop»ent - Proceedings of the Conference held at Clso, Sor'way, S«i)te»ber V-10. 1981 (19 pages) t.isc'Jssei' the results of a survey of uasteyater treatsent plants for siia.li flows (less than 50 persons) ca the Norwegian «ar'.et. These 203
-------
             a ir.clada bio
-------
HUE :
SOUBCt.
IEII
Selection of Disposal Sites In  acrxay
Alternative Sastewattr TreateeBt,  lc«-Cost  Saall  Systeas, Research »a6
De»elop«ent - Proceedings of  tUe conference held  at Olso. Hcrway,
September 7-tQ, 1961  (15 pages)
1982
Besccites current onsite disposil  pretloss  encciiotered IB Set way:
ipadeqaote codes and  gaideliaes, thin  aad dispersed soils,  and a lacfe of
ikiUtd people to jerfora the necessary  iaveshigatioB.  seu codes «ill
espbaeize soli hydraulic properties.   Iqutpeent  which Bflkes the
percolation test eore accurate  and aa  isprosedl  sethod for in-sita
• «asure»ent of hydraulic cooductivitf  are described.   		
»CCI   : 1001057
tUTHOS: Hilsoa, S.&.. Honayae,  H.P.,  Faeth,  B.C
»rriL  : Creqoa Dect. of Ensi roc uer«toi  Cyaiity
TITLE  : Characteristics of HesiJeotial and  ledostrial  5
-------
ACCI
AUTMOi
Arm

urn
SOOBCE
im
L001Q61
Liu.  I.
Ea«ltonBeotal Conta«inaBtE Cisisioo,  Batural  Water Besearch Institute.
Burlington, Canala  J.7R 446
Tfce Effect of Seuaqe Sludge*  i-an*  Disposal  oa  the  Ricrotioloqical  C'aality
of Croundnatec                                                          '
Hater Hesearct, 16(6):9S7-961
the lonq-tera effect of facalec'j
(5 cages)
n<5 o '
                                   isponal  of  anaeroMcel ly  diqeste*
       seuaqe sludger  (aluo,  icon  ?njfecti«esv  % cost  analysis
shows the type of systea which  is  aost ccst-stfeciive tot  different
scale operations.   (itf)
*CCI
lUTHCf
TITLE
SOURCE

IEI8
TEIT
LOOI463
Vilsco, S.ft.; P.OEayn«i, n«P.;  Feeth,  S.C.
Creqon Cept. of EBfironsental  Coallty
Cray Hater:  Chapter "i 3
Creqoe Oo-slte Eipcrtaeatal  Systcas  Proqra* - Final Sepon,  Creqon
of £n»ircneental duality  (is  pages)
1982
Evaluates a 198-gal. septic  tank,  SS-Tal.  pea-{;r*»el  filter, 132-qal.
trickle cock iilt«rf aoa  a s»all  teciiculatiuq saniJ filter  frecedsd ty
750-qal. septic tans [or  troatKtnt ot  areyw-ster.   Pert'ciaancc Bas
*ariaole ic the p«a-«iravel filter  an<5  tHe  trickle roci  filter due to
lack of surge protection.  T/ie  reel rci; la t inq sand fl'tec  ftcduced the
highest quality efflueat  of  all  tbt  qt«ty«alcr tteataefi*  3yst?»s.
Gicyuater tteataent svsteas  did  not  clisinate the nec«£sllT  tor
subsurface disposal fields.   The  uost  econouical  «n-1  practical eethcd
for qveyuattc disposal was a  Et4B(lard  septic tank uifft  a  reduced-siie
disposal Jit-Id.
ACCI
1UTHOR
irriL
TITLE
SOUBCE

TE1E
TEIT
L00116H
«ilsoo, S.A.; Roaayae, n.P.;  Paeth.  R.C.
Creqon Dept. of- Eorironae tit al  uaalltj
Coepostinq Toileti:  Chapter  18
Oregon On-Site EicerlaentaI Syste«s  Froqras
of En»ircn«ental Cuality  (9 pages)
1982
PrcTiJes four proqress reports on  28 conpostinq toilets
installed in houses under  the  Eiperiiental  Ja-site Proorao.
users had difficulty learning  how  to ose  and  oai^tain these  units
properly.  Soae users were  pleased  with  their ctapostlaq toilet bit
were not.  naoy coeplained  of  solid  ac
-------
       trees  and  ha«aa«, can be reduced tfcrcaah  proper  treatseat prccedotes
       piior  to esc la orchard irrigatloa.   (SBFJ


ICCI  I L001H66
HJTS06: MllsoB, 5.1.;  Bosayne, H.p.; Paeth.  S.C.
ifru J Oregon Dept. ol £BS t rons^E tal Qualit*
HUE : Pressure OlsttiiiatloB Systess ID Soils  »lth  Shallow Croundaateis
       Chapter S
SOUKf: Oregon de-Sits Eic/jriBcutiU Systess  Prograe  -  Fiaal ieport, Crenoe Dept.
       cf Eo»lroBffi«Btal C'iaiity. (7 i-aaesj .
        ^
IZIt
     : The objective of toe Oreqoa stadf sias  to  test  several *ertic»l
       separation distacces betbees the £ctto» of  disposal  trenches sad
       arounduatei afeere pressure dlslritatics sjstess BSE* ir.sta llsc.  the
       iapact of eftleaet oa qccuBdwater quality vs-s  EOBilored and assessed.
       Proper ;;ijir,q0 Scsiqo, cod oserall  perfoeaaEce of loa pcessare
       distr itetioo e?steas sr-s charectaicl z«d.   IscloiSes a  discussion of
       pressurized eitioeal disposal in scils cf rarjiBQ teitiite and
       characteristics.
KCI  s 1001 « 67
10T80BI Wilsoa, S.4.. Soaayns. H.P.; Paotk,  S.C.
     : areqca Dept. ef £e«iroBEe!itel Oaalit?
tittE : EvapotraespiratJOB Sbsocptioa Systs-es:  Chapter  tl
SOCBCE: Cretjos Oe-Sita Cx^orlaenea^Systeas  PTOJESSS  -  Fiaal  Seport,  Oceqon

       1982*
TEIT
                         r. ii,l Quality  (9
                                       f}

	r	 ,	  	„.	  	.  feeds  *-T«  installed at selected
Creqon sites to $eter«*ae it tine  coesia^t -->o of  soil istsorpties asfl
etapottaaspir&tf.oe) «cu=i overcoeo the  iitij. rdtica of KICK aad »cry slow
ceraeafcilit? asi et  &a& disposal syr.tea to
function properly,  fresioB ssthods as^ a  discussioa of teselts are
included.  CoEcIafias t^at propeclv iesigusiS aoo  ccnstruv-ted beds
fonctioaeiS £
-------
IEXI  : Intermittent saad filters nere  iastalled  at  se»ea Oregon sites to
       deteriiae it sand filter tr°atE«.-ot  cl  septic taafc effluent eossld trodac*
       adequate treataeat in soils with  poor  draicage.   Ccsica eethcds.
       •OBltcriaq,  aod a discussios of resells are  inclined. '  lateraitteat sand
       filters required so eai otai&aace  during the  sonitcrlng  ceric'S.  £CC.
                 solids  and total nitrogen mere reduced 98, 93. asd 59 percent
                       , an   oa  ntrogen  mere reuced 98, 93. asd 59 perce
       rerptictlsely.  all sell .sfcsor ptios  systess faactioptd proper!?; biouet
       loreaticn Has not * problea and  sell  absorption rates ScllcwlRq the sand
       filter ware coasiderebl* higher  than  these coanonly reccrt«<3 for septic
       tens cCllueot.  (iJ/SBFj
ICCI  : ICOM71
tOTHOB: yilsoo. S.A.; Rcnayne, H.P.;  Paeth,  B.C.
AfTH : Oregoa Dect. of En*iro6sia<.  Desifjr. o^lhoca, aoni tcs'i no, ae
       • discossioa o£ revolts «ta iacladed.   Coocl«(les thct the sBtfaces ot
       reclccplatiaq sand filters uere aobjeci to an occosisiatioE of lea»cs,
       other fullea debri-s, an«S  «eqetatio»  (jroath uhich tended to clog the
       cffluert distribation sjjstcs;  howeeer, th«ce was so aeasiaretie iepact
       oo treitaest.  BOB. sasfieede*  Eolias,  and total nitrogen uere reduced
       ty 99, 97 and jcii:i tisas.  Sesa  filtcatioa of septic »aak
       effloeot siqniEicftsti 5 iiicreased  tite efflcaat acceptnficf late of the
       disposal trenches.  (£0/:;tiF)
ICCI  i
tUTHOE
TITLE
SOURCE
TEAR

IEXI
       L001<»72
       HothHSHaey. S.; Sasha, C.J.:  Gorlcdee,  V.S.;  Sundaresan. B.e.
       Public Health Engineer ioq Cep<*rtseat, College of Engisieerisg. Guicdy.
       Ha-Sras, An3hra Praiesh Public Wor&s Departeeat and National
       Em'itooeental Engineering Sesearch  Institste, (Jaqpur, India
       Fish Folycultere ii Seaj<;e  Effluent Foods
       Indian Journal of Jn v itonaan tal  Health,  20 (3) : 21 9-231 (13 page:.}
       1978

       Three oziidtion pcads i.iRld«  th3 st?waq
-------
'II
!tj
     : 1980
      1 tea-rear research project ie  ailzeaa esaotsei tfee effect! ««eess  ef  «
      npid-inliltration systee to  reeovate  s€COB<2tr? »«6te«atec
      StcoidacllT teemed effleest  was  paeped iato six saaa-gresei fca
      (6.1  fcj ?1 J *)  to a <3optU of  30 ce    IOOIS75
    ii  Dada. 4.R.; Crosattie, S.&.
     :  watte Coalitr Branch.  Scttfa  Catcliea Cl»isio» ef CB*iccea«8tal
lilt s  Coastal Pollution ftce  Septic Tank DtaiafielSs
OVtCE:  Joucnal of «h* £e*t tosBoalai  EB^ineeria.j Sivisloa, 1Ce(eE6) H265-1279 {8
      pages)
(U  :  1982
(II  :  ii«t seataer and 3t?  «0atHec aescllBq is btllizej to eoeitor  densities of
      colifora bactcclc In  waters drainlEq CQS tdeatial areas o» coastal  Berth
      Carolina.  The bacterial  levels &£&• ca«por«3 te diittrcst den3,iti-_s  cf
               rcsi-iniicas  id each  eatetxaed aoJ the lieiteticss  of  tfee
                                                                           of

                                                                   tistecs-.   In
                                                        e t«ltisillios  dcllat
                                                                  ces^etcj  fee
                                                                   and  Jer
               failing dcainacji; srfteets that CSCEJ the COE taeiisa t ioc .-li
      to sfcellEish wateta.  In  atJJi.ti.on, ECITS! cosscn ser.se •aaiq6>«s(
      P£«ct ices_tt«-t minisize the deliicry cf t sctfcc i« I costssiea t lot. tc
      estuariuc uatecs art  su59t-sttd for uis in sltisij fut wee ccaftai
      resioeotial Jt»olopset4 1 .     '
       develcped soils for assiailat i s.:j septic tdas ftftlacnt.   Ao
       the data ieplicates septic  task ^rain t ields iestsii^d in u
       sol's as a cajcr source  of  coftte«lsat ion cf thes? s^cll£i£-
       <.rdat to teaoce the threat  to  public health aaa t'e t«ltis
       econoaic loss to the  lishicq  iB<3uttry several cpticns «r« nc
       tchabiiitatiag coticeot ra t ioos  of [aiJiag septic taak systcss
ICCI
IUTHOB
irru
finz
SOURCE
IEt8
ten
      ICOI«7€
      Xioac
      iicvac. P.O. Bui SOB.  Rochester,  Iniieoa
      iicvec Vacuua Sewernqe Systta De^i-^r,
      littdC, P.O. Bos 500,  Rochestet,  Iclo&f
      1983
      * desctiption of vac-uua  senera-je  STS*C»C e»phasi7es  'he  a pp 1 !<:*«. S c a ,
      design, installation,  m j i r. tenasce.  anJ eqaipaect E pec i f ica 11 ens  c
      pcoprietarT 1IR7AC syste».   loclaBes a desi-^a exaiple.   (S«f)
                                                                           the
KCI  :  1001U77
JUIHOB:  Wilson, S.A.; fionayr.e,  r.P-;  Paeth, B.C.
irrlL :  Oret.on Departaent of  EnwiroiiBental Reality
jJIU :  Cteqo« tdnioistra ti »e  Rules
SOOBCE:  Creqon Oo-Site Experimental  Systeas Fro<;ra» - riaal Sepcct,  Creqos
....    Department cf Entlror.--ental  Caali'T (37 pc<)es)
leH  ;  19fi2
*MT  :  Fro»ides a list of  Oregon's  adainistt«tive rol«s on ejperliental  «n
       ooslte EcubQe disposal  systems.   Inclu^»s sit«" s«Kctica criteria.
       rules are aendated  by  the  Ortqon Departnent of Ectircnsental  Co»iit
KCI
ItlTHOE
TITLE
SOURCE

TEU
mi
      1001Q78
      Erinler. E.K.; Clsstead.  R.D.;  ilil,
      Feabody aacnes.  Inc.,  651  North r,«in Street, ranifield, Ohio
      Desiqn'fanual for Pressure  Sever STE'CBS
      Feasodf fcarnes.  Inc..  &5!-5orth flair, Street, ««astield, Chio   (IDS

      K35"
      The deslqc aanual profiles  tecboical intcrsaticri ccncernioq  rresEcrt
      s-suer systea technology.   Information outlined includes the  detlDitica,
                                       209

-------
        history  Applications,  advantages. 'UsaSvantaqes, design and operation,
        aed saintecacce o* pressure seuer systems.  The design section contains
        roar different aethods of design with necessary tables, graphs, and
        eia»ples.   trovides specifications for both qriBd«r and effluent poaps.
ICC I
AOTHCB
TITLE
SOOSCE

TEAS
TEIT
        IOOIU79
        MilsoE. S.A.:  Bonayne-. B.P.; Paeth- R.C.
        Oregon Departaent of Enviroaeental cuality
        Recirculatittq  Sand Filler Systeas
        Oregon Casite  EnsirooBental Proqraa - Final Report. Oregon Cspt. cf
        Enviccaeeatal  Quality (52 pages)
        1932
        Eeports on interBittent-recirculatiog sand filter Ireatnent of septic
        tank effluent  prior to discharge into disposal treaches installed either
        in soils shallow to hardpans, claypans, saprolite, tedrcck, and
        vjrotae
-------
TEAB  :
TEXT :
        A draft feasiDility £ttdy addresses the i ir.le»en ta t Ion of an on-let
        wasteujter raanageeent systes in lieu of a consent 1 onei seaer projec
        The study gives details cf an iapieaeatation scenario. .SKdsi&es sev
        ,l?irS£r?q 0Ptio<»s» and outiiees sana-eaect ard regulatory reeds.
ACC»
iUTHOB
AFFIL

TITLE
SOUBCE
TEAB
TEIt  :
L00148B
Nichols. D.S.; Boelter, D.H.
USCA Forest Service. Forestry Science Lab.. S
Pecific Morthaest Station. Corvjllis. OreTo
Treataent of Secondary 3ewaqe Effluent with
                                                   Rapids. Hlcbic.au. aet

                                              Peat-Sand  Filter Bed
                                                  -
Journal of Enjironeental Quality. ll(l):86-92  (6 pages)
• 932
4  peat-san« filter bed provides additional treatsent of secondary senaos
effluent froe a caapqround.  the filter ccasists cf a  top layer of
heaic. reed-sedqe peat, folloue-i by a layer of sand and peat sixed
together, a sand layer, and fio.tlly a gravel layer.  "he base cf the
filter contains P?C pise for le.»chate collection.  The peat-sand filter
bed accoeplisbes aloost coapletn re»ov.!l oe fecal colifora aed
 Shospborus.  Reaaval of nitrogen was high in the first fen years, tut
 ecll&ed later due to oxidation of the ceat nod release cf nitrogen.
Severe! factors which contribute! to aitrcgen and phosphorus reaoval
are:  hiqh iron, aluaiaua, ati
-------
        uastewator without an odcr or noise nuisance in  the  surrounding erea.
        Performance of coe».act stabilization plants oe BCC and suspended sclids
        renewal of varying wastes is defined.  Includes,  a tabulation of sesscaal
        streets on organic, nitre^n, and phosphorus reaoval under stead* state
        and variable flow patterns.  (AU/SHF)
ICC*  :  IC01U88
AUTHOR:  Beiqaad. B.C.
A'PIL :  Bid-Ohio Valley Health Dt$»t.. 21 1 6th Street. Parkersburg, Best

TITLE :  A Coactehensiee Proqraa ior Surveillance of Package Plants and
        Stabilization Fonds
SOURCE:  aid-Ohio Galley Health Oept.. 211 6th Street. Parkersbtrg. Best
        (to pages)
TEIT  :  this report, rfhich describes t cotiBty-uide sorveillance procras fcr
        cactage plants and stabilization pcoi.s. covers  the following five ereas:
        I)  site and plan ceaieu, 2) construction in.-pecticn, 3\ operstica
        training, «) coulisse operation and *aintenanco  inspection, and 5J
        enforeeaent.  In cs'ersieu of the facilities participating in the crogra*
        l^ presided.  (SBF)
ACCI
AU7HOE
AFFIi
TITLE
SOUBCE

YEAR
TEXT
LOO:089
Sutherland, J.C.
Killiaes & UQIHS, Grand Rapids, nichigao
RicliiqAn Wetland Hasteaater Tertiary Treataent  Systees
Hater fteuse. Aac Arbor Science P-jtilshers, Ann  trtor, flirhioto  (10
paces}
1962
Wetlands proeidc nasteuater tredteeot benefits  fcr  nilfliife  that are act
available witi conireational land traataent.  Artificial  wetlands xaj te
suitable es a saactatry aad conseceaacy for certain sensitiue or
threatened plaat species.  The wetland soil surface reaains  open,
allouinq seepage without aaiatenance.  The costs  associated  Httl> setland
construct ioa are louer than for uplaod spray Irrigation  systess ar.3 are
coaparable to those for flo^a irrigation.  Two  ccuaun
-------
TEAS  :  5982
TEXT  :  Th* Colorado State University
        technically  aanacing onsite t
        the systee  associated uith op
        develops  a  thorough descripti
        [equireseats Deeded to ensure
        technology  is functioning pro
        requireaents is cospoterisfed
        nlde  evaluation ct operation
                              study etasines current strategies  fcr
                             echnolccjy   private  costractcr
will carry out aain te.iance tasks.   The  public heolth depart»eat »i 11 te
responsible fcr 
-------
       Bhich  Is  particularly  accurate after long application tiees.
       Sensitivities  of  the  procedure to the various sisplifJcaticns. site
       {actors,  and desiqa and  eanaqesent eptictis are discusses and
           ra       tot*.  Alteraative eeans to reduce ecueding «re
*CCI
iUTHOB
irriL
TITLE
SOURCE
TEAS
TEIi
        LOOKU7
        Siegrist,  K.I.
        University  of  Bisconsin,  Badisoa,  Wisconsin
        RiBloua-Flou  Plusbing  Flitutes
        Aoerican  Mater  aorks  Association Joureil, 75 (7) : 3«2-3S7 i6 pages)
       Soaaarizes  averaoe  per  capita Biter vise IB the Unite! States and afcrcafi.
       Discusses the  rolt  of  BielsaB-f lo» fixtures, water rease Eystess. and
       reduced  water  u&4qe ac  water conservation strategies.  lists eater
       s«PPl».  wasteuatet  disf^osal, aatiaqeeeat, and economic ccnsi decaticns
       •ben  usinq  oinisuK-f lo» fistures.   Gives epclicaticas cf sinieus-f leu
        IAU/s'ef an   f°teritlal  barriers to their wiSesFread applications.
iCC*   :
/tUTHOE
TITLE
SOUBCE
IEAK
TEXT
1001090
Bioer. S.L.
Gannett Fleninq EBvironisental  Enqineers, Keasinqton,  Haryland
iSpleaaatation Issaes o£ On-Lot "--	-
        3ioCycle.  2a(3)J7-38 (2 pages)
        Describes  the  continual use of on-let systeas as an effective
        alteraative  for  uastewater trfeatBeot.  I coooty sanaqeeect agency keeps
        centralized  records of saint-joance atsd systes operation.  To have their
        srstess  inspected,  individual usets contract directlr witfe private firss
        tfidt  are licensed  b|  the county to coaduct such inspectioos.  The
        article  also discusses cost savings and esvircnaeDtal iepact.  (SHF)
iCC«
iUTHOB
IFfIL
TITLE
SOUSCE

TEAR
TEIT
        1001199
        Stephens,  D.B.;  Seuiasn,  S.P.
        Cept.  of  GeoscifcDce,  Hen Fleiico Institute of fiining and Technology,
        Socurro,  ^'GH  fieiico;  and,  Dept. of Hydrology and Water Resaarces,
        Doiversitf  o'  Arizona,  Tucson,  Arizona
        Vadose Zont ler sseob 1111 y Tests:  Unsteady Plow
        Journal of  the Hydraulics  Division,  Frccee.3icq£ cf the Aetrican Scciety
        of  Civil  Engineers,  1 08 (HY5) : b6Q-677 (9 p
-------
ACCI
AUTHOI
AFFIL
Tim
SOUSCt

YEAB
TEIT
        accuracy.   Cue to the effects of borehole geoaetry unsatureted sell
        chatoctttistics.  water table depth, heterogeneity, and arlsoteopy, it Is
        e/tresely  difficult to develop a coapleteiy general foraula.  (l&f


        LOO?501
        Stephens.  D.B.: Seunan. S.C.
        Cept.  of  Geoscieace,  lieu Hesico Institute of Mining and Techaolcqy.
        Socurro.  Hew iPiico;  and, Dept. of Hydrology and dater Resources.
        University of Arizona, Tucson, Acizoaa
        eadose Zone Peraeabillty Tests:  Suoeary
        Journal  of the Hydraulics Division, The Aaerican Society of Ci»il
        Engin'ers. 103 (K$£) :£23-639 {9 pages)
        1982
        Soluticus  to deterai&e saturated hydrailic above a water tatlc by seaiss
        of  constant head  borehole inflitratics tests ar° sunaarizeci aed
        critiqued,  iaalytlcal solutions are available tor optn and partly cased
        boreholes  and deep and shallow a*ter table conditions.  The [ctaalas are
        based  on  various  sieplifyiaq assasptions pertaininq to soil crccertiee
        and boundary coBditions.  Bone of the solutions accouot fcr caplllBre
        effects.   For identical test conditiocs ealues of hfdraulic coadoctiiity
        calculated froa these foraalas say differ by as vuch as » feu haadred
        percent.   (&o)
ACCt
AOTH08
TITLE
SOUECE
TEH  :
        L001S02
        Cii,  S.t.
        National Saall Fleas Clearinqhoose, Hest «irqinia Onirersity. 253
        Stetiart Street,  loroantoun, nest Virginia
        ilternatiee Wfistenater Sjsteos for finral yest vlrqinia Industry
        Southern Health Association Heeling. Charleston, best Virginia, June 2",
        1983  J1«S paqes)
        1983
        Descrites  the potential application cf new technologies suitable for
        industrial and co»uercial aeselopaent In Uest Virginia.  Eephasizes the
        need  for site plaanir^ ^iyer. the lisital capacity of soil to treat
        wasteuater in Uest Virginia.  Stresses the importance ot aater-savlntj
        techncloqies in designing i treataent s/stes.  CIscussts scund syftess,
        lou pressure pipe syste«s? aiid rocirculdtinq sand filters.  Proeldes a
        design  exa&ple and operation and aaintendace intcroaticn conceccin*; the
        sand  filter.  (SWf)
ACCt
AUTHOR
AFFIL

TITLE
SOUPCE
TEXT
        L001S03
        Tcllefscn,  D.J.:  (felly,  S.F.
        dinzler  a&d  Kelly  Consulting  Engineers,  633 Third Street,  Bci 13«5
        Eoreka,  California
        STEP  Pressure  sewers  are a Viable HastenatPr Collection Alternative
        Journal  Hater  pollution  Coatrol Federation, 53 (7):100u-lOil  (11  Fa9es)
        1983
        Presents inforoation  on  the design,  const ruction, operation,  ard
        •aintenaoce  of a  pressure seuei: installation in  3 saall ncrtheiD
        CalifcrLia  cossunity  and assesses its reliability,  pcerdtinq  costs, and
        •aintcnance  costs. An  active,  routine eaintensnct  progras is essential
        to  deep  the  sjstes operating  at a near «aiiiiui! efficiencr, eiaisizlng
        e«erqency saintenance requireaents and prolonging the lire of systen
        cosponents  and eqrip»ent..  (AU/SWF)
ACCt
AUTHOR
AFFIL

TITLE

SOUBCE

YEAH
TEIT
        10015C«
        Bargett,  C.L.;  Tyler,  E.J.:  Conterse,  J.C.
        College  of  Agricultural  and  Life Sciences,  and Cclleqe of Engineering,
        Oni«ersity  01  Wisconsin,  fladison,  Wisconsin
        Chenicai  Sehaoil ita tion  of  Soil  Wast^water  ibscrption Systess DsiBT
        Hydrogen  Feroiide:   Effects  cf  Sell  Feraeability     _
        Saall  Scale Haste Hanageaent Project,  University of  Hisconsio,  Hadison,
        Wisconsin  (86  pages)
        * n Q "i
        fieports  on  recent research  uhich exaained the effectiveness cf  hTdrcqtn
        peroxide  in uncloqginq failed systeos.  Evaluates the reagen t • s iipac t
        on  the physical  properties  of the  scil with latorstori and field
        studies,  and  aicrcphore tic  analyses.   Hydrogen perciide can do  serious,
        and possitly  irreversible danaqe to  the physical Integrity and
        infiltrative  capacity  of  nost soils.   Includes pcre  sketches,
        photo»icrographs. and  Graphs and tatles concerning scil-textu
        infiltration  rate.   (AU/SWF)
                                                                    ,
                                                                texture and
ACCI
AUTHOfi
AFFIL
TITLS
       LOCI 505
        Boulder County  Haalth  Department,  Colcrado
        Boulder Cconty's  Developeent  of  an Operation  and Paintenance Proqr?» for
        r.nai t a
        Cnsite
                                         215

-------
SOUiCE:  Proceedings:   Fifth  Workshop on Hote-Sewage Cispesal IB Colorado
        Cperaticn  and  Oaintenonce of Ca-Site dasttwe«er Treata«nt Systets
        Coloradc State University. Fan Collins. Colorado  (11 ff.ts]

TEIT   i  De-scribes  a  «anajriculturo«r,ers.  Because of increased  ccsts to  the  enqinierieg
        fir« and risks associated Kith the alternative  tfesiqn. the decision  cf
        tbe state regulatory aqency was not challenged.   The authors state  that
        regulator/ aqency personnel ^ho assesr alternative tcoatceat projects
        should beco«e better »ersed in state-of-the arc  I/A technology.   (s«f)
 ACC!
 AUTHOB
 AFFIL
 TITLE
 SOURCE

 TEAR
 TEXT
L001508
Soe, P.G.; Heiqand. R.G.; Hoe, C.L.
Agricultural Cicrobiclcgy.  west  Virginia  Uci»risity,  Korgantown,  West
Virginia, «ood County Sanitarian,  nest  Vir5i&ia  Dept.  of  Health,
Parkersburq, Best Virginia;  and.  Endironsental  ricrobioloqy,  Chapel
Hill, North Carolina                               ,      ,  _
Vhe How-To of flaintaining Hcae Septic Tank  Waste  Disposal  Systeas
Cooperati»e Extension Service, West  Virginia  Uriversity,  Center  for
Extension atd Coatinji=9 Education  (39  pages)
| Q O 1
This Banual discusses the tasic  operation of  a  septic  tank £ystei._sach
as sepiic tank functions, sizing  and  conjtrcction,  nicrobial  activity,
and Bair.ten&nce; also, soil  absorption  systeei functions  and
construction, leachfield failure  and  repair teconiq-ies.   Scresses
overall preventive zaintenance including  water  conservation  and  lawn
care.  Oosite systet inforeation  contacts at  the  local,  state,  and
federal level are provided.   (AU/SWF)
 ACC I  :
 AUTHOR:
LC015C9
Dean, E.B.
                                        216

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»rrll  : lunDean Enwiromentsl  Coopany,  Copenhagen,  Deoeark
TITLE  : Septic Ta ^  lellufas  Seduced by "Aerobics6
SOUiCE: BioCyde,  2«(2):51-52  (2  pages)
IE A B   • I " o J
TEXT   : Article presents  SB overview of anaerobic cloqalng Is soil and sethods
       ?{.**j"J»lBi«»9  P«t»eabiiitj  by  restoring aerobic cocditioss.  Applies
       this  infornatlon  to septic cystea failures  and discusses use of
       alternative  draiaUeloi  to reduce clogging  in difficult toils.  Foists
       oet that araietield cs»age over salves east be easy to operate.
       « B/* F?6S *    ieed for  the proper Baaagesent of septic ryst«ss.
»CCl   :
AOlBOfi:
      :
TITLE  :
SOURCE:
TMI
       1001510
       EPA
       E?A, Beqioo 5. .later  Eisision.  230  Scath  Dearbcrn Street.  Chicago.
       Illinois
       iaral Letes Project Handbook
       0;3j E?*'*8^3i°'},,5* «atar  fcifflsioa.  230 South  Learborn  Street.  Chicago.
       Illinois 60oO« £»1 pages)

       tha EP* Bural Lakes Project Baaabook relates eajcr fiaaiags of  rntal
       uasteuatt:' stadias IB a  foceat  intended to  6c  usefol  for  Sone ounces  aod
       civic leaders.  Icclssdes tecbeioaes  for Fre»entiaq and  correctSno
       probless coEsoalf associated  aitb os-site srst^ES and also ir,clud«s
       alternative tecbnologj available  for ssall  floec collection and
       treateent.  Provides  pertinerit  iafocsation  regacdinq  facilities
       plaoninq. soutces or  sasteuater faafiiaq at  the state  and  fe-Jeral  level,
       and federal coatacts  iBeolvert io  seell  flows techaclogy.  (SU/SMF)
*CCI
1UTKOR
*rm
TITLE
SOUBCE

TEAR
TEIT
       looisn
       Salvato, J.A.
       Sanitary and Public  health  Enqiaeer.  ai»  neadoa Crive,  Troy.  Hex Tcrk
       Eational Design of Evapotranspicatioa Bea
       toerican Society  of  Civil  Engineers.  343 East  U7th Street,  Sew Tork,
       lieu Tcrk (8 pages)
       1983
       This  fapez develops  a  rational  setood fcr the  design cf  an  onsite sessge
       disposal systeo bjsefi  upon  evapotLanspiration, and adiftable to
       different geographical  areas.   Notes  -sva ilablf- (Jesi-jn  inforaafion acd
       its liultations and  c-eptasizes  the  need  to cjrircise informed
       professional judqeaect.   I«c  examples and water bal^oce  tatles she*
       applicatioa of the design  oetkod.   (*U)
ACCI
iUT«OB
AFFIL

TITLE
SOURCE
TEAR
TEXT
        Kachaeifl,  B.C.;  Canfield,  J.;  Andersoa.  J.L.
        Unisersity  of  fiinnescta auL ETaloat;on of  Special  Processes,  Components or
       Devices Used  in Treating  W^stewater
       National Sanitation  Foundation,  MSF  Enilding,  Ann Attar,  Michigan,
                                        217

-------
TEXT   : Covers  the  1977  B-ticnal Sanitation Foundation's basic crittria  Ecr
       special  processes,  ceepoaeets. or devices used in the haadUr.g,  trelt, pH, aai concentrations "of nltccgea jad
        phosphorus.   Boweaest ot nutrients ffca tfee forest floor into the sell
        K«S <, '.urbiditj to 1.5 mu, and total cclifcrs
        reduced an  a»eraqe tjftl coloaies per 100 ai.  Glass sand redact" J total
        colifors to  bettftee 160 -snd 0 uith IS of 13 sasplts shou'.nq no fec^l
        coliforw per 100 ml.
tCCl
AUTMOE
TITLE

iOURCE
YE4B
T£II
        L001516
        flcnillan,  J.D.
        Dept.  of  Ci*il  Engiseet J r.q. Uaiversit/ of saine, Otoro, Ralne, OUU69
        »u»erical  Bodtlliscj c£ Qasite Loeestic Wastenater Disposal
        Systems  fcr De-ign optimization
        Uni»ett"ty ot Haine libraries, Orcno, Baice, 01469
        1982
        A  rsuaerical nodel fcr t 
-------
ICCI  : 1001518
ItltHCS: State of Paine
irriL:  State of Raiae. Dept. of Haaaa  Services,  Di»islOB  of Health
       Engineering. Augusta, Saint
HUE J State oJ Raine SaBsarface Waste*atec  Disposal  Roles: Chapter 2<>t
SOUBCEi Cepattaent of Haass Sejvicfc3c Division  o£ fieelth  £aeiin?etii!/g. State
       Bouse. Statioa Busbcr 10, iuqaata.  Raise  0*333 £73 pages)

TtIT  s The State ol Heine's subsurface disposal  tales govern siting, design.
       constructioa. Inspection,, adeisistrat-ioa. feraUtiog. sessoosl
       coevetsion. site evaluation, desiqa lisa, «atec  Srstee
SOURCE! Biocjcie, 2«(S);51-S2  (2  pag
-------
ICO
IUTRCB
irru
urn

SOflRCl
I£IB
IEII
       IOOU23
          C.D.
Botdoy Dispattnent. University of Auckland.  Men  Zealand
so»* Causes of Biological notability ac.d Their  tffect  en  Slqal
Population Levels IB Waste Ticateeat Laccons
Proarest ia Hater Technology. 5 (U> :9i»l-?43  (8  paq»s)

* stable facultative oildatioa  lagcon results  frca  balanced  ticlcclcal
and aavironaentai coeponents, e.g.. cjygeo  production,  nising. crgsolc
decomposition aai teeperature.  Variation is these  cosjonents cae  yield
undesiiable pond conditions of  decreased algal  populations,  oioc
focBAtion, and the estabUtbaent of ofc jsctionablt tacterial  rop«latlOBs.
Studies contacted at the nanqera CiidatiOB  Ponds, igcitljnd.  fee* Zeslaad
ha»e &ho«B these undesirable cosiltioas to  occur is the spring a»d
autuBo.  Sprina coaditions of rapidly increasicg temperatures aad
accusulatioa ot orqaoic aatter  ia tas slujgs aarq° (LOD1171)
               Evaluation of Coopost Toilets {LCO 1383)
               Life within the CoapoGt'.nc Tciltt
               The Greenhouse as a Leacntieli (rOC1301j
                          Uasteuat er
                                               Facilltr
               Wasteudter Secrcling is Ncu Available  (L0mi71)
               Individual Aerobic Plant Op-tration an-i SaiKtenar.ee  (1001150)
               E»apotianspiration -  The CBesap°als«? bay Stu-iy  (1001^73)
               The Hichiqan Free-jay Best Mea Systea
               Altern.itive fcasteuater Collection Systess  for Ssall CcaBunities

               Pre.-sui-ized Subsurface Efflcent Cosing  (LCC125S)
               Macagecent of Alternative SfSte»s (L001J5J)
               Design and installation Supervision by  an  Cnsite tlanage«er,t
                 District (L00135S)
               Design anc! Installation of 3«all Coaounity Systess  (LCC12EO)
               The Operation jnj maintenance of the Suburbanaer (STEP)
                 Syste» (LOC1371)
               Ooslte Systetss for Ccvelopicq Areas (F2S25)
               Innovation in Onsite Treatment Systees
               Oicrobial Ecology of an Aerctic Recycling  Cnsite "reataent
                 Plant (L00125QJ
               L'se of Shalloa. Lov-Pi cssore Injection  Systens  in Large and
                 Stall Installations (1CC12S5)
               The Gravity-flew Septic Tant/fiole of Public  Agencies  and  Private
                 Interests (LC01275)
               Innovative and Alternative Technology for  EPA's Constrsction
                 Grants Frogras
               The National EPA Saall Wastevater MOKS Clearinghouse
               *irus Hoveaent in Groun3wa ter
               Septic Systems Leachate Surveys for Rural  Lafce  Coaoanities
               Aerial Sanitary Surveys in Sural Wastewater  Planning  (LC01278)
               Electro-0s«osis
               Statns Report on the Poroi (1001188)
               Onsite Systees flanagesent
          (AU/SKF)

       * An  abstract for this papei aay te found under this data base  file
         nuater.
                                       220

-------
ACC»  : 1001525
A0TBOE: HcClellaod. B.I.; 'cans. J.E.  (editors)
irriL : Rational Ssnitjti.cn FooadaticB
HILE : ledlvldaal Oa-ite Kasteuater SystQBs  -  Prccaediecs  of  the
       Batlor.el CoefeteacQ. 1990
SOOKli *n« ftrbor Scieace publishers inc.,  P.O.  601  1825, too  iitor,  HI  S610*
       (355 pages)
IE1B  : 1931
     s Tfc* these of th* Seventh H5F/EFA  Katioa*!  Canfere-jce on  Inilsldaal
       Ouslta fcistewater Systeas w«s  the appropriate  ciSlStatict,  of  oesSt«
       techsolo<3i«s.  Speakers Srfiected  for  the  process rspi:es«ated  a cccss
       teCtlCD of interests in tee asotessater  aaosqeBCEt field.   The
       Proceeding's Capets repojt experiences  is  tte  es* cf a troad
       raeqe oi elterneti»es» frca traditioaaX  septic tast-soll adeotcticn
       evstess to u&ter coBseniatioa-recycle/rease  systees sad  "
 ACCI
 1UTHOB




 TITLE

 SOOBCE
 TEAR
 TUT
       esei£ODBeot*l te^islaticn in tfca BOs:  Fcttisq CcBatractioo
         Ceases irito Pcrspectiee
       Sit tag aad Sizing Ledrh Kields ie Larisfr Ccont*  (10010865*
       Sflcction ot en Appropriate Bastoaatet Cisposal Stste*  {f2365)
       ElectEO-Oaa
-------
vere inslsaif leant.  Storage ct atttrieet  inputs  «ere eucb higher IB tfc«
uttural Cc»* than is the setiaqe-esr iched  fioee.
1001527
S«ttdhu, S.5.; Hdtree, H.J.; Bee4.t.
Scutfa Carolina Stale College, ccaa<;« tor? ,  sostfa  CaroUsa.  «s»a Claflln
Colieqe, Craagebutro. Soatfe Caroliaa
Hoieaeot «ad fregraflstlCB of Stptic Tank  Pollataats la Sell
South Carolisa State Colltqe. OraoqetBrq.  South  Carolina.  feeseatch
Bulletin fco. 20 (32 pages)
1981
Fre£«ntf! * study cf the node as* extent  of  transport  of  arsenic,  lleccr
alkylfcenicse salfcnete (IASJ. aad cclifcra  'jrcup organlsas tioa the
point cf tfe«lr disc&acqe to tbe crisV.iaq  niter  scLplf  sources  of  th*
rural  coussn it ies.   tbe  degraraa»Bte! Council
PeBDsyl»B£,iIie 
-------
mil '• Bept.'of Soil aBi*Ea»tionneat«l  5cleac«, CBlsersity cf Califoraia,
      Sitn&lZe, C-illfcrnie                              '
T1HJ t Soil Conditioning effects  of  Ran 1 c 1;.»I 5
SOU 1C t: Aterlcae Society of Civil  rnjin*ets. 31S
      Tork. |!
                                               . . . , _  CgBCCSt
                                                East  «7tL 5trect. Ben rctfe^  B*«
IEIT  8 T»ts retort describes en eiperieent  xfeich qaast It at i eel j ne*s@refi  4kg
      effect of j>e*aa<] sludge oa  Lho  physical properties of recelsiag setls  I
      t»tBB of foal factorcj   (1)  bulk  J«asity: (2> bfdraalic cos:  and (riia
;E and
                coadttictij,  that  aost  frequently cause £.jto-kn, Tclro US
Cept.  ot Ci»il Eoq inwor ina,  Tohcta  University 3endai 960, Jsf)
qical  Ctogqing of Sand aad Chaaqes  of  Cfjanic Ccestituents tor
                                                                           n
                                                                           ing
 aaa
Eioln
 Artificial
Hater  Eesearcb  17(7>:813-e:i (9 paqes)
1983
t Japanese eiperisent analyzes the ttclcqlcal  clogqina  process aad
 constitutional cnanqe of organic coepounds  under  prolome<3 sab»-«ir
 The  bioloqicil cloqging ptoccss is divided  into  three  itaqes:  aetctic
 cericd.  transittcnal petioa, and aoacrcbic  relied.   lof lit ration rate
 throuqb  each staqe is aoaljzed.  Also, a eqoatica wBich  ceo predict
 the  chanqc  of  accuau la ted specific dischar-je  is  derioed  froa
 eiperlceatal results.  (AU/SWf)
KCI
1UTHOI
IFflL

tint

SOUECE
Ut(
tEIT
       1001535
       Seidel, K. ; Flllp,  2.:  Direr.  H.
       lastitut far Wasser- ,  Eoden-und Lufthygiene des EendesqesoBdheitsaites
       Corrensplatz 1. C-1000  e«rlin  33. West Ger«aiT
       CistribBtioo of Enteric  Viruses and RicroorqaoisBS in  Lca9-T
-------
»CC»   :
iUTHOS:
ATFIL J

TITLE :
SOUBCt:

TEAS   2
TEXT   :
        slightly  decreased.   Potentially patboqenic bacteria were not detected
        la  soil  belou  90 ca,   (AU)


        L001S36
        Lance, J.C.:  Gerba,  C.P.
        U.S.  kater Conservation Laboratory. U.S. Oept. of Agriculture,
        Phaasiis,  irizonia
        Vitas Seaoval uith Land Filtration
        •»«t*r^Seu5e,  Ann  ..r&cr Science Publishers, ian icbcr, aicfcigan


        Oescribes  factors controlliaq virus soveseut and survival through
        varicas  soils  
-------
         •ar involve roa crops, nos-ro» fcr«qe crops, or an ictercropping of
         60th.  Forested systess arc limited to slou-rate irrgaticn
         application.  The aanageafcist of a forested systea deptrds en forest
         cover tjrpos, soil, hydrology aad ciisate.  The article discasses
         research needed in overland £io«. ilou rate, and forested syste«s.
ACCI
AUTHOR
AFFIL
TITLE
SOURCE

TEAR
TEXT
        L0015U1
        Coiqley,  J.T.
        University of Hiscousin. nafiisca. Wisconsin
        Isproved  Design Criteria for fteratioo oystess
        Aeration  Industries. Inc.. Haieltine Gates. Chaska. lianesota

        ,llo2 paqes)
        Presents  Bhole-basin circulation as an energy efficient way to control
         solids  is an aerated lagoon svstee.  Becbaolcal characteristics, eiaiaq
         and oxygen  transfer advantages, aad uinter p^rtccaance sdsaataqes of
         the Aire-02 aeration systae for laqooa trejtaeat are discussed.
         Detailed lagoon perfor»aace data are reported.  Includes a case history
         of the  upcradiz><; of th« Suobtata. ainnesota aasteaater treataent plant
        where an  Aire-o2 systea was aided.  Cesiqs escalations for coaplete
         and partially sized ponds are ^isec.
ACCI  i  L0015M2
AOIHOR  Bitten. G.; Farrab, S.3.; Hakia. B.R.: Butner. J.: Chou. T.J»
AFFIL   Deft, of EnBironuental Eagineeci.Afj Scieoce<; and the Oept. of
         Hiccobioloqy ancj Coll Sciences. Oniversity of Florida, Gain»s»ille,
         Florida
TITLE   Survival of Pathogenic and Indicatcr Oraanlsoc in Ground Uater
SOUKCE  Ground Uater, 21 (4) :U05-U10 (6 ?a3e«)

TEXT    A cosparatise study vas undertakes OB the decay rates of three
         bacterial tyocs (i. t/phiauriaa, E. coli, and S. faecalis), an
         enteravirus {poliovirjs tTp« 1), ard a bacterial phsqe .ag'3 tr-eatcent aersted lagoon.  Test sar.ples were taken
         fr?« por.d, snow pa:>c, and runoff.  Saow was produce! priaarily in
         February, although  attempts were Bade in aarch and April.  Physical
         appearance and odor of uastewater snow was siniiar to natural sncw.
         Specific pollutants, fecal cclifcrB bacteria concentration, total
         dissolved sol^is, BOD-5, and pa ail decreased during the e^
         period.  (SHFj
                                         225

-------
»CCI
•UTHOS
AFFIL

TITLE

SOURCE
TEXT
       L0015Q5
       Heath. R.
       assistant  director.  Institute of Cowecnoeat.  Chapel Hill.  Nctth
        Carolioa
       Sootfaeestecn  State  and Local  Eetjulalcrr Frcgraes for On-51te Se«aqe
        Treateeot Systeas                                                *
       1982  Southeastern On-Site Tceataent Conference. the Borth  Carolina
        Division  of  Health  Services  &ai the Soil Scieece CepartEeot.  B.C.
        State University.  Raleigh,  North Carolina (3 pages)

       Presents the  sioiiarlties aai (UffereeceE anoaq site evaluation,
        ('emits,  pereit  considerations and fees, jurisdiction at  state and
        state-local  levals,  regulation enfctcesent.  administrative and
        judicial  appeals.  certification or registration of sanitarians, aufi
        the  authoEilv  of cities, counties, an2 districts to ir,=tall tn5
        Baintain  septic  tanks iu Berth Carolina. Soath Carolina.  Sirqinla.
        Tennessee.  Kentucky.  aa
-------
ADTHOE
ATFIL

TITLE
JOUECE
TEAS
TEXT
       Dedaan.  B.L.
       John  ColeBan  Hayes  and  Associates.  lac.. 2401 Killsbcrc R-3..
        Kachville. Tennessee  312t 2
       Ssall  3iat£tei:  Seuei  Ai tei r.a t i ves,  tackqican'i and lutrcluctico
       * Tennessee kater Duality Association Presentation. 5et. 12, l?e:
       ? 982
       Usinj  an outline  ind  overheads,  the iccusemt dlrcosies Tejr.c-^st e'r
        arouinq healta hazard  associated with the hiJh cost of septic tanks and
        toe  lack  of  enforcement action  to  ccrrf.-ct failina systess.  "=sall-
        diaaeter  sewers  ace  offyreias ar. eccaosical al tera.iU we to the
        Jjd-por-toct cost  of  builainc. convcBticial qtj»its sowers.  C-tceral
        coapariscDS  ace  eatie  3 dosing eqoipsent;
         site evaluation  including such areas as zoning, easeaents. sicpe and
         surface  drainage of terrain, land use, and design and field layout;
         soil evaluation  including quality, structure, teituie. and
         classification;  inforeiation necessary to apply fcr a subsurface
         uasteuater disposal perreit; special considerations such as variances tc
         the  rules, cluster systeas, and aalfutctiouing systess. (SWF)
ACCI
AUTHOE
AFFIL
TITLE

SOURCE

TEAB
TEXT
        LC01553
        Seed,  S.C.
        USACBREL,  Hanover,  NH
        Design,  Operation and Baintenance of land Application Syste»s for
         ton  Cost  Vasteuater .reatnent
        Horkshop for Lou-Cost Hasteyater Treataent. Cleasos. S.C.,
         April 19-21.  1963
        1983
        Reasons  for  land application's popularity are given along uith aids
                                         227

-------
         10  gaining puulic acceptance for la&d application projects.  Erlef
         descriptions of slo« rate. rapid infiltration, *oi overland flo« are
         discussed.  Site selection reguiteeents and systev -Jesiqn criteria
         are trovided for eoch of the {tree technologies.  SSill reqeireacnts,
         stdffinq Deeds, site aanaqeaeat and oonitorinq systea d«?Haods
         are also discussed for each of the tbre«s technologies. (S«FJ
ACCI
AUtHOB
SOU8CF
TEAR
TEXT
                                      Station. T2; and aisccasln Ceo
                                                              logical
                                                              11  Scal<
                                                                      art
L00155«
Catlila. C.L.; Tyler. E.J.
Texas Afcfl University, Coileqa  jvuvivju.  i«.  <»i.>i-uu^j.u -jeuiuuivoi  e
 Natural History Surrey, Departsent of  Soil Science,  and Saall  Scale
 Waste Banaqeeeat Project. Uoieecsity of  KiscoBSin,  Sadlson,  «I
Besearch Heeds-Soil Sciecce aad Sail Absorption  ct tfsstenater. and
 Critique of Besearch Seeds-Soil  Science  RbsorptioB  of  tfastenater
Proceedicgs fro« a Workshop ar Pesearci Seeds  Keletioq  to  Sell
 absorption of tfastenater. Colorado State Uniuersity. Fort  Collins.
 CO. June 1-3, 1983
1983
Presents the research needs related tc  soil science  an<5 onsite
 wastfe^ater systess discus&eti  at  the SSF-spooscred accksaop on  Ecsearch
 Beudu Relating to Soil  Absorption of sasteuatcr.  The  presentaticii
 by Dr. Carlile and critique by Dr. tyler esplair how probltas  Kith
 septic tank/soil abscrptian can  cause  eventual  failure of  the  systflo.
 Ther both aiscess the tcseacch required  to solve protleee  IB the
 following areas.: biological clogging o-it.  hfdraollc  soil  properties,
 systee desi-jo, and l«rqe  systems.  (5UF)
ACCI  :  100(555
AUTHOR
AFFIL
TITLE

SOURCE
VESF.
TEIT
 Olivier!, V.P.; Morrison,  S.fl.
 Envroasental  Hajlth  Engin&eriaq,  Johns  Hopkins  Oniverslty,
  Baltiaore, HO asd  the  Departaent  of  flictobio]oqy  and  Environmental
  Health, Colorado State University,  Fort  Collins.  CO
 Besearh Needs-He»1tb  Implications  of  Bacteria  and  Parasites  in
  Soil Absorption of fcasteuater
 Proceedinqs fros a  Hockshop  on  Research  Seeds  Pelatinqtc  Atsctpticn
  of aasteueter. Colorado  St to the norkshcp  presentation  by  Cikcra  and a
  critique of  the pro.sntat von  bj Lindsay.  (AU/SHF)
ACCI
AUTHOR
AFFIL
TITLE

SOURCE
TEAR
TEXT
 LOCI 557
 Sobsey, S.C.; Cliver,  D.O.                   .
 Dept. of  Environ»ental  Sciences  and  Engineering,  Scht
  Health,  University  ci  :icrth  Cjtclir.d,  Chipei  Hiil,  >
  Rescacci. institute,  and  Sept.  of  3 jcter icloqy,  Univer
                                                    icol of  Futlic
                                                     SC  and  Food
                                                    ;rsity  of
 Wisconsin, Kadiccn,  WI
Viroicqy Consiceraticns  in  ?oil  Atsocption  of Wastenater:  Review
 of the Literature ar.d  Research  Needs                  ....«•,
Proceedinas troa a Workshop  on  Research  deeds Reltiaq tc Soil
 Absorption of  Hastenster,  Colorado  State  University, Fort  Collins,
 Colorado, June 1-3,  1983  (56  pages)
1 9 H 3
Presents research need  ccncerninq  enteric  viruses and scil  abscrcticn
systees for treating;  uastenater.   Susairiies  tcpics  in  the  follcwinq
 cateqories: tnteric  viruses;  septic  tanks  and septic wastes;  scil
                                         228

-------
        atsorptice  sTstees:  field stedies;  relationships ttaeen enteric
        viruses.  tecal  indicator  bacteria and ether «aste»ater coasf totents;
        predictive  eodeis  foe  deslqn  aad  operation of oR-site and sewage
        treataeot systeos.   locledes  a suoaary,  an introduction to the
        preseatetioa. Sofesej's preEeetation, ocd diver's critique cf  the
ACCI   :
AOTSOS:
AFF1L :

TITLE C
SOOBCE:

IEAB   :
TEST
        L0015S8
        EP4-US;  Urban Scientific and Es^ironaental Besearch.  nc.
        £n»irotta«Etal ProtectioB iqeacj. Office o£ Hater Ptograe Operations
         Hasbiaqton,  D.C.,  20560
        Affluent Eflleent:  Sen Choices is »a£te«ater Treeteest
        O.S.  EPS-Office of  L'atec Froqras Operations, Publication («H-5«7>
                                                             Inc.
        Provides detailed  ioforaatioa CD  each of the case studies presented
          io  the £ila,  ""Affleeat Efflsect".  The cases are divided icto foot
          categories: ossite  end saall systeas, conweoticaal treatnoat »ith
          altaratise or lanc\?ati?e aSd-oas. aon-eoawentional iysi«isse  eed
          noa-strectaral approaches fot uasteaster Baaaceaent.  Cites  contacts
          foe fncthec iafocestion follotfiag each case bistorj-. (ao/SUF)
«UTBOE:
iFFIi :

TITLE I
SOliSCE:

TE4B  :
TEXT  :
        LOOt5S9
        Keeft.  S.C.
        Senior EDuironsjental  Engiceer.  D.S. A ray Cold Regions Research end
         Enqiseerieij  Labotatory.  Hanover.  BH
        Bitroqen  Ecsosal  in Uasteuatec  slstilization Pcnds
        PreeeaeeS at  56th Attacal  Conference of the Water Pollution Control
         Fadasratiea.  Oct. 2-7.  1933«  Atlanta. Georgia (27 pages)
        A  ratioael  procedure  for estimating nitrogen renewal in facultc^lve
        Ha&teaeter v,ta fei liza ti on ponds has Keen developed and vralidate-.l.   The
        procedure, based  on  first-order plug-flou kinetics, is depesdeat  on
        pH,  teeperature,  and residence tiae.  The aodel uas developed free
        extensile  date  obtained at four facoltatife ponds irs various parts of
        the  U.S. asd was  validated uiih independent aeto £roa fiire pond systees
        in the  U.S.  ted Cacada.  The procedure should be useful t^ienever
                                                                            It
          Tstez  desiqc criteria require niticqen re»o»al or nitrl .ticaticn.
         should  be patt icularly helpful for the poncl coeponent oi land
         treatoent sfstens when nitrogen is the lisitintj dfsiq& parasetcr. («0)
JlCCI
AUTEQfi
AFPIL
TITLE
SOUECE
TEXT
        L001560
        Gloyna, l-f-i Tischler. L.F.; Ford, D.L.
        UaiversitT or Teras.  Engineering Science, Austin, TX
        LOM-Cost Sfsteas arid  the Future
        lou-Cost Kastewater Treataent Workshop, Cleason, S.C., April 19-21,
         1963 (IB pages)
        1983
        Presents an owerslfn  of xaste stabilization pona systess and
         provides perforaance data for both doeestic ant industrial systees.
         Secocnizes a need for sore flexibility in effluent total suspended
         solids limitations for statiliiation ponds and recosoends neu
         procedures for etaluatinq statilization pond perforoance. (S«F)
ACCI
AUTHOE
AFFIL

TITLE

SODBCE
TEAS
T£II
        L001561
        Uebler,  B.L.
        Soil  Specialist,  Sanitation Branch, N.C. Division of Health Services,
         Green»ille.  NC
        Treatcent of  Hastewater by Soil AbsorptiCD as Affected ty Loading
         Bate and Soil Aaeajsents
        1962  Southeastern On-Site Treatnent Conference Frcc^edinqs. Berth
         Carolina Division of Health Ser»ices and Soil Science Depart»ent,
         K.C. State University (4 pages)
        •t n o T
        Presents a study  cosparinq ?aricus uastewater leading rates and the use
         of ceaent and liae aaend»ents on wasteyater tre«t«ent ty sell
         absorption.   The anendsents- stabilized the hydraulic properties cf the
         trenct/soil  interface and created a sore fawcretle en»irocBert fcr
         nitrification.  Differences in aaaoniuB or nitrete concentration
         betueen loading  rates Mere not significant.  FrcridtS graphs cf
         amoniua and nitrate concentrations o»er tise.  (SWF)
ACCI   :  L001562
AUTHOfi:  Ma««er,  D.E.:  Kadlec.  R.H.                  ,
AFFIL  :  Depart«ent  ot  Che«ical Enqineering, University of Michigan, Ana Arbci
         HA   aei09
TITLE  :  Desiqn Principles for  Wetland Treattent Systess  (Frolect Saeiiry)
SOOBCE:  Project  Suciary  - U.S. EPA  - Research and DeveIcpnent, flay V)83
                                         229

-------
        EP»-600/S2-«3-02S  (8  pages)
IE1B  : 1983
        Beports kej findieqs  ftoa  research deal lug with design priocloles for
        net land treate^Bt.  Provides tables OB$ graphs of eslstlocj wetleaiS
        processes*  Equaticss  expressing  esss trccste: of cootaeinactE are
        derived.  Lists  aad discusses Key itess for e .tiaatioa costs aad
        operation of netlaud  systeas. (SBF)
KC»
IOTH03
TITLE
SOD8CE
IEAR
TEXT
       L001563
       Chan, H.T.: S»kes, J.F.
       Ootacio Hroro, 600 Eiplinq  i»e.,  Toconta,  Oattaric. Canada; aofl th«
        I'civecsitr of Haterloo.  Waterloo,  Cotaslo. Ca&sds
       Grosnd-Mater RoaeiiBq  Beneath  a Large Leeching Bed
       Grosad Matsc. 22«l)s 36-93  (8  pages)                            ;
       an 84 e  (276  ft)  fcy  6e  e  (205 ft)  experimental leaching bed 	
        coastrocted  to  receive the seconder? efflaeet frou toe soruocd, Cttarlo
        sewage  treatseat pleat,   the tfistritetioa svstea consisted -of. ICO-sa
        disaster perforated pip«s laid 2.1  a apart in 0.05 a wide trenches.
        TBS Bale soil laf-jr at tfe« test site ass saadf silt.  GrcHod-estec
        levels at the  site  eera  ae«sorea af prosiesself «eesiy at 36
              oarioo of  abset  2  1/2 yeacs,   4a iaitia'i hjacaelic
                                                n reduced
                                                                  of
                                                                         leeel
        foe a ntf
        122.700 1/daf caosed  Eacfacf,-',
        1/doy uas tbea  osea lor  aost  of     	 ,  ,	,     	
        fluctuations beEeatfe  and adlaceat to tbe I.eachieg ted eere
        to seasonally sajyinq lefiiCratios asd iivdraelic loadisq.  	
        expeciDeatsl data  aezo sisjalate^ asiag & tcaasieBt two-iiseesioaal.
        phreatic integrated depth Iisite-eieasat acae.l o&d an eealftic sciatica
        foe  H.D.
        Domestic  Waste  Disposal  by Evapotranspiration
        1992  Southeastern  OB-Site Trtsteent Conference Proceedinqs, Sortb
         Carolina Division of  Health Services and the Soil Science Dc-partBCBt,
         X.C.  State  University (0 paqeb)
        Presents  a study  to detersine the feasability of ET systees as an
         alternative aeans of  do»estic ua^tewater disposal for Arkansas.  i
         coaflned E* system uas  constructed £ro» sediuB sard and talj fescue.
         It was sonitored  for  one year duri^q vXich the potential evaporation
         exceeded the rainfall by 450 as.  Ccapoter siaulations of the E? systeu
         constructed at six locations in  Arkansas indicated tbet when realistic
         effluent loadinq  rates,  rainfall,  surface areas, aad depths were used
         the  ET systea  would fall 10 souths after cooplete vecetative cover uas
         established.  Thus, che ET syste»  is not a viable alternative tor
         lonq-ter« doaestic waste disposal  it Arkansas.  (AU/SHF)
 ICC I  :
 iUTKOR:
        L001567
        Carlile,  B.L.;  nessick,  J.K.
                                         230

-------
Ealeosion Sell Specialist.  Soil  aafl  Crop  Sciences feept., Texas 468
 Oolvarslty, College Statloa.  Teias, ORd  igriceltura Besesrcb
 Techfeiciaa. Soil Scieece Oc( SB2 spsteuE appear to Eacrtion eqeall;  or  ocly
        sliqntly  better tk«e tka con^entionel sy£tea on loe-petcoiatiaq soils.
        The  V-treBcb. tssinij qtafit? diatEibatioa. feactloeed  finch tetter asd
        •Dpeaea to offer «0 to SO percept geedtar atsctptios  potastial.
iCCe  :  LOQ1566
IOTB08:  Uebler, B.L.
irriL :  Soil  Specialist, Sanitatiob Branch, Berth Carolina  DiTislon of  Health
         Sereiees,  Gre<6B»ille, sc
TlftE :  Desiqa of Lov;-?se-EE!!re Pips Kasheaater Treateent  Sjrsteas
SOUBCE:  1982  5oatbe?s t«CB Od-S5.tr- Seteqa trestaeat Conference  PsrocQedinqs,
         EoctJi Catoiif,& Divisioa os aealtb Services aad the  Soil  Scieuce
         Departaeni, B.C. State Ucisecsity J5 paqss)
|E»B  :  196?
TEXT  :  Di&cesses bo« lou-pcessore pipe doeed sycteas overcoee .soil
         llait«tioeso  Provides a brief de.slqn example fee  the LPP EjEteo
         including: systee lafoiit. dosing rate d e tet-ninaticn ,  puap
         and  dosinq voluae.  includes tables aao figoreE.   (SUF)
 tCCI
 tUTHOR
TITLE
SOOBCZ
 IEJT
        1001569
    e. C.H.
Sell Science  Cepartnea*,  M.C.  State t)B}»6tslty,  Paleiqh, SC
Electticai Coattols  fee  Pressu t€-f
-------
10TH09:  toattx,  E.B.
miL  :  D«partBeBt ol Agricultural EsqiseeriBq. Ooiverslt; of  tels^are.

TITLE  i  On-Slt«*01sposal *loeq an Estoary
SOOICE*  1982 Soatbeastern OR-Site Treateebt Coeieresca Proceedisss.  ierttj
         Carolina Division of Health ser«ices aa a iesc c fs p t lo o of
         duties of Tennessee's Chief Soil consultant. {
 ACC»
 AUTHOB
 IfFIL
 TITLE

 SOURCE
 If»R
 TEIT
        L0

                                     EPA-600/2.-84-183
                                     November 1984
            1984 BIBLIOGRAPHY CF
           SHALL WA5TEWATER FLOWS
           Corapiled and Edited by
   Stephen P. Oix and Trina L. r.arolcfvU
       National! Sraal! Flows Clearinghouse
          West Virginia University
                  West Virginia 26506
            Grant Ho, Ck 809297
              Project Officer

              John N. English
        Wastewater Researcn Division
Municipal Environmental Research Laboratory
           Cincinnati, Ohio 45268
MUNICIPAL ENVIRONMENTAL RESEARCH LABORATORY
     OFFICE OF RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT
    U.S. ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCC
          CINCINNATI, OHIO  45268

-------
TECHNICAL REPORT DATA
(neat raw ItstratCKta on the reverse Before fOKpteHtgf
1. REPORT NO. 2.™" " — -— — 	 	
EPA-60Q/2-84-183
•t. TITI,£ ANO SUBTITLE
1984 Bibliography of Small Hastewater Flows
J. AUTHOHtS)
Compiled and Edited by Stephen P. Dix and
Trina L. Karolchik
S>. PSBPQstMIWO GKGAMI2AT1OH «er 1984
S-PfeRPOBt-'t^a OfQAN:?ATIOW CODS
8- FERFOfMSlNa Of5OA.Ml2AT!OJM SBfORT 1
10. PROGRAM ELEMENT NO.
CAZ818
W. tOM ftAclVSriAwf nt6.
CR 809297-01-7
13. TVP6 O? REPOMY ANOPERlOOCOVgRI
Final Report 6/85 to 3/34
to. a»>ow3ORmo ^.ag«ev coos
EPA/600/14
IS. SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES
Project Officer: John N. English (513)684-7613
     This publication contains abstrscts of literature related to innovative and
 alternative wastewater treatment systems for small coranunities, and individual,
 on-site systems.                                    •=

     This is the second bibliographic volume.  This new volume supplements the first
 volume.  The 1984 volume contains information abstracts that have been added to the
 clearinghouse database since the publication of the 1979 Bibliography.  The indexes
 in this volume catalog the information contained in both the 1979 and 1984 documents
 and can therefore be used to search both for the pertinent entries.  However, the
 first 531 entries are included in the first volume only.
17.
                               <£ V WORDS AND DOCUMENT ANAl YSIS
I1""
Wastewater
treatment,
regulation
RELEASE TO
OESCRIr>TOHS
, bibliography, collection,
management, planning,
, research
PUBLIC
b.lD£NTIFIERS/O?EN ENDED TERMS
small , septic tank,
rural
c CCSATi FrttA/Croup
13B
1s* SECURITY CLA^S ( This rlfpufii i J 1 NO. Of PAGES
UNCLASSIFIED 368
20. SECUfil I Y CLASS i Thapjfti ;?2 r-RlcE
UNCLASSIFIED j
£PA Form

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                           Disclaimer
   "Although the inforaation described io  this docaaent has been
funded  wholly or  in  part by  the  Doited States  £nvirouseat1*!
Protection  Agency   through  assistance   agreesent  nastier   CB
809297-01-0  to  best  Virginia  University,   it  has  not  fceea
subjected to the Ageocy's required peer and adsinistrati^e review
and  therefore does  act  necessarily rstlect  the  uieys of  the
Agency and no official eadocsesent should be infected.0
                                11

-------
                            foreword
   The  Environnental Protection  Agency uas  created because  of
Increasing public  and gowerDaent  cancers about  the dangers  ot
pollution  to the  health  and welfare  of  the American  people.
Noxious air, foul «ater, and spoiled land are tragic testiaony to
the deterioration of our natural entrironsent.   The complexity of
that enwironaent and the interplay between its components require
a concentrated and integrated attack on the problea.

   Research  and clevelopsent  is  that  nec.-ssary first  step  in
problem solution and it involves defining t^e prcbles,  eeasuriBg
Its  iapact.   and  searching   for  solutions.    The  Municipal
Enoironaental  Sesearch  Laboratory  dauelops  new  and  isproved
technology  and  systems  for the  preseatioa,   treateent.   aad
fflanageaent of uaste«cster and solid  and hazardous vaste pollutant
discharges  frois  raocicipal  and   coEaunicy  sources,   for  the
preservation and treatment of pufclic dcinkiag water supplies, aad
cor  airiiaizing  tht3  adverse econonic,   social,   health,   and
aesthetic elfect.v of pollution.   This  publication is one of the
products  of that  research;  a  Host  «ltal coaaunicatioss  link
between the re-searcher and the user
   This publication  contains abstracts of literature  related to
innovative ^nd alternative uastev/ater treatment syste-ss for saall
coBBuni ties,  the sparsely populated areas of larger coeauaities,
and indiif idLal,  on-site systeas.    This new bibliography wcluee
supplc-aents trie  first wolusc,   Jhe 1222  _3ibl jography of
                                     ~
                                        Francis T. Kayo, Director
                                        Municipal Enwironneptal
                                        Hesearch Laboratory
                               111

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                             Preface



   This  publication contains  abstracts and  indeses of domestic
and foreign  literature dealing  aith  alternative  treataeat and
collection systess as   searched by  the professional   staff  of
the  EPA Eaticnal  Saall  Uastenater Flows  Clearinghouse  (SMF).
Both  technical   and  nontechnical  reports anl  iafccsatioa are
included.

   The  subject   Eatter  researched   includer;   i*no?ati»e  and
alternative    Hasteuater    treatment    systoas    for    saall
coasunities,     tht>    sparsely  populated   areas   of   larger
coHsunities, and iadiiridual cnsice systeas.

   This bibliography contains inforsatiOQ that is applicable to:

*  septic tanks aad subsurface disposal systess

*  other onsite sjsteas, inclufiiag dual sjsteas

*  ssall  systess   sersing  clusters   consisting  of   a  ssall
   nuafcer of  households or  cossBercial users,    each user  aith
   average annual dry  weather floas of under  25,000 gallons per
   daj

*  six-inch and   saaller gravity sewers  carrying  partially  or
   fully treated wasteuater or  carrying  raw ua^tewater as  part
   of  lisited  crjaweyaacc  systess   which  serve  clusters   of
   households  anu sscll cosaercisl establishments

*  pressure and vacuues sewers

*  other   treataer.t    or   conveyance    works   that    eaploy
   alternative  technologies aad   that  serve  cosauaities  uith
   sparsely peculated areas cf larger coeaunities


   This  is  the   second   bibliographic  voluae  published   b?
the  Ciearinuhouse.     This  aew volume  supplements  the  first
voluae.  The J979  Bibliography of Scall  Hasteaater Flows.   The
198U volume  contains ir,forEation   that has  been  added  to the
Clearinghouse  data  base  since  the  publication  of  the  1S79
Bibliography.     The   indexes  in  this  voluae    catalog  the
inforsation contained  in bcf'i the   1979 and ':98
-------
                                   Abstract

     The USEPA National S-nall Flows Clearinghouse maintains a computer data-
base which contains abstracts and indexes of domestic and foreign literature
dealing with innovative and alternative wastew'ater treatment systems for
small correminitieSs the sparsely populated ai eas of larger cofis&unities, and
individual onsite systems.  Both technical and nontacfiriical reports and infor-
mation are included.

     The database contains information that is applicable to:  septic tanks
and subsurface disposal systems; other onsite systems, irscU-ding dual systems;
small systems serving clusters of households or commercial use^s, each user
with average annual dry weather flows of und^r 25,000 gallons per day; six-
Inch and smaller gravity sewers carrying partially or fuliy treated wastewater
or carrying raw wastewater as part of limited conveyance systems which serve
clusters of households and small commercial establishments; pressure anci
vacuum sewers; and other treatment dnu conveyance works that employ alterna-
tive technologies and that serve coimunities with sparsely populated areas of
larger communities.

     This is the second bibliographic volume.  This new volume supplernents the
first volume, the 1979 Bibliography of Small tfastewater Fiows.  The 1984 volume
contains information abstracts that have been added to crve Clearinghouse data-
base since tne publication of the 1979 Bibliography.  Th» indexes in this
volume catalog tne information contained in both the 1979 and 1984 documents
and can therefore be used to search both for the pertinent entries.  However,
the first 531 entries are included in the first volune only,

     The database may also be searched by computer using descriptor words,
taxanomic designations, states' names, and/or authors' na^es.  People
interested in having a search of the database performed for them can call
tne Clearinghouse at its toll-free number (300)624-8301.

     This report was submitted in fulfillment of Grant. Number CR 309297 by
West Virginia University under tne partial sponsorship of tne U.S. Environ-
mental Protection Agency.  This report covers the period frofa June 1981 to
March 1984, and wortc was completed as of August 1984.

-------
                                  Contents


Foreword	,.,	   iii

Preface	    1v

Abstract	     v

Acknowledgements	viii

Section I

     How to Use the Coropi lation	1

Section I!

     How to Use tne Indexes	3

Section III

     Abstract Listing  	  5

Section IV

     Indexes
         Autnor In:ex  	  234
         Descriptor Index  .....  	  .  .  260
         State Index	296
         Taxonomy  Index  	  3G1
         Title Index	315
                                           vn

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                          Ac keoHle fig seats


   The  contents  of   this   cublication   were   prepared    under a
grant (CR-6C9297-01-C)    funded by  the   Eaeironseatal  Protection
Agency under the  authority  of and as  presided  by   the  1977 Clean
Water Act.

   This  voluaa was  compiled,  edited,     and   published  through
the coisbiaed   efforts    of   the  EPA   Kunicipal    Easricaaeental
Research Laboratory.  Cincinnati,    Ohio,   and   the EPA   Bational
Saall  Flows Clearinghouse,  KorcjaatOMs, Hest  Sirgissia.   Siace the
formation of the Clearinghouse,  the goal   has  been to  asseable a
data base to  assist ail  persons concerned  with ssall  wastetater
flou.s.

   The following  people  hslped  produce  the  1964  woluae   of the
Bibliography of Sssail  aasteaatec flows:
   Jaees F. Kreissl       G.  Cayae  £ldridge
   J&EGS V. CCK
   John &• English
   D*vene  Bucfcs           ChaclGJ  a.  Jenkins,  Civil  Engiaeering
   Trina Karoichik        lilies A.  van  Eck,  A jr icul tural  Science
   Roaan Olyn/K           Hilliaa  £.  Sacfc,  Civil  En.gioeering
   Steve Dix
   Polly Cooper

   SlL^.^itAl® AS5l§Jtf._nJ._s    £oj£u.^e.£ Co {\sultdn t s

   Chandler Saith         niKe  Burch
   Jady Ctonauer          Stephanie  Lucas
   Kis Cacey              Camel Bell
                               Vlll

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                            Sectioa  I

                   KOtt tO 'JSS fHS COBPILAflOS
   Each abstract  is listed by  accession   auaber  in   the  section
called Abstract listing.    Th& aaapie  abstract  fcelow  iliastrates
how to locate iteas ia th<* abstract
 1 C
2 ->
3 ->
       ->
       ->
7
6
9
       ->
ACCS  :
AU1HQ3;
&PFIL :
TITLE :
SOUBCE;
      COST
      SKftfi
      tEST
    10 ->  C08
               L000001 9
               Fcipp. J.I., Jr.
               Geotgidi CegartEent of Trarspot tation,  Atlaata,  G4
               Ceattalizea Raaageeest of S««ll Plants
               Batiossl coafercnca os Less Costif  Has
               Iceatraast S?stees for Sisall Coasuaities:
                                                              1977;
                                                              ^o.  PB
         pp. 77-73 (B?A-60G/9-79-OS0; StLS Report
         293 25«/AS)
         36.50
         1978
         Describes G«otgia*s systes of dealiag with safety
         test aree Kastetsatar  tceata^tt  piastsa   Firsts
         are  septic  tantesff  ;sfcet  refers  to the
    ALstcdct   Listing  entry   where  tu-s coaplete   bibliographic
    information,    tna   atstract  of    the   riocuReet,     acd  the
    availability cf  the  infocsaticn cap  tc found..

2.  *   indicates    that   the  docusent   is    reported   by    the
    SationaX   Technical   Interaction  Service   (NTIS)     as  tei^g
    available,  but  s   indicated  in  the
    publication.

5.  Title of the publication.

6.  Source   of  the   publication   (book,    journal,     report,
    proceedings), publisher  ao-J  nusber  of pages.
7.  KTI
       .price.
                    soee
                          of
                                      the   entries    contain
                                      that actual prices  say
                     Cniy
this indorsation.    Sote,
wary fros those publi'hed.

Date published.

The publication's  abstract,which was  written  by   the  author
	   Clearinghouse engineers  (SHF) , r- t,y both  "(AU/SUF) .
8.

9.


10.  Agency or  person  fro«  aho«  the  docueect  nay  be obtained.

-------
The
 &iu.*»w«La
 1222 faifei
 eatriss  .  ^
 thcoagh 1576
                    5T&
            aasfewater
           laleiestSr  t
included ia the sew,  193^
           coataias
    saroleseats the
OBS  KRich coatains
    ea tries fros  ^

-------
                           section II

                     BOB ¥0 8SE ?BE ZS0SXES
   This  bifcliogcapfe? coataies  flee  iadeses which  can  be used
to identity those articles oi interest.  Tbe iudeEas are:

       Z8DEX...
            «ach   author in   the  data   b&&e aloag   with  the
     access io a  aaabet ;  for the  bibliographic  iafarsatioa
     Abstract for the articles published tj iiia or her.

OESCSIPfOB IED2X...

     uses ker wctids to categorize   th« ssall flows tachnGlc
     the  cfaStacteicisfcies    of  Tacioas    tteatsesfe    sysfass,
     and   the characteristics of eaaa§«»9®t systess..    Use tMs
     lades  elcae ci:  Bits?  the  faacBoaj  lades  to aarroB   the
     rujacec of  cefaceaces to thos« speslficallj o£ Interest.
      . raaged si cbabetical Ij..   use  this  indss to Had
     Bfcich coEtala  infocEatloD directly related to  a ptcticulac
     state.

         ISSES...

          this  iodex to  search  for   Infoteation in  either  a
     general or a specific subject   area.    &a acces&ioa tiuatei:
     is incladed for each docuaant  ifsdec th® subject heading.

Ti^LE IBOEX...

     arranged according to accession cuabftz,   use this icciez  for
     eas  ccoss-terereace froe the  nuabecs la the otne.. inuexes.
   To ensure  that  you have petfcriaed  a thorough search   fo.  a
chosea topic,   .it is best  to  use at lease  t«o search  nethods.
Due to the difficulty in  consistently and objectively  assigning
key  bocds ana  taxoncay nuacers,   do  not tdly on one  aethod or
oae indei   alone to yield all  the inforaation availesble   in the
data base for a pactjcuiar topic.    For exasple,   the key  uord
"cofflf ostiiig  toilet5'  cites  56 articles  while the  tazonoav for
coapostiaq  toilets  {1.2.3,1}   cites 53  articles,     and  the
keyword  "toilet" cites  50  articles while   the tazonoa?  nuabers
tor toilets  {1-2. 3,  1.2.3.1,   ,.2.3.2,  1.2.3.3, 1.2.3.U,  and
t.2.3.5)    cite  a total   cf about   30 articles  uhen duplicate
accession aaaters are ositted.
   Soae  prospectiwe  hoae  owners  are  interested  ic   learning
   5oae  prospectiwe  noiae  O«Q«LS  ate  interesnea  it.   learning
ho« expensive it is to keep up a septic tank systea, so the/ hawe
decided to use ttoe Bibliography to gather iafcreation.

   Going to  the taronosy iodex first,     thpy look for  a topic
related to  sectic  tanks.    la this  casee    there is  a topic
under  Treataeht Proces5^s   called  Septic   Tanks at    taxor.cay
nuatipc 3.1.7.1.    Tnis nuaber has «1 entries.

-------
   Hext the searchers  refer to the Descriptor index to  look for
the key word "excease.88  they do  not find  ^expense" but they do
see  taat  the  s|aonjs  ecost" is  listed  instead,   where  161
accession ousters are given.

   CoBparing the  HI accession nuiBbers  found at  3.1.7.1 (septic
tanks)  against tee  161 nuabers  for "cost,"  the searchers  find
6  entries  ahich exist  ia  both  lists:    LOQOSau,    L000663,
L000687e   1.000826,   LOOG837.  aad L001 019.     HoHea-er,   these
articles  aay  discuss   the  cost  of  septic    tanks  but  not
necessarily   the  cost  ef   Baiataining  septic  tanks.      Sy
checking    the    entries    under    the     descriptor    word
" Baintenaace*" the prospective  hose onners disco¥er that  two of
the six publications,   LCOC687 and L0010C9.   cotrer  the cost of
            septic tank systass.
   To e&sure themselves  that they've  found all  the Information
they  want oa  tbsir  topic,    tfte searchers  perfora &   second
search.    They start by  rephrasing their  topic to  be COST  of
BAIKTAIKiEg   SEPTIC  ?lH£S.    This time,   t&ej  use  oalj  the
Descriptor Index.

   Starting  with   the  descriptor   aord  "septic   tank.0  the
searchers coapare  the 259  accession Dusbers  fou'id  at  Aseptic
tank"  with the  60  Eusbecs found   under  the  descriptor  word
"maintenance.51  Frcsa   this coeparisoa,    they discover  that 39
nuebers satch,    indicating that  3U articles  aay discuss  both
maintenance dnd septic tasks.   By  coaparing these 34  accession
numbers  with the  161  nusbers at  the  descriptor word  acost«w
the  searchers  find that  3  accession nuebers  Batch,  L000200,
LOOC523. L000558,  L000604,  1000616,   L000652,   LG00687,   and
L0010U9, each one being referenced by all three descriptor words.

   Checking  this  second  list against   the  first one,     the
searchers note  that  both  of  the cusbers  in  the  foreer list
are also  in the latter one.

   Since  there  are  only  eight abstracts  ahich   might be  of
interest to  tlaec,   the  searchers decide  not to  refer  to the
TITLE  INDEX  cefore going tc  the abstract listing.    Had there
been more accession  nosbers for this topic,    the searchers aay
have  found  it   beneficial  to  narrow  doan   the  mister   or
publications ty using  the Title  Index to  further discern which
documents  nould be  of  the  cost interest   according to  their
titles only.

-------
                                  SECTION III

                                IBStfiiCT II5TXSC
tecs
Afrit
TITLE
SOURCE
IEAB
TEXT
        1000532
        Boar! oa Science asS Technology for International Develcpaent
        Cossissioa CB lEtesrcatioaal Relatioss. Rational Beseacch Council,  tor
        the Office of Scieac® aad Technology, Bareru tot technical  fis.-.istaece,
        Aqtmcj for International Deseiopafct, BasfcingtOB. D.C.
        Baiiaq Aquatic «ee*iroBBaotal Health, ?olaae «T (6).  p.  328-328
TEAR    1979                                            H
IEIT    tuapotraasfiraticn {E?J sysleas, aitb and  without  plastic lined teds,
        installed at host: sites on the laboratory  caspos wece etsloated fcr
        putlic health criteria and eonitored to obtain  sizing 1nfCLoaticn.
        Obsecrations and Eeasureaents indicated th^t ET toos are fir» and dry  en
        the surface and withoot odor.  De=lqn rcccsnendations eapliasite the  need
        foe a flat bottoo and  tits foundation for  the  ted.  Vegetation  su«t  te
        healthy throughout the year tc provide sufficient  trarspiration
        capacity.  Beds nitfacut a liner did net provide enough  soisture fcr  the
        grass in the warmer »onths.  For a grass covered bed in the  Chesapeake
        Bar area a sizinj value of 3.5 BE per day  .
        1561
        Beport describes 7hiiland*s nater-ssal privy prcgraa.   The  water-seal
        privy consists of concrete bowl attaches to an  inverted  F-shaped  trap.
        The trap is filled with water to for» a water seal.   Eirections and
        diaqraes on construction of a water-seal privy  are  provided.
»CCI
1UTHOE
AfFIL

TITLE
SOUSCE

TEAH
TEXT
        LCC0536
        Bennina, H.P.
        Envircneental Health Prograa, Bowling Green State  University,  901  Eeach
        Bead, Huron. Ohio
        ^vapotranspiraticB of Bastewater Effluent
        Environeental Health Prograa, Bowling Green State  I"ni7ersity,  901  Eeach
        Bead, Hi.ron, Ohio, 13 p.
        1977
        The  para»eters that control evapo transpiration  of  aerotic  hose uaste-
        uater treatnent effluent were deter»ioed and evaluated.  Retalts  ttci
        the  field observation and laboratory analysis shewed  that  perferred
        vegetation for these systsas are alfalfa  (Icng  roots  increase  vinter^iie
        evaporation) and four feet Scotch or Australian  Fines;  the  capacity

-------
        (quantitative) aas found to te 9 tc 10 gallons pec linear  foot of  ncond
        per day.  Cosing cay te by gravity cr eechanlcel  «e«os and  qrcasdwster
        Interference can te preculOed by a plai-tlc underline*.  £  recoRSsr.Sed
        evepotraaspiratioa systcs design is illustrated.   (SMF)
ACC»
AUTBOF
TITLE
SOURCE
TEAS
IEIT
1000537
Saith, D.L.C.
Jcaa State 1,'Bieetsity
A Laboratory Evaluation cf the Seaace Osiosis Concept
lona State university, 4aes. Icua; £u p.

this caster's thesis sosgfet to verify a licensee's clsia that
could te tt«ate<3 fcy cstablistieq an electrical poteatial whereby
uocld fee electrolysed into hydrogen aad oxygen gas or «apor.ize&.
HiEeral rock: was used as «c anode end a coie/gcaphits coaclei served as
cathode to generate electrical potential ia the trench.  Eescorcfc cca-
clusicES froa a laboratory Bociel shcued th^t there was act eno^qk
tial (33aV) to either electrolyse or varorize the seuaqc.  Au energ
reqatreeeBts assessseet sr.oaea that at least 35. S Ktf pst perscs ecy
be required for this purpcs«o  it is £ at trier ststefi that the potential
of IB claimed to ta e««tlable in the sjstea \s less thae ttic eiaiaes
1.7 ¥ that «oald fce required for electrolysis of eater.  Hydraulic
conductivity aeasoreseats resealed that there was a stead; dtcjs o£
coedaclivitj ie the soil over tine regardless of the aioeral reck or
car bo i. portions 
-------
*CC»  :
AUTKOB:
AFFIL :
TITLE :
SOUKCEj
TE&i
TEXT
L0005<»2
Scheuraan, P.R.: Bitten, C.: Cversan. A.H.; Clffccd. C.I.
University cf Florida at Gainesville. Dtpt. of Eo«ironaental  Engineering
Transport of Viruses Through Organic Soils ami Scdisants
Journal of Environmental Foqineecing Divisioa  (ASCE), foluae  lOS(EEO).
August. 1979. p. £29-6ocles
SOU ECE: State Water Resource:; Control Board, Office of  Ueter  Recyclioq,  P.C.  Eoi
       100. Sacractentu. California  95801.  :J p.
TEIT  : Article provides basic  facts about  uasteuater reclsuation  and gtves  lo-
        foraation for setting up cofeounity  taste^atec reclaaation  proorass.
        Appendix included quidolines for  various uses of reclaimed  Mater.   (5HF)
ACC»
AUTHOB
AFFIL
TITLE

SOURCE
TEAfi
TEXT
L0005HU
Chestnut, T.
Illinois Cept. of Public Health
Design and Consvruction Costs of Sand Filter Installations  in Central
Illinois
Second Annual Illinois Private Sewage Disposal Syaposiua; 12 p.

Presents desiqn ani construction costs for a sand filter syste».
Friaary treatnont of seuaqe ty a septic tonk is fcllcwed by eftlaent
filtration thcouqh a qrdvel-sand BeSiun.  Chlocination follows tiie
filtration sttp.  0
-------
        esploj latensi»e soiar aquarulture.  (SKF)
firflL :
TITLE :
SODBCE:
T b £ A  I
TEST  :
        10005417
        Ce«ia. ?.H.; Eestqate. D.P.
        K/i
        Fackeqe Plant Auqeentat loa of lU<51iD
-------
        countries are reviewed.  Alternative actioas ece discussed.   (ID)
*CC»
AUTHCB
AFFIL

TITLE
SOURCE
YE4B
TE1I
L000552
Beadle?. B.K.: Alvares da SHva. fl.C.S.
D. Bradley Bslfour t. Sons^ Brazil, ds Si 1 Ta-Csspaohia de Sdticaeeoto
Basico do Estado de Sao • aulo (SABiS?)
StabilizatioB Laiooas Including Ezpecleace In Brazil
Efflueat sad lister Tteatseet Journal; p. 21-29

Sose cf the diffetent design criteria current!; IB use fcr n«ste
stabilization laqaons and a scenery of operating data obtained frcn
lifferent lagoon systtas treat lag dosestlc sewage in Brazil ace dis-
cussed.  Particular retereace is oade to anaerobic, facaltatlie
and aarated leqooas.  (AU)
4CC8    1.000553
AUiaOB  B/a
ifTIL   Consueer Deports
TITLE   Mater:  Tiae to Start saving?
SOtiSCE  80. 5, Bay 1978. p. 294-295

TEXT  i The pctectial for water sbcrtaocs and the sloaly esecqiag concept of
        tiater as a lisit^d rtsoacce ace discussed.  Incenti»es for doaestic
        Mater cos^erwation ioclode the associated lowering of tiie costs
        of treating a&d distribtitin<) cleac aater and disposing ct aasteuater as
        eel! &s reducing the need for facility eKpansion.  flEizcua's
        droppica water table is discussed.  the water conversation effcrts that
        resulted IB a 65 percent drop ID Baric CcuDty, CA, water
        are briefly described.
ACC*    L00055U
AGTHCB  Siegrist, H.i.
AFFIL   Siaall Scale uaste nanageeent Project
TITLE   Hanaaeaent of Hesidential Grer ifater
SOURCE  Ssall Scale Haste RanageBeat Project; University of Wisconsin, Radisco,
        23 p.
YEflH    1978
TEXT    Eesideatial qreywater floii rates, their physica? and cheiical constito-
        eots, and cicrobicloqical characteristics are described.  Triataent
        alternatifes are identified and studies conductfO at the University of
        Bisconsin are discussed.  Results indicate that creyuatec is easitc to
        sanaqe than coafeined uasteuater because of reductions in flcn rclune,
        pollutant level and potential for pathogenic contaal&ation .  (SWF)
ACCS    j.000555
iUTHOa  Kasfurther. V.R.; Foster, D.H.
AFFIL   "isenhower Consortius of aestero En y ironaental Forestry Eese«rch
TITLE   Operation and Design of Kirapotranspica tion nac'-e Disfosal Systens
SOUHCE  Eisenhower Conscrtjus Bulletin 6, Fccky fountain forest and Fenqe
        Eiperinetit Station, Tort Collins, Colorado  80521; 21 p.
TEAR    1978
TEXT    in e»apot.ranspira tioo (ET) unit for wastewator disposal uas ccnstrocted
        and operated for two years-  The results indicate tnat the use of ET
        systess for treating uasteuater fro« rural and *our.tain s^'oad hones
        daring uara seasons is feasible.  Hasteaater treeteent efficiencies
        through cheeical and biological action are hiqh and  in »any cases siithin
        •arginal water use criteria or EPA standards.  Exaaples of ET unit
        siziag are gi»en.  ET units are cos t-coape ti t i »e with ccn»ent;onal
        on-site systeas, provide zero ground and surface water F°llutJOD,
        and are readily adaptable to aost rural and sountainoas areas.   (AD)
ACCl    1000556
AUTHOR  Asplen, E.K.; Kaapp, C.W.; Long, S.L.; Pa»on, D.E.
AFFIL   Dorchester County Health Cept., Harylaad
TITLE   E»apotranspiraticn flethod ot Wistewater Cisposal
SOURCE  Dorchester County Health Dept., Haryland; «8 p.
tEAi    1977
TEXT    Four erapotranspiraticn  (ET) teds, t«o lined and twc anlined above-grade
        systeiss, were tested for two years in Dorchester County, aaryland.   Re-
        sults indicate that rainfall and teaperature heavily influence ET rate.
        Hater capacity of the  {ET) beds can be predicted by aeans of a egltiple
        regression equatica in which the independent variables are aatient
        tesperature and rainfall.  CrowniLg of the ET ted uas helpful in sned-
        ding rainfalls.  Grass cover of three to five inches was found to en-
        hance (ET) rates.  Aerobic treatment prior to disposal into
        the ET beds was thought  to be preferable over anaerobic treateert since
        it appears that a higher internal teaperature of the effluent results  ia
        higher rates of evaporatranspiration.  (S«F)

-------
ACCI  :
4UTHOS:
Kflll i
UTIE :
SOURCE:

TEAS  i
TEIt  :
        LOOOS57
 	 B.
Koat«c supply systess are iccludsd.  Data frcs the  oosite seiEeys In-
        clude tabulations of failiaq systeae, systee age aed systew types.  Cco-
        clcsious «fe irjuo ftoo ibe field obsecrations aed  the tat:ulacc-<5 Seta
        £coa cacti sacvev.  P,tco&ssafi<5atiocs are  given for iBpto«lr.

        filteroatiso on-site collection,  treataent  an<* disposal systees ar« dis-
        cosst'd aith cespeet to  tbeic desireaeility. feasibility,  aa«
        The 1 S79 Stai:e oi  the Art  Ranoal  o£  Cn-Site  Uastewatec  1aaa>?eB€nt
        Katioaal Ea»Ircnaertal  Health  Association, 1200  Lincoln St.,  Suite 70Q,
        De:ircC. CO   00203,  108  p.
        1979
        Describes a  wide  variety cf  conventional  and alternati»e aaste disposal
        systuies.  Eaphasis  placed  on systees «;iich dispose  ot  or utilize Ksste-
        yatei on-sit«>.  Outlines requlrcseots  for systess desiqn,  site evalua-
        tion and percolation tests.  Included  usefjl diaqraas  ana  tables.  (Sk'F)
4CC8  :
AOTHOE:
AFTli :
TITLE :
SOUBCE:

TEAS  :
TEXT  :
        LOOOS60
        Environmental Sanitation  luforsation  Center
        h/A
        EnriroDsen*«l Sanitation  Abstracts  -  Lou  Cost  Options
        EDVironiectal Sanitation  Infcrsation  Center, Asian  Institute of Tech-
        nology, P.O. 801 275
-------
»CCI
AUTHOE
JFFIL
TITLE
SOURCE
I E A B
TEXT  :
        1000562
        Ir»iae, K.L.; Basch. A.y.
        Ucisersity of Hotce Daae, Isdiana
        Sequencing Batch Biological Reactor -  ftn C»er»ie«
        Journal Hater Pollution Coetrol Federation. 51(2):  p.  23S--233
        1975
        Sequeacioq batch ledctor operation aisJ recent  findings  in  their
        technology are described ie this overview.  Varicus control
        strategies for sequencing siagle and aelti-tank sfstees are  esenireS.
        descriptive ruaaarj of seqaeoced batch reactors is  included.   (SBF)
ACCI  : L000563
AUTHOE: Clark, L.K.; Ebleo, O.E.
AFFIL : C C G Eoqineerinq, Sales,. Creqoa
tITLE : t De»0f-£tratica Project wo Vaceac r.nt  Pressure  Senert  at  Hend, Oregon
SOUBCE: iBocicaci Public Horlcs Association, Crecjcn SeciioE, Oct. 11,  1976,  21 p.
YEAh  « 1976
TEXT  : The report presents information en a denccstratics project eeploylRq
        pressure and vacuoa svst^ss at 8-end. Oreqoa.  Bead is  underlain  ssitb
        bedrock, safcinq ezcasetica fcr cooseotiocal gravity seweirG eecy  costly.
        Therefore pressure and VS.-OGO sewer sysceas sere studied  cfiL
TITLE
        L000567
        C'Briec, B.J.; HcKinney, R.E.; Turvey,  h.D,;  Rartin,  C.ff.
        Civil Engineering Dept., 0. cf tixsts.  Lawrence,  Kansas
        Two Methods for Algae Re«o»al fro« Oxidation  Pond  Effluents
                                         11

-------
SOUBce: Mater aod Sewage Boris, 120(13>: 66-73
TEAS
TEH
        197J
        A subeeiqed rock filter and so upfle»
                                               fly  asb
                of algae  frca  ciidotioa  poati  efituent.
                                                       liltec  sere  e»«la«tei5 fcr
                                                         Results  froo la? tuo let
        studies indicate  that  the  two  systees  should  l«  £i«H te«te  opptopriite eaecqf  t£Cbnologv  pcclecti  OB  a sea
        fccs pco?i(3eJ nOKQtarj  qrast.-;,   this  auseaty  of  prcjacts  iacl.ctfss
        cateqories of
        systeus.  (SWF)
                                                                           aq end
                                                                            s
                                                                          the
ACCI
iUIHOE
&rriL
TITLE

SOUSCE
TEXT
                                           Toa  Flush  the  Toilet  2.  Bheit Takieq a
        LCQOSfc9
        B/8
        ConsuBcc Reports
        Savinq tcttr  in the  Hose   t
        Shoiiec
        Cocsuaer Bepoc'cs, «3(5):  296-302
        19/8
        Devices Designed  to  cor,syc?e  water  when  flashinci  the  toilet  ao4  takl.Di; a
        sbover »ere tested and  eealoated  accordSnq  to  «tt«r con j'jept ion,  e«s:e c£
        iastallatice.  jjerfGreacice aisd  cost.   Casocrcia 1! y  8»8i)laL-i€  <3aas,
        weights, dual  tiush  uoitE, air  bleeps and ce place aiealtfc.  Charleston,  w»,  15 p.
        iy70
        Heat  Virginia's regulations concerning  the  disposal  of  vasteHater frc»
        i.idi»idaal boxes  and  sull hoiisinq detelopsects,  as  adopted  sj  th? u.v«.
        b'Late  Board  of Health,  are included  la  this booklet.   Thirteen  sections
        outline disposal  cegui retea ts,  persits,  inspecticn,  consttuctloE and
        installation criteria  and necessary  defiaitions.   The regulations cecace
        effecti»e feb. 1, 1975.  (S«rj
ACCI
iU'HOK
AFFIL
TITIE

500BCE
TFflB
TEIT
        L000572
        Cantrell, B.C.
        frince Milliae  Health  District,  9301  Lee  A»enne,  Flanassas,  VS
        8e-CTClinq of Treated  Wastenater  Can  Sol»e  the  Sewaqe Disposal Frcfclea
        For f.ural Serfice Stations
        Joarnal of En»ironaen tal  Health,  12(1):  13-18
        1979
        A four-fear study of a qreynater  recycling  facility  at an intetstfte
        ser»ice station shoned the  syste«  to  be  effecti»e ;n redccinq are-aqe
        daily flu* by 25 to 50 percent.   3y usinq £lo«  control devices,  a once
        failing septic  tank-soil  absorption systen  nas  Bade  operative.  Tte
        facility «as redeslqned  to  hatile  peat  tlous  that occur during tht holi-
        days. (SUF)
                                         12

-------
1CC»  :
AUTKOS:
*rni. -.
TITLt :
SOUSCt:

      .
TEXT  :
        1000573
        JasloB. L.
        »/A
        ficdacinq Household  Mater  Uie
        Essays oa rood  a at)  Eoorof  a?  Howard  co»»oalty  College  aad  Fcesdation for
        S«.l(-5»ff Uiescy, Inc., 35  ftaple  A»e..  C»toos» i lie.  RD  21228

        This article  provides  a systeaatlc r«»;le«  of household nates: cse  end
        MOtflt ccaservatjon  tips.   Includes descriptions  c£  io-i t-yoarself  ecdl-
        tiCdtlOBS for t'.iilets. spigots, asd  ih'ioers as  well  as nuseroos  soqqest-
        ioiis tor iapro»lBq  water  ase  habits.  The  iecact  of  hoesehold  Mater  ose
        and [«doctloa oa  ueter. pluabi&g  asd  »*steastcr  systess  is  also  discus-
        sed. (SUF)
»CC*
tITLE I
senses:
VE*S  t
IEIT  :
        100057(1
        Flanagan, J.O.; Ott, C.R.
        Caep CtcEiser C RcKee,  Inc., Boston, BJSS.
        Cheulcal Cildotion of  S»j.t«ge
        Joicnsl of water  Pollution Control fcier.itloa.  51(7),  1C  p.

        Because of high concent rations cf organic  Batter  an!  solids,  low  de-
        uaterabtl i ty, and ftp  ob jectioaatjc cJont  associated  vita  septnge..  COB-
        veoticBal t n tataent/•() i £ fosol systees heie  >ieen  o r.r* t islactor f iof  its
        disposal.  Ibis research uas directed  touard  us«'  of cheoiical  osidjntfl
        other than ohlorinu to decsreasa  tfcu erg^nlc stroeqth  aod  obncsioas  cjaal-
        ities of fioptsga  and to  ispross  its dewaj.srab!lity.   Ozco* coapared fav-
        orably iiit'-t chlorine in  
-------
IEA&
TEIT
        1977
        »2te?est in re-using qreyuatar  has  jrowo  ai  e  t«salt  of  the  Increasing
        avareoess that it is wasteful  tc  BE*,  the  hia^est  unalitl  *atet  fct io»
        quelitf ases sue!) «s flusfeiaq  tee toilet  ae<5 eateiiaq tfe* eer<3<»e.   Hhile
        acseoMleOQioa iaat th«  re-ss«  of  qres»at«c is  IB  siolsiloe of  tfe«  wai-
        |oc« eluaeitiq code, the euthor  describes  seteods  fcs  CSoettioq.  collect-
        Ing. filieriaij. pBBpiog and  irrigating  with   lesaaa-
        buildet-consuItjnl-ownec  of  indoor sit-dc«n johiss,  chin«sfc  jar tcilcts,
        »ietsaa pci»ies.  sounds,  a»d  oariy ditfeteDt coafcit toilet  types see
        discaEEpd.  Tips  £oc coastroctioq, c(.er5tiRq,  asd  so^iffinq  these  sys-
        tess ace inclaaed.  (Srff)
ACCI  :
iUTPOS:
AFriL
TITLE
SOU6CE:
TEXT
        LC00582
        N/A
                    Institute  Rural  Center
      : Suseacf: The  faralloces  Institute  Rural  Center  Ccsrost  Friey Project
      : Bural aasteaatec  Disposal  Aiternatires  (LCOOi265.  .laal Report - Fhade
        I, A  fiepott to  the  State  Hater  Resources Control  3car<5. State of
        California. Appendix  C.  pp.  92-98
        Stoiies pecforsed oc  ouner-bailt cospostitiq  toilets  indicate that thej o
        do Dot allow  heat to  build  op  to tfeBferatures  Dtcesssrr for
        desttoyiaq all  parasitic  ova.   Hoy  arid  straw wert  found to  te
        the oest materials  to charqe coapostincj  tins,  is  they  rapidly
        beat  ep.  Suggestions for  a  pasteurising 55-cjcllcr. drue prisy
        heated by a solar oven are  aade.   The  protocol  acd procedures
        used  for the  study  are given in detail.  (SUr)
*CCI
AUTd06
4FFIL
TITLE
SOUECE

T£*R
TEXT
        L000583
        Ublsh. C.; Kaan,  £.
        Foundation for  Self-sufficiency,  IDC.
        A Eenenable Fertilizer
        Essays en Food  and Eneray  by  Howard  CozE'inity  College  E The Pocpdation
        For Self-Suf ticiency. Inc., 35  Saple Are.,  Catonsiille. r.C   21225
        1977
        Pro»ides  a rationale  for usinq  dilute  hun^,n urine  as a fertili2er.
        Cfescribes the results of an eiperi«eat  that consisted  of tatericg oae
        group of  potted ccrn  seedlings  with  diluted urine  (5;1 Kater to Orine)
        ond the control group with wattir.  The  control croup quickly depleted
        the a»silable r.utcients while  the  urine-tertilized saeple flourished.
        The height and  weight of the  eiperiaeotal  corn eiceeded the centre!
        grout by  over 200 and 700  percent, respectively.   Disease transaission
        and handling of urine are  brieilrr  discussed.   inclcdes tables of the
        average composition of noraal  urine  in  qraas  per dsr the the quantity
        and aarttet »/>lue  of selected  urine cosponents  prcdoced annually tj the
        U.S. population.
                                         14

-------
iBTHQSi Belsoo. J.O.
JFFU : sicttls  Bttia CCBB<>.»  deter Bisttict
TITtE : Berth  fcari&'s  tittle CcspeaSiua cl Bater Saaisq T6«>9S
SOUKCt: isc'fca  Paris Cceaty  fcatec district. Se»4to, C4  9B9S7,, 773 p.
ie£§  I 1977
TCZt  : Describes  water  ceasee*«tioa altercativas sacb as censuses edecat ice,
        nater  e^terlcx; scd  fElcieg,  »af,^E-sa»tB j 4e»iceg scd acpIiaRcas.  lawe
        and qarciea irrigation t«cfcaiqaes, low untet use laad-EcapiBq aed  cagult-
        tiOB.   Includes  fcfief descriptiofis of each tfstet-saslisq deelce. seSel
        Boebecs,  Clou  rates, ass4 t&a aamafacteKfK's Brcol«tioo Systees
         fecietal  liousifiq  tia islst catioc. Vt&e&iisqtov:, B.C. 20331. fiiA Bo.  533,
         7«  p.
         1965
         Field cloQqinq was; identified as the greatest caose of fsllure  la  sc;-
         tic-toak systeEs.   Clogii»<; is ths result of e ccsbioitlos oi phjelcs!,
         cheelcal. oad  eictobioloqicai 'octets.  "h«» ref.ort iBdicated tfat  C'ir-
         rent  conrtruvtioa  practices £>e.J ^caipseat csn dR3 often eSo, lead to
         fcijearlaij Bud  cospoctiria of the so(l t«inq eiitfiysteu, thus prcsotino
         c.ottxioa aisiJ  c- v s t E • failure*  KeffitSiss ftentioncS ktece e^ual 3osir<;/s^st-
         la<3  &<:i:ioi3s aoa  oslfote loading oi the droinfielS «bsot;ti»e areas.
         These af oresent iosed practices pcoecta aerobic coadittoas ie the drain
         11^13,  preclodiEj  the soil cloqcjing €ct'ects eihititeJ t f fesrroos sslfide
         and  bacterial  baild-crs ia the soil absorption ares.  Dusiqa of  a  narro*
         treocb  iistea  aas  iuciude'l it the report.  It sinieizetS the scil clc
-------
Afrit, : farcers Keae  &;s are 41s—
         Cruis^i.   DsiBQ toar EOili:  claj IojB {IBQ types), casdy cl*y Icaa fi*,d
         ss then
current (1977)  qo«ercaental  policy on *aste«ater facilities ar» Inclu-
ded-  £»a»pies  of  successful oanacjeaent cr^anizatiocs sod cast-effecti?e
installations that seet  ensiroc»eat«l requireseats are presented.  The
following articlas in  these  proceedings have been abstracted by the
Clearinqhouse:   Ssail  CoiBanlties  acd ifastewatet treatnent Ccsts; k  Sen
                                         17

-------
        Wien (L000632): Rural 4a«rlca deeds Special PEograas  fee Sanitation
        Progress (L000597); entreat Costs of coneentioial approaches  (LOOC631);
        Entiroaaental Effects of Se«eriB; Pcessate Seaers  («ith
        Glide Idleyld Case Study) (L000055); FountJsii Bun. sentacky  (Case Stadf)
        (L000017); Soyd Ccocty beeotssttstiot Prole :t  C5-Q*"2S7} ; A Consultant's
        0«ec«ie« of Oa-stt;« feecds .
        The Ose of Septage Laqooas ie Keu iagland
        Sludoe. 3(2). 5 p.

        Design guidelines and parameters for suctaoe diccosal lagoons used
        io :ieu England are presented.  Doaestic septage is characterized.
        Siting criteria are listed.  (S«F)
ACC»
AUTHOK
AFFIL
TITLE
SOURCE
TEAR
TEXT
        LU00601
        OeJouooe, L.
        Envircsco^e, Inc., Corona del Bar. CA
        The Toa-Thtone -- A dew Conpost Toilet
        Conpcst Science, Sept./Oct., 2 p.
        The Snedish-buHt Toa-Throae, a seall, easy  to  install, ccupcstinq
        toilet, processes both huisan «nd kitchen orqanic  naste.  The  end
        prodoct is husas, which can safely be used as a soil  conditioner  and
        fertilizer.  The unit aeasares 6t inches long by  51  Inches  high and
        39 inches wide.  This coapostlncj toilet is especially  uell-suited  for
        use in rural areas or yhero leach fields are not  practical.  (SUF)
ACC»
AOTHOE
AFFIL
TITLE
SOURCE
YEAR
TEXT
        1000502
        N/A
        Uni«ersity of Hisconsin, Cadison
        Cn-site Hastevater Disposal For Kooes in Onsewered Areas
        Seall Scale Baste nanaqeicat Project, Univ. of Wis. - Madison,  16  p.

        A description of a septic tank-soil absorption syste«  (ST-SA).   Its
        treataent efficiency and associated problea are discussed  in  this  gen-
        eral inforaatiOD paarhlet.  «aste»ater reduction and alternati»es  tu  the
        ST-5AS, with regard to treataent and disposal of uasteuater,  are Hen-
        tiooed as passible sclutiois to protle«s arising froo ST-AS use.  (SJF)
1CCI
AUTHOR
4FF1L
TITLE
SOURCE
TEAR
TEXT
        L000603
        Hero, C.K.
        Uni». of Wisconsin
        A Survey of Donsstir Vastevater for Sallmonellae
        Uni*. of His. (Bacteriology Dept.), 12U p.

        A study, conj'.-cted fros 1972 to 1973, uas to detect  and couaerate  sal
        Konella SPF. in snail-scale wasteuater treataent  and  disposii  systees.
        Kodes cf treatnent sa»pled «ere:  tatch aeration,  ccntioojus  flou  acra
        tion, physic
-------
        the puap trucks servicing these systees vas found to have been eoBtasl-
        nated with salsonellae.  A satisfactory technique to detect and enuaer-
        ate saleonellae SPF  was developed involving centrif aqatioa. anaerobic
        enrichsent on tetra' nionate broth, followed by a cost probable ouaber
        (HP*) test.  (SHF)
ACCI  : L00060U
AUTHOS: Otis. R.J.
AKFIL : University of Wisconsin
TITLE : An Engineering Approach to tde Design of Co-site Hsstewater treatment
        And Disposal Systens
SOURCE: Univ. of dis., Dept. of Civil and Envircmental Engineering, 336  p.
• c Jl H  f 17/3
T2XT  : AD in-depth study of co-site systems, pertaicisg to household uastewatec
        systens, is presented in this thesis.  alternative systess for household
        wasteuater treataeat and disposal are exasined.  Constraints. checscter-
        istics, cosponeets, costs of cospcnents sad field desoiss tea tiers  of
        these systees are fall; esplairtea.  Wstei coasecFstios pcacticos  sad de-
        vices ace purported to be practical Bears of redbcinq toth tccdtseot aoS
        disposal probleas associated vith household systeas.  Eaqinserinu «ad
        •anageceot approaches to iaeieidual household systeas ace discussed.
        Data and diaqraas for these systess ace frovidea for further clarifica-
        tion and understanding- (S«F)
ACC»  :
AUTKOE:
Ami. :
TITLE :
SOURCE:
TEAS  :
TEXT  :
L000605
Opcan, n.D.; Boyle. U.C
Eaeironseotal Engi^ec-risa. Doirersity of Misconsin, Radisoa,
Phosphorus Eeeoval by ictii -  • --
    .                ,  .    v;,ted Algae
Mater Research, 13(8), 6 p.
1979
Phosphorus resoval by  the activated algae process »as stodied ia latcra
toty scale under -acioas cosditions of hydtaalic loadlnq.  Phosphorcs
reso»at ranged frcm 70 perceat at 0 H hydraulic retention tise to 95
percent at T2 H hydraulic retention ties.  Cheeical precipitstioa ««s
found to te the prefiosiBant sechanisu for pnosphorus resOBal.  An cpti
cal de»ice for introducing liqat to the process aas «sed vhich,  tased on
theoretical consideration, siqaificantly increases t«e efficiency of
liqht utilization iy algae cultures. (At))
ACC«
AUTKCfi
AFFIL
TITLE
SCUECE

IEAB
TEIT
LC00606
Eotter. I.
Office of «
-------
        in this thesis.  Topics discussed include planniag ispllcations related
        to land use; potential applications of the toilet and its regol»tccy
        status; the comparison ot these units uith package pleats,  septic  taeis
        and seeer systess; and processes uith separate qtejaater an-j coebiaed
        treatseBt schemes.  Detailed descriptions of large snti saal.l ?olaee COB-
        po&tinq tcilets are included.  I cosprehensive list of references  OB tb«
        sub-ject is included.  (SHF)
ACCI    L00060S
AUTHOB  C.liwitri, A.U.: Hoc he, 8.J. ; Jehaston, G.L.
APFIL   Califorcta Regional Hater duality Control Board
TITLE   Guidelines £or the Control  •£ Septic tank Systeas
SOURCE  1979 Hatioaal Confereece on Ea»itoaiieatal Engineering. 8 p.

TEXT    Retort presents a sutsaary of qsidelines for the control of individual
        uasteuatec tteatseiat and disposal systess as approved by the California
        Beq.lGDal «ater Quality Costroi Board - S«n Francisco Bay Basin.   Secoa-
        •eoitetioBs pertaining tc desiqn, construction, operation and aainteaaace
        of septic tanx systees fire iacleded.   (SUF)
San
*CC«    lOOOtIO
»OTHOS  lOEQest, H.L.; Cook, H.B»; Ford. E.B.
APfIL   Oziite.1l States Entfiroeesestal Protection iqencj
TITLE   Ben Pclicies and Regulations for Onsite Sfsteos
50UBCE  Individual Onsite Hastewatec Sjstcss, Fifth Katiosal Conference,
        Arbor JScieace rublistiece. Inc.. 230 Collingswocd. P.O. Boi 1«25. Ana
        Arbor, Sichiqaa 481 3C, 1 p.
SEAB    1979
TEH"    Activities cottribatinn sapport to on-site systems Sevelopaent proqcass
        ipclude:  1) the formation of a shite house task torce to address coral
        uatec aed seuec problees: 2) tfee preparfltioo of two saaoals, oae ty the
        task force to expiaia federal raccl aater and sewac pioqiaes, and a
        technical eanQal ty EPS oa the state of tne art of oa-site Sfstess; 3)
        nen aatioaal water policy stateaeat which esphasiz.; consereation and
        resource .lanageBt Jl ; and 5J tbe passage of the clean water act of 1977,
        which is rarticularly syapathftic tc the needs of seall coosuni- ties.
        Explains key provisions of tde 1977 act that apply tc on-site systeas.
ACC8    LOC0611
AUTHOR  Gaable, J.L.
AFFIL   HhitestonD. Ind.
TITLE   0 & B Costs of Kasteuater Treataeat Plants
SOUliC?  Batiooal Conference oa Less Costly Uastemter Irectaent Systems  fcr
        Seall CoasuBities  (April ;2-1U, 1977). p. 33-
-------
        acoual cost of units is included. (SUP)
ACCH
AOTbQB
APFIL
TITLS

50UECE

TEXT
        LCC06'Q
        e/fi
        The Fatioaal Sanitation Foundation
        the {.fleet of Hose Mater Softener Haste Regeneration Brines on Infll-
        Biduai Aerobic Basteuatei Treataeat Plants
        NSF Hastawater Latoratory, Ann Arbcr, HI   (17 pages)

        this study found littld deleterious effect on perforuaBCe of hone aero-
        bic treateeat units uhen Baste brine fros water softeners was edOed.
        Siaulated use of a fasll? of fi»e (250 GPC) with added trine was treated
        daily uitb laboratory analysis of effluent a:.d aeration chant«c contests
        perforaed regularly.  Tabulated results are included. (SUP)
ACC8
AUTHOR
AFF1L
TITLE

SOOiCE

TEET
        L000615
        Lsak, g.
        UBiaersit? of Toronto, Pept. of Ci»il Enqlaeerieg
        The Effect of Aerobic aad Anaerobic Household Seuaqe Treatseut OB
        Seepage Beds
        Librae?, University of Toronto, Doctoral thesis, 203 B.

        The effect of septic tank oad oxidation Bnit cfflasnt. os» soil
        beds was evaluated.  Paranators includod sa»age strength,, soil
        soil percolation rate (usicg different soil types) ana teBpecat«e<,
        Hesolts shoued that Coptic tank effluent caeneS £J.el<5 clogqiBg teiica as
        qtiicclr as oxidation onit effluent dnd that bacterial cells were the
        priaary soil dogger.  Soil layers varisa  froe 1« to 56 centisstess aod
        Qooe uere dependable ia  treatiej effluent.  Labccatcr? soil ccl-asr,s of
        14.5 ceatitaeler diaaeter »itb 3 polio vires efflceot tracer uece used in
        a aajcrity of the tests  with seise field correlations* (5«F)
tCCi
JSOTHOE
TITLE
SOURCE
YE«B
TEIT
        1000616
        Effert, D.D.
        Icaa State University, Hoes, losa  {Cept. of 3acteriolociy)
        Perforeance of <errative Oa-site Uasteuater Trsataent SfSteas
        loua State Unis., Pspt. of Eact., Sees, Io«a, 177 p.
        1977
        Four alternative on-site systees were field testefl at hoses IB lova o»er
        a tuefltj aoi'lfi period  (1975-1977).  The Wisconsin mound, se»aoe csnosis,
        Eulti-flof iieralion and jet aeration sv^tees Here discussed as to tbsir
        dosiqn, installation,  pert orsance, reliability, aesthetics and ccst.  Of
        the rcor systeas, Hisconsin mouDfis pro*idetj the best effluent qaalit?
        for the fecal colifora counts and the BOD-5, CCDf total nittoqen, aftfl
        fi tho-phosphate concentra tiocs obtained in the study.  The cthfi systos
        did not aeet the state and federal standards and/or produced highly ?ar-
        iable effluent not consistent with reccseended standards.  Cost data in-
        dicated that the nound systen was net the ?ost affordable of the four
        alternatives studied.  (SUP)
ACCI
8UTHOR
ATFIL
TITLE

SOURCE
YEAH
TEXT
        IC00617
        N/fl
        Eastern En virqnaent al Controls, IDC., Chester tcwn, Baryland
        Test Results for the Hini-Plant, Eova County «aste«ater Deaonstrat.on
        Prolect, Boyd County. Kentucky - 1976-1977."
        Eastern Environmental Controls, Inc., Chestertoun, Haryland, 92 p.
        1977
        Results compiled froi inforsation supplied  t/ the Appalachian Reqional
        CoBBission, contain site inforaaticn and efflaent quality reports  for
        six eini-plant installations at the Bojd County Cenonstrat ion Project.
        Six brief suaaaries of coaplaints and repairs as perforaed by the  cpera-
        toi are included.  The results are prefaced br testieoay fron the  hear-
        ings on BBfcD
-------
*CCI
AU-aoB
4FFIL
TITLE
SCOBCE

        1000619
        Bower. G.C.
        fiouer Industries, Inc.
        Bacteria - Their Bole in the Sewage Treataent Process
        Presented at the Joint inaaal Reeting of the Chesapeake Hater  Pollution
        Control Association cad the bister and Haste Operators Assoeiatica  or
        Barvlacd. Deleuare and District cf Colesbia, 5 F-

        DlscuE-.es the role of bacteria ia seaagc treatment and >)co»itz, S.Z.; feintesser, A.
        EconoBical Use cf Hater Division, Hater Authority, Israel
        Senate Reclaimed for Irriqatioa la Israel Far* Oxidaticn Ponds
        «aste Etqioeeriog, 33(8), U p.
        1962
        Discusses secondary seuaae treatsent atilizinq aerobic snd  anaerobic
        ponds.  Stodies of 36 oiidation oonds shcun aarked reduction of coli-
        forns and EOD in sewage preTioasly treated by frieary processes.   These
        oiidation ponds ser»e both as a treatBent plant ant*  as a sewage storage
        reservoir.  Prior to treatsent in the oxidation poads, the  sewage  under-
        goes pretreataent in either anaerobic earth ponds, concrete sediacnta-
        ticn tar.ks, iahoff tanks or seftic tanks. (SWF)
ACC*
AUTHOB
AFF1L
TITLE
SOUKCl
TEAE
TEXT
        LC00623
        Hancock, J.C.
        O.S. Departaent of HUD, Office of Housing, Washington,  C.C.
        Cssite TreatBent Manuals
        Proceedings of the Fifth Hatlonal Conference on  Individual Onsite
        tiastewster Systeas, Ann Aibor Science Publishers,  Inc.,  P.O.  Box 1Q25,
        Aon Arbor, HI 48106, S p.
        1979
        HUD standards, as they ipply to individual on-site  wastewater
        treatoent systeas, are trir one- and two-faiily dwellings, "Fanoal
        cf Acceptable Practice, b eaterial releases aid bulletins, anl local
        acceptable standards (LAS).  (SWF)
ACCI  : L0006i«
AOTHOE: Voss, E.E.
AFFIL : USDA Soil Conser»ation Service
                                         22

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TITLE : Soil Considerations foe On-site Sewage Disposal
SQOECS: Proceedings cf the Illinois Pri»ate Sewage Disposal Syeposia*. Sept.  29-
        Oct. ». l<)75. Chaspaign, IlHoois; p. 1-T6
T C A B  S I 9 / j
TEii  j Co-site sevaqe disposal depends upco suitable ceils.  ?rotless cr
        failures nil! be experienced if the soil is act suitable for afcscrbiai}
        aad filtering effluent,  there are saay different kinds of scils «ith a
        Hide variety of properties and chacac terist Ics.  'Soils can be identified
        aod classifies by their properties and characteristics.  Soil crcccsties
        can be studied both ia the field and in the laboratory and predictions.
        •ade about their behavior under different uses.  «d»isecs. aesigBSES,
        installers, and those who regulate septic systess shaali be Caailiar
        nith tbe availability of soils infoceatioo ana ncs to otie it.
1CC8  : 1000625
AOTBOB: Hill. B.C.; Parker. D.E.
AFFIL : Bureau of EnsirooBeatal Health. Division of Health. Wisconsin
        of Health aed Social Services, t.O. Box 309. Kaelison. Wisconsin
TITLE ; Soil Testing for Liquid Baste Disposal in uiscos sin
SOURCE: Proceedings ot the Illinois Private Sevage Disposal Syaposiua, Sept. 29*
        Oct. 1. 1975. Cbesp&iqn,, Illinois; p. 27-33
TEAS  : t975
tEXT  : iltfeoaqh ccaprehensive laws sad rules existed  in BJsco.nsin for aeaf
        years, liquid uasto disposal pcoblees relatina to ieteffective eeaos of
        Isu enforceaent and lock of Icoculeagt about site suitability still
        abound.  As a result, sany systeas yeff? installed in totally scsoitable
        sites.  To alleviate tfee situation, tbe 197U certification regaiteseat
        foe ssall testers uas passed aod Keqaa enfatcese&t an Kctf. 1, 19TS.
        Considerable iBpcoweseat has beea noted as abOQt 1800 persons have bees
        certified.  For a soil testier pj-ograa to ade-iuately protect th«s csblic
        health and prevent ensironeeHfcBl degradation cecyices coDtlaaocE scain-
        ioq, strong eaforcetaenl practices, aod educatioB of the poblic, th«
        installer, tbe inspector aod the elected qovecuBect officials.  (S«F)
«ccs
AUTHOR
APFIL
TITLE
SOURCE
IEAE
TEXT
LC00626
Kellen, w.L.
Lake County Health nepartaeat, Haukeqan^ Illinois
Septic Systess:  Effect^ of Surface and Sutsurface Hpter
1)   Jocrfial of Soil and Mater Conservation, 28(5): 2;   Proceeiinqs of
the IlliDOis Prisata Senaqe Disposal Sfxposiun, Sept.  29-Octoker 1, 1S75
Chaspaiqn, Illinois; p. 3«-36

Sunoff froB gutters and dovnspo'its can flooi a sell absciDtion systcs if
not controlled.  In this article the author offers suggestions to alter
basic tfesiqns of soil absorption systess Cy placing undetlrains teneath
the systea.  Underdrains carry away txces"; rainwater that could c^uae
systea failure 
-------
ACCI  : 1000629
AUTHOS: Coolbroth. F.P.
ArriL i Coolbroth-Vitton Septic Tanks,  lee,,  Blafieapolis,  Hian.
TITLE : Sewage Osaosis ieuaga Tre*t«eot
SOOgCfi fcoceedioqj; of the Illisois  Prisate S««age  Disposal  Syaposiu*.  Scspt.  2C-

JEAfi  t ?97S '*    5* ch4SPai^B« iliinois; p.  79-81

TEUT  : Especieents to frodace deta  for  sizing  £tj«aqe csscsls  treets^cit svEt^os
        «ere farforsssd.  Besylts iedicate e»en  eeey  tiqfet  soils  aoaia  accept  tb«
        voluae of water applied.  Seq^estioas  foe furtbec  cesears and pcofessiossls, s&d  ao jsq^ressise  seaccti  for 
-------
TEAS
TEXT
        1971
        Process design procedures of uaste stsbl iiaticn  j;cn.!s,  typical  cost
        layout, facility desiqc iaclsding pcetteataeiit,  I?.ca  eeasuceeeot,  pipieq
        and e«Eth«oct are covered in detail.   Central  considerations  an<3  as
        o»«>rview of the worldwide use of stabilization pcuds  ietroduee  the
        topic.  Proper pond operation, Banegeaeat.  personnel, required  teds  aad
        saterijils. operation and sai&teaance checks and  tips  fee  start-op
        outlined IB the concluding chapter.   (StiF/
• CCI
lUTHOfi
AFFIL
TITLE
SOUECE
TEAS
tilt
        LC00636
        niddlebroolis. E.J.;  Peyeolds, J.H.;  riiddlefcrocks, C.H.
        Riddlebrooks and  Associates, Inc., Logan,  Utah
        Perfored&ce and Upgrading of Wast«>.«ater  Stabilization Fonds
        Snail baste«ater  TrefitseBt  Facil'.ties  Design  Seminar Baadoet  (OS  Eft', .
        EnvlronaentaJ Research  laforeat'.on Center,  Ciun., Ohio,  (Sectloa  I),
        1976, 73 p.
        1979
        Aerobic, facultative, and arecrcbic  la^ocni are  discussed.   Their sfccrt-
        coeinqs oei&lr reqaraieq the biqh algae  anj suspended solids  concestrs-
        tionii ID the effluofits  ar«  also discussed  ic  terss  of soiggestod eitecea-
        tives foe upCf
        for  the biologic.il  treatseut  alternatives.   Plant  schcaatics  for  tec,
        altercati«e  are  also discussed.   (SUF)
ACCI     L000638
IUTHOB   Eonfccr, R.P.G.
AFFIL    Hunicipal  Environsental  Research  laboratory,  US  E?A
TITLE    Treat«ent  and Disposal of  Septic  Tank  Sludges:   A  Statos  Report
SOUBCE   Seall  Uastewater  TreatBent Facilities  Design  Seninar  Handout,  US  EF>,
         Enviconaer.tdl Research Infotaatic'i  Center,  Cinn.,  Ohio,  (.lay  1977),
         (Section III).  52  p.
TEAS     1977
TEXT     Discusses  several  alternatives  for  septage  handling  snd  d-i-s-posal.   Tfce
         al t«. r.ia t i»cs are  land application,  separate septage  treatzent
         facilities, and discharge  to  senage treataent plants.   Prcbless  oftsa
         occor  with septage  discharge  to saall  sewage  treatnent  facilities  de-
         dicating that in  these cases  special septage  facilities  nay  te recalled.
         Septage characteristics  are tabulated  for several  chenical  and b{c-
         1-jqical paraaeters.  Saeplo calculations  for  sludge  production ftca
         the various septage treataent processes are given.   (SWF)
                                              D.B.;  Stenguist,  B.-J.
ACCI    L000639
AUTHOB  Tucker. .T.L.; Schroeder,  E.D.:  ren,  U.B.;
AFFIL   Erown £ Caldvell, Walnut  Creek,  California
TITLE   Overland Flow of Oiidation  Fond  Effluent  at  Divis,  Califcrnia
SOURCE  Saall Wastewater TreatBent  Facilities  Design  Sezinac  Handout,  U5
        EDvironnental F^.search  Inforaation  Center, Cinn.,  Ohio,  (Jan.
        Section III); i6 p.
IEA3    1977
TEIT    Several alternatives to eiisting cxidation pond  ETsteas  were studied st
        Davis, California.  The existing facility  had teccoe  overloaded ard bigh
        suspended solid concentrations  were present  in  the  effluent.  Three
                                         25

-------
        alternatives were e»a'. o«te suitable tor effluent disposal.
ACC*
AUTISOB
t7fll
TITLE
S008CE

TEAB
TEJT
        L000640

        US EPA, Environaeatal Besearch Information Center, ClnB«, Ohio
        Saall '.rfasteuater Treataent facilities Design Sesinar Handout
        Saall Uasteuatec Treutsont facilities Desiqn Sesinar Haadost, Sactioas


        This design seaioar hasdcut is a concilation of severe! articles deallnq
        »ith snail uasteaat*; xreatsb-nt facilltiss.  Th» fouc articles incladcd
        are:  "PerfocaaBcip ftnd Crsjradioq of Hastaw&tfcr Stabilijetioa Posda,"
        "Snail Coentsr.Sties tosteuater Treatseet Facilities - Biological Treat-
        Beat Systeas,™ "tt'iatseat <*ad Cispos^l of Septic Tank Sludges,• and
        "Overload rloas of Oxi4ation Ponfl EJflueeta at Daffis. CaliEct»ia,M
        These articles hate bee a iudlvidaallv abstracted (1000636. 1000637,.
        1000639, L000639).  (S*F)
ACCt
AUTKOE
AFFIt
TITLE
S008CE

TEAR
TEXT
        10006B1
Millions 6 Uor/ES, IBC., Gceiid Bapids, alchiaau
Oppoftuoities for Use of InBO»atj.ve Concepts
Hatioeal Coaferenca oa Loss Costly Haatettter Treatment
Seall CoBBoaltieo. fipcil 12-19. 1977, Hasten, SA; p. U2-

loaovatiwe concepts caa offer on a»c«er to f&ste treatsect for eauy
coaounities and dse particularly usetul for ssaller otses.  There 	
special problems associated with
author.  (SUf)
                                                                        fee
                                         these concepts as pointed out by '.he
ACCt
AUTHOi
TITLE
SOUBCt
YEAB
TEIT
L0006H2
Hinblad, U.; Silaaa, «.; Torstensscn, ft.
Hojal Institute of technology. Stockbola,
Saaitatioa Without aster
Swedish International Dc»elopoent Authority, 5tockhole,
1978
Practical i&uorastion concerning the defiqri, const ructioa an.3 nalntance
of coonostinq and pit latrines are cro»l1ed.  Eeph-sis is placed on
s»stens appropriate for individual hoses in East A: rica.  tbe relation-
ship tetueea saaitatioo aad disease and the ccipcstinq ftocess are ex-
plained.  Tei non-va ter-carriaqe sanitation systeps fro» different parts
of the- world ore Described in order to convey ar idea of the variety of
systeps in tse.  Variety of design options for pach latrine, cosponent,
suqqestions concerninq latrine placeaent and operation, and a detailed
account of latrine construction requireaeats are qi»en.  The ieportance
of, aud techniques for, fly ccntrol are colored in an appendix.   (SMF)
                                                                        128 p.
ACC»
AOTHOB
AfFIL
TITLE

SOURCE
TEAB
T2XT
        LOC06U3
        Bathboo. G.J.
        University of Wisconsin, flafiison
        Soil KoroholoTical and floisture Heqitc Studies of Three Wisconsin Tcpo-
        sequences
        Master's Thesis (Soil Science), University of Wisconsin, radisoo; 82 p.
        1979
        Soils on three toposequences in Wisconsin were described to cospare
        •orpboloqical characteristics used to eliair.ate zones of seasonal satur-
        ation.  Different *ypes of soil »ottles were dissected frcn the scsewhat
        poorly drained soils of toposequeoces.  Cieiate y.ss used to extract ircn
        and aanqanese froa mottles, aatrix scil and bhole soil saaplss.
        Ferrans, quasiferrans and high chro»a nettles are relatively high io
        iron coapared to neoaloans and the low chroaa oatri» scil adjacent >o
        high chroaa areas.  Kanqanese nodules and hioh chrona settles are
        enricbnd in nanqinese and iron relative to Batrix and uhole soil coscen-
        tratlons.  (SUF)
ACCI
AOTHOS
A: FIL
TITLE
SOUSCE
TEXT
        L0006U1
        fiallsan, W.L.
        Cept. or nicrobiologT aid Public Health, Michigan State University
        The Bole of Tile Drainage in the Design o£ Septic Tank Drain Fields
        Cn-Site Sasteuater Management, Soluae I, Hancor, Inc.; p. 1-0
        This article briefly describes a septic tank-sell absorption sjstes and
                                        26

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        the ose of tile diaiosge IB this type of effluent dispo-dl  systen.  (S6P)
ACC8
AUTBOS
tff n
TITLE
SOOSCt

TKaS
TEIT
        10006U5
        Klein, H.a.
        Council OQ EcvircaeeBtal Qnalitf,, SashiagtaB, C.C.
        eBBlroBeeot*! Effects of SeueElcg So»ll Cossunltif/s
        Eationsl Con£>reace oo Less Costly Ssstet-ater Treatseist  Srstees  fee
        Saall CooBUBities. April 12-HJ, 1977. sestoa. ?6; p. 9-13

        er.firoBsental conflicts that arise free sewerinc snail coaaaaities ere
        discussed IB this Article.  Eepbssis is placed on the exasinat J.oa cf
        direct acJ indirect effects a seaaqe facility cay have BJOB  the  area
        served.
4CC«  ; 10006«6
40TBOEI Alford, B.ft.
iFflt, : Os:fa«sR Systess Research C Engineering,  Inc., CoBfcridqe,  Bass.
TITLE t Effects of Dated Katiocal Codes OD Ccsts of "ieusred  Sjstees
SGUBC2: BatiOEal Coafs'Cfiacc- oa Lees Costly Kisste»st«ic Treoteset  Systei^  for
        Seall CCBEUBitics  (April t2-ta. '.977), p. 14-19

TEXT  : Tke aathcc states  that or.e apprcach te1 eedacinu setiec ccsts is tc  re-
        think cc re-praise desltja ascseptiocs an* en<33peerinq  ctlss-of-ttiQBto
        FdCtois coatsiLatincj to ovecsizisg ot seaweed sjstees ar« aiaisea
        pipe sis«, pei capita flc» sstieatioss. infilttation allouaBces. oop-
        olatioa projections esc! des&qa-liEe pi=rigs
        step-by-step IDS tractions for placing a greyuater  recycling  systet in
        hcce. (SUF)
                                        27

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*CC*  : 1000651
iUTiOr: Barsball, P.
*FFIL : Laud Use/Sater Editor of The Co-E»olatlon Caarterlf
TITL: : Septic tank Practices
S003CE: Aocbor Pcess/Doubleday. Gardea City. B.7., 93 p.

TEXT  : The treatise is written free a saai-tecfcoical standpoint  for  those
        interested in oa-site ajsts disosal sgsteas and water conservation.
        tattoos oB-site systeas ore discussed as to their reliability, sain-
        teaance, iilespas. cost, etc.  Eechasis is Disced oa ftcaotiflq water
        coaservetioci IB the hose.  «eys iibd aevices to reduce aster use are
        folly explored.  Hach (JisccssioD deal* with septic taafc - soil absorp-
        tion systems 
-------
TITLE :

SOUKCEJ
»CAB
TEXT
        dlraiaqhea, Alabais«
        •deqaacj and Unifcraitv of  Eequlations  for  Cnsite  Vaztevater Dlspccel*
        "local Concern"
        Individual Onsite Sasteaatrft Svstesc -  Ifroceedlnqs of  tfec-  Second
        national CoDfe;ieac«. &na Actor Science  i-etlishei:-:  Inc.,  P.O. PCX 1«25,
        inn Arbor. RI  H8106   (5 paqes)

        The as<* of Absolute (Blues  and unifcrs  reqalaticns as  deterslned
        by stata and federal legislators  poses  problems  tec  local  Esnltssr'ESS as
        heoltb officials wise oust deal tsltfa co-site sji-'tf'as  at,d  local load
        developers.  Tea author calls for eote  lapat  tecs  local  authorities fee
        toe loraulatioa of regulations jad greater  {reedos to  fit  regtMitioss to
        local conoitioai.  (SBf)
4CC«  : IOOC  57
AUTUCS: Hartin.  B.fl.
AfTIL : Die.  of  General  EMT tronoeatal  Health  services.  Ohio State Dapt. of
        Health,  ColuB&es, Ohio
TITLE : SubSBtloce  Disposal  Methods
SOUBCE: IndisiSwal  Ouslte Bsste»ater Sjr.tr  dice listed.  The utate  of  Cltio linq field abscrptioa asr
        regatcozonts for disposal of e£flueuts  froa both aercbic treatsset eao
        saptic  tafibs «ro presaated.   (Stft)
        L 000 6 58
AUTflOB  Salv^ta. Jr.
AFFIL

TITLE
SOUBCI
TERR
TEST
                       J.&.
                                           Rea  fork  State  Dept.  of Health,
                .    ..   ..
         Division  of  Saaitar-f  Engineer Jn '.
         Albae;, Sf
         frohlee£  and Solatioas of  Cnlot Seuaga Disposal
         Individual  Casita  UjsteKater  S stees - ?rocee   (6 pages)
        IS77
                                         29

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TEIT  : SaBplinc  SB(5  analysis  fallacies of a 1973 Florida Geological S
        clear ictvcleiBi)  vices  i» septic teak e£flu«?sts Bee* liscue&fii.  Tfc*  1973
        study concludes  ttiot vitas coBtaeiertioa fcoa septic tesfcs nas a  Jca
        petestial  pretties.   In coetr«El to this 1973 steay. another stody  t/tlcfc
        fielded positive  eaterovicas la tau aster sources IK pr«seRt«or«tccf
         Field  Stadi«ss
SOUBCE:  ttatet  Pollutioa  coatirol in  Low Density Drees - Processings e£ a Pocal
         Eaviccaaeetal En<} iaeeriag Canfisrebce  (SS paqes)
TCAfi   S  19*5
TEXT   i  A  project  at tfce onivQCsitv of Siscoasia e?alcate<; SCKCES!
         ptoc«ss«?s  ead ife^iiar oa tfie basis of four criteria:  t'£flu*s»
                litf  ic vifflipnt loality,  «al atec«.TCc rfcgaireaeBits, as^ total
               costs.  field  «a<3 J.a£)cra?orj studies ot full-scale hcssshcsld
                   units  <:jflsinad isclucifc-d eiEtjle sn<5 aul t ip le-cospst tseat«4
                lenls, coiittauoss ilca 9ij t seed filters,  .'.nd drf-feeii cliierinef-art: .  the  aetcfcii
         aed  septic taaxs-ace  £i iscossitii .  Aercbic units cro^iijeij tetter fiOC-S
         ceBoval  cospatei a>th s«ptic taaks in eotf> the rioli «s<3 iacorBictT
         scttloqs.  Bbile  cttal BucpeatleiJ soli<5E £eao«6i «as cot s Iqisif tcAn 1 1 7
         ditfoieni  tot the  two.  Datcfe a tcsosal yas. ijteottst tct
         cot'itiag biological  disk uaicc.  fteiotlc UBits wet* acre costly tc
         cpnrute  «n>i  aaiitaia  than septic  t«a«s ana generally acce
         Up^bt. (SUf)
ACCI     L000664
AUTHOR   beese, P.L.;  fiudsco,  J.F.
iFflL    Urean  SfStees FesearcK «ed Eaq licet ing, ID!., CaatricSqe, Tass.
TITLE    Generating  and Analyzing Alternatives
5CUSCE   Indi»idual  Onsite  Wasteyatet Syst.'-»s - Proceedings of tt-e Fifth  •-»loB»I
         Conference.   Ann  Artor Science Put-lishecs. Inc. f.C. Boi laiS, lob
         irbor  HI  «8106  (6 pages)
IE1B     1979
TEIT     tiicossioa  of an  EP*  contracted project, "Engineering aoS Soclo-Econoeic
         lapact Evaluatioa  of  Uasteu&tec Raaaqesetit Alterortives foe crtaoizlaq
         and  Rural  Residential iceas," is iscluded in tbe article.  The tssks  of
         the  contract  include  identification aod classification of tcchaolcqies
         aad  their  lepacts, 
-------
        Kith *tlffnesc vainer t«t«««B 2% and  55  Ib/in/ia wftt flaced 1? iacbts
        t«a«atl>  tvo  t«st  -oils, a clay loj« aad  a  r.asJj  loss.  The rffs-ct j  atcitad lha tseioq was also  tfsted.  loa<3Js,j vas slaalaltfd
        ty passing  tfucfs. of various eaigkts  jctcis  tse  test rltfs.
             Rosults stoned that d«?l«ctioas  IB  th«  sanjy e^'i »«•£•-• geserallj
        silently  Ifcsc  tk«n thos-i in the clay  soil.   SIOKS tcdaiBS presented
        «ic«£si*a  tublBij  d«Jl.;ctloe.  Ttac» loads'  to |3,6tO jrouaas ae»*f
        proacce4  tubinc dcflectioof oro*t«r cka»  O.I  laches easte itoae t*ot« ti3n t^tlaj  ta  tl>«  nag* -; 3S to 65
        Ib/lB/ie.
ICCJ  s LC00666
AUTSOIl I/A
trrit : */i
tlTLC 5 K«st««»tai  Tr«atieat Plant Design C»ii«lla«-s  for OperaMUtr.

        OS EPA  °«>3ioa 10.  IjCO Sixth At:<•;.• 1 joe1 .:  tc  •;vt-~r»''!» t tsi> F^Uat-Cn pctfatial
         cf  HTa-coot j Inia j  Soof.holJ »ftl;eiit  to  cr ciinJ »a csts.  ST." is a rc»c*c">«
         i;ut3titat»  ihcsfhjtv cuercuois att,1  in dftcrceat:..  It na5  te>.n
         &how»  to  cflUiO fvtii a t net «j J i 11 ^ i  is  rats  -»~J tc sol3Cillr«-' aad cctflss
         tt\.:A»J  SttjliS.   StJ  t«.a"V,»l WJa C<-s58t«J  JO  iCv.' CilOt
         SiTtic t snk-j'occo I a t ion fiv.; s; r.«*lir 7 ; p e t c <• s t cJ  th«
         cit<)if.al  IT* »'c ncf 1.11.».'x icn lato the  iivi^-tnei.  k*> tccctal in

                Loq »7* conccu 11 i t IOBS r^p^ia-3  tics  0 to »CC «j/l.
                iJabilitj c!  S"i was v;reJtt'r  t^je  K  ^«rc^rt :cr irflsert
         conceal i at leas nor*«li» eifrctej tc  s«»j-:e  O to ?r«-/l) tat d*cr*ss*i
         to  >0  i«r'. eat  tor  cnnct'3tcit:"o* c!  !-."•  s»^/;.  Ai'iticcal iat »orl
         »j s  COP, ducted  lo .'.<.'teraist »T» f?«c»*l 11  ioil cclua^s «2^ aojtrctlc
         dl;ost»t5.  Atrc,t>ic :;oii c o 1 c >i r, i t^aotoJ  3*arlj > *» ; preset c! initial
         ST*  cciccntr ati ess  at «J ja? ?;o '-I/i  »iil«  oai> 1 C-! V cvrc-.'at *«<

         ffrc*at  of »** concent rat icas £tc«  15  tc  tC  a<;/l. (SKf)
ACCI
AUTXOE
A1TI L
TITIE

SC'JKCE
T It B
TEXT
81es.»arct>
Tctt rettict,  Ft-'JerVck,  narrleiJ 'a- 5ct«»rt  S.
Scs->itct Latorstorr.  i..S. Scr
i»jlaatioa  of  the  Ctorlaad Sa
Jor 1 ir -i  Keactjl
«f?li*J aad  ra»irc3MeEtdl fliccobiclc?/,
\ 9c> J
      et ai Frot«-ct
BOtt Icie of  lae<3
                                                          Kttr Ea*i r
                                                         ica «q#icj, 1C*  C»
                                                         Haste, atei  Teata*at

                                                         (C- fa~rs)
Tbo CtraoTal  of  e't^ric and trjc*r »ircs*?s  fcr  t>s
of Joaestic  »aste*attr tcoatat-at nas «*a)-^ate-'!.

plots c£  fine,  sjajy  loja ovprlyi'ic ;o i*cer*fa
cactericphaqe  fl  *ss  seeded ists tLc a;?lici  wi
SQbsttja^atlT  s.iap^eJ  at -zotera! rcists -'loq^  th

percent to 60  pet rent.  ;.»•. t t r j» tiaej Fip«.,
adtaacea^nt  ot  tr-ret »'-»us tc  tbe tcttc»  or  * •<
saa«: iito as  »jst-->a>.cr,  ktachin^ the ?lct e;fi
ainut«s at let  s ; r 1 i ^.' t i o n .  IoJiqt'sc-;5 ^;teric
bj ap;to« laatt 1 r  tS-S5 percent  .i-r^a; aicrsticp
slopvs.   Soil  sai;l'.nq re»eaVe<5 *nat, jl'.irj.s
associated »lt£  :.~e  *as tc wj tor-s j t ^r a to
                    qras ^-coer e i , 36« 5
                   tle  claj  jutscil.
                   stewj  ecs,  wklcb »ete
                                                                               ci3
                                                           len
                                                               th c i  tNc
                         s te»o»»ls cf _
                         idlest? i tSa t
                   e  sic  e-  crcc'eJed at
                   TS ats  «i tdi 3 ?? tc 
-------
virus into the soil profile occored.  Latoratory
                                                              adsorption  sta«IV«D with SB ecpfcasis on wast«Betei
        Production versus treatneot processes are discussed along vith
        research ar«as asj uecds.  (SBF)
ACC»    100067J
ADVBOfi  Fisani, J.*.; Velterop. F.fl.
ATKIL   EBviroaer lc Systaas CoipaBf
TITiE   Cpea-Channel ult raf il tra tioB Spiral Rodule for Bater  Sense
SCUSCE  k'ator Sense SrspcsiUM, Vol. ^   (7 pages)
TEAS    J979
TEXT    A spiral-vooad open-chanoel eltraf iltration B««tr»Be  for use  in
        vasteuatei reuse systeas is described.  The eleseat coBbines  tuc  tyces
        ot ultrat i itra t ion concepts, spiral woand nnd tutulisr aestraac!, to
        produce a viable ul t r a t il tr jtioa device.  FrelisiRarj testing  iojcests
        it has Industrial applicjtioo in paper  and ruiF  «ills.  *n<3  ia  textile
            focj  processinq plants. (SWF)
ACCI
AUTSOR
Arm
TITiE
SCUSCE
YEAR
TEXT
IC00672

University of "Ussouri-Rolla
Toward the ioal cf cirect yater Reuse - uhat Should Se Do  Heit?
*atar Beuse Synposiua. Vol. I   (9 pages)
1979
Technical ajd psTCholcc;ical factors sffectinq direct water reuse  tro^res
are discussed.  *he eut'ior also lists steps he  feels are needed tc
overcose the public's reluctance tc rease water.  (SMF)
ACCI
iOTHOE
AFFI1
TITLE
SODRCE
IEAK
TEXT
IC00673
kestop, S.F.
Soy F. lies ton lac., fc'aston Way, Best Chester,  PA
Banaqeaent of Do-Site and tlternati»e Wastewater Systens
HOT F. weston, IBC.  Sestoa Way, Hcst Chester,  FA   (112 pages)
1 973
Basic aanaqeient netds, functions, institutional art3Boe«ents,  eis<5
dieeasicns reialeu to oa-site and alternative  sjste»s are  described
                                                                             IB
        this draft report.  Several cas.^ study su««aries  are presented  frc«  a
        •aaaqeaeot viewpoint.  Both coemnity*aca state case study  so»aaries arc
        included,
ACCI    LC00678
AUTHOB  Fark.ec, C.E.; Reynolds, J.H.
AFFIL   Dept. of Civil Enjineeriaq, University of Tirqiaia aad  Ferkins-Elisr
        Corp., resoectively
TITLE   Clcsed Loop Secycle and Btase of Water Closet  Flesh  Sater
SOURCE  Water Reus*: S7»posiu«, vol. 3   (12 pages)
IEAE    1979
TEXT    The field evaluation results of a recjcle-reuse  concept dealing  with
        water closet flush water is presented.  Th* adequacy  of biolocical
        treataeat for water recycled 10 to 20 times ia a  closed STStes  is
        evaluated.  The ccncept atiliies biological tceaxient by extended
        aeration follot>Cu_by granular etdia filtration.   Treataent  rcovicer.
        Acceptable wattr for flush reuse at the 95 percent recycle  IctEi. (S
                                         32

-------
ACCS  :  1000675
AUTHOR:  Ford, Jr., fl.E.; Stokes, 8.B.
AF«L :  Las »irgeaes Rvalcipal Qatet District and Boyle Engineering Corp.,
        respectively
TITLE :  The Application of Ken-Potable Water Systeas to Residential Service
SOUBCE:  Hater Beuse Syaposiue, fol. 3  {12 pages)

TEXT  :  A non-potable water systea Cor residential service was developed  fcy  t"«
        las Virqeaes. California. Municipal «ater District.  Tse systea provides
        non-potable water derived £roo treated dceestlc wastewater for use IB
        residential landscape irrigation.  (SHF)


ACCl    L000676
AUTHOR  Bankes. 3.0.
AFFIL   Pure Cycle Eoaldcr, CO
TITLE   Pure Cycle Corporation - A Doeestic Usstewater Becycling STStes
SOURCE  Froceeaiags of the Water Eeuse Sysposiue, Sol. 1   (6 pages)
TEAB    1979
TEXT    A domestic vasteuater recycling systen cosposed of five subasseablies
        was desiqoed to treat acd oarit; uasteuatcr for cease as cotabla  ustar.
        The systeu uses aerobic ana aaaecobic •Jiqestios, ultcafiltrati«3Dc
        activated carboa and ultsawiolet dlDiofactioa.  It is coBtccile<5  aad
        •ooitored bv a Biccopcocessoc tied into a telephone line to tbe seruice
        center.  This sjstes elisieates the problae of building hoses xhece
        natec quality or quantity and/or on-site uasteuster treataect is  a
        problea.  (SUP)


ACCS  :  1000677
AUTBOi: B/A
Ami.   Doaestic Engineers
TITLE   Tbe Conservation, Cate and Control of Uater
SOURCE  Coaestic Engineering Eepriat. July 1973  (II pages)
TEAS    1976
TEXT    Ezaefles of water conservation in  the United States and tie fie uater
        conservation policy are discussed.  The benefit of esploylng water flow
        and water pressure reducers is explained.  Limiting uater pressure to 50
        pounds per square lech was found to prevent preissture appliance failure
        and reduced wasted water.  An ejrasple of how to figure potential  savings
        using water regulators is presented. (S«F)


ACCJ    L000678
AUTHOR  Eeoedet, A.; Broiley, D.
AFFIL   Jaoes F. KacLaren Lieited and flcfsster University. respecti»ely
TITLE   Reduction of Potatle Water De-aand  in the Arctic by Rense
SOURCE  idater 6eL.se Sy«pasiu», Vol. 2  (S  pages)
TEAR    1979
TEXT    The use of a p: clcaqe-type sewage treatsent plant for providing recycled
        water in the Arctic region is discussed in this pacer.  Filet plant  data
        show good COD jnd suspended solids reso»al.  Recycled water caa tc sent
        back to the household and used as  seuage conveyance water.  Becyclicc
        systees are icpoctant in the Arctic because of the severe shortage or
        potable water sources and the sensitivity of receiving streass.  (SSF)
ACC*
AUTHOR
AFFIL
TITLE

SOUBCE
TEAS
TEXT
L000679
Culp, 8.L.; Hal>
v.r.
v.uj.pf H»b«* u a i • . •• • i •
Culp. yesner, Culp clean Water Consultants. El Ecrado Hills, CA
Field Hanual for Perforaance Evaluation and Troutleshooting of Roniclpal
Waste^ater Treatoent Facilities
HTIS. Springfield, »A   ("13 pages)
1 978
The intent of this lanual is. to serve as a technical field guide cr
reference docoaent for use in isprcving the performance of nuniclcal
wasteeater tteatsent plants.  It will also provide a troubleshooting
guide for identifying, analyzing and solving protleas.  Land application
of wastewater is described, and design considerations are dis-
cussed. (AU/SUF)
ACCl    L000680
AUTHOR  Pacey, A.; ed.
AFFIL   Cxfaa and the Ross Institute of Tropical Hygiene
TITLE   Sanitation in Developing Countries
SOURCE  John Kiley and Sons, Lta.   (2«0 pages)
TEAR    1978
TZIT    Tnis text is a coipilation of papers  presented at Pembroke College,
        Oxford, July 5-9, 1977.  Four nain theses are discussed:  the
        relationship between sanitation and health: latrine  techncloay;  the
        iapleaentation of iaoroveaents in excreta disposal;  and the  treataent
                                        33

-------
nod recycling of wastes.  The aaterial is organized to provide a
coherent perspective on each of these thenes.  (SWF)
ACCt
AUT'jOB
AFFIL
TITLE
SOOSCE
VERB
TEXT
LOOQ6S?
Keeley. J.H. (Project Offices)
Bobert S. Kerr EnsironEental Peseatcb Laboratory, fldaf Cklahosa
Proceedings of the Fourth National Ground Water Cwality SysposlOB
BtlS. Springfield. VA   (180 p- tevt. 26 p. articles)
19/8
Bine topics, including land application of saste. uf>re presented at  this
Bincesota conference.  Three articles deil with land application of
Hastes:  1.  "Land Application of Wastes-state of the *rta by K.B.
Height and C.K. Rose* (p U7-61).  This brief overeies of lana
applications, and types of land treateent, site selection, sludge
application and soaitoring arc induced.  Foac case histories are
discussed.  2.  "land Application of tfastes - Aa iBpesrtant Alternative"
by J.B.  Shaeffer (p. 62-68).  The petforsasce, effects, technological
advances, site specifications, and ceepoeeBts of a land treateeat systea
are presented.  J.  "Land Application - An ficcident Baiting to Happes1"
by C.C. Jobnsoa Jr.   (p. €9-/2)o  Tbe pcobles of possible grouedustet
contaalnation froe land application cf uastes is discassed. ;ssi('')
*CC8
AUT30E
AFFIL

TITLE
S03KCE
ItAB
TEXT
LOQ0682
Perrioe. B.L.
EnviiCBaeatal Science 
-------
«cc«
tUTHOfi
AFFIL

TITLE

souses
TE&B
TEST
        1000666
        Ciccicli. P.; Cooper. K.T°; Hflseer,  F.B.s  Hayes,  J.B.
        Depts. of Cheeistrv and Geology, Isdiasa university, Blcosloqtoa,  Incise
        «J7«JG5
        Craasic Solote-aineral Surface iQi.eracticns:   t  Pea  Rethod  for  the
        Detereinatioa of CroDr.dnaf.6i: Velocities
        Bates Eescurces Research, 16(1}  (7  pages)
        1 9 8 0
        laboratory studies ia«ol«ietani«tdt foe SCO, COD and suspended solids;  e'Owe^cr,
        (SisiBfectJoB at both -iffimeats was ceqaised to oeet boctarioloqical
        staefisrds.   ioaafnt! sates o£ 3-5  f^pc/sq ft  for aerobic unit eftleeat ana
        5 qpa/sq ft for ieptic task efflueat uere found  to csrofiace acceptafcle
        effluent quality aliiioagb pcn
-------
ACCS
AUTSOfi
AFFIL
TITLE

SOOBCE
TEAS
TEXT
        L00069I
        Stead,  P. A.
        PCI tsrjouth Polytechnic
        The  Potential ct Coaposticg Aiaittucts of Senate Slsdqe and Cosestic
        Hater Pollution Control. Vol. 77  (5 pages)
        1978
        Ciscosses cospostiaq airteres of non-Industrial sledqe and
        refuse as a viable waste disposal alternative.  COB Costing produces  a
        stable, less-toeic end grodact usable iD aqricultece and hot ticcl tare.
        Includes a coaparison or. cospostisg uethcds used at tbcee industrial
        plants i&d one pilot unit. (SUF)
ICC*  : L000692
iUTMOE: Corson. 5.L.
irriL : a/*
TITLE : Vastexater Treateent Ispoes:  Little Cranberry IsIaicS
SOUBCE: B/&  (15 cages)
*E*K  : 1978
TEXT  : iBdieidanl straight-pipe discharge of dcsestic tuastts ieto the tidewater
        oi the Cranberry Isles is in violatioa of (ctie State of Maine's
        iepleseatatloB 6f tbe fedecal satec pollutioa lews.  TSsSs ceport
        deeCEibeii efforts to coacljr uith the eaifore stetet>i
-------
        tablets,  sponsoring "Fit a Leak Meek" and special dtspl?>,i of
        Hater-saving devices.  Includes Informative reascns fcr Mater
        conscttatioD. (Sur)
»CC8  : 1000697
AOTHOB: S/A
AFPU : N/A
TITLE : uise Hater use is Good foe the Systea
SOURCE: Illinois InteragencT Ujter fianageBcot/Conservatloa Coasittee.

TEXT
        Springfield. Illinois  (3 pages)
        Flyer presents several reasons uhv water conservetioa is
        iapoctant.
        tips. (5KF)
                    Includes address for additional interaction on uater-sevicg
ACCI  : L000698
AOT80H: »/*
Amu : S/A
TITLE : Syaposiaa on Inpacts on Raral Aeerlc* of the federal Hater Pollution
        Control Act AaendaeEts. P.L. 92-500
SOOrcE: USD* Econooics, Statistics and Cooperatives Service  CSS pages)
fE«B  : '977
TEXT  : Capers deal with sose of the actual and potential lepects OK rural
        Aaerlca of P.L. 92-500, Aaendnents to the Federal Hater Pollution
        Control Act.  Topics discussed include aunicipal ujstewater trcstaeat,
        agriculture! processing plant location and co&t recovery, aod control of
        plaat nutrients, erosion, a ad sedisentat ion.  Discussai.f s point to the
        need for tettec planning, realistic Bsnaqeoent apprcachcs. and
        "ethically inspired voluntariss" to help econooists coatribcte to
        envicooBe&tal policy f emulation.  (AU)
I CC«
AUTHOR
AFPIL
TITLE

SOURCI
IEAB
TEXT
        10006-59
        R/K
        California State Hater Resources Control Board
        Public Hansqeoect of On-Site Wasteuater Systeas - An Exclanatioo of
        Senate Bill U30
        State water Resources Control Board, Box 109, Sacrasento, CS   {12 psges}
        1978
        Explains California's Senate Bill C30, which becaoe eff
                                        37

-------
ACC»
AUTSCB
AFFIL
TITLE
SOURCE

TEXT
        1000702
        I«8b. G.L,; Mpley, P.G.
        Dr«»o Corp.. Pittsburgh, PA
        Filtration of Effluent troe a Biological- Cheelcal Systee
        Mater and Seuage Uorks. 120(2)  (« pages)

        * deep bed, cc«rse-«jreined sand filter aas used to palish the efflueat
        of a bloloaicsl treatment plant.  Results indicate that the  filters  are
        effective IB reeoviog suspended solids, phosphorous «r,c turtidity  at
        filtration r«tes up to 16 ape/square feet using solar
        alaaiouo-to-pbosphoroas ratios of 2.3:1 to U.8:1. (S«F)
1CCI  : L0007C3
lUTHGI: Tilook. T.K.. Ir.
1FFIL : H/A
TITLE : Cooaeaitv Batter Supply and Sanitation:  Basis to Rural Cevelcceeat
SOUKClJ IsternatioBai Conference co Transfer of Technology   <12 pages)
IEAH  s 1976
TEfil  : Ciscusses the creation of coseunlty «at«?r supply aod sanitation systees
        for rural popalatioas in developing countries.  Srue systees base teea
        skoua to stiffiEiote overall coafiunity developaeat aed social progress.  (S


*CC«  : L000704
4UTHOH: Aodreoli, *.; Bactilucci, N.; Forgione, R.; Reynolds, E.
AFF1L : Suftolfc Cooetf Daparteent of Sealth Services aa<3 Hlllias f.
        Cosalicb Associates, F.C.
TITLE : Bitrogeu fiesotal io nodifie
-------
        natives foi domestic waste »«aAgesent.  These optioes  are  e*alaatc4  la
        terns of fu»iron»ent«l protectica. aster conservation.  slapli^tic  util-
        ization ant! economic viability.  options stadied  ieclode aatetless
        coopostinq toilets, sater seal toilets acl  land application  of  treated
        effluent.  (5«F)
ACCt  : 1000708
4UTHOS: Button. T.E.; King, D.L.
APFIL : iBstitute of tfater Research. Richiqaa State Onirersltf
TITiE : A CoebiaatioB of Aquatic aad Terrestrial  Ecosystess  for  Rdiisal  JJeose
        of Dooestic Uastenater
SCUnc'd: tiater Reuse ST»posi«B. Vol. 1   (13  fa yes)
TEAK  : 1979
TEXT  : The Slchiqan state University Water caalltr laaageaeat facility  is
        a field-scale wasteaater treatsent  research facility.  It  conslstE  of
        a series of four presanably serobic ponds followed bj spray  irrigation
        on crop or forest lands.  Phcsphorss is  resosed  froa tN° secoafiary
        effluent alqae in tte ponds aod by  scrptioa to the sell  bottcs.   flach of
        the altroqea is lost as aeaoais gas.  la  additioa. nitrogen  is also
        ceaoved by estiq«te<2 with results  depesdaac .IB the tjf
        of flora.  (5HF)
*CC»  : 1000709
AOTbOfi: ice. R.R.s Heater. L.H.
AfFIL : Life Systems  Tnc. «nd 0.5.  tray Redical  BioesqlQeeriBq  Eesearcb  and
        Dev«ilopaeat Laboratory
TITLE : Raltiparposc  Bater Traateeat Syetea Dcrclopaeat
SOUECE: Uatec  iseace Sjuposius,  Vol. 2   (39 pages)

TEXT  : The uesiqa, ccaf iguratioB aad opetatiOE  of a wastes,-* tor  reuse  systes
        is descriLefi.  Tha U.S. iroy Hecicsl  Ecssareh ao<3  DHtelopoeet  CossoBd
        developed  this systea foe ase by cosbat  aoits in waterless  ;rees.  The
        Hater  t ocessinq Grst^a pile* plant consists of foer  ocits:  a water
        tc<3atBeBt  uai' , a water purifxcatioa  cuit. an altiaviolet/ozoee
        oiJ jtioa  unit aad an aatonseic instraeentatiaa unit.   ?h
-------
TITLE :

SOOSCE:
TEJT
        Ee;.l<]entlal Pressure Sewers Dsiug Grinder Psepc  Rs^uce  Energy CoaiGftf-
        tlon Outioq Construction and Operation
        Conference on Eaecgjr Optiulzatioo ot 3ater aafi Sfssteuater  Hasaqe-
        •ect toe Ruoicipsl and Industrial applications.  Sponsored  ty U.S.  C«pl.
        of Eoecqj and hostad by firgoone iiatlon*! i&torctczy,  Ben Orleans, LA,
        CfcC. 10-13. 1979  {8 pjKjesJ

        This paper ccspstcs costs of low pressure Bast«»ater  collection
        sjsteas tc qrasity type systess frcs the step.dpcist of  energy cossBsp-
        tioa. coastroctioa ana operatloa.  The frsaary eoepariscns.  In tofcalsf
        Iota, include sewer pipe aaterial usage, etsertjy  fee eerUt  ifork r«.-»C93l,
        relative labor requiceaeats, paapinq eaect;^ re^sic^eeets.  aa<3 electric-
        ity COBSttBpttOB. JSWF)
ACCB
HOTHOB
AFFIi
TITLE
SOUBCE
TEAS
        IOC0713
        fiejer. B.J.
        UicqiDia Cepactsest of health. Eichaond, v*
        Research Heeds toe Disposal cf Bastes&t^r In Soil
        lodiwidual Oesite tfastewster Systets - Proceedia<;s of  the  FitBt
        Kitioctil Conf&Teace, Ann ArSoc Science PuClishcts, Inc., P.O.  Bos  1«25,
        Aaa Acbor, JU «ft!C6  (6 pages}

        ibe lioitatlOES of various tvpcs o2 taste ret e&  they appl;  to  oa-site
        uastetieter disposal are briells Slscusswc:.  Tbe  sathct calls 2or t
        cvstesatic evAlcatioe of sell disposel foe Ka^tsustec  epJ  possible
        alteratives.  (S«F)
«CC»  : 10007^0
iUTBOfi: HiSUass. T.C.
AFFIL : 'riilliaas aad  tforks.  IRC., Gracd  laciJs.  VT
TITLE : Too Broke BIT  Ccokios
SOUBCE: lEfiiBidaal Oasite yastf.water  S?stess  -  ?rcctcr ;•  agencies  to  consider
        approval of alternatives  are  discussed  a]cat,  «it& sugqestioos  for
        iBprovenont.  (SUT)
TEAR
TEIT
*CC«
&FFIL
TITLE
SOU2CE
TEXT
ttr anJ SeioQe Systess
pic&ctcn. Ken
        LOOOT15
        Ja*d5 F» HacLarsB, Ltd., Toronto. CanaJa
        Sot»<» Suceat Deseicpaents in ShaliC«-fcuri ei K
        AkUA Atlantic Canada Section Coofetence '77,
        Canada  (18 pages)
        1 977
        Three types of insulation for shallow-buried rr»ssar^ seuers  and
        water systess, fse Frost-Sox, rroit Co»cr, a»2  f : e- i asu la ted  *;d
        Electiicallr Treated Pipe are aescrifsd.  IaceEt.i»es and
        of sballo«-burie
-------
        HI eeiOb   (156 paces)
YEiS  : 1977                '
TEIt  s Tueat-three leadicq estbocities eiaeioe  aajoi  aspects  of  the  subject
        iricludlnq  ratal uasteuater probl&ss. soil  icfiltration end  esacotraas-
        Eicatioe,  pretreateeat. serface discharge  and  ?irol  centaBic*tIon.  the
        took gives detailed coverage prc&leas o£ coaflicting regulations  «ad
        •enforceeent practices b«t«e«>a sunicipal  codes,  state regulations  and  tft
        qatdeliBOB.  Special attestion is paid to  Public  Lav 92-500 and its
        effect oa  individual oasite easteuater systess.  (2DITCH)
             The crocee3iBQS ieclBy ioil  Infiltration  asd
AFFXL
TIftC

SCOECE
TEXT
i.000719
Deaitb, 5.H,
Cffice o£ Uater Prograe OperatSoas, O.S. EPA
The Iispsct of the Clean Kster Act oSC 1977 on Fucdiaq of Indi»lduel
Basteuatec Systess
Isdiwiigai Os&i.te aastescfj: S;steos - Proceedings of the Fifth
flaticEal Confer Esce, ficn Ertcr science Publisbers. Inc.. P.O. Boi 50SO,
Aaa £cbor, PI I  C3S06   (5 paqas)
Preseets key pro?isicss of tfce Clean Mater Act of 1977 tshicH
allocate fUBdinq for iedisitfital uastsaatec systecs.  ?be cct esteblisbs
a tpecisl pcograe aithle the const rsct io t» grants program to fund
individual systess.  Three eeu fuBding ece explaieed:  1. XadiTldoal
SYStPBS, as al t*_'t natiife systess to ccaser, tional qrav'ity seuers aod
central treatsent, are eligible fot 95 percent greats.  2. Ttro percent
o£ a state's allocation Js set aside for this 10 percent increseot
froa fiscal year (FT} 1979 and FS-19SO. and 3 percent fcoa Fr-1981.
These funds aust be used, or the state's reeaininq Eeods will te
reallocated to the states that ha»e eipeaded all theic fur.ds.  3. Foar
percent of each rural state's allotsant is set aside fcr alternative
systeos in coaaceities of up to 3,500 persons, or highly disposed
sections of larger saaicira II t ies.  In rural states these funds shall
te reallocated, if act obligated, during the allctacrjt period. (SUF)
»cce
AUTHOR
AFFIL
TITLE
SCUBCE

YEAS
TEIT
L000720
Hayes, R.B.; Zickefoose, C.
Stevecs, Thospscn aoa RuEyen, IDC.. Fortlaa-il, Oregon
Sta&ilIzatios Ponds - Operations ftanual
UTI5. Superintendent of Doccseots, Cc»ernaent priatioq Office,
Uashleqton, D.C.  (81 pages)
(977
Raaual contairs basics for those wishing to brush cp en  fuodaeentals
or qet acquaitted uith types of por.ds, teroinoloqT aad factors to ccosid
in operation.  It considers saeplinq, flew control an<2 jse of infcr-
aation gained froa either sisaal, nasal or laboratory in»estiqaiicn.
Housekeeping anl day-to-day activities are presented along with  a
suggested checklist, »hich can be adapted for the individual plant.
The aacaal presents a naeber of potential problers and gives solotioas
that otf.et operators have found to be helpful.   Kajcr points are
given on safety. (*U)
ACCI
JIUTHOS
iFFIL
TITLE

SOURCE
TEAK
TEXT
1000721
Henalaq, J.A.; larshack, K.4.: Olsen, E.R.; Riqby,  R.G.
Uciverslty of California, Irvine
Educational and Sociil Factors Affecting Pobllc Acceptance of
Reclaiaed later
Meter Beuse Syiposloa, Vol. 2  (9 pages)
",979
Sursey resalts of knowledce of and attitudes toward use of reclalnod
vater are presented.  Study peculations vere randoslj  selected  frc»  the
City of Irvine, California. Bhlch is actively  involved in water
reclaaation projects, and the City of Anahein  which is not.   Results
shoved public acceptance of reclaEation projects  was dependent  on
educational level, ser, faslliarity with reclaeaticn progrars,
psychological variables and econoalc benefits  to  individual  and
coBiuoity. (5UF)
ACCI  : 1.000722
                                         41

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IUTHOH:
• friL
TITLE
SCUBCE

TrJL8
7tIT
         aer,  ..;  o««a,  .:  ene
        Life Sciences. University of .isconsifc- sadlso*
        (feasareaent of Mat«c Hovesent is Soil Pedoas Atove the %>ter Tsble
        Gfcoloqicil end Satacal History Sacvey. University of Ul-<.oasin-
        Eitessioo  (i:a p«<;es>
        1974
        Cctdlled discussion of water coeteat and associated soil acipholcQical
        features ia sutl pe-.lons abcwe tte water table.  Attention is coBfioed  to
        the occurrence of tester ia the sell ecd to uater BOPSSCD: ia aesaterated
        soil*  Presents a siaplified, oos-eat beeatical acrroarh tc  the
        description of soil uater tlou :aeB3Eeaa.  Induces a thcroaqb
        description of »-th3ds. availabitr cf certain cctpaeeats. descrlptices
        aa<5 pictures of cospoeeBts aad proceJeres.   (3SF)
ACCI  : LOOQ723
aOTHOS: Goldstein, S.K.
AFFIL : fiatiosal Hater PesoBStratloa Project. Ccnset, Inc.,  tfashlnqtob, O.C.
TITLE : Coeaaaity vs. Individual Hastenater Systeas
SODECE: Individual Cnsite Bastenater Systess - Frccedieqs of the First
        BatiO5al Coafereace. Ana Krbor Sciecce Futlishers,  lee., F.C. EOE 1Q25,
        ten Arbor, SI 53106  (9 piijei)
tE*8  : 1977
TEXT  : Seceac ecoeoeic stsdies coafarie? i.aaaxsiti aedi  individeal  uas(.eeat«t
        systeaa *i« relieved.  Indisicsal sjst-?ss uer« foand to be  less espeisiv
        for populated areas=  Othec topics iscludc a detailed eipl«Detioa of
        ee ecoaoaic eodel used to deteraiite savinqs of individaal vs. CCBBHE
        systeas.  Eephasis  is placed oa pccpac eeaaqeaeat of either  type of
        facility Cor effective tce«taeat. (^f)
»CC»
1UTHCE
»FF:L

TITLE
S008CE
lEiS
TEXT
        LC0072«
        Eouaa, J. ; Bole. F.C.
        Wisconsin Geclcqical and fiatare) aistory  Sacvey  aed  Departsect  of
        Soil ScicBcc, Uaiwarsity of  siscoasia-'iadisoo
        Soil Stiact&re jad tiydraclic Conicc ti» i t j  of Adlacent  Virgin  and
        Coitisjted Pedcas at Two Sites:  *  Typic  Arqindcll  (silt  lose) aod  a
        Typic Entrcchcept (clay)
        Soil ScifEce Society of A»«tica  Prcc«edinas. 35(2)   ("S  p«qes)
        1971
        This story's fiadiaqs  deal  with  scil  sorphology  «nd  fcfdraolic
        conductivity of  the principal  soil  botizocs of paired  virgin  and
        caiti»ated soil  pedocs at t»o  sit^s.   the  purrCEe  cf  this  study vas
        to characterize  aijacect virqin  atd culti»
-------
JUYB08: Cats. B.B.
*rriL s Cept, of EBoircaeestal  aesoatces,  CceaORwealth cf Pe»tu
TITLE : Sc*«c«g<> Eacual  (itaft)
SCOBCt* leta. Cept. of  Envircaseetal  aeseerces, Bgreso of Batec
        E«(i«<;eafei>t. P.O.  Bo*  20£J,  BatEiEfcorg.  fi. 17120  (126
« E A B  « 197 y
TfXT  s Tfe« procedure for efctaiaing a sewerage  perolt asd '•fee st«adat£s
        for ataeraqe facilities ia  Peaasyl»asia ate present*^ is this sceeal.
        Ssidultses asd  reaelatiOBS  that  qosJera  eBqiaeetioq pro-ceiSsres aB fin«X two pcr.ds contained floatieq
        plaate aed seceed to  pro^iiS'i tc.utscad treatsest.  the fi£tti pond ues
        folioKcS by q  slow sasd filter.
             A qceonlsOBEe eaclcseii sli ponds to provide icetglatlos aa3 tiransf*
        of solar beat  for pl^et atiiigatioB.  The aaaerofclc sts
-------
TITLE : Tfce Survival of Salooaellae ie Sewage Sloige  Applied  tc  Arable  La Ed
SOOBCt: »atet Pollution Ccatrol - Part 1   (8 F«ges)
IE*6  : 1S80
7CXT  : Digested sludge eoetaielr.g salaoBellae MBS  applied  ».o atstle  ls»d
        to deteieiee organisa aateival soier satctel  conditions.   Sasples
        uere taken tetkif tot tea uteks derle^ tec  coBseeotl*a aaesprs.   T«o
        soil types ner« used sad satiations la teeperatar*  aed rainfall  worn
        • otod.  The EC-suits r,aoa -siaiiar 5tsrwi»«i rate*  «itj,  au  oeteeta&l*
        t«ct«rl&l CQSceatratios for eight  fr«is  toIlOHinq sludge  application.
        Ctqatic ceil cospared to saedr soil eas  foaed to eBfesoee  bacterial
        survival while »ai£ifltioes is teoperetore ae4  rair.fel!  did  Rot sigBifl
        caotlT effect the sursioal ratf,   Saicival  tiee  »as toiiEt!  to  be
        dependent OB initial r.aleonellae ccoceat rdtioa  in slu-jtje  «cd  tb€
        en»itoacer.tal coaditiocs to «hick  tise or^ftnisas  were  utposed.  (iw?)
*CC8  :
AOTHOE:
*rrii. :
TITLE :
SCUSCE:

TEXT  :
        L000732
        Snittl, S.JU; Hilscn. J.C.
        CHJS/Hill. fieddlaa Califorela
        Trucked Hastes:  Hore Unifose ipproicb  Set-del
              and faetes
        Fectore «ffcctlnq the addition of  septic  leei  sla<5?«
        «aalt bastes, poE!:«bls chesical  toilet tiaiites,  sad  io-i-jausts  taa
        eastes to a waste tceetaer.t process  ssch  «s  «e  ectja'ateo  slolqc  piase
        discussed.  th*se practices will upset p?sat pecfQfeeace  sftii opetstioe
        nod east ie coasideired IE tfee desiqs of a waste tceaes^nt facility*
        Uaate stteEgtb is lh-2 cost critical  factor.  £  c*se ttistoc}  t>a«clvie;
        design o£ a .5 eq>t nodiCifed activated sludge plant  that  ulil lucoir-
        pocate septaqe is described.  (SHF)
icce  :
4'JTHOS:
AFFIL :
SOURCE:
YEAR  :
TEJtl  :
        ICC0733
        Ccaley, B.; Eaton. Jr., J.C.; roj ».; Liqht.  8.;  Rason   R.
        Ualdon Division 01 Lbcoc, lnc/'J.5. Araj-  (SeJic*!  £ioer,Gin
-------
IS4B
TEIT
S^ORCC: Snail Scale Haste Keeaqesont  Project,  Dels,  of
        fladi.o,. ,1   (,2 Flqes,

        Capital a&3 e«iBtesaee& costs J1973) cf  concrete »eiS steel
        tanks efi reBiyaeii.  Capital  costs  ice  utiiaitalltd  Bsleisq tasfcs
        ranged Croa 2375 Jt'or e 1 wDO lic«CiQG  of eaalcipsl  ««. r«a t««?nt  f,roc'3i£,  because of the eiainuE EcD 9!,d SS
        effluent coaceot:«tloss tdat icea tc  fce attainable.  Oierlssd flow
        couic ce osed as «  nl tri ficat i co-don trif '.cation process it laniJ costs
        were sufficiently low.  the  slow  rate  sfstea can te aa eyc'ilest
        tertiary trfeateent  scthod  if the  grcundaater is protected «EO oo
        subsurface uatei collection  aod discharge is vequireJ because of low
        peraeability soil coctJltloos at this  site.   If a discharge is required
        organic carton and  noisiest  concentrations  sight t« unacceptable
        depending upas initial  site  soil  conditicns. (All)
acci
AUTROa
TITLE
SOOECE
tEAB
TEII
        L000738
        Colucke. C.C.
        B/A
        /Iqjacultare in Resource  Becc»cry
        Cotpost Science/Larii  Utilization.  2C<3)   (8 pages)
        1979
        This trticle describes aguacaltare as  a  leans of treating
        and isclades article  reviews  which discuss various  aquatic p
        such as vater hyaciBth aod  docfcjced,  in  upjradinq i>a=tev!ters
        Ciaqrass and photcqrapbs  are  iacloded.  (SUF)
1CC»
AUTU08
4FFII.
TITLE

300BCE
TEAS
TEIT
        LC00739
        Stiihr.iD, S. B.
        U.S. Ea»lronaental  Prelection  Aqencr
        In Approach to Coocept  and  Design  o!  Wasteuater Tr««taent Facilities
        for Rural and Seairural  Coaaucitits  and Fringe Areas of Cities
        Indi»idoal Onsite wasteaater Systess  -  Proceedings of the Fifth
        national Conference,  ins  Artor  Science  Publishers, Inc., P.C. Eoi 1425,
        f!I  M61C6  (5 paq-.s)
        1979
        Presents economic and  reliable  altercative «aste»ater treatment sitleus
                                         45

-------
        for rural .sni seeirural coaaunltics.  Ccsts of conseotlcoal facilities
        for .ssjill coBBunities, exceeding J10.000 per household in soae cases,
        have »ade these facilities undesiratle.  Costs ol alternative eethods
        ore included. (SUF)
»CC»
AFFIL

TITLE
50UBCE
tEiS
TEXT
        LOC0740
        Valdoaa. K,
        Dept. of Soil Sciences, ieciion i«r n
        Agricultural College, Uppsala, Svedea
        The Hollbaiik Toilet
        CoB&ost Science, aov-Dec, 197
-------
evaluated*  Three basins were coas^ructed, and o»er a two-year  perloc
the influent and effluent froa the und__,^-.«-\ -^ r-. A f.l^,,,,f^f^A  i- •' T *• !*-.-«•.  t f ^ r\ f f-
Plainfield sand  (Typic U
-------
        30/30 efflsent or better.  Hicroscreening with  the cae alcroseter  poly-
        ester fabric was shown to be an alternative to  OAF and sand  filtratice.
        
-------
YEAR
TEXT
      : 1S79
        Describes; zero discharge sanitary systen w'.»ich can ser»e  as a iat
        recycling systea, wastewater treateent facility cr part of a lind
        coticn sycten.  systtn processes include <;qualizatioa, gross rarMcle
        rcaoval. trickling filter, activated carbon aasorctioe. fiitisticB.  dis-
        infection and storage.  Operating systeas show a t>5 percent r?doctloa  ie
        COD aod BOD lewfels was achieved.  System uses include recreations?, cct-
        fort stations 
-------
inspection.  The implications of this optics for accelerated fundieg oat
coastruction of rural wisteaster treetoent facilities In Illinois is
also discussed.  (SUF)
»CCI
AUTKOS
AFFIL

TITLE
SOUfiCE
TEAR
TEXT
1000750
KcPherson. J.E.
Helbourne and Bet ropoli tas Eoeld of Bocks r«rs>, Keribtt, Victoria,
Australia
Land Treatneat of Bastewater at tteritee, Past. Present, aod rotate
Urtknoua
1979
For over GO years, uasteuater treateeat by lead application has teen
successful at this Australian city.  Depending on the season sod the
rate of flow, three isetuods of laad application are employed:  land fil-
tration. overland fie*. and laaooaing.  The effects of clieate, geology,
soils, notrient removal. phosphorus reao«al. hesvy aetals, hydraulic
loadiec ind livestock growth aio discussed.  Plact p'>rfcraaoce is
described aod future proposals ara outlined.   (SWF)
tCCS
ftUTKOE
kfflL
TITLE

SOURCE
JEiB
TEXT
1000760
Souaa, J., Anderses. J.L.
University of Wisconsin, Hadisca. Ulscpo&ie
Relationships Beta-sen Soil Structure Caatacter istics and Hylraulic
Conductlwity
Qnivecsitr of Hiscoasin, EiteasioE,  2) paqes
1973
Sepcrts OB the feasibility of usinq the description and oeasuresents of
soil pores for prediction of hyaraulic coadQCtlvit; {K> ia artificial
soil Mixtures end Batu'al soil Eaorizons.  ?he authors review and refine
•etbods for obttiicing nore accurate Borclioaetric scil pccoslty data ID
the field and laboratory.  (3HF)
*CC»
AUTHOB
AFFIL
TITLE

SOUdCE
TEi
LOC0761
Ctis, H.J., Steuart. D,E.
University of Wisconsin, Padisoa, Bisconsin
Alternative Basteaater Facilities far Saall Ucsewered Ccsscaities in
Eural Aoerica
University of Htscorsin, Haiiison, Wisconsin (85 caqas)
1976
This is a report of studies ty the Siall Scale Waste Basiflqcsent Project
into uore cost-effective solutious to water pollution abateeent in soall
coaaunities.  After coaparinq ddsantaqes and disadvantages of central
vs. non-central wasteuater sjsteBi, the authors list alternatives to
non-central facilities and cite craaples of apprcprlate Banaqecent en-
tities.  Conclusions «ere applied to facility planning and design for a
ssall Wisconsin cca»uaity {fees tSctc, pop. 200).  The systen chosen uas a
ssail-dianeter ^casity collectioo fron individual seftlc tanks, with
effluent disposal in a sinqle soil atsotptioa field.  Under a central
•anaqesent district, a 20 percent cost savings over a conventional
systes nay be realized.  in appecdii discusses sana-jenent alternatives
appropriate for Hichiqan, Hinaesota and Wisconsin.
ACC»
ADTHOS
AFFIL
TITLE
SOURCE

TEAH
TEXT
L000762
Sharpe. W.E.
Fenusylsania State University, Jni»ersitj Park, Pennsylvania
Water Conservation «ith Water-Saving Devices
Proceedings of a Conference - ilater Conservation uith Hater-Saving
Devicas, Sutq^rs University, sen Srunsuick, Sen Jersey  (9 paces)
1976
This report lists all known »ater-saving devices aad appliances and con-
sents on their cost and availability.  It briefly discosses alternatives
for water < conservation proqraas aco soae public policy  implications of
such programs at the local and national level.  (SWF)
ACCI
AUTHOS
flFFIL
TITLE
SOUBCE

TEAR
TEXT
L000763
Chuanq, F.S.
Environmental Division, C. E. ftaqulre. Inc., Ken Britian, Connecticut
Treatment of Septic Tank Wastes ty an Anaerobic-ierobic Process
Journal of the Hen England Water Pollution Contrcl Association, 10(1):
An anaerobic-aerobic *astevater treatment sjstee is described.  Sclids
degradation occurs in the anaerobic st-^e, followed by degradation of
soluble orqanics in the aerobic stage.  A sand filter provides final
effluent polishing.  Laboratory studies shou ECD and CCC reductions cf
over 95 percent; similar decreases *ere also recorded fcr phcsphate,
aisonia nitrogen and total Kjeldahl nitrogen.  volatile solids reduction
was approjLioately 40 percent.  Lo« costs, coupled «ith simple operation
                                50

-------
        and naintenance. sake this a viable treatment alternative.
ACCI
AOtHOI
tftll

TITLE
SOOfiCE

TEAS
(EXT
        L00076Q
        Eacheeier- B.E.
        Cept. of Agricultural Eegiaeering, Dale, of Hinaescta. St. Paal.
        Hifieesota  SS1C8
        Design Criteria for Soil Treatment STStess
        fiaorican Society of Agricultural Eeglceers, it. Joseph, Michigan  S9085


        CispoEAl cf seuaqe etfluest i» soils leads to fcicloqical clogging.   Ibe
        paper is a critical uiscussica of the design criteria cf soil abscrptico
        Sfstess, as controlled by the egoilifcriua  HOB rate of the clogging
        r.one.  Other factors controlling soil acceptance rate ace corosfty,  ef-
        fluent quality, hjtiratilic head, distribution and dosieq.  Sizing cl  the
        drainage field sad loading rates are critical factors la propec con-
        struction techniques of soil disposal systeas. (SUF)
ACCS
AUTH08
AFFIL
TITLE
SQOBCE
TEII
        IC00765
        Sisgrist. R.. Hatzler, B.
        Uci«Ptsity or Misccnpiti. Radlson
        The Hanipulatiots of ilousetioli
        Saall Sceie  -sstc S»BOqe»t'at Project, Uoiir. of  Kiscousia,  Ha41&on  (10
        This pacer critically considers the consequences cf esing nco-uater
        carriage toilets listed ia &n earlier Canadian study.  fclthouqh uaste
        separation reduces the loading of the soil dispcsel s^stea. this  fsfei
        registers concern vitb tbe proper treatment of the sscj reqated blscft  and
        grey cospoeeets.  Available uater-sa* inc devices can reduce uasteuster
        tlotf fcr up to 30 percent, but the uncostrollable house elec^nt
        Clou reduction difficult to quaraotc-e.
ACC*
AOTBOS
AFFIL

TITLE
SOUhC?
TEAS
TFHT
        L000766
        H/A
        University of Uisconsiii - Radi&oQ and University of  Wisconsin -
        Ez tension
        Cn-Site Hasteuater Disposal for Hoees in Unseuertd Areas
        University of Wisconsin, Hadison   (16 pages)
        1973
        This report su«>«arizes the septic tank, disposal systea  and  ^ts
        operational problees due to soil conditions, age or  ctsclȣcence .
        nitrate pollution of groundvater.   It briefly discusses  the  on-Qolng
        research of the Stall Scflle Waste fanaqtsent Project  i&tc  several
        en-site alterriati vas such as aecobic  tanks, scil filteri and Bounds,  as
        well as nasteload redaction.   (SUP)
ACCI
AUTHOB
AFfIL
TITLE
SOURCE
yEAE
Till
        1000767
        Ziebell. W.A., Otis,  R.J., Bousa, J.
        University of Hisconsic, nadicon
        A Repcrt of an Investigation of an  Eiperisental  Household  Wasfuater
        Treacnent and Disposal Sjstes at  the fiarris  Residence,  Ncrtl.  Cape,
        Wisconsin - Part  I:   evaluation of  Tr«=atisenl  Systeit
        University of Wisconsin, Radisoc   (26  oaqesj
        C. J972                                "
        This report by the Seall Scale Wastt Vlanaqeaent  Project  -itscrites  an  ex-
        peri»ental housthcld  vastewater treataont  and  disposal  systei developed
        for the slonly perueaoie soil conditions found  in  Viscoasin.   The  sjstet
        consisted of tuo  deration and one process  dnin  connected  in line  with a
        chlorinator.  Treated wasteuater  was Jischarosd  under  pressure over  a
        subsurface gravel Led.  An uncerdcain  collectec  the  wattr  arid trans-
        pocLe-j it to i final  soil absorption trench.   FinQX  effluent  was  dis-
        charged into a nearbT streau.  The  unit  provided  trtJtaent cc»paratl€
        with the conventicnal septic t-spic systes but  was  founa  to  te  »ore  costly
        and acre nechnnically coupler than  other uastewater  treat»eut units  no«
        available.   (SUF)
ACCI
AUTHOP
AFFIL
TITLE
SOURCE

TEAR
TEXT
        1000768
        M/A
        U.S.  Environeen tal Protection  Agency
        Cnsite Wasteuater Treataent and Dispcsel  Systems:  resign  (lanual
        U.S.  Environaental Protection  Agency.  Municipal  Envircnsen tal  Research
        laboratory, Cincinnati, OH  U5268   (392  pages)
        1980
        This  document provides inforaaticn  en  generic  tyres  cf  on-^ite waste-
        uater treatient anJ disposal systeus.  The  design  infcrR^tion  presented
         is intendel  as  technical guidance  reflective  of  souni.  prctssone
         practice.  The  intended audience fcr  the  aanual  includes  vhcse  involved
                                        51

-------
        ia the design, construction, operation,  2ainteear.ee,  and regulation of
        c»-site systeas.  Hajer tonics ccnsiderid  include  site  evaluation pro-
        cedures, wasteuater characteristics  aad  codification,  en-site treatueat
        sad disposal eethcds. residuals disposal end  aanageaent of  on-site Sfs-
        tees.   (4U/5UF)
BCCl    1000769
*UTHOB  Hossaiar. S.U.
aPFIL   Melbourne and netropoli'.en  Board of  Barks  Tain,  Herritee,  Victoria,
        Australia
TIIIE   Ecological Studies of Lagoons at Herrlbee:   Beecval  of  Elcchewlcal
        Csyqen Deeand, Hitro^en aud  Re any  Ratals
SOUBCE  Progress ,.n Water T«scbaoiotjy. 11(5/5) :-'15-337  (23  pages)
5TEAB    1975
T£Xt    Four laqocn seri^E st the Board of Berks  Fare  Hercibee  treatie.g raw
        seuage were studied aad cospareS te'tscca  1971-1976.   Operating aad aater
        quality pataB«;ters recorded  included  -- teaperattire,  pH,  saspended
        solids, BOD. dissolved oz^Qeo, nitrogen,  heavy ae-tals,  chloropiijf 11, aed
        pbyto- aod ^ocplac'-tOB species aad noabers.
            Rer.ul'.s indicfite «»e£sgt BOD ceitcsals  of 7S  perceat and «7-85 per-
        cent r«Po«al of h«av? actols.  jysftiatJed  sclitJs  in the  «ffla€nt of two
        of the poad;; taeqecS troa 32  to SO  e«;/1.   Hic(htr  ocgaaic leading ia pos-
        fiibl<> coly fcifcb good sluaoe  contoct.,   &act*?iial  ecia  plankton studies
        eec-i also iccledel. (&U/5WF)
*CC«    1000770
AUTMCfl  Farrell, ?.P.
*FfXL   Eo»lrono«'.nt/0ne Corp.. Schenectady,  He«  York   12309
TitLE   fressur* Severs acd tfee Grinder  Puitf  «hich  Hakes  The» Pcssible
SOURCE  JoarHai of the Kea Er.qlanc;  Hater  Foliation  Control  Association,  Bcv.
        1972:200-212   (1« pages)
IE*B    1972
TEXT    A retiew of pressure sewer  tecnnoloqf is presented. Including tasic
        pressure sever design criteria and  grinder  puap characteristics. (SUF)


»CC9    £.000771
iOTflOB  Faccell, B.P.
4FFIL   t:r»itoncBecit/Ciie Corp.. Schesectaiy,  Sea  Tors   12309.
TITLF   Hou Knouledqe of Lou Pressure 3e«et  Research  Was  Trans £ erred - * Case
        Stodj
SOtJfiCF  Water Knowledge Transfer, Vol. 1,  Kstec  Resources Publicaticos,  Fcrt
        Collins, Colorado:3«5-35l  (7 pages)
TEAB    1979
TEXT    By qenetdtlnq, reporting an'J transferring iafornaticn, the asthodclcqy
        of using Icj priiSEure seyers tor  centralized  uasteua'er  collection was
        presented 10 cnqineers ar.d  pt ac t i t icnei r .  the history cf research, de-
        velopient, aarketinq, ani dIsseaination  of  infcrsation dealing with
        grinder pimps is re»ieued.  The  li»ited  availability  and expanse cf
        papers froa u'715 is noted.  (5MF)
ACC:
AU7HOF
AFFIL
TITLE
SOUhCE

TEAS
TEXT
L000772
Farrell. H.F.
En»ironBent/Cne Corp., Scher.ect<>d j. HY  12309
Grinder ?u»ps for Individual »r lications and SyEieos  Use
73ri Annual rtetinq of the Aaerlcon Society cf Sar.itity  Enqln?erinq;  San
Diego, California, Oct. 21-22, 197C   (9 paces)
1979        :
Grinder pu»f. constraction and applications are described in  this  erti-
cle.  A cypxCal qrinier pu»p asstsbly is ?chff»atical1y  represented.
Perfornance characteristics and typical eneccy req'iiresents  are ncted.
(SKF)
ACCt
iUTHOfi
AFFIL
TITLE

SOURCE
TEAK
TEXT
L000773
Hypes. H.D.
National Aeronautics anl Space Adsinistration
Laboratory and Faaily Liv<;-In Eiperi€nces with  Dcnestic  Greywater  Reuse
5ysteas
lDdi?idual OnSite Wastewater Systems   Proceedings of  the  Fifth  National
Conference, Ann Arobr Science Publishers, Inc.,  Ann  Arbor,  f.l  U8106  (20
pages)
        Reuse of doaestic  aath  and  launJry  wastewater  for  toilet flushing «as
        inrestigated  fro«  August  1977  to  August  1S7S  with  four persons sisulat-
        inq typical faaily conditions.  Che»ical,  physical,  and oicrobiolcqical
        characteristics ot the  gteywater  frc»  the  tath  and laundry were deter-
        •inej.  Pretreataent  to reduce  particulates,  cdcrs.  and cclifcrns was
        required in order  to  reuse  qreywater.   Pretreataenl  included tilterinq
        by diatoaaceous earth and the  addition  of  20  ppt o£  chlcrine to attain
                                         52

-------
        satisfactory qreyuater ^aality.  /ictoal  aater  use  (ejection  vas  27  per-
        cent with a potential t.a sa»e as »ach ai  33  perceBt.   t  eaiat^nance and
        repair history HSS included which  indicated  that  this  reuse  systea
        require »oathlf saistJnance.
ACC«
iJTri
AFFIL

TITLE

SOURCE
I FAB
TEXT
        1000779
        LeiniCKe, J.B.
        Supervisor. Facilities Plonainq Uaitf Division of Hater  Pollution  Ccn-
        tcol, Illioors Enviroasetstal Protection Agency, Springfleld,  Illinois
        Ssaii Coaisaoitf facilities Plaes and Oasite Disposal - t State
        Eitarletcy
        individual Oa-site Hastewater Systems - Proceeding*, of the  firth
        National Conference, ftea irbor Scienca Publishers, Inc.. ABB  Artec,  Pi
        C6106 (e> pjges)
        1978
        IlIiBCis' eiperidact ia bringing on-site wasteuater Jisfosal  into  the
        facilities claanitic) process of th^ furlic L^SM 92-500 construction  grants
        prjgrds is Sescrlted.  GHitSelines fcr fdcllity plaanisa. leclslation
        otaiiaq »i.th on-sito disposal systeas aaaaaeaent. and tne state's  grants
        progras fcr lndi»lloal s^steas are also di-
»ccs
AOtHOfi
TITLE

SOUSCE
TEA!)
TEXT
        1000775
        Scleace J.f plications. lac.. Hater  Eesoarcc  Division,  Tastie. Callforeia
        Solutions to Probletss Using On-Sitc  asstewater .Sosj-.qeusnt  dt Apple
        9oliey and Three aivers California
                   Cnsite aasteaater Sys».e»s -  ProceedingK ot the  Fifth  (Saticoal
                  , ADB Arbor Sciecce  fublishers. Inc.,  ft;-s  Aceor,  nl  46106  (It
         a
        TBO saall Califoraia cosasnities ^ith  fcct,  arid  clleatps covpared  vaste
        treatstent srstens raaqiEq fcoe  high-cost  central s«?uaqe collection sys-
        teas to en-site  treate«st facilities.  Conclasioas  stated  that  roral
        coaauaities aust look to a ceatcal  adiatenacce Han4qeae.it  concept  of
        septic systeas because the boaeoarer «ill not take  care of his  ;.i<3i»id-
        ual sjsttB.  Because of cost, both  coaBunities are  looking toward
        OD-sitfe «acte«ater treateent facilities^  Taree  Risers bas foraulated  an
        co-site wasteuatec sanaqeaent uistrict aad  adopted  a  coibination  ct
              sjit-jes tetaeen lots aod  reclicuia ting sand filtets.  (SVF)
ACC«
AUTHOS
AFFIL
TITLE
SOUHCE

TEAS
TEXT
        L000776
        6/i
        SCS Engineers. Long Beach. CA
        Sewer rtotoror »a :  causes. Effects,  Alternatives
        Offic" oi 1'olicy Dewelcpaent aniJ fiejcarch, the Depx
        Urban Ofi»elopsen t , Hast-.ington, D.C.  20U10   (166  pa
        1977
        Four Ba)or topics acf presented in  tbis guidebook:
        issue, reducing the iactct of j sordtcrion,  ddvanc
        water B-jnaijeaen t, .And troaccent processes apd
        Approaches to dealing 
-------
TEAK  : 1976
TEX1  : The pciearv purpose of this project was to evt'oste and  test serctic
        treatsent systess ondet field coalitions using  individual  hcaes  as  test
        sites*  Although aost of these units casse.5 th? National Sasitatica
        Foundation tests uadbr Staedard ftO. there Has 5 ca below the cindertlock cute,  conversion  of  total
        nitrogen to nitrate in sand coluins ranged frcit 63  to ICO percent.
        Coluan effluent saiples analyzed for fecal colifcrn  wece all  negative.
        Soil sanples revealed no penetratioL cf fecal ccliforits  below 30 CB  in
        either the loany sand or sand cclui.is.  Chenical cjygen  deaand  in  the
        coluan effluent gradually  declined  fro» 1?9 »g/liter  at  «2 days to  85
        nq/liter at 220 days.  Ho  significant deni t t i I icat ion occurred  in  th€
        saturated zones containing gravel onl/.  (&U)
ACCI
AUTHOR
AFFU

TITLE

SOURCE
TEAK
TEXT
        L000781
        Hansen, J.A., Therielscn, H.H., Buch-Hansen, P.
        Departeent o* Sanitary Engineering, Technical university of  Denaark,
        2800, lyngbi,
        Appraisal or Four Alternative Eicreta Beroval 5ystens  fcr Orban  Aceas  in
        Oevelcping Countries
        Frogress in Water Technology. 1 1 (1 ) : 235-239  (15  pages)
        1978
        Four low cost sanitation systems  (sewerage,  sewered aqua privies,  vaults
        and ccBDUiiity blocks) are discussed for i splerten la t ion  in an  urban  trcp-
        ical setting.  Eaphasis is placei on a tecnr^ical, financial and  tcononic

-------
        evaluation aed ccapdcisoa of these four scheees.   the  approach outlined
        la this paper provides «a isprovei basis  foe  the  decisicB-eak«r tfiqaru-
        inq choice tetueeo systems aesd  tfpes of teehsoloqy find regarding the
        factual cost to society of the  project, I.Q.,  la  relation  to an alterna-
        tive project. alto>3£tber.  (&0)
ACC8  : 1000732
ftOTHOl: EouBa, J.. las floc?ea, 3.J.. Sole, F.D.
Ami : Soil LciCBce Departseat, aaisersitif of  aiscoasis,  nadlsca
TITLE : EstleatiOB of cosparatlse aatec Traesaissioa  io  fvo  Pairs  of Adjacent
        Vlcaia and Cultisa^ed Fences is Hii.coaiin
SOU&CE: Geod*t»9. 13373-88  (16 paijesj

TEXT  : Hydraulic properties sag soil aocpbolo ;y of soil horizons  cf cairea
        virgin end cultieated pedcus, each pjilc uith  identical  soil  clessifica-
        ticnj, were studies at tea sites,  the  capacity  cf the  too caltieoted
        soils to tcattseiit aater aedec EatucateS coBditioes »as  tetlcccS as cctt-
        pared oith the v-irqia r.«ilc wherfess this capacity  te<* soil ai correspOiaSiaq BO! stare teasicns.   Preseets «ze*pl«B
        c«latin<) to soil saitatiiilf coc oe-site liqaid  uastu  dispcsal.  (SUf>
ACce  t
AOXHOB:
      ;
TITLE :
50UBCE:
V C£R  5
TE2Z  t
        L000763
        Uri'it.t, A.Rr
        •-irii Eogioeeri&q Oept.. Qciveisity of  Science  and  Techsolog?,  Kosasi,
        Ghao<<
        & Se-?ie« of Sitsl Escrets Disposal Srstees
        Progress io Hater r^chnolo^j Un):2t1-2i@  (6  pages)
        1 ^79
        At an isteffeational ceetiaq b&ld IB Gbaea la 1977,  25  excreta disposal
        systeBS were cevieucd aoa saaktcl for  possible  use  is  coral  sieas in <5e-
        selopiaq couctriefi.  The three  toe caisfcfed s'jsteas  sere ths  FeEeaecb-cua-
        ictioD Aatiioe  (F-.ci). the doq well litrirso, aac the fields Odorless Earth
        Closet fBCEC) .   It, a fiOtC h&s since teec aocii:i
AGO
*UT:IOE
4FFIL
1ITJ.E
SOURCE
TEAR
TEXT.
        LC0373U
        pcpkin, B.P.
        iatar iesourcer  Heseercb center,  Uai»ersity  of  Krl7.ona,  Tucscn
        Bec?cle CreyMiitsr for  !1oae Irrigation
        (later and bisl.«s En-iineeciTQ,  ?5(9):u2-ta  (3  ?a-;es)
        S«?ptenfcer tr/79
        Discasses the reuse of qiejvster  fee hone  irrigation  in  the arid South-
        uest>  Cteyaatec Is the cheapest  ant eost  abu?.(5^s[lt  suppleaental  vater
        source.  Roue matericq of lawns aod gardens  accounts  for 65 percent cf
        dovestic Hat»t use in  the Southwest.   Abo^t  60  percent  of the douestic
        yasteaater 1 ad  is qreyMater.  EeJuction  in  potatle  water u;e thrcuqh
        reuse of qre) /at»r leads to  louec  costs  fee  acaestic  «at = r ussqe and
        Eunicip^l services.  Includes  tables of  qre»water  characteristics and
        treatBent options, and OD the  cnqiceering  and  tccnoaicr  of creT«ater
        use.  (SWF)
ACCI
1UTHCB
AFFIL

TITLE
SOURCE
TEAR
TEXT
        LOC0785
        Wheeler, G., Bennett, J.
        Uater Resource Control  Enqineers,  State  Water  Resources  Board,
        Departnent of Water Cuality, Sacraeento.  California   95131
        The Caopdiqn ia California  for  Alternative  Systezs
        Individual Onsite Waste«3ter Systeas -  Proceedings of the Fifth Battcna!
        Conference, Ann Arbor Scieace publishers.  Inc.,  F.O.  Boi 1925,  Ann
        Arbor, HI &8106 (11 paqes)
        1979
        Discusses the 1978 Alternati»e  Systems  Action  Plan adopted  cy Califcr-
        aia's water fteso-irces Control Board as  a  coaprshtnsi ve state strategy
        towards better knoxledge  aoc core  widespread  acceptance  of  alternative
        wasteaater systess.  After  descriLinq  the  various  factors that  influ-
        et.ced this proqrar's edcptico,  there Is  a  brief  discussion  of four de»-
        onstration ptojects sponsored by the state.   (S«F)
ACCI
AUTKOE
AFFIL
TITLE
SOURCE
TEXT
        L000786
        KcGarry, C.t",.
        International Develofnent Sesearch Centre,  Ottawa,  Canada
        The I»portance of Kaste  Re-Ose
        Proqress io Water Tecbnoloqi, 11 (2):325-33U (10  pages)

        Topics covered include nichtsoil applicjtion.  ticaas qeieratlon, cos-
        posting, coapost  toilets, fish  fsrsinq,  and direct  algae harvesting.
                                         55

-------
        BUBbec of eiasples ate briefly discussed*
        fee ore Also presented.  (SMF)
                                                   Problems of  techoolexjj
ACCt
4FFXL :
TITLE :
SOUBCE:
TE»B
TEXT
        i.OOC767
        Haldorf. I. E.
        Progrse CcocdiBatcr. ftepalachiaa Eegiooal Ccaulssicrt.  Basbingtca,  DC
        So fou B*mt a federal Scaat
        ladial^osl Ossite Sfisteeater Sjslees-PECceeSIaqs of  the  Fifth  Bstleeal
        Cooftire&ce, t978,  A&a &rboc Science Psblishets lac.,  P.O.  BOI 102SC  Sea
        Arbor, aicfcigan, 263-26S  (S pages)
        I97S
        The federal qratst process is complicated. frustrating  aafl cos  easily
        confute tfcose cot cssa!!]? ic«olse3 uitb  lt»  To feelp graat  applicants,  e
        f«« tips to sid ie effective processing  are preseBte3»   iioaesty,
        patience ani persistence are eepfeaeisee.  (SfeF)
»CCS
fcGTHOB
AFFIL

TITLE
SCUiiCE
TEXT
        1000708
        games, B., Hdsan, f.
      of Ben Soetb Sales, Irastralio, Daiv. c£ CaeterbeEf,
Sew 7,aalsa<
Tbe Oesiaa
A Haist
-------
•OTHOK  Jofcascs, J.J»  Ceiselt  r.J.
iffTL   Greea later eatiosa! itfiliates,  lac..  Sestet,  Pass
TITLE   Clay Caps laqooa Systec
SOUBCE  «*ter e*4 Setiaqe Worts,  125 (11) :30-31  (2  p*qes)
IE*I    1979
TEXT    Biscosses the ccDStroctioa cf  a  facsltative Ijgoon srstee which stllizes
        a processed clay  (SeEtoEite) sealaat  for  tfce Ingcoe bottits asd dlies.
        6«utotit«5 is i ostsril  saterial  that,  t>&ea  a'.dvated,  SMclls op to J5
        tivec its initial rolase*  tai-q  eii«d  iato  sariace soil aad vetted, ihe
        Skistaace tecoaes a cel-iike blae&et  iisat c^a  prc«ic« &» eleost i;?erf«-
        stlc e*irier_against  liqsid see^iae.   CcspariscD is «aU« sith a    -- --
        1 i BttC •
iCCI  J IOC0792
10TSO«: lielsca, V.E.
4FFJL : iqaeooics, IEC., Sinta  Clara,  CS
TITLE : Cioaatios, Irr«diacics,  ChloriK.-tico  sad Coebieatless:  * Discessica of
        Tbeii Use is Sasller  *atec/9aste«3ter freats«nt Syste*s
SOORCt: I»diiioual Oa-Sits  B*ste»atcr  Ststeas -  FrocepiJi."5,s cf the Feertft
        SationaX Coafertnce,  las Arbor scleacc Petlish»r-> IE.C., P.O. fax
        ABB icijoc, RI  asi£b  (t« pcges}
mi  i 1977
Tilt  i COBIKIB forss of  cfceeical disiaf«ctie». chle-  ,-acion »s<3 osos*tloB er«
        brieflr discassed la  this article.  the  Its:t iuoxo fcrss of irc»(5ictioB
        teckvolCQT are described ie  theory, «sd  ?'e»f>lQ£ of tbeic ujs tor 
-------
           BBQCB, Delaware  and  Levitt  an3  SOB?,  lac.. late Ssccess, Be« Tcrk
TITLE i Siniaturo Treataeot Plaet Operates in  Hoasiag Cosseaitr
SCOiCZt
TEIT
        Bst
        197
           ar and Sea age  Horfes,  120 (S) Jl 02-JOa  (3
        Briefly inscribes a pb-f sical-cheeir.al  treaEseat gystee for a
        SOO-persoe Bea Jersey cossaelty.   It  Is iocitcd in a hoee-Ilfee streetBra
        ca a eae-cXEe lot ttitk iafliscaplna sa4 pla?  is  by Baste cosbastice beat ce<5 feel
        ail snj ieeol*es a floidlzed  seed  fea
TES1  t Tfcis eco&e&ics &f  paepiBq cad  healisg  Eroliicg tan% costeets esd s«rtic
              KlaS.fi*  In  aiscoosio were £ct«reiea^ b? dealer jvitcy.  ts£>egiacis(j
                  €lade distaaefe ot fe.uui,  ^£eqe«ec? e£ stc?ic^,, tracS sis^ ana
                  £? of £Ispc&al clte&.   ffcSfeftt aiscac.£i.a requlatlcas ar-d Bro-
              stpplesastcl  procctiiuies foe  disposal c£ hcldlu" t£9k a»d E
        ere iacSttSa*.   Sis  coQBti^s t/ec« seevefeb aao, a csss- bisttiij BOS
        predated foe OQ«  county.   (SB?)
»CC®
        10007S8
TEXT
                                                      ,,  .
      : Sb«raaa  gB^ironaeetal  Engieeerie^ E*£&azc5 Center, Technics. Palfa,
        issrael   320&0
TITLE : laproBiB?  Stabilizatics  Poed E££Jei€ac| ae<3 PecCccsiBCC
SOUSCEs Prcacess IB  Batec  Techuolcgy,  1 ! («/5) iSeg-aoi (16 pages)

      j the  p«r(ot*asce, cfficieoc*,, asij  ttahilitf of $ tabil lz«tico Fonis can t«
        siqni f icaBtl»  i»prp»e<3 ty  introfiocieq  soee secSienicai eaetqy as «cll as
        jhTsIco-cbe»ic
-------
        tie  cislfzed cfilBO. • coajqter sieelatioa »odel.  Sii altersatite  f:cb-
        •iejsfi for i*ad application are cs-ssiaeii.  variations is coFts are
        studied,  esic; cost estimates aad cost elasticity estie*t-.».  issrssiec
        that tk«  Noll recruireBeats ate set, iafiltraties rjs'La are the least
        cost techetq«e Cor laed application,  -'msier Pivrt Atri^atioa le  the
        least cost {crlsatisB altereatiie exasised.  ka*ij*is O£ treatBeat  ecc-
        eo»i»» ci site iciicates that cost cf tfee sifaistaqes to iscressiBO
        facility  si»« (sane btea realiitU *ttct facility siis reaiNes 10 sillies
        gallons par lay.  (AD)
ICC I  :
AOT8OI:
      s
TITLE :
SOC2CE:
TEll  :
TtZt  :
        ICC08C1
        ri«e«Y.  B.A., Hiddletroo*:;, t.J.
        HcBboiat State Oaireisitf. *rc*ta, California, aoi Otah  State
        l.»iF«rslt TC LCMJSB
        r«caltati«e ***tc Stsbil itetios Poai design
        Joccsal  Hater Collation Costco] Fedentioe. 52 (1 ) :l 38-187  (18  psces)
        1993
        A oae-year stetfy spoesoced bf the D.S. EF4 evaluated the pertoteaace  of
        fear fac8ltati»o iaqoon r.ystess.  ?hr«e of the sTstees coatsis  thrc«
        Cfllc *Mie t&« E*««iBie3 systes coatsiss setec Isgooas.   ill  sjftets
        •ere ^eaeiallt capable of providing a soxtis!;  evac&qe effloest  tc.t  COF-
        ceuttatioB baloK the federal stasi,sri *£ 33 «3/l.  the ejfltisst  sospeBd-
        •d scllcs co Beast cation Soliowei a scsscsal psttece o£ biqHei  cosceetra-
        tioas dsrisq soft-er eoEtfcs de« to S9tar.se al^al fjrcat!? «Ba  csric<; tfes
        >pri*« «ai tall o^ertecR£.  Three types cf 4esi;a sethods  eere  -salua-
        t«i:  rtet* cr^saic ass tiydr^QJic leadiEf? rates,  tcpiricil  eqaaticra.
            tiaetic  (caticaei eqs«tioas) .  &cse sera rccsd tc b« sde^sa'e v es
                to tbe loer srctess stcjiej.  The aathccs f«el (Seta t si sc t ica  cf
         fafsicftl cli««tic inflaeacfes oa hy«!t«slic cesidaace tiae is vital IB
         •*«lopia-} qocd design eqaatioes.  >Si3f)
ACC»
tOtfiOS
Afrit
SITLE

SCORCf
TEIt
        IOS3502
        Settvrccea, C., ?«BBTSOB. 1.
        Scisoal of Forestry, Ccirarsity of nissosri. coloatia,  SC   65211
        Ib* IsportdEce of Soil is Ewalaati&g Potestial  Hasteujter  Disposal  Sites
        1& t&« fisscari Ciatts
        Hnter Sesotrces Eullttis, t5(5):11'3-1363  (It  pages)

        The l»(sereot capacity of the sorface scil  to  retaia. cr at !et«:t  delate,
        tb« »aiiCBs Bttneat icos passing throe^h  the jccflle  ir  t&e  cstcrlatiBq
        waters iecost? tlic pci3« conci-ieratics  IB  rec-icss  *ith shallcj  irster
        t*tl?i cr IE iotst areas seen as  tec nissooci  C;art!= sbere tbt  EifU cf
        Qccs»l»axet sapcly cos t :air,31 ioa  is hi^s.   A  ccEpreb^rsise -ts(JT  c^ tfc€
        eus.Lie.it renofiiica fotestijl of  «er«rdl soils  vac oadertaiee  it  £
              affluent iiricstion site a]
                 central Cissoari.   T!
                  selected sc-il satei fi
                                                    .
                                        ilamg Ihe Ciart gotiossl  Scenic  ?i»er»ays
                                        SQifcot for s'.o«iiers. nozzles, sist s»io«ers  and  other  flou  redaction
                                .
        d*Tices for iB-io»
-------
        contiaaoas) ate resie«e  ispcttaat
        coepoBe&t, especially vetrioq initial use*   (AC)
ACC8  : 1000805
AUTBQB: Qfeuao. T., Ratsunoto, J»
&FPIL, : Tofeofco l)nx»., Aofcs, i^aSai 960, Japan
IITIE : Effect oi Intiltratiea late OB Biological Clogging and  Hater Quality
        Changes Duriag Artificial Eechscge
S008CE: aatec Sesources Besearca. 1 5{6J :f 536-15*2 (7 pages)

TEIT  : The effect of infiltration cate on biclcqical clogging  and  water quality
        ctieaqec is investigated exoeriBentally using a sand coloon.  The coecea-
        tration of soluble COO ia th« effluent is stafcle during three sooths  if
        iafiltratioa, and the loser the laitlal infiltration rate is, the  hig..sr
        the averaae percentage of tbe teuuctioa of soluble COD  becoses.  The
        soluble COD is priBaril? cesosed la Sbe saritBce layeE-   ?fee hyfSiEulic
        coaductivit; in the bofcaa iafee iJeeseases at the highest iafllttatioB
        rate.  The aaciatior e£ ief ilsration rate is Ji^idea into fouz stages.
        In addition, tb<3 bioioq jcai-cio(j'5inf! aodel is pccpused,  eed the eccb«£—
        ISB of bioloqical clo^iaq is discussed.
ACCS  :
iUTKOB:
JtFFSt s
SOUiCEi
IEAB  J
TEST  :
        LOCQB06
                It.
        Bafor of Ksrathoo. Bee Tstfc
        Saall TOMB Gets Big Help for Ken Seuera<e toaa of Raiatfeoa. Bea  Torfc  (popolaticn
        1000). was able to fied fending £roa  fi*c fesSerol  and state  agencies  to
        cover aost of the $2.6 Billies cost for a C.-2  f?GE  conventional collec-
        tion sewerage systea, ifcasicg ttoeeovaers aa aaouel bill of S160.   (SSF)
iCC»
ADIKOB
AFFIL
TITLE

SOUECE
TEAS
TEX1
        1000807
        Heniricks, G.F.
        Sieca, lac.. ConsultiBQ
        Pressute Sewage Sjste-u aeii treateent - Gran^sieu ' lake,  Indiana.
        Desonstraticn Project
        Atserican Society of Agricultural EnqiDeers, Vaper  Ko, 71-512  (11  pages)
        1971
        Graadvieu Lalce is a QOO acre lake  siirrounSe'l tj  residences  asing  septic
        taaks.  ID order to avoid pallalion of the lake,  it  «»s  decided to
        collect the uastewater asi discharqe it  tc a centcal  trsstsent  plant.
        Howeser, £ue to the ruqcei topography, con?-=ational  gravity sobers  aa3
        lift stations were estisated to cost SIO.OOO per  ejistina hose.   tke
        need tor an uncon senticsal approach resulted is  a  federally supported
        denoost rat ico project.  Tae solution in»cl»ei  installation  of hoae
        qrinder pusps and a pressare se«er systea dischargina to a  combined
        anaerobic-aerobic laqooa.  It  was  found  that the  tagcoo  system  ucald
        treat tho septic tank Pt'flaent «ithcut odors.   (SWF)
ACCB
AUTHO?
AFFIL
TITLE
SOUSCE

YEAR
        LOC0808   '
        Viraraqhavan, I.. Harnoct.  E.G.
        Dept. c£  Civil EnqiDeering. Uni»ersit)f of Ottawa,  Ottawa,  Canada
        Treatment Efficienc/ of a Septic Tile Systee
        Prccttdinqs of the Rational Soae Sewace  Sytposiue,  ASAE  Publication.
        Froc-175  (10 paoes)
        197U
        ft field investigation  ia Canada deterained  the  efficiency  of  a  septic
        tile systeo.  The treataeot efficiency uith teqard  to  ECu.  anuonia,  aad
        phosphorus was reported.  Tbe sanples uere  ccllectod at  the  point  «her*
        the septic tank effluent rfas distributed  to the tile and  then at  »aricus
        ocpths in the soil.  The results shcu the scil  reduced  EOD  levels  ty
        70-33 percent.  The efficiencr of  the septic  tile  i-as  influenced  t-y
        seasou=>l  variations with 50-30 percent efficiencies  for  various
        paranettrs curing suDser aad early  fall.  Phcsphcrus re«o»als ran  fro
        25-50 percent.  Auisonid reductions  ran free highs  of 60-90  percent iD
        the suaaer. a.~d fall to lews of 20-35 percent  in the  winter.   (SWF)
ACC«  : L000809
AFFIL : University of Wisconsin,  Kadiscn
TITLE : Application of Soil Surveys  tc  Selection  of  Sites  for  Cn-Site  Disposal
        cf Liquid rfousehold Kastet
SOURCE: Geoder«a, 10:113-122  (JO
TEAR  : 1973
                                         60

-------
TEXT  : 1 discussion of hew soil survey  saps  Bay  be  used foe delineate areas for
        various oa-si"ce uastevuter  systass.   This isforaation say be useful when
        applied) through a cooperative  effort  by  »aiions gcsernsent re«l€«ing and
        planoifcq agencies.  &a  iategratiee effort by aqeocies educated in sell
        survey analysis and en-site uastevater  iispossl cay  nake a significant
        inpact in the use of  inac»atitre  systees.   (2*1?)
ACC0
ftUTHOB
AFPIL
TITLE
SOUBCE

TE4B
TEIT
        100081(1
        »/»
        fidiae Cept. of  En»ircr.sefc tal  Protection
        Cleaning Up the  Mater — Private  Senaq«  Ei^ricsal  in Rains
        State at Raine,  Dept. of Enrironscn tal  Protection.  State House,  icgusta
        Hdin« 00330   (33  pages)
        1978
        This popular-style  Jjcoklet  is written  fcr  the  keif  of  Kaine's popolatioa
        which den®ads on  oa-site trsataeEt  end  is  faced with ths 1975 lea
        ptcJibi iUnq disposal of efttreateii wasteiiater ieto (laine waters.   ET
        usinq siiaple  diagraes aoa tables, the  beotlet  eiplains all approved
        disoosal syteBS,  inclutEieg  lou-«ater and »aterless  toilets,  aasteuater
        separation and  overboard disposal.  &  aaQafactacec's listing and ether
        helptal hiots to  private hoeeouaers are  included.  (SMf)
ACC»
AUTHOB
tftli
TITLE

SOURCE
TEXT
        Baker,  F.C.
        Oniuersity of  Biscousia,
        Factors  iQflueDciaij  the Crost  Te^t  foe  ie-sito  ReaSuteseBt  of HyiJraolic
        Soil Science  Society  of  iaerica  Journal,  si (6) ;1 C29-1 032 (8 pages)
        1977
        Fieia  trials  using  the crast  test  eere  use^  to  aetersine the inflnence
        of  five  parameters  on the  saturated  asi  oKsatarated  hydraolic coDdoetis
        ity salaas aeasoced OB tso soils of  aiffereut structura.  These factors
        aera  (ill the  diaeeter,  (ii) the  neiqht  of the soil  pedestal esed io_ the
            -r  (11
        test.
lli)  the deuces of soil «etiieas at which te uas Beasured,
        soil structure,  and  (s)  operator  Affects.   Disaster  and height «ere
        found  to strongly  affect oeasureraeBt  uhen  they  had low values.  These
        two desiga  factors nere  dependent  on  the  wetness and structure of the
        soil.  Operator  differences  uere seall.   (AU)
ACCI
AUTHOB
A F H L
TITLE

SOURCE

TEAK
TEXT
         1000812
         Cola, C.A.
         FecESjIuatia  State  Uaiv.,  Capit.il  Caspas  UZ61 ,  f!i ddlelc»n,  FA   17057
         The  lopnct  of  Hcse  lieter-Sa»inq  Toilets on  rfastewater Ccllectioc and
         T ceats^nt
         Publications  Distribution  Center,  Ccck College,  Eutgeis Or.iv.,  Ke«
         Erunsuici.  KJ   C?902,  (6  paqes)
         1976
         the  author  calcul.it-=;s  the  effect of  five  differert toilet  discharge
         rates  (S.TS qal./fljsh  to  0.25  gal./flush)  and  the sol ids-carryirc abil-
         ity  a1^ meaiured by  the  flow  velocity and  depth,   PlunLinq  code  standards
         can  still be  net  at  two callon  flush amounts tut say reguire snaller
         pipe dijiseters.   Flou  reduction  lowers  treatserit plant loading  rates,
         hence their hydraulic  life,  hut  its  teocfits *ay be cancelled  by infil-
         tr.aticn.   (SHF)
ACCI
AUTHOS
AFFIL
TITLE

SOURCE

tEAH
TEXT
         IOOOS13
         Heg
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TEXT  : AD eipecisest eas fiesltj»e4 to  study  th*  hydrodyr.aeics  of  soil  cclusss cf
        two contrasting testucal sixtnces: clay  loaa  and  sandy loae.   A  chlcride
        tracer soluti.cn was applied  to the surface  in  Eesen-aisote  periods  tc
        sieulate the septic taas effluent distribution  tise  of an average  seep-
        age bed.  Ifatjinq nosbers of Q.5 CB  vertical  pores drilled  through  the
        coluans pteriaed c eeens to  study unssturated  £lc« and its  control  ty
        soil texture ind pore site,  isnd  it served as  a  checfc on observed charac-
        teristics of natural soils.  Results shew ths  siqnif icacce  of  priearf
        ana secondary stractore ic the absciftioti oc  dilation  of  a  tracer,   the
        effect of a crust which establishes  ucsatorated flow is also defined.
ACCS    L000815
AUTHOB  H/A
AFFIL   Bunicipal Finance Officers Association  and  ?sat.  Saruick.  Ritchell  C
        Co.
TITLE   Worksheets and  Instractioas  for  a  Screening  Procedure  for  Bater
        PollutiOD CoBtcol Projects — Oeterainaticn of Debt Capacity  of
        Coassanities GSC! cities
SOOECE  Ruaicipal rissace Officers- Associaticn  sod  Peat,  BeruicS,  Hitcbell  C
        Co.,  EPA Ccetract Bo. 68-61-43Q3   (JQ pages)
TEAB    1 979
TEXT    Ibis  article-  provides ccesssuities  and reviewing  aathcritles with  a  pro-
        cedure to deteceiae  If  the cossuai ty can afford  a FtcF°se*  «ater  pollu-
        tiou  control  project ufeile the project  is in the  develcpnaotal stage.
        Uoricsheets to calculate t&e  findncial iapact of  the  prelect on tbe  cca-
               are iscluded.   (S.F)
4CCS    L000616
AUIHOk  Goehrinq. D.R., Carr,  F.F..
AFFIL   Nei> castle Coanty,  !>euack,  Delaware,  Tat^an C  Lee  Asscc.,  Inc.,
        Kilainqtoo, Delaware
TITLE   Septic Systec  Protless  OB «.n  Dcban  Ttinqe
SCUECE  Journal of the Hater  Rescacces  Planning  ani Ranaqesent  Civision,
        106   land occopaecy, and ao  increase  in
        the cost of patlic  ser»icts.   A strategy fee aanscing septic  systet
        growth en tie  urban frioge  is presented  that involves regulation,  en-
        forceaect, aaiijtenance  aad  iiaancinq.   (SWF)
 ACC»  :
 AUTHOR
 AFFIL
 TITLE
 SOURCE
 IEAK
 TEXT
        LOOG817
        SI/A
        U.S. EPS and (iatianal Hater *ell Asscciation
        Proceedings of the Second feational Hatec Cuality SyscosiuB
        EPA Technology Transfer, rfishinqton. B.C.  20U60   (257 pages)

        Technological advances asd retearch discussions cf qrcun^watpr quality
        are najor topics of the 1374 pioceedings.  Three articles pertinent tc
        s»all wasteuater flows are presented (see .LC00113, L00017H. 1000277).
        Topics include septic tank systee design, uniforu distritution in scil
        adsorption fields and qrcuadvater contaaination.   "-••»>
ACCJ
AUTHOR
AFFIL
TIT' £

SOOHCE
TEAR
TEXT
         LC00816
         Loury, W.H.
        An Onsite  3ystea  Solves  a  Prcble«  at  the  Hill  on  the  Floss  Pestaurant  in
        Hew  Ashford,  Massachusetts
        Individual Onsite  Wastewater  Systeos  -  Proceedings  of  the Fifth  National
        Conference.   Ann  Arbor Science  Publishers,  Inc.,  P.O.   Sox  1«25,  Ann
        Arbor,  Hichiqan   H8106  (5  pacjes)
        1979
        Installation  of an  aerobic treataent  unit  and  evapotranscirat ion  teds  et
        a restaurant  site  ir.  a hilly  Massachaset ts  toi/n  is  described.   This  sys-
        te»  replaced  a septic  titk -  soil  absorption sycteE that  was  failing  cce
        to tight clay soils.   lapleaen ta t ion  included  water reduction  and care-
        f-il  desiqn or the  syste«.   Sesults fro»  a  year's  operation  eppear satis-
        factory as dissolved  oxyqea  levels are  hi an and  r.o  odcts  are  present.
 ICC I   :  LCOOei9
 AUTHOS:  Cooper,  I.A.,  Sezek,  J.H.
 AFFIL  :  E««ons,  Henry.  Sf>iser.hei»er  and  Gende,  Inc.,  Aurcra,  CO   60011
 TITLE  :  Treatability o£  Pressure  Sendee
 SOURCE:  Individual Cnsite  Wsstewater  jystens  -  Frcceedincs of the Fifth National
         Conference. Ann  Arbor  Science  Publishars,  Inc.,  P.O.  Eci  11425.  Ann
                                         62

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        iirbor, fiichigan   and
        other pertinent infora&tioa.   (Siif)
«CC»
AUtHOS
AFFIL
TITLE

SOOBCE
TEAfl
TEXT
        1000620
        B/A
        American Society of Agricultural  Eagineers
        Hoee Sewage Disposal -  Proceedings of  the Baticpal  Hose  Sewage  Disposal
        S j nposiua
        6SC2, 2950 Nilcs Bead,  St. Joseph, RI   U90B5  {202 pages)
        1975
        Presents the Proceedings of the ilaticnal Hcee  Seaace  Disposal Sjaposios
        (AeocicaE Society of Agricultural Engiiseers).   Titles cf  topics cohered
        aces  "Hoae Seuage Disposal Beyint cf these  sodi £ica tions  oire discussed.   The
        • a^jor ispact  on cost  «ou..d be  the  ceccaaendation £cr inspectica  of  sys-
        teas under construction.   (AO)
ACC5
AUTHOF
AFFIL
TITLE
SOURCE
TEAR
TEXT
        LC00322
        fiddletrooks,  E.J.,  Falk-rnborq,  D.R.,  Lewis,  H.F.  {editors)
        EPA Municipal  En\ironsectal  Research  Latoratocy
        Perforaance and Upgrading of  Vastenater  Stabilization  Ponds  -
        Proceedings of a  Conference  Hell  August  23-25,  197S, at  Utah State
        University, Logan, Utah
        NTIS, Spnnqtield, «A  22161   (22«  pages)
        1979
        The proceedings contain  18 papers discussing  and  describing  the  design,
        operation, performance and upgrading  of  laqocn  systeas.   Perfornance
        data for  facultative and aerated  lagoons  collected  at  nueercus sites
        throughout the USA are presented.   Design  criteria  and  the  applicability
        cf perforsance data  to design  equations  are discussed.   Roc* filters,
        internittent sand  filters, aicroscreening  and other physical-chesical
        techniques, phase  isolation,  land application,  and  controlled environ-
        ment aquaculture  «ere evaluated  as  aethods applicable  to upgrading
        lagoon effluents.  The proceedings  conclude with  a  presentation  on  the
        costs associated  with the construction,  operation  anJ  maintenance of
        lagoon systeas.   (AU)
ACCI
AUTHOR
AFFIL

TITLE
SOURCE
TEXT
        LCOOfl23      '
        Reynolds, J.H., Swiss,  R.H.. Kacno, C.X.,  Middletroc^s,  J.J.
        Division of Environmental Engineering, Utah State  University,  Logan,
        Utah
        Facultative Lagoon terforaance
        Progress in Hater Technology, 1 1 (<4/5) : 361-376  (It  pages)

        The general objective of this study was  to detersine  the  yearly  perform-
        ance of a seven-cell facultative waste stabilization  lagoon  systea
                                        63

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treatisq dosestic uasteuatec froa a ccBeenity with a  peculation of Q71
pecsoas aod to coapaie this actcal psrfocsence with criteria aseo to
design the lagooa systes and to evaluate existing lagoon design equa-
tions.
     The final efflueat biocfceaical oxygen aesaod (ECD-5J concentration
of the systen oeeer exceeded 20 eg/1 ana oaly exceeded  10 aq/1 doilaq <»
of th«» 13 Booths studies.  The final efflueBt suspended solids coecee-
tcation was less tfeae 30 eg/1 during 11 cf the 13 eoetks studied and
exceeded 10 aq/1 daring 5 of the 13 souths stedied.   The effltsect
colifciB concentration never. exceeded 200/7 CO ai throughout the entire-
study.
     Data collected daring the study were used tc evaluate recoBseeded
laqoon desiqa criteria {i.e., organic leading ret -3)  an<3 lagoon design
equations proposed by Glovca, flarais, and Thirusucthi.  The evaluation
suggested that siqailicant eoSificctlcBS to existiag  lagoon design pro-
cedures is needed.  (&U)
tCCS  :
AOIHOB:
50UECE:

IE*E  :
TEXT  :
1000820
Bosley. a., Bealf, K.*., Helfgott. 1,, leak. R.
Ciwil Enqiiseerieq Dept.r ani». c£ Conoecticat, Stores, Coan.
Nasteuatec Disposal Sjsteas ia BsssKeced Areas - Fioel fiepott
Cieil EngineetiGQ Kept.. Uoio. o£ Connecticut, Stores, Conn.  (209
Ibis dual-pacpose stutfj? exaaiced tbe presently appcoved vastevstet dis-
posal site ecaluatioti Efitbcfis ao4 uaefl this datft to aid in  the deeeicp-
•ent ot ecic acccrate aud isea&icg£al test proct-ilures.  The  feasibility
of leach fielcS baclmasbinq for sore reliable operation «as  investigated.
and detailed dcsciiptioss for the e&nv individual  research  projects
associated nlth the siady era attached.  The projects iscluaed s  tack-
washable clotb filter to replace ab.^ccption field  lines.  Hass accuB-ila-
tion OB the cloth sad cloqgloq by filtration, septic task effluent enai-
actecisti^s, assd the efitect CB frequency asd <3uratioE of septic teak
effluent discharqe OB soil cloggioq utte studied.  Two projects deolinq
with soil clogging, the physical sodeliag of septic tank soil adscrptico
systes, and acvelopseat of a fcaciaashable leaching field '
-------
        systee, and design, constractios and saintonance  coscerss.   Prcblcss
                                                    aerobic  unit  dependability.
                                                      ~*~'alsttation  and  eainte-
        were found it systee desiqe,  pl&ceeent.  and  aerob
        The Hide raaije of probleas observed  indicate adai
        nance shortfalls as veil as design and  cor.sttBctl
                                                         tea  prcblees.  (SB?)
ACCf
40TBOB
AFFIL
TITLE
SOUBCE
TEAS
TEXT
        L000628
        Hoaells, O.r Oiqa, A.
        Uniretsity of Siorth Carolina Research Institute
        Let's Ccasiiei Lend Treatae&t, Sot  Land  Disposal
        Cijil Engineering, fiSCE, Parch 1976:60-62  (3  pages)

        The qeeeral aduantiqes of land application of  uastev'ater  ate  fiiscossed.
        Topics cossifieced are: s) pretieatsept requirements,  t) disinfection  re-
        qulreseats, c) qroundaater deqr«dation,  d) effects  OB  sarface water,  c)
        application catas, f) hydraulic consideraticas, aud g)  eccaoalcs.  (SHFj
ACC»  : 1000829
AUTH08: Feeches, B.g Calrncrcss, s.
ftFFIL : The Boss Institute of Tropical Kjqieno. London  School  of  Hyqieo*  and
        Tropics! Bedicioe, Keppel Street,  (Gcuer Street),  LcatSca,  Esqlasd
TITLE : Snail Bsctet* Disposal Systeas
SOUBCEt Tb« Soss lEStitutt: latorffiiitioa arid Advisory  Service, Ross  fiulietin  8.
        Joti. 1S76 (SS pages)
IBAB  s »978
TEII  t Tbis bocKietf wrlttea at ttse bi2d tor lilitsry use  3ni  involres  a ccotiaed  ««ste«ater
        purification and solid uaste disposal  systen.   Recycled  water  is  «.seatle
        lor any purpose other than driuilnq  and ' culinary  use.  The  second  systee
        is designed for Ooaestic aoplication  as  part of  an integrated  waste  oan-
        aqesent systea called CiKHFL  (Canadian  Water Energy  Lccp).   The C*K«Ft
        systea uas desiqued to treat all  liquid  and solid  wastes  frca  a cc«»un-
        ity of 500-1000 people.   (SWF)
ACCI
AUTHOB
AFFIL
TITLE
SOQSCE
TEII
        L000832
        Ficltfcrd, J.A.
        Loughtorouqh University of Technology
        Control of Pollution and  Disease  in  Developing  Ccuntries
        Water Foliation Control.  76 (3) : 239- 253  (15  pages)
        1979
        Control of pollution and  disease  in  developing  countries  through  tiarte-
        wdter treatment is discussed.   Adequate  sanitaticn  and  the  develotaent
        of safe water supplies are the  sain  eifctts of  disease  control.   The  use
        of conventional and alternative «a.steuater  treatoe.it  sjstess  is  discus-
        sed.  Suggested alternatives  include  latrines  at.d  envies.   3 1 a!- 1 1 iia-
        tion ponds are suggested  as an  appropriate  se'.hcc  for convent icnal
        treatue..L.  fcn iaportant  consideration  is  the  « t mulaticn  of  irteina-
        tional aid for treatnent  wories  construction and  the drvelopser.t  cf
                                         65

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        traiatd *dnpc»er within the developing countries.   (SfF)
ACCI
AUTHOR
APFIL
TITLE

50QBCE

TEAR
T2XT
        LOC0833
        flilaes. T.R.. Salth, ».
        Kilaes Enqineerinvj- Inc.
        CoBsuaity Action at crater Lake - A io« Pressure Seuer 3yste» with
        Aerated Lagoons
        Hater Pollution Control Association cf Pennsylvania Hagazine, Scv.-Cec.,
        1978:6-11 (6 paqes)
        1978
        Cossanity action by residents lisinq around Oiaker Lake, in Sasqaehanna
        County, Pernsjlvania, prevenffed e«ttOfhication of the lake.  A aaite-
        udter troataer.t systes consisting of pressure sewers and aerated earthen
        laqocas provides the required tertioty treatsent.  The pressure sswer
        systea consists of ijrin'er pnaps and cressure sains.  Tt-3 lagoon sr£t€B
        'itilites two lagoons «ith a'iepth of ten teet an total cast cf
        juoo.ooo.   	
ACCI
AUTHOB
AFFIL
TITLE

SOURCE
TEXT
        1000831*
        Sertiiao, 5.A., rfencSola, 0.
        Solar iquaSysters, Inc.
        Ibe Sola! Stjuaceil SWT Lagoon Systes (or the City of  Hercules,
        California
        froceedlaqs of the Hater Reuse Sysposiua, Vol. 1:671-680  (?C
        » j * y
        This paper presents aa lanosatltfe uasteuatec treatment systee in  Cali-
        fcrnia «hich utili2es aerated laqooss, aquacal tore and solar energy.
        The Sclar Aqoaceli lagoon wastcwster trestseDt systes is  designed to
        prodace a range of etfl-ieat water quality for  Boitiple ceose opticns. as
        well as recycle 1 0'J percent cf the turvestti aoustic  plants, solids and
        diqesifcd sludge into readable fcy-products for  cosBUDity UEC.  totcr r*"-
        use options include irrigation, industrial coolant, stress  enhancesent
        acd qroonduater recharge.  Tlifc systes consist  o£ tncee anaerobic  itsqe
        poncSs, followed by 3 facultative pond an<3 a third phase aerct Ic/agoat ic
        plant pond.  Sand filtration an<3 ozone disinfection ate used for  terti-
        ary vflluect needs.  Tbe ponds are enclosed in double polyethylene to
        provide qreenhouse conditions for the aquatic  plants.  &lv«n taoes of
        this sfstes in-clude loaer conntr uct ion, Cferaticn dad sain tenance ei-
        pense. isproired solics handling and reuse, improved process  stability
        and reliability and snail leal area requlresent.   (SWF)
ACCI
AUTHOR
AFFIL

TITLE
SOUfiCE
YSAfi
TEXT
        LC00935
        lussier. D., trunk, J.
        EPA Ceater foe Fnvironaental  Research  Cntoraaticn  and  Ci»ii  Enqineerinq
        Student. University of Cincinnati,  respectively
        EtA's; Innovative and Altetnativt Technology  prc^
        Pollution Enqineerinq, 11 (11) : ?3-36  ("4  pages}
        1979
        The Clean Water Act of 1977 asended  sections of  the  1972  Federal  Hater
        Folldtior Control Act.  This  neu act provides  increased funding of
        «astei*at^r treataent facilities froa 75  to 35  percent  for  inno»atise  cr
        alternative technoloqy utilization.  A  provision for  100  percent  fundinq
        to replace or aodify an I/A facility that fails  within  the first  two
        years of operation  is included.  I/A technologies  stress  water, nutri-
        ent, and natural resource reuse, energy  conservation,  cost effectivesoss
        and improved toxic  nanaqeaent.  A  list  of SPA  approved  alternative  sys-
        tens is qiven, >ilonq yith criteria  that  nay  be aet to  sake alternati«e
        tecnnoloqi':s fit into the innovative classification.   (SWF)
ACC»
AOIHCfi
AFFIL
TITLE
SOURCE

TEAR
TEXT
        LC00836
        Kitt, H.O.
        University of Wisconsin, Hacison
        Mater Use in Rural Hones
        S»all Scale Waste nanaqeaeat Project - University of  Wisconsin,  HaJisoa
        (30 paqes)
        197a
        A study of eleven rural hones was conducted  to  determine, the  contritu-
        ticcs aade to the voluse of wasteuater on  a  day-to-day  and  an hourly
        basis.  Hiqh ar.J low flows and ctjanqes in  flow  patterns  frcs  suaaer  to
        winter were also examined.  The water use  was assigned  ro sii events: 1)
                    aundry, 3) bath ot shower, 4)  dishes, 5)  water  scftener,  and
        6)  others.  orqar.izational charts and graphs are provided.   Fcssitle
        toilet, 2) laundry, 3) bath ot shower,
        6) others.  orqar.izational charts and
        flow reductions by the use of various  uater  savinq  techniques  were
        estiaated for each hoae in the study.   (AU/5HF)
                                         66

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iCCI
TITLE
SCUSCE

YEiO
TEXT
        L000837
        Paestasf E.T., Clark,  J.B.
        Cept. oc Civil EngioeeriBq,  Hex  Mexico  State UD!V.  Las traces. HP! 85003
        Treataent of Septic Tank  Effluent
        new nesico Water  Resources  Besearcfc  lai'.itttte.  seii  fieslco State
        University,, Bos 3167,  Las Cruets.  SB  66003  (93 pages)
        1978
        Tertiary trcataant of  septic tank  effluent «as  researched.   Trestseat
        occured is a separate  taak  with  aerobic conditions  provided by eletroly-
        sis of water.  the eaia criterion  for  evaloation of the electcoXy-is
        Sfsteo BSS CCD removal.   Fcos the  d«ta, it was  concluded that the design
        of this systea rests on oae partaeter--the area ct"  tba electrcce.
        Tceatae&t jij this aethod  B«S foam) to  be effective  and bad  low aalnte-
        Bance reqalreeest:.  (SHF)
ACCS
iUSBOE
Hffll
TITLE

SOOECE

1EAB
TEXT
        1000838
        KcClellaud-EI  (editor)
        Matioaal SaaitatiCB  Fc
        Icdisidual Onsite iijsteudter  Svstees  -  Proceedings of  the Second
        BatiOBal Coaferesce.  197S
        Jinn AEbor Scieoce PublisUstE,  Isc.. P.O.  Box  1Q2S, Ann firbcr, RI  QB1C6
        (21 a paqes)
        1977
        Thirtj-tuo leaiSInc? nnthorities exasiaa  ealor  aspects of the sefclect -
        iacluaiog sabsu;£aee  disposal  iJet-tods.  uat<;r  coosecv«tioa,  vies! aed
        bactaiifil contaaia«tioa» soil  bydeauJic condactivity.  cite  selection ao(5
        correction of  f*ilea  Eystests.   The  boos P«?s  special atsentioo to the
         Eroblee of ensirosBeatal coatrol  «s.  uniisitea  grcuth  with  a dialcque
         etMoea tepTesestatises of  t:-.e legislatory.  private land (ieueioysetit and
        citizen's Loiots of  wiaa,
             She T575  Proccediegs contain:  Kcjnote  Address - ttivlronseotel cco-
        trol Versus Uolieited Growth:   The  State  Legisiatcc*s  Position;   The
        Citizen Laau  Daeelopec's Positico;  The lapact  of  Cnlct Systeas  OD t»n<3
        Ce»elcpoeist-A  Citizen's Sieu;  Profcless  and  Soiutiocs of Onic* 3«»aq";
        Disposal:  Subsurface Disposal Hethads;  Sestowater fiecjclinq asd Kater
        Conservation;   Virus  In Crounduatec;  The Effects  of Efilaeots en
        Graunduater:   Bactetioloqical  Aspects;  Tne  Hastinqtoa  Scene and  Environ-
        eeotal liealth;  Reno»eticr. c-E  Scopus Effluants ty  the joil;   Seasoresent
        o£ Soil 'dr'ir-'i'Jlic Conj-jctivity and  Site Selectlcn  for  liquid Baste CSs-
        posal;  Ir.fiuence or  Ciisste  on Safsurface  Disposal of Sewaqe Affluent;
        Causes and f.ds-e&j of  Failure  of Septic  Teak Seepage Systeas {LOOOC321 ;
        Ten-State SpptOeich to Design  Stanoaris  for  IniiviaudI  Cnsite «a£t€Mst»;r
        Systess;  f.ae^uacy and (Jailor raity cf  Regulations  for Or.site Wfi2te»ater
        Dispos-al - iocal Concera; The  iile^«ocy  anci  Uniiorisitj  oi Sequlaticns for
        Coslte Wastewater Dispcsal-A  State  sievcolBt  (LC00156>; Rural tiastevater
        Eesearch:  H  Look Into tht  Future;  £staLlishinq and Schievinq ttie Pos-
        sible  (LOOC630) ;  Confetence  Susifary.
             Ihe nusb«r  follouiaq a title indicates the article is  included in
        the Clearinghouse database.   Additional articles  Bay te indisidually
        abstracted and  can tf- found Ly title  in the indei.  (AU/Stif)
Acce
AUTHOR
AFFIL

TITLE
SOURCE
TEAK
TEXT
        L000839
         Eeynoids, J.H.,  Biddlefcrooks,  E.J..  Pid Jlebroolts.  C.H.
         Civisicn  of  Environaental  Engineer in^.  Utah State  Univ..  Logan,  OT
         8U322
         Lagoons for  Snail  VJastenater  Flows
         Icdividjal Cnsite  Uastewater  Systess -  Proceedings of the Fifth  national
         Conference.  Ann  Arbor  Science  Publishers.  Inc.,  P.O.  Eci  1«25, Ann
         trboc, Hichiqan  S3106   (27 paqes)
         1979
         Discusses the  performance  and  desiqn of fccultative anJ aerated  laqccn
         tystepi^ treating  flous of  less tha,i  0.6 aillion  qallcns per day.   stres-
        ses selected site descriptions,  lagoon  ,?erf orisance for EOD.  suspended
        solids aad  fecal colifors  removal  ar.J  technique? fcr polishing pon^ ef-
        fluent.  Studies show  final  effluent  BOD  concentrations CSD  te «ain-
        taiaed below 30 «
-------
TEIT  : fiovides iaforaetion OB the  requirements  for  installing  sod  cperatieg
        private sewaqe disposal systeas  in  aanitoba,  Canada,  onl  reviews  types
        of saptic tanks sea disposal  fields  peraitted along  «itb  detailed
        st«iiacss  chlorine  Jeoat.il  than unfiltered.   Teu-
        perature, sulfide, and  totjl  cheaical  oiyi™n  denand  were  the  oost
        tant  factors af£=ctinq  the chlorine  dos?  necessary  to  achieve  a  speci-
        fied  bacter:oloqical quality,   A  »a the^.i t ical  Eodel  was deteioped  and a
        scries of ITS! jn curves  «ete  constructed  for  use  in  selecting  the  opti—
        •al chlorine dosage needed for  achieving  prescribed  levels  cf  disinfec-
        tion.
              Total and fecal colifora reacval  in  the  Icqoon  systea  was related
        to hydraulic residence  tine.  Cclifom  -iie-auaj  rate  was  1£  tises  great-
        er ia susner souths th«n  in winter  eonths.   (AU)
ACCJ
AUTHOS
AFFIL
TITLE
        LOooeai
        Duffer, W.R., Hoyer, J.E.
        .Robert S. Ktrr  L'nvitcnaental  Research
        Municipal Wastewiter Aqudcultare
Lah
                                         68

-------
SOOBCE: Bobert S. Kerr Ea»IroB»efttal  Fesearch  Lat..  Office of K C C, OSSPA, Ads.
        OK  74820, EPA-SOO/2-78-HO  (June  1978)  (SS  pages)
TE&B  • o 9T8
TEXT  : The eeBelopsent.il status of  the  equactiitutal alte:r.ati»e foe treetseot
        and tease of aunicipal uasteuatec  is rewie»e
        disease.  Control aeawnres  and the  aqeats'  sue vi »r. bi 1 i t y  cutside the
        host aie  reviewed.  The last  sections  of  each  chspt&c deal  iith  the
        agents* ce«o»al  in  se«aoe treataent works,  Ijtrifjes,  piivies.  and their
        life span in  sluige treataeat.  A  list of  abstracts  Jealiog with the
        particular  disease  is  qisen at thr>  ecd cl  esch  chapter.  (5»?)
1CC»
HUTfiOB
AFFIL

TITLE
SOURCE
TEAS
TEII
J.COQ8Q8
HaBCCCt, N.
J«nes F. PscLarea Lisited, Consulting  £nqineers.  Planners  and
Scientists, U3S HcHicoSl Ave., i!illo»dale, Ont.  fl2H  2B8, Canada
Radical Sewer Sjstea O»erco«es Difficult Coaditicns
Engineerioq and Contract Record, Jan.  1976  (3  pac^s)
1 978
Due to current hiqh-nater levels of  La'ia Ontario  and  no gravity  fall-cff
on the Tcronto Islands, a lew preisur?, shallow  depth  sewtra^e system
was installed^  ft9st cover, styrofcaa and polyethylene tape insulate
the polyethelene piping, aar-holes, and valve chatters.  The islands  are
a popular recreation ana visitors area in the  suaser  but a  less
populated area in the winter, causing  uneven seuaqe  leads  afid  requlrinq
two systess to te installed: a year-round perimeter  syste*  and a  central
recreation systen.  five hp-  centtifuqal qrinder  ru*ps serve  larqe
facilities while 1 hp serve the seeller.  Set!)  systess are  designed  fcr
annual flushing to creverit sedieent  tuild-up and  freezing  it the  lines
are not being u^ed.  (SWF)
 »CCt
 AUTIIOB
 AFFIL

 TITLE

 SOURCE
 TEAR
 TEII
1000809
N/A
Janes F. racLarer. Liaited. ConsultinT  Snqi.ieers,  Planners  and
Scientists, UJ5 ffcNicoll *.ve., Hillc L-d-ile, Ont.,  n2H  2H3 Canada
A New Sewerage Syste» i/evelcped for  Teajqaai  Eipected  to Cut Costs  Hy
50%
CIVIC, April 1977 (U pages)
1977
Designed for a population cf 600,  this qrinder  ?v*r-,  Icw-ptcseure  sewer
systes will serve the Village of Teitagaai  where  the  tedrock  is  on  the
surface or just below.  The shallow  turitd systei <=lioinates  the  expen-
                                         &9

-------
sive deep cock blasting and ellnlnatts the need foe sewage lift sta-
tions.  the sfstee includes grinder caa^s, SO gallon or  larger boldioq
teaks. 1 1/2 inch cooaectioq lines, 2 tc 6 inch insulated street  eains
fled electric beetieq cables vith lots teapacature sensors.  The beatieq
cables will tha» lines frozen due  tc power outages and keep  lines  thawed
while residents d/.e duty on vialer holidays.   (SHF)
»CC»
8UTB08
Ami.
TITLE
SOUBCE

TEAS
TEXT
1000850
H/A
Bottan* State Uatvetsit;
Septic \auks
Cooperative Estrcezioo Sar»i=« Bulletin 332. "onteca State 3niaersity,
Bozeaan, noatdR.ii  (la pages)
I 9 1 7
InfofBatioti on iseptie systems coapiled by the Cooperative Eitessica
Service of noataea State OBicersity.  Presents goliSelities CQBceroiag
deeiga aod site selection for septic sysceos.  Descslfces soil  peccola-
tion tests acd t!ralBf ield coastructioa.  Lists possible causes of septic
       failures dad provides diacrAes detailicq septic tank cad scil
           field coastctiction.   Jstf)
*CC»
AUTL'OB
IITLE

SOOBC!


Itil
L000851
S/A
BSF .Iciat Coaaittaa on Ma?5teitater technology
aatiosal Saaita? .OB foundation StanJacd  No. 41 fee Basteuater
eecycle/SeasQ aad datec coasersat Ion Oorices
Betioaal SssitiJioo foandatioa, SSf Soildiaq, Ann Arbor, HI  a810S  («2
r

Ibis staedard cstaolishss qaidelines for the evaloattos of  Sevleae
itttQttelf.a fvis, f.?,
Hilliaas and Works, Inc., Gri-J Rapids,  r,I
Reuse of Ruoicipal Hastewater  b»  Volunteer  Fresh-Mater  Wetlands
iiater Eeuse SyaposiuB, Vol. 1  (20  pages)
1979
The Banlcipal Masteuater treataent  syste* at  »er«oatville,  Michigan
{pop. S"75), consists of tuo facultative  stabiiizatior coaas  folloyed  by
four surface Irrigation fields.   The  facility  uas  studied  to  identify
and evaluate features of the wasteuatcr-uetland  coaplei  that  uoald Bake
it a, feasihle alternative aaoog snail coeasoity  nastewater  treataent
srsteBS.  Phosphorus aad nitrocen  concentrations were ncnitcred  throogh
the systea.  Phosphorus conceotraticns in the  irrigation  fields  actually
increased at tioes, but overall resctals averaged  95  percent  in  the
soil.  A certain degree of nitrification-cenitrification  also  takes
place io the systcs.  tiutrlent uptake by vetland plants  uas  also
studied.  Capital and o G R cost  studies indicate  this  method  is
cocpetitive for treating snail flows.
ACCI
AUTHOB
AFFIL
TITLE
L0008S«
K/A
Enerqy, Hater and Teleco»»unlca t ions  Cepartaent,  Ihe  Borld  Sani
Appropriate Sanitation Alternatives:  A  Technical  and  Economic  Ippraisal
                                 70

-------
        - SosaatT Report
SOURCE: Eeergv, Batee asd TslecoisstonicatioBE  Eepartseat.  tfce  8ocld  fanfe,  P. 3.
        Eeport So, EES 20 («7 pages)
TEii  : 1979
TEXT  : This report presents the eesglts of tso  jeers  of  field  steolss
        teken tjf the tJorld Beak in  39 caneusit ies  is 14 ccsstries eroasd
        world to identify appropriate tecaeoleqies for sasitatiee in  Se
        countries.  It suaeaeizes the fcre-aii tccksicai, ecosoele.  besith.
        social biddings of the research, and  it  discgsses the aspects of
        plsasinq oec«ssBCf ta ispleaeat tfee fiBdisqs.  Osefol £e  piessieg offi-
        cials end policy a^Biscrs narfeieg  in,  oc  foe,  l*ts deselo^ej  coGBt:ics.
                                                                          tfes
                                                                          esd
4CC8  t 1000855
lUTKOB: reaches, E.G.. Bradley, D.J., Gareliclc.  B.. Rata.  B.E.
fifFIL : The Bo rid BSOK
TITLE : Health Aspects of Excrete esd Hastanater  pjaaegesest -  Part  1
509RCE: Ea«r<3?. Hater ead TeleccBau&icetioeis Cepare^eat, The  Bccld  Baesfe  (229
        pages)
IESE  : 1978
TEXT  : Pact oae of a two part book deals uj.tk tSte effects OB  pot lie  health
        broeaht about by trsa dssiaa end JnpiesentatioE of  teprosed  «sefe£« &lr.~
        posal projects,  it pcoifiaes iaforuatios  oa £fe« coBttol of  3iseag« st-
        tcibctteo So i B£ro»e»este in esccete Aisp^sal sfstess  ®t«sd iai ecccosi&^K. ^s^iQ^exs,
        teealth voiKecs an<2 plsBserSe fis-2 it has  tees wiittect  aitn a ieiaiugs of
        t«chaical jarnoB so that it cas be Eca<3ily eedfirsteo4  By people  £eea
                19 pec Sessional bccisgtO'iBfis.   jsar}
ICC8  : 1300356
AUTKOPs mQBeker?er> J.T.
ami. s Coasaltaata Oa-Sita Sastcnater  Disposal
TITLE : The Prisciple of Alternatioo Q£ Scfasutface  Ecstetater  D5.sp'jsal
SOUSCE: Hysearch and Deeulopeeat,  &&KCOZ,  lac.,  Ficilsr.  CS   (13  images
XE&R  Z 1976
TEST  : The principles aotl advantages of osisn aJteraatlDj setsurfsce disscssl
        fields arc discusy-2d.   Soil charect«ristics and  t£e  i»ff^cts  OD  =oil
        a£tec uster percolation  ace desctited.   chspces  in scil  persseaail
        to OQchatiical and biological aechanises  are cocsi dere:*. ID  detail.
        siga soQqsstioBS are gi*en for  aiternatiEg  fced Isyoet  »i*  for use
        salves, distribution boies, ead itfcatlser pif.es.   (Skf°
                                                                          ity  dee
                                                                            6s-
                                                                           o£
AUTHOE
SOUBCE
XE£B
TEIT
        L000857
        Kill, D.E.,
                           c.n.
                  of Septic 5yste«s  in Concccticut  Soils
        The Connecticut Agriculture  Expeciseat  Stetlon,  Eulletin  737  (22  pages)
        1978
        A field soreey of septic  systes  loBge»it]r  is  described  iBClufliog  Infls-
        enca of soil type, repairs,  aai  health  codes.   Since  1960.  
-------
        spreading,  of these, tfew recycle, self-centaise
-------
        ticn,  and 6)  package tr^«t«ent salts.  Aflfaatages esd  Itaitatioes  e£
        each Sfctea aze qivea slaccj «lt& sc«e cc&t iofoceatiOB.
4CCI  :
ABTBOI:
AfflL :
TITLE :
SOURCE i
TEA!  :
TEIT  :
        LOCOSfiO
        Eschueqe.  8.
        U.S.  Ceaerai accounting Office
        Septic Sjstsos Can 8e viable. tow-Cost &1 tereatiees
        Hater ass  Sen&q« Bosks. 127(3) :«0, 50-5! (3 pages)
        Septic syEtess are endorsed as as effective loaq-tera  tool  for  esste-
        aatec disposal.  S«ptic systess can: 1) provide «s good OE  tetter  treet
        eeat thaa ceattal .'SfEtssas, 2}  ase less, eeecgr, acrl 3)  ce-pleaish qreyea-
        ooters.  T6»e article discusses sysfcee ion^ewlty. deslgs proslcsa  t&chnolosies  foe
SOUSCl: ttccg?, tSaief aad "ei^cassuaiCiciocs
        BO. SIS 22  (194 pages-}
      : 1979
      : Tbe results of fieW studies cecsifiiS  es;t  is  five ifrScse ceae^ties ss a
        pact of a uoclS 8anS cesftstch  sro-S«ct  ot  scBcopriat'a eecijsoic?? fee
        Het«r fiopplv aad uflste disposal .set  sriosdr 1 ?" d  ia  this- copoct.
        sanitat.toa iechooIoqifiS cui^oe^lf  8$s<3 i.e QtbaE Jifcics:   bit
        coepostinq toilets^ L-ocitt't  iatjiKSE  aaS sqfci^pElsles  ere
        thelc tecbuical, «coBOi»icr  isst S t atloa^i, 'scciaX ar, -i hea
        and cOBStcaiBts.  Hetboas foe  tccbnclc??  cosparisoe  «r,<5  seiecticH ece
                   aa4 areas foe: future coscijcu  <:£« icoicated.   (SU?)
                                                                           as
ACCt
iUTBOS
TITLE
SOUBCE

TEAS
TEIT
        IC00866
        «/&
        Cte»joB Oflpartaent of ER»iroa«esital  Coaiity
        Oi-Sitc 5e¥*c;e Disposal  in QreqoB
        Oreqos Dapsrtsent of E-ieiroaaestal  Cialitj,  t23U  S.M.  HorriEOa,
        Portland. Csreqos  S7205   (20  pages)
        1976
            on-slto s««aq«» ilsciSsai [jrogras of  tKe  Oreooo Departseat of  EB»itOQ-
                 alitT is assessed.   its  proiross,  pn-ocleas «r,d fytsce issaes
                .  Iecisi-ti?s ittef.tics  are 3 iscuscijd.   At. the tiae the  paper
        «as urittea the act'ccved  all tec bat 1 ve trpatsoot  sjstess veto statlHia-
        tion poads, laad IrriqstloB ami  boldlaq  tsalts.   State  c«?uiatlOBS re-
                septic toal ins tal iat ice  ace disc qisen.   (SilF)
sect
AOTBCB
AFfiL
TITLE
SOOfiCE
TEAR
TEIT
        L000867
        H/A
        Ban Tork State De?act»eat of Kealth, Division  of  Sanitjry  Ecgineetlng
        Baste Treatsent HanebooS. In(Jl»idiai Household  Systcas
        Sew Jock State DepactaeBt ot Bealth  («0  pages}
        1579
        A handbook prepared by the Ben York  State  Department  of  Bealth  presides
        standards for the desiqa, coostroctioa acd  eainteaance of  i.:asebold  sea
        age disposal systeas.  The bandtook  applies  to  svstess teceising  Ccs«s-
        tic-tTpe sei«a
-------
        periodical Baooai saepliaq fat i period of at least one year for each
        cest area. (AUJ
ACCJ    L000869
AUTKOfi  Hianefcergec, J.T.
A.FFTL   Consultant, Septic-Teak Systecs, Berkeley, Califcrnia
TITLE   Correlation of T&tee Techaigaes foe Cetereininc Soil Fereeabllitv
SOURCE  On-Site Haste FUaageaeat Sol. 113   (30 pages)
TEAB    197U
TEXT    The following pecaeeters Here correlated IB  an analysis of  proceeflates
        used to define sail permeability:   1)  The percent clay in a soil derived
        ftoa 6 cossion pecfeBt aatecial, 2) oeasureseats of the coefficient of
        pecoeabi) it.y alife a sodified sersiot of acre ccsplei: constant-head
        pecDeaseters, aaS 3) one percolation-ttst procedure used in septic-task
        practices.
             It uas asserted that skills of technicians are not equal aad the
        nature of the pecBeaeeter aad percolation tests is such that tecfcnf.-
        cians' skills are critical.  Replicated eeasureseats of sane materials
        uould field a popalation taean ana v8Eiancee  depending OD the particular
        technician,  t recoeaended percolatica test  is offered in th9 Appcndiz.
        (AU/SU7)
ACCS  : L000870
AUTHOBi drouuec. J.. Hillatt. S.T.. ?an de Graetf. H.H.n.
AF?II. : La tcobe Onisecsity aafi '5oll Conser^dtioa acthority,, ?ictoria
TISLB : She Hydrology of Qa-si'ce Septic Tanfc Effloeat Disposal OB a felloe
        Duple: Soil
SOURCE: li/h
TEXT  : A trench systea fcr oa-site disposal of septic fcaak effluent. sitaat<&<3
        OB a yellot dupiea soil uas aooxtoced for several souths.  obser?atioas
        were soda oo various factors affectiag the pattern of flo« of the effla-
        ent through the soil, soO oa the chenge IB qiialit? of the efflnent ubile
        it passed throuqb the soilo  The effluent disperses wainiy through
        interfloir duriag »et periods arid tbrongh ewapotranspiration during dcy
        periods.  Parificatioa by the soil with respect to nitroqea aad pbos-
        pboras is considerable aad apparently adecjoate.  Comparison is Hade
        two other systc-es also eonitoied, one on a sisilzc scil and one on a
        krasnozes.  (AU)
iCC»
SUTHOB
ATPIL

TITLE
SOURCE
TEIT
        L000671
                  G.
        Eneritus Professor. Richiqan State Unist rsity and Consultant  to  the
        Richigan Vitrifiei Tile Cospanjr
        The Sheldon Inserted Disposal Field Systea
        On-Site Waste Kaeageaeat, Vol. I  (3 pages)
        Ihe Shelioa Systsa, A variation OB the septic tank - soil absorption
        sifstea,, feeds ef*la«n*. free the septic tack into the disposal  field.
        The srsten uses clay drain tiles  ulth perforations located  in  the  upper
        half of the til«>.  The theory pf  the Sheldon or Inserted Tile  Sjstes  is
        to provide a water-tight conduit  in the loaer half of the tile line,
        allcjtfina settling-oat of the solids froB  the wasteuater.  The  clear
        effluent escapes through the perforations at the top of the line.  Tb«
        solids can te flashed out of the  line «h°n the septic tank  is  cleaned.
        
-------
        1.0-1.5 oc/1 Mill tjlve a 99 perceat kill rate Hhen place! is contact
        »ita tae aicrobe-laden uastenater for 30 einutes.  Rowe&er, varieties
        suc
-------
        soil infiltration aad evapo-transplration.  Sections include 1) research
        investigations coaparing septic and aerotic tanks in teres of BOD, sus-
        pended solids aad colifore counts; 2)  recoaeendatioas fcr design and
        operation of wasteHater disposal units fcr hoses; 3) calculations of
        required interface area for seepage beds and seepage trenches; sad 
-------
AFFIl
TITLE
SOUBCE
TEAH
TEXT
S/4
Guidelines for Bound Systeas
State Hater Resources Control Board of California  (93 pages)
I960
This is a detailed technical sanual suitable for direct Incorporation
into local California health regulations.  The sanual presents diagtaas
and tables applicable to the design cf sound systems for residential
uasteeater disposal.  Includes discussion of systee rehabilitatioa,
ocdificatIons for coeeercial UE«, trcuble-shocting and cre*eatioa, *nd e
refined soil percolation test.   (SWF)
ICCe    L000863
AUTHOE  H/A
AFFIL   B/A
TITLE   Residential Greyuater Banaqesect in California
500BCE  State Hater Resources Control Board of California  (38 peges)
I E A 8    I 9 BO
TEXT    California's total donestic uater consueption is twice, and cotdccr use
        four tiaes, the national average.  Greyuater use is a setbotJ of uater
        conservation and a uay to reduce loadings of septic tank leachfieldso
        The report describes eethods of qreyuater tieataent, public health con-
        siderations asd surseys of public acceptability.   In recognition of the
        preuailinc) legal restrictions of areyuater use, it suggests approaches
        to peblic edacaKion and aa opea-ulnded approach to local paBsqesent and
        regulatory policy.  (SMF)
ACC8    L000881
AUTBGS  Gupta. A.S.,, Kcfflar, L.t Ctiakrabarty, S
AFPIL   Ooi». of Eoorkee and Ceatral Research
TITLE   Evaluation of Mater-Closet Perfomance
SOUECE  IniiaE Journal of Eacirongsntal Health
        ing Besearch Institute. Hagpur. India,
YEfiB    1978
TEXT    Deals uith a study on efficiencies of
        and pass if. combination with 10.0 an3
        sioulatinq field conditions; in a multl
        included a flushing efficiency test, c
        test.  CoDclusions ftos tfte experiBent
        in the drainage systea depended on the
        the type o£ trap ased, the capacity of
        which the toilet has been placed, and
        stack.   (3HF)
                                      .P.
                                      Institute, Rocrkee, Inila

                                        Katiocal Environaental FcqJns«r-
                                       20(3):2«9-257  (9 pagcsj

                                      different types of toilet bowls
                                      6.5 liter capacity cisterns
                                      -story eijeriaental acctep.  Tests
                                      olythene hall test, aeS a seodge
                                      s shouefl that toilet perforsance
                                       water ssal area of the to.tlst,
                                       the cistern, the floor level at
                                      the discharge passing through the
*CCI  : L000865
AUTHOR  Johnsoe, E,B.
iFFII.   Clark Qnivecsity, Worcester, Massachusetts
TITLE   Haste iiatec Reuse and Bater Quality Planning in Hew England:  Attitudes
        and Adoption
SOUKCE  .later iesonrces Beseerch, 1 5 (6) : 1 329--3U  (6 pages)
TEAR    !S79
TEXT    Consideration cf wastenater reuse as a uastewatcr aanagenent aethcd is
        required in federal uater quality planning.  ihis paner reports the re-
        sult of a survey of sajor participants in such planning ir*  Neu England.
        It found that only cursory consic'.ei ation uas given to w
-------
        Geneva. Switzerland   (194 paqes)
YSAE  : 1956
TEXT  : Increasing food de«and, coupled aith decreasing sell  fertility,  has  fo-
        cused attention on the ace of crqaeic wastes to iaprose agricultural
        production.  Kitrcgen. phosphcras. pctash and Bicrc-eutcieBts necessary
        tor plant grouth are  In abur-dast supplj in  night soil, sewage and  ean-
        ure.  Lack of knowledge ccncecEing the sanitary use and disposal of  the
        wastes has led to the increased incidence of enteric  disease, ('specially
         in the rural parts of the HorlJ.  The report presents treataent sethods
        aud processes for sanitary disposal and utilization of these organic
        waste aaterials.  The basic aspects of coapostinq and current research
        results are discussed.  Planning and Bethels £01 uaste use  et fares,
        villages, saall towns and cities   .tute for Bater Research. Pretoria. Scuth Africa
Sewage Tceata^nt Uorks foe ssall Ccaaunities — A Heed fee Careful
Lfcsiqn aad Gper&tion
International
              Conference oe Hater Pollution Control in Developing
Countries, Bangkok. Thailand   (17 n-sass)
I 978
AB account is gives of design  faults, operational shortcoalaq and aal-
facctiOQinq of units for saall seasge works along with soqqestloBS for
the improvement of plant portorsance.  The chsecvations oaae in practice
pertain oainlT to facoltatiwe  (stabilization) pond systess, conventional
biological filter plaats and to eiteaded aeration-type activated sludqe
plants; they are aeaiit to sticalate critical regular inspection of
purificatiOQ plants, »bich should lead to proapt applicatioa of
practical corrective ueasares.  Eaphssis is pltced on the need for
properly trained, interested ao3 activated operators evea fee the
saallest treatment worHs.  JiU/ShFJ
tecs
A'JTKOB
AFFIL
TITLE
SOURCE
YEAH
TEXT
LOOOS89
Kara, D.
Cept. of Civil Enqineeriao, Daiverrity of Dundee, Scotland
Seuaqe Treatnent in Hot Clxeates
John Wiley and Sons, Hew York   (T6fc pages)
1976
In this prsc t iticner * s handbook, special  attention  is <3e»ote4 to statl-
         ponds, waste reuse a^i aqusculturp practice
                                                                 ince  these
        processes show the «ost  potential  for  tropical  under-ievelc pe3 countries.
        FcJlouinq basic chapters on se«a^e, sewage  treatsent,  sicrociclocj  and
        BCD reuoval kinetics, there ace cbaptr-s  on  the  Eajcr  ce&tral and
        OB-site tceataent facilities which cc-i-^r  aethods  ct operation,  design
        criteria, construction,  snd sa
-------
SOURCE:
        Interaediate Technology Publications, 9 Ring St.,  London  KC2E  BBS
        England  (9t pages)
        Engl
TEAS  : 1976
IES1  : This handbook cowers various aspects which sust te considered when in-
        vestigating the develcpsent of a n«iter supply and sewage disposal scheme
        for a seal! coaauaity.  It discusses «atet source selection asd sipple
        water testing, supply and treatsect, and w^stewater and excrets dis-
        posal.  Also covets various sewage treataent nethcds, efflusst aad
        sludge disposal, and suggestions fcr eaergency Later and tfasteuater
        treatment.  Ccataias sketches and d.agrans of all systees and eqoicstat
        discussed.  Includes a glossary of terss.  (SuF)
ACC6    1.000393
AUTHOS  B/A
4FFIL   Stinscn Beach County Bater District, Stinson Roach. California
TITLE   Hoaeoaners and Users Guide for Gcsite Basteuater Disposal Systess
SOURCE  California State Hater Resources Control Board  <9 pages)

TEXT  s This guide explains r.d soluble cCD reduction,
        followed by chesical co»aul at .'.on-seci sen tation and aultisedia
        filtration.  Approriaate'cost:; are giren fcr the reccusended systee
        on a cents per thousand gallon basis.   (AU/SWF)
ACCI  : L000897
AUTHOB: Otis. B.J., Boyle, W.C., Converse, J.C.. Tyler,  E.J.
AFFIL : Saall Scale Haste Manageaent Project, University  of  Wisconsin,  Badison,
        Wisconsin.
                                         79

-------
TITLE
SOURCE

TEXT
        On-Site Disposal of Snail Hasteaater Flows
        Efiticoaeental Protection Agency Technology Transfer  (91 pages)

        Discusses research fcj the UBivetsity of Hisccnsln into the on-site dis-
        posal oi uastetseter.  Tbe Sasali Scale aostfe Raasqeaent Project investi-
        gated the uso of soil foe treateent, and aasteuater  disposal  resesrch
        ««s aiacd at detecai»iaq the causes leadinq to septic task-soil  atsctf-
        tiOD field failure, iapcovinq of site characterization petboda,  systsa
        tiesiqn and system coasisuctics for oe-site aastesatec disposal,  lisdioq
        effective alternatives to the septic tanfc-soii atscrptioo £iels  IE rrofc-
        lem soils, developing Bore efficient saaasjeEeot techniques to oa-site
        nasteudtet disposal systees, aad assessing the iselicetions of ne*
        wastenater disposal techniques for lacd use plannltiq.,  Uasteuatec dis-
        posal systeas not dependent oe soil an<3 site corjtfitiins, scch as
        aerobic processes, intaraitteBt granular filtration  and e^apotraaspira-
        tiors are discusseu.  ftouoti and unaerdcsia systems are presented  as
        alternative systees for proisloB soils.  (SHF)
iCCt  r 1000898
AUTHOR: BEOSO. D.V., White, R.K.
iFFIL : S/A
TITLE : Ssptaqe Disposal alternations ID Bural Areas
SOUHCE: Cbio Agricultural Beseacch easS Bsselopaent Center, U.S. 250 and Ohio 63
        South, Booster, Ohio. Beseerch Salleftla 1096: cr Cooperative Exteesir.n
        Service. The Ohio State Onia.,, EnteaiUoa Eulletin 624  HO pages)
IEAB  : 1977
TEXT  : This project in t*o soutbera Ohio counties coasidered  arailafale roral
        septage disposal alternatives.  Methods selected Cor handling one sil-
        iioa qalloss ana^illf uases  J1} tbcee parallel stecage fcasins for tbree-
        year holdiaq capeicity prior to lead spreading, (2j liae stabili2atios
        prior to land spreading. aaiS  (j) disc&aroe iato a se«eqc treatment
        plaEt.  Storage bosiys offer the siaplost technology,  nanaqeacnt and the
        lowest cost.  Liae tredtaer.t can be helpfal in areas uith liec-defIcieat
        soils.  Hher« soils are unsuited fcr inriltratloa, treatment plant
        disposal nay be the oal; alternative.  £SaF)
4UTHOS
*FFIL
TITLE
SOURCE
YEAB
1EIT
        tOC0899
        Sharpa, H.E.
        School of Fctest Resoorces and the Institute fcr Research on land end
        Baler Resources, Penr ::?l»ania State Qnieersity, University  Park, Pf
        16602
        Katec Conservation Devices lor Kea cr  Existing  Cwellinqs
        Journal Asetican Hater Uorks Association, 73 ( j) :1 US- 1 US  (6  pacer,)
        1973
        Discussion of individual hose water ccnser»atica with esphasis on toilet
        and shower devices.  Results are qiven on uater teiacticn efficiency,
        test; of toilet devices, an'i iiot late cospdrisons of ^hoiier devices
        •ade by the California Department of Hater Resources.  General cost
        icforaaticn ar.d perforicance criteria are qieec  fcr toilet and shouer
        devices.  Briefly sectioted in connection uith  in-duelling  ccn -/er nation
        de»iceE ere water-saninq toilets, autosatic  washinq  eachines, faucet
        desices, leak detection tablets, p re.5Eure-re.iuci rq valves ara spray
        taps.  Specific conser»atio" device cperatioaal paraaeters  are
        recoaBenfied.
iUTHOS:
iFFIL :
TITLE :
SOURCE:
I£X1  :
        LC009CO
        Schaidt, C.J.
        SCS Enqineers, Long Eeach. Califcrnii
        Rural Hastenater Hanagfaent it Califcrni.i
        Tbe California Kdter Resources Control  Pyarfl,  Sacrasento,  C*  {53  pages)
        Uatei aanageaent in the hose, aousehcld  «Es^e«aler  and  rural  uasteaater
        problees are discussed in this guidance  «anual.  On-sit= systc-ns  aod
        centralized sewer alternatives are  eiplained with reqarn to ad van t ag«?s,
        disadvantages and cost con.«:i der^t > ons.   Sp'e'iiES ict  tailing  systeas  and
        aaaaqenent o£ on-iile systeas are also  discussed.   (SWF)
ACCI
AUTHC5
AFFIL
TITLE
SOURCE

TEAR
TEXT
        1000901
        flcCoy. E., Ziebell, V. A.
        Ciwii EiiqineeLin.j, University of  Wisconsin,  nadison,  Hi£con^in
        The Effects of Effluents on Grounduater:   bacteriological  Aspects
        Proceedings of the Second National Conference,  Indi»idoal  Cn-site
        tfastewater 3/steos, 19"75:  67-90  (11  pages)
        1975
        Discusses bacterial content cf sewage  and  sechaniSRS  of  soil  treatsent
        for bacterial reaoval.  Presents  data  on  bacteria  reaoval  through  sell
        colanns.  Data include^ variations ic  rescval  at different  depths  end
        c»er a period of ti»e with a discussion of  factors  which  influence sell
        treatment.  (SkF)
                                         80

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ACC»
AUTHOR
TITLE
SOUBCE
TEAR
TEXT
L0009C2
K/A
B/A
Uyoeicg Bequices Financial Analysis in Step 1 of Facilities  Planning
EoviroBBental Finance, 1(2):5  (t pagt)
1931
Describes the State of Hjoisinq'c reguiresents for 20t grantees tc  seet
specific financial pianolas lorecasts doring Stec 1 of  the facilities
plnnniaq pto^ess.  £ test case using  these aew financial planning
procedures coaducted in the Hiils-Cesj:er-E'sansdale area is cited and
recoaaended to ser*e as an esasple tot other agencies contesplating
siailar 201 proqraa involveaent.  A contact perscn and  location  is qi»er
toe acce icforeation on the subject.  (oBF>
ACC8  :
AUTHOR:
AFF1L
TITLE
SOURCE

TEXT
LC00903
Goldstein, S.
H/A
The Prise Bowers cf Sludge
BicCfde, ;2«2):2
-------
SOUfcCE: HiT£E/Ef,cce
AUTHOR
APTIL
TITLE

SOURCE
TEA*
TEI1
                   ., Huffsan, G.L., Sreen, 1., Julkins, J.F.

                   of Inteceitteat Sand Filters Loaled with Sioqle-Cell
                n Peart Effluent
                o£ Water Pollution Coatrol fedarsticn, 53 (5) :587-593  (7 pages)
        1981
        Eecaas* of the ust of single-ceil oxidation ponds in the United States
        acd tt* inability of these facilities to ac-et the defiuitions of
        secondary treataent as set forth ty the U.S. EPA, t study of
        intereitient SAHJ filters as a liable alternative to help reach these
        efflvjfcit stanlsrds was conducted.  The apnlicaticn of single-cell
        ciidjtica pood effluent to inter»ittent sacd filters of differing  sand
        sizes tni loading rates o»er aa extended teitina period yielded these
        finditis:  1) suspended solids reso»
-------
IEAH  : 1980
TEXT  : Hacraeties and required  aaintenaoc*  pro^tass  fcr  co-site  septic  task
        vasteuater disposal systess are discussed  in  this  three-repcrt Dolose.
        Titlss include "flaiisteaance by Private  Industry of  On-iite  Bastesater
        Disposal Systeas". by J.T. aiBneberger; "The  Septic Systees.  A Guide  for
        Hoeeownfers*. oy willlaa  L. Rellen; and  "A  Siapie  Pccsula  for  Successful
                   Systess". by  Floyd L. fidttheiis.   (Saf)
ACCli    1000912
AUTHOH  YocntJ, C.E., f,ff, O.J., editors
iFFZL   Peaasylvania State University. Institute  for  aesearch  on  Land  aal  eater
        Resources
TITLE   aesteuater Hanageaent  in  Rural Coeeanities:   A  Socio-Kcooosic
        Perspective
SOURCE  Information Re-port 103, Icr.titute  for  Research  OB  Land  and  Hater
        Eesoucces, Pennsylvania State University,  University  ietk,  PesasyIsacia

TEXT    Tbe status of ecoaosic feHOMledae of  wasteuater  treatment, particularly
        land application, is assessed in a collection of seven  papers.  7cpics
        addressed ioclui2«r  alternatives fcr uastewster  treatoect,  land
        treataent o£ aaste«acec,  legal issues  •assoctsted ttith  land  applicetioa,
        laetJ treatment of siedge,  pablic acceptasce of  land application,  ekacge
        svsteos for industrial wastes, and cosprfchensiva planning aa-Ser Sectico
        206 of P.I. 92-500.  Four  Inezes underlie  the aiscussioas.   Bestesstec
        •asageaeat Bill  fce costly  to rorol coBEaoitieso  Land  applicstioc  of
        uasteuater and sludge  is  a gocl alternative for  tceateent and  (Sispcs
        of uastes.  It is desirable to joletlj  treat  industrial sastes nbes
        coopat'ble and to charge  orgaaizaticns  the full  cost  of treating  their
        Hastes.  Finally, the  subsidy ptogtais  proeidad  by  P.L.  92-500  say
        discourage the Seuelopanet of econoaicaily efficient  vesteuatec
        traataent .i/steas.   (AU)
60Ca6
*CC»    1000913
AUTBOB  Bezek, J.U., Coocer.  I. A.
»FFIL   Seiet, Henry, nelsenheieer  and  Gende,  Inc.,  Li ter t y sil? e,  IL
TITLE   Serfage Manqeaeat
SOURCE  Buaicipal  Enviironnent al  Research  Laboratory  Report  EPA-60C/G-8C-032,
        U.S. £nif iconsental Protection Agency,  Cincinnati,  OK   45268  (132  fsjfs)
TEAB    i960
TEX7    Report present:; state-of-the-art  inforsatlcn  fcr  isnlesent in^  cost-
        eftectice  and «;r>vironaen tally scuna  solutions  for  septate  ttet'tBent  end
        disposal.  Curi:ent septate  hauler  practices,  septaqe characterization
        acd estioated hauler  charges are  Fre£e>)ted.   Design concepts froa  fall-
        scale and  pilot i retaliations,  alon-7  uith  capital  and  0 r,  n costs,  are
?         reseated  on the  following  septaqe  treatsent  and  disposal  uethocs:   1)
         aEd-based di&posal  including spray  irrigation, ridq«  anl  furrow,  lend
        spreading, subsurface  in iecticn,  buridl,  tcencninq, disposal laqccns,
        sanitary landfills,  leacBinq i
-------
SOURCE:  Best Virginia Department of Health, Division of Sanitary  Engineering

TEAR  :  1979
TEXT  t  This eanual provides kasic iefcreatioa accessary to  croperly operate
        ao4 oaintain a pacfeaqe plant,  nest flints dc not achieve  the design
        reooval of pollutaats due to lack of operational aad eaintenence
        knowledge.  This saaual gives operators useful inforaation  in dealing
             installation, prc-1Icateent, chlorioation, etc.  (S^F)
tec*
AUTMOB
TIIZ.E
IPFIt
SOUBCE
YCiB
TEXT
L000916
Seitb. B. TC., Left el. R. E.
Saall Town Opts fcr Foa.1 Hasteiiatec Treatsent
Caep Dresser C ScSee. lac.
Hater and Seuaqe Hocks. June 1970:72-79  (3 pages)
17/8
Pond vasteuater treatment proved to ce the cost econoeical  and easy  to
operate for the sea 11 town of RiHi Docket, flaine.  The sjsteB consists
ol 13 acres of aerated a&d facultative poods ubicU provide  the
equivalent of secondary treatsent via biological processes.  Central  to
the treatment of the 2.3 lic.r average flcu ace  262 static sutaerged air
ditfasers, each with 
-------
TEAS  :  1975
TEXT  :  Disinfection of co-site uastevater, via dry feed chlorinatloo  of  sand
        filter effluent Is described IB this research  report.   evaluation  of  tfc€
        chlorlnatica unit uas based OBOE the folloaitsg criteria:  1)  disiefectico
        pecfocsance, 2) hypochlorite tablets, as3 3} saintenaece  reqaireaeets.
        The author concluded th it: a) ftdeguate distafectioa of  sand  filter
        effluent aas attained tr chlorinatioo: t) residual cblcciiae  after  «.5  to
        8 nours contact tiss raaged i'toa 0.1 to 1 sa/1; c) chlorine  sptaise  rat*
        for the aerobic unit-sand filter «as 0.6 to 0.9 tafclets/1000  «lras breakth-roagh of greater than  one percent
        of the added virus.   Houever, ->* e-~^ = "^f cf *he viruses sti)l «ere
        recoved fros the infiltrating «atvr at flou ra^eo <>z hi-;K »s lia/day^
        Tha velocity of i*ater soveeent thrcogh the soil aay be the  single isrt
        iiportact factor affectir.q the depth of vires penetration.  (AUJ
1CCI
ADTBCC
AffIL

TITLE
SOUBCE
TEAS
TEXT
        L000923
        N/A
        Rissoori Departienv. of Natural Resources  aai  Risscuri  DepartieDt  cf
        Health
        Missouri Hosecwners Guide to Septic Tank  use
        Missouri Oepartaent cf natural Kesoorces  (12  pages)
        1979
        This Hissoori hoseownecs guide provides aasaers  to  the  question:  "Is
        the septic taok seuaqe disposal' sys tea the  test  answer  to  ny  needs?"
        Tcpics i&clude:  state statutes and regulations,  geological conditions,
        soil type, soil surveys and septic  tank eaiatcnance.   Suggested septic
        tank alternatives include cocposting  toilets,  lagoons,  aerated  tan«s  and
        soil looads.  (SUF)
ACCI
AUlfOE
AFFIL
TITLE
SOURCE
        LOOG921
        aaiaa, V.
        Indian Hater Pollution Control Association  Seuslttter
        Hater Hyacinth - Foe or Friend?
        Highlights, 17  (12): (1 page)
                                        85

-------
YEAB  :  Deceefcer 1760
TEIT  :  The water hyacinth. a persistent aquatic  need  ia  tesperate  areas of tt>?
        world, has teea recently «s<"3 as e eiable  scthod  fee  itastewater
        trottsettt.  Water hvaciaths efficiently rescve  organic  sateriale,  hea«;
        aet«la, phosphorus and attcogec present ia sasteKatec.   Espesiaeata
        incorporation satar hyaciotfts la existing  EacalaUve  «ed  secoBSsry
        lagoons treating doaestlc Baste*«tet  yielda*! BCD  reeasels of  70 tc 90
        percent.  Susp«aa-sd solids r_  cult 'ires ir.vclves  sanj  coasi
-------
        concentrations lot alqae utilization.  The authors spcccst the
        alqae/bactet ia ratio as a pood operation criterica aao 'guideline  for
        chdooes required to increase  asd  totel phosphates  (as  P).
        OtBar specific topics include:  aj design criteria for ?»ecy phase  oif
        the plant ftoa tar screen to al'ja stcraqe; t)  chfnlcal choice;  c)
        perfomance; and .
ACCI    L:Q0932
AUTHOB  Tip, S.U., Uona, H.H.
AFFIL   The Chinese Universitr of Honq Konq
TITLE   The Effect of Seuage Slodqe on the Growth  Rate of Carp,  "C|friDOS
        carpio L."
SOURCE  £n»iron«cnt«l Pollution, It (2) : 1 27-1 32  (6  paces)
TEAR    1977
TEXT    A sewage effluent and different concentrations of digested  sludqe
        ranqinq froa 0 to 0.6 percent in tap uater uere  used  for  raising carp.
        The highest growth rate of c^rp occurred in the  0.2 percent  slodqe,
        followed by the sewaqe erfluent and C percen'c, O.U percent,  0.6  percent
        and 0.6 percent «edia.  Similar results were obtained  froa  BeasureeeBts
        of the dry w«iqbts and protein contents of the carp at  th£  end of  the
        eiperlaent.
             The higher Betel contents in the 0.1  percent. 0.6  percent and  C.8
        percent »edia possibly accounted for the death ana unhealthy  appearance
        of fish reared in these atdia.
             It is urqed that the aaount of sludqe be estiaated  accvrotely
        before it is dispcsed into fish ponds.  The uptake o£  hea»y  isotals  aod
        ether persistent laterials by fish should  also be in»estiqated.   (SU)
ACCI  :
ADTHDE:
L000933
Spohn, I.E.
                                         87

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AFFIL
TITLE
SOU8CE
TEAB
TEXT
Ccapostinq Consultant, Heidelburq, Geraany
Detersination of Conpost Maturity
Coapost Science/Land Utilization. 19(3):26-27  (2 pages)
1 9 7o
A do-it-yourself cheaical test can detersine when coapostinc aatecial
has reached maturity   This indorsation cac help persit the sost
efficient use of lanu and cquipsent, detecsine ahen coipostei aaterial
is ready for agricultural use and evaluate a proaoter's claiss.   (SKF)
ACCI
AOTHOB
AFFiL
TITLE

SOURCE
IEAB
TEXT
LC0093U
Ealaer, P., Vik, 3.
Norueqian Institute for Water Research, Norway
Coaestic Hastenatet Treatsect with Ciiaation Ponds in Coabinaton with
Cfaeaical Precipitation
Progressive Hater Technology, 10(5/6):867-880  (13 pages)

the article discusses doaestic wastewater treatsent by cheaical
precicitation with oxidation ponds in pilot plaot and full-scale
treatsect plants.  Coagulent used i.i the pilot plant is alus.  The study
evaluates sorweqian winter and susser cospariscns of cheaicai
precipitationc  Phosphorous, nitrogen, suspended solids, and C.O.C.
removal charts are presided.  hiperieaces with full-scale poeSs ate
discussed acd resoval data are provided.
ACCt
AUtHOH
AfFIL
TITLE
SOUHCE

TEAK
TEXT
L000935
Cook, H.S., Saith. H.
EFA Office of yater Prcgras Operations
Ac Alternative:  Seall Systeais for Saall CoresuEities
Clcaruaters - Be« Xork Water Pollution Control Association, 7(2):
1S-15 (2 paqes)

A representative froa EPA's Office of Kater Progras Operations gives
statistics on funding allocations froa wasteuater treatsent in cot1;
largo and ssall coasiunities.  He enphasizes that ssall cosaunities have
suffered econoaic hardship because cf inadequate considers!ioa of
alternative collection and treat-Bent systeas.  A case in poiat is given
of how Coyler, He« tcrk, joined toqetaer with Cortland County to install
a coBBunity grinder puep/Ieachfield systee which served forty hoses.
The proiect uas funded through totK a grant and a loy interest loan fro»
FaSi.  Cost of the project was <:'ibO,COO uith the tonn taking
responsibility for all 0 6 fl fcllouing construction.  (Stff)
ACC*
AUTHOB
AFTIL

TITLE

SOURCE
IEAB
TEXT
1C00936
Grannet, K.
Institate of Hygiene. University cf Aarhus, DK-6COO Aarhus C. Denmark
and Danish Land Developsent Service, DK-GBOO, Uitcrg, Cennatt
Disappearance of Microorganisos by Infiltration and Percolation of
Sevage
Progress in Hater Technology, 2 (B/5):473-431  (9 paqes)
1979
Discusses a study of a Danish town of 1500  person-equivalents which used
an infiltration basin for wastewjter treataent.  Results showed that
iiicicator bacteria and viruses  wece coepletely removed after
infiltration tvnd percolation through 20 m of  sand.  At a vertical depth
of 10 a froa the tottos of the  infiltration basin, the aicrobial quality
of water just e^t drinking water standards.   The greatest rcuoval of
bacteria occurred in the first  aeter of unsaturated flow.
ACCt
AUTHOR
AFFIL

TITLE

SOURCE

TEAR
TEXT
IOC0937
Schutt, K., Converse. J.C., Vala, L., ptis, R.J.
The Wisconsin Geological and Natural History Surv=y, Sisconsin
Departeent of Natural Resources and Enviror.aental Protection Agency
Locating and Ltndscapinq the Bound Systeo of On-Site tfastewater
Disposal
SBbll Scale Baste Manageaer.t Project, University of Wisconsin-Hadison
(12 pages)
1978
This publication introduces the possibilities of the sound s^sten as a
landfora design eleaent.  Topics include:  a)  site reguireuents. t)
lacdscape options, c) design checklist, d) functional analysis-cutble
diaqraa, e) landforn, vegetation and design, f) plant selection and g)
total organization.  (Sk'F)
ACCI  : L000938
AUTROE: Anderson, J.L., Bouna. J.
AFFIL : University of Wisconsin; Soil Science Institute, Wageningen,  The
        Netherlands
TITLE : iiatar Koveaent Through Pedal Soils I) Saturated  Flow  II)  Unsaturated
                                         85

-------
        Flow
SOOHCE: Soils Science Society of iaerica Journal. «1:U13-a23  (11 pages)
IEAE  : 1977                                                     K
TEXT  : Desonstrates the potential usefulness of routine soil structure
        descriptions as a correlative tool for precictlrq certa'a aspects of
        physical behavior.  Frovided are two separate articles that study water
        •oveaent through pedal soil Bith saturated and ucsatutated flow
        conditions.  £11 soils have a silty clay tezture.  five sediuo
        subanqolar blocky structures nere coapared with five  prisuatic
        structures.  Application of an unliaited quantity of  traced water to
        drained coluans resulted in very high dispersion, particularly for
        subangular blocky structures.  Breakthrough curves for different flows
        are provided.   (AU/SKF)
ACC»
AU7K08
4FPIL
TITLE
SOUBCE
TEXT
1000939
Saner, O.K.
Uaisersity of Hisconsin-fiadison
Surface Discharge Treatsent Systes Using Intermittent Sand Filters
University o£ Hisconsin-Kadisoo {15 pages)

A uasteuatec systea vith prinary treataeDt, via septic tank or aerobic
treatnent, and secondary fcteatoent, via intereittent sand filters end
disinfection,, is discussed in this report.   The author suasariaes the
engineering technology of this surface discharge disposal systes and
also recoBBeeds the direction of future research in th« deselopeent of
this alternative.  Diagraas for interaittent sand filtration systess are
presided.  (SHF)
*CC8
4UTHCE
AFFIL
TITLE
SOOHCE
TEAR
TEXT
L0009UO
Barshied, R.D., El-Baroudi, K.K.
Bensselaec Polytechnic lastitute, Troy, K.T.
Fhysical-Cheaical Treatment of Septic Tank Effluent
Journal aater Pollution Control Federation, U6(1C):23. «7-5« {8 pages)
1971
Discusses the physical-cheaical treataent of septic tank effluent for
phosphorous control and septic tank effleent characteristics.  ChEBical
coagulants used in the paysical-cheoical systeir include iiae, fercic
chloride, ferric sulfate and alas.  Coaqalant dosage is jiscussed.
Gravity settlinq and filtration with activated carbon nere used for 50
percent CCD resoval.  (SJF)
KCCt
AUTHOR
AFFIL
TITLE
SOURCE

IEAB
TEII
L0009«1
Kin?, C
Pennsylvania Tntercjovernaeatal Council
Hater 6 Sewer - Pcsource Guide
5»all TOUB Enphasis Prograa, P.O. Eoi 1268, Harristurq, PA  17106 (58
pages)
I960-
The purpose of Snail Toun Euphasis Prcgras is to enable Cofflaunlty ftcticu
Agencies and the leadership of saall cosaunities to undertake cosaunity
facility projects.  These can pertain to health care, uater and seuer,
transportation, housing, econooics develcpeent, cr energy which
adversely effect low incone residents of saall ccscunitles.  This guide
contains a list of prograss, aqancies aid organizations that could
assist  aunicipalities, coeaunity groups, and otntr parties to tetter
utilize the technical and financial resources available to thee.  (SHF)
ACC*
AUTHOR
AFFIL

TITLE
SOUBCE
TEAR
TEXT
L000912
tloellet, J.R., Calkins, J.
Idaho Division of Environeent, Pocatellc and University of Kentucky,
Lexington
Bactericidal Agents in Uaste«ater Lagoons and Laooon Design
Journal Hater Pollution Control Federation, 52 (10):2UU2-2Q51  (10 pages)
1980
A study Mas conducted at the Kest Kickean Creek Wastewater Treateent
Plant near Leiington, Kentucky, to detersine the effect of solar
ultraviolet light (UV) on colifors nuabers in tertiary lagoons.  Hean
reduction of total and fecal coliforas ranged froa 62.9 to  »7.« percent
and from 66.7 to 70.0 percent, respectively, in three of the  fonr
lagoons.  Effective colifora reduction was restricted to the  tcp 30 c».
of each lar;.jon.   The authors suggest the use of naturally occurring
bactTicVaal agents - UV, teaperature and wind action - to provide
disinfection coaparable to chlorine without the undesirbale effects of
chlorine.  A theoretical tertiary lagoon system to iahance UV tilling  is
described.  (SUF)
ACC*
        L0009H3
                                         89

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AUTHOR
AFFIL

TITLE

SOURCE
TEAR
TEXT
Heddy, K.8., Graetz, C. A.
University of Florida Agricultural Research anfi Education Center,
Stanford. Florida
Use of Shallow Beservoir and Flooded Organic Soil Systees fcr Haste
Hater Trealsent:  Nitrogen and Phosphorus Transfccaations
Journal of Environaental Quality. 10(1):113-119 (7 pages)
1981
Use of a shallow reservoir (aith a early clay loas bottcis) and flooded
organic soil (Histosol) Cor inorganic nitrogen and phosphate resc^al
froa udste uater (agricultural drairage effluent)  uas evaluated under
simulated conditions.  The results show that the shallow reservoir-; and
flooded organic soils could be effectively used fcr aoecnius nitrogen
and nitrate nitrogen reaoval fros th<> waste waters.  Aerating the
floodwater resulted ia rapid resoval of aitrate nitrogtn as a result cf
ultrifiltration and aeaooia volatilization,  creating an anaerobic
condition in the uater column resulted in slower reaosal of nitrate
nitrogen due to volatilisation.  Nitrate R reaovsl was aore rapid 
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AFFIL : University of Ibadan, Nigeria
TITLE : The Herits and De-Rerits of Package Sewage Treateent Plants  in the
        Developing Countries
SOU.trE: Hater Pollution Control, Part 1 1H3-1US  (9 pages)
YFAa  : 1?79                                       *
TEXT  : The proper operation of package plants fcr sewage treatsent  in
        developing countries is dependent on factors of  knowledgeable aanpower
        and sufficient spare cosponents.  Onf ortunately, these caraaeters are
        seldoa set.  Alternatives to package plants include czidation ponds,
        aeration lagoons and oiidation ditches.  Fa»orable environsenta 1
        conditions, coupled tith low cost and ease of saintenance, sake these
        siuple treataent aethcos practical for developing countries.  
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ACCI
AUTHOR
AFFIL
TITLE
souacE

TEAR
TEXT
        LC00952
        Cool broth
                   F. P.
        \-ul»lULUt_U| r. t.
        Frank Coolnroth-Sitton Sertic Tjnk Co., Plymouth, Minnesota
        The Sewage Osmosis Concept fcr Orsite Jispo^al Systpts - Claj Soils
        Individual Crisite Vasteuatcr Jystess   Fioceedinc.s of tht Third Rational
        Conference, 1976, Ann Arbor Sci^;.cc f J til isS^rs, Inc., (H pjqes)

        Cescrices the concept cf, and experiences with, the sewage osaoEis
        leaching trench syslea in clay soils.  Design req'j ireraents an1 cost
        figures i'cc the Minneapolis and St. Paul, Minnesota, area are given.
        Aft-ir installation of SO systos, ?»perience buppcrts their use fcr
        failing systen aoJification and for n-jj systess on si«all, clay sell
        lots.   (S&F)


ACC8    LC00953
AUTHOS  Mines, >).
AFFli.   Illinois Dept. of Public Sealth, Si.rinaf i°li!, Illinois
TITLE   Effluent Quality Considerations Afiectina thft Use of Sand Filters and
        Oxidation Laqoons
SOURCE  Individual Cnsite Hast^«ater Systems - Proceedings of the Third Saticnal
        Conference, 1976, Ann Arbor Science Publishers, Inc., (5 pages)
YEAfi    i9 / /
TEXT    Beqional and national effl'jent standards »ay not adequately apply to
        saall scale s«waqe treazaaat plants la rural areas.  Since sany of the
        snail effluents discharge to Intermittent stteaits, the requireeeots of
        eftluent quality are even biqhet.  Ttiis cjuality increases the cost of
        water treataent, yet as the author substantiates, it cannot be justified
        fron the erivironsental aad public health protection standpoint.  The
        autSor suggests that effiaent quality standards te adopted on a state
        wide or areauide basis and that sere stringent local standards te
        aJooted for those areas with hi^b peculation density.  (SWF)
ACCI
AUTHOB
AFFIL

TITLE
SOURCE
TEAR
TEXT
        L0009BO
        Cross, ., L.
        Presidenc, Frank Cross PE PA, Environsental Planning,  Engineering  and
        flanageiet-t Services
        Land Application of Sludge
        Pollution Engineering, ll(9):83-86  (« pages)
        1 979
        The methods of land spreading of sludge, including regulations
        concerning these aethcis, jiuantaqps, and disadvantages are  discussed.
        A table comparing slu.lge Application devices is  included.   (SWF)
ACCI    L000955
AUTHOR  Averill, J.
AFFIL   dational Center  fcr Appropriate Technology,  Washington.  TC
TITLE   A Wood Frase Conposting  Toilet -  Design  flans  and  Analysis  of  General
        Probleo Areas
SOURCE  N/A
IE4E    1979
TEXT    A coocosting toilet can  be a  logical  low-cost  disposal  alternative  in
        the steep terrain ant! ^aall lots  cften encountered  by  low-inco»ie  people
        of Appalachia.   The study explains  the general  design  considerations
        such as siting,  proper suing, cost  factors  and  evaluation  of  different
        building materials.  It  sets  performance  criteria  and  discusses  prctlcas
        and solutions  facing congesting toilets,  including  insect control  and
        the separate treatBent of orine and  greywater.   The  repcrt  concludes
        with a section on specific construction  aaterials  and  procedures  for an
        inexpensive wood-fra»ed  co»posting  toilet.   (SWF)


ACCI    L000956
AMHOB  Jacobs, L. w., editor
Ai'FIL   Dept. of Crop  and Soil Sciences,  flchigan  State  University
TITLE   Utilising nunicipal Sewage Hastewater end  Sludges  on  Land fcr
        Agricultural Production
SOURCE  North Central  Regional Extension  Publication Ho.  52  (75  pages)
IEAB    1977
TEXT    A coaprehensive  view of  how the north-central  region  of  the United
        States u^es sewage wastewaters and  sludges on  land  for  agricultural
        production.  Eight chapters by university  professors  and extension
        personnel deal with the  technical and non-technicdl  aspects cf land
        application.   Chapters one ^nd two  discuss sewane  sludges and  wastewater
        characteristics  and aanagei'int.   Chapters  three,  four,  and  fjve  deal
        with site selection, land-use considerations,  environsental quality
        standards, and health aspects.  Chapte.s  sir,  sevren.  and ei'jht give a
        brief idea of  the econosic aspcctsf  institutional  options,  and
        developing educational prcjjrans which explain  the  prac t iciil ity and
        benefits of using these  wastes on lani.   Each  chapter  ends  uith  a  list
                                         92

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        of key references, and the bulletin eels with a detailed  indei.   (SHF)
ACCI
AUTHOS
AFFIL
TITLE

SOUBCc
TEAS
TEXT
i.000357
Carriker. 3. R.. Starr, A. L., editors

Solvent Hater/Mastenater Systess for Snail Cosaiaitties -  Proceedings  of
a Conference
Food and Resource Ecoooaics Dept., Institution of Food and  Agricultural
Sciences, University of Florida; Florida Cooperative  Eztension  Service,
Center for Connunity and aural Development, Institute of  toed and
Agricultural Sciences, University of Florida,  (72 pages)
1960
This Florida-oriented publication nhich esnhasiies rural  Hater  supply
contains papers concerning alternative institutional  Bodes  for
supporting coaeunity uater and sewer systees,  financial assistance  for
uatei; and sewer developsent, Orange Countjf's  (Florida) esperien-es  io
the acquisition of utilities, legal aspects of uater/wasteaater systea
finance and nanageaent, Florida's drinkinq uater quality  staedards, ond
an overview of planning and sanagesent problees or saall  water  and
uasteuater systess in Florida,  includes an appendix  of indorsation on
cotouoity facility loans, and uater and baste  disposal loans and grants
available through FeHA.  Contains a l-ibiloqraphjf of 160 entries
pertaining to uater/uasteuater systess for ssali cossurities.
(AU/SHFJ
ACCS
AUTHOE
AFFI!,
TITLE
SOURCE
YEAS
TEXT
L0009S8
K/A
B/A
Saall Scale Sewage Treatsect - A Swiss  View
Hater Services, October 1979, 83(100«): 787-768  <2  pages)
1979
Eiospiral units, which act such like  ESC  units,  were  developed  in
SMitzerland for saall flows treateent plants.  Th?  biospical  utilizes
polyviayl chlori-lc or polystyrei-e  2iscs that  proaotf;  seaage treatsent  by
attached growth orqaniEES.  A systee  descriction and  cost of  one  such
plant in Suitzei.-land is included.   (SWF)
ACCI
AUTHOE
AFFIL

TITLE

SOURCE

TEAS
TEXT
1000959
HcCauhey, P. H.,  Hirineberqer, 3.H.T.
College of Engineering  and School of  Public  Health,  University  of
California at Berkeley
* Study of flethoJs cf Preventinq Failure  of  Septic Tank  Percolation
5yste«s
Superintendent of Documents, U.S. Gcveraeent  Printing  Office,
Washington, DC,  (33 pages)
1967
?robleas facing  septic  tank sycteac operation  are identified and
discussed.  Percolation and infiltration  canacity, factcrs  affecting
clogging of soil  aTd clogging cf leaching  fields are thoroughly
detailed.  Ar\ approach  to sizing the  percolation syste»  and
recoaeendations  to prevent cr postpone  failure  through closing  and
resting sys ;e»s  is included.  (SkT)
ACCI
AUTtiCF
AFFIL

TITLE

SOURCE
TEAE
TEXT
L00096C
H / A
[Jepartuen*. of Health anJ Social  Sciences,  Division  of  health,  Madison,
Wisconsin
Suaaarj Seport of a Savvey of  Private  Sewage  Disposal  Systeus  Serving
Watei Fro.it pr.opr;'.. les
The State or Kiscocsin  (12 pages)
1967
A survey of water front properties  on  eight  lakes located  throughout the
State of Wisconsin by the Department of  Health  «as  connected to  relieve
the aisconcepticns about the state  septic  tank  lav.   The report  sho^s
the degree of cospliance with  the eiistinc, regulations, the extent  of
discharge of wastes into the grouad and  i-.ito  surface  waters, the
effectivtress of  t^e present proqrar procedure  and  the basic causes of
nonconplyinq installations.   (SWF)
ACCI
AUTHOE
AFFIL
TITLE
SOURCE
TEAR
TEXT
LC00961
Tucker, L. S.
Urban Drainage and Fltiod Control  District  cf  (let rcpoli t an  Denver,  CO
Golfview Estates Overcoses Sewage  Handicap
Aaerican Land, ALCi.  Washington,  DC,  Suaser  1972:22-26  (5  pages)

The scil conditions at  Golfview Istat^s  near  Jefferscnir ille,  Indiana,
could not allow  for septic tanks,  and  a  gravity  systen  ^ould  be tco
costly.  A new alternative,  the jrinier  puap  systen,  ccula solve  the
                                         93

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                                                                 pu
                                                                l6c
                                                                           /iot.
FTobltn-  Cost comparison i.-. \olvt.' J a price  per lot:   1)
pressure sewaqe rystea, $l,tOC/lot; anJ   2) gravity  cjst.:a.  12,
Using a grinder puop solved tho coat and  th-^  1-ft  stiticn  prcbles
(static iift of US*)-  Five pressure sewage systens  using  proprietary
Envi ronaen t/Cne grinder pi; ape ^ce currently in use,  and  'ourteen  are  in
the planniuq stage (as of 1472J  across the  nation.   (SKF)
ACC«
AUTHOB
AFML

TITLE

SOURCE
YEAR
TEIT
LCG0962
Elune. H. P., Horn, h.. Airily. F., Jgyako-Jy,  <"•.  N.,  "eshi«>ff  H.
Institut fur Okolo-jie-fcodenfcun }
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SOURCE: Hater Besources Research. 1 1 (1 ) :103-1 08  (6 pages)
YEAR  • i y I j
TEXT  : Hydraulic conductivity aas aeasurea in selected  subsurface  horizons  cf
        nine soil series by ucinq the crust test nethcd.  M-iasureeen ts  were  raie
        for several aoisture potentials at several randomly selected sizes per
        soil series.  The morphological character of the soil series spanned  a
        btoad range, from sands to clay loan soils.  The k i:har acteristic ct
        earn series was eathesatically described, and the series conductivity
        curves uere related as a fasily of curves.  Br usinj oul tivariate iis-
        criminaat analysis the series were qrcuped into  classes of  sisilar
        hydraulic behavior, based OD  the dispersion of acisture cottntial and
        hydraulic conductivity data uithin and between stries.  i 95 percent
        prediction ittetval tas constructed tc include the range cf conductivi-
        ties to be erected at future  sites.  (AU)
ACCe
AUTHOB
AFFIL
TITLE
SOUBCE

YEAR
TEXT
        LOP0967
        Hachneier. R. E.
        Agricultural Extension Service, University of Kinnescta
        Town and Country Seiaqe Treatment
        Agricultural Eilension Service, Uaivarsity of Binnesota,  Eitension
        Bulletin 304 (67 pages)
        1977
        This agricultural extension bulletin contains comprehensive  Informatics
        on the proper desiqn, installation, use and maintenance of on-site
        sewage treatiaer.t.  It is intended priBdrily for hoHeowners,  but contrac-
        tors and installers, administrators cf sanitary ordinances,  consultants.
        ?nd local, state and regional qosernsent officials «i31 also  find  it
        useful.  Major topics include:  1) seuaqe tanks,  2) so^l  tteataent
        units, 3} puapinq stations, U) altetnative systens, and 5) operation  and
        •dintenance.  (SHF)
AUTHOB
AFFIL
TITLE
SOUBCE
ItlS
TEXT
        L000968
        Losbacdo, P.
        DSI Env tronser tal Engineers. Boston, Mass.
        Appropriate ^astewater Hanaqeaent Plt.'nninq for Snail Coaaunities
        Cospost Science/Land Utiliaa tioa, 20(t). -16-19  (« pages)
        1979
        The article provides a eethod for selecting the test uastenater sanaqe-
        sent systeu.  States that a cosprehensive 201  crcgra?  for  a  Eiaall COBBU-
        nity will inci'jie:  1)  coaaunity profile, 2) piiblea area  definition,  3)
        alternative generation and selection, H) en virom en tal  iapact assess-
        ment, and '_•) public f ar t id pa t ion .   Each topic i: discussed  in detail
        and eiaeples are provided.  (SJF)
ACCI
AUTHOR
AFFIL
TITLE
SOUhCE
YEAR
TEXT
        L000969
        Wolvetton, B. C., flcLonald, F. C.
        fational Aeronautics anJ Space Ad» inis t r at ion ,  N5TL  Station,  Pliss.
        Upgrading Facultative Wastewater Lagoons with Vascular  Aquatic  Plants
        Journal Hater , Pol lutior. Control Federation. 5(2):305-313  (9  pages)
        1979
        The perfornance of a sincle-cell, facultative «aste«ater  lagoon  has  been
        significantly iaproved with the ir.trcduc tion of  vascular  aquatic  plants.
        Hater hyacinth was the dceinant plant frcrj April  to  Soveater; duckveed
        flourished froa Decesher to Harch.  This 2-ha lagoon  received approxi-
        mately 175 cubic aeter/day of untreated waste«.3ter and  had a  5-day bic-
        cheaiC'jl oiyqe.T denand leading rate of 22  to 3C  kg/ha-d.  During  the
        first 1 U Bontbs of operation with aquatic  plants, average influent ECC-5
        was reduced by 95 percent froa 110 ng/1 to an avert-qe or  5 aq/1  in the
        effluent.  The average influent suspended  solids  were reduced by  SO
        percent frca 97 aq/1 to 10 nq/1 in the effluent.   (AU)
f.CCJ
AUTHOR
AFFIL
TITLE
SOURCE

YEA3
TEXT
        JOOD970
        Ctis, H. J.
        Uniuersity of Hisconsin, r.adison
        Alternative Hastewater Facility For A Snail Unsewered Coununity
        National Conference on Less Costly Wastewater Treatoent  Systeos  fcr
        Snail Communities: 97-113  (17 pages)
        197'
        SeaM-diaaeter qravity sewers discharging  tc a  scil  abscrption  field
        wart; found to be the sost cost-effective alternative  for  Clestboro,
        «isc:onsin.  Su«erous figures detail the Westbcro  area and  the alterna-
        tive STStens" locations.  Costs for each alternative  are  provided.
        Financing of the selected systes is also discussed.   (SHF)
ACC»
AUTHOA
AFFIL
TITLE
        L000971
        Uarihan. A. E.
        Envlron»ent Prctectic?> Authority of Victoria,  Australia
        Comparison of Sewerage and Comon Effluent  Drainage  for  Country
                                         95

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SOURCE:

YEAR  :
TEXT  ;
Touaships
Environaent Protection Authority o£ victoria. Report No: 65/79  (65
paqea)
        Cotaon effluent drainage (CED) ssall-dlaeeter tffluent sewers were found
        to be a »iablc alternative to conventional sewerage systees in country
        townships of South Australia.  Septic tank effluent was collected tj
        reticulation drains and treated in a series of five lagoons.  Cost-bene-
        fit analysis four.d the costs of the CED systea to te 20-25 percent less
        than the costs for conventional seutraqe systess.   (SWF)
ACC*    L000972
AUTHOR  Ehlert, 3.
AFFIL   Applied Science Section, Ontario Klnistry of the Envlrcnoent
TITiE   Spray Runoff Disposal of Haste Statilizdtion Pond Effluent
SOURCE  Environeent Canada, Research Report do. 22  (30 paces)
TEAS    1975
TEXT    tffluent froB the Sojthville aunicipal waste stabilization pcnd has teen
        sprayed on a sloping (5 percent) area cf soil with a peraeabil Ity, it-
        less than or equal to 0.1« ia/hr for two seasons.  Results indicate that
        a coabined pond ani spray runoff disposal of seuage effluent appears tc
        be a feasible Beans of upgrading effluent quality, provided eroslcn
        and/or daeaqe to vegetation does not occur.  (All)


ACC«    L000973
AUIHOB  Scbauffler. F. K.
AFFIL   Heu England Interstate Hater Foliation Control Coeaission  (KEIUPCC)
TITIE   Guidelines for Septaqe Handlicq and Disposal
SOURCE  Heu England Interstate Mater Pollution Control Corenission  (37 pages)
IEA8    1978
TEXT    This booklet is intended to serve as a technical guidelines Bantial to
        assist Heu England residents nith the control and abateoent of pollution
        attributable to the handling and disposal of septaqe.  Septaqe charac-
        terization, collection, and transport are discussed along  with the
        equipment and procedures needed to collect and transport it.  Methods
        for treatE£nt and disposal of septaqe include direct land  disposal, dis-
        posal of wasteaater treatsent plants, and disposal of special facili-
        ties.  In addition, legislation and regulation considerations for hand-
        ling and disposing of septage are also eentioned.  (SWF)


ACC8    I00097U
ACTHOfi  Chen, H. 1.. Patrick, W. H.
AFFli   Ceotes: for Wetland Resources Louisiana State University
TITLE   Efficiency of Nitrogen BeEOval in a Simulated Overland Flow
        Waste Hater Treatoent Systen
SOURCE  Journal En?ironaental Quality. 1C(1):98-103 (6 paqes)
*EAF    1981
TEXT    Prelininary results indicate that overland  flow  treatuent  can effective-
        ly reeove nitrogen froo Hdstewater.  This study  conceiitcated on t^e
        quantitative aspects of airrooial ccnrersion of  aasoniuiB nitrogen to
        various fores in a plant-soil systee under  periodic flooded conditions.
        The laboratory studr was conducted by appjying labeled nitrogen to scale
        nodals of plant-soil systeas to detersine the fate of «aste«ater
        nitrogen applied to an overland flew systea.  Ferennial ryeqrass was
        used a-s a cover crop.  Results showed that adsorption ard  retention cf
        aaeoniUB nitrogen applied in soil Bdtiri* accounted foi approiioteiy
        70-90 percent of the aesoniuE nitrogen applied in simulated wasteuater.
        Uasteuater containing organic carbon noticeably  reduced nitrates in the
        effluent but only slightly affected the recovery cf an»cnia.  Estinaticn
        of nitrogen balance in this study indicated that the overland flow
        systea was capable of resovinq 30-90 percent cf  the added  aseonius
        nitrogen within the concent ration range nor«ally found in  eur.icipal
        wastewater.  However, labeled nitrogen data shewed that an average of
        11-21 percent of the nitrogen was taker, up  by the ryegiass, and
        approxieately 5-10 percent was ijaooilized and inccrporateo into soil
        organic nitroqec.  (SUF)
ACCI
AUTHOR
AFFIL
TITLE
SOUBCE
TEAR

TEXT
L000975
Kinaefcerger, J.H.T.
Private Consultant
On-Site Waste nanageeent - Voluse II
Hancor. Inc., P.O. Box 10U7, Findlay, Ohio
c. 1972
«58«0 (11 pages)
Presents an analysis of estisated nitrogen production by a planned
coHBunity sewer systee.  Estiaated nitrcgen itr.i a -sewage treataert
plant is calculated along with nitrogen rrcn a septic-tank disposal
field.  Describes pertinent points of the nitrogen cycle, inciting
nitrogen fixation, nitrification and denitrifica^son.   (SWF)
                                         96

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ACCf
AUTHOR
AFFIL

TITLE

SOURCE
TEAR
TEXT
LC00976
Van de Graaff, R. H. R., Erouwei, J.,  Biliatt,  S.  T.
Soil Conservation Authority, s* fielii  till  not work because of  site re-
quirements and terrain characteristics.  Alternatives  discussed  iaclude
aerobic E^stess,  esepot£QDSpirc:tion systeos,  vault systees,  coepostiDg
toilets, qreynatec rcase, laqooas,  ana alternatise fields  sech <.s acaods
and sdcd filters.,  (SBf)
ACCI
SUTIIOB
AFFIL

TITLE

SOURCE
XEAfi
TEXT
        L000978
Doaaa, J., Killel. D.  1.,  Ho't,  F.  C.,  Aaernan,  C.  R.
The Soil SutFey Division,  Kisconsin  Geological snd  Hatural  History
Survey, Cniversity Esteasior.,  University  of  Bisccnsin.  ntdiscn<  si
FielU aeasureeer.t of Unsatucdtej  rfydraulic Conductivity by  Infiltation
Through Artificial Crusts
Soil Science Society of  Aeecica  Prcceedings,  35 (2) : 362-36-4  {3  pages}
1971
7ieid trials uere nade  to  test the  applica  llity  of  a  recently  proposed
oethod for measuring the unsaturated  n-;3r'-ilc  ccndactivity  (k)  of
crust-capped scil (saterial:;  in a  one-dioei'^ . cnal  flou  systes,  yhete  the
•atric suction gradient  is zero.  K-»«lu»L  -^ere  detecained  froa
infiltratiOQ rates into  crust-capped  ^oil colutsns carved out  in-sltu  3C
co in height.  nattic suct'ots Mere eeaoure-i  with tensicseters.
Eiaaples are giien for  four  Wisconsin  scil  horizons.   (AU)
ACCS
AUTHOR
AFFIL
TITLE

SOURCE

TEAR
TFXT
L00097'»
Pitt., W. A. J.  , flattrai',  H.  C. ,  Klein,  H.
R/A
Ground- itor Quality in  Selected  Areas  Serviced  by  Septic  Tanks,  Cade
County, Florida
U.S.  Dept. of  the Interior   Geological  Survey,  Tallahassee,  Florida,
Open  File Report 75-607  (01  pages)
1 975
rroB  1971-197",  wells at  five  selected areas  in  Cade  County,  Florida
Here  eonitored for chcuical, physical,  bacteriological  and  virolocical
qroundvater characteristics.   Shallon  veils  t.ere affected prisarily  ty
store water runoff, with  sojse  indication  of  contaninatj.cn by  septic  tank
effluent.  Hells deeper  than tKenty  £eet  did  not esperience significant
qroundueter COQta»ination due  to dispersing  dilution  and  cheeical pro-
cesses which i-cevented  accuaulation  of septic effluent.  Groundwater
Quality was influenced  greatest  fcy the cospositon  and hydraulic  conduc-
tivity of the  snnd and  linestone aquitors.   (3KF)
 ACCS   i
 Aui;:oB:
 AFFIL  ;
 TITLE  :
SOUSCE:
 L000980
 Sharpe.  W.  E.,  Fletcher,  P.W.                              .     , .„„
 Fenosylvania  State  University,  University i-ark,  Pennsylvania  166C2
 I«pact of  water  Saving  Device  Iiistalltion Erograns on Resource
 Conservation
 Institute  for  Research  on  Land  and  Ha'er  Resources, Research Publication
 98  (51 pag^s)
 RESEABCH PUBLICATION  98,  INSTITUTE  FOfi  RESEARCH  CH LAKD AND
 HATER RESOURCES.  T.HE  PEN H5T LVA NI A  STATS C N I?E P5IT T , USIVERSITI
                                         97

-------
        PARK, Pt 16802
iEAr.  :  1977
TEXT  :  The adter saving proqrass of the ifashingtcn Sutortan Sanitary Cosslssioo
        (•SSC) were evaluated 
-------
        •as chosen as the best alternative.  aeatherby (ponuiation - 1.200)
        finally used 309 grinder puaps; 35.CCQ linear £«tt of pressure sever and
        (Haaeter or pipe varied fros 2 I/I*1 to 6*"; 37,100 linear feet of 1 1/U"
        cressure service lines; U2 aii relitr valves; 2" fl'ishln? and clean-out
        contectiofls: and 5,300 linear feet of R" gravity sauer to connect with
        Kansas City's seuec systea.  A 160 psi P\*C pipe was use'' f<^r thf Ion
        pressure pipe.  (5HF)
ACCI  :
AUTKOB:
AFFIL t
TITLE :
SOURCE:
TEAR  :
TEXT  :
1000985
Ketchua, L. H., Irvine, H. I., Liac. P. C.
Civil Engineering. University of Notre Can-},  Indiana
First Cost Analysis of Sequencing Batch Biological  Reactcrs
Journal Hater Pollution Control Foundation, 51 (2):288-297  (TC  pages)

Estimates of initial construction costs ("first costs") sase  teen  Bade
coapacing biological waste treateent asi&q sequencing  bath reactors  «ith
treateent osinq sere conventional oethods.  vfie estisates  «ei:e  directed
at facilities sized to population equivalents  of  1,000  and 10,000,  re-
spectively.  The snallec facility was ass'iaad  to  use a  sinqle-ceii,
earthen-lagoon batch reactor syites.  Both aer» coapared to various  (tcte
conventional systens.  Both batch reactor systeas sees  to  offer  aa  op-
portunity to aeet the sost stringent eftlueat  liaitations.  First  cc^ts
will be no sore, and ptobably less, than those of constnticnal  treatatnt
systees.  Costs of operation and aaioteaence  of the conventional and  the
tatch reactor systems are mpccted  to be about equal.   <*0)
ACCt
AUTHOB
AFFI1.
TITLE

SOUSCE
ICAE
TEXT
L000986
RcCleliaad, H. I.
(tatiocal Sanitation Foundation
Past, Present and Potential Role of HSF in O.isite  Uasteuatet Systee
Tccbaoloqy
Individual onsite Hastewater Systeos - Proceedinqs of  the  Fifth  National
Conference. 19?b, Ann Arbor Science Pablishers, Inc.,  P.O.  Eci 1125,  Ann
Arbor, Kichiqan, «8106: H1-59  (18 pages)

Explains the national Sanitation Foundation*s  (KSF)  role in testing
equipaent for treatioq wsstewctet and coaserving uater.  Itess evaluated
by B5F include package treat"sent plants,  individual  aerobic plants,
qrinder poops, uater recycle/reuse systess. waterless  toilets, incinera-
tors and pressure differential systess.   Ihe sethodoloqy for stress
testing in order to siaulate varying load conJitions is described*   In-
cluded is a discussion of tl.e  deve Icpuent an'  revision cf  standard So.
1C upon which the performance  of plants for wasteuater treataent  is
evaluated.  (SHF)
ACCJ
AUTHOJ-;
AFFIL
TITLE
SOUHCE
IRAK
TEXT
1000987
GolueKe, C. G., Diaz, L, F.
Cal Becovery Systeos, IDC., Senior  and Consulting  Editors,  EloCyclc
Operatinq a Solar Aauaculture Sewaqe Tceataent  Flant
BioCycle, 22(1);38-J9 (2 pages)
1981
Article serves as a "progress report" on  the  Hercules, CA,  water
hyacinth aastewater treatsent system after  £ivp  aonths of operation.
Problens Kith construction and operation  of the  plant during  the
"shakedown" are discussed froa a nontechnical perspective.   (SWF)
ACCI
AUTHOB
AF.. It

TITLE
SOURCE
TEAR
TEXT
LC00968
N/A
Envirgnaental Sanitation Indentation Center,  Asian  Institute  of
Technology, P.O. Box 27S«, Sanqkok, Thailand
Aquatic Plants:  Froo Eaoe to  Boon
Environnental Sanitation Infornation Center,  Enfo,  3(2):8-11  (R  pages)
1981
Article sunaarizes research on water hyacinths carried  oat  by the  Asiar
Institute of Technology.  Use  of conposted water  hyacinth ana fish  cul-
tivation (Tilapla nilotica sp.) has proved to te  a  practical  acplicatior.
of the denitrital food chain.  By coaposting  vegetation  uhich is  not
palatable to herbivorous fish, the uaterial could be  converted  to  det-
ritrus which contains aicrobidl protein.  Other aquacultural  syste«s  and
productive rses of "needs* ore discussed.  The desiqn cf a  water  hya-
cinth coupcst pit for agricultural use  developed  at Gauhatfi  Oniverslty
is described.  Other studies aentioned  include bioqas production  frog
niqhtsoil and water hyacinth aiitures,  as well as raislnq fish  on  a bio-
qas slurry.  idditional references include the Clearinghouse  of  SEBEO
Regional Center for Tropical Bioloqy  (BICTROP) Sogor  Indonesia.   (SHF)
ACCI  :
AUTHOR:
L000989
Pliddlebrooks. E. J., Jiiddlebrooks, C.  H.,  Reed,  C.

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AFFIL   College of Enqi neer ing. Otah State University
TITLK   Eoerqy Seqaireaent for Soali Wastewater Treataent Systeas
SOURCE  Journal HpCF. 33(7): 1172-1197  {25 pages)
YEAR    1901
TEIT    Suaarizes the er.erqy requirsents for all viable «lt«rnatives currently
        available for treatsent of flow rates of 0.05 to 5 nqd of  uastewater.
        Various treatsent coebinations are cospared, anJ the enerqy requireeeats
        for the aost viable alternatives are presented in tabular  fore. The date
        cab be combined to produce estimates of energy rtqaireeents fct all
        currently available unit operations and processes*  (AU)
ACCI
AUTHOR
AFFIL

TII1E

SCOKCE
YE&R
TEXT
        1.000990
        Berohart. A. P.
        The Becnrart Group. Inc.. Ee'iironaental Consultants, Washinqtoa, CC ani
        Toronto, Canada
        Esapotrasjspiration - A liable Bethod of Beuse (or Disposal) of
        Hasteuater in Worth Aaerica, Sooth of the 52nd or 55th Parallel
                   Onsite Hasteaatcr SysleBs - Proceedi-ics of  the  Fifth  National
        Conference, 1978. Ann Arbor Science Publishers. Inc.:  195-195  (11
        Discusses use of evapctranspiration teds  for disposal cf uasteaater.
        Activities of aerobic aicrocr-janisBs and  transpiration  by  plaats  in-
        crease evapotraaspicatioa rate.  Presents exasples of three  types of
        evapotcanspiration installations along with a cceprehensive  list  of ET
        and t|A installations acosEii the ccur. tty.  Preseats aa  ETA bed sizisq
        equation that ad-justs for aerobic pretreataent, Khich is stressed as
        havioq a significant icpact on systea perf oroance.  (SWF)
ACCI  :
AUfHOB:
AFFIL :
TIflE :
SOORCE:
TEST  :
        1.000991
        H/A
        Pollutech Pclluticn fid^isory Services Liraited, Gakville, Cntacio
        Putrient Control in Sewage lagoons
        Ennircnseot Canada. Eesearcn Report Bo. B  (63 pa^es)
        this project was initiated to provide docuaentatloa on the effects aad
        behavior of precipitated phosphates in seaaqe lacooas.  Design and oper-
        ational probleas which eight arise froa cheaica) dcsinq of lagoon intlo-
        ents ye;re investiqated as uell as the effects of seasoca), variation cf
        teaperature.  The role of pH in both the reiaoval and resolubilization cf
        phosphorus in waste tceatoent lagoons «as also ir.irest iqated.  The study
        utilized l.-.boratory-scdle reactors, conputer aodels. and full-scale la-
        goons.  (SWF)
ACCf    1C00992
AUTHOE  U.S. EPA
AFFIL   U.S. EPA Office of Water Proqrai Operations
TITLE   Hovi to Obtain Federal Grants  to Build Municipal  faastewater  Treatsent
        works, KCC-CH
SOUBCE  General Services Adainistri tion (8FFS) , Centralised  Hailing  List
        Service, Eldq. 41, Denver federal Center,  Denver,  Colorado  (27  pages)
YEAE    198J
1931
"EXT    This handbook helps public officials 'iniJersfnd  ioth  the  "in's  and
        out's" and the "do's and doat's" involved  in  CTrr^iriq  out  the Constroc-
        tion Grants Prograe.  It suaaarizts the Bany  regulations,  guidelines-
        technical bulletins and policy statenents  governing  vhe  proqraa.  The
        inforeaticc will enable oaaicipal officials to  bcth  insure  that consul-
        tants are doinq their job and assure that  docueects  necessary for qrant
        awards are started and cospleted with Bininus loss of  tine  and  effort.
        (SKF)
ACCI
AUTHOE
AFFIL
TITLE
SOOfiCE

YEAR
TtXT
        L000993
        Rreissl, J. F., S«ith, B.. Heidean. J.  A.
        US-EPi
        The Cost of Small Couatnity Mastevater  Alternatives
        Hasteuater Alternatives for Snail Cosaunities,  NTIS  Mo.  PB  81-131658  (25
        Cost estimates for rural uastewater  treatnect  systeas  aith  regard  to
        construction, operation and  maintenance  are  presented  in  concise  it€B-
        ized and tabular forn.  The  presentation  lists  STEP  pressure  sewers,
        s«all-dia»eter gravity sewers and  vacuua  sewers  as econonically adtaata-
        qeous to conventional gravity seuer  systens  under identical conditions.
        Cn-site systeas, Gvapotranspiration  disposal,  surface  discharqe,  aerctic
        systems and disinfection uTiits are also  discussed in teras  of econosic
        benefit. for the individual boaeouner.   (SWF)
                                         100

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ACCt
AUTHOF
AFFIL

TITLE
SOUECE
YEAE
TEXT
Walker, n._ Poorbauqh, J. H., Enfetadi, K. fl., Wilson,  P.  A.
Office ol Appropriate Technology, Califcrnia. and  Cept. of  Health
Services, California
fcural dastewater Disposal Alternative;; Project
Compost Science/Land Utilization, 21<2):22-2U (3 pages)
i960
Discusses a California study to evaluate approx iisatel y  30  waterless
toilets and 10 qreyuater reuse systeas for public  health and  perfcreance
reliability.  » variety of biological, physical, and cheeical  tests  nil!
be pecforsed OB both the toilet and qreyuater sjstees.  (SUF)
ACCt
AUTHOE
AFFIL
TITLE

SOCBCE
TEXT
1000995
Peters, G. 0., Hediger, E.
Kaparra Inc.. Che»y Chase, RD
Generic Enslronsental Inpact Statesent fcr Uastewatec Hdnaqeaent  in
Bural Areas (Executive Susaary)
U.S. Environaental Protection  Agency; Reqion V, Chic 190,  IL   (16  pages)
Ibis ecvironeental iopact statioent examines EPA's rejlew  and approval  of
facility plaas in unseaered rural lake cossunities  in EPA  Reqion  V.
On-site cecoeeendations offer  an average savi.igs of  15,200/daelling.
Site survey perforaacce data are critical to realizing  cost savinqs and
uater quality qoalsc  Public invol«eEent and leadersoip ccalJ  resclve
•any oaner related problees such as adequate aaintenance.
     the EIS proposes and ezaraines the follouinq actions  for
iapleeentation by Reqion V a
-------
        and repair.  uovern»ect regulations -!iich pcovi-lc the sost effective and
        efficient aanageisent of the required cooponents are addressed.  Next.
        supporting agencies which conduct reseirch, test equipsent and  educate
        ate nixed into the total snail flows service systea.  Various eanaqeeent
        strategies for snail flows are defined for a nuster of states,  with eo-
        phasis on New Haapshire. Maine. Pennsylvania, California and Illinois.
        Finally, several fanuqeaent strategies which could  be ue:aloped  fcr i«-
        provinq the efficiency and effectiveness of the proqraa in Colorado are
        presented.  (SUF)
ACCI
AUTHOR
AFFIL

TITLE
SOUBCE
TEAS
TE1I
L000999
Stecker. 1. P.
Environmental Division of Donohue 6 Associates, Inc. Sheboyqan,
k'isconsio
i Successful LOB Technology Kasteuater Process
tftTEd/Snqineericq 6 Manageaent, 128 (8):«6-U8  (3 paqes)
T981
this descriptive article defines the advantages of a reclrculatinq sand
filter selected for Baileys Harbor, Wisconsin,  The systea was fcund
nost cost-effective to treat the uastewater free the aowntcua area ana
slug loading fros holding tanks brought fron outlying areas.  The
scenic, shalloM bay placed e. 20 eq/1 HDD lifBit on the persit, Bhich uas
tost cost-efffcctively met with the  recirculatinq sand filter.  Cssiqn
specifications for the r&circulating sand filter are given.   (SWF)
ACC»
«lit HOB
AFFIL
TItLE
SCDECE
7 E*B
TEII
L001000
DeHalle-FB
Dept. of Enviroasental Health, University of Washington
Failure Analysis of Larqe Septic Tank Systeas
ASCE, 107 (EE):229-2undwater quality was  uost noticeable  in  unsewered
                                         102

-------
        areas.  Ho  significant correlations  were  noted  in the sewered  areas.
        Winter souths produced the highest nitrate and colifcre  concentrations,
        which were attributed to infiltrating  rainfall disseising  and leaching
        the contaeinants downward.   (S*F)
ACCI
AUTHOR
AFFIL

TITLE

SOURCE
1E&S
TEXT
LOOT 003
Vaughn., J. H., Landry, E. F., Eeckwith, C. S., Thooas,  r. 7.
Departaent of Energy and Enviroasent. drcofchavc-n National Laboratory.
UptoQ. Ueu York  11973
Virus Renoyal During Grouadne.ter Recharge:  Effects cf  Infiltraticn  Fate
en Adsorption of Poliovirus to Soil
Applied and Eavironaental F.icrobiolccy. 11 (1) : 139-117  (9 pages)
1981
Studies Here conducted to deteraine  the influence of infiltraticn rate
on polioviras removal during grounduatat  recharqe with  tertiary-treated
uasteuater effluents.  Experiseists were conducted dt a  uniquely
designed, field-situated test recharge basin  facility thrcagh  which  soee
62.00C cubic neters of sewage fe,»3 been previously applied.   Recharge of
hiqh infiltration rates  (75 to 100 cs/h)  resulted in the eoveeent cf
considerable numbers of  seeded policvicus  to  the qroundwater.
floderately reduced infiltration rates (6  ca/h) effected significantly
ii>proued virus reaoBal.  Very iou infiltration rates (.05 to 1.0 cu/h) .
achieved by partial clogging of the  test  tasin. yielded the  greatest
virus reeoval efficiencies.  (AU)
ACCI
AUTHOR
AFFIL
TITLE
SUUHCE
TEAR
TE3U
LOOIOOU
BrOMn. ¥.. V., Holf, H. M., Doncelly. K. C.. SloH»y. J. F.
Texas A G H University, College Station, II  77803
The Hcvesent of Fecal Colifcras and Coliphages Selou Septic lines
Journal of 3n»ironaental Quality, 8(1):121-125 (5 pages)

Uaaaines the novesent of f^cal coliforffE and coliphages belou subsurface
applications in three undisturbed scils containing concentrations of 80,
1l, and 7.6 percents and, respectively.  Leachate saaples were analyzed
on a continuous basis, and at the end of the stutjy the soils belon the
septic lines «ere dissected and sasplei on a grid pattern.  Results
shoaed very liaited concentrations of both fecal coliforns and
coliphacies, indicating that 12Q c» ot any of the soils tested uere
sufficient to ainiraize the possibility of qrounduater pollution fro»
septic eftljent disposal.  (SHF)
ACCI    L001005
AUTHOR  Heuberqer-«
A f r 11   HA
TITLE   Why Water Hyacinths?
SOUECE  Land and Water  (USPS 054-9JO) :21-22  (2  paces)
TEAR    1981
TEXT    A o«tho
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        with thickened waste activated sludge (ItiAS).  Sept«qe conditionicq was
        carried out in tnree separate tests using alusinua sulfate, ferric
        chloride and sulfuric acid.  Laboratory eiperieents used a filter leaf
        apparatus to siaulate a coil spring vacuua filter.  The capillary
        sucti.cn test t*as used to estlaate £ il terabil i t j. Field studies,
        utilizing a fall-scale sacuus filter and large quantities of s
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TITLE : Cafaa's Sanitation I'nit:  The Design and  Testing  cf  .1  Sanitation  tat
        Sewage Treatsent Unit for Disasters and Long  Tt»e Use.
SODBCE: Cifaa. 274 Banburi Hoai, Olford CX27CZ
IEAB  : 1975
TEXT  : / snail, liqht-ueight sanitation unit, U5,inq  sisple  construction  netaods
        and eaterials, uas developed for underdeveloped countries  needing
        eicreta disposal for eeerqency and lonq-tera  use.  Tiie  unit  can  provide
        sanitation tor bOO peoj-ie and be constructed  in a day.   Twenty glass
        fiber syuattinq plates connected in series  to  tuc 21,CCO liter butyl
        rubber sedisentation tanks, providing an  eight to ten  datr  retentlca
        under strictly anaerobic conditions, yffeet a  satisfactory  treatnent
        the Haste.  Various pathogenic orqe'.isar;, closing gastrointestinal
        diseases. Mere reduced to levels telo« the  infective dose  needed  to
        cause disease.  An optional percolation tat>k.  constructed  of  locally
        available stone, can be used to further purify the Affluent.
ACCI
AUTHOR
AFFIL

TITLE

SOOBCE

TEST
LC01C10
Tricoch. 3., Enqlande, A. J., Hertert, fl., Hilkinscn, £. F.
Departaent of Environmental Health Sciences, Tuldne University,  Hen
Orleaos, Louisiana
Kinetics ot Trace Contasinant Heaoval Fros Secondary Dcsestic  Efflaeot
by tfascclar Aquatic Plant Systeas
Bater Pollutior Control Federation Conference, las Veias, Nevada  (3t
caqes)
Expecioentdl data on organic, nutrient and troce contaainant reaoysls
froa doasestic uasteuater secondary effluent by selected vascular  aquatic
plants were collected. ao3 the systea was idtheisatically BOdeleJ  fcr
kiaetic reao»al of the substrates.  Estch, continuous and full  floH
studies «ere conducted to screen plant species ani to detereine  the
feasibilitj of incorporating such a treatment systeu on a full-scale
basis.  (5.HF)
ACC«
£DTHO£
AFFIL
TITLE
SOOECE
TEAR
TEIT
L001015
burd, K. (Dir.J
U.S. EPA
Annotated Bibliography for Hater Quality fianageKent  (6th Ed.)
U.S. EPA, Division of Hater Planning  (SH-55U) Hashinatcn, DC
1979
An annotated bibliography and references apglicatle  to 208 planning have
oeen coBpiled.  There are fiwe categories cf infcrieation proviaei:
basic infoteation aaterials on uatei  quality sanaqeisent; exhibits,
files, training prograas; 4!ater Planning Division publications; H*IS
publications; anc other publications  such as voluaes one, t«o and three
of the 208 Data Clearinghouse.  Instructions fcr crderincj infornatica
froa the Governaent Priatin
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AUTHOR: Cooleyr J. H.
AFFIL : U.S. D«pt. of Aqricultuce, North Central  Forest  Experlsent  Station,  East
        Lansing, Michigan
TITLE : Christaas Trees Enhanced by Sewage  Effluent
SOUBCE: Coapost Science/Land Utilization, 21(6):28-3C  (3  pages)
i C A fr  • 1 j o *J
TEXT  : A five-year study in Richiqan was conducted  to detereine  the  effect  of
        sewage efrlue&t irrigation os qroath of six  Chrislaas  tree  species.
        Unifora application of sevaqe effluent during  the growing season
        increased survival and growth of bhite spruce, talsa«  fir and  three
        varieties of Scoth pine, although it did  not significantly  enhance
                            of pcaqlas  firs.  Cultivating Christeas  trees
survival and qrouth ,.	,	 .
sewage effluent irrtqation sites
oBall sewage treataent facilities.
                                               rcvide a  narketatle  product  for
                                             (S«F)
ACCI    1001019
AUTHOR  Goldstein. B.
AFFIL   HA
TITLE   Land Treatcent cf tfastetiater
SCUF.CE  BioCycle, 22(l):3«-37  (« pages)
YEAR    1901
TEXT    Discusses «hy land treataent of  uastcuater  is "test  fracticatle"  eethod
        of «aste«ater treateent £oc specific  areas  and  hiqhllqhts  three
        innovative and alternative aastfi-aatar  treataent  facilities  in  Huskeqon
        Count?, nichigaa, arid  El Reno. Otlahosa  and Clayton  Counties.  Gecrgia.
        These hiqhljqhts ijive  a general  facility  description,  capacity of  the
        plant, type of laad treataent, acreage involved  and  available  tteatsent
        and constructioa costs.  (SWF)
ACC3
AUTHOR
AFFI.

TITLE

SOUBCE
YEAR
TEXT
L001020
Younq, f.. E.
Uatural Resource Econooics Oi»., Econonics, Statistics, and
Cooperatives Service, USDR, University Park, PA
Costs of Haiotaininq Public Health Standards fcr Spray Irrigation of
Kunicirjal Waste Hater Systeas
Journal of E_vironoental Quality, 9<3):3SU-358  (5 pages)
1980
Cost Estiaates of alternatives fcr controlling  the spread of diseaoe
orqa'jisits in aerosols fro« nunicipal spray  irriqation systeirs are
compared to deteraine the conditions alien a particular alternative  is
cost effective.  A cost simulation sodel and creuirusly published cost
eiit.iaates are used to evaluate the cost ef f ect i ve nes£ cf the
alternatives.  The alternatives eiaBiEeJ are assuaed to provide a
ainiaun 'level of disease prevention.  Ctpendinq upon the circuustances,
any of the alternatives evaluated Bay b»rcost effective.  Hhen
chiorInation provides a sufficient level, of disinfection, it appears to
te the least cost alternative.  Tuo alternatives, substitution of
surface for spray iniqation when surface terrain permits, and the  use
of buffer zones when land costs ace louc are alsc likely to be cost
effective.  Suffer zones in excess of ?>00 aeters car. te cost effective,
depending upon initial land costs anj whether or not the buffer area can
be faraed.
A CCK
AUTHOE
AFf IL
TITLE
SOURCE
YEAR
TEXT
L001021
Cstorne, J. r,.
U. 5. Forest Service
                      Pocatellc. Idaho   63201
U» J f rut-c^(- c**ri.Tjn_e. ru^a\-cii^_ JL	    	.
Tertiary Treataent of Canpgcouna ^ast.;  Using a  Native  Minnesota  Peat
Journal of Soil and Water Conservation,  30 (5):235-236  (2  paqes)
1975
Discusses the use of peat as a  filtration  nediua  for tertiary  treatnent
a' a Rinnesota caipqround.  The systet  consists of  a peat-sand  filter
ted, a sprinkler distribution sr**«a», and  a  perforated  fipe  foi:
Bonltcring purposes.  Saaples were collected fros  spring  uelt  until
winter freeze and were analyzed for  varicus  chesical pacaaeters
including phosphorus, nitrogen, and  fecai  coliform  bacteria.   The  peat
was fount! to reduce the coliforw bacxeria  by 95.99  percent,  while
phosphorus concentration was reduced trcr  7og/l to  about  .03«q/l.
ABBor.ia and nitrite fortas of nitrogen showed a  cccr assl »il a t ion
efficiency until Bid-suoner and then averaged 66  and 70  percent
efficiency, respectively.   (SHF)
ACCI
AUTHOR
AFFIL
TITLE
SOUPCE

TEAR
TEXT
1001022  '
N/A
VITA  (Volunteers in Technical  Assistance)
Village Technology Handbook;
VITA, 3706 Rhode Inland Avenue, Et.  Rainer,  Maryland:  1'45-1 83  (39
pages)
This handbook contains a collection  of,  and  practical  intonation on.
                                         106

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        «estevater topics.  Particularly interesting  is  the  section on  health
        aed sanitation which covers sanitary  latrines  and  a  specific  carasitic
        disease naeed Biluarziasis.  Types of  tools,  aaterials  and aetuods  of
        construction are Included.  Design situations  and  eiaaple protleas  are
        seppleaented by nuaerous firjjtes and  diagraos.
ACC»
AOTKO"
AFFIL

TITLE
SOUBCE
TEAS
TEST
        LQOi023
        Eoeqly. V. J.f Riiton, H. R., P.othenbarg. J. M.
        Oak Bidge national Laboratory. Oak Ridge. Tennessee and U.S. [eparteeat
        or Housing ar
-------
        Guidelir.es for Conventional and Alternative Oasite Senate
        Sysleas-Uashicqton State (L000197J; Hanageaeat Ggiaelines for
        Conventional and Alternative Onsite Sewage Sjstesss-PennsylTania
         L000098J
         L000263
         L000269
                 ;  Report on the Ten State Coanittee fcr Gnsite be»aqe Systees
                   Individual Onsite HasteBatet Systas Hanaqesent in Colorado
                   Sew York Stats Standards for Indi?i<3i*al Household systeas
        it,uuvii*.i i  State Agency Haaaqeseat Plans and Approval Practices fcr
        Maine (L000011): Integrated Baste Banageeent Systess-Cnsite KIDS
        Applications {10001023); The Boyd County Deeoastration Frolect-A Systea
        Approach to Individual Bucal Sanitation (An Update} JL000257) ; Onsite
        Uasteuatac  Facilities for Saall Ccssunitits a-.£ Subdivisions (1000199);
        Integration of Onsite Disposal in a 201 Facilities Plan  (LCCOGOiJ);
        Innovation  in Vasteweter Technology:  The Challenge of the 1960s
        (L000009);  Pollution Control-Pathaay to Perfection or Perdition; Its EC
        Vow Look Ahead.  (SHF)
4CCB
4UTHOB
&FFIL
TITLE

SOURCE
TEJSB
        L001027
        Uineeterqer.  J.H.T., ftndecsan. H. H.
        Departsent of Public Health, Placerville. California
        Failure of the "Engineering Approach" to Desiq-j of Septic-Tank Systeos
        and the Developasnt of Septic-Tank Districts
        N/A
        1971
        One-third of  ths "enqiaeered" septic-tank systeisE In El Dosaio Cootitf,
        California failed at or before taree fears.  On this basis, it uas
        recc-eaended that deleqatiaq a prcbles lot solely to a liceBsed civil
        enqioeer is insufficient.  Bather aa on-site Hesteuater oafiaqea«nt
        systea operated by a public entity is proposed.  Ibis eystee uould te
        responsible fcr design, installation and naistenance of septic-teak
        systeas on a  district-aids basis.  (SUP)
*CC8    L001028
AOTHOH  Deqhi, G. S., 'itfel, K. C., Bitsch, H. J.
AFFIL   School of Forest Resources and Conssr ya t ion anfl Center for wetlands and
        Dept. of Envitonaeatal Engineering Scit-nces aafi Ccater for wetlands,
        University of Floridae Gainesville, florida  32611
TITLE   Effects pf Sewage Effluent Application on Litter Fall and Litter
        Decosposi tior. in Cypress Suaops
SOURCE  Jouiaal of Applied Ecology, 1 7 (2) :337-408 (12 pages)
YEAR    I960
TEiT    Application of sewaqe effluent to cypress doses in Florida did not
        affect litter decomposition or increase litter acccsulation during a
        tuo-yeat study period.  Mean phosphorus concentration increased froe
        first year to second year in the tuc sebiage doees as ccspared to the
        grouoduater-applied done and the control dose.  Tree diaseter growth was
        found to te significantly greater in the.- three experimental doses than
        in the control doses due to increased nutrient availability.  (5KF)
ACCI
AUTHOR
AFFIL
TITLE

SOURCE
TEI1
        L001029
        Pope, P. R.
        Ooulton Uiguel rfater District, Laguna Higuel, California   92677
        llasteaater Treatsent by fiootea Aguatic  Plants in Sand and  Gravel
        Trenches
        U.S. Environoenta1 Protection Agency, Municipal  Environsental  Reseacch
        Laboratory, Cincinnati, OH   (6 pages)
        1 981
        A potential uastewattr treataent prccess  by  Wax  Flanck  Institute  (f.FI)
        of Best Germany was tested by Koultcn HiguFl i(astewater District,  Laguna
        Niquel, California, under an EPA grant.   The systez consisted  of  earthen
        trenches filled with gravel ant! planted with reed Phrageites and  the
        bulrush Scripus, respectively.  Tests indicated  a nuster of problees
        Mith the systea, though results indicated that secondary effluent
        quality could be reached.  Treataent cf secondary effluent for  resoval
        of nitrogen and phosphorus was not effective.  Initial  results  indicate
        that a further assesssent of the system may  be wcrthwnile.   (SHF)
ACCf
AUT.HOfi
AFFIL
TIT1E

SOURCE

TEAR
TEXT
        1001030
        McClelland, N. I. (ed.)
        National Sanitation  Foundation
        Individual Cnsite Mastewater Systtes   Proceedings of the Fourth
        National Conference, 1977
        Ann Arbor Science Publishers Inc., P.O. Pox 1«251, Ann Arbor, Michigan
        (238 pages)
        1978
        The 1977 Proceedings contain:  Clearer Concepts and a New Challenge;
        Cnsitfe Systeos:  EPA's Construction Grants ProcraE  (LCCOC19); Cnsite
        Systeis:  Earners Hone Adainistra ticn  (LC00016); Str.te Frograes ar.d
        Perspectives  (L00001?);  Local Experiences with Alternative Systems:
        Salvation, Circumvention, cr Cop-Cut  (LOCOOI^); ranageaent Clstcicts-A
                                         108

-------
        Kej to lapleeenting an Cnlot Disposal Alternative (LCCCC22): An
        Application of the Onlot Management Conctpt:  Objectives,
        bespocsibilities, and Costs (LOOOQ23) ; Iepleaentatioa cf Onslte
        liastenater Hanaqeseat Arraaqeoents-Overccning Incentives for Inaction
        (L000021); Vaiidatinq Oasite Treataent in California (1000271);
        flanageeeat of Rural Septic Systems Utilizing the Natural fiescarce
        Conservation District Specialist Progran (1000018);  Ccttificaticn of
        Contractors (LC00008); Certification of Seaage Enfarceaent Officers:  £o
        Cnsite Raiiaqesent Alternative (LOOC02U); Soil Testing Cert ificaticn
        (L000261)- An Operator's wiew of Perforsarice:  Sanitaticn  District S3
        Boy'icus heaoual Through soil Colueos
Applied ind Eu^iroQceotal Bictc.. ;o.* cgy, 42f;):63-B8  (6 pages)
1981
Laboratory experioeots aere pcrCoro^a oc four different soils, using 100
CB loaq coltiBBS, to detereine the extent cf srirus aoveoent «hen
uastPwater percolated tbrouah tat scils at various hydraulic  flow rates.
Onchlcrinated secondary se
-------
AUTHCS
AFFIL

TITLE
SOUBCE
YEA2
TEXT
Etister. G. H.. Schultz. B. C.
Respectively, School of Forest hesouice. University of Gecrqia, Cept. of
Forestry, Iowa State University
The Hesponse of a Southern Appalachian forest tc baste Hater Irrigation
Journal o'. Environuental Quality, 10 (2) : 1U8-1 53  (6
1981
pages)
        The operational land treatment systea at Unicol State Park ne»r Helen,
        Georgia, was used for a period of three years to study the role of a
        eature Appalachian forest ia renovating aunicipa] wastewater.  Uptake of
        soae of the nutrients in the uasteuater was occurring in the vegetation,
        tut DO systeaatic nutrient uptake by any one coeponent of the stand was
        observed.  Cverstory trees failed to show any growth response to the
        irrigation in height or diaaeter at breast height (Ibh), but did show
        increased steu diaaeter growth within the canopy.  The irrigation vas
        causing significant increases in diaaeter at 0.3a anl height of
        understorr trees.  A detailed sten analysis of five Vreated and fJve
        control unite pine trees (Pinus strotus L.) free the tature overstery
        showed that upper stee diaaeter growth was increased significantly as a
        result of the irrigation.  This ites soluoe response tc uasteuater
        irrigation would not te detected had breast height diaaeter and tctal
        height beta the only stea seasureaents taken.  The irrigation is
        decreasing the  biooass, diversity, and the nuaber of individaals of the
        ground vegetation.  (AU)
ACCt    1001030
AUTHOB  Kraus. PI.P.
AFFIL   Algal R^S'iarch Center, Landenberq, PA
TITLE   Evaluation of Toricities and Eovironaental Inpact in "Symbiotic" Hater
        Beuse Systeus
SOUBCE  Proceedings of Third National Conference on Complete Hater Beuse,
        Sponsored by American Institute of Cbeaical Engineers and EEi Technology
        Transfer, U76-U92 (7 Pages)
TEAR    1976
TEXT    Presents selected Jata obtained in an estensi^s sorvey of virus
        populations in waste stabilization lagoons and water renovation systems.
        Discusses various lagooninq processes and the action and oicrooryanisus
        that convert the waste into organic nitrates, phosphates, sulfates and
        silicates.  Also included ere the health aspects of these treatoent
        systeas, the fate of isicroorqanisas ir. spray irrigation of dceestic
        sewage onto uoodland, sludge dispose! on land, sludge disposal at sea,
        and industrial uses of water an^ sludge.  (5MF)
ACC»    L001035
AUTKOB  Schwab, D., Armstrong, JcH., Horp, S.
AFFIL   Oklaho*a State University
TITLE   Septic Tank Maintenance
SOUBCE  Ofclahoaa State University Extension Facts No. 1657  (2 pages)
IEA6    1975
TEXT    Methods for aeasuring sludge and scu» acc'.iiula t ion  in septic tanks are
        aentioned in a short Extension Service Fact Sheet.   Cleaning procedures
        are given for septic tank srstess.  Effects of addinq various biological
        and chtsaical additives to the septic systeas are alsc discussed.   (S«F)


ACCI    L001036
AUIHOB  Schwab. D., ftrosttong. J.H., Htirp, S.
AFFIL   Cfclahosa State University
TITLE   Septic Tank Systeas for »c«es
SOURCE  Ckiahoaa State University Eitension Facts No. (655  (« pages)
TEAB    1975
TEXT    The coaponents of a septic tank-soil absorption systea are  briefly
        defined, and Oklahoa;. state Departnent of Health septic tank design and
        capacity reguireaents are discussed.  Location guidelines for the  septic
        tank and seepage fi';ld are also nentioned.  Procedures and  regulations
        governing the soil percolation test in Oklahoma are included.   (SWF)
ACCI
AUTHOB
AFFIL

TITLE

SOUBCE
IEAB
TEXT
L001037
Sandhu, S.S., Harfen, a.J., Nelson, P.
Hater Laboratory, South Carolina State College, Crajqeburg,  Sooth
Carolina
Trace Inorganics in Pural Potable Hater and Their Correlation  to
Possible Sources
Hater Research, 12(4): 257-261  (5 pages)
1978
Ninety-eight water saaples, cosprising about 10 percent of  the  total
sources available to rural hones in Haspton County,  South Carolina,  were
randoaly selected and analyzed  for inorganic constituents.   Cheoical
contaainaton is widespread in this area and Bany people are  using
substandard quality water.
     A noticeable nuaber of water saaples  showed unacceptable  levels  cf
                                        110

-------
        arsenic,  iron, nanqanese in second part.
        (SVF)
1CCB
AOTHOE
AFFJL

HUE

SOUBCE
IEAH

YEHT
LC01039
Teltsch, B., Shuval. H.I., Tadaor, J.
Division of Kunan Ensironutiitel Sciences, School of Applied Science and
Technology, the Hebrea Unieersity, Jerusalea, Israel
Eie-*way Kinetics of Aerosolized Bacteria froa Sprinkler Application cf
Vastewater
Applied and Enviroaaental Rlcrobioloiy, 39(6): 1191-1197  (7 pages)
I960

A aethodoloqy for estiaatinq the aicrocial 
-------
        (55
TEAS  : tS76
TEXT  : Sequiresents of various construction sitetlals and configurations  fee
        shore-side holding tants receieidq s€«aqt collected on toard vessels ate
        reported.  Preliminary designs for a basic syste* an3 two vstiaticBS are
        developed.  Capital and annual OCR cost estioates are prevented fcr each
        systea sariation of the three different tanii capacities of SCOO. 10.0CC
        and 30. COO iept-rial gallcas.  Prcperly designed holding tank facilities
        will be very expensive to construct anil operate and. if possible,  direct
        transfer of the sewage froa the s^s^el to a shore-side sewer cr
        tceatae.it facility should oe uni«rta«en.  (AU/SbF)
iCCI
AUTHOR
AFFIL
TITLE
SOURCE
TEAR
TEXT
        L0010K3
        Kaufaan. H.
        Farallones Institute
        Bioqas in China:  Saall Scale, Decentralized Anaerobic Digestion
        Alternative Sources of Energy, 51: 24-27  (« pages)
        1961
        A tiogas production systea which produces oethane qai, electricity and
        fertilizer has been used successfully in China.   Unisal and hosan wastes
        and crop residues are fed into digesters consisting of a siilsurface,
        done-covered digesting chaeoer acd Haten pressure gas storage tank.  the
        gas dcifes a generator, producing electricity fcr lighting aed putpinq
        irrigation water.  Sludge is applied to faraland  as a sell fertilizer
        and conditioner.  The systees are leu 'cst and easy to build ftoa
        available construction Batecials.  (3KF;
ACC»
AUTH08
4FFII.
TITLE
SOURCE
TEXT
        LOOIOflt
        U.S. EPi
        Office cf Mater Prograa Cperaticns
        A Strategy for Seal! Alternative Wastewater Systees  (SAWS)
        U.S. EPA Office of Hater Prograa Operaticns (35 pages)
        1980
        The development of a cost rehensive planning and sanaqeeent approach to
        proaote the use of, and lactose the performance cf, saall alternative
        wastewatsr systeas (SAHS) is discussed in this fcor-section report.  The
        strategy for icproving Sias nanaqesent is outlined aith regard to
        educational progress, state prograa aanacj^aent, cons tr-jction grant
        prograu management, research, etc.  Current federal, state and local
        SAMS prograes, probleas and issues inhibiting iff p leaenta tion of adequate
        SAUS nacaqeaent prograas, and rocoBsendat ions to isprove progras
        nanageaen t are discussed.   (SUP)
tcc«
AUTHCS
AFFIL

TITLE
SOURCE

IEAE
TEXT
        L0010C5
        Cvernan, A.K.
        Associate Professors of iqricul tural Engineering, University of
        Florida, Gainesville
        Effluent Irrigation of Different Frequencies
        Journal of the En vironaec tal Engineering Division, June 1979: 535-5U5
        This paper evaluates the effect of both rate and  frequency of irrigation
        on the yield and coaposition of scrghua-sudangrass and corn fcr grain
        and silage.  Erperisects were conducted to cospare the effect of slit
        application versus single weekly applications cf  wastewatets.
        Paraaeters included yields, dry natter content, nutrient content and
        nutrient uptake.  Secondary effluent frcs a trickling  filter plant was
        applied at rates of 2, " , o, and 6 inches per week by  sprinkler systeas
        to the test plots.  All three crops snowed positive response to effluent
        irrigation.  Yields and nutrient uptake increased with irrigation rate.
        while dry matter content and nutrient C9ntent were independent of
        irrigation rate.  Although effluent irrigation offers  potential fcr crop
        production, its dilute fora of nutrients appears  to provide lower
        nitrogen uptake than coaeercial fertilizer, particularly on the sandy
        Lakeland soil with low fertility and low water holding capacity.   (S8F)
ACC*
AUTHOR
AFFIL
TITLE

SOURCE
TEXT
        L001016
        Grrtha». H.J., Hunsinger, K.B.
        Ontario ninistry of the Environsent
        FliOsuiiorus Re»oval in Seasonal Retention I.agoor.s by Eaten Cheiical
        Precipitation
        tnvironaent Canada, Research Report Ho. 13  (50 pages)

        Batch cheaical treatment of seasonal retention Ia9oons to achieve total
        phosphorus residuals of less than 1 ppa were studied.  Three prise
        coagulants (alua, ferric cnloride ani lire) were field tested.  Outboard
        actor beats were used to disperse and six  the coagulants.  Though all
        three coagulants achieved less than 1 pr»  total phosphorus residuals  in
        the effluent, liguid alua seeael to work best.  Cther advantages cited
                                         112

-------
included reductions in fcffluert EOD, 55, and algae levels, with oily a
siight increase in sedieent depth alth eacl. batch tteataent.   (SBF)
ACCI
AUTHOB
AFFIL

TITLE

50UBCE

TEAS
TEXT
L001007
Given. P.M.. Saith, ?.H.
northern Technology Centre, Ueter Pollution Control Directorate,
Environmental Protection Service. Fineries and  fnvironsert Canada
Critical tvaluation of Eitencfd Aeration Systeos in Acetic and Sotac;tlc
Regions
Fisheries and Enviroaaent Canada. Ecoaosic and Technical Feviee Pepcrt
EPS 3-HP-77-10 (85 pages)
1977
This study uss undertaken to raaearize available inforsatioo froa
previously published and unpublished sources pertaining to the failure
and success of ei'.ended aeration plants in northern North Aserics.  For
coeparison. plants «ere placed into tv»o sajor categories:  1) iiorthern
(above the aean annual 0 degree Celsius isctherrs). and 2) non-northern
(below the aean annual 0 deqre« Celsius isothern) .  Sn estensive
literature review relating to extended aeration  plant characteristics is
qivee.  Results shoued northern plants to perfcro significantly uctse
than eon-northeirn. and reapons for this difference are discosseJ.  Less
conscientious,, ana stilled operation was the general problea.  Kuch
inforsation is presented graphically, illustrating plant
influeat-ef fluent conditions and BOD, COO and SS removal prcbatilitler.
Ao abbreviated case stud? for each of the 66 extended aeration plants
cited is given in a table.  (StH)
ACCJ
AUTHOfi
AFFIL
TITLE
SOURCE
TEXT
L0010C8
a/A
Polluted! Pollutica Advisory Services, Ltd.. Cakville, Cntario
Butrient Control in Sewage Laqoons -• Voluee II
EnviroDffient Canada, research Report So. 28  (64 pages)
1375
An investigation studied the affects of physical aatf cheaical condlticns
and cbaeical addition on the operatior. of sewage lagoons and the reooval
of pbcsphcrus.  Laboratory lagcoa simulators upre used to evaluate the
effects of tesperatare, chesical dosage ani influent phosphccus
concentration on the perforaance of a typical laqoon.  Results shc«ed
that a dose of iOC ppis of aluo effectively  reduced neu seuaqe phoschcrus
levels to less l.han i ppia.  The study alsc  considered the afjlicatlon cf
a cosputer aodel. to siaulate cheeically treated laqoon ceactioDs. but
the coopleiitf of the cheaicjl reactions caused unrealistic predlcticns
of phosphorus precipitation and the sociel was abandoned.
ACCI
AUTHOR
»FfIL
TITLE

SOURCE
TEAB
TEXT
L0010Q9
Kelson. B.N.
Fueblo Regional Planning Commission, Puetlc, Colcrado
Pueblo Area Council of Government's Pueblo County  Septic Tank
Maintenance Ocaonstraticn Project-Progress Hepcrt  1979 anrt  1980.
Eueblo Regional Planning Coaaission, Pueblo, Colcrado  (32 pages)
1981
This second year progress report describes ucrk acccsplished during  the
first two yeais of activity  (1979-80) on a septic  tank saintenanct
proiect.  The qoals of central sanaqeBent aere the basis fc" this St.
Charles Mesa area deeonstration project.  fcesults  and  findiuTs  of
coapleted work include hoaeonner sectic systea descriptions  (i.e.,
failure rate, age, hone characteristics), sludge depth accusulat'.cn
rates, probless and difficulties of field and nanageaent oper'iiors,
grounauater aonitoricg prograe results and econoeic consideraticis.
Exaaples of survey fores are included.   (S«F)
ACCI
AUTHOB
AFFIL

TITLE
SOURCE

TEXT
L001050
Shelef, G., Ronen. H., Krener, R.
Cept. of EnvironeGn tal Engineering, lechnion-Israel,  Institute of
Technology, Haifa, Israel
Uasteu3ter Recirculation Ponds - Pilot Plant and  Field  Studies
Progress in Mater Technology 9(3): 6U5-657  (13  pages)

Fecirculation of effluent fron final ponds  in a sequence of
stabilization ponds into the first pondr  was us<=d  first  in  South  »frica,
Mew Zealand and Israel as an energency action in  cases  uhare  a series  cr
anaer obic- facul ta ti ve-aerobic pono systess  becane  o?erlcaded  and
produced salodors.  Such recirculation eliainated  aoaerobiosis at  the
surface of the pon's and increased ponds  performance.   Later,
reci rcolaticn ponds systess were predesigned and  operated as  a process
by itself, notably the "cartwheel" systea at Cape  Flats, S.A. and  the
"half orange* at the Dan Region  (Greater  Tel-Aviv),  Israel.
     Pilot plant studies at the Technion  in Haifa  and  field stndies  at
the Can Seglon Uastewater Treatsent and Reclaaation  schene  showed  sose
                                 113

-------
        cf the basic parameters of the recirculation pcn<1s systea.   K
        recirculatxon ratio of between 1.8 to 2.5 was found to giwe  the test
        results <»s lar as hydrogen suliide control and eCD reso»al are
        concerned.  BOD-5 loadings of about UOO kq/ha-day on the first pocd and
        180 kq/ha-daj on the entire systea provei applicable.  The effect cf
        recirculation in increasing surface laye; disseised oxygen levels and  ia
        reducing axqae predator activity at the first pords in the sequence is
        shonn.  The conceatration of algae ii> the »sricus ponds a! dirfereet
        seasons «ds aeasuced.  (AU)
ACC*
AUTHOR
AFFiL
TITLE

SOURCE
I EAR
TEXT
1001051
Fulton, h.
Assistant City flanaqer. City of Elehurst, Illinois
HOB Elsihurst Cut Hater Use by 15?. Increased Existing Seuaqe Capacity ty

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        The purposes of the manual arc to:   (1) tirlain  the water quality
        presides, showing how they affect hoee buildtrs, and  (2) specify  the
        actions builders should take to protect their cofsunities froa
        unreasonable environiental regulation.  Racy pictures and charts  are
        provided.   (SaF)
ACCI
AUTHOB
AFFIL
TITLE
SOOKCE

YEAfl
TEXT
L001056
Hiuff. P.
Coaiconsult. COBSUltiaq Engineers and Planners, Viru«, Censarl;
Distribution of uastetfater i >j Stain Field Pipos
Journal of the Ensiront>e.ita;  Engineering Division, Proceedings of the
Aoerican Society of Civil Eacine*rs. 109(EE5):1009-1024  (16  pages)
1961
This article addresses the hydraulics of »astenater flcu in  drain field
pipe.  Theoretic?! cquatioos are analyzed and folloned by eiperiaental
results which define distribjtion of effluent frco the drain pipe.  An
exaeple is given ahich illustrates unifcre distribution of eftlaent
accoaplished by using greater than one percent slope and unevenly spscea
boles in the bottoa of the deain pipe.   (SBF)
ACCJ
AUTHCB
AFFIL
TITLE
SOCECE
YEAR
TEXT
1001057
Kert, S.fl.
HA
Septic Tank Dcainfield Perforeance in rise ulllianette Valley Soils
Cregon State Uni»ersity aastais Thesis  (107 pages)
1969
This thesis, subaitted to Oregon State  Oai»ersity Soils Departnent,
discusses fivt Crejon soils which were  tested for septic tank drain-
field perforaance.  Bine drainfields «ert used in Williaaette Valley.
Two forms cf infiltration rate testing  «ere used:  Pablic Health Service
test (P.H.S.)  and the double tcbe netfiod.  The double tube nethod »as
aore reliable.  Conclusions hece uade about:  peraeability in different
soil horizons and its effects on draicfield performance, effects cf ace
en drainfield perforasance. and effects  cf the water table on drainfield
perforaance.  Charts and tables arc prcwiied.  (SWF)
ACCS
AUTHOh
AFTIL
TITLE

SOURCE
IEAF.
TEXT
LC01058
Van de Graaff, H.K.n.. Brotuer, J.. Hillatt, S.T.
Scil Conservation Authoiitr, victoria. State Rivets ^nd Water Supply
Coaaission. victoria. School el Agriculture, La Trcte University,
victoria
Septic Tanks fter-isited. . .Success cr Failure of On-Site Effluent
Disposal
The Australian Health Surveyor, 12(1): (5 pagss)
1980
In victoric, Australia, rn-site Jispcsal of icaestic septic tank
effluent b? qroand absorption is a uidesFtead practice in unsewered
ireas.  Thi'j article considers the results of research carried out on
three exiccincj effluent absorption fieiis.  The authors eiplain the role
of h7uraulic conductivity in soil end the use of tensiceeters fcr
seaiuting th>? saqnitude or soil watsr suction.  Data uere used to
evaluate actual soil disposal performance it three residences with
different was-.e loadings acd 3ite conditions.   Froa this, generalized
conclusions were drawt on reasons fcr absorption field failures.   (SWF)
ACCJ
AUTHOK
AFFIL

TITLE
SOURCE

TEAS
TEXT
LD01059
Statfell, R., Lcd«ig, R., Celt, J., Tchobanoqlcus, G.
CeBante and Stovell Consultina Engineers, Sacraiiento, California and
Dept. of Engincerina, University of California, Cavis, California
Concepts in Aquatic Treatment Systees design
Froccedings of tbe Anerican Society cf Civil Engineers, Journal of the
EnviroDHental Engineering Division, I 97 (EE5);919-9UO  (22 pages)
1981
Article defines aquatreateent systezs and gives their energy utilization
in coiparison with a& activated sludge giant.  Characteristics cf sere
coaeon plants used in this process are Described.  Design consideration
for the aguatic process unit include plant harvesting, cliaatic
influences, environaental factors, uasteaater characteristics, process
reliability, EOD resoval rates, nitrcgen teaoval, phosphorus removal  f.r.i
other contaninants.  (SHF)
ACCJ
AUTHOB
AFFIL
TITi-E
SOUECE

YEAR
LOOT 060
Buttaaara, S., Battayakorn, G.
Asian Institute of Technology, Bangkot, Thailand
Gptizization of Sewage Treatient and Fish Propagation  in  Ponds
International Conference OD Water Pollution Control  in  Cevelopinq
Countries (11 pages)
1973
                                         115

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TEXT  : Utilization of oxiiatico ponds for wastewater  tr«=atsent  in  !-5,
1980, Uniirersity of Uashinqton. Seattle. Washington, p. 273-2CO (6
pages)
1960
frovidss cooaon sense design of a lift station fcr an upgrade leackfield
and trench installation froo an installer's point of view.  Author
stresses need for understanding of the svstee design and being sore it
will work, prior to bidding on its installation.  Any discrepancies
should be addressed by the Health CeraEttsent and the designer to the
satisfaction of the installer Drier to installation.  (SWF)
ACC8
AU1HOE
AFFIL

TITLE
50URCL
TEAR
TEXT
L001063
Her kin, J.H.
Soil Science and Hater Resources Center, Ssall Scale Haste Ranageeent
Project, University of Wisconsin, Fadiscn
bydrogen Peroxide Treatsent Update
Ihird NcrthuPst On-Site WastenAter Disposal Short Course, March c-E,
I960, University of fa'ashir.qton, Seattle, kashingtcn, p. 309-331 (26
pagas)
1980
CeFcribes eioerience uito hydrogen peroxide treatment ror restcrirq
clogged leacl.fields.  Includes a description of coBnon septic tank or
treetaent systes failures that lead to itachfield failure.  Research
results on preventing loss in »oid voluae within the leachfield doe tc
an ineffective gravel/soil barrier at the top of the qravel are
provided.  Use of synthetic fabric is reconsended and data on the
perforaance and cost of the materials is presented.  (SWF)
ACCI
AUTHOR
AFFIL

TITLE

SOUEJE
TEAR
TEXT
LC J106U
Kennedy, J.
Washington State Eepartsent of Social and Health Services, Bail Step
LD-11, Olyspia, Washington  9950«
The Anaerobic Filter fcr Coaestic Kastewater Treateent:  Advantages and
Disadvantages
Third northwest On-Site Wastewater Disposal Short Course, (larch 1-5,
1980, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington, p. 257-270 (15
pages)
1980
Describes research on the perforuance of anaerobic filters applied to
dosestic wasteuater.  Although not statistical!) di' ferent in
perforaance fros a septic taci (due to  highly variofle and limited _ata
for both systess)  the systea has the Dotentj.*!  for increased treatsent.
Figures for a variety of systes designs and a list of  references  are
included.  (EHF)
ACCI
        L001065
                                         116

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AOTHOS
AFFIL

TITL7
SOURCE
TEAR
TEIT
        f
DeHalle. F.B.. Kalaan,. D.A., Noraar, C., Sang, J.( Plews, C.C.
Departaent of Environmental Uealth, Uniiersity of Washington at  Seattle
aoa Departaent or Social and health Services. Clynpia, Washington
Trace Organic Sezovals in a Large Septic Tank
Third Kcrthaest On-5ite dastewater Disposal Shcrt Course, (larch  1-5.
1980, University of basbinqton. Seattle. Washington, p. 238-256  (19
"aqes)
 960
A Washington coaaunit? septic tank serving a 91-hcne sutdi»idion was
studied to eeasure the pitnence of priority pollutants in dosestle
sewage.  The study also evaluated the ceeovai of these coapounds in the
anaerobic septic tank by analyzing effluent jiaeples collected froo a
distribution cor.  The results pertain to the evaluation of the  volatile
orqacics in toe ran dosestic sewage pusped fro* a large fi»e year old
coBQUDitr septic tank.  The priority pollutants generally showed higher
levels on weekends, prohaal? reflecting leisure activities and related
chenicals.  fiost other volatile cospounds uere hydrocarbons, and their
resoval by the septic tant generally decreased uith increasing eoleeul&r
Height.  beveral crganosult'ut cospcunds showed substantial increase as a
resale of anaerobic degradation processes in the septic tank.  (AO/SBF)
ACCS    1001066
iUTHOB  Leich, H.H.
AFFIL   HA
TITLE   Grey Hater Separation Galas
50UBCE  Coepost Science/Land Utilization,  21(5):18-1")  (2 pages)
TE&B    1960
TEXT    Hevieus an on-site sanitation svsteas n-anual ccupiled by the Naticnal
        EnsiroisBental Health Assaciatioa.  Ihe  aanual  includes practical
        inforaation on qreywater separation  sethods.   Its  purpose is to prcvide
        the typical hoaeoaner uith iBforaaticn  en a variety of alternative
        Hasteuater treatment systeas available  to solve sanitation problems.
        Includes the address of the association  frora which the nanual can te
        ordered.   (SHF)
ACCf
AJTHOB
4FFIL

TIT.E
SOURCE
YEAH
TEXT
J.001067
Barror, R.F.. Tchobanoqlous, G.
Departoetit of Civil Engiueering, University of California, Cavis,
California
Effective aastewater Flanageuent Planning  for Scall CcBSunities - Part 2
Public works, 111 (9):125-130  (6 pages)
1980
Discusses the Itey innovatire wastewater aanagesent olanning concepts for
saall coauunitiec, eephasizing  that lani  and a lator fcrce are twc
iaportant- resources generally given i riiuf f icier.t attenti9n.  Two
proposed institutional changes, "Centralized Aduinistrat ion/
Decentralized Tceatsent" anv? "Coafcined Federal Prcaraes" are recosaended
for acre efficient aanageisent and operation.   (SbFj
ACCI    L001068
AUTHOE  Barror, R.F., Tchcbanoglous, G.
AFFIL   Departaent of Civil Engineering, University of California,  Cavis,
        California
TITLE   -^fective Hasteuater ranagesent Planning  for  Suall Comunities    Part  I
SOURCE  2ublic Bocxs, 111(6):76-80  (5 pages)
IEAR    I960
TEXT    Hastewater «anage«ent pltnniag is eiauined with  respect  to  the  federcj.
        regulatory process, grants  process  and  the unigue planning
        considerations of snail coaaunities.  Tne article discusses  the
        characteristics of saall coaaunities such as  Banageaent,  services,  and
        eaplJyseot, and it explains  hou the planning  considerations  can  te
        forsuiated based on these initia;. ideas and observations.   (SHF)
ACCI    LOOT 069
AUTHOB  Laak, B.
AFUL   Civil Engineering, University of Connecticut.  Storrs,  Connecticut
TITLE   Influence of  Doaes«-ic «astewater Pretreatuent  en  Soil  Clogging
SOU.1CE  Journal Hater Pollution Control Federation,  42(8)  Part 1:1195-1500  >(,
         ?ages)
         970
TEXT    A soil colusn eiperiaent  was designed  to  deterrine if  the  total  weight
        of TSS and BOD-5 applied  to the sc.:l  was  directly  related  to  soil
        failure or ultieate clocqing.  Halt of  the colusns were loaded  with
        septic tank effluent ana  the other half with ejtended  aeration  plant
        effluent.  Results showed that TSS resoval differed between  the  t«o
        systeis, indicating that  BOD-5 could  be a contributing paraaeter in
        clogging.  Analysis of the clogging material showed thet  it  did  net
        contain sufficient aaounts of terrors  sulfide  to  be considered  a eajor
        clogging coaponent, as was previously  thought.  The eiperiaent  concluded
                                         117

-------
        that increasing the pretreateent of domestic mstewattr  prior  to  scil
        application increases the service ti»e cf  the  sell  surface.   (S«F)
ACCI  :
AUTHCF:
AFFIL :
TITLE :
SOURCE:
YEAR  :
TEXT  :
L001070
iA
feA
Affluent Effluent:  Ne« Choices in Hastewater Treatsent  (Filo)
Water Files, iO Sates Road. Hatertova, RA  02172
1931
Innovative jr.d alternative uasteuater treatstnt nethods  suitable for
conaunity ust are exaained in this HC-ainut'i color fils  available in 16
•• and in 3/y* video cassette.  The fila is acccupanied  by a 28 page
handbook describing the rase studies of the 17 ccumunities litervieued.
CoBounitv leachfitlds, land application and aguaculture  are asonq t'n«r
options, which when iapleeented in the cosaunities can save pcney,
energy and resources.  This fila is available for rental cr purchase
fro* Hater Files.   (SUF)
*CCt  : LC01071
AUTHOR: Cuthrie. f<.L.. Latshaw, G.J.
SFFIL : H&
TITLE i Soil-Potential Ratings for Septic Tank Absorption Fields in Leon County,
        Plorida
SOURCE: Journal of Soil and Hater Conservation,  Hovenber-Decesbec, 1980 278-260

YEAS  : JIBS*""'
TEIT  : A pilct pro-ject was conducted in Lecn County,  Flcrida, to test the 1978
        Soil Conservation Service policy and procedures  for preparing soil
        potential ratings.  Septic tank absorption  fields nere selected as the
        land use for uhich scil potential ratings would  be developed.  Local
        contractors uho install septic tanks identified  corrective aeasurcs that
        they use to overcoat soil lioitations, uhile an  interdisciplinary scil
        survey teas related these corrective seasures  to scil sap units.  The
        results of this pilot prelect illustrate the benefits cf preparing soil
        potential ratings at the local level.  (SWF)
ACC3
iUTBOE
AFFIL

T1TIE
TEAS
TEXT
1001072
Zelazny. L.W., Li€tzke, D.A., Earuood, H.L.
fiqroaoay Departeent, Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State
University
Septic lank Drainfield f'ailures fiesultinq froe !"i ner aloqical Changes
Jir^inia <*atdr Resource?; Reserach Center. Virginia Polytechnic Institute
ind State University, Blacksburg, Virginia  24060  (118 pages)
1980
Tne purpose of this study was to detersine whether oc net septic tank
drainficld failures in areas containing soils with a high biotite or
chloritizcd vereiculite conponent cculd be the result of «ineralpqical
cbanqfs t..at decrease the perse^bilitf of the soil at the drainfield
interlace.  Tw^nty-fcur drdinfields in Virginia counties uer= exaained
a'-A in each instance, visible cheaical alterations were detected at the
soil-dtainfielfi interface.  X-ray diffraction of the coils  revealed that
the prieary aode of effluent soveaent «as channelized flow.  At nc site
did tie dcainfield fail for purely nineralogical reasons.   (AU)
ACCS
AUTHOR
AFFIL
TITLE

SOURCE
TEAR
IEXT
LG01073
Jones, R.A., Lee, G.F.
Colorado State University, Fort Collins
Septic Tank Wasteuater Disposal SysteBS as Phosphcrus Sources for

Journal Hater Pollution Control Federation, 51 (1 ) : 2761- 2775  (12  pages)
1979
Possible ground anl surface water conta«ira tion resulting fro» septic
tank effluent near Voyage Village, Wisconsin,  led to this repcrt.
Eipecinental procedures consisted of the sasplinq of 21 observation
yells \.o eoiitor a specified septic tank for IS paraaeters,  including
specific conductance. pH, alkalinity, various  ions, soluble
orthophosphate, total phosphorus, aasonia, nitrate, turbidity and  iron.
In addition, pertinent characteristics of the  study area exaained
included cliaate, soils onalyses, site geology, scil phoschcrus  scrpticn
test, hydrology and qroundaater quality.  Final results showed that
septic taTk effluent did aiqrate froa the drainage field into i He
        groundwater reqion; however, no  phosphate  transport  was  fcund.   Article
        also contains additional discussion  cf  nutrient  (P and  N)  t cans re r tat ion
        routes fron leach fields to ground acd  surface waters.   (SWF)
ACCI  : LC01C7y
AUTHOR: Losbardo, P.
AFFIL : Clean Water Project, Tovn of Woodstock,  New
                                        118

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TITLE : Household Hater Conservation:  Options, Costs  and  Savings
SOU.ICEc LoabarJo C Associates, Environsental  Engineers/Consultants,  109
        Stoniford street. Boston, fiassachussetts   021 1 <*  (31  pages)
YEiB  : 1982
TEXT  : A staple step-by-s tep procedure is ezplained  foe  the  individual  to  aodit
        his hose's carrent water use and  tci deteroine  which  uater  sasinq  devices
        are cost-effective.  Dfeviees discussed are  Ion-flow  shower  heads,
        flow-control inserts, tbersastatic sizing  salves,  aerators,  toilet  dses,
        low-flush toilets; coapostiaq  toilets, and  pressure  reducing  valves  and
        qauqes.  (SWF)
4CCI  : 1001073
AUTHOR: Secblcos, R.H., Engestt, J.
JkFFIL : Departeeot of Civil Engineering.  University  of  Hashlnqtcn
TITLE : hound Systeu - Washington Espcrience
SOURCE: Third Sorthuest Oa-Site Masteuater  Disposal  Short  Course,  Harch  0-5,
        1980, University of Washington, Seattle,  ilashington.  p.  53-72  (20
        pages)
TEXT  : Describes a Hisconslu aouod  installed  on  a seall lot  with  tight  sells
        and high qronndwater — conditions  unsuitable for  a conditional  ST-S8S.
        Perforaance of the systea was evaluated through a  vear  long  stady  of
        water quality paraneters.  Data shoued that  iiaprovenent  in uater  qualit
        vas so pronounced that the percolating effluent entered  the  qcounduater
        aguifer with little chance of serious  uater  quality degcation.   (3WF)
4CC«
AUTHOB
AFFIL
TITLE
500HCE
7EXT
        L001076
        Tyler, E.J., Converse, J.C.,  Tredrickson.  D.H.
        Seall Scale Haste Har.agenent  Project,  University  of  Uiscoasin-Hadison.
        and University of Hiscossin-Eitension  and  the Departeent  of  Health  onfl
        Social Services, Stata of Wisconsin
        Bound Systea-Kisconsia Eiperience
        Third Kccthuest Oa-Site  Masteaater Disposal  Short Cours-e.  Barc-h  Q-5,
        1980. University c£  Wdshiogton,  Seattle,  Washington,  p.  73-91  (19
        pages)
        Provides a general description of the Hisconsin sound and :is
        application ID Wisconsin.  Cocieents include corrections aaae to foiling
        BOUDdS.  (SWF)
*CC»
AUTHOE
AFFIL
TITLE
SOUBCE

YEAH
TEXT
         L001077
                  H.
         Department of  Eavironscotal Cuality.  State  of  Oregon,  Portland,  Oregon
         Sand  Filters:   Oregon  Eiperience
         Third  northwest On-Site  Kasteuater  Disposal Shcrt  Course,  Parch  0-5,
         1980,  University  of  Kashinc ton, Seattle,  Washington,  p.  §2-98  (7  pages)
         1980
         Discusses experiences  in  Cceyon uith  the  in terffi ttent  sand  filter.
         recirculat ir.q  sand  filter  ana  interail.tent  recirculatinq  sacd  filter.
         Design perforeLice  and OCR  requiresents of  each  systee are  defined.
         The intersittent  recirculatinq sand  filter  produced  excellent  quality
         effluent, but  it  had a short life  span of approriaately  tuo yej>rs.
         Effectiveness  cf  the intersittent  sand filter  varied  uith  dosing  rate.
         (SKF)
ACC(
4UTHOB
AFFIL
TITl'_

50UHCE
lEAb
TEXT
         L001078
         Heed.  S.C.,  Bastian.  H.K.
         USA/CBTiL  and  EPA/OhfC
         Aquacuiture  Syst-jus  for  Wastewster  Treatn'ent    An  Engineering
         Assessment
         US-EPA.  Office of  Mater  Pcogran  Operations  (133 pages)
         1980
         This  publication contains  the  results  of  an effort to  assess  the  current
         status of  aquaculture technoloqies  !or  uastewater  treatsent.   The
         assesseent includes  an  -ver»ieu  and  indi»id-jdl  engineering  evaluations
         coverinq various xastewater  aquacultuia systes^ involving  wetlands
         processes, aquatic plant  processes  and  coabineo aquatic  processes.
         (SHF)
ACCS
AUTHOR
AFFIL
TITLE
SOUECE
TEAR
TEXT
         L001079
         Maqara,  I.,  Suqito,  D.,  Vaqoae,  K.
         The  Institute  of  Public  Health  and  Uepartnejit  of  Envicrnnental
         Sanitation,  Ministry  of  Health  and  Welfare,  Tokyo;  Japan  Eavironeental
         Sanitation Center,  Kawasaki
         Design and Performance o£  Night  Soil  Treatsent Plants
         Journal  Hater  Pollution  Control,  52 (5) :914-922 (9 pages)
         1980
         Collected niq"t scil  treatment  plants in  Japan processed  approximately
         75 percent of  the total  collected  night  soil produced  in  Japai  in 1970.
                                         119

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        Anaerobic and aerobic digestion and activated slajge processes are the
        predosinaut treateent aetbods, and under proper operation they can field
        effluents which Beet uater quality stasdards for EOD, suspended sclids
        and colifora nuaber.  idwaocea collected night soil treataent pcocesseE
        designed to increase effluent quality r.ie discussed uith esphasis placed
        on the biological denitrification process for waste treataent.  (sfir)
iCCS
aUTHOE
AFFIL

TITLE
SOURCE

TEAR
TEXT
L001080
Ross. S.A., Guo. P.H.f!., Jack. B.E.
Hater Pollution Control Directorate. Eovironaen'cal Protection Ser»ice.
Environsent Canada
Design aacl Selection of Seall wastewater Treatseat Systees
Hater Pollution Control Directorate, EBBiroiuental Protection Ser»ice,
Environeent Canada /312 pac.es)
1980
This cosprehensiwe report provides general infcreation on the design end
selection of uasteuater systess with capacitites for populations op to
2,500.  Material covered includes:  aeasaresent asd estietion of
uasteuater flows: physical, cbeaical and biological characteristics ct
domestic tastewater; on-site wasteuater treatoent aed disposal
processes; central uar;teuater collection and treateest systeas;
operating probleas associated with saall treataeot systeas; disposal of
liquid effluents end uaste sludges; Canadian reqBlatory agency
requiceaents; and procedures esployed ia the selection ana approval of
uasteuater systeas.  General cost figures and schesatic diaqrass ere
m   seated for eost topics discussed.  6 case history is provided to
   ustrate the design and selection procedures discassed.  (AD/S«F>
iCC»    L001081
iUTKOB  Lehc, J.B.
\fflL   National Water Hell Association, fttn iibor, nichigan
VITLE   Ihe Fabulous Pouers of Mctter Earth to Injest, Digest and Avoid Stoaach
        Distress
SOOnCE  Individual Onsite Hastewater Systens - Proceeding of the Eighth Baticnal
        Conference, 1981, Ann Arbor. Michigan (IS pages)
YEAR    1962
TEXT    Three systems of land application of aasteuater are revieue':  slci*
        rate, rapid infiltration, and o»erlaad flow.  Objectives, design
        features and public health efforts are outlined rcr each Bethod.  Prcper
        site selection is eaphasized with guidelines presided for each type of
        systea.   (SWF)
ACCS    1001062
ADTHOK  long, J..H.
AfflL   Plichiqan Cepattseot of Public Health, Lansing, Bichiqan
TITLE   Experiences ^ith Site Modifring Sjwage Disposal Systems ^t Single and
        Two Fanily Hoaes
SOURCE  Ihe Hichigan Environmental Health issociation, Picbiqan  (19 pages)
IEA.R    1978
TEXT    This survey of alternative sethods of land application of uastewater in
        use at one .ind tao-faiaily hos°sites considered fear on-Eite treatnent
        eethods:  enlarged, fill, deep-cut, and lagoon systeas.  The purpose of
        the evaluations was to deterzi^e «hat designs ha;e teen used for seuage
        disposal and how the virious designs have functioned.  Causes of failir.q
              o and failure rates are listed for each uethcd under differing
        soil perseability aud water tafcle conditions.   (SHFJ
ACC»
AUTHOR
AFFIL
TITLE

SOURCE
YEAR
TEXT
L001083
Feigin, A., Feigenbaua, S., Liaoni, H.,
Institute of Soils and Hater, l.R.O.
Utilization Efficiency of Nitrogen frou Sewage Effluent and Fertilizer
Applied to Coru Plants Growing in a Cldy Soil
Journal of Environuental duality, 10(2):284-287  (a pages)
1 981
A greenhouse study of corn plants groan on a clay soil was C9nducted to
determine the fate of nitrogen following sewage tffloent irrigation.
Imonia nitrogen was added to the test soil as a solid fertilizer, as
sewage effluent, and as a sineral solution.  Forty-three days after
seeding, the crop was harvested and nitrogen content uas traced using a
nitrogen isotope.  Estisates are given fcr the nitrc?er. taken up ty the
plants, ieraobilized in the soil, and deaitrified cr volatilized due to
simultaneous application of carton and nitrogen in the sewage effluent.
 (SWF)
ACCI    L00108U
AUTHOR  Grahaa, N.
AFFIL   Cawliti County, Kelsc, Washington
TITLE   Public Works Approach to Kaaagesent cf Eural Hater acd Sewer  Systeas
                                         120

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SOURCE:
TEAS
TEXT
        Individual Otisitj Uastevater Systens - Proceedings of the  Eighth
        National Conference, October 20-22. 1961, Ann Arfccr. Kichigaa,  (30
                -'.O'jnty, tiashinqton, now operates six satellite  water and  sewer
        systems *hich serve 2.000 rural residents,  A putlic works accroach  is
        taken to nana,,e this systea efficiently.  The organization, financing,
        construct i on, operation, aod Baintenance of the systea  using this
        approach is presented.  The expansion of this accroach  to oasite
               t^r systea aanaqeaent if discussed.  (SfcF)
ACCI    LOC10E5
AUTHOB  Sioaons, J.D., Hevean, J.D.. 5cse, C.H., Jones, E.E.
AFFIL   U.S. Departsent of Agriculture. Agricultural Research Service, Bnral
        Housing Research Unit, P.O. Bcs 792, Cleoson, South Carolina  29633-0192
        and Parsers Bore Adainistraticn. USDA, Washington, DC  20250
TITLE   Saall-Diaaeter. Variable-Grade, Gravity Sewers for Septic Tank Effluent
SOUBCE  ASAE, CeceRber. 1981  (16 pages)
i. £ A H    19 o i
TEXT    Defines the design and operation of a snall-dianeter, variable graoe
        efflueiit sever installed at Rt. findreas. Alabaaa.  Figures are included
        which describe coaponeots of this installation alonq «lth
        recoBiendations for future iBstallation.  The systen. which consists of
        •odifled septic tasks, ssall-diaieter fIC tracsport lines csd a laqcon
        for filial treatneot, has operated satisfactorily  for sore than fi«€
        rears ulth continually flooded lines running uphill uith a net positive
        hydraulic qrsde.  The line «as installed, uith the help of tbe
        residents, for $2 per foot (1975).  Procedures and an eiasple r< isiqa are
        included.  (SBF)


ACCI    1001086
AUTHOS  Kelson, B.
AFFIL   Fueblo  Regional Planning CoBiission. Puetlo, Colorado
TITLE   The Ho«eo«ner*s Guide to Septic Tanks
SOURCE  tueblo  Area Council of GovernBeots, Pueblo, Colorado (16 pages)
IEAB    1981
TEXT    A short, easy to understand caide on the operation and »aintenance cf a
        host: septic tank.  Also includes a triel description of a septic tank
        aniottcance prograa initiated  xn 197S by the Fuetlo Regional Planning
        Coeaission of Pueblo, Colorado.   (SHF)


ACCI    L001087
AUTHOR  l.,\
AFFIL   NA
TITLE   Texas Tear-Round Hyacinth Treat»ent Study
SOl'RCE  Water fieuse Highlights, tWWi,  January, 1976:15-16  2 pages)
HEAR    1978
TEXT    Wastewater treatsent utilizing a covered water hyacinth syste» has beec
        studied at an Austin, Texas, experiuental facility.  Reductions in
        suspended solids, BOt nnd eineials uert cbtainerl  during treatsect of
        stabilization pond effluent.   The protective cover provides year-ccund
        plant crowtb and treatment at  a eininun of eaintenance and energy.
         (SWF)
ACCI
AUTHOE
AFFIL

TITLK
SOUBCE

IEAB
TEXT
L001088
Dix, S.P.
EFA Saall Bastewater Flowf Clearinghouse, 253 Stewart Street,
Horaantown, UV  26506
Siting and Sizing Leach Field in Lariaer County
IndiviOual Onsite Kastewater Systens - Proceedings of the Seventh
National Conference 1980, Ann Arbor, nichigan, p. 9-19  (11 pages)
1981
Part cne concerns the procedures followed in Lacieer County, Colcradc,
for site review of onsite wastcwater trestsent systeas  for planned
subdivisions and individual hor.es.  Site inspection and review far a
stcff en*ironaental engineer is stressed ai. necessary to the review
process.  Danaqe«ent requireae.its for on^ite systeas are discossed with
respect to working with the homeowner after installation.  Fart  two
concerns the development of a new sizinj equation for scil absorption
systeis.  The equatio.- works within the liaitaticn of a percolation test
and size reguireaents required tinder Colorado law.  The equation say  be
used for sodified des.gn associated with wasteuater flow reduction or
evapotranspiration.  (SMF)
ACCI  : L001089
AUTHOE: McDonald, R.C., Molverton, B.C.
AFFIL ; National Aeronautics and Space  idsinistcation,  Sationa]  Space  Technology
        Laboratories, MSTL Station, Mississippi
                                        121

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TITLE   Coaparative Study of Hastewater Lagcon with aad without Hater Hyacinth
SOURCE  EconoBic Botany, 34(2):101-110  (10 pages)
Y £ Afi    1930
TEXT    A three-year stady was conducted on an existing, one-cell facultative
        sewage lagoon having a total surface area of 3.6 ha and receiving a
        BOD-S loading rate of Q1 kq/ha/d (QOlb/a/d).  Ihe cosparative
        experimental periods ran froa July through Novesher fcr three
        consecutive years.  During the  first period, wat _r hyacinths coopletely
        covered the lagoon.  The water  hyacinth coverage was reduced by  33
        percent of the total surface area tha secon14, year.  The lagoon,  free of
        ail vascular aquatic plants the third year, was Eonitcred tec
        coaparative purposes.  The EOSt significnat isprcveisent overall  it the
        effluent quality occurred when  water hyacinths covered the entire
        laqooo.  During this period the effluent BOD-5 and TSS sere 23 and 6
        Bq/i, respectively,  Hithout water hyacinths, the efflutnt SOD-5 and TSS
        were 52 and 77 eg/1, respectively.  the effluent total crgaoic carton
        concentration with water hyacinths averaged to ag/1, and without Hater
        hyacinths, 72 sg/1.  A discussion of the results fros this three-year
        study is (.reseated in this paper along with associated problems  that
        uere observed when water hyaciiths were introduced into the lagoon and
        altered its behavior Icon that  of a norsal facultative legoon.   (80)
ACCS
AUTHOR
AFfIL
TITLE

SOUBCE
IEAB
TEXT
1001090
Klink, K.R., Pirrunc?. D.F.
Donohue and Associates, Inc., Sheboygan, Wisconsin
Cost-Effectiveness Aaalysis for Oa-Site Hastewat«r Treataent
Alternatives
Public Works, January 1982, S1-5H (8 pages)
1982
Five on-Fite uastevater tteatncot alternatives vere evaluated based on
econoaics. practicality anu enyironaentdl iapact:  coawentional septic
systess, holding tanks, sanitary sosi^r service, individual iscand systess
and cluster sound systees.  Desiga and financial coasiderations fcr
these svstess are presented-  Present worth values were calculated using
1981 figures for nest counties in aiscc.nsin.  Septic tank systeus Here
found to be least expensive; i&jividual sounds and holding tanks cost
about 2.5 and 8 tiees sore than septic systeas, respectively; cluster
sounds and sewer costs depend oa the length of line and ouster of h<:;os
in the vicinity; and sewers generally cost less than a cluster »oo'jd,
with both costing less than holding tanks.  A graph, which ilJostr^ted
its cost-effectiveness of the various alternatives in teras of present
woith cost per hoae, serves as a useful guide in FreliBinalT set
of Hastewater treatsect alternatives for a nuater of hosaes .'n a
particular vicinity.   (S^F)
 ACCS    1001091
 AUTHOR  Galecar, H.C., Harlic, C.C., Enfield, C.G.
 AFTIL   US-EPA, Robert S. Keir En»ironeental fiesearch  Latoratory,  Aia, Ok?.ahoea
 TITLE   Drainage Requireeent:; for Land  ftpplication  Hasteuater Treataent
 SOURCE  Transactions of  the JiSCE, 23 (2) :3k3-350  (U  pages)
 YE/fi    1980
 TEXT    Drainage reguireaents for land  application  wastewater treatsent  are
        discussed based  on the node of  treatment:   slew  rate  (irrigation), rari
        infiltration, or overland flow.  Drainage patterns  for each  systes are
        illustrated.  leportance of sabsurface drainage  for slow  rate and rapid
        infiltration is  stressed in a discussion of  land application effect  on
        height of water  table and groundwater quality.   (AO/SKF)
ACC«
AUTUOB
AFFIL

TITLE
SOUnCE

YEAR
TEXT
L001092
Bouwer, H., Rice, R.C., Lance, J.C., Gilbert, R.G.
U.S. Hater Conservation Laboratory, USD*, SEA/AR. Phoenix, Arizona and
Science and Education Adainistration, U.S. Department of Agriculture
Rapid Iifiltra'^ion Syr.teas for Hanovating Sewage
Third Northwest On-Site Wasteua'cr Disposal Shcrt Course, March 1-5,
1960, University of Washington. Seattle. Washington, 128-160  (32  pages)
1980
Descrites design aspects of a rapifi-infiltration systea?  Induces
consideration of infiltration acid hydraulic loading tcsin design,
groundwater hydraulics and wjter guality with specific isference  to the
Flush Meadows Project.  Reference to 26 articles and texts provide
sources fcr technical design detail.  (SMF)
ACCI  : L001093
AUTHOB: Hac.xoeier, R.
AFFIL : Extension Agricultural Engineer, University of  Minnesota
TITLE : How to Run a Percolation T£3t
SOURCE: Lani E Mater, Tebiuary/Maich,  J3 pages)
ItiB  : 1981
                                         122

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TEXT  : Details a step-by-step procedure of  bo«  to  run  a  percolation  test.
        Ciagrans are used to illustrate actual on-site  setup  of  testing
        apparatus.  Exaaple calculations are 9iven  to demonstrate  reduction of
        field data to a percolation rdte, aefl rather than  determining the length
        of trench required, a aethod of calculating the trench  lotto* area  is
        presented.  (Sap)


ACC*    L00109U
AUTHOB  Carlile, B.L.
AFFIi   Extension Soil Specialist, Horth Carolina State University,  Raleigh,
        north Carolina  27650
TITLE   Effluent Distribution and  the  SiqBir.icance  to Systea  Peifcrsance
SOURCE  Individual Onsite Sastewater Systea!; - Proceedings of the  Se/enth
        national Conference, 1930, Ann Arbor, Bichigan, p. 129-115 ('.7 paqes)
TEAR    1981
TEXT    Defines and offers alternatives fen  the  conventional  distribution
        system.  V-trenches, gravellecs distribution  (cinder  block,  large pipe),
        pressure distribution and  spray \rri?ation  are  discussed.   The authors
        reel the recognition ana acceptance  of these systees  is  necessary to
        overccae present liaitations of conventional options.  (SHF)
ACC8  : 1001095
AUtHOR  Kesuicfe, B.H.,  Uang,  D.S., Gerba. C-P.
AFFIL   Eroqraa in  lafectioas  Diseases acd  Clinical  flicrobiology,  Dniuersity  of
        Tesas Kedical School  -  et  al.. University  of  Arizona,  Tucson,  Rriiona
TITLE   The Use of  Cicrcorganisss  as  Groced-Hater  Tracers:   A  Bevie«
SOUSCE  Ground »ater. 20 (2) :1 «2-119  (8 paqes)
YEAH    1962
TEST    Discusses the use of  aicroc -qanises as  qroundwater  tracers.  Cheoical
        tracers do  not  always  reflect the cc*-aste«ater  that can te carried eway
foa the subsurfece disposal area.   This aa? reguire alterr.a •• i ve
oeasures, sucih  is raising the fieli.  A ita vheaat ical relationship uas
developed for  reducing the reguired soil interface  area, and loading
rates for different soil peroe^tilities were plotted oeographLeally fcr
use in siting  tields.  Mediua sand  and silt with an unsaturat.?d
thickness of 1.5 feet were found to reaove 30 percent of septic tank
effluent phosphate and nitrogen after two years of  operation.   (SWF)
ACCI
iUTHOB
AFFIL
TITLE
SOURCE
TEAK
TEXT
L001097
Laak, S., Parese, tl.J., CostelJ.o, H.
Department of Civil Engineer ing. University of Connecticut
Denitrification of Dlacxuater with Grsjuater
Aoerican Society of Civil Engineers, 1C7 (EE3) :581-591  (11 pages)
1981
A biological nitrogen resoval process developed  ty  the  University  of
Connecticut utilizes greyyatsr  to denitrify blackwater.   Following
priaary treataent in separate septic tanks, greywater  and blackwater  at
niied in an anaerobic rock filter tank where  denitrificaticn occurs.
The effluent is disposad of in  a conventional seepage  ted.   Nitrogen
removal of over 70 percent was  attained  during a field  study in  a  full
scale hone systea.  (SBF)
ACCI
AUTHCS
AFFIL
TITLE
SOURCE

YEAR
TEXT
L001098
Laak, B.
Cepartsent of Civil Engineering
.......    .           £
Kastewater Engineering De.-'ign
Ann Arbor Science Publishers Inc.,
       (187 pag&j)
                                 University of Connecticut
                               or 'Jnsewered Areas
                                   P.C. Box T*25, Ann Arbcrr  flichiqan
U8106
1980          .                                            ,    *   ,
This design text outlines in detail the reguired engineering  design

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        steps for en-site wasteuater treatment and disposal systeas.  r, szriety
        of designs are presented iociudinq septic tanks, lagoons, OEidatiou
        ditches, qieyuater and blackuater systeus aad aerobic fixed growth
        filters.  Detailed designs of a septic tank with soil absorption systes
        and a biogas generator are included tiith cost analyses.  Suhlects
        briefly discussed include site evaluation, nastewater characteristics.
        subsurface soil systees and septaqe disposal.   (AU)
ACC»
AUTHOB
AFFIL
TITLE
SOUBCE
TEXT
IC01099
Crates-FJ
Rancor, Inc., Findlay, Ohio  65800
Ranaqeient - h Oany Spleodored Word
Sational Sanitation foundation Cnsite Haste r.anaqeoent Conference, 1981,
inn Actor, flichiqan (7 paqes)
I960
The lack of an unified sansgeaent prcqraa for en-site uaste disposal
technologies has prevented its fall development as a viable
technoloqical alternative.  On-site technology installers, house
builders and developers, sanitarians and hoaeouners art often not aware
of available governaent funding because of a breakdown of coeaunicatico
with aanaqesent.  The author suqqssts a Bafflageaent prograa involving
acadeaic engineers,, eaoafacturers, QOBeroeent. hcse builders and cuners,
and installers is needed to effectively present on-site technologies  in
the oarketplace.  (SUF)
*CC«
AUTHOR
AFFIL
TITLE
SOUECF
IE4B
TEXT
L001103
lost, J.
Feeble County Engineer, Eaton, Ohio
Gcinder-Puap Pressure-Line Checks Out 6fter Five Tears
UfiTEB/Enqineering 6 Management. 128(1):79-80  C2 pages)

Article gives an itemized brealtdoan of cost for an installed gcindec
pnap unit JS1.396,.  Three categories:  equipaent design, facility
oesign, ana adsiaistcatiire procedures and practices, are discussed in
detail with respect to their iepact on grinder pu»p operation and
aaiatenance.  A table lists the percent tine  spent OP specific and
routine operational eaiatenance probleas:  average
household.  (Syr)
iCCI
AUTHOB
AFFIL
TITLE
SOOfiCE
TEAS
TEXT
L001101
Hori, U'T
Uasteuater Discipline, CR2 R Hill, Bellevue, Washington
Cn-Site Seuage Disposal Systeus for Rural Cooirunities
WPCF 1981 Conference, Detroit, nichigan, October 1981  (2U paqas)
1981
A general method for desicjainq alternative coBnanity on-site disposal
systens is presented viitb illustration cases.  The design process
involves two steps:  data collection and detailed desinn.  Guidelines
are suggested for both steps.  Data collection includes soils
evaluation, pemeaoility, aepth-to-high water teble or iapervious
raterial, and topography.  Detailed desigr> imolves choice of a
conventional on-site systea cr a fill systen, design flow estimates,
q ouadwater balance, cutoff drains, tank and drainfield sizing,
distribution nethcd, site grading, and phased construction.   (SHF)
ACCt
AUTHOR
AFFIL

TITLE

SOUBCE
r£Ai>
TEXT
L0011 02
Chen, R.L., Patrick, V.H., Jr.
laboratory for Wetland Soils and Sediaents, Center  for  Wetland
leources, Louisiana Stete University, Baton Rouge,  LA   70803
Nitrogen Trsnsf ornations in a Siouloted Overland  Flow HastenateL
Treat»ent Systes
Mater Besearch, 1 a(8) :1 051-10U6  (6 paqes)
1 980
To a siaulated overland flow uodel,  wasteuater containing  redlst r i tu te<2
nitroqen-annoniua was applied to deternine tht N  rencval efficiency,
transf oroa tion latos, and incorporation  into trie  plant-soil systea.   A
low  perueability nhoon silt loan soil was seeded  with perennial  ryegrsss
and  placed on a four percent slope.  Tbirty-nire  percent of the  appij.£2
        radiolabeled M was recovered, the loss prinarily attributed to
        denitrification.  Nitrate forsed fay nitrification of  aBooniui in  the
        surface soil aiss was denitrified cr reduced  to organic  foras in  the
        reduced zone.  Nitrogen loss via deni tr i f icaticn should  be  used to
         evise estinated H reoovai rates, which W9uld  increase  K  loadinn  rates
        by forty percent because of higher deni tr if icaticn  rates.   (SHF)
ACC»  : LC01103
AUTHOB: HA
AFFIL : Gcvernsent of the Republic of Botswana, International  Cevelopeent
                                         124

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        Research Cecter (IDBC), Ca:  dian International Development  Agency
7IT1E :  Sanitation in Developing Countries
SOURCE:  Froceedings of a workshop on treinina held in Lotatse, Iiotswaoa.  1Q-20
        August I960 (172 pages)
TEXT  :  The United Rations has chosen ths 1980-1990 decade as  the  period  when
        special en^hasis will he placed on overcosing the lack cf  adequate  water
        supply and sanitation facilities for larne sections c£ the  populations
        of the less-developed world.  Reqicnal aeeti.igs  were held  in  two  areas
        of Attica to present inforaation on lou-cost technologies  and  traiainq
        pllqrass to delegations fro» throughout the continent.  7hese
        proceedings l&clude papers presented at the iieeting, sueaaries of the
         esultinq discussions, description of the field  visits, rosolsitiont and
        actioR plans.  (SUP)


ACCI  :  LOO:iO«
IDT HO I):  Yes&an, B.
AFfIL :  Office of rfater Progras Ooerations. U.r. EPA. yashington,  DC
TITLE :  New Developsents in an Old Idea:  The Bole of Water Conservation  in
        Saall Hastewater Systeas Operations
S03BCE:  Individual Onsite Hastewater Systems - Proceefiinqs of  the  Eighth
        Va:iooal Sanitation Foundation Conference, 1961, inn Arbor, HI,  (10
        jlqes)
TEXT :  tea developments in tho area of water coffsertratioa are descrited.
        Topics discussed uitti regard to reduciaq uater usage include cconcsic
        factors, public auareness, leqislatiie incentives, consuner acceptance
        and data collection.  Selected case histories help illustrate  the
        ecoaoaic dad enaironiental benefits fez the consumer and the coeaunitv.
        (sun
 ACCI  :
 AUTHOB:
 TITLE :

 SOUBCE:
 YEAR
 TRXT :
L00110S
Anderson, E.L., Pepper, 1.1... Kneebone, i.a., Drake, P.J.
Dnpartaeat of Soils, !fatere and Engineering, and Departaeat of Flant
Scieaces, Oaisersity of Arizona, Tucsoa
Heclasatlon of Hastewater iiith a Soil-Turf Filter: — II:  Removal cf
phosphorus. Boron, Sodius and Chlorine
Journal BPCF, 53 (9) : 1U08-1 HI 2 (5 paq-ss)

A laboratcry study was conducted to determine th€ resosal of phosphcrus,
boron, sodiun and chlorine fros uasteaater by a scil-torf filter.
Secondary treated effluent BSE applied at various loading rates to plots
of twc soil coepositions needed with turfqrass.  The leachate was
collected and cfteoically analyzed for  the eleeents.  The resolts
indicate that both soil-turf tilters were effectire in r&nosriiiq
phosphorus, bcron, sodiue and chloiine fiora uasttwater.  Grcur-diiater
cecharge act the iederal concentration standards for these elesents.
(SUP)
 ACCI
 AUTHOR
 iFFIl
 TITLE
 SCUECE
 YEifi
 TEX;
L001106
uhelan, B.R., Titaanis, Z.V.
Division of Land Resources aanaqeoent, CSIHO, Wenbley, West Aostrialia
Daily Cheaical Variability of Doaestic Septic Tank Effluent
Hater. Air, and Soil Pollution, 17 (2):131-t39 p paqesO

Effluent froffl the septic tanks of  five households was saopled fcr 15
days.  Temperature, redoi Fotentiai» ccoductivity and tiochesicsl ciyqen
denand were aeisu-'ed and sasples were analyzed for. nitroqen, phosphcruE,
trace ele«ents. Ca, f"q, K, 2u, Zn, Cd, Cr, Pb, ."!q anJ linear alkylate
sulphooate.  Little dailv rariation occurred in the effluent between
households.  The effluent was in a reduced and anaerobic condition with
alaost all nitroqen and phosphorus occorrinq in the inorganic fcr« in
solution.  (AO/58F)
 ACCI    L001107
 AUTHOR  Bennett. S.R., Linstedt, K.D.
 AFFIL   UeparHent of Civil,  Environaental  and  Architectural  Engineering,
        University of Colorado, Boulder, Colcrado
 TITLE   Sewage Disposal by Evaporation-Transpiration
 SOUdCE  US-EFA, flnnicipal Environeental  Research Laboratory,  Cincinnati,
        Septeaker, 1973
 TEAR    1978                                                              3   ,
 TEXT    One of the «ethods for on-site  disposal of  wasteuater frca  Individual
        hoaes is by evaporation.  Two types of  evaporative  disposal  systess  have
        been investigated in  this study:  evapotranspiration  beds  and  aechanicil
        evaporation units.  Twenty-nine  test  lysineters  cf  0.22  cubic  seters
        voluae each were utilized to evalute  the effect  of  design  and
        operational parameters for  ET bed.  The variables studied  were
        wastewater loading rate, effect  of  the  weather varieties of  evapoiation
        and rainfall, ET sand size, evapqratioo rate  as  a function  of  the  water
        saturation depth, and the transpiration contribution  of  surface
                                         125

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        vegetation.  A design uethod is presented alonq with cost data and an
        analysis of the national application potential of this type of systea.
        The evaporation of uasteaater usicq eechanirel syster-s was studied using
        a pi.LOt scale unit constructed as fact cf tl.e project.  Two types of
        evaporation designs were evaluated. Eesiqn equations Bete established
        for both units,  cost data and analysis of national application
        potential arc also presented.  (AU)
ACC»
AUTHOR
AFFIL
TITLE
SOURCE
TE1B
TEII
        L0011C8
        Pano,  A.,  H.-i.ddlebrooks, E.J.
        College of Enqineering. Utah State University, Logan, Utah
        Asaotiia and Total Kielaahl Nitrogen Bfiaoval in Aerated Laqoons
        Hater  and  science and Technology, vol. 1«:361-391 (11 pages)
        1961
        The annual and seasonal reaoval of aeiionia and total (Meldahl nitrogen
        (TKM)  in five aerated lagoons is evaluated.  Relationships between the
        percentage c^io»als of a-aeonia nitrogen and TKN and the hydraulic
        loading rates an3 the reciprocal of the hydraulic detention tiaes are
        presented.  The operating conditions, physical characteristics of the
        systeas and the waste«ater characteristics are discussed.  Low hydraulic
        loading rates or loag hydraulic detention tiaes are required fcr
        effective  acieonia nitrogen and TUN resowals in aerated lagoons operating
        ID cold clioates.  (AU/SHP)
ACCI  :  1001109
AUIHGB:
AFFIL :
TITLE :
SOUBCE:  Effluent
IEAB  :  1981
TEXT
        Illustrated in this report issued by tfie World Bank.  These lou-cctt
        treataent processes provide adequate uaste disposal facilities under
        those conditions.  (SSF)
        BA
        Bursl SanitatioB in Cevelopinq Couatries
                   Hater Ircatuent Journal, 21 (5) :210-21«  (5 pages)

        methods of »aste disposal in developing countries  are discussed and
                                             tfie
ACCJ
AUTHOB
AFFIL

TITLE

SOD EC E
TEAH
TEIT
        L001110
        Ahoed, B., Schiller, P.
        En»ironiaental Systeas Division, The Center for the En»itonEent and Ban,
        Inc., 275 Windsor Street, Hartford, Connecticut  0610P
        Sonpoint Source O^antification and Its Ecle in Lake ani2 Stream Water
        Quality tiannina
        Progress in Water Technology, 12:763-801   (19 pages)
        1980
        Identifies a siaipie aodel to quantify pollution frca nonpcint sources
        iocloding leachate froa septic tank absorption field.  Date; collected
        3roe Lake Marasauq, Connecticut, and its  tributaries are used in a
        comparison to verify the validity of the  model.  Discussion given on the
        use of the nodel to develop cost-effective nonpoint source pollution
        control and; Hcnageaent piano is presented and illustrated by eiaaple.
        Phosphorus as thought to be the Uniting  nutrient  to nonpoint source
        water pollution, though the aodel is applicable to other pollutants,
        e.g., BOD, S3, nitrogen, colifors, oil I  grease, and hea»y aetals.
        (40)
ACCI  : L001111
AUTHOR: Bakef, L.K.
AFfTL : Weatherby Associates, Inc., Jackson, California  95602
TITLE : The lapact of Water Conservation on Cnsite Hastewater Hanagenent
SCUfiCE: Individual Onsite Wasteaater Systeos -  Proceedings  of the  Se.enth
        Hational Conference, 1980, p. 61-82  (22 pages)
TEAR : 1981
TEXT  : The iepact cf flow reduction on onsite  iiasteaater «anaqeBent  is
        considered.  A discussion of «ater use  and flow  reduction  is  presented;
        are assessed; and actual application case examples  are  presented with
        tables which shon coaparative savings.  Fixtures used in  flon  reduction
        were IOH flush toilets and air-assisted showers.   (AU/SWF)
ACCI
AUTHOH
AFFIL

TITLE
SOORCE
ISAE
TEI7
        L001112
        Olivieri. A.U., Cooper, B.C.
        California Kater Quality Control Board and School of Public Health,
        University of California
        Public Health Evaluation of Onsite Systems
        Individual Onsito Wasteuater Systeas - Proceedings of the  Eighth
        Hational Sanitation Foundation Conference, 1981, Ann Arocr. HI  (22
        pages)
        1982.
        The ptrblic health risk associated with nastewater disposal alternatives
        is difficult to establish,  A probability aatrix »ethod of estiaatinq
                                         126

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such risk is presented.  An eiaeplc cf  the  application  of  the  eetbcd  is
qiweu with which the relative health  risk of  alternative onsite  Baste
disposal systess is estiaated.   (All)
ICCI
AUTHOB
TITLE
SOURCE

TEIT
1001113
MA
HA
Mater Hyacinths - Valuable Tertiary  Process
Hater Sesuse Highlights. t.UVk, 1976.  January  14-15  {2  pages)

i two-year study at tise Rational Spa^e  Technology  Laboratory  Ja
Hississippi has eianiaed the use of  water  hyacinths  as a  tertiary
vasteuater treateent systes.  Results froe the  »ascul«r Aquatic  Plant
Project indicate that a safe effluent for  agricultural reuse  can te
supplestents and soil fertilizer are  also  possible  frcs ptcces.ced ^
hyacinths.  & diaqran of tae treatsent  process  is  included.   (SHF)
AUTEOB
IFFIL

TITLE
SOUftCE

TEAS
TEXT
Caaeron. J.J.. Arastroaq. B.C.
SortHern Technology tJait. Hater  Pollution  Control  Directorate,
Enviornisental Protection Setirice,  Environsent  Canada
Hater Conservation Alternatives  tor  the  Morth
Environment Canada, Economic and Technical Review,  Report  CPS  2-'JF-60-2
(53 paqes)
I960
Appropriate and cost-ef fectiire  uater  copservation  setbcds  and  t<>ch-cloqy
can iBprose the ) 'wels of sertrica  an-3  sanitation  and the econoaics  ot
providlnq water ...id seuage services  in  northern cosajai ti«3L=   This
 e /r lion experiences,  and  the
•ethoas and technology to redoce «ater  uso and ihe  cosccoitant  ens
reguiceaents.  Various a jainistratise  alternatives  and water
conservation technology for toilets,  bathing,  laundry, kitchen  and
households are analyzed uith respect  to  acpropria teness, public
acceptance and cost-effectiveness.  Econosic analyses and «ater
conservation strategies for both trucked and piped  utility systecs  are
pleseated.  (AU)
                                                                       energy
ACCJ
AUTHOR
AFFIL

TITLE
SOUBCE
IEAB
TEII
L001115
White, F.K.,  Erown,  R.E.
Agricultural  Engineering, Ohio  State  University,  Envircnsentol
Telations, Ohio  Fara  Bureau  Federation
Applying Sludge  at Agronoaic Rates
BioCycle. 22(1):2Q-T*  (5  pages)
1981
Discusses Ohio's  oethods  of  sludge  application  on fat&lacis*   "he
1 oq an uses  Application  rates  of one  to  sin  dry  tons per acre  as  a
•cans of reducing envionaenta\  and  nuisance  problems.  The article
discusses th°  "slurry"  and  "sludge  cake"  application systen as  uell  as
•anaqeaent principles and considerations.   (SMF)
ACC»
AOTKCfi
AFFIL

TITLE
SOURCE
IEAE
TEXT
 L001116
 Sobsey, H.D.,  Dean,  C.H.,  KruckleE,  I.E.,  Saqner,  R.A.
 Dept. of En-vironaental  Sciences  and  Engineering,  School of Public
 Pealth. University of North  Carolina,  Chapel  Hill,  6iC  27511
 Interactions ani  Survival  of Enteric viruses  in  Soil  raterlals
 Applied and Environnentai  nicrobiology,  40(1):92-101  (10 pages)
 1980
 Describes  the  interactions and survival  of representatives of two
 different  enteric virus  qroups in  eight  different  soil  saterials in
 settled seuage.   Results show  that  virus adsorption is  rapid, eostly
 occurring  within  15  einutes  of application.   Clayey scils proved to te
 the i>est adsorbents  over a range of  pH and TDS  levels,  nh
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        artificial wetlands as a viable uasteuater treatment alternati- -..  An
        experimental »acsh consisting of live separate systeas received
        partially treated effluent fros an adjacent setage laqocn systes.  The
        teooval of BOD. SS and nutrients was eonitored along with effluent
        qualities of the »arious systems.  Data analyzed after cne 7ear cf
        operation suggest that iBpro»euent ot effluent quality is pcsslMe.  the
        degree of iaproveaent being dependent upon varioos factors iocladi^a
        hydraulic loading, retention tlse, season and systee confiqucbtion.~
ACC«    1001118
AUTHOfl  Hill, if.P., Halters. D.D.
iFFIL.   Enqineerinq and Technical Ser»xces, Valley Septic Products, Inc.,
        Getttynburq, PA
TITLE   On-Site Systes Hehabilitation
SOUHCE  Conpost ;cience/Land Utilization, Journal of Hater Recycling,
        21 (5) :26-27 (2 pages)
IEAB    19dO
TEXT    The  proprietary PCflQX treateent sethod uas developed to rejuvenate
        clogged drainage fields withoint extension of the existing drainage tield
        or construction of a nea field.  Septic tank and drainage field pipes
        distrLtutioB box.  The hydrogen perozide solution reacts at the
        soil-agqreqrte intarface to elialnate the clogged condition.  This
        aethoil has application uhera space is liaited cr existing landscaping
        prohibits the construction of a drainage field extension or a neu field.
        (SHF)
ICC I
ftUTHOB
iFFIl
TITLE
SOOFCE
VEAB
TEIT
L001119
Oakley, H.R.
batson Itauksley, Consulting Engineers, High Uycoebe, U.K.
Operational Experience with Aer&ted Lagoons
Progress in Hater Technoloay, 12 (3):239-242 (« pages)
1980
Discusses operating experience with two staple aerated lagoons.  Aerated
.\eqooas in this context incorporate a baffled settlina zone and are a
lora of coepletely eixed activated sludge plant treating either
cooaiDuted unsettled seiiage or settled seuaqe.  Scse ditficullies «ere
experienced durioq the coaaiaEicninq period in obtaining adequate
settleaent in the settling zones, these ha»e been resolved ty
•edifications to the baffle.  This fora of treatnent offers sose
attraction in relatively lot* capital cost, but jith the penalty of high
power consumption and consequently high operating costs.  It is
suggested that for '.his rea.'/cn,  lagoons of this nature are test osefi for
short-tere teaporary or irvtetia  necks and consequently should be cf the
sieplest possible construction.   <&U)
ACC«
AUTHOR
AFFIL
TITLE
SOUfiCE
KEan
TEXT
LC01120
Maqdoff, F.R., AnaJon, J.F.
Dtpt. of Flint aid Soil Science, University of Veruont, Burlington, »T
Sitrotien Availability fro» Sewaqe Sludge
Journal of Environaental Quality, Vol. 9, Mo. 3, 1980
I960
Laboratory and field studies were conducted to assess the nitrogen
availaoility fro i senate sludge to crops.  Crop yields of^corc^anfi hay

                                                                ...  _ .i e
     r	  _..___..__                            t      sludpe
treatients was na greater than that supplied by aaaoniua nitrate.  The
increased crop yields on the sludge-amended ti^lds was attributed to
increased potassiua supply and residual nitronen effect froo tt^stsents
of the prewious year.  Laboratory procedures to detersine the potential
field itineralization of sludges leading to the ranking of various
sludge1^ according to potential available nitroqen contributicn  tc crcri
are outlined.  (SWF)
                                                          .
        qrorfn on sludqe-anended Hadler soil were qreater  than yields cf crop:
        grow11 un soil iuended with ar.Ronius nitrata.   Nitrate recovery in  th<
        corn plots revealed that  the available nitroqen supplied  by the sludc
ACCI  : 1001121
AUTHOR: Boyle, W.C., Otis, R.J.,
Ami. : University of Wisconsin, Hadison, HI
TITLE : Cnsite Alternatives for Treateent and  Disp9sal
SOUHCE: Journal of Water Pollution Control  Federation,  53(61:733-737  (5  pages;
Y F A fi  " 1QR1
TEXT :" This I960 literature review of on-site alternatives  fcr  treetoent  and
        disposal of wastewater disc-sses onsite  treatsent, subsurface  disposal
        systess, eyaportratispiration, septage  aanageaent  and  seall  ccaeunity
        lacilities.  It includes a ua-article  bibliography.   (SaF)
ACCI  :
AUTHOR:
L001122
Rachoeier, R.E., noore, J.A.
                                         128

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AFFIL ;

TITLE :
SOURCE:

TEAB  :
TEXT
  Extension Agricultrual Engineers, Ooiversity of Finr.esota, St. Paul,
  Minnesota  55108 and Oreqon State University, Corvallis, Oreqon  97331
  Land Treataent of leptage
  Individual Onsit»i feasteyater Systeas - Proceedings of the Seventh
  National Conference 1980, p. 265-219 (15 pa-jes)
!  1961
:  The effects of land spreading of septaqe on ground aad surfacfc Hater In
  Minnesota uere studied.  Seven test plots nlth hitih tollatici potential
  (solution) (soil) ranging frca 0.0115 to 0.637 acres, Here dosed with
  various loading rates  (either 50 Ib/ac/yr or 200 lb/ac/|r) of total
  Kjeldanl nitrogen (TKN) using iatersittent and slug loading frequencies.
  Saaples of septaqe,  soil, soil aoisture and groundaater uere analyzed
  for total solids, total volatile solids, cheaical oxygen Jeaand, asBonia
  nitrogen, TKH, conductivity and fecal colifors.  An extresely ulde
  variation in septaqe characteristics, and no detrisental effects en
  qrounduater quality (nitrate-nitrogen level of less than 10 ppa)  aere
  found.  Sandy soil served as an excellent treataeot aedius for septage.
ACCi
AUTHOR
AFFIL
TITLE

5CUBCE
lEAE
TEXT
  L001123
  /lendrjr. G.S., troth, A.
  Microbiology Section, Laboratory Services Branch. Ontario Hinisttj cf
  the Environaent, Besources RD.. P.O. Bo it 213. Rexdale, Ontario H9B 5L1,
  Canada
  Soae Effects of land Use on Bacterioloqi ;al Hater Cuality in a
  Recreational Lake
  Hater aesearch. 16(1):105-112  (8 pages)

  Describes a study to detect the source of fecal indicator bacteria and
  the resulting degree of bacteriological water quality in^airaent cf
  Bississicri lake, a shallow eutcopnic lake ia Ontario, Canada.  T»o
  consecutive 5-day surveys uere perforaed during late Hey - early June
  and late July.  Ra-jor detectable sources of fecal colifora uere cattle
  watering sites, Caras, public  beaches, soae flooded and substandard
  sepcic tanks, inflowing streaas and a bird sanctuary.  After raicfall,
  densities of fecal colifortos 6aS fecal streptococci rose about 10-fold
  to all surface niter samples.
       Cottagers Mere surveyed for correlation between swlepiDq habits and
  disease.  The frequency of ear infections was significantly associated
  uith the aaount of suiasinq uhich Beet Hater nanaqement objectives for
  Oatario.  Loa densities of fecal indicator bacteria indicate that
  current regulations of installation and aaintenance of septic tar.ks are
  being aet; houever, the prereace of ear infections indicate additional
  control nould b-j aav_sable.  These studies provide the tasis for
  recoaaendations designed to inprove lakewattr quality.   (AU/SHF)
iCCI
AUTHOR
AFFIL

TITLE

SOUECE


TEAB
TEXT
  tloreau, E. M.
  Departueut of Huaan Services, Division of Health Engineering, Augusta,
  t, a i n e
  Failures — Remedies and Prevention of Subsurface Wastewatet Disposal
  Systeas
  Individual Onsite Mastewater Systems - Proceedings of the Lighth
  National Sanitation Foundation Conference, l^ei, Ann Arbor, HI,  (25
  pages)
  1981
  The causes and possible aeasures to ccrrect malfunctions of subsurface
  wastewater disposal systens are discussed.  A checklist of points to
  consider when aeter»ining the cause of a malfunction include seal
  conditions, treatment units, water usage, garbage disposal usage and
  others.  Tne steps are listed in a sequence of  investigations that will
  detereine the cause of the system aalfunction.  (SMF)
ACCI
A01HOB
JlfFIL

TITLE
SOOBCE
TEAB
TEXT
  LCC112L
  Haailton, J.
  Sanitation Facilities Construction Branch, Indian Health Service,
  Portland, Oregon
  Anaerobic Treatnent of Septic Tank Effluent
  Proceedings of Northwest On-Site Waste Water Disposal Short Course,
  University of Washington, Departaer.ts cf Civil Engineering and
  Environmental Health, p. 99-136  (<4C pages)
  1 976
  Effluent froa an upflou anaerobic cock filter following a tyficsl  faeily
  septic tank was treated prior tc discharge to the leachfie\a.  Results
  indicate reduction in h.OD-5, SS, and COD throuuh the rock filter  co te
  39 percent, 33 percent and 21 percent, respectively.  The anat^otic
  filters, a trench 17.5 ft. long, 3 ft. «ide and 18 in. deep, proved to
  be an effective and inexpensive  Beans of polishing septic tank effluent,
  thereby reducing the biological  load on the leachfield.  (SHF)
                                         129

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ACC»
AOTHOS
AFFIL
TITLE
SOURCE

T.EAB
TEXT
ACCI
AUTHOH
AFFIL
TITLE
SOOBCF

YEAB
TEXT
1001126
Hinneberqer. J.T.
Septic Tank Systeas. Berkeley. California
History o£ Individual Seuage Disposal Systeas and the State of the Art
Proceedings of northwest Onsite Waste B.Uer Sheet Coarse. Deceabei 8 6
9. 1976. University of tashinqton. p. 1-7  (7 pages)

This brief history of the irt of individual rewage disposal desiqa
presents an entertaining depiction of the  3'.elopae.it of the techaoloqj.


1001127
Laursen. A.
Tacoaa Pierre Couaty Health Departaert, Tacoea, Washington
A Critics! Analysis of the Percolation Test
Proceedings of Northwest on-Site Haste water Disposal Shcrt Coarse.
Deceatet 8 C 9. 1976, University of Washington, p. U9-52 (U pages)

This evaluation of the percolation test considers the pros and GOES cf
the test and how it Bust be integrated with other site evaluation tools.

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ten
        Suggests a rational planning approach let non- or partially sewered
        saall conaunities.  A case study shoas how this approach fairly
        evaluates on-site technoloaies..  Identifies key planning considerations
        and develops an integrated planning approach for ssall cosaaeities,
        based on a eanaqecent agency and prcgras...  Deecnstrates the significance
        cf iaplenentation analysis over cost-effective analysis.   (SHF)
ICC 8
AOTHOB
AFFIL

TITLE

SOURCE
IEAK
TEXT
L001132
Klink. R.E.. Pirrunq, D.F., Uintheiser, P.3.
Snsironisental Enqin::eri3q Di»ision, Donohae 6 Associates, IBC.,
Sheboyqan, i»isccasin
Cost-Erfecticsness Analysis for Various On-site Kasteuater Treateent
Alternatives
On-Site Sewage TreatBent-Proceedtnqs cf the Third Rational SyepcsloB on
Individual and Ssall Cossunit? Seaaqe TreataeDt 1981, Aserican Society
cf Agricultural Engineers, St. Joseph, Hichigaa (10 pages)
1962
Present ucrth cost inforeation teas used to coipare coesanity-wide
alternative systess.  Alternatives included septic systess. individual
BOQud systeBb, individual holding tanfes, cluster-round systess acd
sanitary sewer se-.rvice.  Graphs and figures coapaied the present north
cos*s per hose and the percent cf present worth of uaricas cosponents
for both 5 and 50 aaits application of j qi«en alternative.  the
inforeation say be oseful for educating the public about the options and
costs for specific alternatives.  (Sarj
ACCi
AUTHOB
AFF1L

TITLE
30DRCE
IEAR
TEXT
L001133
Paco, A., Hiddlebrocfcs, E.J.
Culp/Hesner/Calp, Denver, Colorado and Departaent of Agricultural
Engineering, CleasoB Oaiversity, Cleoson. sc
Aaooaja Nitrogen Beaoval in Pacaltatise fcasteiiater Stabilization Fonds
Journal aater Pollution Control Federation, 5« {«):3«u-351 {8 pages)
1982
Three case studies of facultative wasteeater stabilization ponds are
analyzed for aBaonia-nitroqen resoval ac a function cf pH value,
teaperature pond configuration aad theoretical hyaraulic detention tise.
Annual aaBODia-H removals abowe 90 percent are observed.  The eajcr part
of aasonia-8 resoral occurs in the priaary ponds.  Aimoaia-B reaoval
increases as the pS value, detention tine, and tenperature increase.
(SKF)
ACCJ
AUTHOR
AFFIL.
TITLE
SOURCF
TEifi
TEXT
L001134
Ferrara, R.S., HarleBan, D.F.F.
Departaent of Civil Engineering, Princeton University
Hydraulic Kodelinq for «aste Sf-atilization Pones
Journal for the Env. Eng. Div.. 107 (i-E«) : 817-63C  (10 pages)
1981
A Bftheisatical sodel and dye tracer studies are used to illustrate the
treatsent efficiency of various lagoon geoeetrics and inlet and cutlet
configurations.  Results suggest that tieateent efficiency predicted ty
the coepletely aired flow aodel cospares well with that determined by
analysis of dye tracer studies.  A  return flov aodel which realistically
 eresents the transport process is  developed.  (SBF)
ACCI
AUTHOH
AFFIL
TITLE

3CUECE
IEAB
TEXT
L001135
Hill, D.E., Sawhney, B.L.
The Connecticut Agricultural Eiperiaent Station, )>ew Raven, CT
Heaoval of Phosphorus froa Waste Water ty Soij. Under Aerobic a'jd
Anaerobic Conditions
Journal of Environaental Quality, 10 (3):H01-U05  (5 pages)
1981
Moveaent of phosphorus  (P) under different soil  acisture conditions was
investigated.  Hastewater containing 12 oicrcgraes per nl P «as added to
an isolated soil tlock  2-3 tiles a week for 2.5  ?ears.   Analysis cf
effluent froa weeo holes at different  depths suggests that scii pathways
allowed P to enter groundwater tefore  all sorpticn sites were fully
saturated kith P.  Also, anaerobic conditions caused by  a high water
regenerates sorption sites.  (AC/SWF)
ACCI
Al'TKOE
AFFIL
TITLE
SOURCE
IEAB
TEXT
L001136
Ceaqen, F.
Ceigen Aguatic Biology
The March/Forest Systea for Advanced Secondary Treatsent
Municipal tastewater Reuse Hews. Ko. 35:14-15  (3  pages)
1980
The utilization of sarsh and forest ecoifstees in conjunction  is
presented as n Ion cost, low-energy leans of polishing  secondary
effluents in California.  Secondary effluent is  fed  intc  an  aerated  pond
                                         131

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        for the production of aquatic orqanis»3 ani  to  achieve  additional
         eaoyal of contdiiaants.  The pond effluent  is  rtcircolated  thrcuch  the
        shalirx root Zi:ns of a forest plot.  The  wasteuj-ter  fro«  the cOBbioed
        systes «eets disi;har.;e standards, aa<3 a nutritiv  effect  upon the
        ecosysttns IE reported.   (SbF)
HCCI
iCTHOa
tFFIL
TITLE
SOUKCE
TEAR
TEXT
1001137
Horqan,  D.W.,  Pelosi.  P.
Urban  Econooics,  University  of  Califcrnia.  Santa  Barbara,  California
The  Effects  of Water Conservation  Kits  on Hater Use
American  Water Hitics Association Journal, 72 (3) :'31-1 3J (3 pages)

During an  intense drought  in 1977.  the  cit? of  Oxnard, California.
distributed  a  free household water  conservation kit to 600 households.
According  to a subsequent  survey?  sixty-three  percent  of the households
installed  at least part  of the  kit  shich  included  a aatet  das to reduce
the  quantity of water  flushed in the toilet, a  plastic sho«er head flow
restrictor and a  dye to  test toilet storage tank  leaks.  Households that
installed  the  conservation kits had greater average water  use,  sore
bathrcoss  and  acre water-using  appliances than  ncn-installets.
Households headed by craftsaec  and  profesciocals  installed at a slightly
higher than  auecaqe rate,  while those headed by eqaipoent  operators and
laborers  installed at  loner  rates.  The  total kit  reduced water  use ty
slightly  sore  than three  percent,  enough  to pay fcr itself in a rear at
"inter rates then in effect.
ACC»  : LOO!138
tUTHOF: Burgh. J.
TITLE : Sasinq eater Scenicallj
SOOBCE: tftster/Enqineering G Hanageeett,  129(3):U6-47  (2  pages)
IE£E  : 1932
IEXT  : * uastewatcr reclssation systea  is designed to be  an  integral  p«rt  of  a
        Ne« Hexico vacation resort.  The systea  provides secondary  treatnent
        through a psckagod, exteaded-aeraticn  plant.  Efflaent  is either  used
        for pasture irrigation or passed tbrcuqh  pressure  filtration and  seiea
        landscaped pools in series,  uhich provide  further  aeration  aod  exfrcsore
        to sunlight.  The reclaiaed  sater ii; used  to  irrigate lanns and
        landscaped areas surrouadinq the Iccqe.   The  systea  helps conserve  the
        sparse watei resources of this arid ceglon.   (SWF)
iCCI
AUTHOE
TITLE
SOUSCE
TEAS
TEXT
 LC01139
 Olson, J.V..  Crites,  K.W.,  Levine,  P..^.
 Creeqan  C  D'Aaqelo,  San  Jose,  CA
 Ground-^ater  Quality  at  Hapiu  Infiltraticn Site
 Journal  of  the  Envi ronaental  "nqineei: inq  Eiv-ision,  EFS:B85-899 (8 paqcsj
 1980
 A oae-vear  study  en  a  rapid ir.filtration  site in continuous operation at
 Hollister,  Cali^rnia,  for  30  years deteroiocd the  systeu's effect on
 yroundviater quality.   Local hYaroqeciogy  was analyzed by borinq legs,
 and qroundtfater sasples  were  taken  i-hen  the qrcund»at°r irouncl was
 highest.   Unchloririated  prinary  effluent  treated at this site shouea
 substantial percentage  reductions  in COD  (935), BCD (961;),  TCC (961?;) ,
 nitrogen  (93S)  and  fecal colifcres  (99*-)  after percolatitiq  through se*en
 •eiters  (22  feet)  of  unsaturaLed  soil.   Longer travel distance would te
 required  for  effective  phosphorus  reaoval.  Trace elenent reeov^l
 varied,  shallow grounduater concentrations were generally lo*&r than
•guidelines  established  fcr  unrestricted  irrigation.  (AU/SMF)
1CC»
TITIE

SC3URCE
JEAB
IEIT
 LOOT' UO
 Bond,  V.  J.  Collis,  C.N.
 Depaitaent  of  Soil  Science,  Dniversity of S'dney. Australia
 Ponded Infiltration  Into  Simple Soil Systeas:   3. Ihe Behavior of
 Infiltration  Sate  with Tine
 Soil  Science,  131 (6):327-333 (7 pages)
 1 961
 The  behavior  of  infiltration rate with tiae during ponded infiltration
 into  siaple  soil systeits  is  eiaair.ed.  The apparent linearity of a
 seasured  infiltration-tiee  relationship is shown oot to be a reliable
 indicator of  steady  state.   An  aquation based  en Ilarcy's law, relating
 the  infiltration rai.s  tc  the total  potential gradient in the
 transmission  zone,  :.s  derived  and experimentally tested.  This equation
 is used  to  support  cho follcwincs ttc concepts:   1)  steady-state
 infiltration  cannot  te eioected tc  t? attained  in finite tiie during
 infiltration  into  siuple  soil  systeas;  and 2)  saturation and transition
 zoaes affect  the infiltration  rate.  (iU/SKF)
iilEOfi:
 L0011U1
 Vann,  J.&.
                                         132

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AFFIL : Dixie Electric Cooperative, Onion Springs, Alabana
TITLE : Eura} Electric Cooperative Ranaqesent Systess
SCUECE: Individual Onsite Uasteuater Systeas Proceedings of  the  Eiqth
        National Conference 1981. National Science Foundation, Ann
        Actor, Hichiqaa  (17 pages)
tear  : 1961
TEXT  : A basic, in-place organization structure of a rural  electric cooperatire
        is shewn to fce adaptable  to water or uastewater operations.  4 sueoary
        of the responsibilities and functions of each of the departeents within
        this structure is provided.  Work order, billinq, general ac-joanting,
        inventory and reporting procedures are  justified econoBical]y.  The
        author feels that providing water and wasteaater services can be
        assisted by this aanageeent systea in one of the following three wars:
        1) portions of the eanageaeat systeo aay be adopted  by the utility as
        standard; 2) a portion of the services  required cj the water/w^stewater
        owner Bay be contracted through the rural electric cooperative; and 3)
        the rural electric cooperctive say tecoae a fall-service utility
        encoapacsinq uatsr/wastewater •anaqeoent.
ACC?
AUTHOB
AFFIL
TITLE
SOOHCE

YEAH
TEXT
Troyan, J.J.
Eroun and Calflwell. Eugene, Oregon
Alternative Systems - the Oregon Experience
Proceedings of the Hortfanest Cn-Sitc Haste Hater Disposal Short Ccurse,
Deceeber 669, 1976, Oniversity of Washington, p. 33-37 (5 pages)
1976
This is evaluation of alternative sewage treatasnt and disposal systens
for the Oregon Departeent of EDvircnaental Quality.  '.vailatle
altercatives are classified into non-discHargiaq, discharging or
disposal syctess.  In structores uith running «ater, aechanical
oxidation systems and Bounded disposal teds are recoaaenjed.
Rouever. both alternatives «ere reccsnende'1 ulth restrictions.
Haoy other STsteas acre fouad curcertly unacceptable doe to lack
of sufficient long-tera objective dccu*entation of reliability.
Further developoent aad testing could bring tLcss systess to an
acceptable level of reliability.  Systems restricted to
structures without running water are recycle svstees and
self-contained toilets.  The eiisttnce of a public agency «ith
ultiaate responsibility for all operation and eaintenance of
ids-tailed units is recoacended in all cases.  Chanqes in
Oregon's subsurface disposal rules since the completion of this
report are included.  (SUF)
ACCI
ADTHOB
AFFIL
TITIE
SOURCE
TtZT
L0011H3
Levine, P.E., Crites, B.H., Clson, J.V.
Ecology and En»ironsent, San Francisco, CA
Soil Cheaistcy Charges at Fapic Inf iltra t ior. Site
Journal of the Environaental Eaqineerinq Dinision, EcS:869-833 (8 peiges)
1980
Heports changes in the chemistry of a calcareous soil produced at a
rapid infiltration facility in continuous operation at
Hollister, Calirotnia, for 30 years.  Soil pH was decreased
siqnificaotly and there was significant increase in saturated
extract conductivity.  Soil organic natter repaired nearly
constant.  Nitrcqen accuauletion accounted for cr.ly t«o percent
of total B applied cve^ the entire period.  Although the soil
•aintaioed its ability to absorb solution phosphorus. Host
phosphorus appeared to pass through tho =01.1 to the grcunduater.
soron increased jt the soil surface.  >.jticn exchange capacity
and exchangeable sodiuo, oagneiiun, and potassiura increased.
Soil aetai concentrations also geterally increased.  (AC/SHF)
ACCI  : LP01114U
AUTHOH: Froae, «.
TITLE : Rural Sewage Treatment  in Versont    Book  2:  A  Planning Manual
SOURCE: Teraont Natural Besources Council,  Bontpelier,  vereont  (101 pages)
TEXT  : HritteD for to«n officials and citizens seeking answers to cosKunity
        sewage treataent probless, this  took  is organized into  £-:udy and  action
        steps.  In ti;e study steps,  towns can  look at prcbleac  and collect
        needed iaforaation.  Through  th-e action steps,  tcwns can act to isprove
        onsite sy^tees, build centralized systeas and prevent future probleas.
        Focuses on the special  needs  of  Vermont's unseweced areari.
        Appendices provide federal,  state,  regional and state university
        contacts, alcng wifi a  list  of aanufacturers and consulting
        engineers.  (AU/SWF)
ACCI  : L0011U5
AUTHOB: Jebson. R.W.
AFFIL : En»ironsental Systeas Service,  Ltd., Culpeper.  Virginia
                                         133

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TITLE : flanaqesent by Contact
SOUHC2: Individual Onsite tfastewater Systess - Proceedings of  the  Eighth
        national sanitation Foundation Conference. 1981,  Ann Artor,  Michigan
I £ A H  » 1931
TEXT  : The histocy and organization of a voter and vast€«ater systea operatiOE
        and eaiatenance service are described t-y its founder.  Target clients
        are seal i. aunicipalities, industrial treataent plants, systeas
        coEStracted by developers, aad systees supporting recreational
        coaaunities.  Services include staffing and ofecall responsibility  fee a
        custoser's utility process systee and reducing the client's  operating
        costs.  Oiversifled operating teaas are assigned  to geographical
        regions, and analytical laboratory acrfc oct of iueedlate concern  to the
        operator is assigned to a central facility.  The central laboratory
        •onitcrs the pert9rsance of the operating  teaa.   Advantages  of  this type
        of business are discussed, and its continued prospects £or success,
        particularly in industrial uastcwater treataent are cited.   (SHF)
iCCd
AUTHOS

arm.
TIILF.

SOOH<:E
1001186
Stephenson, H., Turner, G., Pope, P., Celt, J., Knight, A.,
Tchobanoglous, G«
University of California. Davis, CA  95616
The use aed Potential of Aquatic Species for Hasteuater Treataent:  The
Emroroaaental Reguiresents of sguatic Plants
The State Hater Resources Control Board publication So. 65, Appendix A,
Sacrasentc, CA (659 pages)
1980
This annotated bibliography deals with the enviroEaeatal reguireaents of
vascular plant species—catagorized as fceing either eaergent, floating,
or suiECtged—ha»inq potential foe use in wactewater treataeat.
Presents the effects of physical, cheeical, and biological
paraaeters, in addition to the uptake of specific substances by
the plants.  Held, coaposition, and decoapositiets data are
qiveu for each of the species discussed.  Indexed ty subject and
author.  (SUP)
ICC9
/, U7HOR
*FFIL
TITLE
SOURCE
TEAR
TEST
1001117
Fritz, y.H.f Helle, S.C.
Orlanda Seqional Office of Boyle Engineering Corporation
Cypress Wetlands for Tectiary Treatisent
Katiocal Science Foundation,  (7 pages)
1981
Researchers studied the tffects of discharging a city's secondary
effluent unto a large cypress wetland srea.  there were no significant
adv«tse environaentai ispacts related to the application of secondary
effluent.  Although the aetland was »ery effective at tesoving nitrates
aiid nitrites, it did net significantly reocve the organic or assioniua
foras ct nitrogen.  Consegueatly, sufficient detention tine should be
provided i.,i the treatment facility or holding ponds to con?ert as euch
of the niLiogen tc nitrates as possible tefore applying the effluent to
tht wetlar.d.  There was GO signlficcnt ^eaoval of phosphorus.  Because
the concentrations uere low,  no conclusions could he aade regarding the
fete of heavy setal inputs tc cypress suassps.  There was little cr no
colifcra contaainaticn of the grounduater by the se«age-enriched surface
waters.  (5BF)
 ACCS
 AUTHOE
 AFFIL
 TITLE
 SOOfiCF

 lEAfi
L0011«B
Zulaui, A.
(j.S. Soil Conservation Service, Bellevue. Washington
Soils - Characteristics, Surveys and Baps
Proceedings Northwest On-Site Waste Hater Disposal Shcrt Course,
Eecaaber 8 £ 9, 1976. University of Washington, p. 36-U6 (11 pages)
1976
TEXT  : Discusses the use of soil surveys to »aKe a prelininary
deteraination of site suitability fcr an onsite dirp9sal systes.
Brief descriptions of survey cosponents  (classification,
interpretations and soil saps) enable the user to exclude poorl»
suited sites and focus onsite investigations on potentially
favorable disposal areas.   'SWF)
ACCI
AOTHOF
AFFIL
TITLE
SCUHCE
 YEAR
 TEIT
1001119
Strong, D.R.
U.S, Departnent of Housing and L'rban Derelopisent, Seattle, Washington
Bound Systess for On-site Haste aater Disposal
Froceedinqs of Morthuest On-Site Waste Kater Disposal Short Course,
University of Washington, Departraects of Civil Engineering and
Environcentai Health, p. 92-98 (7 pages)
1976
Gives a detailed description of a Bound systen.  Provider, construction
seguenoe aad design with illustraticns.  (SHF)
                                          134
                  .-I	

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ACCI
AUTHOR
AFFIL
TITLE
SOURCE
XEAE
TEX1
        L001150
        SeablcoB,  R.k..
        Civil Engineering, University cf Washington. Seattle, Washington
        Soils Capabilities in Vaste Water Benosaticn

        1976
        Discusses  the effect of soil properties en septic tank atscrptica syste«
        renovji of bacteria, viruses, aitrogen and phosphorus ccapounds.
        Filtration ^nd adsorption is sost efficient in -jnsaturatea
        fine-textured soils and least efficitnt in saturated course
        soils.  Nitrate-nitrogen eaves freely through the soil, uhile
        r.BBoniuo nitrogen is readily adsorbed by soil particles.
        Phosphorus is generally coabinej with other cospcunds which
        easily precipitate and are trapped ty sc.'l adserption.  (S«F)
ACCt
AUTBOB
AFFIL

TITLE

SOURCE
lEiAD
TEXT
        L001151
        Xristiansea,  H.
        Aqric. Fes.  Coun. of Norway.  Section Soil Pollot. Res.,  1532 Aas-NLH,
        Borway
        Sand Filter  Trenches £cr Purification of Septic Tank Effluent:  I. The
        Clogging Hecf-.ani.se and Soil Physical Environseot
        Journal  of Enviroaeental Geality. 1 C (3) : 353-357 (5 pages)
        1 J EJl
        This is  the  first of three articles  CB sand filter trenches for treating
        septic tank  efilueat.  Three  pilot plant sand filters,  one heated sad
        two at ambient teeperatures.  were observed to explain the relationship
        between  clogging aad soil physical ard chemical easiroosent in the sand
        filters.  Discusss- ponding rates, C/H ratio, bacteria  and bacterial
        exudateSo  redoi potential, and ataoschere within the sand filters.
        (AU/SHF)
ACC»
AFFIL

AUTHOB
TITLE

SOURCE
YEAfi
TEXT
        L001152
        Agcic. Res. Caun. of Hor»ay, Section Soil Pollat. Res. 1132 Aas-BlH,
        Korwav
        EEistldn^ea, S.
        Sand Filter Trenches fcr Purification ot Septic Tank Effluent:  II. The
        Fate of hitroqan
        Journal of Environsental aaality, 1 0 (3) : 359-361  (« pages)
        1981
        This is the second cf three articles about the use of sand filter
        trenches to treat septic tank effluent.   Three sar3 filters are heated
        and tuo at aebient tetsperatur" sere ctservei tc cetermine the fate of
        nitrogen in the systea.  Its' nificant asounts of N aece found to be
        reaoved fros effluent passed through the filters.  Suggests
        egual distribution of effluent, interoittent leading, and use of
        a soil with a higher cation exchange capacity than sand tc
        iaprove nitrogen resoval in septic systees.  (AU/'SWF)
ACCB
AUTHO/l
AFFIL
TITLE

SOURCE
YEAR
TEXT
        L001153
        Brandes,  N.
        Ontario Ministry of the En» ironaen t , Toronto, Canada
        Effect of Precipitation and Evapotranspiration of a Septic Tank-Sand
        Filter Disposal 3yste»s
        Journal Water Pollution Control, 52(l):59-75  (17 pages)
        1980
        A one-year field study was condjcted in Ontario to investigate the
        operation of a septic tank/underdrained sand filter wasteuater disposal
        systea.  The focus of the study centered en the effect of precipitation
        and evapotranspiraticn on the reaoval of cheeical and bacterial
        contauinants by the sand filter Bedim.  Septic tank effluei.t was
        punped to a 18.3 by 15.2 • Bcuni-shape3 s?cd filter lined with a
        polyvinyl chloride sheet to prevent soil infiltration-  A scd cover was
        placed on the sand filter surface to prevent srosion of the sand filter
        •tdius.  The results showed that the highest evapotranspiration rate
        occurred  during tha ware growing season.  The yearly average
        evapotranspiratior rate indicated that 58 percent of the total
        precipitation was reeoved by evap ot ransp irat ion.  The renoval of total
        and fecal orqanioas frou the effluent was apprcrioa tely 100 percent.
        Phosphorus and nitrogen retention in the sand filter were "2.6 and tO.U
        percent,  respectively.  (SWF)
ACCI  :  L00115I4
AUTHOR
AFFIL

TITLE
        Carliia, E.L, Cogger, C.G.,  Sotsey,  r.D.,  Scandura,  J.,  Steinbeck.  S.J.
        Eepartsent of Soil Science,  North  Carolina  State  University,  Raleigh,
        Korth Carolina, et al.
        Moveaent and Fate of  Septic  Tank Effluent  in  Sells of  the  Ncrtn  Carolina
                                         135

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        Coastal Plain
SOUHCE: C^asta) Plains Beqlotal Coanission, Division of Health Services,  Rortb
        Carolina Department ot Human Resources  (60 paqes)
TEAR  : 1981
TEXT  : '/he aovfcisent and treatment of effluent  froo septic t.ank systeas on  Berth
        Carolina's lower coastal plain was studied.  Part I reports results cf
        exacinations cf qroundwater 'luality, water table location, and soil
        properties.  The aost iapor^aut factor  affecting effloent novenent  and
        tceatnent was water table d.:pt!i.  Pressure distribution of effluent
        isproved trtatnent in hiqh-wct^rtable soils if the systes nas not
        continuously saturated.  Lov chroisa (grayish)  colors in the soil  uere a
        good indicator of seasonal high water tables.  Fart II considers  a
        septic systeo's ability to remove enteric viruses, concluding that  ahere
        nicih-watertables and poorly absorptive  soils are present, enteric
        viruses can contaeinate qrounduater.  (AU/SHF)
ACC«
AUTHOB
AFFIL
TITL2
SOUSCE
TEAR
ISX.T
1001155
Froae, n.
Veraont Natural Resources Council, Kontpelier. »er»ont
Rural  Sewage Treatsent in Vernoat-Bcok i:  A Guide to tSe Alternatives
Veraont natural Resources Council, Koatpelier, Vermont  (130 paqes)

Written to help the general public understand their oun sewage treatoent
probleas, this book presents basic technical interaction on sewage
treataent in layman's terns and explains the laws, regulations and
agencies which govern sewage treatment it Vereont.  SOD€ of the choices
for treating sewage in rural cooainities include:  the coDssntionzl
septic ST«;te», alternative onsite systess. uaterless toilets, water
conservation and flow devices, an< centralized sewage systess.
Appendices provide lists of federtl, state, regional and state
university contacts, eanufacturers and consulting engineers.  (AO/5HF)
ACCI
AUTHOB
AFFIL
TITLK
SOURCE
TEAR
IEIT
tC01156
7oant, G.L.
7SP aasteuater Technology, Gettysburg, FA
Selected Topics:  Barketinq of i/h Technology and Services
Individual Onsite Uasteuater SysteiSE - Proceedings of the Eighth
National Sanitation Foundation Conference, 1981, Ann Arbor, Michigan  (12
        One coepany's effort to aarket inncva ti ve/al te rra t i ye wastew^ter
        technoloQ'- in a rural coaounity under tne Construction Grants Progras
        found engineers aad regulatocv officials to hive riqid attitudes and a
        preoccupation with centralized sewerage facilities.  The article
        concludes that despite regulations which encourage I/A tecSitologj .
        coBBunities often associate availability o£ federal  fonc.s with plans
        GDploying only centralized facilities.  This results in oecisions  that
        are Gelioa rjased en an appropriate or econoaically feasible alternative
        plan.   (SWF)
ACCJ
AUTHOR
AFFIL

TITLE

SOURCE
TEAR
TEXT
L001157
Kristidrsen, R.
Agric. hes. Coun. of Korway, Section Soil Pollut. Resd., 1«32 Aas-BLH,
fioruay
Sand-Filter Trenches for Purification of Septic Tank Effluent:  III.
The fficroflcra
Journal of Environaental Quality, 10 (3):361-36U  (H pages)
1981
This is the third of three articles about the use of sand filter
trenches to treat septic tank effluent.  Size distribution and
proportions of iapoctant bacterial groups are discussed, along with the
bioaass at different depths below the filteL surface.  Efficient resoval
of bacteria was observed in clogged absorption fields as coopared tith
uncloqged fields, suggesting that internittent leading say reduce
purification efficiency unless very snail application rates are used so
that flow through the sand filter reaaias highly unssturated. (SWF)
ACCI
AUTHOR
AFFIL
TITLE
SOUHCE
TEAR
TEXT
L001158
Harkin, J.H., Jawson, ,1. D.
DepartBBLt or Soi) Science, University of Uisconsin-Padiscn and U5CA
Agricultural Research Service, Washington State University. Pulmnnn,
Washington
Clogging of Soil ty Septic Tank Effluent and Its OiiJative Reversal
Proceedings of northwest On-Site Waste Hater Disposal Short Course,
Dece«ber 869. 1976, University of 'Washington, p. 53-61  (9 pages)
1976
Soil column eiperinents stun that clogging is caused by water-repellent
bacterial polysaccharide sliees produced ty anaerobic bacteria.
Hydrogen peroxide oxidizes and nechanically agitates the  crusted  surface
                                         136

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        when gaseous oxygen is released.  The treatsent ves successful in the
        soil coluans and field studies.  (SUP)


ACCl    L001159
ADTHOB  Ctis. 8.J.
AFFIL   Depart*~nt of Civil and Environaeatal Engineering, Oniversity of
        Wisconsin, Hadison. Wisconsin
TITLE   Pressure Distribution Design for Septic Task Svstess
SOD8CE  Journal of the Environeental Enqiseering Division. Proceedings of the
        Aoerican Society of Civil Engineers, 106 (EE1) :123-1UO  (18 pages)
TEAS    1982
TEXT    Design criteria fcr pressure distribution of septic tank effluent in
        subsurface soil absorption systess is described, aad a sisplified desiqn
        procedure is presented.  Topics include suggested aethods of effluent
        distribution for »arious systee designs and soil perseabilities,  flow
        relations in distribution net«orlcst ia-line cressure, sloping sites, and
        dosing frequencies and chaster sizing.  A ten-step design procedure is
        outlined and illustrated with an eiaspie.  Includes flow equations,
        Doaoqraphs, diaqrass.  (SHF)
ACC(
AUTBOB
AFFIL
TITLE
SCONCE
YEAE
TEXT
LOOM 60
Lund, L.J., Page. A.L.C Kelson, C.O., Elliott, B.A.
University of California, Riverside, CA
nitrogen £1lances foi an Efflcsst Irrigatioa Area
Journal of Ecsiioceentai Quality. 1C (3):319-352  (U pages)
1961
An 8.5-ha pasture irrigated uitH secondary sewage efficient Has studied
to deteraine the fate o£ nitrogta applied to the effluent.  Soils of the
Corralitos series (Typic Seropsasaent) at nine plots were sampled twice
to evaluate the spacial and temporal variations  in the field water
contents of nitrate-nitroqea aod chlorine concentrations in the
unsaturated zone fceloa the root zone.  Field contents varied in space.
bat not in tiae.  Ns n aitrate-sitrogen coacentrations in the soil
solution ranged fros 15.0 to 32.1 ag.per liter aad varied s.ignificanlly
in space and tioe.  Beas chlorine concentratioES varied ia a siailar '
•anner.  A»eraqes of nitroger balaaces developed fcr three of the nin«
plots attributed 32, 60, and 9 percent of the nitrogen applied in th°
effluent to crop reaoval, leeching, and gaseous  losses, respectively.
(At))
1CCI    L001161
«UTHOfi  Baqab, R., Feyen, J.. Hillel, D.
1FFIL   Laboratory of Soil Physics, Catholic University cf Louvain, Pelgius
TITLE   Cosparative Study of Nuoerical an3 Laboratory Sethods for Deteraining
        the Hydraulic Conductivity Functico of a Sana
SOURCE  Soil Science, 131 (6):375-368  (1U pages)
YEAR    1981
TEXT    Experiaentally aeasured hydraulic conductivity-water content
        relationships ace compared with those  predicted tj three ecdels.
        Laboratory stthois used included icstantaneous profile—intercal
        drainage, infiltration through crust,  hot air drying, pressure plate
        outflow and unit gradient drainage.  For the numerical approach, the
        Iraar, the Jackson and the fluales aodels are usijd.  The instantaneous
        profile technique fields the  highest conductivity values.  The
        discrepancies between measured and predicted values are saall.
        (AU/SHF)
ACCl
AUTHOH
AFFIL

TITLE
SOUHCE

TEAR
TEXT
L001162
Triangle J Council of Governeents
Triangle J Council of Governaents, P.O. Boi 12276, Research Triangle
Park, Horth Carolina  27709
Begulation and rtanaqeoent of Septic Systeas Reg.cn j. North Carolina
Triangle J Council of Governments. P.O. Eox 122"7£, Research Triangle
Park, Worth Carolina  27709, (1U1 rages)
1979
Regulation and oanaqeaent of on-sita «astewater systess is the key to
preventing systea failure.  This report reviews legislative and
rrcjulatory aspects of syste* construction and raintenance in Ncrth
Carolina.  Kesponsible agencies, JGEisdiction, statutory procedures,
lc«3 and regulations governing the State Health Service and State
Ei viircnaental Management Coasissica, County arrangesents, enf crceirents,
and persitting are reviewed in detail.  Kainteaance and operating powers
atd alternatives are reviewed for the full ranee of local units such as
cities, counties, sanitary districts, and private waste ind sewage
companies.  A brief section coipates North Carolina's approach with
those of other states.  Gaps in leaal authority within the state are
discussed, along with soae general aanageaent options.  Appendices
                                          137

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        contain relevant statutory and administrative provisions.  (SHF)
ACC*
AOTHOfl
AFFIL

TITLE

SOOBCE
TEAR
TEXT
        L001163
        Eowsan. B.O.
        Division of Environee ntal Health, 1080 Chain Bridge Boat. Fairfax
        »irainia  22030
        ieliatili.tr of On-Site Sewage Disposal Systens in Pairfai County,
        Journal of ED vironaental Healtn, UU (5) :2«9-252 («
        Longevity of ensile sewage disposal systees and the causes of failores
        More investigated in Fairfax Couaty, Hrgioia. during the period
        1952-1978.  Causes of systea nalfuncttons and eechanical failures uere
        ideatifiedo  It was concluded fns the study that ensile seuage sjstess
        are a viable Beaas of disposal of ssall «astenafcer flows when a
        coapreheosive regulatory progras is utilized to deteraioe soil
        suitability and tc aoaitor construction during installation.  (40)
*CCf
AUTHOB
AFFIL
TITLE
SOURCE
TEAK
TEXT
        1001160
        Feasley, H.P., BcKlnney, L.A.
        HoBaEd Peasley and Associates, Hichsood, Virginia
        Seuaqe Tceataent apparatus, U.S. Patent Mo. 3.98P.322
        Howard Peasley and Associates. Richeond, Virginia  (6 pages)

        describes an acrottc bacteria seaaqe treatment de»ics using coapressefl
        air to aerate activated sludge in this publication free the United
        States patent Office.   (SUF)
ACCS
AUTHOG
AFFIL
TITLE
SODBCE
TEAR
TEXT
        L001165
        feasley, H.P.
        Kouand Peasley asd Associates, Kichsond. Virginia
        Seaaqe Treataent Apparatus, U.S. Patent Bo. 5,036,75'J
        fieward Peasley aoj associates, Richnond, Virginia (9 pages)
        1977
        Prosifies a description and drawings of an aerobic bacteria sewage
        tteatuent apparatus for treating wasteuater cized uitn activated slodqe
        i0 this publication froa the United States Patertt Office.   (SHF)
ACCI
AUTHOR
AFFIL

TITLE
SOUBCE

TEAR
TEXT
        1001166
        KA
        Triangle J Council of Governnents. Research Triangle Park, Borth
        Carolina
        Iffidividual Wastewater Prol^ct:  Final Report
        Triaaqle J Council of Governaents, F.C. Box 12276, Research Triangle
        fark, sorth CarcVina  27709 (70 pages)
        1980
        tiscasses an individual xastewater crcject developed uniei "208* area
        plaaning for a part of North Carolina.  Rore than half cf the
        residents are served by stptic tanks, and between 10 and 30
        percent of these provide inadequate treatment and disposal
        during sooe periods cf the year.  Describes reasons for failing
        systeas and alternative treatsent and disposal eetbods,
        i&clufiing self-containing toilets, conventional systen
        •edifications, water conservation, failing systes ceju»enation,
        discharging systess, and septaqe disposal.  A variety of
        alternative systess were evaluated including low-pressure pipe
        distri'-ution, sound systeas, tuo-coepartrcer.t septic t^nks,
        above- ground access risers, dtsinfield repair, and dual
        drainfielas.  Revieus local regulations governing eanaqeaent,
        and suggests soae revisions.  (SWF)
ACCI
AUTHOR
AFFIL

TITLE

SOOBCE

TEAR
TEXT
        1001167
        Triagle J Council of Gcvernnents
        Triangle J Council of Governments, P.O. Box 12276, Research Triangle
        Park, north Carolina  27709
        Soanary of On-Site Kasteuater Treatuent and Disposal Hethods Fegicn J,
        Korth Carolina
        T^iargle J Council of Governments, P.C. Box 12276, Research Triangle
        Park, North Carolina  27709, (99 pages)
        1978
        Presents inforuatiou about onsite alternative treataent and disposal
        systess being evaluated eiperi«entally at Region J, Mcrth Carolina.
        Alternative systeus, nodification to conventional onsite systeiBS.
        self-contained in-house toilet systems, cluster systcns, effluent
        discharge systees. wasteuater disinfection, and septaqe disposal aie
        described and evaluated.  Also included is a chapter on rejuvenation
        technigues for failing systeus.  tach jlternative aethcd is discussed.
                                         138

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        Includes a list of basic components, installation procedures, estimated
        costs, advantages and disadvantages, geographic suitability, and
        references.  (SHF)
ACCl
1UTHOG
TITLE
SOURCE
TEXT
L001168
HA
NA
The Ragic Boi:  Toor Septic Tank
Florida Septic Tank Association  (8 pages)
A pasphlet diced at the individual hoaeownec describes  the  iasic
features of septic tanks aad seepage  fields and  nrrr.s about  rrcblcss  of
overloading and inproper qtease  disposal.  Pecoaaends bi-ar.oual
inspection and pusping-out as neeaed.   Lists uetning signals of syste«
failure.  Discusses Florida requirement  for grease  interceptors at
restaurants also.  (S3F)
ACC«
AUTHOE
AFFIL
TITLE
SOURCE

IEAB
TEXT
L001169
Aaato, P.i., Goehriag, R.D.
University of tjiscoasln-Estension, Scall Scale  Haste  naaageaent  Project
Land Use and Policy replications  in  s Three County Hisccosla  ftrea
University of Hiscoasin-Eitension. Seal! Scale  Haste  Hanagaaent  Project,
(126 pages}
T97a
Discusses effects of ssall scale  Haste sanageaent on  land ase aad  pefclic
policy ia Southeastern Siscoosin  in  this report.  Oisccsses
oltcrtatiTss to ccawentiTnsl septic  Sfstess.  uith espKasis ca
Bounded soil absorption fields.   £ case study of three counties
in the Southeastern ttiscoasin  Regional Pleaninq Area  reviews
existing and prcposefi lar.d uses,  pcpaiation distribation snd
inpact of indiviaaal household seuage on euvirontreotal egsalitT.
Beview.s policy iaplicaticas o£ this  change in saall-  scale waste
•anagecent in terns of leqislaticn.  citizen preferences for
housing location, technological iapact, county  and regional
planning, and state control of location of snail-scale systees.
;r, aod gives aa overview cf  the ccBpostinq
process and the benefits of the dims rultrus ccspostinq
toilet.  Included is a diagras illustrating how  the  Cli»us
Hultrui works.  (S»T)
ACCl
AUTBOB
AFFIL
TITLE
SOURCE

TEAR
TEIT
L001171
U.W. Selby and R.O. flankes
TureCycle Corporation,  Poulder, Colorado   80306
Uasteuater Recycling is Now  Available
Individual Onslte Bastewater  Svstfias -  Proceedings  of  the  Sixth  Rational
Conference, Ann Arbor,  HI, 1979  (9  pages)
I960
Describes the Pure Cycle syste»  jhich  was  designed  and developed  to
recycle all doaestic witer at  the hone  site.   Pccvides data  en
cost, operation and »aintenance.  The  treatment  processes
utilized by the systes  are anaerobic diqestio-i,  aerctic
digestion, ultrafiltration,  carton  adsorptior,, deiineraliiation
ana ultraviolet disinfection.   ISKF)
1CCI
AUTHOR
AFFIL
TITLE
SOURCE
TEAR
TEXT
L001172
NA
HA
New Coapost Toilet on Trial  in  Albar,y
EioCycle, Journal of Haste  Recycling,  23(2):57  (1  page)
1982
A new style coeposting  toilet tl.at  uses  passive  scler  energy  to  enhance
biological decoepcsition and evaporate  liguics  w^s tested  flaring two
sunset eonths at a state Dark.   The  systea  is intended  to  serve  reoote
sites which deaand a low-«aintenance,  pollution  free  facility.   Design
and operating principles are outlined.
ACCl  :  L001173
AUTHOR:  Ctis, fi.J.
AFFIL :  Depirtient of Civil and Environnental  Eng ii-eering,  Onir°rsity  of
                                         139

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TITLE :
SCUHCE:
TEAR
TEXT
Madison. Madison, Wisconsin
Behabllltation of Round Systea
Gn-Site Sewage Treataent - Froceedlogs cf  the Third  Rational Syepcslue
on Individual and Seall CoaEuoitr Senate treatsent,  1961, AeericaD
Society of Agricultural Engineers. St. Joseph, Michigan  (5 pages)
1982
A case study describes three attespts to rehabilitate a  failed sound
systee for a ssall industry*  Failure, all three tises,  tins due  tc
hydraulic overloading aai entry of erotic  naste products.  Replaceeent
or qra»el ted and/or espaasion of the sound vere two successful  eethcds
        used tc increase the absorption capacity of  the BOHD^.  Chemical
        oiidatios was cot found to be aa effective technique under the
        circuastances encountered.  A uatet: conservation projras was  very
        effective in reducing the totftl »aste £lc«.  wider gravel teds  (greater
        than 1C feet) id sounds constructed of aediun sand till over  shallow
        pereeable soils appear co be possible but neec further inves rigation-.
ACC1
AUTHOfi
AfPlL
TITLE

SOUBCE
YEAB
TEXT
100117U
Ckeict, A.C., Converse, J.C., Tyler, E.J.,  Bobenzer. G.B.
Dept. of Agricultural Engineering, Geological and  Batoral History
Survey, Dept. of Soil Science, Snail Scale Haste Sanaqeeent  Project,
Colleqe of Agriculture and Life Sciences,  University of Radison,
dalison, Wisconsin
Spacing of Cortain Drains on SlcplEq Land  for Co-Site Soil Sbscrptica
Systes
Co-Site Saaage Treatsent - Procecdiaqs of  the ThitO national Syspcsius
OD Individual and Ssall Cos&onitv S?aaqe Treateent. 1761, £aericac
Society o£ Agricultural Eaginfcsrs, St. Joseph, richiqan (10  pages)
1 762
A nathenatical uodel character lies the steady state water table  in a
•oderately slopinq aquifer Bith Q seepage  ted placed between
Ronrecharqed areas olthia parallel cuttaio drains.  The aodel is epplied
to two cases.  Water table height iscreeses as the recharge  rate
increases for a qiaen recharge »i3th and slope of  laad.  Lou recharqe
rates are necessary to be able to fceec the uater table within desired
heights.  Slope has very little effect on  aaiiisus  heiqht of  water tatle
for the saee recharge rate, but slope affects the  lateral location cf
oaxi«ua water table height.  (AJ/5«r)
 ACC8
 AUTHOR
 AFFIL
 TITLE

 50U6CE
 TEXT
LC01175
Staudt, J.G., Jr., Ki€hos, B.C.
U.S. EPA, Vlashinqton, DC
EPA's Plaoninq and ManaqeaPtit  Approach  for  Ssall  Alteruative  Hastewater
Systeas - A Solution for Seall CoKasunities
On-Site Sewage TreatBent - frocesdicqs  of t*ie Third  National  Svepcsiuu
on Indi»idual aad Seall CooBur.ity Seaaqe Treataent.  1961,  Aoerican
Society of Agricultural Engineers, St.  Joseph,  Pichiqan  (7  paqes)
1982
Describes EPR's Ssall Alternative Sasteaater Systeos  (SAas) Strattqy.
The aalor ob1ectii/e  is the deselopicnt  of a coupiekensive  planninq  and
aanaqeaeat approach  to promote tn^ use  and  isprcve the perroraance  and
acceptance of SA'"!S.  EPA activates inclode  prosotion  of  appropriate
technology, facility planning  iaprove»eat,  construction  grant progras
managenent. financial planning and eansqesent,  and facility coaplianc».
Hitain the lisits of its decreasing  resources,  £F* »ill  asiist states ii
designinq and ispleaentinq proqraas  to  enccuraqe  the  use of SAHS
technology and innovative sar.aqeseet  proqraas.  A nusbez of activities
«hich states could undertake are outlined.   (StfF)
ACC«
AUTHOB
AFF1L
TITLE

SODKCE

YEAR
TEXT
L001;76
Colt, J., Hitchell, S., Tchobancqlcos, G.r  Kni"!-.t,  A.
University of California,  Cai's, California   9S616
The Use and Potential of Aquatic Species  for  Wastewater  Treatsent:   The
EnviroDEental Kequire«.er.ts of  Fish,  Appendix  B
The State Water Resources  Control Hoard Publication  Do.  65,  Sacrasento,
California (2^5 paqes)
1 979
This annotated oiblioqraphy  deals with the  envircnseatal  requirements  of
selected fish species potentially useful  in uasteuater  treataent.   The
culture of five native species  cf fish  (catfish,  trout,  carp,
tilapia, bldcltftsh) is discussed yith recard  to  the  effects  of
specific physical, biological  and cheeicel  p^resf-tsri,  including
tna*- cf metabolic  wastes,  on  physiology,  growth,  and  acrtality.
The effects oi the given paraoetecs  are considered
independently.  Yield and  chenical ccspoosition  data  are
discussed for each of the  species considered.  Indexed  ty
subiect and author.
                                          140

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ACCI
iUTHOB
AFFIL

TITLE:
SCUBCE
T£»B
TEXT
LC01177
Ellis, B.. Chllds. K.E.
Upper Great Lams Regice-al coenission and  the  Kicbiqao  DeposrtBent  of
natural Resources
Sutcient floveeent froa Septic Tonics and Lawn pert ilization
Deportaent of aatural Besccrces. Technical Bulletin  So.  73-5.  Hater
Resources Conaission, bateau of Hater Hanagesent.  Hoaohtoa  Lake.
tlichiqaa (66 pages)
1973
Nutrient «oveeent in qrcHsdwater and sciJs arcuniJ  Pichiqan's  Hcoqhtcn
Lake uas studied during 1771-73.   Factors  evaluated  nere  grcunduater
•o»e«eBt of phosphorus aad nitrite-nitrogen froa  septic  tank  effluent.
phosphorus adsorption by specified  local soil  types,  and  phosphorus
•cveaent through soils toilouinq lawn fertilization.  In  sii  of  IS
-,ites, nutrients soved into the groondaa ter.   Phosphorus  entered  the
qroundvater in one-half of fertilized lawns studied.  The stsd?
recocsended that septic systeas be  used only as  tespcrary waste  disposal
••dthods in arfeas with iigb potential for aevelcprent  and  surface  water
contaainatioa.  Siting criteria should enphasize  soil and 'jroucduater
characteristics.  Fertilization should be  based  on scil  tests.   Area
qroundwater 
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TEXT  : These proceedings frcn the international conference  held at  Eangkck.
        Thailand, February 21-25, 1978, contain over 100  papers and
        keynote addresses.  Voiaae I covers nuaerous topics:   water
        quality aaBaqeaent, Hater quality modeling and acnitcrinq,
        economics, aunicical end industrial treatisent. sclids/sludqe
        handling,, and bioloqical/physical/cheaical treatBent  processes.
        Voluee II contains additional papers and a list cf patticipants.
        Selected articles are separately abstrated in the SHF
        BiolioqraphjF.   (s«F)
ACC*
AUTHOR
AFFIL
TITLE
SOOBCH

YESH
TEIT
L001182
Mi
Ml
Getting to Knou Tour Septic Tank
Triangle J Council of Gesernaents, P.O. Eoi 1176, Besearch Triangle
Pack, Korth Carolina (3 pages)

Fesphlet presents a synopsis of hou a septic systeu operates, hou to
detereine if your systes is failing, tae consequences of a tailing
systee, where local ad»ice about septic sfsteos can te obtained, and
tips for smple septic tank aaintenance.   (SHF)
ACC8
AUTHOR
AFFIL

TITL2
SOUBCE
TEX!
1001183
Batasuk, S., Klinsukonth, C.
Environsental and Ecological Research, and Applied Scientific Research
Coirporatior. of Thailand, 196 Phabonyothia Boaa, Eangkfaen, Bangkok
Cesspool Sludge Undergoes Jreatability Study
Hater 6 Seuaqe Works, 72(3):98-57  (3 pages)
1960
Lagoon treatment of sludje collected by Bangkok's cesspool systei prcned
fco be an econossicall^ auo enviEonisentally ispractical aethod of sluoqe
disposal.  A labozator? study detersined that chemical coagulation ct
the cesspool sludge should be the  initial treataent step.  The thickened
sludge is stored for use as a soil awendsent or de«atered on sand teds.
The primary effluent can be treated.further in oxidation ponds, open
sand filters or used foe land irrigation following chlorination.  (SHF)
ACC6
AlHKOB
AFFIL

TITLE
SOURCE

TEIT
L00118«
HA
Uesterc, Colorado Hural Coaaur.ities Proqrao and Colorado Cooperative
Eitension Service
So tour ConsunitT Has a Sewaqe Prctleis! Have Icu Considered...
Colorado State University. Cooperative Eitention Service, Foit Collins,
Colorado
Fanphlet froa Colorado Cooperative Extension stresses alternatives tc
centralized se«acje treataent plants.  Offers a feu alternati»es which
nay be used individually or in coobination.  (SHF)
ACC»
AUTBOB

AFFIL

TITLE
SOUECE

KEAB
TEXT
L001185
Heist, P.C., Ziaaeraan,, a.J., Turner, ft.G., Francisco, C.E.,
Robinson, P., Overcash, P.H., Srieed, E.
University of North Carolina, Department of Environsental Sciences and
Enqineerinq, North Carolina State University
Uastenater Spray Transport in Land  Application
Hater Hoscurces Research Institute  of the University of North Carclint,
Baleiqh, North Carolina (220 paqes)
1980
Besults of a study designed to predict aerosolized »iatle
particle dispersion fro» a wasteuater spray system, considerina the
effects of particle size, aicrocrqanisn viability, and netecrological
paraaeters.  TJO spray solutions, 906 containing  E. coli. as a viatl°
atnospheric tracer and one containing uranine, a  non-cecayinq
flourescent dye, were sioultaneously sprayed in an cpen field and their
downuind concentrations deterained  by sapplinq to a aaxiaun distance cf
311 aeters to develop an atmospheric dispersion oodel, espirical results
Mere investigated in teres of both  a standard Gaussian plune
distribution, as well as a non-Gaussian linear oultiple regression
analysis.  The E. Coli. viability nodel indicated that the natural log
of the bacteria was inversely related to relative huaidity, and tc a
lesser eitent, with airborne tiae.  and directly related to sclar
radiation.  Significance of a health hazard froe  predicted exposure
cannot b^ concluded without further investigations into dose-rpspcnse
infectivity and disease studies of  airborne pathogens.   (AU/SHF)
ACCt
AUTHOB
AFFIL
TITLE
L001186
NA
XA
Sewage Facilities Plan:
Fountain Run Kentucky
                                          142


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SOURCE: Parrott, Ely and Hurt. Consulting Engineers. Inc.. Leiinjton. Kentucky
        U0502   (150 pages)
        i 978
YEAS
TEXT
        Describes ao EPA-funded vastewater facilities design aad construction
        plan developed for a 2.200 acre water district serving 500 persons, 19
        saall businesses and one factory in rural southern Kentucky.  Failing
        septic systems, oostly on loa peraeefciiity soils, alone with several
        unsanitary pit privies, «ere the area's sain water pollution pcobleas.
        Environaental factors includiaq natural coBBtsaities, topography,
        geology, soils, clicate and hydrology ate discussed.  Four prospective
        oanaqeeervt plans are considered:   (1) gravity seaer systee sith a
        central oxidation laqoon followed  by an infiltraticn-rercolation systee;
        (2) solids reaoval and on-site storage uith liquid effluent conveyed
        partly by pressure sewers to central treatment:  (3) effluent seaers
        linked to cossunity disposal sites for aost units. «ith the reBainder
        using on-site systeas; and (0) on-site disposal  for all units.  Based OB
        cost and feasibility, option 3 was selected.  A  cospjete cost analysis
        is provided.   (SUF)
ACC»    L001187
AUTHOS  Couan, P.A.. Biodlebrooks. E.J.
AFFIL   Utah Hater Research Laboratory, College of  Engineering, Utah State
        University. Loqan. Utch  60322
TITLE   Bodelinq the Perforsarce of the Interaittent Sand Filter
50CBCE  Utah Water Research Laboratory, College of  Enqineerinq. Utah State
        University. Logan. Utah  S«J22  (126 pages)
TE.IB    t979
IEXI    Several aodels aera de7eloped to predict  the efficiency of the
        intermittent sand filter  (ISF) in recovinq  alqae £-;o« uasteuater
        stabilizatioa pond efflusnt.  Volatile suspended saXids (?SS) vas the
        analytical technique used to identify alcal coccentrations.   Desiqn
        curses, in which period of filter operation ass described as a function
        of aass loadiRq, aere fie»alope'3 for ISP systeas containing 9.17. C.40,
        and 0.68 BB eftective sand size aedia.  Uasteuatei: stabilization pcnd
        effluents having calciua carbonate precipitation probless wece included
        as a special case in this analysis..   (AU/SKF)
ACCe
AUTHOE
AFFIL
TITLE
SOURCE

TEAH
TE1T
1001188
Hdrkin, J.n.
Departaent of Soil Science, University of Wisconsin
Status Report on the Poros (Hyiroqen Peroxide) Process
Individual Onsite Wasteuatar Systea - Proceedings of the Sixth national
Sanitation Foundation Conference 1979, Ann Arbor, SI {S pages)
1980
The proprietary PCROX process is described in this status report.
Tha process nas developed to rehabilitate septic tank systess
that have failed because of soil cicgging.  Hydroqes peroxide disscl««s
organic ard inorganic Eatoridls that clog soil pcres under scil
absorption trenches.  The treataent restores the scil to its initial
p-eraeability.  Case histories outlining application of the EOBCX process
to repair septic tank systems are included.   (SWF)
ACCt    L001189
AUTHOE  C'Brien, W.
HFFIL   Black t Vsatch Consulting Engineers,  Dallas, ~\1
TITLE   -Use of Agadtic Bacrophytes  for  Mastewater  Treatnent
SOURCE  Journal of the En»iron«ental  Engineering Division, 107 (EE1):681-698  (18
        pages)
YEA3    1981
TEXI  : Aguatic nacrophytes can  be  used  to  purify  uunicipal  and  industrial
        uastewaters when  treatment  facilities  are  designed to  advantaqeoiislf  use
        the natural characteristics of  these  plants.  This paper  (1)  briefly
        reviews the biological characteristics  of  nater  hyacinth,  ("Eichhornia
        crassipes"),  snd  duckweed ("Lensa", "Spirodela",  and aolffia"sp.)  when
        these plants  are  grown in uastewater;  (2)  sumnarizes available
        inforaation on the perfornance  of ensting pilot  and field-scale
        facilities: (3) suggests design  criteria suitable  for  wastewater
        treatient  facilities using  water hyacinths;  and  (<4 identifies areas
        which require additional research.   (AU)
ACC»
AUTHOB
AFFIL
TITLE
SOURCi

YEAS
TEXT
LOOT 190
Fancy, J»
John fancy Inc., Valfioboro, Fiaine CU572
Iniivicual Aerobic Flant Operation and Maintenance
IiidiviJual Cnsite Wastewater Systeas - Proceedings of the Siith  Rational
Conference, Ann Arbor, RI, 1979  (15 pages)
1980
A fir» uhich services nore than 450 aerotic plants outlines its  prcqra»
for servicing long-tera operation of ssall aerobic treatsent  plant-i.
                                          143

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        Initial plant acceptance, paperwork, field wotk and cost of servicing
        are described.  (StJF)
ACC»
AUTHOE
AFFIL

TITLE
SOURCE

IEAB
TEII
        L001191
             and Freshwater Envircosental sciences Group, Erookbaven Baticnal
        Laboratory, Upton, Seu fork  11973
        tietlands feasteyater Treataent Systees
        International SysposiuB. State cf Knouledqe in Land Treetsect of
        Wastawater, Hano»er. Hew Haapshire. August 20-25, 1978, (8 pages)
        1978
        Discusses the effectiveness of two artifical wetland {Beadow/aarsh/pona
        and aarsh/pood) sewage reclaaation wcrks located at Brcckhaven National
        Laboratory, Opton. Heu lorfc.  Description of design and perfcrsance of
        the wetlands is given.  Coaparison ot the wetlands effluant quality,
        energy use and capital costs «as Bade to a conventional advanced waste
        treatsert pi sat. sesults showed that for less capital ezpense and a
        lower energy coasuBpticn uasteuater reclasation by the wetlands Has
        close to AfcT plant perforeance.  Design constraints necessary for
        properly operating artificial wetlands alonq with other possible wetland
        applications are also briefly discussed.  (SWF)
ACC»
AUTHOH
AFFIL
TITIE
SOUHCE
T2XT
        1001192
        Vaa rter Bfn, S.. Kroschel. H., Jarits. Tt
        The rarallones Institute, Occidental, California
        Composting Privy-Tecfaaical Bulletin  fie.  1
        The Farallones Institute, occidental, California

        5he Farallones Institute, Occidental, California, designed and operates
        a coepcstiaq privy which decooposes  huaesn wastes and ccganic saterial
        into a safe soil conditioner.  Eusan excretsecit  is eized with sau dust,
        hat. stray aad grass clippings to  insure a  proper carbon-nitrogen ratio
        and eoisture coatent for corspostinqo  The pile  is turned periodically to
        provide adequate aeration.  The finished product is safe £or use around
        fruit trees, shrubs and oroaBental plantings.   A section provides
        solutions to coaaon probleas associated  with ccepostiBT privies.
        t question and answer dialogue also  considers treataent and disposal of
        qreywater.   (S8F)
ACCI
AUTbOB
AFFIL
TITLE
SOURCE

TEAS
TEXT
        L001193
        Lccier, C., Vansicle, L., Schooncver, D.
        flodern Haste Treatoent Systeas, Inc., Chaspaiqn, IllinoiE  61820
        Experiences with the Dse of Aerobic Flaats and Soil Rbsctption Systess
        laoividual Onsite Hasteuater Systees -  Proceedings of the Seventh
        National Conference, 1980 p. 115-127  (13  paqes)
        1981
        Discusses the use of a proprietary Hulti-Flo accation plant folloved ty
        a sahsurface disposal fieli.  Test results show there are less suspended
        solids and organic Eaterjal in the effluent, siqni ficantl y higher
        asounts of dissolved oiyr.en and an increased ancunt of
        evapotranspiration.  As a result of this  increased treatsent ,
        previously failing soil absorption systeas were shown to operate
        satisfactorily.  Sesutts suggest that higher wastewater loading
        rates wert possible with the addition oi  an aerobic treatment.
        In areas where surface discharge is allowed, the nulti-flo
        systei has been shown to Beet state effluent standards.  (SWF)
ACC«
AUTHOE
AFFIL
TITLE

SOURCE
TEAfi

TEXT
        1001194
        Cakshsnaaurthy, V.. Fredluod, C.G.
        Cepartoent of Civil Engineering, University of  Saskatchewan, Canada
        A natheeatical node! for Predicting Roisture Flow  i,i an Onsatarated Soil
        Un-ler Hydraulic and Teaperature Giadients
        Hater Besource- Besearch, 17 (3):711-722  (9 pages)
        1S61

        A theoretical sodel is  presented to predict the  noisture flow in an
        unsaturated soil as the result of hydraulic and  te»perature gradients.
        A partial differential  heat  flow equation  (far  above free2inq
        conditions)  and the two partial diffetential transient  flow equations
        (one for the water phase and the other for the  air  phase) ate derived
        and solved using a finite difference  technigue.  The siiultanaous
        solution of the partial differential  equations  gives the teaperature,
        the pore water pressure, and the pcre air  pressure  distribution with
        space and ti«e ir an unsaturated soil.   The pressure changes can,  in
        turn, be used to coapute the quantity of aoisture  flow.   (AU)
ACCt  :
AUTHOE:
         L001195
         Eouaa, J.
                   Dekker, L.U.
                                          144

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AFFIL
TITLE

SQUF.C;
TEAR
TEXT
Cept. of Applied Soil Physics. Heth€rl
-------
        and rehabilitation ace reviewed.  The relationship betueen sewage
        disposal and land use planning is considered.  ft variety of senage
        disposal alternatives is discussed, and four alternative eaaageeent
        strategies are described.  Reccaeendations for future deveicpaent
        conclude the report.  (SUF)


ACCI    L001IOO
AUTHOH  Funderfcurc. S.W.. Boore, B.A., Saqik. B.P., Sorter, C.A.
AFFIL   Oniversitv of Teias at San Antoaio. Oreiel University, and University of
        Texas at instin
TITLE   Viral Transport Through Soil Coluans Under Conditions of Saturated Flou
SOUBCE  Hater Research, 1b<6> :703-711 (9 pages)
Y E A E    1961
TEXT    Focuses on the application of soil coloans to study the sovesent and
        behavior of three viruses in several soils possessing a variety of
        cheaical and physical characteristics.  soils were saspled to a depth of
        100 CB and packed into acrylic cylinders according to the vertical
        distribution and talk density of the soil as found in the field.
        Sequential flooding of the colaans aith wssteuater and distilled Hater
        resulted in a cyclical pattern of viral release IB coluen percolates.
        The total nuaber of viruses detected in percolates differed asong the
        soils tested due to the differences asong soil properties.  Poliovirus
        recovery correlated eost favorably sith low soil cation eichaaqe
        capacity (CEC) and high organic carbon and clay contest.  The recovery
        of coliphaqe uas related to Ion soil organic carbon asd residence tiee
        of liquid uithin a coluan in coabination with either high soil pH or
        percent clay.  As with poliowiros, detection of reovirus in soil ccloen
        percolates uas negatively correlated nith soil CEC.  (40/SHF)



»CCS    1001201
ADTHOH  Harqett. D.L., Tyler, E.F.,  Sieqrist, R.L.
AFFIL   Dept. of Soil Science. Geological and Batural History Sor»e?. Dept. of
        Civil and Environsental Enqiceerinq, University of Hisconsin
TITLE   Soil Infiltration Capacity as Affected by Septic Tank Effluent
        Application Strategies
SOOBCE  Ca-Site Seuage Treataent - Proceedings of the Third Eational SyspcsioB
        on Individual and Saail Coamunity Sesage treateent, 1961, American
        Society of Agricultaral Engineers, St. Joseph, Hichigan (13 pages)
IEAB    1982
TEXV    The effects of iiethod and rate of application of septic tank effluent to
        replicated soil absorption systees in an undisturbed silty clay losa
        subsoil aere studied.  (lethods of application included conventional
        (siaulated) and dcsed (uniforaly, once daily).  Application rates Mere
        2, a and 8 cs/day.  The ezperisent «as of lioited duration (21 nonths)
        under specific soil conditions.  The following conclosions uere stated:
        Loss of infiltratiie capacity is related to aeoont and frequeacy cf
        application over tiae.  Initial loss in periaeability is very rapid
        regardless of application rate or isethod.  Loaoing rates higher than
        those approprifite for soil conditions cause the sost rapid and
        continuous declines in infiltration capacity.  Conventional application
        is likely to proiuce systea ponding.  At reasonable application rates
        dosing can be useful in saintaininq higher infiltratise capacity than
        conventional loadiaq.  For high loafiicg rates, dosing has little
        long-teina advantage over conventional application.  (AU/SHF)
ACCJ    LQ01202
AUTHOR  Gordon, U.S., Chapasn, D.J.
AFFIL   Departaent of Biology, University of California, Los Angeles, CA  9C02U
TITLE   Aquaculture Approaches to Wastewater Nutrient Becyirling
f.OOHCE  Office of Water Research and Technology, U.S. Departaent of Interior,
        Kashinqton, DC  (4^ pages)
iEAB    1979
TEXT    Laboratory scale studies uere conducted at the University of Califo'nia
        at Los Angeles to investigate a biological approach to wastewater
        recycling.  Secondarily treated nasteyater effluent «as used to naintain
        an artificial food chain cooposed of successive aonocaltures cf
        unicellular qreen alqae (Scenedesaus sp.), hi.T >~ivcrous cladoceran
        crustaceans (Daphnia sp.)  and carnivorous and herbivcroos fish
        (Cyprinidae faoily).  The results inuicate that this aquaculture systes
        is a viable method of providing reducinq the nitrogen and
        phosphorus concentuitions in the secondary effluent.  Algal,
        cladoceran and fish cultures could be successfully aaintained
        providing certain growth psraneters were satisfied.  A
        discussion of these growth r-araaeters, as "ell a- tachnical
        results pertaining to the bioloqica] productivity, dissolved
        nutrient uptake and release and heaty aetal accumulation in the
        artificial food chair, are included in this final report.  (SkF)
                                         146

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ACCI
AUTHOR
AFFIL
TITLE
SOURCE
TEAK
TEXT
1001203
Olsonbaker, J.
DA
Sprinkle Irrigation Ansuers City's waste  Problea
Coagost Science/Land Utilization, 21(3):35-37  (3  poges)
I 9 8 0
Sprinkle irrigation of alfalfa fields with secondarily  treated effluent
proved to be an ecoooaically saccessful method of effluent  disposal  for
the city of Cranbrook, British Coluebia,  Canada.  A self-propelled
center pirot irriqatioa systes applies uastenater at a  rate of 2.COO
gallons per sinute to 1.000 acres of alfalfa.  A  Sigh-protein alfalfa
crop aas produced, containing 22 percent  proteir.  cospared to 17.1
perceet protein in the noaefflaent irrigated alfalfa.   Crop rerenoe,
coupled Hith Ion operation and aaintenance costs. safe  sprinkle
irrigation an attractive effluent disposal Bethod ovec  other nasteeater
disposal techniques.  (SWF)
ACCI
ADTHCfi
AFFIL
TITLE
SOURCE
TEAR
TEST
1001204
Biekerk. B.
School of Forest Eesoarces, Univen ,tr of Florida
Bou nach Sewage Sitroqen on Forest  foils?  A Case History
BioCycle. Journal of Baste Recycling. 23(1):53-56 (5 pages)
1992
Sewage sludcie applicatioas to forest soils supplies necessary plant
qcouth nutrients sr.d resells Ic enhanced tree grcuth.  Excess sludcie,
though, will supply nitrogen in asounts detrisental to thj envirocseet.
An applicatioa rate of O.e ca dry sladge/hectare/year sprayed on forest
soils was deterained tbcca
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        theory of operation are given.  Laboratory studies suggest three caoses
        of localized increase is fluorescence to which the SID sight respond:
        i) briqhteaers froa cleaning prod-jets, 2) organic eaterials, and 3) ty
        •cans of the nicelle effect ahen sufficient concentrations of detergent
        are present.  Thir, .levee chroiaatography can distinguish betaeen
        orlqhteDers and orgar.ic aaterials.  Another laboratory experieent
        concerns the characteristics of septic tani efflaents and correlations
        of fluorescence with other cheeical parameters of interest.  Soil coluBE
        studies coapared the mobility of aajcr nutrients through soils relative
        to detergent whiteaers.  Field investigations concerned pluse stability,
        Ploae emergence poicts, aad streaa pluses.  The feasibility of detecting
        effluents with flourenetry alone is discussed.  (SWF)
ACC»
AUTHOR
TITLE
SOOBCH

TEAE
TEXT
L001208
Christensen, L.A.
Natural Besource Econoaics Division, Econonie Research Ser»ice. D.S.
Departsent of Agricaitore. Washington, DC  20250
Irrigating with Hunicipal Effluent: A Soclo Econosic Study of Coanunity
BatioBal Technical Inforeation Service, 5235 Port Royal Road,
Springfield, Virginia  (52 pages)

This study eiaaines experiences of eight communities using land to treat
aunicipal effluents,  cost systess evolved nithoot long-range placniog.
Bo distinct aethods for land acqoisition and Banageaent related to the
size of the coaaunity uere identifi
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        i.f Interior, riashinqton, DC  202C1  (1C pages)
TEXT  : Vhe significance cf water conservation and uater conservinq devices arc
        described.  Devices are plastic bottles, toilet inserts, inprovert
        ballocks, dual flush cycle aodifications, water savicq toilets, faucet
        aerators, spray tapes, flow control devices, pressure redacinq valves
        uater conserving appliances, landscape irrigation equipment and water
        conservation innovations.  The econoaic benefits realized by a nusbsr of
        coonunlties which use these devices are qiven.  (AU/SHF)
ACCI
AUTKOB
AFFIL
TITLE
50UBCE

YEAS
TEXI
1001212
Swansea. G.R.. Uilliaeson, K.O.
Department of Civil Enqineerinq, Oregon State University, Corv*l)is, OH
Upqradinq Laqoon Effluents uith Rock Filters
Journal of the £B«iron»ental Engineering Division, EE6: 1171-1129  (10
 faqes)
 980
The perforeance of a full-scale rock filter, designed and constructed as
;art of a stabilization laqooc expansion and upgrading project in  the
city of Yeneta, California, was evaluated.  The rock filter aas intended
to isprove laooon effluent frv reaosal of suspended alqal grouth.
Performance paraoeters iacludfed suspended solids, disseised onyqen,
800-5, COD, chlorophyll, phosphorus, ammonia, nitrate anii orqanfc
nitrogen.  Alqal settling rates were calculated relative to hydraulic
rate, alqal species, effluent teaperatures and other eovironseatal
cocditions.  It «as concluded that the rock filter acts to clarify
laqooo effluent through the eechaoiss of alqal settliag sod adherence to
the rock surface.  The rock filter set daily aaiiaaa etfloent lisits of
20 «
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SOURCE:
TEAR
TEXT
        Long-Tern Acceptance Bates of Soils for Uastevater
        On-Site Sew.jqe Treatieent-Proceedinqs of the Third National Syeposiuo on
        Individual and Siall Coasunity Sewage Treatment, 1981. Anerican Society
        of Agricultural Engineers, St. Joseph. Hichigin (8 pages)
        1902
        A review of literature concerning sell absorption STSten failures was
        conducted to deteraioe whether such failure is inevitable for any syste«
        or whether soils possess a long-ters acceptance rate which would rersit
        a systee to function indefinitely at its design capacity.  The built
        cf evidence supported the lonq-tere acceptance rate concept.  Peeper
        site evaluation., construction, 
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ACCI    L001219
AUTHOR  Polprasert, C., Uanqsuphachart, S., Buttaeara, S.
AFFIL   Environmental Enqineeriaq Division, Asian Institute cf Techsolrqy,
        Eanqkok
TITLE   Coapostinq Hiqhtscil aad Hater Hyacinth in the Tropics
SOUflCE  Cospost Science/Land Utilization, 21(2):25-27  (3 rages)
TEAR    1980
TEXT    A full scale, ten-week study Has conducted in Thailand to determine  the
        feasibility of utiliziac aightsoil and uater hyacinths as ran esterisla
        in cospostinq.  A sethod called "qroiinl-surfa«~e aerobic coapostinq"  Has
        shown to be sisple to coastract and Maintain, effective in destroying
        pathoqenic ocganisas. and capable of retaining iuportant nutrients in
        the coBpost pile.  This eethod is highly feasible for Bost developing
        countries, providinq a badly needed low-cost fertilizar fcr agricultural
        purposes.  (StiF)


ACCI    L001220
AUTHOR  Bradley, R.fl.
AFFIL   Prolect Hanaqer, Enqinesrioq-Scieece, Consulting Engineers, Arcadia,
        California
TITLE   Disposal of Septic-Tank Contents in Cyprns
SCUBCE  Kater Pollution Control, 10 (1):131-138 (0 paqes)
TEAS    1981
TEXT    Land disposal of septage in Cyprus was shown to be an acceptable  irteri*
        solution peaking construction of treataent facilities.  Septic
        tank contents are stored ic holding tanks on atscrptico pits
        prior to disposal in a eucalyptus forest.  Septage application
        in the eucalyptus forest increases the heavy eetal content of
        the soil.  Lise treatBent was effective in controllinq odors and
        reducing 'he fecal colifcra level of the septaqe.   (SHF)
ACCJ
AUTHOR
AFFIL
TITLC
SOURCE
JEAfl
TEXT
L001221
Hill, C.E.. Fiinlc, C.8.
The Connecticut AqcicuitDtal Ezpcrisont Station, Nan Ha«en, CT
Septic Systea Longevity Increased by Isoroved Design
Journal Hatet Pollution Control Federation, 52 (8) :2l99-2203 (5 paqes)
1960
The response of septic systeas to changes in state and local regulations
desiqned to iaprpve their life spaa is inyestiqated.  Analyses cf 3,156
systeas shou a r.ine year increase in longevity in the population c£ all
systess froa 1973 to 1978 and a decrease in the  average rate of
preeature failures fcra 6.0 to 2.Q percent in each year class cf
installation.  laproveeent «as due tc desiqn changes in 1961 and the
required spring percolation tests in 1c-.2.  (AU/SWF)
 ACCI
 AUTHOR
 AFFIL
 TITLE

 SOURCE

 TEAR
 TEXT
LOOJ222
Guttenplan, S.D.
CH2M Hill Southeast, Inc., Restor,, VA
Cluster Septic Tank-Soil Absorption Systens:  A Cost-Effective Solaticn
for a Rural Me« Enqlanu Coasunity
511th Annual Conference of the HPCF. Detroit, Hichiqan, October 1-9,
1981 (20 paqes)
1981
Outlines a systematic approach used to evaluate problea areas and
land-based treatment options for Bridqtcn, Raine.  The use cf scil
scientists faailiar with area soils anJ cnsite systes requlations
sisplifies the alternative evaluation procedure.  The use of leaching
chanbers was recosnendtd for savtral reasons:  they require half the
leachate application area of a conventional trench systea, ar.d they
provide easy ted access, even leachate loadinq distribution and
increased rates of aerobic decoapcsition of solids.  Two septic tanks in
series, a floy distribution structure and diversion boxes provide
optinum use of the chambers and provide for periodic resting of each of
the clusters.  A 50 percent oversized application field should te
standard practice, especially for cluster systems where continuous
•aintenance and process control aandate cluster rest periods.  The total
present worth and annual operation and eaintenance cost of the proposed
cluster systea was one-half that of a bioloqical-chenical treateent
process with a land application systen.   (AU/SWF)
 ACCt     L001223
 AUTHOB   Sirden, H.H.. Cech, I.
 AFFIL:   The  University of Texas Health Science Center,  School of  Public  Health
         at Houston, P.O. Box 20186, Houston, IX  77025
 TITLE    Laqqed Correlation in Sttsdy of Spatial Pattern  of  Well  Contaiinaticn
 SOURCE   ifater Research, 15:291-299  (9 paqes)
 YEAH     1981
 TEXT     Su««arizes and analyzes the results cf an  investigation conducted  since
                                          151

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        1577 In a section of South Windsor, Connecticut.  A sanitary study of
        drinking water wells in this area regaled that cat of 66 indifdoal
        veils, 19 had counts of fecal and total colit'orss la encess cf uhat is
        recoseendea for potable uater luality by guidelines set ty the Potlic
        Health Code of the State of Conoecticat.  The data of this survey were
        subjected to lagged crcss-correiation and spectral analysis in order to
        quantify spatial interactions between individual sells and. thus, to
        identify the nattern aod the origin cf contaaination.  Sesolts indicated
        that there was a chanseled flow of bacterial pollation throagh the slody
        area iiith very little lateral diff'isioa.  The study deocisstrated that in
        soee situations biological contaainants can tra?el large distances
        underground ulthout substantial attenuation by the aquifer naterial.
        (AO)
ACCB
ADTHOB
AFFIL

TITLE

SOURCE
IEAB
TEXT
L00122K
BacsuB. H.7., Schaub, 5.A., Keuyon, K.F.. Snail. B.J.
U.S. Aray Medical Bioengineering Research and Develcpsent laboratcry.
Fort Detrick, Frederick. Maryland
Comparison of coliphage and Bacterial Aerosols at a Uasteuater Spray
Irrigation Site
Applied and Environmental Bicrobiology, «3: (1):26-38  (11 pages)
1982
Microbiological aerosols Here aeasured on a spray irrigatioe site at
Fort Uuachuca. Arizona.  The test site, a qolt course driving raoge, uas
irrigated tilth secondary doeestic uasteuater effloent.  (Jsste»ater
leasing the holding pooa UBS seeded Hitfe coliphage f2 and used to aodel
aerosol migrations.  Air stapling uas conducted at dcvauind distances up
to 563 a.  Indigenous bacteria aad tiecer coliphsge uere sampled froio
spiuvs of chlcrineited and uachlorinated effluent during day and night
periods.  Up to 62 perceot cf the p.irticles uere in a size range
allotting ready deposition in tbe hocan luago  Kasteuater bacteria Here
reduced by chlorination noceally practiced at the site.  Coliphage  12
uere far acre resistaDt to chloriaation and were ceadily detectable in
aerosols frota chlorinated uasteuater.  Doanaind Bicrcbial levels uere
soseuhat enhanced by niqhttiae conditions.  (KU/5'dF)
ACCC
AUTHOR
AFFIL

TITLE

SOUBCE
YEAH
TEXT
LOCI 225
Ktealid. R.A., Patrick. H.H.
laboratory for aetlanc Soils and Sediaents, Center for >?l.l
Resources, Louisiana State University, Eaton Houqe, Louisiana
Kicetics of nitrogen Loss in SiauJatea Hastewater TreatBin
a Soil-Plant
Soil Science 1 32 (5) : 325-329  (5 pages)
1981
Researchers investigated the effect  of nitrogen  forss 0:1 the kinetics of
K loss in a soiall-scale soil-plant systea sisulatinc; oirarland £lo«
conditions with controlled aerobic-anaerobic cycles.  Substantial
gaseous losses of applied labled aBBonius sulfate indicate the
presence of favorable oxidation-red»icticn conditions fcr the
sieultaneous occurrence of nitrificatioD-denitri£ication
reactions.  Gaseous loss through affsonia volatillzatioc uas
unlikely in this study, iue  to slightly acidic to neutral scil
conditions.  The labeled potassiuo nitrate accussulation in both
the aisaoniua and nitrate treatsei.ts  «as neqliqitle, indicating
thflt potassiun nitrate was not stable under the  ezperiitental
conditions.  This suggests that the  denitrificati9>. process Has
not a Uniting factor in the gaseous loss of applied N.  The
conversion of potassiua nitrate tc auaoniua sulfate as a
consequence of respiratory reduction was not evident in the
study.  (AU/SHF)
ACCJ    L001226
AOTHOE  Coble, L.W.
AFFIL   Ccsnunity Hygiene Section. Dorchester Ccunty Health Cepartaent,
        Canbricqe, .ID
TITLE   Influence on Croundtfater fro» the Perned Infiltration Fend
SOURCE  Journal of Environuental Health, «U(1):27-31 (5 pages)
IEAB    1961
TEXT    A beraed infiltration pond is a feasible alternative to subsurface
        drainfields of conventional soil absorption systens in areas
        experiencing high groucduater conditions.  Pretreated household wastes,
        either by a septic tan* - sand filtration STEteo cr an aerobic treatment
        unit, are puaped to the pund for final treatner.t.  Hater evaporation and
        infiltration are regulated by environaental and seasonal factors.   A
        fiell study in Maryland noted the absence of pathogenic bacteria  and
        nitrate nitrogen in the groundwater outside of the pond ercavation.
        Hoveaent of chlorides anc phosphorus in the grcundyater was observed at
        distances approiisately 150 feet froa the pond.  The author notes  that
        the site and location of the beroed infiltration ccnd is critical  in
        preventing contaaination of water supply systets.'  (SWK)
                                          152

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ACC8
AUTHOR
1FFIL

TITLE

SOURCE
TEAS
TEXT
L001227
Holverto. B.C., ncDoDald. B.C.
national Aeronautics and Space AdeiniEtraticn, Rational Space Technology
laboratories. 9STL Station, Bississippi  39529
Hater Hyacinth (Eichhornie Ctassipes) Productivity and Harvesting
Studies
Econosic Eotanr. 33(1):l-10 (10 pages)

Hater hyacinth qccvth rates uere scattered frcs Ray through October  in
two seuaqe laccons vith different nutrient loading rates.  The lagoon
receiving the '.leafiest load sustained the highest average growth rates
throughout the suasser.  The lightly loaded laqoon averaged a 29 percent
increase in weight per «eek over the six aonth period with the highest
groath rate occoring during Juae with an average nearly aeiqfat gala  of
71 percent.  The heavil? loaded laqooa sustained an average gsroath zete
of U& percent per neck for tht saae sis eoath period with the highest
aeastared growth rate of 7j perceat iacrease in weight per week also
occurinq in June.  In addition, the perfoteance of thcee harvesters  vas
evaluated.  One harvester, consisting uf a chopper and conveyer, was
capable of picking up aad chopping approziaately 2.3 t cf plants per
hour and delivering thea to a uniting truck.  The second harvester BBS a
single 1.52 re  (5 fr,») wide conveyor, and the third one was a sodifisd
claashell bucket attached to a dcaqline.  The average harvestisq cate of
each of these harvesters uas approxisetely 9.3 t of water hyacinths  per
hour.  (AU)
ACC8    L00122a
AOTHOS  Lanicy, Z.r., Vaaqhn, J.H., Pennello, B.F.
AFFIL   Deparcment of Energy and Ebricaeeent, Brookhavec  National Lafccratcry,
        Upton, Seu York  H1973
TITLE   Eoliovicas Retention in 75-co Soil Cotes After Seuage and Baiauater
        Application
SOURCE  Applied and Environaeotal Ricrobiolcgy, 19 (6) :1032-1 038  (7 pages)
TESR    1980
TEXT    Polioviros retentioB in 75-ceatiaeter in-situ soil cores Mas  jetereined
        follouicq seuaqe efilueat and rainwater applictioc*  The soil ccrss  nece
        inoculated uith seeded seaaqe effluent at a  1-cs/hour infiltEatoa cate
        and analyzed for plaque-forsiag uaits at 5-cs intervals.  The reselts
        indicate that 77 perceat of the virases aere  abscrted in the  top 5-cs of
        soil and a total of 96 percent of the «ir«sses sere found in 25— cs.   less
        than cne percent of the viruses «ere found in core filtrates.  Localized
        Bosreeent of viruses Has observed after application of a  single sewage
        effluent or rainwater rinse, »itn greatest ooyeoent in the rsisaater
        rinsed soil cores.  Reabsorptioa or the eobilized viruses aas aoted  at
        Icuer core depths.   (SUP)
 ACCI    L001229
 AUTHOB  Ar.derson. S.L., Pepper, I.L., Kneebone,  H.R.
 AFFIL   Ciipartsent of Scils* Hater Zoqineericg,  and Departaent  cf  Plant
        Sciences, University of Arizona, Tucson
 TITLE   Heclaaation of tfastetiater Hith a Soil-Turf Filter — 1:   Reuoval
        of Nitrogen
 SOURCE  Journal HFCF, 53 (9) :1 U02-1 '<07  (6 pages)
 YEAR    1961
 TEIT    A study Has conducted at the University  of Arizona Turfgrass  Research
        Center to determine the oeiinoa application rate of  secondary treated
        uasteuater to a soil-turf filter without  haroing the  tur£  ana jieldinq
        leachate averaging  less than 1C ag/1  nitrate-nitrogen.   Five  application
        rates of secondary  treated effluent «ere  applied to  plots  of  tuo
        soil-types seeded aith turfgrass.  The results  indicate that  the  soil
        containing a higher percentage of silt and organic natter  was capable of
        removing eore wastewater nitrogen ty  soil processes  and turf  grouth.  A
        large aitount of grour.dwater recharge  at  higher  application rates  «as
        obtained on the silt organic Batter soil  than on the  second test  scil
        (containing less silt and no organic  Batter) while still neeting  federal
        nitrogen standards.  (SHF)


 ACCS    L001230
 AUTHOR  Iskandar, I.K., Syers, J.K.
 AFFIL   U.S. Aray Cold .Tegions Res. and Eng.  Lab., Hanover,  NH
 TITLE   Effectiveness of Land Application for  Phosphorus Reeoval fron Rocicipal
        Masteuater at Hanteca, California
 SC08CE  Journal of Enviornoental Quality, 9(«):616-621  (6 pages)
 TEAfi    1980
 TEXT    The concentrations  of dissolved inorganic phosphate  (DIP)  in  scil
        solution collected  at 0.8 a=d 1.6 • in soils ahich had  received
        • unicipal waste water for 
-------
        indicated that the ability of soils troa the control site to
        reoo»e added P frca solution was low.  Vasteuater addition
        caused a substantial decrease in th-j P sorption capacity of
        surface soils.  Only a saall proportion of the total P
        accuaulated frca uastewater addition «as in the organic fora.
        Although lack of crop removal of P and a high infiltration rate
        •ay be partly responsible for the poor perforsaace of the
        Saoteca syctea in terns of P resoval iros uasteuater. the very
        Ion p sorption capacity of the soil is regarded as t&c salor
        factor.  (4U)
ICC I
4UTHOB
1FPIL
TITLE
SOUBCE
TE»B
TEXT
1001231
Could, «!.. Epstein. E., Alpert. J.E.
E 6 i EDvlronuental Consultants, Inc., Sharon, tlassachasetts
t Practical Look at Sludge Cosposting
Public Berks. 1U(10):76-79  (4 pagesj
1961
* sludge coepostiaq systea suitable for ssall cr  large  eunicipalities  is
described,  'he aerated static pile process involves a  slodqe-fcalkiBq
agent aixture placed on perforated air pipes.  Air is drawn through  the
pipes by blowers and exhausted through a  filter pile of  finished cospost
toe deodorizetion.  Stabilized cospost is  produced in 60 days.  Balking
•aterial usfd in the process includes wood chips, bark,  leaves, strati
and shredded tires.  S step-by-step plan  to develop a euaicipal
cooposting prograo is included.  JSHF)
iCCI    L001232
iOTHOB  Enferadi. K.H.
AFFIL   Califcrcla Department of Health Services, Sanitary Engineering Section,
        Berkeley, CA  9470^
TITLE   A Field Evaluation of the Waterless Toilet as en Alternative to the
        Failiaq Soil Absorption Systeo
SOOBCE  ladipidoal Onsitis HaterMater Systeas - Proceedings of the Eighth
        Batioaal Sanitation Foundation Conference, Ann Arbor, HI  {20 oaqes)
IEAB    1931                                                         '
TEXT    The California State Departaent of Health Services has in»e£tity health officials in lieu of, or as a replacssent
        for, a failing traditional altera»ti»e.  The department des>elops<3 a
        field pro-jef- designed to focuG on psrforeance characteristics,
        operational am\ Jiaintenacce problees, and health rists for sesen  coaaon
        types of blacfc t^iste cosposting systess and three types c? qreyaater
        treat»eat.  The results of laboratcrj and site otsereations frca  31
        toilets and 9 qreywater units installed in private hoses in California
        for an 11-oonth period arc discussed.  {SfcF)


ACCI    L001233
AUTHOR  De Jong. R.. Shajkewich, C.F
AFFIL   Lani Resource Research Insfltute Agriculture Canada, Ottawa, Ontario;
        and Departaeot of Soil Science, 'Jsiv-trsity of Manitoba, Winnipeg, 3an.
TITLE   A Soil Uater cludqet Model aith a Mearly Isperseatle Layer
SOURCE  Can. J. Soil Science 61:361-371 (11 pages)
TEAR    1981
TEXT    A soil water budqet r.odel uhich iccconted for a nearly incerEeatle layer
        in the pcofile was deve!op<"l to describe the water content in a
        non-hcaogeaeous soil-'oot c/stea.  Hater uptake ty the roccs was
        represented by a sir.!: tern which was dependent upon the root
        distribution, the soil water content and the potential transpiration.
        The chosen boundary conditions, precipitation, evapotranspiration a-<3 a
        nearly iuperneafcle layer al tv.c bcttc« of the ?cii profile apptcii»ated
        those eristing in the field.  A sutacjsl to calculate interception was
        included in the aodel.  Cuts obtained fros a field eiperiaent on  a clay
        soil were coapared with calculated results for the period 1 f.sj to 30
        Sept. 1975.  The overall agreeaent between daily ne^sured and calculated
        soil water contents was excellent; ail calculated values fell uitfcis 1C
        percent of the measured data.  The aodel also yielded acceptable  results
        la predicting the distribution of soil water through the profile.   (AU)


ACCI  : L00123M
AUTHOR: Seablcoa, R.M., Carlson, D.A.. Engeset, J.
AFFIL : Depart»ent of Civil Engineering, University of Washingtcn, Seattle,
        Vashicgton
TITLE : Individual Sewage Disposal Systeos
SOURCE: Departaent of Civil Engineering, University of Washington, Seattle,
        Washington
                                         154

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T.EAB   :  1981
TEXT   :  Residences  in  western Washington which were rrperiencinq o.i-site
        wastewater  disposal  systes failure «ere selected for installation of
        innovative  disposal  cystess.   These systess ««re installed to correct
        •alf unctioninq soil  absorption units of conventional sepiic tank - scil
        absorption  systees.   Tfce alternative sethods studied included sound
        systess,  anaerobic filter systeas. inverted drainfield units, dcaxnfield
        rejuvenation with  hydrogen peroxide, aerobic and anaerobic treateent
        units  and evapotranspiratioa  systeas.  The results ot the oi-sitc Ftudy
        of  the innovative  systees is  presented along with recceeendations for
        further research in  alternative wastewater disposal methods.  (SHF)


»CC»     L00123S
AUTHOB  Farker, C.E.
AFFIL   Dept.  of  Civil Engineering,  University of Virginia, Charlottesrille, VA
TITLE   Treateent of Hater Closet flush Mater fir Hecycle and Reuse
SOURCE  Fifty-fcurta Annual  Conference of *.he BFCF, Detroit, tfichigan, October
        u-9.  1961 (33  pages)
TEAR     1961
TEH     A full-scale biolcqical/physical treataent systes was evaluated to
        detercine its  efficiency in  the closed-loop treat«et»t of uater closet
        uasteuater  for recycle and reuse.  Hastenater Has treated by extended
        aeration  followed  by qranular sedia filtration and chlor icetion.
        Filtered  uater si -red in a post filter basin uas used as the supply to a
        hydropneuaatic taafc  that operated the water closets.  Results indicate
        that an acceptable flush uater could fce naintained zt 95 percent
        recycle.  Tbe  treated uastewater uas oicr-£ree and possessed acceptable
        uasteuater  characteristics.   (5HF)
ACCI    1001236
AUTHOE  Shcupp, H.J., DiiKjess, J.H.. Roe, F.G.
AFFIL   Hater Research Institute. Center for E. 'ension and Contir.nirq Education.
        Best Virginia Gniversiy
TITLE   Dicrobiai Purification of fle^ycled aasteuat'jr in a Closed Systen
30USCE  Uater Research Institute, Vest Virginia University, Infcreation Report
        15 (57 pages)
IEAR    190?
TEXT    A recycli i sanitary-Haste disposal systeia was developed and tested in
        the laboratory by using a synthetic fecal-urinouf waste aaterial.  The
        tystea consisted of an aerobic digestion tank, a Baffled settling tank,
        a cellulose-f iter filter, an ultravioiet-liqh t 
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        concentrations.   (SUF)
*CC»    1001238
1UTHOB  Hurst, C.H.. Gerba. C.P.. Lance,  J.C..  Bice,  B.C.
4FFIL   Department of Virology  and  Epidesiclcay ,  9aylor  College  of  Medicine.
        Houston. TX  77030
TITLE   Survival of Entercviruses in Rapid-Infiltration  Basins  During  the  land
        Application of Hasten ter
SOURCE  Applied and Eovironsen tal Microbiology. «0 (2) : 1 92-200  (9 pages)
Y E A E    I960
TEXT    Field studies uere conducted in Arizona to  seasure  the  downward  movement
        through soil of seeded  enterovirus  during rapid  infiltration of  senaqe
        effluent..  The inactisation rate  of  the enterovirus  during  periods  of
        flooding and dryioq in  the  rapid  infiltration  basins uas determined.
        Plastic tubes contaiainq the seeded  eoterovirus  and  soil uere  ouried at
        tour depths in the basin, and  five  saeples  over  a 2«-day period  were
        taken for analyses.  The dounuard siqration through  soil cf  seeded
        poliouirus type 1 sas qreater  than  thcit of  echovirus type 1.
        Enterovirus Innctivation rate  was dependent upon scjl  ecisture loss in
        the basin.  The inactive tion rate was  increased  when the tasin soil «as
        permitted to dry between effluent application  periods.   This procedure
        has application in preventing  high  virus  levels  in  the  soil  and  averting
        possible qrounduater contamination.
*CC»    L001239
AOTHOS  Hocsreqor, S.T.,  Hiller,,  F.C.,  Fsarianos.  K.n.,  Finstein,  M.S.
AFFIL   Dept. of  Environoentsl  Sciences.  Cook  College,  Rutgers  University
TITLE   CCHposti&q Process Control  Based  on  Interaction  Between  Bicrobial  Keat
        and Output and Tesperature
SOURCE  Applied and  En»ircae6Btal nicrobiolcqy,  «!(<») :1 321-1 330  (10  pages)
YEAR    1981
TEXT    Sational  coepostiiKi  process control  involves  the interrelated factors of
        heat output,  teaperature, ventilation,  and  nater reeoval.  These
        relationships uore icpldoented  in a  field-scale  process  of static-pile
        configuration, using a  «i«tuce  of senage  sludge  and  nood chics.   Heat
        reeoual «as  aatched  to  heat output through  a  teaperature feedback
        control systea,  thereby aaiiataiaina  biologically farorable tenceratures.
        The observations  indicate that, fandaaentally,  there  are t«o kinds  of
        coapostinq systess:  ti.ose  that are  ant  those that  are  not teaperature
        self-linitinq.   The  self-li aitinq systeo  reaches inhibitivs  teaoeratures
        which debilitate  the oicrobial  coseunity,  suppressinq  decosposi ticn,
        heat output  and  uatcr reaoval.  la contrast,  ncn-selt  l.iEitinq
        teoperitures  support a  robust ccssuoity,  proisctinq  decoaposit ion.  heat
        output and aater  reacval.   (AU)
ACCI
AUTHOR
AFFIL

TITLE
SOURCE
 YEAR
 TEXT
         LOOT 2«0
        d, J.
Perced County Ueparteent of Health Civision cf Environs
f.ercedt California
Forraation and Operation of Maintenance Districts fcr Se
Cn-site Sevaqe Treatment - Prcceeflinqs ci tSe Third K.V>_
on Individual and Sz?.Il Corsaunity Setiqe Treatment 1S61
Societv of Aqricaltural Engineers, St. Joseph, Kichiqan
1982
Describes a count y-oj-era ted on-aite wastewater »anaqe»e
C.erced County, California, including its forsaticn, ore
inspections, nonitori-.q, systes recait, tilling croced"
special problons.  Anc.ujl roe per let ranges frcu 120 \
inq deep-trench systens which use sioeaall infiltration
aanaqed on-site svsttes.  All systens aro desiqr.ed for
and t.ench operation inspection.  (A'J/Srff)
ent F € ? 11 h ,

w^e Disposal
ional Syupcsi un
,  Aaerican
 (6 pages)

 t d istrict in
 at ion, design,
 =s, fees and
  S25.  Alternat-
  re used for all
t ,sy septic tank
 ACCI
 AUTHOB
 AFFIL
 TITLE
 SOUSCE

 YEAfi
 TEXT
1C012«t
Ftlprasert. C., Rajput, V.S., Donaldson, D., Viraraqhavan, T.
Environnental Sanitation information Center, Eanqkok, Thailand
Septic Tank and Septic Systeas
tnvircnaental Sanitation Infornaticc Center, Asian Institute of
Technology, P.O. Box 275H, Bangkok, Thailand (115 pages)
1982
Reviews the septic tank and septic system.  Topics incluJe a description
of nastenater characteristics; stptic tank perforaance, design and con-
struction; disposal of septic tank effluent; disposal and nanaqesent c£
septage; the efficiency or sell saterials in re»cvin:i pollutants;  the
environaental effects cf septic tank systess, including chemical,  nutri-
tive and biological coataaination; and recoaaendations  for research on
septic systems.  Provides a alcssary cf technical ter»s and  references.
(SWF)
                                          156

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ACCf
AUTHOB
AFFIL

TITLE
SCUBCE
TEAB
TEXT
        1001242
        Enqlehardt,  J.D..  Hard, E.G.
        Agricultural aad Cheaical Engineering Dept., Colorado State University.
        Fort Collins. Colorado
        Technical Hanaqesent Needs for Seall Flows Technology
        On-site Sewage \reataent - Proceedings of the Third National Syapcsiua
        on  Individual sad  Seall Coaaunity Setacje Treatsent 1981, Aaerican
        Society of Agricultural Engineers. St. Joseph, Michigan (9 pages)
        1962
        Describes a  procedure which identifies ?nd organizes the operation and
        •aintenance  requireaents for oa-site wastewater tteataent technology
        fro* a coaaunity sanaqeeent perspective.  Ihe requireseBts considered
        are the procedures,  the resources an-3 the costs involved.  The study is
        divided into three phases.  Phase one is the definition of theoretical
        requiteaents for technical eanageaeet.  Phase t«o is the detereinaticn
        of  current operation and aaiatecaace practices and results.  Phase three
        is  the developsent of realistic operation and oaintenance recoseeBda-
        tions and costs embodied it a computer progras.   (A'J/SWF)
ACCI
AUTHOB
AFFIL
TITLE
SOURCE
IEAE
TEIT
        LC01243
        Jarrett, A.R.. Frittcn, D.D., Sharpe. u.E.
        Departaent of Aqricultural Enqineering, Departuent of Agronomy, School
        of Forest Resources. The Pennsylvania State University, 0»i»ersity Park,
        Pennsylvania
        Alternative Da-Lot Trench Systea with Dosing and Hater CoaserBBticn
        Cn-site Seuaqe Treataent - Procee^iDqs of the Third Bational SyBpcsiu»
        on Individual and Saall Conaunity Seuaqe Treatsent 1981, Sserican
        Society of Aqricultaral Engineers, St. Joseph, Richiqan (10 pages)
        1962
        Ihe study concluded that ssall, carefully designed dosed alternate
        trenches cats be used sith uater conservation to provide disposal cf sep-
        tic tank effluent for periods during nhich an existing hot salfuocticn-
        inq absorption field is rested.  the infiltration rate of a aalfunction-
        i-q absorptioa systea can be rejuventated by cooplete restinq for 10
        •onths if the systen bas failed due to a biological clog layer.  Hon-
        e?er, the per«aneace of such rejuveBaticn has not teen established.
        (AU/SWF)
ACC«  :
AliTMOB:
AFFIL :
TITLE :
5CURCE:
YEAH  :
TEIT:
         Eyland.  L.K.
         Greenhorne & O'Hara,  Inc.,  Riverd»le,  .1C
         Put  Pressure ca Seuage
         Journal  of Environaental  Econoaics  and  Planaqeuent,  9(2):a7-ca  (2  pages)
         1982
         Discusses septic  tan*: effluent  pusp  (STEP)  and  grinder  pupp  (Cp)  systess
         as cost-ef f ectire alternatives  to oravity  severs.   Factors that  aust  er-
         ist  tcr  proper cperation  of  tha  STEP  syEtei  include   1)  ac intact  septic
         tank,  2) properly working baffles cc  inliat devices,  and  3) regular sain-
         tenance  and inspection  cf the septic  tank.  The GP  systee offers  the  ad-
         vantages cf 1) eliminating  reliance or.  septic  tanks,  2}  less envircn-
         *ental disruption of  the  property,  and  3)  less  Oder  protlezs associated
         witn  the aerobic  s-."teB.   Includes  a  case  study c£  a  C.arylani  sanitary
         district which utilized GP  systees  as  a cost-effective  rethcd  cf  crovid-
         inq  sanitary strvice  to rural areas.   (iU/SWF)
ACCt  :
AUTHOR:
AFFIL :
TITLE
SCUBCE:
TEIT:
         L0012U5
         Rich,  L.G.
         Environraental  Srsteas  Engineer inn ,  Cle»scn,  University,  Cle»son,  ;c
         Lou-Cost  Treat»er.t  cf  Kastewater
         Public Works,  113(6) :52-5«
                                                             qraphs necessary
         Dual-poner  level,  sul ticellul a r  aerated  laqoon  systeas  and  tenthal  sta-
         bilization  ponds  aay  ke  used  as  low-cost  treatment  alternatives  fcr
         nastewatcr.   Discusses aeration  egtipnent  and  aeraticn  regoirenen ts fcr
         laqoon systess  ici stabilization pcnos,  and  includes
         for  design  cf  tht  laqccns  and  ponds.   (AU/EWF)
 ACCf
 AUTHOE
 AFFIL
 TITLE
 SCUECE
 IEAE
 TEXT
        L0012D6
        Flowers, J.t=
        0.3. EPA, Washington, DC
        Ranageaent of Casite '.'astewater Treats'jnt Systems
        Cn-site Sewage 7reatcent - Proceedicqs cf the Third  national Syrpcsior
        on Individual acd Siall Coaaunity Senate Treatsent 1981, American
        'ociety of Agricultural Engineers. St. Joseph, Michigan  (1C pages)
        1982
        Presents a rethcd for conceptual development of an on-site »ar.ageaent
        prograa within tne ftasework of a iil facilities plan.   The first  step
        is to evaluate a^y existing on-site sanaqement agencies  and prograss.   *
        checklist is prcrided for analyzing each agency's functional respcnsi-
                                          157

-------
        bilities.  The paper discusses ho* to deteraine  tanageg^nt  prograe  needs
        and eads with a discussion of aanaaeeeot considerations  in  onsite  sjs-
        te»s alternatives developaeBt, thus helping  to answer  the questions «hc,
        how, and how nuch.  (AU/SSF)
ACCI
AUTHOR
AFFIL
TITLE
SOURCE
TEAR
TEXT
I009
Converse, J.C., otis, R.J.
Civil and Environsental Eagiaeerino Cept., Stall  Scale  Baste  Hanageaent
Project, College of igricuitQEe aud Life Sciences.  University  of
Wisconsin. Badison, Wisconsin
Field Evaluation ct Pressure Distribution Networks
On-site Sewage Treatment - Proceedings of the Third  national  Syepcsiui
on Individual and Seall Cosaunity  Sewage Treatraent  1981.  RaericaH
Society of Agricultural Laqineers, St. Joseph,  Kichigaa  (7  pages)

Ten field-installed pressure distribution aetwcrk systess were evaluated
to determine if the design procedures and assusptions aere  adequate.
The field data show such sariability, but the design acdel  appears  to be
a reasonable design tool if the lateral length  is kept  to less than  80
perceat of the aasiauB Jesiga length persisted  by the eodel.   Seven  of
the ten systems yielded distal pressures greater  than the ainisaB recoa-
sended pressure.  Hodel seasitivity needs to be exaained  for  changes in
the Hazen Uilliaas Crictioa factor, orifice coefficients  and  sincr  pres-
sure losses.   (SWF)
ACCI
AUTHOH
AFFIL
TITLE
SOURCE
T.EHH
TEXT
L0012«J8
Carlile, B.L., Osborre, D.J.
Soil Science Dept.. North Carolina State  University
Soise Experience uitfc Gravel-Less Systeas  in Texas Coastal Areas
On-site Senage Treatoent - Froceedinqs of the Third  Rational  Syspcsiuti
on Individual and Seall CoEBuaity Seuaae  Treatment 1981, Asiecicen
Societi of Aqricultaral Enqiaters. St. Joseph, Michigan  (10 pages)
1962
Three ciffsrent types of oravel-less systeos are installed, Inspected
and evsluatedo  The following conclusions are draon  froB this  project.
The percolation test alone i& not adequate for a site evaluation.   Sub-
surface distribution laterals should always be installed as shallow  as
possible and parallel to the ccntour of the slope.   Individual distribu-
tion lines should be no longer vSan 21a (70 ft) long.  Further iarrove-
nents io design and installation of the alternative  systeas will  re  nec-
essary,  the use of a gravel envelope around distribution laterals  Bay
be necessary.  (AD/SWF)
ACCO
AUTHOB
AFFIL

TITLE
SOURCE
YEAR
TEXT
L0012«9
Kascl, K., Beer, C.E., Patterson, S.
Agricultural Engineering Departaent, loaa State  University and Giithrie
County, Iowa
A Case Study of the Lake Paaoraaa Manajer.ent  District
On-site Sewage Treateent - Proceedings of the  Thitd  Sationa1.  Syepcsiun
on Individual and Snail Coeaunity Seuage Treatsent 1981, Americar.
Society of Agricultural Engineers,  St. Joseph, (lichigan  (4 pages)
1982
The 201 facilities planning process  is a systesatic  »etlicd for identify-
ing, evaluation and selecting alternative Masterater systens  to  ueet  the
water quality reanaqeaent needs for  a C9»aunity in a  cost-effective  Ban-
ner.  The facilities planning process is described within the follouing
fraaework: 1) assessiaq the existing situi.cion,  2) problem asnesstent,
3) tecnnolocy evaluation, 1) alternative develcpcent an.1 evaluaticn,  S)
alternative selection, and 6) iopleisentinq arrangeeeots.  An  onsite »an-
aqeaent functional responsibilities  checklist  is  provided.   (AU/SWF)
ACCI    L001250
AUTHOR  Stewart. L.W., HeDe?u,  R.B.
AFFIL   Dept. of Agronoay. Virginia Polytechnic  Institute and State  University,
        Blacksborg, Virginia
TITLE   novesent of Feca] Colifcru Bacteria  fro»  Septic  Tank Effluent Thrcugh
        Coastal Plain Soils with High  Seai.inal Fluctuating  Water Tables
SOURCE  Cn-site Sewage Tresteent - Proceedings of  the Third  National Syrposiua
        on Individual and Sissll Co!f»unity Sewjge  Treat«ent  "'S?!, Anerican
        Society of Agricultural Engineers, St. Joseph, flichigan  (9 pages)
TEAR    1982
TEXT    Sumarizes bacterial BO»e«ent  through
        soil with hign seasonal fluctuating  water  tables.   Th=  "in-situ"  rcve-
        •ent of fecal colifcres are lonitored in  these studies  by the placeient
        of piezoaeters at selected listances from  the drainfields.   Soils  were
        divided into four categories:   1) soils  with perched water tables,  2)
        soils with water tables influenced by tile drainage, 3) soils with  wide-
        ly fluctuating water tables and, t)  soils  with high  fluctuating  water
        tables and alternative  systeas.   (SWF)
                                          158

-------
ACC«    LC01251
AUTHOR  Hill. K.K., Graves, B.E.
AFFIL   Franklin County Extension Service, Greenfield,  Hassachusetts  and
        Consultitiq Agricultural Engineer, Ncrthfitld, Hassachr.se tts
TITLE   Application of Septaqe to Agricultural  Land
SCUBCE  Co-site Sewage Treatsent - Proceedings  of  the Third  National  Syspcsiua
        on Individual ^nd Snail Cosaun?ty Sewaqe Trcatoent 1981,  Aeerican
        Society of Agricultural Engineers. St.  Jcs«ph,  Klchiqan  (« pages)
YEAfi    1982
TEXT:   The first two tears of a study ccncerniaq  septagc application  to faro-
        land  consisted of site selection, land application  and  the subsequent
        analysis, of soil and plant eaterials.   The use  of septage en  agricultur-
        al land is a viable aethod cf septaqe disposal.  Odor  and qrcanduater
        pollution. hoHeser, are probleas with land application.   Test  results
        rroa soil and corn have not bees cospleted yet.   (SHF)
ACC«
AUTHOR
AFFIL
TITLE

SOUBCE
TEAH
TEXT
1001252
Koleqa. J.J., Morton. B.L., Keniq. H.. Cnttis. P., Cunninchon. E.A.
Aqricultural Enqiaeerinq Departgeot, University of Connecticut, Storrs,
Connecticut, State of Connect!-ut, Depacteent of Envitonaental Protec-
tion. Water Coapliance Unit. Hartford, Connecticut, and Environaental
Enqineer, Connecticut 209 Proqras
Grounduater Quality Studies at Connecticut Land Septaqe Disposal Facili-
ties
On-site Sewage Treataent - Proceedings of the Third National Syaposiu«
on Individual and Snail Coeaunity Sewage Treatnent 1961, Anerican Socie-
ty of Agricultural Engineers. St. Joseph, Pichiqan (15 pages)
1962
Describes qroundwater aonitorieq prograas for septaqe lagcon effluent
eiqratioE at four stratified drift sites aad at one glacial till site in
Connecticut.  A brief soil description of each site Is given.  Ronitcr-
inq wells are located hydraulicaXly upqradie.it to establish site lack-
qround parameters and hydraulically dOBngradieot to detect lagoon efflu-
ent aiqration.  Tae water quality data fros the septaqe disposal sites
are sanaarized in table fora.  (S«F)
HCCS    L001253
AUTHOR  Eubin. A.R.. Coqqer, C.G.
AFFIL   Biological and  Agricultural  Enqineerinq  Dept.. Sell  Science  Sept.,  North
        Carolina State  University
TITLE   Effect of Extreae Water Conservation  on  the Characteristics  and Treat«-
        bility of Septic Tank  Effluent
SOUBCE  Cri-site Sewage  Treatment - Proceedings of  the Third  National SyBpcsiua
        on Individual and Ssall Coasunity  Sewage Treatment 19T1, Aeerican Socie-
        ty of Aqricultural  Engineers, St.  Joseph,  Hichiaan  (6  pages)
TEAH    1982
TEXT:   Describes a  method  for handling a  waste  load froo septic tanks receiving
        concentra-ted wastes  from low-flush toilets.  Hydraulic  loads aere re-
        duced by €8-72  percent with  the installaticn cf  air-assist  toilets  and
        spring-loaded faucets.  Additional settling tine nay he required where
        extreae water conservation aeasures are  esployed.  After a  6.U-day  re-
        tention tiae. effluent COD was telow  that  erected fcr  a cocventicnisl
        systea.  Those  pollutants which -ere  in  solution in  the effluent after
        sufficient septic tank retention are  readily treated in the  soil systeo.
        (AU/SHF)
ACC»
AUTHOR
AFFIL
TITLE
SOURCE
 IEAB
 TEXT
LC0125D
No°, E.G., Shoupp, W.J., Dinqess, J.M.
Professor, Division of Plant ani Soil Scieeces, west Virginia Univer-
sity, rtcrqantown, WV, Research Assistant, Pittsburgh, PA, ard Graduate
Research Assistant, School of Law, University of North Dakota, Grand
Forks, KD
flicrofcial Ecology of an Aerobic Recycling Cnsite Treatsent Plant
Individual Onsite 'Jastewater Systeas -  Proceedings of the Siith National
Conference, 1979, Ann Arbor Science Publishers, Inc., Ann Arbor, fl.
(39 pages)
I960
Exploratory research studied the effect  thf. various operating parame-
ters cf a laboratory recycling waste disposal syttes have on  its nicrc-
tial population.  The independent varia-tl^s include orqanic feedrate,
aeration rate, teaperature aad retention tiae.  The systee operates nore
efficiertly at a loading of three persons -er day than at ont or two
persons per day.  Aeration requirements  increased in proportion to the
organic loading rates.  Saall ch nqes of tesperature within the aesa-
 §hyllic range have niniual effect on th-- operation of the systere.  Ke-
 ucing the rttention tine in the digestion tank ty reducing the voluse
cf aixea liquor in the tank result^ in  the p"- ^dictable effect cf in-
creasing the accuaulation rate of residua!..  Coltforns  introduced into
the diqestion tar.k as indicators of path...'en.c survivability  are unable
                                          159

-------
        to establish theaselves within the eicrobial popnlation of the tank.
        Although shock loadings produce tnief perturbations, the overall stabil-
        ity of the systee is quickly reestablished.  The siciobial population of
        the systea exhibits an aaazinq resiliency and is able to survive over c
        uide ranqe of conditions,  there are a nuaber of engineering ieprcwe-
        •ents that could be Bade to ieprove the operation of the syste> aod the
        filtering device.  (AO/SHF)


»CCS    1001255
AUTHOR  Carlile. E.L.
AFFIL   Soil Science Departeent, Horth Carolina State University, Raleigh, north
        Carolina
TITLE   Use of Shallou, low-pressure Injection Systeas in Large and Saall
SOUBCE  Individual Onsitc Kastewater Systess - Proceedings of the Sixth Motional
        Coaferecce. 1979, Ann Arbor Science Publishers, Inc., Ann Arbor. RI,  (15
        paqes)
TEAR    1980
TEIT    Describes design and application of a low-pressure pipe effluent (LFP)
        distribution systea in sorth Carolina soils.  An LPP is a network of
        SBall-diaseter perforated pipes placed in natural soil trenches 10-18
        ibches deep by 5-12 inches uide.  Septic tank effluent is pusped through
        the LPP it controlled doses for unifcra distritatioa.  Coabooents are
        listed.  Conditions for which LPP has proved effective include rapidly
        perneable sands, high water table soils, sites uith shallow restrictive
        horizons, steep slopes, aad large flows,  A step-by-sfcep sequence is
        provided for sizing, layout, and distcibtuion systeo design.  This sys-
        tea is an alternative for problen areas not served by public treatisent
        facilities.   UU/SUF)


ACCt    L001256
AUTHOE  Hart, S,8.
AFFIL   Tesas Departsent of Health. Austin, Texas
TITLE   Pressurized Subsurface Effluent Dosing - The Texas Experience
SOORCJ  Individual Onsite Hastewater Systeas - Proceedings of the Sixth Rational
        Conference, 1979, Ann Arbor Sc'ence Publishers, IDC., Ann Arbor, HI,
        (13 pages)
YEAR    1980
TEXT    The Pressurized Subsurface Effluent Dosing  (PSED) nethod of disposing
        doacstic nastewater effluent was installed  in a subdivision near
        Houston, Texas.  The PSED process consists  of puspinq treated effluent
        through SBall-diaseter perforated pipe into an enclosed (covered)
        trench.  Dosiuq is accomplished by a Ion pressure cusp; controls are
        presided to turn the putp or. and off and tor an alarin in case of systee
        salfunction.  The qre iesc advantage of the PSED process is low cost of
        •aterials and installation.  The sajor disadvantage is high operation
        and saintenance costs.  P5EC design criteria are stressed, including
        trench coastruction and sizing, aad pusp sizing and pulping specifi-
        cations.  Conditions inducing PSED systen failure are rated.  (SWf/AO)


ACCI    LC01257
iUTHt'B  Palaenberq, R.E.
AtFIL   Gu tierrez-polirBen berg, Inc., Phoenix, Arizona
TITLE   Calculator Prograa Aids Lagoon Design
SOURCE  Kater/Engineering & Hanageaent. Cctcter 1981, p. q8-52 {2 pages)
YEAR    1961
TEXT    A program uritten fcr progrjaaatie calculators gives a trial-and-errcr
        so'luticr, to earthwork volumes for lagoon construction.  It provides a
        depth of cut, cut volaee, fill volume and set earthwork vcluoe fcr the
        balanced cut-and-fill cors*ruction approach.  A procedure is worked out
        specifically for the lagoons sharing a conson center en»iron»ent.
        (SHF)


ACCI    L011258
AUTHOR  Patker. W.F., Mee, B.J.
AFFIL   Dept. of ricrobioloqy, University of Western Australia, Bestern
        Ausiralia, 6009, Australia
TITLE   Survival of Salaonclla Adelaide and Fecal Coliforas in Coarse Sands of
        the .Swan Coastal Plain, Western Australia
SOURCE  Applied and Envi roneiental Microbiology, day 1982, (6 pages)
VEAR    1982
TEXT    The sjrvival of "Saleonella adelai3f and fecal colifcrns in two coarse
        sands influenced by two sources c£ septic tank effluent was studied.
        The eiotriaents aere conducted in conditions that reflected tha scil en-
        vironaont beneath functioning septic tank systeas.  Significant differ-
        ences in survival were found with different'effluent S9urces.  In one
        experiment the survival of "Saloonella adeldide" was siailar  to that of
        fecal coliforis; in the other it was not.   The ncnanifora, eultiphasic
        nature cf survival curves and variability observed in these erpecinents
        suggests tnat tas application of such survival data for establishing
                                         160

-------
        •anaqsaent criteria for septic tank systess -  ty,  for exasple,  the  use
        of soil noisture characteristic curies to give estiaate? of  aosesent  in
        the soil - is inappropriate.   (AQ)
ACCi
AUTHOR
AFFIL

TITLE
SOUBCE
YEAR
TEXT
L001259
Fielding, n.B.
Applied Sciences Section, Pollution Control Branch, Ontario  Hinistry  of
the Environaent, Toronto, Ontario, Canada
Grou&u Water Konitorinq Under Leaching Field
Cn-Site Seaage Treatser.t - Proceedings o,t  the Third Rational Srapcsiun
on Individual and Snail Cosnunitf Sewage Treatsent 1981, Asericsu
Society cf Agricultural Engineers. St. Joseph, r.ichiqan  (8 pages)
i 982
Three equations derived fros Darcy's Law are cosparee against  test  re-
sults concerning groundwater Bounding below a leaching ted.  The saziscs
use of the water table under a leeching ted, the use of  the  water table
under a leaching hed uith tise and the shape of the grounduater sound
are predicted.  The accuracy of these predictions are dependent on  the
accuracy in deteraining true and representative values for flow, the  co-
efficient of peraeability. the depth of the aquifer and  the  effectise
porosity.  (SUF)
ACC8
AUTHOB
AFFIL
TITLE
SOUHCt
YEfcR
TEI1
L001260
Lee, n.K.
Cttec tail County, Fergus Falls, ninnesota
Design and Installation of Saali Cossuoity Systeos
Individual Onsite Hasteaater Systess - Proceedings of *.he Sixth  National
Conference, T979, Ann Arbor Science Publishers, Ann Arbor, HI,  (9
pages)
1980
To protect a lake and uater wells froa pollution under teras of
Hinnesota's Shoreland Manageraent Act. a coitaon (Ssainfield «as Luilt to
treat the effluent collected Croe individual septic tanks serving a aoz-
en lattefront dwellinqs.  Each tank discharges to a gravity flo«  trunk
line leading to a puep station «hich then puaps to the ^rainfield.  De-
tails of system desiqa, site selection and cost are proeided along with
a brief discussion of other operating coosnnity effluent collecticn sys-
tems.
        L0012ol
        NA
        KA
        Facilities Planning study:  Final  Report
        Puerto Rico Aqueduct and Seaer iutnccity, San Juan, Puerto  Rico
        1980
        This is the final report of a facility planning study  to develop cost-
        effective innovative and alternative vosteuatec technologies for a 0.69
        square aile rural area in eastera  Pu?rtc Rico characterized by steep
        slopes, poor soil conditions and putlic  health probleas caused by inade-
        quate aantewater disposa." practices.  Physical and hiis?:i factors and ez-
        pected future developsents are supaarizecl.  nandgeoent alternatives are
        analyzed and a nanageaent plan is  proposed.  f-reliuinary design criteria
        are provided for STEP collection systeas, cluster soil absorption
        fields, and hyacinth lagoons, issues affecting iapleiientacion of the
        plan are Jiscussed, acd  public participation activities ounearized.
        (SWF)
ACCS
AUTHOR
AFFIL

TITLE

SOUECi
TEAE
TEXT
L001262
Bitchell. D.T., Mete, C.h., F.utledqe, E.r., Scott, H.D.
civi) Engineering Dept., Agricultural Engineering Cept., Agronoay  Dept.,
University of Arkansas, Fayetteville, Arkansas
Soil Coluoin Comparison of Aerotically Pretreated Wasteuater to Septic
Tank Effluent
On-£ite Sewage Treatment -  Frcceedings of  the Third  National Sy»pcsiu«
on Individual and Snail CoRnunity Sewage Treatsent 1981, Aaerican
Society of Agricultural Engineers, St. Joseph, Michigan  (7 pages)
1962
Describes a laboratory study to conpare the clogging of  septic tank  ef-
fluent and aerobic effluent.      Three-inch soil colosns uit'.i sii dif-
ferent uniformity coefficients uere  packed and their percolation  rate
drterained.  Loading rates  uere detecair.ed fros these  percolation  r^tes.
Results include the tiae to failure  at various multiples of the design
loading tate and the ti»e to recover.   (SWF)
 ACCI
 AUTHOR
 AFFIL
 TITLE
L001 263
Scheret, S.P.. Mitchell, p.T.
Texas  Eastern and University of Arkansas
Individual Household Surface Disposal of  Treated  Wastewater  without
                                          161

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SOURCE:
I E A n
TEXT
        Chlorination
        Cn-Site Sewage Treataent - Proceedings  of  the  Third  national
        on Individual and ^sall Coacsunity  Seuage Treatment 1961,  Aserican
        Society of Agricultural Engineers, St.  Joseph,  Michigan  (8  pages)
        * sand filter has been designed to  allow  surface  disposal  of  treated
        uasteuater ty lawn sprinkling.  Capabilities  and  design  of the  systes
        art discussed.  The effluent has  I ne clarity  of drinking water,  the
        bacteriological quality of a water  supply,  sore nitrogen and  phosphorus
        than aost runoff waters, and less oxyaen  aesanti than  land  and urban
        runoff.  Th<5 filter will discharge  nci;-average colifcrs  concentrations
        ontp the lawn.  Studies show 3 rapi-i decline  of the grass  surface
        coliforn populations on grass conlaninated  uith septic  tank effluent.
        Tests of the systea did not address »irus reaoval.   (AU/SHF)
ACCI
AUTHOB
iFFIL

TITLE
SOUBCE
IEAF.
F2K15
TEXT
        L00126U
        Hentzsche, KK.. Fishu^sn, N.J.,
        Baalit Associates, B'rkeley, California  an3  State  Coastal  Conservancy,
        Oakland, California
        Hound Systeas ior Cluster Dewelopaent
        Cr-Site Sewage Treataect -  Proceedings of  the  Third  National  Syapcsiue
        on Individual anl Snail CoKoanity  Seuage Treatment 1961, Aaerican
        Society of Agricultural Engineers, St. Joseph,  Michigan  (10 pages)
        1982

        Describes a uasteaater plan thich  utilizes conounity  sound systeus  for  a
        lat^e-scale stbdiaision.  A lot consclidation-redesign alleviates
        enviccnaental land Sewelcpaect probless.   The  planning and nastewater
                   approach  taken here AS  precedent-setting  for California  land
                       (SMF)
ACCI    L001265
AUTHOH  Cole, C.A.. Sharpe,  t.E.
AFFIL   Hater Rcscurces  Enqineecing Techooicgy,  Capitol  Caopus,  Fenosylvanla
        State University, Middlatown,  FA,  and  Institute  foe  Research  on  land  and
        Hater Resources,  Pennsylvania  Stdte  University,  University  park,  FA
TITLE   lapact of Hater  Conservation on  Residential  Septic Tank  Effluent
        Cuality
SOURCE  Cn-5ite Seuage Treatacat - Proceedings of  the  Third  National  Syaposius
        on Individual an., r,. vj • ,  D ~ ^ • c A , n.
Cept. cf Civil  Engineering, University of Ottawa, Ontario, and Dep*
Civil Engineering, University of Windsor, wincscr, Ontario/. Canada
Study of Columnar l;eni tt if ic<« tio-i for Application in an On-Site Systen
On-Site Seuage  Tre-ittent - Proceedings of tl.e Third National Syopcsiua
on Incnidual and 5aall Cosnur.itf Sewage Treatment 1981, Aserlcan
Societ^ of Agricultural Engineers, St. Joseph, Michigan (6 pages)
1982
Kitchen wastewater was used as an ejrtenal source cf organic cartcn in
reeovinq nitrate :roa synthetic food solution through colunrnr
denitrirication under labordtory conditions.  A car con-to-nitroaen ratio
of «:1 was found to te sufficient for coeplete denitrificatIon.
irrespective of soil depths.  The performance data indicated that the
soil coluins reached steady state conditions within two weeks.  The
effect cf dissol'-ed oxygen present in the feed scluticns was
insignificant.   Less than 20 percent of the excess applied organic
carbon was recovered.  (AU/SVF)
 ACCI
 AUTHOR
 AFFIL
 TITLE
 SOURCE
 TEAR
         L001267
         Laak,  H.
        Civil  Engineering  Departaent,  University  of  Connecticut
        A Passive  Denitrification  Svsten  £cr  Cn-Sita Systeas
        On-Site Sewage  Treatment -  Proceedings  cf  the third  "(ational  Sy«pcsiu»
        on Individual and  Saall Coasur.ity  Sewage  Tredteerit  1981,  Anetican
        Society of Agricultural Engineers,  St.  Joseph,  nichiqan  (3  pages)
        1 982
                                          162

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TEST  : The BUCK systea is a passive, cn-site nitrogen re»oval technique vhich
        requites no nore nainteoaBce than a conventional septic  tank systes.
        Tests resulted in 81 percent nitrogen resoval by biological ana passive
        •ethods.  The RUCK systeu uses qreyuater as a carbon source for
        biological denitrif ication.  Bl:.ckwater ana qreysjater ace separated:
        blackwater is run through ? septic tank and then a  sand  ted for
        bacterial nitrification, and greyuater is run through a  septic tank.
        The tao uaste streaas are brought together in = n acoiic  upflow
        rock-filled tank where biological Denitrif icatioc occurs.  Laboratory
        and field results are provided.   (SUF)
ACCi
AUTHOE
AFFIL
TITLE

SOUBCE
TEAR
TEXT
        1001266
        Enqle, C.F., Her-.anson, B.C.
        Washington State University. Pullaan,  Washington
        Physical Characterization of Fill Materials  for Cn-Site Sewage Systess
        in Washington
        Cn-Site Sewage Treataent - Proceedings of  the Third  National Synpcsios
        on Individual and Snail Coaaunity Sesage Treatseot 1961, £aerican
        Society of Agricultural Engineers, St. Joseph, Michigan  (11 pages)
        1982
        Seventeen fill systecs are esaeined  for signs cf  success or failare of
        operation and sampled for laboratory studies.  Analyses include size
        analysis, dense aogle of repose, bulk  density, saturated hydraulic
        conductivity, and analysis of shape.   The  study indicates that
        Washington Department of Social and  Health services  guidelines nay be
        unjustifiably narrowing the ranqe 01 testates of  fill eaterial.  1 vider
        range of soil textures aay be used as  scil properties and handling are
        understood and care is exercised in  installing the systens.   (SWF)
ACC8
AOT00E
TITLE
SOU8CE
 IEAB
 TEXT
        1001269
        Hantzsche, HH, NeJSirk. KT, Bistros, TV
        Haslit Associates, Berkeley, California, DSOA Soil Conservation Service,
        Bakersfield, CaliforEia ana Horth Coast Hegional Uater Quality Coatrol
        Board Santa Rosa California
        Soil Textoral Ai^alysis for On-Site sewage Disposal Evaluation
        Oo-Site Seiiage Tceatsent - Proceedings of the Third National SyopcEiua
        OD Individual ani Seall Coosunity Se«age Treataent 1981, Anerican
        Society of Agricultural Enqiaeers, St. Joseph, Michigan  (10 pages)
        1982
        Describes a procedure which utilizes soil textural analysis as a frisary
        tool for judging site suitability.  Coaparison of  field  and laboratory
        data sho« a significant correlation between percolation  test results and
        position of soil within defined suitability zones  on  the textural
        triangle.  In cases of aarginal or unacceptable testural classification.
        wet-«eathei percolation testing is relied upon as  a final deterainant ct
        a site's percolation suitability.  Although the procedures reduce  the
        dependence on the percolation test, they do not totally  eliuinate  its
        use as an evaluation tool.  (SKF)
 ACCJ
 AUTHOR
 AFFIL
 TITLE

 SOURCE
 YEAE
 TJiXT
        L001270
        Struchteeeyer, R.A., Elack, fi.W.
        Dtpt. of Plant and Soil Sciences, University of Haine, Crono, Maine
        Experiences with Using On-Site Investigations to Size and Design  Septic
        Drain Fields
        Cn-Site Sewage Treateent - Proceedings cf the Third  National Synpcsiiis
        en Indiviiaal and Stall CoBHunity Ssaaqs Treatsent 1981, Aserican
        Society of Agricultural Engineers, St. Joseph, nichigan  (9  pages)
        1 98«= effectiveness of the  flaine
        Plnabinq Code.  Conclusions draur are as follows:  Local inspecticns
        •ust be ieproved.  Biological pads caused sraall teds on  coarse teitured
        soils to malfunction.  Nutrieot concentrations in all cases were  hignest
        in water sanples collected under and beside the disposal area.   Disposal
        area design heeds to have the filter aret telow the  bed  revalaatefi.   No
        pollution was measured in the water taken fro» lysiaeters 15 and  31
        •eters dowoslope fron beds.   (AU/SWF)
 ACCI
 AUTHOE
 AFFIL

 TITLE
 SOUBCE
 IF.AR
 TEIT
        LC01271
        Frittcn, D.D., Stahl, J.H., Aron, G.
        Dept. ot Aqronpny 3nd Dept. o£ Civil Engineering, Pennsylvania State
        Unlyprsity, University Park, Pennsylvania
        A Site  Evaluation nodel fur Effluent Disposal
        On-Site Sewage Treatnent - Proceeaings of the Third  National Syepcsiu*
        on Individual and Ssall Coaaunity Sewage Tred-tnent 1931,  American
        Society of Agricultural Engineers. St. Joseph, Michigan  (7  pages)
        1982
        An interactive coiputer sisulaticn itodel assists  in  evaluating sites  fcr
        on-site effluent disposal.  The co«pute  program  is  designed around two
                                          163

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        categories of infaraation:  iaforaation required to satisff legal
        regulations and inforaation requited for water flou tsodels.  Revised
        regulations proposed foe use in Pennsylvania are used,  T!.e sodel Has
        developed to iaprove site suitability decision Baking, -.nsite effluent
        disposal systee selection, aa
-------
AOTHOB  Ciotoli, P.A.. Johason, G.H.C Siehus, D.C.
AFFIL   Hoy F. Heston, Inc., Best Chester, Pennsylvania, and  Konlcipal  Envircn-
        •eotal Research Laboratory, D.S. Environmental  Pcotecticn  Agency,
        Cincinnati. Ohio
TITLE   Bole of Public Agencies end Private Interests la Ispleaenting Oasite  act
        Saall Coaaunity Hasteaater Hanagesent Proqraes
SOUBCE  Individual Onslte Hastebater Systeas - Proceedings of  the  Siith  ss'.ional
        Conference, Ann Arbor Science Publishers, Inc., inn Arbcr,  HI,  1979
        (16 pages)
IEA3    I960
TEXT    Provides en overview of uastewater sanageisent activities and participa-
        tion at national, state. regional* and local levels.   This  report  is
        based on changes uhich base occnrred since  the  1977 Clean  Hater  Act
        Asendnents, including increased aaeireness of noncentral wasteaater san-
        ageaent issues and changes in construction  grants policies  affecting  on-
        site, scall cosBunity, end alternative and  innovative  systess.   Tcpics
        covered include planning, research, technical assistance,  information
        transfer, financinq, eaforceeent and OCR.   Hesaining  probleos uhich ie-
        pair developeent of noncentcal systens are  considered  along uith sug-
        gestions of ways to osercoae these obstacles.   (AO/SVIF)


ACC*    L001276
AUTHOB  MA
AFFIL   State of Washington, Department of Ecology  and  Eepattaent  cf Social and
        Health Services
TITLE   Desiqe Guidelines for Larger Oa-Site Sewage Syst^ss uith Ultiaate  Desiqn
        Capacities of 3,500 GaDous Per Day cr Hore or  Serving 10  or Rore  Lining
        Units
SOURCE  State of Hash.'.cgtoa, Department of Ecology  and  Cepartsent  of Social and
        Health Services  (8 paces)
IE4I-    1979                 *
TEXT    Sots forth design criteria for proposed  septic  tank and drainfield
        systeos with altioate design capacities  of  3,500 gallons per day  (gpd)
        or acre, or serving 10 or sore living units.  Desiqn  criteria induce 1)
        soil evaluation and loading rates, 2J soil  logs and site inspecticns, 3)
        topography 
-------
        requiring  ground  inspection  based  en site characteristics.  Bcrsal color
        and color  Infrarec*  flla  esposed on scales of 1:10,000 or larger profiaced
        the best results.   Varying soil color and vegetation, along with tree
        cower,  are factors  which lisit the use of this screening nethod.  (5Hf)
iCCI
AUTHOE
4FFU
TITLE

SOUBCE
IE1E
TEXT
        L001279
        Constant*.  J.
        U.S.  Geological  Survey,  3U5  Kiodlefield Boad,  SS-96 Senlo Park. C«
        Teaperatare Dependence of  Unsaturated Hydraulic Conductivity of Two
        Soils
        Soil  Science Society  of  Aaerica Journal 
-------
YEAH  :  19S2
TEXT  :  Discusses biological asd cSesical aspects of nitrogen  Hit*,  a  critical
        overview,  the treatise encourages the reader to  adhere  to  scientific
        principles of proofs and to ignore the tendency  to accept  what  say  te
        bfclieted as obvious.  Chapters cover public health significance
        concerning nitrates, eotrophicdtioo, nltrogee budgets  a^d  in-field
        experiences, and laboratory and field experiaents en nitrogen in
        vasteuater disposed to a septic tank systes.  (SlF)
ACCI    LC01283
AUTHOR  Foster, R.
AFPIL   Allott and Loaax, Consulting Engineers
TITLE   Sewage Disposal in Developing Countries:  Soae Thoughts
SOOBCZ  Mater Pollution Control, Part 1. 1980, pp. 28-01.  (15  pages)
TEAB    1980
TEXT    The opening section of this t«o-p?rt article describes the  history  cf
        sewage disposal and the defalopeent of Kater carriage  systess  ia  the
        United Kingdoa.  flethods discussed range froa Bidden heaps  and  pit
        crivies through aodern secondary seiiage treataent.  The  second  section
        discusses the current seaaqe disposal and water supply systes  in
        developing countries and suqqests alteroatises based OB  the physical
        conditions and ecoaoaic resources of the areas to  te served.   Article
        proposes aodified versions of sorae. earlier techniques  (including  dry
        systems) and outlines systess planned for locaticns in Saudi Arabia.
        Ghana and Nigeria.  Diaqrdas or sisple treatnent systeas accoapaay  the
        text.   (SWF)


JCCI    L0012S1
AUTBOG  HA
AFfIL   Deabetry, Healon and Daris, Enqicieers, Architects, Planners and
        surveyors, Fairfax, Virginia
TITLE   Besidential Hasteuater Systees
SCUHCE  Katiooal Associatioa of Hoae Builders, 15th and (•  Streets,  H.H.,
        Washington,, DC (110 pages)
TEAfi    1980
till    This publication by the national Asscciatioa of Hooe guilders  is
        intended to provide the hoae builder uith design parameters and
        sobstaotiatinq data required to select snd cesiqn  an individual
        wasteuater treataent system.  Representstive design criteria are  qi»en
        for septic tank systees, uodified soil absorption  systess,  sounds,
        evapotranspiration beds, end aerobic units anil discharging  systeos.
        Diaqrans snowing systeo desi>jn and cosponents are  included.   (AU/SKF)
 *CCI
 AUTbOS
 AFFIL
 TIT1E

 SOUSCE
 YEAR
 TEIT
L001285
(iA
liA
Presentation of r.ltscnati»es to Traditional Seclic Systens for the
Washington Ketropolitan Area:  Task II
Reference Document 95, Offica of Cosiaunity Cevelcpsent, Departwent of
Coaaunity and Ecocoaic De»elopnieDt, RontgcoeLy Ccunt/, Faryland,  (59
pages)
1977
A uide ranqe of individual and snail cosisunity waste disposal systess
can Beet the needs of unsewered locations in the tiashington, DC,
•etropolitan area.  Alternati»e systess and the site conditions fcr
uhich they are suited include aounfi sjsteas, lined and unlined
evapotranspiration beds,  saort f.'.lters, alternating i rain fields an3 the
seuaqe osoosis process.  The ttit alsc covers incineration, biolocical,
and cospostinq toilets, cosnunity seuers, alternative eethods of  site
evaluation and aanaqeaent districts.  (SWF)
 ACCI    L001286
 AUTHOB  Heireter-R
 AFFIL   School of Forestry and Natural Resources at Hustclct  State  University,
        Arcata, California
 TITLE   Baste Not Hasteuater-Hest:  The Accata Eiperisent
 SOUHCZ  American Forests, 88(6):38-53  (5 pages)
 TEAS    1982
 TEXT    The Arcata Saluon Aquaculture  Fro-iTdd  is e. deieonEtraticn  cf  successful
        •ultiple-use aanagesfent of uasteuater.  Three  uarshes  and a  lake  exist
        on tht 100 acres en which Atcata, California,  operates  a  laqoon-based
        uasteuater systea, wildlife habitat, a oarine  aquaculture project,  a
        research and breeding area tor chincck salorn  and  a  public  recreation
        area.  One acre of aarshland,  handling zpprorisatelj  one-tenth  of  the
        wasteyater flcu of the entire  system,  is ceinq  utilized  in  a  pilot
        project studyinq the feasibility arid efficiency c£ usinq  marshes  to
        provide tertiary treatsent of  the city's wastewater.   (AU/SV.F)
                                          167

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ACCI
AUTHOE
AFFil
TITLE

SOUHCE

TEA9
TEXT
1001297
NA
HA
Stop the ?i»e Gallon Flush:
Systeas
lUniiue Ccst Housing Sroup.
Montreal, Canada  (<47 pages)

"his is a catiloq of 30 vasteaater disposal  systess
available in North fcaerica acd Europe.   Focus  is  on  loss  cost
                              A Sur»ey of Alternative Hsste  Cisposal

                             ?:&ool c£ Architecture, HcGill  University,
                                          o.      us   s  on   oss  cos
        technologies foe individual onsite systess.  Product  categories  inc
        pot latrines, pour-flush toilets, ccsposting toilets,  septic  tanks,
        bucket, cartage and water borne ^ystess.   Provides Ban-af ac turers •  R
         nd addresses but no price.   (oif)
ACCI
AUTHOR
AFFIL

TITLE
SGUHCE

IfEAR
TEXT
LC01 288
Hatlen, J.B.
Cepartsent of Envi roneeatfll Health,  Oaiversity  cf  Hashington.  Seattle,
Public Health Considerations  for  Cn-3ite  Seuaae  Cisoosal
Proceedings of Scrthwest On-Sitd  haste  Wat-=r  Short  Course,  Deceater 8 t
9. 1976, Onisersitir cf  ilashinqtoa,  p. 27-32  (6  pages)
1976
Public health considerations  are  the aajcr  reasons  fcr  the  detailed
rules and regulations pertaining  tc on-site  sewage  disposal.   Fi»e  aress
of atteatioa  (legal issues, infectious  disease  t i anssission .  cheaical
cr ntaaicu t ion , desthetics and consuaer  protection)  are  discussed ulth
reqard to their effect  on the de»elop»-;nt of  onsite Jisfosal
iCCi  : 1001289
AUTHCE: BitOQdo, *!.
AFFIL : Hoo»er-SSE Bearing Plant, Ann «rbcr, KI
TITLE : Cold leather Haste Ireataent
SOURCE: Industrial Bastes (1 page)
T£XT  : In a pcoqraa of bacterial ^upplanettjtion,  known  as  bio-auqgientation,
        specially selected Dacteria are added  to  a  tricklinn  filter  systes  tc
        reoedy hiqh effluent EOD Ie»els during cold  weather.   Kcre consistent
        and iaproved BOO levels ia the pla&t effluent are  claised.
ACC«
AUTHOR
AFFIL
TITLE
SOURCE
YEAE
TEIT
                                     Bosesille,  Minnesota
 L0012SO
 Hansel, i?.J.
 Minnesota folluticn Control Agency.
 TBO Onsite Options for Problea Soils
 Individual Onsite Hasteyater Systees   Froceedincs of the Siith  Baticnal
 Conference, 1979, Anr Arbor Science Publishers, Ann Arbor,  nl  (28
 pages)
 19SO
 Funpinq stations arid sounds are described as ensile seuaqe  systeis  fcr
 Daiqinal soil conditions.  Pusps discussed are sclid handling  rueps  -=ind
 septic tank-effluent puaps (STEP).  Design a^J const ruction  infcrpatioo
are provided fee toth puaps and sound systess.  Syste* diagrass are
 provided.   (SWF)1
ACC:
Al'IHCE
AFFIL
TITLE

SOURCE
YEAH
TEXT
L001291
Kelson, B.E.
Pueblo Regional Planning Cooaission
t'ueblo Area Couni-il cf Governeeat• s  Pueblo  County  Septic  Tank
Maintenance Denon^trat ion  Project
Puehlo Eeqional ?lar.ning Coanssion  (36  pages)
1931
A 208 progress report describes  work  icconplishsd  by  the  Pueblo County
Septic Tank Kaintenance Ce«onstraticn  Project  during  1975 and 198C.
Operation plans jnd procedures,  aaintenance proble«s  anl  difficulties
encountered are outlined by  a  statistical  analysis of accoaplishients
and findings.  Tables present  grourdwater  analyses.   A breakdown of
pro-ject costs for the two  years  is gi»en.   (SMF)
ACCI
AUTHOR
AFFTL

TITLE
SOURCE
YEAH
L001292
FredricKSca, D.U.
Bureau cf Ei,»iror,i«ental Health,  Division  of  Health,  Dept.  of Health and
Social Services, Madison, Wisconsin
Soil r.cttling and Grounduater  Bcnitcring
Individual Or.site Hastewater Srstees -  Proceedings  of  the  Sirth National
Conference, 1979, Ann Aroor Science Publishers,  Ann  Arbcr,  MI (11
pages)
1960
Soil settling indicates levels of  Fcil  saturation  and  can  te used  to
                                          168

-------
       locate shallow grcandwater oc iones of icil  saturation  «..ich  prevent
       proper operation cf soil absorption ty£te«s..  The  paper  defines  aottles
       (a type of variation in soil colors) aad  briefly describes  the
       biociieaical process of Bottle forsatioa.  Considers  reliability  cf
       aottlinq ff an indicator of sjil saturation  in  light  o£  observed
       qrounduater levels, and discusses its lisitatioas  with  specific
       reference to Wisconsin's glacial soils.   Soaoariies  the  state's
       procedures for groundnater eocitorinq. aod concludes  that a  better
       understanding of soil aottlinq anj  reduce the need  fee  eonitorinq.
4CCI
1U1HOB
TITLE
SOOaCE
ttH
TEIT
       1001293
       Chesnin, L.
       Baste Na&aqesent Specialist Aqrouoiy  Cepartnent,  University  of  Ketraska,
       Lincoln. Nebraska
       Aquaculture for Haste Honaqe*eot
       eloCycle, 23(3):52-56 (5 pages)
       1982
       Eesearch concerning waste aanaqeient  and  fish  production  is  presented.
       Hastes are divided ir.to three categories:   aniual,  hnsan  and industrial.
       Use of nutrients to produce protein for coeestic  ani«ait>  is  th. j» Planning  Reqico:   water  Duality  lopact  and
       fiecoffluendations
       Southern Rockinqnao Regional  Planning  District  Cc*aissicn,  19  ffin
       Street, Saltn, Pen Hampshire   03079  (158  pages)
       1975
       Ihe qualit} of Scath  Rockinghas  lakes,  is  eiasined  in relation  to
       adjacent shorelanj use  and  the si^catioo  cf  pollutants  to  surface
       waters.  Evidence is  presented which  descnstra tes  the relationships
       tetueen septic tank use  and adjacent  surface Hater quality,  and  data  on
       the nuEber of shcrefront  hoses,  tcth  seasonal and  year-round,  are
       suanarized.   The  iapact  ot  seasonal  hose  conversion  in  teres of
       uastewater discharcie  is  assessed,  and  the area's lakes  and  ponds are
       classified in terss of  their  trcp&ic  condition,  and then in  terns cf
       their  potential  for developnent.   Ihe  laws and  regulations  affecting
       ponds  and lakes  in the  planning  area  ate  Eunaarized, and a  qlcsssry of
       the technical terss is  provided.   (AU/SSf)
iCCI
ICTKOfi
mil,
TITLE
SOCSCE
UAE
TEIT
        1001296
       :  hA
        NA
        DoJoker  Systeu:   Special English Issue
        EcJoker  Systen:   Special Enqlisb Issue, Sept. 1561, Ho. 56,  (U5 pages)
        1 9 ft 1
        DoJoker,  a special  English issue ci a Japanese icnthly journal is the
        vehicle  for lending technical resrcctabilit» to the DoJoker  Process - a
        nasteuater systea cosprised of a filter tank fitted uith a net tc catch
        household solid  wastes and sections of earthen pipe leading  fro? the
        tank.  The DoJoker  process utilizing soil processes can te integrated
        with  other uastewater treataent systcas, for eiaaple, at the outlet of
        septic tanks.   A patent with diagraas illustrates the process.  (SUF)
ACCI   :
AUTHOR:
        1001 297
        Claniya,  K.S.
Nawlakhe, W.G., Sharaa, B.C., Saiena, K.t.
                                         169

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1FFIL
TITLE
SOURCE
TEAE
TEXT
        Engineering feesearch Institute.  Kehru Marq, Raqpur-HftO C20 India
        Pollution  studies of Hell Water  in Sewage Fara at Ja'par
        Indiua Journal of Environmental  Health,  20 (1):398-iM; (15 paqes)
        i 9 76
        Characterizes physico-cheaical and bacteriological cosconents of well
        water used for dosestic and irrigation purposes ia ladia.  The wells are
        located on sewage fares whf :e raw and diluted sewage is osed for Irriga-
        tion.  The relationship between  the pollution of well laater and the dis-
        tance froa irrigation is shoun graphical!*.  The »ell uaters are ocfit
        for  drinking or other doaestic purposes.
ACC8    L001298
AUTHOR  Euchholz. G.H.
1FFIL   Janes K. Hontgoeery Consulting  Engineers,  Inc.,  Halnat Cceek, California
TITLE   An Overview of Alternative onsite Hastewater Technology
SOURCE  Individual Onsite Uastewater Sfsteas -  Proceedings of th«  Sixth  National
        Conference, 1979. inn Arbor ?cionce Publishers.  Ann  Srfccr,  Michigan  (12
        pages)
TEAR    1980
TEXT    Provides an overview of oasite  treatceot and disposal BE its, incladioq
        related design criteria and operation and  raintenance tecjuiresents.
        Systeas aad techniques include  septic tanks, aerobic units, coopost
        systsas, sediaentaticn chlorination, filtration  and  5reywater/blackwater
        segregation and tteatnent.  Three tables suaEarize O^P requireeents,
        suitable applications based on  effluent requirenents aad capital  and
        operating costs, and suitability of various onsite units based on  local
        soils, h;drolocy rainfall and effluent  limitation.   (AO/SUF)
ftCCB    L00129S
*ntaoB  HA
4FFIL   Nft
TITLE   Three Million Gallons of Bater Sawed  Annoallj
SOURCE  Land and  aater. Hay/June 1962. p.  26  (\  page}
YEA fi    1982
TEXT    A coaaercially available ». ter recycling  syste*  in Great  Falls,
        Virginia, series a coaples  of 39 stores  and  t«o  restaatas\ts.   Three
        Billion gallons of water are recycled  anauall? for osa  In  toilets  and
        urinals tr a process in»3liring biological action, filtration,  and
        xone  Sixth  Kalional
         Conference,  1979,  Ann Arbor Science  Publishers.  Ann Artcr,  P.ichigan,
         The  president of  Clivus  Saltrua  Inc.,  describes  their
         qreywatei:  treataent systea  i'hich  eeploys  leach  beds  withjn  huaus  soils
         established  ia  greenhouses.   The  systea  is  designed  to  collect  solar
         energy and produce crops uhile treating  qreywater.   Toilet  wastes are
         handled separately by  cooposting.   Briefly  discusses design  paraeeters,
         CLOP  prodaction,  dad  treataent efficiency.   Final  effluent  BOD-5  ranged
         frca  3 to  50 ag/1 and  suspended  sclids  £;OH 5  to «a  «q/l.   Effluent
         disposal is  sutjecc to local  regulatory  constraints.  Use of this systen
         is suggested for  onsite  treataent  en  land  not  suited for conventional
         seepage fields.   Estimated  unit  cost  is  $5,OCO.   (SMF)
 ACCI   :
 AUTHOR:
        L001302
        Jones, S.C.. DenSesten. G.
                                          170

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AFFIL :
TITLE :
SOUSCF:

TEAR  :
TEXT  :
        Billiaas C Works, Grand Rapids. Bichigan
        Alternative tiastevater Collection Systeas for Snail Coasunities
        Individual Onsite Hasteuater Systeas - Proceedings of the Sixth National
        Conference, 1979. Ann Arbor. Kichiqan (16 pages)
        1980
        Alternative soall-dianeter collection systeas can reduce xasteuater
        treatment costs in rural areas and in locations uith high water tables.
        Paper presents suaaaries of basic design and operation for vacuus seners
        and pressure systens  (including arinder puraps and septic tank effluent
        puaps). and revieus their OS2 factors and costso  Sunaarizes experience
        «ith several existing projects, and analyzes feasibility snd
        cost-effectiveness of alternative systezs for the tuo planned projects.
iCC»
AUTHOR
aFF!L
TITLE
SOCBCE
YEAR
TEXT
        L001303
        Seaall. B.A.. Ott, C.3.
        University of Lowell. fiassachusetts
        Septage and Wasteuater Ireataent in Activated Sladqe Process
        Journal Water Pollutiaa Control Federation, 52 (1 1 ): 2655-2665  (11
        A septaqe aonitoring FroJect "as conducted at a large activated sludge
        plant to deteruine the quantities of septaqe that plants can feasibly
        handle.  Treataent cost, process capacity and effluent quality are
        stcdied, and septage characteristics are described.  Increased operating
        expenses associated nith accepting septage are reflected pcisarily in
        solids handling a&d disposal costs.  For constant septaqe-feed systess.
        oxygen desani" can be estimated based OE paraneters used for high
        strength tasteuater.  Shock loading caa place a severe deisand on a
        plant's aeration capacity.  Primacy clarifiers handling septaqe should
        be designed conservatively.  The critical eleaents are efflueat quality,
        sludge reaoval a -id surface skieuing.   (AU/S'JF)
«CC»
AUTHOR
AFFIL

TITLE

SOUECfc
YEAR
TEXT
Dover, Delaware and County Sanitary
        L001 30«
        bassett. A.F., Otarncs, J.C.
        C'Btien E Gere Engineets. Inc
        Engineer, Queen Anne's County. Maryland
        BCCUUB aasteaater Collection:  The Alternative Selected in Cneen Anne's
        County, Maryland
        Journal of Water Pollution Control Federation, 53(1):59-65 (7 pages)
        1961
        A vacuuo sewer project is described for Cueen Anne's County, Ha,
        that represents the largest publicly funded vacuua Hasteaater collection
        syrtea in North Aserica.  It includes 12 vacuum collection systees, each
        yith an independently operating vacuus and puBping station.  The systea
        includes approiifiately 197,000 feet of vacuum seuer, 1,050
        vacuua salves and will serve 1,800 residences and cosEercial
        estab lishnents. ahich include restaurants, aarinas, and seafood
        processing plants.  Certain factors with Queen Anne's County indicated
        th*t vacuum SfStess would be acre ccs t-ef tect.i ve than either gravity cr
        pressure collection systems. The service area has a high grcundwater
        table,, unstable soils, and a significant proportion of cluster
        developsent ; conditions which favor 
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IEII : Traces the history aad current  (1977) status of onsite  wasteuater
       •anageaent districts  (OSMUDs),  which  .Bploy a central authority  in  scoe
       cr all aspects ot design, installation,  uaintenance, operation'and
       aonitocing of onsite systess.   Advocates  public manageeent of  septic
       .systems as the best way  to assure proper  design and aaintenance,  tfaos
       redaciaq systea failures.  Experiences uith a variety of OSUSDs  in
       California are described, along with  an  eiperiaental aerobic systeas
       •ana^eaent plan in Kentucky, coeaunitv scil absorption  systess in
       Uiscoasin, and state guideliaes for OSHlDs in Hasfcingtoa.  Special
       pcogracs associated with  field  staff  selection, training, and
       professional development  are discussed.   (SMF)
ACC»
AUTHOR
AFFIL
TITtE
SOURCE

TEAR
ISIT :
1001 3G7
Wu. I.C., Smith, E.D.
Ctpt. of Civil Eaqineeriag, University of Pittsburgh, £>« and
Constraction Engineering Besearch Lab., Dept. of the Army, Charpaign,

Botati&g Biological Contactor Systea Design
Aoericaa Society cf Civil Engineers, 3U5 East <47th Street, He* Icrk, ST
        Practical application of  Ma's  node!  for  the  prediction of soluble  ECC
        resoyal in HBC systees  is discussed  extensively  fcr various operating
        conditions.  The eodel  uas tested  by  the  use of  aore than 80 data  sets
        octaieed fron the operation of six full-scale  RBC  plants.   »lsc,
        DOsagcAKS were cosstructed to  denonstrate  a  aethcd" for selecting the
        desiga surface hydraulic  loadings.   More  iaportantly, the hydraalic
        loa'ilcQ rates pre3icted/caj.calated on  the  basis  cf the criteria eiclcyed
        for fouc full-scale RBC plant  designs  «ere comrared viith the actual
        design hydrcalic loadings,  so significant difference between tbe
        predicted and the designed hydraulic  loading uas found.  (&U)
ACCS
ADTHOB
TITtt
SOURCE

TEAR
TEXT
L0013CS
Gveca^a, A.R., Leseaan, U.G.
Agricaltaral Enqiaetring Dept., University cf Florida, Gainesville,
Florida
5oil aad Grcund«atet Changes Under Land Treataent of Hasteuater
Aoerican Society of Civil Engineers, 315 East 47th Street, New Tcrk. BT
        Runicipal uastewater  Mas  applied  to  a  sandy  soil  under crop  aanagesent.
        Characteristics  of  the  Hasteuater, scil  and  ground«ater were seasared.
        He salts showed that the soil  renewed essentially  all of the  suspended
        solids, BOD,  fecal  bacteria and phosphorus.   Soil  pH stabilized  at 6.0,
        «hile arornauater ?H  uas  in tec media te  between  aasteuater and bacHqround
        values.  Calciua tiis  the  dosinant exchangeable  cation and passed  t
        the sell unchanged.   Potassius  was reaoyed ty  the  crop.  The scil
        provided effective  buffer  capacity for  icn uctake.  Appreciable
        of nitrogen occurred  in the qrour.awater .   (AU)
ACC«
AUTHCS
4FFIL

TITLE
SOURCE

TEAR
TEXT
100T3C?
Rich. I.e.
Departsent of Envircr. cental Systess Engineering, Clenson, Scuth
Cacolisa
Design Approach tc Dual-Fower Aerated Lagoons
A»erican Society of Civil Engineers, 315 East U7th street,
                                                               TcrV, By
Conpletely- and partially-suspended lagoon cells are defined and their
use ia dual-power level, nulticellular systeas is discussed.  A
prccedore is presented  For the design of such systems on a rational
basis .ising biokisetic  coefficient data.  Factors relating to the
perfocaance of these systens with respect to soluble PCD-5 and suspended
solids in the effluent  are also discussed.  Special attention is paid tc
cell size and nuoter, power reguirereen ts both for solids suspension and
oxygen 
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        National Conference, 1979. Ann Arbor. Hichigan  (11  pages)
TEAR  • 1980
TEXT  : Descrioes Hichiqan experiences with onsite  sanitary  systess  for  highway
        rest areas.  History,, design, and efficiency of  aethods  used  for  a
        variety of sites are discussed.  Systems  include  septic  tank-tile
        fiplds, lagoons, septic tank-leaching pits, and  a  recirculatino  oil
        sv^teo.  Field studies are being constructed fcr  several  techniques,
        including septic ta.ik-sand filter-cverland  flow,  evapottanspiraticn
        (ET) , Iaqo9n-seepagi- beds, laqcon-ciperload  flou-El,  and  &
        lauooo-eodified barriered landscape water renovation systeu  which
        provides a high degree of effluent treatsent.   (SHF)
ACC9
AUTKOB
AFFIL
TITLE
SOUHCE
IEAB
TEXT
L001311
Hekeiq. K.S.
Danes 6 Eloore. 71C1 Wisconsin Ave.. Ste. 700. Washington, DC
natural Buffers for Sludge Leachate Stabilization
Ground Mater, 20 (H) : t.!0-Q2S (10 pages)
        A study is described to quantify the esount c£  uufter area  aroond c
        trenching operation that uoulc! *llc« cor  the  natural soils  to Etatili2€
        sludge leacaate withcut threatening the groundwater supplies of sur-
        rounding ccsauaities.  The calculation of  the necessary  vertical taffer
        is based or. the eicheriqa of cations io the unsaturated soils fcelon the
        tceoch.  The calculation of a horizontal  buffer  is based on nitrate
        loadings and is a tuo-step process.  The  additicual nitCJte load en the
        soil/aater systess resulting frois sludge  entreochaent is calculated,  and
        this aaount is used as an input  fcr an afiwection-dispersion sodel uhicti
        predicts the concentration distribution of nitrates CD the  qrcunduater
        at a given point in tiae.  Horizontal buffer  widths are  generally
        greater than vertical buffer thicknesses.   (fcO/SNF)
ACCI
f.UTHCB
AFFIL
TIIIE

SOURCE
tEAE
TEXT
L001312
Hills. J.G., Zworich, S.A.
tepartaent of Soil Science, University of Manitoba, Winnipeg, Ranitcba
Eoweeent and Loss of Nitrate Following Hea?y Applications of Sewage
Sludge to a Poorly Drained soil
Canadian Journal of Soil Science, 62(2):2«9-257  (9 pages)
19 &2
Three fields »*hich received a heavy application of digested seuage
Eludge uere studied over a 6-year r-3Ciod to detersine the accutsu ia t ion,
isoveaent arid losses of nitrate.  The soils were fine-teztured and pre-
doainantly poorly drained.  After an initial fallon year, the fields
uere cropped to cereals.  Very high citrate concentrations were found
near the soil surface for several years.  Do«n««rd BO»e»ent o£ nitrate
was very slow.  There was a continuous loss of nitrate over the study
period; this aas attributed to denittification.  Laboratory eiperiaents
using H were, conducted to determine the rate of denitrification and the
soil conditions that uere favorable to tne reaction.  The denitrifica-
tion iatensity cf the soil profile decreased with depth, but was still
appreciable at the greatest depth.  ihen oxygen diffusion in the scil
was slow and oiygen deaand was high, denitrification occurred within a
few centiaeters of the sc.il surface or an air-filled pore.  Poorly
drained soils prorrote denitrificsticn and offer scue protection aqainst
the risk of nitrate pollution of groundwatec.  (AU/
ACCS    L001313
AUTHOR  Clantcn, C.J., Anderson, J.L.,  Hacheeier,  R.E.,  Hansel,  H.J.
AFFIL   Departsent of Agiricultural  Engineericg,  Soil  Science  Departnent,
        University of Rinoesota and  Minnesota  Pollution  Control  Agency
TITLE   flaxiaua Loading Rates  for Septage  to Sails -  Progress  Report
SOUSCE  Cn-Site Sewage Treataent -  Proceedings  of  the Third  National  Sjtpcsiua
        on Individual and Saall Coaounity  Seuage Treataent.  1981,  Aaerican
        Society of Agricultural Enoineers,  St.  Joseph, Michigan  (10  pages)
TEAB    1982
TSXT    Presents an evaluation of saiimun  loading  Lates  of septage tasefi  on
        nitrate aoveaent  through three  soil profiles.  Jesuits show  thet  the
        application rates in this studv ^ro -tcve  the laxisui  rate that can  te
        utilized by the t!vc<=-e  soils  studied.   In the  first year,  soil type,
        acplicat'Gii ^ates or soil depth did not  result in a  significant
        dirfsience in total Kjeldahl  nitrogen,  anaonia.  fecal  streptococcus  and
        recal colifor" in the  soil  water saeples.   However,  the  nitrate
        concentrations were significanHy  different between  the  soils,
        application rates and  soil  depths.  In  the second year,  with  no
        additional septaqe application,  there  was  a significant  Difference  in
        nitrates and  total Kjeldahl  nitrogen between  the coils,  application
        rates and soil depth.   (AU/SUK)
 ACCI   :
 AUTHOE:
L00131H
fats, C.B., Pole, J.W., Hutledgs,  E.H.,  Scott,  R.D.,  Kitchell,  D.T,
                                          173

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»rriL :

TITLE :

SOURCE:


TEAS  :
TEXT  :
Agricultural Engineering Dept.. Agronoay Cept.. Civil Engineering Eept.,
University of Arkansas, f-yetteeiile, Arkansas
A Coaputerized Design and Siaulation Kodel for Pressure Distribution
Systeas in Sloping Septic Tank filter Fields
On-Site Seuaqe Traatneat - Proceedings of the Third  National Synpcsiua
on Individual and Ssall Cosaunity Sewage Treataent.  1981, Asencan
Society of AgricuZ'ural Engineers, St. Jcseph, "ichigan (13 pages)
1982
Tests are conducted on individual orifices to observe the performance of
pressurized-aanifold distribution systeas.  4 coeputer soJel is designed
to determine the njober and spacing of the orifices  and calculate the
lateral-by-lateral discharge rate and fill-up period duration for sis
different pressuriied-aanifold listribation systens.  The tests show no
detectable pattera of decreasing xlou with increasing distance frco the
inlet.  It is possible to design pressure distribution systeos fcr
sloping terrain sc that flow per root of lateral has aininal variation
uitb elevation.  Meisuresents shou that although sloping
pressurized-aanifol'] systeas distribute effluent evenly during
steady-state operation, distribution is uneven during rill-up.
Acce
AUTHOR
AFFIL
TITLE
SOUHCE

TEAR
TEXT
L001315
Stafford, D.A., Mheatley. B.I., Hashes. r.E.
University College, Cardiff, Hales
Anaerobic Digestion
Proceedings of the Fir.st International Synposium on  Anaerobic Digestion,
held at University College, Cardiff, Wales, Septesker 1979  {510 pages)

The proceedings froa the First  (1979) International  Syuposiua on
Anaerobic Digestion is presented in  tire  parts.  Part one is a
description of the anaerobic digestion process.  Part two provides the
aicrobioloqical aspect of anaerobic  digestion.  Parts three and foor
discuss the control and feedstocks of anaerobic digestion,  respectively.
Part five is a worldwide survey of digester systeas, together aith newer
types currently under developaent.   (S'«'F)
ACC»
AUTHOR
AFFIL

TITLE
SOUKCE
 TEAR
 TEXT
L001316
Hard, G.D.
Georgfe D. Hard C Associates, Envircneental Consulting  Engineers,
Portland, Oregon
Cnsite Treataent, Disinfection and Disposal of Septaqe
Individual Onsite Kastewater Systess -  Proceedings of  the Eighth
National Conference, 1981, Ann icbor Science PubliKhers, Inc., Ann
Arbor, Michigan  (13 pages)
1982
Explores onsite  line stabilization of septage followed  ty onsite
disposal.  Mix requireaents, Use addition and pathogen rereoTal are
defined.  Application of  this  approach  in an onsite  uastewater
aanageaent district wa? saqgested as potentially  viable following the
de»elopucD» of liqhtueiil't airing ani" soni tori ng  eguiijeent.   (S«F)
 ACC*    L001317
 AUTHOR  Hill, W.F.
 AFFIL   VSP Wasteaater Technology, Engineering and Technical Services,
        Gettysburg, Pennsylvania
 TITLE   Rehabilitation of Onsite Systeas
 SOURCE  Individual Onsite Masteuater Syste»s - Proceedings of th°  Eighth
        National Conference, 1981, &nn Arbor Science Publishers, Inc., Ann
        Arbor, Michigan  (12 pages)
 HEAR    19fi2
 TEXT    Discusses systen cnsite failure eyaluatioi and  rehabilitation using  the
        proprietary PORCX (hydrogen peroxide) treetnent  process and uasteuater
        flow reduction measures.  Outlines  factors that  should be  considerecd in
        deciding uhether the PCHOX treztaent process is  the  aost appropriate
        solution.  (SWF)
 ACCI
 AUTHOR
 AFFIL
 TITLE
 SOURCE
 TEAR
 TSXT
L001316
HA
KA
Bacteria Solve Problens Created  by  Prisoners
Public works, 1982  (1 fage)
1 982
A high biological orygtn demand  in  a  52,500 gallon  per  day  lagoon  and  a
aassive grease buildup in  both lines  ana  the  lagoon  were  eliuinatea  by
the use of sodiua nitrave  and a  bacterial  agent.  Sodiui  nitrate  was  used
to reoiygenate the  systea, and DCB  Plus  froa  Flow Laboratcrits,  a
freeze-dried bacterial culture in a nutrient  co»pound,  was  usea  to
digest grease and solids.  After  restoring pond  function  without
draining it, the bacterial suppleoent  was  added  en  a  daily  basis.  The
                                          174

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        preventative aaintenance program was Instituted  to  pre»eat  future  sjstes
        failure due to toxic discharge or biological overloading.   (SWF)
ACC8
AUTHOB
AFFIL
TITLE
SOURCE
TEAP
TEXT
                     — Reprint File
        L001319
        HA
        Hi
        Bibliography
        Biological daste Hanagesent and Organic Resources Lab., Agricultural
        EcviroDBental Quality Institote, U.S. Oept. of Agriculture, Beltsville,
        HD^iB pages)

        Presents a bibliography of the Biological Baste Panageaent and Organic
        Hesources Laboratory, Agricultural Environaental Quality Institute, U."~.
        Dept.  of Agriculture.  Publications consider land tceateent of
        uasteuater and sludqt fros c'oiaestic and industrial sources.  Presents
        the 201 facility plans in alphabetical order fcy author.  (SHF)
ACCI
AUTHOH
AFFIL
TITLE
SOUBCE
YEAR
TEXT
        L001320
        SilFerean, L.
        Aeerican Clean Hater Association, Wasinqton, BC
        Politics of Bastesater
        Individual Cusite Hasteuater Systeas - Proceedings of the Eighth
        Rational Conference, 1981, Ann Arbor Science Publishers, Inc., Ann
        Arbor, Hichiqan (6 pages)
        1982
        Political de&elopsents in uastewater can infloence the profitability acd
        success of saall uasteuater BanageBent systems.  The politics of
        nast«?Bater, as it affects onsite uastenater aanaqeBent afid water
        conservation industries, is divided into six categories:  1) governient
         Srocuretaent, 2) standara setting aad code reqelatioa, 3S grants and
         oan proqraas, «)  federal tas policy, 5)  research, and *>) public
        education and training.  (AU/SUF)
ACC»
AOTHOfi
AFFIL
TITLE
SOUfiCE
YEAR
TEXT
        LOCI 321
        Ciololi, P. A.
        Hoy F. Heston, Inc., Vest Chester,  Pennsylvania
        Issues and Steps Involved in Developing  Ranagenent  Prograes
        Individual Onsite Mastewater Systess - Proceedings  of  the  Eighth
        Bational Conference. 1981, Ann  After Science  Publishers, Inc.,  Ann
        Arbor, Michigan  (10 pages)
        1882
        Defines the issues that a cosBunity oust  address  in  developing  an onsite
        uastewater oanagement  progras.  The analysis  cf technical  and
        institutional  issue1" provides the  reader  with what  Bust  be considered  to
        establish .-. saccesstul uanaqeaent  program.   (Sh'F)
ACC»
AUTHOR
AFFIL

TITLE
SOURCE

TEAR
TEXT
        IC01322
        hd
        Tiianqle J. Council of Cover naents,  P.O.  Eoi  12276,  Research  triangle
        Park, North Carolina
        Individual Nc. -Urban Vast^water Treotaent  and  r
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»UTHOF:
AFFIL :

TITLE :

SOURCE
TEAR
TEXT  :
Colin, F.P.
CepartF.tnt of Horticulture. University cf  Haryland.  College  Park,
fiaryland
Conifer Tree Seedling Response  to  Nursery  Scil  isended  with  Ccspcsted
Sewage Sludge
: HortScieace 1 2 («) : 3«1-3<«2  (2  pages)

Describes gersinaticn and growth of  Ncrway  spruce  and  white  pine  scun  in
teds treated with three levels  9f  screened  and  unscreened  coepost  saJe
froo viood chips ana deeateced digested seuaqe sludge.   Seedlings  ct
Noruar spruce produced locqer ^eas  with screened  cosposted  slodge or
fertilizer.  Bore seedlings ot  .kite  pine  were  produced  by using
unscreened coaposted sewage Eludqe.   Soils  aeecded with  coapcsted  sewage
sludge had higher pH, eacnesiun an(*.  phosphorus  than  those  top-dressed
with fertilizer ana sulched with pine sawdust.   (SWF)
ACC»    LC01325
AUTHOR  Sieqrist. R.L., Beyle, B.C.
AFFIL   Departaent of Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of
        Kisconsin-fladison
TITLE   Onsite Reclamation of Residential Gieywater
SOURCE  On-Site Sewage Treatsent - Proceedings of  the Third  National Syapcsiue
        on Indisidoai and Ssall Coonunity Se<-age Treateent 1981,  Aserican
        Society of Agricultural Engineers, St. Joseph, Michigan  (11 pages)
TEA R    1962
TEST    SuBoarizes a field study of four household greyaater septic task/sand
        filter treatment syotess.  Defines greyaater generation  an£
        characteristics along Kith the perforaaoce of two sand filter tons
        operated under two dosing scheaes and different  textured  sand
        coluanars operated under different loading rates.  Results characterize
        greywater stability and the iepact of high loading rates  and high
        frequency dosing on pej_f oriaance and  filter run tiaes.   (SUF)
ICCI
AUTHOG

AFFIL

TITLE
SOURCE
YEAfl
TEXT
L001326
Harper, £.D, Hirsch,  n.S.,  Rote,  C.H.,  Rutledge,  E.P.,  Scott,  B.C.,
Hitchell, D.T.
Sqronoay Cepartraent,  Engineering  Departsent,  Civil  Engineering,
University of Arkansas,  Fayetteville, Arkansas
Perforsance of Three  Modified  Septic Tank  Filter  Fields
On-Site Sewage Treatiaent -  Proceedings  of  the Third  National Syaposiua
en Individual and Small  Coasunity  Seuage Treateent  1981,  Anerican
Society of Agricultural  Engineers.  St.  Joseph,  Kichigan,  p.  187-196
(10 paces)
1962   '
Three  acdified standard  filter  fields uitl.  pressure  distribution  systess
in soils with fraqipans  (ieper»ious subsoil horizons)  are  observed under
stressful op>erating conditions.   The seepage  beds ate  placed in  the
soderately perteeatle  upper  part of  the  subsoil, with  fill  placed  above
the systen.   (Sfa'F)
ACCS
AUTHOR
AFFIL
TITLS
SOURCE
YEAR
TE'.T
LOC1327
Cliver, D.O.
                             Univerity  of  Wisconsin-Hadison
Departstent of Bacteriology. 	     ,   ._  	
•fasteuater:  Esergent Environaental and Health Issues
Individual Onsita Mast*=water Systems - Proceedinas of the Eighth
National Conference, 1981, Ann Arbor Science Publishers, Inc., Ann
Arbor. Hichigan (12 pages)
1982
Eeergent envitoneental and health issues in the area of onsite
wastewater treutnent and disposal are  discussed.  The issues include:
the public's perceptions of uastewater and the need to reuse it; the
conventional septic tank-soil field system, which has not been studied
adequately; fate of viruses and other  pathogens in onsite waste
treatuent: the protection of groundwater; regulation of onsite waste
treataent, including evaluation of sites before construction, eonitcring
of systeas after construction, developsent and application of innovative
waste tre».te»nt techniques, and the associated probleiss of planning and
controllec land uce; and onsite waste  handling systens products, such as
septaqe and its proper disposal.  (AU/SVF)
ACCS    L001326
AUTHOR  Kornick, S.E., et al                                       ,
A/FIL   Agricultural Environsent Quality  Institute,  Beltsville  Agricultural
        Research Center-West, Beltsville.  tlaryland
TITLE   Use of Sewage blud^e Coepost for  Soil  Inprovooent  and Plant  Growth
SOURCE  Agricultural Environnental Quality  Institute,  Beltsville  Agricultural
        Research Center-West, Beltstille,  Maryland  (12  pages)
YEAR    1979
YEAR    197y
                                          176

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TEXT  : Ibis report discusses the properties  ani  oses  of  sewage  sludge  coapost
        foe soil inproveaent and foe  plant  . couth  including  (1)  establJ shaen t ,
        •aintenar.ce. and production of  tarfqrass  and sod,  (2)  use  in  vegetable
        gardens. (3) production of field ctcps  and  forage  glasses,  (i»)  use  en
        nursery crops and ornamentals,  aad  (5)  reclaaaticn and leveqetaticn cf
        disturbed lands.  Recoeaendaticns are provided  as  to  tine,  aethods, and
        rates of coepost application  for different  soils  and  nana-jesent
        practices.  (AU)
ACCI  : LOC1329
AUTHOR: Ki
AFFIL : MA
TITLE : Westacreland:  Organization of  yater  aad  Sewerage  Depurtnent
SOURCE: iitvac:  The Vacuua Seworaqe  Systets,  Rochester,  Indiana  (U  pages)
TEIT  : Cives the orqanizatjon  of personnel and equipaent  for  the  vacous
        collection systera at Hestaorelan<>. Tennessee.   Hestacreland has UGO
        AIBWAC values in operation s>erv\ag acp rciiaately  550 hoires  and 2
        schools.  Delegation of  duties  for the 3-san  water  and  sewerage
        departaent in Hestnoreland define the basic cjerational  requireeents  fcr
        a vacuun seuer.  Tables  gi»inq  pcuer  coDso»pticn  provide operating cost
        inforeaticn.   (AU/SHF)
ACCI
AUTHOR
AFFIL
TITLE
SOURCE

TEAR
        LOCI 330
        Calichoan, S.
        Health Director,  Town of  A.cton.  Fassachasetts
        Septage fianaqeaent:  Cne  Town's  Experience,  Actoi,  Massachusetts
        Individual Onsite  Hasteuater  Systeus  -  Proceedings  of  the  Eighth
        Hational Conference,, 1981,  Ann Artec, nichigan  (9 pages)
        1982
        The e»olution of  septage  BaDaqeBeot  fcr the  town or Acton,
        Hassachusetts,  is  discussed.   Septaqe disposal  in shallow  lagoons
        replaced shallow  pits ID  197F, and a  full-tiee  site attendent  was  hired.
        A laqcon systeia drains  into a sand  filter  bed when  sludge  builds  of  tc  a
        depta of 12-11  inches.  The sludge is ccsposted subsequent  to  air
        drying.  Groundwater studies  hare shoua iagoon  2nd  sand  filter regoval
        efficiencies cf ccliforas tc  be  99.99S; the  percentaae re«o»al of  nany
        cheaicals  tested  was 85%  or better.   Inor9anic  constituents  are net
        considered a problea hut  »olatiles analysis  revealed high  levels  cf
        orqaaics which  say  require  additional action in the future  to  address
        this problen.   (AU/S«F)
 ACCI
 AUTHOR
 AFFIL
 TITLE
 SOJRCE
 TEXT
        L001331
        Seitzinqer, K.3.
        Fri»ate Consultant, Citrus Heights, California
        Beyond I/A Technology:  The Legal and political Constraints
        Individual Onsite Mastewatfer Syr.teas •  proceedings of the Eighth
        Kationdl Conference, 1981, Ann Artcr, Ann Arfccr Science Publishers,
        Inc., lichigan  (10 pages)
        1932
        Describes the lecjal and political issues related to ijplerertation cf
        I/A alternatives.  Discusses the liability of public agencies acccrding
        to the reasonableness of their actions ana iodividual rights tc use
        their property.  accent cases which address these issues are cited alcng
        with a warning  to public agencies to be prepared to defend their
        rosition on liaited application cf I/A technologies.
ACCI
AUTHOR
AFFIL

TITLE

SOl'SCE
KEAR
TEXT
        L001J32
        Soreau.  E.R.
        Wastewater  and  Plusbing  Control  Proqraa,  "ept.  of  Huaan  Services,
        Division of Health  Engineering,  Augusta,  laine
        Subsurface  Uastewater  Disposal  Systus  -  Hesedies  and  Prevention  of
        Fai lures
        Individual  Onsite Mastewater  Systeas  -  Proceedings of  the Eighth
        national Conference,  1381,  Ann  Artcr  Science Publishers,  Ire.,  Ann
        Arbor, Michigan  (18  pages)
        1982
        Cescrites site  evaluation  procedures  according  tc  flaine's pluubing ana
        subsurface  disposal  rules.  A  s tep-by-stei.  procedure  for  evaluating  the
        site and inhouse wastewater use  prcvides  the investigator wit"./  the «eans
        of  Jefi.iing the  cause  of systea  failure.   Sua^ests corrective neasures
        for the  nore coisson  causes  of  onsite  systes failure.   (S«F)
ACCI  :
7UTHOR:
AFFH :

TITLE :
SOUSCE:
L001333
Jcrdan. E.J.
fcaste Treataent Products Division, Thetfcrd Corporation, Ann Arbcr,
Michigan
Wastewater Recycling — Cost-E f f ect i ve CnsitG Treatment
              ite Jas
        Individual Onsi
                           Jastewatcr  5yste«s  -  Prccetdir.gs of the Eighth
                                          177

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TEAR
TEXT
        National Conference, 1981, Ann Arbor Science Publishers, Inc.,  Ann
        Artor, Hichiqan (<3 pages)
        A shopping center's water recycling treatnent systea consists of
        biological treatment, ultrafiltration arid water poHshinq.  The
                                                                systen
        requirenents.   (SWF)
ACCl
AUTHOR
AFFIL
TITLE
5CUBCE
YEAri
TEXT
1001331
Haitn, C.A., Koeniq, A., Loucks, D.F.
Cornell University. Ithaca, Kew York
Preliminary Design of iiasteHcter Land Application Systess
Journal Hater Pollution Control Federation, 19 (12):2371-2379  (9 pages)
1977
Presents 3 satheoatical model for the detailed  planning or preliBinary
design of land application systens.  ?iass  balance equations describe  th«
dvnaaics of nitroqen and uater in storage  facilities and in the scil  tc
which the wasteuater is applied.  The cost-.af f ect iveness oodel for a
.spray irrigation systen cannot be solved for the  l^ast-cost design
directly; it is readily adapted to a procedure  for estinatinq the costs
and performance of alternative preliainary designs.  A saaple protlen
using the design eodel evaluates 11 alternatives.
ACCl
AUTHOB
AFFIL

TITLE

SOURCE

YEAR
TEXT
LOCI 335
Flews, C.
On-Site Haste Disposal, Washington State Departeent of Social and Health
Services, Olyspia. Mashioqton
Probable Benefits of Flow Reduction ani/or Modification for Individual
Baste«ater Treataent Systeas
Proceedings of Northwest Or.-Site Haste Mater Disposal Short Course,
Deceafcer 869, 1976, University of .ashington. p« 62-C5  (in pages)

The quantity and quality of wasteuater frcn varicus in-hoose activities
are Eeasored and presented in tabular and graphical fore.  According to
findings, the two greatest water uses in the hcne are for toilet
flushing and clothes washing.  Reducing uastewater volutie can have a
beneficial effect on liquid acceptance rates for standard systens used
in narqinsl scils.  An appendix lists «asteuater flow reduction service
available for the hose.  (AU/SUF)
ACC«    L001336
AUTHOR  Johnson, !>., Ahluualia, G.
AFFIL   Envircnsental Controls CoreiBittee.  national  Association of  Hose  Builders
TITLE   National Association of Hose Builders Sewer Moratccia Survey
SOUaCE  National Association of rioae Builders, 15th an<3  B Street,  N.y.,
        Hashinqtoa, DC  (b6 pages)
TEAF    1979
TEXT    This report DY  the National Association  cu  Home  Guilders describes  the
        extent and nature of sewer ooratoria  (cegulatory action tenporarily
        lisitinq housing construction due  to  inadequate  treatoent  or collection
        facilities) in  the United States in 1979.   The study, which solicited
        responses  froai  local governBents and  building contactors,  had  three
        phases:  identifying localities with  seuer  aoratoria, listing  causes  and
        characteristics of aoratcria, and  assessing their iapact on hose
        buildinq.  Survey results are compared with a 1976  U.S. Dept.  of  Housing
        and Urban  Development study.  Responses  shou. that nany of  the
        jurisdictions (27S)  surveyed do not persit  the use  of alternative  seuage
        disposal,  collection and treatment systems.  Alternative sjsteas
        receivinq  the oost favorable response from  local jurisdiction  and
        builders include oultiple hoee septic tanks and  packaqe plants.   A  tatle
        sueaarizes the  builder's and local jurisdiction's response to  ten
        alternative systeos.  (SWF)
 ACCt
 AUIHOE
 AFFIL

 TITLE
 SOURCZ

 YEAE
 TEXT
L001337
Grayscn, S.C., Olive, D.F., Steinbeck, 3.J.
Septage Study, Division of Health Services and Sanitation  Branch,
Division ot Health Cervices, Raleigh. North Carolina
The North Carolina Septage Study, July 1982
Solid and Hazardous Waste Branch of tne  Horth Carolina Division of
dealth Services,  (200 pages)
1982
Examines the generation, noveaent and disposal methods for  septage  in
North Carolina.  Investigators distributed questionnaires  to  aastewater
treatment plant operators, local health  departaents and households,  and
then interviewed households within 9ne county.  Considers  aethods of
collection, handlinq, and disposal in all counties of North Caroline..
                                          178

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        (AU/SHF)
ACC»
AUTSOR
AFFIL
TITLE
S009CF
TEAa
TEXT
LOC1338
John, S.F.
Randolph C Associates. Inc.. 1501 ». Hater Street,  Decdtur,  Illinois
Wastewater Clusters, A Case Study cf Haynesville,  Illinois
Illinois Environaental Health Jounal, 8(3):U-15  (7  piges)
1980
Describes the planning an
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        Discusses functions,  powers, eligibility and prcbleas of the sanaqesent
        entity.  Outlines the current Washington State program in detail; this
        proqraa is priearily  concerted with the operation and aaintenance
        aspects.  (S«IF)


ACCI    LOOUQ3
AUTHOR  Lustiq. K.U.
AFFIL   Panhandle Health District 1, Idaho
TITLE   Effects of b'asteuatei on Groundaater: An Idaho Experience
SOURCE  Proceedings of 2nd Kcrthuest Cu-site Hastewater Eisposal Short Course,
        University of Washington. Rarch 162. 1973  (7 pages)
I£AB    1979
TEXT    Describes a well eonitoring prograe cf the Rathrus Aguifer in Idaho
        along with the aquifer's flow and general pattern.  filtrate levels
        significantly increased o«er the last si* years since the area
        experienced intense housing development which eiclusively utilized
        individual subsurface sewage disposal aethods.  (SHF)
ACCI
AUTHOfc
4FFIL

TITLE
SOURCE

TEAR
TEXT
10013UU
Otis, B.J.
Oept. of Civil anfi Emrircnsental Enqineerinq, University of  Wisconsin,
Haiiscn, Hisconsin
Aerobic Household Sastewater Treatsent Units
Proceeding of 2nd Korthaest Cn-Site Uasteaater Disposal Short Course.
University of Hashiaqton, Borch 162. 1978  (17 pages)
1978
Ccapaces acd contrasts biological processes, effluent quality and
warlability, operating and nalntenance costs and total annual costs
associated with conetntioaal suspended growth and attached qrouth
systees, seall aerobic hoasehold uastewater  treatsent wastes and septic
tank absorption field systeas.  Stresses the use of intersittent and
recirculdtlr.q sand filters as a process that increases performance of
systees with highly variable effluents.  Concludes that when operating
properly, the effluent gaality free all the  systess can te characterized
by lou organic and suspended Batter-  Ko«e»er, eicept for interoittect
or recirculatinq sand filters, their perforsance is highly variable due
to periodic upsets of botd a sechanical and  biological nature.
(4U/StlF)
ACCS    LC013K5
AUTHOB  US-EPA
AFFIL   £PA Water Planning Division (WH-55K), 101 « Street, S.H., Washingtoo,
        CC
TITLE   208 Data Clearinghouse
SOURCE  206 Jata Clearinghouse. June 1979. Vol. U, EPS tester Planning Division
        («H-55t). «01 K Street, S.l/..  Hashingtcn, DC  20^60 (12 pages)
YEAH    1979
TEXT    A 208 Data Clearinghouse hit1iography includes sose sreall flows-related
        citations under the categories of uastelo^d allocations, water quality
        goals and miscellaneous technical reports.  It includes an alphabetical
        index of state and areawide agencies and their telephone nuobers.
        (iU/SWF)


ACCI    LOC130&
AUTHOR  Coolter. H.G.
AFFIL   CHS Rotordisk., Inc.
TITLE   Off Sewer A.. W . W . T .-P.BL Based STSteas
SOURCE  Southern Graphics L1S, *102 -  11U71 Elacksnith Place, Fichacnd, B.C.
        VTE 4K9  (2 ?ages)
TEAE    1962
TEXT    Coopares the rotating bioloaical contactor (RBC)  paclcage plant and the
        extended aeration package plant in teros cf process stability,
        •ecnanical sisplicity and reliability.   (SHF)
ACCI
AUTHOR
AFFIL

TITLE
SOUF.CE

TEAR
TEXT
L0013a7
Eennett, E.B., Linstedt, K.D.
Dept. of Civil, Environnfent.-i and Architectural  Engineering,  University
of Colorado, Boulder
ET Systess for Individual Home Wasteuater  Disposal
Proceedings of 2nd Xor-hwest On-site  Hastouater  Disposal  Shcrt  Course,
university of Hashington. f!arch 1 6 2, 1978  (3H  pages)
1973                                                           .   t
An EPA-sponscred studr of evapotranspiration  teds eiaaines  variations  in
loading rate, surface cover water depth and  other design  parameters
under anbiett weather conditions occurring in  Bouldei,  Colorado.
Includes a sieve analysis of the sand and  the  results  of  the  capillary
rise test.  Provides a graphic description of  results.   Loading criteria
should be based on evaporation rate minus  precipitation during  January
                                        180

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        through Hay.  The use of »egatative cover oa a bed dees not produce
        significant increases in allowable leading rate fcr Bcn-discharginq  teds
        tor permanent hoots.  The selection cf sand used en a ted is eery
        important..  Provides design methods and cost analyses.  (AU/SBF)
ACC»    10013UB
AUTHOE  Water Supp) //Conservation Proqraa Staff
AFFIL   Hen England  River Basins CoBsission, Bostoa, Massachusetts
TITLE   Before the Hell Buns Dry:  A Handbook for Designing a Local Hater
        Conservation Plan
SOUBCE  Proceedings  of the national Watar Conservation Conference on Publicly
        Supplied Potable Hater. April T4-15, 1981, Denver, CO {13 pages)
X E A ft    iVEj^f
TEXT:   Suoaarizes for design a local water conservation plan in a seven-step
        procedure.  The procedure deals priaarily with water sopply prcbless;
        houever, with certiin sodif ications it can be applies to other  prcbless
        as aell.  The sever, steps include the following:  1) Identify
        problem/establish conservation goal; 2) flssess potential of supply
        •anageaent;  3) Analyze cost-effectiveness an'.st test  and  the  flow  ->et  analysis.   Tables
        include drainfield sizing oethods utilized  by  various  states, a
        cosparison of loading rates suggested  by  investigators, and  U.S.  Public
        Health Service absorpt-'.on-a tea reguiteraen ts  for  individual  residences.
        The author notes that the test aethcd  fcr sizing drainfields should te
        sinple, reproductible, objective  and  inexpensive to  pecfore,  «nd  it
        should provide a rational basis  for aost  designs.  Concludes that eicept
        for heavy clay-typf. r>oils and.  very coarse sands, loading  rates  of
        between U.Q and 5.7 gallons per  square  foot  have bter  ssown  to  te
                                         181

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        acceptable.   (AU/SWF)
ACC*     LOC1352
AUTHOR  Wi-inefcerqer. J.T.
AFFIL   Office at Appropriate Technoloqy. 133C 10th Street, Sacraaento,,
        California
TITLE   Suitafcility of On-site Hastenatei Cispo^al Systeas Along California's
        Coast
SOOBCE  Office of Appropriate Technology, 1530 10th street, Sacraseoto,
        California (21 paqes)
TEAR     1976
TEXT:   The aether expresses aanaqament, engineering, legislative, and
        educational opinions related tc casite systess in California's coastal
        areas.  He addresses the probleas associate.-! with separating authority
        and responsibility at the local-regional interlace, presents a tatle
        illustrating variations in or.site regulations and practices in five
        California counties, discusses professional resistance to
        inno7dti«e/ol ternat ive design, anj sugqtsts a need fcr wore fcraal
        education in onsite systeuss.   (AU/SKFJ
ACCl
AUTHOR

ATfIL

TITLE

SOCRCE

JEAB
TEXT
LOCI 353
Theiler, D.F.. Schuff, R.G.. Hitt. n.C., HcCutcheon. C.L..
J.T. , Hade, H. E.
The Siqord Olson Environoental Institute, Horthland College, Ashland,

uasteuater Treatnent e Disposal for Ssall CoosBnities:  A Training
FrocjraK
The Si«7uri Cisco Environiental Institute, Northland college, Ashland,  HI
     paqes,
        This tcainioq Banual is designed for federal, state, and local personnel
        charged Bith the responsibility of planning and reviewing facilities
        plans for snail corasunities.  Sections include: facility planning,
        public participation, use of soils, en-site systeB design, septage
        sanaqfcser.t acd disposal, land disposal, alternative collectiofl systees,
        cODtferticnal trejtsent systeas, and institutional and Banageeect
        technolcgies.  (SUF)
ACCt    LOCI 354
AUTHOB  Stooe, P... Kahle, R., Roulands, J.
AFFIL   Ralph Stone and Company, Inc., 1095« Saata Hoaica PoulevarJ, Los
        Acqeles,  California
TITLE   Alternative yast=«ater Treataent Approaches for Small CouBunlties
        Voluts^, I and II
SOUBCE  finlph Stone and. Company, Inc., 1095^ Santa Monica Bonlevard, Los
        Acqeles,  California  (30'4 paqns)
YEAR    1962
TEXT    Alternative uastewater treatoent systeas  (both on- and off-site uere
        evaluated at u3 sites for cost-cffeeti*er,ess, eneray requiresents,
        envircneentai iepacts, oociai inpscts and effects en flora and fauna.
        The sites studied were esasples and do not represent a scientific
        saBple.  Technical, institutipnal and policy incentives and barriers to
        alternative systeas are described.  alternative technologies studied
        include:   inprovinq existing septic tank systeas; surface and subsurface
        soil treatsent; intereittent sand filters, subserged rock, filters, total
        containment (a lagoon systeu for atea^ "ith high evacoration-percclaticn
        rates: inpona particulate reaoval {inducing aquaculture); improved CGH
        at existing treataent plants; special tcilets; onsite udstewater
        •jnaqeaent districts; pressure sewers; and vacuum sewers.  Separate
        appendix  defines objectives, scope and nethods: state and Iccal
        alternative prograas foi snail coieunities; an! sv.
        (SWF)       H  *
                                                survey background data.
ACC»    L001355
AUTHOT.  Fenn, D.B.
AFFIL   U.S. Geological Survey, National Center, P.estcn, Virginia
TITLE   Soil fcater:  Chapter 5
SOURCE  national Handbook of Recosaended ."ie'.hoos for Water - Data Acquisition,
        Office of Udfer Data Coordination, U.S. Geological Survey, RS-U17
        National Center, Reston, ¥A (9 pages)
IEAS    1982
TEXT :  Identifier reconnended nethods by the U.S. Geological Survey for
        measuring soil water and lists sources that describe these methods  in
        detail.  The reco»«ended aethods fcr characterizing soil water apply  to
        the upper oce to two meters of the scil.  Covers the following soil
        water areas:  content, potential, retention, aoveuent and quality
        control.  (AU/SWF)
                                        182

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HCCt
AUTHOB
kTTll
TITLE
SCUECe
YEAH
TEXT
        LC01356
        U.S.  EFA
        U.S.  EPA
        The  Alternative  is  Conservation
        FBD-12. General  Services Ada j nist rat ion (SPFS) . CeotC2li2ei: Hailing
        Msts Services.  Builcioq 41. Denver Federal Center. Cen er. Colorado  (39
        cages)
        1180
        This  teit  is a companion guide to "The Alternative is Ci js«sr»atioo," a
        20-ainute  color  production,  available in either 3/a Inc'- vitSeocessette
        or  in t6  as file.   Hater conservation and sanagesent 5 LVtegies can help
        to  solve  a coBeunity"s water probleBs.  Conservation ts an alternative
        to  the traditional  expansion of supply and treatseist for seeding uatsr
        needs. Five aajor  nays to protect tha water researcfe incltsu-}: 1} land
        use  controls,  2)  keeping Bastes froa thfe uiste sjstes, 35  sclid Haste
        disposal  controls,  uj  hazardous chesical use 2C
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*CC»     L001360
iUTHOB  Harris, 5.E., Reynolds, J.h.. Hill. C.i., Filip, 0.5., "iddlebrooks,

»rriL   Ut^h State University. l<:qan. Utah
TITLE   Jnteralttent Sand Filtration for Upgrading Waste Stabilization Pond
        tffluents
SOOIiCE  Journal of Mater Pollution Control Federation, p. 63-102  (20 pages)
TEfeh     1977
TEIT     Froa research contacted on pilot scale intersittsnt sand  filters by Utah
        State University, it appears that lagooo effluents eajr te econosically
        polished to satisfy the requireseats of  PI 92-500.  The following
        conclusions ate Lased on data presenter!  in the paper:  1} leagth cf
        filter run is related to the iatl-jeot susnende-i solids concentration and
        the hydraulic loading rate; 2}  length of filter run Js also related to
        algal qcoath in the standing water al'Ove the filter; 3) intermittent
        sand filters can produce an effluent with BOD and suspended solids
        concentrations of less than 10 aq/1, and a volatile suspended sciias
        coacantrations of less than 5 asj/l, 8)  winter cpecatton of t*te filters
        did not create any serious operational prcbless; houe«er» winter
        effluent quality was slightly lower than warn weather effluent quality:
        and 5) hydraulic loading rates of 3,700  tc 5,6CO cubic seters/tia-d  {C.M
        to 0.6 egad) appear to be optinua fcr the single stage intsroittent sand
        filter.  (AOJ
icci
AUTHOfl
AFFIL
TITLE

SOURCE
TEAR
TEXT
1001361
UiEBall, K.C.. Cictcli, P.S.
Uestoo Env.U-OBBent.il Consnltants, Pfct Chester, Fennsylaania
Hanaqeaent of filtetnati«e Systems:  Issues, Prcbleos, Constraints an(2
Opportunities
Individual Onsite Basteaater Systees - Frcceedings of the Sixth Rational
Conference, 1979, Ann 4rbor Science Publishers, Inc., Acn Arbor, KI,  (15
pages)
1980
Different approaches to deselcpina oanaqesent prcgraes for cnsite eni
ssall cOKBUEity wasteaater systeBs ace illustrated.  Sased en a study its
progress sponsored by U.S. EPA, eiptriencos in nine coBoanltles are
described.  Sii of the case stoJi.es involve sanaqement cf individual
systecs, includinq septic tank-irain£ielc systems, as well as
alternative onsite systeas.  Tha other three ace csanples of coauunitT
systeas involving IOK pressure seaets and clustered tresteent.  (AU/SWF)
 »CC«
 AUTHOB
 ACFIL

 TITLE

 SOURCE
TEAR
TEIT
1001362
Laak, R.
Departeent o£ Civil Engineering, University of Connecticut, Stcrrs,
Connecticut
Integtatinq Orsite Systee Cesiqn intc Sjfiitary and Environseatal
Curricula
Individual Onsite Vsste Water Srstens - Fcoceedi 1195 of  the  Eighth
National Conference, 1981, Ann  krtcr Science  Publishers,  Inc.,  'nn
Arbor, Michigan  (1 pages)
1982
Decrites how a course in Seall  Flows Technology. "«aste«ater EMj
for "Jnsewered Areas," was integrated into  the Civil Engineering cur-
riculun at the University of Connecticut.  The subject  Bitter was de-
veloped from a uiJe variety of  sources and froe different scientific
fields.  Eecause the saterial was too voluminous to include in  other
graduate courses, it was developed as a separate course.   (AB/SWF)
ACCf
AUTHOR
AFFIi

TITLE

SOOBCE

YEAB
TEXT
L001363
Barber, n.E., Cray, C.D.
Hydraulics and Systees Enaineeiinq Area, School of Engineering,  Pardae
University, West Lafayette, Indiana
Hydraulics and Systeos Engineering:  Co»puter Aided  Desion of  Prtssuie
Sanitary Seweraqe Systeas
Report No. CE-HSE-82-3, Hydraulics and Systeas  Engineering Area,  Schccl
of Engineering, Purdue University. West Lafaycttt, IN  U7907  (88  pages)
1 982
This report presents a Fortran cc»puter program  (PSDP) foe the  design cf
pressure sanitary sewerage systems according to the  design criteria  and
procedures recoaaended by Enviroaaent/One Corporation; Hydrosatic  Pases
Division of Wylain. Inc.; or SIECO, Inc.  The user specifies  the  layout
of i non-looping sewer network and the prograa  selects the pice  sizes
neeJed to aeet the design criteria and assure efficient coeration.   This
report explains the algorithss and describes the  i..put procedures  used
in PCCP.  Design eranples are presented and a cctplete listing  of  the
prograa is provided.  Suggestions fcr further developeent are  offered.
(AU)
ACC«
        L00136U
                                          184

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iUTHOB:  tope.  P.,  Colt,  J.,  Ludwig, H.
ITflL  :  University of  Ciliforiiia, Davis, California
TITLE  :  The  Use  and Potential of A^u«tic Species for Hastewater Treateent:
        The  Environaeatal  Sequireaents of Crustaceans, Appendii C
SCtHCE:  California state watte Sesources Control Board, Sacraaento, California
        (175 pages)
TEAR  :  1981
TEXT :   Saiaarlzes selected  references dealing with the environaental
        requiceeents of  potential crustacean sosicles to te used for the
        treatsent  of Maslewatcc.  The overall bibliography is organized with sii
        aaior  stctioas de^liaq «it(s 1) general Jintrodoctory eaterial on each
        species,  2)  effects  ot physical paraecters, 3) effects of cheoical
        paraaeters, H)  effects of setabalic wastes, 5) effects of biological
        paraaeters, apoi  6)  yield aad cr.eaical ccspositicn data.  A section en
        standard  referoaccs  that are applicable to a uueter of individual
        subject  areas  is Deluded.  Author, species, and subject iadeies are
        provided.   --»•-—
»CC»
AUTHOR
irrn.
TITIE
SOU9CE
IE4H
TEXT
        L001365
        s*
                L.
        Legal Battle 0»er Septage Disposal
        BioCycle.  23 (Q) : 34-3!> 12 pegesl
        Because of difficulties if. qainiag public accept«ncc» *fae Fenasyl«anta
        Liquid Haste Maulers Association (PLMHA) have united to bring atcut
        positive legislation and greater public rasponsttility in septage
        utilization such as land •application.-  Three goals ace:  1) total
        cooperation betae.on agricultural and environmental enforcenent grcaps
        and the haulers; ;>) crograss to educate tho public la the practice of
        agricultural application of sludge; 3) haviag th* U5DA tecose involved
        io elioindticg the illegal dtiaping of sludge; acd «} inrl-jding a nujter
        of liquid waste operators ic governmental adwiscry conaittees.   (SHF)
ACC«    1001366
AUTHOR  ~eske-HG
AfFIL   Office of Environmental Mcalth, Illinois Dent, of PuClic Health, Caricn,
        Illinois
TITLE   dnhanced treatsent for Surface Discharge
SOURCE  Individual Onsite aaste«atec Srstess - Proceedings of the Slith Ha'ionBl
        Coaference, 1976. Ann Arbor Science fublish>rs. Ice-, Ann Arbor. PI,
        (S pagesj
TEAS    ?97§
TEXT:
TEXT    Briefly describes the following indivilual onsite uasteuater systeas
        y i t h surface discharges: waste stabilization ponds, buried sand filters,
        aerobic waste trea.taent systums, and in terai t ten t sand filters.  The
        rtcirculating sand filter is described in iiore detail.   (SHF)


JCCI    1001367
AUTHOR  Jones. E.E.
AfflL   Sciaoce ar.d Education Adein istration Federal Besearch, EeltsviDe
        Agricultural Kese^rch Center, Beltsville. rarylind
TITLE   Septic Tank - Configuration versus Performance
SOURCE  Proceedings of 2nd Northwest On-site tfaste«att?r Disposal Short Course,
        Onivsrsity of Washington, .rarch 1 6 2, 1973 (17 pages)
TEAR    1978
TEXT    A  discussion of the details in the design of a septic tank addresses
        voluee and solids accuaulation, sur face "area,, cos par teen tat ion, outlet
        design, outlef depth, hydraulic loading and pur.ps and controls for
        dosing systeus.  (SUF)


ACCI    LC0136B           '
AUTHOR  Harth, E.F.
AFFIL   Xavber Engineering, Inc^, Gai thersbarg, Bcrylanfi
TITLE   Sequencing Batch Reactors:  Doing More Hith less
SOURCE  federal Mater Quality Association Newsletter, Washington, DC  (12 pages)
TEAS    1982
TEIT    Advantages of batch reactors and typical design locations for the single
        and multiple taafc arrangeaeats are presented.  References sequencing
        batch reactor research conducted at Sotre Dane en nitrification/
        denitrif ication.  Results cf the first full-scale, O.u f,D seguencing
        batch reactor plant at Culver, Indiana, have consistently shown ECD and
        suspended solids in the plant to be consistently telow 10 sg/1.  A
        reduction of 89 percent in inorganic nitrogen has been observed.
        (AU/SHF)
ACCI
        1001369
                                        185

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IUTH06
TITLE
SOUBCt

IEAB
TEXT
       Rich.  L.C.
       Mater  Resources  Research  Institute,  (.'lessen University, Cleeson, Sooth
       Coreli aa
       Solids Control  in  Effluents froa Serntei Lagoon Systeas
       Coapletion  Eeport.  GfcST Project »o.  e-lQ5-J5C. Hater Resources Research
       Institute.  ClaK&on  University,  Cleescn.  South Carollea (113 pages)
       I " / 8
       Describes  (1)  a  field  investigation  of the perforeaece of existing
       aerated lagoon  systess. (2j  a laboratory investigation of the settlieq
       characteristics  ot  bacterial bioeat  solids in suspensions nith
       concentrations  siailat to those enccuctered ir aetated lagoon effluents,
       ar.d  (31 an  engineering stud? to develop  criteria for the design cf
       aerated Aaqoon  systees capable  of ieftoved perfcrmaace with respect tc
       effluent suspended  soli is.   (AU/S«F»
tCO
IOTKCE
AfflL

TITLE
SOURCE

tE&B
tilt
        LOOJ370
        Govecoeseat Finance Research Centec
        Governaent Finance Research center. Pest, Kartticfe. Bitchell 6 Co.,
        Hashington,  EC
        Financial Capability Guidebook
        Goserneent Finance fersearch Centei, Peat. narvick. nitchell C Co.,
        aashinqton.  DC. 1982 (73 paqes)
        1982
        the rieanclal Capacity Guidebook is designed tc assist a coazanlty  is
        effectively  allocating public funds in the coastructioa of uasteustet
        facilites.  It caa assist ccaeuaities with populations cf 10,000 cr  less
        that 1)  preside service caly with a single jurisdiction or sanitary
        district, and b)  cepreseat aa iadepeodeat sersict « rec uithia a rtqior.al
        STstea.   Worksheet topics induce a delineation t;{ Iccal gowernaer.t
        roles and responsibilities eakiag a casts estiaai-e, analjzinc operation
        and aainteaaece,  fisanciBcj the faciiitit-s, detecsioiBq annual costa  cer
        households,  assessing the ccacuaitT*s debt history, and evaluating  th«
        cosaunitj's  financial situation.   (
4CCI
*DTHOB
AFFIL
TITLE
SOURCE
TfAB
TEXT
        1001371
        Kloser,  P.C.. Schuidt, H.5.
        General  Development Utilities, Inc., Hlatsi  Flcri<3a
        The Operation and FiainteDance of the Suliur banaer  (STEP) Systeo
        Individual Cr.site Masteuater Srstees - t'roceedi RQS ot  the Siith  Batiooal
        Conference, 1973, ^nn firbor Science Publishers, lac.,  Ann Arbcr,
        Kicbigan,  (7 paqea)
        1979
        tiscusses  the ad v
-------
YEAH  : 1979
TEXT  : The «o»eaent of water into the «lr by n grass-covered evapctranspirstica
        IET) ted was deterained to be an effective leans of  wasteaater  dispose!
        IB the Cheesapefike bay area.  Frotless dssociated  with  operation  aad
        BAintecance of £7 sycteis. dtsiJB considerations,  and ted constructicr,
        uere stresses.  Secoeuended sizing of an  ET  ted  for  this geographic area
        is J.i as/day of watfc' {0.06 gpd/f y2) for a grass-covered  teS.   »
        lineu lt»d for coaplete evapotr
-------
ACCl
AUTHOR
Arm

TITLE

SOUfcCt

TEAB
TEXT
L001277
Kassey. D.T.
Natural eesouice FconoeicE  Division  of  Economics, Statistics, end
Cooperative Service, U.S. Dept.  of  Agriculture
Legal Issues Associated  with  Laud  Application of Rsaicipal
Chapter V
Natural Resource Econoeics  r.ivision  of  Icunoaics, Statistics, end
Cooperative Service, U.S. D«jf-t.  of  Agrlcaitcce (J7 pages)

Tbe purpose c,i this paper is  to  identify asid decctibe the leqal issues
at both the federal and  state levels associated «ith laad application of
•uoicipal uasteuaters  and the effects lana application systEss have OB
private wster ri-jhts under  the lau.   The specific provisions of federal
»ater pollutioo ccatroi  legislation  ao(J U.S. Eavitoaeental Fcotectico
Ageacy (EPA) regulations that encourage and aid loud tioar.B«rjt arc
discJS*«-d.  Statutes and adoinistratise rules, cegalatiCBS, staodardr,
criteria, and guidelines applicable  to  lane! t.reataent in cese statpa ar«
eur/eied to evaluate their  status  cf development and to ^ratrlde e^asples
of methods used to r«?<3uce water  pollut'.op ae)c  analyses of the icpacts o'f
     on an actual planned ievei.opeen t .   (SBf)
 ACCl
 AUTHOB
 AFFIL
 TITLE

 SOURCE

 TEAR
 TEXT
1001380
Stanford, G.
Greenhilis  Environiental  Centtr,  Cedar Kill, Texas
The Hooe  Moodlot  as  ,.  Hulti-Porpose Facility for Treatment and Disposal
of Domestic Hastes
Aierican  Society  of  Agricultural  Engineers, St. Joseph. Michigan  (6
 ?ages)
 978
The use and •anaqeaect  of a  coppiced plartaticn (revegetated stuBtwccdl
for treatment, and disposal  of  doeestic wastes is described.  T*--e  annLal
coppice yield is  increased  when  irrigated and eanared with theie  wastes.
ACCl
AUTMOE
AFriL

TITLE
SOUECE

TEI3
TEXT
LC013P1
Coqqer, C., Carlile,  8.L.,  Crbtrne,  I.. Holland, E.
Berth Carolina  St^te  Jnirersity,  Dect. of Soil Scienc, Bbleigh, RC and
Triacqle J Council of  Governu^nt.!.,  fiei'earch Triangle Park, fec
Oesign and Installatin of  Low-Pressir° Pipe Baste Treataent Systems
UNCA Sea Crant  Coll«'(;'3 PrograB,  '; 0 S  13i1  flqil^iP", ScrtS Carolina Slate
University, Saleigh,  MC (32 pages)
1962
This lanual is  intended for use  !:y  satitnrlens, contractors, arcnitects,
and  engineers;  it covecs design,  instali.4*loa, and laiatenobce ov ssall
                                         188

-------
       low-pc-assure  pipe  systfas  (LFP)  suitable for hoees and caalX businesses.
       IPP  is a  Bcditiej  septic syste* crested for use ia soils not suitable
       tor  onsitc  sewage  disposal  fcy  coeireBtioaal systems.  Detailed
       information is  presided  reqardiRq site and soil requirements, systeu
       layout and  design  of  dosiocj ae
-------
       reviews «»•! analyzes facilities planning and eaviconaental  review
       cettiods tor rjral l«i* area-:.
           It uses i.evee saaple projects of  this  type  tc  present  specific
       recosadndatioQS abo-jt developa-iat ac<3 nanagesent of  cs-site an3 stall
       scale alternatives to congestions! uastenattr treatnent.   It recoBscads
       specific aethods to docuBtsat project  aeed  and uater  quality ispact.  It
       concludes that uhereecr continued cferat.cn of  a substantial percertage
       of eiisticq spstens is feasible, a *a5te«ater aanagt>aeat  jrogrEe fcaseo
       on options operation of existieij bv«teas will result in  substantial
       savings io capital asCLS,
and use of  private ficras in £«ws nan-sgeeent.  five actual  case  stid.es
are also  presented.  (AU/SUF)
ICCI
AUTHOfi
AfKIL
TITLE
SOUECE

TEAK
TEXT
LOCI 369
HA
NA
Alternatives to Seners
Conference Proceedings - Ola Colony Flannina Council  and  the  fcPA,  fiidder
Country Club, E. Eriogenater, HA, Deceater  2-3,  1976  (1J9  pages)
1976
The proceedings fros the "Alternatives to Seuers"  Conference  explores
issues related to non-seuered alternatives.  They  are divided i?.tc the
following sessions:  septic sisten technology: siting and  installation;
•aintenance aad repair of septic systeas: public  aduiriistration;  land
ust/qrouth iKpacts; alternative syateas  rot single fa«i\y  hoses:  sybteis
for apertaents, clusters of older hones, subdiviGions;  acd  legal/
financial issues.  Question and answer periods are recorded  at  the end
cf each session.   (AU/SMf)
ACCI
AUTHCB
AFFII.
TITLE
SOUHCS
lEAfl
TEXT
L001390
EarnetT, E.L.
Division of Environsental Sanitation. Tennessee  Cepartnent  of  Pitlic
Health, R.S. Gass St.-te Office Sailding, Ben Alien  Hoad,  Sashvllle,
Tennessee
An Approach to Failing Subsurface Disposal  Syste*
Individual Onsite yastenater Systeas - Proceedings  nf  the Eighth
national Conference, 1981, Ann Arbor Science Publishers,  Inc.,  Ann
Arbor, ni (7 pages)
1962
Describes Tennessee's e»cerience blth three types of sutsorface disposal
syste« failure:  effluent surf-ciag, groundaater contaaination  aad
semqe baclcup into pluabing fixtures.  Su-aarizes data  cospiled ty
county environ»entalists for approiieately  6,900 failing  sistens.   Tbe
•aiorlty of which iiere aore than five years old.  The  tcp tuo  caoses  of
failure were inadequate acount of line and  unfavorable  soil absorption
capacity*  Hajor sources of failure anJ  possible reaedies are  discussed.
                                         190

-------
1001391
fach'.-cc
         H.4.. Gray, D.D., Bitter. .I.E.
         E ana Systass Encjineeritu; Atea,  School  c£  Ci?il  Ecqlnterisa,
       University, West Lafayette, ladlana
Coajuter Aided Design of Vacuue Sasitary  Sewerage  Systeas
hydraulics and Systems caijiseer in.?.  Eepcrt  80. tt-H5e-B2-1,  January,
19J2 (61 paqes)
This repoit presents a Fortran coatster  ^rovjr.aa  fct  the  design of eacooa
r.anltary seuar&qe systems using  the criteria  and  jrccedsres  reccaaended
c; a leediaq supplier of vaciiua  sf»«r coBpccents,  ihe  *ls?&C Diiisioa of
Burton Mechanical Contuctors, lac.  Given  tt.e horizontal  layoat e£ the
collection pipe necucES.,, the pro<;raa specifies the insert  elsvaticrs.
lift heights, aad pipe sj-ie?, aecessacy fee  successful  operation of the
systea*  The pcogr^B susaarizes  tfae qtant ities of  rife needed to
construct the s/ste» aad sizes the caaposents of  the central collection
station,  this report describes  the sl^oritba which  is used,, esplsice
the input procedures, aad coat^ias a complete listing  of the sjrogree.
la eiseple problee is [.recanted, jtd sasJ^estions  fcf feitbcr Se«9, [i(»ad Office, 60  Qaeea Street^  Ottaaa
low-Cost Technology Options for  Sanitation  -  4 Sta te-o£-tfce-flrt He«ie«
end ienotated iJibilogrdph;
later national Developsetit Research Centre oad tbe  stored  Bsnt, Bocts eSCO,
Ottawa, Canada K1 C 3t!9. Head Office £0 CQees  Street, Ottdua  J18U csges)
  technology review and bibliography  illustrate  alternatiie approaches
to collection, t'eatseat, reuse  aod disposal  cf  huaan  usstes.   Part cne
addresses the Jollowinq subjects:  cpticas  for cicceta iisccsnl in hot
cliaates, te^hii^ues for reusicq hszaa  wastes, aa
-------
       alternative dcsestic  uasteuatec sanageeen t aelhcds.  Describes
       technological options foe  tttatioq westeuater and potential  arrangeBSBts
       for  prcviilsq onjciog operations dad saintenaDce.  Eepfeasizes "total
       »anagee«at"  (pleaainci,  design,  installation, operation sad a«intenaoce)
       and  offers possible  institu tionai arranqeBeats.  Illustrated vith  a
       tecbaical evaluation  oii  aanacjtaent alteiaati*es fee  Boarisg  Creek  Valley
       la Colorado.   (SKP)                                        *             '
ACCI
AUTHOS
AfFIL
TITLE

SOURCE
IEAI
TUT
       L001396
       Coaneraeyer.  J.F.
       Eepartaeot cf  Agricultural CconoeiCE, Pocflue University
       Socio-Culteral  Factors  Associated *ith the Utilisation cf  ruaicipal
       Ueste OB  Farelead  for  Aqricultoral rurposes
       aasteuater BaEaqeuent  4B ButaX Casaanities:  S Sccio-Eccaosic
       Perspective -  Inf cra-stion Bepott !03, The Pennsylvania State Uoieerslt?.
       n.  69-39  (21  page*}
       I960
       Social and caltoral  factors iitfloesce a Career's decisioe  to paiticip«te
       IB  faralaad sludqe or  septate application procravs.  The process1  l-y
       which coBtcoversies  qcca is dl&ct5£sed; the valee sysstes OE  cecal  asees
       Is  reuicsei!;  aad poteetial soBzce;? of coatcotieesy c«lat9d  te tbs
       disposal  ot treated  waat&«a£ar ia ca/tcl .afcaj, «ioeo «itb  a fccsat
       uithia Bfeicb  the teaefits sed costs of ferisiaaa spplicatios ««y  te
       evaluated, are  outlined.  Ttte paper recoseeads tc^lng to "sell*1  treated
       Mtste as  a acth}4  foe  utilisiaq a reneuable essoutce end not as  a
       Bolutioa  to a disposal  problem.  (4U/Sw>F)
KCI
iUTMOB
TITLE
SOURCE
HAS
TEXT
       L001397
       Oilier. D.
       Bright asd  Cospaay, Seaport Beach, CA
       A Sfstfcu foe ulqh-slcpe Lots
       ladlvldBAl  Ortsite Basteuatee Systeas - Proceedings  of  tfee  Sixth Eatlcnal
       Co.fececce,  197B, ABO Arbor Scleace Publishers.  IDC..  Ana  Arbcr,  HI.  {1
       pages)
       1979
       AD oasite  donestic uaste«iater disposal sfstee for high slope  areas  is
       described.   The systt=» consists of a »3in septic tar.k, a cascade  tank,  a
       distribution  boi  aad  a sand filter follo«ed by a terraced  absorpticn
       field.
ACCI
JUIKCB
TITLE
SOURCE

IEAE
TEXT
       LOOT 396
       GcottkdO,  W.A.,  Le,  T.K.
       Office of  Transportation Laboratory, California  Cept.  of  Traasportetion.
       Sacraaento,  California
       A Cesiqn Hetfeod  £cr  fcoaislde Rest Stttic Tank  Leach  Field Systess
       CalifoiBia Departaent of Transpoctation, Sacraaento,  Califcraia (116
       ;ac  '
       1961
       The California Departseat of Transfer tat ion condocteS  research to
       determine reliable criteria for the design apiJ  eeintt-nance  cf  roadside
       test area seuaqe systems.  The nuater of  vehiclei,  discharging  at the
       trailer sanitation stations and the nustet cf  vehicles tearing th»
       roadside rest were detersined; restrcoa  wastewater  usage  vas directlT
       related to oiJe counts.  Data preside the information  antf  technique
       necessary to design a new roadside rest  septic  tank-leach  field syftei.
       (AU/syf)
ACCI
»UTHOE
TITLE
SOUfiCE

TSAE
TEXT
       LOOT 399
       Rurthy.  fe.I.
       A Kanual  on Coapost  and ether Orqanic Raoures
       Today  E  Tomorrows Printers and Publishers, 2UE/5 Deshbacdho  Gopta  Hoa<3,
       Discusses  coapostinq  and utjllzatica cf organic nanures.   Co»ers  a  brief
       historical de»elopoett.   C£r!;inel points in the cotcosting of  refose,
       nioht-soil and fara wastes are segregation and shredding  of refuse,
       optiBui  cazbon-nitroqeu  ratio, •cisture content, aeration, teBperature,
       and fir-control.   Additional topics include:  sewage  utilization  in
       agriculture,  farayjrc: aanure conservation, "green"  aanures,  aerobic  end
       anaerobic  cecos,. osi t ion  of organic aatter, oil calces  and  other organic
       taoures.
ACC3  :
AUTHOR:
TITLE :
SOURCE:
       L001400
       Irrine, H.L..  Retchot, L.H.. Breyfcgle, R.,  Earth,  E.F.
       Eept.  cf Ci»Il Enqinterinc', Universitr of  Mo^re  Cage,  Indiana; Indidna
       Masteaater 7reat»ent Plant; and U.S. EPA.  Cincinnati,  Ohio
       Municipal Application oi Sequencing Batch  Treateent  at Colter, Indiana
       Jouraal Hater  Pollution Control Federation,  (17
                                         192

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IUS
HIT
       *» operatitT  soeaary of a foil-scale doecfistcatica  of a tuc-taofc
       eequcncinq  cetch reactor JSB6} activated  sladge  treotserv. claat is
       presented,   * description of tb« treatseot  facility.  ccB»«-rsico
       ptocei«r«s  and operation are qieec.  The  53S  is  feun£ to be a itstle
       •ItercAtive to coeveatioaal coEtisoocs  flo« activated slar*q« tieatsest
        §f docebtic uasteuaterc for BOG-5 te ICOIttOI
lUTKOIt flachaeiec,  B.E,
mil s Extension  Agricultural Engineer
TIIIC 8 Shcrelosd  Senate Treetsents  HecoeseBd«ti;;as  fci  Id«atif yisa
       fH«lD3tiaq HoecoQf osaiag Systees
SOUHCf: Exteasiou Bulletin 3SW, Dopl.  of  *qr icilttsral
       Biniasota,, St. Paul, Kiocesota  (16  pages)
TEA!*
TEXT
                                                                   t  Oesczi&es action  progtass  ir.flttueestcl it
       eliBiaatir.g Boecoaf OEffliBq s^ctvas.
tCCI  : 1001402
IDTROl: Hllboia. D.F.
• mi : Betrcpclitan HatecsaviD? Cotspatiy,  Bss&isatoa,  DC
Title : Hatur-Saffltig PltiabiBQ:  A  Flos  CoKtrcl .ioi eainte^ance Ptogros to
       Re4ace ead Coctcol Sater Use  in Hclti-Seasiiio  PEcf«tties
SOD EC E: Proceedings of the Satioaal Coesoceation Coutorer-ce crs PutlicJr
       Potable Uatec, Aptil 1t-1S, 1S81.  Ceavsac, CO (5 peqes)
      : 1981
      : Tc assart: that floo coatiol Scwicea prowide a  sicaificast reflactica  in
       mter consumption, a Suaiiiactcter  of. flea control devices decided  to
       •acket the 
-------
TITLE s Design Uoctfc'-.ah for 5»«il-Diaecter,  fsriafcle-Ciade, Crarity Senses
SOURCE: U.S. C«pt. at igrlce] tare. &;£o(Sle8
       o! *at«c ao<3 colifore tJO»s^as»t  ia  slaniaa billsids1 £E«£S.  ntas«Cffs*ets
       uaiaij c!fe cbo«si2 that »&}.«£• aoeesest 9i  reduces  the scil t-.yd T4a 1 ic coaaoctitity and  nay
       significantly reduce the  loading  rate  eoouqh to cause a very  fecs
       soil to lose the ai»aota<;e  ot  its  greater hydraollr. condoc t i vi t y.
       Finally, it nas  detersined  that  the disposal field loading  rate
       decreased liaearl? as the subsoil  hydraulic head and/or ti>e surface
       hydraulic head iacreesed.   (&U/SVF)
ICCI
ASTHOB
mu

TITLE
50UBCE

TEiB
IEXI
       L001109
       Otis, fi.J.
       Cept. of Ci»il and Envircnceo tal  EB
-------
       Utilities,  IBC..  Riaai,  Florida
TITLE :  it«»sportlB<;  Septic  Tant Effluent tj pressar*
SOUICf:  Proceeding of  2nd Horttn-est Co-sit* Vastewoter  Cispofal Shcrt Ccfltse.
       t'ni»ersit|  of Kssbinqtoa. Sarcb I C i. 1973  it I
TUT
       Tfce  ie»elop«rc  of  presence s««er tecbaoloqr  list  adssBt^es of
       td*k  effluent puap and jrlsdsi puap fressare fevers and Assess 'ir.e
       presekt-daT  aeselopaeat cf the J'J-ye«c old Pett  Charlotte, Fleri<5a,
       pressure s«»er  sysice.  Cpsciit-ea tie faectioa  cf tSe fnai !iasic
       of the Sire  fjjstee:   disposal cb««et(, wffleeal  cr tfischa; aeatal ?^qi set i leg,  'jnivecsl t j c! Uisccitsie,
       Balison,  Kiscoae.o
TITLE : Co.16  of  Oa-Slte  ttc.a»«OBt asd Oiocosel  Syst«(s
SOUBC?: froceedis^s  of  2nd  Sortftitect Os-;,iV-.  Hj^t^Batvc Disposal Sheet Cc-fs«,
       Uaivecsltr of  Bashlagtoo, Barcfc I C 2. 1979  (9 pdqes)
     : 1973
     : trotrldes  a taol  eccgrstely sadp.  Toe  ussy
       factors effect  costs  in tfcis rapidly  choogisg  f
Till
TUT
ICCI  : L001QU
AUTBOE. 5«eb'.oc«,  B.H.,  -_,	. _-
AfFU : Cept.  of Civil  EaqiaegclsK;. 0»l»*rsity of  aasfeSsgton, Seattle.

TITLE : in »"?raisal  of  Ccepcstieq Toilets
SOUiCE: tlO'  'dioqz. of  2&6  ScrltineEt Oa-site Hatrtesa'or  Dlrpc^al Sheet Coorss,
       Uoii'to'Sltr of Uashinqtoa, PaiCft 1 6 2. 1978  (lit  paa«s)
IU1  : 1978
HIT  : Over*i^«s  t&e bit-logical £ecoppositice processes ln»ol^c-d la sorofcic  &s
       aaaerobic  cospostit?.  i.nrirop^-eD'.ai tactccc  tt,at infiue-sce cosPOEtiog
       Inc1, udir. Q  the uicrofciai p97€  (2  ;

       The  Tea  Throne  is a seali co»r-osting toilet vfcich  processes toth
       «oJ  kitchen  aectes.  The toilet h*s * stepped  and  perforated slat
       tottOB to  the decay container to increase  a«rsticn.   Article pros
       data  on  eod  prodoct co»?cisttioE, Icadia]  rate^,  tceperatores, sed wcluae
       reductloo.
ACCI
AUTHOR
Arru

TITLE

SCUBCE

TEAS
7EIT
       AttlBT,  J.L.
       *PP4iachian  Eovircnuental Ee«OBSt;aticn  Irolect,  Ctpt. fcr Hatocal
       Resources ani.  En» ii ccaetitai Frcttctioo,  Corfcia,  KeBtuclsy
       On-3ite Sewage Disposal Sfr.teas - Tec'-ialcal  Cons i •Jer a t i ens and
       Feco«»encJed  Cesiqn  approaches
       Appalachian  Enx i r cnct ri t a i Dcsonst r at ica  Pro-feet,  Cept. fcr Natural
       Hesources aad  En» iror.sen tal protect ica,  Corbia,  Xentaclc;  (3D paqes)

       Cnsite  disposal  sjstess in Appalachia can  tj iesianeil to prc»ide
       lo«(-»aictenance,  Jb-year ussteuater disposal at  an average cost of  less
       than  $1.000,  with  a  sdiiau» cost of spprci!»»tei7  I2.COC fcr the «ost
       difficult sites.   The treatment anJ disrosal of  septic tank effluents  ty
       natural and  aofiified i;oil sr-t«as( AS well  as physical and cheaScal
       factors of recei»inq soils, are discosred.   Frcvides cejiqn is£cre«tlce
       fvr  trench atborctioo, nillsirte trench itscrftion, artificial drainaqe,
       louads. evapotraaspiratioa beds and saad  filters.   (SVF)
ACCI
IUTHOE
     :  L001015
TITLl :
SOURCE:
             n,  P.L.??.
       Dept.  of  Plaat and  Soil Sciences, UBi»ersity  of  Rassachcsetts, Ashtcst,
       Hassachusetts
       The  Septic  Tank  a£  A  Uastewattr Trtzt»eat  and Dispcsal Kacilitr
       •ater  hesources  Research rooter, Unitersitf of  flassachus^tts, ishcrst.
                                         195

-------
        Riosaehusetts  (<4S  pages)
IEAR  :  1982
TEIT:    A  Uni»ersity  ot  Hassacbusetts study discusses the iepcrtance of
        qrounduater.  percolation  rates and population density in {.roper septic
        tdak/scil  absorption systes desiqe.  A detailed table specifies the sell
        liaitatiODs of Massachusetts soils for orsite seuaqe disposal systcss.
        KanaqeBent practice? are  suqqested to ovurcoae these lisitatioas.
        Leaching atea  requireaehts aie esaluatei on the tasii cf insitu
        hydraulic  conductivity seasureeents.  aesults it.dicate the sizing
        criteria IK thi  Massachusetts health coJes are conservative and have
        sufficient sarqins ot' safety to provide adequate treateeet and safe
        disposal of uasteuater.  UU/SHFJ
1CCI  :  1001416
AOTKOE:  Enqeset,  J..  Seatlpoa,  B.K..
AFFIL ;  Dept.  of  Civil Engineering, University of Washington
TTTLE :  Efrlueot  Treatment by Rouads
SOUBCE:  troceedieqs of 2nd Hcrthuest Onsite v-asteueter Disposal Short Course,
        UniieEsitf of Washia^tnn. Hatch 1  6 2. 1978 (2fi faqns)

TEIT  :  the feasibility of the  soeafi systea vas investigated fee use under
        conditions unsuitable for coneentioEJl onsite uasteMotec disposal
        systsss.   Performance of the septic tank-sound treateeet systea uas
        evaluated by  tuo criteria:  the average efflsent quality produced and
        the variability in effluent quality,  saaples were analyzed for BCC-5,
                                   nltcite-eitcate),  phosphorus (total
        phosphorus and orthophcspbate)  and fecal coliroru.  Ferforcance, as
        CCD,  nitrogen  (aisaonia  
-------
        «ethodology for evaluating ar.d selcctinq institutional cosponests of
        uasteuatet na&aqesent proqrass.  The section 
-------
SOURCE:  Soil  Science  Society  of Aaericd Journal «6 (<<) : 782-"78«  (3 cages)
TEAS   :  1962
TEXT:    Saturated  hydraulic coaducti*!ties of soils of spodlc and arqilMc
        horizons  were aeasured in se^ral rlcrila soils.  The soils were
        3lpla-}uods,  Haplohouroos,  GlocEsqualfa. and ArqiaguclIs.  Tvo aetbcds of
        aeasareoeat  Here coepacei.  The cote sethod consistently gave larger
        hydraulic  conductivity values than the piezoseter aethod.  The lowest
        soil,  conductivity rates were in argillic horizon*.  The permeability
        classification or aost soils studied depended upon the reasureeent
        •etbod  used.  (40)
ACC»
iUTHOB
AFFU

TITLE
SOURCE
TEAS
TEST
L001025
Asbury, 8«» Bendrickson. C.
Keu Hexico Zavircnseatal iBproBeaent Division,  P.O.  Box  9b5.  Las  Cruces.
US
Aerobic Oa-Site Systeas Studied in ien Keiico
Journal of En»ironaental Health l»5(i}:56-87  (2  pages)
1982
t Halted study of aerabic treato«nt uaits was  conducted  to  deterslee
ubethtr ualts are functiooiriq satisfactorily and  the cause of
•alfuBction.  Bestilts in-licatc that aerated  units  have ^ore  problens
than staoaard septic tank ur.lts.  It seeas that aost units do  cot
operate as long as they should 01 dea't operate at all.   They  ha*€
possibilities for odor and aoiss pccbleas.   On  sites suitable  for
subsurface discharge, septic tanks rather than  aerobic units  ha ire the
advaotaqe.  (SS»F)
AGO
AUIHOE
AFF1L
TITLE

SOOBCE

YEAR
TEKT
10014^6
Hauitias. P.H.
International Befereoce Centre for  aastes  Disposal.  Swiss  Federal
Institute for Bate.r ftesources and Hater  Pollutioii Control  (EitfAGl,
Ueberlandstrasse 133, CH-8600 Dubeedocf, S«itzerlancJ
Euptyiaa On-Site Excreta Disposal Systeas  in  Developing Countries:   AD
Evaluation of the Probleas
IHCUD Hews, Mo. 1'  August 7982.  Ceterlanrlstrasse  133, CH86CO
Dutendorf, Switzerland  (15 pages)
1982
Present* currently available pit latciae 'japtyinq technclogy  for
de»olcoiDq counttles along with prctleas and  case studies  of  curceutly
operatir.q sereices.  The sajof techr.clocical  protlee  in pit esptyinq
services is the non-fluid behatior  of sludqe.  To aiapt fluid handling
technoloqie^ for pit emptying, A nechanical device  for shearing and
adding wa'.er to the sluice would have to te develcpf'd.  Key discus^lcns
in pit coptyinq service sariaqesent  JDCluiJe the adoption of a  transfer
systea a'id sch.'dulinq and zoning of collections.   (SHF)
ACCt
AUIfiOB
AFFIL

TITLE
SOUBCE

TEXT
L001 U27
Kcnen, T.P.
                                                             Stev ns
     ,   ..
Suildir.g Technology research Division, Davidson  Laboratory,
Institute of Technology, Hoboken, NSM Jersey
Perforaance E€;aireaents &af Test Procedures for  Mater Closets
Proceedings of the National Hater Conservation Conference on Putlicly
Supplied Potable Water, April 1"-15, 1981. Denver, CO  (8 pages)
Describes test netliods for use by industry, code  groups, entorceaent
agencies and otbers to detercine the functional  perforsance of  water
closets and thereby provide safe and efficient designs and
installations.  The prisary characteristics of the water c, osets  fcr
which test oethods and procedures were developed  include:  surface
cleansing, uaste renewal including sclids and liguids, £.nd voluoetric
efficiency.  A test kit containing eedia. instructions and data sheets
is available to industry and the general public.   (AU/SBF)
ACCI    L001H28
AOTHOE  Avniaelech,  I.,  lie»o,  Z.
AFfIL   Technicn,  Israel Institute of Technology, Haifa, and Veiznann Institute
        of Science,  ^ebototh
TITLE   Biological Clogging of Sands
SOURCE  Soil  science.  Vol.  98:222-226 (5 pages)
YEAR    196U
TEXT    Studies  tha  influence  of  added organic aatter on clogging of sands
        daring  prolonged percolation.  Tap water and nitrogenous solutions were
        percolated throcqh  sand coluons sued with various substances.  High
        carbon-tc-nitrogen  ratios induced a relatively Ion 3-lasting clogging,
        while low  carooa to nitrogen ratios caused clogging 'or only a shctt
        period.   hardly  decociposable aaterials caused only a slight clogging.  A
        linear  correlation  was found between the concentration or poljuronioes
        in the  extent  of cloq.-jinq.  A relationship between the aechanisas of
        clogging ?nd aggregation  Has also observed.  (AU/SVF)
                                         198

-------
ACCI
AUTHOi
AfflL

TITLE
SOURCE
TEAR
SEIT
       Ratio. A.H.. Carlile,  3.L.
       Eioloqlcal  end  Agricultural  Enqioecrlcg.  Borth Carolina State
       Uniwecsit j.  Raleigh,  North Carolina
       Larqe-Scale Onsite  Systess
       Individual  Onsite ofasteuater Systess - Proceedings of th€ Eighth
       Hatioeal Coafereace,  1981, ABB  Arbor Scitnce Publishers.  Inc.. Ann
       Arbor. Hichigaa  (T<  paces)
       19S2
       Discusses sone  of the  probless  associate* uith develcpiaq larCCI
AUTHOB
AFFIL
TITLE
SOURCE
YEAR
TEXT
        LOBfaacoo.  P.
        LosLacdo  and  Assoc.,  Boston,  HA
        Exp-indlnq  Options  for Greyuater Trsatsent
        BioCycle,  23(3}:15-U9 (5  pa^es)
        1982
        Discsisses  systeas  available for treattent disposal and reuse of
        qreyuater.   Separate  treataent of toilet wastes reduces uastewiter flcii
        by  30  percent,  nitroqen  by  70 petcoot.  and phosphorous by up tc US
        percent,  uliile  eliainatinq  nost potential pathoqeas and a laf'je pcrtion
        o£  biodegradable organics.   Describes systen design and perforaance for
        qreynater  sYsteas  including septic tanks, sand filters, rock filters,
        biological  treataeat. reserse osuosis,  sediaen tation/f il t ra t ion, and
        Physical/chesical  treatuent.   Discusses efficiencies cf chlcrine,
        iodine, and  ultiasiolet  disinfection.  Disposal sethods irclude scil
        absorption  fields,  land  irrigation,  greenhouse irriqaticn, recirculat ioq
        shouets and  suds-sabers.   (SSF)
ACCI
AUTUOE
AfflL

TITLE

SOOSCE

IEAR
TEXT
        LOOJ«32
        Enqlehardt,  J.D.
        Cept.  of  Agricultural and Cheaicol Enqineerinq, Colora-lc State
        Cni»ersity,  Fort  Collins. Colorado
        Cuantifications of Onsite Wasteaater Treatment Cperation and

        H.S.  Thesis,  Colorado State University, Fort Collirs, Colcrado, 1983
        JJjH  paqes,

        Fco>  a re»ie« of  toth published theoretical and eanufacturet•s
        literature,  as «ell as field surveys, a bcdy of specific GSH
        recoasendations has been coapiled £cr systeas which serve fro« oaf tc
        thirty hoaes.  An inteL-active computer fcrcgra*. developed fr:r use on an
        Apple-I.  accepts  site-specific input data for a oartic'ilar sa-o:
        cos«'i"'ty.   It then prints 05H recosaendations oiid calco1*tcj. annual
        costs  for the consunity.  The «ost cost effective process, when C6M is
        c^a^idered  eiclosively. is the standard septic tank/l-achfield systes
        .•here  soils  and water table elevation are suitable.  (AU/SWF)
ACCI
        L001i*33
                                         199

-------
AQTHOS   Bicit.  L.C.
AFFIL    Ennironoental  Sji.,eas Engineering, Cleason University, Cleasio, Scuth
        Carolina
TITLE    Aerated Lagoon Svatees rfith laproeeil Perforsaace
SCO«CE   Eoblic ioiks Hi»(!3> :35-J6 (2 pages)
TPAfi    1963
TEXT    Sueaarlxes  design criteria developed in part fcf the Systees Engineering
        Cepartaent  at  Cleisoc University tor the desiga of dual poser.
        •ulticellalac  aerated laqooa systeas.  t desrripticn of the lagoon
        svstea is accospanied uith & schecatic.  Plasi perfcroance is tabulated
        toe package plants and aerated l^gcous, and total suspended solids and
        COD ate coapared.  (S«FJ
»cc«
AUTHOR
TITLE
SOURCE
TEAR
TEXT
        LC01U34
        Viyone.  H.JU
        Chief  process Engineer,  Bernard Johescn, lac.. Hcaston Texas
        Designing  Plug Flo« lagoons Using Tao-Staqe iccation
        Pollistioa  EaqisGeciaq f5(3):2S-32 (S p^gesj
        1963
        Discasses  the use of plug fioa lagooss uith eecbanical ttenefec of
              as  a piiearj seans of biological treatment*  SOC aeratioB. osyqen
        cequireaents,  puec cecaireseots. laqcon spatial accanqeirenii. laqooa
        ciccalation,  a?ti flvsia zcsentaa coasiderations zee analyzed..  Tabulated
        date  oa HCE ceeoval «ad osyqezs reqaiceeents as u function of length of
         flua  flow  tceatBent ace given.  Alsc a plug f!cu lagcon ^che&atic
         adicatlnq the auaber of paaps cegciced at each puap eolcsn is ccc*ided.
        (HU/5HF)
1CCI
AUTHOS
AfFIL
TITLE
SOURCE
IEAS
TfIT
        L001435
        HA
        H&
        Cnsitc Doefistic Seuaqe Disposal Haodtcok
        EJPS-I9.  HidwfcSt Plan Service, loua State Dnieersity. Ames, leva
        1982
        This handbook,  uhich is a»ailable fees Hidaest Plan Service, Icua
        State Cni»erslty,  is designed for the hoeeonr. er nho Bust choose an
        onsi'.e sewage oispcsal systea.  The first section deals uith planning,
        laws and  regulations.  The second section presides information en
        installation, cor, strocti'. n and operstioo o* the septic tank.  Site
        selection and Jesion for soil absorption systeas are presented in the
        next section.  Gravity and pressure distribution systeos,, cusp selection
        and general descr ipt ion-; of other treatsent systees are also included.
        (SUP)
ACC»
AUTHOR
AFflL
TITLE
SOURCE
TEAE
TEXT
        Vrale,  L.
        Someqian  Institute for Uater Research, elindern, Olso 3. Nocnay
        SOBS Aspects of Ncrue.jian Practice
        Alternative W<3Gte.ia t<= c Treateect, Leu-Cost Soall Systeas, Research and
        Devetopoent - Proceedings of the Couference hold at Olso, ficruay,
        September  7-10, 1981  {ia pages)
        1982
        Korwegian  laws and regulations concerning water supply anJ wastewater
        treataent  aake it easy to use sewage probleas as the nost efficient tool
        to regulate building  develocoent.  Problees observed in onsite systess
        are due nore to incorrect construction, poor control and operation
        rather  than the process itself.   The type of profcleas reported are
        siailar to chose found in corT»nticnal treatment plants.  Ssall
        wastewater treatment  s/steas and onsite disposal systeas Bust te
        accepted at the sa«e  level as larger and sore conventional systens.
        Hote infor'satior. is needed on syst^s operation, cost, degree of reacval,
        and degree of collection they provide in coaparision to conventional
        systeas.  (AU/SWF)
ACC«
AUTHOR
TITLE
SOUflCE
TEAK
TEXT
        LC01U37
        Ctls,  a.J.
        Dept.  Civil  and Environaental Engineering, University of Hisconsir.
        Hadison,  Wisconsin
        Hator  rtoveaent Into  and Through Scil
        Alternative  Hastewater Treataent, Low-Cost Small Systeas, Research and
        Ccvelcpsent  -  Proceedings of the Conference held at Olso, Norway,
        Septeeber  7-10.  1981  (12 pages)
        1932
        Describes  soil properties, including structure, texture, bulk density,
        clay  «ineralogy and  thsir effect on water soveaent and wastewater
        purification.   The gravitational and eatric potentials are presented as
        co»ponet>ts of  the soil soisture potential.  The rate of water sovtient
        is  described by Darcy's Law; aaistare retention curves for four
        differ<=r,t  soil textures are included.  Emphasizes the i»pcrtance of the
                                        200

-------
       cloqqisg  sat  ia  creatinq unsaturated coalitions necessary IB septic tank
       absorptiOB  fields.   (AU/SKF)                             '
ACCI     1001438
AUTKOB   Ctis,  H.J.
Arm    Cept.  of  Civil  do3  EBvironeentai Engines t inq, ^Diversity of Bisccnsin.
        Radiscn
TITLE    Subsurface  Soil  Absorption Systeas Used in t!i% Uolti'd Stttes
SOU§CE   Alternative Wastenat«T  Treatment,  Low-Cost Sisal' Systess, Research sei
        Developeeet -  Pcocee-iings of the Conference held at Olso. Hcrway.
        Septaeber 7-10,  J 961  (20 panes)
TEIT     An overvieH of  tteachesf beds aad  aouads as aethcds of cnsite BaiMe
        treatment and  disposal  is givea-  The geosetry of the intiltrative
        surface atta its  siziaq.  site crxtcrii, design consideration, and
        wasteaater  distribution  foe each systes ate analyzed.  5pecial cscn
        is qivtn  to soil permeability, unsaturated depth, depth to tedcock aed
        the  liyeiicq of  the soil profile.   (*U/SUf)
1CCI
10THOB
TITLE
SOUBCE
TEAS
TEXT
        100)039
        Kcistiansen,  H.
        AijcicuJtarai  aesearch Council of Boras/, Section Soil Pollution
        Research,  1«32 &S -  BLH.  Hcruay
        The  Soil as a Seaowatinq  Hedioa - Cloqgicg of Inf ilt ratiwe Surfscss
        Altecaati»e Kastevater Tr>sats«?nt, leu-Cost Snail Srstees, Research aad
        Developaeet - Ptoceedlacs of tbe Conference htld at Clso, HccuaT.
        SepteBber  7-10,  J 961  (IS  paqss>
        19§2
        Presents an oversieu  of research asscciatei with the cicq<5ing layer
        which  develops OB infiltrative surfaces in septic tans leaching sTf
        Discusses  the three  clogging (hases. the causes cf clogging, and the
        effect of  loadinq cotditions, Kastewater, soil tTi.e, tesperatute and
        redox  conditions on  cloocinq.  Systems eay be restored ty resting.
        oi] ccloet
        experisents  and field studies have shown that suite! soils ha»e i high
        sorpticn  ceaauity  for phosphorus frca aasteua'.er.  It is «ery iepcrtant
        that  a sisple  ana  accurate sorption index tor phosphorus in -~oil acd the
        treataect  systess' operation  tj.se  te  fouad.  £AU)
ACCI
AUTHOR
ATFJL
TITLE
SOUBCE
TEAS
TEIT
        LCOHJ11-
        iaak,  E.
        Oept.  Civil  Enqineerinq.  University of Connecticut, Steers, Connecticut
        On-Site  Soil Srsteas,  Kxtrogen Retoval
        Alternative  Wastewater TreateeLt, Low-Cost Seall Systeas, Research and
        Cevelcpaent  - Proceedings of the Conference held at Olso, Norway,
        Septeeber  7-10,  1981  (15  paqes)
        7982
        Eeviews  the  fate cf nitroqen in septic tank and subsurface fields by
        a««onification,  nitrification, adsorption, aanonia vclat iliiet ion r
        bioloqical uptike.  deni trif ica t ion and leachfields.  Also, a passive
        nitroqen  reeoval technique dereloped at the University of Coanect-cat,
        called the RUCK  syctes is presented in detail.  The RUCS sjstew utilizes
        qreyuater  as the crqanic  carbon source for the denit tif icat ion step and
        appears  to be effective in re«ovinq nitroqen froe doiestic wastenater.
        (AU/SKF)
ACCI
AUTHOR
AFfIL

TIT',E
SOURCE
YEAH
IBXI
        L001UU2
        Kri.stiansen,  n.
        Aqricultural  Research  Council  of Hcmay,  Section Soil Follntiou
        Research,  1U32  As  -  SLH,  Norway
        The  Fate of  Pollutants in Soil - Organic  Material
        Alternative  Kastewater Treatment,  Low-Cost Saall Systems, Research and
        Developeent - Proceedings of  the Conference held at else, Norway,
        Septeaber  7-10,  1981  (8 pagesl
        1982
        The  paper  links  organic tatter reaoval with the aicroflora living in
        bioloqical filters.  A figure  illustrates plate counts fro« three
                                        201

-------
       different  depths in  the overloaded end of * sand-filter t-rer.ch loaded
       •ith  5  en  septic task effluent cot d«y.  Stresses that soil absorption
       tods  have  confined annerofclcr/aerobic zoees in adiitioa to possible
       anaerobic  Bicrozones in apparently aecocfc soil.  Discgsses toe effect
       of  COC  resoval  oa trickling filters ani saad filters rue at «*r?iBg CCt
       loadings and  tesperatures.   Concludes that orgaaic nattsr teeoval is EC
       considered a  problem if loaded as reccoeendcd.   (AU/S«F)
ACCf     100101)3
AUTf.OH   Beditnt.  V.I.  et al
AFFIL    B^pt.  of  Eavironaeatal Science C Enoinperiac. Sice Oninersltj, Hoastos,

TITLE    Ground-Water  Transport froa Wastevater Infiltration
SOUHCE   tltecoative Bastenater Treataent, lea-Cost Sssll Systeas. Research end
        Development -  Proceedings of the Conference held at Olsc. Rctaay,
        Septeaber 7-tO,  1381  (9 paqes)
TEAR     19B<>
TEXT     Ground«atet contaninant traespcrt vas Investigated frcs a eaeicipal
        ««ste«ater infiltration sf^tem.  Crou.ida«ter quality staples wtr*'
        collected at  the Fore Deeacs, Rassachnsetts. faciiitf free surtoondlnq
        wells  and uere aBalyzed tor cooductivitv ana trace level ocqaalcs
        contaeination.  Ground^ater flow and chloride 'tQstaaiaa&t trscspcct xece
        predicted using  2 ttc- ,1iB»,eBsicBai oaeerical sinolatioQ vodel*
        Dispersion estisatss  Here adde usicq orqanics date collected at adjecect
        uiills  and adjusted for adsorption in the porous redia.  Revolts fc:
        field  dispersion compared fav&ratly uith other values reported ID
        literature.  net hods  used In this I.'ell project alonq aith BOdclmq
        techniques should be  applicable to other qroui><3va£er waste contaalnant
        sites.  
-------
       nieywdter eifecti»ely: ho«e»er.  it  did  not  offer a substantial
       i«rroveecnt J.B cost savings,  etflb&nt c-jalltf cr oataceat il i ty
       siailar systea for total residential  uaste.  {AU/Dnrj
                                                                       ever e
ICCI
AUTHOR
APFH

TITLE
SGUhC?
IEIR
TEXT
       1001UQ7
       Krist iar.sea, B.
       Agricultural Besearch Council of  Scruiy.  Section Soil Pollution
       Research, 1»;32 As - SL«, «orw4»
       fiesaarch oa On-Site Disposal Methods  in  Bocxay - Past and Present
       Alternative Hasteuat