United States                Office of Water Regulations       Monitoring Branch
Environmental Protection         and Standards (WH-551)        Monitoring and Data
Agency                    Washington, DC 20460         Support Division (WH-553)
A Water Quality
Success Story
December, 1980
Penobscot River,  Maine
(While this  story describes progress in cleaning up conventional
pollutants  such as oxygen-demanding materials, suspended  solids
and bacteria, toxic substances  may be present which may require
further abatement actions.  However, aquatic life is progressively
returning to this area.)
     "One of the goals  set by the water pollution
     abatraent laws was  ensuring that our industrialized
     rivers were fishable and swimmable.  We've  spent
     billions to meet these goals, but people  still drive
     far from the cities  for recreation in search  of

     "The vanishing wilderness appears to be returning
     under the bridges and behind  the  buildings of some
     of our cities and  towns.  And the reappearance of
     Atlantic salmon in the middle of a small  Maine city
     may help people to start looking again at the land
     and water near their homes and offices."

                        Lawrence A. DeCoster,
                        New England Regional Manager
                        American Forest
     June, 1978,  was  a  bright month in a bright  year for residents
 and visitors in the Bangor area of the 270 mile-long Penobscot
 River Valley in Eastern Maine.

     In the warm summer days of that year, oldtimers saw the
 Penobscot River as it was in the days of their youth, and younger
 people saw a river that at least approached the  description of the
 once far cleaner stream described by their ancestors.

     It wasn't just that the sparkle had returned to the
 Penobscot's surface waters as it flowed to the Atlantic Ocean, and
 it wasn't the fact that ev'ors associated with the river for
   . ades had di

     It was the  fishermen lining  its  banks,  bobbing up and down in
boats and canoes  in  the rips and  currents of the  river.   More than
anything else  it  was  the flashes  of silver,  the  targets  of their
whipping lures.   For  after an absence of four decades,  Atlantic
salmon had finally returned  to  the once highly polluted  Penobscot.

     There were  moderate  indications  in  1976 and 1977 that the
massive effort to restore  the  Penobscot's  water quality was
working, but  in  the  Bangor area in  1978  there was no doubt about
it.  Nearly  100  Atlantic  salmon were  caught  in June around the
Bangor  Salmon Pool  facing  the  Bangor  Salmon  Club.  On a single day
late in that  month,  28  salmon  were landed by jubilant anglers and
the  total rod and reel  catch for the  1978  season in the Bangor
area was estimated at 400.

     The salmon  pool  and  its adjacent waters held no monopoly on
the action,  for  the  salmon moved up along Kenduskeag Stream,  a
small  tributary  that  threads its way  through the  heart of Bangor's
business district.   And among  the enthusiastic spectators lining
bridges and  retaining walls  to  watch  Atlantic salmon being taken
from the Kenduskeag  were many  older people who saw this  return as
an event that had occurred against all reasonable odds.


The Lumber Industry

     Writing  about his  travels  in Maine during the mid-nineteenth
century, Henry David  Thoreau noted "there are over 250 sawmills on
the Penobscot River  and its  tributaries above Bangor."

     Since its earliest days the  economy of  the Penobscot River
Valley, an area  rich  in timber  resources, has been based on forest
products, initially lumber,  and since the late nineteenth century,
pulp and paper making.

     By 1860,  Bangor  was the largest  lumber  exporting port in the
world, and the Penobscot River  Valley was the world's leading
supplier of white pine, producing two hundred million board feet
of lumber annually.   Other lumber-producing  areas in the United
States at that time produced only half as much.

     Most of  this lumber was exported but some went into building
cargo-carrying vessels for America's  merchant marine, considered
to be the best and largest in the world during that period.  At
least half of  the nation's merchant fleet was constructed in  Maine
shipyards.   According to Maine  shipbuilding  authority Lincoln
Colcord, anywhere from one to two thousand vessels of all sizes
were built  along  the  Penobscot  River  between 1773 and 1861.

     These  activities, however,  eventually caused serious
environmental  damage  along the  Penobscot.

                                               /•-. f r- pi x "7
                                               u z o u o  /
                                      Penobscot River
                                           Old Town*
                                            Bradley «
      NOTE: Map does not show the entire State
      of Maine, but rather, only that portion
      which includes the Penobscot River Basin.
                                                          Psnobscot River
                                                             Main Stem
                                                          Penobscot Basin
                                                             Boundary ->•
                                        ATLANTIC OCEAN
            Having  discovered  that rocks  and shallows, and  the river's
       unpredictable rates  of  flow held  up the  spring and summer log
       drives to  the sawmills—often by  as much as one year—the lumber
       interests  constructed dams along  the river  to control  the amount
       of water in  the Penobscot and to  ensure  an  adequate  rate of  flow
       for its log  drives.  The logs reached the sawmills on time but  the
       dams impeded the migration patterns of the  river's thriving
       population of Atlantic  salmon,  blocking  their spawning runs

      Sawmill  wastes,  sawdust  and  bark,  went  directly into the
 river  where  they  settled  on  the bottom.   Sawdust  deposits,
 sometimes  several  feet  deep,  smothered  bottom dwelling
 invertebrates,  the  primary food for  most  of  the  fish in the
 Penobscot, and  also  smothered fish breeding  areas,  preventing
 these  species from  reproducing.

      Along with sawdust,  bark from  the  bank-to-bank traffic of
 long  logs  to  the  sawmills also  sank  to  the bottom where it rotted,
 reducing  the  dissolved  oxygen in  the water which  fish and aquatic
 life  need  to  breathe  and  live.

 The Pulp and  Paper  Industry

      By the  late  nineteenth  century;  the  sulfite  chemical process
 had made it  possible  to use  resinous, soft woods  to manufacture
 pulp  necessary  to make  paper.   This  discovery gave  the Penobscot
 River  Valley  a  tremendous economic advantage  because the  spruce
 and fir trees in  its  forests  are  ideal  for making pulp.

      Maine became a leading  pulp  and paper producer, and  much of
 this  manufacturing  was  located  along the  Penobscot  River  at sites
 used  for water  power  and  process  water.   The  first  pulp and paper
 mills  apeared on  the  river in 1882,  and several other mills were
 operating by  1889,  producing  a  daily total of 470,000 pounds of
 pulp  and 80,000 pounds  of paper.

      Like the lumber  industries in the  past,  the  mills built or
 maintained dams along the Penobscot  to  provide power and  an even
 flow  of water to  transport pulp wood to the mills.   These
 impoundments  further  restricted the  migration and spawning
 patterns of  the Penobscot"s  fisheries resource.

      In addition, the high biochemical  oxygen demand (BOD)—a
 measure of the  organic matter  in  water  which  consumes oxygen
 during biological processes  that  break  it down—characteristic of
 pulp  and paper  making discharges  further  lowered  the river's
 dissolved oxygen  levels,  often beyond the survival  point  of the
 fish.  The Penobscot's other  sport and  commercial fish—shad,
 alewives, smelt and striped  bass—which managed to  enter  the
 river, were often killed  by  toxic chemicals  in the  mill effluents.
Pollution Along the Penobscot River  in  the  Twentieth Century

     As recently as 1967,  the Penobscot  River  received the untreated
wastes of approximately 32,000  people living  in  Millinocket,  East
Millinocket, Lincoln, Rowland,  Harapden,  Bucksport,  Mil ford, Orono,
Veazie and Old Town.  A primary treatment plant  at  Bangor, the first
municipal treatment facility along the  river,  became operational in
1968.  The Bangor plant, however, provided  inadequate treatment for
domestic wastes from  that  city's  33,000  residents.

     During this period, the Penobscot  also received untreated
industrial wastes discharged non-stop from  seven pulp and paper
mills at Millinocket, East tiillinocket,  Lincoln, Brewer,  Bucksport,

and at Old Town,  where  two mills  were  located.   These discharges
contained spent  pulping  liquor  from  the  Kraft  and  sulfite processes,
and process waters  containing fiber  fillers  and  coatings.  Many of
these wastes had  extremely high concentrations  of  suspended solids.

     According to water  monitoring studies  conducted  by the State of
Maine Water Improvement  Commission in  1964,  the  pollution loading
placed on the entire  Penobscot  River in  terms  of BOD  was one million
pounds per day,  or  the  equivalent untreated  domestic  sewage load
produced in one  day by  about  5,000,000 people.   These studies also
showed that dissolved oxygen  levels  were depressed to levels as low
as zero along parts of  the Penobscot.  Maine's  water  quality
standard for dissolved  oxygen in  these waters  is at least 5 parts
per million.

     In view of  this  gross environmental degradation, the Commission
rated the Penobscot River as  a  Class D Stream,  which  only required
that the odor not cause  a nuisance.

     The loss of  Atlantic salmon, the  Penobscot's  most valued
commercial species, presents  a  clear picture of  the heavy toll
exacted over the  years  by the lumber and pulp  and  paper making
processes.  Records dating back to the 1850's  show that commercial
fishermen caught  approximately  25,000  salmon annually.  By 1875S the
annual salmon catch had  dropped to 15,000,  to  12,000  between 1873
and 1900, and to  2,500  in 1910.   In  1947,  the  last year commercial
fishing was allowed,  the commercial  catch from  the Penobscot was 40
salmon caught on  rod.   Between  1957  and  1967,  no Atlantic salmon
were taken from  the Penobscot.

     By then, the quantity of shad,  alewives,  striped bass and  smelt
in these waters was also severely reduced*,

     It was zero  hour for the Penobscot  River.   Trash, foam and
stinking paper mill sludge rafts, the  byproducts of industrial  and
municipal pollution floated downstream or lodged on the shoreline.
And because of these nuisance conditions,  the  river—which had  been
used less and less  for  recreation since  1890—was  avoided by
boaters,  fishermen  and nature lovers.

     In 1967, the Maine Legislature  enacted  Title  38,  Section 451,
the Maine Revised Statutes Annotated.   This  legislation  required
that water quality standards be assigned  to  Maine's  waterways and
made it illegal to discharge any  material  into  a  state waterway
which lowered water quality below an assigned water  quality

     Acting under this authority, Maine's  Water and  Air  Improvement
Commission developed water quality standards and  submitted  a
classification system for all of  Maine's  waters to  the State
Legislature.  The Commission then reclassified  the  Penobscot River
as a Class C waterway—suitable for  all water contact  recreation

except swimming, an excellent fish and wildlife  habitat,  and
acceptable for water  supply after treatment and  disinfection.   The
Commission then issued licenses to all the industries  and
municipalities along  the river, requiring that they  construct,
operate, and maintain pollution abatement facilities by  1976 and
that construction be  started by 1973.

     Responding to the State of Maine's requirement  that  Class  C
water quality be achieved along the Penobscot River, the  Great
Northern Paper Company, the biggest industrial discharger  to the
Upper Penobscot River, was the first industry to achieve  major  water
quality improvements.

     According to Great Northern Paper Company Environmental
Protection Supervisor Patrick H. Welch, "In 1969, we initiated
process changes to our pulp and paper making facilities by
constructing a sulfite recovery process at our Millinocket mill.  We
also discontinued the Chemi-Groundwood pulping process which
discharged large quantities of organic oxygen-demanding process
wastes to the river at our East Millinocket mill.

     "In 1972, the company constructed a primary waste treatment
plant at the Millinocket mill.  This facility removes  all  settleable
solids, and 80 to 90  percent of suspended solids from  the mill's
waste waters.

     "By the end of 1972," Welch says, "we discontinued our log
drives on the Penobscot.  Since then, we get our softwood  logs by
rail or truck.  We now have fresher, higher quality wood  because the
time between cutting  it and shipping it to the mill has been cut

     "Then in 1975," Welch continues, "we constructed  a primary
waste treatment plant at our East Millinocket mill.  Like  the
primary plant at Millinocket, this facility also removes  all
settleable solids, and 80 to 90 percent of suspended solids from
this mill's waste water.

     "Finally," Welch says, "in 1976 we constructed  an aerated
secondary waste treatment plant at both the Millinocket and East
Millinocket mills.  These secondary facilities receive the  treated
effluent from the primary plants and remove 60 to 90 percent of the
BOD in their discharges to the Penobscot River."

     The annual cost  of operating Great Northern's primary and
secondary treatment plants is $5.5 million.  The company's total
cost for in-house waste treatment facilities constructed  between
1969 and 1976 is $34.5 million.

     "This substantial investment in water quality improvement  has
really paid off," Welch emphasizes.  "Before 1969, the overall  BOD
loading to the Upper  Penobscot River from the Great  Northern Paper
Company mills was 4.00,000 pounds per day.  By 1970,  it had dropped
to 100,000 pounds per day, and to 35,000 pounds  per  day,  or less,
after 1976, depending on seasonal conditions.

     "Because of our cleanup efforts, there have  also  been
significant reductions of total suspended solids  in our  treated
discharges to the river," Welch concludes.  "Before 1972, the  Great
Northern Paper Company discharged 160,000 pounds  per day of  total
suspended solids to the Penobscot.  After 1972, when our primary
facility at Millinocket went on line, the company discharged 80,000
pounds per day to these waters, then 50,000 pounds per day after
1975.  After 1976, the amount of total suspended  solids  to the river
from our manufacturing operations dropped to  34,000 pounds per day,
or less, depending on seasonal conditions."

     Starting in 1973, the five other pulp and paper mills along the
Penobscot spent nearly $50 million to construct pollution control
systems to provide clarification (reducing the concentration of
suspended matter in water), and aeration (using oxygen to break  down
organic wastes).  As construction progressed, state water quality
representatives met with industry, offered recommendations and
technical advice, and verified that compliance schedules were  met.

     All of these industrial treatment facilities were on line by
1976, with the exception of Lincoln Pulp and  Paper, which was  a  few
months late.

     During this period, the state Water and  Air  Improvement
Commission— known after 1969 as the Environmental Improvement
Commission and, since 1972, as the Maine Department of Environmental
Protection (DEP)—developed a monitoring program  to ensure that
these abatement actions were improving the Penobscot's water
quality.  State water quality experts monitored the river's  water
quality and the quality of industrial and municipal discharges to
determine if Maine's standards were being met.

     Concurrently, state technical specialists conducted long-term
planning studies to determine the need for future municipal  and
industrial waste treatment, based on projected population and
industrial growth in the Penobscot River Valley.
     In 1968, the Federal Water  Pollution  Control  Administration,
the predecessor agency to the U.S. Environmental Protection  Agency
(EPA), awarded the Town of Orono  $1.4 million  to construct a
conventional activated sludge secondary  treatment  plant  designed  to
provide treatment for 1.8 million gallons  per  day  (MGD)  of Orono's
municipal wastes.  On line in 1970, this facility  removes 85 percent
of the BOD and suspended solids  in its discharges  to  the Penobscot

     On October 1, 1972, Congress passed the Federal  Water Pollution
Control Act Amendments of 1972 which overhauled previous water
quality legislation and began the most comprehensive  program of
water pollution control in the nation's history by mandating a
sweeping federal and state effort to clean up  the  nation's rivers
and lakes.

                              — 8—
      Acting  under  Section 201  of the landmark 1972 Water Act,
 between 1973 and 1979 the EPA awarded a total of $14 million to the
 communities  of  Brewer,  Old Town, Mil ford,  Millinocket and the Town
 of  Lincoln  Sanitary  District  to  construct  three conventional
 activated  sludge secondary treatment plants which remove 85 to 90
 percent of  the  BOD and  suspended solids in their discharges, an
 aerated lagoon,  and  ancillary equipment such as sewer interceptor
 systems, pumping stations and  force mains.

      With  one exception,  these facilities  were on line in 1978.  The
 treatment  facility under  construction at  the Lincoln Sanitary
 District—a  1.07 MGD capacity  activated sludge secondary treatment
 plant—is  projected  to  be on  line in late  1981.

 '     Finally, at this writing  the EPA is  about to award the City of
 Bangor  $1.5  million  to  construct the Penobscot Interceptor Sewer
 System  to  divert untreated wastes presently being discharged to the
 Penobscot  River  through the city's existing primary treatment plant.
 This  system  is  expected to go  on line in  1982.

      The EPA, in addition,  recently funded several  Facilities
 Planning Studies under  Section 201 of the  1972 Water Act.

      Between 1976  and 1979, the  EPA awarded the communities of
 Bradley, Veazie , Rowland,  Bucksport, Mattawamkeag,  Orono, Hampden ,
 and East Millinocket  a  total of  $272,500  to find alternative
 treatment methods  to  prevent  the discharge of untreated wastes to
 the Penobscot River.  Then, in March 1979,  the EPA awarded the City
 of  Bangor $111,000 to conduct  a  Section 201 Facilities Planning
 Study to determine best methods  for updating  that city's present
 primary treatment  plant to  secondary status.   Once  Bangor's updated
 secondary treatment  facility and the Penobscot Interceptor Sewer
 System  are constructed  and  operational, municipal wastes from the
 Towns of Hampden and  Veazie will be diverted  to the Bangor waste
 treatment system.

      Section 402 of  the 1972 Water Act  established  the National
 Pollutant Discharge  Elimination  System  (NPDES).   Implemented by the
 EPA and  the  states,  this  system  defines the requirements for
 developing permits which  regulate the discharge of  pollutants into
 the nation's waterways.

      Acting  under  this  authority,  the Maine DEP identified each
 industrial  and municipal polluter  along the Penobscot  River  and
 recommended  appropriate cleanup  actions.

      Between  1978  and 1979, the  EPA and the DEP issued permits  under
 the NPDES Program  to  five major  industrial  dischargers and eight
minor industrial dischargers along  the  Penobscot  River.   During the
 same  period,  the EPA  and  the DEP also issued  NPDES  permits to  eight
major municipal   dischargers and  to  five minor  municipal  dischargers
 along the river.


     In 1965, Congress passed the Anadromous  Fish  Conservation Act
which made federal assistance available to  restore anadromous fish
(species which spawn in fresh water, but grow and  mature  in salt
water).  Funds were not made available until  1968.

     Between 1968 and 1977, the Maine Atlantic Sea-Run  Salmon
Commission under a cooperative agreement with the  U.S.  Department of
the Interior's Fish and Wildlife Service and  the Maine  Department of
Inland Fisheries and Wildlife worked to restore  the  Penobscot's
Atlantic salmon, alewife, smelt and shad fisheries.

     Funds provided by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife  Service under the
authority of the 1965 Act, and matched by the dam  owners, allowed
fishways to be constructed at each of the obstructions  along  the
Penobscot to give the river's anadromous fish access  to ancestral
spawning and nursery areas as far upstream  as Mattagaramon Lake on
the Penobscot's East Branch.  Fishways were also constructed  along
the Piscataquis River, a major tributary to the  Penobscot.

     "During this construction period," says  Atlantic Sea-Run Salmon
Commission Chief Biologist Alfred Meister,  "the  Salmon  Commission
collected a brood stock of Atlantic salmon  and stocked  the  Penobscot
with juvenile salmon reared by the Maine Department  of  Inland
Fisheries and Wildlife, and the U. . Fish and Wildlife  Service in
state and federal hatcheries.

     "Because of this ten-year, state and federal  program,
increasing numbers of anadromous fish have  returned  to  the
Penobscot," Meister concludes.  "The river's  fisheries  have improved
in populations of Atlantic salmon and alewives and  now  support a
sport fishery.  However, shad eggs have been  largely  unavailable and
restocking the Penobscot with this species  has not  been as

     Launching the salmon restoration program during  the  years when
the Penobscot was still polluted was possible because salmon  smolt
(young salmon at the migratory stage) migrate immediately to  the
ocean during the spring of their release and  remain  there for two
years before returning to fresh water.  Returns  of  salmon from these
early catches were netted at Bangor and at  Veazie  just  north  of
Bangor, then stripped of their eggs for hatching.   The  smolt  were
then restocked and the cycle was resumed.   By the  mid-1970's  water
quality improved to the point that salmon could  make  it on  their own
upriver to spawn.  Some salmon are still trapped and  stripped,
however, to keep the hatchery program going.


      According to  state  water  quality experts,  pollution from
 nonpoint  sources—for  examplei  agriculture—could be a remaining
 problem along  the  Penobscot  River.

      In early  1976,  the  EPA  awarded  the  DEP $405,000 to develop
 Section 208 water  quality  management plans for  Maine's previously
 non-designated areas.  During  November,  1976,  the DEP awarded the
 Penobscot Valley Regional  Planning Commission  $87,864 from these
 funds to  develop a  Section 208  non-designated water  quality
 management plan  to  identify  and  assess land uses  in  the organized
 townships lying within the Penobscot River Basin  which were
 impacting water quality  by other  than point source discharges.

      The  Commission's nonpoint  assessment  centered primarily on
 agriculture, private waste disposal,  solid and  residual waste
 disposal, and  silviculture (activities related  to the care and
 development of forests).   The  Commission's staff  representatives
 identified existing and  potential regulatory programs and  agencies
 that  were best suited to control  specific  cases of land use which
 the Commission identified  as impacting water quality in the
 Penobscot River Basin.

      Based on  the results  of these assessments, the  Commission has
 made  recommendations to  the  DEP which, if  implemented,  will have a
 positive  effect on  the water quality of  the  lakes and tributary
 streams along  the Penobscot  River.   The  bulk of the  Commission's
 recommendations center on  improved and increased  enforcement of
 existing regulations and technology,  rather  than  on  developing new

      The Maine DEP  is currently implementing portions of the
 Commission's recommendations.


     According to DEP Bureau of Water Quality Control  Director
 Stephen W. Groves, "as a direct result of  combined local,  state and
 federal cleanup actions, the Penobscot River had  improved  by 1977  to
 the point that the entire  river met  or exceeded Maine's  Class  C
water quality standard.

      "Our monitoring studies conducted that  year  showed that the
 overall BOD loading to these waters  had  dropped from the one
million-pound-per-day load recorded  in 1964  to  approximately 200,000
 pounds per day, an  impressive 80  percent reduction achieved between
 1969 and  1977.  We  project that the  BOD  loading to the  river will
 drop even lower—to 100,000  pounds per day in 1983.

     "Moreover," Groves  says, "during the  same  period,  dissolved
 oxygen levels along the  entire Penobscot rose from the  zero levels
 recorded along portions  of the river  in  1964 to 5 parts per million,
or even greater,  along the entire Penobscot."

     With water quality  improving visibly along  this  once highly
degraded stream, and encouraged by  the  return  of  sport  and
commercial fish to  these waters, fishermen in  large numbers
concentrate on the  Penobscot  to catch alewives,  smelt,  striped
bass—and especially Atlantic  salmon.

     "Fantastic1s the only  word I can find to  describe  the 1978
Atlantic salmon season at the  Bangor Salmon Pool,"  says Roger
D'Errico, former president  of  the Sunkhaze Stream Chapter of  Trout

     "In 1978, we put 343 Atlantic  salmon on the  record books," adds
D'Errico who also chairs the  Penobscot  Salmon  Club's  Historic
Committee.  "The Atlantic Sea-Run Salmon  Commission estimated  that a
total of 2,000 adult salmon moved upriver in 1978,  and  predicted
that the salmon run at the  Bangor Salmon  Pool  would continue  to

     For reasons yet to  be  explained, 1979 was a  comparatively poor
year for taking Atlantic salmon.

     "But in 1980," D'Errico  says,  "a rod count  in  the  neighborhood
of 1,000 was recorded in the  Bangor and nearby Veazie areas."

     Are the record catches of Atlantic salmon from the Penobscot
River a one-time thing?

     "Definitely not," says the Atlantic  Sea-Run  Salmon Commission's
Alfred Meister.  "Right now,  we're  stocking  salmon each year  in the
Penobscot River Watershed.  These salmon  come  primarily from  the new
Green Lake National Fish Hatchery near  Ellsworth  recently
constructed at a cost of $7 million.  It  is  the largest Atlantic
salmon hatchery in  the world  and we plan  to  stock 40,000 to 500,000
salmon a year from  this  facility.   Currently,  we  have fishways in
all major dams on the Penobscot so  that fish have access to spawning
and nursery areas In the headwaters."

     Just a few short years ago, boaters  and cancers  stayed away
from the Penobscot  for fear of fouling  their craft  with waterborne
filth.  Now they're returning, along with other  recreational
enthusiasts who welcome  the fact that the obnoxious stink of  sludge
rafts along these waters no longer  degrades the  river and its
shores.  Picnickers and  hikers are  enjoying the  land  along the
Penobscot and people are buying riverfront homes  and  property for
summer or permanent residency.

     "Water cleanup has  also  brought tlaine some  healthy construction
payrolls," says Groves.  "Contractors estimate that labor costs
represent about 30  percent  of  the construction dollar-   A quick
computation based on this assumption shows that  construction  workers
along the Penobscot River and  other Maine waterways have earned
about $200 million  from  joint  state and EPA water cleanup programs.

     "In addition," Groves concludes, "construction of treatment
plants and other waste treatment systems has created many new
permanent jobs in the Penobscot River Valley.  More than 375 people
in Maine—at least 20 of them work today in the valley—have been
processed by the treatment plant operator's programs, and most  of
them have graduated from Southern and Eastern Maine vocational
technical schools."
      Success  stories  in print:

      Buffalo  River,  New York
      Beaver  Creek,  Tennessee
      Chena River  and  Noyes  Slough
       Fairbanks,  Alaska
      Deerfield  River,  Massachusetts
      Detroit  River,  Michigan
      Dillon  Reservoir  Colorado
       Rocky  Mountains
      Escambia Bay;  Florida
      Grove and  Center  Creeks, Missouri
      Hackensack River  and  Its
       Meadowlands,  New Jersey
      Haley Pond,  Maine
      Kodiak  Harbor,  Alaska
      Lake Minnetonka,  Minnesota
      Lower Houston  Ship Channel  and
       Galveston Bay,  Texas
      Mohawk  River,  New York
      Monongahela  River,  West Virginia
       and Pennsylvania
      Naugatuck  and  Lower Housatonic
       Rivers, Connecticut
      Neches River Tidal  Area, Texas
      Ogden Bay, Great  Salt  Lake,
      Pearl River  near  Bogalusa,
      Pemigewasset River, New Hampshire
      Penobscot  River,  Maine
      Roseberry  Creek,  Alabama
      Sope Creek,  Cobb  County, Georgia
      St. Johns  River,  Florida
      St. Petersburg, Florida
      Westfield  River,  Massachusetts
      Willamette River  Oregon
      Yellowstone National Park,