United States

Environmental Protection  Laboratory
Agency         Cincinnati OH 45268
                       Environmental Monitoring and Support EPA GOO 9 79 013
                                      April 1979
Directory to


 Research reports of the Office of Research and Development, U.S. Environmental
 Protection Agency, have been grouped into nine series. These nine broad cate-
 gories were established to facilitate further development and application of en-
 vironmental technology.  Elimination of traditional grouping was  consciously
 planned to foster technology transfer and a maximum interface in related fields.
 The nine series are:
      1.   Environmental  Health Effects Research
      2.   Environmental  Protection Technology
      3.   Ecological Research
      4.   Environmental  Monitoring
      5.   Socioeconomic Environmental Studies
      6.   Scientific and Technical Assessment Reports (STAR)
      7.   Interagency Energy-Environment Research and Development
      8.   "Special" Reports
      9.   Miscellaneous  Reports
This document is available to the public through the National Technical Informa-
tion Service, Springfield, Virginia 22161.
Electron micrograph of the virus AS-1 which infects the unicellular blue-green
algae Anacystis nidulans and Synechococcus cedrorum.

                                      EPA-600 9-79-013
                                      April 1979
The  Practical Directory to
    Phycovirus  Literature
             Compiled by
      Robert S. Safferman, Ph.D.
           Mary-Ellen  Rohr
              Virology Section
           Biological Methods Branch
   Environmental Monitoring and Support Laboratory
       Office of Research and Development
       U.S. Environmental Protection Agency
            Cincinnati, Ohio 45268


This report has been reviewed by the Environmental Monitoring and Support Laboratory, U.S. Environ-
mental Protection Agency, and approved for  publication.  Mention of trade names or  commercial
products does not constitute endorsement or recommendation for use.


This literature search program is an outgrowth of our earlier efforts to achieve in-depth coverage of
accruing developments in  phycovirus research. Compilation of such  material in a continuous and
comprehensive form led to integrating  traditional  retrieval procedures with those of computerized
literature searches. By 1974 inquiries on the subject had increased to where there was a need for a
formalization of this index. Thus, 88 phycovirus reports on file at that time were compiled and referenced
in a publication titled "Phycovirus Bibliography." Editions were updated in 1975, 1977, and now in 1979
with the present list of publications totalling more  than 200 citations.

By compiling these bibliographic citations, we have set out to create an index that will fulfill the needs
not only of  those  who require a general overview of  the subject but also of those who  require a
comprehensive, practical reference source for their studies. We hope that it will also serve as a stimulus
for future research and discussion on the subject, while at the same time enabling the reader to denote
the different directions phycovirus research  has taken. Every effort has been  made to achieve  an
exhaustive indexing of phycovirus literature.  In this endeavor, we have been fortunate in receiving
indispensable support  and cooperation from investigators who have been  closely associated with
research in  this field.

The 1979 edit ion retains the organization and scope of preceding editions with citations divided into two
sections. Section One lists citations that pertain to viruses of procaryotic algae, whereas Section Two
contains those publications that deal with viruses of eucaryotic algae. In assessing the two sections, it is
readily apparent that viruses of the procaryotic  algae have been the more thoroughly researched and
thus the better understood of the two groups.  As a result, the term "phycovirus," introduced to denote
algal viruses in general, has  become almost synonymous with blue-green  algal viruses.

Reflecting on procaryotic organization in common among bacteria and blue-green algae, it is evident
that many morphological and chemical similarities are likely to exist between the viruses infecting them.
As studies further  document this relationship, more and more phycovirus researchers have used the
term "cyanophages" when referring to viruses of blue-green algae. A parallel relationship  might be
foreseen between  viruses of eucaryotic algae yet to be confirmed and those viruses known to infect
higher plants Unfortunately, researchers are faced with formidable obstacles in their attempts to isolate
or even demonstrate the presence of viruses of eucaryotic algae. Evidence of these viruses is vague with
one exception—a rod-shaped virus, which shares many properties with those of the tobamovirus, has
been isolated from Chara corallina. In this connection, it is worth pointing  out  that the disposition
of Chara poses a difficult problem to the taxonomist. Because of its unique features, it is unclear whether
Chara appears to resemble more closely the characteristics of bryophytes or those of algae.

This edition is to be submitted to the Bacteriophage Subcommittee of the International Committee on
Taxonomy of Viruses where  it is to serve as a practical guide to viruses of the blue-green algae. In
keeping with this new role, the title "Phycovirus Bibliography" has been changed with the 1 979 edition
to "The Practical Directory  to Phycovirus Literature." Authenticating the growing number of reported
phycoviruses is beyond the scope of this Directory  Nevertheless proper documentation of phycovirus
strains should be comprehensively broached Clearly, this increases the need for long-term preservation
of these strains and their housing in a central depository from which they would be readily accessible to
the  scientific community.


In preparing this edition, the authors are especially indebted to Joan G. Lobitz and Lady Fay Holmes for
their invaluable secretarial services. The authors also wish to express their appreciation to the following
colleagues  from the Environmental  Research Center Library  Services who have  assisted  in the
phycovirus literature search program:  Mary Calkins, Maxine Smith, Lilian Bosworth and Dottie Brofft.

                                Introductory Remarks

These introductory remarks  are intended to  bring  to the reader's attention significant  trends in
phycovirus research. Although research in this field may appear to be of limited scope in the overall
context of virology, its domain is nevertheless extensive. It includes divergent lines of development from
which many early problems have yet to be resolved affording investigators a wide variety of basic and
applied research opportunities.

Although phycoviruses  were still unknown  in the early  1960's, we considered it unlikely that the
biological characteristics of the  algal cell were such that the entire group would be immune to viral
infection. During this time waste stabilization ponds became the focal point of our search for this viral
type.  Supporting a dense and fluctuating algal  population, these ponds offered a unique environment
from which to isolate the elusive  phycovirus. In 1 963 a pond in Indiana yielded the first definite evidence
that such an infestation existed  in algae. The discovered  infectious agent was the  LPP-1  virus which
caused lysis in several blue-green algal species of the genera Plectonema. Phormidium, and Lyngbya.
Confirmation of data supporting the  existence of this virus group soon followed, as  did the interesting
aspect of their wide geographic distribution.

Historically, no notice was taken of phycoviruses during the nearly 50 years following the first descrip-
tion of a filterable virus of bacteria. This time lapse between the two discoveries was perhaps inevitable
in that, unlike bacteria, algae had neither been closely associated with animal or human diseases, nor
had they been demonstrated as  a pathogenic agent of agricultural crops. Also important was the fact
that culturing was non-essential in many earlier studies as algae were readily recognizable in samples
collected directly from their natural  habitats.

The events which  ultimately led to the detection of phycoviruses originated from a  concerted effort to
better understand the underlying factors responsible for algal degeneration. With the discovery of the
phycovirus, a new concept in algal pathology evolved since these viruses had the capacity to exercise a
far-reaching effect on the natural balance of algal communities. Our knowledge is still too limited to
attribute specific incidences of algal fluctuations directly to virus activity. However, the magnitude and
distribution of one group of these viruses have led some to believe that their lytic activity  precludes
several susceptible algal species from attaining objectionable  proportions. At a time of increasing
concern about algal overabundance in  the aquatic environment,  .the very nature of the phycovirus
clearly points to its possible  development as an alternative to chemical control. Such application has
popular appeal and support in offering a basic approach to algal population ecology and control. Early
attempts to establish a broad collection of these viruses led to extensive surveys of the environment that
consistently yielded the LPP viral types from which our early concepts were developed. Considering their
distribution  and  ease of detection,  it is difficult to comprehend the infrequency with which other
phycovirus groups  have  been isolated. These ecological considerations, however, afford only one view
of the experimental aspects  realized from  their discovery.

Much of the current interest is focused on the inherent properties of the phycovirus-host system. It is not
surprising that this work has closely followed the lead taken by bacteriophage studies. Like the phage
system, the phycovirus system can  be manipulated with ease and provide clearly-defined conditions
often  not attainable in higher organisms. Its basic  application as a model to further our understanding of
the function a nd organization of photosynthesizing cells seems destined to lead to the numerous inroads
in molecular biology that have  already been realized through  studies with  phage-bactena systems.

                          Viruses of  Procaryotic Algae

Adolph K.W.  Isolation and characterization of viruses infecting blue-green algae.  Ph.D. Thesis,
    University of Chicago, 1972.

Adolph,  K.W. and Haselkorn,  R.  Isolation and characterization of a virus infecting the blue-green
    alga Nostoc muscorum. Virology 46:200-208, 1971.

Adolph, K.W. and Haselkorn, R.   Photosynthesis and the development of blue-green algal virus N-1.
    Virology 47:370-374, 1972.

Adolph, K.W. and Haselkorn, R.  Comparison of the structures of blue-green algal viruses LPP-IMand
    LPP-2 and bacteriophage T7.  Virology 47:701-710, 1972.

Adolph,  K.W. and Haselkorn,  R.  Blue-green algal virus N-1: physical properties and disassembly
    into structural parts. Virology  53:427-440,  1973.

Adolph, K.W. and Haselkorn, R.   Isolation and characterization of a virus infecting a blue-green alga
    of the genus Synechococcus. Virology 54:230-236, 1 973.

AI-Musavi, R.A.  Effect of  photosynthesis and  respiration on growth of cyanophages of Anabaena
    variabilis.  Mikrobiologiya 46:725-729, 1977.

Allen,  M.M. and  Hutchison, F.  Effect of some  environmental  factors  on cyanophage AS-1
    development in Anacystis nidulans. Arch. Microbiol. 110:55-60,  1976.

Amla,  D.V.   Genetics of cyanophyceae and cyanophages. Ph.D.  Thesis, Banaras Hindu University,
    India, 1976.

Amla,  D.V.  Photoreactivation of ultraviolet irradiated blue-green alga  Anacystis  nidulans and
    cyanophage AS-1. Arch. Virology 59:173-179, 1979.

Asato, Y.  Ultraviolet light inactivation  and photoreactivation of AS-1 cyanophage in Anacystis
    nidulans. Jour. Bact. 126:550-552, 1976.

Barkley,  M.B.  Ultrastructure  of the blue-green alga Anacystis  nidulans infected with the AS-1
    virus. Ph.D. Thesis, University of California, Riverside, 1976.

Barkley,   M.B.  and  Desjardins,  P.R.  Simple,  effective  method  for   purifying  the  AS-1
    cyanophage. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 33:971-974, 1977.

Bobrovnik, S.A., Mendzhul, M.I., and Lysenko, T.G.   Kinetics mechanism and thermodynamics of
    cyanophage A-1 adsorption on the cells of algae-host. Biofizika  23.489-493, 1978.

Booth, S.J.  Isolation, identification,  and partial  characterization  of cyanophage LPP-2N.  Ph.D.
    Thesis, University of Nebraska, 1975.

 Borbely, G.,  Kolcsei, M., and Farkas, G.L.  Post-maturational cleavage of 23S ribosomal-RNA in
     Anacystis nidulans is inhibited by infection with cyanophage AS-1.  Molec. Biol. Rpts. 3:139-142,

 Brown, R.M., Jr.  Algal viruses. Adv.  Virus Research 17:243-277, 1972.

 Brown, R.M., Jr., Smith, K.M., and Walne, P.L.  Replication cycle of the blue-green algal virus LPP-1.
     Nature 212:729-730, 1966.

 Cannon, R.  Field and ecological studies on blue-green algal viruses. Proc. Symp. Water Quality
     Management Through  Biological  Control, Rpt.  No.  ENV-07-75-1, Dept.  Environ.  Eng.  Sci.,
     University of Florida, 1975.

 Cannon, R.E.  The effect of stress and  non-stress conditions upon the interaction of Plectonema
     boryanum and the LPP-phycoviruses. Ph.D. Thesis, University of Delaware, 1973.

 Cannon, R.E. and Shane,  M.S.  The  effect of antibiotic stress  on protein synthesis  in  the
     establishment of lysogeny of Plectonema boryanum. Virology 49:130-133, 1972.

 Cannon, R.E., Shane, M.S., and Bush, V.N.   Lysogeny of a blue-green alga Plectonema boryanum.
     Virology 45:149-153, 1971.

 Cannon, R.E., Shane, M.S., and DeMichele, E.  Ecology of blue-green algal viruses. Jour. Environ.
     Eng. Div., ASCE, 100:1205-1211, 1974.

 Cannon,  R.E.,  Shane,  M.S.,  and  Whitaker,  J.M.  Interaction   of  Plectonema  boryanum
     (Cyanophyceae) and the LPP-cyanophages in continuous culture. Jour. Phycol. 12:418-421,1976.

 Chaubey,  I.J.  Genetics  of  blue-green  algae and their viruses: isolation, characterization and
     mutagenesis of cyanophages. Ph.D. Thesis, Banaras Hindu University, India, 1973.

 Choudhury, I.D.  Genetics  of blue-green  algae and their  viruses. Ph.D. Thesis, Banaras Hindu
     University, India, 1973.

 Cocito,  C., Boucau. B., and  Goldstein, D.   Induction of a lytic cycle in lysogenic cyanophyces.
     Internal. Colloquia of the National Center for Scientific Research #261. Nucleic acids and protein
    synthesis  in plants. Strasbourg, France,  p. 657-662,  1976.

 Cocito, C. and Goldstein, D.  Inhibition of  lytic induction  in lysogenic cyanophyces. Jour. Virology
    23:483-491,  1977.

 Cowie, D.B. and Prager, L.K.   Cyanophyta  and their viruses. Carnegie Inst. Washington, Yearbook
     1968-1969, p. 391-397,  1970.

 Cowlishaw, J. and Mrsa, M.   Co-evolution of a virus-alga system. Appl. Microbiol. 29:234-239,

Daft, M.J., Begg, J., and Stewart, W.D.P.  A virus of blue-green algae from freshwater habitats in
    Scotland.  New Phytology 69:1029-1038, 1970.

Delaney, S.F., Herdman, M., and Carr, N.G.  Genetics of blue-green algae. 4. Cyanophages. In R.A.
    Lewin, (ed.), The Genetics of Algae,  University of California Press, Berkeley,  p. 15-16, 1976.

Desjardins, P. and Barkley, M.  AS-1 virus adsorption to cells and spheroplasts of Synechococcus
    cedrorum.  30th Ann. Proc. Electron  Microscopy Soc. Amer., p.  332-333, 1972.

Desjardins, P.R., Barkley. M.B., Swiecki, S.A., and West, S.N.   Viral control of blue-green algae.
    Report #169, California Water Resources Center, University of  California, 1978.

Dhaliwal, A.S. and Dhaliwal, G.K.   Chromatographic purification  of blue-green algal virus LPP-1.
    Adv. Frontiers Plant Sci. 21:195-203,  1968.

Dhaliwal, A.S. and Dhaliwal, G.K.  Physiology of algae and the in-vivo multiplication of algal virus.
    Adv. Frontiers Plant Sci. 24:65-74, 1970.

Dhar, B.  Genetics of blue-green algae and their viruses. Ph.D. Thesis,  Banaras Hindu University,
    India, 1972.

Fjerdingstad, E.  Gas vacuoles and other virus-like structures in blue-green algae.  Schweiz. Zeitsch.
    Hydrologie 34:135-154, 1972.

Fox, J.A., Booth, S.J., and Martin, E.L.   Cyanophage SM-2: a new blue-green algal virus. Virology
    73:557-560, 1976.

Ginzberg, D., Padan, E., and Shilo, M.  Effect of cyanophage infection on CCh photoassimilation in
    Plectonema boryanum. Jour. Virology 2:695-701, 1968.

Ginzberg, D., Padan, E.,  and Shilo, M.   Metabolic aspects of LPP cyanophage replication in the
    cyanobacterium Plectonema boryanum. Biochim. et Biophys. Acta 423:440-449, 1976.

Goldstein, D.A.  Some biological, chemical and physical properties of blue-green algal  virus LPP-1.
    Ph.D. Thesis, University of Pittsburgh,  1966.

Goldstein, D.A. and Bendet, I.J.  Physical properties of the DNA from  the blue-green algal virus
    LPP-1. Virology, 32:614-618,  1967.

Goldstein, D.A., Bendet, I.J., Lauffer, M.A., and Smith, K.M.   Some biological andphysicochemical
    properties of blue-green algal virus LPP-1. Virology 32:601-613, 1967.

Goryushin, V.A. and Chaplinskaya, S.M.  Existence of viruses of blue-green algae. Mikrobiol. Zh.
    Akad. Nauk. Ukr. RSR 28:94-97, 1966.

Goryushin, V.A. and Chaplinskaya, S.M.  Finding of the viruses lysing blue-green algae.  In Blooming
    Waters, Scientific Thought Publishing  House, Kiev, p. 171-174, 1968.

Goryushin, V.A. and Chaplinskaya,S.M.   Viruses of blue-green algae.  In V.D. Federov and M.M.
    Telitchenko (ed.), Topical Problems of  the Biology of Bluegreen Algae, IMauka, Moscow, p. 9-17,

Goryushin, V.A., Chaplinskaya, S.M. Shainskaya,  O.A., and Lakosnik,  V.IM.   Viruses lysing blue-
    green algae. In Viruses and Viral  Diseases of Plants, Naukova DTjmka, Kiev, p. 45-53, 1974.

Goryushin, V.A., Shatokhina, E.S., Grigoreva, G.A., and Shestakov, S.V.  Lysogeny in unicellular
    blue-green algae. Vestn. Mosk. Univ.,  Ser. VI, Biol. Pochvoved. 31:82-84, 1976.

Granhall, U.   Aphanizomenon flos-aquae:  infection by cyanophages. Physiol. Plantarum 26:332-337,

Granhall, U., and v. Hofsten, A.  The ultrastructure of a cyanophage attack on Anabaena variabilis.
    Physiol. Planatarum 22:713-722, 1969.

Gromov,  B.V.  Microorganisms—Algal  Parasites. University  of   Leningrad Publishing  House,
    Leningrad, 1976.

Gromov,  B.V., Khudyakov, I.Ya., and  Mamkaeva, K.A.  An electron microscopic study of the
    mtracellular development of cyanophage A-4(L).  Bull. Leningrad University, #1 5, p. 74-76,  1975.

 Gromov, B.V. and Kozyakov, S.Ya.  A study of the peculiarities of the interrelationship between a
     blue-green algal  population,  Plectonema boryanum and  cyanophage LPP-1. Bull. Leningrad
     University, #3, p.  128-135, 1970.

 Gromov, B.V., Kozyakov, S.Ya., Mamkaeva, K.A., and Gaevskaya, E.i.   Electron microscopic study
     of cyanophage A-1(L) development in the cells of blue-green alga Anabaena variabilis.  Bull. Acad.
     Sci. USSR, Biol., #2, p. 286-288, 1974.

 Haselkorn, R. and Rouviere-Yaniv, J.  Cyanobacterial DNA-binding protein related to Escherichia coli
     HU. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 73:1917-1920, 1976.

 Jackson, D.  and Sladecek, V.  Algal viruses—eutrophication control potential. Yale  Scientific
     Magazine 44:16-21, 1970.

 Karbysheva, E.A., Goryushin, V.A., Mikhailyuk, D.P., and Shestakov, S.V.  A study of the survival
     of cyanophage AM-1  irradiated with UV and x-rays in cells of radiosensitive mutants of the blue-
     green alga Anacystis nidulans.  Biol. Nauki. 17:118-121, 1974.

 Kashyap, A.K.   Mutagenesis in cyanophage LPP-1  and its host alga  Plectonema boryanum. Ph.D.
     Thesis, Banaras Hindu University, India,  1971.

 Katz, A.  Weckesser, J.,  Drews,  G.,  and  Mayer, H.  Chemical and biological studies  on  the
     lipopolysaccharide (0-antigen) of Anacystis nidulans. Arch. Microbiol. 113:247-256, 1977.

 Kaushik, B.D. and Venkataraman, G.S.  Isolation of a new cyanophage, TAuHN-1.  Current Science
     42:395-396,  1973.

 Khudyakov, I.Ya.  Characteristics of a new cyanophage S-2L lysing the unicellular cyanobacterium
     belonging to Synechococcus genus. Mikrobiologiya 46:547-553, 1977.

 Khudyakov, I.Ya. and Gromov, B.V.  The temperate cyanophage A-4(L) of  the  blue-green alga
    Anabaena variabilis. Mikrobiologiya 42:904-907, 1973.

 Khudyakov,  I.Ya.,   Kirnos,  M.D.,  Aleksandrushkina,  IM.I.,  and Vanyushin,  B.F.  2,6-
    Diaminopurine—a new adenine substituting base in DNAof cyanophage S-2.  DokladyAkad. Nauk.
    SSSR 232:965-968, 1977.

 Khudyakov, I.Ya., Kirnos, M.D., Alexandrushkina, IM.I., and Vanyushin, B.F.  Cyanophage S-2L
    contains DNA with 2,6-diaminopurine substituted for adenine.  Virology 88:8-18, 1978.

 Kirillova, P.M. and Chaplinskaya, S.M.  Morphogenesis of the virus of blue-green  algae studied by
    electron microscopy. Mikrobiologiya 42:510-512, 1973.

 Kirnos, M.D., Khudyakov, I.Ya., Alexandrushkina, IM.I., and Vanyushin, B.F.  2-Aminoadenine is an
    adenine substituting for a base in S-2L cyanophage DNA. Nature 270:369-370, 1977.

 Kozyakov, S.Ya.  A study of the development of cyanophage A-1 (L) in a culture of the blue-green alga
    Anabaena variabilis.  Bull. Leningrad University, #15, p. 102-108, 1974.

Kozyakov, S.Ya.  Cyanophages of series A(L), specific for blue-green algae Anabaena variabilis. In
    B.V. Gromov, (ed.), Experimental Algology. Biological Scientific Research Institute, Leningrad State
    University, p.  151-171, 1977.

Kozyakov, S.Ya. and Efremova, L.P.   A comparative study of the cyanophages of Anabaena variabilis
    by the method of electrophoresis.  Bull. Leningrad University, #21,  p. 104-106, 1975.

 Kozyakov, S.Ya., Gromov, B.V., and Khudyakov, I.Ya.  A-1(L)—cyanophage of the blue-green alga
    Anabaena variabilis.  Mikrobiologiya 41:555-559, 1972.

 Luftig, R.B.  Studies on cyanophage LPP-1. Ph.D. Thesis, University of Chicago, 1967.

 Luftig,  R. and Haselkorn,  R.  Morphology of a virus  of blue-green algae and properties of its
    deoxyribonucleic acid. Jour. Virology  1:344-361,  1967.

 Luftig, R. and Haselkorn,R.  Studies on the structure of blue-green algae virus LPP-1. Virology 34:
    664-674, 1968.

 Luftig, R. and Haselkorn, R.  Comparison of blue-green algae virus LPP-1 and the morphologically
    related viruses Gill and coliphage T7.  Virology 34:675-678, 1968.

 Mackenzie, J.J.  An investigation of the blue-green algae virus SM-1. Ph.D. Thesis, University of
    Chicago, 1972.

 Mackenzie, J.J. and Haselkorn, R.  Physical properties of blue-green algal virus SM-1 and its DNA.
    Virology 49:497-504, 1972.

 Mackenzie, J.J. and Haselkorn, R.  An electron microscope study of infection by the blue-green algal
    virus SM-1. Virology 49:505-516,  1972.

 Mackenzie, J.J. and Haselkorn, R.  Photosynthesis and the development of blue-green algal virus
    SM-1. Virology 49:517-521, 1972.

 McLaughlin, T. and Lazaroff, IM.   PhotoGensitization of cyanophage N-1  Jour. Gen. Virology 25:1 71 -
    174, 1974.

 McMillan, J.A.  S-2, a new virus of unicellular cyanobacteria.  Ph.D. Thesis, University of Wisconsin,

 Mendzhul. M.I., Bobrovnik, S.P.,  and Lysenko, T.G.  Study of cyanophage LPP-1 adsorption on cells
    of cyanophyceae (Plectonema boryanum). Voprosy Virusologii #1, p. 31-36, 1974.

 Mendzhul,  M.I..Bobrovnik, S.P., Lysenko, T.G., and  Shved, A.D.  Effect of  certain  physioco-
    chermcal factors on the infectivity of cyanophages A-1, LPP-1A, and  LPP-3  Mikrobiol  Zh.
    37:73-79, 1975.

 Mendzhul, M.I., Lysenko, T.G., and Bobrovnik, S.P.  Effect of several physicochemical factors on
    reproduction of  A-1  and LPP-1A viruses in  algal cells. MikrobioJ. Zh 36:738-742, 1974

 Mendzhul, M.I., Lysenko, T.G., Bobrovnik, S.P., Sagun.T.S., and IMesterova, IM.V.  Detection of the
    blue-green  algae virus with octahedral type of symmetry  Mikrobiol Zh. 37 71 3-71 7,  1 975

 Mendzhul, M.I., Lysenko, T.G., Bobrovnik, S.P., and Spivak, M.Ya.  Detection of A-1 virus of blue
    green alga Anabaena variabilis in the Kremenchug artificial reservoir. Mikrobiol. Zh. 35:747-751,

Mendzhul, M.I., IMesterova,IM.V.. Zhuk, I.P., Gorbarenko, M.I., and Lysenko, T.G.   Formation of the
    infectious form  of the blue-green algal virus in plant tissue culture Mikrobiol Zh 35:601-605

 Mendzhul, M.I. and Zhygir, V.V.   Electron microscopic investigation of thecaudal process structure of
    the virus LPP-1  isolate.  Mikrobiol  Zh 33460-464, 1971

 Mendzhul, M.I., Zhygir,  V.V., Bobrovnik, S.P., and Lysenko, T.G.  Identification of virus LPP-1
     isolates from artificial water bodies of the Dnieper.  Mikrobiol. Zh. 36:47-53, 1974.

 Mendzhul, M.I., Zhygir, V.V., Bobrovnik, S.P., and Lysenko, T.G.  Some biological properties of
     cyanophage LPP-1 strain. Mikrobiol. Zh. 36:185-189, 1974.

 Mendzhul, M.I., Zhygir, V.V., and Lysenko, T.G.  Concentration of LPP-1 virus using polyethylene
     glycol.  Mikrobiol. Zh.  34:375-377, 1972

 Menzel, G. and Stenz, E.   Effect of virazole (ribavirin) on virus-prokaryote systems. Acta Microbiol
     Acad.  Sci  Hungary 25:1 1-15, 1978

 Menzel, G., Stenz, E., Toure, I.M., Gebler, B., and Schuster, G.  Effect of several plant growth
     regulators on various prokaryotes and their viruses  Zeitschrift fur Allg. Mikrobiologie  15:259-
     268, 1975

 Moskovets, S.M.,  Mendzhul,  M.I., Nesterova,  N.V..  Dyachenko, M.S., Vantsak, N.P.,  and
     Lysenko,  T.G.   Infection of HeLa cells with nucleic acids of LPP group algophages.  Mikrobiol. Zh
     3643-46, 1974.

 Moskovets, S.M.,  Mendzhul, M.I., Mesterova, N.V., Khil, O.S., and Zhygir, V.V.  A virus lysmg
     certain species of blue-green algae  Biol. Nauki. 14:88-91,  1971.

 Moskovets, S.M.,  Nesterova,  N.V., Votselko,  S.K., Stepaniuk,  V.V.,  Mendzhul. M.I.,  and
     Pilipenko, V.G.  Physical characteristics and electron microscopy of virus LPP-1 DNA. Mikrobiol.
     Zh  33583-589, 1971.

Nesterova,IM. V., Pilipenko, V.G., Mendzhul, M.I., and Votselko, S.K.  Study of structural proteins of
     LPP-1A cyanophage. Mikrobiol Zh. 37:606-609, 1975.

 Nesterova, N.V., Sagun, T.S., Pilipenko, V.G., and  Aleksandrushkina, N.I.  Nucleotidecomposition
     of DNA in blue-green alga Plectonema boryanum and virus LPP-1. Mikrobiol. Zh. 35:126-129,

 Padan, E.,  Ginsburg, D., and Shilo, M.  The reproductive cycle of cyanophage LPP1 -G \r\Plectonema
    boryanum and its dependence on photosynthetic and respiratory systems Virology 40:514-521,

Padan, E.,  Raboy, B., and Shilo, M.   Endogenous dark respiration of the blue-green alga, Plectonema
    boryanum. Jour Bactenol 106:45-50, 1971

Padan,  E.,  Rimon,  A., Ginzburg,  D., and Shilo, M.  A  thermosensitive cyanophage (LPP1-G)
    attacking the blue-green alga Plectonema boryanum.  Virology 45:773-776, 1971

Padan, E. and  Shilo, M.  Spread of viruses attacking blue-green algae m freshwater ponds and their
    interaction with Plectonema boryanum  Bamidgeh 20 77-87, 1968.

Padan, E. and Shilo, M.  Distribution of  cyanophages  in natural  habitats  Verh.  Internal  Verem
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Padan, E. and  Shilo, M.  Cyanophages  viruses attacking blue-green algae  Bactenol  Reviews  37:
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Padan, E.,  Shilo,  M., and Kislev, N.   Isolation of "cyanophages" from fresh water ponds and their
    interaction with Plectonema boryanum. Virology 32 234-246, 1967

Pndan, E., Shilo, M., and Oppenheim, A.B.  Lysogenv of the blue green alga Plectonema boryanum
    by LPP2-SPI cyanophage. Virology 47:525-526,  1972.

 Padhy. R.N. and Singh, P.K.  Mutation to resistance for virus N-1 in the blue-green alga Nostoc
    muscorum. Arch. Virology 52:85-90, 1976.

 Padhy, R.IM. and Singh, P.K.   Effect of physical and chemical agents on the blue-green alga I virus N-1.
    Acta Virologica  21:264-267, 1977.

 Padhy, R.N. and Singh, P.K.  Effect of temperature on the adsorption and one-step growth  of the
    Nostoc virus N-1. Arch. Microbiol. 115:163-167,  1977.

 Padhy, R.N. and Singh, P.K.  Effect of  pH and EDTA on multiplication of the blue-green algal virus
    N-1. Microbios  Letters  5:135-139, 1977.

 Padhy, R.M. and  Singh, P.K.  Stabilizing effects of metallic ions  in the blue-green algal virus N-1.
    Biochem. Physiol. Pflanz. 173:188-192, 1978.

 Padhy, R.N. and Singh, P.K.  Effects of host aging, ions, and pH on the adsorption of the cyanovirus
    N-1 \oNostocmuscorum.  Arch. Microbiol. 116:289-292, 1978.

 Padhy, R.N. and Singh, P.K.  Lysogeny in the blue-green alga Nostoc muscorum. Arch. Microbiol.
    117:265-268, 1978.

 Parker, D.L.,  Jansen,  G.P.,  and Corbett,  L.   Effects of  cyanophage SAM-1  upon Microcystis
    aerugmosa U.S.  Environmental  Protection Agency, Ecological Research Series,  EPA-600/3-
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 Pearson, N.J., Small, E.A., and Allen, M.M.  Electron microscopic study of the infection oiAnacystis
    nidulans by the  cyanophage AS-1. Virology 65:469-479, 1975.

 Peelen, R.  Possibilities to prevent blue-green algal growth in the Delta region of the Netherlands.
    Verh. Internal. Verein. Limnol. 17:763-766, 1969.

 Pilipenko, V.G.. Nesterova, N.V., Mendzhul, M.I.. and Bobrovnik. S.P.  Certain properties of lytic
    enzymes of LPP-1A cyanophage  Mikrobiol. Zh.  37:460-467, 1975.

 Polukhina, L.E.,  Karbysheva, E.A., and Shestakov, S.V.  Reactivation of ultraviolet irradiated
    cyanophage AS-1 in cells of the blue-green alga Anacystis nidulans. Vestn. Mosk. Univ., Ser. VI,
    Biol. Pochvoved. 31:30-33, 1976.

Raboy, B., Padan,  E.,  and Shilo,  M.   Heterotrophic capacities  of Plectonerna boryanum.  Arch.
    Microbiol 110:77-85, 1976

Reim, R.L., Shane, M.S., and Cannon, R.E.   The characterization  of a-bacillus capable of blue-green
    bactericidal activity.  Can  J. Microbiol. 20:981-986,  1974.

Rimon, A. and Oppenheim, A.B.   Isolation and genetic mapping of temperature-sensitive mutants of
    cyanophage LPP2-SPI   Virology 62.454-569,  1974.

Rimon, A. and Oppenheim, A.B.  Heat induction of the  blue-green alga Plectonema boryanum
    lysogenic for the cyanophage SPIcfsL Virology 64:454-463, 1975.

Rimon, A. and Oppenheim,  A.B.   Protein  synthesis  following  infection of the blue-green alga
    Plectonema boryanum with the  temperate virus SPI and its ts mutants.  Virology 71:444-452,

Rubenchik, L.I.. Bershova,  O.I.. Novikova, N.S., and Kopteva, Zh.P.   Lysis of the blue-green alga
    Microcystis pulverea. Mikrobiol. Zh. Akad. Nauk. Ukr. RSR 2888-91, 1966.

 Safferman, R.S.  Virus diseases in blue-green algae. In D.F. Jackson (ed.), Algae, Man, and the
     Environment. Syracuse University Press, Syracuse, New York, p. 429-439, 1968.

 Safferman, R.S.   Phycoviruses. In N.G. Carr and B.A. Whitton (ed.), The Biology of Blue-green Algae,
     Blackwell Sci.  Pub., Oxford, p. 214-237, 1973.

 Safferman, R.S.  Special methods—virus detection in cyanophyceae. In J.R. Stein (ed.), Handbook
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     Press,  London, p.  145-158,  1973.

 Safferman, R.S.,Diener, T.O.,Desjardins, P.R., and Morris, M.E.  Isolation and characterization of
     AS-1,  a phycovirus infecting the  blue-green  algae Anacystis nidulans  and  Synechococcus
     cedrorum. Virology 47:105-113, 1972.

 Safferman, R.S. and  Morris, M.E.  Algal virus: isolation. Science 140:679-680, 1963.

 Safferman, R.S. and  Morris, M.E.  Control of algae with viruses. Jour. Amer. Water Wks. Assoc.
     56:1217-1224, 1964.

 Safferman, R.S. and Morris, M.E.  Growth  characteristics  of  the blue-green algal virus LPP-1.
     Jour. Bacteriol. 88:771-775, 1964.

 Safferman, R.S. and Morris, M.E.  Observations on the occurrence, distribution, and seasonal
     incidence of blue-green algal viruses.  Appl. Microbiol. 15:1219-1222, 1967.

 Safferman, R.S.,  Morris,  M.E., Sherman,  L.A.,  and  Haselkorn, R.  Serological  and electron
     microscopic characterization of a new group of blue-green algal viruses (LPP-2). Virology 39:775-
     780, 1969.

 Safferman, R.S., Schneider, I.R., Steere,  R.L., Morris, M.E., and Diener, T.O.   Phycovirus SM-1: a
     virus infecting  unicellular blue-green algae. Virology 37:386-395, 1969.

 Samimi, B. and  Drews, G.   Adsorption of cyanophage AS-1 to unicellular cyanobacteria and isolation
     of receptor material from Anacystis nidulans. J. Virology 25:164-174, 1978.

 Satava, J. Blue-green  algae and cyanophagesasa model in molecular biology. Biol. Listy 41:121-1 24,

 Schneider,  I.R., Diener, T.O., and Safferman, R.S.  Blue-green algal virus LPP-1: purification and
     partial characterization. Science  144:1127-1130, 1964.

 Shane,  M.S. Distribution of blue-green  algal viruses in various types of natural waters.  Water
     Research 5:711-716, 1971.

 Shane,  M.S., Cannon, R.E., and DeMichele, E.   Pollution effects on phycovirus  and host algae
     ecology. Jour. Water Pollution Control Fed. 44:2294-2302, 1972.

 Shane, M.S., Wilson, S.B., and  Fries, C.R.  Virus-host system for use in the study of virus removal.
     Jour. Amer.  Water Wks. Assoc. 59:1184-1186, 1967.

 Sharma, C.R., Venkataraman, G.S., and Prakash, N.  Cyanophage AC-1  infecting the blue-green
     alga Anacystis nidulans.  Current Science 46:496-497, 1977.

 Sherman, L.A.  The structure and replication of the blue-green algae virus, LPP-1.  Ph.D.  Thesis,
     University of Chicago, 1970.

 Sherman,  L.A.   Infection  of Synechococcus  cedrorum  by the  cyanophage  AS-1M. III. Cellular
     metabolism and phage  development. Virology 71:199-206,  1976.


Sherman, L.A. and Brown, P.M., Jr.  Cyanophages and viruses of eukaryotic algae. //; H. Fraenkel-
    Conrat and R.R. Wagner (ed.). Comprehensive Virology 1 2, Plenum Press, New York, p. 145-234,

Sherman,  L.A. and  Connelly,  M.  Isolation  and  characterization of  a  cyanophage infecting the
    unicellular blue-green algae A. nidulans and S. cedrorum. Virology 72:540-544, 1976.

Sherman,  L.A., Connelly, M., and Sherman, D.M.   Infection of Synechococcus cedrorum by the
    cyanophage AS-1M. I. Ultrastructure of infection  and phage assembly. Virology 71:1-16, 1976.

Sherman,  L.A. and Haselkorn, R.  LPP-1 infection  of the blue-green alga Plectonema boryanum.
    I. Electron microscopy. Jour. Virology 6:820-833, 1970.

Sherman,  L.A. and Haselkorn, R.   LPP-1  infection of the blue-green  alga Plectonema boryanum.
    II. Viral deoxyribonucleic acid synthesis and host deoxyribonucleic acid  breakdown  Jour Virology
    6:834-840, 1970.

Sherman,  L.A. and Haselkorn, R.   LPP-1  infection of the blue-green  alga Plectonema boryanum.
    III. Protein synthesis.  Jour. Virology 6:841-846, 1970.

Sherman, L.A. and Haselkorn, R.   Growih of blue-green algae virus LPP-1 under conditions which
    impair  photosynthesis. Virology 45:739-746, 1971.

Sherman,  L.A. and Pauw, P.  Infection of Synechococcus  cedrorum by the cyanophage  AS-IM.
    II. Protein and DNA synthesis.  Virology 71:17-27, 1976.

Shilo, M.  Biological agents which cause  lysis of blue-green algae. Mitt. Internal. Verein. Limnol.
    19:206-213, 1971.

Shilo, M.  The ecology of cyanophages. Bamidgeh 24:76-82, 1972.

Silverberg, J., Rimon, A., Kessel, M., and Oppenheim, A.B.   Assembly site of cyanophage LPP-2-
    SPI  in Plectonema boryanum. Virology  77:437-440, 1977.

Singh, P.K.  Occurrence and distribution of cyanophages  in ponds, sewage, and rice fields. Arch.
    Mikrobiol. 89:169-172, 1973.

Singh, P.K.  Isolation and characterization  of a new virus infecting the blue-green alga Plectonema
    boryanum. Virology 58:586-588, 1974.

Singh, P.K.  Lysogeny of blue-green alga  Plectonema boryanum by long tailed virus. Molec. Gen.
    Genet.  137:181-183, 1975.                                 - _

Singh,  P.K.  Photoreactivation of  UV-irradiated blue-green algae and algal  virus LPP-1. Arch.
    Microbiol 103:297-302, 1975.

Singh, P.K. Sensitization of algal virus to UV by the incorporation of 5-bromouracil and mutations of
    host alga Plectonema boryanum. Zeitsch. Allg. Mikrobiol. 15:547-552, 1975.

Singh, R.IM.  The genetics of cyanophyceae and cyanophages: problems and prospects. J. Indian Bot.
    Soc. 50A:401-415, 1971.

Singh, R.N. and Chaubey, I.J. Induction  of rapid lysis mutation by hydroxylamine in cyanophage
    LPP-1.  J. Cytol. Genet. 11:116-121, 1976.

Singh, R.N. and Kashyap, A.K.  Mutagenesis  in cyanophage LPP-1. Mutat. Res. 37:19-25, 1976.

  Singh, R.IM. and Kashyap, A.K.  Induction of mutations in the blue-green a\qa Plectonema boryanum
     Gomont. Mutat. Res. 43:37-44, 1977.

  Singh, R.IM. and Kashyap, A.K.   Isolation and characterization of temperature sensitive mutants of
     cyanophage LPP-1.  Molec. Gen. Genet. 154:31-34, 1977.

  Singh, R.N. and Singh, P.K.  Isolation of cyanophages from India.  Nature 216:1020-1021, 1967.

  Singh, R.IM. and Singh, P.K.  Ultraviolet damage, modifications and repair of blue-green algae and
     their viruses. In T.V. Desikachary (ed.). Taxonomy and Biology of Blue-Green Algae, University of
     Madras Press, India, p. 246-257, 1972.

  Singh, R.IM. and Singh, P.K.  Transduction and lysogeny in blue-green algae. In T.V. Desikachary
     (ed.), Taxonomy and Biology of Blue-green Algae, University of Madras Press, India, p. 258-261,

  Singh, R.IM., Singh, P.K., Kashyap, A.K., Sarma, T.A., Dhar, B., Chaubey, I.J.. andChoudhury, I.D.
     Isolation  and  characterization of new cyanophages and mutations of LPP-1 and  host  alga
     Plectonema  boryanum. In T.V. Desikachary (ed.), Taxonomy and Biology of Blue-green Algae,
     University of Madras Press, India, p. 585-591, 1972.

  Singh,  S.P.   and  Kashyap,  A.K.  Manganese  toxicity  and mutagenesis  in  two blue-green
     algae.  Environ. & Exptl. Bot. 18:47-53, 1978.

  Sirenko, L.A., Myslovich, V.O., Goryushin, V.A., and Mikhailyuk, D.P.   Effect of infection  with
     cyanophage  AM-1 on the metabolism  of the blue-green alga. Fiziol. Rast. 23:1214-1218, 1976.

  Smedberg, C.T.  and Cannon, R.E.  Cyanophage analysis as a biological pollution indicator-bacterial
     and viral. Jour. Water Pollution Control Fed. 48:2416-2426, 1976.

  Smith, K.M., Brown, R.M., Jr.,  Goldstein, D.A., and Walne, P.L.   Culture methods for the blue-
     green alga Plectonema boryanum and its virus with an  electron microscope study of the virus-
     infected cells. Virology 28:580-591, 1966.

 Smith, K.M., Brown, R.M., Jr.,  and Walne, P.L.   Ultrastructural  and  time-lapse studies on the
     replication cycle of the blue-green algal virus LPP-1.  Virology 31:329-337, 1967.

 Smith, K.M., Brown, R.M., Jr.,  Walne.  P.L., and  Goldstein. D.A.  Electron microscopy of the
     infection process of the blue-green alga virus. Virology 30:182-1 92, 1966.

 Stanley, J.L.  and  Cannon,  R.E.   Serological  typing and chlorination  resistance of wastewater
     cyanophages. Jour. Water Pollution Control Fed. 49:1993-1999, 1977.

 Stenz, E. and Menzel,  G.   Effect of  1,3,5-triazines on several prokaryote viruses and their hosts.
     Zeitsch. fur Allge. Mikrobiol. 18:115-121, 1978.

 Stepaniuk,  V.V.,  Mendzhul, M.I., Zhygir,  V.V., Bobrovnik, S.P., and IMesterova, N.V.  Electron
     microscopic study of DNA from the virus of Plectonema boryanum. Mikrobiol. Zh. 34:748-753,

 Stewart, W.D.P. and Daft, M.J.  Algal lysing agents of freshwater habitats.  In F.A. Skinner and J.G.
     Carr (ed.). Microbiology in Agriculture, Fisheries and Food, Symposium Series #4, Academic Press,
     New York, p.  63-90. 1976.

 Stewart, W.D.P.  and Daft, M.J.  Microbial pathogens of cyanophycean blooms.  In M.R. Droop and
     H.W. Jannasch  (ed.), Advances in Aquatic Microbiology, Vol. 1,  Academic Press, London,
     p.  177-218, 1977.


Topatschewsky, A.V. and Sirenko, L.A.  Ecophysiological aspects of blooming and the problem of
    pure water. Verh. Internal. Verem. Limnol.  18 1338-1347, 1973.

Udvardy, J., Sivok, B., Borbely,  G., and  Farkas, G.L.   Formation in the dark  of virus-induced
    deoxyribonuclease  activity  in  Anacystis  nidulans,  an obligate photoautotroph.  Jour.  Bact.
    126:630-633,  1976.

Venkataraman, G.S. and Kaushik, B.D.   Cyanophages.  New Botanist 1:96-102, 1974

Venkataraman, G.S., Kaushik, B.D., Subramanian, G., Shanmugasundaram, S.. and Govindarajan,
    A.   Cyanophage AC-1:  a phage infecting unicellular and colonial blue-green algae. Current
    Science 42:104-105, 1973.

Vorontsova, G.V., Karbysheva, E.A., Goryushin, V.A., and Shestakov, S.V.  Effect of caffeine and
    acriflavine on survival of UV-irradiated cyanophage AM-1 in the cells of radiosensitive mutants of
    Anacystis nidulans.  Biol.  Nauki, #11, p.  107-110,  1974.

Werbin, H., Wu, J.H., and Lewin, R.  In vivo and in vitro photoreactivation studies with a blue-green
    alga, Plectonema boryanum and its virus, LPP-1. Texas Jour. Science 19436-437, 1967

Wu, J.H., Choules, G.L., and Lewin, R.A.   Early stages of the infection process in a blue-green algal
    virus system, as affected by KCN and light. In Biochemical Regulation in Diseased Plants or Injury,
    The Phytopathological Society of Japan,  Tokyo, p.  153-160, 1968

Wu, J.H., Lewin,  R.A.,  and Werbin, H.P.  Photoreactivation of UV-irradiated blue-green algal virus
    LPP-1. Virology 31.657-664, 1967.

Wu, J.H. and Shugarman, P.M. Effect of virus infection on rate of photosynthesis and respiration of a
    blue-green  alga, Plectonema boryanum.  Virology 32:166-167, 1967.

Zatula, D.G., Pilipenko, V.G., Mendzhul, M.I.,  Nesterova, N.V., and Lysenko,  T.G.  Studies in
    mtracellular development and dynamics of biosynthesis of lytic enzymes of cyanophage LPP-1 A in
    Plectonema boryanum cells.  Proc. Acad. Sci., URSR, #2, p. 178-181, 1976.
                                                                                         1 1

             Viruses  and Virus-Like Agents of Eucaryotic Algae

 Baker, J.R.J. and Evans. L.V.   The ship fouling a\gaEctocarpus: I. Ultrastructure and cytochemistry of
     plunlocular reproductive stages.  Protoplasma 77:1-13, 1973.

 Chapman,  R.L. and  Lang, N.J.  Virus-like particles and  nuclear  inclusions m the red alga
     Porphyridium purpureum (Bory) Drew et Ross  Jour  Phycology 9:117 122, 1973

 Clitheroe, S.B. and Evans, L.V.  Virus-like particles in the  brown alga Ectocarpus Jour  Ultra-
     structure Research 49:211-217,  1974.

 Franca,  S.   On the presence of virus-like particles  in the dinoflagellate Gyrodinium resplendens
     (Hulburt)  Protistologica 12:425-430, 1976

 Gibbs, A., Skotnicki, A.H., Gardiner, J.E., Walker, E.S., and H oil ings, M.  A tobamovirus of a green
     alga.  Virology 64 571-574,  1975

 Gromov,  B.V. and Mamkaeva, K.A.  Electron microscope examination of Bdellovibrio chlorellavorus
     parasitism on cells of the green alga Chlorella  vulyaris. Cytology  14 256-260, 1972

 Hoffman, L.R.  Virus-like particles in Hydrurus (Chrysophyceae). J. Phycol  14110-114, 1978.

 Hoffman, L.R. and Stanker, L.H.  Virus-like particles in the green alga Cylindrocapsa. Canad Jour
     Botany 54 2827-2841, 1976

 Kawakami, H.  and Kawakami, l\l.  Behavior of a virus m a symbiotic  system, Paramecium bursar/a
    Zoochlorella.  J. Protozool 25 217-225,  1978

 LaClaire, J.W., II and West, J.A.  Virus-like particles in the brown alga Streblonema  Protoplasma
    93 127-130,  1977

 Lee, R.E.  Systemic viral  material  in cells of the freshwater red alga S/rodotia tenuissinin (Holden)
    Skuja Jour. Cell Science 8:623-631, 1971

 Lemke, P.A.   Viruses of eucaryotic microorganisms. Ann. Rev. Microbiol 30 105-145, 1976.

 Mamkaeva, K.A.  Studies of lysis m  cultures of Chlorella  Mikrobiologiya 35 853-859, 1966

 Markey, D.R.  A possible virus  infection in  the brown alga Pylaiolla littorj/is  Protoplasma 80 223
    232.  1974

 Mattox, K.R., Stewart, K.D., and Floyd, G.L.  Probable virus infections in four genera of green algae
    Canac! Jour Microbiol  1816201621.1972

Moestrup, O. and Thomsen, H.A.  An  ultrastructural study of the flagellate Pyramimonas onenta/is
    with particular emphasis on Golgi apparatus activity and the flagellar apparatLis  Protoplasma 81
    247-2G9.  1974

Moskovets. S.M., Mendzhul, M.I., Zhygir, V.V., Nesterova, N.V., and Khil, O.S.  The morphology of
    the lytic agent of Chlorella pyrenoidosa Pringh. Voprosy Virusologii 16:98-100, 1971.

Oliveira, L. and Bisalputra, T.  A virus infection in the brown alga Sorocarpus uvaeformis (Lyngbye)
    Prmgsheim (Phaeophyta, Ectocarpales) Ann. Bot. 42:439-445, 1978.

Pearson, B.R. and Morris, R.E.  Intranuclear virus-like particles in the marine alga Platymonas sp.
    (Chlorophyta, Prasmophyceae). Phycologia 13:5-9, 1974.

Pickett-Heaps, J.D.  A possible virus infection in the green alga Oedogonium. Jour. Phycology 8:44-
    47, 1972

Pienaar, R.IM.  Virus-like particles in 3 species of phytoplankton from San Juan Island, Washington.
    Phycologia 15:185-190, 1976.

Skotnicki, A.. Gibbs, A., and Wrigley, I\!.G.  Further studies on Chara coraltina virus. Virology 75:
    457-468,  1976.

Tikhonenko,  A.S.  and  Zavarzina,  IM.V.  Morphology  of  the lytic   agent  of  Chlorella
    pyrenoidosa  Mikrobiologiya 35:850-852, 1966.

Toth, R. and Wilce, R.T.  Virus-like particles  in  the  marine alga Chorda tomentosa Lyngbye
    (Phaeophyceae). Jour. Phycology 8:1 26-1 30, 1972

Tripodi, G.  and Beth, K.  Unusual cell structures in tumor-hke formations of Gracilana (Rhodophyta).
    Arch Microbiol  108 167-174, 1976

Zavarzina, IM.B.  A lytic agent in cultures of Chlorella pyrenoidosa Pringh  Doklady Akad. Nauk. SSSR
    137435-437, 1961.

Zavarzina, IM.B.  Lysis of Chlorella cultures in the absence of bacteria Mikrobiologiya 33:561-564,

Zavarzina. N.B. and Protsenko, A.E.  On lysis of <) culture of Ch/orella [)yreno/dosa Pringh.  Doklady
    Akad Nauk  SSSR  122936 939 1958

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                                                                              22. PRICE
EPA Form 2220-1 (9-73)

                                                        £ U. S. GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE: 1979-657-060/1656 Region No. 5-11