United States
                             Environmental Protection
                             Agency
                      Office of Water
                      4601
            EPA811-F-95-003CC-T
                   October 1995
                              National Primary Drinking
                             Water Regulations
                             Toxaphene
  CHEMICAL/PHYSICAL PROPERTIES

  CAS NUMBER: 8001-35-2

  COLOR/ FORM/ODOR:
    Amber waxy solid with a piney odor; a
    mixture of polychlorinated compounds,
    available as a dust, wettable powder, .
    or as emulsifiable or oil solutions

  M.P.: 65-90C   B.P.: Decomposes

  VAPOR PRESSURE: 0.4 mm Hg at 25 C

  OCTANOL/WATER PARTITION (Kow):
    Log Kow = 3.3

  DENSITY/SPEC. GRAV.: 1.65 at 25 C
SOLUBILITY:  3 mg/L of water at 22 C;
   Slightly soluble in water

SOIL SORPTION COEFFICIENT:
   Koc = 2.1x105; very low mobility in soil

ODOR/TASTE THRESHOLDS:   Odor thresh-
   old in water is 0.14 mg/L

BlOCONCENTRATION FACTOR:
   BCFs of 3100 to 69,000 in fish; high
   potential to bioconcentrate in aquatic
   organisms.

HENRY'S LAW COEFFICIENT:
   0.063 to 0.005 atm-cu m/mole; will
   volatilize from water/soil
TRADE NAMES/SYNONYMS:
   Chlorinated camphene,
   Octachlorocamphene, Camphochlor,
   Agricide Maggot Killer, Alltex, Crestoxo,
   Compound 3956, Estonox, Fasco-
   Terpene, Geniphene, Hercules 3956,
   M5055, Melipax, Motox, Penphene,
   Phenacide, Phenatox, Strobane-T,
   Toxadust, Toxakil, Vertac 90%, Toxon
   63, Attac, Anatox, Royal Brand Bean
   Tox 82, Cotton Tox MP82, Security Tox-
   Sol-6, Security Tox-MP cotton spray, .
   Security Motox 63 cotton spray, Agro-
   Chem Brand Torbidan 28, Dr Roger's
   TOX-ENE
DRINKING WATER STANDARDS
  MCLG:      zero mg/L
  MCL:       0.003 mg/L
  HAL(child):  none

HEALTH EFFECTS SUMMARY
  Acute: EPA has found toxaphene to potentially cause
the following  health effects from acute exposures at
levels above the MCL: central nervous system effects
including restlessness, hyperexcitability, tremors, spasms
or convulsions.
  EPA has not set drinking water levels which are consid-
ered "safe" for short-term exposures.
  Chronic:  Toxaphene has the potential to cause the
following  health effects from long-term exposures at
levels above the  MCL: liver and kidney degeneration;
central nervous system effects; possible immune system
suppression.
  Cancer: There is some evidence that toxaphene may
have  the potential to  cause cancer from a lifetime
exposure at levels above the MCL.

USAGE PATTERNS
  Production of toxaphene in 1977 was nearly 40 million
pounds. By 1982, when EPA cancelled most of its uses,
consumption was reported at 12 million  pounds.
                  Toxaphene was used as  an insecticide for cotton
                (50%), vegetables (17%), livestock and poultry (17%|
                soybeans (12%), alfalfa, wheat and sorghum (5%).
                  All formulations are now Restricted Use Pesticides'
                Special livestock formulations are available  & recorrv.
                mended for the control of scab mites or mange  orjj
                livestock. Rigo  Toxaphene 6 has been registered for:
                sicklepod control in AL, GA, MS, AR, NC, SC, & TN as
                24(C) registrations for special local needs. Strobane T-
                90 has a broad  spectrum activity as stomach & contact
                residual insecticide, & it has shown activity against sev-
                eral species of worms, scab,  mites, homflies, Nee  &
                mealybugs & major cotton insects. In the past, it has been
                used as piscicide (fish toxicant) in lakes.
                  Other minor uses: for armyworms, cutworms, & grass-
                hoppers;  for  mealybug &  pineapple gummosis moth
                control  on pineapples  & weevil  control  on  bananas.
                Conditional and restricted use as an insecticide and as a
                miticide in foliar treatment of: cranberries, strawberries,
                apples, pears, quinces, nectarines, peaches, bananas,
                pineapple, eggplant, peppers, pimentos, tomatoes, broc-
                coli, brussel sprouts, cabbage, cauliflower, collards, kale,
                kohlrabi, spinach, lettuce (head and leaf), parsnips, ruta-
                bagas,  beans (lima,  green and  snap), corn (sweet),
                cowpeas, okra, alfalfa, barley, oats, rice, rye, wheat,
                celery, cotton, horseradish, peanuts,  peas, sunflowers,
                soybeans, ornamental plants, birch, elm, hickory, maple
                oak, and  noncrop areas. Also used in seed crop foliar
October 1995
         Technical Version
             Printed on Recycled Paper

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treatment of clover and trefoil; In soil treatment of com; in
back rubber of beef cattle; in animal treatment of goats,
sheep, beef cattle, and hogs; and aerial application and
tank mixtures.

RELEASE PATTERNS
  Toxaphene is released into the environment primarily
from its application as an insecticide for the protection of
cotton, mostly in southern states.
       tial. Chickens fed 5,50, or 100 ppm toxaphene in the diet,
       residues are detected in eggs and adipose tissue with a
       BCF of about 5.
         Monitoring data demonstrates that toxaphene is  a
       contaminant in some air, water, sediment, soil, fish and
       other aquatic organisms, foods and birds. Human expo-
       sure appears to come mostly from food or occupation
       exposure.
ENVIRONMENTAL FATE
  Toxaphene is very persistent. When released to soil it
will persist for long periods (1 to 14 yr), is not expected to
leach to groundwater or be removed  significantly  by
runoff unless adsorbed to clay particles which are re-
moved by runoff. Inwateritwill not appreciably hydrolyze,
photolyze, or significantly biodegrade. It will strongly sorb
to sediments.
  Little information concerning biodegradation of toxa-
phene in aquatic systems was found in the literature.
However, it has been reported  that the detoxification of
toxaphene was due to adsorption rather than by degra-
dation in  8 Wisconsin lakes.  Degradation in aquatic
sediment was more  significant under anaerobic than
aerobic conditions and oxidative as well as reductive
metabolism can be important in the degradation of toxa-
phene. Anaerobic conditions in sediments led to nearly
50% overall degradation of 3 main components of toxa-
phene; under aerobic conditions 13.6% degradation of
the 3 components was observed. Toxaphene is resistant
to degradation in soils with reported half-lives ranging
from 0.8 yrto 14 yr. 50% loss in 6 weeks due to biological
transformation in anaerobic, flooded soils was reported
while no transformation was found in aerobic sediments.
  Evaporation from soils and surfaces will be a signifi-
cant process for toxaphene. Based on range of reported
Henry's Law  constants the calculated range of the half-
life for evaporation of toxaphene from a model river is 6.0-
6.3 hr. Although toxaphene is strongly adsorbed to soil,
evaporation  from  soils may be a  significant process.
Evaporation losses of from 7 to 14 kg/ha/yr or more have
been estimated from loam soil under annual rainfall of
150 cm. Field studies have shown it to be detoxified
rapidly in shallow and very slowly in deep bodies of water.
  Toxaphene may undergo very slow direct photolysis in
the atmosphere. However vapor phase reactions with
photochemically produced hydroxyl radicals should  be
more important fate process (estimated half-life 4-5 days).
Toxaphene can be transported long distances in the air
(1200 km) probably adsorbed to particular matter.
  Bioconcentration factors (BCF) forfish - 3100 to 69,000;
for shrimp 400-1200; Algae - 6902; snails - 9600. These
BCF values indicated significant bioconcentration poten-
         OTHER REGULATORY INFORMATION
         ^M^^^H^M^^^^^^^^^M

         MONITORING:
         FOR GROUND/SURFACE WATER SOURCES:
          INITIAL FREQUENCY-  4 quarterly samples every 3 years
          REPEAT FREQUENCY- If no detections during initial round:
                        2 quarterly per year if serving >3300 persons;
                        1 sample per 3 years for smaller systems
         TRIGGERS - Return to Initial Freq. if detect at > 0.001 mg/L


         ANALYSIS:
         REFERENCE SOURCE            METHOD NUMBERS
         EPA 600/4-88-039            505; 508; 525.2


         TREATMENT:
         BEST AVAILABLE TECHNOLOGIES
         Granular Activated Charcoal


         FOR ADDITIONAL INFORMATION:
         4 EPA can provide further regulatory and other general information:
          EPA Safe Drinking Water Hotline - 800/426-4791

         4 Other sources of lexicological and environmental fate data include:
          Toxic Substance Control Act Information Line - 202/554-1404
          Toxics Release Inventory, National Library of Medicine - 301/496-6531
          Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry - 404/639-6000
          National Pesticide Hotline - 800/858-7378
 October 1995
Technical Version
Page 2

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