United States
                             Environmental Protection
                             Agency
                     Office of Water
                     4601
            EPA811-F-95-003g-T
                  October 1995
                             National  Primary Drinking
                             Water  Regulations
                             Chlordane
  CHEMICAL/ PHYSICAL PROPERTIES

  CAS NUMBER: 57-74-9

  COLOR/ FORM/ODOR:
    Viscous liquid, colorless to amber, with
    a slight chlorine-like aromatic odor

  M.P.: 103-108 C       B.P.: 175 C

  VAPOR PRESSURE: 1x10-5 mm Hg at 25  C

  OCTANOL/WATER PARTITION (Kow):
    Log Kow = 2.78
DENSITY/SPEC. GRAV.: 1.59-1.63 at 25 C

SOLUBILITY: 0.0001 g/L of water at 25 C;
  Insoluble in water

SOIL SORPTION COEFFICIENT:
  log Koc estimated at 4.19 to 4.39;
  very low mobility in soil

ODOR/TASTE THRESHOLDS:  N/A

HENRY'S LAW COEFFICIENT:
  1.3x10-3 atm-cu m/mole (gamma-
  chlordane)
BlOCONCENTRATiON FACTOR'.
  log BCF=3.6 to 4.6 in fish; significant
  bioconcentration in aquatic organisms.

TRADE NAMES/SYNONYMS:
  Velsicol 1068, Aspon-chlordane, Belt,
  Chlorindan, Chlor-Kil, Cortilan-Neu,
  Dowchlor, Oktachlor, Oktaterr, Synklor,
  fat Chlor 4, Topiclor, Toxichlor, Intox 8,
  Gold Crest C-100, Kilex, Kypchlor,
  Niran, Termi-Ded, Prentox, Pentiklor.
DRINKING WATER STANDARDS
  MCLG:      Zero mg/L
  MCL:       0.002 mg/L
  HAL(child):  1 day: 0.06 mg/L
             10-day: 0.06 mg/L

HEALTH EFFECTS SUMMARY
  Acute: EPA has found chlordane to potentially cause
central nervous system effects - including irritability,
excess salivation, labored breathing, tremors, convul-
sions, deep depression - and blood system effects such
as anemia and certain types of leukemia.
                applied directly to soil or foliage to control a variety of
                insect pests including parasitic roundworms and other
                nematodes, termites, cutworms, chiggers, leafhoppers.
                After July 1,1983 the only approved use for chlordane in
                the USA was for underground termite control. As of April
                14,1988, however, all commercial use of chlordane in the
                US has been cancelled. The only commercial use of
                chlordane products still permitted is for fire ant control in
                power transformers.

                RELEASE PATTERNS
                 Chlordane has been  released into the environment
                primarily from its application as an insecticide.
  Drinking water levels which are considered "safe" for
short-term exposures: For a 10-kg (22 Ib.) child consum- ENVIRONMENTAL FATE
ing 1 liter of water per day, a one-to ten-day exposure to   ,f re|eased to soil,  chlordane may persist for long
0.06 mg/L.                                        periods of time; under field conditions, the mean degra-
  CHronic: Chlordane has the potential to damage liver, dation rate has been observed to range from 4.05-
kidneys heart lungs spleen and adrenal glands from long- 28.33%/yr with a mean half-life of 3.3 years. Chlordane is
term exposure at levels above the MCL.              expected to be generally immobile or only slightly mobile
  Cancer; There is some evidence that chlordane may j" foil, however, its detection in various groundwaters in
hav^the^otential to cause cancer from a lifetime expo- NJ and elsewhere .nd.catesthat movement togroundwa-
sure at levels above the MCL                       ter can occur Chlordane can volatilize significantly from
                                                 soil surfaces on which it has been sprayed, particularly
                                                 moist soil surfaces; however, shallow incorporation into
USAGE PATTERNS                                   so\\ w\\\ greatly restrict volatile losses. Although sufficient
  The amount of chlordane used annually in the US prior biodegradation data are not available, it has been sug-
io 1983 was estimated in 1985 to be greater that 3.6 gested that chlordane is very slowly biotransformed in the
million  pounds. It was used on com, citrus,  deciduous environment which is consistent with the long persis-
fruits and nuts, vegetables; for home, garden and oma- tence periods observed under field conditions.
mentals; lawns,  turf, ditchbanks and roadsides. It was
October 1995                                 Technical Version                      Printed on Recycled Paper

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   If released to water, chlordane is not expected to
undergo significant hydrolysis, oxidation or drect pho-
tolysis. The volatilization half-life from a representative
environmental pond, river and lake are estimated to be
18-26, 3.6-5.2 and  14.4-20.6 days, respectively. How-
ever, adsorption to sediment significantly attenuates the
importance of volatilization. Biodegradation does  not
seem to be an important process. Sensitized photolysis
in the water  column  may be possible. Adsorption to
sediment is expected to be a majorfate process based on
soil  adsorption data, estimated  Koc values  (15,500-
24,600), and  extensive sediment monitoring data. The
presence of chlordane in  sediment core samples sug-
gests that chlordane may be very persistent in the ad-
sorbed state in the aquatic environment.
   Bioconcentration  in fish is expected to be important
based on experimental BCF values which are generally
above 3,200,  although there is some evidence that
accumulation is reversible over time in  the absence of
further exposures. In contrast to other organochlorine
pesticides, chlordane and its degradation products do
not appear.to be extensively concentrated in the higher
members of the terrestrial food chain, ie, homeotherms.
   If released  to the atmosphere chlordane will  be ex-
pected to exist predominately in the vapor phase. Chlor-
dane will react in the vapor-phase with photochemically
produced hydroxyl radicals at an estimated half-life rate
of 6.2  hr suggesting that  this reaction is the dominant
chemical removal process. The detection of chlordane in
remote atmospheres (Pacific and Atlantic Oceans; The
Arctic) indicates that long  range transport occurs.
   It has been estimated that 96% of the airborne reser-
voir of chlordane exists in the sorbed state which may
explain why its long range transport is possible without
chemical transformation. The detection of chlordane. in
rainwater and its observed dry deposition at various rural
locations indicates that physical removal via wet and dry
deposition occurs in the environment.
         OTHER REGULATORY INFORMATION
         MONITORING:
         FOR GROUND/SURFACE WATER SOURCES:
           INITIAL FREQUENCY-  4 quarterly samples every 3 years
           REPEAT FREQUENCY- If no detections during initial round:
                         2 quarterly per year if serving >3300 persons;
                         1 sample per 3 years for smaller systems
         TRIGGERS - Return to Initial Freq. if detect at > 0.0002 mg/L
                                                                                 METHOD NUMBERS
                                                                                 505; 508; 508.1; 525.2
         ANALYSIS:
         REFERENCE SOURCE
         EPA 600/4-88-039


         TREATMENT:
         BEST AVAILABLE TECHNOLOGIES
         Granular Activated Charcoal
                                                       FOR ADDITIONAL INFORMATION:
                                                       * EPA can provide further regulatory and other general information:
                                                        EPA Safe Drinking Water Hotline - 800/426-4791


                                                       * Other sources of lexicological and environmental fate data include:
                                                        Toxic Substance Control Act Information Line - 202/554-1404
                                                        Toxics Release Inventory, National Library of Medicine - 301/496-6531
                                                        Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry - 404/639-6000
                                                        National Pesticide Hotline' - 800/858-7378
 October 1995
Technical Version
Page 2

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