Report *600/7-76-002
HEALTH, ENVIRONMENTAL
EFFECTS, AND CONTROL
TECHNOLOGY OF
ENERGY USE
    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency

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Proceedings of:
National Conference on
HEALTH, ENVIRONMENTAL EFFECTS,
AND CONTROL TECHNOLOGY OF
ENERGY USE
February 9-11,1976
Sheraton Park Hotel
Washington, D.C.

Sponsored by:
The Office of Energy, Minerals and Industry, within the
Office of Research and Development of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency

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                              FOREWORD
     Since fiscal year 1975, approximately $230-million has been
allocated to the coordinated Federal Energy/Environment Research and
Development Program.  The success of the seventeen government
agencies participating in this program requires close cooperation
and timely exchange and dissemination of the results of the ongoing
research.  To assist in this communications effort, the National
Conference on Health, Environmental Effects, and Control Technology
of Energy Use was held in Washington, D. C., February 9-11, 1976.

     These proceedings include the addresses and papers reported at
the conference.  We have also transcribed and edited the. questions
and discussions stimulated by each of the conference sessions.

     The Office of Energy, Minerals, and Industry within EPA's
Office of Research and Development is pleased to have been able to
sponsor this symposium.  We consider it to be an important part
of carrying out our responsibility to plan and coordinate the entire
Interagency Program.  It is our hope that the dialogue presented in
this and other program 'documents will contribute to the necessary
task of information exchange within the organizations involved in
energy-related environmental research and development.  We are
indebted to the participating individuals and to their agencies.

     These proceedings represent a compendium of current and planned
work.  I hope that you will find the publication of interest and of
use, especially in pursuit of our common national goal of increased
energy development in an environmentally compatible manner.
                                Stephen J. Gage
                                Deputy Assistant Administrator
                                Office of Energy, Minerals and Industry
                                U. S. Environmental Protection Agency
                                 iii

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                           ACKNOWLEDGMENT


     More than one hundred authors contributed to the more than sixty
papers reported at the symposium.  Comprehensive description of the
environmental program would not be possible without the invaluable
assistance of these individuals and their agencies.

     Special acknowledgment should also be given to Mr. David J.  Graham
of the Office of Energy, Minerals, and Industry who acted as the sym-
posium coordinator; Mr. Richard A. Kennedy, of The MITRE Corporation's
Energy, Resources and The Environment Division who provided technical,
planning and organizational support to the symposium coordinator; and
Mr. Harold Bernard, Information Transfer, Inc., who arranged the
symposium and provided for publication of these proceedings.

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                                        CONTENTS
Foreword	ill

Acknowledgements 	±v


CHAPTER 1:   WELCOME AND OVERVIEW

      Welcome:
      Wilson K. Talley, EPA 	3

      Keynote Address:
      Honorable Russell W. Peterson, Council on Environmental Quality 	5

      Remarks:
      Congressman George E. Brown, Jr., California 	8

      ERDA's Environmental Safety Programs:
      James L. Liverman, ERDA  	10

      An Environmental Overview of United States Energy Futures
      S. J. Gage, EPA  	15


CHAPTER 2: ATMOSPHERIC TRANSPORT

       Introduction  	 26

      Atmospheric Transport and Transformations of Energy Related Pollutants
      A. P. Altshuller, EPA 	27

       Environmental Transport  Processes
       H. R. Hickey  and P. A. Krenkel, TVA  	30

      Transformation and Transport of Energy-Related Pollutants
      William  E.Wilson, EPA 	33

       Discussion 	38

CHAPTER 3:  MEASUREMENT AND MONITORING

       Introduction	 .42

       Energy Related Research  Program  In The Personal and Environmental Measurements
       Program    NIOSH
       Paul A.  Baron and Laurence  J. Doemeny, NIOSH 	43

       Monitoring Western  Energy Resource Developments
       R. K. Oser, S. C. Black, D. N. McNelis, S. H. Melfi, G. B. Morgan, EPA  	47

       NOAA's Activities in  Energy Related Measurement and Monitoring
       Alden B.  Bestul  and W. Lawrence  Pugh, NOAA 	51

       Measurement and  Monitoring
       H. R. Hickey  and P. A. Krenkel, TVA  	55

       The  Role of Standard  Reference Materials  in Environmental Measurements
       J. R. McNesby, NBS  	58

       EPA/NASA Cooperation  to  Develop  Remote Sensing and In  Situ Sensors and
       Techniques for Pollution Monitoring
       James R.  Morrison, John  Mugler and E. L.  Til ton,  III,  NASA 	61

       Water Measurement and Monitoring  in  Energy Developing  Areas
       Frederick A.  Kilpatrick, USGA 	69
       Discussion
                                           	74
                                            v

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 CHAPTER 4:  ENVIRONMENTAL  HEALTH  EFFECTS

       Introduction [[[ 78

       Overview of NIOSH Energy Health  Research  Program                                    7q
       Kenneth Bridbord, NIOSH  [[[

       Health Effects  Related to  Emerging  Energy Technology                                Q7
       John  H. Knelson,  EPA [[[ ^
       Highlights of NIEHS  Energy-Related  Research                                        or
       Robert L.  Dixon,  NIEHS  [[[

       ERDA Program to Evaluate  Health-Effects of Non-Nuclear Energy Technologies
       George E.  Stapleton,  ERDA [[[ yi
                                                                                         95
       Discussion [[[


 CHAPTER 5:  MARINE ECOLOGICAL EFFECTS
       Introduction
                                                                                          98
       An  Overview of Environmental  Effects
       James  L.  Liverman,  ERDA  [[[ "

       Assessing Impacts of  Energy Development on Coastal Fish and Wildlife Resources
       A.  W.  Palmisano, Fish  and Wildlife Service ........................................ 1°1
       NOAA  Research on Marine  Environmental Effects of Energy-Related Activities
       James  B.  Rucker, NOAA  [[[ 103

       Participation of ERDA  in the Transport and Ecological Effects Categories
       of the Pass-Through Program
       R. E.  Franklin, D. S.  Ballantine, J. 0. Blanton, D. H. Hamilton and C. M. White  ...106

       Discussion  [[[ 119


CHAPTER 6:  FRESH  WATER ECOLOGICAL EFFECTS

       Introduction [[[ 122

       The Effects of Freshwater Withdrawals on Fish and Wildlife  Resources
       Robert P. Hayden, Fish and Wildlife Service  ....................................... 123

       USDA Research and Development on Effects of  Energy  Production and  Use  on
       Freshwater  Resources
       Harry E .   Brown , USDA ......... [[[ 1 26

       Freshwater  Ecological  Effects
      H. R.  Hickey and P.  A.  Krenkel , TVA ............................................... 132

      The EPA Research Program on the Freshwater Ecological Effects of Energy
      Development and Use

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      Terrestrial Effects of Energy Development on Fish and Wildlife Resources
      Herbert B. Quinn, Jr., Fish and Wildlife Service 	160

      Air/Terrestrial Ecological Effects
      H.  R. Mickey and P. A. Krenkel, TVA 	164

      Terrestrial Effects of Pollutants from Energy Use and Progress in Reclamation
      of Coal Strip Mine Areas
      H.  E. Heggestad, USDA 	168

      Discussion 	172


CHAPTER 8:  ENERGY RESOURCE EXTRACTION

      Introduction 	176

      Environmental  Assessment of Western Coal  Surface Mining
      El more C.  Grim, EPA 	177

      Environmental  Control  Technology of Eastern Coal Development
      Ronald D.  Hill, EPA 	180

      USDA Research and Development for Reclamation of Lands Affected by Mining
      David J. Ward, USDA 	182

      Energy Resource Extraction; Oil  and Gas Production
      J.  Stephen Dorrler, EPA 	186

      Mining of Oil  Shale
      Eugene F.  Harri s, EPA 	192

      Discussion 	195


CHAPTER 9: FUEL PROCESSING

      Introduction 	198

      Fuel Processing
      John K. Burchard, EPA 	199

      The U.S.  Environmental Protection Agency Program for Environmental Characterization
      of Fluidized-Bed Combustion Systems
      D. B. Henschel, EPA 	205

      Control of Atmospheric Pollution by Fluidized-Bed Combustion
      G. Vogel, W. Swift and A. Jonke, ERDA  	212

      Cost Comparison of Commercial Atmospheric and Pressurized Fluidized-Bed Power
      Plants to a Conventional Coal-Fired Power Plant with Flue Gas Desulfurization
      John T. Reese, TVA 	220

      Assessment and Control of Environmental Contamination from Trace Elements in
      Coal Processing Wastes
      E. M. Wewerka, J. M. Williams and P. L. Wanek,  ERDA  	226

      Physical  and Chemical Coal Cleaning for Pollution Control
      James D.  Kilgroe, EPA 	23Q

      Coal Preparation
      Albert W. Deurbrouck, U. S. Bureau of Mines  	 238

      Environmental Control for Oil Shale Processing
      Thomas J. Powers, EPA 	241

      Program for Environmental Aspects of Synthetic  Fuels
      William J. Rhodes, EPA  	244

      Discussion 	     247
                                             vii

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CHAPTER 10: FLUE GAS TECHNOLOGY

      Introduction  [[[ 252

      Flue Gas Cleaning Technology
      Frank T. Princiotta, EPA [[[ 253
      Flue Gas Desulfurization
      H. W. Elder and G. A. Hollinden, TVA
      Regenerable Flue Gas Desulfurization Technology for Stationary Combustion Sources
      Richard D. Stern, EPA

      The EPA Program for Control of SOX Emissions from Stationary Combustion Sources -
      Nonregenerable Flue Gas Desulfurization
      Michael A. Maxwell, EPA [[[ Z71

      Development of Combustion Modification Technology for Stationary Source NOX Control
      G. Blair Martin and J. S. Bowen, EPA .............................................. 275

      The EPA Development Program for NOX Flue Gas Treatment
      Richard D. Stern, EPA [[[ 28Q

      Control of Fine Particulate Emissions from Stationary Sources
      James H. Abbott, EPA [[[ 284

      Control of Waste and Water Pollution from Flue Gas Cleaning Systems
      Julian W. Jones, EPA [[[ 290

      Discussion [[[ 295


CHAPTER 11:  ENERGY CONSERVATION
      Introduction [[[ 298

      EPA Research in Emerging Power Technology
      Robert P.  Hartley and Harry E. Bostian, EPA ....................................... 299

      The Wastes-As-Fuel  R&D Program of the EPA Office of Energy, Minerals and Industry
      George L.  Huffman,  EPA ............................................ .... ............ 303

      Waste  Heat Utilization/Reduction
      Alden  G.  Christiansen, EPA [[[ 307

      Energy Conservation
      B.  J.  Bond,  H.  B.  Flora and B. G. McKinney, TVA ................................... 311

      Industrial  Energy Conservation and its Potential Environmental Impact
      Herbert S.  Skovronek, EPA [[[ 314

      Discussion . . [[[ 319

:HAPTER  12:  INTEGRATED ASSESSMENT


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              CHAPTER 1
WELCOME AND OVERVIEW

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                  Welcome Address
                        by
               Dr. Wilson K. Talley
     I am pleased to welcome you to the National
Conference dealing with research and development
programs on Health, Environmental Effects, and Con-
trol Technology of Energy Use.  This large audience
indicates, I believe, the broad base of interest
in two of the Nation's principal concerns:  energy
and the environment.  The participation of many
representatives today from the private and public
sectors is indeed gratifying.

     Before I introduce our speakers this morning,
I would like to describe briefly the role of re-
search and development in a regulatory agency.  For
the most part, I will constrain my remarks to our
energy-related activities.

     The Environmental Protection Agency is re-
quired to administer environmental legislation to
control and abate adverse impacts on the human en-
vironment—in a comprehensive and balanced manner—
consistent with the attainment of other national
goals.  As a consequence, EPA and its predecessor
components have been concerned with pollution con-
trol for the energy-related industries for several
years.  The legislation which EPA must administer,
bearing on energy development and use, includes the
Clean Air Act, the Federal Water Pollution Control
Act, the Resource Recovery Act and the Marine
Sanctuaries (Ocean Dumping) Act.

     Some of this legislation specifies the con-
straints to be imposed, such as, best practical
control technology or best available control tech-
nology, to be required within given time periods.
The many activities that the agency is required to
engage in include:

     (1) development of standards, regulations
         and/or guidance

     (2) performance of environmental monitoring
         (surveillance and compliance assessment)

     (3) performance of environmental impact
         assessments

     (4) providing training and technology
         assistance.

     In addition, we engage in research, develop-
ment and demonstration in areas such as health
effects, ecological effects, environmental pro-
cesses and quality, environmental management,
pollution control systems, and instrumentation.

     While it is true that the National Environ-
mental  Policy Act requires federal agencies to
assess the environmental impact of their respec-
tive activities, EPA has the further responsibility
to evaluate the environmental impact of all federal
programs in all areas of its expertise.

NEED FOR RESEARCH IN A REGULATORY AGENCY

     Fundamental to any regulatory agency is the
need to have accurate and reliable information on
which to base decisions.  Since the regulatory pro-
cess is dynamic, iterative and continuing, the
need for information is also dynamic, time-sensitive
and often very specific.  The function of research
in a regulatory agency is to provide the necessary
data base and tools required by the agency to ful-
fill its obligations on a timely basis.  The re-
search, therefore, should be mission-oriented, the
research mission being dictated (either explicitly
or implicitly) by the creating executive order
and/or the legislation to be administered.

     Now, how should the research information re-
quired by a-regulatory agency be obtained?  At one
extreme, specific regulatory agency offices can
carry out all of the needed research; at the other
extreme, the regulatory agency can rely solely on
whatever information is being generated outside its
own control.

     While examples of each of these extremes exist,
most regulatory organizations operate somewhere in
the middle with the research information needed
coming from a combination of in-house and extra-
mural research programs, only a portion of which is
under the direct control of the entity having the
need.

ORGANIZATION OF ORD

     Within EPA, a decision was made that the
Agency's research effort would be managed by a
separate research arm - the Office of Research and
Development.   As an equal to the regulatory and
enforcement arms of the Agency, the research group
could assure that the best technical input could
be made on a timely basis and still  maintain the
capability to look ahead and across the different
regulatory programs of air, water, noise, pesti-
cides, solid waste, radiation and toxic substances.
However, EPA's research arm need not do everything
itself, rather it is obliged to be aware of what
is going on outside the agency, to coordinate
efforts where possible and to perform research in
those areas specified by the legislation or inter-
agency agreement and, on those subjects not re-
ceiving-sufficient emphasis, to provide the infor-
mation required for agency decisions on a timely
basis.  The Office of Research and Development is
EPA's focal point for specialized research, rely-
ing on processes of information and funding trans-
fer to make sure that the total research effort is
adequate and well articulated.  As a consequence,
EPA's research is supplemented by general scienti-
fic and technical research in other governmental
agencies, colleges and universities, the industrial
sector, and elsewhere.

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      The research program in EPA is carried out
 through four major program offices and their re-
 spective laboratories.  These are the Office of
 Energy, Minerals, and Industry, the Office of Air,
 Land and Water, the Office of Health and Ecological
 Effects, and the Office of Monitoring and Technical
 Support.  Because of the complexity of environmen-
 tal research and development, the need to relate
 our output to a variety of different users and the
 need to avoid duplication of talent and other re-
 sources, it has been necessary to differentiate
 between planning and implementation of many of the
 programs.   Thus, for example, the entire program
 on environmental impact of energy use is planned
 in our Office of Energy, Minerals,  and Industry
 but is implemented by all  four offices.   To accom-
 plish  this  objective, OEMI  allocates  the energy re-
 lated  budget amongst all  offices  during the plan-
 ning process  and transfers  to the other three
 offices the  funds  necessary to cover  the planned
 energy-related  work  being  implemented by those
 offices.  The implementing  office has the  responsi-
 bility  for accomplishing  the  energy-related program
 for which it  has  accepted  funds.   The managers of
 the implementing  laboratories  are at  liberty to
 determine whether  an  intramural or  extramural
 approach will be  used subject  to  their respective
 constraints on  manpower, facilities and  funds.   The
 extramural programs  include  interagency,  university,
 and  industrial  cooperation.

     During the next  three  days,  detailed  descrip-
 tions of this coordinated effort  will  be provided
 by  technical experts  from many  federal agencies.
 I trust you will find  the proceedings  to be  inter-
esting and rewarding.  I hope  that  a  lively  dia-
 logue will develop in  the discussion  periods  which
begin in Session II this afternoon.

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                 Keynote Address
                       by
          Russell  W.  Peterson, Chairman
        Council  on Environmental Quality

             TUO-HANDED SCIENTISTS:

     According to  revered tradition, the keynote
speaker in American life has a clearly defined
role:  he is supposed to tell  a few warm-up jokes
and then end on a  solemn, inspirational note -- a
blend of Johnny Carson and Sermonette.  Tradition-
alist that I am, I have always tried to honor these
conventions.  In my previous incarnations, this was
reasonably easy to do:  there are a few chemistry
jokes, lots of businessman jokes, and even a few
governor jokes.  And as for solemnity, that's the
easiest part of the job:  all  one need do is bang
on the podium and summon the audience to meet,
quote, the challenge that lies before us, unquote.

     Some day, just for fun, I would like to summon
an audience to meet the challenge that lies behind
us.  I shall not do that today.  Nor shall I open
with a joke, because the environmental movement
seems to have produced only one -- and we've all
heard it.  Hence, I shall spare you Moses and his
environmental impact statement.

     By way of recompense, let me recount a parable
instead.  It was,  as far as I can determine, either
invented or translated by the English writer
Somerset Maugham, and later borrowed by John O'Hara
for the title of his first novel.  It goes like
this:

     The chief steward of a wealthy merchant in
     ancient Basra went into the marketplace one
     day, and there he encountered Death, dressed
     as an old woman.  On seeing the steward, Death
     suddenly drew back.  In great terror, the
     steward returned immediately to the merchant's
     house and said, "Master, today I saw Death in
     the marketplace, and she made a menacing ges-
     ture at me.  Please let me ride away to
     Samarra, so that I can escape."

     The merchant replied, "By all means, take my
     fastest horse and ride."  Later that same day,
     the merchant himself went into the marketplace
     and he, too, saw the old woman.  He stopped
     her and said, "My servant told me that he met
     you here this morning, and that you threatened
     him."

     And Death replied, "Oh, no -- I did not
     threaten him.  I was just surprised to see him
     here in Basra, because tonight I have an
     appointment with him in Samarra."

     As its most obvious level, this parable is
about fate:  it suggests that man cannot avoid what
is in store for him no matter how hard he tries.
While such a fatalistic attitude may hold true in
other cultures, it would be rejected by most of us
as ridicuously exaggerated.  Yet the additional
twist of the steward riding as rapidly as he can to
meet the very fate he fears contributes a thought-
provoking subtlety:  it implies that man's dash
for apparent salvation, if undertaken impulsively
and with inadequate knowledge, can hasten rather
than circumvent his destruction.

     The Arab oil  embargo gave us a severe scare
in the marketplace in 1973, and has motivated us
to race into the development of advanced energy
technologies which, in normal  circumstances, would
have been developed at a more  leisurely pace.  As
matters stand now, most air pollution is a result
of the production  or use of energy.  As we get into
new technologies,  or expand those which are pre-
sently small in scope — from  coal gasification to
breeder-reactors — we shall have to anticipate not
only an increase in the number of environmental
hazards, but also  an increase  in  their complexity.

     The Federal Interagency Energy/Environment
R&D program is an  attempt to insure that our under-
standing of tne health effects of energy develop-
ment and use keeps pace with technological develop-
ment — to make sure that we do not begin using a
new technology on  a widespread scale before we
know what it will  do to our air,  water, and soil  --
and, ultimately, to human health.

     As you undoubtedly appreciate, this could
prove a tricky juggling act.  We  are involved in
two kinds of research:  into energy development,
and into the environmental  effects of that develop-
ment.  Though the  two are clearly related, however,
they will not necessarily proceed at the same pace.
We may, for example, be able to establish the en-
vironmental effects of a new technology before we
can demonstrate its economic feasibility.  In such
cases, we will probably be able to avoid harmful
side-effects entirely or, at a minimum, mitigate
those side effects through control technology.

     But on the other hand, some  energy research
and development may proceed more  quickly than the
related environmental research.  And in that case,
we may be in trouble.  Already, for national secur-
ity as well as economic reasons,  there is strong
pressure to tap new domestic energy sources as
rapidly as possible.  Should a new source be ready
for commercial utilization before its environmental
implications are well understood, it's questionable
whether the necessary cautions from scientists will
be able to withstand popular demands for more energy,

     As the Manhattan Project  demonstrated, the
pressure of external events may successfully accel-
erate a certain line of scientific research.  In
that case, a war speeded up R&D that had begun
years earlier, but was proceeding at a slow pace;
then the demands of national defense, which char-
acteristically throw all considerations of fiscal
constraint out the window, led us to devote an ab-
normal amount of money and highly trained manpower
to atomic fission.  Thus a project which, under
normal circumstances, might have  required 20 years
to accomplish was  rushed — under the stress of
war -- to completion in four years.

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      Yet money and expertise are not the only con-
 straints on research, and science can be hurried
 only up to a point.  There is, in scientific in-
 vestigation, an inherent process of sequential
 analysis -- of taking one step after another --
 that cannot be rushed, no matter how much urgency,
 money, and manpower you are willing to devote to
 the job.  Luck may sometimes produce a short-cut,
 but more resources do not necessarily speed the
 process.

      Cancer research is an example.   A few years
 ago, President Nixon declared a "War on Cancer,"
 and substantially increased the amount of resources
 that had been devoted to such research.  Since
 then,  a considerable amount of worthwhile scienti-
 fic work has been undertaken, and perhaps some has
 been completed sooner than it normally would have.
 Yet the ultimate  goal  -- a cure for cancer --
 still  eludes our  grasp.   We know that the funda-
 mental  nature of  cancer is unrestrained growth of
 cells.   We know that this growth is associated
 with a number of  environmental  causes:   cigarette
 smoking, the presence  of certain chemicals in the
 living  or working environment,  radiation from cer-
 tain minerals and from the sun  itself.   Yet we
 have not been able to  define the cancer-causing
 mechanism well  enough  to cure most cancers, despite
 the  stepped-up  investment of funds.

     An  analogous  case in a broader sphere was
 President  Johnson's  "War on Poverty."   Just as in
 the  case  of  the "War on  Cancer," there  seemed to
 be  an  underlying  assumption that if x_ dollars can
 produce  some  good,  K)x dollars  can produce 10
 times as much good  in  the same  period  of time.  But
 here again,  even  though  we  can  associate poor
 scholastic achievement,  cultural  deprivation, and
 other symptoms of  poverty with  the basic fact of
 poverty, we  still   do not understand  the poverty-
 causing mechanisms well  enough  to  change their
 operation.   Lacking  that fundamental  understanding,
we tried to  substitute dollars  for science -- and
we reaped little more  than  disappointment from our
well-meant,  but immature  and  expensive  experiment.
The real pity is not that we  may have wasted con-
siderable sums of money,  but  that  the  long,  slow
process of social   improvement may  have  lost popular
support for years  to come.

     Despite such  failures,  the  fundamental  mis-
conception that science  can  be  hurried  with  money
probably remains in  the  popular  and  political mind.
Another misconception  is  an  exaggerated belief in
the ability  of scientists to  produce certitude on
schedule.  Years ago,  President  Truman  was  briefed
by the first chairman  of  the  Council on  Economic
Advisers.  Exercising  thp caution  proper  to  his
discipline, this gentleman  reputedly framed  all his
 remarks in the context of such  statements  as, "On
 the one hand, this might  happen  ...  But  on  the
 other hand,  that might happen."  After  an  hour or
 so of this,  following  the economist's departure
 from the Oval Office,  President  Truman  is  said to
 have complained to an  aide,  "What  we need  around
 here is a one-handed economist."
     This understandable impatience with ambiguity,
and a craving for certainty even though all the
facts are not in, characterizes most of us to_
some degree.   It is particularly to be found in
decision makers, and it persists today.  Last year,
for example,  Senator Muskie called for "one-armed
scientists" after testimony from a number of them,
concerning the health effects of pollutants,
proved to be  inconclusive.  The decision-maker must
act — and more and more, in our age, the decision-
maker turns for "facts" that will simplify diffi-
cult choices.

     In a better world, perhaps the critical
choices that  we will have to make about energy in
the next years and decades would await the findings
of environmental scientists.  No project would go
on line before we knew precisely what it would do
to our ecosystem, and had fashioned the proper
safeguards.

     But for lack of a better world, we are forced
to make do with the one we have -- and it is a
world in which energy production appears to be the
great global  imperative.  Policymakers will be
pressing scientists for hard conclusions before any
conclusions are justified by hard evidence.  It
would be simple to urge that we reject any such
pressures in the interest of scientific purity --
but in point of fact, we will probably have to
accommodate those pressures.  Except in the face
of the clearest, most definitely established en-
vironmental hazards, energy development won't wait.
The problem, then, is not one of adopting high
principle, but of charting prudent strategy.

     That means, first, establishing research
priorities.  Prior to  1974, when this Federal inter-
agency research program was created, top priority
was assigned to investigating and preventing the
harmful health effects of coal-burning.  The ra-
tionale for this choice was logical and sound:  our
immense coal  resources promised to make the most
immediate contribution to our energy requirements,
whereas other sources tended to be further off on
the horizon.   Hence the questions we would have to
answer soonest were those related to coal-consump-
tion.

     Now, however, the choice of priorities is be-
coming more difficult.  Every technology has a
probable time-line -- a rough schedule, usually ex-
pressed in years, when one stage of development will
have to be made.  Such decisions, for example,
might involve a shift from laboratory-scale tests
of a new technology to the construction of a pilot
facility; later on, from the pilot to a demonstra-
tion facility; and finally, from the construction
on a demonstration facility to full-scale, commer-
cial development.

     Thus some decisions will have to be made in
the next couple of years, while others may not con-
front us for  four, six, or more years.  Research
priorities must be assigned in accordance with the
probable development schedule for each technology;
only such phasing-in will  ensure that, at every

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decision-point, the appropriate environmental re-
search will be available.   If it's not, non-scienti-
fic pressures -- including  public demand for more
energy, and political demand for action to satisfy
the constituency -- are  likely to force a decision,
even on the basis of inadequate data.  Judging by
past experience, my hunch will be that energy
development, not environmental protection, will get
the benefit of the doubt.

     It is partly CEQ's  responsibility to oversee
your choice of priorities -- to make sure the
answers that will be needed two years from now are
being sought now.  We simply do not have the luxury
of time.  Every technology  that we are considering
presents certain unknowns and -- if we had the
leisure that science requires -- we would insist
that energy development  wait until each of those
unknowns was fully investigated.  But our limited
resources -- above all,  time -- make it impossible
for us to examine these  unknowns with all the
thoroughness that each deserves.  Relatively quick
and inexpensive analysis may suggest that some
negative environmental consequences are either so
likely or so unlikely that  additional R&D would not
change the decision.  Therefore, our environmental
R&D should be directed toward those unknowns where
the outcome is less clear but potentially signifi-
cant.

     Second, we must make maximum use of Federal
leverage in energy development.  Under normal cir-
cumstances, private enterprise would pay the bill
for developing new energy technologies.  Owing to
the sensitivity of some  of  these technologies, how-
ever, the massive amounts of capital their develop-
ment requires, and the national urgency of tapping
new energy resources, the Federal government has
agreed to underwrite some of the risk involved,
through such devices as  direct support for demon-
stration.

     This offers the opportunity to make close
monitoring of environmental consequences an inte-
gral part of Federally supported energy development
projects.  At present, much of the data we have on
emissions from new and emerging technologies is
based on information from pilot plants and small-
scale operations.  The move from these small opera-
tions to commercial sized demonstration plants
gives us a unique opportunity to use these plants
as environmental laboratories.  We should use this
opportunity, from the beginning of the R&D process,
to prevent the creation  of environmental "white
elephants" -- projects that later require huge in-
vestments in add-on control technology.

     A third priority must be to correlate emissions
and health effects.  Over the last three years, CEQ
has encouraged the development of quantitative
methods for estimating the environmental impacts of
energy facilities.  Examples of such work are the
MERES Study and the Energy Alternative reports,
with which most of you are probably familiar.  Valu-
able as these efforts are, they do not yet allow
us to translate a given  quantity of pollutants into
the number of cases of various human ailments that
will result.

     But finally, we must bear in mind -- through
all this research — the fundamental interrelated-
ness of environmental impacts.  Man breaks scienti-
fic endeavor down into specific disciplines for his
own convenience, and hence perceives reality from
different perspectives.   Such specialization has
been necessary for scientific and technological ad-
vance; we have learned much more, and much more
quickly, by breaking phenomena down into various
compartments and studying them from the standpoints
of biology, physics, chemistry, and so forth.

     But we must remember that our ecosystem does
not exist in compartments; it comes in single,
interrelated communities, each part of which affects
other parts.  It does no good, for example, to  con-
sider only the effects of oil-shale development in
one part of the country, when at the same time,
strip or deep mining is  to be conducted in the  same
region.  Both will  demand extensive water supplies,
and the drawing-down of the water table, plus the
disruption of coal  veins that often serve as aqui-
fers under the ground, can affect agriculture,
grazing, and even human  drinking supplies.  Not by
energy alone does man live.  While pursuing our
separate disciplines, each of us must strive to re-
late our work to that of other specialists, so
that we can regain  -- by adding our individual
pieces to the total  puzzle — a view of the unity
exemplified in nature.

     This is, I realize, a tall  order.   It will not
be filled by one-handed  scientists -- by suppress-
ing ambiguity in order to simplify decisions or to
avoid the wrath of impatient decision-makers.  Nor,
on the other hand,  will  it be filled by the leisure-
ly pursuit of pure  science.  We are in a tough,
nuts-and-bolts situation, and we must do the best
we can to blend painstaking science with the sense
of urgency that the national energy situation re-
quires.  Only by achieving this blend -- by making
haste slowly -- can we hope to obtain the informa-
tion we need when we need it.

     We are not entirely at the mercy of a blind
fate.  The entire history of science is the history
of man's attempt to understand natural  forces and
shape them to his own benefit.  The advent of an
environmental consciousness is not a repudiation of
our science, but a  challenge to us to extend it.
It has taught us that man is not entirely master of
his environment, but a member of it, who must learn
to live in harmony with  the natural world.

     New energy technologies beckon us down many
different roads, with their promise of abundant
supplies of the fuels on which we have built our
civilization.  Yet  their promise must not be per-
mitted to blind us  to the threat such development
poses to our ecosystem,  on which man's very exis-
tence is built.  It is up to you to ride ahead on
these many roads, and to discover as quickly as
possible where they lead.  Only your scientific
scouting can guide  us to the sufficiency we seek —
and prevent us from dashing, as quickly as we  can,
to keep an appointment in Samarra.

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    REMARKS OF THE HONORABLE GEORGE  E.  BROWN,  JR.

        Chairman, Subcommittee  on  Environment
         and the Atmosphere of  the Committee
              on Science and Technology
                A CONGRESSIONAL  VIEW
      I  am delighted  to  be  here  today  to  address
 this  large group  of  people involved in making
 energy  use compatible with a  clean and healthy en-
 vironment.   I  believe this conference is an excell-
 ent initiative by the Office  of Research and Devel-
 opment  of the  Environmental Protection Agency, and
 I  hope  this  type  of  activity  continues in the fut-
 ure.  We,  in Congress,  are always pleased when we
 see examples of interagency communication and coo-
 peration.

      As you  probably know,  the  Subcommittee on En-
 vironment  and  the  Atmosphere, which I chair, is
 part  of the  Committee on Science and Technology,
 which until  a  little over  a year ago was the Com-
 mittee on Science  and Astronautics.  In  late 1974,
 the House of Representatives  voted a partial reform
 of its committee jurisdictions, which included a
 consolidation  of civilian  research and development
 in the reorganized Committtee on Science and Tech-
 nology.   Specifically included  within this was
 energy research and development and environmental
 research and development.  The  Senate has no such
 organizational  structure.  This reorganization is
new,  and not totally accepted by Committees which
 lost jurisdiction.  For this reason, I can empath-
 ize with the problem forcing the agencies repre-
sented here  today in resolving your own jurisdic-
tional issues.

     There is another problem which has affected
the smooth operations of Congressional Committees
and Executive Agencies, and that is the controver-
sial  nature  of many of our environmental laws and
 regulations.  The Congress and  the Executive have
different views on such fundamental areas as clean
 air legislation, strip mining legislation, toxic
substances legislation, clean water legislation,
 land use legislation, and energy policy.  This dis-
 agreement makes it difficult to develop harmony in
 the ranks, especially when residual differences
 exist between,  for example, the Department of
 Agriculture  and the EPA on pesticide regulations.

     This difference on how to  proceed with regu-
 lations should not really  affect the research and
 development  activities of  the agencies involved.
 In fact, in  the area of research and development
there is very little disagreement about the goals,
and the importance of those goals.  Except for
dollar ($) levels, most major points are agreed
upon.

     In spite of this broad base of support for
environmental research, testimony before my .sub-
committee, and reports of the National Academy of
Sciences, the Congressional Office of Technology
Assessment, the General Accounting Office, and the
Congressional Research Service, among other groups,
indicates that there are serious gaps and weak-
nesses in our current efforts.  The prime complaints
have dealt with the issues of interagency coordina-
tion and cooperation, as well as a failure to
address medium and long term research problems.

     One example of an effort to remedy this prob-
lem, which is directly relevant to the meeting here
today, is the special environmentally related energy
money which was requested in 1974.  The Office of
Management and the Budget, much to its credit,
created two task forces, the King-Muir task force,
and the Gage task force, which produced reports
spelling out how this money should be spent among
the more than a dozen agencies involved with these
issues.  These two reports, and the interagency
cooperation and coordination which resulted from
their implementation, are distinguished by their
rarity.  We, in the Congress, would be very pleased
to see this type of approach to emerging research
issues be expanded and perfected.

     There still remains the need to provide ade-
quate funding for necessary research projects.  Our
problem has been that until we know what is current-
ly being spent, throughout the Federal government,
we will not know what is adequate funding within a
particular agency.  One of my Subcommittee's
thoughts on this matter is to have more medium to
long-range planning done by the agencies involved
with a particular issue, including plans for pro-
jected funding levels.  With the availability of
such plans, say on a five-year basis, we could make
some determination about areas of sustained research
within particular agencies, and the adequacy of
funding within the government as a whole.

     'Personally, I would prefer to see the environ-
mental research and development problems solved by
network actions between agencies, rather than by a
more authoritarian approach, such as a reorganiza-
tion of the Federal research establishment, even
with more clearly designated lines of command.  I
have a bias against such organizational solutions.
I prefer to avoid bureaucratic, autocratic, and
relatively inflexible organizational structures.
Especially in the field of research, it seems that
we can solve problems of coordination and coopera-
tion within existing structures.

     At this point I wish to digress somewhat from
the focus of your conference, which implies that we
must continue our exponential growth of energy use,
and present some of my own views on the subject of
energy use.   In some respects the argument about

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energy growth and energy conservation has become
one of "growth" versus  "no  growth," which is a
false argument.  This false argument is perpetuated
by those who have something to  lose if our exponen-
tial growth curves  are  curbed.  They have every
reason to  fight any curbs in energy growth, but we
must keep  in mind that  exponential curves cannot
keep going up.  The only questions are ones of
time, and  the nature of the curve after it begins
to go down.  The' reason why we  should try to level
off this abnormal exponential growth of energy use
is to avoid the certain catastrophe that will occur
if we do not.

     The Gross National Product, which is usually
cited as a measure  of the strength of our country,
is not necessarily  linked to energy use in any
physical sense.  We tend to forget that the GNP
measures all economic activity, both that which is
good and that which is  bad.  We could quite easily
stabilize  or reduce energy  growth, while increas-
ing the GNP, simply by  increasing energy prices.

     We could also  probably increase the GNP much
faster than we could energy use if we removed en-
vironmental controls, which would lead to increased
medical bills, hospital use, and the costs of food
by reducing agricultural productivity.  My point
is that the relationship of energy use to the GNP
is variable, while  the  relationship of energy use
to environmental quality is direct.  The more
energy we  use the worse our environment will be.

     What we need to do as  a society is to evaluate
our uses of energy, and decide  if using more energy
is worth it.  The main  reason to use more energy
today is to create  more consumable goods and ser-
vices, together with a  large, complex superstruc-
ture of society, and to generate leisure time.
But we don't seem to be able to use the leisure
creatively, or to escape the entangling complexi-
ties of our governments, our communities, our homes
and our personal possessions.   We need energy to
have time to do more important  things than physical
labor.  Yet, the more important things we do with
our time is produce even more things.  We seldom
seem to use this leisure that we are supposedly
creating by our use of  energy.

     The elites of our  society  have practiced con-
spicuous consumption, and the bulk of society has
attempted to keep up with this  mass consumption.
If we are to enter a new age of energy and resource
conservation, the leaders of society will need to
practice a new conspicuous simplicity.  One impor-
tant way to move towards this new conspicuous, or
creative simplicity, is through a vigorous energy
conservation research,  development and demonstra-
tion program.

     Such a program can help show us how to accom-
plish our essential  social  goals, with the least
impact on energy and material  resources.   In addi-
tion, this  research program needs to examine the
social,  economic, institutional  and political  re-
straints to developing  an energy and resource
conscious society.
     I am fairly optimistic, much more than most
Congressmen, that we can hold our energy growth
down far below the projections of most governmental
agencies.  I believe our population will level off,
as will consumer demands.  We are currently using
75 Quads (Quadrillion BTU's) of energy, with pro-
jections of up to 170 Quads in the year 2000.  I
believe we can settle for 85 Quads by the year
2000, providing we do the proper research and we
work hard at it.

     The reason for my optimism about reaching this
goal, and I admit it sometimes wanes, is that I
believe we are in one of those great periods of
change in human history.  We are entering, or per-
haps in the United States have entered, a post-
industrial  era that will lead to a basically
steady-state economy.  Growth in society will  occur
in different sectors of the economy than those in
which growth occured in the past.  'The effect of
all of these changes, in energy growth, population
growth, and the economy, will be to create a new
set of values, and new rules by which the society
will operate.

     The transition to this steady-state economy
will take many years, and require  a great deal  of
solid information if we are to minimize the dis-
ruptions of the transition.  One of the proposals
the Congress is considering to provide this infor-
mation is an energy extension service, molded  after
the successful  agricultural extension service  which
was begun nearly a century ago.   This new extension
service would  operate similarly, hopefully by  using
most of the existing superstructure in the field.
Its mission would be to teach people how to mini-
mize their use of energy and resources.  It would
strive to instill the values of ecology, and it
would be able  to provide technical  assistance  to
those who need it.

     As you continue your Conference on the Health,
Environmental  Effects and Control  Technology of
Energy Use, I  hope that you can develop an informal
means to share resources in an effective manner.   I
also hope that you can develop means to get the
information presented here distributed to those
interested  persons unable to attend.

     Finally,  let me congratulate  the organizers
for your continuing effort to make governmental  re-
search and  development programs  work.  I hope  this
isn't the last such meeting by the Executive Branch
in the field of environmentally related energy re-
search and  development.

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10
      ERDA's ENVIRONMENTAL SAFETY PROGRAMS
              Dr. James Liverman
    Assistant Administrator for Environment and
                    Safety
       It is my intent in the time allotted to me  to
 outline for you some of the underlying philosophies
 of ERDA's environment and safety programs  and how
 they are "being coupled to the technology options.
 The ERDA commitment is indicated in Figure 1.   To
 insure that this policy is viable,  we must realize
 that:  (Figure 2).

       In the creation of ERDA,  the  Congress tried
 to ensure that a responsible official of standing
 equal  to any of the line officials  shall be ap-
 pointed to concern himself with environment,  health,
 and societal issues.   That individual was  the As-
 sistant Administrator for Environment and  Safety.

       Clearly, the AES is faced with a large and
 complex task,  as Figure 3 indicates.   I, as the AES,
 must overview the adequacy of environmental R&D in
 wastes,  control technology and safety aspects for
 each technology.   I must perform supporting bio-
 medical and environmental R&D.   This  demands  that I
 work closely with the other assistant administra-
 tors to  achieve these goals.   Figures ^ and 5 in-
 dicate  the  three major functions within the AES
 structure  and a breakdown of the responsibilities
 which characterize these functions.

      How do we insure that the appropriate R&D is
 conducted so as to give rise to a safe,  clean,  en-
vironmentally  acceptable energy supply?  There are
 four major  matters  that must be considered with re-
 gard to  the development and implementation of each
technology  which  are  expressed  in Figure 6.

      Each  of  these must be considered at  the ap-
propriate time and I  believe ERDA's position  is
that we must begin to consider  these  issues  simul-
taneously with the  beginning exploration of the
technology  and to continue this concern  throughout
the development of the technology.  This idea is
 illustrated in Figure ?•

      Thus,  in the development  of the technology,
 if any one  of  these factors indicates a  problem,
 the technology will be slowed or not  developed at
 all  at this time  -- if the technology itself  is
 questionable,  it  fails early.

      If the economics or other issues  seem too
 negative, the  technology can be put on  the back
 burner for  awhile.

      If, however,  after initial steps  everything
 seems to go, then the technology R&D  and the  re-
 lated environmental,  health,  and societal  research,
 including  addressing  of the institutional  issues,
 is accelerated.   Thus,  by the time the technology
 is to be commercialized,  we will be certain within
very narrow limits  that no  unsuspecting surprises
will crop  up at  the last  minute  to  make a failure
of  the  technology because of something that was
overlooked.

      Because of the continuim of health, biologi-
cal, and environmental concerns,  it is essential
that regulatory  agencies  become  involved at a
reasonably early stage to insure that  the needed
information to promulgate standards exists.

      Note that  control technology  is  expected to
be  an integral part of the  development of the tech-
nology  itself.   Environment and  Safety group and
regulatory agencies provide an overview to insure
the adequacy of  these measures.

      How  do we  in  ERDA insure that we are linked
closely enough to the development of the technology
to  insure  that all  factors  are considered?

      As shown in Figure  8, our  strategy is basi-
cally to create  an  atmosphere and organization
wherein people from Environment  and Safety work
closely enough with the technology  people so that
they become very familiar with the  processes being
developed  and any associated health, environmental,
and societal issues.  If  this interaction -is effec-
tive, then it will  be clear that the pace of the
technology is directly related to the  Environment
and Safety activities, both budgetarily and pro-
grammatically.   If  one suffers,  the whole suffers.
This approach should lead to more realistic pro-
grams as shown in Figure  9-  It  is  essential that
we  do this for each technology process.   Thus,  for
Coal Conversion  (Figure 10), for instance, each
separate process must be  examined for  possible
effluents  and constituents  that  may be in the pro-
cess or in the product that could have an impact.

      Out  of a series of  such definitions for each
of  the  technologies comes the Environment and
Safety  programs  of  ERDA,  as shown in Figure 11.  It
has been necessary  to restructure my own internal
ERDA organization in order  to accommodate this  in-
teractive  process with each of the  technology
branches,  developing focused programs  in each of
the technology areas to the degree  that the Tech-
nology  Assistant Administrator and  I both can feel
comfortable that our programs make  sense.

      Note in particular  the MULTI-TECHOLOGY line
which indicates  the existence of programs whose re-
sults,  in  fact,  are applicable to several technology
areas.  To the biological organism,  it is of little
consequence that sulfur comes from  coal combustion
or  from geothermal  wells  or that heat  comes from
coal-fired as  well  as nuclear-fired boilers.   This
effort  constitutes  about  30 percent of the total
budget  and is  scattered rather widely  through all
of  the  various processes  on the  left axis.

      In addition,  note the GENERAL  SCIENCE line'
which is handled independently of the  technology
programs.    General  science  contributes  to  the under-
standing of  the  basic underlying scientific mecha-
nisms and  is used to open up new options.

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                                                                                                         11
      It is, in fact, these two parts - the multi-
technology and the general science programs - that
made it possible for ERDA to move rather aggres-
sively into all of the technology areas with mini-
mum "budget increases.  (Figure 12)

      It does, however, become clear rather quickly
that EKDA alone does not have responsibility for
the total environmental and safety aspects of
energy R&D.  In precisely the same sense that
EKDA's multi-technology programs cut across many
technologies, so the programs of ERDA as well as
those of EPA, HEW and others cut across many fields
of endeavor - not just energy related activity.
ERDA recognized this early and in connection with
the mandates of the Non-Nuclear Energy R&D Act of
19714. which requires the annual submission of a
National Energy R&D Plan, we determined that in
the Environment and Safety area it would be nec-
essary to compile into a meaningful format the
actual H&D work going on in the United States re-
garding energy related environmental and health
R&D.  The following five (5) figures give you an
idea of:  Participating Agencies (Figure 13);
Federal Inventory of Energy-Related Biomedical and
Environmental Research -- Objectives (Figure lU);
Federal Inventory of Energy-Related Biomedical and
Environmental Research -- Data Format (Figure 15);
Energy Technologies by Research Category (Figure
16); Fossil Energy Health Effects Research (Figure
17).

      The net result of our first survey for Ff
1975 indicated about $270 million was allocated
for support of various agencies, with ERDA and EPA
carrying the predominate share of the activity.
Our request for appropriate automated data bases
for people to utilize to insure that no unnecessary
duplication or voids in effort occur.

      In closing, let me make five points:

      In demonstrating ERDA's commitment to en-
vironmental quality:

      1.  We will insure that from the first con-
          cept of the technology that environmental,
          health, societal and institutional issues
          are given equal consideration with the
          technology.

      2.  We will insure that our plans, policies,
          and R&D efforts are discussed widely
          with the public.

      3.  We will insure, through close cooperation
          with regulatory agencies, that adequate
          information of the right kinds is being
          derived from the Nation's R&D program to
          establish regulations.

      h.  We will cooperate fully with all the
          agencies to insure that whenever possible
          and whenever of interest to them, joint
          programs of mutual benefit are developed
          in conjunction with our technology de-
          velopment programs.

      5.  We will insure that the data bases we
          develop on federal R&D are accessible to
          all agencies equally.

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 JJ	
 Figure 1

       ERDA ENVIRONMENTAL POLICY

      THERE MUST BE A COMMITMENT TO:
       • CREATION OF ENERGY TECHNOLOGY CHOICES THAT
         ARE ENVIRONMENTALLY ACCEPTABLE

       • WORKING WITH INDUSTRY, GOVERNMENT (FEDERAL,
         STATE, LOCAL). AND PUBLIC TO HELP ENSURE THAT
         ENERGY SYSTEMS REMAIN ENVIRONMENTALLY,
         SOCIALLY, AND ECONOMICALLY ACCEPTABLE IN THE
         MARKET PLACE

       . AN OPEN ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT ASSESSMENT
         PROCESS AIMED  AT DEVELOPMENT OF TECHNOLOGY
         ALTERNATIVES SPECIFICALLY WEIGHED TOWARD
         ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AND ENHANCEMENT
                                                AES

Figure 2
        ENVIRONMENTAL IMPLICATIONS
   . NO SINGLE APPROACH CAN GUARANTEE ENVIRONMENTALLY
     AND SOCIALLY ACCEPTABLE COMMERCIAL ENERGY SYSTEMS.

   • NO SINGLE PUBLIC OR PRIVATE AGENCY HAS CONTROL OVER
     THE FINAL ENVIRONMENTAL AND SOCIAL PERFORMANCE
     OF COMMERCIAL ENERGY SYSTEMS.

   . THEREFORE ESSENTIAL THAT THE PUBLIC EIA PROCESS BE
     OPERATED TO INITIATE EARLY FEDERAL/STATE/LOCAL
     GOVERNMENTS, INDUSTRY, AND PUBLIC INTERACTION
     LEADING TO NEEDED INSTITUTIONAL, TECHNICAL, AND
     FINANCIAL RESPONSES.
Figure 3
               ERDA ADMINISTRATOR

                   EROA PROGRAM
               ASSISTANT ADMINISTRATORS
                                        ENVIRONMENTAL
                                             •
                                          OVERVIEW
FOSSIL
FUELS
NUCLEAR
CONSERVATION
SOLAR
GEOTHERMAL
NATIONAL
SECURITY
ENVIRONMENT
SAFETY
f.
                                      OPERATIONAL SAFETY
                                      BIOMEOICAL t, ENV  RES
                                      WASTE MANAGEMENT RSD
                                      CONTROL TECHNOLOGY
                                      NEPA ACTIVITIES
                                      COORDINATION
                                        WITHIN ERDA
                                        WITH CED EPA
                                        NRC ON RSR
                                                        Figure  5    AES RESPONSIBILITIES

                                                            RESEARCH
                                                               • SOCIO-ECONOMIC IMPACT
                                                               « HEALTH EFFECTS
                                                               . ECOLOGICAL EFFECTS
                                                               • CHARACTERIZATION. MEASUREMENT AND MONITORING
                                                               • ENVIRONMENTAL TRANSPORT AND EFFECTS
                                                               • WASTE USE AND/OR CONTROL
                                                            OVERVIEW
                                                               . TECHNOLOGY MONITORING AND INTERACTION
                                                               . ANALYSIS AND ASSESSMENT
                                                               « COORDINATION W/STATE, FED. LOCAL
                                                               • PUBLIC DEMONSTRATION
                                                            COMPLIANCE
                                                               • EIA/EIS REVIEW AND DEVELOPMENT
                                                               . DEVELOPMENT AND COMPLIANCE WITH OTHER FEDERAL,
                                                                 STATE AND LOCAL REGULATIONS
                                                                                                       AES
                                                        Figure 6
                                                                TECHNOLOGY  DEVELOPMENT
                                                                                AND
                                                                       IMPLEMENTATION
                                                          • TECHNOLOGY  RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT
                                                          • ECONOMICS OF  TECHNOLOGY
                                                          • ENVIRONMENT,  HEALTH,  SAFETY, SOCIETAL
                                                            ISSUES
                                                          • INSTITUTIONAL  ISSUES

                                                        Figure 7
ENERGY FOR THE NATION
                                                                                TECHNOLOGY COMMERCIALIZED
 SUPPORTING BIOMEDICAL. ENVIRONMENTAL AND SAFETY RESEARCH AND
 COORDINATION PROMULGATION AND ENFORCEMENT OF HEALTH, SAFETY,
 AND ENVIRONMENTAL REGULATIONS OVERVIEW OF ADEQUACY OF R&D
 ON WASTES. CONTROL TECHNOLOGIES. SAFETY ASPECTS

Figure h
            ERDA'S AES FUNCTION
      TO ENSURE DEVELOPMENT OF CLEAN, SAFE,
      PUBLICALLY ACCEPTABLE ENERGY
      TECHNOLOGIES-ACHIEVED THROUGH:
        .RESEARCH
        • OVERVIEW
        . COMPLIANCE WITH REGULATORY PROCEDURE
                                                            REGULATORY CONFIRMATIVE
                                                            ASSESSMENT R&D
                                                             A NO-GO TRY  PROSPECTIVE COST
                                                                       YIELD TOO LOW FOR NOW

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                                                                                                                    13
Fi
                                                             Fierure 12
  ERDA's ENVIRONMENTAL POLICY STRATEGY
                                  TECHNOLOGICAL THRUSTS
  TECHNOLOGY DEVELOPMENT PLAN
                                                                                    SOLAR ENERGY
                                                               A
                                           0\  CLEAN,
  ENVIRONMENTAL DEVELOPMENT PLAN>  SAFE
  •j o o o/i • o o • o o 9/} o • o • o • o/   ENERGY
                     NUCLEAR ENERGY         ' JL \         FOSSIL ENERGY
                                  •*»
                                   UNDERLYING BIOMEDICAL AND
                                                                                          ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCES
  ENVIRONMENT R&D PLAN
 Figure 9
 PLAN  FOR SINGLE ENERGY TECHNOLOGY
                           ECOLOGY GENETICS PHYSIOLOGY  CHEMISTRY  IMMUNOLOGY
                              IAND SYSTEMS AQUATIC SYSTEMS MARINE SYSTEMS
                            MEASUREMENTS TECHNOLOGY CHARACTERIZATION METHODS


                  Fi.Q-ure 13
 TECHNOLOGY R&D PROGRAM
 ENVIRONMENTAL R&D PROGRAM
Fiscure  10
       COAL  CONVERSION
       GASIFICATION, LIQUEFACTION,
       REFINED COAL
        ENVIRONMENTAL  RESEARCH
        HEALTH EFFECTS, ENVIRONMENTAL
        EFFECTS, CONTROL SYSTEMS,  SITING
SAFE
CLEAN
ADEQUATE
ACCEPTABLE
ENERGY
    SAFE
    CLEAN
    ADEQUATE
    ACCEPTABLE
    ENERGY
            PARTICIPATING AGENCIES

• ENERGY RESEARCH  AND DEVELOPMENT  ADMINISTRATION 1ERDAI
• ENVIRONMENTAL  PROTECTION AGENCY |EPA|
• TENNESSEE VALLEY  AUTHORITY  TVA
• NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION |NASA|
• DEPARTMENT  OF HEALTH  EDUCATION.  AND WELFARE |HEW]
   • NATIONAL INSTITUTES OF HEALTH  JNIH]
   • NATIONAL INSTITUTE FOR OCCUPATIONAL  SAFETY AND  HEALTH
     [NIOSH]
• NATIONAL SCIENCE FOUNDATION (NSF|
• DEPARTMENT  OF COMMERCE
   • NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION  (NOAAJ
   • OFFICE OF ENVIRONMENTAL  AFFAIRS  (OEA]
   • NATIONAL BUREAU  OF STANDARDS  JNBSI
• DEPARTMENT  OF INTERIOR
   • BUREAU  OF  LAND MANAGEMENT |BLM|
   • OFFICE OF BIOLOGICAL SERVICES  FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE
     [DBS FWS]
   • US GEOLOGICAL  SURVEY |USGS]
   • BUREAU  OF  MINES |BM|
   • BUREAU  OF  RECLAMATION |BR)
• DEPARTMENT  OF AGICULTURE
• DEPARTMENT  OF DEFENSE |000|
Figure  11
                                                             Figure
    CHARACTERIZATION
        ENVIRONMENT
          TRANSPORT
            CONTROL
         TECHNOLOGY
         STANDARDS
                             o
                             tt
     z
     o
     I-
                          MULTI TECHNOLOGY SUPPORT
                            FEDERAL INVENTORY  OF ENERGY-RELATED
                           BIOMEDICAL AND  ENVIRONMENTAL  RESEARCH

                                          OBJECTIVES

                    • PROVIDE SOURCE OF INFORMATION OF FEDERALLY FUNDED BIOMEDICAL
                      AND ENVIRONMENTAL ENERGY-RELATED RESEARCH
                    • PROVIDE DATA BASE TO DETERMINE EXISTING RESEARCH DEFICIENCIES
                      AND UNDESIRABLE OVERLAP
                                                                 PROVIDE DATA BASE TO FORMULATE FUTURE RESEARCH PROGRAMS

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J_4	
 Figure 15
              FEDERAL INVENTORY OF  ENERGY-RELATED
             BIOMEDICAL AND ENVIRONMENTAL  RESEARCH

                         DATA FORMAT
    • ORGANIZATION OF  RESEARCH PROIECTS BY INTERAGENCY WORKING GROUP
      CATEGORIES
    • BIOMEDICAL AND ENVIRONMENTAL RESEARCH CATEGORIES
       • CHARACTERIZATION  MEASUREMENT AND MONITORING
       • ENVIRONMENTAL TRANSPORT PROCESSES
       • HEALTH EFFECTS
       • ECOLOGICAL EFFECTS
       • INTEGRATED ASSESSMENT
    • ENERGY TECHNOLOGIES
       • COAL
       • OIL AND GAS
       • OIL SHALE
       • GEOTHERMAL
       • NUCLEAR
• SOLAR
• HYDROELECTRIC
• CONSERVATION
• MULTI TECHNOLOGY
• GENERAL SCIENCE
                              Figure 17
                                FOSSIL  ENERGY  HEALTH  EFFECTS RESEARCH
OBJECTIVES S

METABOLISM AND m
FATE
DOSE EFFECT _
RELATIONSHIPS
MECHANISMS OF _
X CD
LJJ CD




CD CD
CD CD




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_J




MULTI-TECHNOLOGY SUPPORT
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          AN  ENVIRONMENTAL OVERVIEW OF
         UNITED STATES'  ENERGY  FUTURES

                S. J. Gage
        Deputy Assistant Administrator
      Energy, Minerals and Industry -  U.S.EPA
              Washington,  D.C.

      For a country as  large and complex as the
 United States, it is unusual when new courses  are
 charted, when  major  new initiatives are undertaken.
 The  momentum of the  Nation's activities is gener-
 ally too great to change  directions.   We speak more
 often of bold  initiatives than we apply ourselves
 to bringing  such  programs into action.   But, we are
 now  witnessing, I believe,  such a shift in national
 mood, direction,  and action.

      Since both the  mass  and speed of our collec-
 tive activities are  great,  the change toward energy
 sufficiency,  resource conservation, and environ-
 mental  protection is slow.  The process is rather
 like trying  to turn  a heavily  laden supertanker-
 it takes a lot of energy  and a lot of room.  And
 the  turn generates a lot  of creaks and  groans  as
 the  entire ship is stressed.

      We are  now moving  in a different direction
 than we were  three years  ago.   We have  to watch
 carefully, for the rate of  change can be deadly
 slow at times, as if the  ship  were dead in the
 water.   In other  instances, certain changes can be
 dizzying.

      It is my  job this  morning to give  an  overview
 of the  environmental consequences of  this  new
 course  we  are  on.  You  have already heard  about the
 likely  shape of our  energy  futures and  have heard
 about the  commitment to avoid  many of the  environ-
 mental  mistakes of the  past, as  we attempt to  mold
 our  energy futures.  I  want to present  a setting
 for  what is to come  during  these three  days of the
 conference.  I  would like to paint a  backdrop  for
 the  environmental  research  and development activi-
 ties  that  you  will hear described.  While  it would
 be impossible  for me to cover  every environmental
 aspect  of  each energy fuel  and technology, existing
 and  potential,  in the time  I have, I  will  attempt
 to paint  in broad strokes so that the distinguished
 speakers who follow  me  can  enrich the picture  in
 color and  detail.

      Before turning  to  the  real  and potential  en-
 vironmental problems associated  with  the major
 energy  alternatives, I  should  reiterate  several
 facts about our present and future energy  consump-
 tion  patterns.  First,  the  Nation is  hooked on  oil
 and  gas.   As you  can see  in Figure  1, the  bulk  of
 our energy—over  three-fourths—is  supplied by
 petroleum  and  natural gas.  But,  as ERDA Assistant
 Administrator  Roger  LaGassie has  indicated, that
 pattern  has to change.  The nagging fear that  our
 oil and  gas resources will  eventually run  out  has
 become  a stark reality.   We have  gone to the well
 once too often.

     There is  good geologic reason  to believe that
there is still oil and gas  offshore but  not enough
to offset  both our growing  demand  and the  declin-
ing production from existing wells.
                                                                                                       15
     King Coal, which had lost control  of the
energy market and had become a Black Prince at
best, is due to be enthroned again.  Although coal
supplies less than 20 % of our energy now, most
experts believe that the use of coal will double,
possibly even triple, before the turn of the cen-
tury.  In the near-term, more coal  would be used
for the generation of electrical power; within the
next two decades, synthetic products from coal
should become available to offset the significant
shortfall in domestic gas and liquid fuel pro-
duction.

     A highly conjectural fuel production of our
future energy supplies is presented in  Figure 2 to
illustrate the relative timing of emerging energy
supplies and technologies.  These curves are not
meant to present a quantitative picture.  At this
time, the best anyone can hope to do is to present
a range of energy supply scenarios.  For simpli-
city's sake, I will use this diagram throughout the
talk to give an idea of when energy supply alterna-
tives might come into play, what the nature of the
environmental threats are, and how much time we
will have to develop the required environmental
safeguards.

     Nuclear fission reactors are already playing
an increasingly large role in electrical power
generation.  However, their long-term viability
will depend upon an adequate supply of uranium ore,
adequate enrichment and fuel reprocessing capacity,
and probably ultimately the availability of the
breeder reactor to utilize the much more plentiful
fertile uranium isotope U-238.  Looming large also
are questions of reactor operational safety and
radioactive waste disposal.

     In the intermediate term, advanced energy
technologies such as solar and geothermal may play
an important role, particularly in the South and
Southwest.  The promise of fusion also may be
realized by the turn of the century.

     Finally, energy conservation has to become a
way of  life today and tomorrow.  Shifts toward
smaller, more efficient automobiles, more efficient
building design, and more efficient industrial pro-
cesses  should continue to take the edge off our
energy  supply problems.   Conservation will not pro-
duce any new BTU's but it will delay the need  for
new energy by making better use of the BTU's we
have available.

     Now,  I would  like to turn to our current  and
future  energy  supply alternatives.  First,  I  would
like to discuss the nation's  oil supply  alterna-
tives.
 OFFSHORE OIL AND GAS OPERATIONS

     Oil and gas development on the Gulf of Mexico
 and California Outer Continental  Shelf  began  with
 exploration of nearshore shallow  waters, the  first
 offshore platform being constructed in  1897 off
 Santa Barbara.  Fifty years later, the  first  plat-
 form beyond sight of land began operating  off

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16

  Louisiana.  Since then, the industry has continued
  to advance into deeper waters and, in the North
  Sea, into a much more hostile environment.

      The offshore oil and gas industry has  made
  substantial progress in technology and work prac-
  tices since the highly publicized Santa Barbara
  blowout in 1969.  To date, over 17,000 wells have
  been drilled in U.S. coastal waters, mostly in the
  Gulf of Mexico such as those from the platform
  shown in Figure 3.  However, a Council on Environ-
  mental Quality study indicated frontier OCS regions
  would likely confront harsher conditions than had
  been previously faced in other United States off-
  shore areas.  For example, conditions in the Gulf
  of Alaska are more severe than the industry has
 yet experienced anywhere in the world.  Consequent-
  ly, the risk of environmental damage from offshore
 oil operations varies from area to area.  The CEQ
  study pointed out that development of the Georges
  Bank off New England and of the central Baltimore
 Canyon would involve relatively lower environ-
 mental risk than development of the northern
 Baltimore Canyon, the Southeast Georgia Embayment,
 and the Gulf of Alaska—all higher risk areas.

      Ecological  impacts in the marine and coastal
 environments may result from both permanent and
 temporary stresses created by offshore oil  opera-
 tions.   Permanent stresses result from development
 of harbors and construction facilities, dredging
 and filling operations, placement of platforms and
 pipelines, alteration of drainage patters,  and
 construction of refining and petrochemical  com-
 plexes.   Chronic pollution by the operational dis-
 charge of brines from active fields may also be
 considered to be permanent since these discharges--
 which also contain some oil--continue and actually
 increase  with the age of the field.

      Temporary ecological  impacts are generally
 associated with  accidents  such as well blowouts,
 loss  of drilling muds,  and oil  spills.  These acci-
 dents  often  occur during drilling operations but
 can  also  occur during production and transportation
 phases.   They can be costly and destructive and
 can  threaten  human life,  Red Adair   and John
 Wayne  notwithstanding.   Massive oil spills  can
 significantly reduce biological  productivity within
 the  impacted  area.   After  a sufficient time has
 elapsed,  the  affected ecosystem will  recover to a
 point  where  the  normal  biota and ecosystem  activity
 are  restored,  although  the time required may be
 many  years.

      Crude  oil  and natural  gas  liquids may  be
 transported  to shore processing facilities  by pipe-
 line,  tanker,  or barge.   Natural  gas is transported
 only  by pipeline.   All  the natural  gas now  pro-
 duced in  the  Gulf of Mexico and off Southern Cali-
 fornia is  transported to shore  by pipeline.  All
 the  oil  produced off California and 97 to 98% of
 the  Gulf oil  is  piped to shore.   Because most of
 the  U.S.  offshore geological  formations with oil
 and  gas potential  lie within 200 miles of shore,
 pipelines  will  probably continue as a preferred
 OCS  transportation mode, although tankers may well
be used for transporting oil during the early
phase of the field development in areas remote
from established producing fields.  Production can
begin earlier, particularly far offshore, if tank-
ers are loaded from offshore moorings in or near
the field.  One commonly used.is the single point
mooring (SPM).  Production has begun in the North
Sea Ekofisk and Auk Fields, although the pipelines
for these fields have not yet been completed.
Figure 4 shows a tanker connected to a SPM in the
Ekofisk Field.

     Single point moorings have specifically been
developed to reduce the hazards to tankers of
storms and to minimize oil spills during loading.
Over 100 SPM's are in use throughout the world.
Because the mooring and hosing can circle the buoy,
the tanker moves to head into waves, tides, and
storms.  The SPM thus allows a tanker to remain
moored in 15 to 20 foot waves accompanied by winds
and currents.  These conditions could not be
tolerated at a fixed mooring.

     In addition to oil pollution, tankers and
barges pollute with their sewage, untreated gar-
bage, and human wastes.  A tanker of 35,000 dead-
weight tons generates about 1000 gallons per day
each of sewage and domestic waste.  If they are
not treated, they can significantly degrade water
quality, particularly in harbors and bays.

     Crude oil may be a mixture of more than a
thousand different hydrocarbons, together with
trace amounts of such compounds as sulfur and
nitrogen.  The processes used in a refinery in-
clude distillation, sulfur removal, cracking, and
reforming.  Process equipment in a typical re-
finery is shown in Figure 5.  The refining pro-
cess, if uncontrolled, can lead to unacceptable
water and air pollution.  Uater residuals include
dissolved solids, suspended solids, nondegradable
organics, and biochemical and chemical oxygen de-
mands.  Air emissions include NOx from heaters and
boilers, SOx primarily from catalytic cracking,
and hydrocarbons from crude oil and product stor-
age.  The most troublesome solid wastes are oily
sludges from crude oil storage which cannot be dis-
posed of in ordinary landfills.  Land use require-
ments may become significant if storage, loading
areas, buffer zones, and room for expansion are
included.

COAL

     Turning next to our most abundent fuel, it is
likely that coal will continue to be used in in-
creasing quantities in direct firing of utility
and industrial boilers.  Four major'areas--Rocky
Mountain, Northern Great Plains, Interior, and
Eastern—contain more than 90% of all coal re-
sources in the Contiguous 48 States.  These areas
are shown in Figure 6.  There are major differences
between the coals in these areas in terms of the
quantity, quality, depth, seam thickness, and
ownership.  Availability of water resources, as
well as competition for surface area usage, also
vary widely.  The Northern Great Plains and Rocky

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Mountain Coal Provinces contain approximately 70%
of the U.S. coal resources and most of the nation's
low sulfur coal.  There are, however, large re-
serves of higher quality, lower sulfur coal in
Appalachia, which are capable of meeting new source
performance standards, although a substantial frac-
tion requires washing to remove pyritic sulfur.

     Until recently, most U.S. coal was mined
underground.  Surface mining, however, has been in-
creasing for several decades, as shown in Figure 7.
Both types of mining cause environmental problems.
It is essential that we take every possible mea-
sure to minimize these ecological impacts as we
expand both surface and underground mining.

     One of the most difficult problems caused by
coal mining has been acid mine drainage which re-
sults from the oxidizing of pyritic materials in
the overburden above the coal seam and the leach-
ing of the acid from the mine.  Where underground
mines have been breached or spoils from surface
mines have not been properly covered, acidic
drainage can pollute surface streams.  Sometimes,
it is possible to treat the water before discharg-
ing; other times not.  Approximately 80% of acid
mine drainage in Appalachia originates from
abandoned underground coal mines and affects
thousands of miles of streams in that area.

     Many mining activities have imposed huge
social costs on the public at large.  These costs
will last for years and are in the form of stream
pollution, floods, landslides, sedimentation, loss
of fish and wildlife habitats, nonproductive un-
reclaimed land, and the impairment of natural
beauty.  As the Nation attempts to increase domes-
tic energy production, care must be taken not to
repeat the problems which haunt this and future
generations.

     In Eastern surface mining operations, care
must be taken to provide adequate reclamation of
mined areas, including restoration to original  con-
tours and minimization of erosion during mining
and revegetation phases.  Much mining is done on
steep slopes in Appalachia in the manner shown in
Figure 8.  It has only been in the last several
years that integrated mining and reclamation tech-
niques have been available so that steep slope
mining could be done without severe environmental
consequences.  One of these methods—the "haul-
back" method—offers considerable promise.

     The Northern Great Plains Province contains
half of the remaining coal resources in the U.S.
The two largest regions, Fort Union and Powder
River, contain almost 1.5 trillion tons of coal,
much of which is owned by the Federal government.
Most of the coal within the Province is relatively
low in quality, with lignite in the Fort Union
region and thick deposits of sub-bituminous in the
Powder River region.   Although seam depth and
thickness vary considerably, some beds are quite
thick (50 to 100 feet) and sufficiently near the
surface to allow surface mining.   Water supplies
are not abundant, and most of the surface water is
                                                  17

found in the Northern Missouri River Drainage
Basin.  The average annual  runoff amount ranges
from less than 1 inch to 10 inches.

     Reclamation in the West presents a serious
challenge.  Knowledge of'reclamation procedures is
inadequate.  At this time,  it is generally im-
possible to guarantee complete success of reclama-
tion efforts.   Problems of  revegetating strip mine
areas in the arid and semi-arid West differ drasti-
cally from those in the humid areas  of the East,
as shown in the photograph  of a mined area in
Eastern Montana in Figure  9.   From the standpoint
of plant growth, climatic  conditions are extreme.
Seventy-five percent of the area receives less
than 20 inches annual precipitation  available for
plant growth.   In addition, there are seasonal
temperature variations from -60 degrees to 120 de-
grees F, short frost-free  periods, wide variations
in overburden  material and  lack of adequate top
soil.  In some cases, the  saving and spreading of
top soil-can do more harm  than good; for instance,
where the calcium carbonate layer underlying much
arid land soil is mixed with the nitrogen rich
organic layer  and the biologic carbon nitrogen
balance is destroyed.  The  success of revegetation
efforts can vary widely, with water  being a key
factor in any  successful western reclamation pro-
gram.

     One of the most difficult aspects of develop-
ment to cope with is the effect upon the people who
live in impacted areas. The social  system and
culture of the Northern Great Plains is dominated
by three distinct groups of people:   farmers and
ranchers, townspeople, and  Indians.   The first two
groups share one culture, while the  Indians have a
separate, yet  related, culture.

     Coal  development will  accelerate the "boom
town" phenomena that is occurring in the Northern
Great Plains region.  Impacts of sudden growth will
be greatest on the persons  and communities close to
development sites.  Families are crowded together
in mobile homes in a 'strange environment.  Newly
arriving families, particularly the  blue-collar
families, seek acceptance  into the community.
Social cohesion suffers as  alienation and emotional
distress feed  on each other; and crime, suicide,
and alcoholism rates tend to increase.  In short,
the quality of life of persons, both newcomers and
residents of the area, is degraded.

COAL UTILIZATION

     Most of the coal used  in the United States
during the next two decades will be  burned in
steam boilers.  Coal-fired  steam electric boilers
are primarily  located east  of the Mississippi, with
the heaviest concentration  in the industrial upper
Midwest.  In addition, many new coal-fired power
plants are being constructed in the  West, such as
the new plant  being constructed at Col strip,
Montana, pictured in Figure 10.

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18

      At the present time, coal  provides  42% of the
 fuel  needs of electric power generation  and 217. of
 those for industrial  process heat.   In striving for
 the National  goal  of energy self-sufficiency,  sign-
 ificantly increased amounts of  coal  must be burned
 in these applications.  It is essential  to  have
 available air pollution control  technology  which
 can mitigate  the environmental  impact  of directly
 using coal in boilers and furnaces  pending  the
 development of processes to convert coal  to clean
 synthetic liquids  and gases.

      It has been shown that, in  combination, sulfur
 oxides and particulate matter from  power plant
 stack gases can increase the death  rate  due to
 chronic disease and can aggravate these  diseases.
 In addition,  they  can be a causal factor in the
 occurrence of chronic bronchitis in children and
 adults.

      The oxides of nitrogen lead to photochemical
 smog  reactions.  These reactions require hydro-
 carbon vapors, oxides of nitrogen,  and sunlight.
 Adverse health and environmental effects include
 eye and respiratory irritation,  production  of ozone
 in the atmosphere, interference  with visibility,
 and characteristic forms of vegetation damage.  In
 concentrations of  several  parts  per million, nitro-
 gen dioxide can lead to a condition in experimental
 animals that  resembles pulmonary emphysema  in man.
      The  most  convincing  case  for the  severity of
 effects of air pollution,  as well  as  for  the effects
 of  air pollution  on  mortality  of persons  who are
 chronically ill,  has been  based  on the experience
 of  the population of London  during the December,
 1952  air  pollution disaster.   During  that critical
 two week  period,  deaths exceeded several  hundred
 per day,  and approached 1009 deaths on the day of
 maximum sulfur dioxide concentration.   Total  deaths
 from  all  causes exceeded  the seasonal  norm by near-
 ly  a  factor of three.

      One  of the major near term  objectives of the
 Nation's  energy research  and development  program  is
 to  develop  and demonstrate commercial  viable pro-
 cesses for  cleaning  of fossil  fuel  combustion flue
 gases.  The processes include  those to control
 emissions  of sulfur  dioxide and  its derivatives,
 particulates ,  nitrogen oxides, and hazardous mater-
 ials  from coal  and residual oil  combustion gases.
 Shown in  Figure 11 is the  successful  demonstration
 of  one scrubbing  process—the  MagOx process—at
 Boston Edison's Mystic Station.

 SYNTHETIC FUELS

      Several processes are now being  developed to
 convert coal to clean burning  synthetic natural gas
 and lower heat content power gas.   Other  processes
 are being developed  for conversion of  coal  to low
 sulfur and  low ash liquids or  solids  for  non-pollut-
 ing fuels.  ERDA  is  now in the process of awarding
 contracts for  several synthetic  fuel  demonstration
 plants, including the large COALCON synthetic fuel
 plant to  be constructed in Southern Illinois.
     The conversion processes in such a plant, how-
ever, include various operations which can release
particulates and hydrocarbons into the atmosphere,
and potentially hazardous chemicals to water
supplies.  The environmental implications of coal
conversion processes are viewed in terms of primary
impacts—air emissions and water effluents, the
solid waste produced and the land requirements; and
secondary impacts—those connected with associated
industries, population shifts, employment, housing
and municipal, public and commercial services.  It
is expected that the water effluents from a gasi-
fication plant, before treatment, will contain sus-
pended solids, phenols, thiocynates, cyanides,
ammonia, dissolved solids such as chlorides, car-
bonates and biocarbonates, many sulfur compounds,
trace elements and tars, oils and light hydro-
carbons.  Potential discharge of many other pollu-
tants and the environmental effects these dis-
charges may cause are currently undergoing study.

     Potentially hazardous substances which are sus-
pected in coal conversion plant process streams in-
clude polynuclears such as benzoCa)pyrene, and
organo-metallics such as nickel carbonyl—both are
known carcinogens.  The particulare emissions are
especially important since carcinogenic compounds
may  be particulates themselves, or adsorbed on
particulates which can be respired and retained in
the  lungs.

FLUIDIZED BED COMBUSTION

     A promising technology  for using coal in an
environmentally acceptable manner  is fluidized bed
combustion—a technology under development by ERDA
and  private industry.   Fluidized  bed combustors
(FBC) burn  coal under closely  controlled conditions,
thus reducing particulates  and nitrogen oxides
formation and allowing  for  the capture of the sul-
fur  oxides  by sulfur-scavenging materials such as
limestone.

     Of  particular  concern  is  hot  particulate
cleanup, especially below five microns.  The effi-
ciency  of mechanical dust collectors drops off
rapidly  in  this range,  and  high temperature filters
may  be  required to  protect  gas turbines and to
minimize atmospheric emissions.   Environmental tests
of an advanced FBC  system are  being run on EPA's
miniplant in New Jersey, shown in  Figure 12.

     Finally, disposal  of sulfur  dioxide sorbent
material and ash wastes  poses  an  environmental
problem  for FBC systems  and  adds  an economic pen-
alty to  the plants.  Development  of a suitable re-
generation  scheme which  produces  a  salable by-
product  and returns  sorbent  to the  system is needed.

OIL  SHALE

     The U.S. Geological Survey estimates that U.S.
oil  shale deposits  contain  more than  2  trillion
barrels  of oil.  However, only a  very small portion
of these resources  could be  classified  as reserves.
About 90% of the identified  oil shale resources  of
the  U.S. are located in  a single  geological forma-

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                                                                                                          19
tion in western Colorado, Utah and Wyoming known as
the Green River formation, as shown in Figure 13.

     Conceptually, oil shale may be exploited in
one of two ways--the oil-bearing rock can be mined
and then processed (or retorted) on the surface,
or the rock can be fractured and processed under-
ground (in situ) and the resulting liquids with-
drawn by wells.

     Just as for many other minerals, surface min-
ing and retorting of oil shale creates many types
of residuals such as air and water pollutants as
well as massive quantities of spent shale which
must be disposed of on the surface.

     Air pollution may be minimized if the retort
towers are tightly controlled and dust emission is
suppressed by  water sprays.  The latter may be a
difficult job  in such dry areas.  Total control of
water pollutants will require that surface runoff
be directed away from the mine, that seepage be
used for dust  control and reclamation, and that any
other contaminated water be either injected into
deep wells or  purified before being released.  Tbe
feasibility of these controls for a commercial scale
mine has not yet been demonstrated.  Contamination
of ground water supplies by saline mine water is a
possibility, but that depends on the local geo-
logic structures.

     Disposal  of solid wastes from oil shale opera-
tions can be a formidable task.  For example, if a
surface mine with an average overburden of 450 feet
is supporting  a 100,000-barrel-per-day processing
operation, it will produce an average of nearly
90,000 tons of solid wastes per day--an amount that
would cover 25 acres to a depth of one foot.

     Runoff water from waste piles clearly consti-
tutes a water  pollution danger.  Water coming off
spent shale piles under a condition where runoff
rate equals rainfall rate has been estimated to
contain as much as 45 milligrams per liter of sul-
fates, carbonates, sodium, calcium, and magnesium
salts.  Reclamation of the waste piles remains
problemmatical and a primary environmental impact
of reclamation is likely to be its consumption of
water.  Uater  consumption estimates for oil shale
development suggest a need for between 121,000 and
189,000 acre feet of water per year, or about 10%
of the total water usage in the Colorado part of
the upper Colorado River basin in 1970.

     Many of the same problems exist with under-
ground mining techniques because part of spent shale
must be disposed of on the surface.  Depending on
the economics, possibly all of the shale would go
into surface land disposal.

     The in situ approach involves fracturing the
oil shale underground, introducing heat to cause
pyrolysis underground, and collecting and with-
drawing the shale oil through wells to the surface
for upgrading.  Environmental  problems associated
with in situ retorting schemes includes subsidence,
air emTs s ions, and disruptions of aquifers.
NUCLEAR POWER

     Conventional light water fission reactors are
commercially available and now represent approxi-
mately eight percent of the Nation's electrical
generating capacity.  Reactors, such as Niagara
Mohawk's Nine Mile Point plant shown in Figure 14,
are expected to be a major source of new electrical
power generating capacity for the next twenty years.
Breeder reactors are being developed but their
entry into commercial markets will probably not
occur until the end of the century.

     The major impact of uranium mining is typical
of that of large surface mineral mines.  Paren-
thetically, one of the largest uranium stripmines
is in the vicinity of the large coal development
areas in Eastern Wyoming.  The main  residuals
associated with the milling process  are the solid
and liquid talings.  All the radioactive effluents
are low level emissions, about 2 to  24% of current
standards.

     In a nuclear fuel  fabrication plant, the re-
siduals are associated with the chemical processing
steps, that is, the conversion of "yellowcake" to
U0(2) to UF(6) and back to 110(2).   These can be
handled by conventional disposal methods.

     The major pollutants from light water reactors
are waste heat and radioactive emissions.   For a
1000 megawatt plant operating at a 75% load factor,
a 32% efficient nuclear plant would  emit approxi-
mately one-third more waste heat than a 38% effi-
cient fossil plant.  Relatively minor amounts of
radioactivity are released from nuclear plants.

     Radioactive waste management is another unique
and necessary process, and one of the most critical
ones for nuclear power generation.  Nuclear waste-
cannot be allowed to enter the environment until
the radioactivity has decayed below  harmful levels.
Certain of these wastes must be isolated from the
environment for thousands of years.

     To bury the residuals (both high level and
other than high level)  resulting from the various
steps in the fuel cycle requires approximately 0.2
acre per year per 1000 magawatt reactor.  Typical
quantities of residuals to be buried per 1000 maga-
watt LWR per year are:   114 cubic feet of solidi-
fied fission products and 72 cubic feet of cladd-
ing.  The total low level waste is approximately
14,000 cubic feet per 1000 megawatt  LWR.  While
these quantities are quite small, the high level
wastes are especially danqerous and  must be either
committed to stable geologic structures or other-
wise secured for thousands of years.

     During reprocessing, the main radioactive re-
leases into the atmosphere will be tritium and
Kr-85.  The main radioactive release to the water
will be tritium.  The exposure to the general public
from these releases is expected to be indistingu-
ishable from background.

     The Breeder Reactor is under development, as
I'm sure you know, by the Energy Research and

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20
 Development Administration.   The  time  frame  for the
 breeder is  such  that  the  breeder  will  probably not,
 even  if everything  goes well  in the  demonstration
 program, have  a  commercial  impact before the turn
 of the century.   In other words,  we  have many years
 to understand  and compensate  for  any unique  prob-
 lems  associated  with  the  breeder.  Of  course, the
 required research will build  on over 30 years of
 intensive radiation biology experimentation  spon-
 sored primarily  by  tha forner Atomic Energy  Com-
 mission and now  carried on  by ERDA and the new
 Nuclear Regulatory  Commission.

 GEOTHERMAL

      Generation  of  electricity from  geothermal
 steam resources  occurred  for  the  first time  in 1904
 in Larderello, Italy.  The only commercial geo-
 thermal  production  in the U.S. is the  Geysers area
 of California  and dates from  about 1960.

      There  are three  basic sources of  geothermal
 energy:   natural  steam, hot water, and hot dry
 rock.   To date,  geothermal steam  has been used
 mainly to generate electricity, such as in the
 Geysers  field  in  Northern California shown in Fig-
 ure 15.   Hot water has been largely  employed for
 heating  purposes  in a few locations.   Technologies
 for hot  water  and hot dry rock application to
 power  generation  are now  being actively considered.

     Geothermal electricity production is distinc-
 tive in  that all   steps of the  fuel cycle are local-
 ized at  the site  of the power  production facility.
 Aside  from  steam  transport from the  wellhead to the
 power  plant, the  only transportable  item is  elec-
 tricity.

     During testing and bleeding  of  the wells, all
 the non-condensable gases contained  in the steam
 are vented  to the atmosphere.  Hydrogen sulfide,
 reaching  concentrations of 500 ppm in  the steam, is
 the principal air pollutant of concern because of
 toxicity  and nuisance odor.   Mercury and radon gas
 occur  in  geothermal  steam in  trace amounts.  Since
 methyl mercury accumulates in  the food chains,
 monitoring  of the mercury pathway after emission is
 needed.   Radon is a natural radioactive material
 and could build up in the environment  of geothermal
 facilities.  The environmental impact  of the mer-
 cury and  radon emissions  is not known.

     A typical geothermal  brine in the Imperial
 Valley consists of 250,000 ppm dissolved solids--
 primarily silicon, calcium carbonate,  sodium chlo-
 ride,  boron, ammonia, and argon.   Because the na-
 ture of  these materials and their concentrations
 preclude  release  in surface or ground  water, the
 brine  generally must be reinjected into the  forma-
 tion from which it was extracted.  As  an indication
 of the magnitude  of this  problem,  disposal of an
 estimated 50 billion gallons  of brine  per year con-
 taining  50  million tons of solids  would be required
 for a  1,000 Mwe plant in  the  Imperial  Valley.  Re-
 injection of the waste water,  in  addition to eco-
 nomic  and environmental  advantages over other dis-
 posal  methods, may have the added  effects of pre-
 venting  land subsidence and facilitating greater
 steam  production.  Other  problems  include noise,
ground water contamination, land use problems,
ground motion, and the general  problem of heat dis-
posal.  This latter item also relates to otner
thermal  cycles.

SOLAR ENERGY

     Solar heating and cooling of buildings  will,
in my estimation, become very important in the
near-term.  Nearly everyone, especially those with
environmental interests applaud the much expanded
solar R&D program sponsored by ERDA.  It's hard to
say anything bad about such uses of solar energy.
So, in the interests of brevity, let me suggest
that the worst environmental impact associated with
solar energy that I'm familiar with is sunburn,
which just emphasizes that too much of a good
thing may lead to bad results.

CONCLUDING REMARKS

     During this presentation, I have tried to
give a balanced view of energy supply developments
and their potential environmental impacts.  While
it may be difficult to maintain balance and ob-
jectivity at all times, I  believe it is important
to keep trying.  In some cases, energy developers
may be very vocal in their demands that environ-
mental restrictions be set aside; in other in-
stances, environmental advocates may be shrill in
their attempts to delay or derail specific develop-
ment proposals.  However,  both sides should keep  in
mind that the Nation's multiple objectives must be
served over the long run.  In a way, both sides
need each other so we come out with the right re-
conciliation of energy and environmental goals.

      I think the point can be best illustrated
with  a story.

     A young Catholic girl, let's call her Mary
O'Hara, was  in love with John and he was in love
with  her.  But, Mary confided in her mother, "John
is a  Baptist and very much against marrying a
Catholic."

      "Mary," said her mother, "let's use some
salesmanship about this."  "John's an intelligent
lad,  so talk to him about  our great church.  Tell
him about the great beliefs, the noble saints, the
wonderful cathedrals and the beauty of the Service.
Now go out and give him a  good selling job!"

     Mary dried her eyes and went to see him.  The
morning after their next date, Mary was again sobb-
ing.  Her mother, comforting her, asked, "What's
the matter?  Didn't you sell him?"

      "Sell him," sobbed Mary.  "I oversold him.
Now he wants to become a priest."
     So, during the next few days, you may be
hearing from both priests and sinners.  But from
my personal acquaintance with most of them, I sus-
pect that you will be hearing about the best
efforts of the Federal science and technology dis-
ciples.  I believe that you, too, will judge their
efforts to be among the "good works" of our age.

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Figure 1
Figure 4

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 22	
 Figure 6
Figure 9
 Figure  7
Figure 10
Figure 8

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                                                                                                           23
Figure 11
Figure 13

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                CHAPTER 2
ATMOSPHERIC TRANSPORT

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 26
 INTRODUCTION

      Energy related pollutants are often carried
 from the point  of  emission  to the point of effect by
 atmospheric transport.  During this transport process
 new  pollutants  may be  formed.  Finally, the pollu-
 tants are  removed  from the  atmosphere by a variety
 of wet and dry  deposition processes.  The pollutants
 produce a  number of health  and welfare effects during
 the  transport process  and after deposition.

      The scale  of  interest  in these effects varies
 enormously with regard to distances and time.  Some
 emissions  from  automobile exhausts are most damaging
 only close to the  roadway,  for periods measurable in
 minutes.   In contrast,  pollutants effecting ozone in
 the  upper  atmosphere,  have  global ramifications
 which will accrue  over many years.

      The ability to predict the relationship between
 emissions  and the  resulting air quality is an essen-
 tial  ingredient in the development of cost-effective,
 control strategies.  These  relationships are also a
 link  in the determination of the ultimate fate of
 the pollutant and  an understanding of the final
 effects.

     Research includes  development of atmospheric
models of  transport, deposition and diffusion, and
chemical models of transformation and removal.
Extensive  sampling and  measurement is being con-
ducted to  develop  a statistical base.

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                                                                                                          27
      Atmospheric Transport and Transformations
          of Energy Related Pollutants
                A. P. Altshuller
                Environmental Sciences
                Research Laboratory
                EPA, RTP, N. C.
INTRODUCTION
     Atmospheric pathways are important routes for
movements of many pollutants. The scales of
interest specially and in time for such movements.
can vary enormously. For example, the sulfuric acid
problem associated with some types of catalytical'ly-
equipped vehicles is of concern within roadways
and out to less than 100 meters from roadways.   The
time scale of interest is of the order of seconds '.to
minutes.  The potential impact on ozone depletion
and climatic variations of fluorocarbons, other
halocarbons, nitrogen oxides and related species is
global in extent and the time scale involved is
from 1 to over 100 years.

     In between these two extremes, local, urban and
regional scales of importance can be identified.
The local scale is of concern with respect to fumi-
gation by hazardous substances emitted directly from
lower level industrial sources on nearby residential
areas.  The spacial and time scales of significance
are within about 10 kilometers from the source and
within 1 hour of the source.  On a large urban scale
of 10 to 100 kilometers and perhaps 1 to 10 hours
transport time, the system of concern involves a
mixture of primary and secondary (atmospherically
formed) pollutants associated with combustion,
vehicular and industrial sources.  On a regional
scale of 100 to 1000 kilometers and perhaps 10 to
100 hours of transport time, the secondary (atmo-
spherically generated) gaseous and aerosol pollutants
from large combustion sources are of the greatest
concern.

     The current emphasis in energy-related atmo-
spheric transport research has been focused on the.
impact of increased fossil fuel combustion, on trans-
port and transformation of combustion derived
pollutants on an urban-regional scale.  In parti-
cular the role of sulfur oxides on the urban-regional
scales of transport and transformation is receiving
substantial attention.  The impact of these sources
on transport and transformation of nitrogen oxides
and the formation of ozone in plumes also has'been
receiving consideration.
     Experimental measurements have been made down-
wind of coal-fired power plants and adjacent or
overlapping urban plumes.  Measurements also are in
progress in oil-fired power plants and on plumes
from petroleum complexes.  A large fraction of the
available resources have been allocated to field
experiments on power plant and urban plumes.  How-
ever, modelling activities and laboratory simulation
experiments also are being supported currently to
provide as complete an assessment as possible.
Other related research by the utility industry and
ERDA is gettinq underway, but much of this activity
is not yet operational.

     Traditionally, the concern as to emissions from
power plants has emphasized the dispersion of
gaseous sulfur dioxide on a local-urban scale.  Ex-
perimental measurements and dispersion modelling
have led to the belief that use of tall stacks
along with intermittent reductions of sulfur dioxide
emissions by use of lower sulfur fuels or reduced
power load will solve the sulfur oxides problem
around power plants.  It should be evident that
the evaluation of the overall  impact of the sulfur
burden from combustion of fuels of higher sulfur
content is much more involved.  There now is ample
experimental evidence that sulfate aerosols formed
downwind'in plumes are in the accumulation mode.
The mean size for such sulfate aerosols occurs near
0.3 HID.  Aerosols in this size range have lifetimes
of. a- number of days .with respect to removal pro-
cesses.  The transport of sulfate aerosols formed
downwind in plumes has been demonstrated by direct
experimentation out to several hundred kilometers.
Transport of sulfate aerosols to these distances
and much further is consistent with the chemical
and physical properties of these aerosols in the
atmosphere.

     The concern about sulfate aerosols relates both
to their effects in suspended form on man and
animals and, when sulfate aerosols are removed in
precipitation, the effect of acidity on soils, lakes
and aquatic life.  The amounts of acidity measured
in precipitation have been consistently associated
predominantly with acid sulfates both in the U. S.
and in northern Europe.

     Those control strategies which disperse sulfur
oxides downwind do not necessarily improve regional
problems.  The use of lower sulfur fuels on an
intermittent basis to eliminate local fumigations
from a particular power plant have not been
shown, to be of benefit on a regional scale.   It
certainly is unlikely that such strategies can
reduce exposures over longer averaging times on
a regional scale to man, animals, soil or  aquatic
life.  Whether intermittent control techniques
will reduce exposures during regional scale
episodes also has not been evaluated.

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 28

     The  use of continual removal techniques by appli-
 cation of  scrubber technology or continuing use of
 lower sulfur fuels has  been the subject of much
 current  discussion.  The resolution of the differ-
 ences of opinion  so often voiced depend to a sub-
 stantial degree on well designed, executed and
 analyzed field experiments on the transport and
 transformation of sulfur dioxide and sulfate.  Such
 studies  can provide the Administrator of EPA and
 other policy-making officials with scientifically
 defensible answers to these critical regional prob-
 lems .

 PROJECT  MISTT

  1.  Technical Discussion

     The  following results have  been obtained in the
 course of  summer  period studies in the Missouri-
 Illinois area:

     (1)  Very little conversion of sulfur dioxide
 occurs within the first 10 kilometers or first
 hour of  plume flow.  The rates  of conversion in-
 crease to  1 to 2% per hour between 10 and 30 kilo-
 meters.  Between  30 and 50 kilometers the rate in-
 creased  to 5% per hour.  The overall sulfur
 depletion  within  transport distances of 50 to
 100  kilometers was small or negligible.

     (2)  In the power plant plumes conversion of
 nitric oxide to nitrogen dioxide occurred by re-
 action with ambient ozone mixing into the plume.
 The mass flow of  nitrogen dioxide was equal to
 the decrease in the ozone mass  flow within the
 plume volume.  Ozone was depleted within the plume
 volume over 50 kilometer ranges.

     (3)  In the urban-industrial plume the 1/e
 decay distance for sulfur decay was 90 kilometers.
 These results would be  consistent with rapid uptake
 rates of sulfur by vegetation downwind.  The experi-
ments were conducted during a summer period during
which removal by  forest and agricultural canopies
would be favored.

     (4)  Within the urban-industrial plume, com-
 pared to background increments  in ozone concen-
 trations and light scattering aerosols were
measured out to 160 kilometers.  Ozone and light
 scattering aerosols were the predominant consti-
 tuents in  the plume at  50 kilometers and more
 downwind and continued  to increase further above
 the regional  background to over 100 kilometers
 downwind of the urban sources.

     (5)  The patterns of behavior with time of the
 nitric oxide, nitrogen  dioxide, ozone, sulfur
 dioxide  and sulfates were consistent with a homo-
 geneous  photochemical mechanism but also are not
 inconsistent with reaction of ozone with sulfur
 dioxide  in droplets.
     The experiments related to coal-fired power
plant plumes do not indicate that conversion  ot
sulfur dioxide to sulfate by reactions with primary
emissions is of any importance.  This lack of in-
fluence of trace metals or other constituents may
well reflect the high particulate collection
efficiences now available.  Conversion of sulfur
dioxide to sulfate only occurs after a delay  time
corresponding to the time needed to convert nitric
oxide to nitrogen dioxide in the plume.  As in
ground level reactions and smog chamber  simulation,
the elimination of the suppress!ve effects of nitric
oxide on conversion reactions  is essential.   The
scale of distance over which sulfate formation
accelerates needs additional definition.  Also out
to 50 kilometers depletion rather than augmentation
of ozone prevails.  These results indicate little
positive impact of coal-fired  plants on  sulfates
or ozone on an urban scale.  It is only  after travel
distances associated with movement across urban
areas and beyond that sulfate  conversion rates be-
come substantial.  Therefore,  coal-fired plumes with
tall stacks are likely to impact less on ambient
sulfates within the air quality control  regions in
which the emissions originate  than adjacent or even
more distant air quality control regions.

     Despite considerable depletion of sulfur
dioxide in urban plumes by surface removal processes,
substantial formation of ozone and light scattering
aerosols including sulfates are observed well  down-
wind of the urban source.  Again as for  coal-fired
power plant plumes, rapid formation of these  secon-
dary pollutants only occurs well downwind of  the
urban source so the impact will occur on communities
or rural areas removed from the urban area in which
the plume originates.
2.  Program Discussion

     The largest single component of the energy
related air transport program funded by the Federal
Interagency R/D program has been project MISTT.  The
Midwest Interstate Sulfur Transformation and Trans-
port Project   Project MISTT - was initiated by
EPA's Environmental Sciences Research Lab   RTP, in
the summer of 1974 (in the St. Louis area) with
support from EPA's base air transport programs.
Subsequent support has come from energy funding.
The purpose of this project is to measure the
chemical and physical transformations of the pollu-
tants in power plant and urban-industrial plumes.
A number of papers reporting project results have
been published or will be presented at the April
1976 American Chemical Society meeting in New York
City.

     Related experiments on coal-fired plumes are in
progress with a similar array of aircraft measure-
ment techniques as part of the TVA program on
energy related pollutants.

3.  Projection
                                                            The FY 76 MISTT experiments will include cold
                                                       weather and night conditions.  The behavior of

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                                                                                                          29
emissions also will be examined during periods of
stagnating anticyclones.
OTHER FIELD PROJECTS

     The mesoscale sulfur balance project (MESO)
managed by the Environmental Sciences Research Lab.
  RTF of EPA involves the determination of the
proportion of aerosol in ambient rural air asso-
ciated with sulfates formed during long distance
transport.  A group of 6 to 12 measurement sites
will be operated between eastern Nebraska and
western Pennsylvania.  Samples will be collected
with 6 hour time resolution to provide diurnal
variations during varying meteorological conditions
and to give resolution times comparable to the
trajectory calculations.  Air mass movements will
be computed from trajectories and the input of sul-
fur dioxide will be determined from emission in-
ventory data.  The project  is designed to test
whether successive S02 sources across the midwest
cause an accumulation of sulfates at a rate sub-
stantially greater than overall removal rates.
The measurement system is scheduled to become
operational in June 1976.

     The aerosol composition, effects and sources
(ACES) project of EPA is concerned with the sources
of urban aerosol.  Measurements will include the
size distribution and composition of ambient
aerosols in Miami, Florida, St. Louis and
Pittsburgh.  The aerosol species will be associ-
ated with natural and anthropogenic sources
and classified as primary or secondary.  The
results will be compared with emission inventories
and aerosol formation and removal models.

     A small EPA project has been in progress in St.
Louis at RAMS sites to investigate damage to mater-
ials from energy related emissions.

     Existing models for power plant plume dispersion
are inadequate for predictions over rugged complex
terrain.  An EPA energy related project will be
initiated to acquire a data base for sulfur oxides,
nitrogen oxides and meteorological parameters for
a large coal-fired power plant in complex terrain.
The measurements will be used to develop improved
predictive plume models.  The Clinch River Power
Plant at Carbo, Virginia in the Appalachian
mountains has been selected as a site with field
measurements scheduled to begin in May 1976.

     A model to predict transport of sulfates from
the TVA power region is being developed.  The
model will use an up-dated  SOp-emission inventory
and air trajectories along  with the regional
meteorological data to predict impact on eastern
urban areas of emissions from the TVA area.
LABORATORY PROJECTS

     In addition to the projects discussed above,
EPA and TVA are conducting a number of chamber
simulation studies.  The EPA projects in progress
are investigating both homogeneous and heterogeneous
processes for conversion of SO,, and NO, to sulfates
and nitrates.  The TVA project is scheai
in January 1977.
                              luled to start
ADDITIONAL INDUSTRY AND FEDERAL ACTIVITIES

     EPA is cooperating with both the Electric Power
Research Institute (EPRI) and ERDA in the planning
and coordination of studies on transport and trans-
formations of sulfur oxides.

    Project SURE (Sulfur Regional Experiment) is a
scaled up verison of EPA's Project MESO.  However,
the measurement program in MESO should be well
underway before SURE is operational.   Therefore,
SURE should benefit from input from the MESO project.

    ERDA is planning a program, MAP S (Mesoscale
Area Power Production Pollution Study).  This pro-
ject appears to have features in common with SURE
and MESO, therefore close coordination is desirable.
A member of EPA's Environmental Sciences Research
Laboratory-RTP scientific staff is a  member of the
SURE Advisory Committee.

RESOURCE ALLOCATION

    Since the late 1960's, a small continuing effort
has been in progress in EPA's program to develop
techniques for plume measurements and conduct plume
experiments.  EPA's base program on sulfate for-
mation and transport in power plant and urban plumes
was greatly augmented by Interagency  energy funds
in FY 74 and subsequent years.  The laboratory and
modelling development projects continue to be
funded largely from the base program.  The total
resource allocations since 1974 and,projected
through 1976 are as follows ($ x 10 ).
  Base
FY 74

Inter-
Agency
  0.3    0.8

CONCLUSIONS
Base
           0.5
FY 75

 Inter-
 Aqency
       2.5
                                     FY 76
Base
           0.7
Inter-
Agency

 1.95
    The plume studies program funded by EPA with
resources from the Federal Interagency R/D program
are unique in directly measuring the flow from
specific sources into adjacent regions.  Both in
these projects, as in MESO and ACES, a key objective
is to relate specific types of emission sources
to air quality on a regional  scale.  Continuation
of such projects is essential to provide results
as inputs not only to proper usage of domestic
energy resources but to provide an adequate basis
for determining the most effective regulatory
options available.

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30
          Environmental  Transport Processes
            H. R. Hickey and P.  A.  Krenkel
              Tennessee Valley Authority
                Chattanooga, Tennessee
INTRODUCTION

     Practical application of TVA's knowledge  of the
atmospheric dispersion of coal-fired steam plant
effluents has extended1 beyond its primary expected
use—the design of stacks for power plants.   It has
resulted in defining an option for meeting ambient
S02 standards available for an indefinite period.
This option, the controlled release of atmospheric
effluent, is  called  the  "SDEL"  program  (sulfur  dioxide
emission limitation program).  While there are still
uncertainties to be resolved before these control
programs can be full'  evaluated—the main uncertainty
being long-range tra sport of sulfate particles and
their effects on human health—the option itself
would not be available without prior years of inves-
tigation.  These studies have included 12 coal-fired
steam plants under a variety of meteorological and
topographical conditions.  New studies are required
to better define atmospheric chemical.interactions
and long-range transport of sulfate particles.

     Dispersion modeling capabilities have been
augmented and applied to the dispersion of radionu-
clides from nuclear power plants for plant design
and environmental impact analysis. Predictions will
be compared with actual results in the dose model
verification study.

     Better understanding is needed of the dispersion
of thermal effluents in streams and reservoirs.  This
is the objective of the third environmental transport
project, which will test 'a 3-dimensional model formu-
lated at Louisiana State University.

     For possible use in the exchange of information
or coordination,, the names of principal investiga-
tors, research investigators, and responsible  admin-
istrators are included after the title of each  task.

DISCUSSION
1.  Atmospheric Transport and Transformation of
    Emissions from Coa'l-Fired Power Plants

    A.  Atmospheric Interaction Studies

        1.  Full-Scale Field Studies—0. Huff,
            T. L. Montgomery

     The primary objective of this project is to
determine the chemical interactions of constituents
of atmospheric emissions from coal-fired power plants
with  particular emphasis on ascertaining the fluxes
of sulfate, the rates of oxidation of SO, and the
effect of particulates on these rates.  Instruments
are carried by aircraft to measure the fluxes of the
constituents through the plume at various distances
downwind.  Relevant meteorological parameters, such
as temperature and humidity, vertical temperature
profiles, wind speed and direction, and solar radia-
tion are measured with instruments in aircraft and
at ground stations.

     A field study has been completed and another
is currently underway.  In the completed study
measurements of S02, NO, N02, 03, MONO, toluene,
total sulfur and particulates (by number) were
taken across the centerline of the plume.  A modi-
fied high-volume sampling system  equipped with
impregnated filters was used to collect samples for
analysis by the sulfur isotope ratio  tracer method
(Brookhaven National Laboratory)  in determining the
rate of oxidation of S02 in the plume.   In the
current field study, airborne total sulfur, NO,
N02, 03, total hydrocarbons, temperature, and dew
point are measured.  A high-volume sampling system
is  used  to collect  particulates on special filters
for mass-volume measurements.  These  filters will
also be  analyzed  for sulfate deposits by flash
vaporization flame  photometry.  Data  are collected
under varied power  plant electrostatic precipitator
efficiencies.  Relevant meteorological parameters
are measured at ground stations.  A  third field
study under different meteorological  conditions is
planned  for early spring  1976.

      2.  Chamber  Studies—L. Stockburger III,
         G. W. Shannon,  T.  L. Montgomery

      The primary  objective  of the chamber project
is to provide  data similar  to that of the airborne
studies  under  well-defined  and controlled conditions
to determine  the  individual  reactions most effective
in overall  plume  chemistry  and the effects of vari-
ous factors on  the oxidation of  S02.  Another impor-
tant objective  is to  determine initial  plume
conditions more exhaustively  than compliance-
oriented emission measurements permit.   The chamber
will  use either sunlight or artificial  radiation._
The chamber study will  allow  controlled  introduction
of stack effluent (including  particulates), simula-
 tion of exposure  under  varied meteorological  parame-
ters,  variation of conditions needed for the  identi-
fication of intermediate species  involved  in  the
course of  the  reactions,  and  also will  provide
important  kinetic information on  those  reactions
which proceed  more rapidly  under initial  plume
conditions.   This project is  in  its  initial  phase
of detailed chamber design  with  the  first  experi-
ments planned  for January 1977.

      The initial  experiments  will compare  results
 for tests  on  C3H6, NOX  and  air,  and  S02 and  air
mixtures with  chamber results  from Battelle,  Calspan,
and the University of North Carolina, Chapel  Hill.
Then,  a  series  of experiments  on the homogeneous
 photooxidation  of S02 in clean  air is planned.   The
variables  to  be measured include concentrations of
S02 and  sulfates, solar  radiation,  light intensity,

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                                                                                                           31
temperature, and relative humidity.  The next series
of experiments will  provide data on the photooxida-
tionofS02 in the presence of filtered and unfiltered
ambient air.  The variables to be measured include
S02, NO, N02, 03, hydrocarbons, sulfates, nitrates,
fine particulates, solar radiation, light intensity,
temperature, and relative humidity.  The last series
of experiments will  study the photooxidation of S02
in filtered and unfiltered diluted stack gas.  The
variables to be measured will be the same as in the
previous series of experiments.

     B.  Regional Atmospheric Transport of
         Coal-Fired Power Plant Emissions—
         V. Sharma,  L. M. Reisinger, T. L. Montgomery

     Coordinated efforts have been initiated between
state control agencies and TVA to establish an up-
to-date S02-emission inventory for the region.  This
inventory should be completed by June 1976.

     Development of a conservation model describing
the transport of S02 and the formation and transport
of sulfates has been initiated.  The modeling region
is tentatively defined by a 500- by 800- by 10-km
rectangular box centered over the Tennessee Valley
watershed.  Meteorological input for this model will
come from TVA and NWS sources, including 12 rawin-
sonde sites, 8 pilot balloon sites, and 19 meteoro-
logical tower sites.

     Weather patterns and air trajectories are being
analyzed to determine and classify the most "typical"
meteorological conditions influencing air mass move-
ments in the region.  Preliminary weather pattern
analytical results show that anticyclones (high pres-
sure) centered NE-SE of the area are the most domi-
nating synoptic situations (31 percent) while
anticyclones centered NW-NE are next in frequency of
occurrence (14 percent).  "Backward" trajectory fre-
quencies for a number of large cities surrounding the
Tennessee Valley region are being analyzed.  These
analyses are divided into 6-hour trajectory steps up
to a maximum 24-hour trajectory forecast.  Interest-
ing tentative results show that air parcels originat-
ing from the model area rarely affect New York City
or Washington, D.C., especially for the 6- and 12-
hour forecast periods.  The prevailing trajectory
direction emanating from the TVA region is from the
southwest to the northeast with the next prevalent
direction being from the west-northwest to the
east-southeast.

     Isopleths of sulfate concentration are being
mapped on a quarterly and annual basis for an exten-
sive area centered on the Tennessee Valley watershed
to obtain a better understanding of regional sulfate
distributions.

2.  Evaluation and Improvement of Models Used for
    Radiological Impact Assessment of Gaseous
    Releases from Nuclear Power Plants—J. H. Davis,
    W.  H.  Wilkie, R. L. Doty, E. A. Belvin,
    J.  A.  Oppold
     Radiation exposure limits applicable to the
nuclear power industry are established at levels
believed to be as low as practicable consistent with
current technology and societal  objectives.   Approval
for the construction of nuclear power plants is
dependent on the assurance of safe operation in com-
pliance with these limits.  Because this  assurance
is demonstrated by analytical  methods, the validity
of the models and the accuracy of assumptions are of
utmost importance for the timely and economical
development of nuclear power.   In 1974 a  plan was
developed by 17 Federal agencies for a research
program on effects of energy use upon human  health
and the environment.  One identified need was for
confirmation or refutation of existing models, espe-
cially those models used to describe the  environ-
mental transport of radionuclides from nuclear power
plants in the atmosphere.  High priority  was assign-
ed to the development of applied research programs
to address that need.

     TVA is conducting a comprehensive program to
collect experimental data on potential doses received
by persons in the vicinity of nuclear power  plants.
Mobile pressurized ionization  chambers will  be used
to measure direct radiation in the vicinity  of an
operating nuclear power reactor.  Direct radiation
from reactor components and from airborne effluents
will be measured.  Records from these mobile and
other units will be correlated with records  of (1)
radioactivity release rates, (2) wind speed  and
direction, and (3) atmospheric stability parameters.

     A parametric analysis of the dispersion aspects
of the radioiodine dose model  will also be included.
Results from the parametric studies and the  experi-
mental data collected during actually occurring
combinations of release rate and meteorological con-
ditions over an extended time period will be used to
evaluate the existing atmospheric dispersion and
dosimetry models.  In the final phase of the research
refined analytical models will be developed  as indi-
cated by the results of the initial phases.   However,
this project was conceived to operate in conjunction
with data from other programs which are still  uncer-
tain; plans must be tailored accordingly.

     Plans and Progress:  Mobile pressurized ioniza-
tion chambers (PIC) will be used to measure external
radiation exposure levels in  the vicinity of  the
Browns  Ferry Nuclear Plant (BFNP).  Direct  radiation
from within  nuclear plant components  and also  from
radioactivity in gaseous effluents will  be  measured.
During  periods of plant operation, data will  be
correlated with plant operating  conditions,  radio-
activity  release rates, and meteorological  conditions
Development  of  two computer codes  using  the experi-
mental  data  will be required  to  calculate the  two
components of gamma radiation exposure.

      The BFNP is not operating  presently  but is
scheduled  to  resume operation  in  the  first  quarter
of  1976.   In  the interim, mobile  PIC's are  being

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32
 used  to gather background radiation data at various
 locations around the plant.

      Efforts will be made to coordinate this project
 with  another radiation monitoring project which is
 in  progress in the vicinity of BFNP   This particu-
 lar project involves TVA, the EPA's Eastern Environ-
 mental Radiation Facility, and the Alabama Department
 of  Public Health.  Data gathered from both programs
 will  be used to  the extent possible.  Currently,
 background radiation data are being gathered at
 three of the fixed-location TVA/EPA monitoring
 stations.  The data from  these locations yield addi-
 tional background information, and the  locations
 serve as reference instrument checkpoints.

      The atmospheric dispersion  portion of the proj-
 ect will involve a parametric analysis  of the vari-
 ables in the dispersion model which is  incorporated
 in  the radioiodine dose model.   Discussions have
 been  held with Atomic  Industrial Forum  personnel re-
 garding effluent dispersion experiments which are
 being considered for several operating  nuclear
 power plants.  A few studies of  this  type have been
 completed and the data are available  for verifica-
 tion  of the dispersion computer  codes.  Work  is
 currently underway to  compare dispersion code re-
 sults with various data and also with selected
 parametric changes.  Terrain model, maximum wind
 speed for elevated release, and  plume-rise equations
 appear to hold promise for making  realistic  improve-
 ments in the model .

      Status:  Delivery of the  high  pressure  ioniza-
 tion  chambers was delayed; however, most of  the
 instruments have been  delivered  and are being
 performance-tested and readied  for  operation.   As  a
 result of the delay, background  data  collection  has
 been  hampered.   Some background  data  are  being
 gathered using a borrowed PIC  and  the fixed-location
 EPA monitors.

      Actual operational  data  collection will  start
 when  BFNP returns  to operation.

      Some initial  dispersion  code  modifications
 have  been made.  Preliminary  results  have  been  ob-
 tained using basic  parametric  changes in  the  gaseous
 effluent dispersion  model.

      Except  for  the  uncertainties  of  instrument
 delivery and BFNP  startup,  activities are  proceeding
 according  to projected schedules.

 3.   Simulation  of  Thermal Dispersion  and  Fluid
     Mechanics  at Critical Locations in  Streams  and
     Reservoi rs--W.  R.  Waldrop,  R.  C.  Farmer,  R.  J.
     Ruane,  W.  R.  Nicholas

      The  purpose of this  study is  to  augment exist-
 ing efforts  to  collect thermal  field  data  and to
 promote  the  development  of conceptual predictive
 models.   Existing  models  for  reservoir water
 quality have been  valuable for preparation  and
explication of environmental impact statements for
proposed TVA facilities.  The scope of this project
will include the development of predictive analytical
models, recommendations for future field or laboratory
studies, and a continuing review of available data
and analytical techniques.

     Progress:  Surface heat and momentum exchange
with theatmosphere, turbulent exchange, and diffuse-
river interactions are  physical phenomena that con-
trol thermal effluent dispersion.  These are not
adequately modeled with present computer codes.
Experimental data describing surface heat and momen-
tum exchange have been  reviewed, and empirical
representations of such data have  been selected for
inclusion  in our models.   Initial  efforts to include
these data are underway.   Better methods for repre-
senting turbulent exchange  are known, but the running
time of the model must  be  reduced  before such
improvements can be fully  utilized.  A more gener-
alized model of bottom  conditions  is needed.
Generalizing the boundary  conditions on the gov-
erning model equations  will  also allow diffuser flow
to  be described.  Methods  of accomplishing these
generalizations are being  studied.


      In adapting thermal  effluent  models to our
computers  both  a 2-dimensional and a 3-dimensional
model will  be  used  to  expedite the studies.  The
2-dimensional  model will  serve as  a  test vehicle for
adding  new physical  phenomena  to the model.  As new
phenomena  are  correctly modeled  in this program,
they  will  then be  added to the more  comprehensive
3-dimensional  model.

      Status:   Problems to date on  this  study  have
been  of a  mundane  nature.   Our laboratory does not
yet have  experience in using programs  as  large as
these models  require,  nor established  operating
procedures for expediting such calculations.   The
experience and procedures are  being  developed_
rapidly.   No  long-term problems  are  expected  in
accomplishing the  objectives planned  for  this
 research.

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                                                                                                          33
          TRANSFORMATION AND TRANSPORT OF
             ENERGY-RELATED POLLUTANTS
                 William E. Wilson
     Environmental  Sciences  Research  Laboratory
         Office  of  Research  and  Development
        U.S.  Environmental Protection Agency
           Research Triangle Park, MC 27711
INTRODUCTION

     Energy related pollutants are carried from the
point of emission to the point of effect by atmos-
pheric transport.  During this transport process,
new pollutants may be formed.   For example, S02
may be converted into sulfate  aerosol,  and organic
vapors and nitrogen oxides may undergo  photochemical
reactions to yield ozone.  The primary  and secondary
pollutants produce a number of health and welfare
effects and are removed from the atmosphere by a
variety of wet and dry deposition processes.  The
Environmental Sciences Research Laboratory, Office
of Research and Development, EPA is concerned with
the meteorological processes that control dilution
and transport of pollutants; the chemical and physi-
cal processes that affect transformation and removal
of pollutants; welfare effects such as visibility
reduction, materials damage, and climatic change;
and mathematical models  that relate emissions to
ambient air quality.

      The ability to predict relationships between
emissions and ambient air quality—as influenced
by physical, chemical, and meteorological parameters-
-is an essential ingredient in the development
of cost-effective  control strategies.  This has
become increasingly important with the realization
that  emissions  affect not only the air quality
in their immediate vicinity, but  may extend their
influence  for hundreds of kilometers.

TECHNICAL  DISCUSSION

      Currently,  the  atmospheric  transport  portion
of EPA's Energy Research and  Development Program
is largely devoted to sulfur  pollutants,  SO2  and
sulfate.   Sulfur pollutants are  being emphasized
because  SO2  emissions are  expected to increase
substantially with the  predicted increase in  the
use  of  coal,  and sulfates  appear to  be  a health
problem.   The  sulfur program,  therefore,  involves
studies  of the  primary  pollutant, SO2,  and the
secondary  pollutant,  sulfate.   Both  gaseous and
aerosol  pollutants are  involved,  and consideration
must be  given to wet and dry  deposition processes.
The  techniques  developed in this program and many
of  the  experimental results will apply  to other
energy-related pollutants.

      The sulfur program is also emphasized because
of  the  need to  answer a multi-billion  dollar
question:  Are scrubbers needed to remove SO2
from power plant stacks, or will tall stacks with
supplemental controls be adequate to maintain requir
ground level S02 concentrations and provide for
adequate control of sulfur oxides?  The energy
related studies of ESRL are designed to provide
the administrator of EPA with adequate information
to give a reasonable and scientifically defensible
answer to this question.

     First, it is necessary to determine the source
of sulfate aerosol, which is observed to be rather
evenly distributed over the greater northeastern
portion of the United States.  The most likely
hypothesis is that sulfate is formed by the atmos-
pheric conversion of S02 from power plants and
that the sulfate aerosol is transported over long
distances.  A substantial effort is being devoted
to the determination of the rates and mechanisms
for transformation of S02 to sulfate in power plant
and urban plumes.  Studies are made under a variety
of conditions for both medium  (0-100 km) and long
range  (0-1000 km) transport.  Other hypotheses
to account for sulfate, such as sampling anomalies,
biogenic sources, and primary emissions, are also
being  examined.

     If power plant SO2 emissions, which are trans-
formed to  sulfate during long range transport,
are indeed the major sources of sulfate, the next
step is  to develop relationships between S02 emission
rates  and  ambient sulfate levels.  This involves
developing meteorological models of transport,
deposition,  and  diffusion and chemical models of
transformation and removal.  It is of special concern
to determine if  control of power plant S02 will
produce  proportional control of atmospheric  sulfate.
If sulfate is proportional to the concentration
of S02,  i.e., if the transformation mechanisms
are  first  order  in SO2,  control of S02 will produce
proportional control of sulfate.  However,  if the
transformation processes do  not depend on  the SO2
concentration (or depend only weakly on  the  S02
concentration),  and  are controlled by the  concentra-
 tion  of  ammonia, of  catalytic metals, of  fine aero-
 sols,  or of oxidizing  gases, then S02 control will
not  produce  a proportional  reduction in  sulfate.
 If  95  or 99% SO2 removal  is  required before sulfate
 control  is apparent,  it may  be  uneconomical or
 unfeasible to control  sulfate  by  this mechanism.
 Such considerations  are critical  to  the  establishment
 of cost-effective control  strategies.   Studies
 of the rates and mechanisms  of S02  reactions in
 laboratory smog chambers  and field studies are
 aimed at answering these  questions.

 PROGRAM DISCUSSION

 Midwest Interstate Sulfur Transformation and
 Transport (Project MISTT)

      The purpose of this program is to measure
 the transformations and transport of energy-related
 pollutants in power plant and urban plumes.  This
 study began during the summer of 1974 with support
 from  the Regional Air Pollution Study and the ESRL
 base program.  Field studies have, therefore, been

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 concentrated in the St. Louis area.  The acronym
 MISTT was introduced when additional support was
 obtained from the energy program.  Information from
 field studies conducted during summer-74 and summer-
 75 are now being analyzed and reported.  Two papers
 have been submitted to Science.  Six papers will
 be presented at the April, 1976, American Chemical
 Society meeting in New York City.  The major accom-
 plishments of MISTT and their significance are
 summarized below.

 1.   Accomplishments

     - In contrast to earlier work (which indicated
       that, except at very high relative humidity,
       there was little or no conversion of S02
       to sulfate in power plant plumes), consistent
       conversion rates for SO2 to sulfate of
       several percent per hour were measured.

       In power plant plumes, NO is converted to NC>2
       by reaction with ambient 03 mixing with the
       plume.  Conversion of SO2 to sulfate aerosol
       is slow in the early stages of the plume.
       Measurements of sulfate and of aerosol volume
       demonstrate that, after NO conversion is
       nearly complete, the rate of conversion
       of S02 to sulfate increases.

     - In urban plumes, which are well-mixed to
       the ground,  S02 mass flow decreases rapidly
       due to ground removal by reaction with
       vegetation and other surfaces.  The S02 dry
       deposition rates vary with vegetation and
       ground surface types and with time of year.

     - In power plant plumes from tall stacks, the
       decrease in  S02 mass flow is much lower since
       the plume is isolated from the ground for a
       longer time  and the concentration of SO2
       is lower when the plume reaches the ground.

     - Ozone is generated in urban plumes ten's of
       kilometers downwind from the urban area. The
       reaction times and pollutant ratios are
       similar  to those observed in smog chamber
       studies  of auto exhaust.

     - Urban plumes have been sampled as far as
       250 km from  their sources and power plant
       plumes as far as 60 km.

     - An analytical diffusion and transport model
       has been developed that includes the effects
       of stack height,  first-order sulfate forma-
       tion,  and S02 dry deposition.

       A reactive plume model has been developed and
       used to  calculate, the coagulation of primary
       aerosol  and  the reaction  of plume NO with
       ambient  03.

2.    Significance

     - Tall stacks  reduce ground level concentrations
       of SO2 but increase sulfate aerosol concen-
       trations by  reducing surface losses of SO2
       and permitting increased  reaction times.
     - To determine SO2 conversion rates in plumes,
       measurements must be made at longer distances
       or in more disperse plurr.es than has been
       the practice previously.

     - Sulfate, generated from SO2 in power plant
       plumes, and ozone, generated from hydrocarbons
       and nitrogen oxides in urban plumes, may be
       transported at least hundreds of kilometers
       and cause air pollution incidents far from
       the source of pollution.  These air pollution
       problems cannot be controlled by the political
       unit where the air pollution impact occurs.

     The FY-76 MISTT program will attempt to
develop a better statistical base for plume trans-
formations and pollutant transport.  Measurements
will be made during cold weather and at night.
Techniques are being developed to follow a more
nearly Lagrangian flight path in the plumes, i.e. to
follow the same air mass as it moves downwind.
Efforts will also be made to extend the spatial
scale of measurements.  An attempt will be made
to examine pollutant behavior during stagnating
anticyclone weather patterns and to sample plumes
from a power plant complex.

Mesoscale Sulfur Balance Study  (MESO)

     The purpose of this study is to determine
the fraction of aerosol, collected in ambient
rural air, which may be attributed to sulfate
formed during long range transport.  A network
of 6-12 measurement stations will be established
between eastern Nebraska and western Pennsylvania
and operated for a period of one year.  An X-ray
fluorescent technique will be used to measure
sulfur and elements heavier than sodium.  Air
mass movements to each sampling site will be calcu-
lated  (6-day back trajectories), and the input of
S02 into each trajectory will be determined from
emission inventory data.  The relationship among
high sulfate measurements, meteorological conditions,
and S02 input will be examined.  The results will
be used in the development of a long range transport
model.

     The hypothesis to be tested is that as air
masses move across the country they pass over
successive sources of S02, generally large power
plants.  Since sulfates are only slowly removed
by natural processes, a substantial buildup of
sulfate can occur from repeated emissions of S02-

     An inexpensive two-stage sampler has been
designed and a prototype built.  A 6-hour time
resolution has been selected to give separate samples
during night  (low mixing depth), day  (high mixing
depth), morning and evening periods, and to give
resolution time comparable to the trajectory calcu-
lations (every 6 hours).  The sampler will run
unattended for three weeks.  Every three weeks the
samples, collected on two 4-inch diameter filters,
will be returned to the laboratory where all 168
samples can be analyzed within 6 hours.  The sampler
will undergo a field test in April.  The 6-12 mea-
surement sites are scheduled to start operation
June 1.

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                                                                                                           35
     Attempts are currently being made to add rain
chemistry and turbidity measurements to the MESO
network.

Complex Terrain Study

     Emissions of SC>2 from power plants can be
decreased by flue-gas cleaning or use of low sulfur
fuel.  However, both of these control techniques
involve an economic penalty.  Air quality may also
be controlled by adjustment of power loads and
selection of high or low sulfur fuels in accordance
with the changing capacity of the atmosphere to
disperse the pollutants.  These techniques are
known as intermittent or supplementary control
systems  (ICS or SCS).  Such systems require operation
of real-time ambient air quality monitoring and
meteorological prediction services in the vicinity
of the power plant.

     Although there has been concern for years
about the transport and diffusion of pollutants
from large power plants, only a relatively small
amount of pertinent, reliable aerometric data are
readily available—and most of these data are for
plants in relatively uncomplicated terrain.  This
dearth of information 'is particularly critical
in areas of complex terrain, areas in the United
States where large power plants are proliferating.
In spite of these difficulties reasonably valid
predictive models exist for a non-reactive pollutant,
emitted from an isolated single source in flat,
open terrain.  However, existing models, even those
with topographic input, fail to predict the special
influences of rugged, complex terrain on pollutant
behavior or the effects of pollutant transformation
and removal on concentrations.  The purpose of
the complex terrain study is to develop a data
base on measured concentrations of SC>2, sulfate,
NO, NC>2, and meteorological variables for a large
coal-fired power plant located in an area of complex
terrain.  This data base will then be used to develop
improved predictive techniques.

     A contractor has been selected and a literature
survey initiated.  Field measurements are scheduled
to begin in May, 1976.  The Clinch River Power
Plant at Carbo, Virginia, in a rugged part of the
Appalachian mountains, has been selected for the
experimental site.  Six remote stations will monitor
SC>2, sulfates, NO, N02, and meteorological variables.
Stack emissions of S02, NO, and NO2 will be monitored
continuously.  A mobile ground station and an instru-
mented helicopter will also be used.

Aerosol Composition, Effects, and Sources (Project
ACES)

     The purpose of this study is to determine
the sources of urban aerosol.  Measurements of
the composition and size of ambient aerosols have
been made in selected cities.  The aerosol components
are assigned to natural and anthropogenic sources
and classified as primary or secondary in nature.
These results are compared with emission inventory
data.  New and unsuspected aerosol pollutants are
sometimes observed.  Models, which include aerosol
removal mechanisms and secondary aerosol formation
mechanisms, can be used to relate primary sources
of aerosol and precursor gases to ambient aerosol
concentrations.  Thus, it is possible to identify
those sources that need to be controlled to provide
reduction in total aerosol loading or specific
aerosol components.

      The optical properties of the aerosol are
used to infer the contribution of various sources
to visibility reduction.  Field studies have been
performed in cooperation with EPA's Office of
Air Quality Planning and Standards (OAQPS)  in Miami
and St. Louis and with EPA Region III in Pittsburgh.
Data reports have been prepared and distributed
to OAQPS personnel and their contractors.  Interpre-
tive reports are now in preparation.   Of special
note is the substantial amount of organic aerosol
found in St. Louis during the photochemically active
season.

INTERAGENCY PARTICIPATION

Tennessee Valley Authority Programs

      ESRL serves as technical project coordinator
for TVA studies.  These studies include:  measure-
ments of sulfate formation in power plant plumes;
chamber studies of sulfate formation utilizing
stack gases; and the development of a long range
transport model utilizing the TVA regional monitoring
network.

ERDA and Industry Programs

      ESRL also cooperates with the Electric Power
Research Institute (EPRI)  and the Energy
Research and Development Administration (ERDA)
in the planning and coordination of their studies
of the transformation and long range  transport
of sulfur pollutants.

      EPRI is now seeking a contractor for Project
SURE (Sulfur Regional Experiment).   This will be
an expanded version of EPA's Project  MESO (SURE's
projected funding level is 20 times that of MESO)
with the addition of substantial aircraft measure-
ments.  However, the MESO study will  begin 6 months
to a year sooner than SURE.  Therefore, MESO will
provide useful input into the SURE•program.   MESO
will utilize the emission inventory being developed
by EPRI for SURE.

      ERDA's program, MAP3S  (Mesoscale, Area Power
Production Pollution Study), is less well-defined
than SURE and also will not be operational until
sometime in FY-77.  This program will also cover
the northeast.  It will feature extensive use of
instrumented aircraft to map pollutants.

      ESRL. will cooperate with these programs to
the maximum extent that appears to be useful.
An ESRL staff member serves on the SURE advisory
panel.  At least one SURE and MESO station will
probably be co-located for quality control purposes.

      Even though ERDA and industry are supporting

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36
a substantial effort in long range transport
of sulfur pollutants, it is important for EPA
to maintain a minimal program in this area.   EPA's
MESO differs from SURE and MAP3S in that it  is di-
rected more toward an understanding of the meteoro-
logical, physical, and chemical processes that
govern transformation and transport.  This type
of research program is needed to provide results
that can be generalized and applied to other
situations.

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                                                                                                           37
                                            RESOURCE ALLOCATION

                    COS:  Transport and Fate of Energy-Related Pollutants in Ecosystems
                    SOS:  Chemical, Physical and Meteorological Studies in Energy-Related
                          Pollutants in the Atmosphere

                                           PE EHE 625  RTP/ESRL
             Major Studies
   1000$
FY75   FY76
                                 Status
Midwest Interstate Sulfur Transformation
and Transport.  Project MISTT.  Study of
transformation of energy-related pollutants
plumes out to ^ 250 km.
595    565        Field Studies #1 and #2 complete.  Six
                  papers to be presented at NY, ACS, 4-75.
                  Transformation of SO,, to sulfate aerosol
           and
                  NO to NO  in power plant plumes documented.
                  Formation of ozone and light scattering
                  aerosol in urban plumes documented.
Complex Terrain.  Develop and validate
procedures for predicting atmospheric
transport and dilution of pollutants
from coal utilization by electric
utilities in complex terrain.
500    350        Contractor and field site selected.   Experi-
                  mental phase of Project will be initiated
                  in May.
Petroleum Complex.  Study the effect of
emissions of a petroleum refinery
complex on oxidant transport.
115     65        Two field studies completed.
                  report received.
Preliminary
Transformation of Pollutants in
Oil-fired Plumes.
185
        30
                  Field studies underway.
Aerosol Composition, Effects, and
Sources.  Project ACES.  Determine
the fraction of primary and secondary
aerosols, collected in ambient urban
air, which may be attributed to energy-
related sources in several cities.
215     30        Field studies completed in Miami and St.
                  Louis (with OAOPS)  and in Pittsburgh (with
                  Region III).  Data  reports delivered.
                  Interpretive reports being prepared.
Mesoscale Sulfur Balance.  Determine
the fraction of aerosol mass, collected
in ambient rural air, which may be
attributed to sulfate formed from
power plant emissions during long
range transport.
285    185        Field program starts June 1976.   Aerosol
                  collector designed,  trajectory program
                  operational.   Stagnant air mass tracked for
                  two weeks using airport visibility and long
                  range trajectories.
Heterogeneous Conversion of SO  and
NO  to Sulfates and Nitrates.
  x
                                               85
                                                      85
                  First draft of critical review finished.
                  New NO -SO -surface interaction discovered.
                  Gas-aerosol reaction studies initiated.
Homogeneous Conversion of SO  and MO
to Sulfates and Nitrates.
145    125        Rate of CH CO +SO  measured.   Smog chamber
                  studies on atmospneric chemistry from
                  energy related activities initiated.
Chemical Characterization of Model and
Atmospheric Aerosols.
 30     30        Model aerosols examined for organic sulfur.
                  Collection and analysis of organic aerosols
                  in St. Louis planned.
Damage to Materials by Energy Related
Emissions.
                                               40
                                                      35
                  Exposure study initiated in St. Louis at
                  25 RAMS sites.  Damage varies with site.

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38


                               DISCUSSIONS TO ATMOSPHERIC TRANSPORT SESSION


      Question:  Does the fact that the panel discussed only sulfur oxides and sulfates mean that sulfuric
 acid is not a problem?

      Panel Response:  Most of the measurement techniques that were employed did not differentiate sulfuric
 acid from other sulfates.  However, there are some measurements of sulfuric acid.   Another panel member
 added:  no sulfuric acid measurements were made with the aircraft used to obtain the other measurements.
 A thermal technique used during ground measurements did differentiate between sulfuric acid and ammonium
 sulfate and ammonium bisulfate.  During a six week test program, 'it was found that acidic conditions
 occurred approximately one-third of the time.  Sulfuric acid measurements in reality had been made in-
 directly.  One method used aerosol volume change measurements and calculations with  an assumption that
 sulfuric acid is in equilibrium with water vapor, and  on  other used microscope observations by comparing
 the morphology of aircraft sample aerosols with that o.f sulfuric acid aerosols.

      Question:  Please comment on the impact of non-degradation regulations that EPA might be initiating
 and any impact it may have on various neighboring regions.

      Panel Response:  Congress is now considering this aspect in the Clean Air Act Amendments.   The pre-
 sent concepts of non-degradation are directed towards primary' S02 and total suspended particulates
 originating within a clean region.  Secondary pollutants are yet to be considered as part of the non-
 degradation regulations.

      Question:  Could the panel respond to the effect of the emissions plume on any ozone increase in  the
 piume?

      Panel Response:  There is a controversy on this phenomena mentioned in a Chemical Engineering News
 article suggesting that  SOo in power plant plumes, through a series of reactions, could result in ozone
 formation.  While fhis mechanism has not been proved or disproved, there is substantial information to
 suggest that is  it unnecessary.  There is some information.on gas-fired power plant plumes where there
 are  no SOo emissions.  The article suggests, however, that ozone increases in these plumes.  Findings
 by  Dr.  Douglas Davis who initiated the SOo mechanisms indicate th-at there are ozone bulges or increased
 ozone  zones  in the plume when the power plaat plume mixes with another source of organic vapors.  Find-
 ings indicate that ozone formation in plumes is generally on the basis of classical photo-chemistry be-
 tween  nitrogen oxide and hydrocarbons* in the plume..  The plume merely adds nitrogen oxides to an existing
 atmosphere which has hydrocarbons in it.  In other words, there are sufficient hydrocarbons in the air
 which  mixes  with the plume with the nitrogen oxides and which in turn lead to the classical photo-chemistry
 for  the formation of ozone.

      Question:   Is there any work going on for sulfite removal from power plants?

      Panel  Response:  No studies have been made on power plants with scrubbers.  As plants with large
 scale  or  full  scale scrubbers go operational, a selected few of such power plant scrubber systems will
 be tested.

      Question:   From a health effects standpoint, is there any data on the half-life of sulfuric acid  or
 the  individual  sulfate forms from emissions at ground level?

      Panel  Response:  There  have been studies which differentiate between sulfuric acid and ammonium bi-
 sulfate or sulfate, and  studies that differentiate between the acid form and the acid salt in a fully
 neutralized  zone.   Unfortunately, however, the monitoring and measuring techniques used were not reliable.
 A number  of  programs are now being planned to develop.methods which can be used to differentiate the
 various sulfate  forms.   These new, more reliable techniques, will be integrated into the program just  as
 soon as they become applicable to the operational scale field studies.

      Question:   Have there been any findings regarding the effect that temperature has on sulfate forma-
 tions?

      Panel  Response:  Data from Brookhaven National  Laboratory on coal-fired plumes over a sufficient
 range  of  water concentration, temperature, and relative humidity indicate that it is extremely difficult
 to  separate  the  role of  water vapor and temperature in the formation of sulfates.   However, there is a
 very good correlation  between the sulfate conversion and the function involving temperature multiplied by
 relative  humidity.   It would appear that as both temperature and water vapor increase, there is an in-
 crease  in the rate of conversion.   As the above are both day-time measurements, they are probably best
 explained by homogeneous reactions.   There is also a rapid conversion at night-time which is presumed  to

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                                                                                                         39

be heterogeneous.

     Question:   Newer power plants have more efficient electrostatic precipitators than older plants.
Will this factor make it difficult to compare older studies with the newer studies?

     Panel  Response:  There is a lack of data on atmospheric chemistry of transport of scrubber plumes.
For example, scrubbing removes only approximately 80% of sulfur leaving 20% of the sulfur available to
react.  In  addition, the plume is momentarily saturated with water vapor.  There is very little known
about the increase rate of oxidation in the plume and what occurs at or toward ground level.

     Question:   Are there any increases in particulate nitrate from coal-fired plumes?

     Panel  Response:  Measurement techniques are not sufficiently sensitive to take measurements from
aircraft for nitrate concentrations and chemistry in the time scale occurring in the emission plume.
There are some  measurements available that indicate that conversion does occur from NO to N02.   However,
it is extremely difficult even in a ground level laboratory to make measurements of nitrate or nitric
acid.

     Question:   A slide previously shown indicated the growth of the sulfur concentration with altitude
as one of the processes downwind from St. Louis.  Were there observations of any such complex profiles
for sulfate other than those summarized in that presentation?

     Panel  Response:  A sulfate analysis requires several minutes to collect the sample so that type of
variation with  altitude for sulfate could not be obtained.  However, laboratory studies using light
scattering techniques indicated that a type of layering that is seen with ozone did not occur with sul-
fate.  Additional comments indicated that about a year ago there were two government groups asked to
examine possible explanations for the relatively high concentrations of sulfate found in certain monitor-
ed areas.  Long-range transport of sulfate was one explanation by one group but refuted by another group.
The main reason for the one group feeling that long-range transport of sulfate could not be an  explana-
tion was the feeling that plumes from power plants located in cities would be greatly diluted during the
transport of up to 100 kilometers or so.  At high levels of sulfate of the order of 30 micrograms per
cubic meter would not be observed under those conditions.  One slide of a sulfate plume shown previously
indicated that the size of the plume as it starts out from the city did not increase appreciably.  This
means that under certain conditions, which are somewhat common, there are plumes which maintain a con-
sistency for quite a long range, even up to 100 kilometers or more, with dilution of only a factor of 2
or so.  For example, a plume from St. Louis moving into Iowa and measured for about 18 hours indicated a
high concentration of approximately 60 micrograms per cubic meter.  Both groups now believe that long-
range transport can, under certain conditions, account for high levels of sulfate over long distances.

     Question:   This question referred to the previous discussion and wished an explanation for the co-
incidence of the increase of sulfate along with the increase of sulfur dioxide and rapid fall in sulfate
measurement.

     Response:   This work was done in St. Louis in the summer of 1975.  From the data, it appears that
there was another power plant interferring with the plume which added S02 to the plume resulting in an
increase of sulfate concentrations in the measurement.

     Question:   Were hydrocarbon concentrations obtained, if so, what were the concentrations with dis-
tance from the  source and did they mix well with the sulfate, sulfur, ozone mixture?

     Response:   No, the techniques utilized were not adequate for aircraft sampling and monitoring.  Im-
proved techniques have been developed and these will be tried in the sampling program planned for the
summer of 1976.

     Question:   Where and when will reports of a St. Louis program be published?

     Panel  Response:  Two articles have been submitted to Science; six papers will be given at the Ameri-
can Chemical Society meeting in April; a large status report which documents techniques used would have
been published  had it not been for the sulfate problem which required an extra field trip this past fall
and substantial additional time.  The techniques now used are quite different than techniques used in
earlier plume studies.  In earlier plume studies, there was measurement of generally SOo to sulfate ratio
or an S02 to some inert tracer.  These were taken by flying back and forth across the plume with the re-
sult samples taken were only characteristic of the pieces of the plume that were flown through.  In
current studies, the aircraft flies through the plume in a vertical spiral pattern obtaining a number of
measurements of the plume concentration in vertical and horizontal cuts.  This is transformed into a two-
dimensional concentration profile.  With measurements of the wind speed and direction as a function of
height, a true  dimensional mass concentration profile of pollutant concentration can be reconstructed.

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40

 By calculating mass flow through the plume plus ground level sampling, the fate of the SCL can be  as-
 certained and reasons for SCL concentration changes can be postulated.  Other programs are planned to
 sample and characterize the same volume of air mass as it is transported downwind.

      Question:   Wasn't the variation of S02 to sulfate due to the passage of the plume over or through
 regions in which high hydrocarbon concentration could be expected such as from cities?

      Response:   As mentioned previously, hydrocarbon measurements from airplanes were unsuccessful.  The
 program will  be repeated with different techniques plus hydrocarbon sampling experts in the future.  A
 problem with  hydrocarbon sampling is that hydrocarbon emissions from coal  are generally located in large
 communities  and must contend with the nitrogen oxide emissions especially from auto exhausts.  NO does
 inhibit the  oxidation of S02 in  that the NO appears to be the first compound oxidized and practically
 nothing else  is converted until  the NO is converted.  In addition,  most of these studies were accomplished
 over rural  areas which have a fairly constant  hydrocarbon concentration, so variations of SCX with NO
 could not  be  obtained.   Other panel  members responses confirmed the lack of information on hydrocarbons
 and the need  for additional  R&D  funding to better characterize hydrocarbon transport and fate.

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                    CHAPTER 3
MEASUREMENT AND MONITORING

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 42
 INTRODUCTION

      The  program  for protection of the national
 environment requires the development of control
 technologies which will reduce the emission of pollu-
 tants resulting from development and exploitation of
 energy resources.  Development of these control
 technologies must proceed  in accordance with a series
 of  strategy and priority trade-offs aimed at achiev-
 ing predetermined standards.  These standards, in
 turn,  will be  established  to reflect understood
 tolerance of the  environment to the ecological
 effects of the pollutants.  Measurement and monitor-
 ing techniques are an essential factor in the
 process.

      As an example, the provisions of the Clean Air
 Act Amendments of 1970 and  the Federal Water Pollu-
 tion Control Act  of 1972 include requirements to
 limit  the emissions of pollutants from various points
 of  discharge such as automobile tailpipes and waste-
 water  effluents.  It is fairly obvious that such
 measures  are required if we are to maintain our air
 and  water in a sufficiently clean state for protec-
 tion of the public health and welfare.  What is not
 obvious is the exact extent to which it is necessary
 tp  limit  individual discharges in order to reach
 desired purity of the whole.  As long as costs rise
 exponentially  with the degree of purification, there
will be public interest in  control which provides
 adequate  protection, but no more.

     There are two elements which are fundamental
 to  such an endeavor.  First, the dose-response
relationships  much be established so that ambient
air  and water  quality standards can be properly set.
Secondly, the  relationships between pollutant con-
centrations at the point of discharge and at the
point  of  human contact must be established.
Accurate measurements are requisite to the determina-
tion of these  relationships.  These measurements,
will in turn,  require extensive development of new
measuring devices and techniques.

     Programs  in the area of measurement and monitor-
 ing  are directed at research and development of the
necessary techniques and instrumentation.

     Work in progress is characterized by its
variety:  water measurements to assess suspended
 solids and sedimentation; exotic measurement devices
 employing lidar, laser and  satellite techniques;
 shipboard sampling; and the development of reference
 standard  materials.

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                                                                                                         43
  ENERGY  RELATED RESEARCH PROGRAM IN THE PERSONAL
   AND ENVIRONMENTAL MEASUREMENTS PROGRAM-NIOSH
               Paul  A.  Baron,  Ph.D.
            Laurence J.  Doemeny,  Ph.D.
       National  Institute for  Occupational
               Safety and Health
               Cincinnati, Ohio
INTRODUCTION

     The National  Institute for Occupational  Safety
and Health (NIOSH) is committed to the protection
of the worker from harmful  materials and conditions
in the working environment.  Toward this end, the
Personal and Environmental  Measurements (PEM) pro-
gram in the Engineering Branch aids in accomplish-
ing this goal by investigating methods and
instrumentation used to collect and measure harmful
agents in the workplace air.   Three different levels
of methods and instrumentation are used to effec-
tively monitor the workplace air:   personal monitors,
survey instruments, and area monitors.

     The Occupational Safety and Health Standards1
require the determination of worker exposure to air
contaminants.  The exposure is determined for ceil-
ing levels or for 8-hour, time-weighted average
levels.  NIOSH has found that the most accurate
method for measuring compliance with the standards
is to obtain personal, breathing zone samples which
can be analyzed for specific contaminants.  To
obtain these personal samples, sampling systems
have been devised that consist of a light-weight,
self-contained pump, that is generally attached to
the worker's belt, and a sampling head that contains
an efficient medium for the specific type of air
contaminant of concern.  The sampling head is
attached to the worker's clothing within his/her
breathing zone.  Air is drawn through the sampling
medium at a measured rate and for a measured length
of time.  The sampling medium is then sent to an
analytical laboratory for analysis to determine a
worker exposure.  The sampling medium typically
consists of a filter for particulates and a solid
sorbent tube or liquid sorbent system (impinger or
bubbler) for gases and vapors and particulates.
     To assess areas of contamination in the work-
place, it is very useful to have portable survey
instrumentation that is light-weight, accurate,
agent-specific, and capable of rapid measurement
of contaminant levels.   These survey instruments
are used by Occupational Safety and Health Adminis-
tration (OSHA) inspectors to pinpoint areas of
possible non-compliance for further investigation,
by the employer to monitor contaminant levels and
target areas to be subjected to engineering
controls, and by NIOSH to evaluate problem areas,
bearing on the accuracy and collection of epidemio-
logical data, and the effectiveness of personal
sampling methods.

     The third monitoring method is area monitoring.
This includes less portable instrumentation that has
recording capabilities to determine contaminant
level variation over an extended period of time at
a given location.  Additional  possibilities for such
monitors include feedback to warning devices in case
of dangerous contaminant levels and to engineering
and process controls to keep contaminant levels, be-
low the prescribed threshold.

TECHNICAL DISCUSSION

     In response to the rising need for air monitor-
ing instrumentation as a result of the increased
emphasis on energy self sufficiency, the PEM program
is using interagency funds from EPA to effect
improvements in such instrumentation in energy
related areas.  Four projects  are under way in this
interagency program.

   (1) Evaluation of personal  sampling devices in
       cold environments;
   (2) Development of a fibrous aerosol survey
       monitor;
   (3) Development of a miniature gas chromatograph;
       and
   (4) Development of a portable microwave spectro-
       metric analyzer.

     These four areas of investigation will be
carried out under contract.  The contracts are
presently in various stages of the review and bid-
ding process.

   1. With the development of United States energy
      resources in sub-zero environs, such as Alaska,
      there is an increasing need for information
      relative to the current air sampling instru-
      mentation and methodology available for
      industrial hygiene investigations in sub-
      zero weather.

      In field use, cold temperatures may alter the
      response of such air sampling instruments as
      personal sampling pumps.  Some basic problems
      to be investigated associated with the opera-
      tion of air sampling instruments in sub-zero
      environs are: (1) greases and oils freezing;
       (2) bearings freezing up; (3) piston units
      freezing and sticking;  (4) pump diaphragms
      becoming brittle;  (5) valves sticking;  (6)
      decreasing battery efficiency; and  (7)
      fatiguing of electronic components.  Different
      air sampling instruments may encounter  certain
      problems depending on their particular  design
      characteristics.

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44
       Since it is  necessary to  use  personal  sampling
       pumps for field  industrial  hygiene  surveys,
       including compliance work by  OSHA,  data  must
       be obtained  to establish  the  reliability and
       operating characteristics of  personal  sampling
       pumps in these sub-zero investigations.   In
       addition, investigations  will  be  made  to pin-
       point other  problem areas related to sample
       collection and analysis under extreme  condi-
       tions.

    2.  The assessment of occupational  hazard  due to
       fibrous  aerosols  has become of great impor-
       tance especially  in light of  past experience
       with asbestos.2  In addition to asbestos,  other
       fibrous  materials such as fibrous glass,  tex-
       tile fibers  may  require methods for their
       detection as new  occupational  exposure levels
       are set.   These  fibrous materials are  extreme-
       ly important in  energy conservation as insul-
       ators.

       The Occupational  Safety and Health  Standards
       requirement  to measure the  exposure of workers
       is  presently fulfilled for  asbestos aerosols
       by  collection of  air samples  on filters  and
       analysis  of  the filters using phase contrast
       light microscopy.   A fibrous  aerosol survey
       instrument will be built  to monitor aerosol
       properties related to toxicity on a continu-
       ous and  real-time basis.   The filter collec-
       tion/light microscope analysis technique is
       not presently adaptable to  this latter
       application.

       Fibrous  particles have a  number of  unique
       properties that can be used to indicate  their
       presence  quantitatively.   Some of these  pro-
       perties  include the aerodynamic shape  factor,
       magnetic  and electrostatic  polarizability,
       light scattering  properties and large  surface
       area  per  unit mass.3  These  and  other pro-
       perties of fibers can be  used and combined to
       form  the  operational  principles of  a fibrous
       aerosol monitor

       The properties of fibers  that seem  to  be
       related to their  toxicity,  especially  in the
       case  of asbestos,  include the aerodynamic
       size, the  physical  dimensions,  and  the number
       concentration of  the fibers.   The aerodynamic
       size  of the  fibers is related  to  the ability
       of  the fibers to  penetrate  to the lower
       respiratory  tract.   Once  the  fibers reach this
       site, the  physical  size of  the  fibers  is
       related to the ability of the  fibers to  pene-
       trate to  the lower respiratory  tract.  Once
       the fibers reach  this site, the physical  size
       of  the fibers impedes their removal by the
       ususal body  elimination mechanisms.  Epidem-
       iological  studies indicate  that the biological
       response  due to asbestos  exposure is largely
   related to number concentration x exposure
   time, i.e., the effects are cumulative.

3.  With the advent of heightened emphasis on
   increased production and research in the area
   of energy, workers may be exposed to greater
   levels of air contaminants and a greater
   variety of gases and vapors.

   Currently several types of portable, direct-
   reading instruments are available for monitor-
   ing single contaminants.  These instruments
   can be used to monitor large work areas to
   obtain a record of a contaminant concentration
   in a general area and also to provide a warn-
   ing if dangerously high concentrations of a
   contaminant are encountered in this area.   The
   major problem with these instruments is that
   they do not measure an individual worker's
   exposure, thus ignoring the worker's mobility
   and fluctuation in contaminant concentration
   around the plant.  The vast majority of exist-
   ing instrumentation can measure only a single
   contaminant at a time and so one instrument
   must be obtained for each contaminant to be
   monitored.

   The purpose of this study is to look at the
   current state-of-the-art relative to the
   development of a pocket gas chromatograph5
   designed to monitor worker exposure, to prove
   on paper the feasibility of such a system, and
   outline the necessary research to have it
   developed.  Such an instrument may provide an
   alternative to present personal sampling
   systems and be capable of determining worker
   exposure to several gases at the same time.
4. The need exists for a portable gas monitor
   which is capable of selectively detecting
   several trace contaminants of a hazardous or
   toxic nature in air.  Very few techniques are
   available which are based upon a physical
   measurement and have the required specificity
   and sensitivity.  It is felt that microwave
   spectrometry is a technique which can fulfill
   these requirements and be used in a portable
   instrument.  A brief description of this tech-
   nique follows.

   All gas phase molecules are freely rotating
   in an air mixture, but their rotational speeds
   are quantized.  Because some molecules are
   polar, electromagnetic radiation (microwave)
   can interact with them at discrete frequencies
   to increase their rotational speeds.  Colli-
   sions between the polar molecules, with air
   molecules and with the container walls cause
   the molecules to give up the added energy and
   return them to their original rotating speeds,
   but in the overall process, a net absorption

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                                                                                                         45
      of microwave  radiation  takes  place.   This
      absorption  can  be  detected  to indicate  the
      presence  of partiuclar  kinds  of  molecules  in
      a mixture with  air

      This  technique  is  highly selective  for  two
      main  reasons.   One is  that  the rotational
      speeds  for  all  different types of molecules
      are  different;  therefore, the discrete  fre-
      quencies  of microwave  radiation  that they  can
      interact  with are  unique.

      Secondly, microwave source produces radiation
      monochromatically  by electronic  oscillations,
      and  can be  readily tuned to any discrete
      frequency.   Thus,  at low pressures, where
      rotational  absorption  lines are very narrow,
      this spectrometric technique has a resolution
      and specificity superior to almost all  other
      detection methods.

      A feasibility study by Lawrence Livermore
      Laboratory (LLL)  of the  University of Cali-
      fornia of  the portable microwave rotational
      resonance  (MMR) analyzer has  been completed.4
      The factors affecting  sensitivity for ten
      different  gases and vapors were  investigated
      and the  results of  these investigations
      indicate that an  instrument  can  be  built for
      the ten  gases  in  Table  I with the correspon-
      ding sensitivities.  With  the present  state-
      of-the-art for  such an  instrument,  it  does
      not  seem possible to make  the prototype
      completely portable,  i.e.,  battery  operable.
      One aim  of the  new  contract  will be  to make
      the  instrument  as compact,  light and rugged
      as  possible, with the  view that the  next
      generation MRR  analyzer may  be  a completely
      self-contained, portable instrument.

PROJECTION

     Work  beyond  the  contract efforts  in  the  four
areas mentioned will  include:

   1. Further investigation  into aspects  of samp-
      ling  gases  and  particulates in cold environ-
      ments  as  deemed necessary by the initial
      study.   There are  problems with the collec-
      tion of materials  that undergo phase tran-
      sitions from  solid to  liquid and liquid to
      gas  and acquire significant vapor pressures
      when taken  from the cold environment to the
      room temperature environment of the analyti-
      cal  laboratory.

   2. The fibrous aerosol monitor will require
      extensive  field and laboratory testing to
      ensure its utility as an accurate monitor
      of asbestos and other fibrous materials.  The
      information gained  from  the  contract and from
      in-house research may provide the impetus
       for other types of fiber detection instru-
       ments suited to analyzing personal samples
       and to area monitoring.

    3.  Based on indications of feasiblity in the
       initial  study, further development and con-
       struction of a prototype miniature gas
       chromatograph is envisioned.

    4.  In addition to testing and evaluation of the
       instrument produced under the present con-
       tract, further work will be needed on the
       engineering design and packaging of the
       microwave resonance analyzer  to reduce the
       size and power requirements and increase
       portability and utility as a  field instru-
       ment.

INTERAGENCY PARTICIPATION

     The majority of the energy related research in
the Personal and Environmental  Measurements program
is being funded by Interagency energy allocations
totaling $350,000 supplied by EPA.  The fiber
monitor is being partially funded by the Bureau
of Mines.  NIOSH is providing one man-year of
effort during FY-76 for this energy  related
research.

                      TABLE I

  THRESHOLD LIMIT VALUES OF 10 GASES AND ESTIMATED
DETECTION LIMITS BY MICROWAVE SPECTROMETRIC ANALYSIS
                       MINIMUM DETECTABLE LIMIT
                       	(smU	
                                   2
                                  20
                                  50
                                   1
                                 0.1
                                25
                                 1.5
                                50
                                 4
                                 5
COMPOUND       TLV
              (ppm)1
Acetonitrile    40
Acetaldehyde   200
Acetone       1000
Ammonia         256
Carbonyl Sulfide *
Ethanol       1000
Ethylene Oxide  50
iso-Propanol   400
Methanol       200
Propylene Oxide 100

 *No TLV has been set

REFERENCES
1. Department of Labor, Occupational Safety and
   Health Standards, 1910.93, Federal Register,
   June 27, 1974.

2. Occupational Exposure to Asbestos, Criteria
   Document, DHEW, NIOSH, 1972.

3. Fuchs, N.A.  Mechanics of Aerosols.  New York,
   Pergammon Press, 1964.

4. Final Report, Interagency Agreement, NIOSH  75-29.

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46
 5.   Terry,  S.C.  A  Gas  Chromatography  System  Fabri-
     cated on  a  Silicon  Wafer  Using  Integrated
     Circuit Technology,  NASA  Technical  Report
     No.  4603-1.   (1975)

 6.   Threshold Limit  Values  for  Chemical  Substances
     in Workroom  Air, ACGIH, 1975.

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                                                                                                         47
  MONITORING WESTERN ENERGY RESOURCE DEVELOPMENTS

      R.  K.  Oser, S. C.  Black, D.  N. McNeils,
             S.  H.  Melfi, G.  B.  Morgan

  Environmental  Monitoring and Support Laboratory
      U.S.  Environmental  Protection Agency
              Las Vegas,  Nevada 89114

INTRODUCTION

     Meeting the projected energy requirements of
our nation  will  require expanded development of
both current sources (fossil  fuel, geothermal, and
nuclear)  and proposed sources (oil shale, tar
sands, solar radiation, and tides).  This expansion
will not  only increase the burden of known con-
taminants and the alteration  of land and water re-
sources,  but may introduce new contaminants which
have not  yet been recognized  as problems.  It is
accordingly most prudent to study each energy
source to the fullest extent  so that problems may
be anticipated and controls instituted as early as
possible  in the  resource development.  Such studies
must include collection of data on known and sus-
pected contaminants both before and after resource
development.  Comparison of these levels will then
indicate  the environmental impact of the resource
development and  the effectiveness of applied
pollution control measures.  It will also assist in
the development  of new controls.

     To illustrate some of the facets of the problem
let us consider  the development of an oil shale
resource.  Although oil shale strata exist else-
where in  the country, the most commercially attrac-
tive deposit is  the Green River Formation of
Wyoming,  Utah, and Colorado.   It has been estimated
that 600 billion barrels of oil exist in the higher
grade shale of this formation.  Development of this
valuable  resource will not, however, be without its
own set of environmental  problems.  The potential
for water pollution is high.   Salinity changes to
the watershed and groundwater supply can occur
from the  highly  saline water  removed from the shale
during mining and processing  and from runoff from
the spent shale.  The increased permeability of in
situ fractured shale and tailings also provides for
possible  trace metal and organic compound additions
to scarce water  resources which are required for
agricultural and municipal uses.  Air pollution
from shale  extraction and conversion also presents
a problem.   In-situ retorting of the shale requires
detonation  of conventional or nuclear explosives to
fracture  the formation prior  to application of heat.
These explosives will introduce nitro compounds or
radioactive materials which may escape with the off-
gases or  may be  collected by  the oil as it drains
through the rubble.  External retorting will emit
to the atmosphere significant amounts of particu-
lates, S02, NO , CO, trace metals, natural radio-
nuclides  and hydrocarbons.  Finally, there are
land disturbance problems associated with extract-
ing the shale and disposing of the spent shale.

     These  are some of the environmental problems
associated with the development of just one energy
resource.  Other problems, such as water avail-
ability and socio-economic effects, must also be
addressed.  The real magnitude of the problem comes
into focus when one considers the great geographic
area that will require surveillance as the extrac-
tion, conversion and utilization of coal, oil shale,
geothermal, offshore and onshore oil and gas, uran-
ium, and other energy resources proceed.  It is
essential, however, that monitoring be done to help
ensure that the expanding energy resource develop-
ment is accomplished in a manner consistent with
the national commitment to protect the environment.

     The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's
(EPA) monitoring and measurement research and devel-
opment program in the Western Energy Resource Devel-
opment area is designed to obtain environmental
baseline information on air, surface-water, ground-
water, and soil quality.  Interagency participation
is stressed particularly in monitoring system de-
sign, data integration and quality assurance areas.
The baseline data coupled with predictive models
applicable to the specific industry and site and
supplemented with data gathered over several years,
will enable decision makers to assess the environ-
mental impacts from energy resource development
and related activities.

PROGRAM DISCUSSION

     The basic approach to monitoring the impact of
projected energy developments is relatively
straightforward.  A set of pollutants to be expected
in the various media (air, land, water, and bio-
logical) is derived, an optimized monitoring system
is designed, and appropriate cost-effective instru-
ments and techniques are developed and applied to
the measurement of the candidates.   Concurrent with
methods research, a comprehensive quality assurance
program is designed to develop procedures for
assuring the accuracy and reproducibility of
measurements, as it is essential that monitoring
data be scientifically valid and legally defensible.

     The EPA's Environmental  Monitoring and Support
Laboratory in Las Vegas, Nevada (EMSL-LV) is in-
volved in a number of projects which utilize this
approach to determine the environmental impacts
associated with expanded energy development in the
West.  Overviews of these programs are presented
below.

     Air Monitoring.  The air monitoring program in-
volves the development of an inventory of energy-
related emission sources and of air-quality and
meteorological monitoring sites in the Western
United States.  The EPA, other Federal, State, and
industrial monitoring sites, particularly those
which measure multiple air-quality and meteorologi-
cal parameters, will be incorporated into this
activity.  Their data will be integrated and inter-
preted to develop an air-quality baseline, assess
trends and evaluate air quality for significant
deterioration.  The airborne monitoring capability
of the EMSL-LV will be used to complement the over-
all effort by developing the three-dimensional

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48

 aspect of air quality phenomena, conducting inten-
 sive site-specific studies to obtain data for com-
 plex terrain and complex plume modeling and model
 validation, and describing plume or air parcel
 transport and transformation.  Data collected by
 the Ute Research Laboratory for the EMSL-LV will
 complement this effort by providing information on
 the hazardous element distribution in air over a
 large geographical area of Utah, Colorado, New
 Mexico and Arizona.

      The EMSL-LV also serves as technical project
 coordinator for a climate modification study being
 conducted by the National Oceanographic and Atmos-
 pheric Administration (NOAA).  At three sites in
 the western area (Colstrip, Montana, the Four
 Corners area and northern Utah) the fraction of
 aerosols with cloud nucleating properties will be
 determined as a function of plume transport time.
 Particular attention is given to the production
 rate and nucleating properties of sulfates result-
 ing from conversions of gaseous S02 to particulate
 sulfates.   The effects of moisture, oxides of nit-
 rogen, ammonia and heavy metals on the conversion
 rate are also under investigation.  The EPA's
 Environmental Monitoring and Support Laboratory at
 Research Triangle Park, North Carolina, is provid-
 ing quality assurance for the analytical aspects
 of the air monitoring program.  This latter effort
 combined with the monitoring activities will yield
 a unique product:   uniformly validated air-quality
 data for a large geographical area of the Western
 United States necessary to assess the impact of
 energy-related activities and to develop national
 environmental  policies.

      Water Quality Data Integration.  The water
 quality  program is  analogous to the air monitoring
 effort in  that data collected from existing net-
 works  of the  U.S.  Geological  Survey (USGS), other
 Federal  and  State  agencies, universities and pri-
 vate industry are  being integrated to establish
 surface  and  ground  water quality baselines for the
 western  energy area.   The data will also be used
 to  evaluate  trands,  to assess the environmental im-
 pact of  on-line  energy-related activities and to
 predict  the  additional  insult from future develop-
 ments.   The  EPA's  Environmental  Monitoring and
 Support  Laboratory  at Cincinnati, Ohio, is provid-
 ing the  quality  assurance effort to the participat-
 ing analytical  laboratories in support of this
 program.   This  again  allows for the Agency to pro-
 vide a  unique  product of properly and uniformly
 validated  data and  data interpretation for use in
 the decision  process  at the national level.  The
 EMSL-LV  also  serves  as  technical  project coordina-
 tor to  the  USGS  in  their surface-and ground-water
 monitoring  and appraisal  efforts  in coal mining
 areas  across  the continental  United States and
 Alaska.

      Remote  Sensing.   The large geographical area
 to  be  monitored  demands  the application of tech-
 niques  which  are capable of providing synoptic en-
 vironmental  assessment with a relatively short time
 frame.   Airborne remote  sensing offers such a tech-
 nique  through  the  application of  proven, operational
 procedures  and  the  promise  of  increased utility
 with  further  refinement  and on-going  research and
 development efforts.

      The  primary  emphasis  of operational  remote
 sensing to  date has  been  the use  of instrumentation
 and techniques  such  as photography (black and white,
 color, and  color  infrared), thermal  infrared and
 multi-spectral  scanners  and laser terrain profiles
 (through  cooperation with  the  National  Aeronautics
 and Space Administration  (NASA) to define an en-
 vironmental baseline for  the Western  United States.

      Through  the  use of  both manual,  photo-interpre-
 tation and  automated data  analysis,  airborne acqui-
 red information may  be used to determine  or assess:
 (1) aerial extent  of  strip  mining  impact,  (2)  the
 efficacy  of reclamation  activities associated with
 disturbed land, (3)  vegetation damage related to
 mining and  energy conversion,  (4)  revegetation
 practices,  (5)  drainage  patterns,  and (6)  impact on
 fresh water resources.   The ma-in  objective  of this
 effort is to  develop operational  aerial techniques
 capable of  determining the  success of extraction
 and processing  site  rehabilitation.

      Three  remote sensing  techniques  are  being  de-
 veloped at  the  EMSL-LV which have  a direct  bearing
 on monitoring pollutants  related  to energy  develop-
 ment.  All  use  lasers as  an interrogating signal
 and operate aiming  down  from airborne platforms.
 These techniques will be  used  operationally  to  pro-
 vide  environmental  data  on  energy  operations.

      The  first  technique  is  the downlooking  airborne
 LIDAR (Ujht  Detection tod  Ranging) System.   The de-
 vice  senses and ranges aerosol  concentrations be-
 neath the airborne  platform.   One  LIDAR system  de-
 veloped and constructed  at  the EMSL-LV, has  been in
 use for over  2 years in  studies to determine  point-
 source plume  dimensions,  urban plume  dimensions and
 mixing-layer  height  over  large geographical  areas.
 A second  technique  utilizes  two pulsed  lasers,  oper-
 ating in  the  infrared spectrum, which  are of  nearly
 identical frequency  but bracket a  particular  adsorp-
 tion  band of  a  pollutant or tracer gas.  The  device
 is designed to  operate from an  airborne platform
 with  the earth  as a  reflector.  It records  the  inte-
 grated quantity of the selected gas beneath  the air-
 craft.  One device has been  constructed for  monitor-
 ing ozone with subsequent devices  planned to  measure
 SOg and other gaseous pollutants.  This pulsed  laser
 technique is  also being developed  to  map tracer
 gases released to simulate  power plant effluents
 prior to actual construction of the facility.   The
 third technique under consideration is  laserfluoro-
 sensing.   Fluorescent signatures arising from laser
 illumination can be highly  specific,  and spectral
 information obtained over a  period of time  can yield
 trend data.   Two uses for this technique are  the re-
 mote sensing of vegetation  stress  and the identifi-
 cation of oil  species released during energy  extrac-
 tion or conversion activities.

     Radiological  Pollutant  Monitoring and Technique!
Development.  The continuing development of  the
breeder  reactor for future energy  production  has

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                                                                                                         49
caused widespread concern as to the possible envir-
onmental effects resulting from the plutonium fuel
cycle.  This concern may be attributed, at least
in part, to the paucity of information concerning
plutonium releases from plants involved in the
plutonium fuel  cycle and the lack of standardized
methodology for monitoring plutonium in the envir-
onment.

     The approach to this problem at the EMSL-LV
has consisted of (1) detailed characterization of
the airborne effluent from appropriate facilities
involved in the plutonium fuel cycle, and (2) re-
commendation and collaborative testing of methods
to monitor plutonium in soil, air, and water.

     To date, airborne effluents have been collected
in the stack of a fabrication facility during 80
days of the fabrication process of plutonium-
uranium oxide.fuel for the Fast Flux Test Facility
(a breeder reactor).  Air samples were also taken
in the environs of this facility.  Efforts are cur-
rently underway to quantitate and characterize
plutonium and/or uranium particles in these samples.
A method has been recommended for monitoring plu-
tonium in soil  and is being collaboratively tested
by 11  laboratories.  Methods for the monitoring of
plutonium in air and water are now undergoing in-
tensive evaluation prior to their collaborative
testing.

     Future activities include completing the
characterizations of the samples already collected
and characterizing the effluent from the Barnwell
Fuel Reprocessing Plant and the Fort St. Vrain
high-temperature gaseous reactor.

     The EMSL-LV also serves as the EPA technical
program coordinator for the following three radio-
logical monitoring projects which are covered under
Interagency Agreements:

     1.  Evaluation and development of models used
for radiological impact assessment of gaseous re-
leases from nuclear power plants (Tennessee Valley
Authority).

     2.  Development of specifications for instru-
ments, methods, and systems for measuring radio-
active effluents released from uranium mills, fuel
fabrication and reprocessing plants, high-tempera-
ture gas-cooled reactors, and liquid metal fast
breeder reactors (Lawrence Livermore Laboratory).

     3.  Evaluation of state-of-the-art measurement
and instrumentation techniques for monitoring plu-
tonium and  uranium particulates released from nu-
clear facilities (Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory).

     Radiological  Monitoring Quality Assurance.
The Radiation Quality Assurance Program which the
EMSL-LV conducts for the EPA has continually ex-
panded its  three basic programs (Calibrated Sample
Distribution, Intercomparison Studies, and Metnods
Development and Evaluation) to meet the Agency's
needs.   With the advent of the Energy Program, a
need  for additional reference materials, cross-
 checks,  methodology  and  quality assurance guide-
 lines  became  evident.
      One  study  currently  in  progress  is  concerned
 with  the  identification of potential  radioactive
 pollutants  for  which  quality control  standards,  re-
 ference materials,  and procedures  will be  needed  as
 a  result  of expanded  nuclear power,  fossil  fuel ex-
 traction, and geothermal  activities.  Another  pro-
 ject  is concerned with the design  and development
 of an  improved  instrument for measuring  beta
 activity, and the preparation of quality control
 guidelines  for  technicians,  analysts, and  managers.
 Other  soil  reference  materials, including  those
 containing  uranium-235, -238,  and  thorium,  as  well
 as  uranium  mill  tailings, have been prepared for
 distribution to  participating laboratories.

     The  EMSL-LV is also  the technical program co-
 ordinator for two quality assurance projects covered
 under  Interagency Agreements  with  the National
 Bureau of Standards (NBS) and  the  Tennessee Valley
 Authority (TVA), respectively.  The NBS  has been
 providing the EMSL-LV with standards  containing
 mixed  gamma emitters, which  are being used  in  a
 "round-robin" study of laboratories interested in
 measuring alpha emissions or  polonium-210.   The
 NBS is also analyzing radium  in Mancos shale which
 will be used by the EMSL-LV  as a reference material.
 The TVA is  developing an  approach  to  the optimiza-
 tion of nuclear power surveillance programs, evalu-
 ating  a least-squares technique (Alpha-M Program)
 to  obtain qualitative and quantitative information
 from gamma  spectroscopy, and  developing  a users'
 quality control manual.

     Ground Water and Geothermal  Monitoring and
 Techniques  Development.  Heavy metals, radionuclides,
 and other substances which are known  or  suspected
 to  be  toxic, carcinogenic, mutagenic, or terato-
 genic  are contained in most energy resources.   There-
 fore,  it is necessary to develop monitoring strate-
 gies which will  detect the movement of the  pollu-
 tants  from the resource development activities to
 the surface water and then to the  ground water en-
 vironment, to predict the amounts  of  these  pollut-
 ants going into storage,  and to apprise  decision-
 making officials of the expected impact.   The
 EMSL-LV has several  monitoring studies currently
 underway which will  help  determine the impact of
 coal, oil  shale, and geothermal development on the
 ground-water environment.

     At oil  shale and coal strip mining  areas and
 at a potential  geothermal  development site  studies
 are underway to identify  the lithologies and aqui-
 fers, locate the recharge areas,  identify possible
 pollutants,  and develop,  implement, and  operate a
 monitoring strategy to determine the  contributions
 of these energy developments  to ground water pollu-
 tion.   A similar study will  be conducted in an
 energy complex consisting of coal  mining, oil  and
 gas drilling, power generation sites, a  large amount
 of commerce  and industry,  and urban and  suburban
 populations  which use a significant amount of ground
water.   The  kinds and amounts of pollution  from each
 of these sources will  be  identified and  a monitoring

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50

 strategy will be developed and implemented to de-
 termine the nature of ground-water pollution re-
 sulting from these activities.  These strategies
 will be systematic approaches which can be applied
 to other similar areas.

 RESOURCE ALLOCATIONS

      When the EPA was created in 1970, the Las
 Vegas facility was given the responsibility for
 developing, testing, and optimizing methods and
 strategies for monitoring the condition of the  en-
 vironment with regard to the source, movement and
 fate of pollutants, and  their change with time.
 When the EPA energy/environmental  program was de-
 fined in 1974, the existing programs provided a
 logical base for energy-related monitoring research
 and development projects.  Funds for energy-related
 projects constitute about 20% of the current
 EMSL-LV budget.  Approximately 60% of the energy
 funds is used for extramural  (contracts and inter-
 agency agreement) projects with the balance being
 used to accelerate and redirect existing inhouse
 capabilities.

 CONCLUSION

      In order for the United States to achieve
 energy self-sufficiency  in an era  of dwindling  oil
 and gas reserves and increased national demand, it
 will  be necessary to accelerate the development of
 our energy resources.  It is  the responsibility of
 the U.S. Environmental Protection  Agency to develop
 and implement multi-media monitoring systems which
 can be used at the Federal, State, and local levels
 to help ensure that this development is in concert
 with  the national commitment to maintain and im-
 prove environmental  quality.   The  projects outlined
 in this  paper describe the role of the Environmental
 Monitoring and Support Laboratory-Las Vegas in
 helping  to discharge this responsibility.

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                                                                                                           51
        NOAA's ACTIVITIES IN ENERGY RELATED
             MEASUREMENT AND MONITORING


        Alden B. Bestul and W. Lawrence  Pugh
  National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration
                Rockville, Maryland

 INTRODUCTION

     This paper describes the activities  of the
 National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration
 (NOAA)  in energy related measurement  and  monitoring
 under the Interagency Health and Ecological Effects
 Program of the Presidential Five-Year Energy  R&D
 Plan.   These activities are directed  at  developing
 and  applying techniques and instrumentation for
 impact  assessment measurements and continuing
 monitoring of environmental pollutants arising from
 existing and future energy related facilities.
 Four projects are devoted to oceanic  investigations,
 and  three to atmospheric investigations.

 OCEANIC INVESTIGATIONS

     Some areas of our Continental Shelf are
 presently undergoing intensive study.  This is due
 in part to the impending increased usage of our
 Continental Shelves for the production and trans-
 portation of energy resources and the possible
 siting  of offshore power generating plants.
 Critical to these and similar studies is  an
 understanding of Continental Shelf circulatory
 processes; the development of underway sampling
 systems; and the development and use  of  realistic
 data quality assurance procedures.  NOAA's oceanic
 measurement and monitoring projects are  aimed at
 obtaining a better understanding of these problem
 areas.   NOAA has four oceanic measurement and
 monitoring projects.  The projects and the project
 managers are as follows:

      Ocean oil spill concentration and  trajectory
      forecast.  Celso Barrientos NWS/Systems
      Development Office.

      Underway water sampling system.
      Robert Etkins, NOS/Engineering  Development
      Laboratory.

      Shipboard environmental data acquisition
      system.  Roy Wyett, NWS/Systems Development
      Office.

      Standardized and intercalibrated techniques
      for marine monitoring.  Robert  Farland,
      NOS/National Oceanographic Instrumentation
      Center.

1.   Oil  Spill  Concentration and Trajectory Forecast

      Petroleum hydrocarbons are obiquitous in the
marine  environment.   These hydrocarbons can be
introduced inadvertently from offshore oil wells,
through tanker accidents and deballasting during
shipping, from natural seeps and a number of other
sources.   The objective of this project is to
develop a numerical simulation model  which can be
used in real  time to predict the concentrations of
petroleum and its trajectory in the ocean as a
function  of time and space from available meteoro-
logical and oceanographic data.   The model will
include provisions for considering the local
currents, winds, and wave fields.

Project Plan

     To develop this model, the following tasks
are being carried out:

      Surface wind field.  The surface winds are
      used as an input to derive surface currents,
      wind drag and sea-air transfer.

      Three dimensional currents.   The current
      field will be defined considering tidal  and
      wind effects as well as bottom topography.

      Direct  wind drag effects.  A boundary layer
      model will be developed to better evaluate
      the wind effects on floating pollutants.

      Wave transport.  The effects of waves on the
      dispersion of a surface pollutant are not
      well known.  This task will  address the
      "surfboarding effects" and the  effects of
      variation in the current fields as caused by
      nonlinear wave properties.

      Sea air pollutant transfer.   Evaporation and
      the subsequent concentrating and altered
      composition of a surface pollutant are
      important variables that will  be addressed.

      Horizontal diffusion.   A model  will be
      developed to provide information on the
      spreading of surface pollutants in the
      absence of wind and waves.

      Overall model integration.

Project Status

     All  tasks are progressing.  Contact and consul-
tations have  been made with personnel at the
Universities  of Delaware and New York, Texas ASM,
Woods Hole, Virginia Institute of Marine Science,
MIT, and  the  Coast Guard R&D Center.   To date, two
proposals have been submitted, one from MIT to work
on the horizontal diffusion task and the second
from the  University of Delaware to work on  the
three dimensional current task.

2.  Shipboard Environmental  Data Acquisition
    System (SEAST~

    The goal  of this project is the development  of

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52

an automated environmental data observation system
for  shipboard.   Upon  completion, this system will
have  the  capability to  provide real-time, broad-
scale monitoring of meteorological and selected
oceanographic  parameters  from ships-of-opportunity
and  also  from  fixed platforms such as oil rigs and
offshore  terminals.   The  environmental data
observed  will  be transmitted via satellite to the
National  Weather Service.  This system has the
capability  of  providing observations from oceanic
areas that  are data sparse and provide valuable
information to all users  in Continental  Shelf
areas who need and depend on accurate real-time
marine  weather forecasts, warning  services and
pollution transport advisories.

Program Plan

      The  SEAS  project will be developed  in two
phases.   The  first is the development of an
engineering model  (SEAS-1).  The primary objective
of this model  will be to  demonstrate the practi-
cability  of using an  automated system on board
ship for  the  acquisition  and communication of
environmental  data in an  operational mode.

      Incorporated into  this model  will be sensors
to automatically observe  and communicate the
following environmental data:  air temperature,
surface pressure, wind  speed and direction,  sea
surface temperature and surface  salinity.   In
addition, procurement of  an automated expendable
bathythermograph system (XBT)  and  a  dew  point
sensor  is planned for later  incorporation.

      The  second phase will  be  the  development  of  a
prototype system (SEAS-2).  The  current  design
plans for this model  include a full  sensor set
multiplexed into a microprocessor  for  transmission
and  for local  display aboard  ship.   In  addition  to
the  sensor  capabilities of  the SEAS-1 model,  the
prototype SEAS-2 will have  a  ship's  position
finding and movement  (speed and  direction)
capability.   Design plans also  include  the
possible  addition of  an automated  wave  sensor  and
an expendable  salinity-temperature profiling
device.

Project Status

      Procurement of  the SEAS-1 model  has been
initiated and  delivery  is expected in  June 1976.
 Inclusion of the dew  point  sensor  and  development
of the  automated XBT  is expected  in  4th  quarter
1976.  The  SEAS-2 prototype  is expected  in April
 1977 with model testing and  evaluation  to run
 until August 1977 at  which  time  the prototype
 system  is expected  to be operational.

 3.   Underway Water  Sampling Program

      The goal  of this project  is  the development
 of a shipborne dynamic  scanning  interactive  data
 acquisition system whose purpose  is  to  obtain
 measurements with which to  determine the concentra-
 tion, distribution,  and transport  of energy-
 related  pollutants  in the water  column  down  to
 100 meters.  These  pollutants  include  both
dissolved petroleum hydrocarbons and suspended
particulate matter.  In addition, measurements of
related physical and chemical variables such as
temperature, conductivity and current velocity as
a function of depth will be taken.

program Plan

     The analysis for petroleum hydrocarbons and
suspended particulate matter will be done on board
ship using water samples pumped through a faired
cable.  Design plans also include an optical sensor
to measure suspended particulate matter to
correlate their optical properties with their
physical-chemical properties as determined  in the
water sample analyses.

     A Doppler sonar system will be utilized to
measure current and ship speed as well as the
depth of the water column.  The resultant data,
from the water sample analyses, sensor and  Doppler
systems will be fed into a POP 11/40 computer to
provide near real  time  data.

Project Status

     The system design  is scheduled to be completed
by March 1, 1976.  The  basic design for the CTD
sensor system has  been  completed and a detailed
design of electronic modules is now in process.
The  POP 11/40 data processing  system has been
received and is now being evaluated.  The technical
specifications  for the  Doppler current/depth system
has  been completed and  RFP documentation has been
initiated.  Requirements for the  hydrocarbon
sampling are being studied prior to the preparation
of procurement  specifications.

4.   Standardized  and  Intercalibrated Techniques
     for Marine  Monitoring

      Quality marine measurements  are at present
the  exception  rather  than the  rule.  The develop-
ment and mandatory utilization of  data quality
assurance  protocols are essential  to the credi-
bility of  any  environmental  program.  The objective
of this  project is to  develop  common techniques
for  the  standardization and  intercalibration of
sampling  and analytical methodologies presently  in
use  in the  marine environment.

      The  development  of these  improved standards
and  techniques  will allow intercomparison of
monitoring  and  assessment results  and pooling of
data from  many  different sources.

 Project  Plan

      This  project is  divided  into  three tasks:
 (1)  standards  development,  (2)  investigations and
 (3)  data  logger system.

      1.  Standards development.   To assure  inter-
calibration and  the intercomparability of data
taken from  different  sources,  the  following
standards  are  being developed:

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                                                                                                         53
     An operational  field  and  laboratory  dissolved
     oxygen standard.

     Transfer  standard  for interlaboratory  calibra-
     tion.  A  CTD  System will  be  procured
     initially because  it  represents  three
     measurement parameters  that  are  of concern
     to most all monitoring  and assessment  studies.

     Dynamic test  standard for current meters.
     Current meters  are currently tested  and
     evaluated in  the steady state.   A dynamic
     standard  will  add  a new and  much needed
     dimension toward the  accurate measurement
     of ocean  currents.

     2.   Investigations.   Recent  increase in  usage
of Continental  Shelf areas  has  correspondingly
produced an  influx  of various in  situ  instruments
being used to measure water quality.   This is  a
radical  change  from the  previous  standard  methods
of laboratory analysis.  Therefore, an initiative
is underway  to  assess and determine if there is
measurement  traceability from the  in situ
instruments  to  the  laboratory chemical standards.

     3.   Data  logger.   A water quality  instrument
data logger  system  is being developed  to  automate
the collection  of  calibration and  testing  data that
is compatible with  computer processing.

Project Status

     A  contract has been awarded  to design the
dynamic test standard.   Delivery  is expected in
May 1976.   A contract has  also been awarded on the
data logger system  with  delivery  scheduled early in
FY77.  In  addition, an RFP  has gone out  on the
development  of  the  laboratory dissolved  oxygen
standard.

ATMOSPHERIC  INVESTIGATIONS:

     NOAA's  atmospheric  measurement and  monitoring
projects are concerned with:  (1)  Lidar and Doppler
lidar measurements  of pollutant particulates and
their transport processes,  (2) cloud and  precipita-
tion modification  effects  of pollutants,  and (3)
meteorological  trajectory  and removal  behavior of
pollutants.   The lidar work is led by Dr.  Vernon
Derr and Dr.  Ronald Schwiesow of  NOAA's  Wave
Propagation  Laboratory.   The cloud and precipita-
tion modification  investigations  are conducted
under Dr.  Rudolph  Pueschel  of NOAA's Atmospheric
Physics and  Chemistry Laboratory.   The trajectory
and removal  project is conducted  under Dr. Lester
Machta, Director of NOAA's  Air Resources  Laboratory.

1.  Lidar  Measurements

     At present, pollutant  particulates  are usually
detected and analyzed by ground or airborne in situ
sampling devices.   Those methods  are of limited
usefulness because  of the  inability of point
samples to provide  representative average values
of the  aerosol  concentration and  composition,  which
fluctuate  greatly in time  and space.
     Current techniques for remote sensing of
pollutant particulates by laser ranging devices
(lidar) offer the advantages of operating continu-
ously over ranges of tens of kilometers and of
scanning over the entire hemisphere of the sky.
However, these techniques are now capable only of
approximate quantitative measurements because the
single parameter measured is back-scatter radiance.

     The purpose of the present project is to
further develop lidar techniques to obtain more
definitive quantitative information on size
distribution and spatial and temporal measures of
concentration, as well as some general information
concerning the shape of pollutant particles.   This
development should be possible by exploiting
characteristics of multiwavelength, polarization
sensitive back-scatter and absorption measurements
by lidar.

     A second task of this project is to develop
Doppler lidar techniques to determine the velocity
structure of the atmospheric boundary layer under
particulate loading conditions.   This is necessary
to trace the motion of pollutant particulates in
the boundary layer and to determine the effect of
boundary layer mixing and diffusion processes on
particulate pollutant transport.

     1.1.  Particle Characteristics:

     A new dual wavelength laser transmitter  with
accurate polarization properties  has  been mounted
on an existing lidar apparatus,  and the dual  wave-
length detector has been designed and is now  under
construction.   This equipment is  planned to be put
into operation in January 1976 for the measurement
of stack emission versus natural  aerosols in  the
Boulder, Colorado, area.

     An investigation of the depolarization
properties of man-made and natural  aerosols has
begun with an examination of data from Fraser and
Boulder, Colorado, and from Colstrip, Montana.
Man-made aerosols from hot sources, such as furnaces
and automobiles, frequently approximate spherical
shapes so that depolarization in  back-scatter is
minimal; natural aerosols such as dust (not pollen)
are flat and show strong depolarization.   Polariza-
tion is the first identifier being investigated;
multiple wavelength scatter, differential absorption
and inelastic scatter are also planned.   Preliminary
theoretical studies on multiple  wavelength back-
scatter have been made to determine the required
density of wavelength relative to the size
distribution of aerosols.
     1.2.  Velocity Structure:

     Doppler lidar techniques have been developed
which have been used to measure profiles of mean
wind and turbulent intensity in desert, seacoast,
and urban environments.  Currently, equipment is
operational which yields two dimensional plots of
the in-plane wind component for scans having either
fixed range with variable elevation or fixed eleva-
tion with variable range.  The technique is shown

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 54

to be an effective way of obtaining micro-
meteorological data for diffusion models.

     Remote measurement of three dimensional winds
at a point without conical scan is shown feasible
by differential Doppler result recently obtained.
This demonstration of differential Doppler
scanning provides a technologically superior
method than conical scanning for meeting task
objectives on ventilation factor (product of mean
height of mixing layer and velocity of flow
through the mixing layer).  The companion project
for the urban ventilation problem, to measure the
large-particle mixing depth by FM-CW lidar sounding,
has been analyzed theoretically, and hardware
procurement is underway.

     Velocity profiles have been measured across
localized atmospheric vortices of sufficient
intensity to be potentially damaging.  One such
case has been submitted for publication in the
January 1976 issue of Applied Optics on subvortex
flow in a large vortex.

2.  Cloud and Precipitation Modification:

     The purpose of this project is to develop
criteria by which to assess the impact of effluents
from coal-fired power plants on local weather,
especially on clouds and precipitation.  Measure-
ments of significant effluent components and
products are being taken in the vicinity of power
generating plants using a mobile ground laboratory
and specially instrumented light aircraft and
helicopters.   Included are continuous and point-
sample in situ measurements of concentrations of
cloud condensation nuclei, ice nuclei, and Aitken
nuclei and concentrations of several gases and
other constituents including S02, NO, NOX, 03, and
NH3.  Radiation measurements and light-scattering
measurements are also being made.  Laboratory
analyses of aerosol deposits collected in situ on
membrane filters are providing information on the
size, shape, and elemental composition of power
plant aerosols.  The effects of the pollutants on
shortwave and longwave radiation are being evalu-
ated using the radiation and scattering measure-
ments and calculations based on measured size
distribution and elemental composition.

     Three sites selected for measurements are the
Colstrip, Montana, Power Plant, the Four Corners
Power Plant near Farmington, New Mexico, and the
Kennecott, Utah, Copper Smelter.  Two field
measurement projects have been conducted at both
Colstrip and Farmington and one at Kennecott.
Preliminary analyses of nuclei data from the
Colstrip and Farmington sitesstrongly suggest that
the power plant effluents have significant  impact
on local and downwind concentrations of both ice
nuclei and condensation nuclei.

      Farmington samples collected from the  plume
 20  km downwind of the power plant indicate  that
 the  greater number of particles are found in the
 smallest  size  range  (0.08 to 0.04 m diameter) with
 concentrations about two orders of magnitude higher
 than  typical  "clean-air"values.  The aerosols
 collected  both  within  the  outside  and plume were
 predominantly  in  the  form  of glassy beads as con-
 trasted  with the  irregularly shaped particles that
 are  derived from  natural sources.

      Particle  size  distribution  within the plume at
 a  point  about  2 hours  downwind of  the Four Corners'
 stack  indicates that  particle formation was pro-
 ceeding  at a faster rate than reduction by
 dispersion and  agglomeration, resulting in a net
 increase in aerosol concentration.   Particle counts
 (especially in  the  0.2 m to  0.4  m  size range) in
 the  surrounding atmosphere were  also elevated as a
 result of  contamination by the previous day's
 emissions, which  had  been  carried  westward by down-
 slope  flow beneath  an  inversion  and then carried
 back into  the  Farmington area by prevailing winds.

      The Farmington aerosols contained notable
 occurrences of  calcium, titanium,  iron, and copper,
 in addition to  the  ever present  aluminum and silicon.
 Particulate sulphur present  in the  air mass domin-
 ated by  the power plant plume is situated prefer-
 entially in the smaller sized particles (0.2 to
 0.3  m) and is  likely  to be in the  form of soluble
 sulfate, thus  adding  to the  numbers of cloud
 condensation nuclei.   Elevated numbers of cloud
 nuclei were, in fact,  measured in  this contaminated
 air  mass.

      The aerosols collected  near Colstrip were
 found  to be rich  in sulphus  and  zinc, and to have
 greater  incidences  of  some of the  heavy metals
 (namely, palladium, titanium, and  iron) than the
 usual  aerosol.  The presence of  heavy metals pro-
 vides  an increased  likelihood of ice nucleating
 capability in  the aerosol; the ice  nucleus  concen-
 tration  was indeed  greater than  is  the usual  back-
 ground aerosol  by a factor ranging  from 2 to 10.
 Cloud  condensation  nuclei  concentration was also
 higher than expected  by a  factor of 2 to-4; this
 was  probably a  consequence of the  relative  abundance
 of sulphur.

 3.   Trajectory  and  Removal Meteorology:

     This project  is being  planned  in direct support
 of the EPA Environmental Monitoring and Support
 Laboratory (EMSL) in  Las Vegas,  Nevada, through  the
 direct cooperation  of  existing NOAA personnel  and
 EPA  personnel  located  there.  A  meteorologist is
 being  recruited by  NOAA to conduct  the investigation.

     Techniques  for  establishing  trajectory  -and
 removal  patterns  will  first  be investigated for  S02
 from existing  industrial plants  in  the western
 United States.  Existing atmospheric S02 data,
 collected  mainly  from  such plants,  will  be  assembled.
 These  data are  of a considerably limited nature  and
 quality.   They  will be  analyzed  to  identify the  gaps
 which  are  necessary to  fill  for  a more adequate
 analysis of techniques  for defining trajectory and
 removal  meteorology.   The  data gaps identified will
 be filled  with  supplementary data to be obtained  by
 measurements from aircraft of the EMSL fleet.  On
 the  basis  of the  complete  data set  comprised of  the
 existing,  plus  the  supplementary gap-filling measure-
ments, an  analysis will be  made  of  the  trajectory
and removal meteorology of the western  U  S   in
relation  to energy activities.

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                                                                                                          55
            Measurement and Monitoring
          H. R. Mickey and P. A. Krenkel
            Tennessee Valley Authority
              Chattanooga, Tennessee
INTRODUCTION

     TVA's  responsibility  for planning, designing
and operating  its mixed  nuclear,  fossil, and hydro-
electric  energy  system necessarily  entails a compre-
hensive program  for measuring and monitoring a wide
range of  activities and  parameters.  We must have
ready access  to  information  arising  from national
and regional  programs in agriculture,  forestry,
fisheries,  and wildlife  development, disease vector
control and environmental  planning.

     Participation  in the Federal energy research
program measurement and  monitoring  activities will
allow TVA to  aid in the  development of improved
methodology for  the types and integrity of informa-
tion needed to quantify  the  environmental residuals
and impacts of energy systems.

     TVA's contribution  in the  measurement and  moni-
toring activities of  the energy research program
will entail (1)  development  of  methods for chemical
analyses  of waterborne  pollutants,  (2) development
of improved radiological surveillance  programs,  and
(3) development and demonstration of remote  sensing
techniques for monitoring environmental  effects  of
power plant emissions.

     For  possible use  in the exchange  of  information
or coordination, the  names of  principal  investigators,
research  investigators,  and  responsible administra-
tors  are included after the title  of each  task.

DISCUSSION

1.  Isolation and Identification of Waterborne
    Pollutants Associated with  the  Power Industry—
    L. H. Howe, L.  E. Scroggie, C.  W.  Holley

     The  reportswill  summarize  results of laboratory
studies to improve analytical  procedures  and provide
acceptable alternate  analytical methods for  several
pollutants in water samples  from energy-critical
areas in  the  Ohio and  Tennessee River Valleys.

     Specific tasks for which  improved methods  are
being developed are:  Acrolein  by voltammetry at
positive  potentials;  cadmium,  lead, copper,  zinc,
simultaneously by voltammetry;  compare digestion
techniques for suspended and dissolved metals by
atomic absorption; compare total arsenic by  voltam-
metry, atomic absorption, and colorimetry;  sulfate
by high speed colorimetry.

     Progress:  Work  was completed on acrolein  in
July 1975.A differential pulse polarographic  method
was developed for the determination of acrolein in
natural and condenser cooling water.  It is based on
electrochemical reduction of acrolein at negative
potentials at the dropping mercury electrode,   ihe
sample solution is buffered at pH 7.2 with a phos-
phate buffer solution, and ethylenediaminetetraace-
tic acid (EDTA) is added (0.09%) to prevent inter-
ference from zinc.  The height of the polarographic
peak at about-1.2 V vs. the saturated calomel elec-
trode (S.C.E.) is measured and referred to a stand-
ard curve.  The recovery of acrolein was unaffected
by pH in the 6.8-7.6 range and by zinc at 2.0 mg/1.
The range of the method is from 0.05 to at least 0'.5
mg/1 of acrolein.  Replicate analyses of standard
solutions containing 0.1 and 0.3 mg/1 of acrolein
gave relative standard deviations of 7.2 and 4.1%
and relative errors of 2.8 and 3.3%, respectively.

     Acrolein can also be determined by differential
pulse voltammetry at the glassy carbon electrode.
The acrolein is measured indirectly by forming
the acrolein-sulfite complex and oxidatively measur-
ing uhreacted sulfite at positive potentials in a
phosphate buffer solution at pH 7.2.  This procedure
does not require lengthy deaeration to remove oxygen,
but its sensitivity (10 mg/1) makes it less attrac-
tive than the  polarographic method.

     Sulfite was tested as a preservative for acro-
lein samples.  Acrolein could not be quantitatively
recovered from solutions containing excess sulfite.
On  the basis of this work, sulfite  is not recommended
as a preservative.

     The Laboratory Branch successfully employed a
gaseous hydride method  for arsenic  by atomic absorp-
tion.  We also have active methods  for arsenic  by
voltammetry and colorimetry.  Comparative experi-
mental work is scheduled for completion by the  end
of  February 1976.

     An electrolyte purification apparatus was  pur-
chased to purify ammonium  citrate buffer for deter-
mining cadmium, lead,  copper, and  zinc by anodic
stripping voltammetry.

     A literature  review  is  being  conducted  on  all
 tasks  except  acrolein.

     Status:   A galley proof of the draft milestone
 report for  acrolein was  submitted  to  EPA on  December
 1,  1975.

      The  draft milestone  report for arsenic  will  be
 submitted  to  EPA  by September  30,  1976.

 2.   Development  and  Evaluation  of an Integrated
     Approach  to  the Optimization of Nuclear  Power
     Plant Radiological  Surveillance Programs—I. G.
     Kanipe, B. B.  Hobbs, R. L. Doty, E. A. Belvin,
     J.  A. Oppold

      This study will  identify and develop an optimum
 radiological  surveillance program for nuclear power

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56

plants,  providing results which will facilitate the
efficient, reliable, and economical design of moni-
toring  systems.  In the first segment of the study,
the  objective will be optimization of the environ-
mental  radiological monitoring program.  The second,
concurrent segment of the study will be oriented
toward  the development of model quality assurance
procedures for radiological surveillance programs.

     Operators of nuclear power plants are required
to conduct radiological surveillance programs to make
certain  any  radiation exposures to plant employees
and  the  general public are within safe limits.  As
part of  these programs, numerous analyses are made at
one  or more  laboratories for radioactive materials
within  the plant, at potential effluent release
points,  and  in the environment.  It is imperative
that the accuracy and precision of the analytical
data be  assured.  It is also necessary that in-plant
and  environmental data be comparable in order to
develop  and  test models used for calculating poten-
tial movements of radionuclides from plant to envi-
ronment.  It is highly desirable that data generated
throughout the nuclear power industry be comparable
in order to  assess regional and national effects of
energy  production by nuclear power.  Research needs
were identified within the nuclear technology regard-
ing  interlab quality control for radioanalytical
laboratories and radiation monitoring guidelines.
High priority was given to the collection of infor-
mation and the development of programs pertinent to
those needs.

     TVA proposed a comprehensive program leading to
the  development of guideline information for the
nuclear  power industry.  This program, using TVA's
radioanalytical  laboratories, included development of
uniform  quality assurance procedures through inter-
laboratory studies, development of methodologies, and
evaluation and calibration of equipment.  Procedures
will  be  evaluated for reliability and comparability
of data  generated by different laboratories and their
practicability for routine use in an operating sur-
veillance program.

     Because of its experience with nuclear power
plant design and operations, TVA will  develop uniform
procedures for radiological surveillance.  Partici-
pating laboratories  will  be operated by TVA which
would reduce communication problems that might exist
in an arrangement of plant operator and outside con-
tractor.  Further, assimilation of the proposed pro-
gram into TVA's  existing radiological  surveillance
operations could be accomplished at minimal cost
compared to establishment of a separate surveillance
program.   Therefore, in response to the proposal,
TVA was funded in fiscal  year 1975 to initiate
studies related to radiation monitoring guidelines
and quality control.

     Progress:  All  equipment for the project has
been ordered.  A pulse height analysis system
(Nuclear Data ND-100) has been received and is under-
going performance-testing and calibration.
     The exact needs of each participating laboratory
are being determined in order to tailor the standards,
methods, and inter!aboratory studies to specific
requirements in the development of the analytical
quality control program.

     The computer program "ALPHA-M" -(E.G. Schonfeld)
is being studied in detail to evaluate its applica-
tion in gamma spectroscopy at environmental activity
levels.  A standard version of the program has been
prepared and presently is being tested.  Limits of
detection (MDA) for single nuclide and multiple
nuclide cases are being determined.  Further studies
of optimum library size and background subtraction
options are being conducted.

     An analytical quality control (AQC) manual for
radioanalytical laboratories is being reviewed and
revised prior to submission to EPA.

     Status:  Upon delivery, all counting equipment
will be performance-tested and readied for operation.
Upon completion of review, the AQC manual will be
submitted to appropriate EPA staff.  Work will con-
tinue on the establishment of criteria to evaluate
monitoring data.

     Project activities are proceeding on projected
schedules.  Some delays in administrative arrange-
ments and in transfer of funds will require the revi-
sion of milestone completion dates.  However, all  of
the specified tasks are expected to be completed
within the projected duration of the project.

3.  Remote Sensing of SO? Effects on Vegetation--
    A. L. Bates, H. C. Jones, W. R. Nicholas

     The principal visible symptom of S02 injury to
vegetation is discoloration of foliage.  Delineation
of these effects and documentation of their preva-
lence and severity is necessary for estimating air
quality impacts in the vicinities of point or area
sources.  However, ground survey methods are costly
and time-consuming for the following reasons:

     1.  The sizes of areas requiring inspection
         are relatively large (several hundred
         square miles).

     2.  Affected areas, fields, stands, etc., can
         be missed because of inaccessibility.

     3.  Rapid recovery of affected vegetation may
         mask effects.

     4.  Costs for obtaining statistically sound
         data on the degree and extent of effects
         can be prohibitive.

     Remote  sensing from aerial platforms could
provide routine surveillance of large areas with
permanent, quantitative documentation of the extent
and severity of effects that could be compared with
future data to determine trends.  Furthermore, more

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                                                                                                           57
subtle effects  resulting from chronic exposure to
pollutants  might be detected more readily because
site specific factors that mask pollutant effects
would be averaged over large areas.  The objective
of this task is the testing and refinement of remote
sensing techniques for detecting air pollution
effects on  terrestrial  vegetation, primarily those
caused by emissions from coal-fired power plants.
Depending on current issues and funds, this may be
expanded to include thermal effects from power plants
in general.  Initial  studies involve comparison of
ground effects  on vegetation with color, color infra-
red, and multi-spectral  imagery obtained by conven-
tional aircraft.  If these methods prove satisfac-
tory, then  the  feasibility of satellite imagery for
effects surveillance will  be evaluated.

     Progress:   Aerial  overflights of S02-affected
agronomic crops, mainly soybeans and tobacco, were
conducted in July 1975 following ground-level S02-
exposures associated with the Shawnee and Joppa Steam
Plants near Paducah, Kentucky.  Color infrared, black
and white infrared, aerial Ektachrome, and multi-
spectral scanning imagery at different scales was
obtained by NASA and TVA aircraft over the affected
area and over appropriate control fields.  No EPA/TVA
pass-through funds were provided to NASA for this
work.  Concomitant ground-truth data were obtained on
the physiological condition of the crop species and
on edaphic characteristics.  Soil and plant samples
were collected for chemical analyses of soybean and
plant crops, but have not yet been analyzed.
Although a large portion of  the imagery has been
processed, interpretation of the imagery will not be
completed until NASA has completed the upgrading of
their computer facilities.

     Status:  Plans  for 1976 are to repeat the
studies for effects  on soybeans and to initiate
studies on the feasibility of remote sensing for
detecting S02 effects on forest species.  The study
will be redirected,  insofar as possible, to provide
information on the Ohio Valley region between
Paducah, Kentucky, and Cincinnati, Ohio, as a part
of a special EPA integrated study.

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THE ROLE OF STANDARD REFERENCE MATERIALS
       IN ENVIRONMENTAL MEASUREMENTS

             J.  R.  McNesby
       National  Bureau of Standards
           Washington, D. C.
     The provisions of the Clean Air Act
Amendments of 1970 and the Federal Water
Pollution Control Act of 1972 include re-
quirements to limit the emissions of pol
lutants from various points of dicharge
such as automobile tailpipes and waste-
water effluents.  It is fairly obvious
that such measures are required if we are
to maintain our air and water in a suffi-
ciently clean state for protection of the
public health and welfare.  What is not
obvious is the exact extent to which it is
necessary to limit the discharges in order
to reach sufficient purity.  As long as
costs rise exponentially with degree of
purification, we may expect public pressure
to control only enough for adequate pro-
tection and no more.  This economic fact
underlines the critical necessity for the
development of a valid environmental
measurement system.  There are two elements
that are fundamental to such a system.
First, we must establish as accurately as
possible dose-response relationships so
that ambient air and water quality stan-
dards can be set properly.  Secondly, we
must establish the relationship between
pollutant concentrations at the point of
discharge and at the point of human
contact.  Basic to this measurement system
are the requirements that  (1) health
effects can be measured with requisite
accuracy.   (2) An accurate model is avail-
able.   (3) The pollutant measurements at
ambient and source concentrations are
internally consistent.  The part of the
measurement system with which we at the
National Bureau of Standards have been
primarily concerned is the third of these.
In the discussion that follows, it is
presumed that the other two requirements
are met.


     The dissipation of a discharged pol-
lutant depends upon a variety of param-
eters—wind,  temperature, chemistry, sun-
light, surface morphology, rain, biological
conversion, etc.  Modeling of such a
complex system is relatively undeveloped.
Recourse is taken to the so-called roll
back or proportional model which is an
admittedly oversimplified empirical model.
This model, however, is acceptable to the
EPA for state implementation of air quality
regulations.1  The proportional model is
applied here to air pollution control.
1Federal Register 36_, No. 158, p.
August 14, 1971.
                                  15490,
                                             However,  the conclusions regarding accurate
                                             measurement will be equally valid for water
                                             pollution.

                                                  The  proportional model is defined by
                                             the assumption that the ambient pollutant
                                             concentration, C, is proportional to the
                                             total emission rate, %, which is the sum
                                             of the natural background emission rate,
                                             RB, the auto exhaust emission rate, RA,
                                             and the rate of emission from stationary
                                             sources,  Rg.
                                                  JVrp
                                                  /-i  	
                                                        RT
                                                               R
                                                                A
                         Rr
                                                                      A
                                                                          V
                                             Implied is the assumption that the contri-
                                             butions of the various sources to C are
                                             additive and are each themselves identically
                                             proportional to the respective emission
                                             rates .
                                                    =  CT
                                                                                  kRr
                                             The achievement of an air quality standard,
                                             C°, requires a fractional reduction, F, in
                                             all source emissions.
                                                       R,
                                                        T
                                                            RT
                                                                          "B
                                             The term Rf  is the total emission rate at
                                             which the standard, C°, is just met.  The
                                             fractional reduction in source emissions,
                                             therefore, exceeds the fractional reduction
                                             in ambient pollutant concentration  (C-C0)/
                                             C because of the dependence of F upon Cg,
                                             the natural background concentration.  From
                                             these considerations   , it may be concluded
                                             that the fractional reduction in the total
                                             stationary source  emission rate is
                                                          Rr
                                                Fs -
                                                                    (C

                                                                   ~
                                                        C
                                                                  Rr
                                                                      (C
                           C
                                             The measurement of the  ratio   (C-C  )/C
                                             requires only precision and not  accuracy
                                             since any bias in the measurement of  C will
                                             cancel the same bias in the measurement of
                                             C°  (assuming linear response  over the
                                             concentration range).   However,  RA/^S an<^
                                                   can only be obtained by independent
measurement of RA, Rg, and Rg each of
which is done by a different method
because of the greatly different circum-
stances of the measurements.  There is no
2
 See J. R. McNesby, Berichte der Bunsen-
Gesellschaft 7_8_, 159 (1974) for a detailed
mathematical treatment.

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                                                                                      59
reason to expect that a bias in the measure-
ment of RA will be the same as in the
measurement of Rg and Rg.   Therefore, the
measurement of each of these parameters
must be done without bias   (accurately).
The rate Rg is determined  by measuring
Cg and k since RB = (l/k)CB.  The
quantities RA and Rg are determined by
measuring the concentrations in auto
exhaust emissions, CA, and in stack
effluents, GS, along with  the respective
rates of flow.  It follows that CA, Co,,
and Cg must be accurately  measureable if
implementation of the air  quality regu-
lations are to be successful and econom-
ically acceptable.

     It is for these reasons that the Na-
tional Bureau of Standards has undertaken
to develop Standard Reference Materials
whose purpose is to help eliminate bias
from the measurement of CA, Cg, and Cg.
Accurate measurement of CA is facilitated
by NBS Standard Reference  Materials of
propane in air, carbon monoxide in
nitrogen and nitric oxide  in nitrogen.
Accuracy of measurement of C$ is provided
by NBS Standard Reference  Materials CO in
nitrogen and NO in nitrogen.  There
remains to be developed the S02 in nitrogen
Standard Reference Material which should
be completed by the end of 1976.  This and
other Standard Reference Materials are
being developed under an agreement with
EPA's Office of Energy, Minerals and
Industry.  The development of a Standard
Reference Material of nitrogen dioxide in
air is envisioned by June  1977 under the
same agreement.

     In the development of Standard Refer-
ence Materials for elimination of bias
from the measurement of CA and Cg, primary
standard gas mixtures are  prepared
gravimetrically or volumetrically and are
analyzed by other absolute techniques.
Their stability is carefully studied both
in the short and long term by NBS
scientists.  Next, a large supply of
commercial gas cylinders containing nominal
pollutant concentrations is purchased and
concentrations are established and
certified by comparison with the primary
standards.

     Standard Reference Materials
applicable to accurate measurement of Cg
and to ambient pollutant concentrations
generally include the sulfur dioxide
permeation tube and the nitrogen dioxide
permeation tube.  Under development is the
carbon monoxide in air Standard Reference
Material which is expected to be issued in
December 1976.
     It should be understood that all SRMs
are not intended to function directly as
calibrating materials for measuring
instruments.  This is due to the fact that
interfering substances may be present in
real samples which might produce an illusory
signal on a measuring instrument.  Further,
if the response of an instrument is not
linear, a one point calibration can be
misleading.  Under these circumstances, the
purpose of an SRM is to provide the analyst
with a material of known composition with
which he can test his ability to perform
accurate analysis.

     Although the rationale describing the
National Bureau of Standards' program in
environmental measurement has been presented
here in terms of air pollution, it is
apparent that Standard Reference Materials
are needed in water pollution for quite
similar reasons.  The National Bureau of
Standards water pollution program is very
young and has just issued its first Standard
Reference Material of mercury in water at
the ppm and ppb levels.  Standard Reference
Materials needs associated with new or
increased energy usage will form the focus
of our efforts over the next few years.
We must anticipate the measurement and
Standard Reference Materials needs that
are likely to arise as new energy sources
develop.  To this end, NBS is conducting a
series of workshops designed to reveal
probable pollutants associated with the
various emerging energy technologies.  Four
such workshops have already been held — Off-
shore Oil Drilling, Oil Shale Processing,
Coal Gasification and Liquefaction and De-
sulfurization.  Other workshops to be-
conducted by June 1976 include those on
power plant operation, uranium mining, mine
drainage and geothermal energy utilization.

     Table  I lists a number of materials
currently being evaluated for issuance
as NBS Standard Reference Materials along
with target dates for completion of the
feasibility studies.

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60
                 Table  I
      Projected Energy  Related SRMs
                               Target Date
 St.  Louis Particulate             6/79
 Raw  Oil Shale                     6/77
 Spent Oil Shale                   1/79
 Toxic Metals in Water          6/76;  6/77
 Organics in Water              6/78;  6/80
 Organics in Sediment/Biota     6/79;  6/80

 210Po                             1/76

    Ra in Soil;  Mixed gamma
 emitter solution, 239Pu           1/77
 Mixed gamma emitter soil          1/78
 230Th)  238pU)  241pu              1/78

 241Am,  242Am, 235U,  238U          1/79
 210pb>  232^ 243Cm;
 Other  Standard  Reference  Materials  relevant
 to  the energy program which are already
 available   from the  National Bureau of
 Standards  are Sulfur in Residual Fuel Oil,
 Lead in Reference  Fuel, Sulfur in Coal,
 Trace  Metals in Coal,  Fuel  Oil and  Coal Fly
 Ash.   A detailed listing  of available NBS
 environmental SRMs may be found in  NBS
 Special Publication  260,  Catalog of NBS
 Standard Reference Materials,  page  33.

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                                                                                        61
   EPA/NASA COOPERATION TO  DEVELOP  REMOTE
    SENSING AND  IN SITU  SENSORS AND
   TECHNIQUES  FOR POLLUTION MONITORING
           James  R. Morrison
    John Mugler  and E.  L. Tilton,  III
National Aeronautic &  Space Administration
 INTRODUCTION

    On  May  2,  1975,  the  EPA  and  NASA  con-
 cluded  an  Energy  Memorandum  of  Understand-
 ing under  which two  projects  are  going
 forward  at  present.   These  relate  to
 developing  remote  and  in  situ sensors and
 techniques  to  the  measurement and  charac-
 terization  of  power  plant and other  source
 effluents,  and to  obtaining  baseline  data
 and thereafter to  monitor the rehabilita-
 tion  of  surface mining  areas over a  wide
 part  of  the Western  United  States.   These
 two projects  are  discussed  in some detail
 below.

 REMOTE  AND  IN  SITU  INSTRUMENT DEVELOPMENT

    As  a  result of  the  Clean  Air Act,  many
 large  power plants  have been  required to
 burn  low sulfur fuels.  These fuels  are
 becoming increasingly  expensive and  more
 difficult  to  obtain  and consideration is
 being  given to reverting  to  fuels  with
 higher  sulfur  content  if  the  environmental
 impact  is  acceptable.   Thus,  it is impor-
 tant  to  better characterize  the effects  of
 fuel  quality  (sulfur and  ash  content) on
 the local  environment.  This  characteri-
 zation  must include  a  better  understanding
 of  effluent composition,  dispersion
 processes,  chemical  reactions,  and the
 influence  of  local  meteorology  and tooog-
 raohy  to  guide decisions regarding  fuel
 grade  acceptability  and plant siting, and
 thus  minimize  the  impact  of  environmental
 regulations on our  national  resources.   To
 achieve  this  understanding,  improved
 remote  and  in  situ  measurement  techniques
 are needed  for proper  study  of  stack
 effluent composition and  dispersion
 processes.  In addition,  techniques  are
 needed  to  measure  emissions  from  other
 types  of stationary  and mobile  sources.
 The objective  of  this  project is  to
 develop  and apply  advanced  electro- optical
 techniques  to  the  measurement and
 characterization  of  power plant and  other
 source  eff1uents .
DESCRIPTION OF WORK

     To meet the project objectives, five
tasks have been identified where additional
funding would both complement the NASA
research programs and meet specific needs
of EPA.  A description of each task is
given below.
                                               Task  1
         Raman Lidar
     The objective of this task is to
evaluate Raman lidar for remote measurement
of the concentration of SOo at a powerplant
stack exit.   Raman optical radar systems
have been developed at NASA and successful-
ly applied in the measurement of water
vapor and density profiles in the Earth's
atmosphere (ref.  1).  More recently,  field
tests have been conducted wherein the
Raman technique was used to detect S02 in
powerplant stack  plumes (ref. 2); however,
quantitative measurements of S02 require
additional modifications and calibration
of the lidar system.  The necessary system
modifications and calibrations have been
done under this task.  The modifications
include reassembly of the lidar system
used in reference 2 using a more compact
telescope, improvements to the detection
and data acquisition systems, and reform-
ulation of data analysis programs (ref.  3).
All modifications have been completed and
a photograph of the modified system is
shown in figure 1.  Also, a calibration
facility was constructed to calibrate the
Raman lidar system for SOo and other  gases.
A schematic and photograph" of this facility
are shown in figures 2 and 3, respectively.
The 2-meter diameter, 20-meter long cali-
bration tank is charged with the calibra-
tion gas which is mixed with air in the
tank to a known concentration.  Raman lidar
measurements are  then made through a  known
volume and concentration of calibration
gas.  Calibration of the lidar system for
S02 has been completed and the results
reported in reference 3.  These results
show that, at a range of 300 meters and
night background  light levels, the Raman
lidar system can  measure S02 concentrations
of 1,000 ppm to within 10% with a 30-minute
measurement time.

Task 2   Plume Dispersion Studies

     The objective of this task is to apply
aerosol scattering lidar techniques to the
study of plume dispersion under various
atmospheric conditions.  NASA has developed
lidar techniques  for atmospheric measure-
ments and for dispersion studies of plumes
from rocket launches (ref. 4).  EPA has
developed plume dispersion analytical

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62
 models to be used in studies relative to
 siting fossil  fuel  powerplants and lidar
 techniques can assist in the experimental
 validation of  these models.   Under this
 task, a NASA lidar  system suitable for
 plume dispersion  measurements  will be
 assembled on a mobile platform.   (See
 fig.  4) With this system, the  laser back-
 scatter from particles in the  plume will
 be recorded and displayed to show three-
 dimensional profiles of the  return signal.
 By averaging the  returns over  various time
 scales, the instantaneous and  Gaussian
 aerosol profiles  of the plume  can be
 determined as  a function of  downwind range
 from  the stack.  After system  checkout and
 calibration, the  system will be  used in  a
 joint EPA/NASA field test to study power-
 plant plume dispersion under various
 atmospheric conditions and experimental
 results will be compared to  model predic-
 tions.  This task was originally scheduled
 for completion in October 1976;  however,
 it appears that budget constraints will
 delay completion  until late  1977'.

 Task  3 - IR DIAL

    The objective  of this task  is to
 develop and apply the tunable  infrared
 (IR)  differential  absorption lidar (DIAL)
 technique to the  remote measurement of
 molecular plume effluents.   A  large number
 of molecules have absorption lines in the
 infrared portion  of the spectrum.  Also,
 the differential  absorption  technique,
 in which a sequentia-1 measurement is made
 first on an absorption line  and  then at  a
 nearby wavelength off the absorption line
 (see  fig.  5),  can provide range-resolved
 data  for particular gases.   Thus, the IR
 DIAL  technique has  the potential for pro-
 viding range-resolved concentrations for a
 wide  variety of pollutant species.  The
 tunable IR laser  system will be  calibrated
 using the calibration 'System described
 in task 1  and  evaluated in joint EPA/NASA
 field tests at powerolant plumes selected
 by EPA.   This  is  a  four year developmental
 task  with an initial  evaluation  and
 decision point occurring in  May  1977.

 Task  4 - Laser Heterodyne Detector

    The objective  of this task  is to
 evaluate the use  of the laser  heterodyne
 detector technique  as a means  to increase
 the sensitivity of  long path continuous
 wave  absorption measurements using diffuse
 reflectors. Optical  heterodyne  techniques
 have  been developed by NASA  and  success-
 fully applied  in  solar radiometry and
 laser communications (refs.  5  and 6).
 More  recently., optical heterodyne
 techniques have been studied by  NASA for
 atmospheric pollution monitoring from
aircraft and satellites  in  both  active  and
passive modes.  These  studies  show  that  the
use of laser heterodyne  detection offers
advantages,of high  spectral  resolution,
high sensitivity, reduced  interference  from
other pollutants or atmospheric  constituents
and vertical resolution  of  pollutant  species
(ref. 7).  EPA has  developed  long path
(approx.  600 meters) laser  pollution  moni-
toring systems which utilize  mirrored
reflectors and direct  detection  of  the
reflected  signal.   These systems could have
wider application if diffuse  reflectors
such as mountains or buildings could  be used
in place of retroref1ectors .   However, when
diffuse reflectors  are used  in existing
systems,  the weaker return  signal coupled
with the relatively low  sensitivity of the
detector degrades system performance  to
unacceptable levels.   The  use  of a  laser
heterodyne detector in the  long  path  laser
monitoring system with diffuse reflectors
shows promise of improving  performance to
levels equal to or  better  than for  a  system
with mirrored retroreflectors.   The purpose
of this task is to  evaluate  the  use of a
laser heterodyne detector  in  systems  of this
type.  The evaluation  will  consist  of
theoretical studies and  laboratory  and/or
field tests with a  NASA-developed laser
heterodyne detector such as  that shown in
figure 6.  This task is  scheduled for
completion in Seotember  1976.

Task 5 -  HC1 Monitor

      The  objective of this  task is to
develop and deliver to EPA  an  improved
in situ HC1 chemi1uminescent monitor
evaluated  at concentrations  as low  as 5 opb
HC1 in ambient and  polluted  air.   In  support
of its. launch vehicle  monitoring program,
NASA has  develooed  a chemi1uminescent HC1
monitor which can detect HC1 concentrations
from 50 ppb to 100  ppm.  A  photograph of
this monitor in the field  is shown  in
figure 7  and the instrument  is described in
reference  8.  In October 1974, at EPA's
request,  NASA used  this  instrument  in the
Gulf of Mexico to monitor  HC1  concentrations
downwind  of an incinerator  ship burning
chlorinated hydrocarbon waste  (ref.  9).
Based on  the performance of  the instrument
in measuring. HC1  concentrations in  a
combustion plume, EPA  felt  that,  with some
refinements, the instrument  could provide
a  much needed technique for measuring
ambient HC1 levels  (>5 ppb).  The necessary
refinements are being  conducted under this
task, which is scheduled to  be completed in
December  1976.   At  that time, an  improved
instrument will  be  delivered to EPA along
with a technical  report containing  a
description of instrument  characteristics
and an evaluation of the instrument per-
formance  at HC1  concentrations as low as
5  ppb.

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                                                                                        63
WESTERN  ENERGY  RELATED OVERHEAD MONITORING

INTRODUCTION

    Our  most  abundant domestic fossil  fuel
is coal,  and  much of it occurs at depths
where it  can  be mined by surface methods.
Surface  mining  destroys existing natural
communities completely and dramatically.
Indeed,  restoration of a landscape disturbed
by surface mining in the sense of recreating
the former conditions is not possible.
Nevertheless, rising energy consumption,
coupled  with  increasing difficulty in
securing  adequate supplies of natural  gas
and low  sulphur crude oil, is focusing
attention on  coal.

    The  controversy over surface mining has
been centered mainly in the eastern
United States,  but now it is shifting  to
the American  West.  Unfortunately, the
methods  of rehabilitating mined areas  in
Appalachia, Europe, and other humid
environments  are not directly transferable
to the arid and semi-arid West.  Approxi-
mately 57% of our remaining coal reserves
lie in the West, about one-quarter of
which can be  mined by surface methods.

    The  coal  lands of the Western United
States are quite different from others   in
the nation.  They occur primarily in
sparsely populated, mostly arid environ-
ments.  Annual  mean precipitation is low,
ranging  from  four inches  (100 mm) or less
in some  of the hot deserts to twenty or
more  (500 mm) in the higher mountains.
When precipitation does occur, it may  come
as high  intensity, short duration storms
or as snowfall  when plants are dormant.
Extreme  fluctuations in both annual and
seasonal  temperatures are to be expected.

    The  ecological process of vegetative
succession, or the orderly process of
community change, is extremely slow under
such arid conditions.  Where natural
revegetation  of a disturbed site may
develop  in five to twenty years on a high
rainfall  eastern U. S. site, it may take
decades  or longer for natural revegetation
to develop in a desert.  Not only should
the condition of the site be evaluated
thoroughtly in advance of any disturbance,
but the  consequences, benefits and costs
of the prospective action should also  be
evaluated as  they relate to both the
potential for rehabilitation and the
broader  environmental and societal impacts.
     The extent to which any disturbed
landscape can be rehabilitated depends on
many conditions--physical, ecological,
geological, social, economic, and techno-
logical—and on the value people place on
such conditions.  Discussion of the problems
of rebuilding disturbed land is further
confused by vague terminology used to
describe the concept of landscape recon-
struction.   Therefore, for the purposes of
this document, we define our understanding
of "rehabilitation" to mean that the land
will be returned to a form and productivity
in conformity with a prior land use plan
including a stable ecological state that
does not contribute substantial 1y to
environmental deterioration and is consis-
tent with surrounding aesthetic values

DESCRIPTION OF WORK

     The Environmental Protection Agency
(EPA) has requested NASA to develop
techniques  that would assist in the moni-
toring of energy extraction sites.  A
cooperative project, titled Western Energy
Related Overhead Monitoring, was formally
initiated in June 1975.  The primary
objective of the Project is to develop
operational remote sensing techniques to
rapidly monitor the success with which an
energy-related extraction site has been,
or is being, rehabilitated to a state
suitable for its intended usage.  This
includes the determination of environmental
baselines for the purpose of establishing
rehabilitation criteria as well as environ-
mental effects of mine mouth power plants.
Because of  the large amount of area and
total number of sites to be monitored, an
automated and quantitative analytical
procedure is desired.  Aircraft and
satellite multispectral data collection and
processing  techniques appear to be the most
promising approach for the near-term future.
The hardware and software techniques for
processing  remote sensing data would be
transferred from NASA to EPA throughout the
five-year project.  Both presently avail-
able hardware and software techniques and
those developed during the course of the
project would be transferred.  This would
allow the EPA to establish and man a fully
operational energy-related overhead
monitoring  system and to make maximum
utilization of their present aircraft
capability  while developing the processing
facilities  and personnel skills required  to
make further utilization of remote data
acquired by satellite.  Although maximum
use would be made of present LANDSAT
capability, Landsat resolution mav not be
adequate.  However, it is anticipated that
the 30-40 meter resolution to be  provided
by future satellites in the 1978  to  1980
time period may be adequate for monitoring
energy activity.  The capability  for

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64
 processing  these data  has been  initiated
 using  simulated 30 meter data acquired
 from ai rcraft.

     Initially  the program will  concentrate
 on  the  development of  aerial remote
 sensor  techniques to monitor environmental
 factors  of  coal extraction  and  rehabilita-
 tion.   It is  anticipated that roughly 50%
 of  the  total  effort will be to  monitor
 these  activities in the Northern Great
 Plains,  Utah,  Colorado, and Arizona.  Sites
 of  planned  activity (e.g.,  within two
 years)  and  active sites will be included.
 Consideration  of environmental  impact on
 surface  and near-surface water, soil
 condition and  slopes,  subsidence manifes-
 tation,  vegetation density  and  speciat ion
 and other rehabilitation aspects will be
 included.

    It  is projected that approximately
 30% of  the  program scope will be dedicated
 to  monitoring  environmental impact  from
 mine mouth  fossil fuel power plants.  Both
 on-line  and planned development sites will
 be  monitored.  In addition  to activity in
 the Northern  Great Plains,  sites in Utah,
 Colorado, Four Corners, Arizona and Nevada
 will be  considered.   Specific parameters
 of  environmental  concern are impacts on
 surrounding vegetation vigor and density
 (e.g., from particulate and SO? emissions),
 and degradation of synootic visibility.

    It is projected also that approximately
 15-20% of the work will relate  to problems
 associated with oil  shale extraction,
 conversion and rehabilitation.  Monitoring
 the extent of environmental impact
 associated with accumulation of spent shale
 and potential  related  surface run-off into
 the drainage system will be considered.
 Fugitive dust from spent shale  may  be of
 concern depending on the effectiveness of
revegetation efforts.   Most of  the  initial
coverage will  be  of undeveloped potential
oil  shale sites.   Monitoring will continue
as extraction and rehabilitation activities
proceed.

    A minor effort will be made to  develop
monitoring techniques  applicable to the
development of geothermal  prospects:

    The project will  be conducted in three
 phases, as shown  in  Fig. 8.  The initial
 data acquisition  activity deals with
 technique development  associated with on-
 line coal surface mining sites.   Such
 sites were chosen because of mine activity
 being of most immediate concern to  EPA
 and because of other ongoing complementary
 ground investigations.   The fourteen coal
 surface mining sites selected by EPA on
 this basis are presented in Fig". ?.
      Following  the  final  definition of
 system'parameters,  a  large scale demon-
 stration  will  be  conducted.   Hardware for
 a  low-cost  data  system has been specified,
 and  low-cost  system hardware is being
 procured  and  transferred  to  EPA along with
 the  aopropriate  software.   Throughout the
 project,  NASA  and  EPA personnel will
 cooperate in  all  phases  of data acquisition,
 processing,  analysis  and  evaluation.   All
 phases  of the  project w-i 1 1 be documented.

      EPA  will  be  responsible for determining
 ing  whether  or  not  to initiate an EPA
 operational  system  at the  end of Phase 2
 of the  project.

      EPA  is  responsible  also for providing
 and  coordinating  the  ground  measurements
 of site-  or  activity-specific  terrain
 parameters  which, when remotely measured,
 will  provide  the  basis for determining
 quantitative  environmental impact assess-
 ment.     Examples of  these key parameters
 of features  include surface  contours,
 vegetative  density, vigor  and types,
 subsidence  features,  synoptic visibility,
 etc.

      The  present  status  of the project is
 as follows.   Aircraft data have been
 acquired  during  the 1975  green peak in
 July  at  altitudes of  1,  3, 6, 12 and  60
 thousand  feet  on  fourteen  surface  mine sites
 Airborne  terrain  profiler  data was acquired
 at 1  and  3  thousand feet  to  measure surface
 slope an'd roughness while  mul ti spectral
 scanner  data  was  acquired  at 3 through 12
 thousand  feet.   Photograohic data was
 acquired  at  all  altitudes.  One strip  mine
'site, Amax  Coal  Company  in Campbell  County,
 Wyoming  was  selected  for  initial data
 processing  because  it was  representative  of
 the  other sites,  data quality was good from
 all  altitudes,  and  because extensive  sur-
 face  data was  available  at this site.

      A  preliminary  classification of
 surface  materials was prepared using  the
 multispectral  scanner data from 12
 thousand  feet  and spectral pattern recog-
 nition  processing techniques.  The results
 showed  large  areas  of uncl assified material s
 indicating  inadequate initial training of
 the  pattern  recognition  programs and  a
 greate'r  separability,  of  soils and natural
 vegetation  at  this  10 meter  resolution
 than  originally  anticipated.   Additional
 training  samples  were selected and the data
reclassified.  The classification has  been greatly

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                                                                                        65
improved  and  the  improved separability of
two  key  parameters,  natural  vegetation and
soils,  is  encouraging  with respect to
higher  altitude  monitoring.   As  the 12
thousand  foot data  is  refined,  processing
has  started on the  3 thousand foot data
and  the  12 thousand  foot data has been
degraded  to 30 meter resolution  to deter-
mine the  effects  of  resolution  on monitoring
capabi1i ty.

    With  regard  to  hardware,, all  processing
equipment for the EPA  low-cost  data system
has  been  ordered  and is scheduled for
delivery  in February 1976.  The  system
should  be operational  in late March 1976
allowing  the commencement of data proces-
sing on all remaining  data from  July 1975.

    In  addition  to  the aircraft  data, some
cloud-free Landsat  data have been located
over the  surface mine  sites in  the July
1975 time frame  and  will be processed to
determine utility in monitoring  sites at
80 meter resolution.
            REFERENCES
1.  McCormick, M. P.; and: Fuller, W. H.,
    Jr.:  Lidar Applications to Pollution
    Studies.  Joint Conference on Sensing
    of Environmental Pollutants, Palo
    Alto, California, November 8-10, 1971.

2.  Melfi, S. H.; Brumfield, M. L.; and
    Storey, R. W., Jr.:   Observation of
    Raman Scattering by SO  in a Generat-
    ing Plant Stack Plume.  Applied
    Physics Letters, vol. 22, no. 8,
    April 1973, pp. 402-403.

3.  Poultney, S.  K.; Brumfield, M.  L.;
    and Siviter,  J. S.:   A Theoretical/
    Experimental  Program to Develop
    Active Optical Pollution Sensors:
    Quantitative  Remote  Raman Lidar
    Measurements  of Pollutants from
    Stationary Sources.   Technical  Report
    PGS-TR-PH-75-12, Old Dominion
    University Research  Foundation,
    October 1975.

4.  McCormick, M. Patrick; Melfi, S. Harvey;
    Olsson, Lars  E.; Tuft, Wesley L.;
    Elliott, William,?.; and Egami , Richard:
    Mixing-Height Measurements by Lidar,
    Particle Counter,  and Rawinsonde in the
    Willamette Valley,  Oregon.   NASA
    TN D-7103, December  1972.
5.  McElroy, J. H.:  Infrared Heterodyne
    Solar Radiometry.  Applied Optics,
    vol .  11  , July 1972, pp. 1619-1622.

6.  Peyton,  B. J., et al.:   High Sensi-
    tivity Receiver for Infrared Laser
    Communication.  IEEE Journal of
    Quantum  Electronics, QE-8, February
    1972, pp.  252-263.

7.  Allario, Frank; Seals,  R. K., Jr.;
    Brockman,  Philip; and  Hess,  R.  V.:
    Tunable  Semiconductor  Lasers and
    Their Application of Environmental
    Sensing.  10th Anniversary Meeting of
    the Society of Engineering Science,
    November 5-7, 1973.

8.  Gregory. Gerald L;  Hudgins,  Charles H.
    and Emerson,  Burt R.,  Jr.:  Evaluation
    of a  Chemi1uminescent  Hydrogen
    Chloride and  a NDIR Carbon Monoxide
    Detector for  Environmental Monitoring.
    1974  JANAF Propulsion  Meeting,
    October  22-24. 1974.

9.  Wastler, T. A.;  Offutt,  Carolyn  K.;
    Fitzsimmons,  Charles  K.:  and Des
    Rosiers, Paul  E.;  Disposal of
    Organochlorine Wasters  by Incineration
    at Sea.   EPA  Report EPA-430/9-75-014 ,
    July  1975.

10.  After "Rehabilitation  Potential  of
    Western  Coal  Lands" by  National
    .Academy  of Sciences,  1974; and
    "Rehabilitation Potentials and
    Limitations of Surface-Mines Land in
    the Northern  Great  Plains" by USDA
    Forest Service,  1974

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66
Figure 1. - Photograph of Raman lidar system.
                                                         Figure U.- Photograph of plume dispersion lidar system.
Figure 2.  -  Schematic of lidar calibration  facility.



                   LIDtR CALIBRATION CHAMBER
                                                         Figure 5.  - Differential absorption lidar  concept.
                                                                                                 RECEIVER LASER
             Photograph  of lidar calibration facility.
  I

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                                                                                                                     67
Figure  6.  - Photograph of  laser heterodyne detector.     Figure 7.  -

     PACKAGED INFRARED HETERODYNE RADIOMETER

     ELECTRONICS              SKJNAL/LO COMBINER
                BUACRBWT
                              LOCAL OSCILLATOR LASER
                                MOUNTING PLATFORM
                              Photograph of hydrogen chloride
                              monitor  in the field.
                         1.8"
                                                                                      Hydrogen  Chloride Monitor
Figure 8
                              WESTERN ENERGY RELATED OVERHEAD MONITORING PROJECT
                                            5 YEAR PROJECT TASK SUMMARY
             PHASE 1
  MONITORING TECHNIQUE DEVELOPMENT

         July 75 - Dec 76
           PHASE 2
     MAJOR DEMONSTRATION

         Jan 77 - July 78
               PHASE 3
   OPERATIONAL IMPLEMENTATION
 •  and NEW TECHNIQUE TRANSFER
           July 78 - July 80
  STRIP MINE RELATED

     «  inventory all selected sites
     o  Verify/evaluate existing techniques
       (LANDSAT, A/C data with ADP)
     o  Compare capability to low altitude
       A/C data
     o  Evaluate accuracy/cost
     o  Develop/document new techniques
       as required
     e  Define demonstration system and
       techniques (hardware/software)
  POWER PLANT RELATED
    o  Evaluate capability to determine
       vegetation stress clue to energy-
       related processing emissions

  OIL SHALE RELATED

    o  Map oil shale site for pre-
       development baseline

  GEOTHERMAL RELATED
ALL AREAS OF EMPHASIS

e  Extend techniques and system
   to all sites
o  Total inventory and periodic
   monitoring (progress/change)
o  Major demonstration of monitoring
   capability over a large number of
   test sites
e  Training of EP\ personnel
o  Transfer of known techniques,  e.g.
   acreage measurement system,
   acreage cluingt detection
                                                                                   ALL AREAS OF EMPHASIS
o  Software/hardware modifications
o  Continuation of training
o
Consultation
    (To be determined)

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68
Figure  9
     Site #    EPA Site *
        1
        2
        3
        4
        5
        6
        7
        8
        9
       10
       11
       12
       13
       14
  7E
 IDE
 13E/M
 15E/M
 16E/M
 19E/M
 21E/M
 25E
 26E
 30E
 41B
 43B
44A/S
46A/S
     Mine
 Glen Harold
 Indian  Head
 Savage
 Big  Sky
 Colstrip
 Sarpy Creek
 Decker  Coal
 Hyodak
 Amax
 Dave Johnston
 Henry Mountain
 Black Mesa
 [•Java jo
McKinley
 County/State
 Oliver/ND
 Mercer/ND
 Richland/MT
 Rosebud/MT
 Rosebud/MT
 Bigharr/MT
 Big Horn/MT
 CampbellA'Y
 Campbell/WY
 Converse/WY
 Garfield/LIT
        /AR
San Juaii/il.'i
KcKinlsy/NM
               Comments
Potential winter  synoptic  visibility study
Large homogeneous  training  areas
Good natural mix  of training  area  types
Intensive ground  truth activities  being  conducted
Intensive ground  truth activities  being  conducted
Small site
Good site for ERTS and EOS test
Year to year regeneration study being conducted

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                                                                                                         69
         WATER MEASUREMENT AND MONITORING
            IN ENERGY DEVELOPING AREAS
              Frederick A. Kilpatrick
              U.S.  Geological Survey
                 Reston, Virginia
INTRODUCTION

     The U.S.  Geological Survey became officially
involved in environmental monitoring in 1902 with
the formation  in the agency of the Division of
Hydro-economics.  This was 10 years before the
formation of the Public Health Service.  During
this early life of the organization emphasis was
placed on stream pollution studies; in fact, as
early as 1911  a report on stream pollution by
Kansas mine water was issued (U.S. Geol. Survey
Water-Supply Paper 273)

     Thus the  Survey has been active in environmen-
tal monitoring for many years and assistance to
numerous Federal, State, and local agencies is
commonplace.  The Survey has always been known as a
research and basic-data-oriented organization based
on a strong in-house capability.  While this capab-
ility is often strained, the Survey has been able
to maintain its objective, scientifically-oriented
position as an unbiased agency in water monitoring.
It is the intention to continue this neutrality in
water monitoring as being in the best public
interest.

WATER MONITORING PROGRAM

     Long before the energy crisis, the U.S. Geo-
logical Survey operated a rather extensive water
quality, quantity, and sediment monitoring network
in the Rocky Mountains and Northern Great Plains
States where there now is great interest in devel-
opment of major fossil fuel resources.  With the
sudden emphasis on investigations in this region,
the Survey, with assistance from the U.S. Environ-
mental Protection Agency and other agencies, began
promptly to increase the number of monitoring
stations and to upgrade existing stations.
Although expansion of the program emphasizes
regional investigations, site-specific studies of
mine-related problems are also being expanded else-
where in the belief that much can be learned from
past experience, and that coal production in exist-
ing mining areas will also expand to meet
anticipated needs.  Thus the scope of the monitor-
ing program that will be described is nationwide,
but is confined to that part financed by the EPA.
WATER MONITORING INSTRUMENTATION DEVELOPMENT PROGRAM

     The development of fossil fuel resources in the
arid and semi-arid lands of the West has placed
increased strain on available measuring techniques
and equipment for monitoring water quality, quan-
tity, and sediment.  Indeed, there is probably no
more difficult an area in which to accurately
measure the various parameters involved in assess-
ing the impacts of mining and related industries.
Research to support the monitoring program is con-
cerned with the development of instrumentation for
sampling, measuring, and/or monitoring water pollu-
tants and sediments associated with energy-related
developments, especially petrochemicals, toxic
substances and sediment, and sediment-laden flows.

PROGRAM DISCUSSION

1.   Water Monitoring Instrumentation Development

     Research in this program is aimed at improve-
ment and/or development in essentially five areas
of need in water measurement and monitoring.   The
objective of each along with progress to date are
discussed below.

     a. Development of Methods for Characterizing
        and Monitoring Levels of Chronic Toxicity

     Standard methods for characterizing and mon-
itoring toxic substances at sub-lethal concentra-
tions in aquatic ecosystems have not yet been
established.  Field data (and data from experimental
streams) on effects of continuing low concentrations
of toxicants on composition and productivity of
aquatic ecosystems, are largely lacking.  The
general objective of this investigation is to
determine, through detailed studies of organisms,
simplified models of ecosystems and natural sites,
the extent to which trace contaminants  (especially
trace metals) in different aquatic environments are
available for biological uptake, influence the
production and structure of plant assemblages,
affect the growth and production of animals,  and
thus determine the trophic relationships and
composition of aquatic communities.

     Critical reviews have been conducted of the
published literature and an analysis made of
experiences of other research workers with proce-
dures for measuring effects on aquatic organisms
and aquatic ecosystems of chronic exposures to
trace contaminants.  Responses to many inorganic
and organic toxicants have been considered but
emphasis has been placed on substances released to
the environment as a consequence of fuel extraction
and combustion.

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70
      Assessment of  the relative availabilities of
 Ag,  Cd, Co,  and Zn  from  six different physicochem-
 ical forms of bound metal have been completed.   It
 was  shown that uptake of sediment-bound metals is
 less rapid than uptake of solute metals.  The rates
 of uptake of the  former may vary as much as  three
 orders of magnitude among sediment types for a
 given metal.  Combinations of certain chemical
 extractions  appear  to be useful in allowing  predic-
 tion of relative  biological availability from
 sediments.   Attempts to  verify these predictive
 techniques using  field data are in progress.

      b. Development of Instrumentation for High-
        Volume Analysis  of Petrochemical and
        Associated  Compounds

      The objective  of this study is to develop
 guidelines in choosing equipment, analytical
 methods, and data processing ware for automation to
 accomplish the high volume analysis of petrochem-
 icals and associated compounds.  Initial efforts
 have been directed  at computer automation of gas
 chromotography equipment and gas chromotography-
 mass spectrography  equipment.

      c. Development of an In-Situ Suspended  Solids
        Sensor

      The objective  of this research is to develop
 an in-situ instrumentation system capable of
 measuring the mass  concentration of sediment in
 water.  Following laboratory tests of one or more
 commercially available sensors, and the design of
 an automatic data logging system, a complete pack-
 age  of components will be tested in the laboratory
 and  eventually in the field.  Although the equip-
ment  survey  is only partially complete, a Dynatrol
 density gage has  been selected for laboratory tests.
This  is a flow-through device with an electrical
output signal.   Signal frequency is a function of
 fluid density that, in turn, is a function of
 sediment concentration.  Tests have been performed
on a -variety of sediments that include glass beads,
blasting sand,  and  soil samples.  At low sediment
concentrations,  random errors become significant.
For concentrations between 100 and 500 mg/litre,
random errors are approximately + 150 mg/litre.
For concentrations  exceeding 500 mg/litre, concen-
tration can be determined within approximately +
15% of the true value.   The dynamic range exceeds
two log cycles.    Concentration as high as 130,000
mg/1 have been tested with no significant departure
 from  a linear response.

     Alternate methods of data storage and trans-
mission are being studied.   Data may be stored or
 recorded at the site by using a cassette tape
recorder or a  strip  chart  recorder.   Transmission
by telephone or  even a  satellite  are other possibil-
ities .

     d. Development  of  Bedldad  Samplers  for
        Measuring Stream Sediment

     Expansion of mining for  accelerated energy
development has  the  threat of increased  erosion and
delivery of sediment to existing  stream  channels.
Much of the sediment will  be  transported as bedload.
In order to assess effects of sedimentation on water
quality and stream ecology, and to plan  remedial
measures, it is  essential  to  quantify bedload trans-
port by actual measurements.  At  the present time,
no existing samplers are completely  satisfactory
for measuring bedload transport.  The objective of
this investigation is to develop  an  acceptable
sampler(s) for measuring the  discharge of bedload
particles that range in size  from about  2 to 64
millimetres.

     The sampler testing and  calibration program
will be carried  out  at  the University of Minnesota's
St. Anthony Falls Hydraulic Laboratory in a flume 9
feet wide, 6 feet deep, and about 250 feet long with
a discharge capacity of 300 cubic feet per second.
With this flume, hydraulic variables can be adjusted
to produce bedload transport  rates of up to at least
3 pounds per second  per foot  of width across the
full 9-foot width and with depths of at  least 3 feet
Samplers to be tested initially are  being construct-
ed.  One of the  samplers of primary  interest is the
Helley-Smith sampler, which is  a  pressure-differ-
ence-type sampler that  has been used recently by
several investigators.

     e. Development  of  Flumes and Weirs  for
        Measuring Sediment-Laden  Stream  Flows

     The measurement of sediment  concentration alone
does not adequately  measure total sediment dis-
charge; along with the  measurement of sediment
concentration must be the  measurement of water dis- •
charge.  Because of  the unstable  nature  of natural
channels and the flashiness of  runoff events in the
arid and semi-arid regions of the West,  new and/or
improved flow measurement  devices and techniques
are needed.  The objective is to  develop and field
test flumes, weirs,  and other types  of control
structures particularly suitable  for measuring sedi-
ment and debris-laden flows.

     To date two experimental weirs  have been
installed on the Belle Fourche River  in Wyoming; two
are planned for  the  Piceance Creek in Colorado; five
are planned for various streams in the Uinta Basin
of Utah; and two experimental pre-calibrated

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                                                                                                         71
measuring flumes have been installed on a tributary
of the North Fork of the Kentucky River, Kentucky.
The suitability of these experimental devices will
be determined in use.

2.   Water Monitoring Program

     The USGS-EPA program in water monitoring can
be divided into programs covering the Northern
Great Plains and Rocky Mountains States, the area
of greatest immediate concern;  and site-specific
studies that are being conducted elsewhere in the
Western and Eastern sections of the country in coal
fields with long histories of operation.  These
monitoring programs are concerned with the measure-
ment of a complete suite of parameters in both
ground-water and surface-water regimes.  The prin-
cipal purpose in all areas of the monitoring
program is to provide the baseline data coverage
necessary to assess any changes that may occur as a.
result of energy industry development.  The monitor-
ing program will be discussed as pertinent to each
region and regime.

     a. Surface-Water Monitoring in the Northern
        Great Plains and Rocky Mountains States

     The surface water monitoring program in the
Rocky Mountains and Northern Great Plains States
both supplements and complements on-going work of
the Water Resources Division of the U.S. Geological
Survey in these States.  The water quality monitor-
ing stations on the tributaries of the Colorado
River draining the oil shale regions of Colorado
have been increased in number and the suite of
analyses being performed broadened.  In the oil
shale region of Utah the suite of parameters has
been broadened and includes biological coverage.

     The number of monitoring stations and the
suite of parameters being acquired have been aug-
mented in the coal regions of the Yampa, Yellow-
stone, and Tongue Rivers, the Upper Missouri River
tributaries, and tributaries of the Green River
draining eastern Utah and Wyoming.

     Table 1 summarizes the location and frequency
of sampling at 47 stream sites  in the Northern
Great Plains and Rocky Mountains States.  This
table also shows the types of analyses being per-
formed starting in August 1975.   No attempt will be
made to discuss results at this early date.

     b. Ground-Water Monitoring in the Northern
        Great Plains and Rocky  Mountains States

     The ground-water monitoring program in the oil
shale regions focuses on the collection of geochem-
ical data in the Piceance Creek Basin of Colorado
and the Uinta Basin of Utah.  Beside the use as a
baseline against which any future impacts may be
assessed,these data are also required to help
calibrate models that can be used to predict the
impact of oil shale extraction, waste disposal, and
water storage reservoirs on the ground-water
systems.

     Ground-water studies in the coal regions of
Colorado,  Wyoming, Utah, Montana, and North Dakota
are principally aimed at obtaining geohydrologic,
geochemical, and physical data describing the
ground-water systems in order to facilitate the
prediction of potential mining impacts.   As with
the oil shale monitoring, the data will also provide
a basis for assessing future impacts.

     Table 2 summarizes the parameters being
analyzed.   The data collection period is too brief
to warrant meaningful discussion of results at this
time.

     c. Surface-Water and Ground-Water Monitoring
        in the Western and Eastern United States

     While emphasis has been placed on the effects of
developing the energy resources of the Rocky
Mountains and Northern Great Plains States,  the
environmental impacts of increased coal  mining must
be expected in most of the United States.  In dis-
tricts with long operational histories much can be
learned by assessing the impacts on hydrologic
systems.  Moreover, there is a Federal obligation
to acquire baseline data in on-going mining areas
where new mining is imminent as a basis  for ration-
al decision-making at the National level.

     The following seven EPA-supported projects are
part of the comprehensive surface-water/ground-
water monitoring and hydrologic assessment program
taking place at actual and potential mining sites
in the Western and Eastern areas of the  country:

     1. Black Mesa Area, Arizona -- Effect of Strip
        Mining on the Hydrology of Small Watersheds

     2. The Centralia Mine,  Washington -- Coal
        Strip Mining, Land Reclamation,  and Water
        Quality Monitoring Practices

     3. New River Basin, Tennessee -- Assessment of
        the Hydrologic Effects of Strip Mining

     4. Wabash River in Indiana — A Reconnaissance
        of the Effects of Strip Mining and
        Reclamation

     5. Southeastern Ohio — Characterization of
        Mine Drainage

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72
      6. Illinois — Characterization of Mine
         Drainage

      7. Alaska — A Preplanning Study of the Hydro-
         logic Effects of Development of Alaska's
         Coal Resources

      The first four studies are' site-specific,
 investigating the impacts of existing or impending
 localized mining.

      The Black Mesa Study involves the hydrologic
 modeling of three small watersheds in northeastern
 Arizona prior to mining; to be followed by monitor-
 ing of conditions throughout the period of mining
 and rehabilitation.

      The Centralia Mine Study is an assessment of
 an existing mining and reclamation project where
 practices appear to conform to most of the regula-
 tions proposed in the strip mine legislation now
 before Congress.

      The New River Study focuses on the assessment
 of water quality throughout a basin where there is
 extensive strip mining and in the determination of
 downstream changes in sediment load and associated
 metals.

      The study in the lower headwaters of the
 Wabash River in southwest Indiana is concerned with
 monitoring pre to post mining water quality changes
 in a  hydrologic system adjacent to an area to be
 mined.

      The studies in Ohio and Illinois are reconnais-
 sance level evaluations of the occurrence and
 distribution of basic inorganic and organic constit-
 uents in surface and ground waters in the coal
 mining regions of the two States.   These studies
 will  relate'water quality to basin characteristics
 and make the -data available to those seeking a
 solution to water degradation in mined areas.

      The Alaska study will evaluate the probable
 hydrologic  effects and establish the kinds of
 hydrologic  data needed to asses the environmental
 impact of coal mining operations in Alaska.  It
 will  outline the most likely areas for development
 of mining operations and anticipated hydrologic
 problems peculiar to those areas.

      Time and  space do not permit more elaboration
 on these studies as each is worthy of -a report and
 will  be reported on as progress warrants.
FY 75
USGS EPA
0.242 0.565
0.197 0.199
0.783 0.179
FY 76
USGS EPA
0.250 0.380
0.240 0.175
0.850 0.125
RESOURCE ALLOCATION

     A breakdown of the funding by  the  EPA and the
U.S. Geological Survey for ground-water and surface-
water monitoring and the related  instrumentation
development projects in which the two agencies are
cooperating is as follows:

                                ($ x 106)
Instrumentation Dev..
Monitoring: Rocky Mts
S N. Great Plains
     SW	
     GW	0.783
Monitoring: West S
East United States
     SW & GW   .... 0.127  0.295     0.150  0.309

     It should be noted that U.S. Geological Survey
funds listed are just for those programs discussed
in this report and comprise only a  small part of
the Survey's total energy-related program.

CONCLUSIONS

     The U.S. Geological Survey, with  the financial
assistance of the Environmental Protection Agency,
has well underway comprehensive nationwide programs
to monitor surface-water and ground-water regimes
in new as well as long established  coal fields and
oil shale mining areas.  While emphasis is placed
on the rapidly developing Rocky Mountains and
Northern Great Plains States, other  studies in
which EPA is cooperating are looking at the impacts
being experienced in existing coal mining areas
nationwide.  In addition, a program  of instrumenta-
tion development is  focusing on upgrading capabil-
ities in obtaining accurate data so  that better
assessments can be made.

     These programs have been in progress only a
relatively short time.  Coal mining, reclamation,
and the conversion and utilization of  our fossil
fuels in their many  forms, as well  as  the ensuing
impacts will be with us ad infinitum,  so our efforts
to monitor, assess, and live with this industry in
an environmentally acceptable manner must be looked
upon as a long-range effort.

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                                                                                                                                                            73
Surface-rater monitoring sites
of the Northern Great Plains and
Rocky Mountains States
Stream site
COLORADO
Yanpa R. downatr from Yampa Project
Williams Fork R. nr Hamilton
White R. below Meeker
White R. above Rangely
Utgan Wash at mouth
MONTANA
Yellowstone R. at Myers
Tongue R. below Hanging Woman Cr .
Yellowstone R. near Terry
Yellowstone R. at Laurel
Yellowstone R. near Sidney
NORTH DAKOTA
Spring Cr . at Zap
Knife R. nr Hagen
Missouri R. at Schmidt
UTAH
Duchesne R. nr Randlett
Price R. at Woodside
WYOMING
Little Powder R. at State line


Stream site
Haras Fork below Kemmerer
Big Sandy below Eden
Twin Cr. at Sage
Tongue R. at Monarch
Powder R. at State line (Moorhead)
Tongue R, near Dayton
Tongue R. at State line
Clear Cr . near Arvada
Belle Fourche R. at Devils Tower
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                                                                                Table 2   Parameters  to  be analyzed on selected ground-water  samples
                                                                                          in the coal  and  oil  shale regions of the Rocky  Mountains
                                                                                          and Northern Great  Plains
   and alkalinity.
   Chemical - calci
   carbonate, chloride, sulfate, dissolved solids (calculated), and boron.
  Mo,  Hi, Se, V,  and Zrt) .
                                                                                 1•  Dissolved Solids                      25.
                                                                                 2.  Alkalinity                            26.
                                                                                 3.  Dissolved Silica                      27.
                                                                                 4.  Dissolved Aluminum                    28.
                                                                                 5,  Dissolved Iron                        29.
                                                                                 6.  Dissolved Manganese                   30 .
                                                                                 7.  Dissolved Calcium                     31.
                                                                                 8.  Dissolved Magnesium                   32.
                                                                                 9.  Dissolved Sodium                      33 .
                                                                                10.  Dissolved Potassium                   34.
                                                                                11.  Bicarbonate                           35.
                                                                                12.  Carbonate                             36.
                                                                                13.  Dissolved Sulfate                     37.
                                                                                14.  Dissolved Chloride                    38.
                                                                                15.  Dissolved Fluoride                    39.
                                                                                16.  Dissolved Bromide                     40.
                                                                                17.  Dissolved Nitrite and  Nitrate        41.
                                                                                18.  Dissolved Ortho-Phosphorus            42.
                                                                                19.  Dissolved Barium                      43 .
                                                                                20.  Dissolved Boron                       44 .
                                                                                21.  Dissolved Lead                        45.
                                                                                22.  Dissolved Lithium
                                                                                ^3.  Dissolved Molybdenum                  46.
                                                                                24.  Dissolved Selenium                    47.
Total Strontium
PH
Carbon Dioxide
Dissolved Arsenic
Dissolved Copper
Dissolved Cadmium
Dissolved Mercury
Dissolved Zinc
Dissolved Oxygen
Specific Conductance
Suspended Solids or Sediment
Beryllium
Chronium
Nickel
Vandium
Radioactivity   (a  & y)
Turbidity
Dissolved Organic  Carbon
Radon
Coliform, Fecal and Total
Micro-and Macro Invertebrate
Analysis
Phytoplankton
Periphyton
y Specific conductance, pH,
  programs.
                                   and dissolved i

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74


                             DISCUSSIONS TO MEASUREMENT AND MONITORING SESSION


      Question:  Does NOAA plan to implement a measuring or monitoring program to advance the State-of-the-
 Art with respect to the fate of radionuclides in offshore nuclear power plant ecosystems?

      Panel Response:  Fate of radionuclides generally is the jurisdiction of ERDA.  However, NOAA is
 developing an extensive program to monitor pollutants in the marine environment.  Current programs in-
 clude building instrumentation for a more efficient monitoring system for underway vessels or from
 single point source location such as oil  rigs.   These facilities when constructed and operational could
 be utilized to monitor offshore nuclear power plants.

      Question:  What are the USGS's plans for developing monitoring and instrumentation equipment neces-
 sary for these systems to determine chronic effects in groundwater systems from pollutants released to or
 impact with the ground?

      Panel Response:  It is actually a system package of available instrumentalonal  methods that is be-
 ing synthesized.  As far as is known, there is  no actual new instrumentational hardware being produced
 to provide this physiological approach.

      Question:  What techniques are used to monitor either thermal or chemical pollutants in groundwater?

      Panel Response:  As stated previously, groundwater monitoring programs utilize existing or modified
 instrumentation or techniques.  First, the pollutant is characterized with time and exposure to the ele-
 ments.  Its transport to the groundwater is then determined.  Then the method for monitoring is evaluated
 and tested.

      Question:  Are the current methods that are under development for aerosol characterization adequate
 for interpretation for health effect studies?

      Panel Response:  The National Bureau of Standards and the University of Minnesota have a cooperative
 project to develop a real time sulfur particulate analyzer which is fundamentally based on the iron
 mobility analyzer and which uses photometry as  a detection element.  Considerable amount of work is also
 going on at RTF to look at particle sizes and distributions and species in various urban atmospheres.
 Attempts to use the electron microscope and optical microscopy to identify particles  is also being con-
 ducted.   The use of EPA's lidar system was amplified.  It is used only to determine the height of the
 inversion layer and where the particulates are  located; it has no quantitative capability, however, it
 does  provide qualitative information very rapidly.  Other responses indicated that EPA is also studying
 the use of laser photosensing techniques  for various crops and pollutants.  In addition to the above
 panel  responses, an EPA representative from the floor indicated that EPA has an extensive R&D program
 for measurement which is not funded by energy-related sources such as collecting aerosols, analyzing for
 sulfates and sulfuric acid, development of fundamentals of upwind pointing lidar, use of spectrometers,
 and active type ozone and CO laser systems.

      Question:   Wished the TVA panel member to  amplify on progress to develop capabilities for sensing
 effects  of S0£ on vegetation.

      Response:   TVA is just getting into  this particular program and developing its capabilities.  During
 the past growing season in conjunction with NASA and EPA, TVA used remote sensing imagery to attempt to
 evaluate cumulative effects of emissions  from one of the TVA's plants.  The data is still being evaluated.
 Other crop species are to be evaluated in future .programs.

      Question:   How is the USGS's program on runoff erosion and sediment runoff related to similar pro-
 grams by USDA?

      Panel  Response:  The USGS Water Resources  Division is actively involved in only  two specific areas:
 (1) currently mined areas or future areas to be mined, plus, (2) the ongoing USGS widespread monitoring
 program covering all the Rocky Mountains  Region and the Great Plains Area.

      Question:   Has any federal  agency conducted any programs to determine the emissions of heavy metals,
 toxic elements and radionuclides from Western coals used in coal-fired power plants?

      Panel  Response:  TVA is developing a residual output model but the elements that are to be included
 in  the model  are still being considered.  Additional panel responses indicated that there appears to be
 extensive measurements already available  on radionuclides and mercury in Western coal and that ERDA has
 an  extensive program to determine the extent and fate of various constituents in coal

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                                                                                                        75


     Question:  Are there  any  programs  for monitoring  and measurement which  involve the  large-scale  analy-
sis  of  human  blood samples  to  utilize the human  being  as a means of monitoring  for pollutants?

     Panel Response:  The  program that  can respond to  that question is in the NIOSH exposure monitoring
program that  is described  in Chapter 4.

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                      CHAPTER 4
EN VI RON MENTAL HEALTH EFFECTS

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 78
 INTRODUCTION

     The number and variety of potentially toxic
 chemical agents to which occupational groups and
 segments of the general population can be exposed as
 a result of development of fossil energy conversion
 facilities is enormous.  There are also many ways in
 which  these agents may be encountered.  This
 encounter may take place with gaseous pollutants,
 respirable particulates, waste liquids and solids,
 or  the fuel products themselves.

     The effects of pollutants or chemical agents
 may be classified as to the nature of their expected
 or  suspected effect on human health.  Such classifi-
 cation might reflect the toxic propensity for muta-
 genesis, teratogenesis, carcinogenesis or production
 of  reproductive disorders, behavioral and learning
 anomalies, endocrine disfunction, organ toxicity
 and metabolic changes.  The net result remains a
 complex problem of predicting and determining the
 identity and mechanism by which energy related
 pollutants exert detrimental effect on human health.
 This determination is essential to developing the
 strategies, technologies and priorities for control
 of  energy related processes.

     Research aimed at the objectives of protecting
occupational and community health are being pursued
by agencies in the energy,  environmental and health
fields.

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                                                                                                          79
         Overview of NIOSH Energy Health
                Research Program
                Kenneth Bridbord
       National Institute for Occupational
                Safety and Health
               Rockville, Maryland
 INTRODUCTION

     It is  a pleasure to represent the National
 Institute for Occupational Safety and Health
 today at this conference and to present an over-
 view of our Institute's contribution to a national
 research effort relating to the health and
 environmental effects of energy technologies.
 The program to be described represents primarily
 the NIOSH contribution, an approximately $2.5
 million annual research effort, in the area of
 health effects.  This effort is being performed
 as part of  a special multiagency R&D program
 related to  energy coordinated by the Environ-
 mental Protection Agency.  My presentation does
 not embrace the full spectrum of energy related
 research performed by NIOSH in its base program,
 much of which is supported under the Coal Mine
 Health and  Safety Act.  Coal mine health and
 safety research is an established NIOSH program
 with which  I hope many of you are already familiar.

     Before joining NIOSH, I served in one of
 the EPA research facilities whose mission included
 assessing the community health implications related
 to energy technologies.  From my experience in
 both community health and now in occupational
 health, it  has become increasingly evident that
 the occupational and community health problems
 associated  with energy technologies are real,
 are important and are very much related to each
 other.  The pollutants encountered in the community
 are frequently similar chemically to those which
 are found in the workplace.  Further, the levels
 of occupational exposures are usually much greater
 than among  the general population, making surveil"
 lance of working populations a mandatory component
 of any system designed for detection of early
 effects related to environmental agents.

 DISCUSSION

     In truth there is a continuum between
occupational and community health.  They cannot
be viewed as distinct and separate entities.
Data obtained from studies of workers, for
example,  may frequently be relevant to the
community situation and vice versa.  This is
particularly true in the case of chronic health
effects attributable at least in part to long
term exposures to chemicals.  Such effects are
most easily studied among workers and when
an excess risk among workers is found, we should
assume that a similar but more subtle risk could
occur as a result of community contamination.

     There is no doubt in my mind that health
considerations must play a major role in future
policy decisions with respect to expansion of
existing energy facilities and development of
new energy technologies.  In the past several
years for example there have been increasing
concerns as to the effects upon health of
exposure to sulfur oxides emitted from-power
plants.

     While I was at EPA, I participated in a
multidisciplined effort to assess the health
effects of community exposures to sulfur oxides.
Our studies suggested that sulfur oxide gas per
se may not be the primary health problem but
that sulfur oxides might be converted to aerosols
containing sulfur compounds which are potentially
irritating to the respiratory tract.  Studies
related to effects of sulfates upon the respira-
tory tract and other organs are of course
continuing.  The data as they presently exist
have, however, allowed policy makers to seriously
consider the health effects of sulfates in making
decisions regarding conversion of oil fired
power plants to coal and In determining the
siting for new power plants.

     As we look further into the sulfur oxides
questions we are likely to find that the problem
is more complex than originally anticipated.
Included in these concerns are the possible
interactive effects between acid aerosols and
other workplace and community pollutants including
carcinogens.  No doubt a considerable portion
of our effort under the energy program will be
directed to the sulfur oxides problem.  In this
regard we should not lose perspective that sulfur
oxides may also pose a hazard in certain occupa-
tional groups as well.

     Accordingly our Institute's research plans
call for investigation of public utility and other
workers exposed to sulfur oxides and sulfate
aerosols for possible effects that such exposures
may have upon chronic respiratory disease as well
as mortality.  In preliminary studies from our
Salt Lake City laboratory it would Appear that
workers exposed to sulfate aerosols in combination
with nitrogen oxides and hydrocarbon emissions
associated with diesel repair work incur a 2 to
5 fold increased prevalence of chronic respiratory
disease symptoms compared to similar age and
smoking groups among the general population.  Use
of diesel engines in underground mining to increase

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80
our supplies of coal or to obtain needed raw
materials for use in building new energy facilities,
unless properly controlled, could present an impor-
tant occupational health problem.  NIOSH is investi-
gating this situation in its base program.

     By analogy to the sulfate problem there has
been relatively little attention given to effects
caused by other acid aerosols including nitric
acid and nitrogen oxides.  It has been estimated
that emissions of oxides of nitrogen from stationery
combustion sources contribute substantially to
atmospheric loading by these pollutants.  There
is reason to believe that as with sulfur oxides and
sulfates, chemical reactions in the atmosphere will
lead to formation of new nitrogen compounds inclu-
ding new organic complexes.  Such compounds have
not been well studied as to their health effects
and may pose an important health problem.  Included
in our suspicions related to effects of nitrogen
oxide aerosols are the potential to aggravate
preexisting cardiac and respiratory problems,
possible decreased resistance to infectious agents
and the possible role that such compounds may play
in the development of chronic disease, including
cancer.

     Recently concerns have been expressed about
chemical reactions between nitrogen oxides in the
ambient air and amines to form nitrosamine compounds,
a class of potential carcinogens based upon studies
in experimental animals.  While to date we have no
documented cases of cancer in man from exposure
to nitrosamines this may conceivably be explained
by lack of adequate studies of such effects.
Among the groups potentially at risk from such
exposures are workers and there are at least
theoretical concerns that nitrosamines could be
an important exposure problem in coal gasifica-
tion and liquefaction plants where simultaneous
emissions of nitrogen oxides and amines are
likely to occur.  We also know that hydrazines
are at times employed to control oxygen levels in
coal fired power plants.  Hydrazines themselves
may be carcinogenic or may break down to form
nitrosamines and again workers may be among those
most heavily exposed.  NIOSH is currently involved
in a preliminary assessment of the hydrazine
situation as part of its energy program and we
are currently exploring ways to select appropriate
working populations exposed to nitrosamines for
long term followup study.

     The potential for chemicals to contribute
to the development of chronic disease including
cancer appears to be a major public health
problem and this potential must be addressed in
any health research program related to energy.
The consensus of many experts is that environ-
mental factors play a major role in the etiology
of cancer and that reducing exposures  to  carcino-
genic chemicals in the workplace  and in the
general environment will likely have substantial
public health benefits in the years to come.

     Among the carcinogenic substances which
may be related to energy processes are arsenic,
beryllium, cadmium, nickel and chromium among
the metals, vapor phase and particulate .poly-
nuclear aromatic compounds among  the organics
and asbestos and related fibers which  are used
in insulation materials.  If one  considers all
the chemicals which have been identified as
suspect carcinogens in animal test systems then
the list of potential energy related carcinogens
increases substantially.  Clearly there are many
lessons to be learned from our past experience
including vinyl chloride which was once considered
relatively safe.  How many more surprises such as
this are there likely to be in the future?
Particularly in the energy area where  the rapid
expansion of existing and new technologies will
impact many people, we need to examine closely
the potential for these processes to cause
adverse health effects before large capital
investments are made.

     A good illustration stems from our expe-
riences with coke oven emissions.  Here the
evidence of carcinogenic risk, especially for
lung cancer, is substantial.  It  is noteworthy
that poorly contained coal gasification and/or
liquefaction processes are likely to produce
similar exposures as occur in coking operations.
This is an area that requires significant effort
not only to prevent long term effects  in workers
but in the general population as  well.  A
concerted effort combining epidemiology and
toxicology both In vivo and in vitro is required
to adequately address this problem.  With the
development of rapid and increasingly  more
reliable in vitro test systems as possible
predictors of carcinogenic activity, one may be
able to selectively prioritize suspicious com-
ponents in complex mixtures related to energy
processes for further investigation.   We should
not lose sight of the interactions among chemicals
which may be responsible for the  ultimate biologic
effect.

     In this regard NIOSH is planning  compre-
hensive morbidity and mortality studies of workers
exposed during coal liquefaction  and gasification
processes to clarify the possible risk of life
shortening illness and hopefully  to identify the
nature of emissions associated with the disease
process.  Our Institute's experience with the
complex problems of coke oven emissions should
hopefully prove valuable in such  an effort.  In
a related area of concern NIOSH is also evaluating

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                                                                                                           81
the health experience  of  workers exposed to oil
shale.

     No  discussion  of  energy related health
problems would  be complete without a considera-
tion of  energy  conservation including the impact
of such  efforts upon-worker health.   For example,
expanded requirements  for new and existing
insulation materials could mean increased health
problems among  workers engaged in the manufacture
of these materials.  Accordingly NIOSH has
included a mortality study of workers exposed
to insulation materials in its energy research
program.

     Energy  conservation  in residential and
commercial buildings has  been an additional
suggestion to stretch  our available energy
resources.   However, in our desire to conserve
energy in residential  and commercial buildings
we may inadvertently be aggravating an existing
or creating  a new indoor  air pollution problem.
Recirculation of exhaust  air to reduce heating
or cooling of make  up  air is one conservation
technique being considered.  As part of the
energy program, NIOSH  is  developing criteria
for recirculation systems to eliminate potential
occupational health problems.  Decreases in the
air turnover rate can  have a major impact upon
the concentration of a given pollutant when there
exists an indoor source for that pollutant.

     Among the  sources of indoor pollutants
which are particularly worrisome are halo-
genated  hydrocarbons from aerosol products and
solvents, nitrogen  oxides and carbon monoxide
from gas stoves and space heaters, sidestream
cigarette smoke, hydrocarbon emissions from
cooking, off gas products from plastic materials
and asbestos fibers present in duct work and
other construction  uses.   Here, too, there
may be important occupational health problems.
Recently available  data suggest elevated
concentrations  of asbestos inside office
buildings.   If  air  turnover is decreased, this
would potentially increase the level of conta-
mination by  asbestos.

     Also present in the  indoor environment of
commercial buildings is sidestream cigarette
smoke.   We know from studies of workers
exposed  to asbestos that  the risk of lung
cancer is greatly increased among smoking
asbestos workers.   The possible health impli-
cations  for  millions of office workers poten-
tially exposed  to asbestos and sidestream
cigatette smoke is  unknown but of substantial
concern. NIOSH is  currently conducting a
preliminary  evaluation of this situation as
part of  its  energy  effort.  Another conserva-
tion effort being investigated by NIOSH
involves the possible hazard to workers  in
situations where waste materials are  used
as supplemental fuels.

     Any efforts to reduce ventilation in
industrial situations as a means to conserve
energy must also be considered in conjunction
with the possible ensuing health implications.
Even if such conservation efforts were not  to
violate any existing health standard  this action
could potentially increase health risk to
employees by increasing exposure to a given
agent, particularly when long term low level
exposure to that agent may be associated
with increased risk of developing chronic
disease.

     Before closing, I should also note that
NIOSH is conducting research directed at the
development of countermeasures for the protec-
tion of energy industry workers.  The initial
effort in this area has been primarily
directed at commercial divers involved with
offshore oil.  In the area of countermeasures,
I should also point out that a considerable
portion of the effort in this national research
program is being directed toward the  develop-
ment of control technology to reduce  community
exposures to energy associated pollutants.
A portion of that effort should be directed
to develop control techniques for reducing
worker exposure as well.

     Additionally, I might mention that NIOSH
is developing various devices to measure and
monitor the occupational environment  for energy
industry related pollutants, which will be
described in more detail later at this conference.
I should also add that our Institute  is endeavoring
to maintain as flexible a posture as  possible so
that we may respond to newly emerging occupational
problems related to energy.  In this  regard
mechanisms are being worked out to identify and
respond rapidly to new potential energy associated
problems.

CONCLUSIONS

     The rationale for NIOSH's energy health
research effort has been presented.   Unless the
health and safety of workers in energy related
industries can be assured, this will  be an  impor-
tant limiting factor in our nation's  ability to
achieve energy self-sufficiency.

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 82
        HEALTH EFFECTS RELATED TO EMERGING
                 ENERGY TECHNOLOGY
               John H. Knelson, M.D.
        Health Effects Research Laboratory
         EPA   Research Triangle Park, NC
 INTRODUCTION

     The energy-related health effects research
 program being conducted by EPA in Research Triangle
 Park, NC,  is primarily oriented to technologic
 changes anticipated for the near-future.  These
 include major conversion from oil and gas to coal
 combustion, coal gasification and liquefaction,
 shale oil  extraction, increased nuclear power produc-
 tion, and  decreased energy use for transportation.
 The Health Effects Research Laboratory in North
 Carolina (HERL/RTP) is the major focus of EPA's
 resources  in epidemiology, clinical  research, and
 toxicology being used to assess the  relative public
 health impact of alternate energy-producing technolo-
 gies.  Research conducted by EPA's Cincinnati Health
 Effects Research Laboratory is carefully coordinated
 with that  of HERL/RTP.

 TECHNIQUES

     The objective of the administration of HERL/RTP
 is to conduct a balanced program of  intramural and
 extramural research, coordinating work on high
 priority EPA problems with the nation's high priority
 of energy  independence.  Thus a significant part of
 the HERL/RTP "base" research program under the Office
 of Health and Ecological Effects is  tailored to
 complement that part performed under the aegis of
 the Office of Energy, Minerals, and  Industry (OEMI).

     This research program is organized along disci-
 plinary lines, with various categories of pollutants
 investigated using many techniques,  resulting in a
matrix approach to problem-solving.

     The Population Studies Division conducts
 community studies by measuring environmental factors
 to assess population exposures and relate them to the
 health status of those populations.  Their energy-
 related work is largely oriented toward the relation-
 ship between levels of sulfur oxides, nitrogen
 oxides, and trace metals to cardio-respiratory
 disease experience in populations of various age
 groups and special susceptibilities.  A new program
 of mortality studies has been initiated to relate
 death by specific cause (especially  specific neo-
 plasms) to industrial as well as demographic data
 by area of residence.
     The Clinical Studies  Division conducts a coordi-
nated program of animal  and  human studies.   A major
national resource,  developed over the past  five
years, allows sophisticated  simulation of urban
atmospheres in two  large controlled environmental
laboratories designed  for  human  clinical  research.
Addition of aerosol generating and monitoring equip-
ment to one of these laboratories will  permit con-
trolled clinical studies of  human health  effects of
airborne respirable particulate  matter as well as
gaseous pollutants.  The particulate matter of most
concern in this program  is water soluble  sulfates.

     In addition to the  controlled environmental
laboratories, two mobile laboratories equipped with
nearly identical cardiopulmonary physiologic  and
computerized data acquisition equipment are nearing
completion.  These mobile  physiologic laboratories
will be used to study  specific problems,  such  as
those in the vicinity  of a power station  converting
to coal burning, by teams  of scientists from  the
Population Studies as  well as Clinical  Studies
Divisions.

     The Environmental Toxicology Division  incorpor-
ates resources for a wide  range  of basic  toxicologic
evaluation of complex  organic molecules expected to
result from coal conversion  and  shale oil extraction.
Multi-route exposure facilities  for animals  ranging
from rodents to primates exist.   Toxicity screening
systems employing the  basic  techniques  of histo-
pathology, metabolism, and physiology have  been
advanced in these laboratories over the past  several
years,  in vitro mutagenicity testing systems  using
mammalian cell lines complement  the basic toxi-
cology techniques.  Sophisticated biochemical  and
analytic methods development capability are  used
in support of the toxicity testing programs  of this
Division.

     The Experimental  Biology Division  has  conducted
a series of studies over the past several years
directly related to energy production.  These  consist
of animal toxicity testing of tritium and krypton-85
which result from nuclear  fuel reprocessing.   In
addition, this Division  conducts all  animal  neuro-
biology and reproductive studies for HERL.   It is
expected that many of  the  effluents from  emerging
energy technologies will pose hazards that  must be
carefully evaluated in these test systems.   Animal
resources are provided by  this Division,  assuring
the integrity and quality  of all  animal experiments
throughout the Laboratory.

PROGRAMS

     The seven components  of the HERL Energy
Accomplishment Plan are  listed,  and their coordi-
nation with the described  discipline/pollutant
matrix is discussed:

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          Evaluate,  via Clinical and Epidemiological
 studies,  Effects  in  normal,  Susceptible and Stressed
 Population Groups,  from Exposure to Effluents Associ-
 ated with Coal  Conversion and Utilization.

          Determine  the Dose-Effect Relationship for
 •Behavioral,  Physiological,  and Metabolic Effects
 resulting from  Exposure to  Effluents from Coal
 Utilization and Conversion  Sources.

          Develop More Sensitive and Rapid Cytologi-
 oal, Biochemical  and Physiological Indicators to
 Establish Dose  and  Damage to Man from Effluents
 .related to Coal Conversion  and Utilization.

          Identify Carcinogenic, Mutagenic,  Terato-
 genio, and other  Toxic Substances related to Coal
 Conversion and  Utilization  using Biological Screen-
 ing Systems.

          Determine  the Dose-Effect Relationships
 for Behavioral  Teratological,  and Carcinogenic
 Effects Resulting from Exposure to Effluents from
 Nuclear Fuel Utilization and Processing.

          Evaluate  the Health Implications Resulting
 from Exposure to  Indoor Air  Pollutants as These
 Relate to Energy  Conservation Measures Reducing
 Indoor/Outdoor  Ventilation.

          Evaluation of Potential Toxic Hazards
 Arising from Extraction, Processing and Utilization
 of New Energy Sources such  as Shale Oil.

 COAL CONVERSION AND  UTILIZATION

     Evaluation via  clinical  and epidemiologic
 studies of effects in normal,  susceptible and
 stressed  population  groups  is  being conducted by the
 Clinical  Studies  and Population Studies Divisions
 working together-  The major effort here is  con-
 centrated in  completion and  improvement of facilities
 for population  exposure assessment and controlled
 environmental laboratory clinical research,  as well
 as operation  of the  mobile physiologic laboratories.
 Cardio-pulmonary  disease experience, changes in
 cardio-pulmonary  physiology,  immune and metabolic
;status as well  as neoplastic  disease experience
:all  associated  with  effluents  from coal  conversion
:and utilization are  being studied in this  aspect of
 the Energy Program.   Funding  from OEMI  in  this area
 is $2,100 K.

     Determination of dose-effect relationships for
 behavioral,  physiologic and  metabolic effects is
 being conducted using many of  the techniques
 described with  respect to the  clinical  and epidemio-
 logic research.   In  addition,  animal  and clinical
 studies have  been initiated  specifically to  determine
 the^relative  toxicity of sulfates having different
 cationic  components.   OEMI funding for these studies
 is $240 K.
                                                  83
     Development of more sensitive and rapid  cytolo-
gical, biochemical and physiologic indicators  has
been given high priority in the overall program  of
HERL.  Expansion of the mammalian cell line in vitro
test system is in progress.  Studies of metabolic
alterations that will serve as bioindicators  to
quantify sulfur oxides and nitrogen oxides exposure
in man are underway.  Significant improvements in
non-invasive assessment of cardiac function are
being developed in HERL by computer techniques
applied to ST segment analysis, systolic time
interval determination, and myocardial mechanical
function measurement using ultrasound.  OEMI  fund-
ing in this area is $400 K.

     Carcinogenic, mutagenic, and teratogenic
screening systems are being developed or are
already in use to study interactions between
fibrous amphiboles and other potentially co-
carcinogenic material, benzo(a)pyrene in the
isolated perfused lung, interaction between known
pulmonary carcinogens and fine sulfuric acid
aerosol, as well as in vitro toxicity testing of
crude airborne particulate matter filtered from
urban atmospheres.  In addition, in vitro screening
of selected air pollutants for chemically induced
neoplastic transformation is being conducted.  OEMI
funding in this area is $1,200 K.

NUCLEAR FUEL UTILIZATION AND PROCESSING

     Long-term exposure to tritium to determine
effects on growth and development, especially
of central nervous system function, are in progress.
In addition, HERL is conducting research to identify
a population of laboratory rodents with particular
sensitivity to tritium induced neoplasia.  Prolonged
exposure to krypton-85 under 6-infinite cloud
conditions has been initiated.  OEMI funding  in  this
area is $500 K.

ENERGY CONSERVATION AND THE INDOOR ENVIRONMENT

     A modest program to characterize the indoor
(home, office, school, non-industrial workplace)
environment through inventory of household products
as well as indoor/outdoor air quality assessment is
in progress.  The focus of this effort is to
characterize and assess the health implications  of
air pollution levels in the indoor environment with
particular attention given to those sources of
pollution which originate indoors.  Examples  include
exposure to chemicals from aerosol products,
solvents, cigarette smoke, cooking and insulation
materials (i.e., asbestos and asbestos-like fibers).
Where relevant, health information will be sought
from occupational groups with exposures that  resemble
those found in the  indoor home environment,  i.e.,
cooks, cosmetologists and workers in dry cleaning
establishments.  A model will be developed to
predict exposures and project potential health
effects.  OEMI funding for this program is $200  K.

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TQXICITY OF PRODUCTS ARISING FROM NEl-J ENERGY
SOURCES SUCH AS SHALE OIL
     The initial activity in this area is the
establishment of a chemical respository for
materials likely to be generated from New Energy
Sources.  Following establishment of and standardi-
zation of the repository, toxicity screening tests
such as those described for coal combusiton and
conversion processes will be initiated.  OEMI
support for these studies is $825 K.

CONCLUSION

     The resources, priorities, rationale, techni-
ques, and specific approaches to the problem of
health evaluation of emerging energy technologies
has been summarized.  All funding for HERL/RTP
programs from OEMI have been FY 1975 figures.  The
total is $4,515.4 K.  It must be realized that
shifts in funding level must occur as the programs
evolve and new problems as well as opportunities
arise.  Therefore these figures are meant to
reflect relative level of effort and may not remain
accurate.

     The Energy Program for FY 1976, as would be
expected, is closely related to and extends that of
1975.  The total level of funding anticipated from
OEMI is $4,037 K.  Because such a large fraction of
the non-energy related portion of the overall
HERL/RTP program supports in one way or another that
part funded by OEMI, it is impossible to ascertain
with any precision the total energy-related budget.
This seems inevitable in a highly integrated inter-
disciplinary program.

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    HIGHLIGHTS OF NIEHS ENERGY-RELATED RESEARCH
                Dr.  Robert L.  Dixon
National  Institute of Environmental Health Sciences
      Research  Triangle  Park,  North Carolina
 INTRODUCTION

     NIEHS activities  focus  on a number of toxicol-
 ogy subdisciplines  essential  to the understanding
 and assessment of potential  toxic effects of envir-
 onmental  factors  on human  health.  These include:
 1. Indicators  of  toxicity;  2.  Biochemical mechanisms
 of toxicity; 3. Mechanisms  of incorporation, meta-
 bolism, disposition,  and turnover; 4.  Dose-effect
 relationship for  toxic effects; 5. Extrapolation of
 laboratory models to  man;  6.  Mutagenesis, develop-
 mental toxicity,  and  carcinogenesis.

     These concepts support  and evolve from studies
 of a wide spectrum of externally-derived bioactive
 chemical  and physical  agents.   Those related to
 energy production and  conservation activity are of
 special importance.  Broadly these can be catego-
 rized as:  1.  Gaseous  air  pollutants;  2. Suspended
 particulates;  3.  Industrial  by-products and inter-
 mediates; 4. Trace metals;  5.  Physical factors.

     An attempt has been made to briefly describe
 highlights of these activities.  The impossibility
 of defining precise categories accounts for the
 obvious overlaps  between these two general activi-
 ties.

 1.  Indicators of Toxicity

     Efforts are  being made  to develop reliable j_n_
 vitro and in vivo systems  for the measure of toxic
 effects induced by energy  related hazardous agents.
 The focus is. on tests  designed to both identify and
 quantify  a wide variety of  agents and  effects.
 Efforts are being applied  to improving systems  for
 rapid prescreening.  However,  the major emphasis is
 on mammalian systems  which  will facilitate trans-
 lation of test results to man.

     In vitro  eel Is and tissues and lower animal
 test systems offer the possibility of  reliable
 toxicity  test  systems  which  are more rapid and  less
 expensive than whole  animal  tests.  Blastocysts,
 prenatal  ovarian  tissues, and  bone marrow cells in
 culture as well as  a  number  of more routine cell
 lines are currently being  studied.

 2.  Biochemical Mechanisms  of Toxicity

     NIEHS is  supporting efforts to compare effects
of toxic  agents on  various  systems of  differing
biological  complexity  so as  to identify key sites
 involved  in producing  toxic  effects as well as  to
validate  use of simpler test systems in understand-
                                                   85
ing the site and mechanism of action of toxic
chemicals.  Test systems range from isolated organs,
through tissue slices or cultures to intracellular
organelles, isolated enzyme systems, and purified
macromolecules.   Toxic agents include air and water
pollutants whose sources are primarily energy-
technology derived.  These studies provide important
knowledge of initial or early cellular lesions.

     A great deal of laboratory research is ongoing
which seeks to improve our understanding of toxic
mechanisms and provide improved test systems.  The
reliability of the extrapolation of laboratory
animal data to man must be demonstrated in a con-
clusive manner.   Model systems which incorporate
pharmacokinetic  parameters should eventually allow
a more exact extrapolation to the human population.

3.  Mechanisms of Incorporation, Metabolism,
    Disposition, and Turnover

     A number of studies are being supported to
determine the mechanisms of incorporation, metabo-
lism, deposition, and turnover of energy-related
hazardous agents.  Pharmacokinetic aspects of
inhaled, orally  absorbed, and local  exposure are
being investigated.  Absorption studies to deter-
mine the permeability of biological  barriers that
separate the blood (or critical  tissues)  from the
external environment are important.   Metabolism
studies must include a careful  consideration of
both activation  and degradation mechanisms.   The
biological distribution of agents is being studied
with special emphasis on "barrier protected"
tissues, e.g., central nervous system,  testis,
fetus.  The deposition, storage, and translocation
of agents need to be investigated as well  as their
pulmonary, hepatobiliary, and/or renal  excretion.
     Studies are being undertaken to characterize
the processes involved in transfer of energy-
related hazardous agents from particulates to body
tissues and fluids.  This necessitates  the develop-
ment of methods  for generating well-defined aero-
sols containing  particulates of different  sizes and
hazardous chemical "load."

4.  Dose-effect  Relationship for Toxic  Effects

     Studies are being supported to  consider the
dose-response relationships for biochemical  and
toxic effects of energy related agents.  Major  organ
toxicity is being determined as well as the predic-
tiveness of clinical signs and the reversibility of
toxic lesions.  Effects on behavior, blood and  other
body fluids, liver, nerve-muscle, kidney,  respira-
tion, circulation, endocrine function,  reproduction,
etc., are being  studied.  A comparison  of acute,
subchronic, and  chronic effects are being made  as
well as consideration of both prenatal  and postnatal
exposure.

5.  Extrapolation of Laboratory Models  to Man

     Mathematical and statistical methods are being
developed for the extrapolation of animal  and
cellular data to man for low dose risk estimation.
Both stochastic  models of the carcinogenic process
and statistical  techniques pertinent to extrapola-
tion are being studied.  Attention  is also being

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86
focused on the problem of species-to-species varia-
bility.  As part of this effort, existing data
bases are being reviewed and evaluated to determine
if they can be used to make meaningful interspecies
comparisons.  In addition, new data sources that
can be utilized to quantify species-to-species
variability are being produced.

6.  Mutagenesis, Developmental Toxicity, and
    Carcinogenesis

     Mutagenesis.  Methods by which the frequency
of somatic point mutations at several genetic loci
in experimental animals and human beings can be
measured are being developed.  Detection of mamma-
lian somatic mutations provide advantages in muta-
tion research for the following reasons:  (1) human
cell samples could possibly be used for the study of
mutation rates in man, (2) in mutagenic test sys-
tems, the animal's own cells would be used, which
would avoid the immunological reactions occurring
in the host-mediated assay, and (3) chronic studies
of compounds in low doses could be initiated.
     Point mutations in male germinal tissue are
being studied.  The purpose of this investigation
is to develop methods by which point mutations can
be detected directly on spermatogonia, spermatid,
and sperm.  The mutant cells are being detected by
differential histochemical stains.  Several enzyme
systems are being employed, some common for somatic
cells and the germinal tissue, some specific for
the sperm.

     Sperm samples are relatively easy obtained in
the human population and these methods can be used
to monitor the human population for the mutation
rates and possibly detect fractions of the popula-
tion at high risk.

     It is generally felt by geneticists that an
increase of the mutation rate in the human popula-
tion would be detrimental, yet there is no system
developed to monitor the human population for point
mutations.

     A system for mutagenicity testing using a tier
concept facilitates the assessment of potential
hazards associated with human exposure to drugs and
other chemicals.  The proposed system is a hierar-
chical  system containing three tiers or levels of
testing.   Using relatively rapid and inexpensive jn_
vitro microbial tests, the first tier will serve as
a prescreen to determine priorities for further
testing.   Tier two assesses mutagenicity in more
complex systems involving higher organisms.  Tier
three considers mutagenic compounds from tier one
and two and is designed to give quantitative
results about mutagenic effects on mammals under
defined use conditions.

     NIEHS is supporting EMIC to compile the past
and present literature on mutagenesis testing of
energy related pollutants.  This information is then
processed into EMIC's data bank noting bibliographic
details and keywording of chemicals, organisms, and
systems studied, and is available to investigators
throughout the world.

     Developmental toxicity.  Ongoing studies
include assessment of the effects of environmental
agents on oogenesis and spermatogenesis.  Longer
term objectives  include  a much more  expanded  effort
to  identify environmental factors  which  account for
male and  female  infertility.  Close  working rela-
tionships are being established with  infertility
clinics and scientists working in  the  area of epide-
miology.

     The  NIEHS is seeking to develop mechanisms for
the selection of environmental chemicals  for  terato-
genicity  testing and to  establish  priorities  for
testing.  Standardization of test  protocols is an
important aspect in the  conduct of the actual   test-
ing which is performed by contract.  A new teratol-
ogy information service  is also being designed to
bring together the world's literature on  teratology.
Longer term objectives involve the use of "embryo
culture"  to study the mechanisms of teratogenic
effects and perhaps develop methods to rapidly pre-
dict human teratogens.

     Current studies with DES emphasize the unique
sensitivity of the embryonic period with  regard to
chemical  insults which result in infertility and
perhaps cancer later in  life.  These "biological
timebomb" areas include, in addition to reproductive
and carcinogenic effects, potential toxic effects
on nearly all  biological and physiological func-
tions.   An area which we consider to be of primary
importance relates to the latent effects  of gesta-
tional  chemical  exposure on physiologic functions,
such as cardiovascular and behavioral responses.

     Carcinogenesis.   Laboratory and clinical
studies related to carcinogenesis are described in
the following  section.

     As mentioned previously, bioactive chemical
and physical  agents  from energy production and con-
servation activities can be grouped into  five broad
categories.  These categories are used in the  fol-
lowing account of research highlights.

1.  Gaseous Air Pollutants

     Nitrogen dioxide and ozone.   Important contri-
butions are being made by a number of NIEHS-
supported investigators  toward understanding the
etiology, pathogenesis,  and other relations of NCL
and 0- to pulmonary and  extrapulmonary disorders.
Rats exposed intermittently for a lifetime to 15
ppm NCL develop a chronic obstructive lung disease
with features much like  those of human emphysema.
0, was shown to be approximately 20 times more
injurious than NO,,.  The disease it induces is simi-
lar to that caused by N02> but there are  certain
significant differences.  Insight  into the molecu-
lar bases of cellular injury is being provided by a
number of investigators.

     In addition to effects directly on lung tissue,
a number of studies show that 0, and N0?  produce
other kinds of toxicity  as well:  Macrophages are
damaged by exposure to 25 ppm N0? which reduces the
in vivo bactericidal  capacity of alveolar macro-
phages.  Thus, in addition to direct damage to lung
tissues,  individuals exposed to the gases may
become prone to infectious pulmonary diseases.

     Sulfur oxides.   A considerable body  of evidence
suggests that there may  be discernible human  health
effects from exposure to concentrations of sulfur
oxides approximating the current standards.

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    Several projects are being supported by  NIEHS
to gain further information about the effects of
sulfur oxides on selected populations and the dis-
tribution, fate, and reactions of sulfur oxides in
the body.  A study was initiated this year on the
deposition and effects of sized sulfuric acid drop-
lets in the lungs.  Epidemiologic data  are being
collected from selected sites to determine the
effects of particulates and sulfur oxides in  com-
bination on adults and children.

    Automobile exhaust.  Epidemiological and aero-
metric studies have been conducted over the past
several years.  Personal monitoring of  carbon monox-
ide, nitrogen dioxide, respirable mass  total  parti-
culates, and respirable mass  lead particulates  is
being  initiated.
    The second year of environmental sampling  of
tunnel-turnpike workers is  now  being  completed.  The
environmental measurements  focused mainly on  the
toll booth  operators' exposure  to automobile
exhaust at  three  toll plazas.   Air sampling  is  con-
ducted for  nitrogen dioxide,  carbon monoxide, total
hydrocarbons as methane, respirable and total sus-
pended particulates, and lead in  both the total and
respirable  fractions.  As yet,  no significant dif-
ferences  in mortality, pulmonary  disorders,  or  car-
diovascular disease pf these  workers  are  being  evi-
dent when compared to controls  exposed  to lower
levels of automobile exhausts.
     Carbon monoxide.  NIEHS  supports a substantial
number of epidemiological and basic  studies  designed
to  provide  a better understanding of  the  extent and
nature of the  hazard presented  by inhalation  of car-
bon monoxide alone and  in combination with  other
toxic agents.
     Many aspects of carbon monoxide  distribution
and intoxication  are being  studied.   It is  generally
agreed that one of the more important effects is  the
reduction  in oxygen-carrying  capacity of  the red
blood cells which results from preferential  binding
of  CO to  the oxygen binding sites of  hemoglobin.
Epidemiological studies of  cigarette  smokers  show
that 35 to  40  percent of  the  hemoglobin may be  in
the form  of carboxyhemoglobin during  periods of
heavy smoking.
     The  consequence of reduced oxygen  carrying
capacity  is variable from  individual  to individual
and is related to other disorders.   Patients with
circulatory insufficiencies and with  various forms
of  anemia are  most  susceptible to physiological
disorders  resulting from  oxygen insufficiency,  and
data are  now available  which  show significantly
higher mortality  rates  in  smokers with circulatory
and blood disorders.
     CO effects other  than  a  simple  reduction of
oxygen-carrying capacity  of the blood are also
becoming  evident.  It  is  being shown  that CO com-
bines with  muscle myoglobin,  cytochrome oxidase,
cytochromes A3 and  P-450,  catalase  and peroxidases,
i.e.,  many  ceflular constituents containing the
heme moiety.   There are also possible behavioral
effects of  CO  at  low  levels.   Long-term studies
suggest that moderate  CO  levels eventually lead to
effects on  the central  nervous system which may not
be  due simply  to  the  decreased oxygen-carrying
capacity  of the blood.
                                                   87
     Benzene and other solvents.  It is estimated
that more than 2 million people are exposed to ben-
zene and related solvents to a substantial degree.
NIEHS supports several projects toward localizing
and understanding the toxic action of industrial
solvents.  Metabolic studies in mice suggest that
one major metabolite, e.g., phenol, is formed from
benzene in the body and that the compound is
rapidly excreted in the urine as the sulfate or
glucuronide conjugate.  Metabolism is stimulated by
pretreatment with microsomal enzyme inducers, such
as phenobarbitol, or by benzene per se.

2.  Suspended Particulates (Aerosols)

     Model studies.  Because of the ubiquity of
hazardous aerosols and their importance  in man's
health, a great deal of effort is being  supported to
elucidate the interrelationships of particle size,
composition, and deposition to various respiratory
disorders.

     Particle clearance.  While much of  the particle
deposits in~ the lungs are cleared within 24 hours of
exposure, considerable material remains  uncleared
for prolonged periods thereafter and can be detected
in the lungs even a year later.  It is also being
shown for the case of iron oxide that residues  of
the inhaled particles subsequently become stored as
hemosiderin-like deposits in macrophages widely dis-
tributed throughout reticuloendothelial  tissues of
the body.  In the lungs, particle clearance was
found to occur predominately by way of the bronchial
passages.  Novel approaches are being developed in
attempts to standardize mammalian test systems  for
the study of respiratory tract clearance.
     Recent studies have shown that many toxic  trace
elements and compounds such as lead, cadmium, zinc,
bromide, sulfate, and benzopyrene are present in
respirable aerosols.  It is also being shown that
trace metals are extracted more efficiently by  the
body from these small respirable aerosols.  Finally,
airborne particles most likely to adsorb materials
are of a size that is most likely to penetrate  into
the deep lung.
     Effects of inhaled particles on macrophages.
Most respiratory disease is either initiated by, or
at least complicated by, the inhalation  of particles
and gases.  Emphysema, bronchitis, pneumoconiosis,
neoplasms, and infectious diseases all  may be conse-
quent to inhalation of obnoxious particles.  The
severity of resultant disease may be influenced by
the number of particles deposited as well  as their
site of deposition and their ultimate fate.  The
pulmonary macrophage is being emphasized since it is
a central figure not only in clearance processes but
in the pathogenesis of some lung diseases as well.

     Pathogenesis and epidemiological studies.
Epidemiological studies on industrial dusts such as
granite and talc have been underway for several
years.  A prospective study of 633 granite workers
exposed to quartz dust is in process.  It is found,
as might be expected, that those workers who have
the greatest exposure have the greatest loss of  pul-
monary function.

     Asbestos.  Perhaps the most important particu-
lates from the standpoint of numbers of people seri-
ously exposed is asbestos.  Intensive and wide-

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 ranging  investigations  into this problem continue by
 a  number of  investigators.  A major portion of this
 work  is  devoted to obtaining information concerning
 aspects  of environmental asbestos disease, including
 disease  associated with household exposure, disease
 among  residents living  near asbestos plants, and
 disease  in the general  community.  An important
 aspect of the studies on asbestos and other particu-
 lates  as well is the relationship of cigarette smok-
 ing to disease risk.  A significantly increased risk
 of death of  bronchogenic carcinoma among asbestos
 workers  is being well established.

      Soot, carbon black, and benzo(a)pyrene.  Sev-
 eral  projects are being supported on the relation-
 ships  between soot and  associated benzo(a)pyrene
 and other carcinogens.  These studies assume
 increased importance in the use of low grade fossil
 fuels, especially in conjunction with cigarette
 smoking.
      Some calculations  are already being completed,
 and results  indicate that heavy occupational expo-
 sure  to  benzo(a)pyrene  is associated with increased
 mortality from lung cancer.  Of course, since the
 fumes  from hot pitch contain various other agents
 in addition  to benzo(a)pyrene, the findings in this
 study  could  be due to one or more of the other fac-
 tors  or  to their combined effect.

     An  extensive study of the health status of
 printing trades workers, exposed to carbon black
 (as well as  other substances) is being initiated.
 Simultaneously, an epidemiological mortality study
 is being conducted.  It is expected that these
 studies will provide information useful  in the
 assessment of carbon particles in other trades and
 occupations  and in the  general  population.

     Coal dust.   Extensive studies on the pulmonary
 effects of coal  dust and the role of specific com-
 ponents of the dust in the etiology and pathogenesis
 of pneumocom'osis are being conducted.   Correlates
 betweem the  incidence of pneumocom'osis in miners in
 Pennsylvania and Utah show that the former is signi-
 ficantly higher, which is in accord with the high
 nickel and iron  contents of the coal.

 3.   Industrial  By-products and Intermediates

     Though a multitude of chemical  agents may be
viewed as peripherally energy-related,  a few
directly associated with manufacture of insulation,
use of heat transfer agents, and power  transmission
are of particular concern.

     Since many  polymers are used in energy related
activities,  intensive studies are underway in a
number of laboratories of monomeric  intermediates.
These  include bis(chloromethyl)ether and its homo-
logues, vinyl chloride,  and other chlorinated
alkanes and alkenes,  certain amides, diisocyanates,
styrene,  and related compounds.

     Bis(ch1oromethyl)ether.   Bis(chloromethyl)-
ether  has been  identified as a  potent carcinogen  for
skin.   Its high  activity for the lung is also demon-
strated.   Cases  of lung cancer  are now  being found
 in  industries using this compound.   An  industry-
wide epidemiological  study to develop definitive
 information on  the health consequences  of its indus-
 trial   use is being conducted.
     Vinyl chloride and related compounds.  Health
effects of vinyl chloride are being investigated in
several laboratories.  Over 1,200 polymerization
workers employed by three companies in the United
States are being examined.

     Studies on structure-activity relationships of
chlorinated alkylating agents to carcinogenicity
have led to identification of important parameters
in carcinogenic activity.  It might soon be possible
to predict with some confidence the carcinogenicity
of compounds within this class.  Studies concerning
hepatic angiosarcomas are being extended.

     Studies are also being initiated on the muta-
genicity of vinyl chloride.  It is found that the
mutagenic effect of vinyl chloride is enhanced by
mouse or rat liver extracts.  However, extracts
from mice pretreated with vinyl chloride or with
the potent enzyme inducer polychlorinated biphenyls
are no more effective in enhancing VC dependent
mutagenesis than extracts from untreated animals.

     The hazard of vinyl chloride has led to
increased concern about many related haloalkanes
and alkenes.  The recent announcement of carcino-
genicity of trichloroethylene in animals has raised
the question whether this potential carcinogen
increases cancer risk in humans.

     Styrene oxide has been found to be mutagenic
in animals.  It is under further study, along with
its metabolites.
     Toluenediisocyanate.  Studies on molded foam
workers are being continued.  The data now show
that there is a significant decrease in the venti-
latory capacity of all workers in the plant during
the working day.

     Nitroso compounds.  Because of the mutagenicity
of N-nitroso compounds as a class and the possible
formation of such compounds from nitrogen oxides,
many projects dealing witji these compounds are being
supported by the NIEHS.  Individuals may be exposed
to nitroso-compounds through a wide variety of pos-
sible sources.  In each of the exposure circum-
stances described, evaluation is being made of the
number of individuals potentially exposed, and of
possible epidemiological procedures for further
studies.

     Polychlorinated biphenyls.  Polychlorinated
biphenyls (PCBs) are a group of chlorinated organic
compounds, of which some 200 homologues are known.
About 100 have been identified.  Mixtures of PCBs
are important industrial products.  Prior to the
environmental concern about the persistence and
accumulation of the compounds, they were used in a
wide variety of applications in commerce.  However,
beginning in 1971, their use was restricted.

     Research in several laboratories designed to
further our knowledge of the persistence and metab-
olism of the PCBs, the mechanisms of hepatotoxicity
and carcinogenesis, and the mechanisms of long-term
reproductive effects is being supported.

4.  Trace Metals

     Trace metals constitute a major class of  pollu-
tants.  Though the major emphasis  is on  lead  and
mercury and their compounds, investigations  are

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increasing on cadmium, chromium,  copper, manganese,
arsenic, and some of the rare earth elements.
     Mercury.  Studies o-f human occupational expo-
sure  to elemental mercury vapor are continuing.
Following almost complete retention of vapor in  the
lung,  it is excreted from the body slowly with a
biological half time of about 58  days.  This indi-
cates  that workers occupationally exposed jto the
vapor continue to accumulate the  metal for about
one year.  From the practical point of view, blood
and urinary mercury levels would  not  be -a useful
index of exposure until the worker had been
employed for one year.

     Studies on volunteers also reveal a new path-
way of excretion of mercury in man.   Significant
amounts  (about 7 percent of the inhaled dose) are
excreted from the lungs as volatile mercury.  The
data  suggest that measurement of  exhaled mercury
could be used as an index of recent exposure to
mercury.
     Prenatal low dose methyl mercury  in the chicken
and rat produces lasting effects.  Exposure early  in
development  renders the chick more sensitive to
chemically and electrically induced seizures and
less  capable of learning tasks when compared to  con-
trols or older embryos injected with  the same or
lower doses  at a later stage of development.  The
effects of mercury on the cytology of the central
and peripheral nervous system is  being studied in
mamma 1s.
     Attempts are being made to define further the
effects of congenital chronic low-dose exposure  of
the rat fetus.  During the past year, testing of a
group of adolescent Rhesus monkeys' given small
daily doses  of methylmercury to establish a chronic
dose-response baseline was completed. All of the
animals were tested on a behavioral task which is
sensitive to changes  in the peripheral visual
fields and to eye-hand coordination.   Further,
their general cage behavior was observed, and move-
ment  disorders,.when  they occur,  were documented
with  videotape.  These studies  indicate that chronic
exposure for up to one and one  half years -at blood
levels below 2.0 ppm  do not produce obvious symp-
toms  in adolescent Rhesus monkeys.  When the blood
levels were  gradually raised between  2.0 and 2.5
ppm,  all of  the animals exhibited a rapid onset  of
neurological symptoms.  Although  the  exact constel-
lation of disorders differed somewhat between
animals, there were radical changes-in emotional
behavior, anorexia, loss of fine  control of the
digits,  and  inefficient mastication.
     Lead.   Lead in its various environmental forms
continues to be a major concern,  and  numerous pro-
jects are supported by NIEHS on various aspects  of
the problem.
     Attempts are being supported to  develop tech-
niques for measurements of free erythrocyte porphy-
rins  (FEP) on blood samples collected on filter
paper and evaluate the clinical significance of
FEP elevation in regard to both Pb  intoxication  and
Fe deficiency anemia.  The molecular  mechanisms  of
protoporphyrin binding in  both  Pb intoxication and
erythropoietic protoporphyria  is  also to be studied.

     Studies on the role of lead  in brain dysfunc-
tion  are being supported.  Under  conditions of
                                                   39
 chronic  ingestion  of  relatively  low levels  of lead
 from  birth  to  adulthood,  leading  to increases in
 brain  lead  content and  altered states  of behavior,
 dopamine metabolism is  either unchanged  or  partially
 slowed.  Norepinephrine turnover  is increased by  as
 much  as  30  percent and  leaves the  brain  14  percent
 more  rapidly  in  lead-treated animals than in  con-
 trols.   Whether  the increased turnover of nor-
 epinephrine is causative  or associative  to  the
 experimental  conditions under study is unknown.
 Effects of  chronic, low-level lead  exposure on the
 behavior of developing  rats is being examined.
      Exposure  of newborn  mice to  lead  in the  milk
-they  receive  during nursing from mothers given lead
 in  their drinking  water results in  a hyperactivity
 that  persists  for  extended periods  of  life.   These
 hyperactive mice exhibit  no other  overt  symptoms of
 lead  intoxication.  Thus, this type of behavioral
 abnormality represents  a  very sensitive  indicator
 of  lead  toxicity.   As with hyperactivity in chil-
 dren,  this  animal  model of hyperactivity responds
 paradoxically  to amphetamine and phenobarbital.
 Attempts are  being  made to determine the lead levels
 and stages  of  development of the rat at which the
 brain  is sensitive  to damage, using both biochemical
 and behavioral parameters.
    .  Trace  metals  affect  experimental  infections.
 Administration of  lead  augments the severity  of
 Candida and Listeria  infections in  mice.   No  such
 augmentation of  staphylococcal  infections is  found.
 These  findings occur  at various lead levels,
 including those  comparable to blood concentrations
 found  in man.

     A number of investigators are  attempting to
 design agents  useful  for  clearance  of heavy metals
 from  the body and  therapy of intoxications.    Sev-
 eral classes of  possible  heavy metal binding  agents
 are being examined  by use of a computer   Each
 class  is based on  a naturally occurring compound.
 The most interesting  class so far has been the
 steroids.

     Cadmium.  Cadmium  is under investigation in
 several projects supported by NIEHS.  Attempts are
 being made  to develop a clearer picture of body
 levels of cadmium  relative to specific disorders,
 using  the rat as a  model.   Blood pressure of  male
 rats on a basal  diet  containing a large amount of
 Cd  (150 ppm)  increased  gradually from about 115
 mmHg to 150 mmHg after  16 weeks exposure.
      In addition to effects on blood pressure, it
 is  found that Cd affects  the humoral immune system,
 and the effects  are detectable well before any overt
 signs of Cd toxicity.    The implications of  these
 events in the breakdown of resistence to infectious
 diseases are profound and are being investigated
 further.

     The teratogenic  effects of mercurials, lead,
 chromium, and ytterbium are also being explored.
 The major manifestation of embryonic damage with
 inorganic mercury  includes an increased  resorption
 rate as well as  an  increased frequency of small,
 retarded, and edematous embryos.   Comparative
 studies on  the teratogenicity of chromium and lead
 show that the metals  have similar effects and that
 mixtures of the  two are additive.

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90
5.  Physical Factors

     There is growing concern about the effects  of
noise, microwaves, laser radiation, light,  and other
physical factors on human health.   The many ramifi-
cations of physical factors on health remains a
relatively little studied area.

     Heat.  Attempts are being made to assess heat
stress.  Effort is being devoted to understanding
the physical characterization of the thermal  envi-
ronment in terms of a useful index of heat  stress
and of heat strain.

     Light.  NIEHS is continuing to support studies
of effects of physical factors on  the endocrine
system.  The influence of light on hormonally-
controlled processes in mammals is being explored.
The studies are concerned with the basic molecular
events through which neuroendocrine effects are
initiated and carried out.  These  studies provide
probably the first available information on the
action spectrum for any nondermatological or non-
visual effects of light on intact  animals.

     Studies involving laser radiation are  in prog-
ness.  Laser radiation has potentially significant
therapeutic applications, but may  also be a health
hazard.  Research is concerned with establishing an
understanding of the mechanisms and consequences of
laser excitation at the molecular  level.  Work has
recently begun on the laser photolysis of visual
pigments and related compounds.

     Other studies are continuing  on several
aspects of the biologic effects of light.  Concern
is growing recently about possible alteration of
the earth's atmosphere with resultant changes in
the quality of light reaching the  earth's surface.
In addition, there is concern about the plethora of
photoactive chemicals to which the population as
a whole is being exposed.

     Skin cancer can now be induced reliably in
animals by use of the new equipment and techniques.
The techniques also provide predictive capability
with respect to the consequences of diminishing
atmospheric ozone and the interaction of light and
chemicals in photocarcinogenesis of the skin.

     Noise.  Investigations on the ototoxic effects
of lead and mercury in monkey are  being supported.
It is being demonstrated that ototoxicity of lead
is not very great even at levels so high as to
cause debilitation and death.  Recent work on oto-
toxicity of methylmercury reveals  severe changes in
auditory processes, and the hearing losses  extend
well  into the middle (4,000 H )  and high tone
(16,000 H ) regions of the auoMo spectrum,  with  some
threshold shifts greater than 85dB.

     Electromagnetic fields.  The  increased use  of
nuclear power plants will undoubtedly be the
initial approach toward meeting our energy  require-
ments without further dependence on oil.  Associ-
ated with these nuclear power plants will be trans-
mission lines with projected voltages of 1100-1200
kilovolts (Kv).  Most high voltage transmission
lines used today are of the order  of 300-500 Kv.
Commercial power systems in the U. S. operate at a
frequency of 60 Hz.  The most often reported effects
of electromagnetic radiation has been on the central
nervous system.  Effects of electromagnetic fields,
similar in character and intensity to those result-
ing from high voltage transmission lines, on the
central nervous system of mammals are being investi-
gated.  The effects on behavior are being studied
and correlated with measured changes in brain
rhythms and neuronal membrane structure.
     The highlights obviously represent only part
of the NIEHS research activities in the areas of
environmental  health science related either directly
or indirectly to the potential  health effects asso-
ciated with the development and use of domestic
energy sources.   However, they do provide some  indi-
cation, however sketchy, of the spectrum of research
activities and interests of the NIEHS in this impor-
tant new health area.

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                                                                                                          91
      ERDA PROGRAM TO EVALUATE HEALTH-EFFECTS
        OF NON-NUCLEAR ENERGY TECHNOLOGIES
                George E.  Stapleton
            Division of  Biomedical and
              Environmental Research
   Energy Research and Development Administration
              Washington,  D.C.   20545
INTRODUCTION

     Prior  to  the  establishment  of  the Energy
Research  and Development  Administration,  most of
the health  effects  program  resided  in the Atomic
Energy Commission  and  encompassed primarily an
evaluation  of  potential health problems associated
with all  aspects of the nuclear  fuel  cycle from
extraction  to  processing  to end  use and ultimate
disposal  of radioactive materials.  This  program
is continuing  under ERDA  but is  not to be the sub-
ject of this presentation.

     Rapid  expansion of research and  development
under the ERDA plan is aimed at  providing a number
of choices  for energy  production from sources of
non-renewable  energy that still  exist in abundance
while at  the same  time maintaining  the options for
use of renewable sources.   Heavy emphasis for the
near-term is placed on fossil fuel  sources.  It
is recognized  by those responsible  for the massive
chemical  and engineering  development  to provide
substitute  fuels that  some  major problems at ad-
vanced stages  of development will be  possible
restrictions imposed by new or modified health and
environmental  protection  standards  and guidelines.
It is now possible  to  provide the required quanti-
tative health  effects  information in  concert with
large-scale industrial development  and in a time
frame consistent with  it.   This  is  the basis for
the program described  herein.

     The  nature of  the fossil fuels program planned
by ERDA provides an opportunity  to  treat  the
potential health problems associated  with a variety
of chemical agents  common to a number of  processes,
for example, trace  and heavy metals,  in a generic
sense.  However, we must  consider the unique
health problems associated  with  each  major techno-
logical process as  decisions are made to  expand
from bench-top, to  pilot  and demonstration plant
before full commercialization.   A proper  balance
must be maintained  in  programming for research
that addresses the  generic  problems associated with
emissions and  waste and those which address the
product and byproducts of a specific  process
marked for  rapid expansion  to commercialization.
The program now in  place  addresses  potential
health problems associated  with  several high
priority  coal  liquefaction  and gasification pro-
cesses.   The ERDA  national  laboratories provide the
mechanism for  organizing  large multidisciplinary
efforts ranging from sophisticated  analytical
chemistry to in vivo evaluation  of  dose-effect
relationship in model  experimental  animals.
Moreover, the ERDA-regional energy  research
centers involved in the chemical  and  engineering
aspects of coal and shale conversion  at  the  labor-
atory and small pilot plant scale provide much
analytical chemistry as well as backup samples  for
biological testing.  Some of the  ERDA laboratories
have developed expertise in specific  disciplinary
areas such as inhalation toxicology,  aerosol
physics and chemistry and in vivo metabolism and
fate of toxic agents.  These laboratories are
conducting work in these specific disciplines to
answer problems related to coal, combustion and
conversion and shale oil technologies.

TECHNICAL DISCUSSION

     The number and variety of potentially toxic
chemical agents to which both occupational groups
and segments of the general population can be
exposed as a result of development  of large-scale
fossil energy conversion facilities is enormous.
Many of these agents are-encountered  in  a number
of ways, for example, as gaseous  pollutants,  com-
bined with .respirable particulates, in process
and waste water, in waste residues  or in products
or byproducts of most of the planned  processes
for 'production of synthetic fuels from coal  or  oil
shale.  In situ processing of fossil  fuels can
overcome these problems but it is unlikely that
large-scale commercialization of  in situ process-
ing will be feasible in the near-term.

     Large-scale animal bioassay  for  toxicity as
used today cannot provide a useful  strategy  to
provide evaluation of the numerous  individual
chemical agents for the variety of  damaging
effects they might produce.  Fortunately, the past
several years has seen the development of a
battery of rapid in vitro and in  vivo biological
screening techniques which can provide presumptive
identification of carcinogenic and mutagenic
agents.  By use of such screens it  is now possible
to prioritize chemical agents and thus drastically
reduce the number which must be subjected to  the
more elaborate, expensive and time-consuming
animal bioassays to provide dose-effect  relation-
ships for mutagenesis and carcinogenesis.  These
rapid microbial and multitier screening'  methods
combined with sophisticated analytical chemistry
constitute Phase 1 of the ERDA health effects
research program.

     Although a number of screening methods  are
available to provide presumptive  identification of
mutagens and carcinogens, there are very few
reliable or rapid methods that can  be applied to
either human or animal populations  as early  indi-
cators of physiological damage or the progression
of an already induced disease state.  Availability
of such early indicators would be a tremendous
advantage in human clinical or epidemiological
studies as well as in experimental  toxicological
studies.  These efforts a.re now an  important part
of the energy related programs of NIEHS, ERDA and
EPA.

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92
     At present, there is no simple and straight-
forward method to derive human risk estimates for
late effects from model experimental animals, or
from rapid in vitro screening methods.  Carefully
conducted dose-effect studies on several animal
species plus accurately determined information on
dose to the tissue at risk and innovative theoreti-
cal modelling appear to be the only plausible
approach.  A coupling of such efforts with whatever
human clinical and epidemiological data that exist
or become available comprise a logical approach to
formulation of guidelines or standards for human
exposure.  All health agencies fund efforts in
one or another or all of these aspects of research
for pathophysiological, teratological, mutagenic
and carcinogenic effects of energy-related chemical
pollutants.

     Ultimately a solution to some of the problems
we presently encounter in attempting to extrapolate
experimental data to man will come from basic
understanding of both the fundamental molecular
interactions that lead to cellular damage and the
repair and recovery processes that compensate for
the initial damage.  Such efforts should constitute
a fair share of any "balanced plan" to evaluate
the health effects of chemical pollutants.  It is
also important to recognize that such studies have
been and will continue to supply new useful systems
for ''rapid" screening of environmental pollutants.

PROGRAM DISCUSSION

     Interagency funding in FY 1976 coupled with
reprogramming efforts in the health program of
ERDA permitted initiation and growth of major
activities addressing the problems of the non-
nuclear energy technologies of ERDA.

     Figure 1 describes the ERDA strategy for
evaluation of the potential hazard of a large
number and variety of potentially hazardous agents
to which segments of the occupational and general
population might be exposed in the course of
development and commercialization of advanced
fossil fuel conversion facilities.  The following
elements are shown and correspond closely to the
main health objectives in the Interagency Working
Group Report'- ' often referred to as the King-Muir
Report.

1.  Chemical identification of chemical agents
    present.
2.  Bioidentification of presumptive toxic agents.
3.  Determination of the dose-effect relations
    for identified toxic agents.
4.  Theoretical and experimental modelling to
    facilitate extrapolation of animal data to man.
5.  Use of experimental information to predict
    risk estimates for man.

     Two research elements are shown that relate
to the dose-effect effort, namely, (a) metabolism
and fate of toxic agents in experimental animals
and in man as tissue samples bec'ome available,
which relate the local dose to tissues at risk;
and (b)  development and use of sensitive and
early indicators of tissue damage which relates
                                                        directly to early identification of  toxic  effects,

                                                        CHEMICAL IDENTIFICATION

                                                        1.  Program Discussion

                                                            Major programs are underway  at ERDA energy
                                                        centers to identify and  quantitate trace and heavy
                                                        metals and organic compounds  in  process streams,
                                                        products, byproducts, and aqueous and  solid resi-
                                                        dues and effluents of laboratory and pilot plant
                                                        facilities involved in synthetic fuel  production
                                                        from coal and oil shale.  ERDA National Labora-
                                                        tories and Energy Centers collaborate  in measure-
                                                        ments as well as development  of  advanced analytical
                                                        methods and systems.  These facilities  also provide
                                                        crude and separated fractions of product and waste
                                                        for biological testing.

                                                        2.  Projection

                                                            As the bioassay programs  expand  there will be
                                                        a need for large-scale preparation and  standardi-
                                                        zation of isolated and purified  samples for bio-
                                                        logical testing.  We have projected  this need as
                                                        well as one that involves a development program in
                                                        analytical chemistry to  provide  more sensitive and
                                                        rapid analysis for trace organics and  inorganics
                                                        in tissue residues and body fluids.

                                                        BIOIDENTIFICATION OF TOXIC AGENTS

                                                        1.  Program Discussion

                                                            Major programs are underway  to perfect and
                                                        apply rapid in vitro and in vivo methods to identi-
                                                        fy carcinogenic and mutagenic agents in coal and
                                                        oil shale synthetic products, byproducts and resi-
                                                        dues.  In vitro systems  utilize  organisms which
                                                        range from bacteriophage, through bacteria, to
                                                        mammalian and human cell transformation systems
                                                        including in vivo transplantation to confirm cell
                                                        transformation.  For mutagenesis screening one
                                                        large mutagenesis testing laboratory has been set
                                                        up at Oak Ridge National Laboratory which utilizes
                                                        a multitier system ranging from  bacteria, to
                                                        Drosophila, mammalian cells to specific locus and
                                                        somatic cell mutations in mice.   In  addition, a
                                                        number of cell systems are being developed using
                                                        fast-flow fluorometry to detect  chromosomal changes
                                                        and sperm cell morphological  changes which may be
                                                        applied to exposed animal and human  populations.

                                                        2.  Projection

                                                            It is important to note that rapid  screening
                                                        systems developed for mutagenesis screening, espe-
                                                        cially bacterial and bacteriophage systems, are
                                                        more reliable indicators of carcinogenic activity
                                                        than for mutagenic activity.  Much more effort  is
                                                        required by all agencies to perfect  simple rapid
                                                        screens for the variety  or kinds of  damage to  the
                                                        genetic material that may be  expressed  as muta-
                                                        genesis.  ERDA and NIEHS conduct efforts aimed  at
                                                        perfecting systems capable of providing rapid
                                                        screening for mutagenesis.  There is a  real need
                                                        for continuous exchange  of information  between
                                                        these agencies and ultimately collaborative

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interagency  efforts  to  ensure that promising leads
are adequately  funded.

DOSE-EFFECT  RELATIONSHIP  FOR PRODUCTION OF MUTA-
GENIC,  CARCINOGENIC,  TERATOGENIC,  AND PATHOPHYSIO-
LOGICAL EFFECTS

1,   Program Discussion

     Major programs  have  been initiated to obtain
information  on  acute,  subacute and latent effects
of gaseous and  particulate effluents from coal
combustion and  conversion facilities.  Heavy empha-
sis is  placed on aerosol  sulfates  at one laboratory
and particulate-sulfate interactions as well as
fly-ash and  trace and heavy metals at another.  The
nature  of  the pollutants  predetermines the primary
interest in  inhalation problems and production of
subacute and latent  diseases to the respiratory
tract.

     At Oak  Ridge a  large program  is in place to
evaluate the carcinogenic effect of organic and
inorganic chemical agents encountered at all
stages  of coal  liquefaction and gasification faci-
lities.  These  studies involve the sequential
strategy described earlier, namely, rapid in vitro
and in  vivo  screening,  in vitro and in vivo cell
and organ culture and finally long term dose-effect
studies on mice and  other short-lived rodents.

     Most of the efforts  carry with them the
necessary elements of metabolism and in vivo fate
to define the tissue'dose-effect relationship.

     At Oak  Ridge National Laboratory, a complete
mutagenesis  testing  unit  is also in place which
includes dose-effect studies for specific locus and
chromosomal  mutations in mice.  As mentioned pre-
viously, the testing unit includes most of the se-
quential elements in the  ERDA health effects plan.

     Small programs  are underway in several labora-
tories  to evaluate teratogenic potential of heavy
metals  and hydrocarbons associated with fossil
fuel technologies.

2.   Projection

     Most of the programs described are in their
infancy in that the  large integrated programs in
several laboratories have progressed only to the
stage of large-scale screening. As new agents
are identified  as presumptive carcinogens or muta-
gens they must  be demonstrated to  show such acti-
vity in the  more elaborative, expensive and time
consuming animal bioassays.  Expansion of these
efforts will coincide with the reduction in some
of the  large-scale studies of the  same type pre-
viously devoted exclusively to problems in nuclear
energy  technology.

     It is recognized by  all agencies involved in
evaluation of environmental pollutants that poten-
tial synergism  exists among mixed  pollutants in
"real life"  exposure of the human  population.  This
type of interaction  is  not easily  evaluated in any
of the  rapid in vitro screening techniques, and
thus compounds  the time and expense of large-scale
                                                   93
animal bioassay.  Development of new  innovative
methods to obtain such information  should  receive
high priority in the interagency plan and  a  speci-
fic interagency task force should address  this need.

THEORETICAL AND EXPERIMENTAL MODELLING TO  IMPROVE
PREDICTION OF HUMAN RISK ESTIMATES

1.   Program Discussion

     A large part of the ERDA program which  pre-
sently addresses health problems associated  with
nuclear energy has progressed to the  stage of
theoretical and experimental modelling.  Much of
the emphasis is on prediction of life-shortening
and carcinogenicity at very low doses and  predic-
tions of risk to man from information obtained
with experimental animals.

     Likewise, theoretical and experimental  model-
ling for human mutagenesis is a key element  in the
ERDA program with major emphasis on extrapolation
of animal data to man at low doses.

     Several programs have been initiated  to devel-
op the same type of effort for chemical pollutants.
At the present time most of the effort  concerns
the temporal aspects of tumorigenesis for  known
hydrocarbon carcinogens, and attempts to define the
role of initiation and promotion in tumorigenesis.

2.   Projection

     Much more effort should be made  in both theo-
retical and experimental modelling not  just  for
carcinogenesis but for mutagenesis and  pathophysio-
logical effects as well.  Most of the productive
efforts are multidisciplinary in that teams  of
mathematicians and biologists are required.  We
are beginning to receive proposals from multi-
disciplinary teams in the National Laboratories
and Universities and should project funding  of
select ones that address health problems relevant
to developing energy technologies.

INTERAGENCY PARTICIPATION

     A substantial portion of the ERDA non-nuclear
health studies program was initiated  with  inter-
agency supplemental funds.  Most of the work ini-
tiated is conducted in the national laboratories
with about seven percent conducted  in universities.
About 50 percent of the interagency funds  will
appear in the ERDA base-budget in FY  1977.

RESOURCE ALLOCATION

     ERDA had a small effort in chemical mutagenesis
and carcinogenesis for several years  prior to the
interagency energy supplement.  The interagency
funding coupled with reprogramming  in efforts sup-
ported by the base program in FY 1975 augmented  the
health studies substantially.  The  total health
studies budget devoted to non-nuclear energy tech-
nologies is shown below ($ x

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 94
     FY  1974
FY 1975
                                       FY 1976
 Base  Interagency  Base Interagency Base Interagency

 0.8        0       8.0      6.0     17.0     2.6
 CONCLUSIONS
                                           .(1)
      The  Interagency Working Group Reportv~' pro-
 vided a. first  step  in interagency planning to
 provide health effects information required for
 large-scale  technological development to accomplish
 national  independence for energy sources in the
 near and  intermediate term.

      Within  ERDA, with the help of interagency
 supplemental funds,  a large-scale research effort
 has been  initiated  which addresses primarily the
 potential health  problems associated with advanced
 and emerging energy technologies notably those
 involved  in  synthetic fuel production from fossil
 energy resources.

      The  ERDA  plan  for evaluation of health impact
 of new energy  technologies and  the strategy for
 implementation of research,  while sequential in
 nature, corresponds  in a general way to that pro-
 posed in  the Interagency Working Group Report.(1) .

      Most of the  ERDA effort is made in the nation-
 al laboratories with emphasis on integrated efforts
 encompassing several or  all  of  the key objectives
 set out in the ERDA  plan.
     The  interaction and collaboration  of  the  ERDA
National  Laboratories and Energy Centers provides
an information  exchange and a recognition  of real-
life problems associated with advanced  technology,

     The  ERDA health effects program  represents a
large effort still in its infancy and will require
major expansion if it is to supply  the  information
required  by a rapidly developing industry.

     There are  missing gaps in ERDA's program which
must be filled.   Likewise there is  a  great  need
for "new" experimental and theoretical  approaches
to accomplish the ultimate goals of the national
energy program.

REFERENCES

1.  The Report  of the Interagency Working  Group on
    "Health and  Environmental Effects of Energy
    Use," November 1974.

2.  National Plan for Energy Research,  Development
    and Demonstration, .Vol. 1 and Vol.  2 (ERDA-48).

3.  The Balanced Program Plan of the  Division of
    Biomedical  and Environmental Research, Vol. 1
    (in press).
Figure 1.   Research Strategy
                            DEVELOPMENT AND
                             VALIDATION OF
                             RAFI") SCREENS
                                 I
                            BIO-IDENTIFICATION
                              OF PRESUMPTIVE
                            MUTACE;:S-CARCISOCF.N:
                                    METABOLIC
                                   TRANSPORT'AND
                                   MODIFICATION
                                      I
                                   EVALUATION OF
                                    DOSE-EFFECT
                                   RELATIONSHIP
                                                            I
                       THEORETICAL
                       EXPERIMENTAL
                       MODELLING
                       EXTRAPOLATION
  RISK
(ESTIMATES
 FOR MAN
                                                         EARLY INDICATORS
                                                            OF DAMAGE

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                                                                                                         95


                                  DISCUSSIONS TO HEALTH EFFECTS SESSION


     Question:   What  are  the  health affects on a population in a given region of a single installation?
What is  the  value  of  such an  analysis?  Can it be accomplished using a reservoir of 500 people such as
a nursing  home?

     Panel  Response:   The Environmental  Protection Agency plus many other agencies have conducted many
extensive  population  studies  from single sources and multiple sources.  It is very difficult, however,
to dissect the  contribution of one source in any metropolitan area from all the other sources.  As far as
the nursing  home population used as an example of susceptible populations, it was pointed out that there
is a hazard  using  a susceptible population whose disease processes are so far advanced that the incre-
mental  effects  of  environmental factors  may be masked by the natural  processes taking place within the
population.

     Question:   What  current  or proposed programs are there in the area of extrapolation of data from
laboratory experiments to man?

     Panel  Response:   NIH has two programs both related to carcinogenesis, trying to understand the
temporal aspects of tumorigenesis and looking at the actual chemical  dose to the tissues.  The program
is also designed to determine whether a  chemical agent is acting as an initiator or producer of cancer
and other cell  malfunctions.

     Question:   Are there other programs outside the cancer program that are underway that can be used
to extrapolate  effects to man?

     Panel  Response:   The Cancer Institute is very active in extrapolation of data.  There will be a
meeting in March in Pinehurst extrapolating the results of animal studies to man and focusing on carcin-
ogensis and chronic toxicity.  In the area of immunization technology, there are several toxicology
models available that could pertain to extrapolation to man.  Human respiratory diseases are relatable
to environmental factors  under a variety of circumstances.  Potential  differences between laboratory
animals and man, the  different ways various species toxify, detoxify,  or metabolize chemicals will
greatly influence  the ability to extrapolate laboratory data from animal studies to effects on man.
These processes  can also  vary within species either due to genetic background differences or the effects
of other environmental agents which can  modify the basic processes.

     Question:   How would the panel compare the overall impacts on health and environment from under-
ground mining  with strip  mining on a national level?

     Panel  Response:   No  simple answer can be provided.  It is necessary to understand the problems of
each mining method and to make every effort to resolve the problems whatever they may be.

     Question:   Would the panel respond to the general analogy between fuel gasification and petro-
chemical plants  from  the  viewpoint of hazards to the workers?

     Panel  Response:   Both deal with the emissions of polynuclear  aromatics; combining emissions of
TNA's perhaps  with trace  metals plus possibly arsenic and certain sulfur compounds, all of which are
very suspicious  by themselves no matter what the total of interaction  may be.  In addition, there is
concern about  the  gasification process being not very well controlled  at this stage of development.
Accordingly, at  this  stage, additional studies may be necessary to determine or compare the hazards of
emissions  of various  gasification concepts with those of coal gasification process which has much more
data available.  The  gasification processes at this time project carcinogenic risk to workers and per-
haps to general  populations surrounding  that facility until proven otherwise.

     Question:   Are there any studies being conducted which compare the total environmental and health
impact of one  system  versus another all  the way from extraction to the generation of electricity or
steam, such  as  in  the nuclear or coal gasification systems?

     Panel  Response:   A group at Brookhaven National Laboratory is looking at the full cycle of health
problems with  a  variety of different energy alternatives.

     Question:   In view of the rapidly changing social and legal attitudes towards human experimentation,
what are the bans  or  difficulties that are foreseen in future clinical studies selecting human experi-
mental  data  that we must  have?

     Panel  Response:   No  real problem is foreseen -- the attitude and  restraints expresssed by society

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96

 and Congress, is on the balance, quite healthy.  The clinical research has  been  designed  and conducted in
 such a way that they are well within the limits that can be foreseen.  Any  changes  in  legislation  are
 not expected to jeopardize any research planned in this area.

      Question:  What is being done to bring the health effects, environmental effects,  and  the  occupation-
 al effects experts into the early stages of engineering decision-making so  that  effective and meaningful
 trade-offs can be made and still meet the environmental, health, and cost objectives?

      Panel Response:  A strenuous conscious effort is necessary to realize  the need  for such cooperation.
 Dr. Liverman, the Assistant Administrator for Environment arid Safety at ERDA, has principal  responsi-
 bility for insuring this type of cooperation for ERDA and ERDA interagency  projects.   Other  agencies
 realize the cooperative effort required and have made similar assignments.

      Question:  Are there any studies being conducted on secondary effects  such  as from the  bioaccumula-
 tion of heavy metals, organics, etc. through the food chains from coal gasification  plants,  mining opera-
 tions , and so on?

      Panel Response:  In the past, fresh water and ultimately salt water were the dumps for  almost every-
 thing.  This has ceased to a large extent.   Many agencies are now conducting meaningful research in this
 area.  These will be described in subsequent sessions of this conference.

      Question:  Are the human dose-response relationships for radiation and for  fossil  fuel,  particularly
 coal, sufficiently well-known at this point to perform a quantitative social balance between  these two
 technologies for the generation of electricity?

      Panel Response:  The dose-response relationships with respect to radiation  are  very well-known.
 The dose-response relationships with respect to constituents emitting from coal   are  not well  defined,
 albeit there is information available that  can be used to make some decisions.    It is felt at this time
 to be far better to try to make an educated guess than to do nothing.  As  has already been mentioned,
 there are some concerns involved with polyaromatic hydrocarbons some of which are carcinogenic.   Other
 concerns  are the impact of heavy metals on  carcinogens.   This knowledge can be taken in consideration
 in the design of subsystems to remove or mitigate the environmental impact of these  two pollutants.

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                  CHAPTER 5
MARINE ECOLOGICAL EFFECTS

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INTRODUCTION

     The narrow coastal zone fringing the conti-
nents, and the surface layer of the sea, to only a
few meters in depth, comprises less than one per-
cent of the volume of the oceans.  Yet this area,
comprises more than 90 percent of the seas primary
productivity and living biomass.  These land-water-
air interfaces are also sites of disproportionately
high human activity.

     Our ability to alter the environment continues
to increase at a rate that far exceeds our ability
to predict the environmental consequences of our
actions.  As the nation seeks to develop its energy
resources, this capacity for environmental altera-
tion will impact heavily on this sensitive coastal
portion of the marine environment.

     Environmental alteration of the marine environ-
ment results from materials intentionally dumped or
spilled in the oceans, runoff of pollutants from
rivers and streams, and emissions from facilities
located on or close to the coastline.

     Heavy metals and petroleum hydrocarbons are
pollutants known to be entering the marine eco-
system and known to adversely effect marine organ-
isms.

     Spectacular oil spills result in less than two
percent of the global input of petroleum hydrocar-
bons to the oceans.  The major source of this and
other pollutants entering marine waters results
from routine transport of energy related emissions.
Additionally, generation of electric power in
coastal regions will affect the marine environment
through regional increase in water temperatures in
proximity to the plants, and entrainment and
destruction of marine organisms.

     A case can be made that all environmental
changes are not necessarily harmful, nor are all
changes caused by human activities.  Natural
changes in coastal water temperatures have resulted
in corresponding changes to the local marine eco-
system.  Whether such a change is harmful may be a
matter of opinion.   However, it remains that mater-
ials are being released to the marine environment
which are persistent and toxic to marine life.  Our
lack of ability to accurately predict the effect of
these pollutants, leaves the question of whether
the natural functions of the oceans themselves
might be in jeopardy.

     Ecological efforts of several agencies in this
field are concerned with the development of eco-
logical information, impact assessment, and basic
research through a series of in depth studies of
selected oceanic areas.

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                                                                                                         99
       AN  OVERVIEW  -OF ENVIRONMENTAL EFFECTS
                        by
               Dr.  James L.  Liverman

Assistant  Administrator for  Environment and Safety
U.S. Energy Research  and Development Administration

                 Washington, D.C.
     It is  over two years  since the Arab oil  em-
bargo and the  urgency of an energy shortage may be
overshadowed by our celebration of the Bicentennial
Yet as people  "rediscover" America, it may be dif-
ficult to reconcile Jefferson's vision of a "pas-
toral paradise" with the realities of today's in-
dustrial  society.   Since 1776 we have built a
nation and  created a life  style based on seemingly
unlimited resources of land, minerals, and energy,
with little concern for resource allocation or en-
vironmental effects.  Now  the days of a plentiful
energy supply  are  gone and we have a grossly in-
sulted environment which can't stand much more
abuse.

     We have come  to recognize that energy at the
expense of  the environment is no bargain or vice
versa.  Unless we  are willing to accept radical
changes,  a  balance must be achieved between our
need for energy and our concern for the environ-
ment.  ERDA was created to provide the needed new
technology  options which will permit us to meet the
Nation's  technology needs  in an environmentally
acceptable  manner.  Society's decision regarding
the acceptability  of an energy technology will de-
pend largely upon  the availability of environmental,
health, and socioeconomic  data as well as the
status of environmental control technology.  And
the options chosen in 1976 may well have as much
impact on our  future as did our decisions of 1776.

     I don't need  to tell  you that we haven't al-
ways been this cautious in the environmental  area.
It is because  of our previous short sightedness
that we are now discovering and coping with our
earlier haphazard  approach to energy development
and use.   Even though none of us are completely
green in  this  area, take almost any non-nuclear en-
ergy process,  and  our knowledge of its pollutants
and their effects  is limited.  In addition, the
complexity  of  a pollutant's interaction with  eco-
logical systems in the environment, its chemical
alterations and hazardous  effects, have yet to be
determined. Not enough attention has been paid to
these kinds of problems in the past, and we are
just now  determining the magnitude of their impact.

     The  National  Plan which ERDA presented to
Congress  last  year (and which is undergoing re-
vision for  1977) recognizes a number of energy
technological  options which are being developed
for the short, mid, and long term, including coal
gasification,  liquefaction, extraction, and combus-
tion;  oil shale; geothermal; solar; and nuclear
fission and fusion.  A strong integrated technology
program, coupled with an equally strong environ-
mental overview and assessment program, is essen-
tial to ensure that all these options are constant-
ly surveyed for potential environmental and health
impacts and that the right questions are being
asked from the start.  We can't afford any sur-
prises in this area nor can we afford any delays.

     Unfortunately, however, the environment recog-
nizes no neat energy insult categories.  Whether a
pollutant comes from the burning of coal for elec-
tric generation or from the steel-making process,
its effect will be equally devastating to the en-
vironment.  Congress and the OMB recognized long
before the creation of ERDA that solutions to
energy-related environmental concerns could not
come from one federal agency alone.  No one agency
can effectively harness all the talent and re-
sources needed to get the job done.  Instead, by
interacting with one another, by agreeing on joint
projects, and by pooling resources, each concerned
agency can lend its unique talents, perspective
and ongoing efforts to the goal of providing ade-
quate, safe, clean energy to the Nation.

     Let me mention only a few of the issues we
must address collectively:  Obviously, we need to
pursue those technologies which will permit an
immediate major expansion of existing energy re-
sources, such as direct use of coal by utilities,
nuclear converter reactors and enhanced recovery
of oil and gas.  At the same time, we need to em-
phasize conservation in all aspects of our daily
life - in buildings, industry, transportation
efficiency, consumer products, and waste conversion
techniques.

     While all these alternatives are in place at
the present time, there are many potential long
term and cumulative environmental and health
effects which we must continue to evaluate, as well
as new methods to control pollutants and waste
problems.

     In the fossil fuels program, for example, our
health studies must address such areas as epidemio-
logical studies on coal conversion plant workers;
screening for mutagenic, carcinogenic, and embryo-
toxic effects; quantitative assessment of dose-
effect relationships following exposure to fossil
related effluents; and toxicity relationships of
trace elements in the various stages of mammalian
development, to name only a few.

     Our biological programs must further address
the problems associated with inhalation, such as
research on lung cells in culture, the pollutant-
induced changes in lipoproteins and enzymes of
lipid metabolism in lung membranes, and the reac-
,tion of free radicals of polycyclic hydrocarbons
with nucleic acids.

     These programs must be supplemented by re-
search in the environmental areas so that we will
know how fossil-related effluents are transported
and interact within ecological systems on land,  in
the atmosphere, and in aquatic systems, as well  as

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100
 the major pathways of transfer and the rates of
 occurrence.  The MAP3S (Multistate Atmospheric
 Power Production Pollution Study) is one program
 through which EPA, NOAA, and ERDA are obtaining
 valuable information on the effects of airborne
 coal combustion contamination in the atmosphere.
 In addition, we need to collectively address the
 problems associated with acid mine drainage and
 stream transport of toxic substances; land reclama-
 tion, including revegetation, soil/plant/nutrient
 relationships, and wildlife habitats.  With In-
 creased offshore drilling, we must determine the
 toxicological effects of crude oil and other petro-
 leum derivatives on marine biota.

      Finally, we must develop models to aid us in
 predicting various phenomena such as the mechanisms
 of ionic clustering and particulate accretion, or
 the characterization of pollutants in mine drain-
 age or solid waste runoff.  Then we must perform
 analysis and assessment studies to determine the
 impacts of these technologies on a regional, state
 and local level in order to make cost/risk benefit
 or tradeoff analyses; for instance, the impact of
 an accident on an ecosystem and the resulting
 social consequences.

      But for all our research, we must keep in
 mind that neither ERDA alone nor any other federal
 agency can assure the development and commerciali-
 zation of environmentally acceptable energy sys-
 tems.  Environmental acceptability represents a
 societal judgment based on the perceived benefits
 and detriments of the energy systems implementa-
 ti on.

      Clearly, another area of environmental concern
 must be how to bring the information we gain to
 the people, regional, state, and local, who will
 have to live in proximity with the newly commer-
 cialized technologies and extraction processes.
 In many cases, we are talking about areas of the
 country that have known little previous develop-
 ment.  The environmental, aesthetic, ecological,
 social, cultural, and economic impacts must be
 completely, accurately and objectively assessed--
 and people must be made aware from the start of
 the costs of accepting or rejecting the benefits/
 costs of energy production.  That is why we must
 pay increased attention to the assessments of
 regional  impacts of an energy technology.

      ERDA is conducting a regional studies program,
 designed to predict and evaluate the socioeconomic,
 human health, and environmental and institutional
 impacts related to the development of all on-line
 and prospective energy sources.  Six ERDA labs are
 coordinating the program on a regional basis and
 have direct contact with state governments.  While
 this program is designed to provide information to
 ERDA on potential  environmental problems, it is
 also designed to provide "feedback" to the states
 for use in energy policy decision making.

      Endeavors of this nature are particularly im-
 portant because there are few simple solutions or
 technological  "quick-fixes" in the ecological  world.
 To ensure that permanent and long lasting ecologi-
 cal  damage does not occur, we must further assess
the effects of our actions on the ecosystems them-
selves.  Which leads me to believe  that  we  must
give additional attention to  development of actual
outdoor laboratories where the  impacts and  inter-
actions of pollutants and the resulting  effects may
be monitored.  As you know, ERDA has  two National
Environmental Research Parks  in place, Savannah
River and Idaho, which are designed to fill just
this function.  We have proposed additional sites
for designation:  Los Alamos, Oak Ridge,  Hanford,
and the Nevada test site.  The establishment of a
network of NERP's is a logical outgrowth  of the
environmental goals and requirements  stated in the
National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA). the
Energy Reorganization Act (ERA), and  the  Non-
Nuclear Energy Research and Development  Act (NNERDA),

     These NERP's would provide us with  the capa-
bility to:  (1) develop methods to quantify and
continuously assess and monitor environmental  im-
pacts from man's activities,  (2) develop  methods to
estimate or predict environmental response  to pro-
posed and ongoing activities, and (3) demonstrate
the impact of the various activities  on  the environ-
ment and evaluate methods to minimize adverse im-
pacts.  But even more importantly, each  NERP could
be used by the entire federal sector  to  determine
needed ecological information which in turn could
be used to provide the public with an assessment
of the environment and land use options  open to
them.  These would provide another coordinating
mechanism whereby the unique capabilities of each
concerned agency could be brought to  bear on the
problems, arriving at workable solutions.

     There are just a few of the things  that we
should consider as we continue our research for the
answers to energy-related environmental  and eco-
logical problems.  Nowhere is an overview more
important.  We must work closely and  cooperatively
and share our different perspectives  if we  are to
provide the "answers" to the technology  questions
being raised.

     At present, our need for energy  alternatives
is great; their development essential; their im-
pact on our environment in many ways  uncertain.
Yet concern for the environment will  not  be sacri-
ficed in our haste to bring alternative  techno-
logies into use.  Future decisions will  be  made in
tbe larger context of our continuing  effort to im-
prove the quality of life.  The definition  of
"improvement" may depend quite a bit  on  what we
know about the health, environmental  and  safety
aspects of our energy alternatives.   If  we  haven't
taken the steps necessary to  integrate the  concerns
for preservation, enhancement and protection of the
environment within our energy options, we will most
likely have lost our ability to choose.   ERDA's
environment and safety program is designed  to en-
sure that this does not happen.  But, it is not
our job to do alone.  We must work  closely  and
cooperatively not only with the technologies and
with each other but also with regional,  state  and
local governments, industry and the public  to
achieve our goals.  Working together, the decisions
won't always be easy not our  interactions always
smooth; but out of our efforts we will  create  a
stronger, more viable energy  base for the Nation.

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                                                                                                        101
     ASSESSING  IMPACTS  OF  ENERGY  DEVELOPMENT
                       ON
       COASTAL  FISH AND WILDLIFE  RESOURCES
                A.M.  Palmisano
         Office of  Biological Services
         U.S.  Fish and  Wildlife  Service
               Washington,  D.C.
INTRODUCTION

     The narrow  coastal  zone  fringing the con-
tinents and  the  surface  layer of the sea, to only
a few meters  in  depth,  comprises less than one
percent of the volume  of the  oceans yet represents
more than 90  percent of  the  seas primary product-
ivity and living biomass.  These land-water-air
interfaces are also  sites  of  disproportionately
high human development activities.   Though coastal
areas have been  used for centuries  by man for
transportation,  food production and habitation,
only since the turn  of the century  has our tech-
nology developed to  the  point where major eco-
systems and  possibly the natural functions of the
oceans themselves might  be jeopardized.  This poses
a significant problem  to those of us trying to
plan for a future with both  a high  standard of
living and a  high quality  of  life.   Our ability to
alter the environment  continues to  increase at a
rate that far exceeds  our  ability to predict the
environmental  consequences of our actions.  The
present energy dilemma which  we face will almost
certainly broaden this range  of relative ignorance.
Impact assessment state-of-the-art  relative to
coastal and marine systems has not  developed be-
yond an approach which involves avoiding the actual
or potential  "big bads".

FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE  RESPONSIBILITIES AND
  ACTIVITIES

     Historically the  FWS  has performed a number
of functions  for the administration.  The first
half of this  century saw the  Biological Survey
undertake basic  life history  studies of many forms
of wildlife  both game  and  non-game.  The emphasis
gradually changed to land  management for wildlife
which involved acquisition of refuges and activ-
ities to enhance the production of  wildlife on
both public and  private  lands.   By  mid-century the
Service had become primarily  a management agency,
managing its  own refuge  lands,  and  through hunting
regulations,  the nations vast waterfowl population.
A considerable ecological  capability was housed in
the Service which, when,in the sixties, the public
acquired an environmental  consciousness, could
assist decision-makers in  developments requiring
environmental  impacts.   The  role of the Service as
an ecological advisor has steadily increased since
that time.

     Presently the FWS has management responsibil-
ities for migratory birds, endangered species,
selected marine mammals, anadromous fishes and
national wildlife refuges.  In its advisory role,
the Service reviews and comments on environmental
impact statements and many permits requiring ap-
propriate federal participation.  The agency also
provides technical assistance in activities in-
volving comprehensive natural resource planning
at national, regional, state and local levels.

     The Office of Biological Services has recent-
ly been established to improve FWS advisory cap-
abilities by:  1) development of appropriate
ecological information;  2) improved impact assess-
ment;  3) development of information transfer
mechanisms to bring information effectively to
bear on decision-making processes.

DEVELOPMENT OF ECOLOGICAL INFORMATION

     The varied nature of the disturbances and the
diversity of resources subject to impact require
a broad base of information to adequately assess
development impacts in the coastal zone.  The
approach being developed by the Service to devel-
op this base involves a comprehensive character-
ization of coastal ecosystems.  Environmental
Characterization may be briefly defined as a
structured approach to ecological information
development, synthesis and analysis designed to
provide an understanding of the functional pro-
cesses and natural resource elements comprising
complex coastal ecosystems.  The procedure makes
maximum use of existing information essential  to
the resource assessment and in providing guidance
to the development of future studies.  A descrip-
tion of significant natural resources and function-
al process of the ecosystem are highlighted in
the characterization.  EPA pass-through energy
R & D funds are being used to develop the approach
to environmental characterization.

     In addition to characterization, special
studies are conducted to monitor environmental
changes attributable to development.  Ecological
indicators are evaluated and selected as repre-
sentative of some aspect of the ecosystem.  An
example is the bioaccumulation of environmental
contaminants in animal tissues representing var-
ious trophic levels or change in community struc-
ture indicating increasing salinities resulting
from alternation of fresh water flows.

IMPACT ASSESSMENT

     The Service provides technical assistance to
other federal agencies in the preparation and
review of EIS and the issuance of permits for
development activities in the coastal zone.   Im-
proved impact assessment capabilities is a primary
objective of the Office of Biological Services.

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102
      Analysis of industry activities related to
 OCS development is presently being undertaken to
 determine the nature of the environmental dis-
 turbances to be anticipated and an evaluation of
 optional' approaches.  All phases of development
 must be considered and a comprehensive environment-
 al studies program designed to provide timely plan-
 ning information-for each step of development.
 Environmental studies should be scheduled to pro-
 vide essential resource information early in the
 leasing program to determine tracts which should
 be excluded from the sale and to establish appro-
 priate lease stipulations.  Exploratory drilling
 requires permits and often detailed ecological
 information near the platform site.  Production
 and transportation of petroleum initiates a series
 of development activities often removed from the
 lease area.  Pipelines, navigation dredging, chron-
 ic and acute spills, near and onshore development
 of storage and service facilities are only a part
 of the total environmental impact of production and
 the coastal zone will undoubtedly feel the brunt
 of these impacts.

      Information provided by the environmental
 characterization will identify the distribution
 of the significant living resources as well as
 essential and unique habitats.  Extensive permanent
 alteration of these resources should be considered
 a "big bad" to be avoided in the course of normal
 development.  Other 1iving- resources are addressed
 in the impact analysis but are considered more
 "expendable" than the significant resources and do
 not necessarily dominate the decision process.

      In addition to living resources, processes
 which drive the coastal  ecosystems are also subject
 to alteration by development.  Living resources are
 part of the web of life and significant disruption
 of processes such as nutrient cycling, hydrologic
 patterns, successional  trends and trophic relation-
 ships can have a severe detrimental impact.  The
 state-of-the-art is generally inadequate for pre-
 dicting such changes but the potential threat is
 no less real.   Studies designed to improve predic-
 tive modeling of major coastal  ecosystems will
 probably occupy the time of investigators for many
 years to come before adequate models can be devel-
 oped which quantitatively predict impacts.  '

      The Service's approach makes maximum use of
 the state-of-the-art relative to impact analysis.
 To make full  use of presently available technology,
 four separate.1ines of investigation are being
 persued:   1)  Literature  Review;   2) Case history
 studies;   3)  Consultation with acknowledged ex-
 perts in the respective  fields;   4) An analysis of
 the permit process within the FWS.-

      In addition to maximizing available informa-
 tion on impact effects,  a major effort has been
 undertaken with  EPA pass-through funds to assess
 the toxicological  and physiological effects of
 hydrocarbons on  coastal  water birds.   Initial  ex-
 periments will  subject wild strains of mallards to
 low level  concentrations of petroleum compounds to
 determine toxicological  and physiological effects
and to further develop  appropriate  analytical pro-
cedures.  In subsequent studies,  experiments will
be performed on seabirds  to  determine  deviations
from results experienced  in  the  laboratory.

     The volume of environmental  information
presently being developed  staggers  the imagination.
Sophisticated information  transfer  mechanisms are
required to make full use  of even a fraction of
the data available.  The  Service  is developing an
information transfer network designed  to  provide
maximum use of systems  currently  in use and to
store and retrieve information being developed by
ongoing studies.  Development decisions and com-
prehensive planning efforts  are  underway  and de-
cisions are being made  now.   The  best  decisions
will  be made in light of  the best information
available.

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                                                                                                         103
                                                       that are involved with implementing significant
                                                       portions of the research were represented on the
                                                       technical task team.  The components included:
       NOAA RESEARCH ON MARINE  ENVIRONMENTAL
       EFFECTS OF ENERGY-RELATED  ACTIVITIES
                   James  B.  Rucker
  National Oceanic  and Atmospheric Administration
                 Rockville,  Maryland
INTRODUCTION

     As  this  nation  seeks  to  develop more  fully its
energy resources  it  is  clear  that  energy-related
activities  will affect  the marine  environment.
Based on the  premise that  expansion in selected
areas of environmental  research and development is
needed to cope with  environmental  impacts  that  may
result from an acceleration in developing  energy
resources,  NOAA submitted  eleven proposals for
environmental/energy research to EPA for energy-
related pass-through funding.  This past summer a
NOAA-EPA Interagency Energy Accomplishment Plan was
finalized and funding was  made available to
implement the program.   Three of the eleven
research and  development projects  deal with the
effects of selected  energy-related activities on
the marine environment. These projects and names
of the project managers are:

     o  An Environmental Assessment of Northern
        Puget Sound  and the Strait of Juan de
        Fuca  - Dr. Howard  S.  Harris, NOAA-ERL,
        Seattle,  Washington

     o  An Environmental Assessment of an  Active
        Oil Field in the Northwestern Gulf of
        Mexico    Dr. Joseph W. Angelovic,
        NOAA-NMFS, Galveston, Texas

     o  Fate  and  Effects of Toxic  Metals and
        Petroleum Hydrocarbons on  Selected
        Ecosystems and  Organisms   Dr. Douglas
        A.  Wolfe, NOAA-ERL, Boulder, Colorado

     The purpose  of  this paper is  to describe the
approach and  progress of these three projects.
The other NOAA energy-related projects deal
principally with  atmospheric  effects, and  measure-
ment and monitoring. These projects are being
addressed separately in these proceedings.

     The three NOAA  projects  were  all new  initia-
tives and the first  step in implementing these
projects was  to expand  the Interagency Energy
Accomplishment Plan  into a complete five-year
project development  plan.   Project managers were
assigned the  responsibility of drafting the
detailed plans.   All three projects are of an
interdisciplinary nature,  and all  involve  tasks
that must be  accomplished  by a number of NOAA
mainline components. Therefore, a technical task
team was assembled to review and critique  the
draft project development  plans.  NOAA components
     o  National Marine Fisheries Service
     o  National Ocean Survey
     o  Environmental Research Laboratories
     o  Environmental Data Service
     o  Office of Sea Grant

     Draft project development plans were submitted
to the technical task team in August, and in early
September project managers met with the technical
task team to finalize the project development
plans.  The effective date for actually initiating
the projects was September 1975.

ENVIRONMENTAL ASSESSMENT OF NORTHERN PUGET
SOUND AND THE STRAIT OF JUAN DE FUCA

     This project is designed to develop ecological
data needed for assessing the potential impact of
petroleum hydrocarbons on the ecosystem.  The
results of this research will be immediately
applicable to regional management and development
decisions on the location of deepwater ports,
expansion of refinery capacity at existing sites
versus the development of new sites,  and the
regulation of tanker traffic in parts of the Sound.

Petroleum Related Activities
     The petroleum industry within the Puget Sound
region has generally experienced growth commen-
surate with the region's population and industrial
growth.  Recently, however, the amount of tanker
traffic through the Strait of Juan de Fuca has
increased, and a further intensification of
petroleum transport and refining activities is
anticipated during the next few years.  There are
several factors which account for this expansion.
Until recently much of the oil requirement of the
Pacific Northwest has been supplied by Canadian
crude oil delivered to U.S. refineries via
pipeline.  This flow now has been substantially
reduced, and Canada plans total phaseout in the
early 1980's.  Not only has this required addi-
tional tanker traffic to make up the U.S. deficit,
but also it results in a surplus of crude oil in
western Canada which is shipped out from terminals
near Vancouver through the Strait.

     Because of its proximity to the termination
of the Trans-Alaska pipeline, some thought has
been given to making the Puget Sound region a
transshipment point for other marketing areas.
The Oceanographic Commission of Washington, in a
study done for the state legislature, has
evaluated several scenarios of this type, and it
estimates that Puget Sound refinery capacity  could
double by 1980 and that tanker transport of
crude oil could be increased by as much as tenfold
by the turn of the century.

     The waters of the greater Puget Sound region,
with few exceptions, have not been subjected  to
massive oil spills or the environmental problems
associated with continued release of small amounts

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104
 of oil,  despite  a  long history of  petroleum trans-
 port  and refining.   However,  with  the  dramatic
 increase in tanker traffic  and refinery  activity
 that  has been  predicted for the next decades,  a
 catastrophic spill or the realization  of serious
 biological  effects due to chronic  low-level
 emissions cannot be discounted.  It is the aim of
 this  EPA-funded  energy-related research  project to
 develop  an  understanding of the ecology  of the
 system and  to  provide environmental data needed to
 assess the  potential impact of petroleum-related
 activities  on  the  ecosystem.

 Project  Design

      The project research is organized into four
 major tasks.  The  first of  these is to characterize
 the major marine biological populations  subject to
 impact by pollution resulting from petroleum trans-
 portation and  refining. The second task is to
 determine the  existing distribution and  concentra-
 tion  of  pollutants within the ecosystem  which are
 associated  with  refinery effluent  and  petroleum.
 A third  task is  to characterize the principal
 processes and  major pathways by which  petroleum
 moves through  the  marine ecosystem.  The final
 task  is  to  provide decision-makers with  environ-
 mental and  ecological information  and  predictions
 of the effects of  oil-related activities upon the
 ecosystem.

 Project  Progress

      A data management system was  developed and
 initiated in December 1975  to provide  storage and
 retrieval for  project data  as well as  bibliographic
 support  for project investigators. This effort is
 being conducted  by the NOAA Environmental Data
 Service.  Acquisition of principal existing data
 sets  on  the region has been accomplished.   An
 assessment  of  the  existing  meteorological network
 covering the study region,  and recommendations for
 upgrading the  network to support the project has
 been  completed by  the project office.  An upgraded
 meteorological network is scheduled to support
 project  oceanographic studies for  February 1976.

      Proposals for investigating the intertidal
 communities and  water circulation  and  mixing of the
 region are  being evaluated.   And a proposal for
 investigation  of plankton distribution is under
 review.   These investigations are  scheduled to
 begin  this  winter.

 AN ENVIRONMENTAL ASSESSMENT OF AN  ACTIVE OIL
 FIELD  IN  THE NORTHWESTERN GULF OF  MEXICO

      The  goal  of this five-year project  is to
 develop  an  environmental assessment of an active
 oil field in the northwestern Gulf of  Mexico and
 to compare  conditions that  have developed in the
 established oil  and gas field to those in a similar
 but unaltered  area.   The objectives are  twofold:
 (1) describe the existing ecosystems and the
 variability in their major  components, both in
 time  and  space,  for an active oil  field  and an
 unaltered area;  and (2)  compare the concentrations
 of pollutants  in the water,  in the sediments,  and
in the biota, found  in  an  active  oil field with
those of an unaltered area and  identify those
changes attributable to oil exploration and
production.

Buccaneer Oil Field

     The area selected  for study  is  the operational
Buccaneer Oil Field  located approximately  32 miles
southeast of Galveston,  Texas.  Its  proximity to
the NMFS Gulf Coastal Fisheries Center  in  Galveston,
Texas, simplifies logistics and reduces the cost of
the research.  This  field  has been in production
for about 15 years,  which  has allowed time  for full
development of the oil  field-associated climax
marine communities.  Its isolation from other
fields facilitates the  selection  of  an  unaltered
area for comparison  near or adjacent to the field.

     The Buccaneer Oil  Field was  developed  by the
Shell Oil Company in four  lease blocks  during the
years 1960 through 1968.   The total  area leased
is 14,670 acres or approximately  23  square  miles.
During the development  of  the field,  18 platforms
have been built; two are major platforms,  two
are auxiliary platforms, and 14 are  satellite
platforms.  Initial  exploratory drilling began
about mid-summer of  1960 with mobile drilling rigs.
Following exploratory drilling permanent type
drilling platforms were  established.  All subse-
quent drilling and production activities have been
conducted from these platforms.

     There has been  no  history of reported  oil
spills from this field.  Although there undoubtedly
have been minor losses  due  to failure of equipment
or human error, there have  been no major spills.

Project Design

     Project activities have been organized into
five tasks.  The first  task is to develop a data
base to identify information deficiencies and to
provide bibliographic support to  the various
researchers involved in  the study.   The second
task is to establish a  data management  system to
provide availability and exchange of project-
generated data among individuals  working in the
several research disciplines.  The third task is to
identify the biological, chemical, and  physical
alterations in the ecosystem attributable to oil
field development.   This task is  quite  compre-
hensive and includes surveys to investigate the
hydrography, water characteristics,  sediments,
pollutants, and .the  abundance, distribution,
diversity and habitat of major planktonic,  benthic,
and pelagic communities.   A separate survey will
be conducted to define  the  effects of the platforms
on the local ecosystem,  including community
composition and aggregation of species.  The fourth
task is to determine the presence of selected
heavy metal and hydrocarbon pollutants  and  identify
pathways' and effects on  the various  components
of the ecosystem.  Lastly,  a major task will be
to develop the capability  of predicting the impact
of oil field development on the ecosystem  and
applicability of extrapolation to other areas
along the continental shelf.

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Project Progress

     A pilot study was  initiated in November 1975
to determine whether  or not  the  Buccaneer Oil Field
is in fact  a suitable study  site,  to obtain pre-
liminary physical and biological data,  and to
establish a statistically  valid  sampling distribu-
tion and frequency.   The pilot study will be
concluded in late February 1976.  However,  interim
results suggest that  the Buccaneer Oil  Field will
be a suitable  study area.  These results also
suggest that there is a pronounced decrease in the
macrofaunal population  in  the vicinity  of the two
major platforms and a concomitant increase in the
raeiofaunal  population.

     A request for proposal  was  developed and
issued in late December 1975 to  solicit potential
university  contractors  for work  on seven work
units dealing  with sedimentology,  benthic fauna,
effects of  structures,  hydrocarbon levels,  heavy
metals, total  organics  and hydrodynamic modeling.
Work on these  topics  will  begin  in late February
1976.  Similarly within NOAA, work will begin on
bibliographic  and data  mangement activities by
the Environmental Data  Service and the  National
Marine Fisheries Service Fisheries Engineering
Laboratory. Investigations  on current, tempera-
ture and  salinity regimes, demersal fishes,
macrocrustaceans, pelagic  and reef fish and
plankton will  be initiated in late February 1976
by the National Marine  Fisheries Service.

FATE AND EFFECT OF PETROLEUM HYDROCARBONS AND
SELECTED TOXIC METALS ON SELECTED MARINE
ECOSYSTEMS  AND ORGANISMS

     Heavy  metals and petroleum  hydrocarbons are
known to  affect adversely  marine organisms, through
both short-term acute or long-term chronic exposure
levels.  Both  heavy metals and petroleum hydro-
carbons are concentrated or  released by energy
development activities. This project is designed
to provide  laboratory and  field  investigations
of the effects of these pollutants on marine
organisms and  the ecosystem. Emphasis  is placed
on subarctic environs.

Project Design

     The overall approach  of this project is to
study specific processes controlling the effects,
both physiological and  ecological, of petroleum
hydrocarbons and selected  toxic  metals  in subarctic
marine ecosystems to  facilitate  the assessment of
the impacts of pollutant releases in this ecosystem
type. The  project includes  four interdependent
tasks which are coordinated  with the other NOAA
energy-related projects in Northern Puget Sound
and the Gulf of Mexico, as well  as the  Alaskan
Outer Continental Shelf (DCS) Program,  and the
Marine Ecosystems Analysis (MESA)  Program.

     The first of the four tasks is to  establish a
national analytical capability  for petroleum
hydrocarbons and toxic  metals  in the marine
environment for the purpose  of standardizing
analytical  techniques,  providing intercalibration
services and conducting routine  analysis.
                                                 105
The second task is to identify information  gaps
in our understanding of impacts of subarctic
marine ecosystems, and to design  a comprehen-
sive program of laboratory and field  research
to fill those gaps.  The third task is  to conduct
selected laboratory experiments on fate  and effects
of metals and hydrocarbons.  Finally, there is the
task of conducting controlled experimental  ecosystem
research to determine changes at  the  ecosystem level
and to test our ability to predict ecological and
biological impacts in subarctic ecosystems.  These
experiments will be initiated during  the third
year of the project and be located in the coastal
portion of the Northeastern Gulf  of Alaska, at a
yet unspecified study site.

Project Progress

     Funds have been committed for establishing
the NOAA analytical facility at the NMFS Northwest
Fisheries Center in Seattle, Washington.  Procure-
ment of equipment and recruitment of personnel are
in progress.  It is expected that the facility will
be fully established by July 1976.

     Planning is underway for a symposium and work-
shop on the adequacy of research  to date as a basis
for reliable prediction of consequences of  con-
tamination of subarctic marine environs.  A
provisional date for this workshop has been set for
November 1976.  The results of the workshop will
be most important in developing direction for
further experimental subarctic ecosystem research.

     Two laboratory research experiments have been
initiated.  One is to study the effects of petroleum
hydrocarbon exposure on bioaccumulation and toxicity
of methyl mercury and of chlorinated hydrocarbon
residues in selected fish and shellfish.  This
research was initiated in December 1975 and is being
conducted by NOAA researchers at  the NMFS Northwest
Fisheries Center in Seattle, Washington.  The other
experiment in progress is to determine  the  effects
of petroleum hydrocarbons on equilibria of  toxic
metals across marine sediment - water interfaces.
This research was initiated in November 1975 and
is being conducted by researchers at  the NOAA
Environmental Research Laboratories in  Boulder,
Colorado.

SUMMARY

     The projects described in this paper constitute
the NOAA research effort on the marine  environmental
effects of energy-related activities.   First-year
funding provided wholly by EPA interagency  funds
is 2.17 million dollars.  Second-year funding will
be approximately 2.10 million dollars.  Planned
funding for the third, fourth and fifth years is
2.1, 1.9 and 1.7 million dollars, respectively.

     Although the projects are only in  their
beginning stages, schedules are being met and
significant progress is being made by researchers
in several NOAA components and from contract
agencies and institutions.

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  106
           PARTICIPATION OF ERDA IN THE
    TRANSPORT AND ECOLOGICAL EFFECTS CATEGORIES
           OF THE PASS-THROUGH PROGRAM
 R. E. Franklin, D. S. Ballantine, J. 0. Blanton,
          D. H. Hamilton and C. M. White

       U. S. Energy Research and Development
                  Administration
              Washington, D. C. 20545
INTRODUCTION

     Approximately $4 million was made available to
ERDA through the pass-through program late in
FY 1975 for environmental research.  These funds
were associated with a variety of tasks, objectives,
subcategories, and categories in the working group
report.  They were reorganized by ERDA for implemen-
tation and management into six major program areas
to focus on specific problems and to group-related
tasks regardless of the original category.  These
six program areas and the allocation of funds with
respect to the interagency categories are shown in
Table 1.  These programs are managed and adminis-
tered within ERDA by the Environmental Program
staff of the Division of Biomedical and Environ-
mental Research.

     Several points listed below should be under-
stood to appreciate the interagency program.

     1)  The report of the working group is in no
sense a comprehensive plan.  It is a collection of
tasks which if successfully completed would con-
tribute to a better appreciation of environmental
impacts.

     2)  There was no evaluation of existing base
programs by the working group.

     3)  Nuclear, geothermal, and solar technolo-
gies were excluded from consideration on the basis
that the NSF and the AEC were already receiving
adequate or a "fair share" of funds to deal with
the problems associated with these technologies.
The only exception to this was a minor amount of
funds originally allocated to the AEC for some
physical and chemical oceanography related to off-
shore power plants.  Oil shale was almost com-
pletely eliminated from consideration largely due
to the limited funds which were available, and the
expected contribution of that technology in the
near-term.

     4)  The objectives used to classify the
research tasks are general and do not group the
tasks according to common technological problems or
practical research objectives.

      5)  The tasks are so broad and so ambitious,
in most cases, that only through merging the efforts
with on-going programs and  through  sustained effort
will the objectives be realized.

      The major impact of the pass-through funds has
 been  to  permit implementation of research plans
 sooner than would otherwise have been possible.
 This  was particularly important in the case of ERDA
 since the Energy Reorganization Act was implemented
 midway in the fiscal  year,  and the environmental
 budget was grossly inadequate to provide for the
 research needs of the vast  array of technological
 responsibilities given to the Agency.

      The Environmental  Programs within ERDA
 include, in principle, the  scope of two of the
 interagency categories,  Transport and Ecological
 Effects, and a portion of the characterization,
 measuring and monitoring category (CMM).  However,
 for purposes of dealing  with pass-through funds
 the CMM  category is  managed by the Physical  and
 Technological  Programs within ERDA.  The Environ-
 mental  Program budget for FY 1976 was approxi-
 mately $39 million.   As  indicated in Table 2,
 about one-half of that was  in support of research
 directly related to  one  or  more of the six program
 areas  associated with the pass-through funds.

      In  most cases the pass-through funds provide
 a  modest but useful  supplement to ERDA's on-going
 effort in these areas.   In  the case of land  recla-
 mation and the Alaskan oil  program, the supple-
 mental  funds are a significant complement.

      The major items  in  the remaining portion of
 the ERDA budget, (cf. Table 2) which are related
 to the transport and  effects categories, are as
 follows:

   Nuclear Fuel  Cycles,  Excluding    $7.9 Million
    Offshore Power

   Geothermal Power                   0.8 Million

   Fundamental  Support In             4,0 Million
    Applied Science

   Operational  Programs               6.5 Million

      The applied science includes research in
 meteorology and other atmospheric sciences,
 terrestrial ecology,  limnology, oceanography, soil
 science, etc.   The operational programs include
 such  things as support to National  Environmental
 Research Parks, military programs, laboratory
 site  management, and  the upper atmospheric pro-
 gram.

      Finally, we should  recognize that any attempt
 to orchestrate the total national effort which  is
 related  to the environmental and health effects of
 all  fuel  cycles would probably be futile.  How-
 ever,  we can accomplish  a great deal by working
 to increase the awareness,  both at the Agency
 and the  individual investigator level, of the true
 national effort at the program- and problem-area
 levels.

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    The remaining text will describe  the  new  ERDA
projects in the six program areas.

LAND RECLAMATION

    Nine tasks for which  ERDA  has  responsibility as
outlined in the interagency report  deal with surface
mine reclamation and related problems.  l»'ith the
exception of one task that is specially tailored to
oil shale extraction, these tasks relate  to coal
extraction and utilization at mine-mouth  plants.
The major research efforts involve  a diversified
program conducted by the Land Reclamation  Laboratory
at Argonne National Laboratory  (ANL),  and  the  Ames
Laboratory, Iowa State University.  The Ames study
is a cooperative venture with the University of
Montana, Montana State University,  and the Pacific
Northwest Laboratory.  Study sites  are located in
the Southwestern, Northern Great  Plains,  and Central
coal resource regions.  The program is built around
a series of mine and mine-related sites.   The  scope
and direction of the program can  best  be  understood
through the description of the  study sites, which
follow.

1.  Northern Great Plains

    There are four study  areas in  the Northern
Great  Plains coal region which  are  related to  this
program.  They range from  the lignite  fields in
North  Dakota to the Green  River Formation  in South-
eastern Wyoming.

1.1.   Colstrip Site

    The objective of the  Ames  project (Gordon and
O'Toole) is to evaluate the significance  of changes
in trace element concentrations in  the grassland
system surrounding Colstrip, Montana,  as  a result
of mining operations and coal utilization  in the
area.   Initial efforts have been  to determine  indi-
genous levels of trace metals and other potential
contaminants in vegetation and  wildlife of the area.
The goal is to provide biological transfer rates
and potential effects data which  can be used  in the
assessment of the ecological  impact due to develop-
ment of the region.  Naturally, this study is
expected to provide only a portion  of  the input for
such an assessment.

    About two-thirds of the  financial support for
this project comes from the trace contaminants pro-
gram.

1.2.   Jim Bridger Mine Site

    This study area is located in  the Green River
region near Rock Springs,  Wyoming.  The project is
a cooperative effort between  the  Operator, Pacific
Power, and Idaho Energy Resource  Company,  and  ANL
(Carter and Cameron).  The complex  includes a
mine-mouth power plant producing  1000  Mwe.  This
site is particularly important  because it repre-
sents  a region which may undergo  considerable
development in the future. Low rainfall  (6-8"
annually), short growing season (42-82 days),  and
harsh  terrain characterize the  region.
                                                                                                         107
     The primary objectives of this project are
focused on efficiency of utilization of available
water through improved infiltration and water har-
vesting techniques.  The first series of experiments
includes the use of mulches, ground surface manipu-
lations and snow fences on test plots to capture
and retain the maximum amount of precipitation.

1.3.  Indian Head Mine Site

     This study area is located in Mercer County,
North Dakota.  The mine has been in operation since
1922.  Production of lignite has been about one
million tons/year since 1967.  Prior to 1967, annual
production was about 0.2 million tons/year.  The
main environmental problems at this site are associ-
ated with the salinity and high clay content of the
overburden, leading to difficulties in establish-
ment of vegetation on reclaimed areas.

     The research includes salinity, drought toler-
ance, and root morphological studies on species
which can be used for revegetation efforts; soil
placement, segregation, and handling studies with
the emphasis on mobilization of toxic elements by
soil microflora; and soil chemical  and physical
modification, particularly as related to nitrogen
and sulfur cyclic processes in stored topsoil.

     Research on soil microbiology is conducted by
ANL staff (Carter and Cameron) in cooperation with
scientists from Arizona State University and New
Mexico State University.

1.4.  Big Horn Mine Site

     This study area is situated in the Powder River
Basin near Sheridan, Wyoming.  The research is con-
ducted as part of the ANL program (Carter and
Cameron) in cooperation with the mine operator,
Peter Kiewit and Sons Mining Company.   The impacted
area is traversed by Goose Creek and the Tongue
River, which makes it particularly useful  for evalu-
ating water quality, sediment transport, and overall
aquatic ecosystem effects related to mining.
Furthermore, the mine has been in operation about
20 years, a time sufficient to permit significant
assessment relative to the accumulation of effects
and impacts.  The challenge will be to interpret
the current characteristics of the site, and inter-
pret other observations in terms of the so-called
"undisturbed" state.  The experimental design will
permit this type of assessment to be made.

     The overall objectives are to identify factors
that could potentially inhibit or enhance long-term
productive use of disturbed land and to maximize
the usefulness of reclaimed lands in this region.
Included in the experimental design are evaluations
of various methods of overburden removal, spoil
handling, spoil placement, spoil pile modification.
surface amendments, irrigation, and various revege-
tative techniques.

2.  Southwestern Region

     The ANL program includes three study areas  in

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108
 the  Southwestern  Coal  Region;  one  associated with
 the  Black  Mesa mine  near  Kayenta,  Arizona,  and  the
 other  two  in  Northern  New Mexico associated with
 the  San  Juan  and  Navajo Mines.  As with  other ANL
 studies  these projects are cooperative ventures
 with the mine operators,  and  in each case regional
 universities  are  major participators in  the
 research.

 2.1.   Black Mesa  Mine  Site

     This  project is a feasibility study that invol-
 ves  a  cooperative effort  between the Peabody Coal
 Company, Arizona  State University, and AIJL  (Carter
 and  Cameron)  in an evaluation  of water harvesting
 techniques.   The  research utilizes a study  initia-
 ted  in 1974 by the University  of Arizona to explore
 the  coupling  of recontoured spoil  areas with
 impoundments  to provide water  for  improved  land use
 after  mining.  Should  the results  appear promising,
 a  larger area of  more  realistic size would  be
 developed  to  explore large-scale water harvesting
 possibilities to  provide  for family subsistence,
 crops, irrigation for  reclamation  purposes, live-
 stock  use, as well as  rearing  fish.  Water  availa-
 bility is  a key factor in reclamation efforts since
 precipitation occurs primarily in  short duration,
 high intensity rain.  Water harvesting techniques
 offer  considerable benefit in  terms of lowering
 the  overall impact of regional development.  The
 expected outcome  of this  research will  be a model
 to predict optimal land allocations for water
 harvesting, crop  production, and grazing based on
 water  runoff and  other environmental restrictions.

 2.2.   San Juan Mine Site

     This project  (Carter and Cameron)  involves the
 Western  Coal  Company, New Mexico State University,
 and ANL.   The area is located in San Juan County,
 New Mexico.

     The main thrust of this research is related to
 problems in establishment of vegetation due to high
 salinity of the topsoil.

 2.3.   Navajo  Mine Site

     This project (Carter and Cameron)  is in the
 conceptual  stage.   It will combine plant breeding
 and selection techniques  with plant growth,
 development,  reproduction, and successional  studies
of plants and plant communities in a medium- to
 long-term effort to produce varieties useful to
 insure self-perpetuating  landscapes on  reclaimed
areas where soil  moisture and related stresses may
 limit revegetation.  The  study will be  a joint
effort between the operator,  Utah International,
and ANL.

3.   Central Region

     Two  study areas  related  to the interagency
program are located in  the Central  Region,  one
 near Morris,  Illinois;  the other near Staunton,
 Illinois.
3.1.  Goose  Lake  Prairie  State  Park Site

     This  site  in Grundy  County is about 50 acres
in  size.   Although mining operations ceased over
30  years ago, 75  percent  of the area remains barren
due to strongly acidic  mine spoils and continual
erosion of the  surface.   This  project (Carter and
Cameron) will involve a demonstration effort in
cooperation  with  the State of  Illinois,  coupled
with an ANL  research program to evaluate the effec-
tiveness of  reclamation activities that  include
the use of chemical soil  stabilizers and soil
amendments such as  lime,  sewage sludge,  fly ash,
and straw.   The plan is to revegetate the site with
prairie grasses,  as is  being done  in an  adjacent
state park.

     The experience gained from this project will
guide restoration  efforts  for similar problem areas
in  the state.

3.2.  Staunton Deep Mine  Refuse Site

     This  site in Macoupin County,  like  the  Goose
Lake Prairie State Park Site, represents  a  common
set of environmental problems related to  abandoned
coal mines and refuse piles.  Over 6,000  acres of
land in Illinois  alone  are covered with  barren,
acidic refuse piles.  Similar areas  exist in other
parts of the Central Region.  Macoupin County con-
tains 100  such sites.   These waste areas  represent
significant  sources of  pollution to  surrounding
areas.   This project (Cater  and Cameron)  will
represent  another cooperative effort by ANL, in
this case with the State of  Illinois and  the
Illinois Institute for  Environmental  Quality, in
an  effort  to establish  better methods for disposal
and utilization of wastes  and restoration of
affected lands.    The results are expected to be  of
considerable benefit to mine operators in recla-
mation  of  land and to legislators  in drafting
legislation.

     The research/demonstration  project will
include assessment of infiltration,  run-off, and
quality of water on the site and on  adjacent,
impacted areas.    Both laboratory and field  experi-
ments will  be performed to evaluate  effects  of
chemical  and physical  treatments on  plant growth
and establishment, and on  microbial  transformations
of  nitrogen  and sulfur compounds.

4.  Other Activities

     Two other tasks from  the interagency program
are included in this area, one  relating to  oil
shale extraction, the other  to  data  management.
The oil  shale study, conducted  by  the Pacific
Northwest  Laboratory (Routson),  involves  develop-
ment of a model  to predict movement  (either  solvent
or  solute)  through spent shale  or  disturbed
strata  under areas where shale  has  been  extracted.

     Data  storage and management systems  (software)
being developed in a joint effort  between Oak Ridge
National  Laboratory (Strand) and ANL will  ulti-
mately  provide two-way exchange of information

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                                                                                                          109
between Federal agencies, other  public  agencies,
the professional community, and  the  coal  industry.
The system is planned to permit  storage and  retriev-
al  of bibliographies and abstracts  of reclamation
research programs, data, or reports  including  evalu-
ations and comments.  The level  of funding for this
task is not commensurate with  the broad scope  and
somewhat idealistically ambitious objectives of the
working groups'report.  (This  is unfortunately the
case with many  interagency tasks.)   Consequently,
only by merging efforts supported by this program
with current programs can these  objectives be
approached or attained.

TRACE CONTAMINANTS FROM COAL COMBUSTION AMD
PROCESSING

     The 1976 level of coal use  in the  United  States
was approximately 600 million  tons,  and forecasts
indicate that this could double  by the  late  1980s  as
the nation turns to coal to alleviate dependence on
foreign oil sources.  Most of  the environmental  con-
cern has been focused on sulfur  dioxide,  sulfates,
and particulate emissions.  This has resulted  in
great pressures for removal of sulfur prior  to com-
bustion and for development of more  efficient  con-
trol technology systems.  The  projects  in this
program area deal with another growing  concern of
whether trace  elements, which  are found in coal,
constitute a potentially serious long-term environ-
mental problem.

     The composition of coal varies  considerably,
and there is no typical coal  composition.
Some of the trace elements of  concern are cadmium,
mercury,  selenium,  arsenic,  lead,  chromium,  copper,
and zinc.   Trace  element  concentrations in different
coals and  even coals  from  the  same  area may  vary as
much as  two  to  three  orders  of magnitude  for a
given trace  element.   However, 10  ug/g  is a  common
concentration  for  many  of  these  elements.  Such a
concentration  could result  in  the  annual  release of
6,000 tons of  such  hazardous  elements  as  mercury,
arsenic, and cadmium  at the  current  level of usage.
The projects included  in  this  program  are designed
to determine the characteristics,  transport, and
fate of these  trace elements  in  coal following com-
bustion or conversion  to  synthetic  fuels, and  their
effects on various  compartments  of  the  environment.

     Some of the projects address  the  determination
of which elements  are  released via  a utility stack
and how they are distributed  in  the  vicinity of the
plant.  Another group of  projects  deals with the
determination  of trace elements  in  the  residual fly
ash and furnace ash and their  mobilization following
burial at disposal  sites.  Closely  related studies
address the  way in  which any mobilized   elements
are retained by different type soils.

     Another aspect of this  program  is  consideration
of the manner  in which the trace contaminants  are
cycled biogeochemically and  the  extent  to which they
are concentrated by aquatic  and  terrestrial  organ-
isms.  In addition, some of  the  projects  deal  with
effects on plant and  animal  species  in  several
regions of the  country.
     Finally, two of the projects will attempt  to
identify biological indicators which would serve
as early warning systems for detection of deleteri-
ous effects.

     The results of these investigations are of
necessity quite preliminary and will be discussed
under five headings:  (1)  transport and fate of
trace contaminants released to the atmosphere,
(2) studies on trace elements in fly ash, (3) bio-
logical effects, (4) biological indicators, and
(5) coal conversion trace contaminant studies.

1.  Transport and Fate of Trace Contaminants
    Released to the Atmosphere

     One of the major pathways for introduction of
trace contaminants into the environment is via
particulate releases to the atmosphere from
combustion stacks followed by deposition on the
surrounding environment.  In one study being con-
ducted at the Savannah River Laboratory (Crawford),
measurements are being made of the trace element
composition of the plant fuel, ash, and stack dis-
charge to develop material balance data on trace
contaminants released from a large power plant which
has operated for about 20 years without an electro-
static precipitator.  Measurements are also being
made of the concentration of trace contaminants in
soil, vegetation, mammals, micro-organisms, and
aquatic organisms along several transects through
the plant.  These data will  be correlated with
source term and meteorological data in the overall
assessment.

     Another feature of this project will be the use
of fly ash on southeastern U.S. forests and field
crops to determine whether such practices could be
beneficial.  A number of field plots will be estab-
lished and the effect of fly ash application
measured.

     The Col strip study (Gordon and O'Toole) men-
tioned in the first section (involving the Ames
Laboratory, the Pacific Northwest Laboratory, the
University of Montana, and Montana State University)
is similar in several respects to the study at  the
Savannah River Laboratory.  Several sampling sites
have been established around the Col strip operation.
Fluoride, S02, and particulate samples are being
collected.  Baseline data indicate that the air
quality in the region is currently very good.
Samples of vegetation and soils have also been
collected as part of the baseline program and
analyses for various trace contaminants are in
progress.

     Aquatic ecosystem studies have involved the
selection and description of various water  impound-
ment areas for pollution assessment and evaluation
of existing water quality.  Biological  sampling of
the aquatic ecosystems has been initiated  and
macrophyte species have been  harvested  and  identi-
fied in preparation for pollutant  uptake  studies.
Calculation of the macrophyte  production  in  a
number of  the impoundment sites is  underway.

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2.  Studies of Trace  Elements  in Fly Ash

     Three  projects deal with  the mobilization  and
transport of  trace elements from fly ash  buried  at
various disposal  sites.  One is at  Notre  Dame,  one
at State University of  New York-Fredonia, and the
third at the  Savannah River Ecology Laboratory.

     The project  at Notre Dame  (Theis) deals with
the Teachability  of trace elements  in fly ash
through soil  columns.   Included are both  laboratory
and field studies at  actual disposal sites using a
variety of  soil types and coal  ash.  The  rate and
extent of fixation of these leached elements by
different soils is also  under  study.  These latter
studies involve equilibrium-type measurements   of
adsorption  isotherms  and dynamic column studies  in
which "breakthrough" measurements are made.  In
the field,  experiments  and test wells have been
drilled to  permit validation of laboratory findings
and models.

     The study site for  the SUNY-Fredom'a project
(Wood) is in  Chautauqua  County, New York.  The work
is focused  on effects on aquatic systems  related
to principal  fly  ash dumps.  The initial  phases of
the work are  directed toward establishment of ana-
lytical methods and procedures  to be used in
monitoring  of stream water, lake water, around
water, sediment,  and biota.

     The project  at the  Savannah River Ecology
Laboratory  (Smith) has  two facets.  One like the
SUNY project  deals with  impacts of fly ash disposal
on aquatic  biota.  Samples have been taken of sedi-
ments and organisms from locations at various dis-
tances from the main disposal  site.  The  area is
characterized by  acid "Blackwater" streams and
cypress-gum swamp, two biological systems common
to the southeast.  The  second  facet of this work
deals with  the aerial deposition of fly ash from
the power plant stack onto a small spring fed pond
with special emphasis on trophic level bioaccumula-
tion.   A mass balance for trace contaminants will
be constructed using input and  output data esti-
mates from  rain gauge and outfall weir data.

3.  Biological Effects

     The third group of projects deals with the
ecological   effects of trace contaminants.  Most of
the research in this section is concentrated in
the West where the effects can be exacerbated by
limited water availability.

     One study site is in the Mojave desert where
the Laboratory of Nuclear Medicine and Radiation
Biology,  University of California-Los Angeles
(Turner)  is studying the concentration of trace
elements  in animals and plants around the Southern
California  Edison's Mojave Generating Station.
Initial  emphasis is on comparison of uptake of
different elements on an intraspecies and inter-
species basis.  Work is closely coordinated with
similar work being conducted at Four Corners, New
Mexico,  by  the Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory
(Johnson).
      The  third  project (Wolf)  in this group, con-
ducted  by the  Pacific  Northwest Laboratory (PNL),
is  directed  toward  the effect  of coal-related
pollutants on  the behavioral  patterns of fish. An
extensive review has been  prepared which estimates
the concentration of various  pollutants from coal
conversion processes and evaluates their potential
toxicity.  It  also  covers  the  various behavioral
pattern studies used to determine sublethal  effects,
Instrumentation is  being adapted and developed for
the effects  studies.   One  instrument being tested
for use in behavioral  effects  is the polygraph.

4.  Biological  Indicators

      The  first  project, which  is with the  Virginia
Polytechnic  Institute  (Cairns),  is concerned  with
techniques for measurement  of  the effect of  pollu-
tant  stresses on the functional  processes  of
various trophic levels in aquatic communities.  The
program is broad and encompasses both laboratory
and field  investigations.   The  general  areas  being
examined  include:

      1)   Structural and functional  aspects of auto-
trophic and  heterotrophic attached microbial
communities  in lotic systems.   A major  emphasis on
the development of  techniques  for measuring the
effect of stress on the assimilation  and metab-
olism of  carbon, sulfur, and nitrogen.

     Six  artificial experimental  streams,  designed
and constructed at  Appalachian  Power  Company on
the New River in Virginia,  will  be used  to evalu-
ate the sensitivity of functional  parameters to
various energy-related pollutants (copper,
chlorine, etc.).

     2)  Use of protozoan invasion and  extinction
rates to assess the eutrophication process as
related to energy development.   Studies  have been
initiated in a series  of lakes  in Northern
Michigan which have been found  to be  in  various
degrees of eutrophication and  in  Smith  Mountain
Lake near Roanoke,   Virginia.

     3)  Detrital  processing by  macroinvertebrates
to assess the effects of stress  on community
function.  The general  objective of this approach
is to evaluate the  potential for  using  detritus
processing rates as a  pollutant   stress assess-
ment technique.  Three field sampling stations
have been established  near  the  Glen Lyn  Power
Plant on  the New River in Virginia.   Observations
will be correlated with changes  in temperature,
photoperiod,  flow regime, and  timing  and sequenc-
ing of the macroinvertebrate community.

     4)  Development and testing  of methods  to
determine the functioning of plankton communities.
This sub-project is concerned with the  effects of
temperature,  slimicide, and physical  shock on
zooplankton  function as affected  by power  plant
cooling systems.  Laboratory studies  have  been
started on Daphnia  pu1_ex and field experiments
will be initiated shortly.

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                                                                                                         Ill
     A  second project,  at  Lawrence  Berkeley
Laboratory  (Harte  and  Levy),  is  utilizing  micro-
cosms to evaluate  biological  indicators.   Prelimi-
nary work has been directed  to defining conditions
for establishment  of microbial communities of the
diversity encountered  in natural  systems  and to
selection of larger zooplankton  and fish.   Several
novel experiments  are  under  study to evaluate hypo-
thesized stability indicators.   These include the
activity levels  of the  major  enzyme groups associ-
ated with decomposition and mineralization and bio-
chemical indicators which  may characterize the
healthiness of the microbial  decomposer.

5.  Coal Conversion Trace  Contaminant Studies

     Three  projects (Gehrs)  conducted at  Oak Ridge
National Laboratory are concerned with the trans-
port and effect  of trace elements and trace organic
pollutants  generated or released during coal con-
version to  synthetic fuels.   Included is  research
on the  chronic,  low-level  effects of contaminants
as well as  investigations  into  the  persistence,
fate, transformation,  and  food  chain kinetics of
these substances.

OFFSHORE OIL  EXTRACTION AND  RELATED PROBLEMS

     The major  part of the effort in this program
is centered in  the Puget Sound  region under the
direction of  scientists at the  University of
Washington  and  the Pacific Northwest Laboratory
(Carpenter  and Templeton).  The  major objective is
to assess the potential effects  of  long-term
exposure to petroleum-derived hydrocarbons on
selected ecological communities  in  Puget  Sound.
The studies combine laboratory  and  field  experi-
ments.  The  program is  closely coordinated with
NOAA's  program  in  Puget Sound.

     Also at  PNL (Vanderhorst),  scientists are
looking at  the  laboratory  response  to mysids and
amphipods  (later Dungeness crabs will be  included)
to varying   concentrations of specific hydrocarbons
and aqueous phase  petroleum.   They  plan to assess
the effects of  soluble petroleum on key factors in
the life cycle of  these organisms.

     In coordination with  these  laboratory studies,
an extensive  field sampling  program will  be con-
ducted  in Puget  Sound  (Bean).  Emphasis will be
placed  on Cherry Point  Anacortes  and Port Angeles,
two locations that are receiving oil wastes from
refineries.   Scientists will  analyze petroleum
contaminants  in  water,  organisms and sediments.
These data  will  be compared  with field samples from
relatively  pristine Puget  Sound  localities such as
Sequim  Bay.  Also  included in the field program are
studies to  examine the potential  biological availa-
bility  and  effects of  petroleum  hydrocarbons bound
to sediments.  The effects of continuous  exposure
to low  levels of petroleum hydrocarbons released
from sediments  is  being investigated by following
the compositional  changes  of  established  and
recruited infauna  populations.

     An important  contribution  to the Puget Sound
program is  being conducted by University  of
Washington scientists who are determining the dis-
tribution of the natural versus man-made hydro-
carbons in local marine organisms  (phytoplankton,
zooplankton, neuston) and in sediments and water.
Sediment cores have been dated with a lead 210
technique which leads to a time history of hydro-
carbon input to the sediments.  The investigators
will also use the 13C/KC ratio to separate
recently biosynthesizea hydrocarbons from ancient
fossil fuel hydrocarbons.  Presently, the labora-
tory at the University of Washington will handle
all of the low-level analyses (>  10"^ ppm) for
hydrocarbons usinq liquid chromotography and ultra-
violet fluorescence techniques.  Guidance on the
use of these technologies has been furnished to
scientists at NOAA and at PNL who  are cooperating
in the total program.

     A smaller study has been initiated at
Lawrence Livermore Lab (Spies).  Investigators
there are comparing the benthic community structure
at two sites in the Santa Barbara  oil lease area:
one site is an active oil-seep area; the other is
in a clean area untouched by oil contaminations.
Ten replicate cores obtained by divers are col-
lected each two months.  Each area is clearly
marked for easy and repetitive location.  The
intent of this study is to identify differences in
the benthic community structure between these two
areas

     The investigators at LLL also plan to initiate
studies of the effects of drilling on selected
benthic organisms with emphasis on the ways in
which organisms assimilate the toxic components of
drilling muds.

     Another part of this program  is concerned with
the transport and dispersion of refinery wastes in
freshwater coastal regions.  Funds were used to
supplement a major program at Argonne National
Laboratory (Harrison) in coastal transport and
diffusion in southern Lake Michigan.  The dynamics
of oil-fouled receiving waters are being examined
in a series of experiments conducted off the
Calumet Region of Illinois and Indiana where five
oil refineries discharge oil processing water into
the Lake via the Indiana Harbor Canal.

     In a given experiment, a quantity of canal
water is tagged with a small amount of an inert,
non-toxic rare earth in aqueous solution.  At the
same time and place, a quantity of oil-refinery
waste is released; this release is tagged with an
oil-soluble solution of a different rare earth.
Both tagged quantities move into the Canal and
into the Lake, dispersing in the normal fashion.

     Several such experiments are  planned under
different environmental conditions which will be
useful for adjusting dispersion coefficients  in
numerical models of oil waste transport.  These
data will be used to test a numerical model of
nearshore water transport developed at  Case-Western
University under EPA sponsorship.

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112
 IMPACTS ASSOCIATED WITH OFFSHORE POWER PLANTS

      The coastal oceanography program at ERDA
 supports a wide variety of research projects on _
 the transport and fate of radionuclides and toxic
 substances on the continental shelf and in estuar-
 ies.  The ERDA cooling system program and this
 effort are both aimed at development of knowledge
 of how substances such as Cu, Zn, heavy and poten-
 tially toxic metals, and tritium are moved and
 recycled in the nearshore region, and their
 possible effects on economically or ecologically
 important organisms.  This knowledge is directly
 applicable to material likely to be ejected from
 coastal and offshore power systems.

      The EPA pass-through funds for projects includ-
 ed in this program are integrated with our coastal
 oceanography program in transport of pollutants in
 estuaries and on the continental shelf.  One of our
 principal contractors (Cross) is the Atlantic
 Estuarine Fisheries Center (NOAA) at Beaufort,
 North Carolina, which is working to (1) develop a
 dynamic model of the cycling and fate of copper,
 nickel and zinc in coastal waters in North Carolina
 and (2) determine the effects of dissolved organic
 compounds originating from watersheds and marshes
 on the physical transport and biological availabil-
 ity of copper to marine organisms, particularly
 phytoplankton and larval fish.

      Work has already begun on establishing base-
 line concentrations of nickel, copper and zinc  in
 Onslow Bay sediments, pore waters, and benthic
 fauna.  Cruises will begin this spring to collect
 samples for analysis of copper, nickel and zinc in
 water within Onslow Bay, including the area near
 the ocean outfall of the Brunswick Nuclear
 Generating Plant.  Experiments will be conducted
 in the laboratory to assess the environmental
 factors controlling sediment-water exchange of
 these metals.

      Complexation of copper by natural organic
 matter is to be investigated with respect to the
 following parameters:  concentration and chemical
 composition of dissolved organic matter, concen-
 tration of copper, presence of competing metals,
 acidity, salinity, temperature, and time, i.e.,
 kinetics.  Ultimately, we wish to be able to esti-
 mate spatial and temporal variations in copper
 speciation and to determine at least some of the
 important factors that control copper complexation
 in natural  waters.

      So far, research indicates that only a minute
 fraction of the total copper in estuarine is
 present as free cupric ion.  Calculations show  that
 the high degree of copper complexation in the water
 cannot be accounted for by the formation of inor-
 ganic complexes, thus indicating that the pre-
 dominant portion of the copper is present as
 organic complexes.

      Complexation of copper by dissolved organic
 matter is highly dependent on pH, apparently due
 to competition between hydrogen ions and cupric
 ions for coordination with organic ligands.  River
pH has been measured at values  as  low  as  5.4  indi-
cating rather large spatial  and temporal  variations
in this parameter.  Changes  in  pH  should  be an
important parameter affecting natural  copper  com-
plexation in the Newport  River  and estuary.

     Chelation reduces copper toxicity and bio-
logical availability.  Experiments are being
designed to determine the  sensitivity  of  fish eggs
(spot, croaker, flounder  and silversides) to  both
free cupric ion and to copper complexes.  Prelimi-
nary results from this investigation suggest  that
fish eggs are sensitive only to free cupric ions
and that these levels of  toxicity  are  similar to
those observed for algae.

     This work, just begun,  is  important  to our
study of the complexation  of copper to  natural
ligands and to determine what effect this process
has on trace metal cycling,  including  biological
availability.  Such information is of  great impor-
tance in predicting the impact  of  elevated levels
of copper and other heavy  metals introduced by
power plants on fishery resources.

POWER PLANT COOLING SYSTEMS

     As indicated in the  introduction,  pass-through
funds in the power plant cooling systems area have
been applied in toto to augmentation of a substan-
tial program already in place.   This program is
currently operating at a  level  of  about $3.8
million per year as shown  in Table 2.   The concep-
tual framework of the ERDA cooling systems program
is given in Figure 1.  Indicated on the figure
are areas where four pass-through  projects classi-
fied in this program are focused.  These projects
are discussed below.'

1.  Effects of Temperature on the  Behavior of
    Marine Invertebrates

     Several years of experience have made it
increasingly apparent that the  circulation charac-
teristics of most Steam-Electric-Station  (SES)
sites are such that direct mortalities  of important
organisms due to waste heat discharge  are not
likely to be of quantitative significance, since
the areas impacted by an appreciable temperature
increase are generally quite small.  ERDA has
accordingly supported for  several  years a program
on the effects of small temperature increases on
various parameters of fish behavior, conducted at
the National Marine Fisheries Service  Laboratory
at Sandy Hook, New Jersey  (Olla).  The  program is
directed at evaluation of  the importance  of sub-
lethal effects.

     Pass-through funds are  being  used  to expand
the program to include the effect  of temperature
increase on the behavior of marine invertebrates
representative of mid-Atlantic  coastal  environ-
ments.  Feeding activity,  shelter  dependence, and
social interactions such  as  aggression  and
territorial ity are representative  of the  behavioral
measures studied.  The blue-crab,  Callinutes
sapidus, has been selected as the  initial species
for evaluation, and current  efforts are directed

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                                                                                                         113
at the establishment of  baseline  data  for crabs
maintained  in laboratory aquaria.

2.  Synergistic  Effects  on  Invertebrates

     Some of the more  significant impacts of once-
through  cooling  systems  in  aquatic environments may
be manifested in the development,  composition and
community metabolism of  fouling communities  as
influenced  by toxicants  such  as copper leached from
the condensers or chlorine  and  its derivatives
associated  with  fouling  control procedures.   Scien-
tists at the Pacific Northwest  Laboratory's  marine
facility at Sequim, Washington, are utilizing pass-
through  funds to evaluate the significance of these
kinds of effects (Thatcher).  Polyvinylchloride
substrata are used  in  situ  to permit development of
normal  fouling communities.   Then they will  be
exposed  in  the laboratory to  the  following regimes:
(1) unfiltered ambient sea  water;  (2)  heated sea
water;  (3)  heated sea  water and chlorine; (4)
heated sea  water and copper;  (5)  heated sea  water
and chlorine and copper; (6)  ambient sea  water and
chlorine;  (7) ambient  sea water and copper;  and
(8) ambient sea  water  and chlorine and copper.

     To  date exposure  panels  100  cm2 and  400 cm2
in area  have been placed in the Straits of Juan de
Fuca 40  feet below  mean  low water.  They  are in-
spected  once a month with SCUBA;  temperature is
continuously monitored.   Initial  panels are  being
transferred to the  laboratory at  the time this is
being written.   Ultimately  laboratory  results will
be verified at a Pacific Gas  and  Electric plant
site and estuarine  sites for  submerged panels will
be established at Willapa Bay or  Gray's Harbor.  A
typical  panel is illustrated  in  Figure 2.

3.  Chemical Effects of  Chlorine  and Derivatives

     Although recent estimates  suggest that  only a
small percentage of the  total chlorine added to the
Nation's waterways  each  year  enters in the effluent
from once-through cooling systems, interest  in
potential  problems  arising  from power  plant  cooling
water chlorination  has increased  dramatically.
This is  particularly true for marine and  estuarine
environments where  little information  exists, and
th? possibility  of  interactions with high ammonium
ion concentrations  and other  factors is great.

     Pass-through funds  are being applied to the
expansion of an  ongoing  program also at the  Pacific
Northwest Marine Laboratory at  Sequim, Washington,
to support  bioassay determinations for LC50
chlorine dosages for a spectrum of marine organisms
(Tempieton).  Preliminary experiments  on  oyster
larvae,  Dungeness crab eggs,  coon stripe  shrimp
eggs, and amphipods have been completed.   Replica-
tions of these determinations are planned as well
as experiments on eggs and  larvae of flounder,
herring, smelt,  and sandlance.  A substantial
portion  of  the overall effort is  devoted  to  reso-
lution of problems  in  the analytical techniques for
determination of "total  residual  chlorine."

4.  Condenser Effects

     Direct mortality  to organisms passing through
power station cooling systems may  represent  the
most significant impact on the biota of  receiving
water supplies.  Significant damage can  be caused
by purely physical aspects, such as abrasion  and
pressure changes, of cooling system passage.

     Previous work at Oak Ridge National  Laboratory
with an experimental condenser loop has  indicated
that condenser passage itself is not a significant
source of mortality, and that the  probable site of
most physical damage to plankton may be  the high
speed, high volume pumps used to supply  the cooling
system.  This portion of the ERDA  cooling systems
program is devoted to construction of an experi-
mental pump-condenser loop system  which will  be used
to determine the source of mechanical damage  to
typical freshwater and marine ichthyoplankton.
Attention will be focused on features of pump design
and operation such as speed and net positive  suction
head (Coutant).

     Specifications and design criteria for con-
struction of the experimental  system have been
completed and bids received for a  scaled down model
of a condenser-pump system.   The program is on
schedule and initial experimentation will begin as
planned this spring.

5.  Other Projects

     One other project unrelated to the above but
included in this program for administrative purposes
deals with atmospheric effects of cooling towers
(Gifford).  This research which deals with the
atmospheric effects of large cooling towers, opera-
ting singly and in clusters,  and is being con-
ducted by NOAA's Atmospheric Turbulence and
Diffusion Laboratory (ATDL)  at Oak Ridge, Tennessee.

     A numerical cloud growth  model is being con-
structed drawing on previous experience at ATDL and
elsewhere.  The sensitivity of the model  to para-
metric variations will  be investigated.  The model
predictions will be compared with field data.  Wind
tunnel studies will be used to examine the effects
of the geometry and placement  of cooling towers in
simulated environmental  settings on the behavior of
the plumes.  Problems of plume down wash and  inter-
actions between plumes are being investigated.

     The possibility of large  heat and moisture
fluxes from energy centers affecting local and
regional weather conditions is being examined theo-
retically.  Field experiments  are  being considered.

ALASKAN OIL

     As a result of the Prudhoe Bay, Alaska oil
strike in 1968, there was thought  to be about two
billion barrels of crude oil  and some 7.4 trillion
cubic feet of natural gas in that  field.   By 1973
the proven reserves of crude oil for the U. S.
and Canada, except the Arctic, were estimated to
be 1.3 billion net barrels.   Currently, Alaska's
Arctic Slope is estimated to have  something under
10 billion barrels of crude oil and about 22.5
trillion cubic feet of natural gas.  None of  the
values given for Alaska include estimates for

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114
 presumed  Outer  Continental  Shelf  reserves.   Thus,
 Alaska  will  figure  importantly in the Nation's
 future  petroleum production/planning.

      The  Atomic Energy  Commission was involved  for
 many years  in ecological  research and studies of
 man's impact on the arctic.   For  example,  the study
 of the  Cape Thompson region  resulted  in  the  most
 detailed  characterization of any  arctic  region  yet
 published.   This experience  and related  projects
 were inherited  by ERDA  and form the core for the
 future  research program related to development  of
 Alaskan resources.

      Given  this potential of the  region  combined
 with the  difficulties of technology,  exploitation,
 and production  in this  remote and rigorous environ-
 ment, the questions in  need of answers are many and
 diverse.   ERDA  has  responsibility for three  tasks
 related to  these problems, as follows:

      1)  Oil persistence in the tundra and its
 impact  on the below-ground ecosystem,

      2)  Effects of oil on tundra thaw ponds, and

      3)  Effects of construction  on tundra lakes.

      Although these studies  were  funded  June 1,
 1975, most  of them  could not be effectively  started
 prior to  late June.  Therefore, few results  are
 available and those which are available  are  only
 preliminary in  scope.

 1.  Oil Persistence in  Tundra and Below-Ground
 1.1.   Technical  Discussion

      The presence of natural  oil  seeps in the
 Arctic have been known for several  decades.   Their
 existence certainly exceeds several  hundreds of
 years and perhaps thousands.   They provide somewhat
 of an index to the impact of oil  on the tundra and
 adaptation modes or processes within the micro-
 biotic communities surrounding such seeps.  The
 natural  fate of oil pollutants involves physical,
 chemical, and biological  processes.   The bio-
 degradation depends on the oil's  composition, the
 microbial community, nutrient levels, temperature,
 soil  respiration rates, etc.

      Soil microorganisms  are essential components
 of Arctic ecosystems, especially  in elemental
 transformations including the cycling of carbon,
 nitrogen, phosphorus, and sulfur.   These cycling
 processes may be altered  by pollutants.

 1.2.   Program Discussion

      The contractor for this research is Virginia
 Polytechnic Institute and State University (Miller).
 Study sites were selected at Barrow and at the
 IBP Tundra Biome study site at Footprint Creek near
 Barrow.   Both are on the coastal  plain.  In order
 to assess long-term effects, natural seeps will be
 visited near Cape Simpson (coastal  plain) and old
 spills will be examined at Cape Thompson (coastal
plain) and Umiat (foothills).

     Objectives are to:

     1)  Monitor species composition of  filamen-
tous fungi, yeasts, and bacteria  in oil  treated
areas.

     2)  Follow impact of oil on  fungi,  bacteria,
and plant roots through one growing season.

     3)  Monitor physiological changes in micro-
organisms with emphasis on altered respiratory
quotients and changes in energy availability,
determine how changes which occur affect soil-
water relationships, and relate the changes to
rate of oil degradation.

     4)  Isolate and culture  species of  bacteria
and fungi able to use oil as  a substrate or grow
and function in areas of high oil pollution.

     To date there has been documentation of a
significant lowering of populations of fungal bio-
mass exposed to Prudhoe crude, marked depression
of mycorrhizal root activity, shifts in  soil bac-
teria, and a strong increase  in soil respiration
following treatment (this response is usually
followed by a drop in activity).

     Oil may penetrate to depths  of 8 cm in soil
or may stay on top of the soil with little mobil-
ity, apparently as a function of  the microvegative
cover.  At a highly contaminated  natural oil seep
at Cape Simpson, only a single plant species,
Dupontia fisherii, remains.   Bacterial populations
are high, fungal populations  are  low, and physio-
logical differences in the root action of
Dupontia have occurred, allowing  it to exist in
the highly contaminated area.

2.  Effects of Oil on Tundra  Thaw Ponds

2.1.  Technical Discussion

      In 1970 a rather heavy concentration of oil,
10 1/m  , was spilled on a tundra  pond near Barrow,
Alaska.  Results of that spill showed massive
organism die off and a slow recovery.  The phyto-
plankton species composition  changed and has not
returned to the pre-spill status  in the  five years
to date.  Zooplankton has returned to about nor-
mal densities and diversity while the aquatic
insects are still at different densities and
species composition as compared to the control
ponds.  The littoral margins  (about 33 percent of
the pond area at high water)  are  still covered
with a tar-like residue and the macrophytes  have
not returned to this area.  This  presents a  con-
dition that merits a comparative  analysis with
ponds receiving much smaller  doses of oil to
determine differences in mortality and  recovery
rate.

2.2.  Program Discussion

      North Carolina State University  (Hobbie)  is
responsible for this research.  Ponds  near  Barrow

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                                                                                                         115
were used as study  sites.

     Within the above  general  framework,  the  objec-
tives of this study are  to  determine:

     1)  The process by  which  an  oil  spill  changes
species composition of phytoplankton.

     2)  The process by  which  an  oil  spill  kills
zooplankton and whether  all  species  are  equally
sensitive.

     3)  the concentrations  of oil  necessary  to
kill plankton species  and  the  sublethal  effects
produced by oil.

     4)  The process that  prohibits  reproduction  in
benthic animals.

     5)  The effect of oil  on  bacterial  numbers  in
plankton and sediments.

     6)  The long-term effect  on  rooted  aquatic
plants.

     7)  The rate of degradation  of crude oil  and
its components  parts in  arctic ponds.

     The primary  interests  were in  recovery times
and toxic  effects of small  spills.   Two  ponds    „
received concentrations  of  0.12 1/m2 and 0.24 1/mS
respectively, of  Prudhoe crude in 1975  to compare
with the 1970 spill.   Within eight  hours post-spill
the ponds  showed  a  marked  increase  in  phytoplankton
response  (such  a  response  is similar to  that  pro-
duced by a  shock  or stimulus to phytoplankton).
About two  weeks later, the  following effects  were
observed:

     1)  Macrophyte growth  was unaffected.

     2)  There  was  no  change in phytoplankton pro-
duction or  biomass, but  species composition change
was in the  same fashion  as  in  the 1970  spill.

     3)  Zooplankton disappeared.

     4)  Litter decomposition  was inhibited.

     5)  No effect  was detected on  bacteria.

     6)  Large  numbers of  insects were  killed and
reproduction of species  which  lay eggs  on water
surfaces or marginal vegetation stopped.   Species
which deposited eggs pre-spill  (in  some  cases three
years earlier)  showed  normal emergence.

     7)  Oil disappeared in  an exponential  fashion
from spill areas.

3.  Effects of  Road Construction  on Tundra  Lakes

3.1.  Technical Discussion

     Road construction and  maintenance  in the arc-
tic imposes severe  difficulties both in  terms of
providing a stable, relatively permanent structure
and of minimizing serious  impact  on adjacent
undisturbed tundra.  A gravel substructure must  be
built.  Grading is kept to a minimum.   Because of
road structure, few drainage pipes under  the  road
are used.  Thus, snow melt ponds tend  to  form.
Further, dust from the roads tends to  cause earlier
snow melt and affect the suddenness of the summer
snow melt.

     A major question concerns the effects of
altering watershed drainage increasing sedimentation
as a result of road construction.  Such effects  are
associated with the dumping of large amounts of
gravel into water, leaching of minerals from the
gravel, increased sediment loading within lake
waters, and alteration of the sediments on lake
bottoms.

     The two previous studies on lakes  suggest the
nature of the range of disturbances that can be
expected to occur in arctic lake systems.  Baseline
data are needed from lakes where no human distur-
bance is yet involved to better understand the
quantity or quality of potential  changes.

3.2.  Program Discussion

     This project (Alexander),  which is conducted
by the University  of Alaska, was designed to
answer certain questions on not only the biological
effects of increased turbidity on lakes, but also
on physical and biological  alterations.   In part,
the objectives complement the studies  on oil  spills
on ponds.  Those biological  parameters that could
be most easily measured concern changes in micro-
bial, benthic, and plankton populations or in pri-
mary production.  Both quality and rate of food
intake by zooplankton or visual-feeding fish may
be altered.

     Physical and chemical  alterations are most
easily demonstrated by documenting runoff and water
turnover changes, light penetration, chemical  cycle
composition (pH, dissolved oxygen, etc.) changes
and effects on thermal  regimes  or geochemical
budgets.

     A survey of the highway along the pipeline
route revealed that there were 83 bodies of water
adjacent.to the highway.  Of these, 26 percent were
thaw ponds or lakes (caused by melting of ground
ice), 25 percent were block drainage ponds (created
along roadside by the road construction process),
24 percent were beaded stream ponds, 12 percent
were old ox bows or meanders of the river, 8 percent
were glacial or kettle lakes, and 5 percent were
of other types.  The seasonal chemistry was inten-
sively studied in block drainage, thaw, and meander
ponds.  Ponds on the coastal  plain were alkaline
while those in the foothills were acid.   Extensive
sampling showed that block drainage ponds created
within the past year had higher primary productivity
than large bodies of water such as Toolik Lake.
Dust effects were minimal  beyond about  50 meters
from the road, but within that range
could be markedly reduced.

     As a means of evaluating the effects of man-
caused water turbidity and assessment  of  suspended

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116                                           .  .
 sediments  two  other  lakes  unaffected  by  man  will
 be used.   Lakes  Peters  and Schrader on the north
 side  of  the  Brooks Range  are  being used  to assess
 effects  of suspended sediments.   The  lakes are
 situated  in  a  narrow glaciated  valley, and are
 joined by  a  narrow channel.   They have a common
 source yet they  contrast  strongly in  turbidities
 because  of their relative  positions.   In addition,
 productivity and phytoplankton  regimes have  been
 previously studied in these lakes providing  base-
 line  information for comparative  purposes.

      The  backbone of the  study  will be to make  sedi-
 ment  load  determinations  in the lakes along  tran-
 sects and  correlate  them  with the spectral band
 sensed by  special water penetrating color film
(Kodak SO-224) in aerial photographs  and  high alti-
tude ERTS imagery.  Trace metal and nutrient dis-
tribution and limnological factors related to light
penetration and primary productivity  will be
measured.

PROGRESS AND FUTURE DEVELOPMENTS

     All of the projects described herein were
initiated during late June to July of 1975.  In
most cases progress has been limited  to site
reconnaissance and survey, and development of
detailed experimental designs.  In no case was a
complete growing season available for implemen-
tation of research plans.
                 PROJECT REFERENCES
 Alexander, V., University of Alaska, Fairbanks.

 Bean, R. M., Pacific Northwest Laboratory,
  Richland, Washington.

 Cairns, J., Virginia Polytechnic Institute,
  Blacksburg, Virginia.

 Carpenter, R., University of Washington, Seattle,
  Washington, and W. L. Templeton, Pacific
  Northwest Laboratory, Richland, Washington.

 Carter, R. P. and R. Cameron, Argonne National
  Laboratory, Argonne, Illinois.

 Crawford, T. V., DuPont de Nemours (E.I.) & Co.,
  Savannah River Laboratory, Aiken, South Carolina.

 Cross, F. A., National Marine Fisheries Service,
  Beaufort, North Carolina.

 Coutant, C. C., Oak Ridge National Laboratory,
  Oak Ridge, Tennessee.

 Gehrs, C. W., Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak
  Ridge, Tennessee.

 Gifford, F. A., Atmospheric Turbulence and
  Diffusion Laboratory (NOAA), Oak Ridge, Tennessee.

 Gordon', C. C., and J. O'Toole, University of
  Montana, Missoula, and Ames Laboratory, Iowa.

 Harrison, W., Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne,
  Illinois.

 Harte, J., and D. J. Levy, Lawrence Berkeley
  Laboratory, University of California, Berkeley.

 Hobbie, J. E., North Carolina State University,
  Raleigh, North Carolina.
Johnson, L. J., Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory,
 Los Alamos, New Mexico.

Miller, 0. K., Virginia Polytechnic  Institute,
 Blacksburg, Virginia.

Olla, B. L., National Marine Fisheries Service,
 Sandy Hook Laboratory, Highlands, New Jersey.

Routson, R., Pacific Northwest Laboratory, Richland,
 Washington.

Smith, M. H., Savannah River Ecology Laboratory,
 University of Georgia, Aiken, South Carolina.

Spies, R. B., Lawrence Livermore Laboratory,
 University of California, Livermore, California.

Strand, R. H., Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak
 Ridge, Tennessee.

Templeton, W. L., Pacific Northwest  Laboratory,
  Richland,  Washington.

Thatcher, T. 0.,  Pacific Northwest Laboratory,
 Richland, Washington.

Theis, T. L., University of Notre Dame,  Notre Dame,
 Indiana.

Turner, F. B., Laboratory of Nuclear Medicine and
 Radiation Biology, University of California,
 Los Angeles, California.

Vanderhorst, J. R., Pacific Northwest Laboratory,
 Richland, Washington.

Wolf, E. G., Pacific Northwest Laboratory,
 Richland, Washington.

Wood, K. G., State University of New York,
 Fredonia.

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                                                                                                                       117
                                                      TABLE 1

                       ALLOCATIONS OF FUNDS FOR ERDA  PROGRAMS ACCORDING  TO  CATEGORIES  OF  THE
                    INTERAGENCY WORKING GROUP ON HEALTH AND ENVIRONMENTAL EFFECTS  OF  ENERGY USE I/


'Program and Objective


1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

6.
I/
Orientation

Land Reclamation
Trace Contaminants
Offshore Oil
Offshore Power Plants
Power Plant Cool ing
Systems
Alaskan Oil
Based on the report of

Transport
Air Water Soil
($1000s)
75 90
130
310
175
80

70
Interagency Category
Ecological Effects
Terrestrial Freshwater
($1000s)
235 270
600 770


200

116
the working group dated November 1974, prepared for the Office of


Marine TOTAL

670
1500
485 795
175
305 585

186
Management and Budget.
                                                       TABLE 2

                                  COMPARISON OF BASE BUDGET AND PASS-THROUGH SUPPORT
                                    FOR ERDA PROGRAMS RECEIVING SUPPLEMENTAL FUNDS
Program
Land Reclamation
Trace Contaminants
Offshore Oil
Offshore Power Plants
Power Plant Cooling Systems
Alaskan Oil
Coastal Zone Impacts I/
TOTALS
Base Budget
(Millions)
0.5
5.7
2.6
2.1
3.8
0.4
3.8
18.9
Pass-Through
(Millions)
0.7
1.5
0.8
0.2
0.6
0.2
0
4.0 2/
I/  The coastal zone impact program consists of physical and chemical oceanography in the nearshore region.  The
    applications are multitechnological, and the research is in support of four of the programs listed:  trace
    contaminants, offshore oil and related problems, offshore power plants, and power plant cooling systems,


2/  The difference with Table 1 is due to rounding error.  The actual value is $3.911 million.

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118
 FIGURE 1
 CONCEPTUAL  FRAMEWORK OF  THE ERDA  COOLING SYSTEMS PROGRAM
                                                                              TRACE METALS
  ECOLOGICAL EFFECTS
  OF COOLING SYSTEMS
                                  DISCHARGES
                                  DIVERSION DEVICES    (4)
                      ENTRAPMENT
                      AND
                      IMPINGEMENT
                                   EVALUATION OF ADEQUACY
                                   OF INTAKE-OUTFALL SAMPLING
                                   MODELS OF EFFECTS OF
                                   CONDENSER MORTALITY
                                   ON RECRUITMENT
                                   EFFECTS OF REDUCED
                                   RECRUITMENT ON YIELD
                                                                 CHEMICAI
                                                                 EFFECTS
CI2 AND
DERIVATIVES
                                                                              OZONE
                                                              TEMPERATURE EFFECTS
    FISH
                                                               SYNERGISTIC
                                                               EFFECTS
                                                                                                         FRESH WATER
                                                                                           INVERTEBRATES
                                                                                                          MARINE &
                                                                                                          ESTUARINE
                                     '
                                                                                              PLANKTON
                                                                                             ROOTED
                                                                                             PLANTS
                                                                                             FISH
               OTHER
               VERTEBRATES
                                                                              INVERTEBRATES
FIGURE 2  ARTIFICIAL  SUBSTRATA  FOR EXPERIMENTAL STUDIES
                     OF MARINE FOULING COMMUNITIES
                                                              (Courtesy  C.  I. Gibson,  PNL)

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                                                                                                        119


                                  DISCUSSION FOR MARINE EFFECTS SESSION


     Comment  from the  Floor  on  Preceedlng Rapporteur Presentation:  It is difficult to summarize the en-
tire  fate  and effect of  oil  on  the marine ecosystem.  A number of projects and studies have been support-
ed by the  American  Petroleum Institute,  EPA and the U.S.  Coast Guard.   Much of this work is detailed in
the proceedings of  the Joint EPI  EPA U.S.  Coast Guard Proceedings of the Symposium on Oil Spill Preven-
tion  Control  held in San Francisco, March 1975.

     Panel  Response:   The  panel  agreed that there is considerable work currently in progress in the area
of marine  effects of petroleum  and petroleum by-products.   This work is intended for presentation at the
next  EPA EPI  U.S. Coast  Guard Symposium  on Oil  Spills that will be held later this year.   There will be
some  contradictory  evidence  which suggests that more sophisticated]response measuring is needed to
adequately assess the  toxicity  of various levels of crude  oil  on the marine organism.  Crude oils are only
one input  to  the system, other  inputs consist of refined products.  Wave and wind conditions in the local
ecosystem  have  a profound  effect  on fate of oil spills.  Mortality of soft-shelled clams transported to
an area which had been subject  to a spill  twelve years earlier will  be reported.

     Question:  Mention  has  been  made of studies showing the effects of chlorine residuals on adult
fishes.  Are  there  plans to  extend these studies to fingerlings in other species of fish such as shad and
other Atlantic  Coast species not  covered in the studies which  have been done or implied by the panel?

     Panel  Response:   NOAA is doing similar work with other fish species although it is not known if shad
are included.   ERDA is also  supporting work at Woods Hole  which will involve larval fish  as well as
different  plankton.  These studies are directed at the effects of chlorine,ammonia and temperature.
Battelle is also doing similar  studies involving larval fish,  larval crustacean and other juvenile
species.

     Question:  A number of  projects have been outlined which  relate to Mid-Atlantic Northern warm and
cold water areas of the  United  States.  Are there programs addressed to coral  reefs or mangrove areas
such as occur in Southern  Florida?

     Panel  Response:   There  is  a  substantial  amount of work which has  been reported in manuscripts but
not yet published.  This work includes the effects of thermal  influences on  the determination of seed-
lings in the  mangroves along with the composition and structure of ecological  communities associated with
the mangroves.  Reference  was made to the First Thermal Ecology Symposium Proceedings for the symposium
held in Augusta, Georgia a year ago last spring.

     Texas A&M  has  done  extensive work with respect to oil on  coral  reefs.   It is understood that these
studies purport to  show  that particular  types of coral are not affected by oil  spills even when the tide
exposes the coral heads  allowing  contact with the oil.

     EPA is currently  conducting  work on the effect of low-level, long-term temperature changes on marine
organisms.  Substantial  analysis  has been conducted on large amounts of data.   This analysis indicates
that a temperature  increase  of  slightly  more than one degree in an embayment will result  in changes in
species composition and  diversity.  Consequently, if power plants are  built  on bays or estuaries, changes
to the biome  in these  areas  can be expected.   In the marine area, this temperature increase is  sometimes
referred to as  thermal-pollution.   This  reference to marine thermal  pollution  is a misnomer.  The local
long-term  heat  addition  results in changes in species.  New species  will  come  in and old  species will
evacuate.   This is  not pollution.   However, what happens  is unpredictable.   Historically, warming has
taken place at  Cape Cod  not  induced by man.  This has resulted in the  green  crab, a preditor, devastating
the population  of soft-shelled  clams in  the area.  Without  present  knowledge  and capabilities, such
long-term  effects are  not  predictable, whether resulting from  natural  or man-induced causes and should
be regarded as  a crucial  issue  requiring future research.

     Question:  A slide  displayed during the previous presentation depicted  fairly sizeable input of
hydrocarbons  from river  waters  into the  marine ecosystem.   What is the form of the hydrocarbons from
river waters  to the marine system, and what is the fate and persistence of the pollutant?

     Panel  Response:   A  doctoral  thesis  for a degree earned at the University  of Atlanta has been publish-
ed which is concerned with the  fate of polynuclear aromatics associated with river and sewage input into
Narragansett  Bay.   Increases in hydrocarbons were observed in  the marine organisms and sediments which
decreased  markedly  at  distances of 40 km down the Bay from the shore.   The biological process did not
appear to  result in decomposition of these petroleum products, nor did the petroleum seem to be of immed-
iate  harm  to  the marine  organisms in the open sea.

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                       CHAPTER 6
FRESH WATER ECOLOGICAL EFFECTS

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122

INTRODUCTION

     Although the long term energy needs of the U.S.
depend on the development of energy sources other
than fossil fuels, it is evident that at least for
the remainder of the century, we will continue to be
heavily dependent on fossil fuels.  These needs will
require greatly increased use of coal, continued
reliance on oil and possible utilization of novel
sources and processing technologies such as oil
shale and coal gasification.  What is not yet appar-
ent is the ecological effects that extraction,
transport and conversion of these energy sources
will have upon the fresh water ecosystem.

     It is recognized that the ecological balance of
the fresh water, marine and terrestrial systems are
closely interrelated.  The aquatic aspects are
delineated here as a matter of organizational con-
venience.

     The preservation of adequate water quality is
fundamental to the maintenance of the nation's
agricultural production, preservation of habitat for
fish and wildlife, and the general ecological bal-
ance.  Competition for these water resources can be
expected to increase with demands of agriculture,
reclamation and the industrial processes themselves.

     In the nineteenth century, sanitary engineering,
the technique of managing water supply and waste
treatment became the first recognized professional
environmental discipline.  In contrast, the investi-
gation of more subtle aquatic impacts of thermal and
chemical effluents is a fairly recent development in
environmental science and engineering.

     Special emphasis is currently placed on deter-
mining the impacts of energy technologies on aquatic
ecosystems.  This emphasis will include identifica-
tion of pollutants released to the system and the
effects on aquatic flora and fauna.  Also implied is
the development of remedial procedures to reclaim
damaged areas and the prevention of other ecological
damage in the future.

     Much of the current reclamation activity is
associated with strip mine drainage and the strate-
gies for stabilization and reve&etation of lands dis-
turbed at various periods in the past.  Preventa-
tive attention will include newly developing regions
such as Alaska.   In recognition of the vast oil
reserves estimated in Alaska's Arctic Slope, and the
ecological frailty of the area, special attention
will be provided.   This attention will center on
concerns with possible effects of oil spills and
pipeline construction activities on arctic lakes,
rivers and small watersheds.

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                                                                                                         123
      THE  EFFECTS  OF  FRESHWATER WITHDRAWALS
        ON  FISH AND  WILDLIFE RESOURCES
                Robert P.  Hayden
                 Project Leader
            Western Water Allocation
         U.S.  Fish  and Wildlife Service
 INTRODUCTION

     The Fish and Wildlife Service is identifying,
 evaluating,  and  attempting to solve energy related
 problems which threaten the water quality and
 quantity essential for maintenance of viable aquatic
 and terrestrial  habitats.   As we move towards na-
 tional energy self-sufficiency,  competition for the
 water supply remaining available for utilization can
 be expected  to accelerate  and spread from those
 areas in the Western United States where it is al-
 ready intense to major portions  of the country.
 Energy related decisions regarding water allocation
 and use may  adversely affect fish, wildlife, and
 environmental values unless appropriate factual
 information  is provided in a timely manner and this
 information  is carefully considered in planning and
 decisionmaking processes.
 1.
     Technical  Discussion
     The preservation of adequate water quality and
quantity in existing  natural systems is a critical
factor in the  maintenance of habitat viability for
fish and wildlife.  This applies not only to aquatic
habitats but also  to  terrestrial habitats where
surface water  satisfies  the  consumptive needs of
wildlife and supports riparian vegetation.   Although
water is important in all climatic conditions it is
critical in the  arid  portions of the Western United
States where evaporation exceeds  precipitation.

     In the West,  water  has  long been recognized as
the key to economic development as well as habitat
preservation.  Over the  years, numerous projects
have been constructed to irrigate arid lands, gen-
erate electrical power,  and  provide drinking and
industrial water supplies.   During the next decade,
competition for  the limited  water remaining avail-
able for allocation and  utilization is expected to
be intense,  particularly for energy development
processes.   The  water allocation and use decisions
that will be made  in  the next few years may adverse-
ly affect fish and wildlife.   This can possibly be
avoided with adequate planning which considers fish
and wildlife values.

     Western coal  and oil shale development will be
combined with  related chemical,  industrial and
expected municipal growth to bring great pressures
for rapid  development of western water reserves.
No comprehensive investigations have been made to
determine environmental water requirements.   Such
studies are needed to provide a sound basis  for
future water allocation decisions.  The Northern
Great Plains Resources Program and Westwide  Study
provide some preliminary water requirement data.
However, these data are lacking in both the  scope
and detail required to properly allocate western
surface water resources.  Analyses stemming  from our
involvement in river basin planning indicates that
adequate knowledge of long-term potential impact on
fish and wildlife and the resultant uninformed im-
plementation of action plans could virtually  elimi-
nate many entire populations of fish and wildlife.

     Water allocation and use decisions involve
natural system elements, but occur within a broader
social, administrative, legal, economic, and polit-
ical planning and management context.  A basic
problem is that although we may recognize that
habitat preservation requires adequate water supplies,
fish and wildlife are commonly not legally considered
beneficial or consumptive uses of water.  Therefore,
water is frequently allocated to other uses until a
stream is dried up or reduced to a small trickle.
To insure that fish and wildlife values are fully
recognized and considered in land and water resource
development decisions, biological assessments must
occur within the broader societal planning and
management context.  We are, therefore, initiating
projects and supplying information to decisionmakers
on three levels:

     (1)  Technical

     (2)  Current Planning

     (3)  Broad Overview 'and Management

     On the technical level we will be developing
methodologies for determining instream flow needs
for fish and wildlife, determining the location and
habitat requirements of endangered species, and
determining the effects on fish and wildlife  of
water use and development alternatives.

     On the current planning level we will be
determining the extent and location of unallocated
water, establishing fish and wildlife priorities
for individual rivers and determining the water
quantity needs of fish and wildlife.

     On the broad overview level we will initially
be trying to determine the new and emerging  decision-
making arenas to enable us to supply decisionmakers
with appropriate information in a timely manner.
In the long run we will be developing management
strategies and improving policy and decisionmaking
processes.

2.   Program Discussion

     The Fish and Wildlife Service's  freshwater
energy activity is integrated with our  other energy
programs and regular functions.  Our operational

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124
elements include a Western Energy and Land Use Team
in Ft. Collins, Colorado, and Activity Leaders in
our Regional organizations.  Staffing objectives
have been to create an interdisciplinary capability
and appropriate scientific disciplines to adequately
address potential energy impacts.  For example, in
addition to traditional fish and aquatic biologists,
we have included a hydrologist, mining engineer,
economist, and a political scientist who is expert
on water policy, a. part of our Ft. Collins Team.
The Team will provide a national focus on both the
terrestrial and aquatic effects of energy develop-
ment and work closely with Regional Activity Leaders
on regional energy problems.  This interaction
assures an integrated energy program both geograph-
ically and functionally.

      We are placing a major emphasis on the develop-
ment of improved methodologies and tools to assist
our regular field personnel in the evaluation of
energy development effects on water.  Our overall
strategy for accomplishing the Service's freshwater
program include:

       (1)  Define the key problems for which solu-
           tions are critical and develop a plan of
           action for solving these problems.

       (2)  Provide the necessary tools required to
           minimize water use impacts on fish and
           wildlife.

       (3)  Develop improved means to enter into
           decisionmaking and water resources manage-
           ment processes in order to ensure that
           fish and wildlife values are fully
           considered.

       (4)  Provide information in its most useful
           form to decisionmakers within the Fish
           and Wildlife Service, other Federal and
           State agencies, private developers, and
           the general public.

      During FY 1976 we will be involved in the
following major activities:

       (1)  Initiating a major effort to develop
           adequate methodologies and field capa-
           bility to determine stream maintenance
           flows for fish and wildlife.

       (2)  Determining fish and wildlife values and
           characteristics of streams in energy
           development areas.

       (3)  Funding studies in the most critical
           energy development areas to establish
           interim water needs while methodologies
           are being developed.

       (4)  Initiating studies to determine the
           distribution and migration patterns of
           selected endangered species in potential
           energy development areas.
      (5)  Determining water  allocation arenas,
          physical availability of water,  and
          institutional variables  for the  Western
          States.

      (6)  Communicating initial study results to a
          broad range of  audiences.

     A recently completed workshop at Utah State
University evaluated the  state-of-the-art  of
methodologies to determine instream flow needs.  The
study indicated that this field has developed to the
point where a concerted effort  is  needed to refine
and apply methodologies of promise to streams under
stress from water development.   A  major  effort of
the Service during FY 1976 will be the creation of
a "Cooperative Instream Flow Service Group" as a
satellite to our Western  Energy and Land Use Team in
Ft.  Collins.  The Service Group will serve as a focal
point for the numerous efforts  in  determining in-
stream flow needs.  It will  provide service to
practitioners who must use and  develop methodologies
and prepare, maintain, update,  and distribute a hand-
book on instream flow methodologies,  as  well as
develop improved methodologies.

     During FY 1976 we will  also be producing a series
of reports covering all potential  energy development
areas and establishing for each area the current
status of fish and wildlife,  potential fish and
wildlife value, and the ranking of waters  according
to relative value in fish and wildlife terms.  The
reports will be useful to potential developers in
their planning processes  to  avoid  sensitive areas
and minimize impact on fish  and wildlife resources.
The fish and wildlife community can utilize the
reports in establishing priorities in planning
processes as well as analyzing  individual  projects
and evaluating alternatives.

     Late in FY 1976 we will begin a preliminary
project to establish the  instream  flow requirements
at specific locations necessary to maintain the
viability of important fish  and wildlife species
present in the Upper Colorado and  Upper  Missouri
Basins.  Information on instream flow from specific
projects will be assembled and  evaluated.   The best
current available methodologies will be  selected
within the time and monetary limits of the project.
The requirements established will  remain our best
estimate of instream flow requirements until
improved methodologies are developed and applied.

     Another major activity  will be the  initiation
of studies to determine the  distribution,  habitat,
and water quality requirements  of  endangered species
in potential energy development areas.   This will
be a 3-year effort.  The  project will identify
high potential development areas,  select priority
species to be studied,and identify, locate, and
monitor the activities of individual species.  The
habitat requirements and  mitigation alternatives
for these species will be assessed.  Methodologies
will be developed to evaluate the  impact of energy
and industrial development  in these species.

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A handbook and guidelines will  be published.   During
FY 1976 studies will be  initiated to determine the
distribution and migration  patterns of selected
endangered species.

3.   Projection

     One of the first  functions of our Regional
Activity Leaders has been to  determine where  and how
the water use decisions  are being made in the States
within their Regions.  We know  these are changing
rapidly in some cases.   This  is essential informa-
tion to enable us to fund studies which will  furnish
decisionmakers with appropriate information and to
develop methodologies  which address the critical
questions that will be asked.   Concurrently to these
determinations we have initiated studies to identify
critical research needs.  We  are now pulling  together
the results of these studies  and examining them in
the light of the new and emerging trends in water use
decisionmaking identified by  our Activity Leaders.
We anticipate  that a  number  of high priority infor-
mation needs will emerge from this process.

     The following topics have  already been
identified:

     (1)  Evaluation of  the impact on ecosystems
         of alternative energy development programs.

     (2)  Loss of critical  habitat associated with
         wetlands destruction.

     (3)  Social aspects in western water law.

INTERAGENCY PARTICIPATION

     A substantial portion  of the Fish and Wildlife
Service's freshwater energy program is being  funded
by interagency supplemental energy funds.  Acceptable
results from many of the studies require greater
cooperation among State  and Federal agencies.  In the
case of determining fish and  wildlife priorities, the
Fish and Wildlife Service is  initiating the study and
providing the mechanism, but  the actual determinations
will be developed cooperatively with State fish and
game agencies providing  the major input.

     The Cooperative Instream Flow Service Group will
be multi-agency in character.   Since many agencies
have responsibility and  interest in instream flow
studies, staffing will include  State participation,
through provisions of  the Intergovernmental Personnel
Act and participation  by other  Federal agencies
through assignment.  Direct services can be provided
to a variety of Federal  and State agencies.  Funding
in addition to the basic operating level is being
sought from other Federal agencies to broaden the
service capability of  the group.   We anticipate that
further financial support will  come from the  Energy
Research and Development Administration, Water
Resources Council, U.S.  Forest  Service, Corps of
Engineers, and others.
                                                                                                          125
RESOURCE ALLOCATION
     For many years, the Fish  and Wildlife  Service
has actively participated  in water  resources  planning
and the evaluation of projects which would  affect
fish, wildlife, and environmental values.   During
FY 1975 and FY 1976 the Fish and Wildlife Service
budget provided $350,000 for the development  of
improved tools and methodologies to strengthen the
inland aquatic portion of  this effort,  specifically
in energy related aspects.  Interagency energy
supplemental funds are being used to augment  these
Fish and Wildlife Service  base funds.   Total  resource
allocations since 1975 and projected through  1976
are as follows:

         Western Water Allocation Project
             (in thousands of  dollars)
         FY 1975*
                                      FY 1976*
Base   Interagency   Total   Base   Interagency  Total

 350        700      1,050    350        643       993

     *  Budget for tools and methodologies develop-
        ment only.  Fish and wildlife participation
        in marine and fresh water resource planning
        and evaluation was in the $8 million range
        during FY 1976.

CONCLUSIONS

     The Fish and Wildlife Service has actively
participated in water resource planning for many
years and is now identifying, evaluating, and
attempting to solve energy related problems which
threaten fish, wildlife, and environmental values.
This is a new thrust for the Service with a major
goal of providing information to appropriate
decisionmakers in a useful form and timely manner
which will ensure that fish and wildlife values are
carefully considered.

     In the freshwater efforts area the data needed
relates principally to the determination of the
water quality and quantity that must be preserved in
existing natural systems to maintain viable habitats
for fish and wildlife.  Improved methodologies and
new approaches are required and these are being
developed by the Service's freshwater energy activ-
ities.  Success of the entire effort depends on
interagency and State cooperation.  Interagency
supplemental funds are permitting an increased rate
of methodology development.  The program is expected
to result in a greater understanding of the trade-
offs between alternatives and accelerated energy
development decisions in non-sensitive areas.

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126
         USDA RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT ON
         EFFECTS OF ENERGY PRODUCTION AND
           USE ON FRESHWATER RESOURCES
                  Harry E.  Brown
               USDA   Forest Service
                 Washington, D. C.
 INTRODUCTION

      Because agriculture is one of the biggest
 users of water in the United States, it is vitally
 concerned with the increasing impacts that energy-
 related activities are having on the Nation's
 water resources.  U. S. Department of Agriculture
 agencies conducting programs directly concerned
 with management of agricultural and forest lands
 must bear responsibility for maintaining the qual-
 ity and availability of water resources in the face
 of these impacts.  Of particular concern are pol-
 lutants resulting from fuel extraction and diver-
 sion of water from agricultural to energy uses  (8) .

      The purpose of this paper is to provide a
 brief description of the overall energy research
 program of USDA, with particular emphasis on
 research dealing with effects of fuel extraction
 on water resources.

      The 0. S. Water Resources Council and National
 Commission on Materials Policy have identified
 some of the potential impacts resulting from energy
 development.  These include sediments associated
 with mining, thermal wastes, acid mine drainage,
 pollutants resulting from coal washing, and con-
 centration of pollutants and decreased streamflow
 resulting from increased consumptive use (5,9).
 Energy-related impacts on water quality may also
 result from energy conservation practices used in
 the production of food, fiber, and forest products.
 Another major concern is the possible impact on
 agricultural production of transfers of water from
 agricultural to energy uses.

      On the plus side, there are often positive
 effects on water resources resulting from energy
 development.  For example, well planned water
 impoundments in strip mined areas can enhance rec-
 reation and wildlife values.

      Water rights, as well as numerous Federal
 statutes enacted over the years, affect control
 and development of surface water resources of the
 United States.  The 1872 Mining Law and 1920
 Mineral Leasing Law, along with the Federal Water
 Pollution Control Act Amendments of 1972 (Public
 Law 92-500)  are examples of pertinent statutes.
 PL 92-500 is particularly significant because it
 requires control of pollution from mining activ-
 ities.   Among other things, it requires that guide-
 lines be provided — "for identifying and evalu-
 ating the nature and extent of nonpoint sources
of pollutants and processes,  procedures,  and
methods to control pollution  resulting from —
mining activities, including  runoff  and siltation
from new, currently operating,  and abandoned
surface and underground mines."

USDA ENERGY RESEARCH PROGRAM

     The U. S. Department of  Agriculture  has
initiated an energy research  program of broad
scope that is addressing water pollution  as well
as other energy-related problems.  Its overall
goals are to conserve scarce  fuel supplies and
maintain environmental values and quality of rural
living while expanding agricultural  and forestry
production to meet growing U. S. and rural needs.
     The following program objectives are identi-
fied:

     A.  Conservation -- Increase the efficiency
         of energy use in the production, process-
         ing, marketing, and utilization of agri-
         cultural and forestry products and devel-
         op systems less dependent on petroleum
         and natural gas.  This includes research
         in environmental effects of energy con-
         servation technologies.

     B.  Bioconversion and photochemical — Devel-
         op technology for biomass production and
         for conversion of agricultural and for-
         estry products and wastes into useable
         energy fuels, petrochemical substitutes,
         and other products.

     C.  Nonfuel sources — Develop technology for
         the utilization of solar, wind, and geo-
         thermal energy in agriculture, forestry,
         and rural development.

     D.  Reclamation and environment — Develop
         technology to reclaim mined lands and to
         protect and enhance the environment and
         quality of rural living as affected by
         energy shortages and energy development.

     E.  Resources — Develop technology to assure
         supplies of plant nutrients, land, water,
         and other vital inputs as they are in-
         fluenced by energy supply.

     Of these objectives, only  "Conservation11 and
"Reclamation and Environment" are dealt with
further in this paper because of their important
implication for water resources.

     The USDA agencies involved in the program
are those that conduct programs directly concerned
with the management of soil, water, plants, and
animals on rural private and public lands.  They
include the Agricultural Research Service, Coop-
erative State Research Service, Economic Research
Service, Extension Service, Forest Service, and

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the  Soil Conservation Service.   Limited  additional
funding in support of the program  is  made  available
by the Bureau of Mines, Environmental Protection
Agency, Energy Research and Development  Adminis-
tration, Federal Energy Administration,  and the
National Science Foundation.

     The U. S. Water Resources  Council (10)  de-
scribes the water and energy-related  programs  of
three USDA agencies in Table  1.  In addition,  the
Cooperative State Research Service is involved in
water and energy research through  the State Agri-
cultural Experiment Stations, Colleges of  Forestry,
the  1890 Colleges of Agriculture,  and Tuskegee
Institute.  The Economic Research  Service  is in-
volved  through socio-economic research aimed at
achieving a proper balance between agricultural
production and the use and quality of natural  re-
sources.

     Within the context of this overall  energy re-
search  program and relevant  agency responsibilities,
we can  examine some specific  examples of USDA
studies dealing with effects  of energy-related
activities on freshwater.  These particular studies
are  concerned with effects of energy  conservation
practices and mining on freshwater from  Sections  A
and  D of the USDA Energy Research  Program.

Studies of Effects of  Energy  Conservation  Practices
on Freshwater

1.  Effects on freshwater of  energy-efficient tech-
    niques  for establishing  forest trees.   Estab-
    lishment techniques such  as prescribed fire
    could  result  in substantial energy savings
    compared with use  of heavy  machinery.   However,
    more needs to be known about effects of alter-
    native  techniques  on water  quality.

2.  Effects on freshwater of  energy-efficient cut-
    ting systems  in major  forest types.  New re-
    search  will establish  the most energy-efficient
    cutting practices  consistent with acceptable
    quality of stream  runoff  from harvested water-
    sheds.

3.  Effects on water quality  of energy-efficient
    timber  harvesting  practices and  logging road
    designs.

4.  Effects of energy-efficient nutrient management
    practices on  water quality.  Practices aimed at
    reducing  the  need  for  energy intensive fertil-
    izers  could have  favorable  implications in
    terms  of water  quality.   For example,  if nitro-
    gen fixing plants  are  developed  to replace
    nitrogen  fertilizer,  there  could be a  consid-
    erable  reduction  in nutrient pollution of run-
    off water.  On  the other hand, water quality
    could be affected  adversely by sewage  wastes
    applied to the  land as an energy conservation
    measure or by increased  use of pesticides as
    substitutes for more energy-intensive  tillage
                                                                                                        127
practices.

Studies of Mined Land Reclamation

     A major USDA reclamation program  has  been
initiated with support  from  the  Environmental
Protection Agency and other  Federal  agencies.
Portions of this program are described in  accom-
panying papers by David Ward, Howard Heggestad,
and John Schaub, so only the parts dealing with
water resources will be touched  on here.   Water-
related objectives of the reclamation  program are
as follows:

     1.  Effects of coal and oil shale  extraction
         on freshwater.

         a.  Develop baseline information  for use
             in evaluating potential effects of
             energy technologies on  freshwater
             ecosystems.

         b.  Determine the immediate and long term
             effects and biological  fate of energy
             related pollutants on freshwater re-
             sources and ecosystems and evaluate
             ways to minimize these effects.

         c.  Determine the immediate and long term
             nonpollutant effects of energy tech-
             nologies on freshwater resources and
             ecosystems and  evaluate ways to mini-
             mize these effects.

     2.  Integrated assessments.

         a.   Estimate social, economic, and cultur-
             al consequences of alternative energy
             production and pollution control tech-
             nologies.   Included here are  (1)  eval-
             uations of economic effects of energy-
             related activities on demand for water
             and economic life of aquifers, (2)
             development of  implications for inter-
             regional transfers of water, and (3)
             evaluation of effects of increased
             water demand on agricultural indust-
             ries,  environmental quality, and rural
             resource use.

     3.  Technologies for controlling effects of
         mining and related activities on agricul-
         tural, forest,  and range lands.

     Some examples of studies of freshwater effects
follow:

     1.  Baseline studies.   Studies are being
         implemented to describe premining surface
         and subsurface  water resources on agri-
         cultural and forest lands in terms of
         quantity and quality.   A Technical Infor-
         mation Service, SEAM INFO, is being devel-
         oped to alert those needing information

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128
         on reclamation of surface mined lands to
         new documents and their sources and to
         refer them to existing data bases and
         services.

     2.  Effects and biological fate of energy-
         related pollutants on freshwater resources.
         In a study at Rapid City, South Dakota,
         the quality of water in water bodies in
         strip mined areas is being investigated
         as it relates to the habitat for aquatic
         organisms and wildlife species associated
         with these water bodies.  This study will
         utilize existing information to establish
         water quality limits and guidelines.  It
         will also provide information needed for
         design and management of water impound-
         ments in strip mined areas in the Northern
         Great Plains.  Another study will assess
         the effects of mining-related transpor-
         tation systems on water resources.  Others
         are directed at determining the movement
         in water channels of pollutants associated
         with the mining activities.

     3.  Nonpollutant effects of energy technolog-
         ies on freshwater resources and ecosystems.
         Studies are being conducted to determine
         effects of mining activities on surface
         runoff and runoff-infiltration relation-
         ships on mine spoils.  Investigations are
         being made of mining techniques that will
         utilize minimum quantities of water.  In-
         cluded in all the above is development
         of modelling technologies for predicting
         hydrologic responses to mining.

     4.  Control technology studies.  Technologies
         are being evolved for ameliorating adverse
         effects of mining and related activities
         on freshwater resources.  Examples in-
         clude:   (1)  procedures for characterizing
         overburden and associated ground water in
         advance of mining,  (2)  procedures for
         revegetating mine spoils in such a way as
         to stabilize the spoils and prevent ero-
         sion and sedimentation of runoff waters,
         (3)  designs of interceptor ditches, struc-
         tures ,  and other methods of controlling
         runoff and sedimentation, and (4)  evalu-
         ation of various techniques and equipment
         for treating polluted water from mined
         lands.

RESULTS OF ONGOING RESEARCH

     Following are some recent results of investi-
gations Of effects on freshwater of surface mining:

     1.  Effects of strip mining on small stream
         fishes  in east-central Kentucky were re-
         ported  by Branson and Batch (I) .  Con-
         tinued  siltation from strip mined oper-
         ations  in two streams prevented the
    recovery of fish populations.   Fish were
    forced downstream and  several  species
    are now absent.  During  the  2  year period
    of this study the monthly low  and high
    turbidity readings  averaged  95 and 544
    Jackson Turbidity Units,  respectively.

2.  Measurements of sediment  accumulation in
    debris basins below surface  mined lands
    in eastern Kentucky showed highest sedi-
    ment yield during the 'first  6  months
    after mining (3_) .   The erosion rate di-
    minished to fairly  low levels  within 3
    years.  Methods of  mining and  handling
    spoil affected sediment yield  as  did the
    speed with which vegetative  cover was
    established.  The lower sediment  yields
    appeared to be associated with "head-of-
    the-hollow" fills which caused less ex-
    posed surface area  on steep  slopes.
    Ridge tops removed  after  making the
    initial cuts and hollow fills  resulted
    in relatively flat  areas  less  subject to
    erosion.  Vegetation that had  been re-
    moved and windrowed across the slope
    along the toe of spoils trapped much of
    the sediment.  Seeding to a  mixture of
    grasses and legumes soon  after disturb-
    ance produced a quick cover  of protective
    vegetation.

3.  Chemical pollution  of streams  may take
    place following mining if toxic over-
    burden is left on the surface  where it
    is exposed to rapid erosion  and leaching (2).
    By burying these materials and conducting
    other reclamation practices  these effects
    can be minimized.   On four study  water-
    sheds in West Virginia where mining and
    reclamation were conducted in  accordance
    with current laws and regulations adverse
    effects on water quality  were  minimal.
    Reclamation practices here included bur-
    ial of suspected toxic material,  control
    of slope length, bench regrading, and
    revegetation (&) .

4.  Evaluation of overburden  material before
    the start of mining is suggested  as the
    most reliable means of predicting spoil
    quality and devising mining  and reclam-
    ation plans.  This  can best  be accomp-
    lished by core drilling the  proposed area
    and making chemical analyses of the cores.
    Color, pyrite, and  pH are field guides
    used to determine the potential toxicity
    of exposed overburden strata (4_) .

5.  An exploratory study in the  Northern
    Great Plains was aimed at determing how
    runoff from spoil materials  is affected
    by surface treatments  (7).   Without
    treatment nearly all of the  precipitation
    left the plot as runoff;  whereas  with

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                                                                                                        129
        various  combinations of treatments,  run-
        off was  reduced to as little as one-fourth
        of the precipitation.  The treatments in-
        cluded various  combinations of gypsum,
        sulphur,  straw, and topsoil.  This study
        provides  an  indication of the degree of
        on-site water conservation that can be
        achieved  by  runoff control practices.

PROJECTED  PROGRAM  ACTIVITIES

     The following national energy goals provide
guidance for  future environmental research:

     1.  Protect  and  enhance the general health,
        safety,  welfare,  and environment related
        to energy research and development.

     2.  Seek  means for  the development of environ-
        mentally  safe and economical energy pro-
        grams .

     3.  Expand the domestic supply of economically
        recoverable  energy-producing raw materials.

     4.  Perform  essential basic and supporting
        research related to energy extraction.

     To  meet  these goals,  major emphasis will be
directed to research  aimed at ameliorating effects
of fuel  extraction on freshwater resources.  This
will require  that a better understanding be devel-
oped of  the physical  and biological process affect-
ed by mining.  Assisted  by this knowledge, tech-
niques can be  devised for accurately predicting
environmental  impacts and choosing the most cost-
effective  measures for reclamation of land and
protection of  water resources.

     Near  term (1985)  objectives of reclamation
research aimed at these  problems include determin-
ation of the  potential physical, biological,  and
socio-economical  impacts of mining operations and
resultant  airborne pollutants on important agri-
cultural and  forest ecosystems, particularly
aquatic  systems.   Assessments of these impacts are
needed for the timely formulation and implementa-
tion of  policies  and  programs for extracting fuels
in a manner to maintain  a quality environment.

     Midterm  (2000) objectives are to evaluate
existing and  emerging technological and reclamation
control  methods and to determine the needs and
means for  further  development and refinement of
technology and methodology for protecting and
improving  environmental  resources and values.

     An  example of an immediate problem requiring
intensified research  is  that of sodic mine spoils
in the Northern Great Plains.  The generally high
exchangeable  sodium content of the Fort Union Shale
and Coal Formation causes spoil materials from the
deeper shale beds  in  this region to present serious
revegetation problems.   A critical need exists to
preplan mining operations and manage the spoil areas
in such a way as to avoid saline runoff and erosion.
Possible effects of salt pollution on downstream
areas and communities can be very important in de-
termining the feasibility of large scale coal
mining.  The problem is compounded by the fact that
this is generally a water-scarce area and diversions
of water to coal processing and transportation uses
will mean higher water prices and lower availability
of water for agriculture and other purposes.

     A Federal role is essential in the accomplish-
ment of the objectives that have -been described.
Energy development is a national goal and the im-
pacts caused by energy development are also of
national importance.  They cut across many regions
and sectors of the economy, and alternatives and
tradeoffs must be evaluated within a national
context.  Without Federal research and development
it will not be possible to structure and implement
laws that are consistent with national goals.

     Solutions to energy-related environmental
problems can be found through a comprehensive RSD
program undertaken on a national scale.  The re-
search organizations of the USDA, along with
cooperating universities, are seeking these solu-
tions.
                LITERATURE CITED
1.  Branson, Branley A., and Batch, Donald L.
       Additional observations on the effects of
       strip mining on small-stream fishes in
       east-central Kentucky.  Transactions of the
       Kentucky Academy of Sciences, Vol. 35, No.
       3-4, pp. 81-83, 1974.

2.  Collier, C. R., Pickering, R. J. , and
    Musser, J. J.
       Influences of strip mining on the hydrologic
       environment of parts of Beaver Creek Basin,
       Kentucky, 1955-56.  USGS Professional Paper
       427-C, 80 pp., 1970.

3.  Curtis, Willie R.
       Sediment yield from strip mined watersheds
       in eastern Kentucky.  Second Research and
       Applied Technology Symposium on Mined Land
       Reclamation.  Coal and-the Environment
       Technical Conference, October 22-24, 1974.
       National Coal Association, Louisville, Ky.

4.  Despard, Thomas L.
       Avoid problem spoils through overburden
       analyses.  USDA Forest Service, General
       Technical Report, NE-10, 1974.

5.  National Commission on Materials Policy.
       Material needs and the environment today
       and tomorrow.  Final Report of the

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130
         National Commission on Materials Policy.
         June, 1973.

  6.  Plass, William T.
         Changes in water chemistry resulting from
         surface mining of coal on four West
         Virginia watersheds.  West Virginia Surface
         Mining and Reclamation Association Green
         Lands Quarterly, Winter, 1976.

  7.  Power, J.  P., et al.
         Progress Report on Research on Reclamation
         Mined Lands in the Northern Great Plains.
         Agricultural Research Service (USDA) and
         North Dakota Agricultural Experiment
         Station, 1975.

  8.  U. S. Department of Agriculture and the State
      Universities and Land Grant Colleges.
         A national program of research for water
         and watersheds.  99 pp., processed, 1969.

  9.  U. S. Water Resources Council.
         Federal Energy Administration Project
         Independence Blueprint, Final Task Force
         Report.  November, 1974.

 10.  U. S. Water Resources Council.
         Water for Energy Self-Sufficiency, October,
         1974.

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                                                                                            131
                             TABLE 1
 Inventory of current agency programs related to water required for
energy locations, development, transport, processing, or production
(10) .
AGENCY
Soil
Conservation
Service

















Agricultural
Research
Service








Forest
Service





















NAME OF
ACTIVITY
1 . Snow survey
and water
supply fore-
casting.
2. Soil and
water conser-
vation.




3 . Resource
conservation
and develop-
ment projects
and small water
shed projects.



1. Watershed
hydrology re-
search.



2 . Strip mine
revegetation
research.


1. Surface en-
vironment and
mining. (SEAM)






2 . Management
of forested
watersheds and
grasslands.






3. Water re-
search.


PURPOSE
Predict river
flows.


Preserve water
quality by control
of erosion and run-
off in disturbed
areas.


Water storage for
multiple uses and
conservation mea-
sures for water
supply and erosion
control.



Predict impact of
land management and
water control pro-
grams on runoff and
improve snowmelt
forecasts.
Reclamation of
spoil material.



Maintain environ-
mental quality in
meeting mineral
requirements by
exploring alter-
natives, analyz-
ing impacts , and
demonstration
areas.
Multiple uses.









Improve water
yield, stabilize
erosion, improve
streamflow timing.
LOCATION
11 Western
States and
Alaska.

Nationwide .






Nationwide.








Nationwide





Md . , Va . , W . Va .
and N.D.



Initially in
western large
scale mining
areas.





Nationwide .









Nationwide .



AMOUNT OF WATER
AND ENERGY
Forecast water supply
for all major streams,
including hydroplant
locations.
Not estimated.






Not estimated.








Not estimated.





Not estimated.




Not determined.








Forested areas pro-
vide over 60 percent
of total water yield
and maintain water
quality. 187 million
acres of National
Forests yield 390
million AF of water
aiding power gener-
ation and transport.
Not determined.



RESULTS EXPECTED
OR ACCOMPLISHED
Optimize reservoir oper-
ations.


4.4 million acres have
been disturbed in the U.S.
by surface mining. Over
1 million acres of mined
land have been reclaimed
in 2,000 soil conservation
districts .
974 RC&D projects are au-
thorized for 615 million
acres, including 430,000
acres in 682 existing pro-
jects. Over 1,000 small
watershed projects have
been approved with 392 which
have structural measures
completed .
Information for planning.





Work in Eastern States
covers acid wastes and
Dakota study involves
alkaline material in
lignite areas.
Reduce delays in leasing,
improve technology of re-
habilitating mined areas,
maintain environmental
stewardship.




Maintain water supply and
quality .








Information for public
use.



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132
             Freshwater Ecological  Effects
             H.  R.  Mickey and P.  A.  Krenkel
               Tennessee Valley Authority
                 Chattanooga, Tennessee
INTRODUCTION

     In the nineteenth century,  sanitary engineering,
the techniques of managing water supply and waste
treatment, became the first recognized professional
environmental  discipline.   By comparison, the investi-
gation of more subtle aquatic ecological impacts of
thermal and chemical  effluents is a fairly recent
development in environmental  science and engineering.
The relationships between  temperature, dissolved
oxygen, natural reaeration, metals concentration, and
aquatic life require  more  investigation than had been
necessary to design water  supply and waste treatment
plants.  The "environmental statement" process
revealed the need for a reliable method for predict-
ing and measuring impacts  on aquatic ecosystems.

     TVA's research efforts in this area include
several tasks  related to impacts of energy technolo-
gies on aquatic ecosystems, effects of strip and
surface mining and reclamation on water quality and
ecology, and one minor project to evaluate the role
of strip mine  pools in the production of disease-
bearing arthropods.

     For possible use in the exchange of information
or coordination, the names of principal investigators,
research investigators, and responsible administra-
tors are included after the title of each task.

DISCUSSION

1.  Consolidation of Baseline Information, Develop-
    ment of Methodology, and Investigation of Thermal
    Impacts on Freshwater  Shellfish, Insects, and
    Otner Biota--B. G. Isom, R.  H. Brooks, W. R.
    Nicholas
    A.  Information Systems Development—John S.
        Grossman

     The immediate short-term objective of this task
is the development of a data base system in which
biological  data can be stored and retrieved for
recurring uses associated with ongoing research and
monitoring programs for a large electrical utility.
With the development and implementation of this sys-
tem, it will  be possible to review biological data
that has been collected in the vicinity of eight
coal-fired power generating plants for information on
the basic structure and function of biological com-
munities subjected to thermal discharges in a semi-
riverine environment.

     After the review of the previously collected
data, representative benthic populations will be
selected for further study under  both  field  and labo-
ratory conditions.  This long-term  portion of the
project will utilize bench scale  biological  models
that can be manipulated to simulate environmental
conditions associated with energy technologies.  The
use of laboratory microcosms,  supplemented by field
measurements, will provide basic  data  on  the biologi-
cal productivity of freshwater communities,  growth
rates of important representative species under
different environmental conditions, relative abun-
dance of important species, and the response of dif-
ferent species to toxic materials.   The data
generated by these studies will be  utilized  to verify
existing ecosystem models or their  refinement for use
within the Tennessee Valley.   These models will also
be applicable to similar ecosystems throughout Appa-
lachia and the Southeast.

     Progress:  In October 1975,  a  meeting was held
in Cincinnati to review the design  specifications for
the Environmental Protection Agency's  proposed BIO-
STORET data base system.  This was  followed  by a
review of the structure and content of the parameter
list to be included in the data base,  along  with
proposed recommendations.  These  recommendations are
now in the process of being incorporated  into a final
design package which will be used in the  implementa-
tion of the program.

     With the development of a data storage  and
retrieval system, a data reduction  and analyses pack-
age has been obtained.  This package is the  NTSYS -
Numerical Computer Taxonomy Programs,  which  contains
the software capabilities to undertake a  comprehen-
sive review of the previously  collected biological
data using a variety of cluster and factor analyses,
distance and association coefficient matrices, and
correlation analyses.  These programs  are currently
being adapted and tested for use  within the  Tennessee
Valley Authority's system.

     Progress on  the development  of laboratory simu-
lations of streams and reservoirs and  investigation
of ecosystem modeling are in the  literature  review
and evaluation phase.

     B.  Acute Thermal Effects -  Aquatic  Insects—•
         R. D. Urban, K. Tennessen, J. L. Miller

     The aquatic  insect fauna  of  any freshwater  eco-
system constitutes a vital link in  the transfer  of
energy via  the food web.  The  maintenance of a
diverse and abundant population of  aquatic  insects
helps establish  a resilient  trophic structure.
Increasing  demand for electrical  energy  creates  a
corresponding  increase in the  need  for condenser
cooling water.   The increased  use of freshwater  for
cooling purposes  in turn  necessitates an  increase in
the  thermal load  imposed upon  the receiving  water
body.  At  this point questions arise as  to  the
ability of  the aquatic flora and  fauna to tolerate
this added  perturbation.  The  goal  of this research
task is  to  determine  the  threshold  of thermal toler-
ance for several  aquatic  insects  found in the

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reservoirs of the Tennessee and Cumberland River
Watersheds, typical  of Appalachia and the Southeast.

    Objectives:  In response to Public Law 92-500,
TVA initiated biological studies in June 1973 to
assess the effects of thermal effluents from fossil-
fueled steam-electric stations.  In the course of
these evaluations a basic question continued to arise.'
What level of thermal enrichment can a water body be
subjected to before deleterious effects to the
various life cycle stages of the aquatic biota occurs?
While some information is available in the literature,
in general latitudinally comparable data or data con-
cerning the desired species are not available.  In
addition, the data seldom address different seasonal
thermal regimes for the various life cycle stages.  A
third area of concern for which there is a severe
lack of information concerns plume entrap-
ment of insect fauna in multipurpose reservoirs.
Hence, it is the objective of this task to provide
pertinent thermal tolerance data for a burrowing
mayfly and selected chironomid species found in the
TVA reservoirs.

    Specific Goals:  The objectives will be achieved
using both field and laboratory studies.  Emergence
traps will be utilized to compare emergence success
between areas influenced by thermal plumes versus
control reaches.  Gamete development, egg and sperm
viability, egg hatchability, etc., will be compared
between the two naturally emerging groups.  In addi-
tion, test individuals in different life cycle stages
will be placed in a flotation device and floated in
the thermal plume until the temperature is degraded
to a AT of 2°C.  The survival rate will be determined
and surviving members will be reared to maturity to
assess the impact of the thermal stress upon the
reproductive potential of these organisms.

     In the laboratory, organisms in various life
cycle stages will be exposed to a series of AT's in
order to determine the temperature threshold for
each life cycle stage.  In addition, growth studies
will be conducted on those individuals that survived
the various thermal shocks.  This will allow the
investigators to assess the effects of various levels
of thermal shock upon the growth rate of individual
organisms as well as the effect upon the reproductive
potential and success of the test organisms.

    C.  Biochemical Methodology, Aquatic Thermal
        Impacts—S. A. Murray, C. Burton
     New and improved biochemical diagnostic proce-
dures will be utilized for assessing environmental
effects resulting from energy-related thermal stress,

     Specific tasks include application or develop-
ment  of techniques of extracting body fluids and
plant pigments that can be utilized to monitor
thermal stress in the aquatic environment.
                                                   133
     Existing data from ongoing monitoring  programs
at fossil-fueled and nuclear plants will  be used  to
select the experimental biota.

     Progress:  Development of primary  facilities
for culture of experimental animals and  plants  has
been essentially completed.  Most  facilities were
developed for previous research and monitoring
activities.

     A literature review on biochemical  methodolo-
gies has been initiated.  The review  to  date includes
information from the National Technical  Information
Service, Smithsonian Science Information  Exchange,
and our own resources.

     Status:  Project activity is  proceeding as
scheduled.  However, delay in the  finalization  of
the TVA/EPA contract and delays in transfer of  funds
from EPA to TVA may require the submission  of revised
TVA milestone completion dates.  We anticipate  that
the final completion report to EPA will  be  made on
schedule.

     D.  Biomonitoring; Mollusks;  and Others--B. G.
         Isom, C. H. Gooch

     The objective of this research task  is to
quantify the role of bioaccumulation  in  cycling of
selected trace elements (metals and radionuclides)
released to aquatic ecosystems by  the thermal com-
ponent of coal combustion and nuclear steam-electric
stations.  A primary result of the research will be
methodologies for implementation and  evaluation of
bioaccumulation (biomagnification) studies.

     For the past few years, TVA has  conducted
studies on the distribution of mollusk species  in
those  reservoirs near TVA coal-fired  steam  plants
and at proposed and operational nuclear  plant sites.
More information is needed on the  use of  mussels and
other  biota to monitor metals, nuclides,  and organic
chemical in the environment.

     We have considerable background  literature on
toxicity of power plant chemicals  to  aquatic life
and other miscellaneous bioaccumulation  literature.
In addition, an extensive survey has  just been  con-
cluded of the postimpoundment overbank habitats and
areas  immediately below the Tennessee River main-
stream dams.  This survey revealed the types and
quanties of mollusks species available  for  study of
bioaccumulation near power plants.  A broad selec-
tion of mussel tissues and extrapallial  fluid samp-
les were collected for use in determining background
levels of important trace element  and nuclide
species.

     Data from preliminary analyses of  selected
tissues indicate bioaccumulation of copper, zinc,
cadmium, lead, and bismuth.  Initially,  this
research will be restricted to evaluating bioaccumu-
lation and analysis of the trace metals  copper,
zinc,  and chromium and the nuclides strontium90,

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134
cesium157, cobalt60, and gross nuclide accumulation.

     Trace metals research will be conducted at the
coal-fired Bull Run Steam Plant on the Clinch River
and at  the Browns Ferry Nuclear Plant on the Tennes-
see River.

     TVA  and Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL)
have coordinated studies scheduled for the Bull
Run Steam Plant.  ORNL studies will evaluate the
chemical  elements from the ash ponds and the biogeo-
chemical  cycling of these elements.  The TVA studies
on trace  metal accumulation will be restricted to the
thermal system.  Studies at Browns Ferry will cover
total plant effects since the  diffusers there dis-
charge  both thermal and chemical effluents.

     Status:   The literature review for this project
is nearing completion.  This review included searches
conducted by the National Technical Information
Service,  the Smithsonian Science Information Exchange,
and the TVA library.

     The  project is proceeding as planned.  A TVA
milestone report on literature and methodology will
be completed on schedule.  It  is anticipated that
other milestones will be achieved within the time
frames  outlined in the subagreement.

     E.   Evaluate Hater Intakes - Zooplankton
          Entrainment--R. D. Urban, D. L. Dycus

     Zooplankton represents a  critical link in the
aquatic food web, for it is this group of microcrust-
aceans  and rotifers that convert plant materials
(algae) into animal protein.   As such, this group
becomes an indispensible food  resource for larval and
some adult fishes as well as many macroinvertebrates.
An activity that utilizes raw  water may disrupt the
food web  dynamics of the source body of water by
reducing  the number of zooplankters available for
energy  transformation and consumption.  To avoid
unnecessary disruption of the  food web, various in-
take structures have been proposed for industries
that use  large volumes of raw  cooling water.

     TVA  has for some time utilized several different
intake  designs at its twelve fossil-fueled steam-
electric  stations to create an effective heat trans-
fer ratio in the condenser cooling systems.  A possi-
ble ancillary  benefit derived  from the various intake
structures at  TVA fossil-fueled steam-electric sta-
tions may be a reduction .in adverse biotic effects.
The primary goal of this research task is to evaluate
the effectiveness of these various intake structures
in curtailing  the entrainment  of the planktonic food
resources within the condenser cooling system.  An
additional goal will be to develop criteria that can
be utilized in both siting and designing of new
intake  structures.

     Objectives:  In response  to Public Law 92-500,
TVA initiated studies of Zooplankton condenser pass-
age to  assess  the effects of both intake design and
condenser cooling system entrainment  upon the zoo-
plankton assemblage "near TVA  fossil-fueled steam-
electric stations.  To fully  utilize  these data
additional information concerning  the spatial  dis-
tribution of the zooplankton  within  the area  of  the
various intake structures as  well  as  some basic
hydrological data (e.g., current  direction and
velocity) is needed.  The collection  of these addi-
tional data will aid in the evaluation  of the various
intake designs  that limit entrainment  of planktom'c
organisms.

     Specific Goals:  The objectives  will  be  achieved
using both field and laboratory studies.   Horizontal
and vertical distribution of  the  zooplankton  will
be investigated as a water mass approaches the intake
zone, within the intake zone,  and  downstream  of  the
intake zone.  It should be emphasized that when
possible the same water mass  will  be  sampled  at  each
'of the defined transects.  Vertical tows  with  one-
half meter plankton nets equipped  with  a  digital
flowmeter suspended in the throat  of  each  net  will be
used to document horizontal distribution.   A  plankton
pump will permit the investigators to describe the
vertical distribution of the  zooplankton  assemblage.
The sample will be preserved  and  returned  to  the
laboratory for standing crop  and  biomass  analyses.

     Laboratory studies will  investigate  avoidance
behavior of various zooplankters.   Several  intake
design alternatives will be utilized  to  document
changes in zooplankton distribution within the water
column (i.e., bubble screens,  pressure  differences
that result from different shapes  and types of
objects being placed in the water  column,  and
variable light intensity).

2.  Strip Mine Drainage Water Quality with Emphasis
    on Toxic Substances—Doye B.  Cox, Roger P.
    Betson, R. J. Ruane, J. Grossman, W.  C. Barr,
    W. R. Nicholas

     The goal of this project is  to demonstrate
methodologies for predicting  the  impact of surface
mine reclamation strategies on a  downstream fish-
eries resource with the strategies based  on the
characteristics of the site to be  mined.   Objectives
necessary to accomplish this  goal  are:   (1) to
identify the occurrence and significance  of major
and minor chemical elements and compounds  in  strip
mined areas; (2) to calibrate existing  regionalized
hydrologic models using data  from  surface mined
watersheds with several types of  reclamation;  (3) to
develop or extend nonpoint source  water quality
models in order to predict the natural-area
environmental loadings of important water  quality
constituents (4) to relate the transport of signifi-
cant elements and compounds and water quality con-
stituents to the hydrology of small strip mined
watersheds; (5) to investigate the relationship
between the chemical composition  of strip mine over-
burden and the downstream transport of  important
constituents that exceed natural-area environmental
levels; (6) to evaluate the effects of "conventional

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treatment"  (i.e.,  liming,  limestone  addition,  sludge
application,  etc.)  on  acid production  and  chemical
mobilization  and  transport;  (7)  to  investigate the
relationship  between  transport of important  consti-
tuents and  the  fishery resource.  The  work will  con-
sist of laboratory  and field  studies conducted by
TVA's Water Quality and Ecology  Branch,  coordinating
with the Division of  Forestry, Fisheries,  and  Wild-
life Development  and  the Division of Water Manage-
ment.

     Progress:  Early  activities  have  concentrated on
coordination  of agencies or  groups  involved  in strip
mine research in  the Tennessee Valley  area.  On
August 28,  1975,  a  meeting in Nashville  was  chaired
by Stanley  Sauer, District Chief, U.S. Geological
Survey (USGS) with  representatives of  the  Soil  Con-
servation Service  (SCS), Corps of Engineers  (CE),
USGS, and TVA staff attending.

     A second meeting  was  held on September  17,
1975, in which  these  agencies and Tennessee  State
Planning Office (TSPO), Department of  Conservation--
Office of the Commissioner and the Water Resources
and Surface Mining  Divisions, Tennessee  Wildlife
Resources Agency  (TWRA), University  of Tennessee at
Knoxville (UT), and Oak Ridge National Laboratories
(ORNL) participated.   The  purpose of this  meeting
was to exchange information  on existing  or planned
hydrologic  data collection programs  in order to
avoid duplication of  effort.   An  interagency commit-
tee will  be established to exchange  information  on
time frames for data  collection  and  to establish
procedures  for  formulating and sharing information
collected.  The USGS will  take the  initiative  in
establishing  the  committee with  the  aid  of the TSPO.

     TVA has  agreed to partially  fund  The  University
of Tennessee's  watershed strip-mine  project  in the
New River Basin.  The  Special Projects Staff will
provide monies  to  the  USGS for data  collection and
the installation  or upgrading of rainfall  and  stream-
flow gaging stations  on The University of  Tennessee's
study areas.  In  return The University of  Tennessee
will provide  hydrologic and water quality  data that
is being collected  in  the  six basins (3  mines, 3
virgin) under study.   These data  are collected on a
weekly basis  and  will  be used in  model development
and calibration.   In  addition, data  from adjacent
areas in the  New  River Basin  will be made  available
from the USGS and Corps of Engineers for model  devel-
opment and  calibration.

     Much of  the  reconnaissance  survey data  that had
been planned  in the New River Basin  is being sup-
plied by the  USGS,  and the Corps  of  Engineers.  Amax
Coal Company  and  The University of Tennessee have
supplied  water  quality and flow data from  area mined
sites in  the  Piney  Creek area of  Southeastern  Ten-
nessee.   Further  reconnaissance sampling in  the  New
River Basin will  be conducted as  needed.

     A study  site on Crooked  Creek near  Jamestown,
Tennessee,  was  selected that  will enable characteri-
                                                   135
zation of strip mine drainage water quality from an
area-mined site in which the miner has employed
acceptable reclamation procedures.  We plan to moni-
tor water quality at two sites in the basin and at
an additional control site.  The Special Projects
Staff will provide monies to the USGS for installa-
tion and maintenance of rainfall and streamflow
gaging stations at these three sites.

     A comprehensive literature review is of trace
metals mobilization and transport and strip mining
water quality, hydrology, and biological effects is
underway.  In addition literature dealing with
kinetics of acid drainage formation has been searched
extensively.  Other agencies and individuals involved
in research in these areas have been contacted.

     A detailed workplan with task, expenditure, and
man-hour schedules is nearing completion.

     Status:  Work is progressing at a  rate necessary
for the achievement of project goals.  Water quality
sampling should be underway on the area-mined  site  by
January 1976.  Biological sampling at a  site affected
by mine drainage should begin during the first
quarter of calender year 1976.

3.  Production of Arthropod Pests and Vectors  in
    Strip Mine Pools—Eugene Pickard, Joseph Cooney

     The objective of this study is to survey  and
determine types of aquatic arthropod pests, mainly
mosquitoes,  that breed in strip mine pools, and
the extent to which these breeding sites could
annoy surrounding communities.  Physical and chemi-
cal parameters of pools will be correlated with
their age and successional stage.

     A preliminary reconnaissance was made of  the
strip mine areas near Brilliant and Stevenson,
Alabama,  to  delineate and rank candidate study  sites.
An inspection was made with the Taylor and Son  Com-
pany reclamation officer to establish age  classifi-
cation of strip mine pools in the Brilliant, Alabama,
area.  Test  pools have been selected in  the vicinity
of Gold Mine, Alabama (Marion County), and marked
in the field  for study.  Photographs have  been  made
of several pools for use in establishing vegetation
baselines.

     Study pools have been selected on  the  basis
of age as follows: newly formed pools  (less than
1-year-old),  5-year-old pools, and  pools 10 years
old or older.  Three pools  in each  age  class  have
been selected for study.

     Physical characteristics that  will  be recorded
for the pools are water depth, margin  abruptness,
soil type and texture, and water  source.   A  refer-
ence point will be established  from which  sequential
photographs  will be made.

     Measurements of temperature,  dissolved oxygen,
pH, and salinity will be  taken  from the water  at

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136
established sampling points  in each  study pool.

     An initial  survey will  determine the presence of
aquatic plant species and their percentage composi-
tion in the pools.  Inventories of vegetation will
be conducted annually to provide quantitative esti-
mates 'of the changes in the  woody and herbaceous
vegetation. '

     Immature stages of mosquitoes will  be sampled
with the standard white enamel dipper.  The flood-
water or rainpool  group of mosquitoes will be deter-
mined by collecting and processing soil  samples  from
likely floodwater habitats.   Other aquatic insects
will be sampled with seines  and botton sampling
devices.  Adult insects will be collected by a combi-
nation of methods, including light traps, malaise
traps, sweep nets, and biting collections.

     Should significant mosquito populations develop
in coal surface mined pools, various methods of
control will be investigated.  Naturalistic, or
biological  methods, such as  the introduction of
larvivorous fish,  mosquito parasites, or certain
species of aquatic plants such as Lemna  and Taxodium
that appear to limit mosquito production, will first
be investigated, then chemical methods will  be
studied.

     The effect of reclamation activities as a means
of creating, destroying or mitigating mosquito
productivity will  be evaluated.

4.  Ecological  Recovery After Reclamation of Toxic
    Spoils  Left by Coal  Surface Mining—W. M.  Seawell,
    J.  B.  Maddox,  T. G.  Zarger

     The objective of this study is  to determine the
effectiveness of land stabilization  treatments toward
restoring  a damaged ecosystem.  The study involves
a problem  watershed in which 400 acres of forested
land were  disturbed by coal  surface  mining in the
early 1970's.  Unsuccessful  reclamation  efforts
resulted in adverse environmental impacts within an
11-square-mile watershed that includes a city water
supply reservoir.  .Project objectives will- be accom-
plished by applying intensive remedial land treat-
ments and  evaluating their effectiveness by measuring
the degree  of recovery of the affected terrestrial
and aquatic ecosystems.

     Repeated attempts by the mine operator to revege-
tate the spoils  by standard  treatments have resulted
in only 25  percent of the mined land surface being
stabilized.  Erosion from barren bench and outslope
areas is contributing seriously to offsite damage
that includes deterioration  of receiving stream
quality and siltation of the reservoir.   The problem
is one of  highly toxic spoils—an acid problem of
geochemical origin associated with a specific coal
seam found extensively in east Tennessee.

     Previous studies on ecological  recovery of
surface mines have not included monitoring of such a
seriously impacted watershed.  Results  should provide
new and significant information  in  the  evaluation
and correction of problems associated with  future
mining of this particular coal seam.

     Before underwriting the cost of this intensive
remedial land treatment, TVA considered many possible
remedies, including evaluation of results from a
series of investigations conducted  between  1970 and
early 1973.  Treatments were sought that would pro-
vide the most effective way to stabilize the area
without accelerating the rate of reservoir  siltation.

     Funds for monitoring the recovery  of the
affected terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems are pro-
vided by EPA pass-through monies.   Existing condi-
tions will be measured and evaluated prior  to
restorative treatments.  Monitoring will continue
through treatment and thereafter on a more  limited
basis so long as significant recovery is noted.
Environmental data collected during the period of
mining and reclamation (early 1970's) will  serve as
initial baseline study data.

     Progress:  Following preparation of a  summary
workplan in July 1975, collection of data was begun
on both terrestrial and aquatic  systems.  Individual
workplans covering two major investigative  phases
(terrestrial flora and stream fauna) have been pre-
pared.  These field investigations  record the pre-
sent condition of the mine site and water quality in
receiving streams.

     Terrestrial—The vegetation survey was conduc-
ted prior to the scheduled October  treatment of the
mined area.  This fall one-third of the affected
acreage was treated with agricultural limestone at
the rate of 10 tons per acre, seeded with a winter
annual grass, fertilized, and disked.   The  survey
records types and amounts of vegetation, both natu-
ral and that resulting from previous revegetation
efforts.  Data collected includes:  (1) types of
trees and shrubs growing on the  site, their size
and abundance, and (2) types of  grasses and herbac-
eous species, their height and the  percentage of
ground cover for each species.   Survey  of mine spoil
conditions are also under way.   This data will serve
as a basis for measuring the rate of recovery during
the monitoring program, as the same area is subse-
quently surveyed after treatment.

     Aquatic—Four sampling stations have been
established on the main stem of  Ollis Creek.  Addi-
tional stations have been located on Laurel Creek,
Yellow Creek, Thompson Creek, and an unnamed  stream,
all of which are tributaries of  Ollis Creek.  One
sample station has also been located on No  Business
Creek, a similar nearby watershed which is  virtually
unaffected by surface or deep mines.

    All stations (except No Business Creek) have
been sampled monthly for four months for bottom
fauna  (four 1-square-foot Surber samples  per
station).   Identification and tabulation of the
samples is  under way.

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                                                                                                          137
    One set of artifical substrate samplers  (rubble-
filled wire baskets—four per station) have been
placed and collected.  Future plans call for  placing
the samplers at each station and removing and replac-
ing the samplers every two months.

    At all stations 100-foot lengths of stream have
been sampled for fish populations by electrofishing.
Future plans call for sampling these stations semi-
annually.

    Water Quality—Water quality parameters  have
been measured four times at each station in Oil is
Creek and its tributaries.  Analyses were performed
for dissolved oxygen, turbidity, suspended solids,
conductivity, pH, alkalinity, total acidity,  sulfates,
manganese, and iron.

    Status:  Project activities are proceeding on
schedule.  At this time, no milestone dates are
expected  to need revision.

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138
    The EPA Research Program on the Freshwater
           Ecological Effects of Energy
               Development and Use
             J. David Yount, Ph.D.
   Office of Health and Ecological Effects, EPA
                Washington, D.C.
 INTRODUCTION

     Although the  long term  energy needs  of  the
 U.S. depend on the development of energy  sources
 other than fossil  fuels,  it  is evident  that  at least
 for  the remainder  of  this  century we will continue
 to be heavily dependent upon fossil fuels.   Of these
 coal provides the  largest  and most rapidly utiliz-
 able energy source: hence  the impacts resulting  from
 greatly intensified coal mining, transportation,
 storage,  and conversion to energy will  be the most
 immediate.  Oil use will  continue, with environ-
 mental impacts resulting  from development of new
 sources such as those in Alaska.

     Of less immediate importance is the  potential
 large-scale utilization of oil shale formations.
 New  techniques of  coal processing, such as liquifi-
 cation and gasification, appear to be an  econoirr-
 ically feasible method of  converting coal to a
 relatively clean fuel.  What is not yet apparent
 however,  is the fate  of the  contaminants  removed
 from the  coal in these processes.' '

 TECHNICAL DISCUSSION

     Although the  Environmental Effects section  of
 this symposium is  broadly  subdivided for  convenience
 into marine, freshwater and  terrestrial effects,  it
 is not possible, at least  in this case, to com-
 pletely separate the  freshwater aspects from the
 terrestrial.  In fact the  conceptual scheme  around
 which these studies were  organized can  best  be
 described as that  of  a watershed ecosystem,  in which
 the  primary transport mechanism of interest  is the
 terrestrial hydrologic cycle.  Thus, although the
 aquatic aspects are emphasized, precipitation  (wet
 and  dry), soil conditions  and effects,  and ground
 water flows are also  important aspects.

     Because of the regulatory problems implied  by
 the  above energy source development and utilization
 EPA  recognized the need for  information on the
 effects of these activities  on watershed  ecosystems.
 Therefore, two areas  were  chosen for initial pri-
 mary emphasis: the effects of oil transport  by
 pipeline  from Arctic  oil  fields; and the  mining,
 transportation, storage,  and energy conversion of
 coal.  In anticipation of  potential future develop-
 ment, smaller programs were  initiated on  oil shale
 and  on coal conversion.

     EPA's Duluth, Minnesota Environmental Research
 Laboratory  (ERL)   developed  research projects with
five universities to explore  the  freshwater and
watershed environmental degradation which results
from coal and oil shale utilization.   The projects
were designed to produce data which could be
modeled in such a manner that predictions could be
made which would aid in site  selection for future
energy source and conversion  facilities,  so as to
result in the least possible  environmental degrada-
tion.

     One project, conducted jointly by the Colorado
State University Natural Resource  Ecology Laboratory
and the Montana State University Fisheries Bioassay
Laboratory, concerns the toxic effects on aquatic
biota and the effects on aquatic ecosystems re-
sulting from coal and oil shale development in
Montana and Colorado.

     Another project in the Duluth ERL program in-
volves transportation, off-loading,  and subsequent
reloading of coal at a port facility.   In March 1975
the Burlington Northern Railroad started  construc-
tion of a $50 million dock facility located on
Lake Superior at Superior, Wisconsin.   This facility
will be used to load large lake freighters with
Western coal for eventual utilization  at  electrical
generating plants on the lower Great Lakes.  Initial
annual tonnage will be in excess of 5  million tons.
Studies here include bottom fauna  and  algal stimu-
lation or inhibition in the loading area  by the
leachate from coal stored and subjected to atmos-
pheric conditions.  Pre- and  post-operational
research is being conducted by the University of
Minnesota, Duluth and the University of Wisconsin,
Superior to assist in development  and  location of
similar future operations  so as to produce the
least possible environmental  damage.

     The final project in the Duluth ERL  program
is funded jointly with the Corvallis,  Oregon ERL.
This is a complete environmental study, by the
University of Wisconsin (Madison)  Institute for
Environmental Studies, of a coal-fired electric
power generating station in a wetland  area.

     All of these studies involve  Western coal.
Thus the combined set of projects  provides informa-
tion on the sequence of watershed  and  freshwater
ecological effects of Western coal use from mine
through transport to power production.  In addition,
information is provided on the effects of coal gasi-
fication and of oil shale extraction and  processing.

     The second area of major emphasis concerns the
effects of oil transport by pipeline through Arctic
and subarctic ecosystems, emphasizing  the effects
of potential accidental spills.  This  program has
been developed and is being implemented by the
Arctic Environmental Research Station  of  the
Corvallis, Oregon Environmental Research  Laboratory.
There are three subprojects,  concerned respectively
with the effects of oil spills and pipeline con-
struction activities on arctic lakes,  rivers, and
small watersheds.

     The small watershed study is  being conducted
through an interagency agreement with  the U.S. Army
Cold Regions Research and Engineering  Laboratory
(CRREL), Ft. Wainwright, Alaska.   The  purpose of

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                                                                                                         139
this project is to evaluate the rate  and  extent  of
oil movement in and over the soil active  layer and
to determine transport pathways, fate of  pollutants,
degradation products, effects on microbial popula-
tions and microbial degradation, and  impact  on
permafrost following a simulated spill  of hot crude
oil on a permafrost underlain slope.  The site of
the study is the Caribou-Poker Creeks Research
Watershed, operated by the Interagency  Technical
Committee for Alaska, which serves as the locale
for a variety of hydrologic and environmental
studies.  The watershed is located in the Yukon-
Tanana Uplands of central Alaska, in  the  zone of
discontinuous permafrost.  ' '

     In cooperation with the Energy  Research and
Development Administration  (ERDA) and the National
Science Foundation  (NSF), a study is  being made  of
the effects of an oil spill on a large  arctic lake
(one of the Toolik lakes) with emphasis on the
effects of this perturbation on organisms and on
ecological processes in these lakes.

     The third project concerns the  effect  of a
pipeline crossing a river  (the Chatanika  River)  in
the arctic.  This is primarily an in-house project,
with a  small grant to the University  of Alaska to
study the fisheries aspects.  Emphasis  will  be on
water chemistry, macrobenthos and fisheries  effects,
and sediment transport.

PROGRAM DISCUSSION

A.   Coal and Oil Shale Mining and On-Site
     Conversion
      This project  has  been  underway since July
1975.   Oil shale  development effects are studied
at the Piceance Creek site in Colorado.   Strip coal
mining effects are  studied at the Front  Creek,
Colorado and  Rosebud Creek-Tongue River, Montana
sites.  Fish  and  macroinvertebrate distribution
studies have  been started on Piceance and Front
Creeks in Colorado, and on the Rosebud Creek,
Tongue River, and Tongue River Reservoir in Montana.
Water chemistry studies have been initiated on
Piceance and  Front  Creeks.   Microorganism  studies
have been started on Rosebud Creek and on cores from
the Montana region.  Laboratory characterization of
coal,  coal overburden,  oil shale, and coal gasifica-
tion by-products  has also been started.   Laboratory
bioassay and  bioaccumulation studies on  fishes,
macroinvertebrates, and microorganisms have been
initiated in  Montana.
B.
      Coal Transportation and Storage
      This  project  is  concerned with particulate and
leachate transport  from fine particulate coal while
in storage  at  the Duluth-Superior port,  and with
the effects of these materials on aquatic biota.
Work to date has been  concerned with preliminary
assessments in anticipation of the beginning of
coal movement  through  the  port in July 1976.  The
chemistry and  biology  departments at the University
of Wisconsin,  Superior and the University of
Minnesota,  Duluth are  cooperating to characterize
inorganic and  organic  leachates from coal and to
characterize the biological condition of the bay.
Some chronic bioassay exposures have begun,  and
other local species are being cultured  for  future
use in bioassays.  In addition, a project in the
physics department of the University of Minnesota,
Duluth has completed measurements of currents and
water levels in the harbor.  This information is
being used to develop and test mathematical  models
of water and particulate transport  in the Duluth-
Superior harbor.
C.
      Coal-to-Electricity Power Conversion
      This project at the University of Wisconsin,
Madison had been ongoing for approximately four
years prior to the EPA-funded expansion, with  sup-
port from the Wisconsin Power and Light Company,
the Madison Gas and Electric Company, and the
Wisconsin Public Service Corporation.  It is located
at the Columbia Generating Station at Portage,
Wisconsin.  The Columbia Site Impact Study has
completed four years of preoperational bench mark
data acquisition.  The study includes air, water,
soil and biological parameters.  A wide variety of
environmental measuring equipment has been tested
and placed on-line.  A series of new, cheaper
environmental impact measuring techniques have been
developed, but not tested.
D.
      Oil Transport by Pipeline
      Program activity to date has been concerned
with calibration and baseline studies.  Problems
with shipment of oil prevented the planned summer
application of oil to the Caribou-Poker Creeks
Watershed, but oil has been received and a midwinter
application is planned for this February.  Another
oil application will be made in June of this year.
Baseline studies have been underway for several
years on the Toolic lakes in connection with the
U.S. International Biological Program, and will
continue until July 1976.  For the river crossing
study a pristine river north of Fairbanks  (the
Chatanika River) is being characterized in anticipa-
tion of the Trans-Alaska Pipeline crossing this
spring.

PROJECTION

A.    Coal and Oil Shale Mining and On-Site
      Conversion

      Research will continue toward satisfying the
major  project objectives.  These objectives are
(1) To establish data bases of information for
evaluating the potential effects of coal and oil
shale extraction on fresh water resources and eco-
systems,  (2) To conduct chemical and biological
field site studies on the effects on aquatic eco-
systems due to coal and oil shale extraction,
including an assessment of spoils weathering,  (3)
To determine the acute and chronic toxicity and
bioaccumulation in aquatic ecosystems  of chemicals
and contaminants resulting from coal and oil shale
extraction,  (4) To determine the potential effects
on aquatic ecosystems of coal gasification products
and by-products, and of oil shale conversion
products and by-products, and  (5) To consider  the
possible effects on the aquatic biota  of coal-fired
power-plant effluents, including rainout.

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 140
 B.     Coal  Transportation  and  Storage

       Research  will  continue toward characterizing
 the  effects on  the Duluth-Superior  harbor and sur-
 rounding  ecosystems  of  leachate  from coal stored
 and  subjected to  atmospheric conditions,  and to
 measure and model particulate  dispersion  from the
 harbor into Lake  Superior.  Final outputs will con-
 sist of reports on the  organic and  inorganic leach-
 ates from coal  piles and their bioaccumulation in
 and  effects on  aquatic  biota,  and a generalized
 particulate dispersion  model applicable to other
 planned and potential coal  shipping sites on the
 Great Lakes.

 C.     Coal-to-Electricity Power  Conversion

       The EPA-funded expansion of this on-going
 project will provide support for the post-opera-
 tional study in concert with the power companies
 and  the Wisconsin Public Service Commission,  which
 will include an increased variety of areas,  integra-
 tion of subprojects,  and studies that will allow
 the  extension of  the findings  of this project to
 other sites in  the form of  siting criteria.   Sub-
 projects  include  aquatic chemistry,  aquatic  inver-
 tebrates  and fish, remote sensing,  wetland ecology
 (plants and vertebrates), hydrogeology, air  pollu-
 tion modeling,  plant damage, meteorology,  land use,
 visual changes  and aesthetics, stack monitoring,
 and  project synthesis.

 D.     Oil Transport  by  Pipeline

       In  the  Caribou-Poker  Creeks Watershed  the
 effects of  winter and summer simulated hot oil
 spills will be  monitored to determine the  effects
 of such spills  on soil microbial populations  and
 terrestrial vegetation.  In addition, the  micro-
 bial  degradation  and photo-oxidation of the  oil,  its
 physical  transport and  effect  on the permafrost will
 be monitored.   This  will provide information  on the
 effects of  oil  from  potential pipeline ruptures on
 undisturbed areas outside of the cleared corridor.
 During the  second and third years of the project,
 an oil spill will be  simulated on a disturbed,  bare
 soil  area,  stripped  of vegetation, resembling  con-
 ditions within  the pipeline corridor.

      After  the conclusion of  the Toolic lakes
baseline study  in July  1976, one lake in the  series
will  be subjected to a  simulated oil spill.  A
predictive mathematical model will be developed to
describe the effects of possible oil spills on  many
similar arctic  lakes.

      During and  following the Chatanika River
pipeline crossing this spring,  the effects on water
chemistry,  fish, macrobenthos,  and sediment trans-
port will be studied intensively for one year,  and
less  intensively  for a second year.   These results
will be integrated with the results of a nearly
completed EPA-funded project by Artec.,  Inc., of
Columbia,  Maryland on the physical transport of
oil under an ice cover.

RESOURCE  ALLOCATION

      The  total  resource allocation for energy-
 related research in the freshwater  environment since
 1975 and projected through 1979 is  as  follows  (in
 thousands of dollars):

               FY'75  FY'76  FY'77   FY'78  FY'79

 Coal and Oil
   Shale       1650   1265   1265    1265   1265

 Oil Spills     480    550    480    480

 SUMMARY AND CONCLUSIONS

      U.S. energy needs for the remainder of this
 century require greatly increased use of coal, con-
 tinued reliance on oil (including that from newly
 discovered arctic oil fields), and possible utiliza^
 tion of novel sources and processing technology
 such as oil shale and coal gasification. In order
 for these activities to be conducted with minimum
 adverse environmental effect, considerable infor-
 mation is required before major development is
 allowed.   The EPA freshwater ecological effects
 program is concentrating on two areas for which the
 information needs are most intense:  coal mining,
 transport,  and energy conversion;  and oil transport
 by pipeline from arctic oil fields.

      The  coal project follows Western coal from
 mining in Montana and Colorado through its transport
 and storage in a major port facility to its com-
 bustion in a coal-fired power plant.  Baseline
 studies,  chemical characterization and ecological
 effects studies  have  been  underway for approximately
 six months  at coal mining  sites in Colorado and
 Montana,  and at  the coal storage and shipping
 facilities  at the Duluth-Superior  Port.   EPA funds
 are providing for an  expansion  of  the coal-fired
 power  plant  to include  support  of  the postopera-
 tional study.

     The pipeline oil  transport project examines
 three  major  ecosystem  types  likely to be  impacted
 by  an  oil spill  or pipeline  crossing.   These are
 (1)  an undisturbed research watershed representing
 the  headwaters of a drainage basin system,  (2) a
pristine river soon to be  crossed  by the  Trans-
Alaska  Pipeline,  and  (3) a series  of arctic  lakes.

     All of  these projects are  designed to provide
the maximum  amount of information, in  the  form of
predictive models or other tools,  for  use  in
optimizing the location and design of  future
developments.


                    REFERENCES

 (1)  Hammond,  A.L., W.D. Metz,  and T.H.  Maugh,  1973.
     Energy  and  the Future,  American Association  for
     the Advancement of Science, 184pp.

 (2)  Jinkinson,  W.M.,  F.D.  Lotspeich,  and E.W.
     Mueller,  1973. Water  Quality  of the  Caribou-
     Poker  Creeks Research Watershed,  Alaska.
     Working Paper No.  24,  U.S.  EPA,  Arctic
     Environmental Research Station.

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                                                                                                        141


                               DISCUSSIONS FOR FRESH WATER EFFECTS SESSION


     Statement from the  Floor:   Considerable  work has been done on large river and river reservoir sys-
tems  developing  a tremendous  amount of information for useasja common database which can be used for pre-
dictive operations.   Up  to  this  time,  research had been conducted to respond to immediate problems, after
the fact.  An example  is made  for  the  TVA mode of operation wherein approximately half of the coal con-
sumed is obtained from strip  mining.   These  strip mine projects will employ a multi-disciplinary team of
hydrologists, engineers, chemists  and  biologists, all  working together to predict the consequences of
mining a particular coal seam and  what the necessary remedial actions will be.  Predictive models should
be developed and utilized to  solve operational  types of ecological problems.

     Panel Response:   The data system  which  has been described is being developed in coordination with
EPA.   This development is aimed  at achieving  compatability with databases under preparation by other
agencies.

     Statements  from  the Floor:  TVA is pursuing two tasks relating to acute thermal effects upon insects.
These tests are  outgrowths  of the  316A and 316B programs.   We are trying to develop utility-wide or
industry-wide solutions  to  the problems addressed.  TVA is also conducting a program to determine the
effects of strip mining  on  fresh water mollusks.

     Question:   Comments were made on  the impact and need  for treatment techniques for mining wastes
which may vary considerably.   This variation  results from  differences in mine geo-chemistry waste water
characteristics, including  acidity, trace metal content and suspended sediments.   Treatment schemes for
specific conditions are  necessary  instead of a single scheme for a whole area.  Treatment should also
consider the subject  or  organics in strip mine wastewaters.   Is any work going on in this area?

     Panel Response:   It is generally  agreed that organic  pollutants have been neglected.   The nation
has  become oversensitized to  the metals problem as a result of our concern about methyl mercury.  That is
not  a good example to follow  in  the future.   Metals do not pose as much of a problem as  do the organics,
and  so should not be  studied  because they are so easy to measure.  Ease of measurement should not be the
motivation for an energy research  program.  Investigation  of organics in mining pollution should include
identification of relative  toxicity of organics, and on the distribution and fate of the organics re-
leased to the ecosystem.

     Additional  Comment  from  the Floor:  The  Canadian program for strip mining of tar sands is now under
way.   One plant  will  process  material  equal  to all of the  coal  mined in North America during an entire
year. There is  a ten-year  program to  examine the associated environmental issues which  have been out-
lined here.  Organics is seen as one of the  major problems along with metals.  One of the major metals is
vanadium, which  it is suspected, will  also be found in the U.S. oil shale deposits.

     Question:   TVA mentioned that some coal  seams are so  toxic that they probably can't ever be mined.
What  is the nature of this  toxicity?

     Panel Response:   The particular coal seam mentioned is one which has an overburden  which results in
a highly acidic  spoil.  A study of 400 acres  of disturbed  land mined from this seam shows that reclama-
tion  efforts have been unsuccessful.   TVA is  paying the cost of further attempts at reclamation.  TVA
will  be hesitant in purchasing any coals mined from this seam in the future until better spoil handling
techniques are developed.

     Question:   Was there a statement  made that there are  no water-related problems associated with strip
mining in the West?

     .Panel Response:   No, the Western  geographic area was  not specified.  The intended point was that the
problem associated with  coal  strip mining has been overemphasized in relation to, say, oil shale and
coal  gasification.

     Comment:  The question on Western strip mining of coal  was mentioned in view of the imminent resump-
tion  of Federal  coal  leasing  by the Department of the Interior, vis-a-vis the report of the National
Academy of Science on the rehabilitation of strip mine areas in the West.

     Panel Response:   Strip mining does pose different problems in the East and the West, and for that
matter, in different  areas  of each region.

     Question:   Could the panel  comment on the aspect of priorities?

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142

      Panel  Response:  The  subject of priorities  is  a  broad  one.   Strip  mining  anywhere poses very real
 problems.   In  the West, the problem differs  from that in  the  East due to  the availability of water
 necessary  in reclamation.

      Comment from the Floor:  Mention has been made of concern that  there may  be  overemphasis on the
 potential  problem from trace elements.  Our  society is very complex.  Development of energy is not limited
 to matters  of  technology and environmental reality alone.   Today  it  is  necessary  to consider real  problems
 and  foreseen problems.  Unwelcome changes may be  incorrectly  blamed  on  the wrong  culprit.   Good scienti-
 fic  facts  are  going to be  necessary or whole sound technologies will be hazardous.   On another subject,
 there  seems to be a race going on today to identify the most  carcinogenesis material  which will  be evol-
 ved  or emitted to the atmosphere.  Caution and responsibility should be urged.  There is  a tendency to
 generate non-existent problems.  Mention has been made of the great  concern over  mercury  and metal  mer-
 cury.  It would be counter productive to see the  same  thing happen with respect to  organics.

      Comment from the Floor:  The exaggerated concern  over  trace  metals is  the result of  a bandwagon
 effect.  The whole question of trace metals  is a  bad  subject.

      Comment from the Floor:  It does seem that  some  of the interest in trace elements results  from ease
 of measurement and other considerations not  directly  related  to the hazards involved.

      Comment from the Floor:  In rebuttal  to previous  statements, trace metal analysis is  not easy  to do.
 It is not easy to do by time of adsorption or time of  emission because  neither has  much sensitivity
 without prior concentration.  The methodology for trace metal analysis  is not easy  nor has  the methodo-
 logy  been adequately established.

     Reply:  The prior comment on the difficulties in  measurement of trace metals was  intended to be
 compared with the difficulties involved in the measurement of organics.    It was not intended  to  imply
 that the metal  measurements are easy or that they may  be done by  other  than skilled scientists.  In com-
 parison, however, measurement of organics  has the added problem that some of the  compounds  have  not been
 identified as yet.

     Comment from the Floor:  The legislation which created ERDA  is voluminous.   It seems  that the  legis-
 lation intends  to establish the vehicle where the total energy-related  problem may  be  addressed.

     Question:   Are current investigations being made of ecological effects on large-scale  river systems
 such as the upper Missouri  and Colorado Basins as opposed to  individual  streams and rivers?

     Panel  Response:   The  Fish and Wildlife Service has initiated studies of the entire Missouri and
 Colorado Basins.

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                      CHAPTER  7
TERRESTRIAL ECOLOGICAL EFFECTS

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144
INTRODUCTION

     Terrestrial ecosystems serve as sinks for
pollutants deposited from the atmosphere.  The most
common primary pollutants emitted in the combustion
of fossil fuels are compounds of sulfur, oxides of
nitrogen and particulate matter.  Furthermore, some
of the gaseous primary pollutants undergo photo-
chemical reactions producing even more toxic
secondary pollutants.  As more large coal-burning
power plants are built and become operational, and
as energy consumption increases in general, we may
anticipate elevated concentrations of some air
pollutants.  Increase in the contamination of the
terrestrial ecosystem can be expected to have a
detrimental effect on human health and the ecosystem
itself.

     The chronic effects on plants from low level
exposure to atmospheric pollution is not well under-
stood compared to our understanding of acute injury.
The problem of forecasting environmental conse-
quences and of developing the technological methods
to reduce or ameliorate the impact is complicated.
For example, a pollutant may alter the physiology or
behavior of the individuals that comprise a popula-
tion.  These alterations are ultimately reflected
in altered survival or emigration rates.  However,
such effects may be subtle and difficult to relate
to the specific causitive stressor.  In the real
world, numerous stressors are operating in complex
ways.  This tends to confound the field results
obtained in an attempt to evaluate a single stressor.
As a consequence, the terrestrial effects to be
expected from various pollutants will be difficult
to predict.   Improvements in the predictive tools
and assessment techniques remains a major research
goal.

     Other objectives of terrestrial related research
will apply to the reclamation of damaged lands and
the prevention of future damage to terrestrial eco-
systems.   Reclamation will be primarily associated
with lands disturbed by strip mining of coal,
although the technology would also probably apply to
all strip mining operations including oil shale
development.   Prevention of future damage will result
from elimination or reduction of pollutants and from
reclamation practices.  There is also some evidence
of other protective possibility through application
of chemicals which will reduce plant susceptibility.

     While not typical of what should be expected
from atmospheric emissions, there are also reports
of beneficial results from substances ordinarily
regarded as  pollutants.  Both sulfur and nitrogen
compounds are major plant nutrients which may be
supplied to  some degree from the atmosphere.

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                                                                                                       145
               Terrestrial  Effects
                       of
         Energy Research and Development

                       by
                 Norman R.  Glass
                  INTRODUCTION

     The purpose  of this  paper is to present a
 summary of the  research  activities which are being
 pursued by a  number of federal agencies in the
 determination of  the Terrestrial  Effects of Energy
 Development.  It  goes almost without saying that
 to summarize  such an extensive research program
 within the federal  government system is a monumen-
 tal task.   However that  may be, my intention is
 to summarize  the  research activities of the U.S.
 Department of Agriculture, Environmental Protec-
 tion Agency,  Department  of Interior, Energy Re-
 search and Development Administration, and the
 Tennessee Valley  Authority (1, 2, 3, 4, 5).  This
 summary is only of the ecological effects portion
 of these agencies symposium submissions and, there-
 fore, I will  have little  to say about technology
 oriented research programs which are reported else-
 where in this symposium.

     However, before launching into detailed dis-
 cussion of each of these  papers,  it would be worth-
 while to review for you  some of the background in-
 formation and events which have preceeded the
 symposium and the results reported today.  In
 December,  1973, a report  was prepared by the chair-
 man of the U.S. Atomic Energy Commission (now
 ERDA) entitled  "The Nation's Energy Future" (6, 7).
 This report had three major recommendations
 attached to it:

     1.  A national energy and research program.
     2.  A five year, ten billion dollar federal
         ER and D program.
     3.  FY1975 federal  budget for ER and D.

     Since the  exact energy extraction and con-
 version process dictates  to a large extent the
 nature and extent of the  ecological effects that
 might be expected,  a word about that is in order.
 It is clear that  fossil  fuels have been the pri-
 mary source of  energy supplying the United States
 energy production system  - accounting for more
 than 90% of the total United States energy con-
 sumption in 1973.   It is  also clear that even with
 the large  increase  in nuclear power generating
 capacity which  is planned,  that because of long
 lead times associated with getting plants on line
 and other  factors,  fossil  fuels will  continue to
 be the major  energy resource at least up to and
 probably beyond the year  2000.  Further, oil and
 gas are the predominating (more than 75%) fossil
 fuels which are satisfying U..S. energy demand.
While such sources  as natural  gas and coal  have
 various  advantages  and disadvantages, petroleum
can be seen as  the  most versatile of our energy
sources.   However,  both oil  and gas fossil  fuels
may become very limited within the next decade  or
two, giving way to the use of coal as a primary
source.

     Because it is estimated that the United States
has several centuries of coal availability, we  are
moving toward an energy economy which is based
upon, coal as the primary fossil fuel resource.
Western coal is relatively abundant, low in cost,
clean, and by about 1985 we should have a technology
that is capable of economically converting western
coal to synthetic gas and oil.  The principal short-
term constraints to the utilization of western  coal
reserves are the amount of environmental degrada-
tion that the American public is willing to sustain
as a price for secure, abundant energy; the ability
of scientists to forecast the amount and kinds  of
environmental effects that will result from the
given level of coal use; the availability of capital;
materials availability; problems relating to site
selection and construction; and the availability of
effective resource management systems.

     It is within this framework of constraints and
conditions which the Terrestrial Ecology Pass
Through Program has been cast.  Obviously, if coal
is to become the more predominant source of fossil
fuel for the United States, then the Terrestrial
Ecosystem is likely to be the most heavily impacted
system.  However, I would not wish to understate
the water resource problem particularly the matter
of water availability - water quantity.   Since  coal
extraction (primarily strip mining in recent years)
has been historically concentrated in the east, in
the Appalachian region, and in the mid-west, the
exploitation of western coal  reserves is a rela-
tively recent phenomenon.  Because of the recency
of coal development on any scale in the west, pro-
grams designed to evaluate the impact of coal ex-
traction and conversion are fairly new.   Because
the clean coal of the western United States is  a
most desirable coal to be used given the air quality
constraints under which the industry operates,  it
seemed reasonable to devote the preponderance of
research effort using "pass through" money to
western coal development.  By implication, because
of the location of the larger reserves, most of the
extraction and exploitation of western coal is  in
the Northern Great Plains area and the Rocky Moun-
tain states rather than in the southwestern United
States.

     Our present ability to predict the effects of
coal mining and coal burning is extremely limited.
Indeed, we have practically no ability to predict
the long term environmental effects of even the
present level of coal production (see 8, 9, 10).
Consequently, regardless of our intent, exploitation
of this energy source may be accompanied by large-
scale long-term environmental degradation.  The
enormity of the issue is apparent when we consider
that these coal reserves might be exploited for
another 400-500 years.

     The problems of forecasting environmental  con-
sequences and of developing the technological methods
to reduce or ameliorate impact are exceedingly  com-

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146

plex.  Both strip mining and coal combustion pro-
duce effects on living and non-living components of
the environment that are extensive and diverse.
While some effects may be ephemeral, others may
prove to be long lasting or irreversible.  Conven-
tionally fired steam plants alone produce environ-
mental impacts via air pollution (largely through
S0?, oxidants, particulates, and adsorbed metals),
water pollution (use of cooling, makeup, and slurry
water), plant construction, operation and the assoc-
iated construction and employment of dams, reser-
voirs, aquaducts, slurry pipelines, and transmission
lines.  All of these have impacts both locally and
at distant sites.  The total  direct impact of
electrical energy production and delivery over a
state or region may thus be very considerable in
both time and space.

     The major sources of cooling water, makeup
water and process (slurry makeup) water are rivers
such as the Yellowstone, Missouri, Tongue, and
others.  Therefore, vast fertile watersheds beyond
the immediate area developed could be impacted.  If
we are to make the proper impact analysis, it is
imperative that research in the Great Plains be de-
signed to assess the long-term effects both locally
and over the entire region of coal mining, conver-
sion, delivery, and utilization.

     The major air pollutants emanating from fossil
fuel energy systems are the sulfur oxides, nitrogen
oxides and particulate matter.  These energy systems
also contribute, to a lesser degree, to the carbon
monoxide and oxidant burden.    Primary ambient air
standards based on human health effects have been
established for S02> particulates, oxidants, hydro-
carbons, and NOp.  While these standards (11, 12)
were based on tne best scientific information
available at the time of their promulgation, signi-
ficant gaps in knowledge existed.  In addition to
the above gaseous pollutants, many trace metals
such as copper, cadmium, zinc, lead, arsenic, mer-
cury, selenium and others, are emitted from fossil-
fuel power generating plants.

     Having made these introductory remarks con-
cerning energy exploitation,  I will now turn to a
summary of each Agency's Terrestrial Ecology Pro-
gram as submitted for this symposium by the members
of the panel (1, 2, 3, 4, 5).  Every effort has
been made to summarize relevant material which was
sent in by each Agency, any oversights are of
course my responsibility.

            AGENCY RESEARCH PROGRAMS

The EPA Program:

     The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency in
cooperation with other Federal agencies and several
universities is engaged in a one million dollar per
year research program at Colstrip (13, 14) designed
to assess the impact of coal-fired power plants on
a grassland ecosystem.  This  environmental research
program was designed and fielded 2 years ago in
anticipation of energy development in the Northern
Great Plains.  The major air of this four-year in-
vestigation is to develop methodologies  for  the
prediction of impacts and thus enhance our ability
to make valid siting and regulatory  decisions in
the future.  The full realization  of this objective
within the time frame that has been  projected will
require a synthesis of effects research  data and
the coordination of these data with  the  results of
socioeconomic and transport/fate research projects.

     The discussion that follows is  a synthesis and
summary of the investigation up to the present time;
for a more detailed treatment, see Lewis et al.,
1975b (13, 14).  This study is concerned with the
stability of grassland organization  in relation to
ambient conditions, and with the predictability and
reproducibility of changes that may  occur as a
function of airborne contaminants.   Insight into
the mechanisms of dynamic-structural responses of
ecosystem components to air pollution challenge is
also sought.  We are also attempting to  identify
the subsystem functions that contribute  to eco-
system regulation and the mechanisms whereby such
regulation is effected.  The latter  is essential if
we are to assess the ability of the  range resource
to recover or restabilize  following environmental
disturbance.

     This investigation is a first major attempt to
generate methods to predict bioenvironmental  effects
of air pollution before damage is sustained.   His-
torically, most terrestrial air pollution field re-
search has dealt almost exclusively  with direct,
usually acute, effects on vegetation after exposure
to pollutants.  We expect to observe complex changes
in ecosystem dynamics as a function  of relatively
long-term chronic pollution challenge.  We are
studying a rather broad range of interacting vari-
ables, at least some of which already appear to be
sensitive and reliable measures of air pollution
impact.

     The investigation employs 1) the use of reason-
able comprehensive models of component populations
of the ecosystem; 2) the use of appropriately
structured field and laboratory experiments; and 3)
an evaluation of selected physiological  and bio-
chemical functions that may serve as specific in-
dicators or predictors of air pollution  stress.

     In addition to the ''simple" direct  effects of
air pollutants that have been reported from experi-
mental studies of natural systems, we know that in-
sults to the environment from rather diverse sources
(toxic substances, pesticides, radiation, disease,
and adverse climate) produce a similar array of
effects at the community level in spite  of very
different effects on individual organisms studied
under experimental conditions.  The  response
mechanisms may vary, but the manifestation is often:
(1) a reversal of succession or simplification of
ecosystem structure (retrogression);  (2) a reduc-
tion in the ratio of photosynthesis  to respiration;
and (3)  a reduction in species diversity at more
than one trophic level, which may  include the
elimination of certain species (19-22) (e.g., in
grassland, usually rare, but characteristic  species
such as those that typified the original prairie).

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                                                                                                        147
 Effects may be temporary and reversible (i.e., the
 system adapts) or chronic and cumulative.   In any
 case, if a coal-fired power plant has a measurable
 impact on the environment, there is every reason to
 believe that it will  be registered as a diminution
 or alteration of community structure and function
 (22, 23, 24).  Table  4 outlines the existing re-
 search plan.

        TABLE 4.  OUTLINE OF THE RESEARCH PLAN
                  FOR THE MONTANA COAL-FIRED
                  POWER PLANT PROJECT

  I.  Field Investigation

     A.  Temporal and spatial quantitative inven-
         tory of components of the study area, with
         particular focus on the annual cycle
         phenomena of key species.

     B.  Meteorological measurements to support the
         modeling and experimental air pollution
         research efforts.

     C.  Development  of remote sensing as a tool
         for detecting effects of air pollutant
         challenge on the ecosystem.

     D.  Measurement  of loss of inventory attributed
         to strip mining, power lines, human acti-
         vity, water  use, and other potentially
         confounding  influences, e.g., pesticides,
         disease, population cycling.

 II.  Air Pollution Experiments

     A.  Experimentally controlled air pollution
         of spatial segments of an ecosystem.

     B.  Detailed measurement of biological struc-
         ture and function, including energy flow,
         nutrient cycling and species condition,
         composition  and diversity during and
         following air pollution stress.

III.  Laboratory Experiments

     A.  Measurement  and evaluation of physiologic,
         biochemical  and behavioral mechanisms of
         response to  air pollution challenge.

     B.  Precise measurement of parameters that
         support dynamic models.

     C.  Experiments  designed to test whether
         changes observed in experimental  study
         plots can be attributed to air pollutant
         stress.

     D.  Secondary stressor experiments (e.g.,
         disease, temperature stress, water stress,
         non-specific stress).

     E.  Experiments  designed to test field-gener-
         ated hypotheses.
IV.  Modeling
     A.  Use of an ecosystem level model to describe
         and predict effects of air pollutant
         challenge.

     B.  Use of models to help design experiments.

     C.  Use of models to help disentangle pollu-
         tant effects from natural variation and
         system dynamics.

     D.  Meteorological and dispersion modeling to
         describe the mode of entry of pollutant
         into the ecosystem and its time and space
         distribution and concentrations.
     In addition, field experiments are possible
through the application of a zonal air pollution
system designed to meet the needs and constraints
of our program (25).  Each grid system delivers a
dilute mixture of air and SOg over a 1-1/4 acre
grassland plot.  Four plots are employed in each
experiment in which median S02 concentrations of
zero, 2, 5, and 10 pphm, respectively, are main-
tained throughout the entire growing season.   The
systems distribute the gas more or less uniformly
over each plot, and the concentrations are log-
normally distributed with respect to time.

     The developments of an environmental  assess-
ment methodology over the next two years will  re-
quire an intensive effort to integrate the immense
amount of biological, chemical  and physical  systems
information that is being generated by this program.
Results of complementary investigations at Colstrip
(26) will help to broaden and extend our data base
and aid us in achieving our goal.

     We anticipate that the effects assessment
methodology developed will assist managers in sit-
ing future coal-fired power plants as well as
other coal-conversion facilities.

Additional EPA Terrestrial Research

     While Colstrip has been and continues to be
the major EPA in-house and extramural effort in the
terrestrial effects area, mention should be made of
two additional points.  First as presented in the
freshwater effects paper by Dr. Mount, the EPA is
shown as supporting about 600K in the Northern
Plains region in an extramural  program on watershed
impacts.  This work is partly terrestrial  in nature
in that it deals with entire watersheds.  The EPA
is also supporting about 100K in the Arctic for
work on oil spills in the Tundra ecosystem.

The ERDA Program

     There are nine tasks for which ERDA has re-
sponsibility as outlined in the interagency report
deal with surface mine reclamation and related
problems.  With the exception of one task that is
specially tailored to oil shale extraction, these
tasks relate to coal extraction and utilization  at

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148
mine-mouth plants.  The major research efforts in-
volve a diversified program conducted by the Land
Reclamation Laboratory at Argonne National Labora-
tory  (ANL), and the Ames Laboratory.  The Ames
study is a cooperative venture with the University
of Montana, Montana State University, and the
Pacific Northwest Laboratory.  ERDA study sites are
located in the Southwest, Northern Great Plains,
and Central coal resource regions.  The program is
built around a series of mine and mine-related
sites.

1.  Northern Great Plains
     There are four study areas in the Northern
 Great Plains coal region which are related to this
 program.  They range from the lignite fields in
 North Dakota to the Green River Formation in South-
 eastern Wyoming.

    Colstrip Site

     The objective of the Ames project is to evalu-
 ate the significance of changes in trace element
 concentrations in the grassland system surrounding
 Colstrip, Montana, as a result of mining operations
 and coal utilization in the area.  Initial efforts
 have been to determine indigenous levels of trace
 metals and other potential contaminants in vegeta-
 tion and wildlife of the area. The goal is to pro-
 vide biological transfer rates and potential effects
 data which can be used in the assessment of the
 ecological impact due to development of the region.
 Naturally, this study is expected to provide only a
 portion of the input for such an assessment.

     About two-thirds of the financial support for
 this project comes from the trace contaminants pro-
 gram.  The remainder of the funding is "pass
 through."

     In addition to Colstrip, ERDA is also involved
 in reclamation and revegetation research efforts at
 the Jim Bridger Mine site, Indian Head Mine site,
 and Bighorn Mine site.

 2.  Southwestern Region

     The ANL program includes three study areas in
 the Southwestern Coal Region; one associated with
 the Black Mesa mine in Arizona, and the other two
 in Northern New Mexico associated with the San Juan
 and Navajo Mines.  As with other ANL studies these
 projects are cooperative ventures with the mine
 operators, and in each case regional universities
 are major participants in the research.  These
 studies deal primarily with revegetation problems,
 topsoil salinity.in mine spoil areas, alternate
 uses of reclaimed land, and plant growth, develop-
 ment, reproduction, and successional studies.

 3.  Central Region

     Two study areas related to the interagency
 program are located in the Central Region, one near
 Morris, Illinois; the other near Staunton, Illinois.

     One project will involve a demonstration effort
in cooperation with the State of Illinois, coupled
with an ANL research program to evaluate  the
effectiveness of reclamation activities that  in-
clude the use of chemical soil stabilizers and soil
amendments such as lime, sewage sludge, fly ash,
and straw.  The plan is to revegetate the site with
prairie grasses, as is being done  in an adjacent
state park.

     The second project will represent another
cooperative effort by ANL to establish better
methods for disposal and utilization of wastes and
restoration of affected lands.

     The project will include assessment  of infil-
tration, run-off, and quality of water on the site
and on adjacent, impacted areas.   Both laboratory
and field experiments will be performed to evaluate
the effects of chemical and physical treatment on
plant growth and establishment, and on microbial
transformations of nitrogen and sulfur compounds.

4.  Other Activities

     Two other tasks from the interagency program
are included in this area, one relating to oil
shale extraction, the other to data management.
The oil shale study, conducted by  the Pacific
Northwest Laboratory, involves development of a
model to predict movement (either  solvent or solute)
through spent shale or disturbed strata under areas
where shale has been extracted.

     Data storage and management systems  being de-
veloped in a joint effort between  Oak Ridge National
Laboratory and ANL will ultimately provide two-way
exchange of information between Federal agencies,
other public agencies, the professional community,
and the coal industry.  The system is planned to
permit storage and retrieval of bibliographies and
abstracts of reclamation research  programs, data,
or reports including evaluations and comments.

            TRACE CONTAMINANTS FROM
        COAL COMBUSTION AND PROCESSING

     The 1976 level of coal use in the United States
was approximately 600 million tons, and forecasts
indicate that this could double by the late 1980's
as the nation turns to coal to alleviate  dependence
on foreign oil sources.

     The composition of coal varies considerably,
and there is no typical coal composition.  Some of
the trace elements of concern are  cadmium, mercury,
selenium, arsenic, lead, chromium, copper, and
zinc.  The projects included in this program  are
designed to determine the characteristics, trans-
port, and fate of these trace elements in coal
following combustion or conversion to  synthetic
fuels, and their effects on various compartments  of
the environment.

     Some of the projects address  the  determination
of which elements are  released from a  utility stack
and how they are distributed  in the vicinity  of  the
plant.  Another group  of projects  deals with  the
determination of trace elements in the  residual  fly

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ash and  furnace  ash  and their mobilization follow-
ing burial  at  disposal  sites.  Closely related
studies  address  the  way in which any mobilized
elements are retained by different type soils.

     Another aspect  of this program is considera-
tion of  the manner in which the trace contaminants
are cycled  biogeochemically and the extent to which
they are concentrated by aquatic and terrestrial
organisms.   In addition, some of the projects deal
with effects on  plant and animal species in several
regions  of  the country.

     Two of the  projects will attempt to identify
biological  indicators which would serve as early
warning  systems  for  detection of deleterious
effects.

                  ALASKAN OIL

     As  a result of  the Prudhoe Bay, Alaska oil
strike in 1968,  there was thought to be about two
billion  barrels  of crude oil  and some 7.4 trillion
cubic feet  of  natural gas in that field.  By 1973
the proven  reserves  of crude oil for the U.S. and
Canada,  except the Arctic, were estimated to be
1.3 billfon net  barrels.  Currently, Alaska's
Arctic Slope is  estimated to have something under
10 billion  barrels of crude oil and about 22.5
trillion cubic feet  of natural gas.

     The Atomic  Energy Commission was involved for
many years  in  ecological research and studies of
man's impact on  the  Arctic.  This experience and
related  projects were inherited by ERDA and form
the core for the future research program related to
development of Alaskan resources.

     ERDA has  responsibility for three tasks re-
lated to these problems, as follows:

     1)   Oil persistence in the tundra and its im-
         pact  on the below-ground ecosystem,

     2)   Effects of  oil  on tundra thaw ponds, and

     3)   Effects of  construction on tundra lakes.

     These  studies were funded June 1.  Therefore,
few results are  available and those which are
available are  only preliminary in scope.  Addition-
al program  detail  is available in ERDA's symposium
submission  (4).

The Department of Interior Program

     The Fish  and Wildlife Service energy effort is
primarily concerned  with minimizing the impact of
energy developments  on fish, wildlife, and related
environmental  values.  This paper briefly covers
the terrestrial  program objectives and our current
activities.

     The Office  of Biological Services Program has
five terrestrial objectives as outlined below.
These will  be  reviewed in detail (3), but in sum-
mary they are  aimed  at:
                                                 149
     1)  Defining the key terrestrial problems  re-
         sulting from energy developments.

     2)  Obtaining the tools to deal effectively
         with the problem.

     3)  Testing and demonstrating the tools and
         methods under controlled conditions.

     4)  Learning how and where to put improved
         information to work on environmental
         problems.

     5)  Getting involved in the decision-making
         process as an active participant.

     An initial program thrust of the Office of
Biological Services was to establish the Western
Energy and Land Use Team in Fort Collins, Colorado.
Western energy reserves include extensive coal,
oil shale, and geothermal  reservoirs.  Most of
these fuels are on public land and represent na-
tional resources which are under great development
pressure.  The Department of the Interior places
an initial priority on understanding and minimizing
the energy related damage to this water poor and
environmentally sensitive region.  We are concerned
about the surface disturbance and reclamation
activities, as well as the processing and trans-
mission of the extracted fuel.   Secondary effects
are also of concern.  These include the protection
of the environment from the development of indus-
trail and related population growth.   We will con-
tinue to place emphasis on the impact of these
terrestrial activities on Western water resources
which are now under severe stress.

     The principal study areas under consideration
include the Four Corners region, the Piceance
Basin, the Powder River Basin, southeastern Montana,
the Kaparowitz Plateau, and western North Dakota.
They cover two of the Fish and Wildlife   Service's
Regions and deal with most Western major energy
land disturbance problems.  We will then guide our
experimental studies, demonstration projects, and
research activities into these areas to the degree
possible.

     The Fish and Wildlife Service budget provided
approximately $3 million in FY 1975 to initiate the
terrestrial energy projects and approximately $4
million will be available in FY 1976.  These funds
are supplemented by "pass through" funds from
other agencies, such as the energy research and
development support from the Environmental Protec-
tion Agency.  Other limited support has been made
available by the Bureau of Land Management and  the
U.S. Geological Survey.  The total resource alloca-
tions since 1976 and projected through 1976 are  as
follows:

   Upland Ecosystems Project Air/Terrestrial

                    FY 1975
   Base
                                                          2.150K
Interagency

    700K
Total
                                      2.850K

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150
   Base
   3.200K
                     FY 1976
Interagency

    700K
                                     and increased yields 30 to
                                     Tempo beans (32).
                                                                                       on highly sensitive
                                        Total
3.900K
     The major thrust of the Fish and Wildlife
Service energy program is to obtain ecological in-
formation of appropriate form and quality to
effectively influence energy development decisions.
This requires applying currently available tech-
niques for ecological assessments and for signifi-
cantly improving the methodologies available to
measure and predict environmental impact.  The
Environmental Protection Agency cooperative program
has  allowed the Fish and Wildlife Service to under-
take a serious applied research effort to improve
the  rate with which ecological assessments can be
made.  The Fish and Wildlife Service approach will
involve the development of several major ecological
test areas which are also of interest for Western
energy development.  This effort also includes ex-
tensive commitment of other Fish and Wildlife Ser-
vice resources.  Its success is dependent upon a
high level of interagency and State cooperation on
the  test sites.  It is anticipated that this effort
will speed the decisions concerning energy develop-
ment in non-sensitive areas and protect fish and
wildlife values by avoidance of critical habitat
and more effective reclamation procedures.
The USDA Program

       EFFECTS OF AIR POLLUTANTS
                  CROPS
     As more large coal-burning power plants are
built and become operational, we may anticipate
elevated concentrations of some air pollutants.
The major primary phytotoxic pollutants from these
power plants are sulfur dioxide (SO?), nitrogen
oxides, acid-aerosols, ethylene, ana heavy metals,
like lead, cadmium, and zinc.

     The chronic effects on plants of exposure to
low levels of atmospheric pollutants in the envir-
onment are poorly understood as compared with our
knowledge of the nature and extent of acute injury,
(27, 28, 29).  We do know genetic and environmental
factors affect plant response to pollutants.
Therefore, USDA has devoted substantial efforts to
producing pollutant resistant crop varieties.

     Presently, the interacting effects of toxic
gas mixtures are poorly understood.  A synergistic
response has been demonstrated with mixtures of
ozone and S02 (30); i.e., concentrations too low to
cause visible injury when applied alone caused
severe damage as a mixture.  Possible damage to
vegetation and soils from increased acidity of pre-
cipitation is also a problem (31).

     In addition, research is being conducted with
chemicals which can be applied to protect plants
from injury due to oxidant -air pollution.  A
fungicide, benomyl [methyl-l-(butylcarbamoyl)-2-
benzimidazole carbamate}, suppressed oxidant injury
     No research  information  is  available  to
accurately assess the overall  impact  of air pollu-
tants on the agricultural economy.  A survey  by the
Stanford Research Institute,  available  in  1971, re-
vealed a $131 million/year  loss  to  vegetation.  If
we include losses caused  by minor pollutants, de-
creased growth and yield  caused  by  major pollutants,
effects on ornamentals, wildlife, and aesthetic
values, as well as the increased value  of  agricul-
tural crops since the 1971  Stanford Research  Study,
the $500 million/year estimated  loss  seems reason-
able.

     The effects of energy-related, air pollutants
on animal production systems  have not been identi-
fied.  The primary concern  seems to be  accumulation
of pollutants, like that  of heavy metals in forage,
in localized areas, near  an industrial  source or
heavily traveled highways (33).

     RECLAMATION OF COAL  STRIP-MINED  AREAS

     The Department of Agriculture  has  been con-
cerned for many years with  revegetation  of dis-
turbed lands (34, 35).  It  has been an  essential
part of their soil and water  conservation techniques.

     Recent research by the Agricultural Research
Service, USDA, and cooperators in Appalachia indi-
cate (a) forage yields on reclaimed spoils are high-
est when rock phosphate is  applied, (b)  Bermuda-
grass has promise for revegetation  if phosphorous
and nitrogen deficiencies,  as well  as acidity, are
corrected, (c) crown vetch  can be established, if
weeping 1 overgrass is used  first as a covery crop,
and (d) composted sewage  sludge  is  a  promising
soil  treatment.  Currently, in West Virginia and
Maryland, about 3,000 plots are  involved in the
revegetation studies.  Our  scientists are concerned
also with (a) deep placement  of  fertilizer, (b)
evaluating Rhizobium inoculants, (c)  plant survival
on outer slopes, (d) element  uptake by  various
plant species, and (e) using  sewage sludge as a
soil  amendment.  ARS scientists  (18)  concluded that
acid mine spoils in Appalachia could  be  altered in
a relatively short time,  to have good production
potential.  They believe  that physical  structure,
involving available soil   water and  stoniness, is
the most difficult to improve.

     In the Northern Great  Plains progress has been
made in identifying factors which hinder reclama-
tion and revegetation of  strip-mine lands  (36).
Phosphorous is always deficient, but  readily  cor-
rected by fertilization.   In  North  Dakota  spoils
originating from deeper than  about  15 m are fre-
quently high in adsorbed  sodium  and clay content.
The highly sodic spoils are impractical  to reclaim
because of water shortages.   A series of plots were
established recently which  will  be  used to evaluate
the succession of native  grass species  on  spoils
with and without top soil at  various  depths.  Ex-
perimental results indicated  considerable  benefit
from surface application  of as little as 5 cm of

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                                                                                                        151
natural top soil over the  sodic  materials.   In
Wyoming, new revegetation  trials were  established
at three mine sites.  For  these  sites  a broad
range  of woody  plant species  were obtained  for  the
revegetation trials from several  sources,  including
the Soil Conservation Service and Federal  and
State  Forest Service nurseries.

    The Cooperative State Research  Service and the
State  Experiment Stations  of  12  coal-producing
States have developed projects concerning  a wide
range  of terrestrial environmental problems related
to strip mining of coal.   Most of these projects
deal with revegetation  of  reclaimed  lands.   One
project will investigate the  effects of S0~ pollu-
tion on native  plants and  crops.

    The Forest Service has developed  a surface
environment and mining  program (SEAM).   Besides the
several research projects  already identified, they
have projects on utilizing remote sensing  tech-
niques, on establishing microbial  populations in
sterile soils,  on plant resistance to  drought
stress, on improved stability of mine  spoils, and
on evaluating strip mining effects on  wildlife.

    Most of the new research and development pro-
jects  on revegetation of coal strip-mined  lands are
too new to yield results.   We may anticipate that
reclamation planning will  be  an  integral  part of
surface coal mining operations,  like those  describ-
ed recently in  West Germany (37).  A systems
approach is developing  which  accounts  for  (a) land
use options, (b) chemical  and physical  properties
of the overburden, (c)  mining methods  that  opti-
mize separation according  to  quality,  and  the sub-
sequent use of  the overburden, (d) kinds  and
amounts of fertilizer and  other  soil amendments to
use, (e) best management practices,  and (f) best
plant  material  to achieve  intended land use.  In
addition to their use in agriculture and  forestry,
strip-mined areas can be used at some  locations as
parks, airports, sites  for building  schools or
some types of industries,  or  even new  towns or
lakes.

The TVA Program

    The efficient and  responsible operation of a
power  system requires the  development  of knowledge
of the ecological effects  of  electric  generation,
not only in order to avoid or lessen such  environ-
mental imapcts  but also in order to  avoid  delays
in the planning, design, and  construction  of power
plants.

    The research being conducted by TVA using
pass through funds consists of one principal pro-
ject with several tasks, and  one lessen project,
as follows:

    1.  Develop Baseline  Information  and  Identify,
        Characterize,  and Quantify  the Transfer,
        Fate,  and Effects of Coal-Fired  Power
        Plant  Emissions in Terrestrial Ecosystems
        in the Tennessee  Valley.
A.  Field and Filtered/Unfiltered  Exposure
    Chamber Studies of Effects of  Coal-
    Fired Power Plant Emissions  on  Crop
    and Forest Species of Economic  Import-
    ance in SE United States.

The studies are being conducted  at  12
sites equipped with continuous SOp  monitors
within an area near the steam plant that
experiences a relatively high frequency of
ground-level SC>2 exposures and at 7 sites
areas remote to industrial sources  of SC^.
During the 1975 growing season,  comparisons
of the foliar appearance, growth, and
yield of soybeans, a crop species th'at is
very sensitive to S02.  In 1976, the
studies will be expanded to include effects
of S02 exposure on wheat, cotton, and
Virginia pine.  Emphasis will be placed on
comparisons of plants grown on field plots
with plants grown on adjacent plots equip-
ped with air-exclusion systems.   The com-
parisons will  be made at four locations in
the high exposure area and at a  remote
location.

B.  Determine Dose-Response Kinetics for
    Effects of Atmospheric Emissions from
    Coal-Fired Power Plants on Soybeans
    and Other Crop and Forest Species of
    Economic Importance in the SE United
    States.

Controlled laboratory exposure studies
have not reflected either the rapid
changes in concentrations of principal
coal-fired power plant pollutants, such as
SOp and NOo, that occur during ground-level
exposures in the field or the environmental
conditions under which such exposures
normally occur; most investigators  have
utilized time-average concentration ex-
posure regimes in dose-response  studies.

TVA has designed, constructed, and  tested
a controlled SOo exposure system that will
be employed in these studies.  The  system
utilizes programmable fumigation kinetics
to closely simulate the fluctuating S02
concentrations that occur in field  expo-
sures.  The controlled exposure  system is
being modified to permit single  or  multiple
pollutant exposures with S02» N02,  and 03.

Studies in 1975 were directed toward  iden-
tifying (1) the phenological state(s) of
growth at which soybean plants are  most
sensitive to foliar injury and to reduc-
tions in yield resulting from foliar  in-
jury and (2) the relationship between soil
pH, soil fertility, and soil moisture to
the S02 - sensitivity of soybean plants  at
various stages of growth.  Analyses of  the
data are in progress.

Studies in 1976 will be directed toward
(1) establishing the relationship  among

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152
          S0?  dose,  foliar  injury,  and  yield  for the
          stage  of growth that  soybeans are most
          sensitive  to yield  reduction  following S02
          exposure;  and (2) determining the effects
          of multiple  pollutant exposures  (SOo  + N02
          and  S02  +  03) on  growth  and yield of  soy-
          beans.

          C.   Characterize  and  quantify the Transfer,
              Fate,  and Effects of SOX, NO ,  and
              Acid Precipitation on Terrestrial  Eco-
              systems  Representative of the Tennessee
              Valley Region.

          Terrestrial  and aquatic  ecosystems  serve
          as sinks for pollutants  deposited in  them
          from the atmosphere,  including those  emit-
          ted  in the combustion of fossil  fuels.
          Sulfur and nitrogen oxides, which are  the
          principal  atmospheric pollutants resulting
          from coal  combustion, and their  products
          of oxidation in the atmosphere,  $04 and
          NOq, can serve as beneficial  sources  of
          essential  plant nutrients or  can be toxic
          to living  organisms.   However, there  is
          evidence that exposure to low levels  of
          502  can  benefit the growth and development
          of plants  grown on  sulfur-deficient soils.
          The  objective of the  task therefore is  to
          characterize and quantify the mechanisms
          of transfer  of SOX  and NOX to terrestrial
          ecosystems.

          It is anticipated that the results of  this
          task will  be coefficients for the trans-
          fer, fate, and effects of SOX and NOX  that
          can  be merged with  atmospheric chemistry
          and  long-range transport  studies TVA  is
          conducting,  and with  data from TVA's
          region-wide  air monitoring network, to
          predict  and  evaluate  impacts  on  a regional
          basis.

          D.   Evaluation of the Beneficial Effects
              of SOo and Other  Pollutants  Emitted
              from Steam Plants on  Crops and Forest
              Species,  Particularly Soybeans and
              Pines

     2.   Fate and Effects of Atmospheric  Emissions
          from Cooling Systems  on Terrestrial
          Habitats.

          Unvalidated  dispersion models  based on
          limited  field data have been  used to pre-
          dict and evaluate the impacts  of atmo-
          spheric  releases from heat dissipation  in
          the terrestrial environment.   These re-
          leases include heat,  moisture, salts,  and
          potentially  toxic heavy metals.

          Vegetation study plots are being estab-
          lished at  eight locations  in  the vicini-
          ties of  each  of two nuclear plants --  one
          equipped with mechanical   draft cooling
          towers (Browns Ferry)  and  one equipped
          with natural  draft cooling towers
(Sequoyah).  Growth  and yield,  incidence
of disease, and frequency  of  occurrence of
frost and ice injury will  be  determined for
plantings of selected  crop  and  timber
species of economic  importance.   Relative
humidity, temperature, precipitation, and
wet and dry depositions of  salts  and heavy
metals and their accumulation on  soils and
vegetation will be monitored  at each plot.
Data from these studies will  be used (1)
to validate dispersion models for these
systems, (2) to determine the extent to
which moisture and heat released  from the
two types of systems modify climate and
impact vegetation, and (3)  to determine
whether a potential  exists  for salt and
heavy metal toxicity to plant and live-
stock.

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                                                                                                     153
                REFERENCES
Terrestrial  Effects of Pollutants from Energy
Use and Progress in Reclamation of Coal Strip
Mine Areas.   H.E.  Heggestad, Agricultural Re-
search Service,  U.S.  Department of Agriculture.
IN:  Health/Environmental  Effects and Control
Technology Aspects of_ Energy Research and De-
            En vironmentaTl
    veTopment.  Environmental Protection Agency
    Symposium Proceedings, February 9-11,  1976.
    Washington, DC.

2.   The Ecological Effects of Energy  Conversion
    Activities on the Terrestrial Environment:   The
    Environmental Protection Agencv's  Program, by
    Robert A. Lewis, Allen S. Lefohn,  and  Norman
    R. Glass.  IN:  Health/Environmental Effects
    and Control Technology Aspects erf Energy  Re-
    search and Development.  En vironmental  Protec-
    tion Agency Symposium Proceedings,  February  9-
    11, 1976.  Washington, DC.

3.   Terrestrial Effects of Energy Development on
    Fish and Wildlife Resources, by Herbert B.
    Quinn, Jr., Program Manager, Upland Ecosystems
    U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service.   IN:   Health/
    Environmental Effects and Control  Technology
    Aspects erf Energy Research and Development.
    Environmental Protection Agency Symposium Pro-
    ceedings, February 9-11, 1976.  Washington,  DC.

4.   Participation of ERDA in the Transport and
    Ecological Effects Categories of  the Pass-
    Through Program.  R.E. Franklin,  D.S.  Ballentine,
    J.O. Blanton, D.H. Hamilton and C.M. White.
    U.S. Energy Research and Development Administra-
    tion.  IN:  Health/Environmental  Effects  and
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    and Development.  Environmental Protection
    Agency Symposium Proceedings, February 9-11,
    1976.  Washington, DC.

5.   Air/Terrestrial Ecological Effects.  H.R.
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    Authority, Chattanooga, Tennessee.  IN:   Health/
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    Aspects of_ Energy Research and Development.
    Environmental Protection Agency Symposium Pro-
    ceedings, February 9-11, 1976.  Washington,  DC.

6.   The Nation's Energy Future.  A report  to
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    man, United States Atomic Energy  Commission.
    December 1, 1973.

7.   Report of the Interagency Working  Group on
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 9.   Spear, R.C., and E. Wei.  1972.  Dynamic aspects
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10.   Congressional Research Service.  1975.  Effects
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11.   Federal Register, 36(84):8186-8201 (April  30,
     1971).

12.   The Clean Air Act states that"... air quality
     criteria for an air pollutant shall  accurately
     reflect the latest scientific knowledge useful
     in indicating the kind and extent of all iden-
     tifiable effects on public health or welfare
     which may be expected from the presence of
     such pollutants in the ambient air,  in varying
     quantities" [section 108(a)].  The Act further
     states that national primary ambient air quality
     standards are regulations which "in  the judg-
     ment of the administrator, based on  such cri-
     teria, and following for an adequate margin of
     safety, are requisite to protect the public
     health" [section 109(b)].  Air quality criteria
     then reflect scientific knowledge, while pri-
     mary air quality standards involve a judgment
     as to how this knowledge must be used in a
     regulatory action to protect public  health, and
     the secondary air quality standard determine
     the level of air quality required to protect
     the public welfare.  Public welfare  as defined
     in the Clean Air Act "includes, but  is not
     limited to, effects on soils, water, crops,
     vegetation, man-made materials, animals, wild-
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     [section 302(h)],  These considerations also
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     the research experience gained in furtherance
     of the Clean Air Act is valuable in  pursuing
     energy related research - in fact, the objec-
     tives of research programs are so similar that
     clear separation is not straight forward.

13.   Lewis, et al.  1975a.  An investigation of the
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14.   Lewis, et al.  1975b.  Introduction  to the
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     Interim Report, Col strip, Montana, (Eds.)
     R.A. Lewis, N.R. Glass, and A.S. Lefohn,
     pp. 1-13.  In Press.

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      on the structure and physiology of ecosystems.
      IN, Ecological and biological effects of air
      pollution, MSS Information Corp., pp. 10-17.

  23.  Glass, N.R., and D.T. Tingey.  1975.  Effects
      of air pollution on ecological process.  IN,
      Radiation Research Biomedical, Chemical, and
      Physical Perspectives, (O.F, Nygaard, H.I.
      Adler, and W.K. Sinclair, Eds.), pp. 1326-
      1333.  Academic Press, New York.

  24.  See, for example, Woodwell, G.M.  1970.
      Effects of pollution on the structure and
      physiology of ecosystems.  Science, 168:429-
      433.

  25.  Lee, J.L., R.A. Lewis, and D.E. Body.  1975.
      A field experimental system for the evalua-
      tion of the bioenvironmental effects of sulfur
      dioxide.  IN, Proceedings of the Fort Union
      Coal Field Symposium:  Vol. 4:  Terrestrial
      Ecosystems pp. 608-620.

  26.  Montana Energy Advisory Council (Lt. Gov.
      Bill Christiansen, Chm.).  1975.  Energy
      Research in the Col strip, Montana, Area.

  27.  Library of Congress, "Effects of Chronic Ex-
      posure to Low-Level Pollutants in the Environ-
      ment," (Subcommittee on the Environment and
      the Atmosphere, Committee on Science and Tech-
      nology, U.S. House of Representatives), 1975.

  28.  Heck, W.W., O.C. Taylor, and H.E. Heggestad.
      "Air Pollution Research Needs Herbaceous and
      Ornamental Plants and Agriculturally Generated
      Pollutants," Jour. Air Pollution Control Assoc.
      23:257-266.  1973.
29.  Heggestad, H.E., and W.W. Heck.  "Nature Ex-
     tent and Variation of Plant Response to Air
     Pollutants," Adv. in Agron., 23:111-145.  1971.

30.  Menser, H.A., and H.E. Heggestad, "Ozone and
     Sulfur Dioxide Synergism Injury to Tobacco
     Plants," Science, 153:424-425.  1966.

31.  Cowling, E.B., A.S. Heagle, and W.W. Heck,
     The Changing Acidity of Precipitation,"
     Phytopathology News, 9: p. 5.  1975.

32.  Manning, W.J,, and W.A. Fader, "Suppression of
     Oxidant Injury by Benomyl :  Effects on Yields
     of Bean Cultivars in the Field," J. Environ.
     Quality, 3:1-3.  1974.

33.  Aschbacher, P.W., "Air Pollution Research
     Needs Livestock Production Systems," J. Air
     Pollution Control Assoc., 23:267-272.  1973.

34.  Barrows, H.L., "ARS Research on Strip Mine
     Reclamation."  (Presented, 28th Annual NACD
     Meeting, Houston, Texas, February 1974
     ARS, USDA, Beltsville, MD.

35.  Smith, R.M., W.E. Gube, Jr., and J.R.
     Freeman, "Better Minesoils," Green Lands
     Quarterly Winter, 16-18.  1975.

36.  Power, L.F., R.E. Ries, F.M. Sandoval, and
     W.O. Willis, "Factors Restricting Revegetation
     of Strip Mine Spoils," Proceedings, Fort
     Union Coal Symposium.  1975.

37.  Kubic, M.J., "Germany's Prize Coal Stripper,"
     Newsweek, 86(22):86, 89.  1975.

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                                                                                                        155
   THE ECOLOGICAL  EFFECTS OF ENERGY CONVERSION
   ACTIVITIES  ON THE TERRESTRIAL ENVIRONMENT
  THE ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY'S PROGRAM
                 Robert A.  Lewis
                 Allen S.  Lefohn
                 Norman R.  Glass

      U.S.  Environmental Protection Agency
   Con/all is Environmental  Research Laboratory
            Corvallis, Oregon  97330
INTRODUCTION

    The United States is moving toward an energy
economy based upon coal as the primary fossil fuel
resource.  Western coal is abundant, low in cost,
relatively "clean" and by about 1985, we will have
a technology that is capable of economically con-
verting coal to synthetic forms of gas and oil.
The proximate limitations to coal development are
not primarily economic or technological.  Rather,
the principal short-term constraints to the utili-
zation of Western coal reserves are the amount of
environmental degradation that the American people
are willing to sustain as a price for secure, abun-
dant energy; the ability of scientists to forecast
the amount arid kinds of environmental effects that
will result from a given level of coal use; the
availability of capital; materials availability;
problems relating to site selection and construc-
tion; and the availability of effective resource
management systems.

    Our present ability to predict the effects of
coal mining and coal burning is extremely limited.
Indeed, we have practically no ability to predict
the long term environmental effects of even the
present level of coal production  (see also 1, 2,  3).
Consequently, regardless of our intent, exploitation
of this energy source may be accompanied by large-
scale long-term environmental degradation.  The
enormity of the issue is apparent when we consider
that these coal reserves might be exploited for
another 400-500 years.

    The problems of forecasting  environmental con-
sequences and of developing the technological methods
to reduce or ameliorate impact are exceedingly com-
plex.  Both strip mining and coal combustion produce
effects on living and non-living  components of the
environment that are extensive and diverse.  While
some effects may be ephemeral, others may prove to  be
long lasting or irreversible.  Conventionally  fired
steam plants alone produce environmental impacts  via
air pollution (largely through S02, oxidants,  parti-
cipates, and adsorbed metals), water pollution  (use
of cooling, makeup, and slurry water), plant con-
struction, operation and the associated construction
and employment of dams, reservoirs, aquaducts, slurry
pipelines, and transmission lines.  All of these  have
impacts both locally and at distant sites.  The total
direct impact of electrical energy production  and
delivery over a state or region may thus be  very
considerable in both time and space.
     Strippable coal  reserves  lie  under  some  of the
most economically  rich  ranchlands  and  productive
agricultural  lands  in the world.   The  capacity of
these rangelands and  grasslands  to absorb  or  recover
from strip mining,  power plant  siting, construction,
and resultant air  and water  pollution  is probably
very limited.  Yet  these lands  constitute  a major
renewable resource  of the central, northcentral  and
midwestern United  States.  Considerable  rangeland
will be -taken out  of  grain and  livestock production;
natural plant and  animal populations,  including
species that are economically,  aesthetically  and
recreationally valuable in the  local biome will  be
altered or destroyed.  The major sources of cooling
water, makeup water and process  (slurry makeup)  water
are rivers such as  the Yellowstone, Missouri,  Tongue,
and others.  Therefore, vast fertile watersheds  be-
yond the immediate  area developed  could be impacted.
If we are to make  the proper socioeconomic analysis,
it is imperative that research  in  the Great Plains
be designed to assess the long  term effects both
locally and over the entire region of coal  mining,
conversion, delivery, and utilization.

     The major air  pollutants emanating from fossil
fuel energy systems are the sulfur oxides,  nitrogen
oxides and particulate matter.   These energy systems
also contribute, to a lesser degree, to the carbon
monoxide and oxidant burden.   Primary ambient air
standards based on human health effects have been
established for S02, particulates, oxidants, hydro-
carbons, and N0~.   While these standards (4, 5) were
based on the best scientific information available
at the time of their promulgation, significant gaps
in knowledge existed.   In addition to the above
pollutants, many trace metals such as copper,  cad-
mium, zinc, lead,  arsenic,  mercury, selenium and
others, are emitted from fossil-fuel power generating
plants.  Numerous  other trace contaminants  in  the
form of hydrocarbons and various aerosols are  also
emitted.  In general,  trace metals are  emitted as
particles adsorbed to fly ash or other  particulate
matter coming from the power plant stack.

THE COLSTRIP. MONTANA PROGRAM

     The U.S. Environmental  Protection Agency  in
cooperation with other  Federal  agencies  and several
universities  (Table 1)  is engaged  in a one million
dollar  per year research program  (6) designed  to
assess  the  impact  of  coal-fired power  plants  on  a
grassland  ecosystem.  This environmental research
program was designed  and fielded  in  anticipation of
energy  development in the Northern Great Plains.  The
major  aim  of  this  four-year  investigation  is  to
develop methodologies for the  prediction of impacts
and  thus enhance our  ability to make valid siting
and  regulatory decisions.  The  full  realization of
this objective within the time  frame that  has been
projected  will require  a synthesis of  effects
research data and  the coordination of  these with the
results of socioeconomic and transport/fate research
projects.

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156

                 TABLE 1

     PARTICIPANTS IN COLSTRIP PROGRAM

 Federal Government                 Universities
      EPA
      USFS

      ERDA

      NOAA
Montana State, Bozeman
University of Montana,
  Missoula
Colorado State University,
  Fort Collins
Oregon State University,
  Corvallis
     The discussion that follows is a synthesis
 and summary of the investigation up to the present
 time; for a more detailed treatment, see  Lewis et_
 al., 1975b (6).  This study is concerned  with the
 stability of grassland organization in relation  to
 ambient conditions, and with the predictability
 and reprooucibility of changes that may occur as  a
 function of airborne contaminants.  Insight  into
 the mechanisms of dynamic-structural responses of
 ecosystem components to air pollution challenge  is
 also sought.  We are also attempting to identify
 the subsystem functions that contribute to ecosys-
 tem regulation and the mechanisms whereby such
 regulation is effected.  The latter is essential  if
 we are to assess the ability of the range resources
 to recover or restabilize following environmental
 disturbance.

     This investigation is the first major attempt
 to generate methods to predict bioenvironmental
 effects of air pollution before damage is sus-
 tained.  Historically, most terrestrial air  pollu-
 tion field research has dealt almost exclusively
 with direct, usually acute, effects on vegetation
 after exposure to pollutants.  We expect  to  observe
 complex changes in ecosystem dynamics as  a function
 of relatively long-term, chronic pollution chal-
 lenge.  We are studying a rather broad range of
 interacting variables, at least some of which
 already appear to be sensitive and reliable  mea-
 sures of air pollution impact.

     The investigation employs 1) the use of rea-
 sonably comprehensive models of component popu-
 lations of the ecosystem; 2) the use of appropri-
 ately structured field and laboratory experiments;
 and 3) an evaluation of selected physiological and
 biochemical functions that may serve as specific
 indicators or predictors of air pollution stress.

     Even in a comprehensive investigation,  exten-
 sive studies of a large array of species  or  pro-
 cesses is not possible.  Considerable research is
 required to identify the particular parameters that
 will give an adequate, sensitive measure  of  air
 pollution to a grassland ecosystem or components
 thereof.  Broad categories of important functions
 under investigation include 1) changes in produc-
 tivity or biomass of ecosystem compartments; 2)
 changes in life-cycle and population dynamic func-
 tions of "key" taxa; 3) changes in community struc-
 ture or diversity; 4) changes in nutrient cycling;
 and 5) sublethal biochemical or physiological
 changes in individuals or compartments including
 behavioral changes.
RATIONALE

     In addition to the  "simple"  direct  effects of
air pollutants that have been reported from experi-
mental studies of natural systems, we expect to
observe complex changes  in ecosystem dynamics as a
function of pollution challenge.  We know  that in-
sults to the environment from rather diverse sources
(toxic substances, pesticides,  radiation,  disease,
and adverse climate) produce a  similar array of
effects at the community level  in spite  of very dif-
ferent effects on individual organisms studied under
experimental conditions.  The response mechanisms
may vary, but results are often similar:   (1) a re-
versal of succession or  simplification of  ecosystem
structure (retogression)(17-14);  (2) a reduction in
the ratio of photosynthesis to  respiration; and (3)
a reduction in species diversity  at more than one
trophic level, which may include  the elimination of
certain species (ll-14)(e.g., in  grassland, usually
rare, but characteristic species  such as those that
typified the original prairie).   Effects may be tem-
porary and reversible (i.e., the  system  adapts) or
chronic and cumulative.  In any case, if a coal-fired
power plant has a measurable impact on the environ-
ment, there is every reason to  believe that it will
be registered as a diminution or  alteration of com-
munity structure and function (14,15).

     Both plant and animal diversity and energy
transfer between and within trophic levels are mea-
sures of community structure.   Furthermore, these
functions may be regarded as important ecosystem
resources.  We hypothesize that the immediate popula-
tion-level effects from  environmental stress may
result from differential impairment of competitive
ability.  At the relatively low pollution  levels
anticipated in the investigation, we may expect to
find predisposing and subclinical effects  that would
be impossible to detect  in the  absence of  appropriate
population dynamic, biochemical,  and physiologic
information (15).

     Effects need not be caused by alterations in
food chains or energy flow.  Certainly food chains
and mass and energy flow patterns will be  affected
(although possibly secondarily) whenever population
adjustments occur.  For  example,  a pollutant may
alter the physiology or  behavior  of the  individuals
that comprise a population.  These alterations are
ultimately reflected in  altered survival,  reproduc-
tion and/or emigration rates.   Such effects may be
subtle and difficult to  relate  to the specific
stressor.  In the real world, numerous stressors
are operating in complex ways with various lag times;
these tend to confound the results of any  field eval-
uation of a single stressor.  The end result of the
response of the community to a  continued environ-
mental stress is a readjustment of the component
populations (plant and animal)  at a new  state of
dynamic equilibrium.  It is not possible to predict
with any confidence, either the adjustments and
mechanisms most importantly involved or  the final
population levels that will be  reached.  By studying
a rather broad range of  interacting variables and, in
particular, by an intensive study of certain popula-
tions, some may be isolated as  sensitive and reliable

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                                                                                                                       157
measures of  air pollution.
existing research  plan.
Table 2 outlines  the
     Figure  1  is a  summary of the operational  plan
of the project from design to application.  The four
major components (field and laboratory  experiments,
field validation, and modeling)  form an integrated
approach;  information generated  by each component is
used to guide the course  of the  other components.
The goal is  to generate information on  both short-
term and longer-term responses and, with appropriate
models, to integrate and  relate  these data to  gener-
ate procedures for  impact assessment that' are  truly
predictive.

     The field experiments referred to  in Figure 1
and Table  2  are possible  through the application of
a zonal air  pollution system designed to meet  the
needs and  constraints of  our program  (17).  Each
grid system  delivers a dilute mixture of air and
S02 over a 1  1/4 acre grassland  plot.   Four plots
are employed in each experiment  in which median S0?
concentrations of zero, 2, 5, and 10 pphm, respect-
ively, are maintained throughout the entire growing
season.  The systems distribute  the gas more or less
uniformly  over each plot, and the concentrations are
log-normally distributed  with respect to time.





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Figure 1.   Generalized Operational Plan and  Flow
            Diagram.   See  accompanying  text.
         TABLE 2.  OUTLINE OF THE RESEARCH PLAN FOR THE
                 MONTANA COAL-FIREO POWER PLANT PROJECT

I.   Field Investigation

    A.  Temporal and spatial quantitative inventory of components of
       the study area, with particular focus on the annual cycle
       phenomena of key species.

    B.  Meteorological measurements to support the modeling and experi-
       mental air pollution research efforts.

    C.  Development of remote sensing as a tool  for detecting effects
       of air pollutant challenge on the ecosystem.

    D.  Measurement of loss of inventory attributed to strip mining,
       power lines, human activity, wate^ use,  and other potentially
       confunding influences, e.g., pesticides, disease, population
       cycl ing.

II.  Air Pollution Experiments

    A.  Experimentally controlled air pollution  of spatial segments of
       an ecosystem.

    B.  Detailed measurement of biological structure and function,
       including energy flow, nutrient cycling  and species condition,
       composition and diversity during and following air pollution
       stress.

III. Laboratory Experiments

    A.  Measurement and evaluation of physiologic, biochemical and
       behavioral mechanisms of response to air pollution challenge.

    B.  Precise measurement of parameters that support dynamic models.

    C.  Experiments designed to test whei-ner changes observed in
       experimental study plots can be attributed to air pollutant
       stress.
                                                                    D.
                                                                        Secondary stressor experiments (e.g., disease, temperature
                                                                        stress, water stress, non-specific stress).
                                                                    E.   Experiments designed to test field-generated hypotheses.
                                                                (V.  Modeli ng

                                                                    A.   Use of an ecoiysten levc'l r"0dc:l to ilcsoriut1 and predict
                                                                        effects of air poll'itant challenge.

                                                                    B.   Use of models to help design experiments.

                                                                    C.   Use of models to help diseiicamjle pollutant effects from
                                                                        natural variation and system dynamics.

                                                                    D.   Meteorological ami dispersion modeling to describe the mode of
                                                                        entry of pollutant into the ecosystem and its time anJ space
                                                                        distribution and concentration.
                               Chronic urban (or  large area source) S0?  concentra-
                               tion  patterns are  thus simulated.   Diurnal  varia-
                               tions are  similar  to those  seen  both from stationary
                               point sources and  in urban  environments  (17).   The
                               planned recruitment of a  new field experimental
                               system each  year for three  years  will allow us  to
                               evaluate both within-year and between-year sources of
                               variance.  This temporal  structure of the field
                               experimental  system will  further  allow  us to  conduct
                               new experiments during the  third  year to  test hypo-
                               theses generated by our field experience  and  model-
                               ing efforts  during the first two  years.

                               BASIS FOR  SITING THE INVESTIGATION IN SOUTHEASTERN
                               MONTANA

                                     The selection of an  appropriate study area was
                               deemed to  be essential to structuring the entire in-
                               vestigation.   Colstrip was  selected on  the basis of
                               the initial  literature review and several field trips
                               to Montana and Wyoming.   Several  considerations con-
                               tributed to  the selection of study sites  in south-
                               eastern Montana.

                                     This  region constitutes a  rich rangeland re-
                               source and is climatically and  ecologically repre-

-------
158
sentative of a relatively large portion  of  the  North
central Great Plains.  Furthermore, the  Colstrip
area of the Fort Union Basin is a relatively  pris-
tine pine savanna area which has never been influ-
enced by a stationary source of [toxic]  gaseous or
particulate emissions.  Thus the vegetation and non-
migratory animals in the area, while  being  stressed
by various environmental factors such as  drought,
adverse temperatures, nutrient deficiencies,  etc.,
have never been subjected to the stress  of  air  pol-
lution.  Existing data indicate that  air quality  in
eastern Montana is well above the national  average.
Local-regional emission sources (see  Regional
Profile Report on Atmospheric Aspects, Northern
Great Plains Resource Program, April  1974 [draft
copy]) other than the coal-fired power plant  at
Colstrip are unlikely to contribute importantly to
the air pollution burden of the Rosebud  Creek Water-
shed during the period of investigation.

     Montana laws favor rational development  of re-
sources.  Consequently, the projected sites of
strip-mining and power plant development  are  known.
According to current assessments, Montana contains
nearly a third of the strippable coal reserves  in
the northern central Great Plains and it  is possible
that some 120,000 acres will be stripped  during the
next two decades.  Apart from activities  associated
with coal development, we expect human disturbance
to be relatively low throughout the period  of inves-
tigation.  We feel reasonably assured that  our
sample sites, including buffer zones  and  reference
sites, will remain substantially free of confounding
disturbance.

Additional EPA Terrestrial Research

     While Colstrip has been and continues  to be  the
major EPA in-house and extramural effort in the ter-
restrial effects area, mention should be  made of
three additional points.  First, as presented in  the
freshwater effects paper, the EPA is  shown  as sup-
porting about 600K in the Northern Plains region  in
an extramural program on watershed impacts.  This
work is partly terrestrial in nature  in  that  it
deals with entire watersheds.  The EPA is also  sup-
porting about TOOK in the Arctic for  work on  oil
spills in the Tundra ecosystem.  These two  projects
are covered by Dr. Mount in his presentation  of the
EPA freshwater program.  Third, the EPA  is  respon-
sible for "pass through" funds provided  to  othet
federal agencies.  These "pass through"  program
funds in the terrestrial area are shown,  along with
the recipient agency, in Table 3.  Discussion of
programs being funded with "pass through" resources
is given in detail in each major agency  paper.
rec lama in on

'i?nts -frum coal coribust^'on
            .'"y^tt^ br",3el me
            j .i-T plants
                                Recipient
                                 Agency

                                 ERDA

                                 ERDA


                                 TVA
Funding
 level

 670 K

1,500 K


 190 K
TABLE i (conc'cl)
Project Title

Terrestrial rate and effects of atmospheric
emissions from ccoling systems
Appraisal of research needs relative to
water and ecosystem effects associated
with energy development in upper Missouri
river basin
Energy associated human population impacts
on wildlife in Southwestern United States
Pevegetaticn and reclamation of land areas
disturbed by mining
Effects of pollutants and spoil composition
on biota in semi-arid regions

Recipient
_Agency
TVA
DO I
001
USDA
USDA
Hydrologic effects of surface mining USDA
Total "pass through"

Funding
_Leve]_
75 K
100 K
200 K
377 K
270 K
302 K
1,684 <
CONCLUSIONS

     The developments of an  environmental  assessment
methodology over the next  two years  will  require an
intensive effort to integrate the  immense  amount of
biological, chemical and physical  systems  informa-
tion that is being generated by  this program.
Results of complementary investigations  at Colstrip
(18) will help to broaden  and extend our data base
and aid us in achieving our  goal.

     We anticipate that the  effects  assessment meth-
odology developed will assist managers  in  siting
future coal-fired power plants as  well  as  other
coal-conversion facilities.

                    REFERENCES

1.   Lawton, J. H. and S.  McNeil.   1973.   Primary
     production and pollution.   Biologist, 20(4):
     3-11.

2.   Spear, R. C., and E.  Wei.   1972.   Dynamic
     aspects of environmental toxicology.   Trans.
    .Am. Soc. Mech. Engrs.,  94(2):114-118.

3.   Congressional Research  Service.  1975.  Effects
     of Chronic Exposure to  Low  Level  Pollutants in
     the Environment.  Library of  Congress,  Serial
     0, November, 1975.  402 pp.

4.   Federal Register. 36(84):8186-8201  (April 30,
     1971).

5.   The Clean Air Act states that "....  air quality
     criteria for an air pollutant shall  accurately
     reflect the latest scientific knowledge useful
     in indicating the kind  and  extent of all iden-
     tifiable effects on public  health or welfare
     which may be expected from  the presence of  such
     pollutants in the ambient air,  in varying quan-
     tities" [section 108(a)].   The Act further
     states that national  primary  ambient air qual-
     ity standards are regulations which "in the
     judgment of the administrator,  based on such^
     criteria, and following for an adequate margin
     of safety, are requisite to protect the public
     health" [section 109(b)].   Air quality criteria
     then reflect scientific knowledge, while primary

-------
                                                                                                         159
    air quality standards involve a judgment as to
    how this knowledge must be used in a regulatory
    action to protect public health, and the sec-
    ondary air quality standards determine the level
    of air quality required to protect the public
    welfare.  Public welfare as defined in the
    Clean Air Act "includes, but is not limited to,
    effects on soils, water, crops, vegetation, man-
    made materials, animals, wildlife, weather,
    visibility, and climate ..." [section 302(h)].
    These considerations also apply and become focal
    points for energy related environmental re-
    search.  It is clear that the research exper-
    ience gained in furtherance of the Clean Air Act
    is valuable in pursuing energy related research
    - in fact, the objectives of research programs
    are so similar that clear separation is not
    straight forward.

6.   See, for example, Lewis, et^ al_.  1975a.  An in-
    vestigation of the bioenvironmental effects of
    a coal-fired power plant.  In, Fort Union Coal
    Symposium:  Vol 4, Terrestrial Ecosystems, pp.
    531-536.  Also see Lewis, et al_.  1975b.  Intro-
    duction to the Col strip, Montana Coal-Fired
    Power Plant Project:  Section I.  In, the Bio-
    environmental Impact of a Coal-Fired Power
    Plant:  Second Interim Report, Colstrip, Mon-
    tana, (Eds.) R. A. Lewis, N. R. Glass, and A. S.
    Lefohn, pp. 1-13.  In Press.

7.   Whittaker, R. H., F. H. Bormann, 6. E. Likens,
    and T. G. Siccama.  1974.  The Hubbard Brook
    ecosystem study:  forest biome assay production.
    Ecol. Monog.  44:233-252.

8.   Whittaker, R. H.  1953.  A consideration of
    climax theory:  the climax is a population and
    pattern.  Ecol. Monog.  21:41-78.

9.   Whittaker, R. H.  1969.  Evolution of diversity
    in plant communities.  Brookhaven Symp. Biol.
    22:178-196.

10.  Whittaker, R. H.  1970a.  Communities and Eco-
    systems.  MacMillan, New York.
11.
12.
13.
14.
Woodwell, G.  M.   1962.   Effects of ionizing
radiation on  terrestrial ecosystems.  Sci.  138:
572-577.
Woodwell,  G.  M.
terns of nature.
1967.  Radiation and the pat-
 Sci. 156:461-470.
Woodwell, G.  M.  and R.  H.  Whittaker.  1968a.
Effects of chronic gamma irradiation on plant
communities.   Quart.  Rev.  Biol. 43;42-55.

Woodwell, G.  M.   1973.   Effects of pollution on
the structure and physiology of ecosystems.  In,
Ecological  and biological  effects of air pollu-
tion, MSS Information Corp., pp. 10-17.
                                                  15.  Glass, N. R. and  D. T. Tingey.   1975.   Effects
                                                       of air pollution  on ecological  process.   In,
                                                       Radiation Research Biomedical,  Chemical,  and
                                                       Physical Perspectives, (O.F.  Nygaard,  H.  I.
                                                       Adler, and W.  K.  Sinclair,  Eds.),  pp.  1326-1333.
                                                       Academic Press, New York.

                                                  16.  See, for example, Woodwell, G.  M.   1970.
                                                       Effects of pollution on the structure  and phys-
                                                       iology of ecosystems.  Science,  168:429-433.

                                                  17.  Lee, J. L.,  R. A. Lewis, and  D.  E.  Body.   1975.
                                                       A field experimental system for  the evaluation
                                                       of the bioenvironmental effects  of sulfur diox-
                                                       ide.  In. Proceedings of the  Fort  Union Coal
                                                       Field Symposium:  Vol 4:  Terrestrial  Eco-
                                                       systems pp.  608-620.

                                                  18.  Montana Energy Advisory Council  (Lt. Gov.  Bill
                                                       Christiansen,  Chm.).  1975.   Energy Research  in
                                                       the Colstrip, Montana, Area.

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160
       TERRESTRIAL EFFECTS  OF  ENERGY DEVELOPMENT
            ON  FISH AND WILDLIFE RESOURCES
                 Herbert  B.  Quinn,  Jr.
                    Program  Manager
                   Upland Ecosystems
            U.S.  Fish and Wildlife  Service
 INTRODUCTION

      The  national  drive  for  energy self-sufficiency--
 if  not properly managed—will  have an  adverse  impact
 upon  fish and wildlife habitat.  With  good design,
 site  selection, and  land use planning,  however,  many
 of  these  impacts will be short-term.   Many of  the
 impacts can  be effectively offset  or mitigated
 through use  of technology, good  reclamation prac-
 tices, and the selective avoidance of  critical
 habitat.   The secondary  effects  of development
 includes  the construction of transportation corri-
 dors, increased population growth.in regions with
 limited carrying capacity, and introduction of
 environmental contaminants.  Both  the  primary  and
 secondary effects  are of major concern to the  Fish
 and Wildlife Service.
      The  Fish  and Wildlife  Service  energy effort is
 primarily concerned with minimizing the  impact of
 energy  developments on  fish,  wildlife, and related
 environmental  values.   This paper briefly covers
 the  terrestrial program objectives  and our current
 activities.

      The  Biological Services  Program has five
 terrestrial  objectives  as outlined  below.  These
 will be reviewed in detail, but  in  summary tney are
 aimed at:

      (1)   Defining the  key  terrestrial problems
           resulting from energy  developments.

      (2)   Obtaining the tools to deal effectively
           with the problem.

      (3)   Testing and demonstrating the  tools and
           methods under controlled  conditions.

      (4)   Learning how  and  where to put  improved
           information to work on environmental
           problems.

      (5)   Getting involved  in the decisionmaking
           process as an active participant.

 1.    Program Discussion

      The  Biological Services  Program, initiated by
 the  U.S.  Fish  and Wildlife  Service  as a  major new
 effort  in the  fall of 1974, is now  well  under way.
The Program was started  in  recognition of the  need
to mount a more concerted effort to provide  ecolog-
ical information  in  relation  to  many resource  devel-
opment decisions.

     Although the Fish and  Wildlife Service  has had
long standing environmental programs both in research
and operations, Biological  Services represents a
major new thrust.  Its goals  are to strengthen the
capability of the Fish and  Wildlife Service  in its
role as primary source of information on  fish and
wildlife resources and their  habitats,  particularly
in relation to environmental  impact assessment; to
provide an improved  analytical capability and  infor-
mation base that will contribute to more  effective
recognition and protection  of fish  and  wildlife
values in land and water development decisions; and
to provide better ecological  input  to Department of
the Interior resource development programs and deci-
sions, such as those relating to energy development.

     An initial program thrust of the Office of
Biological Services was to  establish the  Western
Energy and Land Use Team in Fort Collins, Colorado.
Western energy reserves include  extensive coal, oil
shale, and geothermal reservoirs.   Most of these
fuels are on public  land and  represent  national
resources which are under great  development  pres-
sure.  The Department of the  Interior places an
initial priority on understanding and minimizing the
energy related damage to this water poor  and environ-
mentally sensitive region.  We are  concerned about
the surface disturbance and reclamation activities,
as well as the processing and transmission of the
extracted fuel.  Secondary  effects  are  also  of
concern.  These include the protection  of the envi-
ronment from the development  of  industrial and
related population growth.  We will continue to
place emphasis on the impact  of  these terrestrial
activities on Western water resources which  are now
under severe stress.

     Although energy is clearly  our first priority,
we expect to expand our terrestrial ecosystems work
to include other  land disturbances  such as non-fuels
mining, agricultural practices,  and the implications
of urban sprawl and  development  on  fish and  wildlife
habitat.  Our concerns include both public and pri-
vate lands.

     Our second major goal  is to improve  approaches,
tools, and methodologies for  assessment of environ-
mental impact.  Concern about the problems of
terrestrial development is  not enough.  We must
provide critical  information  and get involved  in
the decisionmaking process.  We  find that many of
the conventional approaches to terrestrial assess-
ment do not give  information  soon enough  or  in the
right form to allow  it to be  appropriately integrated
into decisions.   It  is, therefore,  essential that  we
improve the tools available to the  operational
manager, to get information fast and in a reliable
form that can have an impact  during the planning
process.  We will develop quantitative approaches,

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remote sensing, and other advanced  analytical  tools
to demonstrate the impacts of  land  and  related stream
changes.  Unless we can present hard  quantitative
data on an impact, we will probably not get  the
chance to present our case.  If we  present good data
and provide alternative solutions which are  less
damaging to natural environmental values, we will
have a far better chance of making  a  creative  and
constructive impact.

    The principal study areas under  consideration
include the Four Corners region, the  Piceance  Basin,
the Powder River Basin, southeastern  Montana,  the
Kaparowitz Plateau, and western North Dakota.   They
cover two of the Fish and Wildlife  Service's Regions
and deal with most Western major energy land dis-
turbance problems.  We will then guide  our experi-
mental studies, demonstration projects,  and  research
activities into these areas to the  degree possible.
In a sense, we are focusing our programs on  where
the action is.

    Our fourth objective is to develop information
systems and management strategies aimed at minimiz-
ing environmental damage.  We  anticipate a strong
working relationship with States and  many parts of
the Department of the Interior, and close coordina-
tion of our activities with other Federal agencies.
To achieve this objective we need to  make our  con-
cerns known to the energy planners  and  resource
managers early in the game.  We must  therefore
radically improve the flow of  information to them,
its timeliness, and its useability.   We will
strengthen our working relationships  with a  number
of Federal and State agencies  whose goals are  just
beginning to reflect the long  standing  environ-
mental concerns of the Fish and Wildlife Service.

    The Service's principal energy operating
elements are the Western'Energy and Land Use Team
in Fort Collins, Colorado, and Energy Activity
staffs in the Regions.  These  interdisciplinary
groups will initially focus on the  energy develop-
ments.  They will also contain disciplinary  depth  in
a number of the required scientific areas.   For
example, in addition to the traditional fish and
wildlife biologist, the Western Energy  Team  will
contain capabilities in mining engineering,  hydrol-
ogy, economics, quantitative analysis,  operations
research, and remote sensing.  We hope  to create
small centers of excellence, both within the Team
and within the other parts of  the Fish  and Wildlife
Service to improve these tools and  apply them  to
the solution of environmental  and terrestrial
disturbance problems.  We have to close the  gap
between research results and their  application. It
will take new research approaches and a hard-hitting
operational program to make this a  reality.

2.  Technical Discussion

    The Fish and Wildlife Service  has  identified
a priority need for better information  concerning
the ecological impacts of energy developments.
Unfortunately, the traditional approaches to
                                                  161
obtaining biological baseline data  are  expensive,
time demanding, and do not provide  predictive
capability.

     The availability of biological information must
be in phase with resource development decisions to
assure its consideration.  The FWS  energy  related
program is supporting activities which  provide
improved methodologies for obtaining and applying
baseline and impact data to energy  decisions.

     The timely collection, effective synthesis,
and application of ecological data  to areas  under
stress from energy development will allow  better
trade-offs among alternative sites.  It will improve
our assessment and reclamation capability  and expand
the base of useful ecological data—especially  for
sensitive and/or impacted areas.

     The consideration of impacts among alternative
development decisions is a complex  process.   The
Fish and Wildlife Service is committed  to  improving
ecological assessment procedures and entering this
process.  In many instances, the expensive collec-
tion of wildlife data, development  of species lists
and support of life histories research  has not  been
effective in predicting ecological  change or
protecting critical habitat.  In almost all  cases,
decisions for development could not wait for this
research and data collection.  The  lack of informa-
tion is especially true in the sparsely populated
Western United States where wildlife values  are high.

     This Office of Biological Services is develop-
ing a program to obtain, analyze, and make available
ecological information on terrestrial areas  under
stress from energy extraction and processing.   The
technical program will include:

      (1)  Improvement of ecological surveys  and
          inventories, and monitoring procedures.

      (2)  Improvement of ecosystems classification
          techniques.

      (3)  Assessment of various developments on
          ecosystems.

      (4)  Improvement of predictive capability.

      (5)  Improvement of means of mitigating
          adverse impacts.

     The development of improved methodologies  must
be in phase with active energy development decisions
and on-going baseline studies.  The use of ecolog-
ical test areas provides a means of focusing these
activities in priority energy areas. The  test
areas also allow the Fish and Wildlife  Service  to
effectively utilize the research and data  available
from other agencies working in these energy  areas.

     An important requirement of all research and
survey activity is to assure compatibility of the
information to concepts of ecosystems mapping

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162
techniques and automatic data processing.  The
studies on test areas will contribute to the ecolog-
ical data base which will be used to characterize
the region's ecosystems and functional components.
These selected test areas will be an initial part of
a comprehensive program to characterize major eco-
systems in the United States.

     The Upland Ecosystems Project will immediately
characterize selected areas under stress from energy
development using existing information from Federal
and State files and results from on-going research.
In addition, a major effort will be made—in cooper-
ation with the Environmental Protection Agency—to
develop rapid assessment techniques for habitat
characterization.  This effort will use improved
statistical and data acquisition procedures to
characterize habitat within acceptable confidence
limits.
3.   Projection

     In FY 1976,  we will initiate studies and
surveys on up to six major Western energy sites to
serve as ecological test areas.  Detailed research
plans that address operational and methodological
needs will be designed for each site by the Western
Energy and Land Use Team.  The following map shows
these test areas.  A great deal of the Team's effort,
including the efforts of contractors, will be spent
on these sites to provide baseline information and
develop methods to assess the impacts of energy
developments.  Application of remote sensing
techniques and development of related interpretive
methods for habitat characterization will be a major
purpose for these test sites.  Other Fish and
Wildlife Service energy related activities will
involve analysis of Eastern and mid-continental
wildlife problems.  The Service anticipates projects
in regional analysis of extraction related wildlife
problems, development of species, bibliographic and
geographic wildlife information systems geared x.o
address energy problems and further development of
biotelemetry as a tool for habitat assessment.

INTERAGENCY PARTICIPATION

     A substantial portion of the terrestrial eco-
systems activity is being funded by Interagency
Supplemental Energy Funds.  The Fish and Wildlife
Service is also working cooperatively with the
Department of Agriculture and other Bureaus of the
Department of the Interior in this effort.  The
ecological test area concept discussed in this paper
represents an outstanding opportunity for interagency
cooperation.  Many of these test sites involve
research conducted by other agencies and provide a
need for effective coordination of work as well as
pooling of resources and data.  To the degree
possible, the Fish and Wildlife Service will
consider serving as a coordination point for ecolog-
ical baseline data for other interested agencies and
industrial participants.  The extensive Federal/State/
private industry activities on the Western energy
areas makes a high degree  of  coordination desirable
if not essential.  In addition,  many State and
Federal agencies have unique  capabilities and infor-
mation for research or methodological development
which are needed by the  Fish  and Wildlife Service
in characterizing these  sites.

     The Fish and Wildlife Service  resources are
not sufficient to conduct  the full  range  of studies
and assessments needed for ecological characteriza-
tion and prediction on all test  areas.  Therefore,
the Service expects to actively  work with other
agencies to assure that  limited  resources are best
applied and unnecessary  overlap  is  avoided.

RESOURCE ALLOCATION

     The Fish and Wildlife Service  budget provides
approximately $3 million in FY 1975 to initiate the
terrestrial projects and approximately $4 million
will be available in FY  1976.  These funds are
supplemented by transfer funds from other agencies,
such as the energy research and  development support
from the Environmental Protection Agency.  Other
limited support has been made available by the
Bureau of Land Management  and the U.S.  Geological
Survey.  The total resource allocations since 1975
and projected through 1976 are as follows:

            Upland Ecosystems Project
                 Air/Terrestrial
                    ($ x 106)
        FY 1975
                                     FY 1976
Base  Interagency   Total   Base    Interagency  Total

2,150      700      2,850   3,200       700     3,900

CONCLUSIONS

     The major thrust of the Fish  and Wildlife Service
energy program is to obtain ecological  information of
appropriate form and quality to effectively influ-
ence energy development decisions.  This requires
applying currently available techniques for ecolog-
ical assessments and for significantly  improving the
methodologies available to measure and  predict
environmental impact.  The Environmental Protection
Agency cooperative program has allowed  the Fish and
Wildlife Service to undertake a serious applied
research effort to improve the rate with which eco-
logical assessments can be made.   The Fish and
Wildlife Service approach will involve  the develop-
ment of several major ecological test areas which are
also of high interest for Western  energy development.
This effort also includes extensive commitment of
Fish and Wildlife Service resources.  Its success is
dependent upon a high level of interagency and State
cooperation on the test sites.  It is anticipated
that this effort will speed the 'decisions concerning
energy development in non-sensitive areas and protect
fish and wildlife values by avoidance of critical
habitat and more effective reclamation  procedures.

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                     163
     CF0217
U.S. Fish and  Wildlife
  Service Ecological
     Test Areas

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164
        Air/Terrestrial Ecological  Effects
           H.  R. Mickey and  P. A.  Krenkel
             Tennessee Valley Authority
               Chattanooga,  Tennessee
 INTRODUCTION

      The  efficient  and  responsible  operation  of a
 power system  requires the  development  of  knowledge
 of the ecological effects  of  electric  generation,
 not only  in order to avoid or lessen  such environ-
 mental  impacts  but  also in order  to avoid delays in
 the planning, design, and  construction of power
 plants.

      From its very  beginning, TVA has  engaged in
 large-scale resource development  programs and has
 developed an  internal capability  for  evaluating and
 managing  the  effect of  those  programs  on  the  environ-
 ment.   The applied  research described  here consists
 of one principal  project with several  tasks,  and
 one lesser project, as  follows:
     1.
        Develop Baseline Information and Identify,
        Characterize, and Quantify the Transfer,
        Fate, and Effects of Coal-Fired Power Plant
        Emissions in Terrestrial Ecosystems

        A.  Field and Filtered/Unfiltered Exposure
            Chamber Studies of  Effects of Coal-Fired
            Power Plant Emissions on Crop and Forest
            Species of Economic Importance in SE
            United States

        B.  Determine Dose-Response Kinetics  for
            Effects of Atmospheric Emissions  from
            Coal-Fired Power Plants on Soybeans and
            Other Crop and Forest Species of  Econo-
            mic Importance in the SE United States

        C.  Characterize and Quantify the Transfer,
             Fate, and Effects of SOX
                                            and Acid
         D.
             Precipitation on Terrestrial  Ecosystems
             Representative of  the  Tennessee  Valley
             Region

             Evaluation  of the  Beneficial  Effects  of
             S02  and Other Pollutants  Emitted from
             Steam Plants on Crops  and Forest Species,
             Particularly Soybeans  and Pines
     2.
        Fate and Effects of Atmospheric Emissions
        from Cooling Systems on Terrestrial  Habitats

    These projects and tasks are described  below.

     For possible use  in  the  exchange of  information
or coordination,  the names  of principal  investigators,
research investigators, and responsible  administra-
tors are included after the title  of each  task.
                                                       DISCUSSION

                                                       1.  Develop Baseline Information and  Identify,
                                                           Characterize, and Quantify the Transfer, Fate.
                                                           and Effects of Coal-Fired Power Plant Emissions
                                                           in Terrestrial Ecosystems
                                                           A.  Field and Fil tered/Unfil tered Exposure Cham-
                                                               ber Studies of Effects of Coal-Fired Power
                                                               Plant Emissions on Crop and Forest Species
                                                               of Economic Importance in SE United States--
                                                               H. C. Jones, N. T. Lee, J. C. Noggle,
                                                               N. L. Lacasse, W. R. Nicholas
     There is insufficient information for predicting
and evaluating the impact of atmospheric pollutants
emitted from coal-fired power plants on the appear-
ance, growth, and yield of crop and timber species
grown under field conditions.  For example, it can
be concluded from EPA's revised air quality criteria
for S0'2 effects on vegetation that S02 dosages (time-
concentrations) greater than 005 ppm for 1 hour can
cause visible injury to the foliage of sensitive
species.  However, the relationships between visible
foliar injury and permanent economic, ecologic, or
esthetic damage are less clearly understood, particu-
larly under conditions that normally occur in the
field.  Similarly, there is considerable concern
over the effects of long-term exposure of plants to
low levels of S02, alone or in combination with low
levels of other pollutants, but little hard evidence
exists to confirm that such effects occur in the
ambient environment.  The objective of this task is
to identify and quantify these impacts for selected
sensitive plant species of economic importance in
terms that can be used in evaluating the impacts of
emissions from existing or proposed power plants.
This task is an expansion and refinement of research
TVA has been conducting in the vicinity of its 1900-
MW Widows Creek Steam Plant for the last four years.

     The studies are being conducted at 12 sites
equipped with continuous S02 monitors within an area
near the steam plant that experiences a relatively
high frequency of ground-level S02 exposures and at
7 sites areas remote to industrial sources of S02.
During the 1975 growing season, comparisons of the
foliar appearance, growth, and yield of soybeans, a
crop species that is very sensitive to S02, were made
for the following sets of conditions:

     1.  Plants grown in containers at field plots
         in the exposed area with those grown in the
         remote (control) locations.

     2.  Plants grown in ambient/charcoal-cleaned
         air in partitioned greenhouse-exposure cham-
         bers at a single location in the exposed
         area.

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    3.  Plants grown in a plot equipped with a proto-
        type air-exclusion system, which utilizes
        "purified"  air to exclude or partially
        exclude air containing S02 when ambient
        S02 concentrations equal or exceed 0.1 ppm,
        with plants grown on an adjacent plot from
        which S02 was not excluded or limited.

    Data from the 1975 studies are being analyzed.

    Studies conducted by TVA over the past five
years  have shown that soybeans grown in ambient air
in field exposure chambers consistently produced
lower  yields than those grown in charcoal-cleaned
air.   However, similar effects on yield have not been
detected in field plots.  These results, which are
similar to those reported by other researchers using
open-top field exposure chambers, indicate that com-
parisons of effects of pollutants on plants grown
in field exposure chambers might not be valid because
environmental conditions within the chambers could
make the plants more sensitive to ambient levels of
pollutants than they would be in the natural environ-
ment.  The prototype ambient air-exclusion system
places an air barrier between the plant study plot
and the polluted air only during periods of ground-
level  exposures thereby eliminating the unnatural
environmental conditions associated with chambers.
The system permits comparisons between plants exposed
to S02 with those from which damaging S02 concentra-
tions  have been excluded at the same sites under
essentially identical edaphic, climatic, and cultural
conditions.

    In 1976, the studies will be expanded to include
effects of S02 exposure on wheat, cotton, and Vir-
ginia  pine.   Emphasis will be placed on comparisons
of plants grown on field plots with plants grown on
adjacent plots equipped with air-exclusion systems.
The comparisons will be made at four locations in
the high exposure area and at a remote location.

    B.  Determine Dose-Response Kinetics for Effects
        of Atmospheric Emissions from Coal-Fired
        Power Plants on Soybeans and Other Crop and
        Forest Species of Economic Importance in  the
        SE United States—N. T. Lee, H. C. Jones,
        N. L. Lacasse, W. R. Nicholas

    Controlled laboratory exposure studies have not
reflected either the rapid changes in concentrations
of principal  coal-fired power plant pollutants, such
as S02 and N02, that occur during ground-level expo-
sures  in the  field or the environmental conditions
under  which such exposures normally occur; most inves-
tigators have utilized time-average concentration
exposure regimes in dose-response studies.  Further-
more,  dose-response data are meager for species of
economic or ecologic importance to the  Southeast.
The objectives of these studies are to determine the
individual and combined effects on vegetation of
S02, N02, and 03 exposures at concentrations, dosage
rates, and environmental conditions typically occur-
ring during surface exposures in the vicinities of
                                                   165

 large  coal-fired  power plants  and to determine appro-
 priate time-concentration  relationships for evaluat-
 ing  exposure  hazards  from  S02  and N02.

     TVA  has  designed, constructed,  and tested a con-
 trolled S02 exposure  system  that will  be employed in
 these  studies.  The system utilizes  programmable
 fumigation kinetics to closely simulate the fluctuat-
 ing  S02 concentrations that  occur in field exposures.
 The  controlled  exposure system is being modified to
 permit single or  multiple  pollutant  exposures with
 S02, N02,  and 03.

     Studies  in 1975  were  directed toward identify-
 ing  (1) the phenological stage(s) of growth at which
 soybean plants  are most sensitive to foliar injury
 and  to reductions in  yield resulting from foliar
 injury and (2)  the relationship between soil  pH,
 soil fertility, and soil moisture to the S02-
 sensitivity of  soybean plants  at various stages of
 growth.  Analyses of  the data  are in progress.

     Studies  in 1976  will  be directed  toward  (1)
 establishing  the  relationship  among  S02 dose, foliar
 injury, and yield for the  stage of growth that soy-
 beans  are  most  sensitive to  yield reduction follow-
 ing  S02 exposure;  and (2) determining  the effects
 of multiple pollutant exposures (S02 +  N02 and
 S02  +  63)  on  growth and yield  of soybeans.

     C.  Characterize and  Quantify the  Transfer,
          Fate,  and Effects of  SOX. NOX,  and Acid
          Precipitation on  Terrestrial  Ecosystems
          Representative of the Tennessee Valley
          Region—H. C.  Jones,  J.  C.  Moggie, J.  M.
          Kelly, W. R.  Nicholas

     Terrestrial and  aquatic ecosystems  serve as
 sinks  for  pollutants  deposited in them  from the
 atmosphere, including those  emitted  in  the  combustion
 of fossil  fuels.  Sulfur and nitrogen oxides, which
 are  the principal atmospheric  pollutants  resulting
 from coal  combusion,  and their products  of  oxidation
 in the atmosphere, S0i+  and NOs ,  can  serve as  benefi-
 cial sources  of essential  plant nutrients or  can be
 toxic  to living organisms.   S02,  when it  exceeds  an
 average concentration  of 0.5 ppm  for 1  hour with an
 associated peak concentration  higher concentrations
 may cause  permanent economic,  esthetic,  or  ecologic
 damage.  However, there is evidence  that  exposure  to
 low levels of S02 can  benefit  the growth  and  develop-
 ment of plants  grown  on sulfur-deficient  soils.   Sul-
 fates  and  nitrates are  important  plant  nutrients.
 There  are  indications  that modern  fertilizer  prac-
 tices  are causing sulfur deficiencies over  sizable
 areas of the United States because the  newer, high-
 analysis fertilizers  contain little or  no sulfur.
 However, unneutralized sulfates or nitrates in
 sufficient quantities  may react with moisture in  the
atmosphere to  form acidic rain  that might adversely
affect vegetation  and   soil  microbes by direct contact
or might indirectly  result in  conditions  that are
unfavorable for plant  growth  and survival by  increas-
ing  the acidity of soils.   The objective of the task,

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166
therefore, is to characterize and quantify the mech-
anisms Of transfer of SOX and NOx to terrestrial  eco-
systems and the extent to which these pollutants
cause adverse or beneficial  impacts.

     Three essentially undisturbed oak-hickory water-
sheds at three distances  from a large 1900-MW, coal-
fired steam plant have been  selected for study.  The
sandy loam soils of the watersheds are derived from
sandstone.  They are naturally acidic and possess low
buffering capacity and should exhibit maximum sensi-
tivity to acidic precipitation.  The streams  draining
the watersheds, while barely neutral, also have a low
buffering capacity.  One  of  the watersheds is located
within 10 miles of the S02 source, is frequently
exposed to S02, and will  be  used primarily to charac-
terize the transfer of gaseous S02 and N02 to the
oak-hickory ecosystem.  The  second watershed, which is
exposed to low levels of  S02, is located about 25
miles from the source at  a distance where oxidation
products—SO^ and N03--should begin to occur  in sig-
nificant amounts.  The third watershed is located in
an area that is remote (50 miles) from industrial
sources of S02, is comparatively S02-free, and would
be expected to reflect only  the impacts of sulfate
and nitrate depositions,  if  they exist.

     At each location, wet and dry deposition of
gaseous and particulate SOX  and NOX and other airborne
pollutants are being characterized and quantified in
open areas and above, within, and below the forest
canopy.  Absorption and adsorption of SOX and NOX by
vegetation and soils on the  plots will be character-
ized, as well as impacts  on  vegetation and soils.
The studies are being designed so that impacts on
water quality can also be ascertained if funds are
available.  Because the watersheds have been  subjec-
ted to SOX and NOX pollution for some time, and to
enhance the probability of detecting impacts  on soils
if they are occurring, portions of the watersheds
will be limed and fertilized.  Necessary supportive
meteorological and climatological data will also  be
col 1 ected.

     Controlled laboratory studies using simulated
acidic precipitation of varying ionic composition and
acidity are also planned  to  obtain supporting data
on the impacts of SOX and NOx.  These studies will
use acidic precipitation  with ionic compositions  and
acidities simulating that actually measured in TVA's
region-wide precipitation monitoring network.

     It is anticipated that  the results of this task
will be coefficients for  the transfer, fate,  and
effects of S0x and NOX that  can be merged with atmos-
pheric chemistry and long-range transport studies TVA
is conducting, and with data from TVA's region-wide
air monitoring network, to predict and evaluate
impacts on a regional basis.
     D.  Evaluation of  the Beneficial  Effects of SO,
         and Other Pollutants  Emitted  from  Steam
         Plants on Crops and Forest  Species, Particu-
         larly Soybeans and Pines—J.  C.  Nogg1e~"~
         H. C. Jones, W. R. Nicholas
     Sulfur is one of  the major  nutrients  essential
for plant growth.  The amounts of  sulfur absorbed
by medium to high yields of crops  range from 8 to 35
pounds per acre.  The amounts of sulfur and phospho-
rus needed by crops are similar  but  higher amounts
of nitrogen and potassium are needed.  In  humid
regions most of the sulfur in soils  is present as
proteinaceous compounds in soil  organic matter or
is held as sulfate (SOiJ by the  clay fraction.  The
sulfur in organic matter is gradually released as
SOif-S as a result of decomposition by microorgan-
isms.  In general, retention of  soluble SO^-S by
sand or silt-textured soil is one year or  less,
especially in areas of high winter rainfall.  Sulfur
is lost from the soil by crop removal and  leaching.

     For many years, fertilizers have been added to
supplement the primary nutrients—nitrogen, phospho-
rus, and potassium—in soil.  Prior  to about 1950,
the relatively low-analysis commercial fertilizers
were based primarily on ordinary superphosphate (18
to 20% P205 and 14% S) and ammonium  sulfate (21% N
and 24% S) was a leading source  of nitrogen.  As a
result of using these fertilizers, adequate sulfur
was usually present in the fertilizers for crops,
and sulfur-deficiencies were not detected  in many
crop areas.  The recent trend has  been to  high-
analysis fertilizers that contain  little or no sul-
fur, and higher crop yields have increased sulfur
demand.  During this latter period numerous crop-
ping areas, remote from industrial sites,  have been
identified as having soils that  are  sulfur-deficient.
As a result, some states require that sulfur be
added to fertilizers.  The lack  of sulfur-deficient
soils in industrial areas indicates'that atmos-
pheric sulfur is, in effect, replacing commercial
fertilizers as a source of this  essential  plant
nutrient.

     The quantity of sulfur contributed by the
atmosphere to meet the S requirements of crops and
forests has not been adequately  evaluated.  Although
measurements have been made of the amount  of sulfur
in rainfall and dry particulate  deposition, field
observations of S02 sorption by  soil and plant foli-
age are limited.  Laboratory experiments have shown
that significant amounts of S02  were sorbed by soil
and other investigators have reported direct absorp-
tion of S02 by plant foliage.  To  determine the
total sulfur contribution by the atmosphere, the
amount of sulfur in each method  of entry into the
terrestrial ecosystem will be measured in  the field.

     About 1.1 million tons of sulfur are  applied
in fertilizer annually in the United States.  At
the 1975 cost of $55 per ton, the  annual cost is
about $60 million.  The potential  annual consumption

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of fertilizer sulfur in the United  States  is  esti-
mated at 2.5 million tons, which  represents a value
of $137 million.  After the amount  and  distribution
of sulfur deposition from the atmosphere are  deter-
mined, the impact on plant needs  and  fertilizer
requirements can be evaluated.

    Nitrogen entering the terrestrial  ecosystem
from steam plant emissions will be  beneficial  as an
essential plant nutrient.  Measurements of nitrogen
entry will be made with sulfur  determinations.

    The possible beneficial effect of  S02 on vege-
tation by increasing the density  of wood in S02-
resistant pines will also be studied.

2.  Fate and Effects of Atmospheric Emissions from
    Cooling Systems on Terrestrial  Habitats—H. C7
    Jones, J. M. Kelly, W. R. Nicholas

    [Invalidated dispersion models  based on  limited
field data have been used to predict  and evaluate
the impacts of atmospheric releases from heat dis-
sipation in the terrestrial environment.   These
releases include heat, mositure,  salts, and  poten-
tially toxic heavy metals.  The dispersion models
indicate insignificant environmental  impacts  of
emissions from either mechanical  draft  or  natural
draft cooling tower systems using freshwater, but
there are few hard field data confirming  the  pre-
dictive  capabilities of these models.  The objective
of this  project, therefore, is  to identify and char-
acterize the effects of atmospheric releases  from
power plant cooling systems on  terrestrial habitats.

    Vegetation study plots are being established at
eight  locations in the vicinities of  each  of two
nuclear  plants—one equipped with mechanical  draft
cooling  towers  (Browns Ferry) and one equipped with
natural  draft cooling towers  (Sequoyah).   Growth and
yield, incidence of disease, and  frequency of occur-
rence of  frost and ice injury will  be determined for
plantings of selected crop  and  timber species of
economic importance.  Relative  humidity,  temperature,
precipitation, and wet and  dry  depositions of salts
and heavy metals and their  accumulation on soils and
vegetation will be monitored at each  plot.  Data
from these studies will be  used (1) to  validate
dispersion models for these systems,  (2)  to deter-
mine the extent to which mositure and heat released
from the two types of systems modify  climate  and
impact vegetation, and  (3)  to determine whether a
potential exists for salt and heavy metal  toxicity
to plant and livestock.

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168

 TERRESTRIAL EFFECTS OF POLLUTANTS FROM ENERGY USE
                  AND PROGRESS IN
        RECLAMATION OF COAL STRIP MINE AREAS
                  H. E. Heggestad
           Agricultural Research Service
           U.S. Department of Agriculture
TERRESTRIAL EFFECTS OF AIR POLLUTANTS
    The combustion of fossil  fuels to release use-
ful energy produces gaseous and particulate pollut-
ants.  Furthermore, some of the gaseous primary
pollutants undergo photochemical reactions, produc-
ing even more toxic secondary pollutants,  like
ozone.  Air pollutants related to energy use can
have subtle and widespread environmental impacts.

    As more large coal-burning power plants are
built and become operational, we may anticipate
elevated concentrations of some air pollutants.
The major primary phytotoxic  pollutants from these
power plants are sulfur dioxide (SO,), nitrogen
oxides, acid-aerosols, ethylene, ana heavy metals,
like lead, cadmium, and zinc.

    Some adverse consequences from developing our
energy-producing resources, like failing to restore
land after strip mining coal, also give cause for
concern.   These are usually gross, localized
effects.

    The chronic effects on plants of exposure to
low levels of atmospheric pollutants in the envi-
ronment are poorly understood as compared  with our
knowledge of the nature and extent of acute injury,
(1, 2, 3).  We do know genetic and environmental
factors affect plant response to pollutants.
Cultivars have been identified with a range of
tolerances to air pollutants.  Some are promising
to maintain high productivity in polluted  areas
where less resistant cultivars yield poorly.   With
change to resistant cultivars in annual crops pro-
duction losses may be reduced in a single  year,
but with perrenial crops it may require many years
to get a resistant cultivar into production.   Using
pollution-resistant cultivars may be a suitable
alternative in some agricultural areas to  very
restrictive air-quality standards.  Complex natural
ecosystems may be protected most effectively by
maintaining suitable air quality.

    Presently, the interacting effects of  toxic
gas mixtures are poorly understood.   A synergistic
response has been demonstrated with mixtures  of
ozone and S02 (4); i.e., concentrations too low
to cause visible injury when  applied alone caused
severe damage as a mixture.   Other studies (5)
have shown that lower concentrations of S0? and
NO,,, as a mixture, were needed to depress  the
photosynthesis rate of alfalfa.  A 2-hr exposure
to 0.25 ppm S02 inhibited photosynthesis 2 to 3%
while a similar NO- exposure  caused no measurable
depressions.  However, exposure to 0.25 ppm mix-
ture of both gases simultaneously produced 9 to
15% inhibition.  Within 30 minutes to 2 hours after
the toxicants were removed, the photosynthetic rates
usually recovered to control levels.  A few hours
of reduced photosynthetic rate, however, may not
alter productivity.  Reduced growth and chronic
injury are expected only after long-term or repeat-
ed exposures to phytotoxic air pollutants and their
mixtures at subacute concentrations.  Recent stud-
ies in Germany identified a potential new air pollu-
tion problem.  In the presence of increased cadmium
concentrations, S02 was more damaging to plants
than at low cadmium concentrations (6).

     Ethylene, a hydrocarbon resulting from fuel
combustion, is an unusual air pollutant since it
is also a plant hormone.  Vegetation is also a
source of low concentrations of ethylene.  Ethylene
concentrations are mugh higher in urban centers
with a high density of motor vehicles than in
suburban or rural areas, ranging from 0.7 ppm in
the inner city of Washington, D.C., to 0.039 ppm
at nearby Beltsville, Maryland (7).  In rural areas
they are usually lower than 0.005 ppm.  Several
plant species continuously exposed to air con-
taining 0.025 ppm ethylene showed poor growth,
premature senescence, and decreased flowering and
fruiting.  Thus, ethylene may be a significant pol-
lutant in cities, reducing the growth and value of
some tree and ornamental species.  Its chronic
effects are not easy to distinguish from those of
other gas pollutants and environmental stresses.

     Possible damage to vegetation and soils from
increased acidity of precipitation is also a prob-
lem.  In May, 1975, the First International
Symposium on Acidic Precipitation and the Forest
Ecosystem reported that it caused direct injury to
foliage; decreased spruce-seed germination; in-
creased leaching of nutrients from foliage and
humus; increased erosion of waxes on oak and bean
leaves; decreased nitrogen uptake by endomycor-
rhizae of sweet gum seedlings; and inhibited the
nodulation and nitrogen fixation by Rhizobium in
bean and soybean seedlings (8).  On the other
hand, it inhibited the reproduction of root knot
nematodes and the development of bean rust.  Like
other pollutants, the possible economic conse-
quences of such biotic effects of acidic precipi-
tation are not known.

Assessing Air Pollution Effects

     Air pollution effects on agricultural pro-
ductivity under field conditions have been assessed
by several investigators.  Only limited progress
has been made by using chambers in the field,
since they alter plant response to the pollutants.
Chamber effects were minimized by the development
of "open" top chambers, first described in 1973
(9, 10).  Their designs vary, but most chambers
are 3 m in diameter and 2.4 m high, with blowers
supplying either carbon-filtered or unfiltered
air near the chamber bottom.  Except in stagnated
air at low wind speeds, varying amounts of ambient
air enter the chamber top.  Consequently, their
efficiency in removing pollutants may average only^
70%.  However, their efficiency is highest when oxi-

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 dants are highest  since  pollutants  accumulate
 during periods with  low  wind  speeds.

    Since 1972, open-top chambers have  been  stud-
 ied at Beltsville, Maryland,  using  snap beans  (11).
 After 3 years with two snap bean crops  each  year,
 one of three cultivars averaged a 14% decrease  in
 bean yield  in unfiltered air  chambers.   For  the
 two, more resistant  cultivars, yield differences
 were not significant.  Except for one of six crops
 production  in plots  without chambers equalled that
 in chamber  plots with unfiltered air.

    Other approaches have  been used to  assess the
 impact of air pollutants on field-grown plants.
 Chemicals have been  applied to protect  plants from
 injury due  to oxidant air  pollution.  A fungicide,
 benomyl [ methyl-1-(butylcarbamoyl)-2-benzimidazole
 carbamate], suppressed oxidant injury and increased
 yields 30 to 44% on  highly sensitive Tempo beans
 (12).  Oxidant leaf  injury and yield of Pinto bean
 were decreased.  However,  Tenderwhite,  the most
 tolerant cultivar, showed  no  difference in oxidant
 leaf injury or yield for sprayed and unsprayed
 plots, suggesting  adequate resistance at least  for
 the test conditions  at Waltham, Massachusetts.

    Unless  the chemical  protectant  has  systemic
 action, it  must be applied frequently to maintain
 leaf surface coverage.   Chemical protectants have
 one advantage over chambers in assessing air pollu-
 tion impact, since they  do not alter the plant
 environment.  Possibly,  chamber design  can be
 improved to minimize chamber  effects and to
 increase filtration  efficiency.  There  is a  need
 to reduce entrance of unfiltered air through the
 chamber top.

    Assessing the  impact of S02 on  vegetation
 under field conditions is  more difficult, since
 convenient, long-term filters are not available to
 effectively remove S0? nor are there chemicals  to
 protect from S02 injury.   Also, different ap-
 proaches are needed  to assess pollutants from
 single sources than  from multiple or diffuse
 sources.  However, field studies have been conducted
 to assess the impact of  SCL pollution.

    In one  study (13), many acres of soybeans
 near a large, coal-fired,  electric-generating
 station were exposed to  SO, levels  which caused
 severe leaf injury at a  relatively  early stage  in
 plant development; i.e., before blooming, when
 plants were about 0.5 m  tall.  Eighteen variables,
 including S0? leaf injury, were examined to  assess
 possible yietd losses attributable  to SO-.   The
 StL-induced leaf injury  was not a significant
 factor in accounting for yield variation from the
 110 fields  studied.  Poor  yields were associated
with factors like low soil fertility, soybean
 cyst nematode infestation, continuously soybean
cropping, and late planting,  rather than to  S02
injury.  Apparently, the affected plants attained
normal  or near normal growth  after  S02  injury.

    No  research information is available to
accurately assess the overall impact of air  pol-
lutants on the agricultural economy.  A survey  by
the  Stanford Research Institute, available in 1971,
                                                  169

revealed a $131 million/year loss to vegetation.
Of this amount, $121 million (more than 90%) was
attributed to oxidants, $6 million to S02, and
$4 million to fluorides.  In the past, gross
estimates by others have exceeded $500 million/year.
If we include losses caused by minor pollutants,
decreased growth and yield caused by major pollu-
tants, effects on ornamentals, wildlife, and
esthetic values, as well as the increased value of
agricultural crops since the 1971 Stanford Research
Study, the $500 million/year estimated loss seems
reasonable.

     Recently, an assessment of the impact of
gaseous air pollution on the quantity and quality
of crops was recommended as a high-priority
research item (14).  Approaches include using cham-
bers and/or chemicals to exclude or inactivate a
pollutant, differentially tolerant cultivars, and
various pollutant doses in field chambers.  In stud-
ies involving pollutants from point sources, the in-
vestigator may utilize natural pollutant gradients.

     The effects of energy-related, air pollutants
on animal production systems have not been identi-
fied.  The primary concern seems to be accumulation
of pollutants, like that of heavy metals in forage,
in localized areas, like near an industrial source
or heavily traveled highways (15).

RECLAMATION OF COAL STRIP-MINED AREAS
     The total U.S. land area disturbed by surface
mining currently exceeds 1,600,000 ha, about half of
which has resulted from coal mining operations (16).
The Geological Survey estimates that about 4,287
mi  (1,100,000 ha) will have been stripped by 1980.
If the remainder of the coal now believed recover-
able by strip mining is removed, this will involve
71,000 mi , or an area about the size of
Pennsylvania and West Virginia.

     Particularly in Appalachia, the coal strip-
mining problem involves large acreages of land
which were mined many years ago.  Some are now
severely eroded and barren of vegetation.  In
other areas, reclamation has resulted in land-
scapes which detract from esthetic value because
of the poor quality vegetation.  The more recently
mined areas are somewhat easier to revegetate,
since State regulations usually require that the
more toxic overburden be buried and at least
some natural top soil be spread over the surface.

     The Department of Agriculture has been con-
cerned for many years with revegetation of dis-
turbed lands (16).  It has been an essential part
of their soil and water conservation techniques.
Research on coal strip-mined lands began in 1966
with greenhouse studies and in 1970 with field
studies in West Virginia and North Dakota.  Highest
priorities were placed on plant species needed to
establish and maintain a desirable vegetative
cover and to developing the best suited cultural
and management practices.  Presently, there is
emphasis on characterization of the chemical and
physical properties of the overburden before

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170
mining so it can be effectively segregated and^uti-
lized in the reclamation process.   In Appalachia
neutralizing material  are sufficient in some loca-
tions so blending seems to be a better means of pre-
venting acidity problems than the  more common prac-
tice of deep burial of the most acid spoil portion
(17).

     Another aspect of the strip mining problem is
its alteration of the  area's hydrology and of sedi-
ment yield.   Very often, strip mining can unfavor-
ably change  the hydrologic characteristics which
results in greatly increased runoff, erosion, and
sediment production.   Aside from revegetation
aspects of reclamation, possible topographic modifi-
cations to provide more desirable  hydrologic charac-
teristics of the spoil area must be considered.  In
the past little attention has been given to this
phase of the problem,  but currently some projects
are being initiated.

     Recent  research  by the Agricultural Research
Service, USDA, and cooperators in  Appalachia indi-
cate (a) forage yields on reclaimed spoils are high-
est when rock phosphate is applied, (b) Bermuda-
grass has promise for  revegetation if phosphorous
and nitrogen deficiencies, as well as acidity, are
corrected, (c) crown  vetch can be  established, if
weeping lovegrass is  used first as a cover crop, and
(d) composted sewage  sludge is a promising soil
treatment.  Currently, in West Virginia and Maryland,
about 3,000  plots are  involved in  the revegetation
studies.  Our scientists are concerned also with
(a) deep placement of  fertilizer,  (b) evaluating
Rhizobium inoculants,  (c) plant survival on outer
slopes, (d)  element uptake by various plant species,
and (e) using sewage  sludge as a soil amendment.
ARS scientists (18) concluded that acid mine spoils
in Appalachia could be altered in  a relatively short
time, to have good production potential.  They
believe that physical  structure, involving available
soil water and stoniness, is the most difficult to
improve.

     In the  northern  Great Plains  progress has been
made in identifying factors which  hinder reclamation
and revegetation of strip-mine lands (19).  Phos-
phorous is always deficient, but readily corrected
by fertilization.  In  North Dakota spoils origina-
ting from deeper than  about 15 m are frequently
high in absorbed sodium and clay content.  The
highly sodic spoils are impractical to reclaim be-
cause of water shortages.  A series of plots were
established  recently  which will be used to evaluate
the succession of native grass species on spoils
with and without top  soil at various depths.  Ex-
perimental results indicated considerable benefit
from surface application of as little as 5 cm of
natural top  soil over  the sodic materials.  In
Wyoming, new revegetation trials were established
at three mine sites.   For these sites a broad
range of woody plant  species were  obtained for the
revegetation trials from several sources, includ-
ing the Soil Conservation Service  and Federal and
State Forest Service  nurseries. Because the north-
ern Great Plains is semi-arid, the management of
all aspects  of water  availability  to plants is very
important.
     The Cooperative State Research Service and the
State Experiment Stations of 12 coal-producing
States have developed projects concerning a wide
range of terrestrial environmental problems related
to strip mining of coal.  Most of these projects
deal with revegetation of reclaimed lands.  One
project will investigate the effects of S02 pollu-
tion on native plants and crops.

     The Forest Service has developed a surface en-
vironment and mining program (SEAM).  Besides the
several research projects already identified, they
have projects on utilizing remote sensing tech-
niques, on establishing microbial populations in
sterile soils, on plant resistance to drought
stress, on improved stability of mine spoils, and
on evaluating strip mining effects on wildlife.

     The Soil Conservation Service has maintained a
National Plant Materials Center at Beltsville,
Maryland, since 1938 (20), which has focused on
determining plants most useful in conservation. In
the past decade, more effort has been devoted to
finding plant materials useful for stabilizing sur-
face-mined coal fields, especially in Kentucky and
Wyoming.  Work currently is in progress on a report
of plant materials as related to reclamation of
surface-mined lands.  Also, it will be working
jointly with four other USDA agencies in preparing
a USDA technical handbook.  Other projects being
initiated or accelerated are (a) selecting quality
plants, (b) plant propagation techniques, (c) cul-
tural and management techniques to maintain vegeta-
tive cover, and (d) encouraging commercial produc-
tion of seeds and plants for mine land reclamation.

Future Projection

     Future research will try to define the chemi-
cal and physical properties of the overburden for
several coal-producing areas, determine the depth
of top soil material which should be replaced to
achieve satisfactory production levels for various
plant species, and develop suitable techniques to
reclaim lands so that these areas are at least as
productive as they were originally.

     Because research on reclamation also may indi-
cate a need of changing some mining methods, re-
search information must be available as soon as
possible.  By 1985, massive expenditures in equip-
ment and mine development are anticipated that will
make increasingly expensive further alterations of
mining operations only to facilitate land
reclamation.

SUMMARY

     The major primary pollutants from coal-burning
power plants are SO,,, NO, N02, acid aerosols,
ethylene, and heavy metals, Tike lead, cadmium, and
zinc.  The NOp and certain reactive hydrocarbons
also may participate in photochemical reactions
which generate toxic secondary pollutants, espe-
cially ozone.  Mixtures of 0- and S0?, NOp and SO,,,
and S02 and cadmium have shown synergistic effects
under laboratory conditions.  Open-top chambers can
be used to assess the effects on crop productivity

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of low levels of pollutants.  Protective chemicals,
like benomyl , also may be valuable in studying the
effects of oxidants.  One field study of SCL injury
showed that soybean plants, visibly injured before
blooming, apparently recovered sufficiently so that
their yield was not affected.  Concern is widespread
over effects of acidic precipitation on agriculture
and forestry.

    Most of the new research and development proj-
ects on revegetation of coal strip-mined lands are
too new to yield results.  We may anticipate that
reclamation planning will be an integral part of
surface coal mining operations, like those de-
scribed recently in West Germany  (21).  A systems
approach is developing which accounts for (a) land
use options, (b) chemical and physical properties of
the overburden, (c) mining methods that optimize
separation according to quality, and the subsequent
use of the overburden, (d) kinds and amounts of
fertilizer and other soil amendments to use, (e)
best management practices, and (f) best plant mate-
rial to achieve intended land use.  In addition to
their use in agriculture and forestry, strip-mined
areas can be used at some locations as parks, air-
ports, sites for building schools or some types of
industries, or even new towns or  lakes (21).
                   REFERENCES
1.  Library of Congress,  "Effects of Chronic  Expos-
    sure  to Low-level Pollutants in the  Environ-
    ment," (Subcommittee  on the Environment and the
    Atmosphere, Committee on Science and Technology,
    U.S.  House of Representatives), 1975.

2.  Heck, W. W., Taylor,  0. C. and Heggestad,  H.  E.,
    "Air  Pollution Research Needs Herbaceous  and
    Ornamental Plants and Agriculturally Generated
    Pollutants," Jour. Air Pollution Control  Assoc.
    23:257-266, 197.3.

3.  Heggestad, H. E. and  Heck, W. W.,  "Nature,
    Extent and Variation  of Plant Response to  Air
    Pollutants," Adv. in  Agron., 23:111-145,  1971.

4.  Menser, H. A. and Heggestad, H. E.,  "Ozone and
    Sulfur Dioxide Synergism Injury to Tobacco
    Plants," Science, 153:424-425, 1966.

5.  White, K. L, Hill, A. C., Bennett, J. H.,
    "Synergistic Inhibition of Apparent  Photosyn-
    thesis Rate of Alfalfa by Combinations of
    Sulfur Dioxide and Nitrogen Dioxide," Environ.
    Science and Tech., 8:574-576, 1974.

6.  Krause, G. H. M., "Phytotoxische Wechselwirkun-
    gen zwischen Schwefeldioxed und den Schwer-
    metallen Zink und Cadmium," Schriftenreihe der.
    Landesanstalt fur Immissions - und Bodennut-
    zungsschultz des Landes 'Nordrhein - West-
    falen in Essen.  34:86-91, 1975.

7.  Abeles, F. B. and Heggestad, H. E.,  "Ethylene:
    An Urban Air Pollutant," Jour. Air Pollution
    Control Assoc.,  23:517-521, 1973.
                                                 171
8.  Cowling, E. B., Heagle, A. S. and Heck W. W.,
    The C-hangirKj Acidity of Preci-pitati-on," Phyto-
    pathology News, 9: p. 5, 1975.

9.  Heagle, A.  S., Body, D. E. and Heck, W. W.,
    "An Open-top Field C-hamber to Assess the Impact
    of Air Pollution on Plants," J.  Environ.
    Quality, 2:365-368, 1973.

10. Mandl, R. H., Weinst-ein, L.  H. MeCune, D.  C. and
    Keveny, M., "A Cylindrical,  Open-top Chamber
    for the Exposure of Plants to Air Pollutants ir,
    the Field," J. Environ. Quality, 2:371-376,
    1973.

11. Heggestad,  H. E., "Plant Protection from Oxi-
    dant Air Pollutants.  JJ^ Plant Protection in
    Relation to Human Health and Environmental
    Pollution," VIII International Plant Protection
    Congress, Moscow, Aug.  1975.

12. Manning, W. J. and Feder,  W. A., "Suppression
    of Oxidant  Injury by Benomyl:  Effects on
    Yields of Bean Cultivars in  the  Field," J.
    Environ. Quality, 3:1-3, 1974.

13. Jones, H. E., Cunningham,  L. R., McLaughlin,
    S. B., Lee, N. T., and Ray,  S.,  "A Large-scale
    Field Investigation of the Effect of SO, Expo-
    sure on Yield of Soybeans,"  (Preprint 73-110,
    66th Annual Meeting Air Pollution Control Asso-
    ciation, Chicago, June, 1973.

14. Michigan State University  and Kettering Founda-
    tion, "Crop Productivity - Research Impera-
    tives," (Proceedings, International Conference,
    Harbor Springs, Mich. Oct. 1975).

15. Aschbacher, P. W., "Air Pollution Research  Needs
    Livestock Production Systems," J.  Air Pollution
    Control Assoc., 23:267-272,  1973.

16. Barrows, H. L., "ARS Research on Strip Mine
    Reclamation."  (Presented, 28th  Annual NACD
    Meeting, Houston, Tex.  Feb.  1974 - ARS, USDA,
    Beltsville, Md.

17. Smith, R. M., Gube Jr., W. E., and Freeman,
    J. R., "Better Minesoils," Green Lands Quarter-
    ly Winter,  16-18, 1975.

18. Jones, J. N. Jr., Armiger, W. H. and Bennett,
    0. L., "Forage Grasses Aid the Transition from
    Spoil to Soil" (Presented, Research and Applied
    Technology  Symposium on Mined Land.  National
    Coal Association, Louisville, Ky. Oct. 1975).

19. Power, L. F., Ries, R.  E., Sandoval, F. M.  and
    Willis, W.  0., "Factors Restricting Revegeta-
    tion of Strip Mine Spoils,"  Proceedings, Fort
    Union Coal  Symposium, 1975.

20. Soil Conservation Service, "New Plants for Con-
    servation," Soil Conservation Magazine, Sept. 19
    1974.

21. Kubic, M. J., "Germany's Prize Coal Stripper,"
    Newsweek, 86(22):86, 89, 1975.

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72


                                DISCUSSION ON TERRESTRIAL  EFFECTS  SESSION


      Comment from the Floor:  At the present time, there are  30  identified  investigations in the coal
strip  area, sponsored by EPA and ERDA, which will employ cooperative  field  techniques.   These coopera-
tive  field techniques are intended to reduce the capacity  for redundancy of effort.   This coordination
is of  considerable interest to the State of Montana's Lieutenant  Governor's Office.

      Panel Response:  The size of the scientific effort in the coal strip area  requires  careful  coordina-
tion to avoid both redundancy and to prevent interference  between  various field study plots.

     Question:  There has been some reference to Western coals as  clean.  Does  this  reference refer to
the ash content or trace element content, or is it made on a  comparative basis  with  Eastern  coals  on a
BTU basis?

     Panel Response:  No, the reference to "clean" was intended  to mean relatively clean.  Western coal
has very high ash, low BTU and in several cases less than 6 to 1%  sulfur.   There  are  also some constit-
uents  such as fluoride.   These coals are relatively clean  as  compared to some mid-Western coals  and
possibly some Eastern coals as well.

     Question:  Some of the proceeding program descriptions have an element  of  optimism  as opposed to
pessimism.  Some beneficial results have been described from  SOX,  and there  has been  reference to  the
possibility of spraying to reduce the damaging effects of some pollutants on plant life.   Would  the
panel   comment on this.

     Panel Response:  Sulfur and other matter is essential  to plant growth.  Plants require  as much sul-
fur as phosphorus which is regarded as a primary nutrient.   In the past, it  has been  the  practice  to
fertilize both materials containing considerable amounts of sulfur.  Today's fertilizers  generally do not
include sulfur, particularly in the Southeast because of the  amounts deposited  to the ground  from  atmo-
spheric contributions.  The amount of sulfur being added to soils with rainfall can be measured, but the
amount of sulfur added in gaseous form is unknown.  A total amount of sulfur added to the  soils  should
be accurately established.

     Question:  Does the sulfur and sulfur compounds additions result in a progressively  increasing
acidity of the soils?

     Panel Response:  This question of increased acidity of the  soils has not been determined.   This is
another area that requires investigation.

     Question:  Current  studies seem restricted to short-range studies on the effects of  pollutants on
plants.  Are there any strategies to develop programs and support studies on the effects  of  long-range
repeated exposure?

     Panel Response:  Both EPA and the U.S.  Department of Agriculture have five-year  programs  funded
which  would permit long-range low-level, chronic exposure studies.

     Comment from the Floor:  In the West particularly, transport of sulfate from power plants will take
place over distances as  great as 100 miles.   Resultant deposition will fall  on  plants, not only the soil.
In the semi-arid plains, some species such as the Ponderosa Pine are very sensitive to sulfur, especially
when exposure has not occurred previously.   Sulfur landing  on grazing lands is  ingested by wildlife and
livestock.  In addit.inn, nthov Cnnc°rns  ar°  n* fluoride as  a synergistic impact.

     Question:   Is it basically true that an increase in soil acidity will  also increase  the  availability
of other nutrients such  as phosphorus?

     Panel Response:  No, increase in soil  acidity generally has the opposite effect.  Lime  will counter-
act this soil  acidity on the surface.   However, surface liming does not solve the problem of  acid  sub-
soils.
     Question:   Please comment on the use of protective chemicals on plants.
     Panel  Response:   Some fungicides will, as an example, protect tobacco from oxidents.  The effects of
protective  chemicals  on yields of various cultivars differs as does the degree of injury protection
attorded._  There is work in this field being pursued now.  This includes addition of protective chemicals
to the soil  that will  be taken up by the plants.  Work in this field would benefit from better measure-
ment tools  and techniques.  Consequently, the potential threat of sulfur on the ecosystem should not be
discounted.

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                                                                                                        173
    Comment from the Floor:  There is a need to make the  results of  research  available  to  the  people
who can use the information.  One recent development is the  Interview Research Information  System  which
is a part of the SEAS Program.  Another, the Old West Regional  Commission  operates  a  computer  system
listing ongoing research studies.  A system called SEAS Info provides description of  EPA reports.   It  is
expected that these information systems may be of interest to the group.

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                   CHAPTER 8
ENERGY RESOURCE EXTRACTION

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176
INTRODUCTION                                            ual damage.   The burden of developing the necessary
                                                        technologies is shared by federal, state and local
     The Nation's demand for energy self-sufficiency    agencies as  well as the private sector.
will result in an increasing amount of land disturbed
by the extractive process.

     With oil and gas no longer plentiful, coal has
become the mainstay of Project Independence to make
the United States energy self-sufficient.  To achieve
this goal, the low sulfur  coal lying close to the
ground surface in the West must be developed.  In
addition, continued exploitation of eastern coal
regions will be necessary with surface and under-
ground mining.

     For the foreseeable future, coal can be expected
to provide the bulk of domestic augmentation replac-
ing foreign energy sources.  However, until gasifica-
tion and liquefaction techniques are perfected and
implemented, there will be a continued dependence on
fuels derived from natural hydrocarbons.  The re-
quirements for these fuels is likely to persist,
especially in transportation.  Consequently, there
will be added impetus for gas and oil exploration.
This exploration will extend to remote and relatively
inhospitable regions.  Even with increased domestic
production and moderating increases in demand, some
shortfall will exist.  The large reserves represented
by the oil shale deposits in the Upper Colorado River
Basin make this source a likely candidate, if the
necessary technology is available.

     Each of these extractive processes has its
unique environmental price.

     Underground mines present one of the most diffi-
cult environmental problems.  Damage may result from
acid mine drainage,  subsidence or sedimentation.
Environmental implications of the methane emissions
accompanying underground mining are not well under-
stood.   Successful closure techniques are yet to be
perfected.

     Surface mining disturbs large areas, frequently
in rural, range, forest or farm areas.  During the
next decade, disruption will approach one quarter of
a million acres annually.  Without reclamation,
there is both loss of land use and ecological damage.
Great strides have been made in the development of
reclamation techniques.  These techniques have been
developed mainly as a result of experience with sur-
face mining in the East.  Reclamation of disturbed
Western areas will pose severe new problems because
of the arid character of the region.  Reclamation of
land disturbed in mining of oil shale will present
additional problems associated with disposition of
very large volumes of spent shale.

     The environmental price of oil and gas extrac-
tion is largely associated with spillage and the
consequential contribution of human activity at the
drilling sites and along the routes of transport.
Environmental consequences may be aggravated by the
ecological fragility of the areas developed, such as
the Alaskan tundra.
      Energy resource extraction  is  inherently  a dis-
 ruptive process.   Protective  emphasis  is being
 placed on minimizing the  initial extractive  damage
 followed by restoration aimed at reducing  the  resid-

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                                                                                                        177
      ENVIRONMENTAL ASSESSMENT OF WESTERN
               COAL SURFACE  MINING

                 Elmore  C. Grim
            Surface Mining Specialist
          Extraction Technology Branch
     Resource Extraction  and  Handling Division
   Industrial Environmental Research Laboratory
                Cincinnati,  Ohio
     Recent oil and  gas
States  have focused  the
supply  and demand probl
is popularly  called  an
is increasing interest
degree  of independence
supplies, primarily  oil
 shortages in the United
 Nation's attention on
ems associated with what
energy "crisis".  There
in developing a higher
from foreign energy
 and oil by-products.
     The President's  1973 energy message encouraged
 the use of domestic coal  to meet the needs for
 energy.  Since  low sulfur coal  lying in close
 proximity to  the  ground surface is economically
 attractive to energy  producers, much of the
 near-surface  coal resources in  the West are
 important.  This  emphasis on use of western
 coals has been  reiterated by private and Federal
 sectors with  increasing frequency.

     According  to U.S.  Bureau of Mines estimates,
 the western coal  fields contain more than 60% of
 the strippable  coal reserves in America.  It
 has been estimated by the Federal Government
 that in 1985, 1.2 billion tons  of coal must be
 mined to meet the demand  in the industrial,
 power generation, synthetic gas, and export
 sectors of the  market.  This amount will double
 the coal production of 600 million tons for last
 year.  To achieve a total production of 1.2
 billion tons, at  least 350 million tons will
 have to come  from western coal  fields to supplement
 the 850 million tons  derived from the traditional
 coal-producing  region's of the  East and Midwest.
 Comparing that  figure with last year's production
 from western  states of approximately 60 million
 tons, one begins  to grasp the scope of potential
 coal development  in thi's  area of the nation.
 Although characterized by low BTU and high ash
 content, western  coal contains  very little
 sulfur, and the large size of the coal fields
 make them attractive  to the huge industrial
 plants that result from future  growth   i.e.,
 gasification  and  liquefaction processes.

     The adverse  impacts  of coal mining in the
 eastern United  States have been well documented
 and intensively researched.   Relatively little
 is known concerning the potential degradation
 that may result from  large scale mining in the
 arid West.  A better  definition of the type and
 magnitude of  potential environmental problems is
 required.

     Suspected  water  pollution  problems are: (1)
 salinity,  (2) sediment, and (3) ground water
 disturbance.  Preliminary results indicate that
 salinity discharges as high as  23kg per cubic
meter of spoils can be produced.  The salinity
 potential  for western coal mines needs to be well
 defined and a method developed to predict the
 magnitude  of the problem before mining.

      Coal  seams are generally aquifers, and are a
 principle  source of fresh water.  Mining may
 result in  alteration of ground water distribution
 by aquifer disruption.   It will be necessary to
 verify the magnitude of the aquifer disruption
 problem and quantify its effects on groundwater
 quality and quanity.  In addition, if solid wastes
 from power plants,  gasification plants, etc., are
 to be returned to surface mines where aquifers
 were present, a potential groundwater pollution
 problem may exist.

      Western overburden material is of young
 geologic age and subject to excessive erosion.
 Stabilization of the spoil, as quickly as possible
 after grading, is required to minimize sediment
 discharges.  Flash flooding and wind erosion
 constitute major hazards in damaging soil loss.
 Possible air pollution problems involve fugitive
 dust from  extraction, loading, hauling, and support
 facilities.  In addition, emissions from spontaneous
 combustion of coal seams and waste materials
 causes considerable air quality degradation.  Work
 is planned to assess the magnitude and significance
 of these air pollutants.

      One of the major drawbacks to western reclam-
 ation is revegetation.   Climatic conditions are
 extreme.  Seventy-five percent of the western coal
 fields receive less than twenty inches of annual
 precipitation available for plant growth.  In
 addition to limited precipitation, seasonal tempera-
 tures vary from -60° to 120° F, only short frost-
 free periods are available, wide variations are
 present in overburden material, and adequate
 topsoil is lacking.

      Water is the key to any successful reclamation
 program in the West.  Ample moisture at planting
'and during establishment is critical.  Techniques
 for acquiring additional moisture need to be
 developed.  This should include studies on surface
 manipulation, irrigation, mulching, etc., and the
 impact of  these practices on surface and groundwater
 quanity and quality.

      Only  by pre-mining planning is it possible to
 eliminate  irreversible mistakes.  Planning investi-
 gations include range inventories, soil surveys,
 grazing pattern definition, watershed surface and
 groundwater studies, archeological review and
 overburden analyses.  These studies serve as a
 base for planning spoil segregation, rehabilitation
 design, erosion control, surface manipulation,
 topsoiling and range management.  These accomplish-
 ments directly affect the mining techniques and
 equipment  used.  They also allow most problems of
 extraction and rehabilitation to be predictable.

      The people of the West generally express
 concern over expanded extraction in terms of  their
 own occupational interests.  Many ranchers  and
 farmers are worried about competition for land and
 water, and about the conversion of present  and

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178
 potential agricultural water supplies to industrial
 usage.   Some believe that mined land cannot be
 reclaimed nor shallow aquifers rebuilt.   A general
 concern shared by most people is the impact of air
 pollution on range vegetation, crops, and abundant
 wildlife resources.   The several Indian tribes in
 the region are concerned over the impact of coal
 development on or near their reservations in terms
 of water rights,  resources and cultural values.

      Not everyone is fearful about the effects of
 developing the coal.  There are people who view
 the development as something good.  They see
 increasing coal development in terms of an expand-
 ing economic base, new jobs, better services and
 a chance to broaden cultural horizons.

      Offsetting this rather gloomy picture,
 however, is a general (although cautious) optimism
 that the environmental impacts of western strip
 mining, both during and after mining, can be
 reduced to "acceptable" levels if suitable planning
 and operating technologies are brought to bear.
 In short, mined lands can be reclaimed.   Reclama-
 tion as an add-on technology will no longer suffice.
 Rather, as has been noted by EPA researchers,
 environmental factors must be considered from the
 word "go" (during pre-mining planning);  reclamation
 must be an integral part of the mining process.
 This fact manifests the realization that the
 environment is best protected by designing (and
 using)  new mining technologies (methods and equip-
 ment) which consider reclamation objectives as
 well as production goals.  Of course, such tech-
 nologies cannot be developed solely by mining
 engineers nor solely by geologists, hydrologists
 and agricultural scientists.  Instead, an inter-
 disciplinary approach is necessary.  EPA recognizes
 this need and has initiated a Federal interagency
 energy/environment R&D program.  Regularly scheduled
 meetings are held with EPA's research personnel,
 other EPA officials and representatives of other
 agencies involved in related research to ensure
 that the research needs in each problem area are
 adequately covered.   Contract, grants and inter-
 agency agreements have been negotiated for most
 of the projects in EPA's current RljD program.

      Interagency agreements, formulated for
 implementing research projects, are being funded
 by "pass-through" of $1.44 million for FY75 and
 $1.7 million for FY76 from the energy R§D budget.

      Interagency agreement projects are as follows:
           1.  Western Coal and Oil Shale Mining:
               Vegetative Methods and Materials
               USDA.
               Objective Summary:  Technical
               handbooks for vegetating western
               coal and oil shale mines in arid
               and semi-arid areas are being
               prepared.  These handbooks will be
               directly used by mine operators
               and regulatory agencies and also by
               planning and impact analysis agencies.
               The books will include recommendations
               of plant species, methods of planting,
               soil amendments, seed sources, seed
              bed preparation,  etc.
          2.  Surface Manipulations  for Enhanced
              Coal  and  Oil  Shale Mine Vegetation
              USDA. A.  Wastes  for Soil Amendments,
              B.  Growth  Supporting  Media.
              Objective Summary
               A.   Evaluation  is being made of
                    non-mine waste materials (such
                    as sewage sludge,  woodchips,
                    straw, solid waste,  food
                    processing wastes)  as  soil
                    amendments  in reclaiming
                    surface  mines.
               B.   Scientific criteria are being
                    developed to recommend guidelines
                    for  determing quantity and
                    quality  of growth  supporting
                    media  (topsoil) for coal
                    and  oil  shale reclamation.

     Contracts and  grants have  been developed for
implementing research projects.   These  are being
funded from the energy  R§D  budget  in  the  amounts
of $1.751 million for FY75  and  $1.080 million for
FY76.
     Contract work  is as  follows:
          1.  Environmental  Impact of  Western Coal
              Mines   Contractor; Mathematica,
              Inc.
              Objective Summary:  This project is
              specifically  designed to  evaluate
              the surface mining methods presently
              employed  in the mining of the western
              coals in  arid  and  semi-arid regions,
              and to evaluate the effects these
              methods have  on the environment.

     Grant work is as follows:
          1.  Effects of Surface Configuration in
              Water Pollution Control   Grantee;
              Montana State  University.
              Objective Summary:  Objectives of
              this study are to  demonstrate the
              effectiveness  of  several surface
              configurations in  controlling
              erosion,  runoff,  sedimentation and
              pollution of  adjacent drainages,
              quickly producing  a desirable stabi-
              lizing vegetative  cover, creating an
              equilibrium between precipitation
              absorbed  and  soil  moisture  evaporated
              and transpired so  that ground water
              pollution will remain minimal, and
              producing an  overall desirable
              reclamation design providing effect-
              ive drainage,   esthetics, productiveness
              and use.  Surface  water and groundwater
              is being monitored  extensively at
              the five test  sites in Montana,
              Wyoming,  and North Dakota.
          2.  Surface and Subsurface Water Quality
              Hydrology   Grantee; Colorado State
              University.
              Objective Summary;  This project is
              to develop a mathematical model
              capable of predicting the quantity
              of surface and subsurface flow on
              surface mine  spoils in the  Rocky

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                                                                                          179
Mountain Region.  This objective
will be accomplished by modifying
and interfacing existing models of
subsurface chemical transport,
certain geochemical reactions,
overland flow on infiltrating surfaces,
and sediment transport.  A current
study has identified the important
physical and chemical characteristics
of the spoils which must be
included in the model.  The adequacy
of the model will be thoroughly
tested on field plots located on
coal mine spoils in Colorado.
Northern Cheyenne Tribal Council
project, Montana   Grantee;
Northern Cheyenne Tribal Council.
Objective Summary:  The Northern
Cheyenne Tribe, via the Northern
Cheyenne Research Project, desires
to develop an in-depth knowledge of
the chemical character of reservation
water resources, and the interrelation
of water to other resources, so
that the Tribe can make informed
choices in planning coal development.
Environmental base line data is
being collected for future reference
when mining begins.  This project
will provide an additional data source
for the following project.
Evaluation of Surface and Groundwater
at Potential Strip Mines   Grantee;
Montana State University.
Objective Summary:  The major
objective of this project is to
identify possible impacts of coal
mining and development in the
Northern Great Plains on the surface
and groundwater systems of the
surrounding area.  Specific object-
ives are: 1. Obtain an equation of
balance for all water inflow and
outflow in each of three study
sites, one each in Montana, North
Dakota, and Wyoming; 2. Characterize
the overburden from a physical and
chemical point of view as well as
determine its relationship to the
water coming to the surface; 3.
Characterize the chemical features
              of the mined sites; and 4. Determine
              hydrologic character of spoils at
              active mine sites in Montana.

     In Table I below, the resources being expended
on western coal projects are summarized.
                      TABLE I
        RESOURCES EXPENDED ON WESTERN COAL
                  SURFACE MINING
Expendature
     EPA
        Contract
        Grant
     US DA
  FY75
Projects

   1
   4
        IAG*
TOTAL
   8
   $K

  173
1,578

1,440
3,191
 FY76
Projects   $K

   1        0
   4     1,080
                   8
         1,700
         2,780
*Funding is for combination of Coal and Oil Shale
 projects.

     EPA's  role is not to develop new surface
mining technology.  However,  in cooperation with
the U. S. Bureau of Mines and others, we are
planning to contribute to the development of these
new methods from the standpoint of environmental
impact.

     As  trends develop in more sophisticated
underground mining methods, we will initiate
environmental control projects to keep abreast  of
the effects of these technological developments.

     Most R§D efforts at this time are aimed at
pinpointing problem areas.  This assessment phase
will be  followed by comprehensive R&D efforts to
demonstrate techniques which  minimize adverse
environmental effects.  The ultimate goal is to
publish  Manuals of Practice to outline the most
current  and acceptable technology for all phases
of mining that have a detrimental impact on the
environment.  Training programs for mining personnel
and state and federal control agencies are also
planned  as  goals.

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 180
           ENVIRONMENTAL  CONTROL  TECHNOLOGY
              OF  EASTERN  COAL  DEVELOPMENT
                   Ronald  D.  Hill
                      Director
        Resource  Extraction  and  Handling Division
      Industrial  Environmental Research  Laboratory
                  Cincinnati, Ohio
 INTRODUCTION

      For discussion  purposes  during  this  symposium,
 the  coal fields of the  United States  have been  divid-
 ed into the eastern  and western.   A  better definition
 of these fields would be humid  vs  arid/semi-arid
 regions.  The production and  number  of  mines  for each
 region is shown in Table 1.

                     Table  1

      NUMBER AND COAL MINE PRODUCTION  -  1973

                              Eastern     Western
                                U.S.        U.S.*

 Total Production, Million
  Tons/Percent                523  /  91     51/9
 Surface Mine Production,
  Million Tons/Percent        212/82     46/18
 Total Mines, Number/Percent 1,726  /  97     52/3
 Surface Mines, Number/
  Percent                     873  /  96     34/4
 Underground Mine, Number/
  Percent	853/98     18  /   2
 *Arizona, Colorado, Montana,  North Dakota,  New  Mexico,
 and  Wyoming.
     As demonstrated in this table the eastern  fields
dominate the coal industry both in production from
surface and underground mines and number of mines.
As the United States strives toward its coal produc-
tion goal of 1.2 billion tons per year, the western
fields will assume a larger share.  However, signif-
icant increases in eastern production and number  of
mines will also occur.

     The environmental damages from past and present
eastern surface mining has been documented.  Over
10,000 miles of streams have been degraded by acid
mine drainage.  Sediment clogged streams are common.
Fugitive dust is emitted from mines and haul roads.
Mining has a unique feature in that environmental
damages continue even after mining ceases because
acid production and erosion are natural phenomena
which are accelerated by man's activities.  Thus,
the environmental damages from past mining activities
exceed that from current ones.  Mines must be closed
properly to prevent pollution in the future.

     Great strides have been made in the past ten
years to reduce the environmental damages from  sur-
face mines.  All of the major eastern coal producing
states now  have  laws  controlling surface mines.  The
effectiveness  of these  laws  depends upon the provi-
sions of the law,  the regulations and the capabilities
of the state enforcement agency.  In general,  the
laws require a permit to mine,  performance bonds,
backfilling of pit,  grading  of  spoil and revegetation
of the disturbed area.   Strong  environmental  concern
by the public  has  led to the development of new min-
ing methods and  reclamation  techniques by the
industry.   These new  methods and techniques have
significantly  reduced acid mine drainage and  improved
the sediment problem.   However,  erosion, by both air
and water,  is  still  a cause  of  environmental damage,

     Environmental damages resulting from underground
mines include:   acid  mine drainage, subsidence, and
sediment from  surface facilities.   During active
operation the  water discharged  from an underground
mine can be treated to  meet  the effluent guidelines
proposed by EPA.   The major  environmental  damage
occurs when the  mine  becomes inactive and a responsi-
ble party to treat the  water is  unavailable.  The
environmental  implication of the over 227 million
cubic feet per day of methane emitted is unknown.
Control  of the dust and silt from surface facilities
is 1 i mi ted .

SURFACE MINING PROGRAM
            has recently completed  a  comprehensive
review of the surface mine  industry.   It can be con-
cluded from this report that a  large  store house of
knowledge has been developed by federal, state, and
industrial groups on the reclamation  of surface mines.
It was felt that the time had come  to prepare a set
of comprehensive "how to" manuals for use by industry,
and state and federal control agencies.  Contracts,
grants and interagency agreements were developed to
prepare the following manuals:   (1) Paleoenvironment
analysis as a predictor of  acid mine  drainage,
(2) Field and laboratory methods applicable to over-
burdens and minesoils, (3)  Manual to  control sediment
and erosion during mining,  (4)  Revegetation manual,
and (5) Predictive and pollution abatement model for
mine drainage.  Although each of these manuals will
be prepared to stand alone, they will  become an
integral part of a comprehensive manual on premining
planning for environmental  control  of surface mines
to be prepared by Pennsylvania  State  University. The
original five manuals will  be completed during 1976
and the premining planning  manual by  July 1977.  It
is proposed to use these manuals to prepare training
courses to transfer the information to the working
level, e.g., mine superintendents and surface mine
inspectors.  This effort is planned to start in FY 77.

     Several new mining and reclamation methods have
been developed in the past  few  years  with picturesque
names such as head-of-hollow fill,  mountain-top
removal and haul back.  These second  generation
methods have been proclaimed as techniques that will
minimize the environmental  problems in surface mining.
EPA has initiated a program to  assess the environ-
mental consequences of these mining methods.  Mining
operations of several companies will  be extensively
evaluated' and monitored for air and water emissions.
Close coordination with the U.  S. Bureau of Mines,

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T.V.A., and the U. S. Forest Service, who are working
on  the development of new mining methods, will  be
maintained.  Future research and development by EPA
will depend on the outcome of these assessments.

    One of the major unresolved environmental  prob-
lems associated with surface mining is sediment. The
primary sediment control method in many states  is  the
sediment pond.  A study has been completed for  EPA
which  reported that there are shortcomings in the
present design, operation, maintenance and closure of
sediment pond.  EPA is initiating an inhouse research
program at its West Virginia research station and  a
demonstration project in cooperation with the Common-
wealth of Kentucky to develop better design criteria
for sediment ponds.

    Haul roads are often a significant source  of
dust and sediment.  EPA in cooperation with the
Commonwealth of Kentucky has begun a project to
demonstrate improved haul road construction methods.
Discussions have been held with the U. S. Bureau of
Mines  to also take part in the project.

    EPA through interagency agreements with USDA,
T.V.A., and ERDA supports work on developing revege-
tation methods for surface mines, evaluating damages
from surface mines and utilization of waste products
to reclaim mines.

UNDERGROUND MIMING PROGRAM

    The control of water pollution from underground
mines  is one of our most difficult problems. Although
the discharge can be treated while the mine is  active,
upon mine closure treatment became uneconomical.   We
feel the answer to this problem is the development of
new mining methods that will minimize the discharge
upon mine closure.  A recent study for EPA showed
that mining to the down-dip had definite environmental
advantages.  The University of Alabama is currently
evaluating mining methods that might prevent water
pollution.  We plan to pursue an aggressive program
in this area.

    EPA has an active program in developing technol-
ogy for dewatering (prevention of water from entering
the mine) underground mines.  Current projects  include
evaluating methods of locating sources of water that
enter  a mine and pilot studies on dewatering both  an
active and inactive mine.  If found feasible we hope
to proceed to a full scale demonstration in coopera-
tion with the Bureau of Mines and industry.  This
work might fit closely with the Bureau's methane
drainage program.

    Stowing in underground mines for subsidence con-
trol and waste disposal has been evaluated by National
Academy of Science and although found technically
feasible was economically questionable.  EPA in a
joint  venture with the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania
and in cooperation with the Bureau of Mines is  evalu-
ating  the concept of stowing waste (fly ash, and SOX
sludge) in underground mines to prevent acid mine
drainage.  If found feasible we would hope to proceed
to  a full scale demonstration.
                                                  181
     EPA has been  active  for  a  number of years  in
the development of mine seals.   We  have  a continuing
effort in evaluating  seal  performance.   Because of
the importance of  closure  methods an  intensive
assessment of closure methods  is currently being
conducted for EPA.  The results  of  this  study will
be used to develop our Research  and Development
program in this area.

     Two additional assessment  studies are planned.
The first will  assess the  consequence of groundwater
as a result of underground mining.  The  second  will
assess air emissions  from  underground mines  and their
support facilities.   Future research  efforts  will
depend on the results of these  studies.

TREATMENT OF MINE  DRAINAGE PROGRAM

     Since 1967 EPA has been evaluating  numerous
schemes for treating  acid  mine  drainage   (AMD).   At
this time neutralization is the  accepted method.
EPA's recent efforts  have  been  to improve  the
efficiency, reduce the cost and  develop  sludge
disposal methods.  These are inhouse  efforts  conduct-
ed at our West Virginia field site.   This  work  should
be concluded in the near future.

     Since neutralization  does not  usually decrease
the total dissolved solids (TDS) content and often
a water is produced that is unsuitable for many  uses,
we have been evaluating two methods that remove  TDS,
i.e., reverse osmosis and  ion exchange.   During  1976
a manual of practice  for utilizing  reverse osmosis
for testing AMD will be produced.   We are  in the
pilot plant stage  in our ion exchange studies.

SUMMARY

     In Table 2, the  resources being  expended on
eastern coal mining are summarized.
                    Table 2

    RESOURCES EXPENDED ON EASTERN COAL MINING

                        FY 75             FY 76
                      No.               No.
                   Projects   _$!<    Projects    _$!<

Surface Mines
  EPA                  21     1500      25       800
  IAG                         170       -       175
Underground Mines      16    1300      18       280
Treatment               8     300       7       276
REFERENCE

Grim, E. C., and Hill, R. D. , "Environmental
Protection in Surface Mining of Coal," EPA
Publication 670/2-74-093, Cincinnati, Ohio,
October 1974.

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182
           USDA RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT
         FOR RECLAMATION OF LANDS AFFECTED
                  BY MINING I/ U
                   David J.  Ward
        Research Planning and Coordination
           USDA, Office of the Secretary
                 Washington, D.C.
BACKGROUND

     The Nation's demand for mineral resources and
energy self-sufficiency will result in an increasing
amount of land disturbed by mining and mineral pro-
cessing.  An estimated 4.4 million acres of land
have already been disturbed by mining.  About 1.9
million acres (including 100,000 acres of National
Forest System lands) remain to be reclaimed.  Added
to this, nearly 200,000'acres may be disturbed annu-
ally during the next decade.  By 1990 the rate of
disturbance may reach 250,000 acres per year.  Some
projections indicate that as much as 12-13 million
acres may eventually be disturbed.

     Surface and subsurface mining of fossil fuels
and minerals, and related activities such as coal
gasification, oil shale processing, ore reduction
and transport of mined commodities create strains
on the Nation's food and fiber production base, the
environment, and rural communities.  Forest lands of
the east, grasslands and croplands of the midwest,
and rangelands of the Northern Great Plains and
elsewhere in the West are underlain by vast coal
resources and other minerals that can be surface
mined.  The potential for destruction of surface
values on these and other rural lands is great.

     Without proper planning and reclamation, seri-
ous impacts can be expected on agricultural produc-
tion, environmental quality and rural communities.
These impacts will affect not only mined areas, but
will have deleterious effects on surrounding areas
and non-mining sectors of the economy.

     Since most mineral development takes place in
rural America on range, forest, and farm lands it is
the responsibility of the Department of Agriculture
to see that the technology and technical assistance
is adequate and effective for reclamation of mined
lands and that social, environmental, and economic
impacts of mining are ameliorated.  In recognition
of this there has been established a USDA Program
for Reclamation of Lands Affected by Mining.  The
Program is concerned with anticipating and amelio-
rating the effects of fossil fuel and mineral de-
velopment on the environment, surface resources,
people and agricultural production.  It coordinates
and maximizes the impact of USDA agency activities,
thus enabling the Department to exercise federal
leadership in reclaiming private and public lands.
It also fosters coordination and seeks to avoid dup-
lication with related work of non-USDA agencies.
     The Program  coordinates  and accelerates  the
individual efforts  of  several  USDA agencies.  These
agencies are:  the  Agricultural  Stabilization and
Conservation Service(ASCS), Agricultural  Research
Service (ARS), Cooperative State Research  Service
(CSRS), Economic  Research Service (ERS),  Extension
Service (ES), Forest Service  (FS)  and  the  Soil
Conservation Service (SCS).   They are  the  ones in
USDA that conduct programs directly concerned with
the management of soil,  water,  plants  and  animals
on rural private  and public lands  affected by
mining.

     This paper addresses itself principally to a
brief description of the research  and  development
aspects of the Program.

PROGRAM GOAL, OBJECTIVES AND  BENEFITS

     The ultimate goal of the  R&D  aspects  of the
USDA Program for Reclamation  of  Lands  Affected by
Mining is to provide new knowledge  and  technology
to assure that the  Nation's energy  and  mineral needs
are met in a reasoned, selective and orderly way,
without sacrificing food and  fiber, quality of liv-
ing in rural areas, or quality of  the  environment.

     Overall Program objectives  will be accomplished
by assessing potential impacts of  mineral  develop-
ment and by developing planning  and reclamation
technologies and  passing them on to users.  The
technologies derived will apply  to  private  lands
under individual or corporate  ownership and to pub-
lic lands, including Federal  lands  administered by
USDA and other Departments.   They  will  also assist
local communities,  families,  and firms  affected by
industrialization.

     Included among the  objectives  are:

Land - As many as 12 or  13 million  acres of land may
be disturbed by 1990.  Disturbance  patterns and rec-
lamation potentials will be identified  in  advance of
mining.  This will  make  it possible to  plan develop-
ment activities so  that  land  critically needed for
producing food and  fiber is not  taken  out  of produc-
tion.  Land that  cannot  be reclaimed for present use
or returned to more productive uses will be identi-
fied so that appropriate public  action  can  be con-
sidered.  Technology will be  developed  and dissemi-
nated and technical assistance will  be  provided so
that the private  sector  can effectively reclaim
mined lands.

]_/  This paper is largely based  on  materials  pre-
    pared by a USDA interagency  work group.

2/  USDA has a long history of cooperative activi-
    ties with research arms of Land Grant  Colleges
    and Universities.  In addition to  research  and
    development conducted by  USDA,  the R&D described
    in this paper includes research conducted  by the
    State Experiment Station  System with  funds  (1)
    initially appropriated to USDA or  (2)  "passed
    through" to USDA from EPA.

-------
      se. - M,a,ny mining, transportation,  and conver-
sion  technologies require large  quantities  of water.
It is expected that a significant  portion of the
mineral development activities will  occur in water-
scarce areas.  Thus water could  be diverted from
agricultural and other uses  to mineral  development
uses.  Through the Program,  water  demands will  be
identified and adverse impacts assessed.   To the
extent possible, mineral development activities can
then  be planned, phased, and located so that agri-
cultural productivity will not be  seriously affected.

Hater Quality   Some mineral  development  activities
can result in degraded water quality both through
consumption and the discharge of pollutants into
water supplies.  For example, disturbance of the
soil  profile by surface mining can increase the
movement of soluble salts and acid-forming  materials
into  the surface and groundwaters.   Technologies
developed through the Program will  often  prevent
degradation of water quality. Situations where con-
trol  technologies are not feasible will be  identi-
fied  so that mineral development may be avoided.

Air Quality   The discharge  of toxic gases  and par-
ticulate materials from mineral  processing  activi-
ties  may affect growth of vegetation and  productive
capacity of surrounding areas.   This adverse impact
will  be reduced through the  development of toxic
resistant plant varieties or the identification of
situations where compensating actions are needed.

Maintaining and Promoting Viable Rural  Communities
and Areas - Rural communities and  areas will be pro-
vided with  information and alternatives to  adjust
governmental organizations,  educational systems,
permanent resources, and public  and private services
needed to accommodate increasing populations.  With-
out prior knowledge of expected  impacts and mecha-
nisms to deal with these impacts,  overcrowded
schools, shortages of capital and  consumer goods,
inadequate  public and private services  including
sewage, roads, medical, etc., and  localized infla-
tion  will result.  The Program will  provide means to
promote orderly economic growth  in rural  areas in
order to capture the benefit both  of rural  living
and strong  economic growth.

Agricultural and Forest Productivity -  The  Program
will  diminish the possibilities  for long-run losses
of productive capacity of U.S. agriculture  as a
result of mineral development and  associated trans-
portation and processing.  For example, in  the
States of Montana, Wyoming,  and  North Dakota alone
the annual value of production of  wheat,  barley, and
oats  potentially displaced annually by  mining has
been  estimated to be as much as  $2 million  at cur-
rent  prices.  Without reclamation  these losses would
continue over time.  Losses  can  be avoided  by ident-
ifying and taking measures to prevent critically
needed land areas from being taken or removed from
production, by ensuring that adequate quality water
supplies are retained, and by taking action to com-
pensate for the release of toxic matter into the
air.

Environmental Amenities   Land reclaimed  in accor-
dance with plans made prior  to mining can provide
multiple use benefits.  Planning can lead to
                                                  183
development of improved wildlife  habitat,  of  new
water based recreation opportunities  such  as  swim-
ming and fishing, and provide for other  recreation
activities.

FIELD UNITS IMPLEMENTING THE PROGRAM

     The overall Program is implemented  by several
organizations working at many locations.   General
information about these arrangements,  including  in-
formation about how survey, education, technical
assistance and reclamation activities  interrelate
with the research and development program  are given
below.

            Activity, Scope and Extent

     R&D   20 USDA field research centers  in  16
States.  Research agreements with 11 Universities.
Research projects at 18 State Agricultural Experi-
ment Stations.  Plant Materials development at 14
Plant Materials Centers and 2 Forest Nurseries.
Mining and reclamation demonstrations  in 4 States.

     Surveys   Soil survey teams active  in 652
counties where major mining impacts are  anticipated.

     Education   Extension specialists active in 28
states disseminating reclamation  information.
(There are over 3,000 Extension offices  nationwide.)

     Technical Assistance   Technical  assistance
provided to more than 22,500 landowners  and mining
companies  in approximately 2,000 counties, through
Conservation Districts and State and Private
Forestry Programs.

     Reclamation   Reclamation projects  on orphaned
or abandoned mined lands on National Forests  and
Grasslands in 5 states.

R&D COMPONENTS OF THE PROGRAM

     The general nature of the R&D Aspects of the
Program is outlined below.  These activities  are
carried out with (1) funds appropriated  to USDA,
(2) energy R&D funds "passed through"  to USDA from
EPA and (3) funds transferred to  USDA  by the  Bureau
of Mines,  USDI.

               R&D Aspects of the USDA
             Program for Reclamation of
              Lands Affected by Mining

     1.  Impacts of alternative mineral  extraction
methods, related transportation systems, and  in-
dustrial plants processing mined material.

  a.  Production of food and fiber and on  surface
        resources
  b.  Groundwater
  c.  Wildlife and fish habitat
  d.  Aesthetics
  e.  Employment, living standards, and  structure
        of local rural areas and  communities
  f.  Interregional shifts in economic activity  and
        local employment
  g.  Availability and quality of water  for  agri-
        cultural production

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184
   h.   State and local  governments

      2.   Reclamation technology

   a.   Overburden Analysis

       1)  Core sampling and laboratory procedures
       2)  Prediction of spoil  stability, potential
             for plant  growth,  and water quality
       3)  Methods of overburden handling to prevent
             interruption of groundwater flow

   b.   Redeposition

       1)  Methods of stockpiling and replacing soil
       2)  Methods of overburden redeposition based
             on core analysis
       3)  Methods of redeposition to achieve better
             spoil stability

   c.   Hydrology

       1)  Methods of handling  water to prevent ero-
             sion and flood damage
       2)  Methods to improve quality of water flow-
             ing from mined lands

   d.   Amendments

       1)  Spoil  amendments on  high alkali  and high
             acid conditions
       2)  Irrigation as a spoil  leaching technique
       3)  Mulches and  fertilizers to aid plant
             establishment

   e.   Plant Materials

       1}  Plant species adaptable to acid  spoils and
             high altitude sites
       2)  Use  of microbiological techniques to
             assist plant establishment
       3)  Expansion of plant materials production
       4)  Vegetation cover for special uses such as
             wildlife,  recreation

   f.   Cost Effectiveness

       Least-cost reclamation technologies  that will
       meet environmental  and productivity  standards

   g.   Pilot Testing

       1)  Field testing on small plots of  nursery-
             grown planting stock
       2)  Field evaluation of  nursery stock on mine
             sites
       3)  Field demonstration  of the total  reclama-
             tion process including planning, extrac-
             tion, and  reclamation

   h.   Systems

       1)  Storage and  retrieval  systems for infor-
             mation  required in mineral planning and
             decisionmaking.  The system will con-
             tain geographically oriented informa-
             tion as well  as  technological  informa-
             tion.  The system  will provide  users
             with immediate services for long-range
            or project-specific  planning.
      2.  Analytical  procedures  for  predicting im-
            pacts of  mining  and  reclamation under
            a wide variety of  conditions.

     As shown below,  R&D  aspects  of  the  Program are
carried out at many places in  several  physiographic
regions of the country.
Location
Alabama, Auburn
Arizona, Tucson
California, Berkeley
Colorado, Ft. Collins
Meeker
D.C. , Washington
Idaho, Aberdeen
Cour de' Alene
Lucky Peak
Moscow
Illinois, Peoria
Urbana
Kansas, Manhattan
Kentucky, Berea
Lexington
Quicksand
Maryland, Beltsville
Michigan, East Lansing
Missouri, Elsberry
Montana, Billings
Bozeman
Bridger
Missouta
New Mexico, Albuquerque
Las Cruces
Los Lunas
New York, Big Flats
Ithaca
North Carolina, Raleigh
North Dakota, Bismarck
Fargo
Mandan
Ohio, Columbus
Oregon, Corvallis
Pennsylvania, Univ. Park
South Dakota, Rapid City
Texas, Knox City
Utah, Logan
Ogden
Virginia, Blacksburg
Washington, Pullman
West Virginia, Morgantown
Wyoming, Laramie
USDA Agency
ARS



X






X





X










X



X
X

X




X

X

CSRS
X
X

X





X

X
X

X


X


X



X



X

X



X


X

X

X
X
ERS



X

X














X









X












FS


X
X



X
X




X





X
X
X
X
X

X



X





X

X
X



X
scs

X


X

X








X
X
X
X


X



X
X


X



X


X



X


     The Northern Great Plains, the Four Corners
Area and other parts of the Intermountain Region,
the Appalachian Coal Area and the Midwestern Coal
Fields are receiving emphasis in the Program.  The
longest history of R&D activities is in Appalachia.
Certain findings from this research are useful  in
the other geographic areas, but differences in
climate, topography', vegetation and a host of other
factors require the development of new knowledge
and techniques for local conditions.

-------
    Roles of USDA agencies  in  the  Program are tabu-
lated below in ge.ne.ral terms.

          Broad Subject Areas  Covered  by
         Activities of R&D  Agencies  in the
          USDA Program for  Reclamation of
             Lands Affected by Mining
                                                                                                         185
Subject Area
Ecological effects
(fresh water)
Ecological effects
(air/terrestrtal )
Overburden analysis
Redeposition
Hydrology
Amendments
Plant materials
Pilot testing
Modelling and infor-
mation systems
Integrated assessment

ARS

X

X
X
X
X
X
X
X



USDA Agency
CSRSl/

X

X
X
X
X
X
X
X


X
ERS












X
FSfLA

X

X
X
X
X
X
X
X

X
X
scs








X




]_/  CSRS  supports research  and  development at State
    agricultural experiment stations and schools of
    forestry with (1)  funds  appropriated to USDA
    under the terms  of the  Hatch  and Mclntire-Stennis
    Acts  and (2) energy funds  "passed through" from
    EPA.   The agency does not  conduct research.
2_/  FS activities are coordinated from Washington,
    D.C.   A significant part of the western R&D is
    conducted through the SEAM Program headquartered
    at Billings, Montana.   Eastern R&D is largely
    centered at  Berea, Kentucky.

     The  principal USDA contacts  for R&D aspects of
the Program are:

Agricultural Research Service

Dr. Harold Barrows
Office of the Administrator
Agricultural Research Service
Room 330A
U. S.  Department of  Agriculture
Washington, D.C.  20250
  202-447-5211

Cooperative State Research  Service

Dr. Eilif Miller
Cooperative State Research  Service
Room 444W
U. S.  Department of  Agriculture
Washington, D.C.  20250
  202-447-4348

Economic  Research Service

Dr. John  Schaub
Economic  Research Service
U. S.  Department of  Agriculture
Room 420B
500 12th  Street, S.W.
Washington, D.C.
  202-447-8735
Forest Service

Dr. Robert Callaham
Forest Service
Room 808 RP-E
U. S. Department of Agriculture
Washington, D.C.  20250
  703-235-1071

Soil Conservation Service

Mr. Robert MacLauchlan
Soil Conservation Service
Room 1405P, Auditors Bldg.
U. S. Department of Agriculture
Washington, D.C.  20250
  202-447-5667

Office of  the Secretary

Dr. David  J. Ward
Office of  the Secretary
Room 359A
U.S. Department of Agriculture
Washington, D.C.  20250
  202-447-3854

     These persons comprise  a USDA  work  group to
provide broad leadership for R&D  aspects of  the
USDA Program for Reclamation of Lands  Affected by
Mining.

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186
            ENERGY RESOURCE EXTRACTION;
              OIL AND GAS PRODUCTION
                J. Stephen Dorrler
       U.S. Environmental Protection Agency
               Edison, New Jersey
INTRODUCTION

     The extraction, conversion and utilization of
oil and gas have played, and will continue to play,
a major role in the national energy balance.  Re-
cent political and economic developments are ex-
pected to spur substantial increases in developing
domestic oil and gas resources with the co-commit-
ent potential for adverse impacts on the environ-
ment.  These developments include:

     1. the impetus to markedly increase explora-
tion for, and development of domestic reserves
under Project Independence,

     2. the expectation that future reserves of oil
and gas will be located principally in the outer
continental shelf (OSC) regions,

     3. frontier areas such as Alaska, heretofore
relatively untouched, will experience a major frac-
tion of the new developments,

     4. increased market values of oil will result
in marked increase in the use of recovery enhance-
ment techniques with, as yet, incompletely under-
stood environmental consequences.

     Approximately half a million producing oil
wells onshore generate produced water in excess of
10,000,000 barrels per day.  Approximately 17,000
wells have been drilled offshore in U.S. waters,
and approximately 11,000 are producing oil or gas.
Offshore Louisiana, the OCS alone produces approxi-
mately 410,000 barrels of water per day;(2) by
1983, coastal Louisiana production will generate an
estimated 1.54 million barrels of water per day.(3)

     Other than oils, the primary waste constitu-
ents from these facilities  include oxygen demanding
pollutants,  heavy metals, toxicants, and dissolved
solids contained in drilling muds or produced water.
Production wastes include produced waters associat-
ed with extracted oil, sand and other solids re-
moved from the produced waters, drainage from the
platform or site facilities, sanitary wastes, and
domestic wastes.  Produced waters generate the
greatest concern and can contain oils, toxic metals,
and a variety of salts, solids and organic chemi-
cals.  The concentration of constituents vary some-
what from one geographical  area to another, with
the most pronounced variance in chloride levels.
Table  I  shows the waste consituents  in offshore
Louisiana production facilities  in the Gulf of
Mexico.   Industry data for  offshore  California  de-
scribes a broader range of  parameters as shown  in
Table  II.  Sand and other solids are produced along
with the produced water.  Although amounts vary,
sand has been reported  to  be  produced  at  approxi-
mately one barrel of  sand  for 2,000 barrels of
oil.(2)

     Drilling wastes  are generally  in  the form of
drill  cuttings and mud  and  are  composed of the
rock,  fines, and liquids contained  in  the geologic
formations that have  been  drilled through.  The two
basic classes of drilling  muds  used today are water
based muds and oil muds.   In  general,  much of the
mud introduced into the well  hole is eventually
displaced out of the  hole  and requires disposal or
recovery.  Table III  provides an estimate of the
volume of cuttings and  muds in  a typical  10,000 ft.
drilling operation.

     In addition to these  chronic type discharges,
oil producing and associated  facilities also experi-
ence oil spill incidents.   The  U.S.  Coast Guard
reported 3,644 spills in 1974 from  producing fa-
cilities.  This is approximately 26 percent of the
total  number of incidents  and contributed
3,468,106 gallons of  oil to the environment. (4)

     EPA's overall program  for  controlling emis-
sions  from oil and gas  producing facilities in-
cludes work in the following  areas:

     1. developing technology to prevent  environ-
mental damage during  the installation and operation
of wells, platforms,  and transfer facilities,

     2. developing criteria to  be used in evaluating
sites  for onshore pipelines and onshore facilities
to support offshore oil and gas production opera-
tions,

     3. developing technology to prevent, control,
and cleanup oil spills.

TECHNICAL DISCUSSION

     End of pipe treatment  technology for  produced
water  from offshore facilities  consists primarily of
physical chemical methods.  Onshore facilities gen-
erally practice some  form of  no discharge  treatment
such as evaporation or  injection into formations.
The type of treatment system  selected for  the par-
ticular offshore facility  is  dependent upon avail-
ability of space, waste characteristics,  volumes of
waste  produced, existing discharge  limitations, and
other local factors.  Simple  treatment systems may
consist of only gravity separation  pits without the
addition of chemicals,  while  more complex  systems
may include surge tanks, clarifiers, coalescers,
flotation units, chemical  treatment and/or rein-
jeetion.

     Table IV gives the relative long  term perfor-
mance  of existing waste water treatment systems in
the Louisiana coastal area.   The general  superior-
ity of gas flotation  units  and  loose media filters
over the other systems  is  readily apparent.  How-
ever,  individual units  of  other types  of  treatment
systems have produced comparable effluents.(2)

     About 75 percent of the  systems in the Gulf of
Mexico coastal area are gravity separation systems.

-------
The majority are located onshore and have limited
application on offshore platforms because of  space
limitations.

    Despite the fact that the offshore  industry
has been operating in the Gulf of Mexico since  1954
the waste produced from these facilities has  never
been adequately characterized..  Additionally,
treatment technology development has been limited
to trial and error using off the shelf oil/water
separation equipment.  This end - of - pipe treat-
ment approach has never properly addressed upstream
control of waste sources.  Therefore, EPA is  cur-
rently sponsoring studies which will define design
features of unit processes, equipment and hardware,
including pertinent aspects of human factors  engi-
neering, and operation and maintenance procedures
which should be practiced or avoided in  order to
minimize discharge of pollutants from offshore  fa-
cilities.

    Produced water is receiving major emphasis in
this study as it constitutes the largest single
source of waste discharged from offshore facilities.
A characterization scheme, which will define  the
principal constituents of produced water, is  being
developed in terms of the treatment technology  for
oil  contaminated water.  For example, the char-
acterization scheme will define oil particle  size
distribution and stability for the following  oil
conditions:

               free oil
               emulsified oil
               dissolved oil
               oil wet solids

A pollution control rational for produced water
will be used to evaluate equipment designs, opera-
tion and maintenance procedures and human engineer-
ing  factors from the viewpoint of pollutant minimi-
zation.  The rationale will be confirmed by field
and  laboratory  analysis of samples.  For example,
the  rationale could state that a well head choke
contributes significantly to the oil in  water emul-
sion problem and that the substitution of a down
hole choke will reduce this problem.  The proof of
this rationale  would then be the sampling and oil
particle size analysis performed on platforms using
these two control systems.

    Another study, being conducted with the  U.S.
Geological Survey, is developing criteria for use
in determining  shoreside impact of offshore develop-
ment.   It is well understood that offshore facil-
ities cannot exist without support from  onshore
bases.  What is not well understood is the social,
economic, and environmental effects of this onshore
expansion.  For example, in a recent study sponsored
by the American Petroleum Institute,(5)  it was  esti-
mated that an additional 60,000 people will be  re-
quired to support the offshore industry  in the  Mid-
Atlantic area only.  Additional shoreside facilities
occupying 3 to  4 square miles of coastal area will
be required as  well.  In the Gulf of Mexico and
Southern California DCS areas the product is
brought to shore by pipelines.  'However  in the
Atlantic and Gulf of Alaska it is anticipated that
development will take place far offshore (beyond
                                                 187
30 miles).  Therefore, a question that must  be
answered is "how will the products from these two
frontier areas be brought to shore?"  If  by  tanker,
than where should the port facilities be  built?
If by pipeline, where should the pipeline corridors
be located?  Under the EPA-USGS study, planning
criteria will  be developed and then discussed with
officials from coastal communities.  Through iter-
ant analysis,  the criteria will be refined several
times prior to final publication.  It is felt that
this approach  will produce a document with wide
acceptance throughout the planning community.

     According to the Oil Spill Prevention,  Control
and Countermeasures Plan Review Manual, which was
prepared by Rice University and the University of
Texas for the Environmental Protection Agency, the
most probable source of leaks and spills from oil
producing facilities is from pipes, valves and fit-
tings.  Regardless of the type of equipment  used to
store or process oil, the oily, material must be
moved by pumping it though pipes, valves and fit-
tings.  In assessing the oil spill potential in
piping systems, the most important factors to be
considered are the compatibility of the pipe with
the other material being handled, the range of tem-
peratures and  pressures involved, and the overall
construction integrity of the pipe material.  Leak
detection and pipeline systems installed above
ground or above water consists primarily of onsite
inspection.  Despite sophisticated electronic flow-
monitoring electronic equipment, the most reliable
underwater and underground leak detection method is
again visual inspection.  This inspection is most
commonly performed by aircraft.  Currently available
flow monitoring equipment can detect pipeline leaks
in the neighborhood of 0.1 to 1.0 percent of the
total throughput.(6)  Thus, pipelines can leak a
substantial quantity of oil undetected.  For ex-
ample, a 50,000 barrel per day pipeline could lose
from 50-500 barrels, or 2,100 to 21,000 gallons of
oil a day undetected.'  This would be classified as
a significant pollution incident.  A study is cur-
rently being prepared that will assess the state-of-
the-art for pipeline leak detection and make recom-
mendations for advancing the technology in areas
which look promising.

     Because of the increased market values  of oil,
enhanced oil recovery techniques are becoming prof-
itable for onshore production facilities.  However,
as yet, the environmental consequences of these
techniques are not completely understood.  Second-
ary recovery, of which water flooding is  the most
common, reached a peak abo.ut 1965 and has been de-
clining since.(7)  This decline is based  primarily
on economics.   However, at present values, tertiary
recovery is now being considered.  Tertiary  re-
covery generally is considered among the more
exotic oil recovery processes and includes miscible
displacement,  thermal recovery and chemical  flood-
ing.  These types of enhanced recovery techniques
will be applicable to many of the existing onshore
oiT fields.  In order for the U.S. to maintain  its
oil producing rates, recovery of a "third crop"  of
oil from those fields which have already  undergone
secondary recovery is a logical choice.   However,
there is a sense of urgency in developing new  ter-
tiary recovery methods due to the fact that  many

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188
 of those  fields  in  which  water floods  were initi-
 ated  in  the  1950's  have reached the advanced^stages
 of depletion.   Some are nearing their  economic
 limit and wells  are being plugged  and  abandoned.
 Very  few  prospects  are expected to be  so profitable
 that  the  economics  will permit redrilling of wells
 and replacement  of  surface equipment.   Most ter-
 tiary methods  are heavy front-end  loaded with chem-
 ical  and/or  equipment costs.   Anticipating increas-
 ed development in this area EPA is preparing a
 study which  will  assess the environmental impact  of
 enhanced  recovery practices.   Future work in the
 area  of  control  technology development for enhanced
 recovery  will  depend upon the results  of this study.

      Oil  producing  facilities, both onshore and off-
 shore, contribute approximately 26 percent of the
 spill incidents  that occur annually.  Most mechani-
 cal and  sorbent  cleanup and control systems have
 failed when  used at sea.   Mechanical cleanup de-
 vices are limited for the same reasons that contain-
 ment  booms are limited    rough sea state conditions.
 Generally speaking, booms and skimmers are suitable
 only  for  calm  water with  well defined  oil slicks.

      Although  proponents  of particular systems have
 claimed  rough  water capabilities,  none has proved
 effective so far and prospects are not promising.
 Based on  studies at EPA's Oil and  Hazardous
 Materials Simulated Environmental  Test Tank
 (OHMSETT), oil spill recovery operations are limit-
 ed to currents of less then 0.7 knots  with wave
 conditions in  the range 2 ft. in height with a 3
 second period.

      Sorbents, which have proved more  effective
 than  mechanical  devices under severe sea state con-
 ditions,  also  are faced with difficulties.  For ex-
 ample, recovery  efficiencies of a  sorbent vary
 widely for different types of oil.  Although straw
 is cheap  and easily obtainable, it becomes water-
 logged and does  not have  high oil  retention ability.
 Further,  cleanup efforts  with straw have had to rely
 on hand  labor  which increases both the cost and the
 time  that the  oil soaked  straw remains in the water.

      Several new sorbent  cleanup methods offer some
 promise  of improvement.   One system being developed
 by EPA,  broadcasts  polyurathane foam over the oil
 slick and recovers, cleans and reuses  it in a to-
 tally mechanized process.  Other methods use belts
 or ropes  of sorbent material  which are drawn
 through  the  slick,  cleaned on shipboard and returned
 to the slick in  a continuous operation.

      The  use of dispersants in the U.S. coastal
 waters is sharply restricted by the National Oil
 and Hazardous  Materials Contingency Plan and state
 regulations.  Primary oil spill response of the
 United Kingdom and  industry operating  in the U.K.
 sector of the  North Sea,  however,  is based on chem-
 ical  dispersants.   Dispersants with toxicity several
 orders of magnitude less  than those used on the
 Torrey Canyon  have  been developed  by U.K. industries
 since 1967.   The equipment in the  North Sea is
 limited  to fire  spray units which  are  capable of
 spraying  dispersants  for six hours.  The limita-
 tions  inherent  in  mechanical containment and clean-
 up emphasize  the  need to explore other alterna-
 tives,  including  dispersants.

     Oil  spills are an eventuality in almost all
 waterway  areas.  At the present time oceanfront
 protection  is nonexistent.   The current method of
 operation is  to allow the oil  to come ashore and
 then remove it  from the sandy  or rocky beach using
 rakes,  shovels, and manpower.   If the penetration
 of the  oil  into the sand is less than two inches
 and the oil is  not fluid, the  oil can be raked in-
 to windrows of  approximately one ft., picked up
 with shovels  and  placed into a front end loader
 or dump truck.  If the damage  to the beach is more
 extensive,  than mechanical  equipment must be used.
 Through a research project  sponsored by EPA, it was
 determined  that a  motorized elevating scraper used
 in tandem with  a  motorized  grader, are the best
 mechanical  equipment to use for beach restoration.
 Rock shore  face cleaning has been limited to high
 pressure, high  temperature, water hosing.  This is
 a very  difficult  and time consuming operation and
 its effectiveness  leaves much  to be desired.

 PROGRAM DISCUSSION

     Investigations in the  field of oil pollution
 control have  been  carried out  by EPA and its prede-
 cessors since 1968.  From that year through 1972 the
 research  was  concerned exclusively with oil spill
 cleanup and control.   Beginning in 1973 the emphasis
 began to  turn to  control  technology for oil  and gas
 extraction and  handling with primary concern in the
 offshore  area.  The current program projection de-
 fines some 65 tasks in seven major fuctional areas.
Many of these tasks represent  continuing  efforts
in particular areas being funded  on  an  incremental
basis.   Each  of the tasks defined has  an  established
target date.  In addition,  task milestones  have
been defined  and program  interdependents  identified.
The formulation of  future milestones  is  based on
previous  accomplishments  and preceeds  in  a well  de-
fined fashion.  Prior  to  FY-74 the work  on  oil pol-
lution  control  was  funded entirely from  EPA's base
budget.   Beginning  in  FY-75  a  switch  to  energy
funds was  begun and it is intended that  in  FY-77
this program will   be  supported entirely  with energy
funds.   The spills  research  program  receives inter-
agency agreements  from the  U.S. Coast  Guard  and U.S.
Navy primarily  for  equipment testing  at  OHMSETT.
Only one  interagency  agreement exists  at the pres-
ent time  in the oil and gas  control  technology area
and that  is with the  U.S. Geological  Survey  as
metnioned previously.

     Task priorities  for  this  program  are develop-
ed to meet the  requirements  of the Office of
Research  and  Development.   However,  because of its
"response type" nature this1 is one of  the few re-
search programs able  to identify  real  customers in
the operational area.   This  is particularly true
for the spills  research program.   As  a result the
needs of  these  "customers"  are continually addressed
in developing task  priorities.

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                                                                                                         189
    Approximately 90 percent of the work  in  oil
pollution control  technology development is being
performed under contract or grant agreements.   A
small inhouse effort in the area of oil spill
source identification forms an intragal part  of the
overall program.  Additionally, work at OHMSETT
constitutes the only "real world" testing  of  oil
spill cleanup equipment that is conducted  in  the
U.S.

PROJECTION

    It is anticipated that over the next  four
years work in oil  spill control technology will
diminish as oil and gas production control tech-
nology is increased.  It is expected that  enhanced
recovery techniques for onshore facilities will
greatly expand in the very near future.  Concur-
rently, control technology for the exotic  chemical
systems used in tertiary recovery will  also be de-
veloped.  Waste management practices for use  on-
board offshore facilities will be developed as the
field studies varify our pollution control ratio-
nale.

     It is felt that by providing the  oil  and gas
extraction and handling industry with  the  basic
technology for effluent limitation and discharge
control, BATEA and  New Source  standards  for  the
near offshore and far offshore subcategories  can
be met.

CONCLUSIONS

     The environmental control technology  used in
the past by  the oil and gas extraction and handling
industry is  inadequate to  handle  the problems asso-
ciated with  new sophisticated  enhanced recovery
practices, operational characteristics of  frontier
OCS development, and increased impact  on  the  public
at large.  EPA's research  program, as  outlined, is
designed to  assess  current operational and treat-
ment technology, apply existing  state-of-the-art
solutions where possible,  and  advance  the  state-of-
the-art  in treatment control  technology where re-
quired.  In  the near future the  program will  place
emphasis on  developing new oil/water  separation
technology,  waste minimization and management tech-
niques for offshore facilities,  and  oil  spill pre-
vention methodology.  More sophisticated monitoring,
alarm, and shutdown systems will  be  developed to
minimize the possibility  of undetected pipeline
leaks or catostrophic breaks.  Systems will  be de-
veloped to detect pin hole leaks.  Acoustical or
electronic tracing  of the  lines  will  be studyed as
possible solutions  to this problem.  The  onshore
facility citing criteria will  contribute more to
rational decisions  concerning  OCS and  coastal uses
by improving interaction  between  state and Federal
decision makers prior to  commiting OCS and onshore
resources to development.
                REFERENCES
"Research Strategy  for  Studies  Pertaining to
Control Technology  for  Oil  & Gas Extraction
Activities",  by  Battelle  Memorial  Institute,
Richland, Washington.   U.S.  Environmental
Protection Agency,  Washington,  D.C.,  December
1974.

"Development  Document for Interim  Final  Ef-
fluent  Limitations  Guidelines and  New Source
Performance Standards for the Offshore Seg-
ment of the Oil  and Gas Extraction Point
Source  Category", U.S.  Environmental  Protection
Agency, Washington,  D.C., EPA 440/1-75/055,
Group II, September 1975.

"Determination of Best  Practical Control  Tech-
nology  Currently Available  to Remove  Oil  from
Water Produced with Oil  and  Gas",  prepared by
Brown & Root,  Inc.,  Houston, Texas.   Offshore
Operators Committee, Sheen  Technical  Subcom-
mittee  1974.

"Polluting Incidents In and  Around U.S.  Waters
Calendar Year  1974", Commandant (G-WEP)  U.S.
Coast Guard,  Washington,  D.C.  20590.

"Mid-Atlantic Regional   Study  An Assessment  of
Onshore Effects  of Offshore  Oil and Gas  De-
velopment", American Petroleum  Institute,
Washington, D.C., October 1975.

Lederman,  P.  B.  and Dorrler,  J. S., "Develop-
ment of Offshore Oil &  Gas in New  England  En-
vironmental Problems &  Solutions", 8th National
Meeting, AIChE,  Boston, Massachusetts,
September 9-11,  1975.

Herbeck, E. F.,  Hetntz, R. C. and
Hastings,  J.  R., "Fundamentals  of  Tertiary
Recovery", Petroleum Engineer,  No. 1,  Vol.  48,
January 1976.

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190







Pollutant Parameter
TABLE I
Pollutants in Produced Water
Louisiana Coastal (a) (2)
Range mg/1 Average mg/1




Oil and Grease 7-1300 202
Cadmium 0.005 - .675 0.068
Cyanide 0.01 - 0.01 0.01
Mercury — 0.0005
Total Organic Carbon 30 1580 413
Total suspended solids 22 390 73
Total dissolved solids 32,000 202,000 110,000
Chlorides 10,000-115,000 61,000

Flow
250 200,000 bbls/day 15,000 bbls/day

(a) results of 1974 EPA survey of 25 discharges



Pollutant
Parameter
Arsenic
Cadmium
Total Chromium
Copper
Lead
Mercury
Nickel
Silver
Zinc
Cyanide
less than

Pol
Range, mg/1
0.001 - 0.08
0.02 0.18
0.02 - 0.04
0.05 - 0.116
0.0 - 0.28
0.0005 O.OQ2
0.100 0.29
0.03
0.05 - 3.2
0.0 0.004

TABLE II
lutants Contained in Produced Water
Coastal California (a) (2)
pf^etfr RSnge' ^
Phenolic Compounds 0.35 2.10
BOD 370 - 1,920
COD 400 - 3,000
Chlorides 17,230 - 21
TDS 21 ,700 - 40
Suspended Sol ids
Effluent 1 - 60
Influent 30 75
Oil and Grease 56 359







,000
,000




(a) Some data reflect treated waters for reinjection,

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191
Interval
Feet
0-1,000
1,000-3500
2,500,10,000

TABLE III
Volume of Cuttinas and Muds in Typical
10,000-Foot Drill ina Operation (2)
Hole Vol . of Wt. of
Size, Cuttinas, Cuttings, Prilling
inches hbl . pounds mud
24
16
12
Type of
562 505,000 sea water
& natural
mud
623 545,000 Gelled sea
water
915 790,000 Lime base
TABLE IV
Performance of Various Treatment Systems
Louisiana Coastal (2)
Mean Effluent
Oil and Grease
Treatment System mg/1
Gas Flotation 27
Parallel Plate Coalescers 48
Filters
Loose Media 21
Fibrous Media 38
Gravity Separation
Pits 35
Tanks 42
Vol of
Mud com-
ponents,
bbl
variable
700
950
No. of I 'nits
in Data
Base
27
31
15
7
31
48
Wt. of
Mud com-
ponents
pounds
81,500
424,000


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192
                  MINING OF OIL SHALE
                   Eugene F. Harris
         U.S. Environmental Protection Agency
     Industrial Environmental Research Laboratory
                   Cincinnati, Ohio
INTRODUCTION

    Oil shale is not, geologically speaking, a shale
and it contains virtually no oil.  It is a sedimen-
tary rock containing organic matter called kerogen
which yields synthetic crude and hydrocarbon gas
when heated.  The oil shale deposits of Colorado,
Utah, and Wyoming lie beneath 25,000 square miles
(65,104 square kilometers) of land.  About 17,000
square miles (44,271 square kilometers) contain oil
shale of potential value for commercial development
in the foreseeable future.  Roughly 80% of the known
higher grade oil shale reserves are located in
Colorado, 15% in Utah, and 5% in Wyoming.  Public
lands, administered by the Department of the Inter-
ior, contain 80% of the high-grade oil shale.  The
U.S. Geological  Survey has estimated that the total
oil shale reserve of the Green River Formation is
more than 600 billion barrels of oil and that 80
billion barrels  of this reserve are recoverable by
modern mining methods.  Extensive deposits of
sodium minerals  such as dawsonite (a carbonate of
sodium and aluminum) and nahcolite (sodium
bicarbonate) are associated with the oil shale
deposits.

    The environmental impacts associated with oil
shale development are potentially severe.  A large
part of the western United States, an area noted for
its high quality environment, will be subjected to
stresses and changes that must be determined and
controlled.

    The following is a partial list of potential
environmental impacts from oil shale mining of
concern to EPA:

    (1)  Disposal  of "spent shale" or the rock once
         the kerogen has been removed—saline material,
         possibly high sediment yield, establishment
         and viability of vegetative cover, problems
         of underground disposal.

    (2)  Water pollution from disposal of saline
         ground  water, pollution from sedimentation
         caused  by land disturbances and leaching of
         spent shale.

    (3)  Possible water and air quality problems from
         heavy metals and carcinogenic materials.

    (4)  Land use changes due to mining, wildlife
         disturbances, and loss of agricultural  land.

    (5)  Air quality degradation from fugitive dust,
         especially particulates from mining, solid
         materials handling and hauling, and
         emissions from underground mines.
    (6)  Solid waste  disposal  of residue and  spoils.

    (7)  Increase  in  erosion  from mining,  haul roads
        etc.                                      '

    (8)  Changes in subsurface flow patterns  and
        water quality.

TECHNICAL DISCUSSION

   The evaluation of the environmental  problems  and
the development of control technology to deal with
the problems is severely handicapped by the fact
that the oil shale industry in  the  United States
is a potential industry with  no  mines currently  in
operation.  Data are available  from previous mining
operations to some extent and  "spent oil shales" are
available from several types  of  processing, i.e.,
TOSCO, BOM, and Paraho.  It   is  expected that conven-
tional mining methods, area surface and room and
pillar underground, will be employed in oil shale
operations.  In addition to conventional methods,
in-situ techniques are being  tested to  retort the
oil shale underground.  In-situ  techniques have  a
potential  for reducing the surface  problems of spoil
disposal,  surface water pollution,  and  erosion
associated with conventional mining methods.   However,
some in-situ techniques involve  substantial under-
ground mining and could pose  a much greater threat
to the degradation of subsurface water  and air
quality.

   The lack of current activity  has the advantage of
allowing time for the collection of a substantial
amount of pre-mining or base  line data.  The
collection of these data is enhanced by the Prototype
Oil Shale Leasing Program of  the Department of the
Interior.   This program has been formulated to make
a limited number of leases of public oil shale lands
available for private development under controlled
conditions.  One of the primary  purposes of the
prototype program is to gain  an  understanding of the
environmental impacts of oil  shale  development.  The
program is responsible for the generation of trem-
endous volumes of data.  EPA's role, as regards  to
the prototype program, is to make certain that all
needed data are obtained to properly evaluate the
environmental impacts and ascertain the control
technology developments needed.  Additionally,
sufficient data must be acquired to anticipate the
environmental problems due to oil shale mining and
to formulate plans to control the anticipated
problems.

   Surface mining of shale will  be  similar to the_
large open pit mines involved in the mining of thick
coal seams or as in copper mining depending upon the
depth of overburden and thickness of oil shale
economically recoverable.  Activities will include:
surface preparation, blasting, overburden removal,
loading, and hauling.  Underground  mining will
involve the use of large loading and hauling
equipment.  Trucks and front  end loaders will be able
to operate underground because  of  the large rooms.
The rooms may have a width of 60 feet  (18 meters)  and
a height of from 60 to 80 feet  (18  to 24 meters).
This will  require special ventilation and could
require the development of control  technology to
protect air quality.

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                                                                                                         193
PROGRAM DISCUSSION

   Investigations of the potential environmental
impact of a developing oil shale industry have been
carried out by EPA and its predecessors for a number
of years.  The current program includes three active
studies.  As indicated above, the studies are
intended to establish probable environmental areas
of concern and to develop approaches and control
technology to minimize adverse environmental impacts.

   The studies are being conducted by Colorado State
University.  Two studies involve vegetation of "spent
oil shale".  Studies have shown that spent shales
from certain processes can be used as a medium for
plant growth.  A question remains as to whether
adequate plant and litter cover to control erosion
and minimize percolation can be maintained on spent
shales under natural precipitation conditions.  The
cover will depend, among other factors, on aspect,
elevation, slope, and on the chemical characteristics
of the spent shale.  Physical considerations include
particle size and color.  Spent shales contain too
high a concentration of salt for plant and are
deficient in nitrogen and phosphorus.  The primary
objective of the first study is to investigate
surface stability and salt movement in spent shales
as compared to these factors in spent shales covered
with soil and with established vegetation left under
natural precipitation conditions.  A secondary
objective is to evaluate establishment and growth of
a limited number of native plant species on the spent
shales.  The spent shales included in the study are
from processes of the U.S. Bureau of Mines and The
Oil Shale Corporation.  There are two study sites,
one at an altitude of 5,700 feet, the other at 7,200
feet.  The former site is on federal land on the U.S.
Bureau of Mines, Anvil Points Oil Shale Research
Facility, near Rifle, Colorado.  The Tatter site is
located on a mesa in the Piceance Basin, near Rio
Blanco, Colorado.

   Runoff and sediment yields will be measured.
Ground cover by live plants and litter will be
measured bimonthly during the growing season.  Soil
moisture, salinity, and temperature will also be
recorded.

   The second study will be an attempt to duplicate
on a very small scale possible disposal schemes for
the spent shale from the Paraho retorting process.
It is assumed that the spent shale will be compacted
to an optimum density for pile stability and to
minimize percolation through the pile.  Then a skin
of soil or uncompacted spent shale covered with soil
will be placed over the compacted spent shale.  This
study will be located on the USBM Anvil Points
Facility where the elevation is 5,700 feet and the
average annual precipitation is about 12 inches.
The plots will be placed over a concrete pad so the
quantity and quality of percolating water can be
measured.  Data collected will be as in the first
study.   In addition, the percolation samples will be
analyzed for Ca, Mg, Na, K, sulfates, Cl, nitrates,
hydrocarbons, pH, and EC

   The third project will utilize the data obtained
1n the above studies in addituon to collecting data
on a specific study.  Because various  state  and
federal institutions and agencies as well  as  private
companies are engaged in the collection of water
quality and hydrologic date on oil  shale  locations
there is a need for EPA to identify and obtained
current data where available.  Literature  searches
and personal contacts will be used  to  obtain  copies
of pertinent published data.  A major  source  of
information will be from the Prototype Oil Shale
Program.  From these documents; data,  analyses, and
conclusions pertinent to the water  quality hydrology
will be extracted and reported.

   It has been found that a most significant  aspect
of water quality degradation associated with  coal
strip-mine spoils composed of Late  Cretaceous shales,
siltstones and sandstones in the Rocky Mountain
region is the dissolution of soluble salts.   Koffin,
et al. report water quality data that  indicates the
dissolution of salts from the Green River  formation
is a most significant source of water  contamination
in the Piceance Basin as well.  Further, work by
others indicates that processed shale  residues have
a very high soluble salt content.   Thus, the model
being developed for coal mine spoils should be
directly applicable to oil shale residues  and mine
spoils should be applicable to oil  shale residues
and spoils.

   The model will have the ability  to predict the
quantity and quality of surface and subsurface run-
off from the oil shale spoils and residues. The
major chemical constituents that will  be considered
are Ca, Mg, Ma, carbonates, Cl, and sulfates.  The
model will also provide sufficient  information about
the chemical and moisture conditions in the spoil
or residue to be of help in spoil management  for
effective revegetation.

  Verification of the model will be based  upon data
collected on field sites.  Originally, the sites
were to be located on the Colony Mine property on
Parachute Creek and the study was to utilize TOSCO
spent shale.  The sites may no longer be available
due to the withdrawal of Atlantic Richfield from
the project.  An alternative may be to use the sites
established in the first two studies to verify the
model.  This is yet to be decided.
INTERAGENCY PARTICIPATION

   A number of environmental studies are being
conducted by government agencies.  The Energy Research
and Development Administration is conducting projects
focused upon in-situ recovery of oil from oil shale.
The states of Colorado and Utah and the U.S.
Geological Survey are monitoring air and water
quality, especially in areas that may be affected
by the mining of oil shale.  The U.S. Bureau of
Mines is conducting a surface and underground mining
analysis.  EPA maintains contact with these groups
through personal visits and formal meetings in order
to minimize duplication and to assist in environ-
eental evaluations.

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194
RESOURCES

   Table 1

       Resources Expended on Oil Shale Mining
  $       FY 75
       No. Projects   $K
           3          208

SUMMARY
   FY 76
No. Projects   $K
    3          162
   Oil shale deposits in the Upper Colorado River
Basin are located in the states of Colorado, Wyoming,
and Utah.  The large percentage of potential
commercial deposits are contained in the Green River
formation in the Piceance Basin of Colorado.  The
Green River formation is an Early Tertiary geologic
unit, formed in a depositional basin during Eocene
time.  Both surface and subsurface flow is to the
White River.  The White River is a tributary of the
Colorado.

   The natural quality of both surface and subsurface
waters is marginal  in much of the area.  The principal
chemical constituents in the water are calcium,
magnesium, sodium,  bicarbonate, chloride, and sulfate.
The source of these contaminants is the soluble salts
contained in the geologic material.

   Several processing technologies have been proposed
and researched.  These include in-situ retorting,
The Oil Shale Company (TOSCO) process, the Union Oil
Company process, the USBM process, and the Paraho
process.  They all  require mining of the raw shale
and disposal of a processed shale residue.  Both
surface and subsurface mining techniques are under
consideration.  Extensive underground mining and
in-situ retorting will modify the quality and
patterns of movement of underground water.  This
will, in turn, influence the quantity and quality of
stream flow in surface streams.  The disruption of
huge quantities of geologic material will expose
fresh surfaces to weathering and contact by surface
and subsurface waters.  This will increase the
salinity of these waters and the exposed surfaces
and mining activities are potential sources of
fugitive dust.  Mine dewatering will also influence
the water quality and hydrology of the area.

   The Environmental Protection Agency must keep
abreast of all available and significant data in
order to assure development of needed environmental
protection technologies and to be in a position to
recommend procedures to minimize the environment
impact of the oil shale industry upon a fragile
western environment.  The activities presented in
this report describe the means by which the EPA is
meeting this need in regard to the mining of oil
shale.

REFERENCES

   (1)  U.S. Department of the Interior, "Final
        Environment Statement for the Prototype
        Oil-Shale Leasing Program", U.S.G.P.O.,
        Number 2400-00785, August, 1973.
(2)   Region VIII, U.S.E.P.A., "Oil Shale
     Accomplishment Plan", September, 1974.

(3)   Bureau of Land Management, U.S.D.I.,
     "Proposed Development of Oil Shale Resources
     by the Colony Development Operation in
     Colorado", Draft Environmental  Impact
     Statement, November, 1975.

(4)   McWhorter, D. B., "Water Pollution Potential
     of Mine Spoils in the Rocky Mountain Region",
     Proceedings-Fifth Symposium on  Coal Mine
     Drainage Research, October, 1974, Louisville
     Ky.

(5)   Harbert, H. P. and Berg, W. A., "Vegetative
     Stabilization of Spent Oil Shales",
     Technical Report Number 4, Environmental
     Resources Center, Colorado State University,
     December, 1974.

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                                                                                                        195

                                 DISCUSSION  FOR ENERGY RESOURCE EXTRACTION


    Question:  One panel member  saw  the  situation  as  one  where surface mining resulted in environmental
damage while underground mining resulted  in  problems  of occupational  health.   Dr. Liverman in his talk
noted that many major problems remain  unsolved  with underground mining, while many surface mining problems
have been solved, especially  in the East.  Is there really a trade-off between the two types of mining,
environmental problems versus occupational health,  or  are  there really more environmental problems with
underground mining?

    Panel Response:  The great developments in surface mining reclamation have occurred because of
threats to ban it.  The industry  turned over backwards to  develop remedial technology.  Pennsylvania
provides a good example of the environmental  insult.   Whole regions of that State had been destroyed be-
cause of underground mining.  The  total damage  to society  from underground mining has not really been
assessed; it must be done.

    There are very few situations in  the  East  where  surface mining cannot be conducted with proper re-
clamation.  While it has a cost,  it can be done.  A satisfactory reclamation  techology has not been
developed for underground mining.  It's a  long-range  problem that yet may be  solvable, but it is going
to be very difficult.

    Question:  Have any studies  been  made regarding  the beneficial use of coal  mine waste, and secondly
have there been studies regarding  how  the  hydrological  function could be maintained in the alluvial
valley floors where much of the Western agriculture is concentrated?

    Panel Response:  The biggest  problem  associated with  the beneficial use  of coal  mine waste is the
control of leachates.  The British are using their  refuse  piles very  effectively.  This includes use as
primary fill where about six  feet  of  other material  is placed on top  of the coal  mine waste.   Coal  mine
waste is also used as fill in West Virginia.  There have also been investigations of using waste materials
for such things as bricks and fill material.  Disposal  is  also possible by returning the waste to under-
ground locations although this is  expensive.

    In response to the question  on   aquifers,  a number of problems should be mentioned.  These problems
are not currently serious in  the  West  because of the  small  size of present mines.  However, if land is
disturbed over distances of 10-70  miles in the  future, then there could be substantial disruption of
aquifers.  Drainage can be restored.   However,  natural  aquifers consist of a  great many small  branches.
This probably cannot be restored  exactly  as  it  was  before  mining.   That would be  a physical  impossibility.
In these large disruptions, there  is  insufficient data to  respond to  the question of restoring the
aquifers.

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        CHAPTER  9
FUEL PROCESSING

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198
INTRODUCTION

     Conversion of fuels to usable forms of energy
is accomplished with accompanying production of pro-
ducts having detrimental environmental effects.
Processing of fuels prior to conversion is accom-
plished to render the fuels suitable for the conver-
sion process anticipated and to reduce the resulting
detrimental environmental effects.

     This chapter is concerned with four fuel pro-
cesses.  The first 'of these processes, Fluidized-
Bed Combustion and Coal Cleaning have primary
purposes relating to minimizing environmental damage
resulting from conversion.  The second two processes,
production of synthetic fuels and the processing of
oil shale, have both environmental importance and
are necessary to modify the form of the fuels at the
time of extraction to a form suitable to the conver-
sion means in which the fuel will be consumed.

     The Fluidized-Bed coal combustion process in-
volves the combustion of coal within a bed of granu-
lar non-combustible material such as limestone or
dolomite.  The technology offers the potential for
energy production with low emissions of environ-
mentally harmful pollutants.  It simultaneously
offers reduced capital and operating costs with
thermal efficiencies equal to or greater than effi-
ciencies achieved with conventional combustion
equipment.  Alternate processes considered include
operation at atmospheric pressure and operation at
elevated pressures.  Data obtained to date suggests
that fluidized-bed combustion may be expected to
effectively control emissions of S02 and NOX.  While
data regarding other emissions is less complete,
reduction of other pollutants.is also likely.  Com-
mercial application is expected to be available in
the 1980's.
and assessment of the  environmental effects  of the
technologies.

     A related fuel process  is  concerned with the
vast reserves of oil shale.   These  deposits  in the
western United States  are  estimated to  contain over
two thousand billion barrels of oil.  While  closely
associated with extraction,  processing  of the shale
is required to produce a useful fuel.   This  pro-
cessing will proceed in one  of  two  directions.  The
shale can be mined and processed by retorting on the
.surface, or it may be  processed underground, in situ,
with the resulting liquids withdrawn by wells.  Be-
cause of the magnitude of  the required  processing
and the potential for  environmental damage,  a corre-
sponding program to develop  the associated pollution
control technology is  requisite.  The urgency of the
development of this energy source necessitates a
rapid response in environmental protection methodol-
ogy.
     Coal is primarily organic matter containing a
number of elementary constituents including sulfur.
In American coals, sulfur content may vary from less
than 1% to more than 6% in both organic and inorganic
forms.  Cleaning can be used to reduce the amount of
this and other pollutants prior to combustion.1'
Cleaning may be accomplished with either physical
or chemical means.  Physical cleaning employs
various techniques which often depend on differences
in specific gravity or surface properties to effect
separation of the coal and impurities.  Chemical
cleaning relies on treatment of the coal with a
reagent.  Success of various cleaning processes will
vary with the constituents of the coal from region
to region and even within a mine.  Chemical means,
however, are expected to produce the highest rates
of impurity removal.

     Physical and chemical coal cleaning reduces the
emission of pollutants on combustion, but produce
coal cleaning wastes which are themselves an environ-
mental problem of considerable magnitude.

     As an alternative to the direct combustion of
coal, it may first be converted to a synthetic fuel.
These fuels include liquefaction and low and high
BTU gasification produced in a number of processes
either existing or under development.  Work in prog-
ress covers both the development of the processes

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                                                                                                         199
                 Fuel Processing

                John K. Burchard
         Environmental  Protection Agency
   Industrial Environmental  Researcn  Laboratory
     Research Triangle Park, North Carolina
    Good afternoon.
    Although we are well into the second day  of
this meeting, I feel that this session—on  Fuel
Processing—represents the start of a somewhat new
subject, because this session and tomorrow  morn-
ing's--on Flue Gas Cleaning—both concern an area
not previously addressed at this meeting—Control
Technology.

    Both sessions relate to a significant  problem
facing this Nation of energy users.  Since  this  is
the first of the two related sessions,  I feel  it
appropriate to present this problem in  as simple
terms as possible:  We clearly have a sufficient
supply of domestic fuel; however, the type  of  fuel
we have in greatest abundance  (namely,  coal) is
simply not clean enough  to meet our environmental
standards. Simplicity ends as we switch from the
problem to the solutions.

    Essentially, there  are five basic  solutions
to the problem of air pollution caused  by burning
fossil fuels:

    1.  Stop burning fuel altogether.  (The
        consequences of this solution  boggle  the
        mind.)

    2.  Burn only essentially clean fuel.   (But
        we all know that the supply cannot keep
        up with the demand.)

    3.  Treat our fuel, making it cleaner, before
        burning it.

    4.  Change the way  our fuel  is burned,
        minimizing the  pollutants emitted.

    5.  Or clean up the emissions following
        combustion.

    The eight papers of this  session deal  with
the third and fourth of  the five  solutions  I just
mentioned: cleaning up our fuel before  burning it,
and modifying the combustion process  itself.


THE AUTHORS

    Before examining the papers,  I would  like to
say just a word about their authors,  all of whom
were selected for their  familiarity with the
different approaches being taken  by Government
research and development toward the goal of a
viable answer to this Nation's energy needs and
environmental concerns.
     Three of the authors discuss  fluid-bed  combus-
tion: Bruce Henschel, of EPA's  Industrial  Environ-
mental Research Laboratory in North  Carolina,
discusses EPA's fluid-bed combustion  program from
the standpoint of environmental characterization.

Al Jonke, from the Argonne National  Laboratory,
discusses the same subject, but aims  his remarks
at ERDA's program on process development (This
paper is co-authored by Vogel and  Swift.)
In the third paper on this subject, TVA's John
Reese outlines a comparison study of the cost of
two fluid-bed combustion processes  (atmospheric
and pressurized) with that of flue  gas desulfuriza-
tion.

     Three other authors discuss coal cleaning.
Jim Kilgroe, again of EPA's Industrial Lab in
North Carolina, discusses EPA's interest in physical
and chemical coal cleaning, a considerable portion
of which has to do with environmental assessment.

Al Deurbrouck, of the Department of Interior,
presents a parallel discussion of coal cleaning,
outlining, among other aspects, the Bureau of
Mines' efforts in control technology development.

The third paper in this area presents another side
of coal processing.  Eugene Wewerka, of the Los
Alamos Scientific Laboratory, discusses work being
done for ERDA on discarded refuse from coal
cleaning processes. (The co-authors are J. M.
Williams and P. L. Wanek.)

EPA's synthetic fuels program is discussed by Bill
Rhodes of the Industrial Environmental Research
Laboratory in North Carolina, and covers both
environmental assessment and control technology
development.

The final paper, by Tom Powers of EPA's Industrial
Environmental Research Laboratory in Cincinnati,
discusses EPA's interest in the relatively little
known area of oil shale development.

I will now attempt to briefly summarize the
individual papers.

Fluid-Bed Combustion

     Three of this session's eight  papers relate
to research and development in the  area of fluid-
bed combustion (or FBC):  one concentrates on
environmental assessment; the second discusses  FBC
technology development; and the third compares  its
cost with that of flue gas desulfurization.

     FBC Environmental Assessment

     Bruce Henschel's paper discusses EPA's
program, aimed at the complete environmental
characterization of the fluid-bed combustion

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200
process.  Funded at approximately S
per year, the program is being coordinated
with ERDA's process development work.

     As many of you know, the fluid-bed  _   ._
process involves the combustion of coal within
a bed of granular non-combustible material,
such as limestone or dolomite.  Air is passed
up through the distributor plate that supports
the bed, causing the granular bed particles to
become suspended, or fluidized. This same air
also serves in the combustion of the coal;  heat
generated in the bed can be removed by heat
transfer surfaces placed within it.  Sulfur
removal efficiencies of over 98% have been observed,
along with NO -emissions less than 25% of New
Source Performance Standards, in tests on the
EPA/Exxon miniplant.

     EPA's approach to this program, as it is to
the environmental assessment of any energy process,
consists of several components.  The first step
involves identification of the current process and
environmental background.  This is followed by a
comprehensive analysis of pollutant emissions from
selected operating units.  Next is the development
of environmental objectives for the process,
considering the emission levels identified  in
the previous step and their health and welfare
effects.  Following an assessment of control
technology, is an evaluation of the total impact
of the process on air, water, and land quality,
considering various degrees and costs of control.

     In addition, the EPA strategy regarding
fluid-bed combustion includes engineering analyses,
 basic and applied research and development, and
specific control technology development.  Techni-
ques for lowering the emission of pollutants
include:  pretreatment of input streams; modifica-
tion of process design parameters aimed at environ-
mental  control; modification of operating condi-
tions;  and the possible application of add-on
control devices.

     Several other Federal agencies are partici-
pating in the EPA program.  Pass-through funds
continue to go to ERDA for EPA's portion of the
work being conducted by Argonne National Laboratory.
A comprehensive analysis of emissions from the
BCURA fluid-bed combustor in England is partially
funded by EPA funds to ERDA:  ERDA, in turn, is
supplementing these funds in a contracted effort
with Combustion Systems Ltd.

     EPA funds have also been transferred to TVA
to support program work relating to solid waste
disposal, as well as the cost comparison project
to be discussed later. (This cost project,  inci-
dentally, is receiving inputs from the Energy
Conversion Alternatives Study (ECAS) being carried
out by NASA, NSF, and ERDA.)  The Federal Energy
Administration is also contributing to the effort;
its pass-through funds from EPA are supporting
work by Exxon on the application  of FBC  to indus-
trial boilers.

     It is inevitable  that  the  complete  environ-
mental characterization  of  fluid-bed  combustion
(and of other developing energy technologies) will
involve a significant  effort, considering  many
potential pollutants that have  not  received any
emphasis in past experimental studies.

     FBC Technology Development

     Albert Jonke's paper describes Argonne National
Laboratory's program,  involving investigations of
both atmospheric and pressurized  fluid-bed combus-
tion concepts.  Current-stage of  the  program,
underway since 1968, is  basic R and D to evaluate
fluid-bed combustion at  pressures up  to  10 atmos-
pheres.

     Describing Argonne  as  "one of  several organ-
izations participating in a research  and develop-
ment program designed  to develop  the  concept and
to eventually demonstrate at full scale  that the
FBC process is economical,  and  meets  pollution
standards for stationary sources,"  Jonke describes
ERDA's overall program and  cites work in this area
being sponsored by EPRI  and EPA.

     An "atmospheric"  pilot plant is  being built
in West Virginia, at Monongahela  Power Company's
Rivesville Station.  With a boiler  designed to
burn over 10 tons of coal per hour, the  project is
expected to become operational  by mid-1976.
Preliminary design is  expected  to start  soon on
the next phase:  a demonstration  plant of  at least
200 MW capacity.

     ERDA recently accepted a proposal for the
construction of a pilot  "pressurized" plant.  The
combustor would be located  at Woodridge, NJ and
would operate at 7 atm pressure with  a 14  MW
output.  This pilot would lead  to conceptual
design of a 500 MW commercial plant with a calcu-
lated overall thermal  efficiency  of 41%.

     ERDA is also interested in the application
of fluid-bed combustion  to  other  than utility
power generation, such as coal-burning industrial
and commercial boilers and  heaters. Several pro-
posals in this area are  currently being  evaluated.

     Reflecting the national fluid-bed combustion
program requirements for several  1-5  MWe capacity
sub-pilot plant facilities  in supporting roles
(including the development  of unique  or  advanced
concepts), several activities are underway:

     1.  A pressurized Component  Test and
         Integration Facility (CTIF)  has been
         proposed for  construction  at Argonne.

     2.  An atmospheric  CTIF is under design at
         the Morgantown  Energy  Research  Center.

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    3.  An  experimental  unit is under construction
        at  Oak Ri.dge National Laboratory to study
        application of the FBC process to provide
        total  energy requirements (heat and
        electricity) for small communities.

    4.  ERDA is partially funding the construction
        of  a pressurized process development unit
        in  England, with sponsorship by the
        International  Energy Agency.

    ERDA, along with many utilities, feels  that
fluid-bed combustion offers cost,  efficiency, and
reliability  advantages  over conventional  boilers
with stack gas  scrubbers,  by avoiding energy
losses required for  scrubber operation,  the  cost
of scrubbers,  and forced  plant outages resulting
from scrubber malfunction.   However,  this issue is
still open to question; hence the need for the
study described in the  following paper.

    FBC/FGD Cost Comparison

    John Reese's paper compares the  cost of
fluid-bed combustion with that of flue gas desulfur-
ization.

    The aim of the  study is the development of
conceptual designs,  and comparative capital  and
operating costs, for three systems for reducing
pollution:

    1.  An  atmospheric FBC steam power plant.

    2.  A pressurized  FBC combined-cycle power
        plant.

    3.  A conventional coal-fired power plant
        equipped with  flue gas desulfurization
        equipment.

    The project is  a complex one, indicating the
depth  in which the study  is being conducted and,
hopefully, ensuring  the validity of the results.
This complexity is indicated by the following
points:

    1.  TVA is the  performing agency.

    2.  TVA is utilizing inputs (in the form of
        fluid-bed combustor designs and capital
        and operating  cost estimates) from the
        previously  mentioned ECAS study.

    3.  General Electric Company is contractor-
        in-charge of energy conversion systems
        and overall plant design for the ECAS
        inputs to the  program.

    4.  Foster Wheeler Energy Corporation is
        responsible for  furnace designs for the
        ECAS inputs.

    5.  Bechtel Corporation is designing the
       flue gas desulfurization system and the
                                                                                                         201
        balance of the plant systems.
     The conceptual designs are nearing  completion,
and most major design specifications  have  been
selected for the three cases to be studied.   The
three will be as nearly equal in characteristics
as possible, to ensure that comparisons  are valid.
Nominal ratings for all cases are about  900 MW, and
steam conditions are identical:  3500 psi  and 1000°F.
Coal is the common fuel:  70%<200 mesh pulverized
coal for the conventional unit; and 1/2  inch or
less crushed coal for the FBC units.

     When completed, the study will be a useful
guide for assessing the advantages of fluid-bed
combustion, as compared with flue gas desulfuriza-
tion.  Because it will identify major design features
that require further development for  improved
process economics, the study will also help provide
a better definition of R and D priorities.

Coal Cleaning

     Three other papers in this session  relate to
coal cleaning.   Two of them deal with physical and
chemical coal cleaning, but again differ in ap-
proach:  one concentrates on environmental assess-
ment and pollution control activities; the other
stresses process technology development.   The third
treats an interesting aspect of the same subject:
trace pollutants from process refuse.

     Physical and Chemical Coal Cleaning (Assess-
     Jim Kilgroe's paper, indicating the need for
cleaner burning coal, states that in 1974, nearly 31
million tons of air pollutants—mainly SO , NO  ,
and particulates--were emitted as the result of coal
combustion.

     EPA-supported programs have established the
technical feasibility of both physical  and chemical
coal cleaning. These same programs have also identi-
fied the degree to which the two forms of cleaning
can be used for desulfurization. They indicate  that,
although these types of cleaning are, in some cases,
less costly than other SO, emission control strate-
gies, their range of application is not as broad,
due to the inherent properties of some coals.

     The cleanability of coal, particularly for
sulfur, is dependent upon the form of contaminant.
Sulfur in coal exists in two forms:  organic sulfur,
bonded to the coal structure; and inorganic (or
pyritic) sulfur, generally in the form of iron
pyrite.  U. S. coals vary widely in the relative
amounts of each type.  Physical coal cleaning,  with
equipment normally used for the removal of ash  and
mining residues, is capable of separating coal  and
pyritic sulfur; some types of chemical  cleaning are
capable of removing both pyritic and organic sulfur.

     Physical coal cleaning involves the use of many
physical separation techniques, singly or in

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202
combination. They depend on the differences between
the physical properties of the coal and the im-
purities, to achieve separation.   Techniques now
widely used on a commercial basis include: jigging,
heavy media separation, tabling, and flotation.
Among other techniques evaluated by EPA, the Bureau
of Mines, and Bituminous Coal Research, Inc. since
1965 are:  thermal-magnetic separation, immiscible
liquid separation, selective flocculation, electro-
kinetic separation, and froth flotation.  Techniques
that rely upon specific gravity differences between
the coal and pyritic particles, have been found to
be the most commercially viable for desulfurization.

     Chemical cleaning of coal, to selectively
remove undesirable constituents while maintaining
the structural integrity of the coal matrix, is an
approach to pollution control that is currently
receiving increased emphasis.  Unlike physical coal
cleaning, chemical coal cleaning is not now used
commercially in coal preparation processes;  how-
ever, if successfully developed, it possesses the
potential for removing both organic and pyritic
sulfur from coal.

     In chemical coal desulfurization, finely ground
coal is treated with a reagent under specified
pressure and temperature conditions.  The amount of
pyritic and organic sulfur removed from the coal
structure depends on the coal particle size, the
coal physical and chemical properties, the reagent,
the pressure and temperature, and the duration of
the reaction.

     Additional bench and pilot scale work is re-
quired to define the appropriate combinations of
parameters for optimum chemical removal of sulfur.
Once these variables are established for each
process, the next step would be continuous pilot and
demonstration scale process studies.

     The relatively low costs of physical and chemi-
cal coal cleaning processes should make these
pollution abatement techniques increasingly attrac-
tive in future years.  Coals which are amenable to
physical cleaning for pyritic sulfur removal will be
identified and used in preference to other coal
sources.  In some instances, a combination of physi-
cal coal cleaning and flue gas desulfurization will
be used as the most economical method of sulfur
emission control. Although physical coal preparation
is now widely used for ash and mining waste removal,
the use of this technology for substantial sulfur
removal will probably not occur until after 1985.
The major development focus for physical coal
cleaning will be in:

     1.  Improved techniques for separating fine
         coal and pyrite.

     2.  Improved process control to ensure that
         the product meets sulfur, ash, and Btu
         specifications.
     3.  Improved techniques  for  dewatering  and
         handling coal fines.

     4.  Improved pollution control  in  waste dis-
         posal methods.

     Chemical coal cleaning has a wider area of
application than its  physical  counterpart, since a
greater fraction of the  total  sulfur can  be removed.
Cost estimates indicate  that  chemical cleaning
should be competitive with flue gas  desulfurization
and synthetic fuel from  conversion processes.
However, additional development is needed before
this method of sulfur emission control  is used
widely.

     Physical and Chemical Coal Cleaning  (Process
Development)

     Al Deurbrouck's  paper, describing  the Bureau of
Mines' interest in physical and chemical coal
cleaning, regards coal preparation as a proven
technology for upgrading raw  coal by physical re-
moval of associated impurities.

     Indicating that  the impurity of principal
concern is sulfur, in both pyritic and  organic form,
Deurbrouck says that, generally speaking, organic
sulfur cannot be removed by physical means.  How-
ever, researchers have made some progress in re-
moving organic sulfur without changing  the physical
characteristics of the coal.  Commercially, physical
desulfurization of coal  is limited exclusively to
pyritic sulfur.

     Washability examinations of more than 400 U. S.
coals show significant pyritic sulfur reduction
potential when coals  are crushed to  liberate im-
purities, and then subjected  to specific gravity
separations.  A pyrite flotation process is dis-
cussed, showing potential for maximizing the removal
of pyritic sulfur.

     The Bureau of Mines also has some  interesting
studies underway aimed at the removal of impurity
water from coal; of particular interest  is its
application to the upgrading  of lignite.

     Lignite coal deposits in Montana and North
Dakota represent one  of  the largest  relatively
untapped fossil fuel  reserves in the U. S., total-
ling more than 220 billion tons of recoverable low-
sulfur-content fuel.  However, lignite  utilization
has been limited because of the material's high
moisture content (approximately 40%), as well as its
tendency to combust spontaneously and its often high
sodium content. The Bureau of Mines  is  now working
to produce a lignite  pellet containing  less than
10% moisture at a low sodium  content.

     For coal preparation to  be a totally viable
process (i.e., for it to be applicable  to the re-
moval of both organic and pyritic sulfur  from coal),
chemical desulfurization must  be  developed further.

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Several such methods have  been  investigated at the
Pittsburgh Energy Research  Center.

    The one showing the most promise at this time
requires only the simplest  of reagents,  air, and
water.   Tests have shown  that  heating coal with
compressed air (400-1,000  psi)  and  water to 150-
200°C,  at residence times  up to 1 hour,  converts
all the pyritic sulfur  (as  well  as  up to 45% of
the organic sulfur) to  aqueous  sulfate (most of it
appearing as sulfuric acid). Use of such a process
would  help make a large portion of  Eastern and
Midwestern coal environmentally acceptable as
boiler fuel.

    Deurbrouck's paper concludes on a heartening
note.   He states, "Coal preparation, an  old
friend, could well become  one of the glamorous new
technologies to emerge  as  a result  of the energy
crisis."

    Process Refuse Pollutants

    Eugene Wewerka's paper goes a  step  beyond the
work described by the first two papers on coal
processing. The work he describes relates to the
environmental problems  generated by the  refuse
that is discarded from  coal cleaning operations.

    At the root of the problem is  the fact that
as-mined coal contains  a great  deal  of extraneous
rock and mineral matter'(the inorganic consti-
tuents often represent  as  much  as 30-40% of run-
of-the-m'ine products).  Because these impurities
not only produce pollutants but also are expensive
to ship and dilute the  heating  value of  the coal,
nearly half of all .the  coal mined in the U. S. is
processed to remove the unwanted material.

    This unwanted material from coal  preparation
facilities, and other coal  mine refuse—comprises
the gob piles or culm banks that are scattered
over thousands of acres in  the  coal-producing
areas  of the U. S.  An  estimated 2  billion tons of
carbonaceous mineral wastes have been accumulated
in the U. S. from coal  preparation^and mine develop-
ment,   Another 100 millions tons are added each
year.

    In addition to all the known problems caused
by the accumulation of  this waste material, our •
attention has turned recently to the environmental
hazards posed by the vast  array of  potentially
harmful trace elements  in  coal  refuse materials.
Many of the mineral components  of coal wastes are
released into the environment by oxidation and
aqueous leaching during natural  weathering; it is
likely  that additional  mineral  matter is volati-
lized  by burning wastes. Compounding this particu-
lar problem is our ignorance concerning  the fate
of trace elements during weathering  and  waste
burning.

    So little is known in  this  area,  in fact,
that the EPA/ERDA program at Los Alamos  Scientific
                                                                                                         203
Laboratory has had to start with  fundamentals.
     The program involves the assessment  and  defini-
tion of the magnitude of environmental  problems
resulting from trace elements in coal processing
wastes, and the development of appropriate  pollution
control measures.  The focus of the  program's
initial stages is on obtaining basic  information
about the structure and behavior of  these materials.

     Once this fundamental information  is acquired,
the program will progress as follows:

     1.  Laboratory and field investigations  to
         determine the fate of trace  elements during
         weathering and burning of coal wastes, and
         to identify those of possible  environ-
         mental concern.

     2.  Development of chemical or  physical methods
         for controlling environmental  contamina-
         tion from these waste materials.

     3.  Investigation of methods for economically
         removing useful trace constituents from
         coal refuse.

     Synthetic Fuels

     Bill Rhodes' paper sees EPA's synthetic  fuels
program as part of a 2-year-old commitment--docu-
mented in the Dixie Lee Ray energy report—to
utilize more fully the natural resources  of the U.
S., and to become less dependent on  foreign sources
of energy.  He points out that, along with our
energy commitment, we have an equally significant
commitment to adequately protect our  environment.

     Actually, EPA's interest in this work area
predates the Ray energy report.  This interest is
reflected in the progress of various  programs
already underway to determine the environmental
factors in the production and utilization of  syn-
thetic fuels from coal.  The program  is divided into
two basic parts:  environmental assessment and
control technology development.

     The overall objective of the assessment  portion
of the program is to ensure an environmentally sound
synthetic fuels industry.  To that end, past  and
current efforts utilize existing information  to
perform multimedia environmental source assessments.
Actual and proposed Federal, State,  and local
standards and guidelines are reviewed to  establish
baselines for the assessments.  As information gaps
and needs are identified, projects are  initiated  to
acquire the data needed.  Data acquisition  is all-
important.  This requires knowledge  of  existing
data, cooperation of plant operators, identification
of sampling and analytical techniques,  test program
development, and an overall data analysis scheme.

     The basic objective of the control technology
portion of the program is to ensure  that  the  re-
quired environmental controls are available  in a

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204
timely and cost-effective manner for the synthetic
fuels area.  This work includes:  identification of
environmental control technology alternatives,
evaluation of the applicability of existing control
methods to known and potential problems, design and
cost studies, field tests to determine the accept-
ability of existing control methods, and the eval-
uation, development, and demonstration of new or
novel methods.

     EPA's synthetic fuels program includes environ-
mental assessment of low- and high-Btu gasification
and coal  liquefaction, improved control methods for
fuel converter streams, products and by-products,
fuel storage, preparation, and feeding and system
wastes.  Specific control activity areas include
hydrodesulfurization, hydrodenitrification, dolomite
cleanup,  acid gas cleanup, gas, liquid, and solid
waste treatment, disposal techniques, and fugitive
emissions.

     The synthetic fuels paper cautions that it is
imperative that the environmental  detriments of our
coal-to-synthetic-fuels program be thoroughly and
carefully analyzed, and the alternatives weighed.
Inadequate and piecemeal  environmental  data was used
as the basis for initial  work, because there was no
alternative.  With the cooperation of industry,
universities, and government agencies,  better data
will be produced which will result in an important,
credible  contribution to bettering the quality of
1 i f e.

     Oil  Shale Processing

     Tom  Powers'  paper on oil  shale processing is
significant in that it relates to  a truly vast
source of potentially available energy in the U. S.
This significance is borne out by  the following
statistics:

     1.   High quality shale (>25 gallons of oil/ton
         of shale), mostly in  Colorado, Utah, and
         Wyoming, contains an  estimated 2.2 trillion
         barrels  of oil.
     2.
Lower quality shale (10-25 gallons/ton),
located throughout the U. S., could pro-
duce an additional 40 trillion barrels
of oil.
     However, getting the oil out of the shale is
not simple. As this resource is developed* it will
be necessary to protect the environment by applying
adequate control  strategies for the mining and
processing of the shale.  Because of the magnitude
of these processing activities and their potential
for environmental damage, EPA has undertaken a
program that will lead to the identification,
development, and  demonstration of cost-effective
pollution control technology.

     EPA's overall strategy relates to six major
activities: exploration, mining, shale preparation,
processing, land  reclamation, and product trans-
portation.  Efforts for controlling  emissions,
effluents, and solid waste residues  include environ-
mental impact analyses, pollutant characterization,
evaluation of available control  technology, and
development of new control techniques.

     Although pollution abatement programs for coal
mining have existed for many years,  oil shale mining
will require different environmental controls.
Petroleum refinery controls have also existed for
many years; however, the needs for oil shale re-
fineries are unknown at present.  Oil shale re-
torting is a relatively new process; it may involve
by-product recoveries of metals  as well as of
hydrocarbons.

     In comparison to the closing of an earlier
paper, Powers' closing is a bit  more conservative.
He first says, "The potential for oil shale develop-
ment in the United States appears great." But then,
adds realistically:  "The potential  for environ-
mental impact from oil shale development is also
great."

     I would like to be able to  conclude my
summary of these papers by giving you a clear
picture of the total monetary efforts being
expended in the areas under discussion.  Unfortu-
nately, I can't quite manage this because of budget
complexities, and the unavailability of estimates
of resource allocation by private industry.

     However, I can outline what is  being spent by
EPA, and by other Government Agencies utilizing
our "pass-through" funds.

     I am speaking of a program  that represents
about $13.5 million in FY 76.  (Of this amount,
about 18% is in the form of pass-through funds.)
About one-third of the program is for environmental
assessment, and about two-thirds for pollution
control technology development.  Our current annual
funding is running about:

     $4.4 million for fluid-bed  combustion;
     $3.8 million for physical and chemical coal
          cleaning;
     $2.8 million for synthetic  fuels; and
     $2.3 million for advanced oil processing.

     I am confident, that with the on-going effort
in these and other programs, we  will attain both
the energy and environmental goals of our Nation.

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                                                                                                        205
     THE U. S. ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY
    PROGRAM FOR ENVIRONMENTAL CHARACTERIZATION
        OF FLUIDIZED-BED COMBUSTION SYSTEMS
                  D. B. Henschel
    Industrial Environmental Research  Laboratory
     Office of Energy, Minerals and Industry
       Office of Research and Development
     U. S. Environmental Protection Agency
    Research Triangle Park, North Carolina 27711
     Awareness of environmental considerations  is
increasing, including attention to  an  expanded
number of potential pollutants of possible  concern
from energy generation processes.   Thus  the need  is
intensified for comprehensive environmental charac-
terization of existing and developing  energy
technologies.

     One promising new energy technology that  is
being developed is fluidized-bed combustion of  coal
for heat, steam and power generation.  This tech-
nology offers the potential  for energy production
with low emissions of environmentally  harmful
pollutants, and simultaneously with reduced capital
and operating costs and with thermal efficiencies
equal to, or greater than, the efficiencies achiev-
able with conventional combustion equipment.   The
U. S. Energy Research and Development  Administration
(ERDA) is conducting a substantial  program  to  de-
velop fluidized-bed coal combustion technology.
The ERDA program currently includes:   a  number  of
support projects; a 30 MW coal-fired fluidized-bed
boiler under construction at Rivesville,  West  Vir-
ginia, to be operated with the bed  at  essentially
atmospheric pressure; a 13 MW elevated pressure
fluidized-bed combustion combined cycle  system  to
be built in Wood Ridge, New  Jersey;  and  a variety
of other facilities which are envisioned to demon-
strate coal-burning fluidized-bed combustion tech-
nology in alternative applications  and at alter-
native scales of operation.

     In coordination with the ERDA  development  pro-
gram, the U. S. Environmental Protection Agency
(EPA) is conducting a contract research  and develop-
ment program, valued at about $4 million in fiscal
year 1976, aimed at complete environmental  charac-
terization of the fluidized-bed coal combustion
process.  As part of the EPA program,  interagency
transfers of funds have been effected  to obtain the
assistance of ERDA, of the Tennessee Valley Author-
ity and of the Federal Energy Administration in
carrying out the environmental characterization.

     Since the combustion technology development
activities and the environmental characterization
effort are being conducted in parallel, there  is
increased potential for improved environmental  con-
trol and reduced control costs for fluidized-bed
combustion systems resulting from effective  consid-
eration of environmental aspects during the  tech-
nology development.

BACKGROUND

     The fluidized-bed coal combustion process
involves the combustion of coal within a bed of
granular, non-combustible material, such as  lime-
stone or dolomite.  The bed is supported by  a dis-
tributor plate.  Air is passed up through the dis-
tributor plate, causing the granular bed particles
to become suspended, or fluidized.  This air also
serves as the combustion air for the coal.  Heat
generated in the bed can be removed by heat  trans-
fer surface placed in the bed.

     A number of variations of the process are being
considered, differentiated according to process
variables such as operating pressure in the bed and
the presence or absence of heat transfer surface in
the bed.  The alternative variations of the flui-
dized bed coal combustion process may find appli-
cation in electric utility power generation, in
industrial steam and power production, and perhaps
in residential/commercial heating.  The fluidized
bed coal combustion process is expected to achieve
commercial application in the 1980's.

     Utilization of a sulfur dioxide (S07) sorbent
such as limestone or dolomite as the bed material
has been found to be effective for control of SO^
emissions from coal-fired fluidized bed combustors.
Sulfur removal efficiencies of 90 to 95 percent,
or even higher, have been characteristically ob-
served on experimental units employing limestone
or dolomite sorbent on a once-through basis.  In
atmospheric-pressure systems, removals of 90 per-
cent and above are typically achieved with once-
through addition of fresh limestone or dolomite at
sorbent feed rates such that the moles of calcium
in the sorbent feed are 2 to 4 times the moles of
sulfur in the coal feed.  Some data have indicated
that high removals might be obtainable with  even
lower calcium-to-sulfur mole ratios if small quan-
tities of sodium chloride are also fed to the sys-
tem.  In elevated-pressure systems, SO- removals of
90 percent and above are typically obtained  with
once-through addition of dolomite at calcium-to-
sulfur mole ratios of 1.5 to 2; with limestone  as
the sorbent, calcium-to-sulfur mole ratios of  1.5
to 2 generally provide SO,, removals of about 70
percent.  Limited laboratory-scale data indicate
that suitable pretreatment of dolomite prior to
utilization, such as precalcination, may enable
even lower calcium-to-sulfur mole ratios.

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206
      Testing for nitrogen oxides (NO )  on a variety
 of experimental  equipment has indicated that atmos-
 pheric pressure  fluidized-bed combustors, operat-
 ing at about 20  percent excess air,  generally con-
 tain around 250  to 450 ppm NO  {about 0.3   0.6
 lb/10  Btu,  or 0.13   0.26 g/TO  J,  expressed as
 NO ) in the flue gas,  compared to the EPA New
 Source Performance Standard of 0.7 lb/10  Btu
 (0.30 g/10  J) for coal-fired boilers.   Some data
 indicate that emissions of only 200  ppm  (0.25 lb/
 10  Btu,  or 0.11 g/10   J) or below may be achieva-
 ble on atmospheric-pressure systems.  Elevated-
 pressure experimental  systems with heat transfer
 surface in the bed, operating at about 20 percent
 excess air,  typically,emit between 100 and 250 ppm
 NO  (0.12   0.3  lb/10   Btu, or 0.05    0.13 g/10  J,
 expressed as N02).   Limited data on  elevated-
 pressure systems without heat transfer surface in
 the bed,  operating at  high excess air,levels, indi-
 cate NO  emissions (in terms of lb/10  Btu or g/
 10  J) higher than those given above for pressur-
 ized systems with heat transfer surface in the bed;
 NO  data from systems  without transfer are cur-
 rently limited,  so that a widely-applicable range
 of emission levels cannot be stated  at the present
 time for these systems.

      Thus the significant quantity of data which
 have been developed to date regarding SO- and NO
 emissions suggest that fluidized-bed coal combus-
 tion may be expected to effectively  control emis-
 sions of these pollutants.  Data on  emissions of
 many other pollutants  from fluidized-bed combustors
 are less complete.   The EPA fluidized-bed combus-
 tion program is  intended to develop  an improved
 understanding regarding the emissions and control
 both of those pollutants which have  received em-
 phasis in past fluidized-bed combustion studies,
 and of those for which little data are currently
 available.

 GOAL OF THE EPA PROGRAM

      The goal of the EPA fluidized-bed combustion
 program is to obtain all necessary environmental
 data over the full range of variables for all var-
 iations of the fluidized-bed combustion process.
 It is desired to obtain these data on a suitable
 experimental scale, and on a time schedule compati-
 ble with the development schedule envisioned in the
 national fluidized-bed combustion development
 effort.

      The necessary environmental data include ade-
 quate data regarding all media (air, water, land)
 to enable determination of the total environmental
 impact of the process.  It must be assured that the
 process will meet current and anticipated future
 environmental standards.  Furthermore, if future
health effects studies or related work  identify the
need for additional standards not formally antici-
pated at this time, sufficient  data  regarding the
fluidized-bed combustion process must be  available
to allow recommendations to be  made  regarding such
standards proposed in the future.  Also,  it is
desired to develop adequate data to  enable determin-
ation of means to minimize the  process  environmental
impact by means of suitable control  technology.

     The full range of operating and design varia-
bles is being considered to identify whether there
are any ranges of particular variables  which are
especially favorable or unfavorable  from  the envi-
ronmental standpoint.

     The variations of the fluidized-bed  combustion
process that are being considered include, for
example:  combustor operation at elevated pressure
versus operation at essentially atmospheric pres-
sure; operation of the combustor with steam or air-
cooled tubes immersed in the bed versus "adiabatic"
operation with no immersed cooling surface; and
regeneration of the sorbent for sulfur  oxides con-
trol versus non-regeneration.

     It is necessary to obtain  the environmental
data on an experimental scale such that the data
can reliably be scaled up to commercial-scale sys-
tems, and such that the environmental impact of  the
process can be identified for full-scale  units.

     The environmental data must be  generated on a
time schedule compatible with the national program
to develop fluidized-bed combustion, so that any
potential environmental problems can be identified
and addressed, and so that any  necessary  control
technology can be developed, by the  time  that the
process is ready for commercial application.

STRATEGY OF THE EPA PROGRAM

     In order to achieve the goal indicated above,
the EPA fluidized-bed combustion program  is divided
into two major sub-objectives:  environmental assess-
ment and control technology development.  See Table
1.

     Environmental Assessment

     In general, environmental  assessment of an
energy process is sub-divided into a number of com-
ponents (Reference 1), as indicated  in  Table 1.

     The first step in environmental assessment
involves identification of the  current  process and
environmental background.  This effort  would include,
for example:  study of process  flowsheets; identi-
fication based on flowsheets of locations within the

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                                                                                                          207
process where emissions may occur; application  of
theoretical  calculations and engineering considera-
tions to project,  prior to actual emission measure-
ments, what  the emissions may be of all potential
pollutants,  including those for which data may  not
be available; and collection of health and property
effects data for potential pollutants.

    The next step in environmental assessment  is
comprehensive analysis of emissions from selected
operating units.  Comprehensive analysis would  in-
volve measurements for all pollutants in all media,
to identify what pollutants are actually being
emitted from what locations within the process.
Ambient monitoring around the process site might
also be included.   A key point to be made regarding
comprehensive analysis is that it would include not
just the pollutants that have been emphasized in the
past  (such as SO- and NO), but would address all
possible pollutants.  For example, comprehensive
analysis would address:  SO.; SO_; sulfides, sul-
fites and sulfates; reduced sulfur species in the
flue gas, such as H S, COS and CS2; NO; N02; nitrites
and nitrates; reduced nitrogen compounds in the flue
gas, such as NHL and cyanides; individual organic
compounds, including, for example, specific poly-
cyclic organic compounds; halogens; all trace ele-
ments and trace element compounds that might be
expected based upon the composition of the coal ash
and the sorbent; particulates, including total  mass,
size distribution and morphology; and biological
testing of selected samples, including cytotoxicity,
mutagenicity, and, if necessary, carcinogenicity.
A complete comprehensive analysis would probably be
conducted on any one operating fluidized-bed com-
bustor at a relatively small number of sets of  oper-
ating conditions.

    A third step in environmental assessment is
development of environmental objectives for the
process, considering the pollutant emission levels
identified in the comprehensive analyses, and consid-
ering the health and property effects of the pollu-
tants.  Pollutants would be prioritized, and emis-
sion goals set.  Four levels of control that might
be considered are:   [1) control based upon existing
technology;   (2) control based upon existing Federal
and state standards;  (3) control based upon pro-
jected health and property effects; and  C4) "zero
discharge."

    Environmental assessment also includes assess-
ment of control technology.  This effort would
include, for example:  identification of possible
control technology for achieving the emission goals
set in the preceding step; evaluation of the cost
of alternative degrees of control; and assessment
of the environmental impact of the control process
itself.
     Based upon the information  obtained during the
previous steps of the environmental  assessment, an
evaluation would be made of  the  total  impact of
the process on air, water and  land quality,  and on
human health and on property,  considering various
degrees (and hence costs) of control.

     The final step of environmental assessment,
indicated in Table 1, is the development of  a pro-
gram for obtaining the additional environmental
information that is found to be  necessary during
the other steps.  Such additional information might
include, for example:  further comprehensive analy-
ses on different units or at different  sets  of con-
ditions; development or improvement  of  sampling and
analytical techniques for use  in comprehensive
analysis; additional control device  studies;  and
further basic studies regarding  pollutant formation
in a fluidized-bed combustor.

     Thus environmental assessment can  be an itera-
tive process, in which the results of the various
steps are updated as additional  information  regard-
ing the process becomes available.

     Control Technology Development

     The second major sub-objective  in  the EPA
strategy is control technology development.   This
activity includes engineering  analysis,  basic and
applied research and development, and specific con-
trol process development as  required.   Environmen-
tal control techniques that  are  being considered
for fluidized-bed combustion applications include:
(1) pretreatment of the input  streams,  such  as pre-
calcination of the sorbent;  (2)  modification of
process design conditions for  the purpose of envi-
ronmental control; (3) modification  of  operating
conditions; and (4) application  of add-on control
devices.

THE EPA PROGRAM

     The EPA fluidized-bed combustion program to
carry out the above strategy is, as  indicated pre-
viously, predominantly a contract and interagency
agreement program which is funded in fiscal  year
1976 at a level of about $4  million.  The program
currently consists of fifteen  projects  with  a
variety of contractors.

     For the purposes of this  discussion, the fif-
teen projects have been arranged into five cate-
gories, and are listed in Table  2.   A simplified
milestone chart is shown in  Figure 1.

     These projects are briefly  described below.

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208
      Broad  Environmental  Assessment

      The primary  environmental  assessment  contrac-
 tor—the first  contractor listed  under  "Broad Envi-
 ronmental Assessment"  in  Table  2--will  have primary
 responsibility  for  carrying  out all  of  the environ-
 mental  assessment tasks indicated in Table 1.   This
 effort  will  involve a  three-year,  60,000 man-hour
 contract.

      Prior  to the award of the  main  environmental
 assesssment  contract,  GCA/Technology Division is
 conducting  a preliminary  environmental  assessment
 effort.  A  key  task in the GCA  study is the utiliza-
 tion  of theoretical calculations  and of engineering
 evaluation  to project  a priori  what  the emissions
 may be  from fluidized-bed combustors of potential
 pollutants  which have  received  little,  if  any,
 attention in past experimental  studies.  This task
 is thus a part  of the  first  environmental  assessment
 step  indicated  in Table 1; i.e.,  identification of
 current background.  As part of this effort,  GCA  is
 also  briefly assessing possible control technology
 for use on  pollutants  projected to be emitted in
 significant  quantities.   The GCA  effort was com-
 pleted  in January 1976, and  the final report  is in
 preparation.

      Comprehensive  Analysis  of  Emissions

      Four comprehensive analysis  projects  are in
 advanced stages of  planning  or  preparation.   Battelle
 Columbus Laboratories  is  developing  an  approach for
 comprehensive analysis on fluidized-bed combustion
 units,  and  is to test  the approach by conducting  an
 analysis using  a 6-inch (15  cm) i.d.  atmospheric-
 pressure fluidized-bed coal  combustor.  A  comprehen-
 sive  analysis is also  planned on  the 2-foot by
 3-foot, or  61 cm by 91 cm (cross-section)  pressur-
 ized  combustor  at the  British Coal Utilization
 Research Association,  while  this  unit is being
 operated under  ERDA sponsorship.   Also  a comprehen-
 sive  analysis is scheduled on EPA's  7-foot (210 cm)
 i.d.  pressurized adiabatic CPU-400 pilot plant at
 Combustion  Power Company,  while the  plant  is  burning
 coal  under  ERDA sponsorship.  Aerotherm/Acurex Cor-
 poration and TRW, Inc., are  participating  in  the
 sampling and analytical activities,  respectively,
 on this effort.  Finally,  comprehensive analyses
 are to be conducted on the pressurized  bench-scale
 fluidized-bed combustion  equipment and  the pressur-
 ized  Miniplant  system  at  Exxon  Research and Engi-
 neering Company while  these  facilities  are being
 operated under  EPA  sponsorship.   The units at
 Battelle, BCURA, Combustion  Power and Exxon repre-
 sent  the spectrum of variations of the  fluidized-
 bed combustion  process.
     It is anticipated that  comprehensive analyses
will also be conducted on a  variety  of other flui-
dized bed combustion units as plans  develop and as
these other units become available.

     As part of the comprehensive analysis effort,
The Mitre Corporation is preparing manuals for each
of the fluidized-bed combustion process variations,
indicating alternative sampling and  analytical
procedures that can be employed for  the various
potential pollutants for each variation, tentatively
recommending preferred procedures and identifying
sampling/analytical technique research and develop-
ment requirements.  The Mitre study  should be com-
pleted in April 1976.

     As indicated by the last entry  under "Com-
prehensive Analysis of Emissions" in Table 2, an
extensive continuing effort  is underway by EPA with
a variety of contractors to  develop  new and improved
sampling and analytical techniques.  This effort is
not part of the fluidized-bed combustion program
per se, but is in support of all of  EPA's activities.

     Solid and Liquid Waste  Disposal

     Two projects are planned which  will address
specifically the question of solid and liquid waste
disposal from fluidized-bed  combustion systems.  The
primary contract for assessment of solid and liquid
waste disposal and utilization  (the  first contract
listed under "Solid and Liquid Waste Disposal" in
Table 2) has recently been awarded to Ralph Stone
and Co.  In addition, the Tennessee  Valley Authority
(TVA), under an interagency  agreement with EPA, is
studying solid waste processing.

     In general, these studies involve:  (1) char-
acterization of solid and liquid waste materials
from variations of the fluidized-bed combustion
process; (2) laboratory and  field studies to iden-
tify, e.g., solid leaching properties and the effect
of long-term exposure of solid by-products to the
environment; (3) laboratory  studies  of physical/
chemical treatment of solid  wastes to reduce the
environmental impact upon disposal;  and  (4) labora-
tory and marketing studies of the potential for
manufacturing marketable products from solid wastes.

     Other contractors may become involved in solid
waste disposal/utilization studies to the extent
warranted.

     Experimental and Engineering Studies

     A number of experimental and engineering
studies are underway which involve tasks in both
the environmental assessment and the control tech-
nology development sub-objective areas.

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    Westinghouse Research Laboratories  is  conduct-
ing engineering and primarily laboratory-scale
experimental studies.  Argonne National  Laboratory,
in a project co-funded with ERDA, is carrying out
laboratory and bench-scale work, including  testing
on their 6-inch (15 cm) i.d. pressurized fluidized-
bed combustor and the 4-inch (10 cm) i.d. pressur-
ized sorbent regenerator.  Exxon Research and Engi-
neering Company is conducting a program  on  their
bench-scale fluidized-bed combustion/sorbent regen-
eration equipment, and on the Miniplant  system,
which includes a 12.5-inch (32 cm) pressurized
fluidized-bed combustor capable of burning  up to
480 pounds  (218 kg) of coal per hour, and an 8-inch
(22 cm) pressurized sorbent regeneration vessel.
The Westinghouse, Argonne and Exxon projects vary
according to their experimental scales and  to the
details of their individual work plans,  but there
are several general objectives which are, for the
most part, common to each.  These general objectives
are:   (1) investigation of SO  control from flui-
dized-bed units using limestone/dolomite sorbents,
including regeneration of the sorbents;  (2) inves-
tigation of SO  control using alternative sorbents,
including sorbent regeneration;  (3) study of NO
formation and control; (4) characterization of par-
ticulates emissions, and testing of particulates
control devices;  (5) investigation of the emissions
and control of other specific pollutants, such as
trace materials and hydrocarbons; and  (6) minimiza-
tion of other environmental impacts.

    A small, flexible, atmospheric-pressure
fluidized-bed combustor,  referred to as  a sampling
and analytical test rig,  is planned for  in-house
studies at the EPA site in the Research  Triangle
Park.  This unit would be utilized to address
specific environmental concerns without  disrupting
the on-going test programs on the other  more sophis-
ticated units being operated by the various con-
tractors. Subjects to be studied on the  rig include:
(1) comprehensive analysis of emissions;  (2) test-
ing of alternative sampling and analytical  tech-
niques; and  (3) investigation of alternative add-on
control devices.

    Paper Studies

    Several specific paper studies are  underway
which, like the experimental projects discussed
above, involve effort toward both the environmental
assessment and the control technology development
sub-objectives.

    Dow Chemical is conducting a study  to  project
the effect of experimental scale on emissions from
fluidized-bed combustion systems.  Fundamental and
applied knowledge in the areas of combustion,
                                                  209
fluidization and chemical kinetics  and  thermody-
namics is to be employed to estimate  the  effect of
scale on emissions of all potential pollutants,
including those for which experimental  data may not
be available.  The results of  this  project  would be
used as an indication of the scale  on which envi-
ronmental data may have to be  obtained  in order to
enable reliable scale-up to commercial-scale systems.
The Dow study is expected to be completed in March
1976.

     Exxon Research and Engineering Company is
carrying out an energy, economic  and  environmental
assessment regarding application  of coal-fired
fluidized-bed boilers in the industrial sector.
This study will result in projections of: the appli-
cability of coal-fired fluidized-bed  combustion to
industrial boilers; the technical requirements  of
envisioned industrial fluidized-bed coal  boilers;
the industrial demand for such boilers; the impact
on the national energy situation  of application of
these boilers; the economic impact of the boilers
on the industries employing them  and  on associated
industries supplying the user  industries; and the
environmental impact of industrial  coal-fired
fluidized-bed boiler application.  This project,
which is scheduled for completion in  March  1976,  is
co-funded with the Federal Energy Administration
and with ERDA.

     The Tennessee Valley Authority is  conducting a
project to develop conceptual designs and compara-
tive capital and operating costs for  an atmospheric-
pressure fluidized-bed steam power plant, a pressur-
ized fluidized-bed combined cycle power plant,  and
a conventional coal-fired steam power plant with
flue gas desulfurization.  This effort  is being
carried out in coordination with the  Energy Conver-
sion Alternatives Study (EGAS) that is underway by
the National Aeronautics and Space Administration,
the National Science Foundation and ERDA.   The  TVA
project is scheduled to be completed  in October 1976.

INTERAGENCY PARTICIPATION

     As.indicated in the preceding discussion,
several other Federal agencies are participating in
the EPA fluidized-bed combustion program.   Funds are
continuing to be transferred to ERDA  for  the EPA-
sponsored portion of the on-going .work being con-
ducted by Argonne National Laboratory.  The compre-
hensive analysis of emissions  from  the  BCURA
fluidized-bed combustion unit  is  being  partially
funded by means of an interagency transfer  of funds
to ERDA, for inclusion in ERDA's  contract with  Com-
bustion Systems, Ltd., covering the ERDA-sponsored
testing on the BCURA unit.  It is anticipated
that further funds may be transferred to  ERDA for

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210
 future  environmental testing on other  fluidized-
 bed units being operated by ERDA.  Funds have been
 transferred to the Tennessee Valley Authority to
 support the fluidized-bed combustion solid waste
 investigation and the fluidized-bed combustion/
 flue  gas desulfurization cost comparison being con-
 ducted by TVA.  As indicated previously, the TVA
 fluidized-bed combustion/flue gas desulfurization
 cost  comparison is receiving input from the Energy
 Conversion Alternatives Study that is  being carried
 out by the National Aeronautics and Space Admini-
 stration, the National Science Foundation and ERDA.
 The EPA contribution to the joint FEA/ERDA/EPA
 study at Exxon Research and Engineering Company,
 regarding the application of fluidized-bed tech-
 nology to industrial boilers, is being funded by
 means of an interagency transfer to the Federal
 Energy Administration.

 CONCLUSIONS

      Complete environmental characterization of the
 fluidized-bed coal combustion process  (and of other
 developing energy technologies) will involve a
 significant environmental assessment and control
 technology development effort.  This effort will
 include consideration of many potential pollutants
 that  have not received emphasis in past experimental
 studies.  In coordination with the effort being con-
 ducted by ERDA to develop fluidized-bed coal combus-
 tion  technology, EPA is carrying out a program to
 provide a complete environmental characterization of
 the process.  As part of the EPA program, funds
 have  been transferred to other Federal agencies in
 order to obtain their assistance in carrying out
 this  environmental characterization.
                    REFERENCES

     Hangebrauck, R. P.,  "Energy Environmental
     Assessment  and Control  Technology  Programs
     for  Stationary Sources," presented at  the
     National Governors'  Conference Hearings  on
     Coal Utilization, Annapolis, Maryland
     (November 17, 1975).

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                                                                                                                                                  211
Figure  1.  - The EPA  Fluidized-Bed
              Combustion  Program
                                                                         Table 2.     The  EPA Fluidized-Bed  Combustion
                                                                                        Program
   I fliliilii

   I BCUHA


    Co

   a EXXON
2 IndixiritlFBC
 tpplic (EXXON!
                SEE TASK D 3 BELOW
                                                                                 Broad Environmental Assessment
                                                                                 1.   Environmental  Assessment/Systems Analysis and Program
                                                                                     Support for Fluidized-Bed  Combustion  (Contractor to
                                                                                     be selected)

                                                                                 2.   Preliminary Environmental  Assessment  of the Fluidized-
                                                                                     Bed Combustion Process  (GCA  Corporation)
                                                                         B.    Comprehensive Analysis of Emissions

                                                                              1.   Comprehensive Analysis of Emissions from an Atmospheric-
                                                                                  Pressure Fluidized-Bed Combustion Unit (Battelle Columbus
                                                                                  Laboratories)

                                                                              2.   Comprehensive Analysis of Emissions from the BCURA Pressurized
                                                                                  Fluidized-Bed Combustion Unit (Combustion Systems,  Ltd./BCURA)

                                                                              3.   Comprehensive Analysis from the CPU-400 Pressurized FBC Process
                                                                                  Development  Unit Burning Coal (Combustion Power Co./Aerotherm-
                                                                                  Acurex  Corp./TRW, Inc.)

                                                                              4.   Comprehensive Analysis of Emissions from the Fluidized-Bed
                                                                                  Combustion Miniplant and Bench-Scale Equipment (Exxon Research
                                                                                  and Engineering Co.)

                                                                              5.   Comprehensive analysis on other units

                                                                              6.   Preparation  of a Sampling and Analytical Manual for Fluidized-
                                                                                  Bed Combustion Applications (The Mitre Corporation)

                                                                              7.   Development  of improved sampling and analytical techniques
                                                                                  (various contractors)
                                                                            C.   Solid and Liquid Waste  Disposal

                                                                                 1.  Environmental Assessment of Disposal of Solid and Liquid Wastes
                                                                                     from Fluidized-Bed  Combustion Units  (Ralph Stone and Co.)

                                                                                 2.  Study of Disposal of Fluidized-Bed Combustion Waste Products
                                                                                     (Tennessee Valley Authority)
Table 1.     Strategy of  the  EPA  Fluidized-Bed
              Combustion Program


 A.   Environmental  Assessment (EA)

     1.  Current process/environmental background
     2.  Comprehensive  analysis  of emissions
     3.  Development  of environmental objectives
     4.  Control technology assessment
     5.  Environmental  impact analysis
     6.  Development  of environmental program


 B.   Control Technology Development (CTD)

     1.  Engineering  analysis, basic and applied R&D, and control
        process development  for:

          input stream pretreatment
          design condition modification
          operating  condition modification
          add-on devices
                                                                              Experimental  and  Engineering Studies   EA and CTD

                                                                              1.   Experimental  and Engineering Support of the Fluidized-Bed
                                                                                  Combustion  Program  (Westinghouse Research Laboratories)

                                                                              2.   Support Studies of  Pollutant and Waste Control  in  Fluidized-
                                                                                  Bed  Combustion/Regeneration Systems (Argonne National
                                                                                  Laboratory)   co-funded with ERDA

                                                                              3.   Miniplant and Bench-Scale Studies in Support of the  Fluidized-
                                                                                  Bed  Combustion Program (Exxon Research and Engineering Co.)

                                                                              4.   Design, Construction and Operation of a Fluidized-Bcd Coal
                                                                                  Combustion  Sampling and Analytical Test Rig (Contractor  to be
                                                                                  selected/EPA)
                                                                         E.    Paper Studies    EA and CTD

                                                                              1.   The  Effect of Experimental Scale on Emissions  from  Fluidized-
                                                                                  Bed  Combustion Units (Dow Chemical)

                                                                              2.   Application  of Fluidized-Bed Technology to Industrial  Boilers:
                                                                                  An Economic, Environmental and Energy Analysis (Exxon  Research
                                                                                  and  Engineering Co.)   co-funded with FEA and  ERDA

                                                                              3.   Cost  Comparison of Commercial Atmospheric and  Pressurized
                                                                                  Fluidized-Bed Power Plants to Conventional Coal-Fired  Power
                                                                                  Plant with Flue Gas Desulfurization (Tennessee Valley
                                                                                  Authority)

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212
        CONTROL OF ATMOSPHERIC POLLUTION BY
             FLUIDIZED-BED COMBUSTION

         G.  Vogel, W.  Swift, and A.  Jonke
           Argonne National Laboratory
                Argonne, Illinois
     The United States Government, in the Clean Air
Act, requires that air pollution be kept within
acceptable limits.  As an example, in the Environ-
mental Protection Agency (EPA) Standards of Perform-
ance for New Stationary Sources (1), the maximum
allowable emissions from a new coal-burning power
plant for S02, N02, and particulate solids are re-
spectively, 1.2, 0.7, and 0.1 pounds per million
British Thermal Units (Btu) of heat, based on a two-
hour average.  These emission standards are lower in
many cases than actual emissions from power plants
in pre-Act days according to Cuffe and Gerstle (2),
who provided a comprehensive summary of emissions
from six types of coal-fired power plants.  Since
the passage of the Act, companies with existing
plants must resort to one of the following to meet
local or state regulations for S02 emission:  use of
low-sulfur fuel, use of high-sulfur fuel from which
sulfur is removed before combustion, or the use of a
scrubber to remove S02 from flue gas.  The emission
of N02 can generally be controlled by modification
of the combustion process in existing power plants,
according to Hall and Bartok  (3).  Particulate solids
control  in existing plants is a function of the type
of solids-removal equipment selected.

     Among new techniques for attacking the pollution
problem, a concept that is rapidly gaining favor
because it appears to be economically attractive is
the combustion of fossil fuel in a fluidized bed of
sulfur-retaining additive.  The national Fluidized-
Bed Combustion Program Plan specifies that prototype
boilers and heaters  shall be  ready for  industrial
and commerical applications within a few years, fol-
lowed soon by a prototype utility-boiler module. Such
equipment is urgently needed  as natural gas curtail-
ments continue and affordable oil  supplies remain
uncertain.  The system under  development presently
appears to ERDA (Energy Research and Development
Agency), utilities,  arid industry to offer cost,
efficiency, and reliability advantages  over stack-gas
scrubbers by avoiding the four to  six percent energy
loss required for scrubber operation with high-sulfur
coal, the cost of scrubbers,  and the forced plant
outages resulting from scrubber malfunction.

     The overall ERDA program in this field involves
research, development, and demonstration of both
atmospheric-pressure and elevated-pressure concepts.
A pilot plant employing the atmospheric-pressure
concept is under construction at the Rivesville
station of the Monongahela Power Company in West
Virginia.  The boiler for this pilot plant with a
capacity for burning over 10  tons/hr of coal, was
designed and constructed by Foster Wheeler Corp.
The overall project, being carried out  by Pope,
Evans and Robbins, Inc., is expected to reach the
operating stage around mid-1976.   The succeeding
stage of development will be  a demonstration plant of
at least 200 MWe capacity.   Preliminary  design of
such a plant is anticipated  to  begin  in  the near
future under ERDA or EPRI sponsorship.

     The pressurized combustion concept  has reached a
stage of development such that  a  proposal for pilot
plant construction has recently been  accepted by
ERDA.  The proposal by Curtiss-Wright calls for con-
struction at Woodridge, N.J., of  a combustor
operating at seven atmospheres  pressure  with an out-
put of 14 MWe.  The pilot plant would provide data
for the conceptual design of a  500 MW commercial
plant with a calculated efficiency of 40.8%.  The
project, including operation of the plant, is to
extend for a period of 5 1/2 years.

     Besides the application to electric power
generation, fluidized-bed combustors  also have
excellent potential for coal-burning  industrial  and
commercial boilers and heaters.   ERDA has recently
solicited proposals from industry for development and
demonstration of various industrial applications,
including steam generators and  industrial process
heaters in full commercial sizes.  Proposals are
currently being evaluated.

     The national development program also calls for
construction of several sub-pilot plant  facilities
for the purpose of providing support  to  the pilot
plants and for developing unique  or advanced concepts.
Such units will have capacities in the range of 1 to
5 MWe.  One such unit, a pressurized  Component Test
and Integration Facility (CTIF) has been proposed for
construction at Argonne National  Laboratory (ANL).
Another CTIF, for operation' at atmospheric pressure,
is under design at the Morgantown Energy Research
Center.  At the Oak Ridge National Laboratory, an
experimental unit is under construction  to study the
application of fluidized-bed combustion  to the
provision of total energy requirements (heat and
electricity) for small communities.   In  addition to
these national facilities, a pressurized process
development unit has been authorized  for construction
in England under sponsorship of the International
Energy Agency.  Part of the funding for  this facility
will be provided by ERDA,

     Besides the ERDA projects, research and develop-
ment on fluidized-bed combustion  is also being
sponsored by the Electric Power Research Institute
(EPRI) and by EPA.  The EPA program is aimed chiefly
at investigation of the environmental control aspects
of fluidized-bed combustion.

     Argonne National Laboratory  (ANL) is one of
several organizations participating in a research and
development program designed to develop  the concept
and to eventually demonstrate on  a plant scale that
the process is economical and meets pollution stand-
ards for stationary power sources.  The  ANL program,
which has been under way since  1968,  has involved
investigations of both atmospheric pressure and
elevated pressure concepts.  Currently,  ANL is
conducting a basic research  and development program
to evaluate the feasibility  and potential of  fluid-
ized-bed combustion at pressures  up to 10 atm
Jonke et al. (4), Vogel et  al.  (5, 6, 7)).  Specific
objectives include:   (1)  optimizing  the combustion
process with respect to sulfur  dioxide retention in
the fluidized bed of additive and nitrogen  oxide

-------
 suppression in the flue gas;  (2) determining  the
 behavior of the system with a variety  of  coals
 including lignite and subbituminous coals;  and  (3)
 determining trace-element pollutant levels  in the
 flue  gas.  In this paper, levels of S02,  NO,  and
 participate solids in the flue gas obtained in  exper-
 iments are compared with mandated standards for new
 power plants.  Since no emission standards  have been
 set for trace elements, the distribution  of these
 elements is compared with their distribution  in
 existing power plants.

          EQUIPMENT AND INSTRUMENTATION

     The experimental equipment and instrumentation
 consists of a 6-in.-dia fluidized-bed  combustor which
 was operated at a pressure of 8 atm absolute, coal and
 additive feeders, and flue-gas particulate  cleanup
 equipment.  A simplified schematic flowsheet  of the
 equipment is presented in Fig. 1.  The flue gas
 leaving the combustor is sampled and analyzed contin-
 uously for NO, S02, CH^, and  CO, using infrared
 analyzers, and for 02, using  a paramagnetic analyzer.
 Intermittent C02 analyses are made by  gas chromato-
 graphy.

                MATERIALS TESTED

     Combustion experiments have been  performed using
 three different coals (-14 mesh size)  and two
 additives (-14 +100 mesh).  The coals  tested  include
 a highly caking, bituminous Pittsburgh seam coal
 (2.82% sulfur) from the Arkwright mine, a subbitumi-
 nous  coal (0.78% sulfur) from the San  Juan  mine in
 New Mexico, and lignite (0.53% sulfur) from the
 Glenharold mine in North Dakota.

     Tymochtee dolomite was obtained from C.  E. Duff
 and Sons, Huntsville, Ohio, and contained ^50%  CaC03
 and 40% MgC03.  The limestone, obtained from  M. J.
 Grove Lime Company, Stephen City, Virginia, contained
 •v-95%  CaC03 and 1% MgC03.

     COMBUSTION STUDIES USING BITUMINOUS COAL

 Statistical Study of the Effects of Bed Temperature,
 Fluidizing-Gas Velocity, and  Ca/S Mole Ratio  on
 Dependent Variables

     A series of nine experiments in a 3  x  3  Latin
 square experimental design (1/3 replicate of  33
 factorial design) plus two replicate experiments were
 made.  The three levels of the independent  variables
 tested were (1) temperature at 1450, 1550,  and
 1650°F; (2) Ca/S mole ratio at 1, 2, and  3;  and (3)
 fluidizing-gas velocity at 2.0, 3.5 and 5.0 ft/sec.
 All experiments were made at a pressure of  8  atm
 absolute, a 3-ft fluidized-bed height, and  3% oxygen
 in the dry flue gas, using Arkwright coal and
 Tymochtee dolomite.

     Sulfur Dioxide Emission.  Figure  2 illustrates
 the effects of Ca/S mole ratio, superficial  fluid-
 izing-gas velocity, and bed temperature on  S02
 retention.  For Ca/S ratios above 2.0, the  S02
 retention is generally greater than 90%.  The level
 °f S02 in the flue gas increases rapidly, however,
with decreasing Ca/S ratio and with increasing  gas
 velocity at low Ca/S ratios.  The bed  temperature
appears to have very little effect.  The  results
                                                   213
indicate that for this coal and  additive,  it  should
be possible to operate close to  a  Ca/S mole ratio
of 1.0 and still meet the EPA emission limitation  of
1.2 Ib of sulfur dioxide per 106 Btu  (a  sulfur
retention of ^70%).

     Nitrogen Oxide Emission.  Nitrogen  oxide levels
in the flue gas, 270-120 ppm, correspond,  respective-
ly, to emissions of 0.40 and 0.15  Ib  NO/106 Btu, which
are below EPA standards.  In Fig.  3,  the experimental
values of the nitrogen oxide levels in the flue gas
are plotted as a function of the Ca/S mole ratio,
the only independent variable that appeared to hava  a
significant effect (on the basis of analysis of
variance and regression analysis evaluations).  The
broken lines, connecting data from experiments per-
formed under nominally similar combustion
temperatures, suggest a possible temperature
dependence, but the results are  inconclusive.

     The nitrogen oxide levels reported  here for
combustion at 8 atm are considerably  below the 300
to 550 ppm values previously obtained in atmospheric
combustion studies (4).  This pressure effect on
nitrogen oxide emissions has been observed by
Wright (8).

     Solids Loading in the Flue Gas.  Solids loading
in the flue gas leaving the combustor (before any
particulate removal) varied directly with both the
fluidizing-gas velocity and the Ca/S mole ratio, as
shown in Fig. 4.  At gas velocities of 2, 3.5, and
5 ft/sec, increasing the Ca/S mole ratio from 1  to 3
increased the solids loading by 60, 80, and 125%,
respectively.  Although these results suggest the
desirability of maintaining low Ca/S ratios to
minimize solids loading from the additive, high Ca/S
ratios could be used at suitably selected gas
velocities and sorbent particle sizes.  Thus, the
loadings quoted here are not representative of what
could be achieved.  After the flue gas passed through
the second cyclone and the final  filter, its loading
was less than the mandated standard of 0.1 lb/106 Btu.

Comparison of Dolomite with Limestone with Respect to
Sulfur Retention Capability and NO Level  in the Flue
Gas at Combustion Temperatures of 1650 and 1750°F

     The sulfur retention capabilities of Tymochtee
dolomite and Grove limestone were compared at
different Ca/S ratios and at fluidized-bed temper-
atures of 1650 and 1750°F.  At these temperatures and
a combustor operating pressure of 8 atm, the MgC03
in the dolomite is calcined to MgO.  The CaC03 does
not calcine at 1650°F but does at 1750°F, proba'bly
producing a more porous structure.  The  sulfur
retention was better at 1750°F than at 1650°F in
experiments with Tymochtee dolomite at different Ca/S
ratios (Fig. 5).  In single experiments with lime-
stone at a Ca/S ratio of ^1.5, sulfur retention was
the same at 1650°F as at 1750°F.   Precalcining the
limestone before feeding it into the  combustor did
not improve the sulfur retention capability in a
single experiment made at a combustion temperature
of 1650°F and a Ca/S mole ratio  of ^1.4.  The sulfur-
retention capability of Tymochtee dolomite at 1750°C
was superior to that of Grove limestone, both on a
molar basis (Fig. 5) and on a mass basis.

     The NO concentrations in the dry flue gas ranged

-------
from  130 to  135 ppm  (using dolomite) and  from  84  to
150 ppm  (using limestone).  The additive  type  did not
seem  to affect NO emission level.

Effect of Percent Combustion Air on Sulfur  Retention
and on NO Level in the Flue Gas

      The effect of the amount of excess combustion
air on the sulfur retention capability of Tymochtee
dolomite at  different Ca/S mole feed ratios was
evaluated using a bed temperature of 1650°F and a
fluidizing-gas velocity of 4.5 ft/sec.  Excess air
levels were  17, 44,  and 75%.  At these levels  no
meaningful and consistent effect on the sulfur-
retention capability of dolomite was found, as shown
in Fig. 6.

      The NO  concentration in dry flue gas was  found
to increase  with oxygen concentration, as expected.
At ^3, 6, and 9% oxygen in the dry flue gas, the  NO
concentrations were  160, 200, and 220 ppm,
respectively.

        COMBUSTION STUDIES USING LOW-SULFUR
          SUBBITUMINOUS AND LIGNITE COALS

      Experiments were made to determine whether any
difficulties would be encountered in processing a
San Juan subbituminous coal  with a high ash content
of 17% and a Glenharold mine lignite with a low
heating value of 7,625 Btu/lb.   The nominal operating
conditions for the two experiments were a bed
temperature  of 1550°F, a fluidizing-gas velocity  of
3.5 ft/sec,  an 02 concentration of 3% in the dry
flue  gas (-^15% excess air) and a Ca/S mole ratio  of
1.

Sulfur Dioxide Retention

     The S02 levels of 250 and 120 ppm observed for •
the combustion of the subbituminous and lignite
coals, respectively,  correspond to emissions of 0.45
and 0.21  Ib S02/10^ Btu.   The combustion of Arkwright
bituminous coal  under similar operating conditions
would have a projected S02 emission of 610 ppm or
1.2 Ib S02/106 Btu.   The above emissions represent
S02 retentions of approximately 72, 72, and 85% for
the bituminous,  subbituminous,  and lignite coals,
respectively.  The somewhat  higher retention reported
for the lignite experiment suggests that calcium  in
that coal  may be  an active agent in helping to retain
S02 during combustion.

Nitrogen Oxide Emissions

     The NO  levels of 150  ppm and  130 ppm, respec-
tively, for the  combustion experiments  with the
subbituminous and  lignite  coals correspond to
emissions of 0.19  and 0.18 Ib N02/106 Btu.  The
projected emission for the bituminous coal (140 ppm)
under similar conditions is  also 0.19 Ib N02/106 Btu.

            TRACE  ELEMENT  DISTRIBUTIONS

     Environmentalists  and researchers  are becoming
increasingly concerned  that  trace  elements emitted
from fossil-fueled power plants,  incinerators,  and
industrial  processes  may have significant adverse
environmental and  health  impacts.   Although a sub-
 stantial  fraction  of the trace elements present  in
 coal  during  combustion is retained with the fly  ash
 removed  by emission  control  devices, significant
 quantities of trace  elements (such as mercury) may
 still  be  emitted as  vapors or in association with
 submicron size particles that are not efficiently
 removed  by present-day devices.   Recent investi-
 gations  have also  demonstrated that several  trace
 elements  (such as  lead,  cadmium, arsenic,  and nickel)
 preferentially concentrate in the smallest particles
 emitted  from conventional  coal-fired power
 plants. (9-H)

      Since fluidized-bed combustion is  carried out at
 temperatures (1550-1750°F) well  below those  of
 conventional  power plants  and in the presence of
 adsorbent for  sulfur dioxide removal,  an investi-
 gation was made to evaluate  the  potential  of
 fluidized-bed  combustion for reducing  trace-element
 emissions as compared  with conventional combustors.
 A convenient basis for evaluation was  to make mass
 balances  around the  ANL  6-in.-dia fluidized-bed
 combustor for  comparison with similar  data reported
 for large, conventional  coal-fired power plants.

     Mass balances were  made for the following trace
 and minor elements:   Hg,  F,  Be,  Pb,  As, Br,  Co,  Or,
 Fe, K, La, Mn, Na, and Sc.   Wet  chemical techniques
 were employed  to measure the concentrations  of the
 four  trace elements  of primary  interest in the
 investigation:  mercury,  lead, beryllium, and
 fluorine.  Mercury and lead  were analyzed by atomic
 adsorption,  beryllium  by fluorimetry, and fluorine
 by specific  ion electrode.   The  concentrations of
 the remaining  trace  elements  measured were obtained
 by neutron activation  analysis.

     Nominal  conditions  for  two  experiments were  a
 bed temperature of 1550°F, 10-atm pressure, and 4%
 02 in the off-gas, as  compared with  values of 1650°F,
 8 atm, and 3%  02 for two  other experiments.  To
 assess the effects of  additive,  in  one experiment
 at each set  of conditions  coal was  combusted in a
 fluidized bed  of -alumina;  in  the other experiment,
 coal was  combusted in  a  fluidized bed of dolomite.

     Results  of .the mass  balance calculations are
 presented.in  Table 1.  The first two lines in
Table 1 list mass balances for mercury and fluorine
 based on  both  solids and  flue gas analyses.  The
mercury balances, which  exhibited an average re-
 covery of only 38%,  are  particularly disappointing.
 The fluorine balances  of 120 and 110% recovery for
 the experiments at 1550°F  are reasonably acceptable
 values; the  recoveries of  180 and 240% for the
 experiments  at 1650°F  are  unaccountably high.

     The  remainder of  Table  1  lists  the material
 balances, based on solid samples  only, for those
elements ^including mercury  and  fluorine) for which
 sufficient analytical  data were  available.   Reten-
 tion of the relatively volatile  elements, mercury,
 arsenic,  fluorine, and bromine,  in  the solids
 indicates that fluidized-bed combustion may  reduce
 the emissions  of these elements.

     The  average retention of 23% for mercury in the
 solid effluents from the combustor (Table  1)
 compares  favorably with  the  10%  retention  reported

-------
by Billings et al.  (12) for a  large  conventional
coal-fired power plant.  Klein  et  al.  (11)  reported
that mercury remains almost completely in  the gas
phase.  The measured retention  of  85%  for  arsenic
compares favorably with the arsenic  recovery,
reported by Klein et al.  (11),  of  only  40  to  over
100% for a mass balance around  a conventional
290-MWe, cyclone-fed boiler.   Similarly, Attari  (13)
estimated only 35% retention of arsenic in  the solid
effluents from the Illinois Institute  of Gas  Tech-
nology's HyGas (high-Btu coal  gasification)  pilot
plant.

    The average retentions of  fluorine and  bromine
in the combustion experiments  with dolomite  (59 and
3655, respectively) were compared with  those  in the
combustion experiments in an alumina bed  (14  and  0%,
respectively).  This indicates  that  the additive
used for sulfur dioxide removal is also effective in
reducing the emissions of these two  elements.   In
comparison, Klein et al. (11)  reported that  only  10%
of the bromine was recovered in the  ash from  a con-
ventional boiler.

    Seven of the remaining ten elements reported on
(Mn, Co, Fe, K, La,Na, and Sc)  had material  balances
of 100 +_ 10%, indicating (within analytical  accu-
racies) essentially no losses  by volatilization.   The
relatively low recoveries of beryllium and chromium
are suspect since (1) complete  recoveries  of  chromium
have been reported for coal-processing units  operated
at much higher temperatures and (2)  beryllium is
reportedly less volatile than  chromium (14).   Except
that there was one unaccountably high  recovery for
manganese, this element also exhibited a recovery of
100 + 10%.

    The significance of these  results is  emphasized
in Table 2, which compares the  project trace  element
emissions from conventional and fluidized-bed com-
bustion systems, based on currently  available mass
balance data.  With the exception  of the projected
emissions for chromium, the emissions  from fluidized-
bed combustion are consistently as low as  or  lower
than those projected for conventional  combustors.

    The trace-element data were further analyzed
to qualitatively assess the relation of concentration
to particle size in the fly ash.   For  the  two
combustion experiments carried  out in  a fluidized bed
of alumina, the concentrations  of  the  trace  elements
in the coal and fly ash samples from successive
stages of gas-particle separators  (primary cyclone,
secondary cyclone, and filter)  were  adjusted  to a
combustible matter-free basis  and  then normalized
against an arbitrary reference  concentration  (con-
centration of the element in the coal  or primary
ash).  The results of this analysis  for seventeen
trace and minor elements are shown in  Fig.  7.

    For several elements (such as Ba, Co,  La, Sb,
Sc, and Ta), there were marginal (possibly insigni-
ficant) tendencies of concentration  to increase with
decreasing particle size.  Of  these  elemetlti, only
antimony is acknowledged to concentrate strongly  in
the finer fly ash from conventional  plants (8-11);
barium, cobalt, lanthanum, scandium, and tantalum
nave exhibited marginal preferential partitioning by
Particle size in fly ash (11).  Lead and chromium,
                                                   215
which show no tendencies  to  increase  with  decreasing
Particle size in this  study,  have  exhibited  strong
and moderate (8-11) enrichment,  respectively,  in the
fly ash from conventional boilers.  The  lower  com-
bustion temperatures of fluidized-bed combustion may
be effective, therefore,  in  reducing  the enrichment
of trace elements in the  finer ash  particles.

                  ACKNOWLEDGMENTS

      We gratefully acknowledge support of this
 program by the Energy Research and Development
 Administration and by the Environmental  Protection
 Agency.

                    REFE'TNCES

  1.   Environmental  Protection Agency, "Standards of
      Performance",  Federal  Register,  36, No. 247
      (1971).

  2.   Cuffe,  S.  T.  and Gerstle, R.  W., "Emissions
      from Coal-Fired  Power Plants:  A Comprehensive
      Summary",  U.S.  Department of Health,  Education
      and  Welfare (1967).

  3.   Hall, H.  J. and  Bartok, W., "NOX Control  from
      Stationary Sources", Environmental  Science and
      Technology, 5,  320 (1971).

  4.   Jonke,  A.  A.  et  al., "Reduction  of  Atmospheric
      Pollution by the Application  of  Fluidized-Bed
      Combustion",  Annual  Report, ANL/ES-CEN-1004
      (1972).

  5.   Vogel ,  G.  J.  et  al. , "Reduction  of  Atmospheric
      Pollution  by the Application  of  Fluidized-Bed
      Combustion and  Regeneration of Sulfur-Contain-
      ing  Additives",  Annual  Report, EPA-R2-73-253
      (1973).

  6.   Vogel,  G.  J.  et  al., "Reduction  of  Atmospheric
      Pollution  by the Application  of  Fluidized-Bed
      Combustion",  Annual  Report  EPA-650/2-74-057
      (1974).

  7.   Vogel,  G.  J.  et  al., "Reduction  of  Atmospheric
      Pollution by the Application  of  Fluidized-Bed
      Combustion and  Regeneration of Sulfur-Contain-
      ing  Additives",  EPA-650-2-74-104 (1974).

  8.   Wright,  S. J.,  "The Reduction of Emissions of
      Sulfur  Oxides  and Nitrogen  Oxidfes by Additions
      of Limestone or  Dolomite during  the Combustion
      of Coal  in Fluidized Beds", Proceedings of the
      Third International  Conference on Fluidized-
      Bed  Combustion,  EPA Report  EPA-650/2-73-053
      (1973).

  9.   Natusch,  D. F.  S.,  Wallace, J. R.,  and Evans,
      C. A.,  Jr., "Toxic Trace Elements:   Preferen-
      tial Concentration  in  Respirable Particles",
      Science 183 (4121), 202  (1974).

 10.   Kaakinen,  J. W., Jordan, R..W.,  Lawasani ,  M. H..,
      and West,  R. E., "Trace  Element Behavior  in
      Coal-Fired Power Plant", Environ.  Sci. Techno!.
      9_(9), 362  (1975).

-------
216
11.  Klein, D. H., Andren, A.  W.,  Carter, J. A.,
     Emergy, J. F.,  Feldman, C.,  Fulkerson, W., Lyon,
     W. S., Ogle, J.  C., Talmi,  Y., Van Hook, R. I.,
     and Bolton, N.,  "Pathways  of  Thirty-Seven Trace
     Elements Through Coal-Fired  Power Plants",
     Environ. Sci. Techno!., 9(10), 973 (1975).

12.  Billings, C. E., Sacco, A.  M., Matson, W. R.,
     Griffin, R. M.,  Coniglio,  W.  R.,  and Handley,
     R. A., "Mercury  Balance on  a  Large Pulverized
     Coal-Fired Furnace", J. Air.  Poll.  Control
     Assoc., 23 (9),  773 (1973).

13.  Attari, A., "Fate of Trace  Constituents of Coal
     During Gasification", Environmental  Protection
     Agency Report No.  EPA-650/2-73-004 (1973).

14.  Ruch,  R.  R., Gluskoter, H. J.  and  Shimp, N.  F.,
     "Occurrence and  Distribution  of Potentially
     Volatile Trace Elements in Coal:   An Interim
     Report",  Environmental  Geology Note  No.  61,
     Illinois State Geological Survey  (1973).

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                                                                                                           217
Figure 1.    Simplified equipment  flowsheet of
           ANL fluidized-bed  combustor system.
Figure 2. - Effect of bed temperature,  fluidizing
           gas velocity, and  Ca/S  mole ratio on
           sulfur retention in  the bed during
           combustion.  Arkwright  coal and
           Tymochtee dolomite.
Figure 3- - NO concentration  in flue gas as a
            function of Ca/S  mole  ratio
                                                           300
                                                           250
                                                           200
                                                           150
 bJ
 O
 z
 o

 o
                                                           100
     50
                   i	r~
         COMBUSTION TEMPERATURE:
               O  I450°F
               D  1550-F
               A  I650°F
                                                                                                T
                                                                                                 REGRESSION
                                                                                                    CURVE
        FLUIDIZING GAS VELOCITY: 2-5ft/sec
        EXCESS AIR :~I5%(3%02 IN FLUE GAS)
        FLUIDIZED-BED HEIGHT: 3ft
                                                                              MOLE RATIO, Ca/S
        'H
°>


3 ^
c s
Q/s


\X X «o CsP
^v^ "' <^>
3-°.^
<>°

-------
218
Figure  5.    Sulfur-retention capabilities of
             additives compared, molar basis
                           Figure 6.    Effect of  excess  combustion  air on
                                         sulfur retention,  Tymochtee  dolomite.
     100
     90
     80
     70
     60
     50-
EXCESS AIR, %:
  A    17
  O    44
  •    75
                1.0       2.0       3.0
                       Ca/S  MOLE RATIO
                                           4.0
                                                   J
                  5.0
                                                                   100
                                                                   90
                                                                   80
                                                                 8*
                                                                 z"
                                                                   70
                                                                   60
                                                                   50
                                                     .-^-DOLOMITE, I750°F
                                                         BED TEMPERATURE

                                                            DOLOMITE, I650°F
                                                            (LINE DRAWN FROM
                                                            VAR-SERIES DATA)
                                                                                                  LIMESTONE, I750°F
                                                                                      LIMESTONE, I650°F
                                                                                     LIMESTONE, PRECALCINED, I650°F
                                                                              1.0
                                                     2.0      3.0
                                                    Ca/S MOLE RATIO
                                                                                                        4.0
                                                                               5.0
Figure  7-  - (a),  (b), and  (c)   Normalized
              concentrations  of trace  elements  as
              a function of sample  indicating the
              relative enrichment of trace elements
              between coal  and ash  samples and
              among samples of ash  of  successively
              finer particle  size.  Data pertains
              to  combustion in a fluidized bed  of
              alumina at 1550°F (indicated by
              asterisk) or  l650°F.
 2.5
  COAL
           PRIMARY     SECONDARY     FILTER
           CYCLONE      CYCLONE
                 (a)
                                          3.0
                                          2.5
                                          1.5
                                           COAL
                                                                   Dy
                                                                              Co
                  PRIMARY
                  CYCLONE
SECONDARY
 CYCLONE
                                                                           FILTER
                          (b)
                                                 o
                                                  COAL
PRIMARY    SECONDARY    FILTER
CYCLONE     CYCLONE

      (c)

-------
                                                                                                                                                        219
Table 1.
- Mass Balances for Trace and Minor
Elements Around ANL's 6-ln.-dia,
Pressurized, Fluidized-Bed Combustor.
Recovery** , %
Combustion
Element
Hui Balances
Bg
F
Mm Balances
H8
F
Pb
Be
As
Br
Co
Cr
Fe
K
La
Ha
Ha
, Sc
1550'F
Based on
56
120
Based on
37
5
110
63
85
0
79
27
92
120
120
110
79
110
in Alumina Bed Combustion in
1650°F
I550°F
Dolomite Bed
1650f

Average"
Solids and Flue-Gas Analysis
29
180
Solids AnalyE
26
23
120
56
IC
I
100
64
120
1
>74
170
120
110
43
110
lis Only
9
62
78
71
85
36
88
83
95
77
89
110
85
83
25
240
20
56
95
87
>83
I
96
120
92
74
I
I
100
88
38
160
23
36
100
69
85
18
91
74
100
90
104
130
96
98
Table 2.-
Projected Emissions of Trace Elements
from Conventional and Fluidized-Bed
Combustors Expressed as a Percentage
of the Element Entering the System.
Element
Hg
F
Br
As
Pb
Be
Sc
Cr
Co
Na
K
Fe, La,
Projected
from convi
Conventional
Combustiona
90-100
90-100 (estimated)
90-100
0-60
10
Not Available
10
0
10-20
0-10
0-10
Mn 0
from data in the literature (10-12) on trace-el
sntional power plants.
Fluidized-Bed
Combust ion
80
40
65
15
0-20
20-40
0
25'
0-20
5
10
0
em*nt emissions
 Percent of element  entering  combustor accounted for In product steams.

 Average recovery  for  experiments  in which a balance was determined.

* I means indeterminate due  to incomplete concentration data for some
 samples.

-------
220
      COST COMPARISON  OF COMMERCIAL ATMOSPHERIC
   AND PRESSURIZED FLUIDIZED-BED POWER  PLANTS  TO A
        CONVENTIONAL  COAL-FIRED POWER  PLANT
           WITH FLUE  GAS DESULFURIZATION
                   John T. Reese
             Tennessee Valley Authority
              Chattanooga, Tennessee
INTRODUCTION

      Fluidized-bed  combustion  (FBC)  is  one  of  the
most  promising  advanced combustion processes to be
studied  since development of pulverized coal
combustion  in the 1920's.  Not  only  does  the
process  offer the potential for reducing  capital
cost  of  equipment and  for improved thermal  effi-
ciencies, but it can also provide a  more  environ-
mentally acceptable method for  burning  coal.

      Because of the promise which FBC holds,
extensive research  and development efforts  are
under way to bring  the concept  to commercial
reality.  Among those  active in the  field are  the
Energy Research and Development Administration
(ERDA) which has lead  responsibility for  Government-
sponsored efforts in FBC and the Environmental
Protection  Agency (EPA) which is evaluating and
attempting  to minimize the environmental  impact of
FBC systems.  Major R&D programs are under  way at
Argonne  National Laboratory; Babcock and  Wilcox
Company; Combustion Power Corporation;  Combustion
Systems, Ltd.;  Curtiss Wright Corporation;  Electric
Power Research  Institute; Exxon Research  and
Engineering Company; Foster Wheeler  Corporation,
General  Electric Company; Pope, Evans and Robbins,
Inc.; Westinghouse  Electric Corporation;  and a
number of other organizations.

      At  the present time, a variety  of  flue gas
desulfurization (FGD)  processes are  the only
technology  being applied to new fossil-fired power
plants for  meeting  EPA New Source Performance
Standards (NSPS).   The lime/limestone system is
probably the best developed and most widely applied
of all the  FGD  processes.

      EPA is sponsoring a project to  compare the
cost  of  commercial  atmospheric  (AFB) and  pressu-
rized (PFB) power plants to a conventional  coal-
fired (CCF)  power  plant with FGD.  It is  envisioned
that  the project will  provide an assessment of the
economic potential  of  FBC over  a conventional  power
plant with  FGD  for  meeting environmental  standards
and to identify the areas where significant
economic gains  can  be  made by concentrated  R&D.

      The objectives of the project are  to develop
conceptual  design and  comparative capital and
operating costs for each of the following new  power
plants:
     1.  A CCF steam power plant with  flue gas
         desulfurization

     2.  An AFB steam power plant

     3.  A PFB combined cycle power plant

     The project draws on a variety of organizations.
The performing agency is the Tennessee Valley
Authority.  Fluidized-bed combustor designs, along
with capital and operating cost estimates, are
being utilized from ongoing work under the direction
of the National Space and Aeronautics  Administration
(NASA).  This effort is called the Energy Conversion
Alternative Systems (EGAS) study and is  sponsored
by ERDA and the National Science Foundation.  For
ECAS work being incorporated in this program,
General Electric Company is contractor in charge of
energy conversion system and overall plant design,
Foster Wheeler Energy Corporation has  responsibility
for furnace designs, and Bechtel Corporation will
provide design of the FGD system and balance of
plant systems.  Upon completion of design and cost
estimates, TVA will integrate the information
developed into a single report which compares on a
common basis using standard utility practice the
cost of the three plants.

POWER PLANT CONCEPTUAL DESIGNS

1.   Technical Discussion

     The accuracy of cost estimates for  a particular
system is in direct proportion to degree of maturity
of the technology.  An illustration of this fact is
evident in estimates made for FGD systems.  In 1969
the projected capital cost of a limestone wet
scrubbing system was $7-75/kW.-'-  As development
progressed and real plants were engineered and
constructed, 1972 capital costs for the  same process
system were estimated to be $U0.75/kW2—greater than
a fivefold increase over the earlier value.

     Similarly low capital and operating cost
estimates could occur in this program  unless
allowance is made for those areas where technical
uncertainties exist.  Several major design issues
are not fully resolved in each of the  three power
plant concepts.

     Some of the features in FBC which require
further definition are:

     Solids handling and injection systems

     Arrangement of heat transfer surface in fluid
     beds

     Fluid-bed startup systems

     Control and load1 following capability

     Mechanical design of dampers for  combustion air
     control, heat transfer surface supports, and

-------
    other hardware subjected to  large  temperature
    gradients

    Optimum bed temperature for  S0_  removal

    Optimum stoichiometry

    Regeneration of spent absorbent

    Hot particulate cleanup for  PFB  effluent

    Corrosion-erosion of gas turbine parts

    Hot bed material handling  and  cooling system

    Optimum exit gas temperature

    Of particular concern is hot particulate
cleanup for PFB power plants.   The  efficiency of
mechanical dust collectors drops  off  rapidly below
five microns.  In order to provide  corrosion-erosion
protection for the gas turbine, it  is necessary that
particulates in the 1-5 micron  range  be removed.
High temperature filters may provide  the required
degree of particulate removal;  however,  the  attendant
material and structural specifications  may present a
problem.  Also, at combustion temperatures,  alkali
metal compounds have appreciable  vapor  pressure.
Filter devices may not provide  adequate protection.
If this occurs, resistance to alkali  metal compounds
will have to be designed into the gas turbine
materials.

    Longstanding commercial application of  CCF
plants reduces uncertainties for  this case to a
minimum; however, some degree of  uncertainty remains
in the area of NO  control and  some aspects  of the
FGD system.  Staged combustion  experiments have
demonstrated the capability of  such operation to
reduce NO  emissions below NSPS.3 However,
carefully monitored corrosion tests indicate staged
combustion with many current boiler designs  may
cause serious furnace tube wall corrosion.^   It is
likely that attainment of NO  emission  standards  will
have to be achieved through a burner  or  furnace
design which circumvents the corrosion problem posed
by staged combustion operation.

    As with FBC plants, disposal of  S0_ absorbent/
ash wastes from conventional plants witn FGD poses
an environmental problem and adds an  economic
penalty to the plant.  Development of a suitable
regeneration scheme which produces a  salable
byproduct and returns sorbent to  the  system  would
provide for an improvement in economics.   Improved
mist elimination techniques, reduction  of scaling in
scrubbers,  and improved design  of flue  gas reheat
systems have been accomplished; however,  commercial
experience will undoubtedly identify  areas which
require further effort.

2.   Program Discussion

    Conceptual designs are nearing completion and
                                                   221
most major design specifications  have  been selected
for each of the cases being studied.

     Conceptual design  of  the  CCF plant is shown
schematically in figure 1.   The plant  has a nominal
rating of 870 MW electrical.   The steam generator
is a single furnace unit 7^-. 5  feet wide by k6 feet
deep by 185 feet high.   It is  designed to produce
7115 x 10° Ib/h supercritical  steam  at 3500 psi and
1000°F with reheat to 1000°F.  Pulverized coal,
sized 70 percent •* 200  mesh, is fired  through two
sets each of 16 horizontally opposed burners.
Burners and furnace are designed  to  limit NO
emissions to meet EPA NSPS.

     The furnace heat input rate  is  8128 x 10  Btu/h
at full load.  Design heat transfer  coefficients  are
20 Btu/h-ft -°F in the  radiant section of the boiler
and 13 Btu/h-ft2-°F for convection surfaces.   Peak
furnace gas temperature is approximately 3500°F.

     Flue gas leaving the  boiler  air heater enters
a 99 percent efficient  electrostatic precipitator.
It is then pumped by the induced  draft fan through
four parallel trains, each containing  a single-
stage, packed tower scrubber.  Scrubbing medium for
the flue gas is a slurry of calcium  hydroxide
(lime).  Sulfur dioxide is  scrubbed  out to a level
conforming to the EPA NSPS  of  1.2 Ib SOp per million
Btu heat input.  Flue gas  leaves  the scrubber at
125°F and is reheated to 250°F by blending with hot
air.  Hot air is supplied  by passing over steam
coils.  An alternate exit  gas  reheat temperature  of
175°F will be considered to reflect  the gain in
efficiency to be expected  in the  event acid dewpoint
of the flue gas will permit reduction  to this  lower
temperature.

     Coal is delivered,  handled,  and prepared in
the conventional manner.   Limestone  is delivered  to
the plant and calcined  in  a rotary kiln to supply
lime for flue gas scrubbing.
     The AFB power plant  schematic  is  shown  in
figure 2.  Steam conditions  are  3500 psi,  1000°F/
1000°F.  The plant consists  of four AFB  steam
generator modules with  a  nominal capability  of
230 MW electrical each.   The four modules  supply
steam to a single turbogenerator with  a  rating of
920 MW electrical.

     Arrangement and distribution of steam
generating surface between beds  are not  yet  clearly
defined and need  further study.  Each steam
generator module consists of six conventional
fluidized beds operating  at  1550°F  and one carbon
burnup cell operating at  2000°F.  Heat released in
each conventional fluid-bed  module  is  approximately
2012 x 10° Btu/h.  Ninety percent of the heat  is
released in main combustion  cells with an additional
10 percent being released in the carbon  burnup cell.
Of the heat released in the  main beds, 90 percent
release is allowed for  in the bed and  10 percent
^5 percent in the freeboard  above the  bed.  Overall

-------
222
heat  transfer coefficient  for the beds  is  kO  Btu/h-
ft2-°F.  Expanded "bed depth during operation  is
four  feet.

    Coal is delivered to the plant "by rail, stored
in a  pile, and  reclaimed as required.   From reclaim,
coal  is transported "by "belt conveyor to a  coal
storage silo.   Coal is withdrawn on a continuous
basis from the  silo and dried to provide proper
screening and transport properties.  The dried coal
is crushed to =r inch x 0 inch.

    Limestone is delivered to the plant by rail,
stored in a pile, and reclaimed as required.
Preparation for injection  is similar to coal,
except limestone is crushed to 1/8 inch x  0 inch.
After being crushed to size, the coal and  limestone
streams are transported in separate belt conveyors
and bucket elevators to two-hour holding hoppers
positioned above each steam generator module.
Coal  and limestone are withdrawn from these hoppers
at metered rates and blended together to provide a
2:1 calcium/sulfur ratio.  Rotary air lock valves
are used to subdivide the blended mixture  into
seven separately controllable streams which cascade
from  virbrating tables possessing four  downcomer
pipes  to vibrating tables which feed 12 injector
pipes.  This arrangement allows each blended  stream
to be  subdivided into k& separate streams  for
injection into  the bed.  A bypass stream ahead of
the coal-limestone blender feeds limestone directly
to the carbon burnup cell  feed tables.

    After combustion and sulfur sorption,  coal ash
and spent sorbent are withdrawn from the fluid bed
through a high-temperature air lock valve  and
transported to  a spent solids cooler.   Solid
material elutraited from the AFB beds is removed
from  the gas stream in two stages.  The first stage
of cleanup consists of multitube cyclones  with
electrostatic precipitators providing the  final
stage  of cleanup.  Solid material captured in the
cyclones is returned to the process by  injection
into  the 2000°F carbon burnup cell.  Ultimate
solids disposal is in a lined storage pond.

    High-temperature tubular air preheaters are
provided to limit the cyclone/precipitator gas inlet
temperatures to a 730-850°F range.  Low-temperature
regenerative air preheaters follow and reduce the
gas to an exit  temperature of 250°F.

    The PFB combined cycle power plant  schematic is
shown  in figure 3.  As with the CCF and AFB plants,
steam  conditions are 3500 psi,' 1000°F/1000°F.   The
plant has a nominal rating of 920 MW electrical.
The boiler consists of four PFB steam generating
modules operating at a gas side pressure of 10
atmospheres.   Each of the modules supplies l650°F
gas to a gas turbine 'which produces U6 MW  electrical
of power.   The four modules supply steam to a single
turbogenerator with a nominal rating of 736 MW
electrical.
    Each steam generator module  consists  of  six
conventional fluidized beds  operating at  l650°F and
one carbon burnup cell operating at  2000°F.   Like
the AFB plant, arrangement and distribution of
steam generating surface between beds is  not yet
clearly defined and needs further study.   Heat
released in each conventional fluid  bed module is
approximately 1968 x 10  Btu/h.   Ninety-five
percent of the heat released occurs  in the main
beds with an additional five percent in the  carbon
burnup cell.  Overall heat transfer  coefficient for
the beds is 50 Btu/h-ft2-°F.  Expanded bed depth
during operation is 8 feet.

    Coal is delivered to the plant by rail,  stored
in a pile, and reclaimed as.required.  From
reclaim, coal is transported by  belt conveyor to a
coal storage silo.  Coal is  withdrawn on  a
continuous basis from the silo and dried  to  a
surface moisture of less than 1  percent as required
by the fuel injection system.  The dried  coal is
crushed to J- inch x 0 inch and transported to a
surge hopper supplying the fuel  injection system.

    Limestone is delivered to the plant by rail,
stored, reclaimed, and prepared  for  injection in a
manner similar to coal preparation.   Coal and
limestone are fed separately to  the  boilers by a
pressurized, pneumatic injection system.  The
limestone feed rate 'is set to provide  a 2:1
calcium/sulfur ratio.

    After combustion and sulfur  sorption, coal ash,
and spent sorbent are withdrawn  from the  process
and transported to a spent solids cooler.  Solids
disposal is in a lined storage pond.

    Flue gas and elutriated  solids from' the  fluid
beds pass through two-stage  cyclone  collectors
followed by granular bed filters.  Solid material
captured by the cyclones is  transported to the
carbon burnup cell.

    Flue gas leaving granular bed filters enters
the gas turbine at 138 psia  and  l600°F.   Gas leaves
the gas turbine at 15. ^-2 psia and 865°F and passes
over a low level economizer  before leaving the
stack at a temperature of 250°F.

RESOURCE ALLOCATION

    Funds for this project are supplied through
interagency energy supplement funds.   Project
funding is $150,000 with essentially the  total
amount committed to FY 1976  and  transition quarter
1976.

INTERAGENCY PARTICIPATION

    EPA is conducting a contract.research and
development program valued at about  $k million in
fiscal year 1976 aimed at complete environmental
characterization of the fluidized-bed coal
combustion process.^  This program is  being

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                                                                                                         323
conducted in  coordination with the effort being
directed by EKDA to  develop fluidized-bed coal
combustion technology.   The project to compare costs
of commercial AFB and PFB power plants to a
conventional  plant with FGD being carried out by
TVA is designed  to provide an assessment of the
economic potential of these alternative methods for
utilizing coal in an environmentally acceptable
manner.

CONCLUSIONS

     Upon completion,  this study will provide a
useful guide  for assessing the advantages of FBC
as compared with flue  gas desulfurization.  It will
identify major design features in which further
development could improve economics of the process.
This, in turn, will  help provide a better definition
of R&D priorities.


                    REFERENCES


1.   Dennis,  Carl, "How Much Will Pollution Control
     Cost You?," Electric Light and Power, June
     1969.

2.   Tennessee Valley Authority, "Detailed Cost
     Estimates for Advanced Effluent Desulfurization
     Processes," EPA report number EPA 600/2-75-006,
     page 99.

3.   Crawford, A.  R.,  et al,  "The Effect of
     Combustion  Modification on Pollutants and
     Equipment Performance of Power Generation
     Equipment," paper presented at the EPA
     Symposium on Stationary Source Combustion,
     Atlanta, Georgia,  September 2^-26, 1975.

k.   Hollinden,  G. A.,  et al, "Control of N0x
     Formation in Wall Coal-Fired Boilers," paper
     presented at the  EPA Symposium on Stationary
     Source Combustion,  Atlanta, Georgia,
     September 2^-26,  1975-

5.   Henschel, D.  B.,  "The U.S.  Environmental
     Protection  Agency Program for Environmental
     Characterization  of Fluidized-Bed Combustion
     Systems," paper presented at the Fourth
     International Conference on Fluidized-Bed
     Combustion,  McLean,  Virginia,  December 9-11,
     1975.

-------
224
Figure  1
               CONVENTIONAL  POWER  PLANT

                WITH  FLUE  GAS  DESULFURIZATION     F.D. FAN
STEAM
FROM
BOILER
                                                                             f~) COKOEkSlTE
                                                                            ^^  PUMP
                        -,j|     IOILER FEEI PUMP  „.,. HATERS
                                                                  L.P. HEATERS
Figure  2
                                ATMOSPHERIC FLUIDZED  BED  POWER  PLANT
                                                                                                                  AKHUT
       US
     STEAll    I
                                                                                FOSTER HEELER EDEICT CORP.

-------
                                                                                                                       225
Figure 3
                                                        PRESSURIZED FLUIDIZED  BED  POWER PLANT
                                                                                              DISCHARGE STACK




                                                                                     STEAM TURBINE
                                                                             CONDENSER  U COOLING
                                                                                          WATER
                                                                                      FOSTER  WHEELER ENERGT CORP.

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226
ASSESSMENT AND CONTROL OF ENVIRONMENTAL CONTAMINATION
    FROM TRACE ELEMENTS IN COAL PROCESSING WASTES
   E. M. Wewerka, J. M. Williams, and P. L. Wanek
              University of California
          Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory
           Los Alamos, New Mexico
INTRODUCTION

     Coal, as mined, contains a great deal of extra-
neous rock and mineral matter.  The inorganic con-
stituents often represent as much as 30 to 40% of
run-of-the-mine products.  These rock and mineral im-
purities are expensive to ship, dilute the caloric
content of the coal, and  produce undesirable gaseous
and particulate pollutants when the coal is burned or
utilized.  Consequently, much of the more highly min-
eralized coals-about one-half of the total mined in
the U.S.-is  processed to remove some of the unwanted
mineral and rock materials.  This is done by various
preparation methods, which utilize, for the most part,
density or flotation techniques to separate the
heavier mineral components from the lighter coal.
The discarded rock, mineral and coaly matter from
coal preparation facilities, together with other coal-
mine refuse, comprise the gob piles or culm banks
which are scattered over thousands of surface acres
in coal-producing regions.

     Recent estimates  are  that nearly two billion
tons of carbonaceous mineral wastes have been accum-
ulated in the U.S. as a result of coal preparation
and mine development.(^)  In addition, another 100
million tons or so is being added each year, and an-
nual production of waste is certain to increase as
the consumption of coal increases.!')  This huge
mass of material has always been considered a nuisance
tied to the production of cleaner coal, and more
often than not, coal preparation wastes have simply
been discarded at a convenient place in the country-
side to be left to the processes of nature.

     Coal  waste is not only a problem for the coal
producer, who must dispose of it, often at consider-
able expense, but frequently these discarded wastes
represent a formidable hazard to the environment or
to public health or safety.0»2)  There have been
many cases where dams or gob piles constructed of
coal wastes have collapsed with tragic consequences
for the people living nearby.  The 1972 disaster at
Buffalo Creek, WV, and the tragedy at Aberfan, Wales,
a few years ago are vivid examples.  Also, weathering
and leaching of coal waste dumps produce highly min-
eralized and often acidic solutions which drain into
surrounding areas.(2) These places suffer from severe
losses of soil fertility and a badly degraded aquatic
environment.  Chemical degradation and oxidation of
coal wastes can also produce sufficient heat to ig-
nite the waste dump.(2)  Presently, several hundred
gob piles are burning, and these are an appreciable
source of atmospheric pollution.(2)
     In recent years,  attempts  have  been  made  to cir-
cumvent some of  the major  environmental  problems as-
sociated with coal refuse  disposal.(3)   To  prevent
exposure to water  and  air, waste  materials  have been
crushed, carefully compacted, and then  covered with
top soil or sealed with  sludge, clay or other mater-
ials.  Often coal  debris is  sealed  into  abandoned
mines or placed  in stripped  out areas.   Substantial
effort to stabilize waste  piles and  banks by revege-
tation has  been undertaken, and  much work  has gone
into methods of  neutralizing acidic  effluents.  Al-
though these measures  appear to solve the immediate
problem of stabilizing the structures of  gob piles
and they seem to slow  geological  processes  somewhat,
it is not clear  how effective they will  prove to be
in the long run.

     In addition to these well  recognized problems,
another potential  environmental hazard  is beginning
to gain attention.  Coals, and  undoubtedly  coal
wastes, contain  a  broad  array of  trace  or minor
elements.(4)  Many of  these  trace elements, such as
lead, cadmium, arsenic,  selenium, mercury,  etc. are
of considerable  concern  because of  the  low  tolerances
of plants and animals  for  them.(5)   Undoubtedly many
of these trace elements  are  carried  into  the environ-
ment by aqueous  transport  and vaporization.  Although
the relative amounts of  these components  per unit of
waste is usually small,  the  total absolute  amount of
each available in  a large waste bank could  cause
grave consequences in water, soil or air  if they were
concentrated by  natural  processes.   (Alternatively,
of course, this suggests that it  may be possible to
recover useful quantities of minor materials from
existing waste dumps.)

     Several notable investigations  of  the  composi-
tion of coal cleaning wastes, and the nature of the
drainage from waste disposal areas have been repor-
ted.(2,6,7)  These have  been concerned  mainly with
the major mineral  components and  dissolved  materials
from them.  No comprehensive assessment of  the chem-
istry and mineralogy of  trace elements  in coal refuse
materials has been done.   Therefore, little is known
about the behavior of  the  various trace elements in
coal wastes under  conditions of weathering, burning
and leaching.  It  is the objective of the EPA-
supported research program now  underway  at  Los Alamos
Scientific Laboratory  (LASL), and described herein,
to define potential environmental problems  from trace
elements in coal processing wastes and  develop suit-
able pollution-control measures should  they be needed.

TECHNICAL DISCUSSION

     Although little work  has been done on  the chem-
istry and mineralogy of  trace elements  in coal refuse
materials, enough  information is  available  on minerals
and trace elements in  coals  to  appreciate the pos-
sibilities for environmental degradation  from this
source.  The character of  the major  minerals and rock
types found in coals,  coal-bearing strata and coal
refuse materials is fairly well established.!4)  In
spite of some variation  from locality to locality,

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 and even within individual  coal  seams,  certain classes
 of minerals are almost always  present  in  coals.  These
 minerals, listed in Table  I, are  the basic  components
 of sedimentary and secondary rocks, and other inor-
 ganic matter, deposited adjacent  to and within  the
 coal beds.

    The clay minerals are  present in  coals  and  coal
 refuse  in greatest abundance.   It is not  unusual  for
 70% or  more of the coal-associated inorganic matter
 to be of this type.  An average of 52%  clay  in  the
 mineral matter of 65 Illinois-Basin coals has been
 reported.(4)  Quartz was found  to represent  about 15%
 and carbonates about 10%, while pyrites comprised
 about 25% of the total mineral  content in these  coals.

    Many trace elements or minor minerals  are  pre-
 sent in coals and most should appear in the  coal
 waste materials.  In all, about 40 trace  or  minor
 elements have been identified  in coals, and, undoubt-
 edly others are present.(8)  Except for a few elements,
 which are thought to be almost exclusively  associated
 with the organic coal components, most  of the  trace
 elements in coals are distributed among the  major
 mineral constituents.(4,9)

    The relationships among selected trace  elements
 and major minerals have been studied in  over  one-
 hundred Illinois coals.(10)  This work  suggests  that
 most trace elements in coals reside within  the  struc-
 tures of the major minerals as  impurities or minor
 phases.  As illustrated in  Table II, a  correlation was
 found between certain trace elements and  specific
 mineral types.  A consideration of this relationship
 between trace elements and minerals in  coals,  leads
 to the  conclusion that trace elements  in  coal refuse
 materials are not likely to respond independently to
 weathering, leaching, burning or other  chemical  or
 physical processes, but more likely will  be  tied
 directly to the behavior of the major mineral com-
 ponents.

    The important steps in the weathering and
 leaching of refuse banks or gob piles are relatively
 well understood.(2,3,11]  in the presence of water
 and air, the pyrites present oxidize to produce  sol-
 uble salts and sulfuric acid solutions.*  This pro-
 cess requires both oxygen and water and is thought to
 be aided by certain bacteria.  Oxidation occurs  most
 rapidly at the exposed surfaces, and proceeds inward
 at a rate which depends on the permeability  of  the
waste material to water and air.  Overall, the pyrite
 oxidation process is exothermic, so reaction heat may
become sufficiently high in the interior of  the  gob
 The acid leaching of refuse materials is being des-
 cribed here, because it is a highly visible, worse-
 case example of the natural processes that can oc-
 cur in these materials.  Pyrites are present in most
 coal wastes, so the potential for acid build-up
 exists in most instances.  The absence of pyritic
 material, insufficient moisture, low permeability,
 burning, high carbonate content, or other conditions
 can prevent the formation or spread of acids in gob
 dumps.  It should not be concluded, however, that
 all is well  if the water moving through the wastes
 is non-acidic.  Available evidence shows that con-
 siderable dissolution and transport of mineral matter
 can also occur in these circumstances.U U
                                                  227

pile to  ignite  the waste  materials.   As  the acidic
solutions  formed by  pyrite  oxidation  drain  through
the wastes, .they can  dissolve  or  alter other min-
eral types, such as  the carbonates  and some of the
clays.(i2)  A series  of complex chemical  equilibria
eventually produces  the highly mineralized, acidic
waste waters characteristic of the  runoff from coal
mines  and  refuse dumps.

     The fate of the  trace  elements  in wastes  sub-
jected to weathering  or burning is  for the  most part
unknown.  This  gap in our understanding   poses a num-
ber of questions regarding  the behavior  of  trace
elements in coal waste materials.  What  happens to
the trace elements associated  with  the labile  or
soluble minerals during waste-dump weathering  and
burning?   Do they distribute in solution  in concen-
trations comparable  to those in the  solid phase, or
do ion exchange or partitioning effects with other
minerals or surrounding soils  concentrate certain
trace elements?  What is  the effect  of pH and  re-
lative ionic strength on  trace element behavior?
And finally, what effects do the  various  processes
used to control or treat  drainage from waste dispos-
al areas have on the  trace-elements  content of these
solutions?  These are important questions to be an-
swered before the possible  environmental  effects  of
trace elements  in coal refuse  materials can be  fully
assessed or understood, and appropriate control
measures can be developed.

PROGRAM OBJECTIVES

     Recognizing the  lack of information  on which  to
properly assess potential environmental problems  from
trace elements  in the vast  quantities  of  coal
cleaning wastes, EPA  has begun  to support research
in this area.  An EPA-funded program  is now underway
at ERDA's Los Alamos  Scientific Laboratory, which  is
being conducted under an  Interagency  Agreement  be-
tween EPA and ERDA.    Funding for this  program was
begun in mid-1975.   Current plans call for  a 3-year
project designed to accomplish  the following primary
objectives.

     1.  Identify the  chemical   forms,  mineralogy  and
associations of trace  elements  in coal refuse mat-
erials and establish  an understanding  of  the chemi-
cal properties and behavior of  these  materials.

     2.  Determine the fate of  trace  elements  during
the weathering and burning  of  coal wastes,  and  iden-
tify those elements or processes of possible environ-
mental concern.

     3.  Establish chemical  or  physical methods  for
preventing or controlling environmental contamination
from trace elements in coal  refuse.

     4.  Investigate  methods for economically  re-
moving or recovering  useful  trace minerals  or  metals
from coal refuse materials.

PROGRAM DISCUSSION

     To accomplish the proposed objectives, the pro-
ject has been divided  into  three main  tasks with 15
currently defined subtasks.   Major milestones  for
the program have been  established; these  will  be re-
viewed and revised as  necessary.

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228
     Task I involves the planning and establishment
of the directions that the technical investigations
will take.  This task covers the first 6 months of
the program and is nearly completed.  During this
time, an extensive literature search on the chemistry
and environmental behavior of trace elements in coal
cleaning wastes was completed and a report and com-
mentary on the literature, as it pertains to the pre-
sent program, is being written.  Methods and tech-
niques for analyzing trace elements and minerals in
coals and coal wastes were surveyed and those most
applicable were chosen.  Also, decisions were made
concerning the coal waste materials with which to be-
gin the laboratory studies.

     Task II encompasses the laboratory activities to
accomplish the first two program objectives.  This
task began concurrently with Task I, and will contin-
ue for at least the first 2 years of the program.

     The early parts of this task, devoted to develo-
ping and standardizing methods for analyzing trace
elements and minerals in coals and coal refuse, have
been completed.  Also, representative samples of both
fresh and weathered coal cleaning refuse have been
collected.

     The intermediate stages involve the characteri-
zation of the trace elements and minerals of both
fresh and weathered coal-waste samples, and prelimi-
nary identification of the trace elements of interest.
Also, a trace elements balance on a "typical" commer-
cial  coal  cleaning facility will be done to provide
information about the distribution of these elements
among the various products and waste streams.

     The latter stages of task II involve studies of
the chemical behavior of trace elements in coal wastes.
The effects of weathering, leaching, oxidation and
combustion on the trace elements in refuse materials
will  be investigated in the field and under simulated
environmental conditions in the laboratory.  Various
computer-based models, designed to describe the be-
havior of minerals in aqueous solutions, will be used
to help direct the laboratory studies.  Other studies
will  include chemical agents or conditions not nor-
mally encountered in the environment.  This work will
lead to the development of new or modified methods
for separating trace elements of interest from coal
wastes.

     In Task III, the information and technology gen-
erated in the earlier tasks will be used to develop
means of removing or recovering trace elements of en-
vironmental  or economic importance from coal cleaning
wastes.  Although the overall success of the program
depends heavily on the success of this task, the
specific programmatic steps that will be taken are
difficult to define at this time.  The removal or
recovery schemes will, however, involve chemical or
physical methods, or a combination of both, and are
to be considered as new, modified or add-on steps to
existing cleaning operations. Preliminary work in
Task III is  scheduled to begin in the latter half of
the current fiscal  year.

PROJECTION

     This  research program recognizes the greatly in-
creased role that cleaned or processed coal will
 assume  in the nation's energy picture, and reflects
 a  growing public concern with trace element releases
 from fuel sources.   The program is designed to pro-
 vide a  scientific assessment of potential environmen-
 tal  problems  from trace elements in discarded coal
 processing wastes,  and to lay the technological
 groundwork for assisting the coal industry in re-
 moving,  recovering  or preventing releases of environ-
 mentally harmful trace elements from coal refuse
 materials.

      Initial  research will  provide necessary data
 and  information about the character and behavior of
 refuse-borne  trace  elements under waste-pile condi-
 tions.   Beyond this, it is  difficult to comment on
 the  course of the investigation.  However, the lat-
 ter  parts of  the program, involving the development
 of environmental control technology, are flexibly
 designed so emphasis can be rapidly concentrated in
 areas of need.

 INTERAGENCY AGREEMENT AND RESOURCE ALLOCATION

      This program is supported by pass-through funds
 from EPA to ERDA under Interagency Agreement No.
 IAG-D5-E681.   The funding agency is the Industrial
• Environmental Research Laboratory of EPA at Research
 Triangle Park, North Carolina, and the performing
 agency  is the ERDA  Division of Environmental  Control
 Technology, Washington, D.C.  Technical work for the
 program  is being conducted  by ERDA's Los Alamos
 Scientific Laboratory at Los Alamos, New Mexico.
 Technical  direction is provided jointly by EPA and
 ERDA.

      This is  one of two  such programs provided initial
 funding  in FY 76 by EPA.  The other, a companion pro-
 gram on  the environmental aspects of sulfur in coal
 processing wastes,  is underway at Battelle, Columbus.
 Funding     allocated to LASL by EPA for FY 76 and
 projected through FY 77 is  as follows  ($ X 103):
        FY  76
         300
FY 76A
FY 77
FY 78
         Funding  comparable to FY 76 anticipated
         per EPA  guide!ines.

         Not yet  budgeted.

 CONCLUSIONS

      Concern about environmental contamination from
 trace elements in  coal  processing wastes Is well jus-
 tified.   However,  so little  is known about the nature
 of  these minor waste components, that it is difficult
 to  adequately assess the magnitude or extent of  trace
 element  release  from coal  wastes.  Nor is there
 a sufficient understanding of the chemistry or be-
 havior of trace  elements in  coal refuse materials on
 which to base environmental  control technology.  The
 EPA/ERDA interagency research program at LASL is de-
 signed to address  these problems from a fundamental
 basis and provide  rapid and  practical solutions.

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                   REFERENCES
                                                                                                         229
1.  Moulten, L.  K., Anderson,  D.  A.  Hussain,  S.  M.,
   and Seals, R.  K.,  "Coal  Mine  Refuse:   An  Engi-
   neering Material,"  paper presented at First Sym-
   posium on Mine and Preparation  Plant  Disposal,
   Louisville,  Ky., October,  1974.

2.  Coal gate, J.  L., Akers,  D.  J.,  and Frum,  R.  W.,
   "Gob  Pile Stabilization, Reclamation, and Utili-
   zation," OCR R and D  Report No.  75,  Interim Re-
   port  No. 1,  1973.

3.  Boyer, J. F.  and Gleason,  V.  E.,  J. Water Poll.
   Contr. Fed.,  44, 1088 (1972).

4.  Gluskoter, H.  J.,  "Mineral  Matter and Trace
   Elements in  Coal,"  Chapter 1  in  Trace Elements
   in Fuel, S.  P. Babu,  Ed.,  Advances in Chemistry
   Series, No.  141, ACS, Wash, D.C., 1975.

5.  Piperno, E.,  "Trace Element Emmissions:   Aspects
   of Environmental Toxicology,"  Chapter 15  in  Trace
   Elements in  Fuel,  S.  P.  Babu,  Ed., Advances  in
   Chemistry Series,  No. 141,  ACS,  Wash., D.C., 1975.
                                                        6.   Barnhisel, R.  I.  and Massey, H. F., Soil Science,
                                                            108,  367 (1969).

                                                        7.   Augenstein, D.  A.  and Sun, S. C., Trans. AIME,
                                                            256,  161 (1974).

                                                        8.   Magee, E.  M.,  Hall, H. J.  and Varga, G. M.,
                                                            Jr.,  "Potential  Pollutants in Fossil Fuels,"
                                                            NTIS  Report EPA-R2-73-249.

                                                        9.   Zubovic, P.,  Adv.  Chem.  Series, 55_,  221 (1966).

                                                       10.   Miller, W. G.,  "Relationships Between Minerals
                                                            and Selected  Trace Elements in Some Pennsylvanian
                                                            Age Coals  of  Northwestern  Illinois," MS Thesis,
                                                            Univeristy of Illinois,  Urbana, 1974.

                                                       11.   Martin, J. F.,  "Quality  of Effluents from Coal
                                                            Refuse Piles,"  paper presented at First Symposium
                                                            on  Mine and Preparation  Plant Refuse Disposal,"
                                                            Louisville, Ky., October, 1974.

                                                       12.   Barnhisel, R.  I.  and Rotromel, A.  L., Soil
                                                            Science, 118.  22  (1974).
Table 1.    Major Minerals  in Coals
Aluminosilicates

Silica

Carbonates

Sul fides
                    (Clay minerals)

                    (Quartz)

                    (Limestone, dolomite, siderite)

                    (Pyrite)
Table 2. - Trace Elements - Minerals Correlations

                                  :   Pyrite

                                  :   Sphalerite

                                  :   Calcite

                                  :   Quartz
As, Be, Cu, Sb

B, Cd, Zn, Hg

B, Cd, Mn, Se, Mo, V

B, Cr, Mn, Cd, Mo, Se, V, Zn
                                                       B,  Cu, F, Hg,  Sn,  V
                                                                                           Clays

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230
     PHYSICAL AND CHEMICAL COAL CLEANING FOR
                POLLUTION CONTROL
                James D. Kilgroe
   Industrial Environmental Research Laboratory
         Environmental Protection Agency
   Research Triangle Park, North Carolina
 INTRODUCTION

     Coal constitutes the greatest energy resource
 now available to the U. S.  It is .estimated that
 coal reserves contain some 67 x. 10   BTU's* enough
 to last 300 to 400 years under projected usage
 rates.  However, all coals contain minor and trace
 elements which form pollutants during processing or
 combustion.  Coal may be used as an environmentally
 acceptable energy source if suitable pollution con-
 trol measures are taken.

     Coal is primarily organic matter consisting of
 carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen and sulfur.
 There are also trace amounts of other elements dis-
 persed throughout the organic coal structure.
 Various amounts of mineral matter are also present,
 depending upon the characteristics of the individ-
 ual coal and the method by which it was mined.  The
 residual ash formed by the combustion of commer-
 cially used U. S. coals ranges between 3% and 20%,
 the average being about 14% by weight.  Combustion
 of coal results in the fprmation of pollutants
 which include oxides of sulfur and nitrogen plus
 the elemental forms or compounds of beryllium,
 chlorine, fluorine, arsenic, selenium, cadmium,
 mercury, lead and other potential pollutants.
is the pollutant of prin-
 emissions from coal com-
     Sulfur dioxide  (S
cipal concern.  Annual SO,
bustion in 1974 were estimated to be 20.5 million
tons.  This represents 65% ef the .total S02 emis-
sions for that year.  On a national basis the 5.3
million tons, of NO  emissions from coal combustion
represented 24% of the total 1974 NO  emissions.
Emissions of other potentially hazardous elements or
compounds while not as large may present environ-
mental or health problems because of their concen-
tration in process waste streams, concentration  in
the environment or effects produced by prolonged
exposure at low concentrations.

     The applicability of coal desulfurization to
sulfur dioxide emission control is dependent upon
emission regulations which must be met.  .Only 14%
of the 455 U. S. coals tested for physical cleana-
bility by the Bureau of Mines are capable of meet-
ing federal new source performance standards  (NSPS)
for steam generators  (1.2 Ib S0210   BTU).It
has been estimated that if physically  cleaned to a
90% BTU recovery and  a 1-1/2 in.  top size  24% could
meet NSPS.  Physically cleaned to the  same BTU
recovery and top size, 35%.are capable of meeting
standards of 2.0 Ib S02/10  BTU while  over 60% are
capable of meeting a  standard of  4.0 Ib S02/10  BTU
[see figure 1).  Many states have emission standards
as high as 4.0 Ib S02/10  BTU.  Thus there may be a
significant application of physical  coal cleaning to
meeting state emission regulations.

     Chemical coal cleaning is capable of higher
levels of desulfurization.  Thus  it  potentially has
a wider range of applicability.   In  some instances,
depending upon the coal, the emission  regulation and
site specific considerations, it  may be the most
cost effective method for S0_ emission control.
However, for other cases chemical coal  cleaning may
not be competitive with either physical cleaning or
flue gas desulfurization.  Figure 2  presents the
ranges of estimated costs and the degree of appli-
cability for different sulfur emission control
strategies.

TECHNICAL DISCUSSION

     Although nitrogen and other  elements are of
concern as pollutants, the primary emphasis in EPA's
programs has been the development of technology to
remove sulfur.  The total sulfur  content of American
coals varies from less than 1% to more than 6%.   It
is present in coal in several forms.   In the organic
form it is chemically bonded to the  carbon atoms
and cannot be removed by physical methods.  In Amer-
ican coals it generally represents from 20 to 85% of
the total sulfur present.  The inorganic form is
present mainly as the chemical species ferrous
disulfide (FeS_), either in the form of pyrite or
its polymorph marcasite.  In coals from different
coal regions of the U. S. there is a large varia-
bility in total sulfur content and in  the ratio of
organic to inorganic  sulfur.  To  a lesser extent
this rule of variability holds for coals from the
same region and even  for coal from the same mine.
The specific properties of each coal will determine
its amenability to sulfur removal by physical or
chemical methods..  Thus processes for  sulfur removal
must be based upon the chemical and  physical prop-
erties of the coal to be used in  the process.  No
process is universally applicable to all coals.
                              *It  is  EPA policy to report measurements in the in-
                              ternational system of metric units. For clarity of
                              presentation, units used in this paper will be those
                              commonly used for engineering activities in the U.S.
                              Conversion factors are presented at the end of the
                              paper.

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                                                                                                         231
    Figure 3 presents estimates of the sulfur
levels which can be attained by various levels  of
physical and chemical coal cleaning.  A principal
objective of EPA's coal cleaning program  is to  iden-
tify and support development of various processes
capable of being used to meet SO- emission standards
in a commercially competitive manner.  Corollary
objectives are the characterization of all pollu-
tants from these processes and the development  of
appropriate pollution control technologies.

    Physical Coal Cleaning

    Physical coal cleaning to remove mineral matter
and mining residue has been carried out for the past
several decades using many physical separation  tech-
niques  singly or in combination.  Techniques now
widely  used on a commercial basis for the removal  of
these impurities include jigging, heavy media sepa-
ration, tabling, and flotation.  These methods
depend  upon differences in physical properties  of
the coal and impurities to achieve separation.
Since 1965 EPA, the Bureau of Mines, the  Bituminous
Coal Research, Inc., and others have cooperatively
evaluated these and other techniques for  the selec-
tive removal of pyrite from coal   . Some of the
"other" techniques evaluated have included thermal-
magnetic separation, immiscible liquid separation,
selective flocculation, electrokinetic separation
and two-stage froth flotation.  Techniques which
rely upon differences in specific gravities of  the
coal and pyrite particles have been found to be the
most commercially viable for desulfurization.   Froth
flotation which depends upon the surface  properties
of the  particles has also been found to be a useful
commercial technique.

    Since some coals are more amenable than others
to sulfur removal by physical methods, studies  have
been performed on over 455 U. S. coals to determine
pyrite  liberation by size reduction and separation
by specific gravity differentials.  The 455 samples
tested  are from mines which provide more  than  70%
of the'coal used in U. S. utility boilers.  The
laboratory float-sink tests  performed in media of
specific gravities ranging from 1.3 to 1.9 and  size
fractions from a minus 1-1/2 inches to a  minus  14
mesh, provide information on the pyritic sulfur  which
can be  removed from these coals.   '

    The results of these float-sink or cleanability
studies indicate that the pyritic sulfur  removal
increases with reduced coal particle sizes and
specific gravities.  Crushing to finer sizes  liber-
ates more of the dense mineral matter from the  coal
matrix  and low media specific gravities allow more
of this dense material to sink.  At low specific
gravities a cleaner product is obtained;  i.e.,
ash and pyritic sulfur are decreased.  However,
this clean product is obtained at  the  expense  of
increased BTU losses.  Theoretically at very fine
sizes a large percentage of the pyritic sulfur
could be released from the coal matrix and  sepa-
rated without excessive BTU losses.  This fact is
extremely important.  It implies that  to enhance
sulfur removal more of the coal must be crushed
and processed at finer sizes than  historically
practiced in coal preparation.  This will require
modifications to current processing plant design
practices.  These design changes will  necessarily
incorporate techniques for improved fine coal  sepa-
ration, dewatering and drying.  Modified pollution
control and waste dispos.al techniques  will  also be
required.

      Table 1 presents data on the amounts  of
pyritic sulfur which can be removed from coal  sam-
ples from six regions by crushing  to a top  size of
3/8 in. and by separation at a specific gravity of
1.6.  It is important to note that the pollutant
potentials of the cleaned coals represented by the
data in column 5 are significantly different.  (The
term "pollutant potential" is used since it is
assumed that all the sulfur contained  in the cleaned
coal is converted and emitted as SO..)  For example
the average S0_ pollutant potential for the Northern
Appalachian, the Southern Appalachian  and the
Eastern Midwest coal region samples are 2.7, 1.3,
and 4.2 Ib S02/10  BTU, respectively.

      In addition to the large regional variability
in the amount of pyritic sulfur which  can be removed,
there is also a variation in the coal  cleanability
within a given region and even within  a specific
mine.  This variability in coal cleanability in a
given mine is graphically illustrated  by the data
presented in figure 4.

      Other studies supported by EPA have evaluated
the effectiveness of commercial equipment for  the
removal of pyrltic sulfur.     Physical coal clean-
ing development needs identified from  these studies
include:

      1.  The continued evaluation of  the sulfur
          reduction potential of U.S.  coals by
          gravimetric separation.
      2.  The evaluation and characterization  of
          commercial coal preparation  equipment  in
          separating pyritic sulfur from fine  coal.

      3.  The development of equipment to monitor
          and control the performance  (sulfur
          removal and BTU recovery) of coal prepara-
          tion processes.

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232
      4.   The evaluation and development  of improved
          fine coal  recovery and dewatering tech-
          niques .
      5.   The characterization  of air  pollution emis-
          sions and  waste water effluents and the
          development  of improved pollution control
          methods.
      6.   The evaluation and development  of improved
          fine coal  residue  disposal techniques.
      7.   An evaluation of the  effects of physically
          cleaned  coal on boiler performance (pri-
          marily with  respect to tube  fouling)  and
          stack particulate  control device perform-
          ance.

      8.   The demonstration  of  the above  in commer-
          cially operating coal preparation plants
          and coal firing boilers.

      Chemical Coal  Cleaning

      Chemical cleaning of coal,  to selectively
 remove pollutant-forming constituents while main-
 taining  the structural integrity of the  coal matrix,
 is  a technological  approach to pollution control
 which is receiving  increasing  emphasis for research
 and development.  Unlike physical  coal cleaning,
 chemical cleaning is  not now used in  coal prepara-
 tion processes.  However, chemical coal  cleaning,  if
 successfully developed,  possesses  the potential  for
 removing both organic and inorganic sulfur from
 coal.

      In  chemical desulfurization processes,  finely
 ground coal is treated with a  reagent under speci-
 fic pressure and temperature conditions.   The amount
 of  pyritic  and organic sulfur  removed from the coal
 structure is dependent upon the coal  particle size,
 the coal physical and chemical properties,  the
 reagent,  the pressure,  the  temperature and time  of
 reaction.

      Early  work supported by EPA demonstrated the
 effectiveness of leaching for  removing pyritic
 sulfur from a variety of coals,  including those  not
 amenable to physical  desulfurization.  Other studies
 identified  specific U.  S. coals amenable to desul-
 furization  by pyrite  leaching  and  evaluated proc-
 esses capable of leaching organic  sulfur.

      Development work needed in the chemical desul-
 furization  of coal  includes the performance of
 additional  bench and  pilot  scale work to define  the
 appropriate combinations of reactants, pressure,
 and temperature for optimum sulfur removal.   Once
 these variables have  been established for each of
 the candidate processes  then continuous  pilot and
 demonstration scale process studies must be per-
 formed.   Pollutant  emission characteristics and  the
 pollution control methods needed for  each of these
 processes must also be evaluated.
PROGRAM DISCUSSION

     EPA's coal cleaning program  activities are con-
centrated in six major areas as shown  in Table 2
and discussed below.

     General Support

     Work under this area may encompass a wide
range of activities from aid in arranging symposiums
to the performance of test and evaluation work
needed in support of other programs being conducted
for EPA.  Most generally this work is  provided under
service contracts, basic ordering agreements or
major level of effort contracts.

     Input Material Characterization

     A major activity has been the identification
of pollution forming elements in U. S. coals.  Pre-
vious work in this area has been supported by EPA
and the U. S: Bureau of Mines.  The U. S. Geological
Survey and ERDA are now actively engaged in setting
up a comprehensive computerized inventory listing
of the elemental compositions of U. S. coals.  The
Bureau of Mines, supported in part by  EPA funds,  is
continuing to characterize the sulfur  and ash
release potentials of U. S. coals under gravimetric
separation conditions (float-sink tests).

     Environmental Source Assessment

     A single 3-year, 60,000 man-hour  level of
effort contract will be used to assess the environ-
mental impact of coal handling, coal transportation,
physical coal cleaning processes and chemical coal
cleaning processes.  Under this contract, tests will
be performed to characterize the multi-media pollu-
tant emissions from those various unit operations
associated with the production of a cleaned coal.
The best current pollution control technology will
be identified, as will the need for the development
of improved control technologies.  Trade-off studies
will be performed to determine the most cost effec-
tive and least environmentally damaging mixes of
pollution control techniques.  These trade-off
studies will necessarily encompass a comparison of
various clean fuel strategies; i.e., a comparison
of physical coal cleaning, chemical coal cleaning,
flue gas desulfurization, or combinations thereof.
Proposals for performance of this contract have
been received and are under evaluation.

     Control Technology Development

     Development of technology for pollution abate-
ment and control will be performed under EPA con-
tracts and under an interagency agreement with the
Bureau of Mines.  Work directed by the Bureau of
Mines will include research on:   surfactants to
improve the performance of vacuum filters,  the con-
trol of processing plant black water,  surface

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                                                                                                        233
phenomena in coal dewatering and adsorption/
desorption reactions in coal pyrite flotation.
Work to be performed under EPA contract will ini-
tially be limited to an assessment of  control  tech-
nology development needs.  Technology  development
activities will be initiated as development needs
are identified.

    Physical Coal Cleaning Development

    Physical coal cleaning technology for sulfur
removal is also being developed jointly by EPA and
the Bureau of Mines.  The Bureau's work is supported
both by funds from EPA and the Department of the
Interior.  Work planned or in progress at the
Bureau of Mines or contracted by the Bureau of
Mines with EPA funds includes:

    1.  Design, construction and operation of a
        coal cleaning test facility.

    2.  Demonstration of two-stage froth-flotation
        circuitry in a commercially operating
        plant.

    3.  Development of a coal cleaning plant  com-
        puter simulator model.

    4.  Research on improved magnetite recovery
        from fine coal.
    5.  An evaluation of instrumentation needed
        for monitoring and precise control of
        preparation plant clean coal  products.
    6.  Development of equipment for  the magnetic
        separation of pyrite from coal.
    7.  Development of an improved circuit for
        media density control.
    8.  Evaluation of a coal waste stabilization
        agent.
    9.  Commercial evaluation of a technique  for
        agglomeration and dewatering  of coal
        preparation wastes.

    Work supported by EPA will be primarily con-
ducted under a large 3-year contract to assess
and develop coal cleaning technology.  Major work
tasks under this contract (proposals are now being
evaluated) will also include activities in support
of chemical coal cleaning development.  Activities
under this contract will include:

    1.  Experimental work to assess the degree to
        which pyritic sulfur is separated from
        coal in commercial coal cleaning plants.

    2.  An evaluation of fine coal dewatering and
        handling techniques.
    3.  An evaluation of coal preparation require-
        ments for synthetic fuel conversion
        processes.
     4.  Economic and bench-scale evaluations of
         selected chemical coal cleaning processes.

     5.  The evaluation and development of pollution
         control techniques for coal preparation
         processes.

     6.  An evaluation of the effects of coal clean-
         ing on the performance of user system
         (boilers, electrostatic precipitators,
         etc.).

     7.  The performance of cost and pollution
         trade-off studies on coal preparation
         equipment and processes.

     In addition to the above activities, EPA and
the Bureau of Mines are considering support of a
demonstration of physical coal cleaning in meeting
federal and state emission standards.  The General
Public Utilities Corp. (GPU) is planning to use
physical coal cleaning for this purpose at the
Pennsylvania Electric Company (PENELEC) Homer City
Plant.  Their emission control strategy, called the
multi-stream coal cleaning strategy (MCCS),  will
use two streams of physically cleaned coal  from a
single processing plant.   One cleaned coal  stream
will be used to meet Pennsylvania emission standards
of 4.0 Ib S02/10  BTU in two existing boilers.  The
other coal stream will be used to meet federal New
Source Performance Standards (1.2 Ib S02/10  BTU) in
a boiler now under construction.   Bureau of Mines
support for this program will probably include
development work on portions of the fine coal clean-
ing circuit and technical consultation on the
design, operation and testing of the demonstration
plant.  EPA will probably support the test  and
evaluation activities at  the demonstration plant.

     Chemical Coal Cleaning Development

     Chemical coal cleaning development activities
currently supported by EPA include:   the design,
construction and  operation of a pilot plant test
facility to evaluate the chemical  leaching of
pyrite from coal; and bench scale work to evaluate
other chemical desulfurization processes.

     The IERL-RTP program in chemical coal cleaning
was initiated early in 1970 with a screening study
at TRW of chemicals for sulfur and nitrogen removal
from coal.  This initial  study led to the identifi-
cation of a process possessing considerable merit
for the near-total removal of inorganic sulfur from
coal.  A consistently high level of inorganic sulfur
removal was achieved regardless of the variations in
the coal being evaluated.  This process has con-
tinued to evolve under EPA support until, at the
present time, work is underway at TRW on the con-
struction of a 250 pound per hour experimental test
facility.  Termed the Meyers Process, initial shake-
down and operation of this facility

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234
should be realized early in 1977.  In support of
test unit program a broad program of basic experi-
mentation will be conducted to evaluate the commer-
cial applicability of the process.

     During the early (1972-73) period of work on
the Meyers Process consideration was given to other
chemical coal cleaning projects which were underway.
The U. S. Bureau of Mines was studying the cleana-
bility of coal using aqueous caustic solutions, but
the early results showed no greater potential for
sulfur removal than that achievable by the Meyers
Process.  The Institute of Gas Technology (IGT) was
examining the potential for coal hydrotreatment at
low pressures in the presence of an acceptor mate-
rial for the selective removal of organic and inor-
ganic sulfur from coal.  As a result of the IGT work,
a program was initiated by EPA to study the poten-
tial of this process in the removal of organic
sulfur from coal.  The viability of the reaction
system was confirmed and a modified experimental
program has been initiated to establish overall
process requirements.

     Within the past two years a number of other
concepts for chemical cleaning of coal have been
reported.  Discussions have been held with a number
of organizations who are experimentally evaluating
chemical coal cleaning.  As a result of discussions
with Battelle, an EPA program has been initiated to
study the Battelle Hydrothermal Process for the
removal of organic and inorganic pollutants from
coal.  Under this program experiments are being con-
ducted to define the combustion products from the
feed and cleaned coal.  The primary objective of the
study is to determine the operating conditions which
maximize pollutant removal from the product coal.
Additional tests will be performed to characterize
the spent leachant, to define disposal requirements
and to evaluate possible by-product uses for process
residuals.

     Programs on two other processes to study both
inorganic and organic constituent removal through
novel concepts for wet and for dry coal cleaning are
also being evaluated.  It is expected that comprehen-
sive feasibility test programs will be performed to
establish the overall technical merits of these two
systems.

     Several other chemical coal cleaning methods
are being evaluated by EPA for possible support, and
open advertisement for additional chemical coal
cleaning technology development work is being con-
sidered.

     Proj ection

     The relatively low costs of physical and chemi-
cal coal cleaning processes will make these pollution
abatement techniques increasingly attractive in
future years.  Coals which are amenable to physical
cleaning for pyritic sulfur removal will be identi-
fied and used in preference to other coal sources.
In some instances a combination of physical coal
cleaning and flue gas desulfurization will be used
as the most economical method of sulfur emission
control.  Although physical coal preparation is now
widely used for ash and mining waste removal, the
use of this technology for sulfur removal will
probably not be widely used until 1985 or 1990.  The
major development focus for physical coal cleaning
will be in the areas of:

     1.  Improved techniques for separation of fine
         coal and pyrite.

     2.  Improved process control to ensure that
         the product coal meets sulfur, ash and BTU
         specifications.

     3.  Improved techniques for dewatering and
         handling of coal fines.

     4.  Improved pollution control and waste
         disposal methods.

     Chemical coal cleaning has a wider area of
application than physical coal cleaning, as a greater
fraction of the total sulfur can be removed.  Cost
estimations indicate that chemical cleaning should
be cost competitive with flue gas desulfurization
and the new synthetic fuel conversion processes.
However, additional chemical coal cleaning tech-
nology development is needed before this method of
sulfur emission control is widely used.

RESOURCE ALLOCATION

     From FY 65 to FY 73, EPA and its predecessor
organizations allocated over $6 million to research
and development of coal cleaning programs.  Since
FY 74 the availability of new resources for energy
related research has enabled EPA and the Bureau of
Mines to support the research, development and
demonstration programs which are needed to acceler-
ate the commercialization of coal cleaning processes
for the control of pollution from coal combustion.
Funds allocated by EPA for coal cleaning since FY 74
are as follows:
EPA Direct

Interagency Agreement
(Bureau of Mines § ERDA)
Total

*Projected Budget
 FY74

 1076

  200


1276
                                 ($1,000)
                                 FY75     FY76
 3430

  900


4330
 2470

 1080


3550

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                                                                                                        235
CONCLUSIONS

     Previous programs to develop physical  and
chemical coal cleaning as techniques  for  pollution
control have:

     0 Provided a preliminary  data base on  the
      physical cleaning potential of U.S.  coals.
     0 Demonstrated that technology commercially
      used  for the removal  of inert  matter from
      coal  can be used for  the removal of  pyritic
      sulfur.

     0 Demonstrated at bench scale the effectiveness
      of  leaching as a means  of removing pyrite
      from  a variety of coals,  including those not
      amenable to physical  desulfurization.

     0 Identified specific coals amenable to desul-
      furization by pyrite  leaching.

     0 Estimated' the costs and environmental bene-
      fits  of physical and  chemical  coal cleaning
      process for pollution control  measures.

Current and  future development activities will
focus on:

     1.  The assessment of environmental  impacts of
        physical and chemical coal cleaning
        processes.
     2.  Development and demonstration of improved
        coal cleaning techniques.
     3.  Development and demonstration of improved
        pollution control techniques.
4.   Yeager, K. E., and L. Hoffman, The Physical
     Desulfurization of Coal--Major Considerations
     for SO  Emissions Control, Proceedings of the
     American Power Conference, Vol. 33, 1971.
CONVERSION FACTORS

1 Ib = 0.4536 kg
1 ft = 0.3048 m
1 BTU = 1054.88 J
1 ton = 0.9072 metric ton
1 BTU/lb = 2326 J/kg
                   REFERENCES

     Cavallaro, J..  A.,  M.  T. Johnston and A.  W.
     Deurbrouck, Sulfur Reduction Potential  of_ the
     Coals  of  the United States  A Revision £f
     Report of Investigations  7653,  U.  S.  Depart-
     ment of Interior,  to be published March 1976.

     Hoffman,  L., J.  B.  Truett and S.  J.  Aresco, An
     Interpretative Compilation  gf EPA Studies
     Related tp_ Coal  Quality and Cleanability, U.S.
     Environmental  Protection  Agency,  Report EPA-
     650/2-74-030  (NTIS No. PB 232-011/AS),  Wash-
     ington, D. C., May 1974.

     Deurbrouck, A.  W.,  Sulfur Reduction  Potential
     of  the Coal of the United States,  U.  S.  Depart-
     ment of Interior,  Bureau  of Mines Report of
     Investigation  RI  7633 (EPA  Report No. APTD
     1365),  1972.

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236
Figure
1.   Percent  of U55 United States coal samples
    meeting  the current  EPA new source per-
    formance standard for steam generators
    (Eef.  1).
          2    46   8   10   12   14

           COAL POLLUTANT POTENTIAL, Ib SO /1Q6 RTU
                                                            Figure 2.   Cost  of sulfur  control.
                                                                          I

                                                                                                       90     100
                                                                                       SULFUR CONTROL, t
Figure  3-   Potential  levels of desulfurization
            for U.S. utility coals.
                                         A
 Q
 W
 W
 2
                     Federal EPA Standard
     100 r
      80
      60
      40
      20
                                                                              Note:
                                                                             ^Assuming 12,500 BTU/lb, coal
                                                                             must be cleaned to 0.75% S to
                                                                             meet Federal new source
                                                                             performance standards  for
                                                                             steam boilers
                            1.0
                                                >-0                  3.0
                                                     SULFUR CONTENT,  %
                                                                                 4.0
                                                                                                      5.0

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                                                                                                                                          237
figure U.   Variations  in  total  sulfur, sulfur  forms,
            and pyrite  removed by physical cleaning
            of  face  samples,  Pittsburgh seam coal
            from  a single  mine in Greene  County,
            Pennsylvania (ref. h].
Table 1.   Summary of the  Physical  Desulfurization
           Potential of  Coals  by Region  (l)  (a)
                Cumulative analyses of float 1.60 product
                                                    Calorific  efficiency

                                Pyrttic   Total    SO /10 BTU per     NSPS (d)
                            Ash   sulfur.   sulfur	BTLUb) pound (c)	percent
 Northern
 Appalachian

 Southern
 Appalachian

 Alabama

 Eastern Midwest

 Western Midwest

 Uesurn

 Total U. E.
96. i
           U. 19
                   1.86    2.7    13,766


                   0.91    i.j    14,197
96.i,    S.a  0.41

94.9    /.D  L.03

91.7    8.3  1.80

97.6    b.J  0.10

93.0    7.5  0.85
1.16

2.74

3.59

0.56
1.7    14,264

n.i    13,138

5.5    13,209

0.9    12,779

3.0
                                                  Table  2.   Summary  of  Physical  and Chemical
                                                               Coal  Cleaning  Program



                                                   General Support

                                                     Dissemination of information   manuals and reports
                                                   0  Program Support

                                                   Input Material Characterization

                                                   0  Sulfur and ash release potential  (washabilities)
                                                     Characterization of coal and residues for trace elements
                                                     and mineral matter
                                                     Contaminant removal techniques


                                                   Environmental Source Assessment

                                                     Physical and chemical  coal cleaning

                                                         Multi-media discharges from  existing and new techniques
                                                         or methods
                                                         Applicability of  existing control technology
                                                         Identification of needed new or modified controls


                                                   Control Technology Development

                                                   0  Development/assist in  development of control techniques
                                                   0  Dewatering of coal and black water control
                                                     Coal refuse pond elimination


                                                   Physical Coal Cleaning Development

                                                   0  Development and demonstration of  two-stage froth-flotation techniques
                                                   0  Assist in design and construction of a coal cleaning  pilot plant
                                                   0  Development of a physical  coal cleaning computer model
                                                   0  Demonstration of the use of physical coal cleaning to meet emission
                                                     standards
                                Chemical Coal Cleaning Development

                                0 Design, construction and  operation of a test reactor for chemical leaching
                                 of pyrite
                                0 Evaluation of chemical  cleaning technology concepts
  Summary of the compoait
  •it 1.6 specific gravity
  Moisture free basis.
  elficlencv o
  Standards fo

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238
                 COAL PREPARATION
               Albert W. Deurbrouck
         U.S. Department of the Interior
                  Bureau of Mines
       Coal Preparation and Analysis Group
             Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania
  INTRODUCTION

      Coal Preparation is a proven technology for
  upgrading raw coal by physical removal of associ-
  ated impurities.  The physical upgrading of metal-
  lurgical grade coal has long been considered a
  necessity; however, the full potential of coal
  preparation as a means to upgrade steam coals has
  yet to be realized.  Large reserves of low- to
  intermediate-sulfur content coals can be upgraded
  by physical means to meet the new source S02 emis-
  sion standards established by EPA.

      Current emphasis in coal preparation research
  is principally directed at upgrading fine size coal,
  particularly removing pyrite.  Continuing coal
  washability studies clearly show the significant
  sulfur reduction potential of stage-crushing and
  specific gravity separations.  Much work is underway
  to maximize usable coal recovery.

      Sulfur in coal occurs in three forms:  organic,
  sulfate, and pyritic.  Organic sulfur is an integral
  part of the coal matrix and, generally, cannot be
  removed by direct physical separation.  It comprises
  from 30 to 70 percent of the total sulfur in most
  coals.  The sulfate-sulfur content is normally an
  oxidation product which is water soluble and there-
  fore readily removed during coal cleaning.  Sulfate-
  sulfur contents in coals are generally less than
  0.05 percent.  Pyritic sulfur occurs in coal as dis-
  crete, although sometimes microscopic-sized, parti-
  cles.  It is a heavy mineral with a specific grav-
  ity of about 5.0.  In many U.S. coals, the pyritic
  sulfur is approximately 60 to 70 percent of the
  total sulfur content of the coal.  Such coals are
  obvious candidates for significant upgrading by
  conventional coal beneficiation techniques.

  COAL WASHABILITY

      All coal cleaning methods in general use, ex-
  cept froth flotation, rely upon specific gravity
  separation.  Consequently, the specific gravities
  of the impurities associated with coal are of pri-
  mary importance.  Other factors being equal, the
  heavier impurities can be removed in the cleaning
  operation more easily than can the lighter impuri-
  ties, which approach in density the coal from which
  they are to be separated.  To determine the prepa-
  ration methods and the equipment needed to clean
  coal, information is needed on size and specific
  gravity distribution of the raw coal; moisture, ash,
  and sulfur contents; heating values (Btu content);
  and ash fusibility.  Washability studies are being
  conducted to determine the quantity and quality of
coal that can be produced at a given specific grav-
ity of separation.

     A washability study of a coal  is made by test-
ing the coal sample at preselected, carefully con-
trolled specific gravities.  This is commonly
termed "float-sink" analysis and/or specific gravity
fractionation.  The specific gravity fractions are
dried, weighed, and analyzed for ash and sulfur
content.  These data are mathematically combined on
a weighted basis and used to develop the "washa-
bility curves" that are characteristic of the coal.

     A study was initiated in 1965 to determine the
sulfur release potential of coals from principal
utility coal producing coalbeds of the U. S.  This
study, initially funded by the National Air Pollu-
tion Control Administration, is currently being
funded by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA).

     To date, a total of 455 samples have been
evaluated.  All of the samples were collected from
working mines producing steam coals; where possible,
the largest mines from a specific bed were sampled.

     Washability analyses performed on these samples
show the effect of crushing on the liberation of
pyritic sulfur and other impurities.

     The 455 raw coal samples contained an average
of 14.0 percent ash, 1.91 percent pyritic sulfur,
3.02 percent total sulfur, and 12,574 Btu per pound.
This is equivalent to 4.8 pounds S02/M Btu fired at
the powerplant.  For a coal to meet the current new
source sulfur emission standard of 1.2 pounds of
SOz/M Btu, a coal of 12,500 Btu per pound having a
sulfur content of 0.75 percent or less would be re-
quired.  Clearly, a formidable sulfur problem exists
in U. S. coals.  However, 63 percent of the sulfur
in these coals was pyritic, so significant sulfur
reductions by physical coal cleaning is possible.

     The ash, pyritic sulfur, total  sulfur, and
heating value contents varied considerably as would
be expected when washability data of coals from
various regions of the U. S. are evaluated.

     The coals in the eastern U. S.  ranged in rank
from low- to high-volatile bituminous..  The low-
volatile coals found in the southern part of this
area contained, on the average, 1.0 percent total
sulfur and 13,314 Btu per pound.  Generally, they
could be upgraded after crushing and gravimetric
separation to meet the new source sulfur emission
standard.

     The high-volatile coals found in the northern
part of this area contained, on the average, 2.01
percent pyritic sulfur, and 3.01 percent total sul-
fur.  Crushing these coals to 14 mesh top size and
removing the sink 1.40 specific gravity material
would provide an average product analyzing 0.43 per-
cent pyritic sulfur and 1.46 percent total sulfur.
Thus, physical coal cleaning could provide reduc-
tions in pyritic sulfur of 76 percent and total
sulfur of 46 percent.

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                                                                                                        239
    The coals of the midwest U.S. were,  on  the
average, high sulfur content coals analyzing  2.70
percent pyritic sulfur and 4.34  percent  total  sul-
fur.  Because of the high average organic  sulfur
content of 1.63 percent, these coals  generally could
not be upgraded to meet the new  source sulfur emis-
sion standard.  However, crushing these  coals to
14 mesh top size and removing the sink 1.40 specific
gravity material, reduced average pyritic  sulfur by
68 percent and average total sulfur by 37  percent.

    The coals of the western U. S. are  generally
of low sulfur content as mined,  averaging  0.68 per-
cent total sulfur; however, these coals  contain up
to 40 percent inherent moisture, and, consequently,
they are low-Btu content coals that barely meet, on
the average, the 1.2 pounds of S02/M  Btu new  source
emission standard.

FROTH FLOTATION

    The program for development of fine coal  clean-
ing techniques to remove sulfur  has resulted  in the
development of a two-stage pyrite flotation process.
Early experimental work showed that the  quantity of
pyrite reporting with the clean  coal  float product
increased with increasing additions of the frothing
agent.  In addition, several polyvalent  metal  salts
such as ferric chloride, aluminum chloride, chromium
chloride, and cupric sulfate were found  to be pyrite
depressants.  Apparently, these  positively charged
ions are adsorbed on the pyrite  surface.  This hy-
pothesis was supported by zeta potential determina-
tions which showed that suspended coal and pyrite
particles in solutions containing metal  salts are
positively charged in the pH range where depression
occurs.

    Effective sulfur reductions with high coal re-
covery were also achieved by two-stage rougher-
cleaner flotation in which the clean  coal  froth
concentrate from the first stage was  refloated.  In
all of this earlier work, it was recognized that a
portion of the pyrite reported to the clean coal
froth product because it was either too  fine  a size
and became mechanically entrapped in  the froth, or
it was attached to floatable coal.  To combat this
problem, a unique froth flotation process  was de-
veloped and patented by the Bureau to remove  pyritic
sulfur from fine size coal.  The process consists of
a first-stage standard coal flotation in which high
ash refuse and the coarse- or shale-associated
pyritic sulfur are removed as tailings.  The  first
stage coal froth concentrate is  then  repulped in
fresh water, the pH is maintained below  7, and a
pyrite collector and a frother are added