United States
  Environmental Protection
Environmental Justice
Success Stories Report
(FY 1999-2001)

        OSWER  Environmental  Justice
                Success  Stories  Report
                    (FY 1999-2001)

               U.S. Environmental Protection Agency
           Office of Solid Waste and Emergency Response
                   Washington, DC 20460

                      September 2002
United States              Office of                   EPA500-F-02-118
Environmental Protection        Brownfields Cleanup and           www.epa.gov/oswer
Agency                 Redevelopment (5105T)            September2002

It is with great pleasure that I share this report of successful projects that demonstrate the
progress we have made in addressing environmental justice in the Office of Solid Waste and
Emergency Response (OSWER) of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA).  It has been,
and continues to be, OSWER's policy that programs administered by OSWER demonstrate fair
treatment and meaningful involvement of people from all cultures, races, and incomes, without
In the past, OSWER published "Waste Programs Environmental Justice Accomplishments Re-
ports," which only listed accomplishments in environmental justice.  This time, we have devel-
oped a new report titled "OSWER Environmental Justice  Success Stories (FY 1999-2001)," which
not only lists OSWER's accomplishments, but also shows how OSWER  promotes environmental
justice by advocating revitalization/reuse projects to help foster economic development,  as well
as training and outreach projects to educate communities about environmental justice issues.
In an effort to continue and maintain OSWER's commitment to environmental justice, it is our
responsibility to build the capacity of OSWER personnel, foster and grow existing  initiatives,
ensure coordination between the OSWER headquarters office  and the EPA Regions to identify
and address issues of environmental justice, and to evaluate programmatic subject matters, as
well as our new initiatives, for the possibility of disproportionately high and adverse impacts on
minority populations and/or low  income populations. In addition, documentation of our efforts
is vital to the success of our waste program.
I hope that you enjoy the success stories  included in this  report.  While  we are proud of our
accomplishments, we recognize that more must be done to address the health and well-being
of all communities, including low income and minority communities, and to help ensure that
they play a meaningful role  in decisions that affect them.
Marianne  Horlnko

Table  of  Contents
About This Report	4
What Is Environmental Justice	5
OSWER's Commitment to Environmental Justice 	5
OSWER's Environmental Justice Action Agenda	6
Environmental Justice Success Stories Included in this Report	7
Environmental Justice Success Stories:
       Brownfields Job Training and Revitalization 	9
       Superfund 	29
       Resource Conservation and Recovery Act	47
       Environmental Justice Awareness Training	59
       Community Involvement, Outreach, and  Planning 	63
Glossary	70
Index of Projects by Office or Region 	73

       This OSWER Environmental Justice Success Stories Report for fiscal years  1 999 through 2001  is different than
       the environmental justice accomplishments reports developed in past years by the Office of Solid Waste and
       Emergency Response (OSWER). This time, the report is structured to demonstrate and promote OSWER's efforts
       to incorporate environmental justice into its programs by documenting not only accomplishments, but also the
       lessons learned and benefits derived from OSWER's experiences. There are 48 success stories included in this
       report and  they are organized into five different sections: (1)  Brownfields  Training and Revitalization; (2)
       Superfund; (3) Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA); (4) Environmental Justice Awareness Training;
       and (5) Community Involvement, Outreach, and Planning. These stories  highlight projects that best demon-
       strate OSWER's success in integrating environmental justice into its programs.

       The success stories in this report present an important lesson learned: EPA needs to include environmental justice
       communities in the decision-making process to ensure  successful projects. In addition, it is critical for EPA to
       provide these communities with the tools to help them sustain themselves after EPA's role in their communities
       ends. Other lessons presented in  the different stories include the importance of:  developing effective partner-
       ships with all stakeholders; tailoring outreach tools to the needs of the communities (e.g., Spanish translations,
       evening and weekend meetings, and toll-free  information hotlines); ensuring that job training efforts are pro-
       vided in areas where sustainable employment will be available to graduates; ensuring frequent and effective
       communication among all stakeholders; providing a central information  center that is accessible by all  commu-
       nity members; and soliciting the views of all community residents, not just the views of one community group.

       The compilation of these projects  also represents an example of OSWER's continued support, commitment, and
       accountability in addressing the issue of environmental justice and  its integration into all activities sponsored by
       OSWER's waste programs according to EPA's definition of environmental  justice and consistent with existing
       environmental laws and their respective implementing regulations.

                        mental  Justice?
Environmental Justice is the fair treatment and meaningful involvement of all people regardless of race, coloi,
national origin, or income with respect to the development, implementation, and enforcement of  environmental
laws, regulations, and policies. Fair treatment means that no group of people, including a racial, ethnic, or
socioeconomic group, should bear a disproportionate share of the negative environmental consequences
resulting from industrial, municipal, and commercial operations or the execution of federal, state, loco , and
triba programs and policies.

E n vi r on mental justice communities are minority and. or low income group communities t licit often ore exc luded
from the environmental policy setting and/or decision-making process and are subject to a disproportionate
impact from one or more environmental  hazards. These communities experience a disparate implementation of
environmental regulations, requirements, practices, and activities.

Environmental justice is about real people facing real problems and  designing practical solutions to address
challenging environmental issues.  The environmental justice movement advocates programs that promote
environmental protection within the context of sustainable development.  Utilizing var lous methods, inc luding
traditional knowledge about the ecosystem  and community mobilization, the environmental justice c community
has become a formidable force in the protection of both urban and  rural environments.
OSWER's  Commitment  to  Environmental  Justice
In her memorandum, dated August 9, 2001, EPA Administrator Christine Tocid Whitman expressed the
Agency's firm commitment to the issue of environmental justice and its integration into all EPA programs in
order to ensure that environmental justice is achieved for all communities and persons CK loss the Nation.  The
Administrator also stated in that memorandum that "environmental justice is achieved when everyone, regard-
less of race, culture, or income, enjoys the same degree of protection from environmental and health hazards
and equal access to the decision-making process to have  a healthy environment in whit h to live, learn, and

OSWER ensures that environmental  justice is considered in all ot its daily programmatic  at tivities. F or example,
OSWER evaluates the environmenta  risks and hazards in minority communities and low income communities
and takes proactive efforts to ensure that all people living  in these communities are given the opportunity to
play an equal and meaningful role in the decision-making process before, during, and after the evaluation,
cleanup, and redevelopment of sites identified as posing environmental risks and hazards.
OSWER has a history of providing leadership, issuing guidance documents, and leading initiatives to address
the environmental justice issue.  In 1 994, for the first time, OSWER announced its policy on environmental
justice.  The following year, OSWER issued guidance pertaining to prospective pure haser agreements, recog-
nizing the important role that communities should play when environmental justice is an issue.  A day later,
OSWER cJitected that special efforts be taken when identifying the reasonable anticipated future use of land for
remedy selection purposes at sites where environmental  justice concerns may be present.  In 200 1, OSWER
issued a directive on early and meaningful community involvement to ensure a meaningful role by impacted
communities in EPA cleanup actions.  In addition, OSWER made available technu al assistance grants to
community-based organizations, integrated environmental justice issues into its Biownfields initiatives, c continu-
ously participated in the Federal Interagency Working Group on Environmental Justice through its Demonstra-
tion Projects, and active y participated in the National Environmenta Justice Advisory Council by sponsoring the
Waste Facility and Siting Subcommittee.

OSWER's  Environmental  Justice Action  Agenda
On February 11,1 994, Executive Order 1 2898, "Federal Actions to Address Environmental Justice in Minority
Populations and Low-Income Populations," was signed to focus the attention of federal agencies on the
environmental and human health conditions of minority and low-income communities. This Executive Order
directed federal agencies to develop environmental justice strategies that identify and address disproportion-
ately high exposure and adverse human health or environmental effects of their programs, policies, and
activities on minority populations and low-income populations. The Executive Order also required that agencies
c onduct activities that substantially affect human health or the environment in a nondiscriminatory manner.

In response to this Executive Order, EPA released "Environmental Justice Strategy: Executive Order 1 2898" in
May 1 995. This strategy described environmental justice efforts in  six cross-cutting mission areas: health and
environmental research; data collection, analysis and stakeholder access to  information; enforcement and
compliance assurance; partnerships, outreach, and communication with stakeholders;  Native American,
indigenous, and tribal programs; and integration of environmental justice into all agency activities.

OSWER was the first EPA Program Office to develop an environmental justice strategy as part of the
Agency-wide effort to address environmental justice issues. This strategy was laid out in OSWER's Action
Agenda, which supplements and enhances the Agency's  strategy.  This Action Agenda, which was developed
with input from the National Environmental Justice Advisory Committee  (NEJAC), describes an ongoing process
of addressing environmental justice, provides a concise summary of OSWER's current  strategy, and describes
an implementation process for ensuring that major issues, identified by the NEJAC and others, continue to be
recognized and addiessed.

OSWER's Action Agenda establishes a "living process" through which action items are continuously enhanced
and solutions are developed for evolving environmental justice issues. Prior reports, current implementation
plans, and future reports all  play a part in the process to continuously address environmental justice concerns.
The Action Agenda describes the key action items organized by OSWER-wide and program-specific issues and
action items. The process of implementing these action items and the reporting of progress is the subject of the
final chapter.

At the same time EPA announced the release of its Action Agenda, OSWER released its first "Waste  Programs
Environmental Justice Accomplishments Report," which described the progress made by EPA's waste programs in
implementing environmental justice initiatives. This report described over 250 environmental justice projects
initiated by both EPA Headquarters and the Regional offices. Updates to this report were published twice by the
Agency; one in June 1 997 and another in  May 2000. These reports provided updates to past projects and
information on new projects. All three reports were divided into two sections:  cross-cutting issues, which pre-
sented initiatives in areas that have implications for all waste programs, and program-specific issues, which
presented  initiatives that focused on a particular waste program. Individual entries in each section generally
i ellei led etc tions taken since March 1 995.

On August 2 1 , 200 1 , EPA Administrator Christine Whitman issued a memo reaffirming EPA's commitment to
environmental justice. Administrator Whitman stressed that the Agency needs to conduct its programs and
en livities that substantially affect human health and the environment in a manner that ensures the fair treatment
of all people, including  minority populations and/or low-income populations. She said the Agency should
ensure greater public participation in the Agency's development and  implementation of environmental regula-
tions and policies.

In support of this memo, OSWER continues to promote environmental justice by advocating revitalization and
reuse programs that help foster economic: development. It also supports training and outreach programs to
ecluc ate communities about environmental justice issues.  Through successful training and commitment of
management and staff,  environmental justice is and will continue to be  a significant program in OSWER.

Environmental  Justice  Success  Stories  Included "in  this  Report
Brownfields Job Training  and Revitalization
  Brownfieids Job Training
    The New Bedford, Massachusetts, Brownfields Environmental Job Training Program (Region
    Btownfields Job Training and Development Pilots (Region 2) 	
    Brownfields Job Training and Development Demonstration Pilots ('Region 7i 	

    Turtle Mountain Band of Chippewa Indians, North Dakota: San Haven
    Redevelopment Brownfields  Project and Brownfields Job Training Grant  (Region 8!	

  Brownfieids Revitalizution

    Returning Vacant Lots in Providence, Rhode Island, to Productive Reuse (Region 1 j 	

    Brownfields Program Development in Puerto Rico (Region 2) 	

    Brownfields and Waterfront Development (Reckon 2)	

    PECO Remediation and Redevelopment Project, Chester, Pennsylvania (Region 3) 	

    Environmental Justice Demonstration Pilot in Spartanburg, South Carolina (Region 4) ..

    Protecting Children's Health and Reducing  Lead Exposure through
    Collaborative Partnerships (Region 5!	

    Wellston, Missouri, Brownfields Redevelopment With Habitat for Humanity (Region 7! .

    South Westminster Brownfields Project, City of Westminster, Colorado (Region 8' 	

    Eastern Surplus Company Superfund Site: Cleanup and Cultural Resource Protection {Region I'

    The 76-80 Pliny Street Superfund Site Removal Action (Region /,) 	

    Superfund Cleanups Conducted in Massena, New York, With Tribal Assistance (Region 2}	

    1 he Anacostia River Initiative (Region o'j	

    Logan Removal Site: Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (Region 3)	

    Community Involvement at Two Superfund Sites in Annrston, Alabama (Region 4}	

    Escambia Treating Company Superfund Activity Update (Region -J! 	

    Supplementa  Environmental Project for Emergency Preparedness and Response and
    Community Right-to-Know (Region 6)	

   Dynamite Removal Near the Sisseton-Wahpeton Sioux Tribe's Village in
   Sisseton, South Dakota (Reg/on 8} 	;	41
   Newmark Superfund Site, MuscoyOperable Unit (Reg/on 9)	42
   Purity Oil Sales Superfund Site (Region 9)	-	44
   Navajo Abandoned Uranium Mine Project, Water Data Outreach Effort (Region 9) 	45
Resource Conservation and  Recovery Act
   Development of Waste Transfer Station Guidance Documents (OSWER)	47
   CBS Corp./Viacom Site in Bridgeport, Connecticut (Region 1)	48
   Community Involvement in Setting RCRA Program Priorities (Region 2)	49
   Improving Solid Waste Management on Tribal Lands (Region 2) 	,. 51
   Environmental Justice Analysis in Northwest Indiana (Region 5)	52
   RCRA Corrective Action Success in South Omaha (Region 7)	53
   FY 2001 Hamilton Sundstrand Corrective Action in Denver, Colorado (Region 8) 	54
   Making Siting Decisions for a Corrective Action Management Unit at the BP-Amoco Site in
   Casper, Wyoming  (Region 8)	55
   Alaska Native Health Board Solid Waste Demonstration  Project (Region 10)	55
   Hansville Landfill and  the Pt. Gamble S'Klallam Tribe (Region 10)	56
Environmental  Justice Awareness Training
   Environmental Justice Training in Region 4 (FY1 999) (Region 4)	59
   Mississippi Statewide Environmental Justice Summit (Region 4) 	60
   All-Indian Pueblo Council's Pueblo Office of Environmental Protection (POEP)
   Dip Vat Bioremediation Pilot Project (Region 6)	61
   Environmental Justice Awareness Training in Region 7 (Region 7) 	62
Community  Involvement,  Outreach, and Planning
   Collaborative Model of the People of Color and Disenfranchised Communities (POC/DC)
   Environmental Health  Network and Federal Agencies (Region 4)	63
   Teachers Environmental Institutes (Region 4) 	64
   Metro East Lead Collaborative Partnership (Region 5) 	66
   Community Involvement in Environmental Justice Communities (Region 6)	68
   Outreach to Schools in Environmental Justice Communities (Region 7)	69

 OSWER's Brownfields Economic Redevelopment Initiative is designed to empower states, communities, and
 other stakeholders to work together to cleanup abandoned properties that bring blight and decay to their
 surrounding communities. Many of these sites are brownfields, which means, by definition, that all or a
 portion of them have actual or perceived contamination and a real potential for reuse after cleanup. Through
 this initiative, OSWER provides grants of up to $200,000 for assessment demonstration pilots and job training
 pilots. The assessment demonstration pilot grants are used to assess brownfields sites and to test cleanup and
 redevelopment models. The job training pilot grants provide training for residents of communities affected by
 brownfields to facilitate cleanup of brownfields sites and prepare trainees for future employment in the
 environmental field.
                Srownfields Job Training
The  New  Bedford,  Massachusetts,  Brownfields  Environmental  Job
Training  Program
Project  Activity

Since 1 998, the City of New Bedford, in partnership
with New Directions and Bristol Community College,
has offered a Brownfields Environmental Job Training
Program (the Program). The Program is partially
funded with a $200,000 EPA Brownfields Job Train-
ing grant.  The  Program offers a 1 7-week Environ-
mental Tech Aide training course twice each year to
provide underemployed area residents with the tools
necessary to assess, remediate, and redevelop
brownfields and hazardous waste-related sites, and to
provide a local labor force that can be  employed in
assessing and remediating such sites. The training
program includes the study of sampling, analysis, and
site remediation using innovative technologies. The
Program provides an education in both  technical
expertise and professional  and life skills development
to residents living in communities impacted by

Project  Participants

The City of New Bedford, New Directions, and Bristol
Community College worked together to develop the
technical curriculum and to provide educators and
facilities for the Program. Founded in 1993, New
Directions is an administrative entity that manages Job
                                                  Training Partnership Act and Welfare to Work funds
                                                  for the Greater New Bedford Service Delivery Area.
                                                  New Directions provides educational, training, and
                                                  placement services to over 5,000 economically
                                                  disadvantaged and dislocated workers annually.

                                                  Project  Benefits

                                                  •  As of June 2001, 39 students completed the
                                                     Program. Twenty-seven are employed in the
                                                     environmental field, six are working outside the
                                                     field, and one is continuing his/her education.
                                                  •  Many of the students were unemployed, underem-
                                                     ployed, participating in  a welfare-to-work pro-
                                                     gram, or otherwise disadvantaged prior to
                                                     entering the Program. A number of the graduates
                                                     are  now employed full-time and earning living
                                                     wages with full benefits. Many graduates will
                                                     have opportunities for further education through
                                                     their employers. Some graduates reported the
                                                     desire and  means to earn  an Associates or
                                                     Bachelors degree based on the skills and confi-
                                                     dence gained through their experience with New
                                                  •  Due to the  project's success, EPA awarded the New
                                                     Bedford Job Training Pilot an additional $75,000
                                                     in FY 2001 to further their Program.

       Lessons Learned
          Collaborative efforts among state and local
          governmental entities, local businesses, and non-
          profit community-based organizations to imple-
          ment and manage Job Training Programs help to
          make these Programs successful.
                                  Project Contacts

                                  Theresa Carroll
                                  EPA Region 1, Brownfieids Program
                                  (617) 918-1305
                                  Scott Alfonse
                                  City of New Bedford
                                  (508) 979-1487
rownfields  Job.'Trainin-
       Brownfieids Job Training  and  Development  Pilots
       Project  Activity

       Brownfieids Job Training and Development Pilot
       grants of up to $200,000 are awarded to community
       colleges and non-profit organizations through a
       nationwide competition. The grants are used to
       provide unemployed and underemployed residents of
       Brownfieids Assessment Pilot communities with envi-
       ronmental technician training that emphasizes alterna-
       tive and innovative remedial technologies. Approxi-
       mately ten job training grants are awarded each  year.
       Grant applicants must demonstrate a need, their
       institutional capacity to provide environmental techni-
       cian training in alternative and innovative technolo-
       gies, and the ability to establish appropriate partner-
       ships that provide ancillary job and life skills training
       and job placement and tracking.
       Each of the grantees must recruit, screen, train, place,
       and track trainees using  a locally appropriate strategy.
       EPA Region 2 provides hands-on technical assistance to
       the grantees through an  assigned project manager who
       maintains ongoing contact with the grantee.

       Project  Participants

       FY 98-00   NJ Youth Corps, Camden and
                  Newark, New Jersey
       FY 99-01   Sistema Universitario Ana G. Mendez,
                  Puerto Rico
       FY 00-02   NJ Youth Corps, Middlesex County and
                  Phillipsburg, New Jersey
       FY 00-02   State University of New York at
                  Buffalo,  New York
       FY 01 -03   Troy Rehabilitation and
                  Improvement Program, New York
       FY 99-01   STRIVE, Massachusetts (Region 1 grantee
                  working with Region 2 institutions)
                                 Since 1 998, Region 2 has worked with six Brownfieids
                                 Job Training and Assessment Pilots. The grantees, their
                                 primary partners, and their respective roles are
                                 described briefly below. It should be recognized that
                                 each of these projects has numerous additional
                                 partners ranging from churches and tenants associa-
                                 tions to private-sector environmenta firms and unions
                                 that assisted with trainee recruitment, provided expert
                                 advice on the curriculum, hosted field trips, and
                                 considered  trainees for employment.

                                 Job Training Partnerships
                                 FY 98-00   NJ Youth Corps, Camden and
                                             Newark, New Jersey
                                 New Jersey Youth Corps partners included Camden
                                 Youth Corps and Newark Youth Corps, which are part
                                 of the International Youth Organization of Newark.
                                 The Youth Corps sites provided career exposure and
                                 job readiness programs, attitudinal training, GED
                                 preparation, counseling, linkage to social services,
                                 internship placement, and tracking support. Trainees
                                 had to complete 1 20 community service hours prior to
                                 enrolling. The training partner was the New Jersey
                                 Institute of Technology (NJIT), which provided the
                                 1 50-hourenvironmental technician training. The
                                 curriculum emphasized alternative and innovative
                                 remedial technologies.  Most of the training was held
                                 at community centers by NJIT instructors and included
                                 technology  demonstrations.
                                 FY 00-02   NJ Youth Corps, Middlesex
                                             County and Phillipsburg, New Jersey
                                 This training also was provided by NJIT and was held
                                 in the communities at the local Youth Corps program
                                 centers. The local Youth Corps programs provided
                                 the services listed above, as well as crew leaders who
                                 provided support throughout the training. Trainees
                                 had to complete a 1 20-hour community service

project prior to enrolling.  Rather than internship
placement, trainees were  provided job placement
FY 99-01    Sistema Universitario Ana G. Mendez,
            Puerto Rico
The Universidad Metropolitana (UMET), which is part
of the Sistema Universitario Ana G. Mendez, imple-
mented this job training program by partnering with
Peninsula de Cantera, a community organization
serving the Cantera area outside of metropolitan San
Juan (population 1 1,500). Residents in this Hispanic
community suffer from  an  82 percent poverty rate and
a 35 percent unemployment rate among adults
participating in the labor force. Less than one-quarter
of the residents have finished high school.

Peninsula de Cantera provided recruitment, screening,
and basic job training and placement support.  UMET
instructors provided the training in the communities
during evening sessions in space made available by
Peninsula de Cantera.  EPA and the Environmental
Quality Board of Puerto Rico were among the agencies
that provided technical support, guest speakers, and
technology demonstrations.
FY 00-02   State University of New York at
            Buffalo, New York
The Western New York Brownfields Training Initiative
was designed to help improve the  environmental  and
economic conditions of the brownfields-impacted
communities of western New York by providing a  high
quality educational experience to disadvantaged
residents. The western New York program includes
unemployed, welfare to work, environmental justice
communities, and other disadvantaged populations.

The State University of New York at Buffalo, the City
of Buffalo, and  Niagara County have teamed with
community organizations, private sector firms, and
local workforce development and training programs
to provide environmental technician training. This
initiative targets residents  living in brownfields-affected
neighborhoods  in Niagara County, a community with
a significantly higher than average unemployment
This initiative has helped trainees master a difficult
and complex course of study, which included 240
training hours.  Most graduates have taken advan-
tage of this opportunity and used their training to go
into jobs that are considerably better than any they
have held in the past.
FY 01 -03  Troy Rehabilitation and Improvement
           Program (TRIP), Troy NY
The Troy Rehabilitation and Improvement Program is
partnering with the Hudson Valley Improvement
Program, Hudson Valley Community College
Workforce Development Institute, Rensselaer Polytech-
nic Institute, the North Central Neighborhood Associa-
tion, and the private sector. TRIP will coordinate the
program and  partners will help with recruitment,
curriculum design and delivery, and job placement.
FY99-01   STRIVE, Massachusetts (Region 1 grantee
           working with Region 2 institutions)
The nationwide STRIVE career development program
received a Job Training grant to train unemployed
residents of Chelsea, Massachusetts, and to seed a
program in New York City. EPA Region 2 provided
technical assistance to the Harlem STRIVE and
Brooklyn STRIVE programs, which established an
advisory network comprised of labor unions, public
sector agencies, community organizations, and the
private sector. Ultimately, the Brooklyn STRIVE  center
took on the program and contracted to Clean
Harbors forthe environmental technician training.

Project  Benefits

The Brownfields Job Training Pilots provide unem-
ployed and underemployed persons living In
brownfields-impacted communities with the skills
needed to secure employment in the environmental
field. The pilots support municipal efforts to employ
local community members as trained technicians.

As of the end  of fiscal year 2001, the Region 2 pilots
have enrolled a  total of 1 48 students. Of these, 1 04
graduated from the  program and 78 were placed
into jobs:
•  NJ Youth Corps, Camden & Newark
  This pilot enrolled 25 people, graduated 23, and
   placed 21  in internships or higher education.
•  Sistema Universitario Ana G. Mendez, Puerto Rico
  This pilot enrolled 30 people; 1 5 completed the
   training and  five are currently employed.
•  NJ Youth Corps
   In Middlesex, 1 3  people were enrolled in the
   training, six graduated, four are still in training,
   and two of the graduates are employed with an
   average hourly wage of $8. In Phillipsburg, 20
   people were enrolled in the program, and  all
   graduated and were able to find employment with
   an average hourly wage of $ 1 0.

        • State University of New York (SUNY)-Buffalo
          This pilot enrolled 16 people, graduated 12, and
          placed 8 into jobs. The graduates were placed as
          environmental technicians for contractors firms in
          Western New York. Their wage rates range from
          $ 1 0 per hour to $25 per hour. The Western New
          York Brownfields Training Initiative is in the process
          of starting its second training  cycle.
        • TRIP
          This pilot has developed an advisory board and is
          designing the curriculum.
        • STRIVE Brooklyn and St. Nicholas Community
          Development Corporation
          This pilot enrolled 15 people.  Fourteen graduated
          from the program and 12 were placed in jobs. St.
          Nicholas screened 72 clients for 20 positions as
          'Ground Zero' World Trade Center responders.

        Project  Contacts

        Chelsea Albucher
        Brownfields Project Manager
        EPA  Region 2
        (212) 637-4291

        Schenine Mitchell
        Brownfields Project Manager
        EPA  Region 2
        (212) 637-3283
Lessons  Learned
   Early and ongoing community involvement with
   neighborhood organizations, public agencies,
   and the private sector helps to ensure a successful
   program that includes the design of an appropri-
   ate curriculum and the provision of a support
   Pilots that formed advisory groups early on and
   kept them engaged had a higher rate of job
   placement than those without advisory boards or
   Pilots that included 'a training monitor had a much
   lower rate of attrition than those without. The
   training monitor attended each training session,
   which provided continuity among the rotating host of
   instructors (often contractors). The training monitor
   also provided support to the instructors, tutored the
   trainees and, when necessary, provided social
   service referrals to enable trainees to complete the
   Environmental technician positions are often a'new
   career sector for job placement specialists. There-
   fore, job placement specialists should be involved
   in the curriculum design and included on the
   advisory board to help them become acquainted
   with the field, potential employers, and the range
   of potential placements. In turn, the placement
   specialists often provide valuable input to the job
   readiness strategy and curriculum design.

Region  6:  Brownfields  Job  Training
The Superfund  Job  Training  Initiative  (SuperJTI)'s  Minority Worker
Training  Program  and  the  Brownfields  Showcase Community
Minority  Worker  Training  Grants  Program
Project  Activity

Both the SuperJTI Minority Worker Training Program
and the Brownfields Showcase Community Minority
Worker Training Grants Program have two main
goals: 1) to work in partnership with unions via
appicnticeship programs, local community-based
organizations, and local academic institutions to
implement a comprehensive education and job
training program that will address cleanup and
redevelopment in the target areas; and 21 to assist  the
loc (il i ommunily c olleges and Historically Black
Colleges and Universities in promoting worker health
and safety through education and training delivered
by these academic institutions.
Dallas, lexas   A two-year Brownfields Showcase
Community grunt awarded in FY99 for $220,572
provided training for residents living in the entire west
Dallas community.  The grant helped the community
implement an outreach and recruitment strategy that
identified 'ruining participants for FY99 and FYOO.

Bernnlillo County, New Mexico  Bernalillo County
was awarded  $200,000 in FY99 to implement a two-
year  program to train 60 students. Four out of 10
students finished the first training eye e.

Texas Engineering Extension Service (TEEX)/''
McCommas Bluff Job Training Pro|ect, Dallas,
fexas  TEEX was awarded $200,000 in October
1 998 to implement a two-year program.  The training
was completed for six groups of students, and 43
students completed  the course.

Houston Community College (HCC), Houston,
lexas  HCC was awarded $200,000 in October
I 999 and committed to training 1 00 students. Due
to technical and administrative difficulties, HCC
trained only approximately 1 8 students and tried to
rework their entire program.
RSR Smelter Site, Dallas, Texas   In FY99, the RSR
Smelter Site was awarded a one-year National
Institute for Environmental Health Sciences (NIET IS)
SuperJTI grant for $ 1 50,000 to train 1 5 residents
living near the RSR Smelter Superfund site in west
Dallas. Classes included study skills, life skills, math
skills, lead/asbestos abatement and HAZMA1 tram
ing, and brownfields related pre-appienticeship
technical training in construction and envuonmenta
remediation. The grant also helped students with job
development and job placement. The training started
on April  19, 1999, and all students graduated in the
early summer.

Many Diversified Interests, Inc. (MDI), Houston,
Texas  At the request of c ommunity residents living
near the MDI site, EPA worked with Laborers AGC,
Houston Works, SEARCH, and Make Ready, Inc. to
recruit 32 students for'two sessions of SuperJTI classes
that started in January 1 999. Classes included study
skills, life skills, math skills, lead/asbestos abatement,
and HAZMAT training.  Twenty-eight students gradu-
ated from the program and received certifications in
lead/asbestos abatement and HAZMAT.  As a follow-
up, the community requested that EPA Region 6 offer a
second round of SuperJTI classes, which it did in early
2000. The original group of community supporters
helped ensure that the classes continued.

Project  Participants

The most important participants weie the students
taking the classes.  However, the project would not
have been possible without multiple partner's, me ud-
•  The National Institute for Environmental  Health
   Sciences (NIEHS1
•  Xaviet University in New Orleans
•  Clark Atlanta University, whic h received  two
   Minority Worker Training Program giants to
   develop and implement the  training under two
   cooperative agreements

      Other partners included:
      •  Bernalillo County government
      •  Laborers AGC
      •  Houston Works
      •  SEARCH
      •  Make Ready, Inc.
      •  The Texas A&M Engineering Extension Service
      •  Houston Community College in Texas

      Project Benefits

      The combined training grants:
      •  provided environmental remediation training to
         more than 1 00 students and gave environmental
         justice community groups and other stakeholders
         the opportunity to enhance their pb skills; and
      •  allowed Region 6 SupeiJTI staff to interact with
         environmental justice communities and learn
         techniques applicable to other minority training
      Region  7:  Brownfields Job  Training
Lessons  Learned
   Always ensure that community partners are knowl-
   edgeable about community residents.
   Immediately involve city social structures in projects
   when training is first considered.
   Know the job market in a community before
   introducing an opportunity for training.
   Ensure that training participants are aware that EPA
   is not promising jobs; EPA can only provide job
   training opportunities.
   Track the number of participants being trained in
   your programs.
   Bring prospective employers into the picture before
   training begins.
Project  Contact
      Brownfields  Job  Training and  Development Demonstration  Pilots
      Project Activity
Project  Participants
      SiiKe I 998, the Region 7 Brownfields Job Training
      program has (mined residents living in and around
      toui brownfields pilot communities for employment
      rotated to waste management, site assessment,
      cleanup, and redevelopment of brownfields proper-
      ties whose reuse has been impeded by contamina-

      Many biownfields properties are located in
      <. ommunities with low  income, a high percentage
      of minorities, or both. A number of these commu-
      nities cue located in or near an Empowerment
      Zone Enter prise Community.

      The biownfields grant recipients are colleges and
      universities, nonprofit training centers, job training
      organizations,  states, cities, towns, counties, and
      Indian tribes. The grant recipient receives 5200,000
      ovei a two-year period to tram residents.
Project  Benefits
Shawn Grmdstaff, Directoi Rural Brownfielcls Center,
Mineral Area College

enhance their lives. Participants also receive life skills
training in areas such as time-management, personal
marketing, presentation skills, and money manage-
ment, thereby giving them basic knowledge that will
help them in their daily work activities.
One hundred forty-one participants of these pro-
grams have completed all training requirements.
Eighty-six participants obtained employment that
earned them  an average of $13.46 per hour.
Two additional Region 7 communities that have
recently applied for job training pilots include
Hawkeye Community College in Waterloo, Iowa, and
Ozarks Technica Community College in Springfield,
Missouri. The announcement of this year's
Brownfields Job Training grant recipient will be made
at the end of December 2001 .

Project  Contact

Tina Loweiy
Environmental Protection Specialist
EPA Region 7
(9I3J 551  7964
lowety.tinad < 'epa.gov
                 Lessons  Learned
                 Every year the Brownfields Job Training Pilots meet to
                 discuss the program and exchange information on
                 potential pilot communities. Lessons learned discus-
                 sions help to produce guidelines and expectations for
                 future pilots.

                 Lessons learned include:
                 •  Multi-focused courses that teacli life and environ-
                    mental skills is advantageous.
                 •  Developing relationships over time with students,
                    employers, and other colleges opens doors for
                 •  Recognizing that all students need to be valued for
                    what they do, and that each student has his/her
                    own personal reason for lack of employment,
                    fostered a healthy learning environment.
                 •  Advertising the training by  word of mouth is the
                    best way to get the community interested.
                 •  Preparing for setbacks and working through them
                    with perseverance and endurance is critica foi
                 •  Knowing specifically what  the grant money will  be
                    used for avoids future internal problems.
                 •  Building strong partnerships with community
                    leaders and other local, state, and federal agen-
                    cies is helpful.
                 •  Strong partnerships with the Brownfields Assessment
                    Pilot Manager helps to make these programs run
                    more smoothly.
Job  Training
 Turtle  Mountain  Band  of Chippewa  Indians,  North Dakota:
 San Haven Redevelopment Brownfields Project  and  Brownfields Job
 Training  Grant
Project  Activity

The Job Training grants are intended to train disad-
vantaged populations affected by brownfields sites to
facilitate cleanup of the sites and prepare for future
employment in the environmental field.
As part of this project, the Tribe purchased the former
State Mental Rehabilitation Hospital in 1 992, which is
located  on 600 acres near the Reservation, not far
                 from the Canadian bordei and the International
                 Peace Garden.  The state performed remedial
                 activities for asbestos contamination, underground
                 storage tanks, and contaminated soil and water
                 removal.  By the late  1 990s, 3 1 structures remained,
                 and many of them had been vandalized and sal-
                 vaged. The Tribe received a Brownfields Site Assess-
                 ment grant from EPA in 1 998 to determine the extent
                 of potential contamination from several sources to the
                 soil, groundwater, wetlands, and septic system.

       Additional contamination resulted from the release of
       asbestos and lead-based paint to the environment,
       open dumping, and two landfills. During the assess-
       ment process, Turtle Mountain Community College
       competed for and received the first Brownfields Job
       Training grant to  be awarded from  EPA to a tribe.

       Project Participants

       The Brownfields Site Assessment grant is managed by
       the Tribal Planning Office. The Site Assessment
       Project Manager  coordinates with the Job Training
       Project Manager  at Turtle Mountain Community
       College.  The college hopes to capitalize on other
       environmental employment opportunities that may
       arise during the training and to prepare the students
       for future livable wage employment in the environ-
       mental sector with a two-year environmental technical
       degree. During student training, an issue arose on
       the Reservation related to black mold contamination.
       Plans are underway to train a number of students and
       supervisors to clean up black mold  where it poses a
       health risk to people.

       The Bureau of Indian  Affairs (BIA) conducted a
       contaminant survey and decided not to bring the
       property into the Tribal Trust until the possible con-
       tamination issues are Investigated and resolved. EPA's
       Region 8 Emergency Response Program removed the
       asbestos from the abandoned  and salvaged build-

       The project became part of the ten-year strategic plan
       for Roulette County, which has been designated a
       Champion Community by the U.S.  Department of
       Agriculture and an Underutilized Business Zone by the
       U.S.  Department of Commerce.  These designations
       will be beneficial when the Tribe applies for federal
       redevelopment and cleanup grants.

       As the Tribe, the North Dakota State Health Depart-
       ment, the Tribe's  contractor under the brownfields
       grant, and EPA started holding meetings and  confer-
       ence calls, it became  apparent that the costs to clean
       up and refurbish  the buildings would be very high. A
       new and exciting vision evolved that centered around
       1 60  recently discovered teepee rings, a  burial site,
       and the foundations of an old  Scandinavian settle-
       ment village. Over 250,000 tourists visit the Interna-
       tional Peace Garden (just north of the property) each
       year and might be enticed to visit an information
       center or an artist studio and be led past an elk herd
       while going on tours of the recreated Tribal and
       Scandinavian villages. Additional activities, such as
       Pow Wows, fishing, hiking,  horseback riding, and
overnighting at a recreational vehicle park, could
attract other visitors.

The group explored the possibility of hiring a salvage
company to dismantle and sell historic brick, other
marketable items, and salvageable debris. The
group also considered using students trained under
the Brownfields Job Training grant to support the
salvage operations in addition to their environmental
cleanup jobs. But an accident at San Haven resulted
in a decision to demolish the property in a more
timely manner. During this period, the U.S. Depart-
ment of Justice (DOJ) became a new partner, and
brought to the project the possibility  of obtaining
grant to refurbish two buildings on the San Haven
property where Tribal youth can be rehabilitated for a
variety of problems.

The Tribal Brownfields Project Manager and the North
Dakota State Health Department are exploring
potential  grants for cleanup and redevelopment
activities from the Economic Development Administra-
tion and U.S. Department of Housing and  Urban
Development. The Tribe is also working with the
state's  Congressional staff and the University of North
Dakota Law School and applying for fundirtg from
the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services'
Administration for Native Americans.

Project   Benefits

•  The project is reestablishing 600 aesthetically
   pleasing, cleaned up, and productive acres.
•  It is creating new and sustainable jobs for tribal
   residents who have been negatively impacted by
   the environmental contamination, while offering
   opportunities to be part of a safe solution to
   cleaning up and redeveloping the property. Also,
   other  environmental jobs or employment may be
   created  as a result of the property's reuse. •
•  The project is addressing health and safety
   concerns related to the contamination, vandalism,
   and structural issues at the San Haven site.
•  The project provides an opportunity for the Tribe to
   share its cultural history and values with a much
   larger population.
•  The project establishes better partnerships with the
   Tribal Planning Office and Turtle Mountain
   Community College, Bureau of Indian Affairs,
   EPA, the State Health Department, Roulette County
   Redevelopment Empowerment Board, historical
   organizations, Congressional staff, and others that
   will become involved later in the  process.

Lessons  Learned
   Most of the funding to address the contamination
   problems and redevelop the property needs to
   come from sources outside of the Tribe. All of
   these funding efforts are complicated by the fact
   that the resources available to a rural North
   Dakota Tribal community are very limited. By
   combining the knowledge, skills, expertise, and
   resources of as many stakeholders as possible, the
   original vision is  changing, but a viable reuse of
   the property is being developed.
   The incident related to physical safety at San
   Haven focused attention on the project and
   resulted in more  Tribal administration and commu-
   nity involvement, accelerating the decision-making
Project  Contacts

/Cathie Atencio
Brownfields Coordinator
EPA Region 8
(303) 312-6803
Mary Ahlstrom
Brownfields Project Manager
EPA Region 8
(303) 312-6626
Region  1 :  Brownfields  Revitalization
Returning Vacant  Lots  in  Providence, Rhode  Island, to Productive
Project  Activity

The City of Providence  (population 150,000) is a
major commercia , financial, and industrial center
located in southeastern New England at the head of
Narragansett Bay on the Atlantic sea coast. The city
contains nearly 4,000 vacant lots, each posing
significant environmental and public health risks to
residents. Most vacant  lots are littered with illegally
dumped trash and other solid and hazardous waste,
serve as breeding grounds for rats, and provide
unsafe and potentially dangerous conditions to
children. In 1 995, EPA Region 1 launched a pilot
program called the Urban Environmental Initiative
(UEI) to address environmental and public health
problems in three New England cities, including
Providence. Residents of these three cities suffer from
a disproportionate level of environmental health risks.
One in every three children has elevated blood lead

The goals of the multi-year initiative were to:
•  Restore and revitalize urban  neighborhoods and
   improve public health by building local capacity.
•  Deal with environmental and public health prob-
   lems related to vacant lots and leverage available
   technical and financial resources to improve the
   quality of life for urban residents.
•  Eliminate illegal dumping and residential exposure
   to contamination and public health threats.
•  Return vacant lots to beneficial use.

Project  Participants

•  Direct Action for Rights and Equality (DARE)
•  Rhode Island Department of Health
•  City of Providence, Department of Planning and
•  City of Providence, Office  of Neighborhood
   Environmental Affairs
•  Southside Community Land Trust
•  Childhood  Lead Action Project
•  Brown University, Center for Environmental Studies
•  EPA New England [Urban Environmental Initiative,
   Environmental Justice Program, and Office of
   Solid Waste and Emergency Response (OSWER)]

Project  Benefits

•  Vacant Land Task Force Report:
   UEI, City of Providence, DARE and over 70
   community stakeholders worked together to
   produce a set of comprehensive recommendations
   to return Providence's 4,000 vacant lots to pro-
   ductive use.  This effort included follow-up
   activities that engaged Brown University's Center
   for Environmental Studies to use GIS mapping
   technology to identify and plot vacant lots across
   Providence neighborhoods.
•  Providence Environmental Strike Team:
   UEI provided funding and assistance to form the
   City of Providence's Environmental Strike Team
   (PEST) to remove debris, trash, and waste from
   over 600 lots throughout the city. The PEST
   program also created a series of multi-lingual
   public service announcements (PSA's) addressing
   vacant lots that were played regularly on television
   and publicized through mailings by the City of
   Providence Mayor's  Office.
•  Soil  Sampling for Lead:
   UEI, OSWER, and an EPA Laboratory responded
   to our partners' request to sample soil on targeted
   vacant lots for lead poisoning. UEI worked with
   OSWER to create a sampling protocol  for screen-
   ing the vacant lots quickly and effectively for the
   presence of lead and other heavy metals in soi  .
   To date, EPA has sampled over 250 lots and  has
   shared this data with its partners and with local
   residents through public meetings.  EPA, Rl Depart-
   ment of Health, City  of Providence  Department of
   Planning, Childhood Lead Action Project, and
   DARE created and distributed multi-lingual (English
   & Spanish) fact sheets to interested community
   residents outlining local lead laws, what the
   sampling results mean for families and children,
   options for mitigating risk through planting and
   gardening, and contact information.
•  Special Vacant Lot for $1  Program:
   UEI, DARE, and the City of Providence  Department
   of Planning created a first-of-its kind policy for
   qualified  oca residents to purchase vacant lots for
   the cost of $ 1 in exchange for taking care of the
   property.  The program has resulted in many
   formerly vacant properties being transferred to the
   public so residents can return the ots to productive
   and safe use. The City of Providence Department
   of Planning was able to secure funding to
   remediate vacant lots that contained over 2,000
   ppb of lead in soil so the lots cou.ld be safely sold
   through the Special Vacant Lot for $1  Program.
   Alice Hicks Mini-Grants Program:
   UEI worked with DARE, Southside Community Land
   Trust, and the City of Providence Department of
   Planning to create the Alice Hicks Mini-Grants
   Program, which provides grants up to $5,000 to
   qualified new owners of formerly vacant lots to
   mitigate risks from lead in soil and to rehabilitate the
   lots. These grants can be used for landscaping,
   creating urban gardens and elevated flower beds, or
   creating other safe reuses of the property.
Lessons  Learned
Residential vacant lots pose significant environmental
and public health threats to residents in urban areas
and need special attention.  EPA's efforts helped
support the initiatives of community partners (like
DARE and Childhood Lead Action Project) and
brought needed technical assistance to the City of
Providence, enabling them to return vacant lots to
productive reuse.  After EPA became a participant at
the table, the coalition was able to develop ways to
move forward and build upon accomplishments to
create a sustainable  infrastructure. This project has
given the City of Providence the framework to con-
tinue to eliminate vacant lot dangers to its residents in
the future.
Project Contact

Kristi N. Rea, Team Leader
Urban Environmental Initiative
EPA Region 1
(617) 918-1595

Brownfields  Revitalization
Brownfields  Program  Development  in  Puerto  Rico
Project  Activity

More than 40 states have developed Voluntary
Cleanup Programs (VCPs) to facilitate brownfields
cleanup. Community stakeholders, as well as munici-
palities, developers, investors, and property owners in
Puerto Rico have expressed the need for a clear,
predictable, and efficient hazardous waste site
voluntary cleanup program with liability relief.  Under
this project, the Puerto Rico Environmental Quality
Board (PREQB) is implementing a VCP to stimulate
the remediation and reuse of brownfields sites with
low to moderate levels of contamination, such as
former industrial properties and adjacent sites.

EPA brownfields funding includes support for the core
program activities of VCPs. The recipient of these
funds in Puerto Rico, the Environmental Quality
Board, used this money to research VCPs and create
the framework for a program that is being developed
through a participatory process.

To identify best practices for Puerto Rico, PREQB met
with representatives from severe states to learn from
other VCPs and received consultation from
brownfields policy experts.  Based on this research,
PREQB developed  a VCP program outline. Subse-
quently, legislation  was passed authorizing PREQB to
implement a VCP program and to develop cleanup
standards for the island of Puerto  Rico.

The actual VCP program structure, which includes
regulations, financial incentives, and liability relief
measures, is being developed through an anticipatory
process with legislators, state agencies,  and the
regulated community. Community organizations were
fully involved in the decision-making process. The
goal is to provide private parties and others with a
streamlined hazardous waste site cleanup process in
Puerto Rico.

Currently, PREQB is forming an interagency committee
to draft regulations and develop technical guidelines.
The goal is to coordinate the activities of all appropri-
ate offices and to ensure that there are no conflicts
with other regulations.

PREQB is gathering public input by conducting
structured interviews with municipalities, banks,
insurance companies, private owners, and environ-
mental groups throughout the island. The results of
                                    this study will be presented at several bioad stake-
                                    holder meetings. The first meeting for key stakeholder
                                    and legislators is planned for fall 2002. [he meetings
                                    will explain the VCP  program and solicit suggestions
                                    on program implementation.

                                    Under a related project funded by EPA's Biownfields
                                    Program, PREQB is working  with municipu  officials to
                                    conduct an inventory of potential brownfield sites. The
                                    PREQB will select two to three of these sites for
                                    investigation with EPA funds. The PREQB will obtain
                                    stakeholder input,  ensure the coordination of Com-
                                    monwealth agencies, and test programmatic ap-

                                    Project Participants

                                    •  Region 2 Environmental Protection Agency
                                    •  Puerto Rico Environmental Quality Boatd
                                    •  North East Hazardous Substance Reseaich Centei
                                    •  Brownfields stakeholders  from the public and
                                       private sectors
                                    •  Environmental  groups and community based
                                    •  Other Commonwealth agencies

                                    Project Benefits

                                    •  Regulatory Authority for Biownfields
                                       Based in part on  EPA funded research, the Puerto
                                       Rico legislature recognized the need foi
                                       brownfields legislation and amended the Puerto
                                       Rico Environmental Public Policy Act (Law  H  9) to
                                       give the PREQB the authority to establish a VCP
                                    •  Streamlined Program
                                       The outcome of this effort will streamline
                                       brownfields redevelopment by providing policy
                                       programs and  tools for public and private sector
                                       participation in hazardous waste site cleanup.
                                    •  Brownfields Reclamation
                                       Ultimately, this  effort will allow Puerto Rico to
                                       reclaim brownfields for a variety of uses, including
                                       open space, housing, and economic develop-

        Lessons  Learned
           Research into a variety of state VCPs and best
           practices has helped the PREQB avoid "reinventing
           the wheel" and has provided policy and proce-
           dural models and lessons that can be adapted
           into a program that best fits Puerto Rico's needs.
           The expertise and resources from the Hazardous
           Substance Research Center have been an asset to
           PREQB's program development and a resource
           for staff and other brownfields stakeholders.
           Open communication and early and ongoing
           broad stakeholder involvement has been a key
           factor in the smooth development of this program.
                                   Project  Contact

                                   Nur/a A/lun/z
                                   Puerto Rico Brownfields Project Manager
                                   EPA Region 2
                                   (212) 637-4302
        Brownfields and  Waterfront  Development
        Project  Activity

        To address commitments made at the March 6, 1 999,
        meeting of the Council on Environmental Quality
        Federal Interagency Task Force on Environmental
        Justice in New York City, EPA Region 2 worked with
        federal, state, city, and community organization
        partners to hold two interactive educational forums.
        These forums were designed to enhance stakeholder
        ability to engage in waterfront land use planning and
        development, enhance stakeholder ability to promote
        open space, and enhance stakeholder ability to
        revitalize brownfields  in New York City. The Forums
        allowed  participants to share information, experience,
        and perspectives in order to proactively set the stage
        for increased partnerships and community involve-
        ment in decisions affecting the environment.

        Together, the Subcommittee on Open Space, Water-
        front Development, and Brownfields:
        •  held a series of working meetings from July 1 999
           to July 2000;
        •  held a workshop in January 2000 titled "Water-
           front Development: Reinventing the Working
           Waterfront/' which was attended by 1 60  people;
        •  held a Brownfields Roundtable for 60 key partici-
        In response to commitments to provide technical
        assistance about waterfront land  use and open space,
        the Subcommittee on  Open Space Initiatives, Water-
        front Development, and Brownfields was established
                                   in June 1 999. The EPA Emergency and Remedial
                                   Response Division Environmental Justice/Brownfields
                                   contact was requested to share subcommittee facilita-
                                   tion with two community organization representatives.
                                   The EPA contact provided coordination and subcom-
                                   mittee co-facilitation until agencies with relevant
                                   authority came to the table.  The National Oceanic
                                   and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), the National
                                   Park Service, and the New York/New Jersey (NY/NJ)
                                   Ports Authority designated agency leads for the
                                   Subcommittee in November 1 999.

                                   The first Subcommittee meeting was held July 27,
                                   1 999, and monthly meetings and intermittent confer-
                                   ence calls continued through January 2000.  Much
                                   useful  information was shared during the Subcommit-
                                   tee meetings. For example,  EPA distributed the
                                   Brownfields Resource Directory, which is comprised of
                                   fact sheets on resources from over 1 4 federal and
                                   state agencies, including local contacts.  NOAA
                                   distributed a compilation of  best practices for water-
                                   front development. The city and state provided
                                   insights and recommendations. Community represen-
                                   tatives illustrated their experiential knowledge and the
                                   interdisciplinary nature of the issues.

                                   The consistent Subcommittee meetings culminated with
                                   the January 26, 2000, workshop titled "Waterfront
                                   Development in New York City: Reinventing the
                                   Working Waterfront." This workshop successfully met
                                   the intended goal of highlighting case studies of
                                   community/city partnerships, illustrating the land use
                                   planning regulatory framework, and highlighting

citizen involvement tools toward realizing sustainable
waterfront development.

The event was the culmination of a collaborative
planning process that included community based
organizations, city, state, and federal agencies.  To set
the stage, effective partnerships working to realize
healthy waterfront development in the Bronx, Brook-
lyn, and Harlem were showcased. Case studies
showed that manufacturing, housing, and recreational
facilities can coexist to meet the social, economic, and
environmental needs of waterfront users. The case
studies reminded the audience of the importance of
early, ongoing, and meaningful community involve-
ment. Presenters stressed the value of putting in the
up-front effort to develop a shared vision and, as
stated by Elizabeth Yeampierre of UPROSE (Puerto
Ricans United for Sunset Park), the fundamental need
for partnerships based on a parity of power, trust, and

The panel on visioning and planning tools provided
examples of community mapping and participatory
planning techniques.  The panel on land use planning
and the waterfront reviewed the waterfront land use
planning and development processes and presented
the guiding principles of the New York City Waterfront
Revitalization program as a basis for discussion. Of
note, one presentation introduced "green port design"
principles and operations, which are informing the
Sunset Park Port design and have been successfully
applied elsewhere to mitigate the environmental
impacts  of water-dependent industry.

The substantial contributions of the Subcommittee
members and the resources that contributed to the
event's success deserve mention. In particular, the
Department of Housing and Urban Development
(HUD) provided strong leadership and drove the
logistical coordination of the Waterfront workshop.
Community organizations provided leadership and
staff, who carried out the most of the outreach.
Resources leveraged for the forum included:
•  The NY/NJ Ports Authority provided funding  to a
   non-profit for meeting materials
•  The NY/NJ Ports Authority compiled a technical
   resource book
•  NOAA supported the travel of two case study
•  EPA  coordinated the exhibit hall, which included a
   hands-on demonstration of available geographic
   information system tools and applications.
Subcommittee members expressed interest in holding
a Roundtable Discussion on Brownfields Revitalization.
EPA and HUD worked with a planning subgroup and
convened a Brownfields Workshop for New York City
Community Organizations and Community Develop-
ment Corporations on August 8, 2000. The purpose
of the Roundtable was to provide brownfields basics
for community development corporations and
community based organizations that participated in
the Council on Environmental Quality-Environmental
Justice Initiative.  The workshop provided a working
knowledge of current New York State and New York
City brownfields policies and relevant economic
development programs. The goal was to  proactively
support informed community participation and
engagement in brownfields redevelopment.  The
Roundtable's discussion and  resources should serve to
enhance the participants' abilities to assess local
brownfields proposals and participate  in brownfields
projects in their own  neighborhoods.

The workshop agenda was designed to provide an
interactive forum for federal, state, city, and commu-
nity organization representatives to discuss  lessons
learned, challenges, and perspectives about
brownfields redevelopment. In addition, the
Roundtable served as a primer for the  Brownfields
2000 conference.

Project   Participants

•  EPA, HUD, NOAA (co-leads) and more than six
   other federal agencies
•  New York City Environmental Justice Alliance (co-
• West Harlem Environmental Action Coalition (co-
•  New York State Department of Environmental
   Conservation and other State agencies
•  NY/NJ Ports Authority
•  Environmental Justice organizations from through-
   out New York City
•  City agencies
•  Residents
•  Private sector representatives including developers
   and financial institutions

        Project  Benefits

        •  The forums, designed under the corleodership of
           federal agency staff and community organization
           staff, provided opportunities for both sectors to
           gain greater understanding and insight into
           brownfields issues and tools.
        •  The Waterfront Workshop provided .information
           and tools for public participation in brownfields
           and waterfront development.  The forum en-
           hanced stakeholder capacity to navigate the
           myriad of policies and programs governing
           waterfront land use, open space, and brownfields.
        •  The overwhelming turnout for the Waterfront
           Workshop addressed an information need and
           helped to focus the attention of prominent New
           York institutions on the challenges of the post-
           industrial waterfront. A number of workshops have
           been held since. Participants in the brownfields
           workshop expressed that they learned information
           applicable to their own projects and neighbor-
Lessons Learned
   To set the stage for effective informed public
   involvement in brownfields, it is beneficial to bring
   the various city and state agencies with relevant '
   jurisdiction together with community organizations
   to share programmatic information and discuss
   concerns in a neutral forum.
   Community development corporations face
   particular challenges in brownfields redevelop-
   ment that can be addressed through partnerships
   with the city, the state, and the private sector.
   Even without direct funding, a significant public
   education process can be accomplished through
   the combined efforts of the public and private
Project  Contact

Chelsea Albucher
Brownfields Project Manager
EPA Region 2
(212) 637-4291
         Region  3:  Brownfields  Revitalization
        PECO Remediation  and Redevelopment  Project,  Chester,  Pennsylvania
        Project  Activity

        The PECO property is a 90-acre waterfront site in an
        environmental justice community located on the
        outskirts of Philadelphia in Chester, Pennsylvania.
        Because of its potential for economic revitalization,
        Chester has been designated a Pennsylvania Keystone
        Opportunity Zone. This project is one part of a multi-
        year, city-wide revitalization program. EPA's
        remediation of past contamination on one portion of
        the property is proceeding while  Preferred Real Estate
        Investment is converting the Art Deco-era, coal-fired
        power plant into a high-tech office building. One goal
        of this project is to streamline the RCRA corrective action
        process in order to accelerate redevelopment while
        implementing a remedy that protects human health
        and the environment.

        Project  Participants

        EPA is responsible.for the cleanup of a 1 7-acre
        portion of the property under a 1 993 RCRA Consent
        Order.  EPA, in conjunction with the Pennsylvania
Department of Environmental Protection (under the
Land Recycling and Environmental Remediation
Standards Act) is overseeing the investigation and
remediation of the rest of the property. PECO (now
part of the Exelon Corporation) recently sold most of
the site to Preferred Real Estate Investments and
retained the responsibility for remediation and
environmental responsibility.  In addition, PECO
donated 7 acres to the City of Chester to create a
park next to a boat ramp. Preferred Real Estate
Investments is renovating the 350,000-square-foot
power plant into a modern office building.

Project  Benefits

The first phase of redevelopment is in progress.
Preferred Real Estate Investments plans to spend
about $50 million to renovate the power plant.
Synygy, a software company, probably will be able to
move its first 500 employees into the building in
November 2002. The building will eventually house
between 700 and  1,000 employees.  The State of
Pennsylvania contributed $2.5 million in job creation

and training grants, provided tax credits to'Synygy,
and loaned or granted $2.6 million to Preferred Real
Estate Investments for infrastructure development, land
reclamation, and fiber-optic cable  installation.
Future redevelopment plans in Chester will include a
marina, other office buildings, and commercial
development for a projected total of 3,000 new
permanent jobs in the next few years.

Project  Contact

Renee Ge/b/af
RCRA Project Manager
EPA Region  3
(215) 814-3421
Lessons  Learned
This project has run very smoothly because of frequent
communication among regulators, public officials,
community groups, and the general public. There
were multi-party information meetings before major
decisions were made.  Because of EPA's corrective-
action activities and the PA Act 2  program investiga-
tion requirements, the potential environmental site
liabilities were fully characterized before the property
was offered for sale. Therefore, interested parties
were able to make fully'informed decisions and were
confident that there would not be any unforeseen
environmental issues uncovered during construction.
Keeping the community fully informed has allowed
them to be part of the decision-making process.
     lion  4:   Brownfields  Revitalization
Environmental Justice  Demonstration  Pilot  in  Spartanburg,  South
Project  Activity

This designated.national Environmental Justice
Demonstration Project aims to bring the community
and different organizations together for the purpose
of revitalizing disadvantaged neighborhoods in South
Spartanburg, South Carolina. The revitalization
objectives for this project cover seven major areas: 1)
Redevelopment Design and Brownfields; 2)
Remediation; 3) Public Safety, Education, and Life
Skills; 4) Health; 5) Transportation; 6) Green Infra-
structure; and 7) Housing.

Project   Participants

ReGenesis, an active Community Development
Corporation  in the Arkwright/Forest Park area of
Spartanburg, has taken the lead in establishing the
necessary partnerships for revitalization.  The overall
project committee, which ReGenesis chairs, consists of
the City of Spartanburg, the County of Spartanburg,
and more than 40 other partners, including  local,
regional, state, and federal agencies, academia,
business and industry, non-governmental organiza-
tions, and elected officials.
As the lead federal agency, EPA Region 4's role has
been to coordinate the effort, provide assistance with the
remediation of the site, conduct necessary work related
to site assessment since 1 998, clean up two adjacent
Superfund sites, and encourage redevelopment.

Project  Benefits

Since its Environmental Justice Demonstration Project
designation in May 2000, this project has focused on:
1) conceptualizing revitalization goals; 2) enhancing
resources; 3) increasing collaboration among part-
ners; and 4) remediating contaminated sites.

This project's revitalization goals include the creation
of housing, basic retail services, a technology center,
a regional health clinic, and a job training center.  To
conceptualize these goals, the community has held
four major redevelopment meetings, as well as many
smaller meetings.

To enhance resources, the project has acquired many
financial grants, inc uding a:
•  $200,000 US EPA Brownfields Assessment grant;
•  $ 1 00,000 US EPA Superfund Redevelopment
   Initiative grant;
•  part of a $1.3 million US  EPA Brownfields  Revolv-
   ing Loan Fund grant issued to the  State of South
•  $20,000 US EPA Environmental Justice grant;
•  $25,000 Technical Assistance Project grant awarded
   to ReGenesis by the City of Spartanburg; and

        •  $50,000 Technical Assistance Project grant
          awarded to ReGenesis by Vigindustries.
        The project also is waiting to hear whether it has been
        awarded the following grants:
        •  $ 125,000 Weed and Seed grant from the U.S.
          Department of Justice;
        •  Community Development Block grant from the
          U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Develop-
          ment and the City and County of Spartanburg;
        •  $650,000 New Start Health Center grant from the
          U.S. Department of Health and Human Services.
        In building collaboration among its partners, the
        project committee has benefitted from new partner-
        ships with 1 4 local agencies, 4 state/regional agen-
        cies, 1 6 federal agencies, 11 businesses and indus-
        tries, 1 0 non-governmental organizations, 7 aca-
        demic institutions, and some elected officials.
        The  remediation process has brought many different
        benefits to the project as well. These include:
        •  Partnering with former workers to determine the
          locations of contamination  to assist with the
          environmental assessment,  and discovering
          potentially responsible parties (PRP) for the two
          Superfund sites (IMC Fertilizer Site and Arkwright
          Dump Site).
        •  Partnering with known PRPs to develop an innova-
          tive approach for  identifying other PRPs.
        •  Establishing an ongoing conflict resolution process
          to improve relations between  ReGenesis and a
          local  chemical manufacturing facility.
        •  Providing training  to community members on the
          Superfund process.
        •  Creating a forum with 60 diverse stakeholders to
          discuss "responsive revitalization."

        Project Contacts

        Brian Ho/fzc/aw
        Environmental Justice Program
        EPA Region 4
        (404) 562-8684

        Cynthia Peurifoy
        Office of Environmental Justice
        EPA Region 4
        (404) 562-9649
Lessons  Learned
   Local leaders who have the talent, willingness, and
   perseverance to build collaborative relationships
   can help bring all parties together for constructive
   problem solving and the development of holistic
   community revitalization. Providing support to
   these local leaders is critical, and includes provid-
   ing a framework around which such leaders can
   Revitalization projects should include a process for
   bringing together all stakeholders to build a
   project around the common goal of bettering the
   environment, economy, and quality of life for
   Monthly coordination meetings that include staff
   from various EPA programs serve a very useful
   EPA should have encouraged a conflict resolution
   process between the community groups and
   representatives from the chemical plant that
   operated in the  redevelopment area earlier during
   the revitalization project. The Federal Interagency
   Working Group on Environmental Justice is
   developing a project evaluation related  to this
   issue that should be available soon.
Rosalind Brown
Economic Redevelopment and
Community Involvement Branch
EPA Region 4
(404) 562-8633
La Tonya Spencer
Community Involvement Coordinator
EPA Region 4
(404) 562-8463

Ralph Howard
Remedial Project Manager
EPA Region 4
(404) 562-8829
Bill Joyner
Remedial Project Manager
EPA Region 4
(404) 562-8795

Region  5:  Brownfields  Revitalization
Protecting  Children's  Health  and  Reducing  Lead  Exposure  through
Collaborative Partnerships
Project  Activity

This project targets East St. Louis, Illinois, and other
communities in St. Clair County. The county has
numerous abandoned, contaminated lots that serve
as play lots for the communities' youth and as illegal
dumping havens.

EPA's goal is to collaborate with various local, state,
and federal partners to implement a comprehensive
strategy to improve children's health by reducing lead
poisoning.  EPA's role in the project is to address
uncontrolled lead releases to surface soil and to
promote opportunities for redevelopment.

Project  Participants

•  EPA Region 5 awarded a  grant to the Illinois
   Department of Public Health (IDPH) to conduct
   lead soil sampling to characterize the uncontrolled
   releases of lead in the soil near defunct industrial
   sources. The sampling locations were on the
   outskirts of  industrial facilities and in residential yards
   and neighborhoods.  The soil samples had elevated
   levels of lead in numerous areas above 400 ppm.
   This phase  of the project was completed last year.
•  EPA entered into an Interagency Agreement with
   the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers to perform
   further assessments on 1 3 of the industrial and
   residential  sites identified by IDPH.
•  Using the initial IDPH  data, the Emergency Re-
   sponse  Branch (ERB) began a series of residential
   cleanup activities on several high priority sites in
   September 2001. ERB is  also plotting select data
   on GIS maps to assist with the evaluation of further
   investigation needs. These maps will help  deter-
   mine cleanup priorities by combining blood lead
   levels, soil sample results, and industrial locations.
•  St. Mary's  Hospital is providing  free blood level
   screening for children aged 0-12 years old and
   pregnant mothers. The hospital is working closely
   with the East St. Louis  School District to identify
   children in  this age group and promote the
   program throughout the area.
•  Other partners include the City of East St. Louis, St.
   Clair County Intergovernmental Grants Department,
   Illinois EPA, HUD, and several community groups.
Project  Benefits

The most important benefit is the improvement of
children's health in East St. Louis. The elimination of
contaminated soil, reduced exposure, and increased
knowledge of the dangers of lead will benefit current
and future generations. The removal actions will
potentially ignite renewed interest in the city and
remove the barriers surrounding economic develop-
ment in the area.
Lessons  Learned
Early and meaningful involvement by local organiza-
tions was the most important asset to the project. The
collaboration of various departments within EPA, as
well as many local and state organizations, to identify
sites that might need further investigations and
possible cleanup actions helped ensure the success of
the project.
Project  Contacts

Dion Novak
Project Manager
EPA Region 5
(312) 886-4737

Kevin Turner
On-Scene Coordinator
EPA Region 5

Linda Morgan
Project Officer
EPA Region 5

Noemi Emeric
Gateway Team Leader
EPA Region 5
(312) 886-0995

        Wellston,  Missouri, Brownfields  Redevelopment  With Habitat  for
        Project  Activity

        The St. Louis County Economic Council, through the
        Land Clearance for Redevelopment Authority of the
        County of St. Louis (LCRA), is working in cooperation
        with the City of Wellston to implement a comprehen-
        sive redevelopment plan that calls for light industrial,
        commercial, and residential-redevelopment. Wellston
        is a low-income community with a large minority
        population. As part of the Wellston redevelopment
        process, council staff identified close to 400 aban-
        doned, tax delinquent, publicly-owned properties in
        the city.  The return of these abandoned properties to
        productive use is integral to Wellston's economic
        revitalization. The role of LCRA is to facilitate the
        redevelopment process, in part by acquiring/clearing
        title to such properties and taking the necessary steps
        to prepare them for redevelopment in accordance
        with the redevelopment plan. A joint Wellston/County
        board authorizes LCRA to take these properties
        through the condemnation process and to clear title
        so that they are available for redevelopment.  LCRA
        has initiated five such suits, with the properties then
        being transferred to developers for new housing.

        EPA's Brownfields Assessment Demonstration Pilot
        grant and Supplemental Assistance grant have
        provided the resources necessary to perform environ-
        mental assessments on these properties. These site
        assessments ensure that there are no environmental
        conditions of concern that will impede redevelopment,
        or that if such  conditions exist, they can be properly

        Project  Participants

        •  EPA's Office of Community Development
        •  St. Louis County Economic Council, Land Clear-
           ance for Redevelopment Authority City of Wellston
        •  Habitat for Humanity-St.  Louis
        •  AG Edwards
        •  Commerce Bank
        •  City-County Ecumenical Partnership
        •  Home Builders Association
        •  Herman Miller Huttig Building Products
        •  Christian Brothers  College
•  Disciples of Christ
•  Missouri American Water Company
•  United Church of Christ
•  West County Churches
•  ARCO Construction
•  Rubicon Foundation
•  WIL Radio

Project Benefits

One of the developers that LCRA has worked with in
Wellston is Habitat for Humanity-St. Louis.  Habitat
recently completed its first phase of housing in
Wellston to commemorate the St. Louis chapter's 15-
year anniversary.  Habitat constructed its first phase in
a "blitz build" of 15 houses in 15 days (from April
28-May 12, 2001).  Habitat  plans  to build up to 25
more houses in Wellston over the next two to three
years. LCRA assisted in the acquisition, environmental
assessment, and demolition of properties used by
Habitat in the blitz build.  Habitat's first phase included
LCRA-owned properties that underwent environmental
assessment under the Demonstration Pilot.
Numerous personal testimonials highlighting the
positive impacts of these activities .within the commu-
nity are on file.
Lessons  Learned
•  Partnerships that include a variety of organizations
   can produce very good results.
•  Coordination with partners is an important compo-
   nent to the success of the program.
•  Opportunities to link with partnerth.em.es and
   objectives for mutual benefit should be explored.

Project  Contact

Susan Klein
Environmental Scientist
EPA Region 7
(913) 551-7786

Region  8:  Brownfields  Revitalization
South  Westminster Brownfields  Project, City  of  Westminster,  Colorado
Project Activity

The project area encompasses 260 commercial, light
industrial, and residential properties centrally situated
in the South Westminster Revitalization Area. This was
the location of the original downtown neighborhood
and business district. Today, the area harbors the city's
most ethnically, socially, and economically diverse
neighborhood, which is characterized by significant
Hispanic and Asian populations.  Over time, existing
businesses relocated and new ventures were estab-
lished in suburban growth areas. Rundown/aban-
doned, and underused buildings and properties were
left behind. Given the neighborhood's  age,'popula-
tion, and economic migration patterns over the last
30 years, the residents and businesses have witnessed
declining economic conditions and a related decline
in the quality of life.  Through the city's community
outreach activities, a vision evolved of revitalizing this
declining area into a thriving community that offers a
variety of opportunities for diverse populations while
preserving its historical identity. Rather than follow the
trend of big box retail, residents supported the
redevelopment of smaller town squares  that serve as
local gathering places. In a community survey, over
90% responded that the redevelopment of rundown
or abandoned commercial property was an important
element in revitalizing the community. One significant
obstacle that blocked private development was the
uncertainty of property contamination.  The city
applied for and received a brownfields  grant from
EPA and conducted environmental site assessments for
many of the 260 identified properties.

Project Participants

Westminster's Brownfields project was jointly imple-
mented by the Community Development Department
and the Environmental Compliance Program Office.
It built upon the city's proactive approach to address-
ing ethnic population issues through bilingual and
cultural programs, identification of entrepreneurial
opportunities, and identification of low-income
housing. It incorporated  extensive public outreach to
existing businesses, homeowners, and citizen interest
groups.  In an effort to activate the community, a
strategy was developed to create an urban gardens
program. The goal was to restore pride within the
Hispanic and Hmong populations by providing job
and development opportunities. Potentially, a
"farmer's market" could evolve. The city initiated and
provided support to the School Outreach Program to
promote involvement from the local elementary school
to pilot an urban community garden project.

The city worked in partnership with the Institute for
Policy Implementation at the University of Colorado/
Denver and has attracted interest from over 40
representatives from the development and investment
community. A dialog was initiated with developers
that attracted interest in transforming 80 acres into a
unique, diverse living and working environment. A
non-profit Redevelopment Corporation is in the
process of being formed. This corporation will consist
of a coalition of local financial  institutions and  lenders
interested in financing site acquisition, development,
and redevelopment in'South Westminster, and will
initially be capitalized at several million dollars. Over
1 7 partnerships have been established with local,
state, and federal agencies and the private sector.
Within two years of grant implementation, Ihe city had
leveraged $1 70,000 for cleanup activities and $2.25
million for redevelopment projects.

The city is in the final stages of producing an educa-
tional and promotional video, informational brochure,
and a web site.  They will facilitate communication
among the involved city departments and consultants
and provide information to the general public, inter-
ested parties, potential investors, and developers.

The city recently received a $1  million Brownfields
Revolving Loan  Fund Pilot to join the Colorado
Cleanup Revolving Loan Fund  Coalition. In the
future, they plan to apply for Supplemental
Brownfields Site Assessment funding and a
Brownfields Job Training grant.

Project  Benefits

•  Contaminants that may negatively impact human
   health and the environment on 260 properties in
   the targeted area were identified.
•  Extensive community outreach placed substantial
   emphasis on the minority participation.
•  The project identified opportunities, issues, and
   resources relative to instituting an urban/commu-
   nity garden network and supporting enterprises.

           The project prepared a database and created a
           tool to disseminate property information to
           prospective investors and developers.
        Lessons  Learned
           Identifying and including stakeholders with expertise
           and resources enhanced the end results of the
           project.  For example, when the need to communi-
           cate more quickly with prospective developers about
           the actual planning' phase arose, the city purpose-
           fully created the Brownfields Redevelopment web
           page and held intermittent meetings to achieve the
           goal of enticing developer and investor participa-
           It is important to have support from the city adminis-
           tration because they approve and fund projects and
           can commit resources from other city departments.
           Including local community groups in the pre-
           planning and decision-making process helps
           address the needs and concerns of impacted
           residents and keeps the project moving forward.
Project  Contacts

Kafh/'e Afenc/o
Brownfields Coordinator
EPA Region  8
(303) 312-6803
Mary Ahlstrom
Brownfields Project Manager
EPA Region  8
(303) 312-6626

 In 1 993, EPA announced-reforms for its Superfund program that addressed concerns expressed by affected
 members of the public. These reforms fundamentally changed Superfund. Through partnerships with states,
 tribes, other federal agencies, local governments, communities, land owners, lenders, developers, and
 potentially responsible parties (PRPs) for contamination, EPA has improved the cleanup process. Now, clean-
 ups are being done faster without compromise to the principle that those responsible for pollution are held

 Several of these reforms enhance public participation and prevent minority and low-income populations from
 bearing the brunt of pollution. This section of the report highlights environmental justice projects being con-
 ducted under the Superfund program to improve communication with stakeholders and to encourage greater
 involvement of all communities in the Superfund process. It includes projects where EPA is working in partner-
 ship with local governments, communities, developers, and others to rethink the reuse value of cleaned up
e  of  Emergency  and  Remedial Response  (With  Region 9)
2001  Superfund  Job  Training  Initiative (SuperJTI)  Project  at the
Newmark Contamination  Superfund  Site  in  San  Bernadino,
Project  Activity

In April 2001, EPA Region 9 nominated the Newmark
Site for SuperJTI training, a new training initiative of
the National Institute of Environmental Health Sci-
ences' (NIEHS) Worker Education and Training
program. SuperJTI provides residents living near or
around Superfund sites with environmental health and
safety training, and encourages the employment of
trainees in the cleanup of their communities.

In May 2001, Laborers-Associated General Contrac-
tors Education and Training Fund (Laborers-AGC)—in
partnership with the Neighborhood Housing Services
of the Inland Empire, Inc. (NHSIE)'s Youthbuild
program and the Office of Community Involvement in
EPA Region  9—agreed to conduct lead and asbestos
abatement and hazardous waste worker training.
During the training, the Youthbuild program was
tasked with the recruitment and pre-qualification of
students interested in the training and the retention of
those students selected for the training.  This training,
which included information on health and safety,
environmental justice awareness, and construction
issues, was completed in June 2001. Region 9's
Community Involvement Coordinator, Jackie Lane,
                                           was instrumental in contacting the project participants;
                                           gauging their commitment to the training; and staying
                                           in contact with the partners making sure employment
                                           opportunities were identified for students when training
                                           was completed.

                                           NHSIE's Youthbuild,program is a comprehensive job
                                           training, education, and leadership initiative for low-
                                           income young people ages  1 7-24, who have not
                                           completed high school. While studying for a high
                                           school diploma or General  Equivalency Diploma
                                           (GED), the students learn valuable employment skills
                                           while constructing new homes for low-income citizens.
                                           Employment needs in the community were accessed
                                           early on in the project so the partnership with
                                           Youthbuild was ideal. Youthbuild hopes that this
                                           training will provide its participants with new employ-
                                           ment opportunities for remediating houses in the City
                                           of San Bernadino and its surrounding areas.

                                           Project  Participants

                                           •   Laborers-Associated General Contractors Educa-
                                              tion and Training  Fund (Laborers-AGC), a Na-
                                              tional Institute of Environmental Health Sciences'
                                              (NIEHS) EPA Hazardous Waste Worker Training
                                              Program  grantee

        •  Neighborhood Housing Services of the Inland
           Empire, Inc. (NHSIE)'s Youthbuild program
        •  EPA Region 9's Office of Community Involvement

        Project  Benefits

        •  The project recruited 22 community residents; 1 8
           of these residents successfully completed the
        •  Many of the students returned to complete a
           vocational program in the construction trade.
        •  Eight of the students are presently employed in the
           environmental or construction field.
        •  The train-the-trainer program made prospective
           instructors aware of ways they can train their
           students to protect themselves from on-the-job
        •  Community residents who completed the training
           now have the skills to acquire higher-paying/
           entry-level environmental or construction jobs.
        •  The local workforce was trained to participate
           safely and actively  in the cleanup of local hazard-
           ous waste sites and their communities.
   Due to the project's success, NHSIE is looking to
   partner with other interested organizations to fund
   additional training. This additional funding will
   help in sustaining the environmental training  at
Lessons  Learned
   Shorter class times would have benefitted those
   students who have difficulties concentrating for long
   periods of time.
   It is important for training programs to assist partici-
   pants in looking beyond their first job to future
   opportunities and understanding how they can build
   a career, not just a job, out of the skills they learned
   from the training program.
Project  Contact
Pat Carey
        Eastern Surplus  Company Superfund  Site:  Cleanup and  Cultural
        Resource  Protection
        Project  Activity

        This project involved the cleanup of an abandoned
        junkyard filled with hazardous materials. One aspect
        of the cleanup was the mitigation of impacts to
        cultural resources, including Native American artifacts
        that were more than 9,000 years old. To protect the
        cultural resources at the junkyard, EPA hired profes-
        sional archaeologists to excavate a portion of the site
        to document the cultural resources, funded a cultural
        study of the artifacts by the Passamaquoddy Indian
        Tribe,  provided internships for several members of the
        Passamaquoddy Tribe to participate in the archaeo-
        logical investigations and studies,  and agreed to
        develop outreach exhibits to educate the local
        community and the Passamaquoddy about the
        environmental cleanup and cultural resources at the site.
Project  Participants

•  Passamaquoddy Indian Tribe (Pleasant Point and
   Indian Township)
•  Maine Department of Environmental Protection
•  Maine Office of Historic Preservation

Project  Benefits

•  The project resulted in the discovery and documen-
   tation of an important cultural site belonging to the
   Passamaquoddy Indian Tribe, and the develop-
   ment of a preservation agreement for the site.
•  Tribal members were taught archaeological
   investigation and interpretive techniques.

   The project provided employment opportunities for
   several members of the Passamaquoddy Tribe,
   including employment to perform the cultural
   The project increased the awareness about the
   significance of the cultural resources at the site and
   involved state agencies and the local community
   in understanding the environmental and cultural
   resource issues.
   EPA trained several members of the
   Passamaquoddy Indian Tribe in groundwater and
   soil sampling techniques.
   The project resulted in collaborative efforts be-
   tween EPA, the state agencies, the
   Passamaquoddy Indian Tribe, and the local
   residents regarding future site use and educa-
   tional/outreach activities.
Lessons Learned
Overall, the project activities have been successful.
The major lesson learned was to involve the Native
American community at the earliest possible time in
the cleanup process to allow them to be fully involved
in all phases of the cleanup.
Project  Contact

Edward Hafhaway
Superfund Remedial Program
EPA Region  I
(677) 918-1372
The  76-80  Pliny Street Superfund  Site  Removal  Action
Project Activity
The Pliny Street neighborhood/located in Hartford,-
CT, is predominately low income and minority. The
area is typified by burned out, boarded up, and
abandoned buildings.

The 76-80 Pliny Street Site previously housed a metal
plating facility that included four interconnected
buildings on a 1.6 acre lot. In June 2000, the City of
Hartford demolished the abandoned buildings on the
site due to their state of neglect, structurally unsafe
condition, and the fact that they were used for illegal
drug activities. During the demolition, the city discov-
ered elevated levels of chromium and lead through-
out the site. At the request of the Connecticut Depart-
ment of Environmental Protection (CT DEP), EPA
conducted a Preliminary Assessment and Site Investi-
gation, which  revealed elevated levels of chromium
and lead contamination in the soil. The elevated
levels of contamination in the soil supported a
Superfund remove action.  EPA actions included:
•  meetings to inform the residents about the sam-
   pling efforts, survey results, the extent of the
   contamination, and plans to conduct a removal
•  covering the site with an  impermeable and tear
   resistant polyethylene cover containing ultraviolet
•  securing the site by installing an eight-foot fence
   on the portion of the site adjacent to Pliny Street;
•  identifying and  notifying the Potentially Responsible
   Parties (PRPs) that the site posed a direct contact
   threat to residents and trespassers and that addi-
   tional interim measures were necessary to abate
   the contract threat;
•  overseeing the PRPs' installation of a cap that
   consisted of placing geotextile fabric (non-woven
   polypropylene) followed by six-inches of pro-
   cessed gravel over the entire footprint of the
   former facility; and
•  working with and assuring that the PRPs sign an
   Administrative Order with the CT DEP to develop
   and implement a remediation plan for the entire

Project  Participants

The success of this project was due to the formation of
a partnership with the following parties: the Mayor's
Office; the City's Brownfields Coordinator; the Pliny
Street Block Association; Clay Arsenal Neighborhood
Revitalization Zone; CT DEP; and EPA's Brownfields,
Urban Initiatives, and  Removal Programs.

        Project Benefits

        The site has been the subject of a long campaign
        by the neighborhood to have the city demolish the
        existing  building. The site borders a battered'
        women's shelter and is located less than 50 feet
        from  multi-family houses and a neighborhood
        convenience store.  The city and the neighborhood
        hope that once the cleanup work  is completed by
        the PRPs under CT DEP oversight, the .property can
        be redeveloped to the betterment of the community.

        EPA's activities motivated the community to come
        together, influence significant change, and improve
        the neighborhood.  With the buildings demolished
        and the contamination cleaned up, the community
        feels  protected.
Lessons  Learned
   EPA's involvement influenced the PRPs to negotiate
   in good faith, when, for some time, the city and
   CT DEP had been trying to negotiate with PRPs
   without resolution.
   The success of this project was due, in part, to the
   effective formation of a partnership with numerous
   stakeholders, which included members of the
   neighborhood and municipal, state, and federal
   It is important to make sure that a central informa-
   tion repository is established, and that information
   is disseminated in a unified manner, not from
   several sources.
                                                         Project  Contact

                                                         Afhanas/'os Hateopou/os
                                                         Superfund Removal Program
                                                         EPA Region 1/OSRR
                                                         (617) 918-1284
        Superfund  Cleanups  Conducted in Massena, New York, With  Tribal
        Project Activity

        Massena, New York, which is located on the St.
        Lawrence River, is home to two Superfund sites
        located directly upstream from St. Regis Mohawk
        Tribal Lands.  The Reynolds Metals Company
        Superfund site-was subject to a large-scale
        remediation project in 2001. The General Motors
        Superfund site, which is immediately adjacent to Tribal
        Lands, was subject to a large-scale removal of
        contaminated sediments, soils, and sludges. Repre-
        sentatives of the St. Regis Mohawk Tribe's Environment
        Division, through a Support Agency Assistance grant,
        have worked hand-in-hand with  EPA's Project Man-
        ager and EPA's field oversight team to monitor the
        PRP's performance during both cleanups.

        The St.  Regis Mohawk Tribe has  become a major
        partner in the EPA's technical oversight team during the
        cleanup of these sites.  The Tribe provided support by
        taking EPA inspectors on the Tribe's research and
        enforcement boat, so that a joint inspection of the
        dredging activities could  be performed. The Tribe
has performed sampling and analysis of suspected
contaminants and coordinated the collection of air
samples on Tribal lands. The Tribe also has done
extensive community relations to inform local Tribal
residents of excavations near Tribal Lands on the
Raquette River.

Project  Participants

•  St. Regis Mohawk Tribe
•  EPA Region 2

Project  Benefits

Through daily contact and the development of a real
partnership in the field, decisions regarding c eanup
techniques and strategies can be made quickly.  Day-
to-day coordination and team work can set the stage
for a trust-based relationship between EPA and the
Tribe. Having the Tribe's technical representatives as
a point of contact provides comfort to community
members who want their concerns represented and
voiced during the cleanup.

While the Tribe still has concerns with some of the
larger issues related to EPA's cleanup policies, agree-
ing to move forward with portions of the cleanup
where controversy did not exist, and having the Tribe's
day-to-day support in the field, has allowed for the
removal of 1 70,000 tons of PCB-contaminated soils,
sediments, and sludges from areas in and around the
GM and Reynolds Metals facilities.

Project  Contact

Sharon Jaffes
Remedial Project Manager
EPA Region 2
(212) 637-4396
Lessons  Learned
  The community's working relationship with EPA has
   benefitted from the availability and participation
   of a Tribal technical representative. A technical
   representative from the community can help
   facilitate a two-way flow of information and
   ensure that community concerns are considered in
   the remedial process.
  The project explored potential controversies and
   identified areas of agreement that allowed the
   work to proceed.
The  Anacostia  River  Initiative

Project Activity

The Anacostia Watershed Alliance was formed in
1 999 under the premise that voluntary partnership to
address toxic sediment contamination of the
Anacostia River in Washington, DC, would offer a
more efficient and appropriate alternative for ad-
dressing contamination issues.
EPA, working with a number of federal and private
partners, helped promote cleanups at several sites
along the Anacostia River that may have impacted the
river's sediments.  These sites include Camp Sims,
Barney Circle, St.  Elizabeth Hospital, Washington Gas
and Light, Southeast Federal Center, and Boiling Air
Force Base.

Project Participants

Project participants included:
•  National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration
•  Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry
•  National Park Service
•  Washington, DC, Dept. of Health
•  US Navy
•  US Air Force
•  The Academy of Natural Sciences (Patrick Center)
•  Anacostia Watershed Society
•  Metropolitan Council of Governments
•  Department of Interior
•  US General Services Administration
•  Washington Gas & Light
•  Montgomery and Prince Georges Counties
•  US Army Corps of Engineers
•  Maryland Department of the Environment
•  Interstate Commission on the Potomac River Basin
•  University of the District of Columbia

Project  Benefits

•  EPA assisted in the cleanups of several sites and
   was able to lend its expertise to other government
   and private parties.
•  The cleanups  will benefit the community by
   improving public health, helping to  restore recre-
   ational fishing and recreational water use, and
   improving water quality in the Anacostia,  Potomac,
   and Chesapeake Bay watersheds.
•  Such a large and magnanimous undertaking
   demonstrates to community members that all levels
   of government and the private sector are deter-
   mined to improve a river that was once considered
   the most polluted in the nation.
•  The cleanups  will make development and reuse  of
   the land more feasible.

        Lessons  Learned
           Expertise through partnering is essential for under-
           taking a wide variety of tasks, including cleanup,
           redevelopment, outreach, and community support.
           Community support depends on a long-term
           commitment by the partners.
           Intelligent use of electronic media will expand the
           reach of the partners to inform clients, persuade
           backers, and acquire the tools to meet project
           goals (e.g., the development of a website for all
           parties to use and track the project activities, which
           is available at:
           Anacostia/sta rt. htm I.)
Projects Contacts

Nicholas Dinardo
Federal Facility RPM
EPA Region 3
(215) 814-3365
Bill Hudson
Community Involvement Coordinator
EPA Region 3
(215) 814-5532
James Hargett
Site Assessment Manager
EPA Region 3
(215) 814-3305
Chris Ball
State Liaison Officer for Washington, DC
        Region  3
        Logan  Removal  Site:  Philadelphia, Pennsylvania
        Project  Activity

        EPA was brought into an ongoing situation between
        an African-American and Hispanic community in
        North Philadelphia and the City of Philadelphia. In
        1 986, the city began to relocate residents and
        demolish houses in the Logan section because many
        dwellings had begun to sink.  In 1 999, the Army
        Corps of Engineers, working as a contractor for the
        city, found lead contamination on severe  vacant lots
        in the neighborhood. The community, under the
        leadership of a local pastor, threatened to bring the
        city's record to light during the upcoming  Republican
        National Convention in July 2000. Two U.S. Senators
        and the district's Congressman were involved in the
        ensuing media blitz. Ultimately, the City of Philadel-
        phia signed a Memorandum of Agreement with EPA
        and cleaned up the site.

        Project  Participants

        •   The City of Philadelphia
        •   EPA Region 3
•  The Logan Community under the leadership of
   Pastor Newkirk
•  US Army Corps of Engineers
•  Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry
•  The staffs of Senators Specter and Santorum and
   Congressman Brady.

Project  Benefits

•  EPA, working with the city, was able to educate the
   public about the hazards of lead and the differ-
   ences between environmental cleanup and
•  EPA's involvement identified specific areas of
   elevated lead and facilitated the development of
   a feasible cleanup design, which aided the city in
   its task of cleaning up the site.
•  Because of a coordinated approach throughout
   EPA Region 3, the Region was able to lessen
   tensions between the city and the community.
•  EPA improved its expertise for resolving sensitive,
   local issues between national and local officials.

Lessons  Learned
   By acting quickly, EPA can help defuse escalating
   conflicts between a city and a community.
   It is possible for EPA to serve the interests of local
   and national officials and community leaders,
   especially when competing  sides want to back off
   an issue and look for a third party to help solve a
   EPA and the City of Philadelphia learned that poor
   demolition practices (e.g., plowing over sinking
   structures containing lead and lead-based paints)
   were the likely causes of the lead found in the
   vacant lots.
   Because of its mandate to protect public health,
   EPA may find itself drawn into other issues of
   concern, such as community redevelopment, which
   lies outside of the scope of  the Superfund pro-
Project  Contacts

Glen S: Lapsley
On-Scene Coordinator
EPA Region 3
(215) 814-3279

Hal Votes
Sr. Community involvement Coordinator
EPA Region 3
(215) 814-5530

Cindy Yu
State Liaison Officer for Pennsylvania
(215) 814-5557

Samantha Fairchild, Director
(215) 814-2627
Region  4
Community  Involvement at Two  Superfund Sites  in Anniston,
Project  Activity

During this project, EPA has ensured meaningful
community involvement in the Superfund assessment,
removal, and remediation processes, and the RCRA
and TSCA oversight activities for two Superfund sites
with significant off-site residential PCB and lead
contamination in Anniston, Alabama. To do this,  EPA
provided the funding to operate a local community
relations center on main street in Anniston, Alabama.
EPA community involvement coordinators, environ-
mental justice staff, technical staff, and  EPA contrac-
tors operate the center. Since February 2000, the
center has served as a base for joint information,
data management, and site access agreement

Project  Participants

The lead agencies for this project have been:
•  EPA Region 4
•  Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry
•  Alabama Department of Environmental Manage-
•  Alabama Department of Public Health
The lead community groups have been:
•  Community Against Pollution
•  Sweet Valley Cobbtown Environmental Justice Task
•  Citizens for Environmental Justice

Project  Benefits

The benefits of the community involvement efforts
include the following:
•  Since early 2000, EPA closely worked with commu-
   nity representatives and citizens in the reconnais-
   sance, access agreement, and sampling process
   phases. As part of this effort, EPA sampled 900
   properties for lead and PCBs. Results of this
   sampling indicated  that 1 28 properties were over
   the 400 ppm removal level of concern for lead
   and 1 9 properties were over the 1 0 ppm removal
   level of concern for PCBs.

           Five community results sessions, which were
           specially designed for community residents to
           confidentially discuss the results of the sampling
           effort with agency representatives, were held.
           The community was asked to provide feedback on
           the design elements for the Removal Enforcement
           Order, which is completed, and the Remedial
           Enforcement Order, which is now'in negotiations
           with the potentially responsible party.
           EPA staff hold regular public meetings to discuss
           the project's progress. These meetings often  are
           attended by representatives from the community,
           local  government, and Chamber of Commerce.
           EPA has contracted with Emory University's PEHSU
           to work closely with key stakeholders in the
           Anniston community to develop an Early Detection
           and Intervention Program on pediatric develop-
           mental, cognitive, and behavioral disorders.
           A $200,000 US EPA brownfields grant was
           awarded and community-based meetings on the
           work  plan are being held.
           A small ATSDR grant to conduct a community-
           based Health Survey and two EPA Environmental
           Justice grants were awarded.
Lessons Learned
 •  A Community Relations Center is an important tool
   for providing the community access to EPA and
   other,officials conducting work related to the two
   Superfund sites.
 •  Important communications are shared through
   coordination calls with EPA staff from various
   programs, and regular weekly and monthly
   meetings with agency representatives.  .
 •  The multitude of toxic tort lawsuits against respon-
   sible parties have posed challenges to EPA in
   obtaining access agreements, conducting removal
   actions, and gaining cooperation from some

 Project Contacts

Angela Leach
 Community Involvement Coordinator
 EPA Region 4
 (404) 562-8561

 Brian Holtzdaw
 Environmental Justice Technical Analyst
 EPA Region 4
 (404) 562-8684

 Steve Spurlin
 On-Scene Coordinator, Removal Program
 EPA Region 4
 (404) 562-8743

 Katrina Jones
 On-Scene Coordinator, Removal Program
 EPA Region 4
 (404) 562-8811
        Region  4
        Escambia  Treating  Company  Superfund  Activity  Update
        Project Activity

        In June 1 995, the Escambia Treating Company
        Superfund Site in Pensacola, Florida, was selected as
        EPA's National Relocation Evaluation Pilot site. The
        pilot was initiated in 1 997 to test the extent of the
Agency's authority under CERCLA and to evaluate the
range of EPA's decision making and implementation
processes when conducting permanent relocations
under Superfund. The Pensacola community hoped
that EPA would consider broad social, economic
impact and environmental justice issues, as wel

traditional quantitative risk assessment data in its
relocation decision.

As of September 2001, EPA's relocation activities
surrounding the Escambia Superfund site were nearly
complete. The federal government acquired  1 53 of
the 1 70 properties targeted for acquisition. Over 1 30
single family households were relocated to compa-
rable homes in the Pensacola area and elsewhere.
All of the households living in the Rosewood Terrace
and Oak Park subdivisions were relocated. Of the
original 200 families living in the Escambia Arms
Apartments, 193 families have been relocated to

Project  Participants

 •  US EPA
 •  US Army Corps of Engineers
 •  Pensacola Housing Department
 •  US Department of Housing and Urban Develop-
 •  Escambia County Government
 •  City  of Pensacola, Florida
 •  Escambia County Brownfields Taskforce.

 Project  Benefits

 Over 1 30 single family households were relocated to
 comparable homes  in the Pensacola area and
 elsewhere.  These relocations provided these families
with a safer place to live, and the peace of mind that
a Superfund is no longer located in their backyards.
Lessons Learned
   EPA should have addressed community stakehold-
   ers' issues and concerns about deciding the fair
   market value of their homes and how replacement
   properties would be selected earlier in the reloca-
   tion process.
   EPA should have provided more educational
   outreach to ensure that community residents better
   understood the relocation program and how
   property is acquired.
Project Contacts

Ken Lucas
Remedial Project Manager
EPA Region 4
(404) 562-8953

Eddie Wright
Environmental Justice Coordinator
EPA Region 4
(404) 562-8669
 Region  6
 Supplemental  Environmental  Project for Emergency  Preparedness
 and  Response and  Community  Right-to-Know
 Project  Activity

 As part of a settlement with Borden Chemical in
 Geismar, Louisiana, which violated the Comprehen-
 sive Environmental Response, Compensation, and
 Liability Act (CERCLA) Section 1 03 and did not
 properly report releases of hazardous substances to
 the Nationa  Response Center,  Borden agreed to fund
 a Supplemental Environmental  Project that would
 benefit the community.
Project Benefits

•  Borden set aside approximately $325,000 for the
   local emergency planning commission (LEPC) and
   local officials to establish and maintain a chemical
   emergency response team within the community.
   The money was used to purchase necessary
   equipment for the team.  This team will respond
   throughout the community to mitigate the effects of
   a release of a hazardous substance or oil product.

           Borden set aside approximately $75,000 for a
           community information center where citizens in the
           area may receive information about the facilities
           and the chemicals used in the Geismar area. This
           information assists citizens and  local officials in
           making decisions about their community.
        Lessons  Learned
        In many situations, EPA can work with a facility that
        has a violation and use that violation to improve the
        preparedness or response capabilities within a
        community, thus making that community a safer place
        to live.
Project  Contacts

Sfeve Mason
CEPP Coordinator
EPA Region  6
(214) 665-2292
Terry Sykes
Enforcement Attorney
EPA Region  6
(214) 665-2158
         Reqion  6
        Kennedy  Heights

        Project Activity

        Kennedy Heights is a 130-acre predominantly
        African-American residential subdivision in Houston,
        Texas.  From 1 921-1 928, the property contained
        three large earthen storage pits, two of which were
        used for crude  oil storage.  In 1 968, the pits were
        closed and homes were built over them. The residents
        of Kennedy Heights believe they are suffering adverse
        health  effects from residual hydrocarbons left in place
        when the storage pits were closed.  In an effort to
        coordinate their activist efforts, many of the concerned
        residents formed a group called the Kennedy Heights
        Civic Association (KHCA). The-KHCAand other
        residents asked EPA to investigate the subdivision and
        determine if the residual hydrocarbons left in the soils
        pose a health risk to the residents. EPA met with the
        attorney representing the KHCA and agreed to allow
        the association  to comment on the work plan for the
        site assessment prior to its finalization.  EPA also held
        two public meetings and conducted door-to-door
        solicitations in an attempt to engage the residents and
        obtain  as much information as possible prior to the
        sampling event.
Project  Participants

EPA included both members of the KHCA and other
Kennedy Heights residents in pre-investigation plan-
ning.  State and local agencies were also involved with
the site, including the Railroad Commission of Texas
and the City of Houston Public Works and Engineering

Project  Benefits

Following the  investigation, EPA held public meetings
to disseminate the findings and circulated a draft
report to the residents for comments prior to finaliza-
tion. The investigation found that the residual hydro-
carbons in the soils  underneath Kennedy Heights do
not present a serious health threat to the residents.
There was a mixed reaction from  the residents
following the release of the study. The majority of
KHCA members disagreed with the findings and still
believe that an inadequate investigation was con-
ducted.  However, a number of residents were
relieved to hear that the site does not pose an immi-
nent health threat to the community. The interaction
between the residents and the government agencies
throughout the investigation has spurred further action on
the part of the  City of Houston, which is currently moving
forward with plans to install new water distribution lines
throughout the subdivision.

Lessons  Learned
Government agencies must be careful when they are
working through intermediaries representing certain
entities, such as citizen groups. In this case, the
attorney representing KHCA worked closely with EPA
during much of the planning for the investigation.
Shortly before site activities were  to begin, EPA was
told the attorney no longer represented KHCA's
interests. Site activities were then  delayed as EPA
worked with new KHCA representatives to design a
work plan for the investigation.  It also became clear
that the position taken by KHCA  did not necessarily
represent the views of the entire community of
Kennedy Heights. Therefore it was critical that EPA
solicited the views of the residents not affiliated with
the KHCA.
Project  Contact

William Rhotenberry
Superfund Site Assessment Manager
EPA Region 6
(214) 665-8372
 Region  4
Overcoming  Community Mistrust and  Opposition  During  the
Implementation  of  a  Removal  Action at the  Agriculture  Street
Landfill  Superfund  Site
 Project Activity

 The community located near the Agriculture Street
 Landfill Superfund Site in New Orleans, Louisiana, is
 predominantly minority.  Prior to and during the
 implementation of the removal action, EPA met with
 community leaders who expressed the desire to see
 the implementation of specific improvements on and
 adjacent to the site. Although EPA had a rapport with
 community leaders, the site was extremely controver-
 sial and drew national attention.  It was clear from the
 residents that the Agency was not a welcomed partner
 in the neighborhood. This was reinforced when the
 community protested and picketed EPA's mobilization
 to the site, pushed for congressional involvement, and
 secured a temporary restraining order to stop the
 cleanup. Even though the case was dismissed, it
 further polarized the community. Local residents
 believed that none of the property owners would
 participate in the response action.

 The challenge was to develop a cohesive  internal
 operations team and to work consistently and regu-
 larly with the community and Congressional represen-
 tatives to ensure that they had a stake and input in the
 outcome.  Team members looked for ways to deal
 most effectively with various parts of the community
that had different interests and needs.  For example,
members of a large senior community were unhappy
with long meetings that lasted until late at night.  In
response, the team began holding separate meetings
in the morning at the senior citizens' facility. When
monthly meetings were not sufficient, the team
established a community outreach office onsite.
Other effective actions taken by the site team to be
responsive to and cooperate with the community
•  The use of a facilitator who was known and
   respected by the community.
•  Providing training that was focused on the specific
   needs of different groups (i.e., National Institute
   for Environmental Health Sciences Minority Worker
   Training  Program).
•  Conducting regular meetings with community
•  Meeting with  property owners and the Town Home
   Association concerning the landscaping of the
•  Bringing in guest speakers from other Superfund
   sites to talk about their experiences.
•  Approaching other government agencies for a
   collective federal response to community proposals.

          •  Establishing a toll-free number and monthly
          •  Developing daily summaries and e-mailing the
             summaries to leaders and Congressional aides.
          •  Developing and maintaining a webpage for the
          •  Implementing a 24-hour community response
          In addition to the above measures, a community
          response module was integrated into the site's GIS
          system to ensure that problems, concerns, and actions
          were taken based on community input. The module
          tracked all complaints from the community and the
          actions taken to resolve the complaint.  EPA con-
          ducted weekly meetings with the U.S. Army Corps of
          Engineers and its contractor to ensure that all commu-
          nity concerns were investigated and that a response
          was provided to the  complainant.  These efforts
          ensured that all potential information was available to
          the public and that their problems would be heard
          and addressed.

          Project  Participants

          EPA U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, IT Corporation,
          Concerned Citizens of the Agriculture Street Landfill,
          Desire Florida Area Community Council, Inc., and the
          City of New Orleans

          Project  Benefits

          The community members who were the most satisfied
          were those who understood the team's role, authority,
          and limitations. At the conclusion of the project, which
          took approximately two years to implement, EPA had
          implemented the removal action over 99% of the site.
          This was a tremendous success because it was initially
thought by the public that none of the property owners
would participate.  Although the community did not
necessarily agree with the removal action, the rela-
tionship that developed was based on mutual respect
and an understanding that the Agency would at least
treat the individuals with understanding and respect.
Lessons  Learned
Create a Cohesive Site Team:  Getting EPA staff with a
variety of styles, skills, and experiences involved in
working with the community can be a tremendous
advantage for building relationships with community
members.  Keeping the same staff throughout the
project creates understanding and trust. Make sure
the team members communicate and coordinate with
each other and are helping to support one another.

Develop Strong Relationships With Key Community
Members:  Have stable points of contact with commu-
nity members who you are comfortable calling with
questions and can be trusted to convey the feelings, of
the larger group.

Tailor Your Tools To Your Audience: Recognize that
different people in the community will have different
levels of understanding and interest. Develop
individualized relationships and communication
techniques to connect with different groups.
Project  Contact

Ursula Lennox
Remedial Project Manager
EPA Region 6
(214) 665-6743
          Region  7
          Residential  Mercury  Cleanups

          Project  Activity

          Since 1 998, EPA Region 7 has had to conduct thirteen
          mercury cleanups at residential properties.  Four of
          these cleanups occurred in environmental justice
          communities. Some of the mercury spills resulted from
          broken thermometers and releases from carburetor
          calibration kits. Often, these mercury spills result in
          mercury spreading from the original spill location into
vehicles and other homes via shoes, clothing, and the
transfer of personal property and cleaning supplies.

Region 7's response to these mercury spills in homes
consisted of gathering visible mercury with a special
vacuum, and heating and ventilating homes to
remove mercury vapors. In some instances, walls,
carpeting, and floors of houses had to be removed,
personal possessions had to be discarded because

they were contaminated with mercury that could not
be removed, and residents have had to be evacuated
and provided with temporary housing during the
cleanup. Much of the discarded contaminated
material had to be sent to a special landfill or recycler
at a substantial cost to EPA.

Project  Participants

EPA, in conjunction with the state health agencies and
the Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry,
conducted outreach to the community. This outreach
included developing and distributing fact sheets,
posting information to the Internet, and holding public
meetings to inform the general public of the health
hazards associated with mercury. EPA also  provided
information about who to contact in the event that a
mercury spill occurred.
Project  Benefits

The immediate reporting and resulting cleanup of
mercury spills prevents exposure and its associated
health hazards. Conducting outreach informs the
public about the health hazards associated with
mercury poisoning and educates the public about
preventing mercury contamination in homes, schools,
and churches.
Lessons  Learned
An increased awareness and understanding of the
risks associated with mercury contamination will further
reduce the mercury poisoning incidents in disadvan-
taged communities.

Project  Contact

Kenneth Buchholz, Branch Chief
Enforcement/Fund-Lead Removal Branch
EPA Region 7
(913) 551-7473
 Dynamite  Removal  Near the  Sisseton-Wahpeton  Sioux Tribe's Village
 in Sisseton,  South  Dakota
 Project Activity

 In 1 938, 1 46 cases of dynamite and 40 cases of
 blasting caps were buried by workers in a field near
 the town of Agency Village after a federal public
 works construction activity ended. The site is located
 near the homes of approximately 500 members of
 the Sisseton-Wahpeton Sioux Tribe. Since the 1 950s,
 this field has been cultivated, farmed, and harvested
 by the tribe, even though they were aware of dangers
 the buried dynamite posed.
 In July 1 999, EPA's Emergency Response Program
 tasked the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers to investigate
 the site. Mr. Thompson, a tribal elder who was a
 member of the crew that buried the material, was
 interviewed, and geophysical surveys were conducted.
 The Bureau of Indian Affairs interviewed witnesses and
 requested assistance from a U.S. Air Force Explosives
 Detection K-9  Unit in an attempt to locate the exact
 location of the buried  dynamite. Explosives and
 blasting caps were found buried in three areas at the
 site. A number of removal options were discussed;  in-
place detonation was selected as the safest and most
appropriate method of disposal.

Only once before had such a detonation attempt
been made, which resulted in the death of eight
people. This attempt was undertaken by South African
bomb experts who thought that the construction of a
bunker for the bomb crew would protect the detona-
tion crew, but they did not foresee the threat that
migrating nitroglycerin underground would pose.  In
light of this previous disaster, the parties had a very
daunting and technically challenging task, even by
Superfund standards. Through  a methodical and
meticulous investigation, it was determined that any
effort to dig up and move the dynamite would be too
dangerous. Instead, it was decided that the entire
town of more than 500 residents would be evacuated
before any in-place detonations could take place.

The team worked  with the Tribe on an evacuation
plan that would address numerous unusual circum-
stances faced by a low-income, minority population
and answer the following questions: How do you find

       lodging for a week for over 500 people in a rural
       area of South Dakota? How do you protect homes
       from damage and looting, especially homes that are
       not protected by insurance? The team worked through
       a myriad of administrative problems to ensure that the
       Tribe would be safe and not financially burdened by
       the cleanup.

       EPA oversaw the dynamite elimination project and the
       Sisseton-Wahpeton Sioux Tribe took an active role
       throughout the process in communicating with their
       500 tribal members. The Red Cross provided the
       evacuation shelter, food, and standby ambulance
       service for the work force at all times.

       Project  Participants

       • EPA Region 8
       • Sisseton-Wahpeton Sioux Tribe
       • US Army Corps of Engineers
       • Bureau of Indian Affairs
       • US Air Force Explosives Detection K-9 Unit
       • The Red Cross

       Project  Benefits

       The benefits'of this project include:
       • The Sisseton-Walpeton Sioux Tribe now has a much
          safer living environment, which includes safer crop
          cultivation and harvesting.
       • A significant mental burden was lifted since the
          unstable "bombs" were eliminated.
       • Teamwork and expertise were developed among
          the various  state and federal agencies and the
          tribal members.
   The team's sincere concern about the residents
   reversed the community's perception of "big
   A template was created to facilitate the evacuation,
   protection, housing, and feeding of an entire town,
   while simultaneously making preparations to
   eliminate an extremely hazardous situation.
   The willingness of the federal team to rely on  local
   tribal knowledge greatly enhanced the success of
   the project.
   The project created employment opportunities for
   about 20 tribal members, which helped saved EPA
Lessons  Learned
   For such a complicated project, it is important to
   coordinate the efforts and expertise of different
   governmental and non-governmental entities.
   Food preferences and temporary housing accom-
   modations need to be flexible so that nobody is
   forced to live where they do not want to.
   Hiring local tribal maintenance persons helped
   EPA gain the Tribe's support for the project.
Projects  Contacts

Sfeve Hawthorn
EPA Region 8
(303)  312-6061
Due Nguyen
EPA Region 8
(303)  312-6509
       Region  9
       Newmark Superfund  Site, Muscoy  Operable  Unit
       Project  Activity

       The purpose of this project is to implement an interim
       groundwater cleanup system to stop the flow of
       contaminated groundwater from reaching clean
       drinking water wells south of Baseline Street in San
       Bernardino, California. The source of the contamina-
       tion is still under investigation. The operable units
       (OUs) are Newmark (eastside) and  Muscoy
(westside). The cleanup has been implemented at the
Newmark OU and includes five operating extraction
wells between residential homes that pump and treat
water contaminated with trichloroethylene (TCE).

When EPA Region 9 approached the community near
the Muscoy OU for the construction of the Muscoy
treatment system, the.community became enraged.
This predominantly African-American and Latino

community did not want any wells located between
their residential homes or in the westside area. They
told EPA Region 9 that what is good for the.eastside is
not necessarily good for the westside. The community
expressed their concern that the city uses this area as a
dumping ground for all unwanted projects, and that
the wells will reduce property values. They then asked
EPA Region 9 to move one well location to a nearby
vacant property that they selected.

EPA Region 9 and the San Bernardino Municipal
Water Department partnered to develop a compre-
hensive community strategy to ensure meaningful
public involvement within this disenfranchised community.
This strategy included:
•  Development of a list of grassroots neighborhood
   leaders, local neighborhood organizations, local
   officials, congressional officials, and media contacts.
•  Briefings with many organizations.
•  Posting of bulletin boards at each well  site location.
•  Participation in a roundtable talk show on public
   television that explained the project.
•  Development of a short video to be viewed  at local
•  An engineering modeling study using the
   community's alternative well site location.
•  A real estate study of the eastside (Newmark OU)
   project area to see if that project had affected the
   value of homes  in the area.
After implementing the study, EPA Region  9 held a
community meeting to report its findings on the engineer-
ing modeling study and  explain why the well had to be
located  where it was. During this meeting, EPA Region 9
explained that there was no change in property values
on the eastside due to the project that was implemented
there, the clean water produced from the project will
benefit the city in the long run, and to protect human
health, the drinking water wells needed to be protected
too. EPA Region 9 informed the community that it was
willing to design facade  houses or build playgrounds at
the well  locations so the structures would blend into the
neighborhood. After the community meeting, the Region
personally called each person who showed an interest in
the project and told them that it was moving ahead with
the project prior to making an announcement in the
local papers. EPA also conducted open house meetings
at each  of the five well locations to get neighbors' input
on how  they wanted the site to look. The Region then
nominated the site for a Superfund Jobs Training
Initiative (SuperJTI) grant, which it won.  Three HAZMAT
classes were conducted at a community construction
To date, EPA Region 9 has demolished two house
structures, drilled iwo extraction wells, and completed
Phase 1  of a five-phase pipeline.  The  Region also
assigned a city engineer to be the liaison between the
community and the contractors to make sure construction
runs smoothly. Construction is expected to be com-
pleted in FY03.

Project Participants

•  EPA Region 9
•  San Bernardino Municipal Water Department
•  San Bernardino Mayor's Office
•  The local community living near the Muscoy OU

Project Benefits

•  The project is moving forward as designed, and
   the treatment system will stop the contamination
   from approaching clean drinking water wells.
•  The project will produce affordable clean water for
   the city.
•  EPA helped bridge a gap and improve the
   relationship between the Mayor's  Office and the
   Westside community.
•  Community residents will see how their ideas
   helped the project, once it is complete.
•  NIEHS, through the SuperJTI grant, provided
   training to community residents that would enable
   them to gain entry-level employment as environ-
   mental construction workers.
•  EPA Region 9 listened to the community and
   developed a contractor workshop to encourage
   community contractors to bid for project work. It
   also  developed a list of local professionals
   interested  in bidding on work when professional
   services are needed.
•  EPA Region 9 developed an effective communica-
   tion process to keep the community updated  on
   the project.
•  The well site locations, which were either vacant or
   housed abandoned homes, were  purchased by
   the city, who plans to redevelop them with struc-
   tures that will blend into the neighborhood.
•  Having the city be a good neighbor is a benefit to
   the community.

       Lessons  Learned
          Never assume that one neighborhood will receive
          you in the same way as another nearby neighbor-
          Educate the community about the project.
          Learn about the community's needs and incorpo-
          rate them into the cleanup to create ownership
          and acceptance of a project.
          A little more effort up front makes for a better-
          project in the end.
Project  Contacts

Kim Hoang, Ph.D.
Remedial Project Manager
EPA Region 9
(415) 972-3147
Jackie Lane
Community Involvement Coordinator
EPA Region 9
(415) 972-3236
        Region  9
       Purity Oil  Sales Superfund  Site

       Project  Activity

       The Purity Oil Sales Superfund site in Malaga, .
       California, is located approximately one-half mile
       south of Fresno. This seven-acre site was used to
       process waste oils, which were then dumped in sludge
       pits on  the site. Under the Fresno County General
       Plan, the Purity Oil Sales site is located in a zone
       designated as heavy industrial. However, the area is
       a mixed-use area that houses the Tall Trees trailer
       park. The trailer park residents are active and retired
       farm workers with very low incomes.  About half of the
       families living there migrated to the United States from
       Oaxaca, a Native American area of Mexico. These
       residents speak primarily Mixtecan and some Spanish,
       making communication in English difficult.

       During April 1 998, EPA staff contacted residents living
       'in the trailer park about starting construction on the
       cleanup remedy for the Purity Oil Superfund site. EPA
       notified residents  of upcoming field work and dis-
       cussed the probability of temporary relocation while
       construction occurred.  EPA  used Mixtecan and
       Spanish translators and conducted a number of
       community meetings between April and June 1998.

       Later that year, residents raised concerns about odors
       and seepage from the site and requested that they be
       permanently relocated. In addition, residents wanted
       to be relocated together, as the Mixtecan community
       is very tightly knit. Though EPA's authority to do
       permanent relocations is limited, EPA agreed to
       facilitate conversations between the County of Fresno
       and the trailer park residents regarding permanent
relocation and to evaluate permanent relocation in
the Superfund process.

A task force was convened by County Supervisor Juan
Arambula during the fall of 1 998 to discuss perma-
nent relocation of the residents. This task force
struggled to find a way to combine all the available
resources. But with perseverance and patience, the
group created, developed, and implemented an
extremely creative and innovative relocation solution
that resulted in the Mixtecan community being relo-
cated as a group to new housing in the Fresno area.
Other options made available to residents of the
trailer park were to be relocated to HUD housing or
compensated for the loss of their trailer.  The commit-
tee went above and  beyond the standard ways of
doing business within their individual programs and
found a common sense solution.  Funding for the
relocation was attained from private and public
sources and pooled to meet the needs of the entire

Project  Participants

The project partners included:
•  EPA Region 9's Purity Oil Superfund Team
•  US Department of Housing and Urban Development
•  Federal and state elected officials, including staff
   from the offices of Senator Barbara Boxer,
   Senator Dianne Feinstein, Governor Gray Davis,
   Congressman Calvin Dooley, and Congressman
   George Radonovich

   Fresno County officials, including Supervisor Juan
   Arambula and county staff
   Potentially Responsible Parties, which were repre-
   sented by Chevron
   Non-profit organizations, including California
   Rural Legal Assistance (CRLA) and National Farm
   Workers Service Center
Lessons  Learned
   The success of this project was based on early and
   constant community participation and good
   collaboration between all the parties involved.
   EPA alone cannot always achieve what is best for
   the community, the environment, and public
   health.  By partnering with other agencies and
   groups  who can  help, the Agency was able to
   develop and implement a creative, effective
   The more minds at the table, the more creative
   solutions the team can come up with.
   Without continued pressure from the community
   and its  advocates, permanent relocation of the
   trailer park would not have been achieved.
Project  Benefits
•  An entire environmental justice community of
   immigrant farm workers was relocated.
•  The health of trailer park residents was protected.
•  The Purity Oil Sales site is being cleaned up.

Project  Contacts

Rose/none Caraway
Remedial Project Manager
EPA Region 9
(415) 972-3158
Angeles Herrera
Community Involvement Coordinator
EPA Region 9
(415) 972-3242
Region  9
Navajo Abandoned  Uranium  Mine  Project,  Water Data  Outreach
Project  Activity

There are more than 1,1 50 abandoned uranium
mine sites on the Navajo Nation, which are remnants
of widespread mining and milling of uranium ore for
Cold War defense purposes. These sites have created
heavy metals contamination in soil and water, raising
health and environmental concerns for the Navajo
In the summer of 2001, a team of federal and tribal
representatives traveled to 30 different Navajo
chapters to provide  information about abandoned
uranium mines and their potential impact on water
quality. Over a three month period, the team
reached 1,028 individuals, most of whom lived near,
or had family living  near, abandoned uranium mine
sites. Outreach activities were conducted in both
English and Navajo.
The primary objective of the outreach team was to
relay information from an EPA water sampling event
where non-regulated water sources, including livestock
wells and stockponds, were tested to determine if they
were impacted by mining activity. The outreach
consisted of discussing the water data and methods to
reduce exposure to contaminated water sources.  In
addition, the team provided general information
about abandoned uranium mine sites, including
discussions about physical hazards and miner com-
pensation claims.

Navajo communities generally were very interested in
the presentations and many participated in one-on-
one discussions with outreach team members.  It was
clearthat residents, particularly in mine-impacted
communities, were in great need of information about
these mine sites. In particular, people were surprised
to learn that local unregulated water sources may
have been impacted by mining operations.

        Project  Participants

        -  EPA Region 9's Superfund Division Staff
        •  Navajo Nation Environmental Protection Agency
        •  Dine College

        Project  Benefits

        This project  is an excellent example of how collabora-
        tive partnerships between the Navajo Nation and EPA
        can benefit a project. EPA Region 9 facilitated this
        effort, but most of the credit belongs to the Tribe and
        non-governmenta organizations such as Dine ~
        College and the Abandoned Mine Lands Reclama-
        tion Project, which provided the essential expertise
        and manpower to plan and implement the-project.
        The Navajo  Nation specifically benefitted from this
        project by being provided with critical  information
        about water quality and how to reduce exposure to
        contamination and being able to build a  strong
        partnership with EPA and Dine College.
 Lessons  Learned
   By conducting outreach during ongoing local
   events, such as health fairs and food distribution
   events, EPA can reach more residents.
   Maps that conveyed data results through both
   location and photographs were much more useful
   to Navajo residents than a location-based map
   Conducting outreach in the Navajo language was
   necessary to reach many residents.
   A collaborative approach using the expertise of
   several different groups was necessary to create
   an effective, culturally sensitive outreach program.
Project  Contacts

Wenona Wilson
Community Involvement Specialist
EPA Region  9
(415) 972-3239

Andrew Bain
Remedial Project Manager
EPA Region  9
(415) 972-3167

Stanley Edison, Project Manager
(928) 871-6861

 Resource  Conservation  and  Recovery Act
 Many environmental justice communities are located in areas with operating hazardous waste facilities that are
 regulated under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA). RCRA's primary goals, are to protect
 human health and the environment from the potential  hazards of waste disposal, to conserve energy and
 natural resources, to reduce the amount of waste generated, and to ensure that wastes are managed in an
 environmentally sound manner.

 This section of the report highlights EPA's environmental justice activities related to RCRA in the areas of correc-
 tive action, brownfields, and training. The RCRA corrective action projects include projects being addressed by
 the RCRA Corrective Action Program, which allows RCRA facilities to address the investigation and cleanup of
 hazardous releases themselves. The RCRA brownfields projects include projects that address RCRA facilities that
 are not in full use, where there is redevelopment potential of the site, and where reuse or redevelopment of the
 site is slowed due to concerns about actual or potential contamination, liability,  and  RCRA requirements. The
 RCRA training projects include training for Native Americans to develop or improve solid waste management
 practices on their reservations.
Development of Waste  Transfer  Station Guidance  Documents
Project  Activity

Increasing reliance on the use of remotely located
municipal solid waste disposal facilities has led to an
increase in the construction of waste transfer stations. If
not properly sited, designed, and operated, munici-
pal solid waste disposal facilities can have significant
impacts on their surrounding communities. In response
to concerns that these impacts most often affect poor
or minority communities, EPA has undertaken a multi-
faceted effort to address this issue.

Project  Participants

Guidance for this project was received from a special
workgroup established by the National Environmental
Justice Advisory Council (NEJAC) and a focus group
of state, local, tribal, and environmental representa-
tives convened  by the Solid Waste Association of
North America (SWANA).
Project  Benefits

As a result of this effort, the following tools were
•  A Citizen's Guide to Waste Transfer Stations
   (EPA 530-K-01 -003), which helps the affected
   public understand the role that waste transfer
   stations play in their community, the potential
   benefits and impacts that might be expected, and
   the steps they can take to ensure that their own
   concerns are understood and addressed.
•  A Decision Maker's  Manual  to Waste
   Transfer  Stations (EPA 530-D-01-001), which
   provides specific guidance for waste management
   officials on siting, designing, and operating waste
   transfer stations, including how to address the
   specific challenges encountered in densely popu-
   lated, urban areas and small, rural communities.
•  Training  for  waste transfer  station designers
   and operators, which was developed by modify-
   ing SWANA's waste transfer station training course to
   incorporate issues of environmental justice, and to
   put a greater emphasis on reducing impacts on
   adjacent communities.

        Lessons  Learned
        Ordinary citizens tend to fear and distrust any environ-
        mental project if they do not understand it and the
        role they can play. By providing straightforward
        information they can understand and a means for
        their concerns and questions to be heard, they can
        provide constructive input that will help improve the
        project and address their needs.
Project  Contact
Sfeven Levy
Environmental Engineer
(703) 308-7267
        CBS  Corp./Viacom  Site  in  Bridgeport,  Connecticut
        Project  Activity

        The former Westinghouse Electric Corporation Bryant
        Electric site in Bridgeport, Connecticut, has been
        transferred to the City of Bridgeport by its current
        owner, CBS Corp./Viacom.  The property, which
        housed an electrical wiring manufacturing facility that
        operated from 1 888 to 1 998, has contaminated soil
        and groundwater. Through a joint effort between the
        City of Bridgeport and EPA, this site is being cleaned
        up for future redevelopment under Bridgeport's "West
        End Redevelopment Project." The project is aimed at
        revitalizing economically depressed sections of the

        To ensure the cleanup is environmentally safe for
        planned use, the requirements of various state and
        federal environmental programs—including the
        Connecticut Department of Environmental Protection
        (CT DEP) Property Transfer Act program, the
        Brownfields program, and the Resource Conservation
        and Recovery Act Corrective Action (RCRA CA)
        program—must be achieved.  However, the require-
        ments of these programs contain criteria that differ in
        both breadth and scope, presenting issues and
        obstacles that may inhibit redevelopment of the site.
        Considering this issue, the site provides an example of
        how EPA can work cooperatively with non-delegated
        state programs, such as the CT DEP Property Transfer
        program, to achieve the goals not only of the EPA
        RCRA CA program, but the goals of non-delegated
        state program as well.

        The City of  Bridgeport has identified a local manu-
        facturer with interest in redeveloping the site into a
        light manufacturing facility. This manufacturer has
        contracted with  a construction management firm,
        outside counsel, and an architectural firm to evaluate
        the legal and financial issues associated with the
property's redevelopment. The manufacturer is
proposing to build a manufacturing plant that would
be greater than 1 80,000 square feet and would be
located on 7.6 acres. The city has provided the
company with a draft Land Disposition Agreement
that defines the rights and obligations of the seller (the
city) and the buyer.

EPA Project Goals:
•  Provide timely technical and regulatory assistance
   to CBS-Corp./Viacom, CT DEP, and the City of
   Bridgeport concerning the RCRA CA program
   requirements that must be met to reach a Final
   Remedy  Decision under the RCRA CA program.
•  Identify substantive differences between the
   requirements of the CT Property Transfer Act and
   EPA RCRA CAthat have the potential to impede
   the progress of either program by focusing on
   issues that may delay the  remedy selection process
   or the property transfer to the City of Bridgeport.
•  Achieve the RCRA CA goals of "current human
   exposure under control" and "migration of
   contaminated groundwater under control."
This project identified the importance of enhanced
stakeholder involvement and assembling a stake-
holder team to assist in problem solving.  The City of
Bridgeport has a significant minority community
comprised of African-Americans, Latinos, and Asians.
During the stakeholder team  meetings, obstacles were
identified that impede the progress of CT DEP and
EPA program requirements, or delay a remedy
selection  and the transfer of the property to the City of
Bridgeport.  From these meetings, EPA worked with the
City of Bridgeport to develop a fact sheet to inform
the local  community of the state  and  federal site
requirements, and the status  of the ongoing investiga-
tion. In addition, a schedule was developed for

completion of the "RCRA Facility Investigation" and
"Corrective Measures Study" phases of the RCRA CA/
Property Transfer.

Project  Participants

•  Bridgeport Office of Planning and Economic
•  CBS Corp./Viacom.
•  CT Department of Economic Development
•  CT Department of Environmental Protection
•  EPA Region 1

Project  Benefits

CT DEP and  EPA have been working together to
ensure that the site is investigated and remediated in
compliance with the Connecticut Department of
Environmental Protection's Remediation Standards (CT
DEP RSRs) and applicable RCRA CA requirements.
This project demonstrates the need for empowering
states, communities, and other stakeholders to work
together to develop economic redevelopment and
sustainable reuse plans. In addition, the project
demonstrates how EPA can work cooperatively with a
non-delegated state program (in this case, the CT DEP
Property Transfer) in transferring property, to achieve its
goals and those  of the EPA RCRA CA program.
Culmination of the joint stakeholders effort allowed for
the achievement of RCRA CA Environmental Indicators
and future sustainable reuse of the site.

The success achieved at CBS Corp./Viacom site can
help other communities in modeling future innovations
for cleanup and redevelopment at RCRA properties. It
demonstrates innovative approaches that better
integrate reuse considerations into the cleanup
process, as well as expedite the cleanup activities of
properties subject to RCRA CA.
Lessons  Learned
This site successfully demonstrated that EPA can work
cooperatively to achieve the goals of a non-del-
egated state program, CT DEP Property Transfer, and
RCRA CA. By directing special efforts toward remov-
ing regulatory barriers without sacrificing protective-
ness, the project has built an enduring capacity at the
sfate and local levels for encouraging cleanup and
redevelopment, within a potential environmental
justice area, by bringing together the various stake-
holders in order to protect the environment and public
Project  Contacts

Raymond Frigon
(860) 424-3797

Edward Lavernoich
City of Bridgeport, CT
(203) 576-3975
Robert O'/Vleara
RCRA CA Program
EPA Region 1, OSRR
(617) 918-1360
Community  Involvement  in Setting  RCRA  Program Priorities
Project  Activity

On November 20, 1 999, Region 2 and the Depart-
ment of Justice hosted an enforcement workshop titled
"Enforcing Environmental Law in New York City/'
About 90 citizens of New York City attended. The
workshop was held in fulfillment of a commitment
made by the Region at the March 6, 1 999, White
House Council on Environmental Quality (CEQ)'s
forum on environmental justice in New York City. In
addition, the Region expressed its commitment to
environmental justice in New York City through many
compliance evaluation inspections, which were
conducted in FY99 and FYOO.

On September 14, 2000, EPA Region 2 hosted a
public meeting with representatives of environmental
justice and community groups to solicit their sugges-
tions for the Region's enforcement program priorities
for the five boroughs of New York City. This effort,
also part of a  larger, multi-media effort, was not
limited to the RCRA program. Where appropriate, the
Region's intention was to incorporate public comments
received during this meeting, along with any written

          comments received before or after the meeting, into
          its program priorities beginning in FY01. This forum,
          designed to give the community the role they had
          requested in setting enforcement priorities, was the first
          of its kind in Region 2 and possibly the first such
          meeting in the nation. Prior to the CEQ initiative, the
          RCRA program completed a very successful commu-
          nity-based environmental protection program in the
          South Bronx.

          Project Participants

          •  EPA Region 2's Division of Enforcement and
             Compliance Assistance
          •  EPA Region 2's Division of Environmental Planning
             and Protection
          •  EPA Region 2's Environmental Justice Coordinators
          •  New York State Department of Environmental
          ••  Local elected officials
          •  New York City Mayor's Office of Environmental
          •  Various local community groups, including: We
             Stay/Nos Quedamos; North Brooklyn Asthma
             Action Alliance; Healthy Schools Network, Inc.;
             Lower Washington Heights Neighborhood Asso-
             ciation; New York City Environmental Justice
             Alliance; Consumers Union; and CB #6
          •  Local citizens

          Project  Benefits

          Listed below are some of the benefits of this  project:
          •  Members of various environmental justice and
             community groups and other members of the
             public were able to meet and get to know indi-
             viduals at EPA Region 2 who could assist them in
             meeting their goals.
          •  Interested citizens of New York City gained empow-
             erment through their involvement in setting EPA's
             program priorities and through the involvement of
             the programs in their communities. They gained a
             knowledge of the various agencies  involved and a
             more  detailed knowledge of what the issues are.
             This helped them to begin to articulate their
             concerns more effectively and to address them  to
             the appropriate agency.
          •  There was an obvious EPA presence in New York
             City, especially in communities that are potential
             environmental justice areas.
Lessons  Learned
The Region was successful in providing useful infor-
mation to the public and in advocating the concerns
raised by the public with other federal, state, and
local agencies. The Region documented an evenly
distributed enforcement presence, which included
inspections by the state that affirmed a "level playing
field" with respect to environmental justice concerns.
The people who attended the public meetings
listened, were comfortable in voicing their concerns,
and identified some areas that needed a higher level
of inspection and enforcement (though not necessarily
by EPA) and areas that might improve the quality of
life in potential environmental justice areas throughout
New York .City. This success was due to an increased
awareness of environmental justice issues and more
attentive oversight of the New York State Department
of Environmental Conservation and the New York City
Department of Environmental Protection. An en-
hanced familiarity by the public with the RCRA
program  and individual staff  members also played a
role, as well as the Region's willingness to involve the
community in the process of setting  its enforcement

On the other hand, opportunities for improvement
were also apparent. The Region did not limit expecta-
tions of individual citizens and citizen groups by
making clear at the outset what EPA can and cannot
do (e.g.,,EPA cannot shutdown waste transfer stations
without having compelling reasons to do so and EPA
cannot make asthma go away). Since it was difficult
to communicate the limits of EPA's authority and
influence, some of the New York citizens who attended
the public meetings used the meetings as an opportu-
nity to vent their frustrations and dissatisfaction with the
response  of various governmental entities to their
situation.  Many of these citizens had a  problem
accepting that EPA faces regulatory constraints or
limited authority (and, in some cases, no authority)
over some of the adverse situations that affect their
communities. They seemed convinced that such
limitations could be overcome through creative
approaches on the part of EPA. Although EPA can,
perhaps,  put greater effort into collaborating with
other federal, state, and local agencies in developing
creative approaches to protecting the environment in
New York City and ensuring enforcement of the
environmental laws, especially in potential environ-
mental justice areas, challenges in maintaining
credibility will likely continue.

   EPA Region 2 had a clear enforcement presence in
   the city. About 150 RCRA compliance evaluation
   inspections were conducted in potential environ-
   mental justice areas. Forty-five percent of the
   facilities were no longer operating, 50% of them
   were in compliance with the relevant regulations,
   and 5%  of them were the subject of informal
   enforcement actions.
   EPA Region 2 gained a better understanding of the
   effectiveness of its compliance monitoring of
   hazardous waste handlers in potential environmental
   justice areas. Although more facilities were inspected
   in potential environmental justice areas than in the
   city as a  whole, the hazardous waste facilities in
   potential environmental justice areas were found to
   have compliance records that were the same or
   better than those for the city as a whole. This
   indicates that inspection targeting was not skewed
   away from potential environmental justice areas.
   Though  not exclusively related to  enforcement
   concerns, oral and written comments were pro-
   vided to the Region that were  useful in setting
   enforcement priorities and in countering, to the
   extent possible, public perceptions of the Agency.
   As a result of the September 2000 meeting, the
   following waste-related inspection targets were
   identified (but none of them were hazardous waste
   facilities that could be included in the FY 2001 RCRA
   targets): waste transfer stations, underground storage
   tanks in  District 27 of Queens and the Lower West
   Side, and the Ferry Point landfill in the Bronx where it
   was claimed that cancer rates are higher in the
   vicinity of the landfill. Joint EPA/OSHA inspections
   of waste transfer stations were suggested.
•  Region  2 benefitted from learning that some
   citizens have the impression that EPA is more
   concerned with protecting industry from the
   public than it is from protecting the public from
   industry and that EPA is not living up to its
   mandate. In addition, some citizens said that
   better communication with EPA is needed. For
   example, some project participants believed that
   EPA should notify them of proposed settlements
   before they are finalized, even though the
   decision to settle is the Department of Justice's.
   Some citizens said that the New York City Police
   Department should be more involved in the
   enforcement of environmental regulations. By
   knowing that these perceptions exist, EPA is in a
   position to address them.

Project Contacts

George Pavlou, Division Director
Division of Enforcement and Compliance Assistance
EPA Region 2
(212) 637-4000
George Meyer, Branch Chief
Division of Enforcement and Compliance Assistance
EPA Region 2
(212) 637-4144
Improving  Solid  Waste  Management on  Tribal  Lands
Project Activity

This project used grant money from EPA's RCRA program
to provide training for the Indian Nations of Region 2 to
initiate or improve solid waste management practices.

Project Participants

The project was conceived and developed by the St.
Regis Mohawk Tribe (SRMT) to provide easy access
and inexpensive training on the latest technical
information in solid waste management to all Indian
nations within EPA Region 2.
Project  Benefits

The SRMT polled all federally recognized Indian
nations in EPA Region 2 to determine which topics
were of greatest interest to them and then developed
specialized workshops to address these topics. Topics
selected included composting, management and
prevention of tire piles and open dumps, waste
transfer stations, regulation writing and program
development, and resources. The workshops featured
presentations by national tribal experts. Through these
workshops, the SRMT was able to share technical
information in an atmosphere of trust. Because only
local travel was involved, the workshops had maxi-
mum participation. As a result of the workshops,

        several Indian nations are working to improve their
        solid waste management practices. A solid waste
        management handbook is expected to be the final
        deliverable for this project.
        Lessons  Learned
          • Having the material developed and delivered by a
           trusted Indian nation was an important element in
           encouraging participation.
           Preliminary polling for relevant topics and the local
           setting of the workshops made the project a
Project  Contact

Lorraine Graves
RCRA Program Project Officer
EPA Region 2
(212) 637-4099
        Region,  5
        Environmental  Justice Analysis  in  Northwest  Indiana
        Project  Activity

        From July 1 998 to February 1 999, the Waste Man-
        agement Branch (WMB) of EPA Region 5's Waste,
        Pesticides, and Toxics Division developed an environ-
        mental justice study to support a permit decision for
        the Rhodia, Inc., hazardous waste combustion facility
        located in Hammond, Indiana. Since WMB had no
        experience in this area, WMB studied EPA and other
        federal guidance and examples of ongoing environ-
        mental justice projects in other Regions. The WMB
        then held a  briefing for Division management to
        discuss possible options for an environmental justice
        study for the Rhodia, Inc., site.

        Based on management comments and recommenda-
        tions, a second briefing was held to explain the
        methods of the proposed study and the expected
        report format. After obtaining management approval,
        the WMB formed a workgroup of five Regional staff
        members who conducted the technical work on the
        study. Dr. Mario Mangino of WMB was the major
        author for the final report, 'Analysis of Population
        Demographics and TRI Air Emissions to Address
        Environmental Justice Concerns for a RCRA Permit at
        Rhodia, Inc.  (Hammond, IN)."This report was delivered
        to Division managers in the Region.

        Project  Participants

        •  Waste Management Branch of EPA Region 5's
           Waste, Pesticides, and Toxics Division
        •  Workgroup of five Regional staff members
Project  Benefits

The report provides an analysis of population demo-
graphics and Toxics Release Inventory (TRI) air
emissions in Northwest Indiana, and compares these
factors for Northwest Indiana with the rest of the state.
It contains information that was used to formulate
additional permit conditions for the Rhodia, Inc.,
combustion facility. This report was EPA Region 5's first
formal Environmental Justice Report to accompany a
regulatory decision. It was added to the facility's
administrative file and became a public document.
Lessons  Learned
   When developing Agency guidance, ensure that
   the approach is straightforward and agreeable to
   management, and can employ readily available
   When conducting an environmental justice analy-
   sis, address citizen concerns. For example, the
   analysis conducted for the Rhodia, Inc., did not
   include a complete cumulative risk assessment for
   all facilities operating in the vicinity of Rhodia,
   which was  a concern for some of the citizens living
   near the facility. To address this concern, site-
   specific risk assessments for stack emissions and
   accidental  releases were performed to address
   citizen concerns about the safe operation of this

Project  Contact

Dr. Mario Mangino
Waste, Pesticides and Toxics Division
EPA Region 5
(312) 886-2589
RCRA  Corrective  Action  Success in South  Omaha
Project  Activity

EPA Region 7's RCRA Corrective Action Program has
been addressing the environmental concerns of
residents living near the VOPAK facility in South
Omaha, Nebraska. South Omaha is a low-to-
moderate income area with a significant number of
Hispanic residents. Environmental justice principles
were applied throughout the project to ensure mean-
ingful public input.

The VOPAK facility is made up of two former RCRA-
regulated facilities: the Van Waters and Rogers facility
and the Univar facility. Results from an EPA investiga-
tion show no evidence of contaminant releases on the
Van Waters and Rogers part of the property. However,
contaminant releases of chlorinated solvents, such as
trichloroethylene, to soils and groundwater have
occurred on the Univar property and groundwater
contamination has migrated to Spring Lake Park,
which is located about 1.5 miles from the site.

The South Omaha residents belong to severe
neighborhood organizations, many of which are
subgroups of the South Omaha Neighborhood
Association (SONA). Residents have worried that truck
spills and general plant operations over the years  have
left them vulnerable to hazardous material exposures.

Project  Participants

•  EPA Region 7
•  Members of the South Omaha Neighborhood
Project  Benefits

EPA Region  7's RCRA program has maintained an
ongoing relationship with SONA since 1 997. The
Region has  provided information on EPA's investiga-
tive and remedial processes, along with periodic
updates on  our progress and findings.  It has
sampled the soils of several nearby residences and
invited some of the SONA officers to watch the
installation of monitoring wells on the facility property.
The Region  also has established a  specific EPA
contact for SONA.

In fiscal year 2001, a series of groundwater monitor-
ing wells to  monitor contamination between the facility
and Spring  Lake Park were installed. No contamina-
tion was detected at the park, and  EPA believes that
the contaminant plume is attenuating naturally.
Region 7 soon will be proposing a final remedy for
this site and accepting input from the community on
the proposed remedial alternatives.
Lessons  Learned
   Communicating with surrounding communities
   early and often helps to allay fears and allows for
   RCRA cleanup results in a more expeditious
   Working cooperatively with SONA allowed EPA to
   achieve its cleanup goals faster and more effi-
Project  Contact

Bill Lowe, Geologist
Air, RCRA, and Toxics Division
EPA Region 7
(913) 551-7547

        FY 2001  Hamilton Sundstrand Corrective  Action in  Denver, Colorado
        Project Activity

        EPA Region 8 is overseeing environmental
        investigation and cleanup activities at the
        Hamilton Sundstrand facility, which is located in
        Denver, Colorado, in a neighborhood that is
        comprised of Anglo, Hispanic, and Asian
        residents, some of whom do not speak English
        well or at all. The facility stores and handles oil
        and chlorinated solvents. Chlorinated solvents
        and other chemicals were found to have
        contaminated the soils and groundwater at the
        site. It was also found that contaminated
        groundwater had migrated  beyond the facility
        boundary  into  the neighborhood. EPA Region 8
        and the facility were concerned that the migra-
        tion of the contaminated groundwater may
        pose a potential threat to indoor residential air.
        To address this issue, indoor air from the homes
        east of the facility were sampled.

        Project  Participants

        • EPA Region  8 RCRA staff
        • EPA Region  8 toxicologist
        • EPA Region  8 Community.Involvement
        • EPA Region  8 Environmental Justice Staff
        • Hamilton Sundstrand technical staff, manag-
          ers, and their communications and technical

        Project  Benefits

        To communicate successfully with neighbors, to
        engage them in activities affecting their homes,
        and to proceed with environmental investiga-
        tions and remediation, the project team made
        sure that residents were assured a safe indoor
        area through effective communication tools.
        These included:"
        •  Spanish written materials
        •  Translators for residents who did not speak
          English  well  or at all. These translators were
   especially helpful in explaining indoor air sam-
   pling to the non-English speaking homeowners
   and obtaining their permission to sample. During
   the interactions, the translators were able to answer
   health-related questions, which were a principal
   concern of many residents.
 •  Bilingual staff who were made available during
   the four informational open houses that were held.
 •  Bilingual neighbors who were willing to provide
   translation support. In one instance, after learning
   that some neighbors were not  attending an open
   house because they spoke predominantly Spanish,
   EPA asked the neighbor if she  would mind serving
   as a translator. She agreed, went home, and
   brought the Spanish-speaking  residents back to
   the open house.
As a result of the Hamilton Sundstrand and EPA
efforts, over 70 homes had their indoor air sampled,
and almost half  had ventilation systems installed.
Lessons Learned
Although this project is still active, success has been
achieved due in large part to the positive attitude of
Hamilton Sundstrand and the low profile of EPA. At
no time have the homeowners felt that their property
values were at risk. This was accomplished through
four open houses. These open houses were designed
so residents could speak directly with an EPA represen-
tative. This approach, as compared to a public
meeting, downplayed negative publicity, which, in
turn, could upset the residents and homeowners.
Project  Contacts

Tom Aa/fo
RCRA Project Manager
EPA Region 8
(303J 312-6949
Diane Sane///
Community Involvement Coordinator
EPA Region 8
(303) 312-7822

Making Siting  Decisions For  a  Corrective  Action Management Unit
at  the  BP-Amoco  Refinery  Site  in  Casper,  Wyoming
Project  Activity

An area adjacent to the Midwest Heights neighbor-
hood in Casper, Wyoming, was the location for oil
refining operations from  1 91 3 to 1 991. As part of
facility closure under a RCRA consent decree, the
current refinery owner, BP-Amoco, proposed to locate
a corrective action management unit (CAMU) within
1,000 feet of Midwest Heights, a low-income resi-
dential area. The CAMU would serve as a landfill for
waste derived from the facility cleanup. These wastes
would include hazardous substances and construction
debris. The State of Wyoming requested consultation
with EPA Region 8's Environmental Justice Program.
The Environmental Justice Program  provided a
number of consultation and guidance activities,
including demographic and environmental justice
analyses, consultation with the state and Amoco
directly regarding environmental justice and the
connection to Title VI of the Civil Rights Act, guidance
on  community involvement, participation in public
meetings, and provision of an environmental justice
workshop for the community group  involved with the
cleanup effort at the former refinery location.

Project  Participants

The State of Wyoming participated  via the Wyoming
Department of Environmental Quality. The Environ-
mental Justice Program provided a  number of
consultation  and guidance activities. The RCRA
Program provided insights and guidance to the
Environmental Justice Program and the state. BP
Amoco sought information to  respond appropriately
to the environmental justice concerns.

Project  Benefits

Asa result of the environmental justice consultation
activities and community feedback, BP Amoco chose
another ocation for the CAMU that fit well with the
overall goals for corrective action at the site.
Lessons  Learned
When interested parties work in a collaborative
fashion and industry-is responsive to community
concerns, positive results can be achieved.
Project  Contacts

Felix Flechas
Environmental Engineer
EPA Region 8
(303) 312-6014

Elisabeth Evans
Environmental Justice Program
EPA Region 8
(303) 312-6053
 Alaska  Native  Health  Board Solid Waste  Demonstration Project
 Project  Activity

 Many Alaskan Native Villages are suffering with large
 solid waste problems that they cannot address with
 their current capabilities. In many cases, this is be-
 cause of the Cold War. During the 1 950s, the Depart-
 ment of Defense (DoD) constructed the "DEW Line,"
 which was a series of radar installations along the
 "top of the world" to provide the United States with
 "Distant Early Warning" of missiles coming from
 Russia across the Polar seas. Airports were built near
 many small, remote villages to transport men and
material for these radar installation projects. Signifi-
cant quantities of wastes that were generated from
these radar installation projects—including shipping
materials, excess lubricants, paints and solvents, and
worn-out equipment—were often dumped next to
these airports, which were often located adjacent to
Alaskan Native Villages.

EPA Region 1 0 has been  supporting efforts to deal
with these solid waste problems by issuing grants up
to $220,000 over the last five years to the Alaska
Native Health Board (ANHB). The ANHB in turn

                                                           ents of solid waste pass-through grant funds. This
                                                           represents nearly one-half of Alaska's 227 tribes. The
                                                           planning/selection committee for the Alaska Tribal
                                                           Environmental Conference, also funded by this
                                                           project, includes the Alaska State Department of
                                                           Environmental Quality, EPA, tribes and tribal consor-
                                                           tia, and RuralCap..
makes smaller grants of $8,000 - $ 15,000 to
12-15 different villages each year for public
education, design, planning, and training fora
variety of projects related to these solid waste
problems. EPA Region 1 0 has also helped
establish recycling and other waste-red action
programs, promoted household hazardous
waste round-ups, trained dump operators and-
planned dump closures.

Project  Benefits

The ANHB Program has awarded more than
100 small grants since 1966 and funded the
annual Alaska Tribal Environmental Conference.
The benefits to the Alaska tribal community are
many. They have received training in all facets of
integrated solid waste management and have
had an opportunity to apply what they have
learned in small, grassroots efforts to reduce,
recycle, plan, educate, and reach community
members. The effect has been that solid waste
and the understanding of solid waste manage-
ment in Alaska has reached a very high profile,
despite the vast distances in Alaska.

Project  Participants

One-hundred Alaska tribal communities have
been directly involved in this project as recipi-
         Region   1 0
         Hansville  Landfill  and the  Pt.  Gamble S'Klallam  Tribe
                                                           Lessons Learned
                                                              Providing one large grant to an umbrella organi-
                                                              zation, which then provides subgrants to smaller
                                                              entities, is an efficient way of distributing resources
                                                              to small organizations.
                                                              The Native villages and organizations who re-
                                                              ceived these grants showed great creativity and
                                                              resourcefulness and accomplished important work.
                                                              Given the resource constraints on EPA for travel in
                                                              Alaska, providing small grants to local entities is
                                                              an efficient use of resources.
                                                           Project  Contact

                                                           Grover Parfee
                                                           Solid Waste Program
                                                           EPA Region  10
                                                           (206) 553-6697
         Project Activity

         This project was part of an ongoing effort to help
         residents of the Pt. Gamble S'Klallam tribal commu-
         nity better understand the risks to their health and their
         reservation environment from a groundwater plume
         that is migrating downslope from the closed Kitsap
         County Landfill.  In 1 989, tribal habitat biologists first
         discovered elevated levels of arsenic, cadmium,
         chromium, and vinyl chloride in an upper level,
         perched aquifer on the reservation and identified vinyl
         chloride in an on-reservation wetland and in Middle
         Creek, which is a fish-bearing stream near the

         Until the mid 1 990s, EPA Region 1 0 and the Bureau
        of Indian Affairs provided grant funding and some
        technical assistance to the Tribe to address the
        contamination from the landfill. Between 1 996 and
                                                   1 999, Washington State Department of Ecology (WA
                                                   DOE) identified the landfill as a Model Toxics
                                                   Cleanup Act site. WA DOE worked with Parametrix,
                                                   Inc., and Kitsap County to complete a remedial
                                                   investigation and feasibility study (RI-FS) of the Kitsap
                                                   County Landfill. Beginning  in 1 999,  EPA Region 1 0
                                                   provided technical assistance for reviewing the RI-FS
                                                   and helped the tribe participate in an arsenic me-
                                                   tabolism study, which was conducted EPA's Office of
                                                   Research and Development.

                                                   Project  Participants

                                                   The project partners included:
                                                   •   Pt. Gamble S'Klallam Tribal  community
                                                   •   EPA Region 1 O's Office  of Water, Office of Waste
                                                      and Chemicals Management, and Office of
                                                      Environmental Assessment

•  EPA's Office of Research and Development
•  Bureau of Indian Affairs' Natural Resources Dam-
   age Assessment Officer
•  Epidemiologists from the Indian Health Service
•  National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration
   (NOAA) Trust Assessment Officers
•  Washington State Department of Ecology
•  Parametrix, Inc.
•  Kitsap County

Project  Benefits

This project will benefit the tribe in the following ways:
•  The tribe will learn to what extent each individual is
   being impacted by arsenic from all sources.
•  The tribe will be able to find out if shellfish from
   the popular tribal shellfish bed at the mouth of
   Middle Creek is contaminated with arsenic.
•  The tribe, through  use of their consultant, will be
   able to readdress some sampling issues they felt
   were not adequately accomplished by the 1 999
 •  The tribe will receive assistance in developing  a risk
   assessment that is appropriate to their geographic
   location and their culture.

Project Contact

Al La Tourette
EPA Region 10
Solid Waste Program
(206) 553-8202


  Environmental  Justice  Awareness  Trainin
 As part of EPA's strong commitment to implement effective practices for addressing the needs of environmental
 justice communities, EPA gives training to its staff regarding environmental justice issues. This training focuses
 on environmental justice policies and learned and practiced tools for managing environmenta  justice issues
 effectively. It also addresses the  need for staff to be aware and sensitive to environmental justice issues that
 may arise in the communities in  which they work. This section highlights the projects that involve environmental
 justice training of EPA employees.
Environmental  Justice  Training  in  Region 4  (FY1999)
Project  Activity

A strong commitment to implement effective practices
for addressing the needs of environmental justice
communities led EPA Region 4's Waste Management
Division (WD) to schedule an intensive week of
training and skills development. WD conducted a
week-long series of environmental  justice seminars
specifically designed for its employees. WD employ-
ees attended classes focused on environmental justice
policy and learned and practiced  tools for managing
environmental justice issues effectively. Additionally, a
special seminar for the senior managers of WD will
be offered.  Effectiveness of the training was greatly
enhanced because internal WD employees  and an
external community review team with expertise in
environmental justice issues assisted in the design  of
the training.

Project  Participants

The project was sponsored by:
•  EPA Region 4's Waste Management Division-
   Customer Service Branch
•  EPA Region 4's Community Involvement Coordina-
•  EPA Region 4's cross-divisional  Environmental
   Justice Team
•  The Marasco Newton Group, Ltd. (an  EPA contrac-
Other EPA Region 4 components provided input to the
training outcomes.
Project  Benefits

The goal of this training was to provide students with
information on how to respond to environmental
justice claims and situations. To do this, the training
included information on:
•  how the environmental justice movement has
   evolved overtime;
•  a review of the authorities for implementing
   environmental justice programs and activities;
•  the ability to recognize indicators of environmental
•  the tools, skills, and suggestions for responding to
   or addressing environmental justice claims and
   situations; and
•  opportunities to practice the above mentioned skills
   and tools.
Lessons  Learned
   Due to the success of this training, EPA Region 4
   can use the training's framework to develop
   ongoing training opportunities at the state and
   local levels.
   All regional components need to provide resources
   to similar training efforts in order to meet long-
   term training goals.

       Project  Contacts

       Eddie Wright
       Environmental Justice Coordinator
       EPA Reg/on 4
       (404) 562-8669
       Rosalind Brown
       Chief, ER&CIB,
       EPA Region 4
       (404) 562-8633
       brown.rosalind@epa.gov '
Margaret Crowe
Training Coordinator
EPA Region 4
(404) 562-8687
       Region  4
       Mississippi  Statewide Environmental  Justice Summit
       Project  Activity

       The "Mississippi Statewide Environmental Justice
       Summit: Environmental Planning, Community Health,
       and Just Solutions" was a multi-stakeholder partner-
       ship and conference on environmental justice compli-
       ance and health issues.  The Summit was the first of its
       kind for the State of Mississippi and one of a few ever
       held in the region. The Summit and its sponsors
       focused on promoting the following issues:
       •  public/private partnerships in Mississippi that foster
          community empowerment;
       •  environmental justice compliance and environmental
          health education; and
       •  linkages between brownfields revitalization and
          economic progress, coalition building, and network-
       Funding for the summit was made available by the
       following groups:
       •  Mississippi contributed $25,000 and EPA Region 4
          matched-this amount through a grant to Jackson
          State University;
       •  Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry
          (ATSDR) -awarded a $5,000 grant to Jackson State
       •  the Ford Foundation contributed $50,000; and
       •  the National Library of Medicine contributed
       EPA Region 4 expects to receive a final report and
       evaluation of the summit from Jackson State University
       and plans to have several follow-up meetings with  all
       of the sponsors.
Project  Participants

Sponsors, supporters, and participants of the Summit
•  Mississippi Department of Environmental Quality
•  Jackson State University
•  EPA Region 4 •
•  Jesus People Against Pollution (JPAP)
•  National Library of Medicine
•  Mississippi Manufactures' Association
•  Mississippi Municipal League
•  Malcolm Pirnie, Inc.
•  Mississippi State Department of Health
•  Ford Foundation

Project  Benefits

The Summit was held August 2-4, 2001, in Jackson
Mississippi.  The event began with a brownfields
seminar and workshop and  included breakout
sessions on the environment, health concerns from
Mississippi community groups and private industry
working in the state, and how we can have both a
healthy and sustainable community.  There was a tour
of the environmental justice  community in Columbia,
Mississippi, which has a  brownfields pilot near a
Superfund site. This tour focused on how economic
redevelopment and environmental justice groups can
work together to create jobs, address health concerns,
educate the public, rebuild  abandoned and contami-

noted properties into reusable and productive areas,
and form collaborative partnerships. The state
explained how its different departments work together
and which MDEQ, City, and County departments are
responsible for certain issues.

Project  Contacts

Eddie Wrighf
EPA Region 4
(404) 562-8668

Cynthia Peurifoy
EPA Region 4
(404) 562-9649

Rosalind Brown
EPA Region 4
(404) 562-8633

Kelly Ri/ey and Chuck Barlow
Mississippi Department of Environmental Quality
Lessons  Learned
At the Summit, EPA Region 4 learned that MDEQ's
Director met with all of the parties who had concerns.
In response to these concerns, he appointed an
Environmental Justice Coordinator, established a toll-
free number to receive complaints, developed a
tracking system for these complaints, and recom-
mended that environmental justice become part of
Mississippi's annual pollution prevention meeting and
that another environmental justice summit be held in
2003.  Thus far, the feedback from the participants
has been very positive.

EPA Region 4 also learned that contacting community
stakeholders and involving them earlier in the Summit
planning process could have resulted in more open
dialogue, and that representatives from more federal
agencies and city and county departments should
have been presented at the Summit.
Region  6
All-Indian  Pueblo Council's  Pueblo Office  of  Environmental
Protection  Dip  Vat  Bioremediation  Pilot Project
Project  Activity

Under EPA Region 6's initiative to enhance the role of
states and tribes in Superfund, EPA Region 6 spon-
sored a pilot project to train staff members of the Zuni
Environmental Protection Office and the Acoma
Environmental Office to bioremediate sheep dipping
vats that are contaminated with the pesticide tox-
aphene. The objective of this pilot project was to
enable the Pueblos to effectively bioremediate other
sheep dipping vats  belonging to the Pueblos.

Project  Participants

The project partners included:
•  Pueblo of Zuni
•  Pueblo Office of Environmental Protection
•  Bureau of Indian Affairs
•  Agency for Toxic Substances Disease Registry
•  Pueblo of Acoma

Project  Benefits

•  The project trained four staff members from the
   Zuni Environmental Protection Office and two staff
   members from the Acoma Environmental Office in
   the bioremediation  process. These trained staff
   members will use their training to clean up addi-
   tional sheep dipping vats within their own Pueblos.
•  Members of the community, including school
   children, were educated  in environmental concerns
   atone bioremediation project site.
•  A guidance document on this process has been

        Lessons  Learned
        Projects move smoothly when all involved parties
        communicate and plan well in advance.
 Project  Contact

 LoDonna Walker
 Site Assessment Manager
 EPA Region 6
 (214) 665-6666
         Environmental  Justice  Awareness Training  in  Region  7
         Project  Activity

         The objective of this training was to develop an
         awareness and sensitivity to potential environmental
         justice issues among staff working at CERCIA sites. To
         meet this objective, personnel were trained in environ-
         mental justice awareness and taught the appropriate
         response to the emergence of environmental justice
         issues at their project sites. Each project manager used
         Geographic Information System (GIS) tools to evalu-
         ate whether their project sites would need a more in-
         depth environmental justice evaluation due to low
         income and/or minority populations. Region 7 used a
        25% minority population for its threshold in the
        evaluation process.

        Project  Participants

        The project participants included:
        • The Regional Environmental Justice Program
        • Data Integration and Support Operation (GIS)
        • Superfund Division Environmental Justice coordina-
        • CERCLA project managers in the division

        Project  Benefits

        Every CERCLA site in Region 7 was analyzed for its
        potential to have environmental justice issues. Every
       site manager conducted an environmental justice
       screening on all of their sites. Every CERCLA site had
       an environmental justice GIS map produced for its
       files. The sites that met the Region's threshold require-
        ments were flagged and brought to the attention of
       the Environmental Justice Program Manager and the
        Region's External Affairs Office (for outreach  and
       analysis of emerging environmental justice issues and
environmental justice-focused public interest groups).
Those sites that proved to have potential orexisting
environmental justice issues were identified and
appropriate resources were committed to them.
Lessons  Learned
   Environmental justice awareness can be built into a
   CERCLA project without consuming a significant
   portion of the project manager's time and re-
   A preemptive, proactive approach to environmen-
   tal justice ultimately saves time and resources while
   diminishing frustration for the Agency and those
   communities that become involved with the
   Environmental justice briefings were conducted at
   the State Directors Meeting, which increased
   understanding of the program at the state level.
Project  Contact

Tom Lorenz
Remedial Project Manager
EPA Region 7
(913) 551-7292

 OSWER is committed to improving communications with communities and establishing trust of EPA in those
 communities. To do this, OSWER works in partnership with community representatives, states, cities, and
 federal agencies to develop strategies for promoting public participation and community involvement in its
 decision-making processes. Part of this process includes the development of communication and outreach
 tools that are effective in reaching the environmental justice communities that EPA serves. This section highlights
 EPA's environmental justice projects that focused on the development of partnerships with communities and other
 entities to develop effective communication and outreach materials.
Collaborative  Model of the  People  of Color  and Disenfranchised
Communities  (POC/DC)  Environmental  Health  Network  and  Federal
Project  Activity

On November 22, 1 998, the POC/DC Network—a
national network of community-based groups im-
pacted by Department of Energy (DOE) and Depart-
ment of Defense (DoD) federal facility environmental
health-related issues—and Agency representatives met
in Oak Ridge, Tennessee, to follow-up  on a 1 997
summit meeting, which was held in Waveland,
Mississippi.  At this meeting, participants focused on
responses to the summit's "Implementation Plan,"
which included 1 7 community-based recommenda-
tions.  After the meeting,  EPA Region 4  staff coordi-
nated face-to-face meetings in December  1 999,
August 2000, and December,2000 to coincide with
the National Environmental Justice Advisory Council
(NEJAC) and federal Interagency-related meetings.
Federal agencies shared  invitational travel expenses.
Many regular conference calls with representatives
from the POC/DC Network and the federal agencies
also were held to maintain communications and
discuss progress being made on action items.

Project  Participants

The POC/DC Network is a national network of
community-based groups impacted by DOE  and
DoD federal-facility, environmental-health-related
issues. Members of its steering committee represent
grassroots groups from all over the country. The
federal agencies who participated in this effort include
representatives from EPA's Office of Solid Waste and
Emergency Response, EPA Region 4, Agency for Toxic
Substances and Disease Registry (ATSDR), DOE,
National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health
(NIOSH), and the Radiation Studies Branch of the
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC).

Project  Benefits

The benefits of this collaborative effort between the
POC/DC Network and the federal agencies included:
•  helping impacted communities, such as those in
   Oak Ridge, Tennessee, directly address environ-
   mental justice issues;
•  increasing the understanding of federal agency
   missions, management and staff, resources, and
•  building partnerships between DOE and local
   communities with DOE facilities;
•  holding independent face-to-face meetings with
   upper management of DOE's environmental
   programs, DoD, the Pentagon, and EPA Head-
   quarters to help effectuate a higher level of
   agency commitment to environmental justice and
   build relationships for responses; and
•  providing a platform at EPA NEJAC meetings and
   other forums for POC/DC Network's voice to be
   heard by federal  agencies to better address
   environmental issues. This helped lead to the
   development of the NEJAC Federal Facilities
   Working Group.

        Lessons  Learned
        Over the past three years, the POC/DC Network
        learned how to work collaboratively with federal
        agency representatives.  The Network also learned the
        importance of developing a strong relationship with
        higher-level Agency managers who can make
        decisions that affect impacted communities. It is
        believed that face-to-face opportunities to educate
        upper-level managers about the POC/DC Network
        and the patterns of environmental justice that commu-
        nities face helped raise the level of awareness and
        commitment to the issue among these agencies, and
        helped to better ensure follow-through on commit-
        ments  made by these agencies. In addition, the
        Network and Agency partnership enabled communi-
        ties affected by federal facility issues to present a
        stronger, more unified voice on the  need to address
        and resolve environmental health impacts.
         Region  4
         Teachers  Environmental  Institutes
Project  Contact

Brian Ho/fzc/aw
Environmental Justice Technical Analyst
EPA Region 4
(404) 562-8684
         Project Activity

         Teachers Environmental Institutes (TEls) were held
         during three consecutive summers (1 999-2001) using
         grants awarded by EPA Region 4's Waste Division.
         The participating colleges developed and hosted ten
         TEls for middle and high school teachers who live in
         the Southeast near waste management sites that are
         addressed by the Resource Conservation and Recov-
         ery Act (RCRA), or by the Comprehensive Environmen-
         tal Response, Compensation and Liability Act

         The TEls were designed to inform, promote, facilitate,
         and expand middle and high school teachers'
         knowledge of environmental issues and research. The
         primary goals of these grants were to promote the
         exchange of information and ideas and to develop
         strategies for integrating environmental perspectives
         into curricula, research, and community outreach.

         The TEls offered middle and high school teachers an
         opportunity to learn about recent environmental
         research data collected by EPA and state environmen-
        tal agencies. The program gave teachers access to
        the  data and provided  practical suggestions for
involving students and community members in using
this new information for pollution prevention and
environmental protection. The colleges distributed an
EPA-designed CD-ROM containing the new environ-
mental research data and layered it with other
databases [e.g., Geographic Information System
(GiS) visual representations of the environmental
data]. As a result, the teachers received actual
site-specific environmental data for their respective

Another goal of the TEls was to promote environmen-
tal education by providing training and instructional
material to a group of  middle and high school
teachers. The programs were designed to help
teachers incorporate environmental themes and "
concepts into their curricula and classroom activities.
The TEls offered stimulating sessions that included
hands-on activities on a wide range of topics, includ-
ing GIS, Toxic Release Inventory, Superfund site tours
in Anniston, Alabama, Risk Assessments, Public
Participation, Pollution Prevention, and environmenta
justice. Specific attention was focused on waste
management issues. The colleges also assisted in
editing the teachers' newly developed lesson plans.
I 64

Project Participants

More than 500 teachers, selected from communities
that lived near hazardous waste sites, participated in
the project. Participating colleges included:
•  Spelman College 2000, 2001
•  North Carolina State University 1 999, 2000, 2001
•  Mississippi Delta 2001
•  Medical University of South Carolina 1 999
•  Florida A&M University 1 999

Project Benefits

In all, more than 500 participating teachers were
instructed in environmental education and given
access to EPA's environmental research data. These
teachers collectively reach more than 37,000 students
every year.

Each teacher developed lesson plans that incorpo-
rated the environmental research data specific to
areas where the teacher/students lived, as well as
educational material presented during the workshops.

The participating teachers have applied for more than
25 grants, and have received more than 14 small
grants to do environmental education in their class-

Over a dozen teachers have made presentations at
educational conferences in this country and overseas
that are based on lesson plans they generated during
the TEI workshops.
North Carolina State University (NCSU)  has published
a booklet containing teachers' lesson plans on
hazardous waste activities. NCSU conducted a
telephone survey of more than 1 50 teachers that
attended their environmental workshop and found:
•  34% are now or expect to be enrolled in a gradu-
   ate program. Two-thirds of these teachers will use
   the environmental research data provided in the
   workshops for their graduate studies;
•  98% of the teachers used the lesson plans they
   developed in the workshops; and
•  61 % of the teachers had shared hazardous waste/
   GIS information and/or ideas with other teachers
   more than twenty times.
Lessons Learned
The TEI workshops successfully familiarized teachers
with recent hazardous waste research data using GIS
as a visual representation of the environmental data.
The teachers were subsequently able to share this
information with students and other teachers.

The teachers were asked about the greatest barrier to
using the hazardous waste and GIS data in their
classrooms. Approximately 25% indicated that a lack
of computers in the classroom was the greatest
barrier. Lack of time and problems with hardware
were identified by 1 8% of the teachers. Other barriers
that were mentioned include the lack of training in
environmental education and lack of experience in
environmental education since college.

While lack of computers in the classroom was identi-
fied as a barrier by 25% of the teachers, NCSU has
noted that, after going through the environmental
workshop, the teachers learned how to use computers
in environmental education. More than half of those
teachers acquired computers for their classrooms
within 1 8 months.
Project  Contact

Margaret Crowe
Training, Contracts and Grant Project Officer
Waste Division, Economic Redevelopment and
Community Involvement Branch
EPA Region 4
(404) 562-8687

        Metro  East  Lead  Collaborative  Partnership
        Project  Activity

        The Metro.East Lead Collaborative Partnership includes
        local community groups,, local hospitals, and federal,
        state, and local agencies in East St. Louis and St. Clair
        County, a predominantly minority and low-income
        community. The Partnership was awarded a National
        Federal Interagency Environmental Justice Demonstra-
        tion Project in July 2000 to implement a comprehensive
        strategy to improve children's health by reducing lead
        exposure and lead poisoning in East St. Louis. This
        project addresses both lead-based paint hazards and
        uncontrolled lead releases to surface soil due to past
        industrial practices.  Included in this project are removal
        actions that will promote opportunities for redevelop-
        ment in neighborhoods and will help eliminate illegal

        Many federal, state, and local partners were involved
        in this project at various levels. EPA provided several
        grants and contracts to this project. Some of these
        grants were used to conduct lead soil sampling in East
        St. Louis near many defunct, bankrupt industrial areas
        and implement community education and outreach
        efforts.  EPA also awarded a grant to the Illinois
        Department of Public Health (IDPH) to implement a „
        study to characterize the uncontrolled releases of lead
        in surface soils. This study included mapping of
        historical blood lead data and evaluating  blood lead
        trends in the area.  Another EPA grant was  awarded to
        the East-West Gateway Coordinating Council for
        conducting lead soil sampling and landscaping efforts
        in approximately 30 residential yards. The Council
        plans to continue its implementation of rigorous
        awareness and prevention efforts in both St. Louis,
        Missouri, and East St.  Louis, Illinois. An EPA grant was
        awarded to Neighbors United for Progress, a local
        community based organization, to conduct lead-based
        paint assessments to approximately 25 homes and to
        assist with community outreach and education. An EPA
        Brownfields Job Training grant was awarded to St.
        Louis Community College to provide environmental
        technician training to over 50 residents in St. Louis,
        Missouri, and East St.  Louis, Illinois.

        The U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Develop-
        ment (HUD)  provided a $2.8 million dollar grant to St.
        Clair County through its Lead Hazard Control Pro-
gram. This grant funded St. Clair County to conduct
blood lead screenings and assessments, manage
cases, conduct prevention and awareness information
workshops, and implement lead hazard control and
landscaping activities in the county. While this grant
ends in 2002, the County plans to apply for additional
funding and will continue to provide technical assis-
tance and lessons learned from other grantees with
similar challenges.

The U.S. Department of Agriculture's Natural Resources
and Conversation Service, through its Urban Resources
Partnership, awarded a grant to a local organization to
implement landscaping and bioremediation projects in
the community. Another bioremediation project is being
implemented by Southwestern Illinois RC&D on an old
industrial site in East St. Louis. The Neighborhood
Technical Assistance Center provided landscaping and
technical assistance to residents and local not-for-

The U.S. Army Corps of Engineers assisted with
project coordination and technical assistance, and
conducted site assessments on abandoned lots. They
also provided oversight during the majority of the
brownfields assessment efforts in the Enterprise

The East St. Louis Community Development Block
Grant Office provided $10,000 in grants to improve
homes identified  through the partnership. The office
also will continue to provide prevention, education,
and awareness assistance.

St. Mary's Hospital Corporate Health Center
screened over 3,000  children for blood  lead and will
continue to provide case management, conduct
prevention awareness training,  and provide educa-
tional assistance. School District 1 89 works with St.
Mary's Hospital to  ensure access to the students and
to provide outreach and education to parents.  The
District is planning  to  build  nine new schools by 2003
in East St. Louis. Southern Illinois University and the
Edwardsville Institute for Urban  Research is conducting
a research study  to determine the cause  and effect of
lead poisoning with particular emphasis on educa-
tional achievement, diagnosis of learning disabilities,
and  other physical  and mental illness.

To date, the project has met the following milestones:
•  The Project leveraged more than $6 million in
   funding support from  several Federal agencies,
   including HUD, EPA, USAGE, and USDA. ($3
   million from US EPA for removal work, $2.8 from
   HUD for the Lead Hazard Control grant).
•  USAGE awarded a $250,000 Planning Assistance
   grant to East St. Louis to assist with brownfields
   efforts. The city matched the amount with another
•  USAGE awarded a $1 00,000 Planning Assistance
   grant to the Village of Brooklyn to assist with
   planning efforts. The Michael Jones Foundation
   matched the amount with another $ 1 00,000.
•  EPA Region 5 awarded a $50,000 grant to St.
   Glair County to address lead contaminated
   abandoned buildings in Washington Park.
•  EPA Region 5 awarded a $1 5,000 grant to St.
   Glair County's Lead Hazard Control for a Com-
   prehensive Lead Outreach and  Education Cam-
•  EPA Region 5 awarded two grants totaling
   $60,000 to St. Mary's Hospital to conduct lead
   and  mercury outreach.
•  More than 3,000 infants and children under the
   age  of 1 3 were screened for blood lead.
•  Projects to sample and map areas with lead in soi
   and  to make  lead-blood data correlations were
•  Educational materials, such as a video, newsletter,
   collaborative brochure, and children's coloring
   book, were developed.
•  A comprehensive communications strategy for
   outreach and education was developed.
•  More than 30 contractors and St. Clair County
   staff members were trained as lead risk assessors
   and  lead supervisors.
•  An EPA Superfund Job Training Initiative (SuperJTI)
   grant was awarded to the Sauget Superfund site,
   which is located outside of East St. Louis. More
   than 20 East St. Louis residents will receive training
   underthis grant.
•  East St. Louis (ESL) was selected as a Brownfields
   Showcase Community in conjunction with City of
   St. Louis, Missouri.  Three specific project areas
   within ESL, the Central Business District, Riverfront
   and downtown, were  identified as part of this
Project  Participants

•  US Army Corps of Engineers
•  US Housing and Urban Development
•  US Dept. of Agriculture's Natural Resources and
   Conversation Service
•  Southwestern Illinois RC&D
•  Illinois Department of Public Health
•  East-West Gateway Coordinating Council
•  Neighborhood Technical Assistance Center
•  St. Clair County Intergovernmental Grants Depart-
•  East St. Louis Community Development Block
   Grant Office
•  East Side & St. Clair County Health Departments
•  Neighbors United for Progress
•  St. Mary's Hospital Corporate Health Center
•  School District 1 89
•  St. Louis Community College
•  Southern Illinois University and Edwardsville Institute
   for Urban Research

Project  Benefits

The project intends to provide the following benefits to
the community:
•  Improve children's health by reducing lead poison-
   ing through a comprehensive strategy.
•  Conduct blood lead screening of infants, pre-
   school-aged children and children in grades K-8,
   and pregnant mothers.
•  'Provide appropriate medico care service referrals
   to people identified with high-lead blood levels.
•  Conduct lead-based paint hazard assessment and
   remediation throughout the county.
•  Assess uncontrolled lead releases to surface soils in
   residential and school yards and parks.
•  Conduct housing rehabilitation along with land-
   scaping efforts and weatherization.
•  Conduct site assessments on abandoned lots and
   follow up with removal actions and demolition
   activities when necessary.
•  Assist in building community capacity to recognize
   lead hazards and ways to reduce the threats to

           children's health, as well as avenues to better
           communicate and make environmental decisions.
         •  Promote a healthy environment for the environ-
           mental justice community by offering a greater
           avenue for residents to become more involved in
           environmental issues in their community.
         •  Conduct public meetings, availability sessions,
           lead outreach parties.
         •  Participate in neighborhood and church meetings.
         •  Distribute a quarterly newsletter.

         Project Contact

         Noemi Emeric
         EPA Region 5
         (312) 886-0995
Lessons  Learned
   Strong partnerships among federal, state, and
   local government, local health care institutions,
   schools, and neighborhood organizations can
   take a project beyond its primary activity. In this
   example, the project evolved from one that only
   addressed lead as a major contaminant to one
   with two major working groups—one focused on
   health and communication concerns and the other
   on lead remediation and brownfields.
   Strong leadership can ensure effective strategic
   planning, coordination, and constant communica-
   tion among  project partners. The key is to ensure
   that one partner takes the lead; otherwise the
   project will not move forward.
         Region  6
         Community Involvement in  Environmental  Justice  Communities
         Project  Activity

         In FY99, FYOO, and FY01, EPA Region 6's Commu-
         nity Involvement Team mailed out fact sheets and
         notices concerning multiple Superfund sites to over
         300,000 community residents, elected officials, and
         other interested parties, and conducted approximately
         1 00 public meetings and open houses per year. In
         the communities with many Hispanic residents, all
         community involvement materials, including public
         notices and fact sheets, were translated into Spanish.
         More than 1,900  information calls were received by
         EPA staff.

         Project  Participants

         •  EPA Region 6's Community Involvement Team
         •  Elected officials
         •  Community leaders
         •  Union officials
         •  School officials
         •  Community residents

        Project  Benefits

        The sooner an impacted community is involved with
        and knowledgeable about a Superfund site in their
community, the better the EPA decisions and actions
will be. Often neighborhood residents can provide
more input and information about site activities. An
informed community will be better participants in site
Lessons  Learned
   Involve community participants early and often.
   Ensure that fact sheets are written with simple, easy
   to understand  language.
   Provide Spanish fact sheets with graphics, as well
   as translations.
   Mail invitations and fact sheets out to the commu-
   nity no later than two weeks in advance of site
   Provide a toll-free telephone number to the
   community so they can call to have their names
   added to the mailing list.
Project  Contact

Beverly Negri
Community Involvement Team Leader
EPA Region 6
(214) 665-8157
negri. beverly@epa.gov

Region 7
Outreach  to  Schools  in  Environmental  Justice  Communities
Project Activity

In February and March 2001, EPA Region 7 staff
visited five schools—both high schools and middle
schools—in the Kansas City metropolitan area as part
of Black History Month.  They also spoke to more
than 500 metropolitan children on Earth Day 2001.  -
A week later they moderated a session on "Economic
Development for Rural Communities" as part of the
Latino Civil Rights Summit at Penn Valley Community
College. The presentations focused on chemical
accident awareness and the importance of community
involvement.  Students and teachers learned how to
locate chemicals in their neighborhood using  EPA's
Toxics Release Inventory database. They also dis-
cussed community involvement activities related to
emergency planning.

Project Participants

•  High school and middle school students and
•  Community college students
•  Environmental justice communities

Project Benefits

Students and teachers learned how to identify hazard-
ous chemicals in their community, thereby increasing
their understanding of chemical hazards and empow-
ering them to take steps to prevent possible accidental
releases and react to such releases should they occur.
At the community college, students from diverse
communities in Kansas and Missouri learned  how to
address pressing issues concerning their community's
economics and environmental sustainability.
Lessons  Learned
It is relatively easy to get students interested in learning
about chemical hazards in the community. They enjoy
working with computer databases and mapping
programs.  In turn, this empowers them to influence
their families and friends in decreasing their levels of
risk from chemicals in the community.
Project Contact

Mark Smith
CEPP Coordinator
EPA Region 7
(913) 551-7876

        Ambient Air Quality
        around us.
The quality of the air all
        Antidegradat/on   A policy banning  any discharges
        that would "degrade," or make worse, the existing
        water quality of a water body, or degrade its current
        ability to serve specific uses, such as drinking water,
        fishing, or recreation.

        Bioaccumu/afion  The retention or storage  of
        chemical substances in the body, usually in fatty
        tissues, for long periods of time, with the total amount
        of chemicals in the body increasing the longer a
        person is exposed to them.

        Brownfields   Contaminated areas, usually within a
        city or urban area, that are being cleaned up for
        future industrial use. Areas cleaned up under a
        brownfields program often are subject to different
        requirements than sites cleaned up under the
        Superfund program.

        Comprehensive  Environmental Response,
        Compensation, and Liability Act  (CERCLA)  -
        Commonly known as Superfund, this Act established
        prohibitions and requirements concerning closed and
        abandoned hazardous waste sites, provided for
        liability of persons responsible  for releases of hazard-
        ous waste at these sites, and established a trust to
        provide for cleanup when  no responsible party could
        be identified.

        Contaminants  Pollutants in air, water, soil,  or food.
        A contaminant could be chemicals released by a
        facility, household products used  incorrectly, car
        exhaust, stream discharges, or other materials that
        could cause harm to humans or the environment.

        Corrective Action    A change in procedure  or
        method to correct deviations form permit require-
        ments, or to clean up preexisting  contamination.
        Under some statutes, EPA can require corrective
        action at existing sites as a condition of receiving a
        permit to continue operations.

        Cumulative Health  Impacts   Combined effect of
        multiple pollutants on an individual or individuals.
        Some statutes require that the government consider
        cumulative health  impacts before allowing additional
        sources of pollution. This is an  important consider-
        ation in neighborhoods with multiple sources of
        potentially hazardous substances.
Delegation  The arrangement under which a state
government assumes the lead role in running a federal
program. To receive delegated authority, the state must
meet certain minimum requirements.

Discretionary   Optional or non-mandatory.

Emergency Response Plan - Guidelines  devel-
oped by state and local governments to protect the
community in the case of a catastrophic event, such as
a facility fire, tornado, or hurricane. Under the
Emergency Planning and Community Right-to-Know
Act (EPCRA), Local Emergency Planning Commissions
prepare and provide these plans to citizens. Certain
facilities that produce, use, or store chemical sub-
stances must have site-specific emergency response

Environmental Assessment (EA)   A preliminary
analysis required by the National Environmental Policy
Act (NEPA). The EA is used to determine whether an
activity supported by the federal government would
significantly affect the environmental impact assess-
ment. Public comments on the draft EA can be
instrumental in convincing an agency that a federal
action is required.

Environmental Impact Statement (EIS)    An
evaluation that considers all harmful effects of a
proposed action on humans and ecosystems, and
determines whether there are other, less harmful, ways
of accomplishing the same goa , including taking no
action. The public has the right to comment in this
process. As part of its EIS review process, EPA is
supposed to identify environmental justice communities
and meet with affected groups to try to identify and
understand environmental  justice concerns that should
be addressed in the NEPA  process.

Environmental Justice  the  fair treatment of people
of all races, cultures, and incomes with respect to the
development, implementation, and enforcement of
environmental laws and policies, and their meaningful
involvement in the decision-making processes of the

Environmentally Burdened Community   A
community that has disproportionate, or unequal,
exposure to pollutants or polluting facilities.

Federal Facility  Any building, structure, installation,
or equipment owned, operated, or funded by the
federal government.

Federal Register - The publication in which EPA and
otherfederal agencies publish their notices to the public
about proposed actions, and advertise public com-
ment periods. The Federal Register is searchable online
at: www.epa.gov/fedrgstr/

Groundwater - The supply of fresh water found
beneath the earth's surface, usually in aquifers, that
supply wells and springs. Because groundwater is a
major source of drinking water, there is growing
concern over contamination from leaching agricultural
or industrial pollutants or leaking underground storage

Guidance   Recommendations on how laws should
be put into action, as opposed to formal regulations
or law.

Hazardous Substances   EPA defines  this  in two
ways: 1) any material that poses a threat to human
health and/or the environment. Typical hazardous
substances are toxic,  corrosive, ignitable, explosive, or
chemically reactive; or 2) any substance designated
by EPA to  be reported if a designated quantity of the
substance is spilled in the waters of the United States
or is otherwise released into the environment.

Hazardous Wasfe   Waste materials that contain
certain hazardous chemicals. RCRA sets out standards
for the handling, storage, transportation, treatment,
and disposal of hazardous wastes.

Local  Emergency Planning  Commission   A
committee appointed by the state emergency re-
sponse commission, as required by SARA Title III, to
formulate a comprehensive emergency plan for its
jurisdiction. LEPCs are notified by facilities that store or
use toxic chemicals and the LEPCs develop emer-
gency plans based on this information.

Local Information Repository   A location  where
public information about a Superfund cleanup is  kept.

Major Federal Action   Any federal activity  with
substantial potential impact, as determined on a
case-by-case basis.
Non-discretionary   Mandatory.  Citizens are entitled
to sue EPA and other agencies for failing to perform
non-discretionary duties.

Nonpoint  Source  Pollution sources that  do not
have a single point of origin or are not introduced
into a receiving  stream from a  specific outlet. These
pollutants  are generally carried off the  land by storm
water. Common non-point sources are  agriculture,
forestry, urban, mining, construction,  dams, channels,
land disposal, saltwater intrusion, and city streets.
Pollution  The contamination of air, water, soil, or
food supplies by toxic and other pollutants.

Pollutant - Any substance introduced into the environ-
ment that negatively affects the usefulness of a
resource or the health of humans, animals, or ecosys-
tems. A pollutant could include chemicals released by
a facility, household products used incorrectly, car
exhaust, or other materials that could cause harm to
humans orthe environment.

Polluter - One who releases pollutants or conducts
other activities without the required permits, or in
violation of those permits.

Primacy -  Having the primary responsibility for
administering and enforcing regulations. For ex-
ample, a state can  have primacy to  run a federal
program. To receive primacy the state must meet
certain minimum requirements.

Regulations  The rules developed by agencies that
contain the details needed to implement the general
requirements found in laws. Regulations are devel-
oped in draft first. The public has an opportunity to
comment on regulations before they are finalized.

Resource Conservation and Recover/ Acf
(RCRA)   This Act was enacted be Congress in
1 976. RCRA's primary goals are to protect human
health and the environment from the potential hazards
of waste disposal, to conserve energy and natural
resources, to reduce the amount of waste generated,
and to ensure that wastes are managed in an envi-
ronmentally sound matter.

Resource Conservaf/on and Recovery Acf
(RCRA) Brownfield   A  RCRA facility that is not in
full use, where there is redevelopment potential, and
where reuse or redevelopment of that site is slowed
due to real or perceived concerns about actual  or
potential contamination, liability, and RCRA require-

Right to Comment   The opportunity for  citizens or
citizen groups to provide input or express concerns
about proposed activities or plans. The public has  the
right to comment under a number of different environ-
mental laws.

Risk Assessment  A study or evaluation that
identifies, and in many cases  quantifies, the potential
harm posed to health and the environment by
contamination. Risk assessments may make assump-
tions about the affected community that may not be

        Risk Management Plan (RMP)    A summary of a
        facility's Risk Management Program that is required of
        some facilities under the Clean Air Act. The RMP
        provides state and local.governments with information
        about the risks of a chemical accident at a facility and
        what the facility is doing to prevent such accidents.

        Sensitive  Populations  Groups of people who are
        more at risk for illness or disease than the general
        population. This could be because they are already in
        poor health, or because they had more exposure to
        certain  pollutants than other people in similar situa-
        Solid Waste  Any waste that is not hazardous. This
        generally includes municipal garbage and nonhaz-
        ardous  industrial wastes.

        Sfate Emergency Response Commission    A
        formal  group  required by EPCRA and appointed by
        the Governor of the state.

        Subs/sfence   What is  required to maintain life.

        Superfund  The  program operated under the
        legislative authority of CERCLA that funds and carries
        out EPA solid waste emergency and long-term
        removal and remedial activities. These activities
        include establishing the National Priorities List, investi-
        gating sites for inclusion on the list, determining their
        priority, and conducting and/or supervising cleanup
        and other remedial actions.

        Supplemental Environmental Pro/ecf   In some
        cases, EPA has allowed or required  companies to pay
        for and implement "supplemental environmental
        projects," or SEPs, which do not benefit the company
        in any way. This could include restoration of other
        environmental resources in the area, funding of a
        community environmental organization, a community
        cleanup or beautification project, or citizen monitoring

        Total Maximum Daily  Load   A  process through
        which states or EPA divide or share the amount of
        pollution that is allowed in a  water body among
        various  pollution sources in order to implement water
        quality standards.

        Variance  A procedure by which someone can ask
        the government for an exception to an environmental
        requirement due to unique circumstances.

Index  of  Projects by  Office  or  Region
OERR  (with  Region 9)
2007 Superfund Job Training Initiative (SuperJJI) Project at the
Newmark Contamination Superfund Site in Son Bernadino, California 	29
Development of Waste Transfer Station Guidance Documents	47
Region  1
Brownfields Job Training:
The New Bedford, Massachusetts, Brownfields Environmental Job Training Program	9
Brownfields Revitalization:
Returning Vacant Lots in Providence, Rhode Island, to Productive Re-Use	 17
Eastern Surplus Company Superfund Site, Cleanup and Cultural Resource Protection	30
The 76-80 Pliny Street Superfund Site Removal Action	31
CBS Corp./Viacom Site in Bridgeport, Connecticut	48
Region  2
Brownfields Job Training:
Brownfields Job Training and Development Pilots	 10
Brownfields Revitalization:
Brownfields Program Development in Puerto Rico	 19
Brownfields and Waterfront Development	-.	20
Superfund Cleanups Conducted in Massena, NewYork, With Tribal Assistance	32
Community Involvement in Setting RCRA Program Priorities 	49
Improving Solid Waste Management on Tribal Lands	51
                                                                                                 73 P

       Region  3
       Brownfields Revitalization:
       PECO Remediation and Redevelopment Project, Chester, Pennsylvania	22
       TheAnacosf/a River Initiative 	33
       Logan Removal Site: Philadelphia, Pennsylvania	34
       Region  4
       Brownfields Revitalization:
       Environmental Justice Demonstration Pilot in Spartanburg, South Carolina	23
       Community Involvement at Two Superfund Sites in Anniston, Alabama	35
       Escambia Treating Company Superfund Activity Update	36
       Environmental Justice Training:
       Environmental Justice Training in Region 4 (FY1999)	59
       Mississippi Statewide Environmental Justice Summit	60
       Community Involvement, Outreach, and Planning:
       Collaborative Model of the People of Color and Disenfranchised Communities (POC/DC)
       EnvironmentalHealth Network and Federal Agencies  	63
       Teachers Environmental Institutes	:	64
       Region  5
       Brownfields Revitalization:
       Protecting Children's Health and Reducing Lead Exposure through Collaborative Partnerships	 25
       Environmental Justice Analysis in Northwest, Indiana	52
       Community Involvement, Outreach, and Planning:
       Metro East Lead Collaborative Partnership	66

Region  6
Brownfields Job Training:
The Superfund Job Training Initiative (SuperJTI's )Minority Worker Training Program and the
Brownfields Showcase Community Minority Worker Training Grants Program	 13
Supplemental Environmental Project for Emergency Preparedness and Response and
Community Right-to-Know	37
Kenned/ Heights	38
Overcoming Community Mistrust and Opposition During the Implementation of a
Removal Action at the Agriculture Street Landfill Superfund Site	39
Environmental Justice Training:
All-Indian Pueblo Council's Pueblo Office of Environmental Protection (POEP)
Dip Vat Bioremediation Pilot Project Under the Initiative to Enhance the Role of
States and Tribes in Superfund	61
Community Involvement, Outreach, and Planning:
Community Involvement in Environmental Justice Communities	68
Region   7
Brownfields Job Training:
Brownfields Job Training and Development Demonstration Pilots 	 14
Brownfields Revitalization:
Wellston, Missouri, Brownfields Redevelopment Habitat for Humanity	26
Residential Mercury Cleanups 	40
RCRA Corrective Action Success in South Omaha	53
Environmental Justice Training:
Environmental Justice Awareness Training in Region 7	62
Co mm unify Involvement, Outreach, and Planning:
Outreach to  Schools in Environmental Justice Communities	69

         Region  8
         Brownfie/ds Job Training:
         Turtle Mountain Band of Chippewa Indians, North Dakota:
         San Haven Redevelopment Brownfields Pro/ecf and Brownfields Job Training Grant	 75
         Brownfie/ds Revitalization:
         South Westminster Brownfields Project, City of Westminster, Colorado	27
         Dynamite Removal Near the Sisseton-Wahpeton Sioux Tribe's Village in Sisseton, South Dakota	4 ]
         FY 2001 Hamilton Sundstrand Corrective Action in Denver, Colorado	54
         Making Siting Decisions for a Corrective Action Management Unit at the
         BP-Amoco Refinery Site in Casper, Wyoming	:	55
         Region  9
         Newmark Superfund Site, Muscoy Operable Unit	42
         Purity Oil Sales Superfund Site	44
         Navajo Abandoned Uranium Mine Project, Water Data Outreach Effort	v	45
         Region  10

         Alaska Native Health Board Solid Waste Demonstration Project	55
         Hansville Landfill and the Pt. Gamble S'Klallam Tribe	5<5