BROWNFIELDS
     Technical Resources:
Industrial & Analytical Profiles
      United States Environmental Protection Agency
   I
  ^             Region III

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                        BROWNFIELD ASSESSMENTS
                      INDUSTRY PROFILE FACT SHEET
                    ABANDONED CHEMICAL FACILITIES
INTRODUCTION

This Industry Profile Fact Sheet is presented by the U. S. Environmental Protection
Agency, Region III (EPA) to assist state, local, and municipal agencies, and private
groups in the initial planning and evaluation of sites being considered for remediation,
redevelopment or reuse.  It is intended to provide a general description of site conditions
and contaminants which may be encountered at specific industrial facilities.  This fact sheet
is presented for informational purposes only, and should not be construed as a federal
policy or directive.

INDUSTRY. PROCESS. OR SITE DESCRIPTION

Process-specific chemical production facilities manufacture formulate or repackage a. wide
range of chemicals for commercial and industrial use.  These can include the formulation
and synthesis of acids, bases, oxidizers, polymers, plastics, surfactants, cleaning solvents,
dyes, soaps and waxes.

CHARACTERISTIC RAW MATERIALS

The raw materials are specific to the individual process and final product. The method of
manufacturing/repackaging process may be similar for each individual corporation, and
could be easily researched for a specific location/process.

WASTE STREAMS AND POTENTIALLY AFFECTED ENVIRONMENTAL MEDIA

Due to the diversity of the individual process, specific waste streams and affected
environmental media are highly varied. However, chemical facilities typically handle large
volumes of chemicals utilizing above and below ground bulk storage tanks, transfer
equipment, process lines and piping and raw material/final product storage areas.
Additionally, off-spec and waste materials may generated. Some of these materials may be
found on site in surface impoundments, bulk storage tanks, waste piles and disposal pits.
All of these areas may contribute to soil, building and groundwater contamination.
Process-specific waste streams and case studies on the associated environmental impacts
are available.

SAMPLING STRATEGIES

All waste materials encountered on site should be visually identified and confirmed using
immuno-assay, qualitative indicators, or wet chemistry field screening techniques.  It
should be noted that many of the waste materials may represent a significant direct contact
                                                                   U. S. EPA Region III
                                                       Industrial Profile Fact Sheet (Brownfields)

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and/or inhalation hazard to assessment personnel. Visually identified contaminated areas,
waste piles and lagoons should be characterized by collecting several samples for
laboratory analysis.  Surface and subsurface soil sampling should be performed to confirm
the extent of the contamination. Once the contaminated areas are established, grid or
random sampling may be performed to confirm the suspected clean areas.  The application
of non-intrusive subsurface geophysics should be evaluated to detect subsurface disposal
pits,  process lines and underground chemical storage tanks

On-site  and local wells may be sampled if groundwater is an environmental concern.
Installation of monitoring wells or other groundwater sampling techniques should be
evaluated if it is necessary to fill data gaps.

Another environmental concern is asbestos. Three forms of asbestos are typically found in
buildings: (1) sprayed or trawled-on material; (2) insulation on pipes, boilers and ducts;
and (3)  miscellaneous forms, such as wallboard, ceiling tiles and floor tiles.  Asbestos is a
serious  concern, especially during building demolition work.

SUGGESTED ANALYTICAL PARAMETERS

Asbestos Analysis

Cyanide Analysis

Heavy Metals Analysis:

Antimony     Arsenic        Beryllium     Cadmium      Chromium (hexavalent/total)
Copper       Lead          Mercury      Nickel        Selenium
Silver         Thallium      Zinc

pH Analysis

Priority Pollutant  Organics Analysis (volatiles, semivolatiles, pesticide/PCBs)
                                                                     U.S. EPA Region III
                                                         Industrial Profile Fact Sheet (Brownfields)

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                        BROWNFIELD ASSESSMENTS
                     INDUSTRY PROFILE FACT SHEET
                       ABANDONED LABORATORIES
INTRODUCTION

This Industry Profile Fact Sheet is presented by the U. S. Environmental Protection
Agency, Region III (EPA) to assist state, local, and municipal agencies, and private
groups in the initial planning and evaluation of sites being considered for remediation,
redevelopment or reuse. It is intended to provide a general description of site conditions
and contaminants which may be encountered at specific industrial facilities.  This fact sheet
is presented for informational purposes only, and should not be construed as a federal
policy or directive.

INDUSTRY. PROCESS. OR SITE DESCRIPTION

Small laboratories which combine research and development with public analytical support
are very common. Large research laboratories are less common, but can usually be found
in conjunction with an individual chemical manufacturing and product testing facilities. A
laboratory will typically have numerous working benches, supplied with natural gas, and
water/drains.  Vented hoods are common at  laboratories using volatile or fuming
compounds and reactions.  Storage shelves containing large numbers of individual
chemicals in limited quantity are always present.

CHARACTERISTIC  RAW  MATERIALS

The raw materials are specific to the individual laboratory, but usually contain all classes
of hazardous materials including explosive, corrosive, flammable or radioactive materials,
mercuric products and metal compounds.

WASTE STREAMS AND POTENTIALLY AFFECTED ENVIRONMENTAL MEDIA

Due to the diversity of individual laboratories, waste streams and the affected
environmental media are highly variable.  However, commonly found waste groups
include volatile, semivolatile, polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), polychlorinated
biphenyls (PCBs) and metal compounds.

Severe building contamination may be present as related to broken chemical containers
and poor housekeeping. A direct inhalation  threat is also likely. Soil contamination may
be associated- with small burial pits encountered at rural lab locations.

SAMPLING STRATEGIES
                                                                  U. S. EPA Region III
                                                      Industrial Profile Fact Sheet (Brownfields)

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 All waste materials encountered on site should be visually identified and confirmed using
 immune-assay, qualitative indicators, or wet chemistry field screening techniques.
 Radioactive materials are easily located using a scintillation counter.  It should be noted
 that many of the waste materials may represent a significant direct contact and/or
 inhalation hazard to assessment personnel.  Samples should be collected from nearby
 surface soils, drains, and obvious disposal areas.

 On-site and local wells may be sampled if groundwater is an environmental concern.
 Installation of monitoring wells or other groundwater sampling techniques should be
 evaluated if groundwater contamination is suspected.

 SUGGESTED ANALYTICAL PARAMETERS

 The majority of the laboratory chemicals will be labeled and in their original container.
 These can be inventoried and "lab-packed" for disposal. Analysis of each individual
 chemical is not required.

 Large groups of small quantity unknowns can be field screened, grouped by hazard class,
 bulked,  and profiled for disposal.  Disposal analysis of the bulked material may be required
 by the receiving disposal facility.  Suggested analytical parameters are:

 Target Analyte List (TAL) metals and cyanides

Target Compound List  (TCL)
                                                                    U. S. EPA Region HI
                                                        Industrial Profile Fact Sheet (Brownfields)

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                        BROWNFIELD ASSESSMENTS
                      INDUSTRY PROFILE FACT SHEET
                         ABANDONED OIL FACILITY
INTRODUCTION .
This Industry Profile Fact Sheet is presented by the U. S. Environmental Protection
Agency, Region III (EPA) to assist state, local, and municipal agencies, and private
groups in the initial planning and evaluation of sites being considered for remediation,
redevelopment or reuse.  It is intended to provide a general description of site conditions
and contaminants which may be encountered at specific industrial facilities.  This fact sheet
is presented for informational purposes only, and should not be construed as a federal
policy or directive.

INDUSTRY. PROCESS. OR SITE DESCRIPTION

The term abandoned oil facility refers to any structure, group of structures, equipment, or
device (other than a vessel) which is used for drilling, producing, storing, handling,
transferring, processing, recycling and/or transporting of oil.

CHARACTERISTIC RAW MATERIALS

Characteristic raw materials found at abandoned oil facilities include, but are not limited to
fuel oils, motor oils, oil sludges, oil refuse and oil mixed with wastes.

WASTE STREAMS AND POTENTIALLY AFFECTED ENVIRONMENTAL MEDIA

Waste streams associated with abandoned oil facilities include solids and liquids containing
petroleum hydrocarbons, metals (such as sulfur, zinc, calcium, barium, phosphorus, lead,
aluminum, iron) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs).  Facilities may also contain oils
that are corrosive.  Used or recycled oils may contain additional contaminants from their
prior use.  These waste streams can contaminate soil and groundwater from repetitive
spills, burial of sludges/tank bottoms and leaking tanks and process lines.

SAMPLING STRATEGIES

Numerous soil screening products are available to detect total petroleum hydrocarbons
(TPH),  benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene and xylene (BTEX) and polychlorinated biphenyls
(PCBs) in soil  and water.  Assessments should include sampling or screening of oils
remaining on site, surface soils, surface water (if in close proximity to the site), and
groundwater.(monitoring wells or local residential wells). If surface soil and/or
groundwater contamination is documented, and/or if underground storage tanks are/were
present on site, subsurface soil should be tested.
                                                                   U. S. EPA Region III
                                                       Industrial Profile Fact Sheet (Brownfields)

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SUGGESTED ANALYTICAL PARAMETERS

Priority Pollutant Organics Analysis (volatiles, semivolatiles, and pesticides/PCBs)

Target Analyte List (TAL) Metals

Total Petroleum Hydrocarbons (TPH)
                                                                   U. S. EPA Region III
                                                       Industrial Profile Fact Sheet (Brownfields)

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                        BROWNFTELD ASSESSMENTS
                      INDUSTRY PROFILE FACT SHEET
                               ASBESTOS PILE
INTRODUCTION
This Industry Profile Fact Sheet is presented by the U. S. Environmental Protection
Agency, Region III (EPA) to assist state, local, and municipal agencies, and private
groups in the initial planning and evaluation of sites being considered for remediation,
redevelopment or reuse. It is intended to provide a general description of site conditions
and contaminants which may be encountered at specific industrial facilities.  This fact sheet
is presented for informational purposes only, and should not be construed as a federal
policy or directive.

INDUSTRY. PROCESS. OR SITE DESCRIPTION

Asbestos piles can result from natural resources (including mining operation), ship
building yards, tailing from industrial operations and disposal of operation debris.

 CHARACTERISTIC RAW MATERIALS

Any material containing asbestos at more than one percent is designated as asbestos
containing material (ACM).  The common types of asbestos found in a pile are chrysotile,
amosite, and crocidolite. Other types of asbestos which can also be found in small
quantities in the pile are anthophyllite, tremolite, and actinolite.

WASTE STREAMS AND POTENTIALLY AFFECTED ENVIRONMENTAL MEDIA

The main contributor of asbestos to an asbestos pile is domestic debris. Three forms of
ACM are typically found in buildings: (1) sprayed or trawled-on  material; (2) insulation
on pipes, boilers and ducts; and (3) miscellaneous forms, such as wallboard, ceiling tiles
and floor tiles.  This material arrives at the pile from building demolition work or during
remodeling of existing structures.  Naturally occurring asbestos may result from the
excavation for a building foundation, in areas where bed rock contains asbestos fibers.
ACM can also be generated during mining operations and as tailings from certain
industrial manufacturing processes. During earlier times, ACM was used as an insulating
agent in various areas of a ship. Friable asbestos may be responsible for the pollution of
air, water and soil.  Asbestos is a direct inhalation threat to humans. Potential health
effects of asbestos exposure  are asbestosis, mesothelioma, lung cancer and other cancer 
disorders.

SAMPLING STRATEGIES

The most common types of asbestos, chrysotile, amosite and crocidolite, cannot be
distinguished by visual observation. The presence of asbestos must be determined by
                                                                   U. S. EPA Region III
                                                       Industrial Profile Fact Sheet (Brownfields)

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sampling and laboratory analysis.  Bulk samples from an asbestos pile must be analyzed in
a laboratory accredited by the U. S. Department of Commerce, National Institute of
Standards and Technology, National Voluntary Laboratory Accreditation Program
(NVLAP).  The method should be by polarized light microscopy (PLM).  A finding of less
than one percent asbestos is required for all samples in a homogenous area to determine
that it contains no ACM; only one sample needs to be analyzed as greater than one percent
to determine that a homogenous area contains ACM.

Erosion and sedimentation control must be considered during any on-site activity at the
asbestos pile.  Before starting any work, an erosion and sedimentation plan must be
approved by the county or the township authority.

SUGGESTED ANALYTICAL PARAMETERS

Percentage of asbestos present in the suspected asbestos containing material by PLM.
                                                                    U. S. EPA Region III
                                                        Industrial Profile Fact Sheet (Brownfields)

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                        BROWNFIELD ASSESSMENTS
                      INDUSTRY PROFILE FACT SHEET
                           AUTO BODY FACILITIES
INTRODUCTION
This Industry Profile Fact Sheet is presented by the U. S. Environmental Protection
Agency, Region III (EPA) to assist state, local, and municipal agencies, and private
groups in the initial planning and evaluation of sites being considered for remediation,
redevelopment or reuse.  It is intended to provide a general description of site conditions
and contaminants which may be encountered at specific industrial facilities.  This fact sheet
is presented for informational purposes only, and should not be construed as a federal
policy or directive.

INDUSTRY. PROCESS. OR SITE DESCRIPTION

A wide variety of materials are used in the repair of automobile and truck body parts.  The
process involves  removing the damaged area, repairing or replacing the part, filling and
sanding the affected area, and priming and repainting the repaired area. The repairs often
require the use of cutting and welding equipment, cleaners, solvents, paints, epoxies and
polymers. A smaller concern may also be the automotive fluids that leak from heavily
damaged vehicles kept on the property.

CHARACTERISTIC RAW MATERIALS

This industry typically stores small quantities of paints, cleaners, solvents, epoxies,
polymers and compressed gases. Some typical chemicals utilized in the auto body industry
include:

Acetylene (g)              Oxygen (g)                Acetone (1)
Ammonia (g/1)             Carbon Tetrachloride (1)     Hydrochloric Acid (1)
Monostyrene (1)            Nitrous Oxide (g)           Perchloroethylene (1)
Toluene (1)                Trichloroethylene (1)        Xylene (1)

(1)  liquid     (s) - solid    (g) - gas

WASTE STREAMS AND POTENTIALLY AFFECTED ENVIRONMENTAL MEDIA

There is minimal storage of waste products on site due to the use of small quantities of
hazardous materials.  The highest areas of contamination tend to be associated with the
stripping and painting operations.  Common wastes encountered at Superfund assessment
and remediation projects include waste paints, corrosive liquids and sludges, metals- and
solvent-contaminated soils, metals- and solvent-contaminated groundwater, and unused
raw materials.  The toxicity and mobility of paint mixtures and related cleaning solvents
                                                                   U. S. EPA Region III
                                                       Industrial Profile Fact Sheet (Brownfields)

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make groundwater contamination the primary environmental concern. Minor and
localized soil contamination may also be encountered.

Additionally, building contamination may be a concern in the painting building and
chemical/waste storage areas.  Building decontamination and wipe testing of demolition
materials may be required prior to off-site landfill disposal.

SAMPLING STRATEGIES

All raw materials and contaminated areas on site should be visually identified and
confirmed using immune-assay, qualitative indicators, or wet chemistry field screening
techniques. It should be noted that many of the raw materials containing corrosive and
toxic compounds may represent a significant direct contact and/or inhalation hazard to
assessment personnel.  Visually identified contaminated areas should be characterized by
collecting  several samples for laboratory analysis. Surface and subsurface soil sampling
should be  performed from the  suspected contaminated areas outward to the suspected
clean areas. Once the primary contaminated areas are established, grid or random
sampling may be performed to confirm the suspected clean areas.  The application of non-
intrusive subsurface geophysics should be evaluated to detect underground burial pits and
bulk storage tanks.

On-site and local wells may be sampled if groundwater is an environmental concern.
Installation of monitoring wells or other groundwater sampling techniques should be
evaluated  if it is necessary to fill data gaps.

SUGGESTED ANALYTICAL PARAMETERS

Priority Pollutant Organics Analysis (volatiles, semivolatiles, pesticides/PCBs)

Priority Pollutant Metals Analysis:

Antimony    Arsenic       Beryllium     Cadmium     Chromium (hexavalent /total)
Copper      Lead         Mercury      Nickel        Selenium
Silver        Thallium      Zinc
                                                                     U. S. EPA Region III
                                                        Industrial Profile Fact Sheet (Brownfields)

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                        BROWNFTELD ASSESSMENTS
                     INDUSTRY PROFILE FACT SHEET
                  BETHLEHEM-ASBESTOS/TAILING MINE
INTRODUCTION
This Industry Profile Fact Sheet is presented by the Environmental Protection Agency,
Region III (EPA) to assist state, local, and municipal agencies, and private groups in the
initial planning and evaluation of sites being considered for remediation, redevelopment or
reuse. It is intended to provide a general description of site conditions and contaminants
which may be encountered at specific industrial facilities.  This fact sheet is presented for
informational purposes only, and should not be construed as a federal policy or directive.

INDUSTRY. PROCESS. OR SITE DESCRIPTION

Bethlehem Mines Corporation's Grace Mine is located in Joanna, Berks County, PA.
Fugitive dust emission was a problem for the corporation since  1977. It was also
anticipated that the  dust contained asbestos. In 1977, following an inquiry by
Pennsylvania Department of Environmental Resources (PADER), Bethlehem Mine
provided information that analytical from sampling events showed the presence of
asbestos in air and water.

In 1985 Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) was on site in response to a request
from the Pennsylvania Department of Health (PADOH). At the end of the response it was
concluded that the effort by the responsible party to cover and vegetate the exposed
portion of the site had not been effective.

CHARACTERISTIC  RAW MATERIALS

The main contaminant found at tailing mines of this type is asbestos, which can be found in
airborne dust, in soil, and in water.

WASTE STREAMS AND POTENTIALLY AFFECTED ENVIRONMENTAL MEDIA

On-site asbestos piles contain asbestos containing material (ACM), which is defined as any
material containing  asbestos more than one percent.  The common forms of asbestos
found in typical ACM pile are Chrysotile, Amosite, and Crocidolite. Other forms of
asbestos which can  also be present in small quantities in a pile are Anthophyllite,
Tremolite, and Actinolite. Asbestos is a direct inhalation hazard to humans.  Potential
health effects of asbestos exposure include asbestosis, mesothelioma, lung cancer, and
other cancer disorders.

SAMPLING STRATEGIES
                                                                  U. S. EPA Region III
                                                      Industrial Profile Fact Sheet (Brownfields)

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The most common type of asbestos (such as Chrysotile, Amosite, and Crocidolite) can not
be distinguished by visual observation. Presence of asbestos cannot be determined
without sampling and laboratory analysis. Bulk  samples from an asbestos pile must be
analyzed in a laboratory accredited by the National Bureau of Standards (or EPA in the
interim), utilizing the polarized light microscopy (PLM) method.

Samples should be collected from air, soil and water; however, it should be noted during
sampling that the solubility of asbestos in water is negligible.

SUGGESTED ANALYTICAL PARAMETERS

Percentage of asbestos present in air, soil and water should be calculated from the
analysis.
                                                                     U. S. EPA Region III
                                                        Industrial Profile Fact Sheet (Brownfields)

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                        BROWNFTELD ASSESSMENTS
                      INDUSTRY PROFILE FACT SHEET
                   BATTERY RECLAMATION FACILITIES
INTRODUCTION
This Industry Profile Fact Sheet is presented by the U. S. Environmental Protection
Agency, Region III (EPA) to assist state,-local, and municipal agencies, and private
groups in the initial planning and evaluation of sites being considered for remediation,
redevelopment or reuse. It is intended to provide a general description of site conditions
and contaminants which may be encountered at specific industrial facilities.  This fact sheet
is presented for informational purposes only, and should not be construed as a federal
policy or directive.

INDUSTRY. PROCESS. OR SITE DESCRIPTION

Battery reclamation facilities salvaged the metals, primarily lead compounds, from
automobile and truck batteries.  A typical process includes a cracking area, sulfuric acid
dumping or storage area, metal salvage area, and battery casing piles or burial pits. Older
facilities used manual labor to pour the sulfuric acid from the batteries and separate the
lead compounds from the battery casings.  Sulfuric acid was often poured onto the ground
or into small unlined lagoons. Mobile conveyor belts or trucks were used to move the
large volumes of battery casings to waste piles or burial areas.

CHARACTERISTIC RAW MATERIALS

This industry was primarily a recovery operation; so, very few raw materials were used.
Due to the volume  and concentration of the sulfuric acid generated during recovery, it was
not usually cost effective to neutralize the sulfuric acid.  Soda ash or similar neutralizing
agents were  occasionally used for neutralizing sulfuric acid at newer facilities.

WASTE STREAMS AND POTENTIALLY AFFECTED ENVIRONMENTAL MEDIA

On-site waste piles and burial pits for battery casings, and unlined lagoons and waste pits
for sulfuric acid were common treatment/storage techniques prior to the promulgation and
enforcement of the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act of 1976 (RCRA).  Common
waste products encountered at Superfund assessment and remediation projects include
lead-contaminated soils (percent level) and ground water, highly acidified (pH as low as
1.5) soils and leachate, and large volumes of contaminated battery casings. Nickel,
cadmium,  copper, zinc, arsenic,  mercury and chromium-contaminated soils and
groundwater may also be encountered at facilities which accepted non-vehicle batteries
and associated materials.
                                                                   U. S. EPA Region III
                                                       Industrial Profile Fact Sheet (Brownfields)

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Additionally, contaminated buildings and the associated demolition debris may be
encountered at abandoned or inactive sites. Decontamination and wipe testing of this
material may be required prior to off-site landfill disposal.

SAMPLING STRATEGIES

It should be noted that many of the site contaminants contain corrosive and heavy metal
compounds which may represent a significant direct contact and/or inhalation hazard to
assessment personnel.  Visually identified contaminated areas, waste piles and lagoons
may be screened with a pH meter, then characterized by collecting several samples for
metals laboratory analysis. Surface and subsurface soil sampling should be performed
from the suspected contaminated areas outward to the suspected clean areas. Augering or
drilling may be difficult due to extensive burial of battery casings. Once the primary
contaminated areas are established, grid or random sampling may be performed to confirm
the suspected clean areas. The application of non-intrusive subsurface geophysics should
be evaluated to detect underground burial pits, filled lagoons, process lines and chemical
storage tanks.

On-site and local wells may be sampled if groundwater is an environmental concern.
Installation of monitoring wells or other groundwater sampling techniques should be
evaluated if it is necessary to fill data gaps.

SUGGESTED ANALYTICAL PARAMETERS

Heavy Metals Analysis:

Antimony     Arsenic       Beryllium     Cadmium     Chromium (hexavalent/ total)
Copper       Lead         Mercury     Nickel        Selenium
Silver         Thallium      Zinc

pH Analysis
                                                                    U. S. EPA Region III
                                                        Industrial Profile Fact Sheet (Brownfields)

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                             BROWNFIELD ASSESSMENTS
                           INDUSTRY PROFILE FACT SHEET
                                    DYE FACILITIES
INTRODUCTION
This Industry Profile Fact Sheet is presented by the U. S. Environmental Protection Agency, Region
III (EPA) to assist state, local, and municipal agencies, and private groups in the initial planning and
evaluation of sites being considered for remediation, redevelopment or reuse. It is intended to
provide a general description of site conditions and contaminants which may be encountered at
specific industrial facilities. This fact sheet is presented for informational purposes only, and should
not be construed as a federal policy or directive.

INDUSTRY. PROCESS.  OR SITE DESCRIPTION

Dyes are intensely colored substances used for the coloration of various substrates, including paper,
leather, fur, hair, food, drugs, cosmetics, waxes, greases, petroleum products, plastics, and textiles.
The methods used for the  application of dyes to substrate differ widely, depending upon the substrate
and class of dye.

There are presently approximately some 1,200 different commercial dyes manufactured in the United
States, and another 800 are imported. Dyes can be classified as acid dyes, basic dyes, direct dyes,
disperse dyes, fluorescent highlighters, reactive dyes, sulfur dyes and vat dyes. Dyes are produced
by a variety of chemical reactions from raw materials; most of these materials are hazardous to
humans.

CHARACTERISTIC RAW MATERIALS

Common raw materials used to produce dyes include cyclic aromatic compounds, such as benzene
and naphthalene. In addition to the cyclic aromatics, many aliphatic reagents and inorganic
chemicals are also used. These include sulfuric acid and oleum for sulfonation, nitric acid for
nitration, chlorine and bromine for halogenation, caustic soda and caustic potash for fusion and
neutralization, and sodium nitrite for diazotization, as well as ammonia, hydrochloric acid,
chlorosulfonic acid, and sodium carbonate, bicarbonate, and sulfide.  The heavy metals (copper,
chromium, mercury, nickel, and zinc) which are used as catalysts and complexing agents for the
synthesis of dyes and dye  intermediates are considered priority pollutants. The raw materials
commonly brought into the facility in large quantities and stored at the facility in tanks, drums or
other containers. The final products are also stored at the facility until shipment to suppliers or end
users.

WASTE STREAMS AND POTENTIALLY AFFECTED ENVIRONMENTAL MEDIA
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                                                                 Industrial Profile Fact Sheet (Brownfields)

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On-site waste piles, lagoons and waste pits were common treatment/storage techniques prior to the
promulgation and enforcement of the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act of 1976 (RCRA).
Effluents from dye factories are the major waste from dye production and processing. They should
be treated before leaving the plant.  Effluent treatment methods include physical, chemical and
biological methods.

The toxic nature of some dyes has long been recognized. The specific carcinogenic compounds
involved in the dye industry include the following:

2-naphthylamine                         4-aminobiphenyl
benzidine (4,4'-diaminobiphenyl)          fuchsine (CI Basic Violet 14)
auramine (CI Solvent Yellow 2)

The possible contamination of drinking water supplies is of concern because certain classes of dyes
are known to be enzymatically degraded in the human digestion system, producing carcinogenic
substances. Additionally, contaminated building and the associated demolition debris may be
encountered at abandoned or inactive sites.  Decontamination and wipe testing of this materials may
be required prior to off-site landfill disposal.

SAMPLING STRATEGIES

All raw materials encountered on site should be visually identified and confirmed using immuno-
assay, qualitative indicators, or wet chemistry field screening techniques. It should be noted that
many of the raw materials containing corrosive and poisonous compounds may represent a
significant direct contact and/or inhalation hazard to assessment personnel.  Visually identified
contaminated areas should be characterized by collecting samples for laboratory analysis.  Surface
and subsurface soil sampling should be performed to confirm the suspected contaminated areas.
Once the primary contaminated areas are established, grid or random sampling may be performed to
confirm the suspected clean areas.

The application of non-intrusive subsurface geophysics should be evaluated to detect underground
burial pits, process lines and chemical storage tanks.  On-site and local wells may be sampled if
grouhdwater is an environmental concern.  Installation of monitoring wells or other groundwater
sampling techniques should be evaluated if it is necessary to fill data gaps.

SUGGESTED ANALYTICAL PARAMETERS

Fluorescent Compounds Analysis
pH Analysis
Target Analyte List (TAL) Analysis
Target Compound List (TCL) Analysis
                                                                              U. S. EPA Region III
                                                                 Industrial Profile Fact Sheet (Browntields)

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                        BROWNFIELD ASSESSMENTS
                     INDUSTRY PROFILE FACT SHEET
                        DRUM RECYCLING FACILITY
INTRODUCTION
This Industry Profile Fact Sheet is presented by the U. S. Environmental Protection
Agency, Region III (EPA) to assist state, local, and municipal agencies, and private
groups in the initial planning and evaluation of sites being considered for remediation,
redevelopment or reuse. It is intended to provide a general description of site conditions
and contaminants which may be encountered at specific industrial facilities.  This fact sheet
is presented for informational purposes only, and should not be construed as a federal
policy or directive.

INDUSTRY. PROCESS. OR SITE DESCRIPTION

Drum recycling facilities receive drums with residual chemicals and oil from various
facilities. Based on the label information or field screening, the drums are separated into
in various compatibility categories.  When the residual chemicals are consolidated, the
drums are rinsed, leak tested, reshaped, and painted for reuse. Soap detergent and steam
cleaning are the most common process for rinsing. Unusable drums are crushed and
disposed as scrap material.

CHARACTERISTIC RAW MATERIALS

Any kind of chemical can be found on a drum recycling facility.  The most common
chemicals are:

Oils and greases            Paints and thinners         Soaps and detergents
Corrosive liquids           Organic solvents           Pesticides

WASTE STREAMS AND POTENTIALLY AFFECTED ENVIRONMENTAL MEDIA

On-site storage of consolidated bottoms/sludges from the drum cleaning process are
common at drum recycling facilities. Incompatible, leaking and unusable drums are often
stored in large drum storage yards.  These areas may contain heavily contaminated soils.
At some abandoned facilities, lagoons, waste pits or buried drums may contribute to
subsurface soil or groundwater contamination.  The drum rinsate is generally reused, or
treated and discharged into the municipal sewer.

SAMPLING STRATEGIES

It should be noted that many of the drums containing chemicals may represent a significant
inhalation threat to assessment personnel.  All drums encountered onsite should be visually
inspected, inventoried and staged. The contents may be identified by reading labels
                                                                   U. S. EPA Region III
                                                       Industrial Profile Fact Sheet (Brownfields)

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followed by confirmation using qualitative indicators or wet chemistry field screening
techniques. Unlabeled drums should be sampled for on-site screening and laboratory
analysis. Visually identified contaminated areas, waste piles, drums and lagoons should be
characterized by collecting several samples for laboratory analysis.  Application of non-
intrusive subsurface geophysics should be evaluated to detect underground burial pits,
buried drums and  storage tanks.

Nearby surface water, on-site and local wells may be sampled if surface or groundwater
contamination is an environmental concern.

SUGGESTED ANALYTICAL PARAMETERS

Due to the wide range of potential contaminants, analytical parameters should be selected
based on field screening results.  The analysis may include the following parameters:

Cyanide Analysis

pH analysis

Target Analyte List (TAL) metals

Target Compound List (TCL) (volatile, semivolatile and pesticide/PCBs)
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                        BROWNFIELD ASSESSMENTS
                      INDUSTRY PROFILE FACT SHEET
                             ELECTROPLATING
INTRODUCTION
This Industry Profile Fact Sheet is presented by the U. S. Environmental Protection
Agency, Region III (EPA) to assist state, local, and municipal agencies, and private
groups in the initial planning and evaluation of sites being considered for remediation,
redevelopment or reuse. It is intended to provide a general description of site conditions
and contaminants which may be encountered at specific industrial facilities.  This fact sheet
is presented for informational purposes only, and should not be construed as a federal
policy or directive.

INDUSTRY. PROCESS. OR SITE DESCRIPTION

A wide variety of metal components are transported from the original manufacturing
location to an electroplating facility to be coated with specific metals to improve the
appearance, resistance to corrosion, or engineering performance. Metal components are
cleaned, etched, electroplated and finished by dipping into a series of vats containing a
combination of corrosive, metal and/or cyanide containing chemical solutions.

CHARACTERISTIC RAW MATERIALS

This industry typically uses a series of plating solutions containing strong acids, strong
bases, metals and cyanide salts.  Acid and bases are usually received by the facility in
drums and occasionally by bulk transport (tank trucks). The metal and cyanide containing
salts are usually received as bagged or containerized solids, or drummed liquids, which are
dissolved or diluted into large plating vats.  The following chemical compounds are/were
commonly utilized in the electroplating process:

Zinc Cyanide (s)            Sodium Cyanide (s)         Potassium Cyanide (s)
Basic Cyanide Solutions (1)   Sulfuric Acid (1)            Hydrochloric Acid (1)
Nitric Acid (1)              Hydrofluoric Acid (1)        Chromic Acid (1)
Purified metal compounds (s)

(1) - liquid    (s) - solid

WASTE STREAMS AND POTENTIALLY AFFECTED ENVIRONMENTAL MEDIA

On-site waste piles, lagoons and waste pits were common treatment/storage techniques
prior to the promulgation and enforcement of the Resource Conservation and Recovery
Act of 1976 (RCRA).  Common waste products encountered at Superfund assessment and
remediation projects include waste cyanide, heavy metals and corrosive liquids and
sludges, metals and cyanide-contaminated soils, metals and cyanide-contaminated
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 groundwater, and unused raw materials listed above.  The relative toxicity of cyanide,
 cadmium, and chromium warrant special concern when evaluating groundwater
 contamination.

 Additionally, contaminated buildings and the associated demolition debris may be
 encountered at abandoned or inactive sites. Decontamination and wipe testing of this
 material may be required prior to off-site landfill disposal.

 SAMPLING STRATEGIES

 All raw materials encountered on site should be visually identified and confirmed using
 immuno-assay, qualitative indicators, or wet chemistry field screening techniques. It
 should be noted that many of the raw materials containing corrosive and cyanide
 compounds may represent a significant direct contact and/or inhalation hazard to
 assessment personnel. Visually identified contaminated areas, waste piles and lagoons
 should be characterized by collecting several samples for laboratory analysis.  Surface and
 subsurface soil sampling should be performed from the suspected contaminated areas
 outward to the suspected clean areas. Once the primary contaminated areas are
 established, grid or random sampling may be performed to confirm the suspected clean
 areas.  The application of non-intrusive subsurface geophysics should be evaluated to
 detect underground burial pits, process lines and chemical  storage tanks.

 On-site and local wells may be sampled if groundwater is an environmental concern.
 Installation of monitoring wells or other groundwater sampling techniques should be
 evaluated if it is necessary to fill data gaps.

 SUGGESTED ANALYTICAL PARAMETERS

 Cyanide (total/available) Analysis

Heavy Metals Analysis:

Antimony    Arsenic       Beryllium     Cadmium     Chromium (hexavalent/total)
Copper      Lead         Mercury      Nickel        Selenium
Silver        Thallium      Zinc

pH Analysis
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                        BROWNFBELD ASSESSMENTS
                      INDUSTRY PROFILE FACT SHEET
                                GAS STATIONS
INTRODUCTION
This Industry Profile Fact Sheet is presented by the U. S. Environmental Protection
Agency, Region III (EPA) to assist state, local, and municipal agencies, and private
groups in the initial planning and evaluation of sites being considered for remediation,
redevelopment or reuse. It is intended to provide a general description of site conditions
and contaminants which may be encountered at specific industrial facilities.  This fact sheet
is presented for informational purposes only, and should not be construed as a federal
policy or directive.

INDUSTRY. PROCESS. OR SITE DESCRIPTION

The largest concern in assessing a gas station is the presence of underground storage tanks
containing old gasoline products which could contaminate sub-surface soils and
groundwater. These storage tanks, and the lines used to transfer the fuels to the pumps,
may erode over time and begin to  leak. If the station also provided automotive service, it
may also have small containers of various lubricants, degreasers, cleaners, fuel additives,
tires, automotive batteries (lead and acids) and possibly compressed gas cylinders.

CHARACTERISTIC RAW MATERIALS

The main product, gasoline, is brought in by bulk transport (tank truck) and stored in large
underground storage tanks (UST) for transfer to the pumping stations.  Small containers
of materials used to service automobiles is often stored in the garage or storage areas and
are often purchased in large quantity, depending on the size of the service center. Below
is a list of some materials often found in a gas station with a small service center:

Acetylene Gas (g)          Ethylene Glycol (1)          Rubber (s)
Compressed Oxygen (g)    Automotive Oils (1)         Degreasing Agents (s/1)
Gasoline (1)                Hydraulic Oils (1)           Fuel Additives (1)
Diesel Fuels (1)            Common Lubricants (s/1)     Lead (s)

(g)  - gas      (1) - liquid    (s) - solid

WASTE STREAMS AND POTENTIALLY AFFECTED ENVIRONMENTAL MEDIA

The primary environmental hazard involves fuel contamination of subsurface soils and
groundwater. This contamination is usually caused by leaking USTs or a long history of
minor spills, leaks and tank overflows.
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 On-site dumping was common prior to the promulgation and enforcement of the Resource
 Conservation and Recovery Act of 1976 (RCRA). Common waste products encountered
 at Superfund assessment and remediation projects include waste oils, used solvents, old
 automotive batteries, tires and/or rubber sealing agents, oil sludges, compressed gas
 cylinders of acetylene and oxygen, volatile  organic contaminated soil and groundwater and
 unused raw materials.

 Additionally, contaminated buildings, concrete pads and the associated demolition debris
 may be encountered at abandoned or inactive sites.  Decontamination and wipe testing of
 this material may be required prior to off-site landfill disposal.

 SAMPLING STRATEGIES

 All raw materials encountered on-site should be visually identified and confirmed using
 immuno-assay, qualitative indicators, or wet chemistry field screening techniques.  It
 should be noted that many of the raw materials  containing organic solvents and any
 compressed gases may represent a significant flammability, direct contact, and/or
 inhalation hazard to assessment personnel.  Visually identified contaminated areas and
 pressurized containers should be characterized by collecting several samples for laboratory
 analysis. Surface and subsurface soil sampling should be performed from the suspected
 contaminated areas outward to the suspected clean areas.  Once the primary contaminated
 areas are established, grid or random sampling may be performed to confirm the suspected
 clean areas.  The application of non-intrusive subsurface geophysics should be evaluated
 to detect underground burial pits and underground storage tanks.

 On-site and local wells may be sampled if groundwater is an environmental concern.
 Installation of monitoring wells or other groundwater sampling techniques should be
 evaluated if it is necessary to fill data gaps.

 SUGGESTED ANALYTICAL PARAMETERS

Diesel Range Organics (DRO)

Gasoline Range Organics (GRO)

Heavy Metals Analysis:

Antimony    Arsenic      Beryllium     Cadmium      Chromium (hexavalent/total)
Copper      Lead        Mercury      Nickel        Selenium
Silver        Thallium     Zinc
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                        BROWNFIELD ASSESSMENTS
                      INDUSTRY PROFILE FACT SHEET
                   GLASS MANUFACTURING FACILITIES
INTRODUCTION

This Industry Profile Fact Sheet is presented by the U. S. Environmental Protection
Agency, Region III (EPA) to assist state, local, and municipal agencies, and private
groups in the initial planning and evaluation of sites being considered for remediation,
redevelopment or reuse. It is intended to provide a general description of site conditions
and contaminants which may be encountered at specific industrial facilities.  This fact sheet
is presented for informational purposes only, and should not be construed as a federal
policy or directive.

INDUSTRY. PROCESS. OR SITE DESCRIPTION

Most glass manufacturing utilizes a process in which raw materials are converted at high
temperatures to a molten glass. The molten glass is then formed into various products
using molding, pressing and blowing processes.

A facility may consist of several interconnected buildings including a primary kiln room,
drying  area, pigment application rooms, and separate etching rooms. Vats of etching
mixtures or frosting agents may be located in close proximity to the kiln area.

CHARACTERISTIC RAW MATERIALS

Sand and limestone are the most common raw materials in glass manufacturing. Other
raw materials include boron, soda ash and some metallic additives.  Some facilities utilize
recycled glass as the primary raw material.

The hazardous components of the raw materials include the etching agents, typically
hydrogen fluoride and fluoride-donating salts. Strong oxidizing corrosives, such as nitric
acid, may be present in limited quantities to produce the correct oxidation states in the
pigment metals. Amines and strong reducing agents are occasionally utilized in the
process. Heavy metals containing arsenic, cobalt, zinc, thorium,  and uranium were
common pigment materials in addition to specialty organic dyes.  Above or below ground
bulk storage tanks containing fuels for primary and secondary kilns may also be present.

WASTE STREAMS AND POTENTIALLY AFFECTED ENVIRONMENTAL MEDIA

Solid waste streams containing spent pigments and dyes are typical surface  soil
contaminants.  Some small volume liquid waste streams, resulting from the  etching
process, may also be present.  These liquid waste  streams may also contain dissolved
metals.  Discharges to waterways and sensitive areas present significant threats from the
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heavy metals pigments, organic dyes, and strong corrosives. The fluoride waste streams
are extremely dangerous to human populations.  Waste piles consisting of off-spec
materials and glass products may be a source of contaminated run-off.

SAMPLING STRATEGIES

All waste materials encountered on site should be visually identified and confirmed using
immuno-assay, qualitative indicators, or wet chemistry field screening techniques.
Radioactive materials can easily be detected using a scintillation counter.  It should be
noted that many of the waste materials may represent a significant direct contact and/or
inhalation hazard to assessment personnel. Visually identified contaminated areas, waste
piles and lagoons should be characterized by collecting several samples for laboratory
analysis.  Surface and subsurface soil sampling should be performed to confirm the extent
of the contamination. Once the contaminated  areas are established, grid or random
sampling may be performed to confirm the suspected clean areas.

On-site and local wells may be sampled if groundwater is an environmental concern.
Installation of monitoring wells or other groundwater sampling techniques should be
evaluated if it is necessary to fill data gaps.

SUGGESTED ANALYTICAL PARAMETERS

Heavy Metals Analysis:

Antimony    Arsenic       Beryllium    Cadmium     Chromium (hexavalent/total)
Copper      Lead          Mercury      Nickel        Selenium
Silver        Thallium      Zinc

Isotopic Identification for Individual Radioactive Materials

Total Petroleum Hydrocarbon (TPH) Analysis
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                        BROWNFIELD ASSESSMENTS
                      INDUSTRY PROFILE FACT SHEET
                            INFECTIOUS WASTES
INTRODUCTION

This Industry Profile Fact Sheet is presented by the Environmental Protection Agency,
Region HI (EPA) to assist state, local, and municipal agencies, and private groups in the
initial planning and evaluation of sites being considered for remediation, redevelopment or
reuse. It is intended to provide a general description of site conditions and contaminants
which may be encountered at specific industrial facilities. This fact sheet is presented for
informational purposes only, and should not be construed as a federal policy or directive.

INDUSTRY. PROCESS. OR SITE DESCRIPTION

Biohazards and infectious wastes can range from plant dusts, allergens and toxins, to
microbiological organisms.  An infectious waste is derived from a biohazard  agent which
is capable of replication and has the ability to produce deleterious effects upon other
biological organisms. The common classes of biohazard agents include infectious and
parasitic agents, microorganisms such as fungi, yeast and algae, and animal products
which cause infectious disease.

CHARACTERISTIC RAW MATERIALS

Not applicable.

WASTE STREAMS AND POTENTIALLY AFFECTED ENVIRONMENTAL MEDIA

Infectious or "red bag" waste can contain anything classifiable as infectious waste from
sharps hazards to autoclaved bacteria and virus strains. Etiological agents and vectors for
human disease are regulated through the Public Health Service, U.S. Department of
Transportation, and the Foreign Quarantine regulations.  The U.S. Department of
Agriculture is involved in the regulation of animal and plant pathogens.

Most infectious wastes are a contact threat from "fluid to fluid" contact, although other
routes of exposure are possible. There is no "safe" level of uncontained pathogen.
Illegally dumped infectious wastes are often found in loose piles, plastic bags or drums.
The actual infectious material can often be disinfected with bleach or other agents,
repackaged and sent for proper disposal.

SAMPLING STRATEGIES

Biohazards and infectious wastes can range from plant dusts, allergens and toxins, to
microbiological organisms.  Sampling infectious wastes is rarely necessary at illegal
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dumping or storage locations.  However, methods for the collection and evaluation of
biological materials may be used which parallel those used for chemical sampling, except
that the sample may have to be preserved "alive" to minimize the loss between the
collection and evaluation stage.

The three main types of biohazard sampling are liquids sampling, surface wipe sampling,
and air sampling. Specific methods for suspected agents and sampling strategies must be
developed for each individual biohazards incident.

SUGGESTED ANALYTICAL PARAMETERS

Specific for each biohazard
                                                                   U.S. EPA Region III
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                        BROWNFBCLD ASSESSMENTS
                      INDUSTRY PROFILE FACT SHEET
              MANUFACTURED GAS PLANTS/COAL TAR SITES
INTRODUCTION

This Industry Profile Fact Sheet is presented by the Environmental Protection Agency,
Region III (EPA) to assist state, local, and municipal agencies, and private groups in the
initial planning and evaluation of sites being considered for remediation, redevelopment or
reuse. It is intended to provide a general description of site conditions and contaminants
which may be encountered at specific industrial facilities.  This fact sheet is presented for
informational purposes only, and should not be construed as a federal policy or directive.

INDUSTRY. PROCESS. OR SITE DESCRIPTION

Manufactured gas has been produced since the early 1800s as a fuel source for residential
and industrial locations. Coal, or to a lesser extent oil, was burned to volatilize the desired
gas fuel. The primary gas product from this reaction was purified, while the wastes were
consolidated in a tar-like matrix known as coal tar.

CHARACTERISTIC RAW MATERIALS

The heating of the coal volatilizes the impurities into oven or furnace gas which is
transferred to a by-products recovery plant. The oven gas usually goes through distillation
processes to remove the waste products as coal tar.  Depending on the complexity of the
facility, various by-products including natural gas, benzene, toluene, xylenes, phenol,
creosols, pyride, anthracene, naphthalene, sulfuric acid, light oils, paraffin and ammonia
sulfate may be recovered.  This by-products recovery is more common with large coking
operations. Numerous waste products may be generated including hydrogen sulfide gas,
coal tar, complex cyanide salts, coal fines, wastewater and process still bottoms.

WASTE STREAMS AND POTENTIALLY AFFECTED ENVIRONMENTAL MEDIA

Due to the immense amounts of coal which could be handled per year, manufactured gas
plant sites  often have very large wastewater lagoons and coal tar pits. Common waste
products encountered at Superfund assessment and remediation projects include high
concentrations of polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), sulfur compounds, complex
cyanide compounds and lower concentrations  of volatile-and phenolic compounds.  These
wastes are concentrated in a dense, aromatic coal tar and associated waste waters.  This
coal tar waste is typically found in large on-site pits, many of which are over 20 feet deep.
The metals concentration accumulated in the ash collection system is dependent on the
content of the original fuel. The most common metals include aluminum, iron, lead,
nickel, and chromium.  The ash may be encountered on site mixed with the coal tar or as a
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separate waste pile.  Other inorganic compounds are not typically encountered at
significant levels.

Groundwater may be contaminated as a result of leaching or percolation of surface and
subsurface contaminants, surface impoundments and leaking process lines and tanks.

Additionally, contaminated buildings and the associated demolition debris may be
encountered at abandoned or inactive sites.  Associated heat transmission equipment may
contain significant amounts of asbestos. Decontamination, asbestos remediation, and wipe
testing of this material may be required prior to off-site landfill disposal or scrapping of
process equipment.

SAMPLING STRATEGIES

All waste materials encountered on site should be visually identified and confirmed using
immuno-assay, qualitative indicators, or wet chemistry field screening techniques. It
should be noted that many of the waste materials may represent a significant direct contact
and/or inhalation hazard to assessment personnel.  Visually identified contaminated areas,
waste piles and lagoons should be characterized by collecting several samples for
laboratory analysis.  Surface and subsurface soil sampling should be performed to confirm
the extent of the contamination.  Once the contaminated areas are established, grid or
random sampling may be performed to confirm the suspected clean areas.  The application
of non-intrusive subsurface geophysics should be evaluated to detect subsurface tar pits,
process lines and chemical storage tanks.

On-site and local wells may be sampled if groundwater is an environmental concern.
Installation of monitoring wells or other groundwater sampling techniques should be
evaluated if it is necessary to fill data gaps.

SUGGESTED ANALYTICAL PARAMETERS
Benzene, Toluene, Ethylbenzene, Xylene (BTEX) Analysis

Cyanide (total/available) Analysis

Heavy Metals Analysis:

Antimony     Arsenic       Beryllium     Cadmium     Chromium (hexavalent/total)
Copper        Lead         Mercury      Nickel        Selenium
Silver         Thallium      Zinc

Phenol Analysis

Sulfate/Sulfide Analysis

pH Analysis
                                                                    U. S. EPA Region in
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                        BKOWNFIELD ASSESSMENTS
                      INDUSTRY PROFILE FACT SHEET
                           MUNICIPAL LANDFILL
INTRODUCTION

This Industry Profile Fact Sheet is presented by the U. S. Environmental Protection
Agency, Region III (EPA) to assist state, local, and municipal agencies, and private
groups in the initial planning and evaluation of sites being considered for remediation,
redevelopment or reuse. It is intended to provide a general description of site conditions
and contaminants which may be encountered at specific industrial facilities.  This fact sheet
is presented for informational purposes only, and should not be construed as a federal
policy or directive.
                                                                      
INDUSTRY. PROCESS. OR SITE DESCRIPTION

Landfilling of solid waste has been practiced since very early times, when refuse was
deposited in  an open dump and allowed to decompose naturally. In most states today, a
municipal landfill is restricted primarily to house hold garbage, office waste, rubble and
debris from the construction industry, and vegetation from land clearing, lawn and leaf
waste,  etc. Modern municipal landfills should not be used to dispose of chemical  or
industrial wastes. Depending on when a landfill was constructed and operated, there may
be engineering controls installed, such as liners, leachate collection/treatment, monitoring
wells, etc.

CHARACTERISTIC RAW MATERIALS

Because of unregulated use or illegal dumping practices, landfills in use prior to 1970 may
contain volatile organic compounds, pesticide/PCBs, polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons
(PAHs), cyanides, heavy metals, and other contamination. Even strictly domestic or
household waste can contain small quantities of oil and grease, paint, corrosives, solvents
and other miscellaneous consumer chemicals.

WASTE STREAMS AND POTENTIALLY AFFECTED ENVIRONMENTAL MEDIA

During the early stage of waste decomposition in a landfill the degradation process is
essentially anaerobic, forming carbon dioxide and finally methane gas. Methane, in proper
proportion with air, forms an explosive combination. Other generated gas, such as
hydrogen sulfide, is toxic and lethal. Leachate produced by water moving through
deposited refuse represents a potential hazard to soils as well as surface or groundwater.

SAMPLING STRATEGIES

Any raw material encountered on site should be visually identified and confirmed using
immuno-assay, qualitative indicators, or wet chemistry field screening techniques. Obvious
contaminated areas such as surface seeps should be characterized by collecting several
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representative samples for laboratory analysis. Surface water and soil samples should be
collected from suspected areas, including erosion ditches. It should be noted that landfills
may contain corrosive and poisonous gas which present a threat to the assessment
personnel

SUGGESTED ANALYTICAL PARAMETERS

Heavy Metals Analysis:

Antimony    Arsenic       Beryllium     Cadmium     Chromium (hexavalent/total)
Copper      Lead         Mercury      Nickel        Selenium
Silver        Thallium      Zinc

Priority Pollutant Organics Analysis (volatile, semivolatile and pesticide/PCBs)

Total Petroleum Hydrocarbons (TPH) Analysis
                                                                     U.S. EPA Region III
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                        BROWNFIELD ASSESSMENTS
                      INDUSTRY PROFILE FACT SHEET
                              ORDNANCE SITES
INTRODUCTION
This Industry Profile Fact Sheet is presented by the U. S. Environmental Protection
Agency, Region III (EPA) to assist state, local, and municipal agencies, and private
groups in the initial planning and evaluation of sites being considered for remediation,
redevelopment or reuse. It is intended to provide a general description of site conditions
and contaminants which may be encountered at specific industrial facilities.  This fact sheet
is presented for informational purposes only, and should not be construed as a federal
policy or directive.

INDUSTRY. PROCESS. OR SITE DESCRIPTION

Ordnance consists of a wide variety of military munitions and weaponry including rifle
rounds, shells, bombs, grenades, mines, explosives and special purpose explosive agents.
Ordnance sites include a range of facilities which manufactured, assembled, disposed or
stored military ordnance or associated components. Some of these facilities date back to
pre-World War I, while others were operated for specialty purposes for only a few months
or years.  In many cases, the facilities are not identified with any special markings, signs or
warnings.  Some facilities were associated with specific military posts. Characteristic
features may include increased security (high, barbed-wire fencing), bunker-style/mounded
buildings, unusually remote or uncharacteristic industrial locations, and well-spaced small
buildings.

CHARACTERISTIC RAW MATERIALS

Due to their specialty nature, ordnance facilities may include various chemicals used in the
final stages of explosives manufacturing. The following chemical compounds are common
raw materials, chemical intermediates or waste products encountered in the manufacturing
of explosives:

di and tri-nitro benzene      strong acids                ethyl alcohol
di and tri-nitro phenol        mercury                   ethylene glycol
di and tri-nitro toluenereactive metals       phenols
ketones                    ethers                     formaldehyde
nitroglycerin               ammoniated compounds     sodium hydroxide

WASTE STREAMS AND POTENTIALLY AFFECTED ENVIRONMENTAL MEDIA

On-site waste piles and burial pits  were common treatment/disposal techniques prior to the
promulgation and enforcement of the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act of 1976
(RCRA). Common waste products encountered at Superfund assessment and remediation
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projects include: buried spent ordnance, unexploded ordnance (UXO) and ordnance
components, such as di- and tri-nitro compounds (commonly used in explosives), solvents
(e.g., toluene, formaldehyde), and fuels (gasoline, diesel and aircraft fuels).  These
compounds may be encountered in contaminated soils, surface water, and/or groundwater.
Additionally, contaminated buildings, asbestos-containing material, and the associated
demolition debris may be encountered at abandoned or inactive sites. Decontamination
and analytical testing of this material may be required prior to off-site landfill disposal.

SAMPLING STRATEGIES

It should be noted that UXO and the associated components may represent a serious fire,
explosion and fragmentation hazard to assessment personnel. Explosive intermediate
chemicals and waste products may represent a serious inhalation, ingestion or direct
contact hazard.  Ordnance facilities should be screened for UXO by specially training
individuals using established military standard procedures. Visually identified UXO or
associated components  should be marked and left undisturbed until explosives experts can
be mobilized.

Once the site has been cleared of UXO, a series of soil screening kits and techniques are
available to detect tri-nitro toluene (TNT), the explosive compound RDX, and fuel
contamination in soil. Waste piles and burial pits should be characterized by collecting
several representative samples for laboratory analysis. Surface and subsurface soil
sampling should be performed from the suspected contaminated areas outward to the
suspected clean areas.  The application of non-intrusive subsurface geophysics as opposed
to conventional drilling  and boring should be evaluated to detect underground burial pits,
process lines and chemical storage tanks.  Special precautions must be taken when
utilizing intrusive investigation techniques (e.g., drilling, boring operations) due to the
potential for buried explosive materials. Once the primary contaminated areas are
established, grid or random sampling may be performed to confirm the extent of
contamination.

On-site and local wells may be sampled if groundwater is an environmental concern.
Installation of monitoring wells or other groundwater sampling techniques should be
considered only if it is necessary to fill data gaps.

SUGGESTED ANALYTICAL PARAMETERS
Heavy Metals Analysis:

Antimony    Arsenic       Beryllium    Cadmium      Chromium (hexavalent/total)
Copper      Lead         Mercury     Nickel        Selenium
Silver        Thallium     Zinc

Nitro-Aromatic

Priority Pollutant Organic Analysis (volatiles, semivolatiles, pesticide/PCBs)
                                                                     U.S. EPA Region III
                                                        Industrial Profile Fact Sheet (Brownfields)

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                        BROWNTTELD ASSESSMENTS
                      INDUSTRY PROFILE FACT SHEET
                              PAINT INDUSTRY
INTRODUCTION
This Industry Profile Fact Sheet is presented by the U. S. Environmental Protection
Agency, Region III (EPA) to assist state, local, and municipal agencies, and private
groups in the initial planning and evaluation of sites being considered for remediation,
redevelopment or reuse.  It is intended to provide a general description of site conditions
and contaminants which may be encountered at specific industrial facilities.  This fact sheet
is presented for informational purposes only, and should not be construed as a federal
policy or directive.

INDUSTRY. PROCESS. OR SITE DESCRIPTION

Many materials are brought to the site/facility and mixed in varying quantities to produce
paint and coatings to be used in public, and sometimes private, sectors. The raw materials
are often purchased in bulk quantities (truck-load) and then incorporated into a process
line to be added to the final product.  The manufacture of paint involves mixing, grinding,
thinning adjustments, filling, and labeling.

CHARACTERISTIC RAW MATERIALS

This industry typically uses a wide variety of materials depending on what type of
coating/paint is being manufactured.  Some common materials found include surfactants,
chemical dryers, polymers,  organic compounds,  heavy metals (in the coloring agents),
epoxies, solvents, mild corrosives, polyurethanes, herbicides and fungicides. Most of
these materials are brought to the facility/site by bulk transport (tank trucks) and may be
stored in large quantities for inclusion in the process. Some materials, such as the
pigments, are in solid form but most of the materials encountered are in a liquid state.
Due to a wide variety of specialty paints, it is difficult to name specific chemicals;
however, the following is a list of some commonly encountered materials:

Toluene (1)          Xylene (1)           Ethyl Acetate (1)            Lead (s)
Acetone (1)          Titanium Dioxide (s)  Cadmium (s)               Zinc (s)
Chromium (s)

(1) - liquid     (s) - solid

WASTE STREAMS AND POTENTIALLY AFFECTED ENVIRONMENTAL MEDIA

In general, there is little waste generated by a paint manufacturer because most of the
materials are used up in the process.  During the vat cleanings, waste products were often
washed into a sewer drain.  Common waste products encountered at Superfund
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assessment and remediation projects include off-spec paint, volatile organic compounds,
waste metals (from the pigments), waste or spent polymers, surfactants, herbicides, anti-
bacterial agents and mild corrosives (for cleaning the process line and vats). Most of these
compounds are in the form of sludges and/or solids and will harden over time if not
utilized. These materials may be in drums, tanks or in the process lines themselves.

Additionally, contaminated buildings and the associated demolition debris may be
encountered at abandoned or inactive sites. Decontamination and wipe testing of this
material may be required prior to off-site landfill disposal.

SAMPLING STRATEGIES

All raw materials encountered on site should be visually identified and confirmed using
immuno-assay, qualitative indicators, or wet chemistry field screening techniques.  It
should be noted that many of the raw materials containing corrosive and herbicide
compounds may represent a significant  direct contact and/or inhalation hazard to
assessment personnel. Visually identified contaminated areas, containers or process lines
should be characterized by collecting several samples for laboratory analysis.  Surface and
subsurface soil sampling should be performed from the suspected contaminated areas
outward to the suspected clean areas. Once the primary contaminated areas are
established, grid or random sampling may be performed to confirm the suspected clean
areas.  The application of non-intrusive  subsurface geophysics should be evaluated to
detect underground burial pits, process  lines and chemical storage tanks.

On-site and local wells may be sampled if groundwater is an environmental concern.
Installation of monitoring wells or other groundwater sampling techniques should be
evaluated if it is necessary to fill data gaps.

SUGGESTED ANALYTICAL PARAMETERS

Heavy Metals Analysis:

Antimony     Arsenic       Beryllium    Cadmium     Chromium (hexavalent/total)
Copper       Lead         Mercury      Nickel        Selenium
Silver         Thallium     Titanium     Zinc

Herbicide/Fungicide Analysis

Priority Pollutant Organics Analysis (volatiles, semivolatiles)
                                                                     U.S. EPA Region in
                                                        Industrial Profile Fact Sheet (Brownfields)

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                        BROWNFTELD ASSESSMENTS
                      INDUSTRY PROFILE FACT SHEET
                            PESTICIDE FACILITIES
INTRODUCTION
This Industry Profile Fact Sheet is presented by the U. S. Environmental Protection
Agency, Region in (EPA) to assist state, local, and municipal agencies, and private
groups in the initial planning and evaluation of sites being considered for remediation,
redevelopment or reuse.  It is intended to provide a general description of site conditions
and contaminants which may be encountered at specific industrial facilities.  This fact sheet
is presented for informational purposes only, and should not be construed as a federal
policy or directive.

INDUSTRY. PROCESS. OR SITE DESCRIPTION

Pesticides include insecticides, herbicides, fungicides and all other chemicals used to
control insects, weeds and other pests from disturbing grown or stored materials.  There
are three ways of applying pesticides:  spraying (utilizing oil and/or water),  dusting
(spreading dry powder) and fumigating (releasing a gas). A wide variety of materials,
almost all  of which are hazardous to humans, are used in pesticide production.
Contamination can be found at abandoned manufacturing facilities,  bulk storage locations,
and end-user sites such as farms, golf courses,  and orchards. This industry  typically
combines a series of separate compounds in a process line and incorporates them into a
final product for  distribution and sale. The materials are often brought into the facility in
large quantities (tank truck or rail car) and stored in tanks until they are used in the
process. Final products are also stored in large quantities for shipment to suppliers or end
users.

CHARACTERISTIC RAW  MATERIALS

Compounds typically found at a pesticide facility include the following:

Ammonia  (g)               Benzene (1/g)               Carbon Tetrachloride (g)
Hydrogen Cyanide  (g)       Mercury (1)                 Nitric Acid (g/1)
Phosgene  (g)               Sulfuric Acid (1)             Xylene (1)

(1) - liquid     (s) - solid     (g) - gas

WASTE STREAMS AND POTENTIALLY AFFECTED ENVIRONMENTAL MEDIA

On-site waste piles, lagoons and waste pits were  common treatment/storage techniques
prior to the promulgation and enforcement of the Resource Conservation and Recovery
Act of 1976 (RCRA). Waste products are often containerized on site in medium to large
quantities  for recycling into the process or disposal.  Common waste products
                                                                    U.S. EPA Region III
                                                        Industrial Profile Fact Sheet (Brownfields)

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encountered at Superfund assessment and remediation projects include waste cyanide,
heavy metals, corrosive liquids and sludges, unused raw materials listed above, and
discarded finished product.  These materials may be found in soils, sediments,  and surface
and/or groundwater.  They may also pose an inhalation hazard under certain conditions.

Additionally, contaminated buildings and the associated demolition debris may be
encountered at abandoned or inactive sites.  Decontamination and wipe testing of this
material may be required prior to off-site landfill disposal.

SAMPLING STRATEGIES

All raw materials encountered on site should be visually identified and  confirmed using
immuno-assay, qualitative indicators, or wet chemistry field screening techniques.  It
should be noted that many of the raw materials containing corrosive and poisonous
compounds may represent a significant direct contact and/or inhalation hazard to
assessment personnel. Visually identified contaminated areas, waste piles and lagoons
should be characterized by collecting several samples for laboratory analysis. Surface and
subsurface soil sampling should be performed from the suspected contaminated areas
outward to the suspected clean areas.  Once the primary contaminated areas are
established, grid or random sampling may be performed to confirm the suspected clean
areas. The application of non-intrusive subsurface geophysics should be evaluated to
detect underground burial pits, process lines and chemical storage tanks.

On-site and local wells may be sampled if groundwater is an environmental concern.
Installation of monitoring wells or other groundwater sampling techniques should be
evaluated if it is necessary to fill data gaps.

SUGGESTED ANALYTICAL PARAMETERS

Heavy Metals Analysis:

Antimony     Arsenic       Beryllium     Cadmium     Chromium (hexavalent/total)
Copper        Lead         Mercury      Nickel        Selenium
Silver         Thallium     Zinc

Priority Pollutant Organics Analysis (volatiles, semivolatiles, and pesticide/PCBs)
                                                                     U.S. EPA Region III
                                                        Industrial Profile Fact Sheet (Brownfields)

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                        BROWNFIELD ASSESSMENTS
                      INDUSTRY PROFILE FACT SHEET
                                 PRINT SHOPS
INTRODUCTION
This Industry Profile Fact Sheet is presented by the U. S. Environmental Protection
Agency, Region III (EPA) to assist state, local, and municipal agencies, and private
groups in the initial planning and evaluation of sites being considered for remediation,
redevelopment or reuse.  It is intended to provide a general description of site conditions
and contaminants which may be encountered at specific industrial facilities.  This fact sheet
is presented for informational purposes only, and should not be construed as a federal
policy or directive.

INDUSTRY. PROCESS. OR SITE DESCRIPTION

Print shops store large quantities of inks and paper due to the nature of their service.
Printing inks are a viscous to semi-solid suspension of pigments in a carrier liquid which
forms a fluid or paste which can be printed on paper. The inks used in printing fall into
four classes:  letterpress, lithographic, flexographic and rotogravure. The letterpress and
lithographic are based mainly in mineral oil, while flexographic and rotogravure use very
volatile solvents.

CHARACTERISTIC RAW MATERIALS

This industry typically uses a wide variety of materials depending on what type of printing
is used. Materials are often stored in large quantities; however, they are stored in small
containers for convenience.  These materials are often purchased directly from
manufacturers or distribution centers and stored on site, often in a back storage area.
Common materials used include solvents, inks and cleaning materials (which may be
corrosive). The following is a list of some commonly encountered materials:

Acetone (1)                Alcohol  (1)                 n-Butyl Acetate (1)
Cresol(l)                  Ethyl Acetate (1)            Methyl Ethyl Ketone  (1)
Methyl Isobutyl Ketone (1)   Toluene (1)                 Xylene (1)
Sodium Hydroxide (1)      Hexane (1)                 Esters (1)

(1) - liquid

WASTE STREAMS AND POTENTIALLY AFFECTED ENVIRONMENTAL MEDIA

In general, there is minimal waste generated by a print shop as most of the materials are
used up in the process. Waste materials are usually generated during machine cleanings or
during unexpected break downs. Occasionally, stored materials may leak, resulting in
contamination to the storage area, which may or may not have been addressed.  Spills,
                                                                   U. S. EPA Region III
                                                       Industrial Profile Fact Sheet (Brownfields)

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leaks, and discarded material will typically migrate to and contaminate soils, stream
sediments, and groundwater. Common waste products encountered at Superfund
assessment and remediation projects include volatile organic compounds, waste metals
(from the pigments), waste or spent corrosives (for cleaning) and solvents. Most of these
compounds are in the form of sludges and/or solids as they will harden over time if not
utilized. These materials may be in drums, but are often in small containers.

Additionally, contaminated building materials (i.e. rugs, walls) and the associated
demolition debris may be encountered at abandoned or inactive sites. Decontamination
and wipe testing  of this material may  be required prior to off-site landfill disposal.

SAMPLING STRATEGIES

All raw materials encountered on site should be visually identified and confirmed using
immuno-assay, qualitative indicators,  or wet chemistry field screening techniques. It
should be noted that many of the raw materials containing  corrosive and organic
compounds may  present a significant  direct contact and/or inhalation hazard to assessment
personnel. Visually identified contaminated areas, containers or process lines should be
characterized by  collecting several samples for laboratory analysis.  Surface and subsurface
soil sampling should be performed in  the suspected contaminated areas outward to  the
suspected clean areas if information suggests that soils are  contaminated.  Once the
primary contaminated areas are established, grid or random sampling may be performed to
confirm the suspected clean areas.  The application of non-intrusive subsurface geophysics
should be evaluated to detect underground burial pits, process lines and chemical storage
tanks.

On-site and local wells may be sampled if groundwater is an environmental concern.
Installation of monitoring wells or other groundwater sampling techniques should be
evaluated if it is necessary to fill data  gaps.

SUGGESTED ANALYTICAL PARAMETERS

Heavy Metals Analysis:

Antimony     Arsenic       Beryllium     Cadmium     Chromium (hexavalent /total)
Copper       Lead         Mercury      Nickel       Selenium
Silver         Thallium      Zinc

pH Analysis

Priority Pollutant Organics Analysis (volatiles, semivolatiles, pesticides/PCBs)
                                                                     U. S. EPA Region III
                                                        Industrial Profile Fact Sheet (Brownfields)

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                        BROWNFTELD ASSESSMENTS
                      INDUSTRY PROFILE FACT SHEET
                    PETROLEUM RECYCLING FACILITY
INTRODUCTION
This Industry Profile Fact Sheet is presented by the U. S. Environmental Protection
Agency, Region III (EPA) to assist state, local, and municipal agencies, and private
groups in the initial planning and evaluation of sites being considered for remediation,
redevelopment or reuse.  It is intended to provide a general description of site conditions
and contaminants which may be encountered at specific industrial facilities.  This fact sheet
is presented for informational purposes only, and should not be construed as a federal
policy or directive.

INDUSTRY. PROCESS. OR SITE DESCRIPTION

Recycling is the recovery for reuse of materials and energy from wastes that are usually
destined for disposal. Recyclable oils can be obtained from a variety of sources, including
automotive garages, service stations, truck and taxi fleets, military installations,
individuals, manufacturing facilities, and wastewater treatment plants.  The primary types
of used petroleum oil that are being recycled are motor, hydraulic and industrial
lubricating oils. The additives and contaminants typically found in these oils may cause
environmental problems associated with the recycling process.

Generally, used oil recycling facilities have  three kinds of processes: recycling used oil as
a fuel, reclaiming and re-refining. In many  cases, an oil recycler may be involved with
more of these processes.

CHARACTERISTIC RAW  MATERIALS

Chemical analysis, primarily for inorganic constituents, is performed on used oils and
waste oils when they are received at the recycling facility. Many organic contaminants
contained in such oils have not been analyzed.  At older facilities,  polychlorinated
biphenyls (PCBs) were often not detected in used or waste oils, despite the strict
regulations concerning PCB containing oil. These regulations on  PCBs are established by
the Toxic Substances Control Act (TSCA)  with additional regulations based on hazardous
waste provisions in the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA).

WASTE STREAMS AND POTENTIALLY AFFECTED ENVIRONMENTAL MEDIA

The primary waste streams from a petroleum oil recycling facility include oily sludges and
wastewater containing metals (sulfur, zinc,  calcium, barium, phosphorus,  lead, aluminum,
iron) and PCBs.  These contaminants are frequently found in surface and subsurface soils
as well as groundwater due to poor facility housekeeping, repetitive spills and undetected
                                                                    U. S. EPA Region III
                                                        Industrial Profile Fart Sheet ^Brownfields)

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releases from bulk storage tanks.  These contaminants may also become airborne as dust
particles during demolition and construction operations.
SAMPLING STRATEGIES

Surface and  subsurface soils and groundwater should be sampled at the site at handling,
processing and bulk storage areas, to identify sources of contamination.  Additional
sampling may be conducted to determine the extent of the contamination.  If floating
product is anticipated above the water table, monitoring wells should be drilled in the
suspected contaminant locations and water samples at depths should be collected. Air
pollution is not anticipated if the site is not undergoing major construction activities.

SUGGESTED ANALYTICAL PARAMETERS

PCBs Analysis

Target Analyte List (TAL) Metals Analysis

Total Petroleum Hydrocarbons (TPH) Analysis
                                                                    U. S. EPA Region III
                                                        Industrial Profile Fact Sheet (Brownfields)

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                        BROWNFTELD ASSESSMENTS
                      INDUSTRY PROFILE FACT SHEET
                                   PLASTICS
INTRODUCTION

This Industry Profile Fact Sheet is presented by the U. S. Environmental Protection
Agency, Region III (EPA) to assist state, local, and municipal agencies, and private
groups in the initial planning and evaluation of sites being considered for remediation,
redevelopment or reuse.  It is intended to provide a general description of site conditions
and contaminants which may be encountered at specific industrial facilities. This fact sheet
is presented for informational purposes only, and should not be construed as a federal
policy or directive.

INDUSTRY. PROCESS. OR SITE DESCRIPTION

The term plastics is given to any compound that has been made from a resin through a
manufacturing process involving the application of heat and/or pressure.  The actual
production of the resin is generally thought of as part of the chemical industry (refer to the
Abandoned Chemical Facility Industry Profile Fact Sheet).  The use of these resins as they
are treated and shaped to  become components of other products as starting materials is
considered the plastics industry.

CHARACTERISTIC RAW MATERIALS

The plastics industry uses resins that are grouped into two main categories, depending on
their characteristic behavior to heat. Thermoplastic  resins can be heated and cooled
repeatedly without a change occurring in their basic properties or composition.  Some
examples are:  acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene (ABS), acrylics, nylons and vinyls (PVC).
The second category is thermosetting resins.  These resins, including epoxies, silicones,
and urethanes, cannot be subjected to any hot-cold transitions without irreversible changes
occurring  in composition  and properties.

WASTE STREAMS AND POTENTIALLY .AFFECTED ENVIRONMENTAL MEDIA

Most, if not all, of the raw materials in the plastics process are recycled.  During the
working process, some gases and vapors encountered might be:  acrylonitrile, butadiene,
carbon dioxide, hydrogen sulfide, olefins,  styrene, and vinyl chloride.

Spillage of Hquid resins could result in contaminated soil, sediment,  and/or ground water.
Additionally, contaminated buildings and the associated demolition debris may be
encountered at abandoned or inactive sites. Decontamination and wipe testing of this
material may be required prior to off-site landfill disposal.
                                                                    U. S. EPA Region 01
                                                        Industrial Profile Fact Sheet (Brownfields)

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SAMPLING STRATEGIES

Any suspected spill areas around tanks and/or vats should be sampled.  Soil samples
should be taken around the facility, as well as in any sumps or spill areas that might be
present.

Surface and subsurface soil sampling should be performed from the suspected
contaminated areas outward to the suspected clean areas. Once the primary contaminated
areas are established, grid or random sampling may be performed to confirm the suspected
clean areas. The application of non-intrusive subsurface geophysics should be evaluated
to detect underground burial pits, filled lagoons, process lines and chemical storage tanks.

On-site and local wells may be sampled if groundwater is an environmental concern.
Installation of monitoring wells or other groundwater sampling techniques should be
evaluated if it is necessary to fill data gaps.

SUGGESTED ANALYTICAL PARAMETERS

Priority Pollutant Organics Analysis (volatiles, semivolatiles, pesticide/PCBs)
                                                                    US. EPA Region III
                                                        Industrial Profile Fact Sheet (Brownfields)

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                        BROWNF1ELD ASSESSMENTS
                      INDUSTRY PROFILE FACT SHEET
                                QUARRY SITES
INTRODUCTION
This Industry Profile Fact Sheet is presented by the U. S. Environmental Protection
Agency, Region III (EPA) to assist state, local, and municipal agencies, and private
groups in the initial planning and evaluation of sites being considered for remediation,
redevelopment or reuse. It is intended to provide a general description of site conditions
and contaminants which may be encountered at specific industrial facilities.  This fact sheet
is presented for informational purposes only, and should not be construed as a federal
policy or directive.

INDUSTRY. PROCESS. OR SITE DESCRIPTION

Quarries are open mining environments, where a select stone, ore or rock formation is
removed from the surrounding strata. The stone or ore can be further refined on site by
smelting, chemical washing or physical cutting and/or crushing before shipment to the end
user. The sections of quarry wall containing material of interest can be removed using
powered equipment, or dropped in sheets using explosive charges.

CHARACTERISTIC RAW MATERIALS

The hazardous substances most likely to be present at quarry sites are fuels for heavy
equipment, detonators, explosive charges, detonation cord, various metals, and  nitrate
fertilizers used for large fragmentation charges.

WASTE STREAMS AND POTENTIALLY AFFECTED ENVIRONMENTAL MEDIA

Any of the detonators or explosive charges would be listed as a dangerous waste stream
and would require specialized and trained personnel for handling operations. As the
explosives industry is highly regulated, an examination of previous quarry permits would
indicate what types, if any,  of explosives were utilized.

Most quarry operations are conducted below the groundwater table, so constant pumping
is required to keep the  site dry.  An abandoned or unused quarry can fill with water, and
are often used as illegal dumping sites for hazardous materials.  The intersection of the
water table allows easy transport of the fuels and hazardous substances into the surface or
groundwater.

SAMPLING STRATEGIES
                                                                   U.S. EPA Region III
                                                       Industrial Profile Fact Sheet (Brownfields)

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All waste materials encountered on site should be visually identified and confirmed using
immune-assay, qualitative indicators, or wet chemistry field screening techniques. It
should be noted that many of the waste materials may represent a significant direct contact
and/or inhalation hazard to assessment personnel.  Explosives constitute a significant
threat to personnel.  Visually identified contaminated areas, waste piles or pits should be
characterized by collecting several samples for laboratory analysis.  Surface and subsurface
soil sampling should be performed to confirm the extent of the contamination. Once the
contaminated areas are established, grid or random sampling may be performed to confirm
the suspected clean areas.

On-site and local wells may be sampled if groundwater is an environmental concern.
Installation of monitoring wells or other groundwater sampling techniques should be
evaluated if it is necessary to fill data gaps.

SUGGESTED ANALYTICAL PARAMETERS

Heavy Metals Analysis:

Antimony    Arsenic      Beryllium    Cadmium     Chromium (hexavalent/total)
Copper      Lead         Mercury     Nickel        Selenium
Silver        Thallium     Zinc

Priority Pollutant Organics Analysis (volatiles, semivolatiles, pesticides/PCBs)

Total Kjeldahl Nitrogen (TKN) series
                                                                     U.S. EPA Region III
                                                        Industrial Profile Fact Sheet (Brownfields)

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                        BROWNFIELD ASSESSMENTS
                      INDUSTRY PROFILE FACT SHEET
                           RAIL YARD FACILITIES
INTRODUCTION

This Industry Profile Fact Sheet is presented by the U. S. Environmental Protection
Agency, (EPA) to assist state, local, and municipal agencies, and private groups in the
initial planning and evaluation of sites being considered for remediation, redevelopment or
reuse. It is intended to provide a general description of site conditions and contaminants
which may be encountered at specific industrial facilities. This fact sheet is presented for
informational purposes only, and should not be construed as a federal policy or directive.

INDUSTRY. PROCESS. OR SITE DESCRIPTION

Rail yard facilities are highly specialized facilities consisting of one or more areas including
engine maintenance buildings, fueling areas, track and switching areas, and track
maintenance/material storage yards. The engine maintenance building was used to
perform a wide variety of work on train engines.

CHARACTERISTIC RAW MATERIALS

The raw materials associated with this industry are primarily used in fueling and
maintenance operations.  Numerous solvents, paints, coatings, PCB oils, creosote
compounds, and degreasers were commonly used and stored in maintenance and storage
areas.

WASTE STREAMS AND POTENTIALLY AFFECTED ENVIRONMENTAL MEDIA
Typical contamination includes degreasing solvents, PCBs from engines and electrical
equipment, and some heavy metals.  Since most newer train engines use diesel fuel, diesel
range organics (DRO) may be a common contaminant of the surface and subsurface soils
and shallow groundwater in engine fueling areas. Track and switching areas may have
DRO and oil-contaminated surface soils and rail ballast due to the constant use and
repetitive minor leakage of engines and rail cars. The maintenance/material storage yard
areas used a wide variety of solvents, paints, treated railroad ties and wastes. Historical
leakage due to poor housekeeping and spills  of oils, hazardous materials, paints, solvents,
and creosote from railroad ties, account for the majority of the contamination incurred.
Due to the volume and concentration of the hazardous materials shipped via rail, special
attention should be given to areas where historical tank car releases of hazardous materials
have occurred.

Common waste products encountered at Superfund assessment  and remediation projects
include PCB-contaminated soils and run-off from electrical generation areas and
maintenance shops, DRO-contaminated soils and groundwater from fueling operations and
                                                                   U. S. EPA Region III
                                                       Industrial Profile Fact Sheet (Brownfields)

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leaking above- and below-ground storage tanks, solvent-contaminated soils and
groundwater from maintenance and painting operations, and miscellaneous heavy metals
contamination associated with many industrial operations.

Additionally, contaminated buildings and the associated demolition debris may be
encountered at abandoned or inactive sites.  Decontamination and wipe testing of this
material may be required prior to off-site landfill disposal.

SAMPLING STRATEGIES

It should be noted that site contaminants may contain solvents, PCBs and fuels which may
represent a direct contact and/or inhalation hazard to assessment personnel.  Visually
identified spill or stained areas may be screened with a variety of soil screening kits for
PCBs, chlorinated compounds, BTEX or other compounds. Rail yards may have
numerous and highly varied sources and extents of contamination. A historical
information search should be conducted to determine areas of historical use, storage or
spills of hazardous materials and oil.

Once  potential source areas area identified, surface and subsurface soil sampling should be
performed to  confirm contamination and determine the extent of contamination.  Augering
or drilling may be difficult due to the hazards associated with an operational rail yard or
maintenance area. The applicability of non-intrusive subsurface geophysics may be limited
due to the presence of large metal objects and high voltage electrical equipment and
transmission lines.

On-site and local wells may be sampled if groundwater is an environmental concern.
Installation of monitoring wells or other groundwater sampling techniques should be
evaluated if it is necessary to fill data gaps.

SUGGESTED ANALYTICAL PARAMETERS

DRO Analysis (suspected fuel releases)

Heavy Metals Analysis:

Antimony     Arsenic      Beryllium     Cadmium     Chromium (hexavalent/total)
Copper       Lead         Mercury      Nickel        Selenium
Silver        Thallium     Zinc

Priority Pollutant Organics Analysis (volatiles, semivolatiles, pesticides/PCBs)
                                                                     U. S. EPA Region III
                                                         Industrial Profile Fact Sheet (Brownfields)

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                        BROWNFIELD ASSESSMENTS
                      INDUSTRY PROFILE FACT SHEET
                                  RADIATION
INTRODUCTION

This Industry Profile Fact Sheet is presented by the U. S. Environmental Protection
Agency, Region III (EPA) to assist state, local, and municipal agencies, and private
groups in the initial planning and evaluation of sites being considered for remediation,
redevelopment or reuse.  It is intended to provide a general description of site conditions
and contaminants which may be encountered at specific industrial facilities.  This fact sheet
is presented for informational purposes only, and should not be construed as a federal
policy or directive.

INDUSTRY. PROCESS. OR SITE DESCRIPTION

Radioactive compounds can be encountered in various industrial/commercial settings.  The
majority of radiation sites which could be encountered under the Brownfield initiatives
may be divided into two primary categories: research/medical facilities and mining/refining
operations. Research/medical facilities include research laboratories, universities, x-ray
photography facilities, munitions and instrument manufacturing plants, and hospitals.
Mining/refining operations include pit and shaft mining locations, ore handling and refining
facilities, and tailings piles.

CHARACTERISTIC RAW MATERIALS

The majority of the mining and refining operations in the United States involve thorium
and uranium ores and related compounds.  The research/medical fields utilize primarily
isotopes of cesium, cobalt, and radium. The munitions industry fabricates spent uranium
into dense armor-piercing projectiles.

WASTE STREAMS AND POTENTIALLY AFFECTED ENVIRONMENTAL MEDIA

The half-life is the length of time necessary for one-half of the atoms of a radioactive
substance to decay to some other isotope.  Many research/medical radioactive materials
and wastes are stored on site until the radioisotopes become stabilized through relatively
short  half-life decay cycles.  There is the potential for human and multi-media
environmental  contamination during these cycles if the radioactive materials are not
properly managed.

The three types of ionizing radiation which represent the greatest human health concern at
redevelopment sites are alpha, beta, and gamma radiation. Particulate radiation (alpha,
beta)  are released during the decay cycle and may deposit on almost any surface. This
                                                                    U.S. EPA Region HI
                                                        Industrial Profile Fact Sheet (Beownfields)

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form of radiation contamination can affect soil, surface water, ground water, and air
quality as the high energy particles are transported away from the original sources.

Contaminated buildings and the associated demolition debris may be encountered at
abandoned or inactive sites. Decontamination and monitoring of these of these materials
may be required prior to off-site landfill disposal.

SAMPLING STRATEGIES

Once radioactive materials  are detected, the site should be screened for the radiation types
present in the corresponding decay chain. Soil samples may be taken to confirm the
activity at areas identified during the site screening from  the suspected contaminated areas
outward to the suspected clean areas.  Once the primary contaminated areas are
established, grid monitoring or sampling may be performed to confirm the suspected clean
areas. The application of non-intrusive subsurface geophysics should be evaluated to
detect underground burial pits, filled lagoons, process lines and underground storage
tanks.

On-site and local wells and surface water may be sampled if groundwater is an
environmental concern. Installation of monitoring wells  or other groundwater sampling
techniques should be evaluated if it is necessary to fill data gaps.

Air sampling can be conducted for radon gas or particulate radiation which are decay
products of some radioactive materials. Dust sampling can also be conducted to detect
radioactive particles which  have collected on ledges or other unsuspecting areas.

SUGGESTED ANALYTICAL PARAMETERS
Gross alpha/beta

Gamma spectroscopy

Radium

Radon gas

Specific radio isotopes
                                                                     U. S. EPA Region III
                                                        Industrial Profile Fact Sheet (Beownfields)

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                        BROWNFIELD ASSESSMENTS
                     INDUSTRY PROFILE FACT SHEET
                                SCRAP METAL
INTRODUCTION

This Industry Profile Fact Sheet is presented by the U. S. Environmental Protection
Agency, Region IE (EPA) to assist state, local, and municipal agencies, and private
groups in the initial planning and evaluation of sites being considered for remediation,
redevelopment or reuse. It is intended to provide a general description of site conditions
and contaminants which may be encountered at specific industrial facilities.  This fact sheet
is presented for informational purposes only, and should not be construed as a federal
policy or directive.

INDUSTRY. PROCESS, OR SITE DESCRIPTION

The scrap metal industry purchases metals from various industrial and private sources for
reuse in the fabrication of new metal stock and products.  Sources of scrap metal include
car parts, structural steel, electrical equipment, tanks and vats, and commercial salvage
operations.  Metals are sorted by type, compacted or shredded and stored prior to sale to
an end user.

CHARACTERISTIC  RAW MATERIALS

Common metals found at scrap metal sites could include iron, steel, aluminum, copper, tin,
brass, lead and zinc.

WASTE STREAMS AND POTENTIALLY AFFECTED ENVIRONMENTAL MEDIA

Heavy metals contamination is the main concern at a former scrap metal site. Soil
contamination should be suspected.  Waste piles of non-metallic materials may be present.
These piles consist of materials which were associated with the original metal such as
asbestos, foam padding and insulating materials. Other associated waste stream materials
are trichloroethylene, trichloroethane, xylenes, benzene, ethyl benzene and toluene.  PCB-
contaminated soils may be at facilities which recovered copper and other metals from
electrical equipment. Many scrap metal facilities utilize a wide variety of hydraulic
equipment to move, compact and process scrap. Hydraulic oil and fuels may also
contribute to soil contamination.

SAMPLING STRATEGIES
                                                               U. S. EPA Region III
                                               Industrial Profile Fact Sheet (Brownfields)

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Soil samples should be taken around the facility from sumps, drainage swales or
discolored areas. Heavy metals contamination should also be suspected in any nearby
waterway.

Surface and subsurface soil sampling should be performed from the suspected
contaminated areas outward to the suspected clean areas. Once the primary contaminated
areas are established, grid or random sampling may be performed to confirm the suspected
clean areas.  The application of non-intrusive subsurface geophysics should be evaluated
to detect underground burial pits, process lines and underground tanks.

On-site and local wells may be sampled if groundwater is an environmental concern.
Installation of monitoring wells or other groundwater sampling techniques should be
evaluated if it is necessary to fill data gaps.

SUGGESTED ANALYTICAL PARAMETERS

Heavy metals analysis, including (include lead, nickel, copper, chromium and zinc)

Priority Pollutant Organics Analysis (volatiles, semivolatiles, pesticide/PCBs)
                                                                 U. S. EPA Region III
                                                 Industrial Profile Fact Sheet (Brownfields)

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                        BROWNFTELD ASSESSMENTS
                      INDUSTRY PROFILE FACT SHEET
                               SALVAGE YARDS
INTRODUCTION
This Industry Profile Fact Sheet is presented by the U. S. Environmental Protection
Agency, Region in (EPA) to assist state, local, and municipal agencies, and private
groups in the initial planning and evaluation of sites being considered for remediation,
redevelopment or reuse. It is intended to provide a general description of site conditions
and contaminants which may be encountered at specific industrial facilities.  This fact sheet
is presented for informational purposes only, and should not be construed as a federal
policy or directive.

INDUSTRY. PROCESS. OR SITE DESCRIPTION

Salvage yards accept a wide variety of materials, depending on the type of salvage yard
(i.e. auto, tank, etc.), to be disassembled to recover parts or reusable scrap metals, plastics
or building aggregates.  The non-recyclable components are then stored on site or sent to
a municipal landfill.  Salvage yards often contain a wide variety of materials and containers
due to the nature of their business; however, automobile salvage is the most common.

CHARACTERISTIC RAW MATERIALS

This industry typically uses hydraulic oils for heavy equipment, compressed gases for
metal cutting operations, and petroleum-based materials as solvents.  These materials are
usually received by the facility in compressed gas cylinders and small containers, but are
occasionally obtained in larger quantities. The following chemical compounds are/were
commonly found in scrap yards:

Acetylene Gas (g)           Common Solvents (1)        Rubber (s)
Compressed Oxygen (g)     Automotive Fluids (1)        Degreasing Agents (s/1)
Gasoline (1)                 Hydraulic Oils (1)           Fuel Additives (1)
Diesel Fuels  (1)             Common Lubricants (s/1)    Asbestos (s)
Lead (s)                   Sulfuric Acid (1)

(g) - gas      (1) - liquid     (s) - solid

WASTE STREAMS AND POTENTIALLY AFFECTED ENVIRONMENTAL MEDIA

In addition to the compounds used by the facility, waste products were stored in the scrap
and are also  present in varying concentrations. On-site waste piles, burial pits, and bulk
storage tanks were common storage techniques prior to the promulgation and
enforcement of the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act of 1976 (RCRA).  Common
waste products encountered at Superfund assessment and remediation projects include
                                                                   U.S. EPA Region III
                                                        Industrial Profile Fact Sheet (Bownfields)

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fuels, waste oils, used solvents, tires and/or rubber sealing agents, asbestos insulation, oil
sludges, old battery casings, and compressed gas cylinders. Fuel, oil and solvent
contaminated soils and groundwater may be present due to poor housekeeping, repetitive
small spills, leaking bulk storage tanks and run-off from waste piles.

Additionally, contaminated buildings and the associated demolition debris may be
encountered at abandoned or inactive sites. Decontamination and wipe testing of this
material may be required prior to off-site landfill disposal.

SAMPLING STRATEGIES

All raw materials encountered on-site should be visually identified and confirmed using
immuno-assay, qualitative indicators, or wet chemistry field screening techniques. It
should be noted that many of the raw materials containing organic and PCB compounds
may represent a significant direct contact and/or inhalation hazard to assessment
personnel. Visually identified contaminated areas, waste piles and burial pits should be
characterized by collecting several samples for laboratory analysis.  Surface and subsurface
soil sampling should be performed from the suspected contaminated areas outward to the
suspected clean areas.  Once the primary contaminated areas are established, grid or
random sampling may be performed to confirm the suspected clean areas.  The application
of non-intrusive subsurface geophysics should be evaluated to detect underground burial
pits and underground storage tanks.

On-site and local wells may be sampled if groundwater is an environmental concern.
Installation of monitoring wells or other groundwater sampling techniques should be
evaluated if it is necessary to fill data gaps.

SUGGESTED ANALYTICAL PARAMETERS
Asbestos (if suspected)

Cyanide Analysis

Heavy Metals Analysis:
Antimony     Arsenic       Beryllium     Cadmium     Chromium (hexavalent/total)
Copper       Lead         Mercury      Nickel        Selenium
Silver         Thallium     Zinc

Priority Pollutant Organic Analysis (volatiles, semivolatiles, pesticide/PCBs)

Total Petroleum Hydrocarbons (TPH) Analysis
                                                                     U. S. EPA Region III
                                                         Industrial Profile Fact Sheet (Bownfields)

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                        BROWNFIELD ASSESSMENTS
                      INDUSTRY PROFILE FACT SHEET
             STEEL MANUFACTURING - ELECTRIC ARC/COKE

INTRODUCTION

This Industry Profile Fact Sheet is presented by the U. S. Environmental Protection
Agency, Region III (EPA) to assist state, local, and municipal agencies, and private
groups in the initial planning and evaluation of sites being considered for remediation,
redevelopment or reuse.  It is intended to provide a general description of site conditions
and contaminants which may be encountered at specific industrial facilities.  This fact sheet
is presented for informational purposes only, and should not be construed as a federal
policy or directive.

INDUSTRY. PROCESS. OR SITE DESCRIPTION

Steel is the generic name for a group of ferrous metals composed principally of iron ore,
scrap metal, coke, and or limestone (depending on furnace type). Other materials may be
added to enhance the engineering properties or appearance of the steel. Historically, most
of the steel was made in an open-hearth furnace where scrap metal, processed iron ore and
fuel were introduced into the furnace in the presence of heated air to create molten steel.
More recently, electric arc furnaces utilizing electrodes have been used to melt scrap into
molten steel. Then the molten steel is poured into ingots or casts which are shipped to
other plants for fabrication into other steel products.

CHARACTERISTIC RAW MATERIALS

Modern steel making relies primarily on scrap metal.  Additives, including molybdenum,
nickel, titanium and chrome, are used to improve the engineering qualities and appearance
of the steel. Oxidation is used to remove unwanted elements by forming oxides which
enter the furnace stack gas or the oven slag.

Older open-hearth furnace systems utilized  iron ore, scrap, coke and limestone to
manufacture the raw steel.  These furnaces  included coking ovens where coal was heated
in an low oxygen atmosphere to volatilize the impurities into an oven or furnace gas,
which was transferred to a by-products recovery plant. Common by-products recovered
include natural gas, benzene, toluene, xylenes, phenol, creosols, pyride, anthracene,
naphthalene, sulfuric acid, light oils, paraffin and ammonia sulfates and nitrates.

WASTE STREAMS AND POTENTIALLY AFFECTED ENVIRONMENTAL MEDIA

Modern furnaces often have very large scrap yards; older furnaces had iron ore storage
areas, coke storage areas, product storage areas, waste piles, and wastewater lagoon
areas. Modern plants may generate wastewater, oven slag, oven ash and materials from
the air pollution control equipment as waste streams.  Waste products associated with
                                                                    U.S. EPA Region III
                                                        Industrial Profile Fact Sheet (Brownfields)

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older operations may include coal tar, hydrogen sulfide gas, complex cyanide salts, coal
fines, quenching wastewater, process still bottoms, slag, and sulfbric acid. The metals
concentration in the ash is dependent on the furnace type, plant configuration and content
of the original fuel.  The most common metals include aluminum, iron, lead, manganese,
sulfur, nickel, and chromium. Common waste products encountered at Superfund
assessment and remediation projects contain high concentrations of polynuclear aromatic
hydrocarbons (PAHs), sulfur compounds, and complex cyanide, volatile or phenolic
compounds. Other inorganic compounds are not typically encountered at significant levels.

Large volumes of wastewater are generated in coke quenching and steel processing
operations.  This wastewater is commonly stored in large on-site surface impoundments.
Coal tars, coal fines, sludges and tank bottoms may be encountered in waste piles and
large tar pits. Groundwater may be contaminated as a result of leaching or percolation of
surface and subsurface contaminants, surface impoundments or leaking process lines and
tanks.

Additionally, contaminated buildings and the associated demolition debris may be
encountered at abandoned or inactive sites.  Associated heat transmission equipment, such
as boilers or furnaces, and electrical equipment may contain significant amounts of
asbestos and PCBs.  Decontamination,  asbestos remediation, wipe testing and other
analysis of this material may be required prior to off-site landfill disposal or scrapping of
process equipment.

SAMPLING STRATEGIES

All waste materials encountered on site should be visually identified and confirmed using
immuno-assay, qualitative indicators, or wet chemistry field screening techniques. It
should be noted that many of the waste materials may represent a significant direct contact
and/or inhalation hazard to assessment  personnel. Visually identified contaminated areas,
waste piles and lagoons should be characterized by collecting several samples for
laboratory analysis.  Surface and subsurface soil sampling should be performed to confirm
the extent of the contamination. Once  the contaminated areas are established by using
field screening techniques, grid or random sampling may be performed to  confirm the
suspected clean areas. The application of non-intrusive subsurface geophysics should be
evaluated to detect subsurface pits, process lines and chemical storage tanks.

On-site and local wells may be  sampled if groundwater is an environmental concern.
Installation of monitoring wells or other groundwater sampling techniques should be
evaluated if it is necessary to fill data gaps.

SUGGESTED ANALYTICAL PARAMETERS
Priority Pollutant Metals Analysis
Priority Pollutant Organics Analysis (volatiles, semivolatiles, pesticide/ PCBs)
Sulfate/Sulfide Analysis
                                                                     U. S. EPA Region III
                                                         Industrial Profile Fact Sheet (Brownfields)

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                        BROWNFIELD ASSESSMENTS
                      INDUSTRY PROFILE FACT SHEET
                                  TIRE FIRES
INTRODUCTION

This Industry Profile Fact Sheet is presented by the U. S. Environmental Protection
Agency, Region III (EPA) to assist state, local, and municipal agencies, and private
groups in the initial planning and evaluation of sites being considered for remediation,
redevelopment or reuse. It is intended to provide a general description of site conditions
and contaminants which may be encountered at specific industrial facilities.  This fact sheet
is presented for informational purposes only, and should not be construed as a federal
policy or directive.

INDUSTRY. PROCESS. OR SITE DESCRIPTION

Tire storage areas can potentially have thousands and up to millions of tires stored at one
location. These storage areas are often non-regulated from a state or federal perspective.
In many cases, local license and inspection or nuisance ordinances are the only potentially
applicable regulations.

CHARACTERISTIC RAW MATERIALS

Many types of materials are combined in the tire production process, including formic
acid, lead, naphtha, adhesives, oils, and steel belts.

WASTE STREAMS AND POTENTIALLY AFFECTED ENVIRONMENTAL MEDIA

Tire fires generate irritant smoke from the incomplete or pyrolytic (oxygen deficient)
combustion that can affect areas far from the fire itself.  Water from fire fighting efforts
can travel to local rivers and streams, causing contamination and possible fish kills
downstream. A pyrolytic oily tar material may be formed during a large, prolonged tire
fire, causing constituent materials to recombine chemically and form a more toxic group of
substances in soils and surface waters.

SAMPLING STRATEGIES

Soil samples should be taken at any areas that have been impacted by a tire fire. Water
samples should also be obtained from contained fire run-off or run-off impacted
waterways ih the immediate area.

Surface and  subsurface soil sampling should be performed from the suspected
contaminated areas outward to the suspected clean areas. Once the primary contaminated
                                                                   U. S. EPA Region III
                                                       Industrial Profile Fact Sheet (Brownfields)

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areas are established, grid or random sampling may be performed to confirm the suspected
clean areas.

On-site and local wells may be sampled if groundwater is an environmental concern.
Installation of monitoring wells or other groundwater sampling techniques should be
evaluated if it is necessary to fill data gaps.

SUGGESTED  ANALYTICAL PARAMETERS

Benzene, Toluene, Ethylbenzene, and Xylene (BTEX) Analysis

Polyaromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) Analysis
                                                                   U. S. EPA Region III
                                                       Industrial Profile Fact Sheet (Brownfields)

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                        BROWNFIELD ASSESSMENTS
                      INDUSTRY PROFILE FACT SHEET
                             TANNING FACILITY
INTRODUCTION
This Industry Profile Fact Sheet is presented by the U. S. Environmental Protection
Agency, Region III (EPA) to assist state, local, and municipal agencies, and private
groups in the initial planning and evaluation of sites being considered for remediation,
redevelopment or reuse. It is intended to provide a general description of site conditions
and contaminants which may be encountered at specific industrial facilities.  This fact sheet
is presented for informational purposes only, and should not be construed as a federal
policy or directive.

INDUSTRY. PROCESS. OR SITE DESCRIPTION

Tanning is the process of manufacturing leathers from animal hides. Before shipping to
the tanning facility, animal hides are preserved with a brine solution.  A typical tanning
facility consists of three sections: the beam house, tanning room, and finishing area.  In
the beam, house salt and hair are removed from the hide.  The hides are then pickled with
sulfuric acid to a pH of less than 3. During the tanning process the tanning solution is
allowed to fully penetrate the hide.  The most common tanning  solution is trivalent
chromium sulfate solution.  The pH is then raised slowly with sodium bicarbonate and
dried. In the finishing area, the hide surface is treated and dyed as required.

CHARACTERISTIC RAW MATERIALS

This industry typically uses chemicals for dehairing, liming, deliming, tanning and curing.
The following chemicals are/were commonly utilized in tanning industries:

Trivalent chromium sulfate                Sodium bicarbonate
Sodium sulfide or sodium sulfhydrate Arsenic or cyanide as sharpening agent
Ammonium sulfate                       Sulfuric acid
Lime                                    Aniline dyes

WASTE STREAMS AND POTENTIALLY AFFECTED ENVIRONMENTAL MEDIA

On-site waste piles, pits and vats were common treatment/storage techniques prior to the
promulgation and enforcement of the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act of 1976
(RCRA). Common waste products encountered at Superfund assessment and remediation
projects include solid and liquid wastes containing trivalent chromium sulfate, corrosive
liquids and sludges, volatile organic compounds, metals, cyanides, and sulfides, in addition
to unused raw materials. These compounds often are absorbed into building walls, floors,
ceilings and underlying soils.
                                                                       U.S. EPA III
                                                       Industrial Profile Fact Sheet (Bownfields)

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             STRATEGIES
All raw materials encountered on site should be visually identified and confirmed using
immuno-assay, qualitative indicators, or wet chemistry field screening techniques.  It
should be noted that many of the raw materials containing corrosive and cyanide
compounds may represent a significant direct contact and/or inhalation hazard to
assessment personnel.  Visually identified contaminated areas, waste piles and storage
tanks should be characterized by collecting several samples for laboratory analysis.
Surface and subsurface soil sampling should be performed from the suspected
contaminated areas outward to the suspected clean areas. Once the primary contaminants
are established, grid or random sampling may be performed to confirm  suspected clean
areas.  Application of non-intrusive subsurface geophysics should be evaluated to detect
underground burial pits, process lines and storage tanks.

Additionally, contaminated buildings and the associated demolition debris may be
encountered at abandoned or inactive sites.  Decontamination and wipe testing of this
material may be required prior to off-site landfill disposal.

Nearby surface water, on-site and local wells may be sampled if surface or groundwater is
an environmental concern.

SUGGESTED ANALYTICAL PARAMETERS

Arsenic Analysis

Cyanide Analysis

Chromium (hexavalent/total) Analysis

pH analysis

Sodium Analysis

Sulfides Analysis

Target Compound List (TCL) Analysis

Priority Pollutant Organics Analysis  (volatile, semivolatile, pesticide/PCBs)
                                                                         us. EPA in
                                                        Industrial Profile Fact Sheet (Bownfields)

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                        BROWNFIELD ASSESSMENTS
                      INDUSTRY PROFILE FACT SHEET
                        WOOD TREATING FACILITY
INTRODUCTION
This Industry Profile Fact Sheet is presented by the U. S. Environmental Protection
Agency, Region III (EPA) to assist state, local, and municipal agencies, and private
groups in the initial planning and evaluation of sites being considered for remediation,
redevelopment or reuse.  It is intended to provide a general description of site conditions
and contaminants which may be encountered at specific industrial facilities.  This fact
sheet is presented for informational purposes only, and should not be construed as a
federal policy or directive.

INDUSTRY. PROCESS. OR SITE DESCRIPTION

A wood treating facility normally consists of a wood or log preparation area, process
building with pressure vessels, and numerous chemical storage tanks, drip or drying areas
and a roofed wood storage area. Wood was treated with a preservative compound which
was injected using a steam and pressure or dipping process.  Some facilities have
components of a water treatment system.

CHARACTERISTIC RAW MATERIALS

If the facility was active before 1980, they may have used coal tar creosote and/or
pentachlorophenol for treating the wood.  If the facility started after 1980, it is more
likely that chromium, copper and arsenic (CCA) was used for treating wood.

Oily waste with tar or creosote oil and pentachlorophenol are the main contaminants from
a wood treating industry.

Coal tar creosote, pentachlorophenol (PCP) and CCA are used as preservatives in the
wood treating industry. Waste generated consists of water squeezed from the wood
during processing, retort and cylinder sludge, process waste and spillage.  Existence of
less toxic forms of dibenzo-dioxins may also be associated with the waste and associated
contaminated soils.

If the industry used CCA for treating the wood, then copper, chromium and arsenic would
be the main contamination concern in the soil, surface water, groundwater and the sludge
beneath the pit, lagoon or tank.
                                                                   U.S. EPA Region III
                                                      Industrial Profile Fact Sheet (Brownfields)

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WASTE STREAMS AND POTENTIALLY AFFECTED ENVIRONMENTAL MEDIA

Wastewater generated during the treatment process, slugs, and tank bottoms is generally
treated or stored on site in lined or unlined lagoons. If the lagoons are lined and
monitored regularly, associated groundwater contamination is less likely.  Unlined
lagoons are a constant source of surface water as well as groundwater contamination.

SAMPLING STRATEGIES

Typically, the highest levels of soil contamination will be found in the drip areas adjacent
to the pressure vessels, under the bulk storage tanks and beneath the lagoons. Soil
samples should be collected in and around the facility as well as in any sumps or
discolored area that may be present.  Sludge samples should also be collected from the
bottom of unlined lagoons, if sludge exists.

Groundwater samples should be collected from the top of the water table. An
understanding of the hydrogeology of the underground strata is necessary to identify the
sampling location for groundwater collection.

Additionally, contaminated buildings and associated demolition debris may be
encountered at the abandoned wood treating facility. Decontamination and wipe
sampling of these materials may be required prior to off-site landfill disposal.

SUGGESTED ANALYTICAL PARAMETERS

Chromium, copper and arsenic analysis (if CCA is used in the industry)

Semivolatile organics analysis (if Polynuclear Aromatic Hydrocarbons, creosote, and
pentachlorophenol is suspected)
                                                                   U.S. EPA Region HI
                                                      Industrial Profile Fact Sheet (Brownfields)

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                BROWNFIELD ASSESSMENTS FACT SHEET FOR ANALYSIS OF
                               VOLATILE ORGANIC COMPOUNDS

This Fact Sheet is presented by the U. S. Environmental Protection Agency, Region III (EPA) to assist in the
selection of analytical parameters and the associated Quality Assurance and Quality Control (QA/QC) procedures to
be utilized in Phase II Environmental Assessments under the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA)
Brownfields initiative.  This fact sheet is presented for informational purposes only, and should not be construed as
a federal policy or directive.  The Brownfields Coordinator for this region may be reached at 215-566-5000.

A volatile organic compound is an organic compound which has a boiling point below that of water and which can
easily vaporize or volatilize.
                             LIST OF VOLATILE ORGANIC COMPOUNDS *
Chloromethane
Bromomethane
Vinyl chloride
Chloroethane
Methylene chloride
Acetone
Carbon disulfide
1,1-Dichloroethene
1,1-Dichloroethane
Total-1,2-dichloroethene
Chloroform
1,2-Dichloroethane
2-Butanone
1,1,1-Trichloroethane
Carbon tetrachloride
Vinyl acetate
Bromodichloromethane
1,2-Dichloropropane
Cis-1,3-dichloropropene
Trichloroethene
Dibromochloromethane
1,1,2-Trichloroethane
Benzene
Trans-1,3-dichloropropene  Styrene
Bromoform               Total Xylenes
4-Methyl-2-pentanone
2-Hexanone
Tetrachloroethene
1,1,2,2-Tetrachloroethane
Toluene
Chlorobenzene
Ethvlbenzene
* Please note: The list above corresponds to the EPA Contract Laboratory Program (CLP) volatile list, and is not a
complete list of all toxic volatile organic compounds.  If the site history suggests a volatile organic compound may
be present which is not on this list, the compound should be included in the requested analysis.

                                         ANALYSIS METHODS
Please note that the methods listed below are EPA approved and the most commonly used by EPA and their
contractors. However, they are not the only methods for the analysis of volatile organic compounds. In addition,
these are not drinking water test methods.
METHOD
EPA 624(1)
EPA SW-846 5030/8240 OR 5030/8260 (2)
EPA CLP Statement Of Work 3/90
APPLICABLE MATRICES
Aqueous
Aqueous, Soil/Sediment, & Waste
Aqueous & Soil/Sediment
(1) U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). 1992. Test Methods for Organic Chemical Analysis of Municipal and Industrial
Wastewater. Washington, D.C.  July.
(2) EPA. 1986. Test Methods for Evaluating Solid Waste. SW-846.  Washington, D.C. September.

                                    COLLECTION MEDIA/VOLUME

Listed below are the EPA-recommended preservation and holding times as well as suggested glassware.
MATRIX
Soil/Sediment
Aqueous
Waste
GLASSWARE
4-oz soil VOA jar
40-mL VOA vial
4 or 8-oz wide mouth
jar
VOLUME
1 4-oz jar
2 40-ml vials
1 4-oz jar
PRESERVATIVE
ice to 4 C
HCltopH <2&ice
to4C
none required
(ice preferred)
HOLDING TIME
14 days
14 days if preserved With
HC1
7 days without HC1
none (try not to exceed 14
days)

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                       MINIMUM LABORATORY QUALITY CONTROL MEASURES
The laboratory should have Standard Operating Procedures available for review for the volatile organic analyses
and for all associated methods needed to complete the volatile analysis, such as total solids procedures, instrument
maintenance procedures, procedures for sample handling, and sample documentation procedures. In addition, the
laboratory should have a Laboratory Quality Assurance/Quality Control Statement available for review which
includes all key personnel qualifications.
QCTYPE
Gas Chromatograpn/Mass
Spectrometer (GC/MS)
Tuning
Initial Calibration
Continuing Calibration
Method Blank
Internal Standards
Matrix Spike/Matrix Spike
Duplicate
Surrogate Spikes
FREQUENCY OF
ANALYSIS
Once per day or more
frequently if required by
method
Prior to analysis of samples
(minimum three concentration
levels for every compound
and an instrument blank)
Once per day (mid-level
standard containing all
compounds) or more
frequently if required by
method
Once per day
Three per sample (see method
for suggested internal
standard compounds)
One set of MS/MSD per 20
samples or analysis set
Added to each sample (see
method for suggested
surrogate compounds)
ACCEPTABLE LIMITS
See method criteria for acceptable limits
% Relative Standard Deviation of Response
Factors of <_ 30 (See method for any allowable
variations), and a minimum Response Factor of
A 0.05 (see method for calculation)
% Difference for Response Factor of <_ 25 (see
method for any allowable variations), and a
minimum Response Factor of _>. 0.05 (see
method for calculation)
See method for allowable limits
-50% to + 100% of Daily standard area and
retention time shift (limits depend if packed or
capillary column, see method)
See method for allowable limits
Report recovery
                              MINIMUM DATA PACKAGE REQUIREMENTS

    Sample results in a tabular form (if soil or sediment) reported on a dry weight basis.
    Report % moisture or % solids for all soil and sediment samples.
    Report sample volumes  or weights, as well as any dilution factors, for each sample analysis.
    Return copy of the chain of custody form sent with the samples with laboratory receipt acknowledgment, and the internal
    or laboratory chain of custody forms.
    Method blank results.
    GC/MS tuning data summary.
    GC/MS initial and continuing calibration data summary forms.
    GC/MS internal standard data for samples and associated daily standard.
    Surrogate spike recoveries, either on a separate table or with the results, including laboratory QC limits.
    Matrix spike recovery tables, including laboratory recovery and relative percent difference QC limits.
    Date samples were analyzed, on a separate sheet, tune sheet, or results page.
    Optional: sample, standard and blank chromatograms, quantitation sheets, mass spectra, instrument run logs, and total
    solids logs.

Note: The optional QC must be maintained by laboratory for at least one year for possible future QC audits.

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                  BROWNFIELD ASSESSMENTS FACT SHEET FOR ANALYSIS OF
                                SEMIVOLATILE ORGANIC COMPOUNDS


This Fact Sheet is presented by the U. S. Environmental  Protection Agency, Region III (EPA) to assist in the selection
of analytical parameters and the associated Quality Assurance and Quality Control (QA/QC) procedures to be utilized in
Phase II Environmental Assessments under the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Brownfields initiative.
This fact sheet is presented for informational purposes only, and should not be construed as a federal policy or directive.
The Brownfields Coordinator for this region may be reached at 215-566-5000.

A semivolatile organic compound is an organic compound which has a boiling point higher than water and which may
vaporize when exposed to temperatures above room temperature.  Semivolatile organic compounds include phenols and
polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH).

                             LIST OF SEMIVOLATILE ORGANIC COMPOUNDS *

     Phenol                              4-Chloroaniline                      Phenanthrene
     Bis(2-chloroethyl)ether                Hexachlorobutadiene                  Anthracene
     2-Chlorophenol                      4-Chloro-3-methylphenol              Carbazole
     1,3-Dichlorobenzene                  2-Methlynaphthalene                  Di-n-butylphthalate
     1,4-Dichlorobenzene                  Hexachlorocyclopentadiene             Fluoranthene
     1,2-Dichlorobenzene                  2,4,6-Trichlorophenol                 Pyrene
     2-Methylphenol                      2,4,5-Trichlorophenol                 Butylbenzylphthalate
     Bis(2-chloroisopropyl)ether            2-Chloronaphthalene                  3,3'-Dichlorobenzidine
     4-Methylphenol                      2-Nitroaniline                        Benzo(a)anthracene
     n-Nitroso-di-n-propylamine            Dimethylphthalate                    Chrysene
     Hexachloroethane                    Acenaphthylene                      Bis(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate
     Nitrobenzene                        2,6-Dinitrotoluene                    Di-n-octylphthalate
     Isophorone                          3-Nitroaniline                        Benzo(b)fluoranthene
     2-Nitrophenol                       Acenaphthene                        Benzo(k)fluoranthene
     2,4-Dimethlyphenol                   2,4-Dinitrophenol                     Benzo(a)pyrene
     Bis(2-chloroethoxy)methane           4-Nitrophenol                        Indeno(l,2,3-cd)pyrene
     2,4-Dichlorophenol                   4-Bromophenyl-phenylether            Dibenz(a,h)anthracene
     1,2,4-Trichlorobenzene               Hexachlorobenzene                   Benzo(g,h,i)perylene
     Naphthalene                         Pentachlorophenol

 * Please note: The list above corresponds to the EPA Contract Laboratory Program (CLP) semivolatile organic list, and
 is not a complete list of all toxic semivolatile organic compounds. If the site history suggests a semivolatile organic
 compound may be present which is not on this list, the compound should be included in the requested analysis.

                                             ANALYSIS METHODS

 Please note that the methods listed below are EPA approved and the most commonly used by EPA and their
 contractors.  However,  they are not the only methods for the analysis  of semivolatile organic compounds. In addition,
 these are not drinking water test methods.
                      METHOD                                     APPLICABLE MATRICES
 EPA 625 or 1625 (1)
Aqueous
 EPA SW-846 3010 or 3020/8250 or 8270 (2)
Aqueous
 EPA SW-846 3500 or 3550/8250 or 8270 (2)
Soil/Sediment & Waste
 EPA CLP Statement of Work 3/90
Aqueous & Soil/Sediment
 EPA SW-846 8100 or 8310 (2) 610(1)
Water and Soil/Sediment for PAH
 EPA SW-846 8040 (2)or 604 (1)
Water and Soil/Sediment for Phenols
 (1) U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA).  1992. Test Methods for Organic Chemical Analysis of Municipal and Industrial Wastewater.
 Washington, D.C. July.
 (2) EPA.  1986.  Test Methods for Evaluating Solid Waste.  SW-846. Washington. D.C. September.

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                                        COLLECTION MEDIA/VOLUME
Listed below are the EPA-recommended preservation and holding times as well as suggested glassware.
MATRIX
Soil/Sediment
Aqueous
Waste
GLASSWARE
8-oz wide mouthed jar
32-oz amber bottle
8-oz wide mouth jar
VOLUME
,1 8-oz jar
2 amber bottles
1 8-oz jar
PRESERVATIVE
ice to 4 C
ice to 4 C
none required
(ice preferred)
HOLDING TIME 1
14 days
7 days
none (try not to
exceed 14 days)
                         MINIMUM LABORATORY QUALITY CONTROL MEASURES
The laboratory should have Standard Operating Procedures available for review for the semivolatile organic1 compound
analyses and for all associated methods needed to complete the semivolatile analysis,  such as total solids, instrument
maintenance, sample handling, and sample documentation procedures.  In addition, the laboratory should have a
Laboratory Quality Assurance/Quality Control Statement available for review which includes all key personnel
qualifications.
QC TYPE
Gas Chromatograph/Mass
Spectrometer (GC/MS) Tuning
Initial Calibration
Continuing Calibration
Method Blank
Internal Standards
Matrix Spike/Matrix Spike
Duplicate
Surrogate Spikes
FREQUENCY OF ANALYSIS
Once per day or more frequently
if required by method
Prior to analysis of samples
(minimum three concentration
levels for every compound and
an instrument blank)
Once per day (mid-level standard
containing all compounds) or
more frequently if required by
method
Once per extraction batch
Six per sample (see method for
suggested internal standard
compounds)
One set of MS/MSD per 20
samples or analysis set
Added to each sample (see
method for suggested surrogate
compounds)
ACCEPTABLE LIMITS
See method criteria for acceptable limits
% Relative Standard Deviation of Response Factors
of _<_ 30 (see method for any allowable variations),
and a minimum Response Factor of _>_ 0.05 (see
method for calculation)
% Difference for Response Factor of _<_ 25 (see
method for any allowable variations), and a
minimum Response Factor of _>_ 0.05 (see method
for calculation)
See method for allowable limits
-50% to + 100% of Daily standard area and
retention time shift (limits depend if packed or
capillary column, see method)
See method for allowable limits
Report recovery
                                 MINIMUM DATA PACKAGE REQUIREMENTS

    Sample results in a tabular form (if soil or sediment) reported on a dry weight basis.
    Report % moisture or % solids for all soil and sediment samples.
    Report sample volumes or weights, as well as any dilution factors, for each sample analysis.
    Return copy of the chain of custody form sent with the samples with laboratory receipt acknowledgment, and the internal or
    laboratory chain of custody forms.
    Method blank results.
    GC/MS tuning data summary.
    GC/MS initial and continuing calibration data summary forms.
    GC/MS internal standard data for samples and associated  daily standard.
    Surrogate spike recoveries, either on a separate table or with the results, including laboratory QC limits.
    Matrix spike recovery tables, including laboratory recovery and relative percent difference QC limits.
    Date samples were analyzed, on a separate sheet, tune sheet, or  results page.
    Optional: sample, standard and blank chromatograms, quantitation sheets, mass spectra, instrument run logs, and total solids
    logs.

Note: The optional QC must be maintained by laboratory for at least one year for possible future QC audits.

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               BROWNFIELD ASSESSMENTS FACT SHEET FOR ANALYSIS OF
                          NITROAROMATICS  AND NITROGLYCERINE

This Fact Sheet is presented by the U. S. Environmental Protection Agency, Region III (EPA) to assist in the
selection of analytical parameters and the associated Quality Assurance and Quality Control (QA/QC) procedures to
be utilized in Phase II Environmental Assessments under the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA)
Brownfields initiative.  This fact sheet is presented for informational purposes only, and should not be construed as
a federal policy or directive.  The Brownfields Coordinator for this region may be reached at 215-566-5000.

Nitroaromatic compounds are compounds usually associated with explosive manufacturing and ordnance facilities.
Nitroaromatic compounds include TNT, DNT, RDX, and HMX.
                                        ANALYSIS METHODS

Please note that the methods listed below are EPA approved and the most commonly used by EPA and their
contractors.  However, they are not the only methods for the analysis of nitroaromatics and nitroglycerine. In
addition, these are not drinking water test methods.
TEST
Nitroaromatics
Nitroglycerine
ANALYSIS METHOD
8090, 8330 (2), or 609 (1)
8332 (2)
(1) U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA).  1992. Test Methods for Organic Chemical Analysis of Municipal and
Industrial Wastewater. Washington, D.C.  July.
(2) EPA. 1986. Test Methods for Evaluating Solid Waste. SW-846. Washington, D.C.  September.

                                   COLLECTION MEDIA/VOLUME

Listed below are the EPA-recommended preservation and holding times as well as suggested glassware.
MATRIX
Soil/Sediment
Water
GLASSWARE
8-oz soil jar
32-oz amber bottle
VOLUME
1 8-oz jar
1 32-oz bottle
PRESERVATIVE | HOLDING TIME
ice to 4 C
ice to 4 C
7 days
7 days
                      MINIMUM LABORATORY QUALITY CONTROL MEASURES

The laboratory should have Standard Operating Procedures available for review for the nitroaromatics and
nitroglycerine analyses and for all associated methods needed to complete these analyses, such as total solids,
instrument maintenance, sample handling, and sample documentation procedures.  In addition, the laboratory
should have available for review a Laboratory Quality Assurance/Quality Control Statement which includes all key
personnel qualifications.

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QC TYPE
Initial Calibration
Continuing Calibration
Method Blank
Matrix Spikes
Duplicates
FREQUENCY OF
ANALYSIS
Prior to analysis of samples
(minimum three concentration
levels for every compound
and an instrument blank)
Once per 10 samples (mid-
level standard containing all
compounds) and a continuing
calibration blank
Once per extraction set
One per set or per 20 samples
One per set or per 20 samples
ACCEPTABLE LIMITS
Correlation Coefficient for all analyses should
be > 0.995. blank concentration should not
exceed twice the instrument detection limit
Within 10% of true value
Blank concentration should not exceed twice the
instrument detection limit
See method for allowable limits
75-125%

                                MINIMUM DATA PACKAGE REQUIREMENTS

    Sample results in a tabular form (if soil or sediment) reported on a dry weight basis.
    Report % moisture or % solids for all soil and sediment samples.
    Report sample volumes or weights, as well as any dilution factors, for each sample analysis.
    Returned copy of the chain of custody form sent with the samples with laboratory receipt acknowledgment, and the internal
    or laboratory chain of custody forms.
    Method blank results.
    Initial and continuing calibration data summary forms.
    Matrix spike recovery tables, including laboratory recovery QC limits, and duplicate relative percent difference QC limits.
    Date samples were analyzed, on a separate sheet, or results page.
    Optional: sample,  standard and blank instrument printouts, instrument run, digestion,  and total solids logs.

Note: The optional QC must be maintained by laboratory for at least one year for possible future QC audits.

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                BROWNFffiLD ASSESSMENTS FACT SHEET FOR ANALYSIS OF
                    ORGANOPHOSPHOROUS PESTICIDES AND HERBICIDES
This Fact Sheet is presented by the U. S. Environmental Protection Agency, Region III (EPA) to assist in the
selection of analytical parameters and the associated Quality Assurance and Quality Control (QA/QC) procedures to
be utilized in Phase II Environmental Assessments under the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA)
Brownfields initiative.  This fact sheet is presented for informational purposes only, and should not be construed as a
federal policy or directive. The Brownfields Coordinator for this region may be reached at 215-566-5000.
 ORGANOPHOSPHOROUS PESTICIDES COMPOUNDS *
    Azinphos Methyl
    Bolstar
    Chlorpyrifos
    Coumaphos
    Demeton-O
    Demeton-S
    Diazinon
    Dichlorous, Disulfoton
    Ethoprop
    Fensulfothion
Fenthion
Merphos
Mevinphos
Naled
Parathion Methyl
Phorate
Ronnel
Stirophos (Tetrachloryinphos)
Tokuthion (Prothiofos)
Trichloronate
HERBICIDE COMPOUNDS

2,4-D
2,4-DB
2,4,5-T
2,4,5-TP (Silvex)
Dalapon
Dicamba
Dichlorprop
Dinoseb
MCPA
MCPP
 * Please note: The list above corresponds to pesticide and herbicide lists contained in the methods listed below, and
 is not a complete list of all toxic pesticide or herbicide compounds. If the site history suggests a pesticide or
 herbicide compound may be present which is not on this list, the compound should be included in the requested
 analysis.
                                         ANALYSIS METHODS

 Please note that the methods listed below are EPA approved and the most commonly used by EPA and their
 contractors.  However, they are not the only methods for the analysis of pesticide or herbicide compounds. In
 addition,  these are not drinking water test methods.
                    METHOD
                        APPLICABLE MATRICES
EPA 615 (1) or EPA SW-846 3010 or 3020/8150 (2)
EAP 614 (1) or EPA SW-846 3010 or 3020/8140 (2)
EPA SW-846 3500 or 3550/8150 (2)
EPA SW-846 3500 or 3550/8140 (2)
Aqueous Herbicides
Aqueous Pesticides
Soil/Sediment & Waste Herbicides
Soil/Sediment & Waste Pesticides
 (1) U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). 1992. Test Methods for Organic Chemical Analysis of Municipal and Industrial
 Wastewater. Washington. D.C,  July.
 (2) EPA. 1986.  Test Methods for Evaluating Solid Waste. SW-846. Washington, D.C. September.

                                    COLLECTION MEDIA/VOLUME

 Listed below are the EPA-recommended preservation and holding times as well as suggested glassware.
MATRIX
Soil/Sediment
Aqueous
Waste
GLASSWARE
8-oz wide mouth jar
32-oz amber bottle
8-oz wide mouth jar
VOLUME
1 8-oz jar
2 amber bottles
1 8-oz jar
PRESERVATIVE
ice to 4 C
ice to 4 C
none required
(ice preferred)
HOLDING TIME
14 days
7 days
none (try not to
exceed 14 days)

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                       MINIMUM LABORATORY QUALITY CONTROL MEASURES
The laboratory should have Standard Operating Procedures available for review for the organophosphorous pesticide
or herbicide analyses and for all associated methods needed to complete the pesticide or herbicide analysis, such as
total solids, instrument maintenance, sample handling, and sample documentation procedures. In addition, the
laboratory should have a Laboratory Quality Assurance/Quality Control Statement available for review which
includes all key personnel qualifications.
QC TYPE
Initial Calibration
Continuing Calibration
Second Column Confirmation
Method Blank
Matrix Spike/Matrix Spike
Duplicate
Surrogate Spikes
FREQUENCY OF
ANALYSIS
Prior to analysis of samples
(minimum three concentration
levels for every compound
and an instrument blank) and
every 72 hours thereafter
Once every 10 sample runs
(mid-level standard)
All hits
Once per extraction batch
One MS/MSD per 20 samples
or per extraction set
Added to each sample (see
method for suggested
surrogate compounds)
ACCEPTABLE LIMITS
% Relative Standard Deviation of Response
Factors of <_ 25 (see method for any allowable
variations), and a minimum Response Factor of
_>. 0.05 (see method for calculation), also
resolution check criteria must be met, and
retention time windows established
% Difference for Response Factor of <_ 25 (see
method for any allowable variations), a
minimum Response Factor of _>_ 0.05 (see
method for calculation), and retention times
must be within windows
All hits must be confirmed on a dissimilar
column from original analysis
See method for allowable limits
See method for limits
Report recovery
                              MINIMUM DATA PACKAGE REQUIREMENTS

    Sample results in a tabular form (if soil or sediment) reported on a dry weight basis.
    Report % moisture or % solids for all soil and sediment samples.
    Report sample volumes or weights, as well as any dilution factors, for each sample analysis.
    Returned copy of the chain of custody form sent with the samples with laboratory receipt acknowledgment, and the
    internal or laboratory chain of custody forms.
    Method blank results.
    GC initial and continuing calibration data summary forms.
    GC pesticide breakdown and resolution forms, and analytical sequence forms.
    Surrogate spike recoveries, either on a separate table or with the results, including laboratory QC limits.
    Matrix spike recovery tables, including laboratory recovery  and relative percent difference QC limits.
    Date samples were analyzed, on a separate sheet, or results page.
    Optional: sample,  standard and blank chromatograms, instrument run logs, and total solids logs.

Note: The optional QC must be maintained by laboratory for at least one year for possible future QC audits.

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               BROWNFffiLD ASSESSMENTS FACT SHEET FOR ANALYSIS OF
               TARGET ANALYTE METALS (HEAVY METALS) AND CYANIDE

This Fact Sheet is presented by the U. S. Environmental Protection Agency, Region III (EPA) to assist in the
selection of analytical parameters and the associated Quality Assurance and Quality Control (QA/QC) procedures to
be utilized in Phase II Environmental Assessments under the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA)
Brownfields initiative.  This fact sheet is presented for informational purposes only, and should not be construed as
a federal policy or directive. The Brownfields Coordinator for this region may be reached at 215-566-5000.
                        LIST OF TARGET ANALYTE METALS AND CYANIDE
Aluminum
Antimony
Arsenic
Barium
Beryllium
Cadmium
Calcium
Chromium (Total)
Chromium (Hexavalent)
Cobalt
Copper
Iron
Lead
Manganese
Magnesium
Mercury
Nickel
Potassium
Selenium
Silver
Sodium
Thallium
Vanadium
Zinc
Cyanide (Total)
Cyanide (Amenable)
                                       ANALYSIS METHODS
Please note that the methods listed below are EPA approved and the most commonly used by EPA and their
contractors. However, they are not the only methods for the analysis of metals and cyanide.  In addition, these are
not drinking water test methods.
METHOD
EPA 200 Series- (1)
EPA'SW-846 Metals Digestion 3000 Series Analysis
7000 Series & 6010 (2) Cyanide 9010 or 9020 (2)
EPA CLP Statement Of Work 3/90
APPLICABLE MATRICES
Aqueous
Aqueous, Soil/Sediment, & Waste
Aqueous & Soil/Sediment
(1) U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). 1983.  Test Methods for the Chemical Analysis of Water and Wastes.
Washington, B.C. March.
(2) EPA. 1986.  Test Methods for Evaluating Solid Waste.  SW-846. Washington, D.C.  September.

                                  COLLECTION MEDIA/VOLUME

Listed below are the EPA-recommended preservation and holding times as well as suggested glassware.
MATRIX
Soil/Sediment
Aqueous
Waste
GLASSWARE
8-oz soil jar
1 liter polypropylene
bottle
8-oz wide mouth jar
VOLUME
1 8-oz jar
1 L bottle
1 8-oz jar
PRESERVATIVE
ice to 4 C
metals: HNO3topH
<2 & ice to 4 C,
cyanide; NaOH to pH
> 12 & ice to 4 C,
hexavalent chromium;
ice to 4 C
none required
(ice preferred)
HOLDING TIME
28 days for metals;
14 days for cyanide;
24 hours for hexavalent
chromium
28 days
14 days
24 hours
none (try not to exceed 14
days for cyanide)

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                       MINIMUM LABORATORY QUALITY CONTROL MEASURES
The laboratory should have Standard Operating Procedures available for review for the metals and cyanide analyses
and for all associated methods needed to complete the volatile analysis, such as total solids,  instrument
maintenance, sample handling, and sample documentation procedures.  In addition, the laboratory should have a
Laboratory Quality Assurance/Quality Control Statement available for review which includes all key personnel
qualifications.
QC TYPE
Initial Calibration
Continuing Calibration
Method Blank
Matrix Spikes
Duplicates
FREQUENCY OF
ANALYSIS
Prior to analysis of samples
(minimum three concentration
levels for every compound
and an instrument blank)
Once per 10 samples (mid-
level standard containing all
compounds) and a continuing
calibration blank
Once per digestion or
extraction set
One per set or per 20 samples
One per set or per 20 samples
ACCEPTABLE LIMITS
Correlation Coefficient for all analyses should
be > 0.995, ICP analysis should include
interference checks, and serial dilutions, all
furnace results should be acquired in duplicate
and at least one cyanide standard must be
extracted with the samples
Blank concentration should not exceed twice the
instrument detection limit
Within 10% of true value (20% for cyanide and
mercury)
Blank concentration should not exceed twice the
instrument detection limit
See method for allowable limits
75-125%

                              MINIMUM DATA PACKAGE REQUIREMENTS

    Sample results in a tabular form (if soil or sediment) reported on a dry weight basis.
    Report % moisture or % solids for all soil and sediment samples.
    Report sample volumes  or weights, as well as any dilution factors, for each sample analysis.
    Returned copy of the chain of custody form sent with the samples with laboratory receipt acknowledgment, and the internal
    or laboratory chain of custody forms.
    Method blank results.
    Initial and continuing calibration data summary forms, including ICP interference forms and ICP serial dilution forms.
    Matrix spike recovery tables, including laboratory recovery QC limits, and duplicate relative percent difference QC limits.
    Date samples were analyzed, on a separate sheet, or results page.
    Optional: sample,  standard and blank instrument printouts, instrument run logs, digestion logs, and total solids logs.

Note: The optional QC must be maintained by laboratory for at  least one year for possible future QC audits.

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               BROWNFIELD ASSESSMENTS FACT SHEET FOR ANALYSIS OF
                                            ASBESTOS
This Fact Sheet is presented by the U. S. Environmental Protection Agency, Region III (EPA) to assist in the
selection of analytical parameters and the associated Quality Assurance and Quality Control (QA/QC) procedures to
be utilized in Phase II Environmental Assessments under the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA)
Brownfields initiative. This fact sheet is presented for informational purposes only, and should not be construed as
a federal policy or directive.  The Brownfields Coordinator for this region may be  reached at 215-566-5000.

                                       ANALYSIS METHODS

Please note that the methods listed below are EPA approved and the most commonly used by EPA and their
contractors. However, they are not the only methods for the analysis of asbestos.  In addition, these are not
drinking water test methods.
MATRIX
Soil/Solid
Air
ANALYSIS METHOD
NIOSH 9002 (1)
NIOSH 7400 or 7402 (1) OSHA ID 160 (2)
(1) National Institute of Safety and Health (NIOSH).  NIOSH Manual of Analytical Methods.  Cincinnati, OH.
(2) Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA). 1985  OSHA Analytical Methods Manual.
   Washington, D.C..

                                   COLLECTION MEDIA/VOLUME

Listed below are the EPA-recommended preservation and holding times as well as suggested glassware.
MATRIX
Soil/Solid
Air
GLASSWARE
plastic zip locking bag
MCE filter anti-static
cassette, support pad
VOLUME
minimal
as per method
PRESERVATIVE
wet down
none
                     MINIMUM LABORATORY QUALITY CONTROL MEASURES

The laboratory should have Standard Operating Procedures available for review for the asbestos analyses and for
all associated methods needed to complete these analyses, such as total solids, instrument maintenance, sample
handling, and sample documentation procedures.  In addition, the laboratory should have a Laboratory Quality
Assurance/Quality Control Statement available for review which includes all key personnel qualifications.  It is also
preferable that the laboratory chosen have current National Volunteer Laboratory Certification Program (NVLAP)
Certification for the U.S.  Department of Commerce National Institute of Standards Testing.
QC TYPE
Initial Calibration
Method Blank
Duplicates
FREQUENCY OF
ANALYSIS
Prior to analysis
Once per analysis set
One per set or per 20 samples
ACCEPTABLE LIMITS
Instrument must meet manufacturers'
specifications
See method for allowable limits


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                               MINIMUM DATA PACKAGE REQUIREMENTS

    Sample results in a tabular form (if soil or sediment)  reported on a dry weight basis.
    Report % moisture or % solids for all soil and sediment samples.
    Report sample volumes or weights, as well as any dilution factors, for each sample analysis.
    Returned copy of the chain of.custody form sent with the samples with laboratory receipt acknowledgment, and the internal
    or laboratory chain of custody forms.
    Method blank results.
    Optional: sample,  standard and blank instrument printouts, and extraction or preparation logs.

Note: The optional QC must be maintained by laboratory  for at least one year for possible future QC audits.

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               BROWNFIELD ASSESSMENTS FACT SHEET FOR ANALYSIS OF
   TOTAL PETROLEUM HYDROCARBONS, REACTIVE CYANIDE, REACTIVE SULFIDE,
                              IGNITABILITY, AND CORROSIVITY

This Fact Sheet is presented by the U. S. Environmental Protection Agency, Region III (EPA) to assist in the
selection of analytical parameters and the associated Quality Assurance and Quality Control (QA/QC) procedures to
be utilized in Phase II Environmental Assessments under the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA)
Brownfields initiative. This fact sheet is presented for informational purposes only, and should not be construed as
a federal policy or directive.  The Brownfields Coordinator for this region may be reached at 215-566-5000.

                                        ANALYSIS  METHODS                                *

Please note that the methods listed below are EPA approved and the most commonly used by EPA and their
contractors.  However, they are not the only methods for the analysis of total petroleum hydrocarbons, reactive
cyanide, reactive sulfide, ignitability, or corrosivity.  In addition, these are not drinking water test methods.
TEST
Petroleum Hydrocarbons
Reactive Cyanide
Reactive Sulfide
Ignitability
Corrosivity
ANALYSIS METHOD
418.1 (1)
SW-8467.3.3.2(2)
SW-8467.3.4.1 (2)
SW-846 7.1 or 1010, 1020 (2)
SW-846 7.2 or 9040, 9041, 9045 (2)
 (1) U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). 1983 Test Methods for the Chemical Analysis of Water and Wastes.
 Washington, D.C.  March.
 (2)  EPA.  1986. Test Methods for Evaluating Solid Waste. SW-846. Washington, D.C.  September.

                                   COLLECTION MEDIA/VOLUME

 Listed below are the EPA-recommended preservation and holding times as well as suggested glassware.
MATRIX
Soil/Sediment
Waste
GLASSWARE
8-oz soil jar
8-oz wide mouth jar
VOLUME
1 8-oz jar
1 8-oz jar
PRESERVATIVE
ice to 4 C
none required
(ice preferred)
HOLDING TIME
28 days for TPHC
none (try not to exceed 28
days for cyanide)
                     MINIMUM LABORATORY QUALITY CONTROL MEASURES

The laboratory should have Standard Operating Procedures available for review for the total petroleum
hydrocarbons, reactive cyanide, reactive sulfide, ignitability, and corrosivity, and for all associated methods needed
to complete these analyses, such as total solids, instrument maintenance, sample handling, and sample
documentation procedures. In addition, the laboratory should have a Laboratory Quality Assurance/Quality
Control Statement available for review which includes all key personnel qualifications.

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QC TYPE
Initial Calibration
Continuing Calibration
Method Blank (does not apply
to ignitability and corrosivity)
Matrix Spikes (TPHC,
reactive cyanide and reactive
sulfide only)
Duplicates
FREQUENCY OF
ANALYSIS
Prior to analysis of samples
(minimum three concentration
levels for every compound
and an instrument blank)
Once per 10 samples (mid-
level standard containing all
compounds) and a continuing
calibration blank
Once per extraction set
One per set or per 20 samples
One per set or per 20 samples
ACCEPTABLE LIMITS
Correlation Coefficient for all analyses should
be > 0.995
Blank concentration should not exceed twice the
instrument detection limit
Within 10% of true value
Bank concentration should not exceed twice the
instrument detection limit
See method for allowable limits
75-125%

                                MINIMUM DATA PACKAGE REQUIREMENTS

    Sample results in a tabular form (if soil or sediment) reported on a dry weight basis.
    Report % moisture or % solids for all soil and sediment samples.
    Report sample volumes or weights, as well as any dilution factors, for each sample analysis.
    Returned copy of the chain of custody form sent with the samples with laboratory receipt acknowledgment, and the internal
    or laboratory chain of custody forms.
    Method blank results.
    Initial and continuing calibration data summary forms.
    Matrix spike recovery tables, including laboratory recovery QC limits, and duplicate relative percent difference QC limits.
    Date samples were analyzed, on a separate sheet, or results page.
    Optional: sample,  standard and blank instrument printouts, instrument run logs, digestion logs, and total solids logs.

Note: The optional QC must be maintained by laboratory for at least one year for possible future QC audits.

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                BROWNFIELD ASSESSMENTS FACT SHEET FOR ANALYSIS OF
      ORGANOCHLORINE PESTICIDE/POLYCHLORINATED BIPHENYL COMPOUNDS
This Fact Sheet is presented by the U. S. Environmental Protection Agency, Region III (EPA) to assist in the
selection of analytical parameters and the associated Quality Assurance ind Quality Control (QA/QC) procedures to
be utilized in Phase II Environmental Assessments under the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA)
Brownfields initiative. This fact sheet is presented for informational purposes only, and should not be construed as a
federal policy or directive. The Brownfields Coordinator for this region may be reached at 215-566-5000.

LIST OF ORGANOCHLQRINE PESTICIDES AND  POLYCHLQRINATED BIPHENYL (PCS) COMPOUNDS *
    Alpha-BHC
    Beta-BHC
    Delta-BHC
    Gamma-BHC (Lindane)
    Heptachlor
    Aldrin
    Heptachlor Epoxide
    Endosulfan I
    Dieldrin
    4,4'-DDE
Endrin
Endosulfan II
4,4'-DDD
Endosulfan Sulfate
4,4'-DDT
Methoxychlor
Endrin Ketone
Endrin Aldehyde
Alpha-chlordane
Gamma-chlordane
Toxaphene
Aroclor 1016
Aroclor 1221
Aroclor 1232
Aroclor 1242
Aroclor 1248
Aroclor 1254
Aroclor 1260
 * Please note: The list above corresponds to the EPA Contract Laboratory Program (CLP) pesticide/PCB list, and is
 not a complete list of all toxic pesticide/PCB compounds.  If the site history suggests a pesticide/PCB compound may
 be present which is not on this list, the compound should be included in the requested analysis.

                                        ANALYSIS METHODS

 Please note that the methods listed below are EPA approved and the most commonly used by EPA and their
 contractors.  However, they are not the only methods for the analysis of pesticide/PCB compounds. In addition,
 these are not drinking water test methods.
METHOD
EPA 608 (1)
EPA SW-846 3010 or 3020/8080 (2)
EPA SW-846 3500 or 3550/8080 (2)
EPA CLP Statement of Work 3/90
APPLICABLE MATRICES
Aqueous
Aqueous
Soil/Sediment, & Waste
Aqueous & Soil/Sediment
(1) U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). 1992. Test Methods for Organic Chemical Analysis of Municipal and Industrial
Wastewater. Washington, D.C. July.
(2) EPA.  1986.  Test Methods for Evaluating Solid Waste.  SW-846. Washington, D.C.  September.

                                    COLLECTION MEDIA/VOLUME

Listed below are the EPA-recommended preservation and holding times as well as suggested glassware.
MATRIX
Soil/Sediment
Aqueous
Waste
GLASSWARE
8-oz wide mouth jar
32-oz amber bottle
8-oz wide mouth jar
VOLUME
1 8-oz jar
2 amber bottles
1 8-oz jar
PRESERVATIVE
ice to 4 C
ice to 4 C
none required
(ice preferred)
HOLDING TIME
14 days
7 days
none (try not to
exceed 14 days)

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                       MINIMUM LABORATORY QUALITY CONTROL MEASURES
The laboratory should have Standard Operating Procedures available for review for the organochlorine pesticide/PCB
analyses and for all associated methods needed to complete the pesticide/PCB analysis, such as total solids,
instrument maintenance, sample handling, and sample documentation procedures.  In addition, the laboratory should
have a Laboratory Quality Assurance/Quality Control Statement available for review which includes all key
personnel qualifications.
QC TYPE
Initial Calibration
Organochlorine Pesticides
Initial Calibration
PCBs
Continuing Calibration
Second Column Confirmation
Method Blank
Matrix Spike/Matrix Spike
Duplicate
Surrogate Spikes
FREQUENCY OF ANALYSIS
Prior to analysis of samples
(minimum three concentration
levels for every compound and
an instrument blank) and every
72 hours thereafter
Minimum 1 fingerprint per
Aroclor be analyzed prior to
sample analysis and three
concentration levels of any
Aroclor detected in the samples
be analyzed during or directly
after sample analysis
Once every 10 sample runs (mid-
level standard containing
pesticide compounds) or an
Aroclor fingerprint
All pesticide hits
Optional PCB hits
Once per extraction batch
One MS/MSD per 20 samples or
per extraction set
Added to each sample (see
method for suggested surrogate
compounds)
ACCEPTABLE LIMITS
% Relative Standard Deviation of Response Factors
of <_ 25 (see method for any allowable variations),
and a minimum Response Factor of >_ 0.05 (See
method for calculation), also breakdown criteria
must be met, resolution check criteria must be met,
and retention time windows established
% Relative Standard Deviation of Response Factors
of <_ 25 (see method for any allowable variations,
at least three peaks per Aroclor should be used to
calculate response factors and identify Aroclors
i
% Difference for Response Factor of _<. 25 (see
method for any allowable variations), a minimum
Response Factor of >_ 0.05 (see method for
calculation), and retention times must be within
windows
All pesticide hits must be confirmed on a dissimilar
column from original analysis
See method for allowable limits
See method for limits
Report recovery
                              MINIMUM DATA PACKAGE REQUIREMENTS

    Sample results in a tabular form (if soil or sediment) reported on a dry weight basis.
    Report % moisture or % solids for all soil and sediment samples.
    Report sample volumes or weights, as well as any dilution factors, for each sample analysis.
    Returned signed copy of the chain of custody form sent with the samples, and the internal or laboratory chain of
    custody forms.
    Method blank results.
    GC initial and continuing calibration data summary forms.
    GC pesticide breakdown and resolution forms, and analytical sequence forms.
    Surrogate spike recoveries, either on a separate table or with the results, including laboratory QC limits.
    Matrix spike recovery tables, including laboratory recovery and relative percent difference  QC limits.
    Date samples were analyzed, on a separate sheet, or results page.
    Optional: sample, standard and blank chromatograms, instrument run logs, and total solids  logs.

Note: The optional QC must be maintained by laboratory for at least one year for possible future QC audits.

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                      BROWNFIELDS CLEANUP FACT SHEET
INDUSTRY/SITE CONTAIV
1INANTS CLEANUP
TECHNOLOGY
ABANDONED TAL METALS, TCL ORGANICS, SOLIDIFICATION
CHEMICAL ASBESTOS
FACILITY




ABANDONED OIL TCL ORGANICS
FACILITY




ON-SITE LANDFILL
OFF-SITE DISPOSAL
SOIL WASHING
SOLVENT EXTRACTION
BIOREMEDIATION
INCINERATION
TPH SOLIDIFICATION
ON-SITE LANDFILL
OFF-SITE DISPOSAL
BIOREMEDIATION
SOLVENT EXTRACTION
INCINERATION
ABANDONED TAL METALS, TCL ORGANICS SOLIDIFICATION
LABORATORY CYANIDE




ASBESTOS PILE ACM

ON-SITE LANDFILL
OFF-SITE DISPOSAL
SOIL WASHING
SOLVENT EXTRACTION
BIOREMEDIATION
ON-SITE LANDFILL
OFF-SITE LANDFILL
AUTOBODY TAL METALS, TCL ORGANICS SOLIDIFICATION
FACILITY





ON-SITE LANDFILL
OFF-SITE DISPOSAL
SOIL WASHING
SOLVENT EXTRACTION
BIOREMEDIATION
INCINERATION
BATTERY pH , TAL METALS NEUTRALIZATION
RECYCLING
FACILITY




BETHLEHEM ACM
ASBESTOS PILE
SOLIDIFICATION
ON-SITE LANDFILL
OFF-SITE DISPOSAL
SOIL WASHING
SOLVENT EXTRACTION
BIOREMEDIATION
ON-SITE LANDFILL
OFF-SITE LANDFILL
COST GROUP
(SEE SEC. 3)
A
B
C
D
D
D
E
A
B
C
D
D
E
A
B
C
D
D
D
B
G
A
B
C
D
D
D
E
F
A
B
C
D
D
D
B
G
SATA0301341 BFcleanup9/97

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                      BROWNFIELDS CLEANUP FACT SHEET
INDUSTRY/SITE CONTAIN
COAL TAR SITE BTEX, CYANIDE
flINANTS CLEANUP
TECHNOLOGY
TAL SOLIDIFICATION
METALS, PHENOL, ON-SITE LANDFILL
SULFIDE/SULFATE OFF-SITE' DISPOSAL




SOIL WASHING
SOLVENT EXTRACTION
BIOREMEDIATION
NEUTRALIZATION
DYE FACILITY pH, TAL METALS, NEUTRALIZATION
TCL ORGANICS






SOLIDIFICATION
ON-SITE LANDFILL
OFF-SITE DISPOSAL
SOIL WASHING
SOLVENT EXTRACTION
BIOREMEDIATION
INCINERATION
DRUM RECYCLING pH, TAL METALS, SOLIDIFICATION
FACILITY CYANIDE






ON-SITE LANDFILL
OFF-SITE DISPOSAL
SOIL WASHING
SOLVENT EXTRACTION
BIOREMEDIATION
NEUTRALIZATION
INCINERATION
ELECTROPLATING pH, TAL METALS, SOLIDIFICA . lON
FACILITY CYANIDE




ON-SITE LANDFILL
OFF-SITE DISPOSAL
SOIL WASHING
NEUTRALIZATION
BIOREMEDIATION
GAS STATION TAL METALS, DRO, GRO SOLIDIFICATION




ON-SITE LANDFILL
OFF-SITE DISPOSAL
SOIL WASHING
BIOREMEDIATION
MUNICIPAL TAL METALS, TCL ORGANICS, OFF SITE DISPOSAL
LANDFILL pH, CYANIDE
CAPPING ON SITE
COST GROUP
(SEE SEC. 3)
A
B
C
D
D
D
F
F
A
B
C
D
D
D
E
A
B
C
D
D
D
F
E
A
B
W
D
D
D
A
B
C
D
D
C
B
SATA0301341 BFcleanup9/97

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                        BROWNFIELDS CLEANUP FACT SHEET
      INDUSTRY/SITE
      CONTAMINANTS
                                                    CLEANUP
                                                   TECHNOLOGY
                     COST GROUP
                      (SEE SEC. 3)
    PAINT FACILITY     TAL. METALS, TCL ORGANICS
    PESTICIDE FACILITY TAL METALS, TCL ORGANICS
    PETROLEUM
    RECYCLING
    FACILITY
TPH, TAL METALS, PCBs
    PLASTIC
    MANUFACTURING
    FACILITY
TCL ORGANICS
    PRINT SHOP
TAL METALS, TCL ORGANICS,
PH
    QUARRY
TAL METALS, TCL ORGANICS
TOTAL KJELDAH NITROGEN
SOLIDIFICATION
ON.-SITE LANDFILL
OFF-SITE DISPOSAL
SOIL WASHING
SOLVENT EXTRACTION
BIOREMEDIATION
INCINERATION

SOLIDIFICATION
ON-SITE LANDFILL
OFF-SITE DISPOSAL
SOIL WASHING
SOLVENT EXTRACTION
BIOREMEDIATION
INCINERATION

SOLIDIFICATION
ON-SITE LANDFILL
OFF-SITE DISPOSAL
SOIL WASHING
SOLVENT EXTRACTION
BIOREMEDIATION
INCINERATION
NEUTRALIZATION

SOLIDIFICATION
ON-SITE LANDFILL
OFF-SITE DISPOSAL
INCINERATION
SOLVENT EXTRACTION
BIOREMEDIATION

SOLIDIFICATION
ON-SITE LANDFILL
OFF-SITE DISPOSAL
SOIL WASHING
SOLVENT EXTRACTION
BIOREMEDIATION
INCINERATION
NEUTRALIZATION

FILL WITH CLEAN
MATERIAL
A
B
C
D
D
D
E

A
B
C
D
D
D
E

A
B
C
D
D
D
E
F

A
B
C
E
D
D

A
B
C
D
D
D
E
F

D
SATA0301341BFcleanup9/97

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                        BROWNFIELDS CLEANUP FACT SHEET
      INDUSTRY/SITE
      CONTAMINANTS
      CLEANUP
    TECHNOLOGY
COST GROUP
 (SEE SEC. 3)
    RAIL YARD
TAL METALS, TCL ORGANICS
DRO AND RGBs
    SALVAGE YARD
pH. TAL METALS, TCL
ORGANICS, CYANIDE,
ASBESTOS
    SCRAP METAL
TAL METALS, TCL ORGANICS
    STEEL
    MANUFACTURING
    FACILITY
TAL METALS, TCL ORGANICS,
SULFIDE/SULFATE
    TIRE FIRE
BTEX,PAHs
SOLIDIFICATION
ON-SITE LANDFILL
OFF-SITE DISPOSAL
INCINERATION
SOLVENT EXTRACTION
BIOREMEDIATION
INCINERATION

SOLIDIFICATION
ON-SITE LANDFILL
OFF-SITE DISPOSAL
SOIL WASHING
SOLVENT EXTRACTION
BIOREMEDIATION
INCINERATION
NEUTRALIZATION

SOLIDIFICATION
ON-SITE LANDFILL
OFF-SITE DISPOSAL
SOIL WASHING
SOLVENT EXTRACTION
BIOREMEDIATION
INCINERATION

SOLIDIFICATION
ON-SITE LANDFILL
OFF-SITE DISPOSAL
SOIL WASHING
SOLVENT EXTRACTION
BIOREMEDIATION
NEUTRALIZATION
INCINERATION

SOLIDIFICATION
ON-SITE LANDFILL
OFF-SITE DISPOSAL
THERMAL DESORPTION
SOLVENT EXTRACTION
BIOREMEDIATION
VACUUM EXTRACTION
     A
     B
     C
     D
     D
     D
     E

     A
     B
     C
     D
     D
     D
     E
     F

     A
     B
     C
     D
     D
     D
     E

     A
     B
     C
     D
     D
     D
     F
     E

     A
     B
     C
     D
     D
     D
     D
SATA0301341 BFcleanup9/97

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                        BROWNFIELDS CLEANUP FACT SHEET
      INDUSTRY/SITE
                           CONTAMINANTS
                               CLEANUP
                              TECHNOLOGY
                     COST GROUP
                      (SEE SEC. 3)
   TANNING FACILITY
TAL METALS, TCL ORGANICS,
SULFIDE/SULFATE, pH,
CYANIDE
   WOOD TREATING
   FACILITY
CCA, SEMIVOLATILE, DI-OXINE
SOLIDIFICATION
ON-SITE LANDFILL
OFF-SITE DISPOSAL
SOIL WASHING
SOLVENT EXTRACTION
BIOREMEDIATION
NEUTRALIZATION
INCINERATION

SOLIDIFICATION
ON-SITE LANDFILL
OFF-SITE DISPOSAL
SOIL WASHING
INCINERATION
BIOREMEDIATION
DECHLORINATION
A
B
C
D
D
D
F
E

A
B
C
D
E
D
D
SATA0301341BFcleanup9/97

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                             BROWNFIELDS CLEANUP FACT SHEET
      NOTES:
      1. General
       It should be noted that the actual selection of a cleanup technology will be dependent on community
       input, cleanup goals, site conditions and situations, the level and extent of contamination,
       the cost of equipment, materials and labor, and the future use of the site.

      The approach and procedures presented in this document are intended solely for informational
      purposes. They are not intended, nor can they be relied upon to create any rights enforceable
      by any party in litigation with the United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). EPA officials
      may decide to follow the approach and procedures provided in this document, or to act at variance
      with the approach and procedures, based on an analysis of site circumstances. The agency also
      reserves the right to change this fact sheet at any time without public notice.

      2. Abbreviations
      ACM              Asbestos-Containing Material
      BTEX             Benzene, Toluene, Ethylbenzene and Xylene
      CCA               Chromium, Copper, Arsenic
      DRO              Diesel Range Organics
      GRO              Gasoline Range Organics
      PAH               Polynuclear Aromatic Hydrocarbon
      PCB               Polychlorinated Biphenyl
      TAL               Target Analyte List
      TCL               Target Compound List (Volatile, Semivolatile and Pesticide/PCBs)
      TPH               Total Petroleum Hydrocarbon
      TNT               Trinitrotoluene
      UXO              Unexploded Ordnance

      3. Cost Category
      A.  Solidification (on-site) cost (including excavation and mixing) for 100 foot long by 100 foot wide
          by 15 foot deep area  using cement lime is approximately $150,000 or $470 per ton.

      B.  On-site land disposal  cost (including excavation, transportation and back filling of the excavated
          area) for an area 100 foot by 100 foot is approximately $70,000 to $100,000.

      C.  Off-site Disposal Cost:
          Waste characterization                           $1,000 to $1,500 per sample
          Transportation, one truck load, 250 miles one way    $1,200 per truck load

          Treatment and disposal of contaminated soil (no free liquid)
          Inorganic Waste                                 $600 to $1,000  per ton
          Organic Waste                                  $400 to $1,200  per ton
          Inorganic and Organic Waste                      $500 to $1,600  per ton
          Pesticide Waste                                 $1,500 to $1,700 per ton
SATA0301341BFcleanup9/97

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                            BROWNFIELDS CLEANUP FACT SHEET
         Treatment and disposal of contaminated liquid
          Inorganic Waste                               $900 to $1,100 per ton
          Organic Waste                                $850 to $1,150 per ton
          Inorganic and Organic Waste                    $1,000 to $1,200 per ton
          Pesticide Waste                               $1,200 to $1,500 per ton

       D.  Cost for remediation using these technologies varies according to the volume of the contaminated
          soil, the number of contaminants and the concentration of contaminants present in the treatment
          media. Without knowing the site details no cost could be provided for this document.

       E.  Cost of incineration of bulk solid by Rotary Kiln is approximately $800 to $2,000 per ton.

       F  Soil with low pH can be treated with hydrated lime. Approximate cost of treatment is
          $300 per acre including the cost of lime, equipment and manpower.

       G.  Cost of off-site disposal (no treatment) to a landfill is approximately $100 to $200 per ton.
SATA0301341 BFcleanup9/97

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