Ecological Research Series
                          WATER  QUALITY:
Western  Fish  Toxicology Station and
                  Western Oregon Rivers
                          Environmental Research Laboratory
                         Office of Research and Development
                        U.S. Environmental Protection Agency
                               Duluth, Minnesota  55804

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                 RESEARCH REPORTING SERIES

 Research reports of the Office of Research and Development, U.S. Environmental
 Protection Agency,  have been grouped into  five series. These five broad
 categories were established to facilitate further development and application of
 environmental technology. Elimination of traditional grouping was consciously
 planned to foster technology transfer and a maximum interface in related fields.
 The five series are:

      1.    Environmental Health Effects Research
      2.    Environmental Protection Technology
      3.    Ecological Research
      4.    Environmental Monitoring
      5.    Socioeconomic  Environmental Studies

 This report has been assigned to the ECOLOGICAL RESEARCH series. This series
 describes research on the effects  of  pollution on humans, plant and  animal
 species, and materials. Problems are assessed for their long- and short-term
 influences. Investigations include formation, transport, and pathway studies to
 determine the fate of pollutants and their effects. This work provides the technical
 basis for setting standards to minimize undesirable changes in living organisms
 in the aquatic, terrestrial, and atmospheric environments.
This document is available to the public through the National Technical Informa-
tion Service, Springfield, Virginia 22161.

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                                         EPA-600/3-76-077
                                         September 1976
 WATER QUALITY:   WESTERN FISH TOXICOLOGY STATION

            AND  WESTERN OREGON RIVERS
                       by

               Donald F.  Samuel son
    Environmental  Research Laboratory-Duluth
        Western Fish Toxicology Station*
            Corvallis, Oregon  97330
(^Western Fish Toxicology Station is now attached
to the Corvallis Environmental  Research Laboratory.
Corvallis, Oregon  97330)
        ENVIRONMENTAL RESEARCH LABORATORY
       OFFICE OF RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT
      U.S. ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY
            DULUTH, MINNESOTA  55804

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                         DISCLAIMER
     This report has been reviewed by the Environmental Research
Laboratory, Duluth, Minnesota, U. S. Environmental  Protection Agency,
and approved for publication.  Mention of trade names or commercial
products does not constitute endorsement or recommendation for use.
                                11

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                               ABSTRACT
     Seasonal variation in water quality was compared for the Western
Fish Toxicology Station (WFTS), Corvallis, Oregon, the adjacent Willamette
River and approximately forty major western Oregon rivers from 1972 thru
1974.

     Water temperature patterns of the Willamette River and the WFTS
well were similar (range, 4.6-20.0C).  While both displayed seasonal
trends, well water lagged 7-10 days behind the river in both temperature
increases and decreases.  Dissolved oxygen values in both the river and
well water were inversely related to temperature.  Average dissolved
oxygen concentrations were higher in the river (10.4 mg/1) than in the
well water  (4.1 mg/1).  Hydrogen ion concentration (pH) was low in the
well water  (range, 6.6-7.0; median, 6,8) compared to the river (range,
7.0-7.8; median, 7.40).  River water was considered to be "soft" with
a mean hardness and alkalinity of 22 mg/1 and 23 mg/1 respectively,
while the well water ranged between "soft to moderately hard" (mean
hardness, 34 mg/1; mean alkalinity, 31 mg/1).  High Willamette River
discharges  (above Corvallis) were also followed by a 7-10 day lag in
corresponding sharp peaks of total hardness, alkalinity and certain
cations (Ca++, Mg++ and Na+) and anions  (504=, HC03~, HO^ and d") in
the well water.  Major cation and anion concentrations were low overall.
Trace metals, with the exception of river iron, manganese and zinc,
were found to be at or near detection limits.  River iron and manganese
concentrations were approximately 10 times greater than those found in
the well (mean river Fe, 736 yg/1; Mn5 30.7 yg/1; mean well water Fe,
83 yg/1; Mn 3.1 yg/1).  River zinc had a mean of 9.4 yg/1, while the
well water mean concentration was 5.1 yg/1.

     The Station's research water quality was similar in nearly all
respects to the Willamette and other western Oregon river samples.
A typical western Oregon stream was found to have a near neutral to
slightly acid pH, an alkalinity and hardness of between 10-50 mg/1,
a temperature range of 6-19C, a dissolved oxygen range of 9.0-12.0 mg/1,
and a relatively low concentration of the trace metals Cd, Cu and Zn.
                                   m

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                            CONTENTS

                                                      Page
           Abstract                                   iii
           List of Figures                             vl
           Acknowledgments                           viii

Section

  I        SUMMARY AND CONCLUSIONS                      1
  II       INTRODUCTION                                 3
  III      DESCRIPTION OF STUDY AREAS                   4
  IV       METHODS                                     12
  V        RESULTS AND DISCUSSION                      16
  VI       LITERATURE CITED                            38
  VII      APPENDIX                                    40

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                                FIGURES

No.                                                              Page

 1    Site layout of Western Fish Toxicology Station                5

 2   Western Fish Toxicology Station well  description              6

 3   Willamette River Basin                                        8

 4   Willamette River and major tributaries                        9

 5   (a) Diel and seasonal fluctuation of Willamette              17
     River water temperature (C)

     (b) A comparison of Willamette River and WFTS                17
     well water temperature (C) with mean ambient air
     temperature (C)

 6   Relationship between daily precipitation (inches)            18
     at Corvallis,  Oregon, and mean daily discharge
     (cfs X 1000) for the Willamette River from
     January 1972 thru April 1974

 7   Seasonal variation of mean turbidity (Jackson                19
     Turbidity Units) for the Willamette River and WFTS
     well from June 1972 thru April 1974

 8   Comparison of dissolved oxygen (mg/1) and water              20
     temperature (C) for the Willamette River and
     Western Fish Toxicology Station well  from March 1972
     thru April 1974

 9   Relationship between daily total alkalinity                  22
     (mg/1  as CaCOs), total hardness (mg/1 as CaCOa)
     and river discharge (cfs X 1000) for the Willamette
     River and WFTS well from January 1972 thru April 1974

10   Comparison of hydrogen ion concentration (pH)                23
     between the Willamette River and WFTS well from
     April  1972 thru April 1974

11    Seasonal variation of mean weekly calcium and                24
     magnesium concentrations (mg/1) for the Willamette
     River and WFTS well from April 1972 thru April 1974

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No.                                                              Page

12   Monthly average sodium and potassium concentrations          26
     (mg/1) for the Willamette River and WFTS well  from
     April  1972 thru April 1974

13   Annual fluctuations of mean dissolved chloride               27
     (mg/1) for the Willamette River and WFTS well  from
     April  1972 thru April 1974

14   Seasonal  comparison of monthly mean nitrate, nitrite, and    28
     ammonia concentrations (mg/1) for the Willamette
     River  and WFTS well from February 1972 thru April  1974

15   Dissolved sulfate (mg/1) for the Willamette River  and        29
     WFTS well from October 1972 thru April  1974

16   Suspended plus dissolved solids (mg/1)  for the               30
     Willamette River and WFTS well from April 1972
     thru April 1974

17   Quarterly sampling stations on major western Oregon          33
     rivers

18   Quarterly summary of pH, total alkalinity (mg/1  as           35
     CaCOs) and total hardness (mg/1 as CaCOs) for  major
     western Oregon streams (1972-1973)

19   Annual summary of basic chemical and trace metal             36
     concentrations and their relative frequencies  for
     western Oregon streams from December 1972 thru
     September 1973
                                 VI 1

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                            ACKNOWLEDGMENTS
     Thanks are given to James L.  Fendrick, Irene M.  Niemczak, and
Margaret E. Swanson for their assistance in the laboratory and data
analysis.   Thanks are also due to  Drs.  Alan V.  Nebeker, Gary A.
Chapman, and Mr. Robert C. Trippel  for  their technical  advice and
critical review of the data.

     The water quality and daily discharge records and  precipitation
data supplied by the U.S.  Geological  Survey and U.S.  National Weather
Service, Corvallis, Oregon, was appreciated.  The services of the
U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, Portland, Oregon  are also acknowledged.
                                VI 1 1

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                               SECTION I

                        SUMMARY AND CONCLUSIONS
1.  The water temperature patterns of the Willamette River and Western
Fish Toxicology Station's well water were similar.  Both displayed
seasonal trends; however, well water temperature increases and decreases
lagged behind the river by 7-10 days.

2.  Dissolved oxygen in the WFTS well and Willamette River varied
inversely with water temperature and followed a seasonal trend.

3.  Willamette River discharge had a major but indirect influence on
well water quality.  High discharge was followed 7-10 days later by
corresponding sharp peaks in total alkalinity, hardness and certain
cations (Ca++, Mg++ and Na+) and anions (SO^, HC03~, N03~ and C1-) in
the well water.

4.  Hydrogen ion concentration (pH) was low in the well (range, 6.6-7.0;
median, 6.8) as compared to the river (range, 7.0-7.8; median, 7.4).
This slightly acid condition probably enhanced the leaching and
solubilizing effect in the ground, contributing to the increased mineral
and nutrient levels found in the well water.

5.  Dissolved Ca++, Mg++ and Na+ were more abundant in well water and
showed moderate seasonal variation.

6.  Nitrate levels in the river varied directly with discharge,
whereas well nitrates followed the same indirect relationship as
alkalinity and hardness.  River and well sulfates and chlorides were
similar in both concentration and annual variation.

7.  Concentrations of river and well trace elements (Cd, Cr, Co, Cu,
Pb, Hg and Ni) were in close agreement.   Iron and manganese concen-
trations were found to be approximately ten times greater in river
water than in well water, while river zinc was twice that of the well.
River Fe,  Cr, Cu, Mn and Ni displayed seasonal trends.

8.  Western Oregon river water quality was similar to that of the
WFTS laboratory water supply.  Annual temperature variation for all
streams was between 6.4-19.2 C.   Dissolved oxygen, which varied
inversely with temperature, ranged between 9.4-12.0 mg/1.   Hydrogen
ion concentration indicated some seasonal  variation (range 6.61-8.30).

9.  Alkalinity and hardness in western Oregon streams showed no
seasonal trend but did coorelate well with geographical location.
Northwestern Oregon streams had an alkalinity and hardness of between
10-30 mg/1, while those of southwest Oregon ranged between 31-80 mg/1.

                                   1

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10.   Trace elements (Cd,  Cu and Zn)  were found to  be relatively low
in concentration.   Seventy-five percent of the streams sampled had a
Cd concentration of <0.01  yg/1.  Mean copper and  zinc levels  were
found to be 1.8 yg/1  and  2.4 yg/1  respectively.

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                              SECTION II

                             INTRODUCTION


     The Pacific Northwest exhibits a wide range of water quality
which is influenced by an equally wide range of geological  and
climatological factors and broad land use patterns (Highsmith, 1968).
Since the chemical and physical  properties of these waters  are in a
constant state of change, it is necessary to establish environmental
background levels of naturally occurring constituents as well  as
suspected pollutants in order to protect aquatic life inhabiting
these waters.

     The availability and subsequent monitoring and control  of a
high quality water supply are of critical importance to a fishery
research activity.  At the Western Fish Toxicology Station  (WFTS),
a variety of aquatic organisms,  which include different life stages,
are experimentally exposed to toxic metals and various other pollutants
added to the natural water supply.  The toxicity of substances added
often depends upon substances already present in the receiving waters.
Therefore, it is necessary to consider the influence of such factors
as temperature, pH, dissolved oxygen, alkalinity and hardness  on the
solubility and toxic activity of the material being tested.   For
example, an increase in the hardness and/or alkalinity may  reduce
the toxic effect of a metal  in solution while a decrease enhances it
(Cairns and Scheier, 1957).   Low pH usually increases the solubility
of a metallic substance, thereby presenting a more toxic situation
(Sprague, 1964) although this was not the case for zinc (Mount, 1966).

     Natural and synthetic organic constituents found in water also
affect the toxicity of a given metal.  Some compounds act as chelators
and others form ligands which bind metals into complexes, thus
reducing their toxicity (Remey,  1956; Chau, 1973).

     Developing tolerance criteria to establish "safe-level" concen-
trations of toxicants is most often accomplished using laboratory
water.  Attempts to apply these criteria to another water system
directly is inadequate unless the water quality of both waters has
been well defined.  Many of the water quality data available from
western Oregon streams in the past were incomplete and for  many
variables absent altogether.  Available data on trace elements were
especially lacking.

     This study was designed to summarize and compare seasonal
characteristics of water quality in the WFTS well  (which constitutes
the primary water supply of the Station), the adjacent Willamette
River, and to a more limited extent, approximately forty western
Oregon rivers.

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                              SECTION III

                      DESCRIPTION OF STUDY AREAS
WESTERN FISH TOXICOLOGY STATION

     Western Fish Toxicology Station is located approximately three
miles southeast of downtown Corvallis, Oregon, and two-hundred meters
west of the Willamette River (Figure 1).

     Water Supply and Distribution:  Water is obtained from two wells
located in Willamette Park about 100 feet (30 m) from the bank of the
Willamette River.  Wells number one and two were drilled in June 1968
and February 1971 respectively.  Figure 2 describes both wells in terms
of the soil conditions, their relative depths, and their relationship
to the river.

     Water is pumped from number two well via 1050 feet (315 m) of
6-inch (15 cm) PVC pipe using a Peerless submersible pump.   A second
submersible pump in well number one provides a back up water supply.
A pressure switch in the water line at the main building automatically
starts the number one pump when the pressure drops below a  pre-set
level.  Distribution of water throughout the laboratory complex is
also via PVC pipe.

     Water Treatment:  Incoming well water temperatures vary from 2C
in January-February to 10C in August-September.  Dissolved oxygen
and pH of the well water entering the laboratory is low and the water
is somewhat supersaturated (D.O. -3.0 ppm, pH -6.8, percent gas
saturation - 110%).  Aeration is provided by subsequent pumping and
jetting of water to saturate the water with oxygen, raise the pH and
reduce total supersaturation.

     Much of the water is treated with ultraviolet light to control
fish pathogens.  Temperature control (both chilling and heating) is
used to maintain experiments at desired temperatures.  Reverse osmosis
is used during periods of atypical  hardness (>30 mg/1) to provide low
hardness water for blending with ambient water for metal toxicity tests


WILLAMETTE RIVER BASIN

     The Willamette River indirectly supplies the water for WFTS
wells and influences, to a degree,  the quality of the water supply.

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S.E HQOnNinHl AVENUF
                                  ORATORY
                                       CITY OF CORVALLI8
                                  TAYLOR WATER TREATMENT PLANT
                WESTERN FISH
                 TOXICOLOGY
                   STATION
   Figure  1.  Site layout  of Western Fish  Toxicology Station,

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        WILLAMETTE PARK
         (CITY OF CORVALLIS)
CONCRETE WELL  PITS
                    ef
STEEL  WELL CASING
  STAINLESS STEEL
  INTAKE  SCREENS

STEEL WELL CASING
  WITH END CAPPED
12
     MED.  GRAVEL
   WITH SILT & CLAY
                               SANDY  G RAVEL
                               MEDIUM GRAVEL
                                                -200
     CLAY & GRAVEL
                               CLAY
                               SOIL TYPES
                      -180



                      -170

                     ELEVATIONS
                   FT. ABOVE MSL
                                    WILLAMETTE RIVER
                                          (MILE 134)
                                                                  JAN  '74 FLOOD 218.5'
                                                                         JAN  '72 FLOOD 217.5'
_ NORMAL WINTER-SPRING
  RIVER  LEVEL RANGE
                                                                          ~ NORMAL SUMMER-FALL
                                                                            - RIVER LEVEL RANGE
                           W.F.T.S.  WELLS - CROSS SECTION
                Figure 2.   Western Fish  Toxicology Station well description.

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     The Willamette River Basin (Figure 3) is approximately 150 miles
in length and 25 miles wide.  It is bordered by mountains on both sides.
On the west, peaks of the Coast Range are 2,000-3,000 feet high.  On
the east, the Cascade Range reaches elevations of 5,000-10,000 feet.
At lower elevations the mountains are heavily forested, primarily with
Douglas-fir.  Lakes, rock outcroppings, and meadows appear at the higher
elevations in the Cascades.

     Most of the Willamette River water originates in the mountains and
flows down into the river via major tributaries (Figure 4).


     The Willamette Valley is relatively flatits primary land use being
agricultural.  Willamette River water at the WFTS comes primarily from
several main tributaries in the southern part of the Willamette Valley,
namely, the coast and middle fork of the Willamette River, the McKenzie,
the Long Tom and Muddy Rivers.

     The Willamette River has an annual runoff of 26 million acre feet.
Almost 75 percent of this total  stream runoff occurs between November-
March and less than 10 percent between June and September.

     Historically, Willamette River water quality has received much
attention.  In the late 1920's the river was so polluted that complete
depletion of dissolved oxygen was noted during a low-flow summer period
around Portland, Oregon (Willamette Basin Task Force Study, 1969).  The
principal causes were untreated municipal and industrial wastes being
discharged directly into the river.  Since then, municipalities and
industry have had to comply with pollution abatement measures set forth
by the Oregon Department of Environmental Quality.  These regulations
require at least secondary treatment for domestic wastes such that a
dissolved oxygen content of 5.0 ppm could be maintained at all times
in the Willamette River and Portland, Oregon,harbor.


WESTERN OREGON RIVER DRAINAGES (GENERAL DESCRIPTION)

     Most western Oregon rivers and their tributaries are used as
migratory routes, temporary habitats and spawning areas for anadromous
fishes.  These streams also serve as a permanent home for many resident
warm and cold water species.

     Western Oregon water quality is considered to be good.  In any
stream, however, the governing quality factor is the worst condition
that can exist, not the average.  For example, low discharge, high
water temperature and low dissolved oxygen usually occur at the same time,

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                                                        Mt. Hood
Sourc*: Pacific Northwest Riv*r Basinm Commission
           Figure 3.   Willamette  River Basin

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                                                     M -L. Middle South
                                                     rth Sister Sister
                                                                              SPRINGFIELD/ EUGENE
                                 Mt. Jefferson
                                                                                        WESTERN FISH
                                                                                        TOXICOLOGY
                                                                                        STATION
Source Pacific Northwest River Basins Commission
                     Figure 4.  Willamette River  and Major Tributaries.

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     Principal  factors affecting water quality in western Oregon streams
are climate,geomorphology of the basins,  soil  conditions, mineral
deposits and land use effects.
CLIMATE

     The Willamette lowlands have slightly larger annual  temperature
ranges (higher maxima and lower minima) than Oregon coastal  regions.
Summer daily maximums are 70-80F and night time minimums of 50-60F
are usual in the Willamette Valley.

     Precipitation ranges from less  than 1-inch per month in the summer
to a mean of 6-9 inches per month in the winter for a total  of 35-45
inches annually.  Lowlands in southern Oregon such as the Rogue Valley
are more cut off from the marine influence than other lowlands by
continuous- terrain barriers.  They experience warmer summers and cooler
winters and lower annual  precipitation totals (Highsmith, 1968).
GEOMOPHOLOGY, MINERALS, AND SOIL CONDITIONS

     The bedrock at WFTS, and along the Willamette River and other
western Oregon drainages consists of Cenozoic unmetamorphosed marine
sedimentary strata.  Soils of the Willamette Lowlands are dark, silty,
nearly level and somewhat acid.   These soils are light in weight,
changing to clay with depth.

     Soils of the coastal areas  contain a high content of organic matter.
They are dark and strongly acid-saturated.   Clay content may be high in
narrow horizons.  These soils are also light in weight, friable and
porous.

     Mineral deposits are varied and widespread.  Except for the south-
western Oregon lowlands which have significant deposits of copper, gold
and zinc, the remaining study area had comparatively small deposits of
these minerals.
LAND USE EFFECTS ON WESTERN OREGON WATER QUALITY

     The diversity of land use practices in western Oregon substantially
affects the physical and chemical environment of its streams.

     The production and transport of sediment constitutes the most
significant impairment to water quality resulting from land use (Willamette
Basin Task Force Study, 1969).  Sediment is damaging both while suspended
                                    10

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and after settling.  The major single source of sediment is bank cutting
caused by flood flows? however, stripping of vegetation cover and massive
disturbance of soil from urban and rural  development, highway construction,
and,to a limited extent, logging activities, have a major input to
sedimentation in our streams.

     During winter months, pulp mills discharge nearly all  of their wastes.
Additional  organic material is discharged from storm sewers and bypasses
from overloaded sanitary sewage treatment plants; however,,  dilution is
usually adequate to prevent oxygen depletion.

     Nutrients are carried to streams from a number of sources:  agri-
culture, cattle (feed lots and stock watering), rain, food  processing
and municipal wastes.  About two-thirds of the phosphates and about twelve
percent of the nitrates are contributed by agriculture.  The remaining
amounts are divided between the other sources.  The majority of these
nutrients flow into Oregon rivers during  periods of winter  runoff.
Temperatures are low enough and flows high enough to prevent major
eutrophication problems.

     Toxic elements and related compounds are not normally  found in western
Oregon rivers; however, accidental spills and improper application of
pesticides, certain minerals, and petroleum products do result in infrequent
and localized pollution and fish kills.

     Coastal streams, except near their mouths and in estuaries, are of
limited usefulness to industry.  This is  due to low summer  flows and
high temperatures.  Wastes from natural surface runoff and  logging
operations, small  sawmills and log rafting cause minor changes in the
water quality of these areas.
                                     11

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                              SECTION IV

                                METHODS
SAMPLING PROCEDURE

     Routine water samples and field measurements were collected at
various intervals, depending on their nature in support of the
Station's research.

     Physical characteristics such as wet and dry bulb air temperature,
Willamette River and well  water temperature and discharge were measured
daily.  Water samples for  chemical analysis such as dissolved oxygen,
pH, total alkalinity and hardness were also collected daily.   Ambient
levels of ammonia and trace heavy metals, in the Station's water supply
and individual test tanks, were monitored on a schedule compatible
with the research work load.

     Remaining chemical  characteristics were collected, preserved and
delivered to Consolidated  Laboratory Services, Pacific Northwest
Environmental Research Laboratory, National Environmental  Research
Center (NERC), Corvallis,  Oregon, for analysis on a weekly basis.

     Field sampling on western Oregon rivers for temperature, D.O., pH,
hardness, alkalinity and heavy metals was conducted once quarterly
during 1972-1973.

PHYSICAL CHARACTERISTICS

     Air and water temperatures were taken daily with a centigrade
glass thermometer or continuously on a Taylor, manually wound, thermo-
graph.  Willamette River stage, in feet above sea level, was  correlated
with U.S. Geological Survey's discharge records for the reporting period.

     Rainfall records were supplied by the U.S. Department of Commerce,
Environmental Science Services Administration, National Weather Service,
Corvallis, Oregon.

CHEMICAL CHARACTERISTICS

     All chemical analyses were carried out according to Standard
Methods-APHA 13th Ed., 1971, unless otherwise stated.

     Dissolved oxygen was  determined using a Yellow Springs Instruments
Model 54-RC dissolved oxygen meter equipped with a B.O.D. stirring probe.
Daily, or in some cases, twice daily, standardization of the  dissolved
oxygen meter was performed using the azide modification of the Winkler
                                   12

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method.  Hydrogen ion concentration was measured with either a Beckman
Zeromatic SS-3 or Orion Model 701 glass electrode pH meter.  Hardness
was determined using the EDTA titrametric method (KCN used as inhibitor
for Fe).  Alkalinity was determined potentiometrically with 0.02N H2S04,
titrating to end points of pH 4.2 and 4.5.

     Nitrates and nitrites were determined by the automated cadmium
copper reduction method.  Within 15 minutes after collection, samples
were preserved by the addition of 40 mg HgCl? per liter.  Nitrates
were reduced to nitrites and total nitrites (those originally present
plus reduced nitrites) were determined by the azo dye intensity method.
The sameprocedure was then carried out without the Cd-Cu reduction step
for original nitrite.  Separate nitrate-nitrite values were then readily
obtainable.

     Ammonia was determined by an automated method using a Technicon
Autoanalyzer.  Samples were preserved in the same manner as for N02
and ^03.  The intensity of the idophenol blue color, formed by the
reaction of ammonia with alkaline phenol hypochlorite, was measured.
Sodium nitroprusside was used to intensify the blue color.

     Chloride was determined by mercuric nitrate titration.  Dilute
mercuric nitrite solution was added to an acidified sample in the
presence of mixed diphenylcarbazone-bromophenol  blue indicator.  The
end point of the titration was the formation of the blue-violet mercury
diphenylcarbazone complex.

     Sulfate was determined by the turbidometric method.  Sulfate ion
was converted to a barium sulfate suspension and the resulting turbidity
was determined on a Hach Turbidimeter and compared to a curve prepared
from standard sulfate solutions.

     Suspended and dissolved solids were determined by suction filtering
a well-mixed sample through a 4.7 cm diameter glass fiber filter (Gelman
Type A, without organic binder).  The filter and filtrate were dried to
a constant weight at 180C, the residue being the filterable dissolved
solids.  A Gooch crucible and glass fiber filter was used to measure
suspended solids.  After filtration, the crucible and disc were dried
in an oven at 103-105C for 1 hour, desiccated and weighed.

     Turbidity was measured by a nephilometer which compared the
intensity of light scattered by the sample under defined conditions
with the intensity of light scattered by a standard reference suspension,
using a Hach Model 2100 Turbidimeter.  Readings taken were in Jackson
Turbidity Units.

     Total calcium, magnesium, sodium, and potassium were determined
directly on unstabilized samples by atomic absorption spectrophotometry
                                   13

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using an Instrument Laboratories Model 353 A.A. spectrophototneter.
To mask interferences due to phosphate, sulfate and aluminum (in deter-
mining calcium and magnesium), lanthanum chloridel/ was added at the
rate of 1  ml of LaCl3 solution for each 10 ml of sample volume.

     Total  trace metals such as Cd, Cr, Co, Cu, Fe, Pb, Mn, Ni and Zn
were preserved at the time of collection with 25 ml concentrated HN03
per liter.   Samples were concentrated by evaporation (except for Fe
when concentrations were >50 yg/liter).  A 200 ml aliquot of well-mixed
sample w,as transferred to a covered 250 ml Griffin Beaker.  The sample
was evaporated to dryness overnight (temperature set low enough to
prevent boiling).  The beaker was then cooled, 1.0 ml of HMO? added,
and the volume was adjusted to 10.0 ml with distilled water (20 X
concentration factor).  Any residue still  remaining in the beaker,
prior to volume adjustment, was broken up and dissolved by sonication.
Samples were then analyzed on an Instrument Laboratories Model 353 A.A.
spectrophotometer.

     Total  mercury was determined using the flameless cold vapor atomic
absorption method.  Water samples were nitric acid-preserved as for
other trace metals.  The mercury was reduced to the elemental  state
and vaporized from solution in a closed system.  The mercury vapor
passed through a cell positioned in the light path of an atomic
absroption spectrophotometer.  Mercury concentration was measured
as a function of Absorbance (peak height).
FIELD SAMPLES

     Water samples collected from western Oregon streams were analyzed
in the field for temperature, dissolved oxygen and pH.  Total hardness
and alkalinity were determined within 24 hours after sampling, in the
laboratory.  Trace metals (cadmium, copper and zinc) were analyzed
either by flame using a Perkin-Elmer 403 or by the Perkin-Elmer 305B
and 403 A.A. spectrophotometer equipped with the H6A-2000 heated graphite
atomizer.  The heated graphite atomizer afforded certain advantages for
examining background levels of Cd, Cu, and Zn such as direct analysis
(no pre-concentration), improved sensitivity (up to 100 times better
than those obtained previously by flame A.A.) and extremely low
detection limits (that minimum concentration detectable from zero)
(Fernandez and Manning, 1971).  Graphite furnace operating conditions
are 1isted in Table 1.
I/ LaCl3 solution was made by adding 58.0 g LaOs in small portions into
   500 ml concentrated HC1 and diluting to 1.0 liter with distilled H20.
                                   14

-------
Table 1.
Atomic absorption spectrophotometer and graphite furnace operating conditions for analyzing ambient
concentrations of cadmium, copper and zinc in western Oreqon rivers.

Element
Cadmium
Copper
Zinc

i  
on Element
Cadmi urn
Copper
Zinc
Sample
Volume
(ul)
25
25
5

Flushing
Gas
Argon or N
Argon or N2
Argon or N

Wave Length
2288
3246
2138

Gas Flow
(1 ites/min)
3
3
3
Absolute ,.
Sensitivity Detection Limits (uq/l)-'
(gram X lO""12) HGA 2000 Flame A A
1.3 0.02 1.0
60 0.10 2.0
1.8 0.02 2.0
HGA -
Gas Dry
Interrupt Temp. (C) Time (sec.)
on 200 10
on 200 10
off 200 10
Absorption Recorder Chart
Slit
Width
4
4
5 (4)-/
Mode
(X Abs)
3
3
2 (1)
2000 Programmed Sequence

Temp. (
400
1000
400
Char
C) Time (sec.)
12
12
10
Range Speed
(mvp/ (mm/mi n)
20 20
10 20
10 (50) 10 (20)
Settings
Atomize
Temp. (C) Time (sec. )
1600 10
2600 10
1500 11
I/ Detection limits using the HGA-2000 heated graphite atomizer on the Perkin-Elmer  403  and  305B  A.A.  spectrophotometer
   are compared with limits obtained using a 3-slot burner head on the Perkin  -Elmer 403 (Fernandez  and  Manning  1971).

2/ Operating parameters listed in parenthesis apply only to the Perkin-Elmer 403 A.A.  spectrophotometer  (using the
   HGA-2000).  All other parameters are applicable to both the Perkin-Elmer 403 and  305B.

-/ Recorder:  Perkin -Elmer Model 56.

-------
                               SECTION V

                        RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
PHYSICAL CHARACTERISTICS

     Weekly minimum, maximum and mean water temperatures are plotted
for the Willamette River in Figure 5a.  River water temperature
followed a seasonal trend.  The extreme range during the reporting
period was from a low of 3.5C (January 1973) to a high of 19.7C
(August 1973).  Greatest die! variation occurred during the months
of June-August and least from October-April.

     Mean water temperature for both the river and WFTS well closely
followed the mean ambient air temperature (Figure 5b).   While both
river and well temperature patterns were similar, the river displayed
somewhat higher high and lower low temperatures than the well.  There
was approximately 7-10 days lag time in well water response for both
temperature increases and decreases.  Figure 6 gives local precipitation
in inches, and Willamette River discharge in cubic, feet per second for
1972-1974.  Discharge was primarily influenced by rainfall and snow
melt from the western Cascades and eastern coastal ranges.  Eight
reservoirs on the upper Willamette River and McKenzie River are used
primarily for flow regulation and valley flood control  (U.S. G. S.
Water Resources Data for Oregon, 1972).

     Figure 7 compares turbidity for the river and well between June
1972 thru April 1974.  The turbidity of the well water, which was
essentially ground filtered river water, remained relatively constant
between May 1973 thru April 1974 (range 1-13; mean 6, Jackson Turbidity
Units) while the river was extremely variable (range 2-52; mean 14
Jackson Turbidity Units).
CHEMICAL CHARACTERISTICS

     Dissolved oxygen values from the well and river were inversely
related to temperature (Figure 8).  Dissolved oxygen in the river,
however, was higher overall than in the well with a range of 7.7-13.0
mg/1; mean, 10.4 mg/1.  The D.O. concentration of the well was
comparatively lower (range 1.8-8.5 mg/1; mean, 4.1 mg/1).  This was
attributed to two factors: (1) the depletion of oxygen as river water
filtered through river rock, sand, and soil into the well; and, (2)
the obvious lack of water movement within the well.  Hydrogen sulfide,
while not actually measured, was present in the wells at the time of
start-up; the sulfide gas being detectable by its characteristic
"rotten egg" odor.
                                   16

-------
   WILLAMETTE RIVER
                        ~0 '  N' 5  ' J' F  ' M ' A' M' J' J'  A '  3  ' 0  ' N' 0~

                                                  1973
U  A  M  J  J   A

              1972
Figure 5(a).


Figure 5(b).
            Diel  and seasonal fluctuation of Willamette  River
            water temperature ( C).

            A  comparison of Willamette River and WFTS well  water
            temperature ( C) with ambient air temperature  (C).
                                 17

-------
Figure 6.   Relationship between daily precipitation (inches)  at Corvallis,  Oregon,  and
           mean daily discharge (cfs X 10000)  for the Willamette River  from January 19>
           thru April 1974.

-------
   WILLAMETTE RIVER
                     F   M '  A  M
                                      A'S'O'N'D
Figure 7.  Seasonal variation  of  mean  turbidity (Jackson
           Turbidity Units)  for  the  Willamette River and
           WFTS well from  June 1972  thru April 1974.
                            19

-------
 13-

 12
 10-
  8-
  6-
  4-
2
ui 2-
                                                                                   WILLAMETTE RIVER
         	TEMPERATURE
                                                                                                      24
                                                                                                     -20
                                                                                                     -15
                                                                                                     -10
                                                                                                     -5
   O


   ui
X
o
in
m 10
a
  8-
                                                                                   WFTS WELL
         	INTAKE TEMPERATURE
  2-
   a:
   UJ
   0.
-205
   UI
                                                                                                      15
                                                                                                     -10
                                                                                                     -5
     MAMJJASO  N  ' D I  J  'F'M'A'M'J'J'A'S'O'N'D|J'F'M'A'M
                   1972
                                                           1973
                                                                                          1974
        Figure 8.  Comparison of dissolved oxygen  (mg/1) and water temperature (C) for  the
                   Willamette River  and Western  Fish Toxicology  Station well  from March  1972
                   thru  April 1974.

-------
     Daily total alkalinity and total hardness values are plotted
for the river and well against river discharge (Figure 9).  River
alkalinity and hardness remained relatively constant throughout the
reporting period (1972-1974); however, well alkalinity and hardness
varied with river discharge and followed a general seasonal trend.
There was a 7-10 day lag period between high discharge in the river
and subsequent peaks of alkalinity and hardness in the well.

     River water was considered to be soft with an annual hardness
range between 16-27 mg/1; mean, 22 mg/1.  Well hardness ranged between
"soft to moderately hard" with a range of 21-81 mg/1; mean, 34 mg/1.
The annual range of alkalinity for the river was 17-30 mg/1, with a
mean of 23 mg/1, while that of the well was 18-73 mg/1; mean, 31 mg/1.
Bicarbonate alkalinity (as CaCOs) was the major contributor to total
alkalinity (nearly 100%) as determined by the phenolphthalein
titration test (Section 102.4-5b, APHA Standard Methods, 13th Ed.).

     This close, but indirect, relationship between river discharge
and well alkalinity and hardness was explained as follows:  As ground
water infiltrated upward into the water table aquifer during high
discharge periods, major anions and cations were leached from the
subsurface layers.  When the river stage returned to its normal level,
water rich in Ca++, Mg++, Na+ and the corresponding S04=, HCOs-, N03-
and Cl~ ions were carried back to the well.  This explains the 7-10
day lag period between high discharges in the river and subsequent
sharp peaks of alkalinity and hardness in the well.

     While carbon dioxide itself was not monitored routinely, it was
considered to be present since pH values for the well were consistently
lower (more acidic) than those of the river (Figure 10).  The hydrogen
ion concentration of the well had an annual pH range of between 6.56-
6.98, median 6.80, while the river ranged between 7.00-7.80; a median
of 7.4.  Low well pH most likely enhanced the solubilizing and leaching
of minerals and their salts from the surrounding stratum.
MAJOR CATIONS

     Dissolved calcium and magnesium for the WFTS well, while relatively
low in concentration, showed a high degree of variability compared to
the Willamette River (Figure 11).  The well water values ranged from
lows of 5.5 Ca++ and 1.5 Mg++ (mg/1) in November 1973 to highs of 28.3
Ca++ and 4.8 Mg++ (mg/1) in March 1974, while the river remained
constant (4.0-6.5 Ca++, 1.5-2.0 Mg++ mg/1) during the entire reporting
period.   These data also indicated that a majority of the cationic
contribution to total hardness was due to the Ca++ ions.  Well water
calcium and magnesium concentrations both showed definite seasonal trends
                                    21

-------
Figure 9.   Relationship between daily total  alkalinity
           (mg/1  as CaC03), total hardness (mg/1 as
           and river discharge (cfs X 10000) for the
           Willamette River and WFTS well from January 1972
           thru April 1974.
                            22

-------
8.0-|	WILLAMETTE RIVER

      	 _WFTS WELL
7.0-
6.0.
             J  '  J  ' A '  S  '  0  ' N '  D  ' J  ' F '  M
                                                     M   J   J

                                                          1973
A '  S  ' 0  ' N '  D '  J
F '  M  ' A  '
                                                                                         1974
            Figure 10.  Comparison  of hydrogen ion concentration  (pH)  between the
                        Willamette  River and WFTS well from April  1972 thru April 1974.

-------
Figure 11.   Seasonal  variation of mean monthly calcium and magnesium
            concentrations (mg/1) for the Willamette River and WFTS
            well  from April  1972  thru April  1974.

-------
     Sodium and potassium concentrations were stable in the river
water but sodium levels in the well water increased following high
river discharge in December 1973 thru March 1974 (Figure 12).  These
low levels of sodium and potassium for the well (Na+ 3.0-10.0, mean
5.6 mg/1; K+ 0.5-1.1, mean 0.7 mg/1) and the river (Na+ 2.30-5.9,
mean 4.2 mg/1; K+ 0.6-1.2, mean 0.8 mg/1) are characteristic of
Pacific Northwest waters (Ground Water and Wells, 1966, 1st Ed.).


AN IONS

     Moderate seasonal trends were observed in dissolved chloride
concentrations which ranged from 3.0-21.0, mean 7.2 mg/1, in the well
and 2.0-13.0, mean 4.0 mg/1, in the river (Figure 13).

     Nitrates, nitrites and ammonia concentrations are plotted in
Figure 14.  Nitrates in both the well and river fluctuated seasonally,
ranging from 0.138-0.640, mean 0.257 mg/1 in the well and 0.004-0.430,
mean 0.112 mg/1 in the river.  The slightly higher nitrate concentration
in the well during the summer months of 1973 (as compared to summer
1972), was probably due to the greater amount of rainfall preceeding
the 1973 summer season.  It was presumed that nitrates entered the
river through land surface runoff.  Nitrates entered the well either
via leaching or direct percolation of nitrate rich water into the
aquifer through upstream and overlying soil  zones.

     Ammonia, to a lesser extent, showed the same trend while nitrites
were found to be virtually absent in the well and only in trace amounts
in the river.

     Dissolved sulfate values for the well and river indicated seasonal
variation (Figure 15).  Well water sulfates followed a trend similar
to hardness in well water; however, during the two-year reporting
period, detection limits of the analytical method varied, prohibiting
more conclusive results.  Nevertheless, during 1973 and 1974, sulfate
concentrations ranged from 1.2-27.0, mean 7.3 mg/1  in the well and
2.0-20.0, mean 7.0 mg/1 in the river.
SOLIDS

     Dissolved solids, in both the river and well, were the major
contributors toward total solids (Figure 16).  The only exception was
during the high runoff months (November 1973-May 1974) when suspended
and dissolved solids appeared in near equal concentrations in the river.
                                   25

-------
rv>
01
                    Figure 12.   Monthly average sodium and potassium concentrations  (mg/1) for

                                the Willamette River and WFTS well from April 1972 thru April 1974.

-------
  15-
        WILLAMETTE RIVER
ra
         WFTS WELL
  20-
   15-
   10-
                                                         1973
                                                                                      1974
Figure 13.   Annual  fluctuation  of mean dissolved chloride
             Willamette River and  the WFTS well from  April
(mg/1 ) for  the
1972 thru April
                                                                                       1974.

-------
WILLAUETTE RIVER
                                                           a
WFTS WELL


 D.O,
                 Jlfl
                                                      n
                                                   Jl
U   A  U   J  J   A  8   O

        1972
 Figure 14.   Seasonal comparison of monthly mean nitrate,
             nitrite, and  ammonia concentrations (mg/1)
             for the Willamette River and WFTS  well  from
             February 1972 thru April 1974.
                            28

-------
      WILLAMETTE RIVER
 5J
      WFTS WELL
20^

         1972
                                                              1974
       Figure 15.   Dissolved  sulfate (mg/1)  for the Willamette
                    River and  WFTS well  from  October 1972  thru
                    April 1974.
                                 29

-------
            200-
OO
o
            I50H
WILLAMETTE RIVER


|%30ISSOLVEO SOLIDS



fflglsLISPE N DEO SOLIDS
WFTS WELL


^^OlSSOLVED SOLIDS



H|sUSPENDED SOLIDS
                    M  '  J  '  J  '  A

                            1972

                                                                        1973
                                                                                                         1974
                     Figure  16.   Suspended plus dissolved solids  (mg/1) for  the Willamette River  and
                                  WFTS well from April  1972 thru April 1974.

-------
Suspended solids ranged between 1.0-92.0, mean 15.0 mg/1 for the river
and 0.8-5.0, mean 1.8 mg/1 for the well during the two-year reporting
period.  Corresponding dissolved solids ranged from 25.0-81.0, mean
52.0 mg/1 for the river and 34.0-146.0, mean 73.3 mg/1 for the well.
TRACE ELEMENTS

     Trace elements (cadmium, chromium, cobalt, copper, iron, lead,
manganese, mercury, nickel and zinc) were compared for the Willamette
River and WFTS well (Table 2).  With the exception of iron, manganese
and zinc, mean trace metal concentrations for the well and river were
in close agreement.  River iron and manganese concentrations were
approximately ten times greater than those found in the well; while
river zinc exceeded the well by a factor of two.  River iron displayed
a definite seasonal trend ranging from a low of 214 yg/1 in July 1973
to a high of 2,535 yg/1 in March 1974.  River chromium, copper, manganese
and nickel displayed only moderate seasonal variation having slightly
higher concentrations between November and March.  There was no indication
of a seasonal trend in trace elements found in well water.
 FIELD SAMPLES  (MAJOR WESTERN OREGON STREAMS)

     Figure 17 is a map of Oregon showing the sites where quarterly
water quality data were obtained during the reporting period.  Station
numbers on the map correspond to stations listed in the data section
 (Tables 11 thru 13).

     Quarterly mean temperatures and dissolved oxygen values for all
streams sampled during 1972-1973 are as follows:

Temp (C)
D.O. (mg/1)
Dec. 72 Mar. 73
6.4 7.8
12.0 11.7
Jun. 73 Sep.
19.2 14
9.4 10
73
.8
.0
     Temperature and dissolved oxygen varied inversely and followed a
seasonal trend.
                                    31

-------
          Table 2.  Summary of heavy netal data for the Willamette River and Western Fish Toxicology Station

                    from January 1972 through April 1974.
GO
ro
Metal
Cadmium
Chromium
Cobalt
Copper
Iron
Lead
Manganese
Mercury
Nickel
Zinc
Detection
Limit
(M/l )!/
0.2-1.0
0.4-1.0
0.5-2.0
0.2-1.0
2.0-40.0
2.0-5.0
1.0
0.5
1.0-2.0
1.0
No. of
Samples
68
69
65
71
70
70
70
62
69
70
WILLAMETTE
No. of
Positive
Occurances
1
41
17
71
70
29
70
27
51
70
RIVER
Cone
Min.
1.0
1.0
1.0
0.5
100.
2.0
12.5
0.5
1.0
1.0
. (-9/1
Max.
1.0
6.0
3.0
8.0
4300
15.0
100
11.0
8.0
52.0
Mean
1.0
2.4
1.6
3.3
736
5.8
30.7
1.8
2.6
9.4
No. of
Samples
75
77
70
75
75
76
76
70
73
75
WFTS WELL
No. of
Positive
Occurances
6
27
26
73
75
34
73
37
50
71
Cone
Min.
0.2
0.4
0.5
1 .0
18
2.0
1.0
0.5
1.0
1.0
"Max.
1.0
17.0
3.0
27.0
290
10.0
32.0
4.0
6.0
29.5
Mean
0.9
2.5
1.5
3.0
82
5.2
3.0
1.3
2.3
5.1
           I/
               Detection  limits  established by Consolidated Laboratory Services,  National  Environmental

               Research Center,  Corvallis,  Oregon.

-------
46 I'-
45C
43  
42C
44	
                                              KLAMATH FALLS
           m
        Figure 17.  Map showing quarterly sampling  stations
                    on major western Oregon  rivers.
                                  33

-------
     Figure 18 contains a quarterly summary of pH, total  alkalinity
and total hardness data obtained and gives the percentage of streams
sampled which had values within the indicated concentration ranges.
Southwestern Oregon streams (Umpqua River and southward)  were known
to have a somewhat higher pH,  alkalinity and hardness than north-
western Oregon streams (determined by a preliminary review of U.S.
EPA Storage and Retrieval Data for Western Oregon).  Alkalinity and
hardness concentrations showed no seasonal trends but confirmed the
north-south geographical effect.  Approximately eighty percent of
the rivers had an alkalinity and hardness between 10-30 mg/1.  All
of these were northwestern streams.  The remaining 20 percent were
essentially southwestern streams, with a range of 31-80 mg/1.  Hydrogen
ion concentration (pH) showed  a moderate seasonal trend,being somewhat
more acidic (pH 6.5-7.0) during late fall and winter.

     Figure 19 is a summary of basic chemical characteristics including
the trace metals (Cd, Cu and Zn) for all four quarters.  Trace metals
did not reflect a seasonal trend.  Seventy-five percent of the
streams sampled had a cadmium  concentration less than 0.01 yg/1 (17
positive occurances in a total of 106 samples).  The highest Cd
concentration found was 0.2 yg/1.  Of the 46 positive occurances for
copper (N = 108), the range was 0.2-5.0, mean 1.8 yg/1.  Zinc had the
highest number of positive occurances (76 of 110 total samples with a
range of 0.1-11.0, mean 2.4 yg/1).

     It was difficult to compare these trace metal concentrations with
similar data collected from other sources since reliable analytical
techniques for analyzing trace metals at these low detection levels
have only recently become available.
                                  34

-------
   KXh
       PH
                                                  n-TOTAL NUMBER OF STREAMS SAMPLED EACH QUARTER
~  75-
ui

o
Ul

RANGE OF CONCENTRATION


 MAR 1973 (30/o>
RANGE OF CONCENTRATION

 JUNE 1973 (30/o)
RANGE OF CONCENTRATION

  SEPT 1973 (19%)
       Figure  18.   Quarterly summary  of pH,  total  alkalinity (mg/1  as

                     CaC03)  and  total hardness (mg/1 as  CaC03) for  major

                     western Oregon streams  (1972-1973).   The  percentage
                     of streams  is indicated  in parentheses following
                     collection  date.
                                          35

-------
         n-TOTAL NUMBER OF SAMPLES (DEC 72-SEPT 73)

         p-NUMBER OF POSITIVE OCCURENCES
   100-
   75-
           O
           fO
           I
           O
                  TOTAL
                ALKALINITY
                   n-114
                   p=H4
        TOTAL
      HARDNESS
            n =111
            p -III
       pH
       n -118
   o
   ro
O
2
LU
O
O
LJ
    25-
                       o
                       o
      o
      in
      r--
      i
                                      O
                                      00
       CONCENTRATION (mg/l)
               RANGE
 CONCENTRATION (mg/l)
         RANGE
     RANGE
         CADMIUM
 COPPER
  ZINC
o
cr
   100-
    75-
    50-
    25-
                    n -106
                    p -17
         n-108
         P-46
         n-llO
         p -76
                             q
                             T
                                                   o
                                                   V
        CONCENTRATION (pg/l)
                RANGE
CONCENTRATION (jjg/0
       RANGE
CONCENTRATION (pg/l)
         RANGE
        Figure 19.  Annual  summary  of basic chemical  and trace
                    element concentrations and their relative
                    frequencies for western Oregon  streams from
                    December 1972 thru September  1973.
                                   36

-------
     Comparable levels for unpolluted lake and river water from a
single study (Burrell, 1974) using anodic stripping voltammetry are
as follows:
Cadmium, Copper and Zinc Values for Uncontaminated Natural Waters (yg/1)

                                          Cd         Cu          Zn
Trinity River, Shasta-Trinity
National Forest, California
Sulphur Springs, Kittitas County,
Washington
Park Lake, Kittitas County,
Washington
Rachel Lake, Kittitas County,
Washington
Roosevelt Lake, Okanogan County,
0.2

1.0
0.2
0.3
2.2

0.2
0.6
1.3
0.3
3.2
4.3
0.4
1.6
  Washington
     The heated graphite tube method used in the present study must
still be considered an experimental, non-routine technique.   Certain
analytical problems involving its use must still be solved.   But due
to the relatively pure nature of the bulk of our samples, we consider
the heavy metal values to be quite acceptable and interferences,
including matrix effects, have been found to be minimal.
                                  37

-------
                                 SECTION VI

                              LITERATURE CITED


American Public Health Association.   1971.   Standard  methods  for
      the examination of water and wastewater.   13th  Ed.  A.P.H.A.,
      New York.  874 pp.

Anon.  1966.   Ground water and wells.   A reference  book  for the
      water-well  industry.  1st Ed.   St Paul. Chapter 4.

Burrell, D. C.  1974.  Atomic spectrometric  analysis  of  heavy-metal
      pollutants  in water.  Ann Arbor Science Publishers, Inc.,
      Ann Arbor,   p 21.

Cairns, J., Jr. and A. Scheier.  1957.   The  effect  of temperature
      and hardness of water upon the  toxicity of zinc to  the  common
      bluegill Lepomis macrochirus Raf.  Notulae Naturae  299:  1-12.

Chau, Y. K. 1973.  Complexing capacity of natural waterits
      significance and measurement.   J.  Chromatographic  Sci.  11: 579.

Fernandez, F.  J.  and D.  C. Manning.   1971.   Atomic  absorption analysis
      of metal pollutants in water using a  heated graphite atomizer.
      Atomic Absorption Newsletter 10:  65-69.

Highsmith, R.  M.   1968.   Atlas of the Pacific Northwest:  Resources and
      development 4th Ed. Oregon State University Press,  Corvallis.
      pp 27 -  46.

Mount, D. I.   1966.  The effects of  total  hardness  and pH on  acute
      toxicity of zinc to fish.  Air  Wat.  Pollut.  Int. J. 10: 49-56.

Pacific Northwest River Basins Commission.   1969.   Willamette basin
      comprehensive study: Water and  related land resources.
      Appendix L. Water pollution control.  Willamette Basin Task
      Force,  Portland.

Remey, H. 1956.  A treatise on inorganic chemistry, Part II.
      Elsevier Publ. Co., Amsterdam,p.  644.

Sprague, J. B.  1964.  Lethal concentrations of copper and zinc  for
      young Atlantic salmon.  J. Fish.  Res.  Bd. Can.  21:  17-26.

U. S. Department of Commerce.  1972.   Precipitation records.  Environ-
      mental  Science Service Administration, Weather  Bureau,  Corvallis,
      Oregon.
                                  38

-------
U.  S. Department of Commerce.  1973.  Precipitation records.   Environ-
      mental Science Service Administration, Weather Bureau,  Corvallis,
      Oregon.

U.  S. Department of Commerce.  1974.  Precipitation records.   Environ-
      mental Science Service Administration, Weather Bureau,  Corvallis,
      Oregon.

U.  S. Environmental Protection Agency. 1972.  Storage and retrieval  of
      water quality data.  U. S. Environmental Protection Agency,
      Office of Water Programs, Washington, D. C.

U.  S. Geological Survey.  1971.  Water resources data for Oregon.
      Part  I. Surface water records.  Portland 352 pp.

U.  S. Geological Survey.  1971.  Water resources data for Oregon.
      Part  II.  Water quality records.  Portland  123 pp.

U.  S. Geological Survey.  1972.  Water resources data for Oregon. Part I
      Surface water records.  Portland 378 pp.

U.  S. Geological Survey.  1972.  Water resources data for Oregon.
      Part  II.  Water quality records.  Portland 137 pp.

U.  S. Geological Survey.  1973.  Water resources data for Oregon.
      Part  I. Surface water records.  Portland 409 pp.

Zirino, A. and M. L. Healy. 1972. pH controlled differential  voltammetry
      of certain trace transition elements in natural waters.   Environ.
      Sci. Techno!. 6: 243-249.
                                   39

-------
                              SECTION VII
                               APPENDIX

Table                                                       Page

A-l       Key to chemical abbreviations                       41

A-2       Mean monthly physical  and chemical data for the
          Willamette River from March 1972 thru April 1974    42
A- 3       Mean monthly chemical  data (DO, pH, TA, TH,
          N03, NFU) for the Willamette River from April
          1972 through April 1974                             43

A-4       Mean monthly chemical  data (Ca, Mg, NA, K, 504,
          CL) for the Willamette River frorrf April 1972
          through April 1974                                  44
A-5       Mean monthly heavy metal data for the Willamette
          River from April 1972 thru April 1974               45

A-6       Mean monthly physical  and chemical data for the     46
          Western Fish Toxicology Station well from
          April 1972 thru April  1974
A-7       Mean monthly chemical data (Do, pH, TA, TH, N02,
          NOo, NH3) for the Western Fish Toxicology Station
          well from April  1972 through April  1974.            47
A-8       Mean monthly chemical  data (Ca, Mg, Na, K, 504)
          for the Western Fish Toxicology Station well
          from April  1972 through April  1974                  48

A-9       Mean monthly heavy metal data for the Western       49
          Fish Toxicology Station well  from April 1972
          thru April  1974

A-10      Physical  and chemical  data (Temp., DO, pH) for
          major western Oregon rivers for collection dates
          from December 1972 through September 1973           50

A-ll      Physical  and chemical  data (TA,TH) for major
          western Oregon rivers  for collection dates
          from December 1972 through September 1973           52

A-l2      Heavy metals data for major western Oregon
          rivers for collection dates from December 1972
          thru September 1973                                 54
                               40

-------
TABLE A-l.  KEY TO CHEMICAL ABBREVIATIONS

     Ca                  Calcium  (mg/1)
     Cd                  Cadmium  (yg/1)
     Cl                  Chloride  (mg/1)
     Co                  Cobalt (yg/1)
     Cr                  Chromium  (yg/1)
     Cu                  Copper (yg/1)
     D 0                 Dissolved Oxygen concentration  (mg/1)
     D S                 Dissolved Solids (mg/1)
     Fe                  Iron  (yg/1)
     Hg                  Mercury  (yg/1)
     K                   Potassium (mg/1)
     Mg                  Magnesium (mg/1)
     Mn                  Manganese (yg/1)
     Na                  Sodium (mg/1)
     NH^                 Ammonia  (mg/1)
     Ni                  Nickel (yg/1)
     N02                 Nitrite  (mg/1)
     N03                 Nitrate  (mg/1)
     Pb                  Lead  (yg/1)
     pH                  Hydrogen ion concentration
     Precip.             Precipitation  (inches)
     SO                  Sulfate  (mg/1)
     S S                 Suspended Solids (mg/1)
     T                   Turbidity (JTU, Jackson Turbidity Units)
     Temp.               Temperature  (degrees centigrade)
     TA                  Total Alkalinity (mg/1 as CaC03)
     TH                  Total Hardness  (mg/1 as CaCO.,)
     ZN                  Zinc  (yg/1)
                               41

-------
Table A-2.  Mean monthly physical  and  chemical  data  for thp Willamette River frcw "arch,  1972 thru April, 1974.
Month
March (1972)
April
May
June
July
August
September
October
November
December
January (1973)
February
March
April
May
June
July
August
September
October
November
December
January (1974)
February
March
April
Water
Min.
7.6
8.4
11 .5
14.3
17.4
16.3
13.9
12.2
9.2
5.8
4.3
6.8
7.9
10.7
14.4
16.3
17.9
17.0
15.4
12.2
7.2
6.4
---
---
---

Temperature C
Max. Mean
8.2
9.3
12.8
16.1
19.2
18.1
15.1
12.8
9.8
6.3
4.9
7.6
7.9
12.7
16.0
18.1
19.9
18.7
16.8
13.1
7.7
6.7
---
---
---

8.0
8.8
12.1
15.2
18.6
17.1
14.5
12.5
9.5
6.0
4.6
7.2
7.9
11.5
14.7
17.2
18.9
17.9
16.1
12.6
7.4
6.5
---
---
---

Precip.
(inches)
0.21
0.14
0.08
0.03
0.00
0.01
0.08
0.03
0.16
0.64
0.18
0.06
0.18
0.06
0.03
0.05
0.00
0.02
0.08
0.08
0.61
0.40
0.37
0.27
0.29
0.08
River Height
(ft. above mean Discharge
Spa IPVP!) (cfsXIOOO)
208.4
203.8
202.8
201.9
200.7
200.9
201.4
201 .0
201.4
203.8
204.4
200.9
201.2
200.9
199.9
199.7
199.7
200.0
199.5
201.5
208.6
209.7
208.2
204.9
208.2
204.7
41.29
17.36
14.78
9.90
4.57
5.97
8.68
7.06
9.26
20.61
18.59
6.83
8.83
7.15
3.76
3.26
3.34
3.94
4.34
8.84
43.04
48.08
43.95
27.14
43.95
24.31
T D S
(JTU) (mg/1)
---
---
3
---
31.5
37.5
2 52.0
56.5
43.7
52 46.2
60.8
72.5
71.0
55.0
3 52.1
61.0
2 57.0
4 58.0
2 54.0
8 55.2
22 44.0
24 44.5
26 46.5
27 29.7
26 72.0
14 43.3
S S
(mg/1)
---
---
---
---
3.5
5.5
11.0
5.5
3.5
5.2
14.5
5.5
7.0
10.8
7.8
12.8
9.7
7.6
5.8
14.8
34.5
33.5
42.8
22.7
52.5
14.5
                                                    42

-------
Table A-3. Mean monthly chemical data  (DO,  pH,  TA,  TH,  PO;;,  W-j.  NH-J )  for  the
           Willamette River from April  1972 thru  April  1974.
Month
April (1972)
May
June
July
August
September
October
November
December
January (1973)
February
March
April
May
June
July
August
September
October
November
December
January (1974)
February
March
April
DO
11.3
10.7
9.8
9.2
8.8
9.4
10.0
10.6
11.8
11.8
11.3
11.1
10.8
10.5
8.9
8.7
8.6
8.8
9.6
10.1
10.8
11.2
12.0
11.8
12.2
pH*
7.35
7.40
7.40
7.47
7 40
7.45
7.40
7.41
7.20
7.18
7.36
7.48
7.54
7.72
7.47
7.60
7.55
7.40
7.39
7.12
7.13
7.20
7.25
7.24
7.25
TA
19
20
20
22
20
20
21
23
21
22
26
24
24
26
26
26
27
25
25
20
22
21
23
23
21
(mg/1 except
TH
23
19
20
20
19
20
22
21
20
21
24
24
24
25
24
24
22
23
25
20
22
21
19
22
19
pH)
NO?
	
	
0.002
0.003
0.005
0.004
0.009
0.007
0.007
0.006
0.007
0.120
0.006
0.005
0.005
0.003
0.002
0.003
0.005
0.006
0.005
0.007
0.015
0.009
0.003

	
	
0.004
0.083
0.053
0.048
0.100
0.074
0.166
0.269
0.270
0.260
0.165
0.130
0.105
0.056
0.048
0.071
0.059
0.302
0.220
0.337
0.167
0.215
0.179

	
	
0.007
0.017
0.019
0.018
0.036
0.045
0.076
0.072
0.085
0.101
0.068
0.056
0.080
0.065
0.063
0.038
0.092
0.115
0.086
0.121
0.047
0.052
0.048
*Median value.
                                         43

-------
Table A-4.  Mean monthly chemical  -ata 'Ca, Mq.  Ma, K, $04, CL) for the
           Willamette River from  April  1972 thru  April  197
Month
April (1972)
May
June
July
August
September
October
November
December
January (1973)
February
March
April
May
June
July
August
September
October
November
December
January (1974)
February
March
April
Ca
---
---
---
ii.l
4.8
4.9
5.9
5.3
5.5
5.3
6.3
5.5
6.4
6.4
6.3
5.9
5.7
5.6
5.0
4.8
5.1
4.8
4.7
5.7
5.4
Mg
---
---
---
1.9
1.6
1.6
1.8
1.8
1.7
1.8
2.2
1.9
1.8
2.0
2.1
2.0
1.8
1.8
1.7
1.8
1.7
1.8
1.6
1.9
1.7
(mg/1)
Na
---
---
---
4.5
3.9
3.6
4.4
4.2
4.1
3.9
4.9
4.0
4.6
5.5
5.7
5.4
5.2
5.1
4.5
2.9
2.9
2.6
2.8
3.5
3.0
K
---
---
---
0.8
0.8
0.8
1.1
0.9
0.8
0.7
0.8
0.8
0.8
0.8
0.9
0.9
0.9
1.0
0.8
0.8
0.9
0.9
0.8
0.7
0.6
S04

---
---
<1.0
<10.0
<10.0
2.8
3.8
8.0
5.6
5.0
<5.0
4.3
3.8
6.2
<5.0
3.9
3.3
4.4
14.0
10.2
7.8
8.3
10.4
9.8
Cl
---
---
---
6.5
4.5
3.0
4.0
3.3
2.5
3.0
4.0
3.0
3.8
4.8
5.2
4.2
5.0
4.8
4.2
3.2
2.4
2.6
6.3
5.0
2.3
                                    44

-------
Table A-5.   Mean monthly heavy metal data for the I'Jil lamette River from Anrll 1972 thru April 1974.
Month Cd Cr Co
April (1972)
May
June   
July <1.0 1.5 1.5
August <1.0 2.5 <2.0
September <1.0 5.0 3.0
October <1.0 1.5 1.0
November <1 .0 1.3 1.0
December <1 .0 3.5 1.0
January (1973) 1 .8 3.8 <1 .0
February <1 .0 1.8 <1 .0
March <1 .0 2.0 <1 .0
April <1 .0 <1 .0 <1 .0
May <1 .0 <1.0 <1.0
June <1 .0 <1 .0 1.3
July <1.0 <1.0 <1.0
August <1.0 1.5 1.2
September <1.0 <1.3 <1 .0
October <1.0 1.2 1.0
November <1 .0 1.8 
December <1 .0 2.0 2.0
January (1974) <1.0 3.3 2.0
February <1 .0 1.7 <1 .0
March <1.0 3.0 <2.0
April <1.0 1.5 <2.0
Cu
---
---
---
4.2
3.5
3.0
6.0
2.8
4.5
2.8
3.0
5.5
2.8
2.2
2.8
3.5
2.8
1 .8
2.2
4.5
4.3
5.0
3.3
4.0
3.0
Fe
---
---
---
320
450
360
245
255
1225
668
323
330
388
236
233
214
290
242
524
1660
1198
1877
1420
2535
897
(yg/D
Pb
---
---
---
5.0
<5.0
<5.0
6.0
<5.0
<5.0
6.2
4.5
4.0
7.3
5.0
3.7
2.0
5.4
5.0
<5.0
<5.0
6.3
1.25
<5.0
6.5
6.5
Mn
---
---
---
19.5
18.5
22.0
17.0
20.0
39.5
31.3
16.5
16.0
16.5
22.4
23.3
18.8
18.3
16.0
31.0
62.3
51.3
63.5
43.0
62.0
25.8
Ni
---
---
---
2.0
2.5
2.0
1.0
1.9
4.0
4.0
1.8
<1.0
2.0
3.8
3.0
2.0
1.9
1.6
1.0
T.5
3.7
2.0
0.7
1 .5
<2.0
Zn
---
---
---
5.2
8.0
5.0
6.0
4.5
5.5
8.8
6.8
8.5
8.8
8.0
12.3
13.8
18.3
15.0
6.2
13.5
10.5
9.5
6.3
9.0
4.75
Hg

---
---
0.8
0.5
2.0
1.8
6.0
2.0
0.8
0.6
<0.5
0.6
1.2
0.7
3.3
0.7
<0.5
<0.5
<0.5
<0.5
<0.5
<0.5
<0.5
	
                                                       45

-------
Table A-6.   "lean monthly physical  and chemical data fnr the Western Fish Toxicoloov Station well
            from Anril  1972 thru April  1974.
Month
April (1972)
May
June
July
August
September
October
November
December
January (1973)
February
March
April
May
June
July
August
September
October
November
December
January (1974)
February
March
Apri 1
Air Temp C
Wet Bulb Dry Bulb
	 12.9
	 15.3
	 18.0
	 20.0
	 18.5
	 11.7
	 9.8
	 9.2
3.1
	 6.2
	 9.1
	 9.5
	 12.9
	 18.8
	 16.0
	 17.8
12.0 15.3
12.3 13.6
8.1 9.2
6.0 6.7
6.0 6.7
4.9 5.9
6.2 7.6
9.4 8.6
8.8 11.0
Temp C
Intake
10.5
11.3
13.4
17.1
18.1
19.7
14.8
12.5
9.0
9.4
8.2
8.8
10.3
13.1
16.3
18.1
20.0
17.7
15.4
12.4
12.2
11.7
11.3
10.8
10.5
T D S
(JTU) (mg/1)
55.0
61.0
62.5
39.0
49.0
61.0
61.8
51.2
48.0
119.0
72.0
96.0
75.0
61.0
1.5 71.0
3.3 70.0
6.4 64.0
5.3 60.5
5.8 62.0
6.8 58.0
7.8 110.0
7.3 1 30 . 0
10.7 80.5
5.0 115.0
3.8 100.0
S S Cl
(mg/1) (mq/1)
<1.0 8.0
<1.0 7.0
<1.0 7.0
1.8 8.3
1.8 6.3
4.0 4.0
1.0 5.5
2.2 5.3
<1.0 4.0
<1.0 12.4
<1.0 5.0
2.0 6.0
2.5 8.8
2.4 8.0
2.8 7.5
1.0 6.8
<1.0 5.8
<1.0 5.3
1.2 5.4
1.0 6.8
<1.0 14.0
1.3 11.3
0.8 6.7
1.5 7.0
2.0 8.5
                                                46

-------
Table A-7.  Mean monthly chemical data  (Da,  pH,  TA,  Til.  r;0z-  NQ3.  NH?)  for  th"  Western
            Fish Toxicology Station well from Anril 1Q72 thru Aoril 1974.
Month
April (1972)
May
June
July
August
September
October
November
December
January (1973)
February
March
April
May
June
July
August
September
October
November
December
January (1974)
February
March
April
*Meuian value
DO
---
5.6
4.5
4.0
3.1
3.6
4.5
5.4
7.2
5.6
5.8
4.7
4.8
3.9
2.2
2.7
2.7
2.9
3.0
4.0
3.0
4.6
4.1
3.8
3.5

PH*
---
6.8
6.7
6.8
6.8
6.8
6.8
6.9
6.8
6.7
6.7
6.8
6.8
6.8
6.9
6.8
6.9
6.8
6.8
6.8
6.6
6.6
6.7
6.7
6.7

TA
---
20
21
20
22
20
21
21
23
39
28
26
27
26
27
27
27
25
27
25
50
63
51
54
43

(mg/1 except
TH
---
22
24
23
23
22
22
23
23
52
33
30
31
28
28
26
25
25
27
28
62
67
58
53
51

pH)
N02
<0.001
<0.001
<0.001
<0.001
0.001
<0.001
<0.001
<0.001
<0.001
<0.001
<0.001

0.001
<0.001
0.001
0.001
0.002
<0.001
<0.001
0.002
<0.001
0.001
<0.001
<0.001
<0.001


0.200
0.154
0.144
0.176
0.151
0.158
0.164
0.160
0.240
0.390
0.350
	
0.293
0.281
0.271
0.208
0.198
0.172
0.177
0.261
0.414
0.578
0.389
0.368
0.262


<0.001
<0.001
0.003
0.002
0.002
0.006
0.013
0.026
0.036
0.047
0.048
0.090
0.051
0.062
0.059
0.054
0.051
0.035
0.076
0.074
0.052
0.061
0.019
0.021
0.192

                                          47

-------
Table A-S.   Mean monthly chemical dat* (Ca, Mq, f'a, K, S04) for the Western
            Fish Toxicology Station well  from April 1972 thru April 1974.
Month
April (1972)
May
June
July
August
September
October
November
December
January (1973)
February
March
April
May
June
July
August
September
October
November
December
January (1974)
February
March
April

Ca
7.9
5.8
5.8
6.7
6.5
6.0
6.7
6.2
6.2
15.3
7.7
8.0
8.9
8.3
8.4
7.4
6.5
6.7
7.0
7.9
20.3
21.3
14.3
20.8
18.2

Mg
2.0
1.4
1.6
1.6
1.7
1.6
1.9
1.6
1.5
3.5
2.1
2.1
2.3
2.4
2.2
1.9
1.7
1.7
1.8
2.1
4.2
4.8
3.4
3.8
3.7
48
(mg/1)
Na
5.0
4.4
4.4
4.6
4.7
4.5
4.7
4.2
4.2
7.1
5.0
5.3
5.4
5.8
5.8
5.8
5.7
5.4
5.4
4.8
9.0
7.0
6.9
7.2
6.8

K
1 .1
0.5
0.5
0.5
0.5
0.6
0.6
0.6
0.5
0.7
0.5
0.7
0.7
0.7
0.7
0.8
0.7
0.7
0.7
0.7
0.8
0.8
0.9
0.7
0.6

so* .
<10.0
<5.0
3.0
<1.0
<10.0
<10.0
5.0
3.7
3.0
7.8
5.0
5.0
5.3
3.0
4.8
<5.0
3.1
3.1
2.9
10.0
13.0
17.3
14.7
13.0
15.5


-------
Table A-9.  flean monthly heavy metal dat? for the Wester11 Fish To/icolonv Station well
            from April 1972 thru April 1974.
Month Cd
April (1972) <0.2
May <0.2
June <0.4
July <1.0
August *1 .0
September 1.0
October 1.0
November <1 .0
December <1 .0
January (1973) <1 .0
February <1.0
March <1 .0
April <1 .0
May <1.0
June <1 .0
July <1.0
August <1 .0
September <1.0
October <1.0
November <1 .0
December <1 .0
January (1974) <1 .0
February <1 .0
March <1.0
April <1.0
Cr Co Cu
0.4 0.9 27.0
1.0 0.8 6.6
0.7 1.2 4.6
1.0 1.5 5.0
1.5 <2.0 7.0
0.9 2.0 3.0
1.0 2.0 3.0
1.5 <1.0 2.0
2.5 <1.0 3.0
3.0 1.0 2.3
1.0 <1.0 7.3
<1.0 <1.0 3.0
<1 .0 <1 .0 1.8
<1 .0 <1 .2 1.6
<1.0 1.3 1.8
<1.0 <1.0 1.8
<1.0 <1.0 2.8
<1.0 <1.0 1.0
1.2 <1.0 1.6
1.0  1.8
5.5 2.0 2.3
.67 1.75 3.0
<1 .0 <1 . 0 2.3
0.5 <2.0 1.0
<1 .0 <2.0 1.5'
Fe
98
108
99
105
150
102
79
83
177
107
48
33
123
128
66
70
60
81
64
95
52
50
72
59
48
(ug/0
Pb
4.0
5.0
3.0
5.0
<5.0
5.0
6.0
<5.0
<5.0
<5.0
4.0
4.0
6.9
<5.0
4.3
3.8
5.0
5.0
<5.0
5.0
5.0
2.5
1.7
6.5
5.8
Mn
2.0
1.6
1.9
1.3
2.0
2.0
1 .5
2.0
15.5
3.4
1.0
1 .5
3.3
6.4
9.0
2.1
1.8
1.3
1.6
1.8
2.0
2.0
2.7
2.5
2.0
Mi
4.0
1.0
2.4
2.0
2.5
1.0
1.0
1.0
2.5
4.5
2.5
1.0
1.8
3.2
3.0
1.5
1.9
1.7
1 .0
2.0
1.5
2.0
<1.0
2.0
<2.0
Zn
24.0
7.4
4.9
4.0
5.0
1.0
2.0
1.5
9.5
3.8
9.3
11.0
4.8
11.3
7.3
5.5
5.3
3.0
2.0
2.6
3.0
5.3
2.0
2.0
<1.0
Hg
<0.5
1.0
<0.5
1.5
1.3
2.5
2.3
3.0
1.0
1.1
0.6
0.8
0.5
0.8
1.2
1.1
0.7
0.7
0.6
<0.5
<0.5
0.3
<0.5
<0.5
1.5
                                                       49

-------
Table A-10.   Physical  and chemical data (Term. . DO, oH) fnr ma.ior western Oregon rivers for collection dates from Decembr 1972 thru September
             1973.
TEMP C
Station Number
River and Location 12/72 03/73 06/73
1
2
3.
4.
5.
6.
7
8.
9.
10.
11 .
Ol
0 12.
13.
14.
15.
16.
17.
18.
19.
20.
21.
22.
23.
24.
25.
26.
 ALSEA N Fk below Mill Cr 1 0 	
. ALSEA, Hwy 34 9 Mike Bauer 1.0 	
. APPLEGATE, near Applegate 	 7.0
CALAPOOIA, Hwy 34 	 	
CALAPOOIA, (3 Brownsville 10.0 7.2
CHETCO, 7 mi. above tidewater 	 6.8
COOS, So. Fk. (3 Oielwood 5.5 	
COOS, 3 mi. above tidewater 	 8.0
COQUILLE, W. Fk. on Hwy. 42 	 	
COQUILLE S Fk (3 Myrtle Point 55 - -
COQUILLE, 0 Coquille 	 8.5
ELK, head of tidewater 	 7.5
FIVE, I? Five Rivers 	 	
ILLINOIS, E. Fk, & Hwy 20 	 9.2
ILLINOIS, W. Fk. @ Agness 	 8.3
KILCHES, (3 Kilches R. Park
LITTLE NESTUCCA (3 Hwy 18 	 	
LONG TOM, ? Monroe 8.3 10.0
LUCKIAMUTE @ Hwy 99 	 - --
McKENZIE, 1-5 nr. Eugene 8.5 7.0
MIAMI, head of tidewater
NECANICUM @ Seaside 	 	
NEHALEM N Fk nr Salmonberry 	 - -
NEHALEM, Hwy 101 at bridge 	 	
NESTUCCA, ? Cloverdale 	 	
PISTOL, 5 mi. above tidewater 	 6.2

23
17
--
17
--
21
22
21
21
24
24
16
--
14
13

18
17
17

.0
.8

.5
--
.0
.0
.0
.0
.0
.0
.5
--
.3
.2

.6
.0
.2
D 0
(mg/1)
09/73 12/72 03/73 06/73 09/73

12.
-.-
.--
17.
18.
18.
17.
11.
18.
10.
10.
18.
15.
10.

11.
11 .

1 0 C
0 13.5 	 	 10.0
	 12.2 9.6 	
	 	 8.6 	
10.9 11.3 	 	
	 12.2 8.6 	
5 12.6 --- 	 9.8
	 11.0 9.9 	
C Q C
12.6 	
6 	 11.3 9.6 8.6
0 	 11.9 10.4 9.8
0 	 9.4 10.4
	 11.4 9.0 	
0 	 lf.8 8.6 11.4
5 	 	 10.9 	
n Q A
S 10.5 11.2 ---- 9.6
5 11.2 11.8 10.2 11.6
5 .... .... 1Q.2

0 	 	 9.5 	
7 	 	 8.8 9.1
	 12.4 9.2 	
pH
12/72 03/73
7 PR
6.80
	 7.
6.80 7.
	 7.
6.75
	 6.
7 00

53
08
18
--
65

	 6.99
	 7.
	 7.
	 7.
	 7.
7.09 7.
6.78 7.
7.62 7.
	 6.
	 6.
	 7.
7.10 7.
	 7.
16
59
43
24
20
04
11
83
79
07
15
19
06/73


7.90
7.16
--
7.
--
7.

7.
7.
7.
7.
6.
7.
6.
6.
7.
7.
7.
--
30
--
29

45
70
60
70
92
25
89
81
15
10
33
09/73


6.88
--
--
6.
6.
6.
6.
6.
7.
7.
6.
6.
7.
7.
6.
6.
6,
..
--
--
75
61
82
80
72
23
45
96
75
51
00
72
78
,85
...

-------
Table A-10. (Cont'd) Physical and chemical data  (Temo., in, pH) for ma.lor western Oregon  rivers  for  collection  datas  fror.i December 1S72 thru
            September 1973.
27.
28.
29.
30.
31.
32.
33.
34.
35.
36.
37
38.
39.
40.
41 .
12.
43.
44.
45.
46.
47.
48.
49.
50.
51.
5?
Station Number
River and Location 12/72
ROGUE, 5 mi. above tidewater 5.9
ROGUE, 1-5 @ Rogue R. 	
SALMON, head of tidewater 	
SANTIAM, 1-5 nr. Albany 8.1
SANTIAM, M. Fk. B. Green Peter Dam 10.8
SANTTAM N Ft 0 Mill Titv
SILETZ, Hwy 229 1.3
SILTCOOS, Hwy 101 State Pk. 	
SIUSLAW, head of tidewater 	
SIUSLAW, Hwy 126 ? Swisshome 9.0
SIXES, hedd of tidewater 5.8
SKIPANNON Hwy 101 @ Seaside
SMITH, M. Fk. (Calif.) Hwy 199 	
SMITH, (Ore.) head of tidewater 	
THREE, Hwy 101 
-------
       Table A-ll.   Physical  and  chemical  data (T/1,.  TH)  for nain>"
*:prn Oreqo" river for collection dates from Oecpmber  1972  thru
                                                                          1973.
en

1
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.
13.

15.
16.
17.
T8.
19.
20.
21.
22.
23.
?4
_T- .
25.
26.
Station Number
River and Location
fit <^Ffl W Ft- ho1ru Mill fr
ML JCM , M. r K . DclOW PI III Ul.
ALSEA, Hwy 34 @ Mike Bauer
APPLEGATE, nr. Applegate
CALAPOOIA, Hwy 34
CALAPOOIA, @ Brownsville
CHETCO, 7 mi above tidewater
COOS, So. Fk. (<> Dielwood
COOS, 3 mi. above tidewater
COQUILLE, W. Fk. on Hwy 42
mnilTl 1 F C FL- (H Mwv**-1ia Dni'nt-
LU^UlLLt, o. rK. [p Myrtle rOinu
COQUILLE, @ Coquille
ELK, head of tidewater
FIVE, @ Five Rivers
ILLINOIS, E. Fk. G> Hwy 20
ILLINOIS, W. Fk. G> Agness
KILCHES, 13 Kilches R. Park
LITTLE NESTUCCA, @ Hwy 18
LONG TOM, (3 Monroe
LUCKIAMUTE, @ Hwy 99
McKENZIE, 1-5 nr. Eugene
MIAMI, head of tidewater
NECANICUM, (3 Seaside
NEHALEM, N. Fk. nr. Salmonberry
NEHALEM, Hwy 101 at bridge
NESTUCCA, @ Cloverdale
PISTOL, 5 mi. above tidewater
T A
(mg/1)
12/72 03/73 06/73 09/73
7f, - -
18 	 29
	 61 76 	
	 	 21 	
23 10 	 	
	 20 42 	
13 	 	 18
	 14 	 15
1 Q
	 22 	 28
	 20 26 25
	 	 _ . 10
	 53 58 	
	 52 61 54
	 11 16 15
1 1;
26 28 	 25
13 14 	 	
24 21 25 22
	 13 16 16
	 7 	 	
	 12 12 	
14 16 26 29
	 23 49 	
(mg/1 }
12/72 03/73 06/73
24
17 	 	
	 60 76
20
20 23 	
	 23 47
16 	 	
	 14 	

	 25 	
	 23 27
	 52 59
	 50 62
	 12 21
28 33 	
13 15 	
18 18 18
	 14 22
	 10 	
	 12 13
16 18 25
	 22 58
09/73

27
	
	
	
	
21
24
on
Jw
34
28
1 ft
1 D
61
16
17
I /
27
	
23
19
	
	
25
	

-------
Table A-ll. (Cont'd)  Physical and chemical data( TA, TH) for maior western ("ireaort rivers for collection datps from Dacember 1972
            thru September 1973.
27.
28.
29.
30.
31.
32.
33.
34.
35.
36.
37.
en 38.
oo
39.
40.
41.
42.
43.
44.
45.
46.
47.
48.
49.
50.
51.
52.
Station Number
River and Location
ROGUE, 5 mi. above tidewater
ROGUE, 1-5 @ Rogue R.
SALMON, head of tidewater
SANTIAM, 1-5 nr Albany
SANTIAM, M. Fk. B. Green Peter Dam
SANTIAM, N. Fk. @ Mill City
SILETZ, Hwy 229
SILTCOOS, Hwy 101 State Pk.
SIUSLAW, head of tidewater
SIUSLAW, Hwy 126 @ Swisshome
SIXES, head of tidewater
SKIPANNON, Hwy 101 @ Seaside
SMITH, M. Fk. (Calif.) Hwy 199
SMITH, (Ore.) head of tidewater
THREE, Hwy 101 @ bridge
TILLAMOOK, Hwy 101 @ Tillamook
TRASK, Hwy 101 @ bridge
TUALATIN1, Hwy 205
UMPOUAH.N. Fk. 1-5 @ Winchester
UMPQUAH.S. Fk. 1-5 nr. Canyonville
UMPOUAH.Hwy 38 above tidewater
WILLAMETTE, Hwy 99 nr. Corvallis
WILLAMETTE, C. Fk. 1-5 @ Saginaw
WILSON, Hwy 101
YAMHILL, Hwy 18
VACIIITNA. Hwv ?f> (3 Fddvville
T A
(mg/1)
12/72 03/73 06/73 09/73
24 41 48 42
	 37 38 	
	 	 23 	
1C _. _ 	 	
] c _ 	 	
1 Q
14 	 16 17
	 12 18 	
	 13 	 18
17 	 16 	
19 21 32 29
	 16 	 	
	 36 44 	
	 13 	 17
10 11 14 18
	 21 30 30
	 	 28 27
ds
	 26 28 	
29 33 51 49
?Q
25 	 26 	
40 21 24 20
	 18 24 20
	 11 17 	
Ifi 	 	 ._ 	
T H
(mg/1)
12/72 03/73 06/73 09/73
33 39
	 33
14
14

16 	
	 12
	 10
18 	
26 24
	 23
	 36
	 13
12 16
	 21
	 21
	 23
27 34
?7
20 	
34 19
	 16
	 14
77 	
46 39
32 	
29 	

i fi
16 17
15 	
	 18
14 	
34 35
	 	
42 	
	 	
26 24
28 31
27 28
.?
22 	
54 63
24 	
22 22
21 22
16 	

-------
Table A-12.   Heavy netals data for major western Oregon rivers  for  collection  dates from December 1972 thru SenteTber 1973.

1
2
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
en
-P* 12.
13.
14.
15.
16.
17.
18.
19.
20.
21.
22.
23.
24.
25.
26.
Station Number
River and Location 12/72
Al ^FA W FL- hplnw Mill ^r 01
nl_ OLM , IN. ~ f\ . UCIUWIIIII -1 U.I
ALSEA, Hwy 34 0 Mike Bauer 0.0
APPLEGATE, nr Applegate 	
CALAPOOIA, Hwy 34 	
CALAPOOIA, P Brownsville 0.2
CHETCO, 7 mi. above tidewater 	
COOS, So. Fk. (3 Dielwood 0.0
COOS, 3 mi. above tidewater 	
rnOIIII IF U Fk nn Wum A.9
mnilTI IF ^ FIc 0 Mvrtlp Pnint n 0
L-UUUILLU, o. r is , vy IIJTLIC runiL u.u
COQUILLE, 0 Coquille 	

ELK, head of tidewater 0.1
FT\/F f3FivpRiwprc
ILLINOIS, E. Fk. & Hwy 20 	
ILLINOIS, W. Fk. @ Agness 	
KILCHES, (3 Kilches R. Park 	
1 TTTI F NF^TIICTA f3 Huiv IP

LONG TOM, (3 Monroe 0.0
LUCKIAMUTE, @ Hwy 99 0.1
McKENZIE, 1-5 nr. Euqene 0.0
MIAMI, head of tidewater 	
NECANICUM, (3 Seaside 	
NEHALEM, N. Frk. nr Salmonberry 	
NFMAI FM Hwv 101 at hriHnp

NESTUCCA, (3 Cloverdale 0.0
PISTOL, 5 mi. above tidewater 	
Cd
(yg/1)
03/73 06/73 09/73

	
0.1
	
0.0
0.0

0.0


0.0

0.0

0.0
0.0
0.0


0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0


0.0
0.0

	 0
0.0
0.0

0.0
	 0

.0
--
--
--
--
.0
	 0.0
n

	 0

0.0 0
n
0.0
n
. u
.2

.0
n
. u
0.0 0.0
0.0 0
n

	 0
	
0.1 0
0.0 0
.0
.0
.0
--
.0
.0
Cu
(yg/D
12/72 03/73 06/73 09/73
1 "5
1 . o 	
1.8
	 2.
	
3.5 0.
	 0.
1.2
	 0.

i n
1 . U 	
	 0.

1 .4 0.

	 1.
	 0.
	 0.


4.1 0.
5.0 0.
1.3 0.
	 0.

_
3
-
5
0
-
0


0

0

1
0
0


5
3
0
0

	 0.
1.6
0.0

0.0
	 0.
	 0.
n

	 5.

0.0 0.
n
u .
0.0 0.
0.0 2.
n

	 0.
	
0.0 0.
0.0 0.

0
-
-
-
-
0
0
n
u
0

5
n
u
0
0
0
5
-
0
0
- 	 -- 	 0.0 	 	
0.1
n

0.0 0
0.0
--
.0
.0
--
	 0.


0.0 0.
	 1.
0


0
0
0.0
n

0.0 0.
0.0
.-
0
0
.-
In
(yg/D
12/72 03/73 06/73 09/73
0 0
u.u 
3.0
	 3.
	
5.0 0.
	 0.
3.0
1.

n n
LI . U
	 0.

4.0 0.

	 1.
	 0.

_
3
-
3
0
-
3


3

3

0
3
	 0.0


7.0 0.
11.0 0
6.0 0,
	 0
	 0
	 0


0.0 0
	 0


.3
.0
.0
.0
.3
.0


.0
.0

	 0.0
0.0 	
0.1 	
 
0.0 	
	 1.0
	 0.0
	 2 0

0.5 1.0

0.1 1.0
	 y n
2.2 	
0.2 0.0
0.1 4.0
1 0

	 6.0
	 	
0.5 4.0
0.9 0.0
	 	
0.0 	
? n

0.0 1.0
O.i 	

-------
Table A-12.   (Cont'd)  Heavy metals data for major  Western  Oregon  rivers  for  collection dates from December 1972 thru September 1973.

27.
28.
29.
30.
31.
32.
33.
34.
35.
36.
37.
(Ji
on 38.
39.
40.
41.
42.
43.
44.
45.
46.
47
48.
49.
50.
51.
52.
Station Number
River and Location 12/72
ROGUE, 5 mi. above tidewater 0.0
ROGUE, 1-5 @ Rogue R. 	
SALMON, head of tidewater 	
SANTIAM, 1-5 nr Albany 0.0
SANTIAM, M. Fk. B. Green Peter Dam 0.1
SANTTAM M Pl^ ft M-ill Pitv

SILETZ, Hwy 229 0.0
SILTCOOS, Hwy 101 State Pk. 	
SIUSLAW, head of tidewater 	
SIUSLAW, Hwy 126 @ Swisshome 0.0
SIXES, head of tidewater 0.1

SKIPANNON, Hwy 101 @ Seaside 	
SMITH, M. Fk. (Calif.) Hwy 199 	
SMITH, (Ore.) head of tidewater 	
THREE, Hwy 101 @ Hebo 0.0
TILLAMOOK, Hwy 101 & Tillamook 	
TRASK, Hwy 101 @ bridge 	
TUALATIN Hwy 205

UMPOUAH,N. Fk. 1-5 @ Winchester 	
UMPOUAH,S. Fk. 1-5 nr. Canyonville 0.2
UMPOUAH.Hwy 38 above tidewater 0.2
WILLAMETTE, Hwy 99 nr. Corvallis 	
WILLAMETTE, C. Fk. 1-5 @ Saginaw 0.1
WILSON, Hwy 101 	
YAMHILL, Hwy 18 	
YAQUINA, Hwy 20 ? Eddyville 0.0
Cd
(ug/1)
03/73 06/73 09/73
0.
0.
---






---
0.
0.
---
0.

0.
0.
0.
0.
0.
0.


0
0
-






-
0
0
-
0

0
0
0
0
0
0


0.0
0.


---
0.
0.
0.


0


-
0
0
0


0.
0.
0.






0.
0.
---
0.
0.


0.
---
0.
0.
0.


0.
0.


0.
0.
0.
0.


0 0.0
1 
0 	




0.0
2 0.0
0 	
0.0
2 	
0 0.0

	
0 	
	
0 0.0
0 0.0
0 0.0
0.0
0 	
0 0.2


0 	
0 0.0
0 0.0
0 	


Cu
(yg/D
12/72 03/73 06/73 09/73
4.2 0.0 0
1.1 	 0
	 	 0
2 4 	

? 7
'


2.3 	 0
	 0.0 0
	 0.0
4.5 	 0
1.8 0.0 0

	 2.5
.5 0.0
.5 	
.0 	




n ^

.0 0.0
.2 	
0.0
.0 	
.0 0.0

	
	 0.0 0.0 	
	 0.0
0.0 0.0 1
	 0.0 0
	 0.0 0


	 0.0 0
4.7 1.1 1
A 7

1.3 	 0
3.1 0.5 0
	 0.0 0
	 0.0 0
1 9

0.5
.0 0.0
.0 0.5
.0 1.5
1 R

.0
.5 0.0


.0 	
.0 0.0
.0 0.5
.0 	


Zn
(yq/D
12/72 03/73 06/73
7.0 0.
0.3
	
i n

n n



0.0
	 0.
	 11.
3.0
3.0 0.

	 0.
	 0.
	 0.
0.0 2.
1.
	 0.


	 0.
5.0 0.
R n

	 0.
8.0 0.
	 0.
	 0.
"? o

0 1.2
1.6
0.1






3.5
3 	
0 	
2.7
0 2.0

7 	
3 0.0
0 	
8 0.9
0 0.6
0 0.7


0 2.7
3 0.0


1 	
6 0.0
0 0.1
0 0.2


09/73
6.0
	
	




2.0
0.0
	
3.0
	
1.0

	
	
2.0
0.0
0.0
2.0
3.0
	
8.0


	
2.0
6.0
	



-------
                                  TECHNICAL REPORT DATA
                           (Please read Instructions on the reverse before completing)
1  REPORT NO.
 EPA-600/3-76-077
4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE

 WATER QUALITY:  WESTERN  FISH TOXICOLOGY STATION AND
 WESTERN OREGON  RIVERS
                                                          5. REPORT DATE
               6. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION CODE
                                                          3. RECIPIENT'S ACCESSI ON-NO.
                REPORT DA I h           .        \
                September 1976  (Issuing Date)
7. AUTHOR(S)

 Donald F. Samuelson
                                                          8. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION REPORT NO.
9 PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME AND ADDRESS
 Western Fish Toxicology Station*
 Environmental  Research Laboratory-Duluth
 1350 S.E. Goodnight Avenue
 Corvallis,  OR  97330
               10. PROGRAM ELEMENT NO.

                 1BA608
               11. CONTRACT/GRANT NO.
12. SPONSORING AGENCY NAME AND ADDRESS
 Office  of  Research and Development
 U. S. Environmental  Protection Agency
 Environmental  Research Laboratory-Duluth
 Duluth, MN   55804	
               13. TYPE OF REPORT AND PERIOD COVERED

                 Final,  1972-1974
               	1	1 1 I U.. I .	1 * / fa~ I iX / T	
               14. SPONS6RING AGENCY CODE


                 EPA-ORD
15. SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES
 *Western  Fish Toxicology Station now is attached  to  the Corvallis Environmental
 Research  Laboratory,  Corvallis, OR 97330	
16. ABSTRACT
      Seasonal  variation in water quality was  compared for the Western Fish Toxicology
 Station  (WFTS),  Corvallis, OR, the adjacent Willamette River and approximately 40  mai'or
 western  Oregon  rivers from 1972 through 1974.
      Water  temperature patterns  of the Willamette  River and the WFTS well were simi-
 lar  (range,  4.6-20.0C). While both displayed  seasonal trends, well water  lagged 7-10
 days behind  the  river in both temperature increases and decreases.  Dissolved oxygen
 values in both  the river and well water were  inversely related to temperature. Average
 dissolved oxygen concentrations were higher in  the  river (10.4 mg/1) than in  the  well
 water (4.1 mg/1).  Hydrogen ion concentration  (pH) was low in the well water  (range,
 6.6-7.0), compared to the river (range, 7.0-7.8). River water had a mean  hardness and
 alkalinity  of  22 mg/1 and 23 mg/1 respectively, while well  water ranged between "soft
 to moderately  hard"  (mean hardness, 34 mg/1;  mean alkalinity, 31 mg/1).   High Willam-
 ette River  discharges (above Corvallis) were  followed by a  7-10 day lag in correspond-
 ing sharp peaks  of total hardness, alkalinity,  and  certain  cations and anions in  the
 well water.  Major cation and anion concentrations  were low overall.  Trace metals
 were found  to  be at or near detection limits.   River iron and manganese concentrations
 were approximately 10 times greater than those  found in the well.  River  zinc had a
 mean of  9.4  ug/1,  while the well water mean concentration was 5.1 ug/1.
17.
                               KEY WORDS AND DOCUMENT ANALYSIS
                  DESCRIPTORS
                                             b.IDENTIFIERS/OPEN ENDED TERMS
                            c.  COSATI Field/Group
 Water quality
 Seasonal  variations
 Rivers
  Major western Oregon
        rivers
  Willamette River
  Western Fish Toxicology
       Station
  08H
13. DISTRIBUTION 3TATEMEN1

 RELEASE TO  PUBLIC
  19. SECURITY CLASS (This Report)
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21. NO. OF PAGES
   64
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56
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