&EPA
United States      Industrial Environmental Research EPA-600/7-78-197b
Environmental Protection  Laboratory         October 1978
Agency        Research Triangle Park NC 27711
Water-related
Environmental Effects
in Fuel Conversion:
Volume II. Appendices

Interagency
Energy/Environment
R&D Program Report

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                  RESEARCH REPORTING SERIES


Research reports of the Office of Research and Development, U.S. Environmental
Protection Agency, have been grouped into nine series. These nine broad cate-
gories were established to facilitate further development and application of en-
vironmental technology. Elimination of traditional grouping was consciously
planned to foster technology transfer and a maximum interface in related fields.
The nine series are:

    1.  Environmental Health Effects Research

    2.  Environmental Protection Technology

    3.  Ecological Research

    4.  Environmental Monitoring

    5.  Socioeconomic Environmental Studies

    6.  Scientific and Technical Assessment Reports (STAR)

    7.  Interagency  Energy-Environment Research and Development

    8.  "Special" Reports

    9.  Miscellaneous Reports

This report has been assigned to the INTERAGENCY ENERGY-ENVIRONMENT
RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT series. Reports in this series result from the
effort funded under the  17-agency  Federal Energy/Environment Research and
Development Program. These studies relate to EPA's mission to protect the public
health  and welfare from adverse effects of pollutants associated with energy sys-
tems. The goal of the Program is to assure the  rapid development of domestic
energy supplies in an environmentally-compatible manner by providing the nec-
essary environmental data and control technology. Investigations include analy-
ses of  the transport of energy-related pollutants  and their health and ecological
effects; assessments  of,  and development of, control technologies  for energy
systems; and integrated assessments of a wide'range of  energy-related environ-
mental issues.
                        EPA REVIEW NOTICE
This report has been reviewed by the participating Federal Agencies, and approved
for  publication. Approval does not signify that the contents necessarily reflect
the  views and policies of the Government, nor does mention of trade names or
commercial products  constitute endorsemerlt or  recommendation for use.

This document is available to the public through  the National Technical Informa-
tion Service, Springfield, Virginia 22161.

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                                EPA-600/7-78-197b

                                       October 1978
Water-related  Environmental
Effects in Fuel  Conversion:
      Volume  II. Appendices
                      by

              Harris Gold and David J. Goldstein

               Water Purification Associates
                   238 Main Street
              Cambridge, Massachusetts 02142

                 Contract No. 68-03-2207
               Program Element No. EHE823A
              EPA Project Officer: Chester A. Vogel

           Industrial Environmental Research Laboratory
             Office of Energy, Minerals, and Industry
              Research Triangle Park, NC 27711
                    Prepared for

           U.S. ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY
              Office of Research and Development
                 Washington, DC 20460

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                                    PREFACE

     The work presented in this report was supported by the U.S. Environmental
Protection Agency (EPA) under Contract No. 68-03-2207 and the U.S. Department
of Energy (DOE) under Contract No. EX-76-C-01-2445.  The site specific  studies
of the Western states were supported principally by EPA, while those of the
Eastern and Central states were supported by DOE.  In addition the results of
the Western site studies were synthesized into the DOE program in order to
generalize the results to the United States as a whole.  It seemed appropriate
to incorporate all of the results into one document in order to increase the
usefulness of the report rather than to fragment the study into separate reports.
The report consists of a summary volume and an appendix volume and will be
issued separately by each of the sponsoring agencies to receive as wide a
distribution as possible.
     The authors gratefully acknowledge the help and support of Mr. John A.
Nardella, Program Manager, and Mr. James C. Johnson of DOE and Mr. Chester A.
Vogel, Program Manager, and Mr. T. Kelly  Janes of EPA.  We are grateful to
D. Morazzi,  C. Morazzi, P. Gallagher and P. Qamoos for carrying out the detailed
process-site calculations.  We wish also to acknowledge Resource Analysis, Inc.
and Richard L. Laramie, John H. Gerstle and David H. Marks in particular for
supplying information on water resources developed under several joint programs
with Water Purification Associates.

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                                    CONTENTS












                                                                        Page







PREFACE	_ _ _	_	j^








FIGURES	_	jy



TABLES	  	          vj




CONVERSION  FACTORS	x







Al.   CALCULATIONS ON  SOLVENT REFINED COAL	1



A2.   CALCULATIONS ON  THE  SYNTHOIL PROCESS	34



A3.   CALCULATIONS ON  THE  HYGAS PROCESS		58



A4.   CALCULATIONS ON  THE  BIGAS PROCESS		.... 75



A5.   CALCULATIONS ON  THE  SYNTHANE PROCESS		 86



A6.   CALCULATIONS ON  THE  LURGI PROCESS	103



A7 -   COOLING WATER REQUIREMENTS	 120



A8.   BOILERS, ASH DISPOSAL AND FLUE GAS DESULFURIZATION	203



A9.   ADDITIONAL WATER NEEDS	205



A10. WORK SHEETS FOR  NET  WATER CONSUMED AND WET SOLIDS RESIDUALS  GENERATED . . 213



All. WATER  TREATMENT  PLANTS	 347



A12. CALCULATIONS ON  OIL  SHALE	 417



A13. WATER  AVAILABILITY AND DEMAND IN EASTERN AND CENTRAL  REGIONS 	 436



A14. WATER  AVAILABILITY AND DEMAND IN WESTERN REGION	 504



A15. COST OF SUPPLYING WATER TO CHOSEN SITES	 . 615
                                      iii

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                                   Figures
 Number                                                                  Page

Al-l      SRC dissolving section  A	13
Al-2      SRC dissolving section  B	 14
Al-3      SRC hydrogen production by gasification  A	 15
Al-4      SRC hydrogen production by gasification  B	 16
A2-1      Flow diagram for process water streams in Synthoil process-	44
A2-2      Flow diagram for hydrogen production in Synthoil process	45
A3-1      Flow diagram for Hygas process		63
A4-1      Bigas Process Flowsheet	 79
A5-1      Flow diagram for Synthane processes	91
A7-1      Cost of steam turbine condenser cooling in Farmington,  N.M	 140
A7-2      Cost of steam turbine condenser'cooling in Casper, Wyoming	 141
A7-3      Cost of steam turbine condenser cooling in Charleston,  W.V-	142
A7-4      Cost of steam turbine condenser cooling in Akron, Ohio	 143
A7-5      The effect of water cost on water consumed for cooling  turbine
          condensers	 144
A7-6      Cost of interstage cooling for compressing 1,000 Ib air
          at Farmington, N.M	 145
A7-7      Cost of interstage cooling for compressing 1,000 Ib air
          at Casper, Wyoming	 146
A7-8      Cost of interstage cooling for compressing 1,000 Ib air
          at Charleston, W.V	147
A7-9      Cost of interstage cooling for compressing 1,000 Ib air
          at Akron, Ohio	148
A7-10     The effect of water cost on water consumed for interstage
          cooling when compressing 1,000 Ib air 	 149
A7-11     Turbine condenser cooling systems	150
A7-12     Turbine heat rates at full load	151
A7-13     Turbine condenser cooling requirements at full load	152
A7-14     Fan power reduction factor for air coolers	 153

                                      iv

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                                 FIGURES (Cont.)
 Number
A7-15     Air compressor design conditions	 154
All-1     Water treatment block diagrams ................................... 352
All-2     Boiler feed water treatment schemes	 355
All-3     Clarif ier costs	 356
All-4     Approximate electrodialysis capital investment as a function
          of capacity for various numbers of stages ........................ 357
A12-1     Flow diagram for surface processing of oil shale................. 419
A12-2     Paraho retorting process - direct mode	 420
A12-3     Paraho retorting process - indirect mode......................... 421
A12-4     TOSCO II retorting process	 422
A12-5     Shale oil upgrading plant-	 423
A12-6     TOSCO II spent shale disposal process with quantities
          appropriate to an integrated plant producing 50,000 bbls/day
          of synthetic crude............................................... 430
A15-1     Pipeline construction costs- ..........................'..	 617
A15-2     Total annual costs for transporting water as a function of
          pipe diameter	-	 622
A15-3     Effect of flow rate on the total annual costs of transporting
          water-	 623
A15-4     Unit cost of water supply-....................................... 626
A15-5     Water supply costs-	 627
A15-6     Effect of interest rate on unit cost of water supply	 629
A15-7     Effect of pipeline construction cost on the unit cost of water
          supply-	 630
A15-8     Effect of power  cost  on the unit cost of water supply	 631
A15-9     Pipeline conveyance routes  in the  Belle Fourche-Cheyenne
          River Basins from various water sources to  Gillette, Wyoming,>_.e 642
A15-10    Pipeline conveyance routes  in the  Yellowstone-Missouri
          Mainstem River Basin  from various  water sources to U.S.Steel
           (Chupp) Mine, Montana. ...................................	 643
A15-11    Pipeline conveyance routes  in the  Powder River Basin from
          various water sources to  Spotted Horse Mine, Wyoming	 644
A15-12    Pipeline conveyance routes  in the  Tongue-Rosebud River  Basin
          from various water sources  to Colstrip, Montana.................. 645
A15-13    Pipeline conveyance routes  in the  Heart  and Cannonball  River
          Basins from various water sources  to Dickinson Mine, N.D......... 646

                                       V

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                                   Tables
Number                                                                  Page
Al-l   ANALYSES  OF  COAL AND SOLVENT REFINED COAL. .	   17

Al-2   ASSUMED ANALYSES OF  SOLVENT REFINED COAL	   17

Al-3   MATERIAL  BALANCES FOR DISSOLVING SECTIONS OF 10,000 TONS/DAY
       SRC  PLANTS	   18

Al-4   FLOW RATES IN PRODUCTION OF HYDROGEN IN 10,000 TONS/DAY SRC
       PLANTS	 .   26

Al-5   GAS  STREAMS  IN PRODUCTION OF HYDROGEN IN 10,000 TONS/DAY SRC
       PLANTS			    27

Al-6   SYMBOLS AND  VALUES USED FOR CALCULATIONS AROUND GASIFIER IN
       10, 000 TONS/DAY SRC  PLANTS	-	 -	      28

Al-7   APPROXIMATE  HEAT BALANCES ON DISSOLVING SECTION OF 10,000
       TONS/DAY  SRC PLANTS	 -  	  29

Al-8   APPROXIMATE  HEAT BALANCES ON GASIFICATION SECTIONS OF 10,000
       TONS/DAY  SRC PLANTS	   30

Al-9   APPROXIMATE  PLANT DRIVING ENERGY REQUIREMENTS FOR 10,000
       TONS/DAY  SRC PLANTS	   31

Al-10  EFFICIENCY CALCULATION FOR 10,000 TONS/DAY SRC PLANTS-	    32

Al-11  ULTIMATE  DISPOSITION OF UNRECOVERED HEAT IN 10,000 TONS/DAY
       SRC  PLANTS	'	   33

A2-1   MATERIAL  BALANCE ON  SYNTHOIL PLANT EXCLUSIVE OF HYDROGEN
       PRODUCTION	   46

A2-2   SUMMARY OF FLOWS FOR HYDROGEN PRODUCTION AND OTHER WATER STREAMS
       IN 50,000 BBL/DAY SYNTHOIL PLANTS	   52

A2-3   SUMBOLS AND  VALUES USED TO CALCULATE BALANCES AROUND GASIFIER
       IN 50,000 BBL/DAY SYNTHOIL PLANTS	   53

A2-4   SUMMARY OF GAS STREAMS FOR HYDROGEN PRODUCTION IN 50,000   '
       BBL/DAY SYNTHOIL PLANTS	   54

A2-5   PLANT ENERGY REQUIREMENTS IN 50,000. BBL/DAY SYNTHOIL PLANTS .....   55

A2-6   APPROXIMATE  THERMAL  EFFICIENCIES  OF 50,000 BBL/DAY SYNTHOIL
       PLANTS	   56

A2-7   DISPOSITION  OF UNRECOVERED HEAT  IN 50,000 BBL/DAY SYNTHOIL PLANTS  57
                                      VI

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Number                             Tables (Cont. )
A3-1   ANALYSIS OF COAL USED IN REFERENCE HYGAS PLANTS     ...... ..,...   54

A3-2   PRETREATMENT MATERIAL RATES FOR REFERENCE HYGAS PLANTS .... ......   65

A3- 3   PRETREATMENT ENERGY  RATES FOR REFERENCE HYGAS PLANTS ..... .......   66

A3-4   GASIFIER FLOW  RATES  FOR REFERENCE HYGAS PLANTS ........... - .....    67
A3-5   GASIFIER ENERGY  INFORMATION FOR REFERENCE HYGAS PLANTS ..........   68

A3- 6   GAS AND WATER  STREAMS FOR REFERENCE HYGAS PLANTS ................   69
A3-7   APPROXIMATE HEAT BALANCE AND ENERGY INFORMATION ON GASIFIER
       TRAIN FOR REFERENCE  HYGAS PLANTS ..................-.....   70
A3-8   DRIVING ENERGY FOR REFERENCE HYGAS PLANTS, FUEL REQUIRED IN
       BOILER, EFFICIENCY ,  AND UNRECOVERED HEAT ...................'   71
A3-9   ULTIMATE DISPOSITION OF UNRECOVERED HEAT FOR REFERENCE HYGAS
       PLANTS ... ..... .....  ..... . ........ ...............................   72
A3-10  FLOW RATES IN  250X10  SCF/DAY HYGAS PLANTS ......................   73
A3-11  ENERGY FLOWS IN  250X10  SCF/DAY HYGAS PLANTS ....................   74
A4-1   FLOW RATES IN  REFERENCE BIGAS PROCESSES .........................   80
A4-2   WATER EQUIVALENT HYDROGEN BALANCES FOR TWO BIGAS PLANTS FROM
       REFERENCE 1 ..... . . ............ . . ...... ............. ____ .........   81
A4-3   ANALYSES OF VARIOUS  COALS DRIED TO 1.3% MOISTURE FOR FEED TO
       BIGAS PROCESS.  . , .  ............... ................................   82
A4-4   WATER EQUIVALENT HYDROGEN BALANCES FOR BIGAS PLANTS .............   83
A4-5   REQUIREMENTS FOR AUXILIARY ENERGY IN BIGAS PLANTS ...... ..... ....   84
A4-6   ULTIMATE DISPOSITION OF UNRECOVERED HEAT IN BIGAS PLANTS. ........   85
A5-1   ANALYSES OF VARIOUS  COALS DRIED TO 4.3% MOISTURE FOR FEED TO
       SYNTHANE PROCESS ........................... ____ . ....... .........   92
A5-2   FLOW AND ENERGY  RATES FOR REFERENCE SYNTHANE PLANTS. .............   93
A5-3   WATER EQUIVALENT HYDROGEN BALANCES FOR SYNTHANE REFERENCE PLANTS   94
A5-4   WATER EQUIVALENT HYDROGEN BALANCES AND FEED COAL RATES FOR
       SYNTHANE PLANTS  ....................................   95

A5-5   SYNTHANE GASIFIER HEAT BALANCES FOR REFERENCE LOCATIONS .........   95

A5-6   HEAT BALANCE AROUND  THE SYNTHANE GASIFIER TRAIN FOR REFERENCE
       PLANTS ............. ..... .... ---- ................................   97

A5-7   DRIVING ENERGY FOR REFERENCE SYNTHANE PLANTS ..---....  99

A5-8   OVERALL PLANT  HEAT BALANCES FOR REFERENCE SYNTHANE PLANTS .......  99
A5-9   ULTIMATE DISPOSITION OF UNPECOVERED HEAT IN REFERENCE SYNTHANE
       PI --iNTS. ........ ........ .......................................... 100

A5-10  DRIVING ENERGY,  THERMAL EFFICIENCY AND ULTIMATE DISPOSITION OF
       UNRECOVERED HEAT FOR SYNTHANE PLANTS .................... ____ . .  . 101
A5-11  CHAR COMPOSITIONS IN REFERENCE SYTHANE PLANTS ................... 102

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Number                             Tables (Contr)                       Pa9e

A6-1   LURGI GASIFIER MATERIAL BALANCE	     HO

A6-2   LURGI GAS TRAIN BALANCE	   116;

A6-3   PROCESS WATER AND  OTHER STREAMS IN 250X10  SCF/DAY LURGI PLANTS   119

A7-1   ASSIGNMENT OF COOLING  LOADS	   155

A7-2   WATER AVAILABILITY AND EVAPORATION RATE	   156

A7-3   NOMENCLATURE	   157

A7-4   AVERAGE AMBIENT CONDITIONS	   158

A7-5   HEAT TRANSFER COEFFICIENTS, FAN AND PUMP ENERGIES	   159

A7-6   UNIT COSTS	   160

A7-7   CALCULATIONS ON STEAM  TURBINE CONDENSERS AT FARMINGTON, N.M.  -   161

A7-8   CALCULATIONS ON STEAM  TURBINE CONDENSERS AT CASPER, WYOMING  - - -   166

A7-9   CALCULATIONS ON STEAM  TURBINE CONDENSERS AT CHARLESTON, W.V.  .-   171

A7-10  CALCULATIONS ON STEAM  TURBINE CONDENSERS AT AKRON,  OHIO	   176

A7-11  SUMMARY OF WET/DRY CONDENSER COOLING CALCULATIONS	   181

A7-12  ANNUAL AVERAGE COSTS FOR WET/DRY CONDENSER COOLING 	   182

A7-13  SUMMARY OF WET/DRY COMPRESSOR INTERSTAGE COOLING FOR AIR
       COMPRESSORS AT FARMINGTON,  N.M	   183

A7-14  ANNUAL AVERAGE COST FOR WET/DRY COMPRESSOR INTERSTAGE COOLING
       FOR AIR COMPRESSORS AT FARMINGTON,  N.M	   184

A7-15  CALCULATIONS ON INTERSTAGE  COOLING OF AN AIR COMPRESSOR HANDLING
       1000 LB AIR/HR AT  FARMINGTON,  N.M	   185

A7-16  CALCULATIONS ON INTERSTAGE  COOLING OF AN AIR COMPRESSOR HANDLING
       1000 LBS AIR/HR AT CASPER,  WYOMING	   189

A7-17  CALCULATIONS ON INTERSTAGE  COOLING OF AN AIR COMPRESSOR HANDLING
       1000 LBS/HR AT CHARLESTON,  W.V	   193

A7-18  CALCULATIONS ON INTERSTAGE  COOLING OF AN AIR COMPRESSOR HANDLING
       1000 LBS AIR/HR AT AKRON, OHIO	   197

A7-19  SUMMARY OF WET/DRY COMPRESSOR INTERSTAGE COOLING FOR AIR
       COMPRESSOR	   201

A7-20  ANNUAL AVERAGE COST FOR WET/DRY COMPRESSOR INTERSTAGE COOLING
       FOR AIR COMPRESSOR	   202

A9-1   OTHER WATER NEEDS		   212

All-1  WATER TREATMENT BLOCKS AND  OTHER COSTS	   358
All-2  EFFLUENT WATER QUALITY		   351

All-3  RAW WATER QUALITIES	.	   362
All-4  WATER TREATMENT PLANTS		   366
                                       Vlll

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                                           (Cont>)
A12-1  NET  INPUT AND OUTPUT QUANTITIES FOR AN INTEGRATED OIL  SHALE
       PLANT  PRODUCING 50,000 BBL/DAY OF SYNTHETIC CRUDE ... .......... -  418

A12-2  RAW  SHALE AND PRODUCT OUTPUT PROPERTIES. . ....... ................  418

A12-3  RETORTING AND UPGRADING PROCESS WATER STREAMS FOR OIL  SHALE
       PLANTS PRODUCING 50,000 BBL/DAY OF SYNTHETIC CRUDE. .............  425

A12-4  RETORT THERMAL BALANCES FOR 50,000 BBL/DAY OIL SHALE PLANTS ---- -  426

A12-5  THERMAL BALANCES,  UNRECOVERED HEAT REMOVED BY WET COOLING
       AND  WATER EVAPORATED IN 50,000 BBL/DAY OIL SHALE PLANTS  ........  427

A12-6  WATER  CONSUMED IN DUST CONTROL FOR MINING AND FUEL  PREPARA-
       TION FOR UNDERGROUND SHALE MINES INTEGRATED WITH SHALE OIL
       PLANTS PRODUCING 50, 000 BBL/DAY OF SYNTHETIC CRUDE  .............  429

A12-7  OIL  SHALE QUANTITIES IN TONS /DAY FOR INTEGRATED PLANTS
       PRODUCING 50,000 BBL/DAY OF SYNTHETIC CRUDE. ....................  429

A12-8  WATER  REQUIREMENTS FOR SPENT SHALE DISPOSAL FROM INTEGRATED
       PLANTS PRODUCING 50,000 BBL/DAY OF SYNTHETIC CRUDE. .............  433

A12-9  SERVICE AND OTHER WATER REQUIREMENTS FOR INTEGRATED OIL  SHALE
       PLANTS PRODUCING 50,000 BBL/DAY OF SYNTHETIC CRUDE  ....... ---- ..  433

A12-10 SUMMARY OF WATER CONSUMED AND WET -SOLID RESIDUALS  GENERATED
       FOR  INTEGRATED OIL SHALE PLANTS PRODUCING 50,000 BBL/DAY OF
       SYNTHETIC CRUDE. ........... ____ .................................  434

A15-1  COST PARAMETERS USED IN THE PRESENT STUDY. ............ ..... .....  625

A15-2  ANALYSIS OF BUREAU OF RECLAMATION AQUEDUCT DATA. ................  633

A15-3  MINE LOCATIONS WITH RESPECT TO RIVER BASINS. ....................  635

A15-4  WATER  SOURCES AND SUPPLIES FOR SITE STUDIES ON AN ANNUAL BASIS
       IN ACRE-FEET PER YEAR- ..........................................  636
A15-5  WATER  REQUIREMENTS FOR PLANT SITE COMBINATIONS IN ACRE FT/YR
       AND  (mgd) ...................................... ..... ............  638

A15-6  UNIT COSTS OF TRANSPORTING WATER TO GILLETTE, WYOMING  ..........  640
A15-7  ROUTE  DATA FOR GILLETTE , WYOMING- ...............................  640

A15-8  COST OF TRANSPORTING WATER TO GILLETTE,  WYOMING- .......... ---- . .  641

A15-9  LOCAL  SUPPLY TO INDIVIDUAL PLANTS .......... ...... ...............  648

A15-10 LARGE  SCALE WATER CONVEYANCE COSTS .......... ..... . ..... .... .....  650

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                                             CONVERSION  FACTORS
 ACCELERATION
 ENERGY/AREA-TIME
 MASS/TIME
 MASS/VOLUME
 MISCELLANEOUS
 POWER
SPEED
i to International System (SI) Units
Multiply
2
f oot/second
free fall, standard
acre_
feet2
Btu (mean)
calorie (mean)
ki lowatt- hours
Btu/foot hour
Btu/foot minute
Btu/foot second
calorie/on minute
dyne
kilogram force (Kg )
pound force (Ib, avoirdupois)
foot
mile
pound (avoirdupois)
ton (short, 2000 Ib)
pound/hour
pound/minute
ton (short) /hour
ton (short) /day
gram/centimeter
pound/ foot
pound/gallon (U.S. liquid)
Btu/hr-ft2-F
Btu/kw-hr
Btu/lb
Btu/lbm-*F
A
gal/10 Btu
kiloCAlorieAilogram
Btu/hour
Btu/minute
Btu/second
calorie/hour
calorie/minute
calorie/second
horsepower
atmosphere
foot of water (39.2F)
psi (lbf/in )
lbf/foot2
foot/minute
foot/second
mi le/hour

Si
_1
3.048 x 10
9.807
4.047 x 103
9.290 x 10
' 1.056 x 103
4.190
3.60 x 10
3.152 x 10"1
1.891 x 10^
1.135 x 10*
6.973 X 10
1.00 x 10~5
9.807
4.448
3.048 x 10"1
1.609 x 10
4.536 x 10"1
1.00 x 10
9.072 x 10
1.260 X 10~^
7.560 X 10 ,
2.520 X 10 ,
1.050 x 10"
1.00 X 103
1.602 x 10,
1.198 x 10
5.674
2.929 x 10"
2.324  103
4.184 x 10
3.585 x 10"12
4.184 x 10
2.929 x 10"1
1.757 x 10^
1.054  10
1.162 x 10 ,
6.973 x 10"
4.184
7.457 x 10
1.013 x 105
2.989 x 103
6.895 x 10
4.788 x 101
5.08 x 10"3
3.048 x 10
4.470 x 10
                                                                                             To Obtain
                                                                                                  2
                                                                                      meter/second
                                                                                      meter/second*
                                                                                      joule
                                                                                      joule
                                                                                      joule
                                                                                     watt/meter_
                                                                                     watt/meter
                                                                                     watt/meter.
                                                                                     watt/meter
 newton
 newton
 newton

 meter
 meter

 kilogram
 kilogram
 kilogram


 kilogram/second
 kilogram/second
 kilogram/second
 kilogram/second

 kilogram/meter
 kilogram/meter.
 kilogram/meter
 joules/sec-n -*C
 joules/kw-sec
 joule/leg
 joule/Xg-'C

 meter /joule
 jouleA9

 watt
 watt
 watt
 watt
 watt
 watt
 watt


 pascal  (- nevton/m2)
 pascal
 pascal
 pascal

meter/second
meter/second
meter/second
TEMPERATURE
                                                            0.556 (F  +  459.7)
                                                                                (continued)
                                                            x

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                                         Conversion Factors  (Cont.)
                       acre foot
                       barrel (oil, 42 gal)
                       foot
                       gallon (U.S. liquid)
1.590
1.233
2.632
3.785
x 10
x 10
x 10
x 10"
51
-i
3
                                                                                            To Obtain
VOLUME/TIME
                       ft /sec
                       gal (U.S. liquid)/day
                       gal (U.S. liquid)/min
4.719 x 10_
2.832 x 10
4. 381 x 10~
6.309 x 10
                  meter /second
                  meter /second
                  meter /second
                  meter /second
Other Conversion  Factors

     The fallowing  table is based on a density  of water of 62.3 pounds per cubic fcot.  This is the density

of water at 68*F  (20*C) and corresponds to 8.33 pounds of water per gallon.
acres
acres
acre-feet

acrfifee t/year


acre- fee t/year
acre- fee t/year
barrels, oil
Btu 	
Btu
cubic feet
cubic feet
cubic feet of water

cubic feet/second
gallons
gallons
gall on s

gallons/minute
gallons/minute
gallons/minute
gallons of water/minute
horsepower 	
horsepower
ki Iowa tt-hours
milligrams/liter
million gallons/day
million gallons/day 	
million gallons/day
million gallons of water/day
pounds of water
pounds of water
pound moles of gas 	 ,.,,,
square feet
temperature, C
temperature , *F-32
thousand pounds/hour

thousand pounds of water/hour
thousand pounds of water/hour
tons (short)
tons {short)
tons/day . . 	
tons/year
watts
-3,
1,
3.



j ,
6,
8,
4.
. . 2,
3,
2.
7.
6.
4.
6.
3.
2.
1.
	 a.
i.
2.
1.
5.
	 6.
2.
3.
1
1.
	 1.
6.
3.
1,
1.
	 3.
2,
1.
5.
1,
	 4.
2.
2.
2
9.
	 8.
2.
3.
.36
.56
36
. 26

.38
91

.20
.93
.2
i?
,93
,30
.48
.23
44
.46
.07
,38
,34
11
,61
,23
.44
00
.11
.55
.41

.12
.55
.94
.47
,20
.60
.80
.30
.8
, 56
,2
18
,00
.88
x
,07
33
28
41
x
X
X



*
X
X
X
If
X
X

X

X
*
X
X


X
X
X
X
X
X

X

X
X
X
X
X
X

X
X


X
10
X
X
X

10
104
10%
-3
10 	 	 	 .
-5 	
in
-1

io""1 i
10
io2 	
"Is
10

;
10 	
-1
10l2
10 , 1
10

-3
10-3
- 1 '
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103
10
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	 J 	    '
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10-2
Jo2

io~5
-1
10
10 3
10 	
-3
310

io',1
Kf2 	
10-"

                                                                                    square feet
                                                                                    square miles
                                                                                    cubic feet
                                                                                    gallons
                                                                                    cubic feet/second
                                                                                    cubic meters/second
                                                                                    galIons/minute
                                                                                    million gallons/day
                                                                                    gallons
                                                                                    calories
                                                                                    horsepower-hours
                                                                                    acre-feet
                                                                                    gallons
                                                                                    pounds of water
                                                                                    gallons/minute
                                                                                    million gallons/day
                                                                                    acre-feet
                                                                                    barrels, oil
                                                                                    cubic feet
                                                                                    pounds of water
                                                                                    acre-feet/year
                                                                                    cubic feet/second
                                                                                    million gallons/day
                                                                                    thousand pounds of water/hr
                                                                                   -Btu/day
                                                                                    Btu/hour
                                                                                    Btu
                                                                                    parts/million
                                                                                    acre-feet/year
                                                                                  ..cubic feet/second
                                                                                    gallons/minute
                                                                                    thousand pounds of water/hr
                                                                                    gallons of water
                                                                                    cubic feet of water
                                                                                  ..standard cubic  feet of gas
                                                                                    acres
                                                                                    32   F
                                                                                    "C
                                                                                    tons/day
                                                                                    tons/year
                                                                                    gallons of water/minute
                                                                                    millions gals of water/day
                                                                                    pounds
                                                                                    metric tons
                                                                                    thousand pounds/hour
                                                                                    thousand pounds/hour
                                                                                    Btu/hour
                                                        xi

-------
                                   APPENDIX 1
                      CALCULATIONS ON SOLVENT REFINED COAL
BASIS OF ANALYSIS
     Solvent refined coal (SRC) plant designs are required for bituminous
coals at:
                          1,  Bureau, Illinois
                          2.  White, Illinois
                          3.  Fulton, Illinois
                          4.  Saline, Illinois
                          5.  Rainbow, Wyoming
subbituminous coals at:
and lignites at:
 6.  Gillette, Wyoming
 7.  Antelope Creek, Wyoming
 8.  Colstrip, Montana

 9.  Marengo, Alabama
10.  Dickinson, North Dakota
11.  Bentley, North Dakota
12.  Underwood, North Dakota
13.  Otter Creek, Montana
14.  Pumpkin Creek, Montana
15,  Coalridge, Montana.
     The experiments on solvent refining of coal are described in References
1-7.  Most of the work has been done on bituminous coals from Pittsburgh,
Kentucky and Illinois.  On Table Al-1 are shown three coal analyses and three
average SRC analyses derived from these coals.  Very little work has been
done on solvent refining of lignite and subbituminous coals.  Some experiments
                                        1

-------
on North Dakota lignite and Wyoming subbituminous  were done in a small
laboratory bench reactor;  the solvent was not in balance, and the analyses of
the SRC are only suggestive of what might be obtained on a large scale;
However, the SRC derived from the Western coals seems very similar to that
derived from Eastern coals.  We have assumed the analyses given on Table Al-
2.
     An alternative process is under study, particularly as "Project Lignite,"
                                 Q
at the University of North Dakota .  In this process carbon monoxide or
synthesis gas (CO + H ) is used to dissolve the coal instead of hydrogen.
Water is used (with lignite this may be the coal moisture) and the shift gas
reaction, CO + HO -> H  + CO , occurs in the dissolver, probably catalyzed by
                2     2     2                                              9
coal mineral.  It is this process which was studied by Ralph M. Parsons Co.
and Jahnig  .  This is not the process used here.
     The dissolving section of the plant, based mostly on the pilot plant
design  ' , is shown in simplified form in Figures Al-1 and Al-2.  To obtain
the water requirements we have proceeded as follows:
     1)  From the pilot plant results a set of rules has been formulated
which give the material balance around the dissolving section of the plant.
     2)  The carbonaceous filter residue and extra coal were gasified to
produce hydrogen.
     3)  Approximate heat balances have been made around the gasification and
dissolving sections.
     4)  The energy needed to drive the plant was estimated.  This energy was
supplied from waste heat recovery units and by burning the light oil and
gaseous hydrocarbon made in the dissolving section.
     5)  Surplus light oil and gaseous hydrocarbon was sold.  So much energy
is needed to dry lignites as. feed to the dissolving section that very little
light fuel is available for sale.  However, with bituminous coals quite a lot
of light fuel- is.available for sale.  With bituminous and subbituminous coals
an alternative procedure  (not considered here but detailed elsewhere  ) is to
not add coal to the gasifier but to reform some gaseous hydrocarbon to
hydrogen instead.
     6)  The approximate plant conversion efficiencies were then stated.
     7)  Finally, the points of loss of unrecovered heat were tabulated.

-------
MATERIAL BALANCE ON DISSOLVING SECTION                                   x
     The yields of the various products are mostly reported as fractions  of
the moisture-and-ash-free coal.  Because of the high oxygen contents of
Western coals, this procedure has not been used to convert the yields from
Eastern coal to those from Western coals.  Instead, we have used yields of
carbon.  Based on the published experimental results, mostly the pilot plant
results , we have formulated the following rules for material balances in the
dissolving section of the plant:
     1)  70 percent of the carbon in the coal appears as carbon in the SRC.
     2)  14 percent of the carbon in the coal appears as carbon in light
liquid hydrocarbon product of composition CH   .
                                            1.6
     3)  5 percent  of the carbon in the coal appears as gaseous hydrocarbon
product of composition CH     (about 75 percent CH  and the balance higher
hydrocarbons).
     4)  1 percent of the carbon in the coal appears as CO .
     5)  10 percent of the carbon in the coal appears as carbon in undis-
solved residue.
     6)  The ratio O/C in the undissolved residue is the same as in the coal.
The balance of the oxygen appears as water.
     7)  A detailed description of the distribution of sulfur would be that
all of the sulfate sulfur stays in the mineral residue; 50 percent of the
pyritic sulfur is reduced to H S, and the balance appears in the ash; 60-70
percent of the organic sulfur is reduced to H S, and the balance is dis-
tributed between the SRC and undissolved residue.  However, for lack of
sulfur analyses a simpler rule has been adopted:  of the sulfur in the coal
which does not appear as SRC, 50 percent is converted to H S and 50 percent
stays in the residue.
     8)  Nitrogen from the coal appears in the SRC and the undissolved
residue with the balance appearing as ammonia.  The ratio N/C is the same in
the coal and in the undissolved residue.
     9)  The ratio H/C in the filter residue is the same as in the coal.
    10)  Hydrogen is supplied as required, and 10 percent of the feed hydrogen
                                                                       18 20
does not react.  This in fact may be low based on some recent EPRI data
    11)  The remainder of the ash all appears in the undissolved residue.

-------
     Application of these rules gives the material balances presented  on

Table Al-3.  On these tables stream numbers from Figures Al-1  and Al-2 have

been entered.  It should be noted that for Stream 2 only the hydrogen  content

has been stated.  In fact, the hydrogen streams produced by gasification  and

reforming contain only about 85 percent hydrogen with CO being the  balance.

These extra gases are assumed to leave the dissolving section  with  the gas of

Stream 7.  Not shown on Table Al-4 is 10,000 Ib/hr steam needed for the

vacuum ejectors in all plants.  The condensate from this steam is rejected

with the dirty condensate from the dissolving section.


PRODUCTION OF HYDROGEN BY GASIFICATION

     The production train is shown on Figures Al-3 and Al-4.   A Koppers-

Totzek gasifier has been chosen because of the high ash content of  the feed.

The gasifier rules are      :

                  oxygen feed = 1.06 Ib/lb  (carbon + hydrogen);

             boiler feed water = 0.223 Ib/lb  (carbon + hydrogen);
             in the off-gas, the concentrations are given by;

                     (H )(CO )
                              = 0.47.
                     (CO)(H20)
     Methane is not produced.

     The weight rates of flow are given on Table Al-4 and molar rates  of flow
 on Table Al-5.  They are found as follows.

     1)  The hydrogen required is shown on Table Al-3, Stream  2.   Let  this be

 m  moles/hr.  Also, we assume the gas actually produced is  85  percent  H  and
 H                                                                      2
 15- percent CO.  The total of H  + CO in the product and in  all gas streams

 from the gasifier off-gas onwards is therefore m /0.85.  The symbols and
                                                H
 values used in the following calculations are given on Table Al-6.  The first
 two equations are:
                               MH2 +MCO =
                             'V "W
                              = '47                        <2>

-------
     2)  The elemental balances  around the gasifier can now be written.  They
are:



carbon
                      c.Wc/12 =
                                        (say)
                                                                        (3)
hydrogen
w.Wc/18
                                                     2MR =
                                                    H20
                                                                (say)  (4)
oxygen
:-Wc/32
                             c.W
                                                                 M
                                   = MCO/2  + MC02 + MH20/2 = K3
     Equations  (3),  (4)  and (5)  can be rearranged to give
       M
        H2
                           MCO  =  K2  + 2K1 ~ 2K3
                 =  (from Eq.  (1)  ) ir^/0.85
                                                                       (5a)
Equation  (5a) can be solved for W   ,  the weight of coal.  Knowing W  , Equations
                                 \                                   * -

(3), (4) and  (5) give M     ,M   and M    in terms of M   and substitution
                       L(J^   rlz       tiZ(J              (_O
into Equation  (2) gives a quadratic  in  M  .


     3)  The gasifier off-gas  is quenched to 130 F with condensation of


water.  The water in the gas after quench is very small and is treated as


zero.


     4)  The shift reactor must have in its  exit gas M  moles/hr H  and
                                                       H           2

lSnVj/85 = 0.176 m  moles/hr CO.  Also,  from  the  stoichiometry of the shift


reaction, CO is converted to CO   so the moles/hr CO  in the exit case:
                               /-      '               ^
                             = MC02  +MCO
     Finally, the shift reaction  is  in  equilibrium at 50F, so the moles/hr


HO in the exit gas, M'     is given  by:
 2

-------
                               -176VM'H20
                                                      8
     The steam in Stream 14, M  , is given by the hydrogen balance around the
                              o X
shift reactor:

                             MH2 + MST = MH + M'H20                    (8)

     5)  The acid gas removal is, for simplicity, assumed to remove all the
CO .   All the water leaving the shift reactor appears in Stream 15 as
condensate.

HEAT BALANCE ON DISSOLVING SECTION
     Approximate heat balances on the dissolving section are given on  Table
Al-7.  They are calculated as follows:
     1)  Coal feed is given on Table Al-3.
     2) ^Hydrogen is given on Table Al-3 and this stream is 15 percent CO and
85 percent H .  The higher heating value of H  is 123,000 Btu/mole, and of CO
            ^                                
-------
                            14,540C + 62,000(H - X/8)

where C, H and X are the pounds of carbon, hydrogen  and  oxygen.   The  heating
value of the gaseous hydrocarbon is taken to be 23,500 Btu/lb.
     5)  The steam recovered is the total from the two-fired heater plus  the
energy given out when the solvent is cooled through  160F.
     6)  Stack losses are 12 percent of the fired preheater duties.
     7)  Cooling loads involve cooling the flashed gas,  water  and light oil
from 550F to 100F and condensing the water and oil.  Also, refluxed solvent
to the vacuum tower must be condensed, but this stream,  while  not known,  must
certainly be very small because the separation requires  very little reflux.
The total cooling loads are calculated as:

                      1,500 x  (condensed water, Stream 5)
                    + 360 x  (condensed light oil, Stream 6)
                    + 220 x  (gas, Stream 7)

These numbers are totals of sensible and latent heat.  Condensing water is
much the largest part of the load, and this is mostly done in  the dry cooler.
Of the total load, 80 percent is assigned to dry cooling and 20 percent to
wet cooling.  In addition to this load, the wet loading  is arbitrarily
increased to force a balance.
     8)  Around the filter the stream is assumed to  cool 100F by convection
and radiation.
     9)  The SRC is assumed recovered as a liquid with a sensible heat of
130 Btu/lb.
                                                   9
    10)  The other losses are an arbitrary 0.5 x 10  Btu/hr.   They are
assumed to be radiant and convective losses.

HEAT BALANCE ON THE GASIFICATION SECTION
     Approximate heat balances on the gasification sections are given on
Table Al-8.  They are calculated as follows.
     1)  The filter residue, Stream 4, is copied from Table Al-7.  The coal.
Stream 17, is given on Table Al-4.  The steam, Stream 14, is also given on
Table Al-4 and its enthalpy is 1120 Btu/lb.  The hydrogen product. Stream 2,
is copied from Table Al-7.

                                    7

-------
     2)  The heat in the ash and slag is the weight of ash  in the  total  coal
feed to the plant multiplied by 543 Btu/lb, which multiplier, assumes  a latent
heat of slag of 63 Btu/lb and a sensible heat of ash of 0.2  Btu/(lb)(F)  over
a range of 2400F, i.e., 543 =  (0.2)(2400) + 63.
     3)  The steam raised in the gasifier  is found from a heat balance around
the gasifier.  All the gasifier feed streams have been entered,  as has the
slag stream leaving.  The enthalpy of the  off-gas is:
127,300 x  (moles H2) +126,200 x  (moles CO) +  6,460  x  (moles  CO  )
                                                       +  24,140  x  (moles
The gas composition is given on Table Al-5  (Stream  12).
     Additional steam is raised after the shift converter.  This  energy  is:

3,290 x (moles H ) + 3,380 x (moles CO) + 5,130 x  (moles CO )
                                                          
-------
PLANT DRIVING ENERGY


     The approximate plant driving energy is shown on  Table  Al-9.   The


moisture lost in drying is shown on Table Al-3.   It  is evaporated  at


1,150 Btu/lb.  The energy for acid gas removal  is 28,400 Btu/mole  CO


(a solvent type of system being assumed used).  The  CO adsorbed is the  total


of that shown on Tables Al~3 and Al-5.  The vacuum tower ejector stream

                  9                                        3
contains 0.01 x 10  Btu/hr.  Stream 8 is therefore 10  x 10   Ib  steam/hr  at


all plants and Stream 9 is the same.  Stream 9  is shown on the  worksheets


added to the condensate from the dissolving section, Stream  5.  The electri-


city is 15,000 kw.  Oxygen production consumes  1,920 Btu/lb  with the quantity


of oxygen being shown on Table Al-4.  The synthesis  gas compressor requires

         9       3
0.02 x 10  Btu/10  moles gas where the gas is listed on Table Al-5, entering

                                                     9        3
shift.  The hydrogen compressor requires 0.0126 x 10   Btu/10 moles gas.  The


gas is Stream 2 on Table Al-5.  The slurry pump requires

              9       3
0.0000733 x 10  Btu/10  Ib dry coal.  Thedry coal rate is given on Table

                                                        9
Al-3.  The additional allowance is an arbitrary 0.2 x  10  Btu/hr.
PLANT EFFICIENCY AND UNRECOVERED HEAT


     The plant efficiency  calculation is given on Table Al-10.  The coal


rates are given on Tables  Al-7  and Al-8.  The SRC product  is given on Table


Al-7 as is the oil product and  the gas product.  The total steam recovered is


the sum of that recovered  in the dissolving section  (Table Al-7) and in the


gasification section  (Table Al-8).  Steam is consumed  in the gasification


section as shown on Table  Al-8.  The plant driving energy,  for which gas and


oil will be burnt, is shown taken from Table Al-9.  In burning gas and oil to


raise steam, there is some stack loss,- this is 12 percent  of the fuel or 13.6


percent of




             (plant driving energy + steam required - steam recovered)




where all the terms are treated as positive no matter  how  entered on Table


Al-10.


     The fuel to dissolver and  vacuum preheaters is shown  on Table Al-7.  All


the plants have net gas or oil  for sale.

-------
ULTIMATE DISPOSITION OF UNRECOVERED HEAT
     The ultimate disposition of unrecovered  heat  is  shown on Table  Al-H-
The direct losses are the sum of:
        from Table Al-7:      Stack losses
                              Losses  around filter
                              Sensible  heat in SRC
                              Losses  around dissolver and other
        from Table Al-8:      Ash  and slag
        from Table Al-9:      Coal drying
                              Vacuum  tower  ejector
                              30%  of  energy to generate electricity
                              30%  of  energy to drive the slurry pump
         from Table  Al-10:     Boiler  stack  losses
      The dry cooling load is the sum  of that  entered on Tables Al-7 and Al-8.
      The wet cooling load is the sum  of that  entered on Tables Al-7 and Al-8
 plus the allowances on Table Al-9.
      The gas purification system regenerator  condenser load is the energy
 entered on Table Al-9.
      The total steam turbine condenser  load is 70  percent of the sum of:
                          electricity
                          oxygen production
                          synthesis gas compressor
                          hydrogen compressor
                          slurry pump
 all from Table Al-9.
      The total gas compressor interstage cooler load is 30 percent of the sum
 of:
                          oxygen production
                          synthesis gas compressor
                          hydrogen compressor
  all from Table Al-9.
                                        10

-------
REFERENCES, APPENDIX 1

 1.  Hydrocarbon Research, Inc., "Solvent Refining Illinois No. 6 and Pitts-
     burgh No. 8 Coals," Electric Power Research Institute, Palo Alto, Calif.,
     Report No. EPRI 389, June 1975.

 2.  Southern Services, Inc., "Status of Wilsonville Solvent Refined Coal Pilot
     Plant," Electric Power Research Institute, Palo Alto, Calif,, Report No.
     EPRI 1234, May 1975.

 3.  Anderson, R. Pr , and Wright, C. H., Pittsburgh and Midway Coal Mining
     Co., "Development of a Process for Producing an Ashless, Low-Sulfur Fuel
     from Coal, Vol. II; Laboratory Studies, Part 3; Continuous Reactor Experi-
     ments Using Petroleum Derived Solvent," May 1975.  U.S. Energy Research
     and Development Administration, Research and Development Report Mo. 53,
     Interim Report No. 8 (NTIS Cat. No. FE-496-T1).

 4.  Schmid, B. K., "The Solvent Refined Coal Process," presented at Symp. on
     Coal Gasification and Liquefaction, University of Pittsburgh, August 1974.

 5.  Anderson, R. P., "Evolution of Steady State Process Solvent in the Pitts-
     burgh and Midway Solvent Refined Coal Process," presented at Symp. on Coal
     Processing, AIChE, Salt Lake City, August 1974.

 6.  Catalytic, Inc. for Southern Services, Inc., "SRC Technical Report No. 5,
     Analysis of Runs 19 Through 40, 20 January to 8 August 1974, Wilsonville,
     Alabama," unpublished report.

 7.  Wright, C. H., et al, "Development of a Process for Producing an Ashless,
     Low-Sulfur Fuel from Coal, Vol. II; Laboratory Studies, Part 2; Continuous
     Reactor Studies Using Anthracene Oil Solvent," U.S. Energy Research and
     Development Administration, Research and Development Report No. 53,
     Interim Report No, 7, September 1975  (NTIS Cat. No. FE-496-T4).

 8.  University of North Dakota, "Project LigniteProcess Development for
     Solvent Refined Lignite," U.S.  Energy Research and Development  Administra-
     tion, Report 106, Interim Report No, 1, 1974  (NTIS Cat, Ho. FE-1224-T1K

 9.  Ralph M. Parsons Co,, "Demonstration Plant, Clean Boiler Fuels from Coal,
     Preliminary Design/Capital Cost Estimate," U.S., Dept. of the Interior,
     O.C.R., R&D Report No.  82, Interim Report No,  1, Volume II, 1975.

10.  Jahnig, C. E., "Evaluation of Pollution Control in Fossil Fuel Conversion
     Processes:  Liquefaction; Section 2, SRC Process," U.S. Environmental Pro-
     tection Agency,- Research Triangle Park, N.D.,  Report No, EPA-50/2-74-009-f,
     March 1975.
                                       11

-------
11.  Pittsburgh and Midway Coal Mining Company, "Development of a Process
     for Producing an Ashless,  Low-Sulfur Fuel from Coal,  Vol. Ill; Pilot
     Plant Development Work,  Part 2;  Construction of Pilot Plant," May 1975,
     U.S. Energy Research and Development Administration,  Research and
     Development Administration Report No. 53, Interim Report No. 9 (NTIS Cat.
     No. FE-496-T2).

12.  Nelson, W. L., Petroleum Refinery Engineering, 4th Ed., pp. 252-262,
     McGraw-Hill, 1958.

13.  Water Purification Associates, "Water Conservation and Pollution Control
     in Coal Conversion Processes," Report EPA 600/7-77-065, U.S. Environ-
     mental Protection Agency,  June 1977.

14.  Farnsworth, J. F. , Mitsak, D. M., and Kamody, J. F.,  "Clean Environment
     with K-T Process," presented at EPA Symposium on Environmental Aspects
     of Fuel Conversion Technology, St. Louis, Mo., May 1974.

15.  Farnsworth, J. F., Mitsak, D. M., Leonard, H. F., and Wintrell, R.,
     "Production of Gas from Coal by the KOPPERS-TOTZEK Process," IGT
     Symposium on Clean Fuels from Coal, Institute .of Gas Technology, Chicago,
     111., September 10-14, 1973.

16.  Mitsak, D. M., and Kamody, J. F., "Koppers-Totzek:  Take a Long, Hard
     Look," presented at 2nd Annual Symposium on Coal Gasification;  Best
     Prospects for Commercialization, University of Pittsburgh, August 1975.

17.  Lange, N. A., Handbook of Chemistry, 10th Ed., p. 1516, McGraw-Hill, 1961.

18.  Nongbri, G., "Solvent Refining of West Kentucky 9-14 Coal," EPRI Report
     AF-499, Electric Power Research Institute, Palo Alto, Calif., May 1977.

19.  Lewis, H.E., et al, "Operation of Solvent Refined Coal Pilot Plant at
     Wilsonville, Alabama," EPRI Report AF-585, Electric Power Research Institute,
     Palo Alto, Calif., November 1977.

20.  Nongbri, G. and Ariadni, K., "Solvent Refining of Indiana V Coal and North
     Dakota Lignite,"  EPRI Report AF-666, Electric Power Research Institute,
     Palo Alto, Calif.,-January 1978.
                                        12

-------
COAL
                550 F
 HP
FLASH
DRUM
                                        cw
L--*^

c
<



DECANTER J
/TV
L

LP
FLASH
DRUM
V

                                                                  00
                                                                                   GAS
                                                                             ACID
                                                                              GAS
                                                                            REMOVAL
                                                                            CW
                                                                                  SOLUTION OF
                                                                                     SRC
                                          WATER
                                                              *- OIL   TO CLEAN UP  TO FILTtR
                        Figure Al-1.   SRC  dissolving sectionA.

-------
                                                      STEAM \1
SRC
SOLUTION
FROM
SECTION A
                                                                                                   WASH SOLVENT
                                                                                                     TO FILTER
                                                                                                                VENT
RECYCLE SOLVENT
TO SLURRY BLEND
TANK
                                                                                                    SRC
                              Figure Al-2.   SRC dissolving  sectionB.

-------
FILTER
  COAL
                  TO
                  SHIFT
                  REACTOR
                  SECTION B
                      6FW
                               700 F
                               I5PSIA
                          r^\
                                     STEAM

X
AS
RUB
r

130F





WA
INT
COh

TER
RSTAGE
-JDENSATE
265PSIA

                                                           SYN GAS
                                                           COMPRESSOR
          Figure  Al-3.  SRC hydrogen production by gasificationA.

-------
en
                 FROM
                 SECTION A
                                   STEAM
                          600F
                              SHIFT
                            CONVERSION
                             REACTOR
                                    750 F
  SHIFT
CONVERSION
 REACTOR
                                                                                                         TO DISSOLVING
                                                                                                1700PSIA'    SECTION
                                                                                          HYDROGEN
                                                                                          COMPRESSOR
                               Figure  Al-4.   SRC-hydrogen production by gasificationB.

-------
            TABLE Al-1.  ANALYSES OF  COAL  AND SOLVENT REFINED COAL



In wt % for dry materials.
  C



  H



  N



  O



  s



  Ash



  HHV  (Btu/lb)
 Pittsburgh


Coal      SRC



75.1      88.4



 5.1       5.5



 1.3       1.7



 7.6       3.3



 2.6       0.9



 8.2       0.1



         16,000
                                                   6
                                           Illinois
                                        Coal
          SRC
70.8      87.1



 5.1       5.6



 1.3       1.6



 8.7       4.6



 3.2       0.9



1Q.8       0.1



         16,000
  Kentucky


Coal      SRC



72.9      88.5



 4.8       5.1



 1.2       1.8



10.3       3.7



 3.5       0.8



 7.3       0.1



          16,000
          TABLE Al-2.  ASSUMED ANALYSES OF  SOLVENT  REFINED COAL (wt %)
                                  Bituminous
            C



            H



            N



            O



            S



            Ash



            HHV  (calculated)
                                    Subbituminous

                                      S Lignite
87
5
1
4
0
0
15,
.1
.6
.6
. 7
.9
.1
820
87
5
1
5
0
0
15,
.1
.3
.2
.7
.5
.2
540
                                         17

-------
                           TABLE Al-3.   MATERIAL  BALANCES FOR DISSOLVING  SECTIONS



                                          OF  10,000  TONS/DAY SRC PLANTS
Units:  10  Ib/hr.




LOCATION:  Bureau, Illinois  (bituminous)
                                                                      LOCATION:  White, Illinois (bituminous)
                       Total   C     H    N
                                                                                              Total   C     H     N
As-received coal :
ry ng.
INTO DISSOLVING SECTION
1. Dry coal
2. Hydrogen
|_, TOTAL:
00
OUT
3. SRC
4. Filter residue
5. Water
V
NH3
6. Light oil
7. Gaseous hydrocarbons
co2
Un consumed H
TOTAL;
1,725 1,037


1,448 1,037
31
1,479 1,037

833 726
275 104
71
23
5
164 145
68 52
37 10
3
1,479 1,037



71 19 143 50 128
31
102 19 143 50 128

47 13 39 71
7 2 14 21 127
8  63
1   22 
1 4
19
16
27
3  
102 19 143 50 128
As-received coal:
Moisture lost in drying:
INTO DISSOLVING SECTION
1. Dry coal
2. Hydrogen
TOTAL:
OUT
3. SRC
4. Filter residue
5. Water
H2S
NH3
6. Light oil
7. Gaseous hydrocarbons
co2
Unconsuraed H_
TOTAL:
1,557 1,037


1,512 1,037 72 22
24  24
1,536 1,037 96 22

833 726 47 13
368 104 7 2
38  4
19  1
7  07
164 145 19
68 52 16
37 10
2  2
1,536 1,037 96 22



Ill 44 226
--
111 44 226

39 7 1
11 18 225
34
19


-_
27

Ill 44 226

-------
TABLE Al-3 (continued)




Units:  10  Ib/lir.




LOCATION:  Fulton, Illinois  (bituminous)

As

-received coal:
Moisture lost in arymg:
Total C
1,764 1,037

H N


O S Ash


INTO DISSOLVING SECTION
1.
2 f

Dry coal
Hydrogen
TOTAL:
1,488 1,037
29
1,517 1,037
72 19
29
101 19
129 55 176
-
129 55 176
OUT
3.
4.
5,




6.
7.



SRC
Filter residue
Water
H S
7
NH
3
Light oil
Gaseous hydrocarbons
C2
Un cons ume Q H
TOTAL:
833 726
325 104
56
26

5

164 145
68 52
37 10
3
1,517 1,037
47 13
7 2
6
2

1 4

19
16

3
101 19
39 7 1
13 24 175
50
24





27
_
129 55 176
                                                                                               LOCATION.   Saline,  Illinois (bituminous)
                                                                                               As-received coal:





                                                                                               Moisture  lost in drying:






                                                                                               INTO DISSOLVING SECTION





                                                                                               1.  Dry  coal





                                                                                               2.  Hydrogen





                                                                                                   TOTAL.








                                                                                               OUT
Total    C      H      N






1,527  1,037





  104
1,423  1,037     69      21     104      47   145




   29          29





1,452  1,037     96      21     104      47   145
3.
4.
5.


6.
7.



SRC
Filter residue
Water
H2S
m3
Light oil
Gaseous hydrocarbons
co2
Unconsumed H
TOTAL:
833
287
32
21
7
164
68
37
3
1,452
726
104



145
52
10

1,037
47 13
7 2
4
1
1 6
19
16

3
98 21
39 7 1
10 20 144
28
20
--
--
--
27
-
104 47 145
                                                                                                                                                                   continued

-------
          Table M-3 (continued)


          Units:   10  Ib/hr.


          LOCATION:   Rainbow, Wyoming  (bituminous)
LOCATION:  Gillette, Wyoming  Uubbituminous)
M
O

As-received coal:
Moisture lost in drying:
INTO DISSOLVING SECTION
1. Dry coal
2. Hydrogen
TOTAL:
OUT
3. SRC
4. Filter residue
5. Water
H2S
NH3
6. Light oil
7. Gaseous hydrocarbons
co2
Unconsumed H
TOTAL:
Total C
1,569 1,037
163

1,406 1,037
33
1,439 1,037

833 726
218 104
101
4 
11
164 145
68 52
37 10
3
1,439 1,037
H N O S Ash
 -
_

72 25 173 14 85
33
105 25 173 14 85

47 13 39 71
7 3 17 3 84
11  90
0   4 
2 9
19
16
27
3
105 25 173 14 85
                                                                                                                                   Total    C      H      N
As-received coal:
Moisture lost in drying:
INTO DISSOLVING SECTION
1. Dry coal
2. Hydrogen
TOTAL;
OUT
3. SRC
4. Filter residue
5. Water
H,S
2
NH3
6. Light oil
7. Gaseous hydrocarbons
C2
Unconsumed H
TOTAL:
2,264 1,037
687

1,577 1,037
34
1,611 1,037

833 726
320 104
176
6

4
164 145
68 52
37 10
3
1,611 1,037



77 14 256 16 177
34
111 14 256 16 177

44 10 47 42
8 1 26 6 175
20  156
0   6

1 3
19
!6
27
3
111 14 256 16 177
                                                                                                                                                                           continued

-------
TABIE Al-3 (continued)





Units:  10  Ib/hr,





LOCATION:  Antelope Creek, Wyoming  (subbituininous)
As-received coal:





Moisture lost in drying:






INTO DISSOLVING SECTION





1.  Dry coal





2.  Hydrogen





    TOTAL:








OUT
Total    C      H      I.      O      S      Ash






1,971  1,037




  515
1,456  1,037     71     12    237      10     69




   35          35




1,491  1,037    106     12    237      10     B9
EFC
Filter residue
Water
H S
NH,
Light oil
Gaseous hydrocarbons
co2
Unconsumed H

TOTAL:
833
226
156
3
1
164
68
37
3

1,491
726
104



145
52
10
_.

1,037
44 10
7 1
17
0
0 1
19
16

3

106 12
47 4 2
24 3 87
139
3
-


27


237 10 89
                                                                                         LOCATION:  Colstrip, Montana  (subbitumlnous)


As- received coal :
Moisture lost in drying :
INTO DISSOLVING SECTION
1. Dry coal
2. Hydrogen
TOTAL:
OUT
3. SRC
4. Filter residue
5. Water
H2S
KH3
6. Light oil
7. Gaseous hydrocarbons
co2
Unconsumed H
TOTAL:
Total C

1,979 1 , 037
4 82


1,497 1,037
39
1,536 1,037

833 726
273 104
150
2
5
164 145
68 52
37 10
4
1,536 1,037
H N O S Ash




69 16 230 8 137
39
108 16 230 8 137

44 10 47 42
7 2 23 2 135
17  133
0   2
1 4
19
16
27
4 - - .. _
108 16 230 8 137

-------
TABLE JU-3 (continued)




Units.-   10  Ib/hr.





LOCATION:   Marengo,  Alabama  (lignite)

As-received coal :
Moisture lost in drying :
INTO DISSOLVING SECTION
1. Dry coal
2. Hydrogen
TOTAL:
OUT
3. SRC
4. Filter residue
5. Water
H2S
NH
3
6. Light oil
7. Gaseous hydrocarbons
CO
2
Unconsumed H
TOTAL:
Total C H N
3,231 1,037
1,574

1,657 1,037 71 19
50  50
1,707 1,037 121 19

833 726 44 10
325 104 7 2
237  26
29  2

9  27
164 145 19
68 52 16

37 10
5 5 
1,707 1,037 121 19
0 S Ash
	 	 	


317 58 155
	
317 58 155

47 4 2
32 27 153
211
27


	
	 	 	

27

317 58 155
                                                                                            LOCATION:   Dickinson, North Dakota  (lignite)

As-received coal:

INTO DISSOLVING SECTION
1. Dry coal
2. Hydrogen
TOTAL:
OUT
3. SRC
4. Filter residue
5. Water
H2S
NH3
6. Light oil
7. Gaseous hydrocarbons
co2
Unconsumed H_
TOTAL:
Total C
2,758 1,037


1,621 1,037
42
1,663 1,037

833 726
324 104
224
5
4
164 145
68 52
37 10
4
1,663 1,037
H h O S Ash



74 14 303 14 179
42
116 14 303 14 179

44 10 47 42
7 1 30 5 177
25  199
0   5
1 3
19
16
27
4
116 14 303 14 179
                                                                                                                                                                 continued

-------
TABLE Al-3  (continued)




Units:  10  Ib/hr.




LOCATION:  Bentley, North Dakota  (lignite)
                              Total    C
As-received coal:
Moisture lost in d.rying :
INTO DISSOLVING SECTION
1. Dry coal
2, Hydrogen
TOTAL:
OUT
3. SRC
<3 . Filter residue
5. Water
H2S
KH3
6. Light oil
7. Gaseous hydrocarbons
co2
Unconsumed H
TOTAL:
2,493 1,037
907  

1,586 1,037
39
1,625 1,037

833 726
298 104
203
14
4
164 145
68 52
37 10
4
1,625 1,037
--


77 15 282 30 145
39
116 15 282 30 145

44 10 47 42
8 2 28 13 143
23  180
1   13
1 3
19
16
27
4    ..
116 15 282 30 145
                                                                                          LOCATION:  Underwood, North Dakota  (lignite)

As-received coal:
ols ure ost n ry ng :
INTO DISSOLVING SECTION
1. Dry coal
2. Hydrogen
TOTAL:
OUT
3. SRC
4. Filter residue
5. Water
H2S
3
6. Light oil
1, Gaseous hydrocarbons
co2
Unconsumed H
TOTAL:
Total C
2,429 1,037
860


1,569 1,037
42
1,611 1,037

833 726
281 104
216
4
4
164 145
68 52
37 10
4
1,611 1,037
H N 0 S Ash



73 15 296 12 136
42
115 15 296 12 136

44 10 47 42
7 2 30 4 134
24  192
0   4
1 3
19
16
27
4
115 15 296 12 136

-------
TABLE AJ-3 (continued)




Units:   103  Ib/hr.





LOCATION:  Otter  Creek,  Montana (lignite)
                                                                                            LOCATION:  Pumpkin Creek, Montana  (lignite)
                              Total    C      H      N
                                                                    S     Ash
                                                                                                                          Total    C      H       N
As-received coal:
Moisture lost in drying:
INTO DISSOLVING SECTION
1. Dry coal
2. Hydrogen
ifc.
TOTAL:
OUT

3. SRC

4. Filter residue
5. Water
H S
2

f3
6. Light oil
7. Gaseous hydrocarbons
co2

Unconsumed H
TOTAL:
2,062 1,037
607

1,455 1,037 60 12 231 12 103
47  47

1,502 1,037 107 12 231 12 103



833 726 44 10 47 42
2 104 6 1 23 4 101
151 -- 17  134

4  o   4

1  0 1
164 145 19
68 52 16
37 10   27

5  S 
1,502 1,037 107 12 231 12 103
As-received coal:
Moisture lost in drying:
INTO DISSOLVING SECTION
1. Dry coal
2. Hydrogen

TOTALi

OUT

3. SRC
4. Filter residue
5. Water

H,S
2
NH3
6. Light oil
7. Gaseous hydrocarbons
CO,
2
Unconsumed H
TOTALi
2,325 1,037
713

1,612 1,037
43

1,655 1,037



833 726
328 104
212

4

S
164 145
68 52
37 10

4
1,655 1,037
	


72 16 291 12 184
43  

115  291 12 184



44 10 47 42
7 2 29 4 182
24  188

0   4 

1 4 
19
16   ~
27 

4 ~~ ~~~ ~~ "*~*
115 16 291 12 184
                                                                                                                                                                 continued

-------
Al-3 (continued)
Units: 103 Ib/hr.
LOCATION: Coalridqe, Montana
As -received coal :
Moisture lost in drying:
INTO DISSOLVING SECTION
1. Dry coal
2. Hydrogen
TOTAL:
CUT
3. SRC
4 , Filter residue
5. Water
V
6. Light oil
7. Gaseous hydrocarbons
C2
Un consumed H

(lignite)
Total C H
2,946 1,037
1 1 RQ

1,757 1,037 71
58  58
1,815 1,037 129

833 726 44
376 104 7
320  36
4  0
7  1
164 145 19
68 52 16
37 10
6  6


N O S Ash


18 398 12 221

18 398 12 221

10 47 42
2 40 4 219
284
4
6


27
                        1,815  1,037    129     18    398

-------
     TABLE Al-4.   FLOW  RATES  IN  PRODUCTION  OF  HYDROGEN IN


                           10,000  TON/DAY  SRC  PLANTS
Units:  10  Ib/hr.
                                                              - o    c
                                                              01 C    O
                                                              *J -H    4J 
  17  Coal feed


  10  Oxygen


  11  Boiler feed water  to gasifier


  13  Condensate from  off-gas


  15  Condensate to aftershift


  14  Steam to shift
 77.00   16.00  60.00  50.50


 17.00  129.7   157.6  156.4


 35.78   27.29  33.17  32.91


 21.24    9.36  17.64  11.70


 84.78   64.44  78.48  77.76


243.9  190.4   227.9  229.1
                                                                Sen fi
                                                                c 3
                                                           c     
                                                                      c *
                                                                      O 4J
                                                                      to 0
Stream


  17  Coal feed                     B8.0  J45.0  140.0   180.0  500.0  308.0   225.0  272.0  286.0  270.0 620.0


  10  Oxygen                        183.6  194.3  201.1   224.3  299.5  249.2   225.3  249.4  277.9  254.2 364.8


  11  Boiler  feed water to gasifier  38.63  40.88   42.30  47.19  63.00  52.43   47.40  52.47  58.46  53.47  76.74


  13  Condensate from off-gas        23.4   57.4   48.96  55.26 222.8  126.5    90.72 103.5   83.88  93.60251.3


  15  Condensate to aftershift       91.98  97.2  101.7   113.6  152.8  126.7   113.0  127.1  143.1  129.3 188.5


  14  Steam to  shift                263.3  257.6  271.0   306.8  354.5  311.7   288.5  321.0  376.2  332.9 434.7
                                             26

-------
        TABLE Al-5.    GAS  STREAMS  IN PRODUCTION  OF  HYDROGEN  IN




                           10,000  TONS/DAY SRC  PLANTS
Unitsi   10  molea/hr.
  12  Gasifier off-gas:  CO




                        CO,
                          2





                        H
      Entering shift:    CO
      Leaving shift:
      To dissolving:     CO




                        H,
3 0
<0 C
0) -H
M i-H
D ^H
m M
11.56
0.96
6.66
1.18
11.56
0.96
6.66
0
2.73
9.79
15.5
4.71
2.73
15.5
.*
01
01
M
U

 oi a.
JQI 4J CT1 Q. fj* -H fl
Q C JJ C OC n C
J4 --< HJ-H r-l-H 4->lO
eg --< E , -! >, C >, O 0
2 L3 3 < S U Z
- 0
a> c


2
9.10
0.45
5.00
0.52
9.10
0.45
5.00
0
2.11
7.44
12.0
3.58
2.11
12.0







o al
Hareng
Alabam
c o
o c


y <-t
U. M
10.80
0.80
6.20
0.98
10.60
0.80
6.20
0
2.55
9.05
14.5
4.36
2.55
14.5





c n
0 U
in 0
c .x
-H 0
>; Q
u
Q 2
ft) O
C c
 4 -H

a ^H
I/I M
10.98
0.54
6.09
0.65
10.98
0.54
6.09
0
2.55
8.97
14.5
4.32
2.55
14.5





id -D 
' *J p 4J
X 0 00
a .* J x
*-* i3 C to
*j a oj o
c o
4t . C 
m 2: 3 z


















.
J^
01
X V
V *-
U O 4)
^ tr.
u o cm -o 
.. S 2 S -25
01 4J a 4J -! *J
*J C EC < C
4j o go o o
o  o. x u z
  12  Gasifier off-gas:   CO          12.43  11.98  12.72  14.19  15.50  14.00  13.25  14.51  17.10  15.09   18.79





                        C02          1.08   2.22   2.09   2.34   6.54   4.31   3.22   3.84   3.55   3.61   8.06





                        H2           6.98   8.09   7.79   8.76  13.80  10.72   9.75  10.22  10.55  10.19   15.32





                        H20          1.30   3.19   2.72   3.07  12.38   7.03   5.04   5.75   4.66   5.20   13.96





     Entering shift:     CO          12.43  11.98  12.72  14.19  15.50  14.00  13.25  14.51  17.10  15.09   18.79





                        CO           1.08   2.22   2.09   2.34   6.54   4.31   3.22   3.84   3.55   3.61   8.06





                        H            6.98   8.09   7.79   8.76  13.80  10.72   9.75  10.22  10.55  10.19   15.32





                        HO          00000000000





     Leaving shift:     CO           2.90   2.99   3.08   3.43   4.40   3.70   3.43   3.70   4.14   3.78   5.10





                        CO          10.60  11.21  11.73  13.10  17.64  14.61  13.04  14.64  16.51  14.92   21.75





                        H           16.5   17.0   17.5   19.5   25.0   21.0   19.5   21.0   23.5   21.5   29.0





                        HO          5.11   5.40   5.65   6.31   6.49   7.04   6.28   7.06   7.95   7.18   10.47





  2   To dissolving:     CO           2.90   2.99   3.08   3.43   4.40   3.70   3.43   3.70   4.14   3.78   5.10





                        Hn          16.5   17.0   17.5   19.5   25.0   21.0   19.5   21.0   23.5   21.5   29.0
                                             27

-------
          TABLE Al-6.   SYMBOLS AND VALUES USED FOR CALCULATIONS AROUND

                      GASIFIER IN 10,000 TON/DAY SRC PLANTS
                    FEEDS
                         Total coal


                              Coal carbon


                              Coal hydrogen


                              Coal oxygen


                              Coal moisture


                         Filter Residue


                              Carbon


                              Hydrogen


                              Oxygen
                    OFF-GAS



                         H2

                         CO


                         CO,
                                                  Flow Rates
                                                   (moles/hr)
W  (lb/hr)
 c.W /12*


 h.Wc/2*


 x.W /32*
 w.W /18*
    \~r
    M
     'H
    M
                                                       O
   M
    H2
   M
    CO
  M
                                                     C02


                                                    MH20
*c,  h,  x,  w are weight fractions in as-received coal.
                                    28

-------
TABLE Al-7.   APPROXIMATE HEAT  BALANCES ON  DISSOLVING  SECTION OF




                    10,000 TONS/DAY SRC PLANTS












  Units:  109 Btu/hr.
Stream
1 Dry coal
2 Hydrogen I carbon monoxide
preheater
TOTAL IN:
3 SRC
4 Filter residue
6 Oil
7 Gas (hydrocarbon + H }
Stack losses
Dry cooling load
Wet cooling load
Losses around filter
Sensible heat in SRC
Losses around dissolver; other
TOTAL OUT:
Stream
1 Dry coal
2 Hydrogen 6 carbon monoxide
Fuel to dissolver 6 vacuum
preheater
TOTAL IN:
3 SRC
4 Filter residue
6 Oil
7 Gas (hydrocarbon + H )
Steain recovered
Stock losses
Dry cooling load
Wet cooling load
Losses around filter
Sensible heat in SRC
Losses around dissolver; other
TOTAL OUT:



o o
n c
41 -H
k >-<
3,2
White,
Illino
18.56 18.84
2.24 1.73
1.49 1.55
22.29 22.12
Fulton
Illino
18.79
2.09
1.53
22.41
13.16 13.16 13. 16
1.83 1.86 1.85
3.29 3.29 3.29
1.7B 1.72 1.78
0.62 0.66 0.65
0.18 0.19 0.18
0.14 0.10 0.13
0.5 0.35 0.56
0.18 0.18 0.19
0.11 0.11 0.11
0.5 0.5 0.5
0 0
c c
H -H
H r-<

-------
TABLE Al-8.   APPROXIMATE  HEAT BALANCES  ON GASIFICATION SECTIONS  OF



                       10,000 TONS/DAY  SRC PLANTS
Units: 10 Btu/hr.


Stream
4 Filter residue
17 Coal
14 Steam
TOTAL IN:
16 Hydrogen product
Total steam generated
Ash and slag
Dry cooling load
Het cooling load
TOTAL OUT:






Stream
4 Filter residue
17 Coal
14 Steam
TOTAL IN;
16 Hydrogen product
Total steam generated
Ash and slag
Dry cooling load
Wet cooling load
TOTAL OUT:










9 M
o
2

1.81
1.03
0.29
3.13
2.38
0.45
0.05
0.14
0.11
3.13








0)
*J C

i-t 
2s

1.
1.
0.
3.
2.
0.
0.
0.
0.
3.









7*
j

*i
E

81
15
29
25
46
39
10
19
11
25







Creek,
u
a 01
0 c
V 
S

1.76
1.26
0.30
3.32
2.53
0.44
0.05
0.18
0.12
3.32
 c
v* -<
P *-i
ffi tH

1.83
0.83
0.27
2.93
2.24
0.39
0.07
0.13
0.10
2.93

a
-< 
 
tn 4->
81

1.77
1.60
0.34
3.71
2,82
0.47
0.08
0.21
0.13
3.71
- o
01 C
15

1.86
0.19
0.21
2.26
1.73
0.29
0.08
0.09
0.07
2.26


o 
CT> E
c a
 -3
 X

1.69
2.67
0.40
4.76
3.60
0.44
0.10
0.44
0.18
4.76
C 0
o c
U. M

1.85
0.64
0.26
2.75
2.09
0.35
0.10
0.12
0.09
2.75
c* 1
o +J
m o
C J
 i 

0
Q Z

1.71
1.94
0.35
4.00
3.04
0.40
0.11
0.30
0.15
4.00
 0
c c
I-t r-t
 rH
in M

1.87
0.62
0.26
2.75
2.09
0.38
0.08
0.11
0.09
2.75


X o
01 .V
JJ Q
u .
ID Z

1.79
1.61
0.32
3.72
2.81
0.44
0.09
0.25
0.13
3.72







o *
5 a
o o

a a
c 
^ z

1.71
1.94
0.36
4.01
3.04
0.48
0.08
0.26
0.15
4.01







.*
V

u IB
* 5
V 4->
> O
o r

1.71
2.37
0.42
4.50
3.40
0.61
0.06
0.27
0.16
4.50







x
u
0
M
u

c a
H C
x 
a. -t->
1 0
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1.72
2.01
0.37
4.10
3.11
0.46
0.11
0.27
0.15
4.10







V
0*
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"2 i
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8 j

1.64
3.47
0.49
5.60
4.19
0.55
0.14
0.51
0.21
5.60
                                   30

-------
    TABLE Al-9.   APPROXIMATE  PLANT  DRIVING ENERGY  REQUIREMENTS  FOR

                             10,000  TONS/DAY  SRC  PLANTS
 Unitsi  10  Btu/hr.
                                                                     c o
                                                                     o c
 Coal drying

 Acid gag removal (two places)

 Vacuum tower ejector

 Electricity

 Oxygen production

 Synthesis gas compressor

 Hydrogen compressor

 Slurry pump

 Water treatment  & allowance for
 other low-level  uses
Coal drying

Acid gas  removal (two places)

Vacuum tower ejector

Electricity

Oxygen production

Synthesis gas compressor

Hydrogen  compressor

Slurry pump

Water treatment 6 allowance for
other low-level uses
                   0.32   0.05   0.32   0.12

                   0.30   0.24   0.28   0.28

                   0.01   0.01   0.01   0.01

                   0.18   0.18   0.18   0.18

                   0.33   0.25   0.30   0.30

                   0.38   0.29   0.36   0.35
                     i
                   0.20   0,15   0.18   0.18

                   0.11   0.11   0.11   0.10


fc

si
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Si


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2
03

ffl
s
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0.2 0.2
1.48 1.94
is
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0.2
1.72
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0.19   0.79   0.59   0.55    1.81   1.31   1.04   0.99   0.70   0.82   1.37

0.32   0.34   0.36   0.40    0.52   0.49   0.39   0.44   0.49   0.45   0.64

0.01   0.01   0.01   0.01    0.01   0.01   0.01   0.01   0.01   0.01   0.01

0.18   0.18   0.18   0.18    0.18   0.18   0.18   0.18   0.18   0.18   0.18

0.35   0.37   0.39   0.43    0.58   0.48   0.43   0.48   0.53   0.49   0.70

0.41   0.45   0.45   0.51    0.72   0.58   0.52   0.57   0.62   0.58   0.84

0.21   0.21   0.22   0.25    0.32   0.27   0.25   0.27   0.30   0.27   0.37

0.10   0.12   0.11   0.11    0.12   0.12   0.12   0.12   0.11   0.12   0.13


0.2    0.2    0.2    0.2     0.2    0.2    0.2    0.2    0.2    0.2    0.2

1.97   2.75   2.51   2.64    4.46   3.64   3.14   3.26   3.14   3.12   4.44
                                                31

-------
TABLE Al-10.    EFFICIENCY  CALCULATION  FOR  10,000  TON/DAY  SRC  PLANTS
  Units:   10  Btu/hr.
  Coal to dissolving
  Coal to gasifier
  Total input energy
                                                          30     * o     co
                                                          e  c      c     os
                                                          HI -rf     U -rf     V ~t
                                                                         3 rt    0
                                                                               W 1-1
                                                        18.56  18.84  18.79  18.72
                                                        0.83   0.19   0.64   0.62
                                                        19.3919.0319.4319.34
  SRC product
  Oil product
  Gas product
  Total steam recovered
  Steam required in gasification
  Plant driving energy
  Boiler stack loss
  Fuel to dissolver S vacuum preheater
  Total output energy
                                                        13.16   13.16  13.16  13.16
                                                         3.29    3.29   3.29   3.29
                                                         1.78    1.72   1.78   1.78
                                                         1.01    0.95   1.00   1.00
                                                        -0.27   -0.21  -0.26  -0.26
                                                        -2.03   -1.48  -1.94  -1.72
                                                        -0.41   -0.29  -0.39  -0.36
                                                        -1.49   -1.55  -1.53  -1.46
                                                        15.04   15.59  15.11  15.43
  Unrecovered heat
                                                           4.35
                                                                  3.44
                                                                        4.32
                                                                               3.91
  Conversion efficiency %
                                                          77.56   81.92   77.77  79.78
  Coal to dissolving
  Coal to gasifier
  Total input energy-
                                                                  3C <
                                                                         a z
                                                                                n z
                                                                                              01 J-<    & 4J    M *-"
                                                                                              *> C    EC    fl C
                                                                                              jj 0    90    00
                                                                                              5 X     E    O Z
                                    18.22  17.93  17.74   17.63   17.25  17.40  17.80  17.34  17.05  17.34  16.50
                                     1.03   1.15   1.26    1.60    2.67    1.94   1.61   1.94   2.37   2.01   3.47
                                    19.25  19.08  19.00   19.23   19.92  19.34  19.41  19.28  19.42  19.35  19.97
                                      13.16  12.92  12.92   12.92   12.92   12.92   12.92  12.92  12.92  12.92  12.92
                                       3.29   3.29   3.29    3.29    3.29    3.29   3.29   3.29   3.29   3.29   3.29
                                       1.78   1.78   1.78    1.84    1.91    1.84   1.84   1.84   1.91   1.84   1.97
                                       1.07   1.08   1.08    1.13    1.17    1.11   1.14   1.17   1.25   1.17   1.32
                                      -0.29  -0.29  -0.30   -0.34   -0.40   -0.35   -0.32  -0.36  -0.42  -0.37  -0.49
                                      -1.97  -2.75  -2.51   -2.64   -4.46   -3.64   -3.14  -3.26  -3.14  -3.12  -4.44
                                      -0.42  -0.53  -0.51   -0.55   -0.89   -0.71   -0.62  -0.66  -0.68  -0.65  -0.94
  Fuel to dissolver   vacuum preheater -1.45  -1.62  -1.50   -1.55   -1.71   -1.67   -1.64  -1.62  -1.52  -1.67  -1.83
  Total output energy
SRC product
Oil product
Gas product
Total steam recovered
Steam required  in gasification
Plant driving energy
Boiler stack loss
  Unrecovered heat
                                    15.19  13.68  14.25  14.10  11.83   12.79   13.47  13.32  13.61  13.11  11.80
                                       4.08   5.20   4.75   5.13   8.09   6.55    5.94    5.96   5.81   6.24   8.17
  Conversion efficiency
                                      78.Bl  72.75  75.00  73.32  59.39  66.13   69.40   69.09   70.08  67.75  59.09
                                                     32

-------
     TABLE  Al-11.   ULTIMATE  DISPOSITION  OF  UNRECOVERED  HEAT  IN

                          10,000  TONS/DAY  SRC  PLANTS
Unitsi   10  Btu/hr.
                                                      ffl H
                                                             !M
                                                                    P rH
Direct losses

Assigned  to dry cooling

Assigned  to wet cooling

Gas purification system regenerator
condenser

Total steam turbine condenser

Total gas compressor interstage
cooler
                   1.86   1.49   1.89   1.63

                   0.27   0.19   0.25   0.21

                   0.8    0.62   0.85   0.77


                   0.30   0.24   0.28   0.28

                   0.85   0.69   0.80   0.78


                   0.27   O."21   0.25   0.24

01
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C E rH
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35

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3.44

o ra
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4.32
ni
jj
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3.91
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-------
                                   APPENDIX 2
                       CALCULATIONS  ON THE  SYNTHOIL PROCESS
BASIS OF ANALYSIS
     Calculations on the Synthoil process are required for bituminous
coals at:
                         1.   Jefferson,  Alabama
                         2.   Gibson,  Indiana
                         3.   Warrick, Indiana
                         4.   Harlan,  Kentucky
                         5.   Pike, Kentucky
                         6.   Tuscarawas, Ohio
                         7.   Jefferson,  Ohio
                         8.   Somerset, Pennsylvania
                         9.   Mingo, West Virginia
and subbituminous coals at:
                        10.   Lake de Smet, Wyoming
                        11.   Jim Bridger, Wyoming
                        12.   Gallup,  New Mexico

     The only integrated plant design (including hydrogen production) which
we have seen is that of the  Bureau of Mines  made for a Wyoming coal and made
specifically'for cost estimating purposes.  For the purpose of estimating
water requirements we have chosen to make our own, somewhat simplified,
design using the block diagram from Reference 1 reproduced as Figure A2-1 in
a form suitable for present  purposes.  The overall material balances, not
including hydrogen production, were made using the following rules.
                                        34

-------
OVERALL MATERIAL BALANCES
     1)  50,000 bbl/stream day of dry oil equals  700 x  10   Ib/stream hr
(Reference 1) and the oil is assumed to be 90 wt  % carbon,  8.5 wt  % hydrogen,
1.0 wt % oxygen and 0.5 wt % nitrogen and other elements.
     2)  Five barrels of oil are produced from each ton of  carbon  in the
coal.  This is the average of published results:

                 Ref. No.             bbl oil/ton carbon in coal
                     1                         4.7
                     2                         5.3
                     3                         5.0
            used in this work                  5.0

The feed to the reactors  (Streams 2 and 5) must therefore contain
0.833 x 10  Ib/stream hr of carbon.  Coal is assumed dried  to 0.5  wt %
moisture.  This moisture is assumed to remain in the product oil.
     3)  Hydrogen requirements have been given as:

                      ^ f  ,,             scf H /bbl oil
                      Ref. No.           	2_	
                          1                   4830
                          2                   4200
                          3                   4730
                  used in this work           4700

                                               4
The hydrogen in Stream 6 is therefore 2.58 x 10  moles/stream hr,  or
51.6 x 103 Ib/stream hr.  Stream 6 is taken to be 97 mole % H2 and 3 mole % CO.
     4)  The carbon in the char has been given as:

                                       Carbon in Char as
                    Ref. No.          % of Carbon in Coal
                        1                  about 6.3
                        2                      6
                used in this work             6.2
                                        35

-------
so the char (Stream 9) contains 51.6 x 10  Ib/stream hr of carbon; the
hydrogen and oxygen are assumed to be negligible.
     5)  The oxygen in the coal is assumed converted as follows:
              10 percent to gas and oil;
              12.8 x 103 Ib/stream hr reacts with CO in Stream  6  to yield
                CO  which remains in the gas;
              the balance is converted to water, Stream 13.
      6)  The balance of the carbon and hydrogen appears in the  gas. The
 overall material balance calculations resulting from the  above  rules  are
 given on Table A2-1 for each site.  The water from phase  separation has been
 copied onto the summary table, Table A2-2.  This stream is controlled by the
 oxygen content of the coal.
 HYDROGEN PRODUCTION
      There  are many ways to make hydrogen:  1) The gas  can be  put through a
 steam reforming  reaction  (this is quite efficient but necessitates burning
 char and coal for plant energy, and both char and coal  contain sulfur)-   2)
 The char, with added  coal, can be partially oxidized  (gasified)  to make
 synthesis gas which can be converted to H  by the shift reaction (this
 procedure yields the  sulfur as H S which can be readily removed;  the gas
 produced in the  oil plant is also stripped of H S and is then  burnt as a
 fuel).  We  have  assumed that gasification is used, and  the hydrogen produc-
 tion train  is shown in Figure A2-2.  Extrapolating from Reference 1,
 the following rules were used to calculate the various  water streams of
 Figure A2-2.
      1)  The gasifier is pressurized and yields hydrogen at  450 psig which is
 compressed  to 4000 psig for use in the Synthoil reactor.
      2)  The gasifier off-gas comes off at 1800F.  The mole ratio
 H2:CO = 0.72.  Since  the hydrogen stream  (No. 6) contains 2.58 x 10  moles
                   4                          4
 H2/hr and 0.08 x 10   moles CO/hr, or 2.66 x 10  total moles/hr, and since one
 mole  CO yields one mole H  in a shift reaction, the total CO + H   in the
                              4                                4
 off-gas must also be  2.66 x 10  moles/hr and must be  1.11 x  10  moles H  /hr
             4
 and 1.55 x  10  moles  CO/hr.
                                       36

-------
     At two locations, Lake de Smet, Wyoming and Jim  Bridger  Mine,  Wyoming,
the coal is particularly wet and there is not  enough  byproduct  gas  to  drive
the plant.  At these two locations extra coal  is gasified  to  produce extra
gas which is burnt for fuel, as shown on Figure A2-2.  At  Lake  de Smet 7.4
percent of the gasifier off-gas is burnt, and  at Jim  Bridger  16.7 percent of
the gasifier off-gas is burnt.
     3)  In addition to char, steam, oxygen and coal  are fed  to the gasifier
at rates determined by the simultaneous solutions  of  the carbon, hydrogen and
oxygen elemental balances and the thermal balance.  For this  high temperature
gasifier it is assumed that 80 percent of the  steam feed is decomposed.
Hydrogen in the coal is first used up making the oxygen in the  coal into
water; only the surplus is available for reaction.  Moisture  in the coal
passes unchanged into the gas.
     In deriving the equations and performing  the  calculations,  the symbols
and numerical values shown on Table A2-3'were  used.   The balances are:

Carbon
                     c.W 712 + 4,300 = II   +  15,500                    (1)
Hydrogen
Moisture
                   h.W /2 - x.W /16 +0.8 M   =  11,100                  (2)
                      v        (           oT
                    w.Wc/18 +0.2 MST + x.Wc/16 = MH2Q                  (3)
Oxygen
                        0.4 Mr,m + OX = 7,750 + Kl                        (4)
Thermal
                 9                          9
H W  + 0.748 x 10  + 21,100 M   = 3.598 x 10  + 20,500 M
 C C                         o J_                         C_,O 2.
                                                   +  34,800 M           (5)
                                        37

-------
    Equations  (1)  to (4)  can be rewritten to give:
         M     =  0.0833 c.W_ - 11,200                                   (6)
          CO2              C

          M   =  13,875 - 0.625 h.VJ  + 0.0781 x.W                       (7)
            ST                      (-             '-
          MH20
= 2,775 + 0.0556 w.W  - 0.12.5 h.W  +  0.0781  x.W         (8)
            OX = -9,000 + W (0.0833 c + 0.25 h - 0.0312 x)              (9)

     Equation (5) gives:

       W (H  - 1,708 c - 8,838 h - 1,935 w - 1,070 x) = 2.424  x  10     (10)
        W  \^

     The coal feed, steam and oxygen have been calculated  and  entered on
Table A2-2.  Selected gas rates have been calculated and entered on Table
A2-4.
     Table A2-3 shows 11,100 moles H  and 15,500 moles CO  in the gasifier
off-gas  (as calculated in Step 2 above) and Equations  (1)  to  (10) use these
quantities.  At Lake de Smet and Jim Bridger, Wyoming, where extra  gas is
made for fuel, the gasifier off-gas composition must be that shown  on Table
A2-4 and Equations (1) to (10) must be modified accordingly.
     4)  Water is added to the gasifier off-gas to quench  it.  The  quenched
gas then goes to the first stage shift reaction which the  gas  leaves at 900F
and assumed to be in equilibrium at 950F.
     Let M1 be the moles/hr leaving the first stage shift;  let. M be, as
before, the moles/hr leaving the gasifier; and let M  = moles  quench
water/hr.  The equilibrium equation is:
                               M'C02 M'H2
                               W	&	 = 4.55                       (11)
                                 CO   H20
                                       38

-------
The carbon balance  is:
                           M'C02 + M'CO = MC02
or
            M'C02 = MC02  + 15'5 - M'CO = (Say) K12 - M'CO
     From the  stoichiometry of the shift reaction:
                           M'H2 +M
-------
The results of the calculations have  been entered onto Tables  A2-2 and A2-4.
     5)  When the gas is cooled to  300F, assuming a pressure  at this point
of 430 psig, the water vapor  is reduced  to 15  mole % and all the rest of the
water in the gas condenses.   Total  removal of  CO  is assumed in the first
acid gas removal system.   In  fact,  the removal is over 95 percent and the
assumption of total removal simplifies the calculations while  introducing
negligible error.
     6)  The gas leaving the  second stage shift reactor is in  equilibrium at
550F.  The compositions of the gas streams  are (in moles/hr):

C00
2
H20
CO
IN
0

^20
mco
OUT
,
CO 2
m'H20
800
                                          25,800
      Also,  let in  be the moles of  steam added.
      From the carbon balance:
                                      = mCO
the equilibrium equation is:

                                     (25,800)
                                (800)(m'H20)
                                             = 46.7                    (19)
which gives m'H2o having found m'co2 from Equation  (18).  The steam added,
iri , can be found from the hydrogen balance :
                                        = 25'8 + m'H20
     7)  It is sufficiently accurate to assume 100 percent removal of  CO   in
the second acid gas removal and to take the clean condensate, Stream 17,  as
                                        40

-------
100 percent of the water vapor in the gas leaving the second stage  shift,
Stream 22.

PLANT ENERGY REQUIREMENTS
     The approximate plant energy requirements are given on Table A2-5,
Those listed are the principal requirements, but not all the energy loads in
the plant.  Since all the energy requirements may not have been found, the
stated efficiencies may be high.  This will not affect cooling water require-
ments, which is the sole reason for preparing Table A2-5.  In preparing that
table the following calculations were made :
     1)  Drying coal requires 1100 Btu/lb water evaporated plus 200 Btu/lb
coal feed to heat the coal.
     2)  The slurry contains 2 Ib oil per 1> coal and the pumps require
146 Btu/lb dry coal.
     3)  The heat load on the dissolver-heat exchanger-phase separation
'section was taken from Reference 1.  The heat load to char de-oiling was
treated similarly.
     4)  Coal and char are assumed fed to the gasifier through lock hoppers
and variations from coal to coal is too small a part of the total energy to
be considered.
     5)  Acid gas removal requires 30,000 Btu per mole CO  removed.  The rate
of removal of CO  is given on Table A2-4.
     6)  The waste heat recovery in the hydrogen production plant was calcu-
lated from the heat capacities of the gases.  Since at 300F and 410 psig the
water vapor will saturate the gas when it is 13 mole percent of the gas,
there will be no condensation in the waste heat recovery unit.  The heat
recovered is:
                   1419 M   + 1407 M   + 2098 M    + 1672
where M is the moles/hr in Stream 22 leaving the second stage shift.  That
is:

                   3.744 x 107 + 2098 14   + 1672 M_ Btu/hr
                                       CO2         H2O
                                       41

-------
     The loads on the dry and wet coolers will also be needed and were  calcu-
lated as follows.  At 140F after acid gas removal, water vapor  is  reduced to
1.25 x 10  moles/hr.   The dry cooling load is:
                         2.984 x 107 + 18,756 H   Btu/hr
where M   is the moles of water condensed in the dry  cooler.
     The wet cooling load is 3.126 x 1C)7 Btu/hr for all  the plants.
     7)  The hydrogen compression load is the same for all the plants.
     8)  The energy for oxygen production is 2.03 x 10   Btu/thousand Ibs
oxygen.
     9)  Electricity generated is 15,000 kw at 11,700 Btu/kw-hr.
     10)  The low level requirements are arbitrary.
     11)  The boiler stack loss is 15 percent of the fuel burnt, which is  the
total  heat  load.
     The approximate plant conversion efficiencies are shown  on Table A2-6.
All heating values are calculated from the formula:
                                                    W
                        H = 14,540 V?  + 62, 000 (W__ -  )
                                    C           xi   o

where  W  , W ,  and W  are the weights of carbon, hydrogen and  oxygen in the
       C    H       O
stream.
 ULTIMATE DISPOSITION OF UNKECOVERED HEAT
     The ultimate disposition of unrecovered heat is given on Table A2-7.
 The  calculations were made as follows.  The  direct losses consist of the
 energy to dry coal for the .Synthoil reactor  (Table A2-5), the boiler stack
 loss  (Table A2-5), char de-oiling  energy, which is a stack loss (Table A2-5) ,
 30 percent of the electricity generation energy,  30 percent of the slurry
 pump energy and an arbitrary allowance  for convection losses.  Other losses
 begin with the acid gas removal regenerator  condenser which is taken as all
 the energy into the acid gas removal  (Table  A2-5).  Air cooling consists of
 air cooling in the hydrogen plant  (calculation is described above) plus 80
 percent of the energy to condense  the condensate  out of phase separation  (at
 1040 Btu/lb condensate).  The energy dissipated in the turbine drive
                                       42

-------
condensers is taken as 70 percent of slurry pump energy plus 70 percent of

the energy to feed solids to gasifier (i.e., the lock hopper compressor

energy)  plus 70 percent of hydrogen compression energy plus 70 percent of

oxygen production energy plus 70 percent of electrical generation.  Compressor

interstage cooling is taken as 30 percent of lock hopper compressor energy

plus 30 percent of hydrogen compression energy plus 30 percent, of oxygen

production energy.  The wet cooling load is the balance.

     In estimating solid residues these plants use no flue gas desulfuriza-

tion.  All the ash in the entering coal (fed to reactor plus gasifier) leaves

the gasifier and is listed as bottom ash.


REFERENCES, APPENDIX 2

 1.  U.S. Dept. of the Interior, "SYNTHOIL Process Liquid Fuel from Coal
     Plant, 50,000 Barrels per Stream Day,  An Economic Evaluation,"  Report
     No. ERDA 76-35, Bureau of Mines, Morgantown, W. Va., 1975; summarized
     in:  Kate11, S., and White, L. G., "Economic Comparison of Synthetic
     Fuels Gasification and Liquefaction," presented at ACS National Meeting,
     Division of I&EC, New York, April 1976.

 2.  Akhtar, S., Mazzocco, N. J., Weintraub, M., and Yavorsky, P- M.,
     "SYNTHOIL Process for Converting Coal to Non-Polluting Fuel Oil,"
     4th Synthetic Fuels from Coal Conference, Oklahoma State University,
     Stillwater, Oklahoma, May 6-7, 1974.

 3.  Akhtar, S. , Lacey, J. J., Weintraub,  M., Rezik, A. A., and Yavorsky,
     P. M., "The SYNTHOIL ProcessMaterial Balance and Thermal Efficiency,"
     presented at 67th Annual Meeting, AIChE, Washington, D.C., Dec. 1-5, 1974.
                                        43

-------
COAL
                         WATER
                         VAPOR
     COAL
   PREPARATION
    ft DRYING
                      HYDROGEN
                 HYDROGEN
                 PRODUCTION
                     a
                COMPRESSION

       STEAM
         a
       WATER
OXYGEN   WATER
         CONDENSATE
                                                     RECYCLE OIL
                                          COAL
                                          SLURRY
                                       PREPARATION
230 F
                                              WATER
                                              CONDENSATE
                            CHAR
       I

   HEAT '
EXCHANGER
 I      I
 I      I
800* F
                                                                   PHASE
                                                                 SEPARATION
                                                    CHAR
                                                  DE-OILING
                               REACTOR
                                         -*-  OIL
                                                                                   GAS
                                                                                              ->  SALES GAS
                                                                                              *  PLANT  FUEL
     Figure A2-I.   Flow diagram for~>rocess  water streams  in  Synthoil  process.

-------
            COAL
            aCHAR
OXYGEN
            GASIHER
                   FUE.L (WHERE REQUIRED)

                   \   1800'F
900*f
                                                                   DIRTY
                                                                   CONDENSATE
                                                                   STEAM
                                             CLEAN
                                           CONDNSATE<
              Figure A2-2.  Flow diagram for hydrogen production in Synthoil process.

-------
                                                          TABLE  A2-1.   MATERIAL  BALANCE  ON  SYNTHOIL PLANT

                                                                    EXCLUSIVE  OF  HYDROGEN  PRODUCTION
            Units:  10  lii/streajn hr.

            LOCATION:  Jefferson, Alabama
                                                                                                 LOCATION:   Gibson, Indiana
                                     Total Moisture   C
CTi
               2   Coal,  as-received  1173.3    27.0   833
                                                            fi      P-    Ash    NtS

                                                            51.6   44.6  188.9   28.2
              4   Water lost in
                   drier
                                      21.2    21.2
              5   Coal,  dry          1152.1

              6   Makeup hydrogen      74.0

                  TOTAL  5,6          1226.1
                                5.8   833.0   51.6   44.6  IBS.9   28.2

                                       9.6   51.6   12.6          

                                      842.6  103.2   57.4  188.9   28.2
7   Oil

B   Gas: CO  from CO
         in makeup
         hydrogen

        Other
             13   Water from phase
                   separation
                                     705.8
                                              5.8   630.0   59.5
                                                                                3.5
                                      240.5
                                      22.8
  9.6        25.6        

151.4   41.2    4.5        24.7

 51.6            188.9   


        2.5   20.3
                  TOTAL 7,8,9,13
                                     1226.1
                                                    842.6  103.2   57.4  188.9   28.2
                                                                                   Stream                  Total   Moisture   C_

                                                                                      2   Coal, as-received  1221.3   122.1   833
                                                                                      4  Water lost in
                                                                                           drier
                                                                                                                          116.0   116.0
                                                                                               H^     O     Ash    HES

                                                                                              56.2   92.8   76.2   39.0
                                                 5   Coal, dry          1105.3

                                                 6   Makeup hydrogen      74

                                                    TOTAL 5,6          1179.3
                                6.1    833     56.2   92.8   78.2    39.0

                                       9.6   51.6   12.8

                                      842.6  107.8  105.6   78.2    39.0
7   Oil

8   Gas: CO_ from CO
         in makeup
         hydrogen

        Other

9   Char
                                                                                                                           706.1
                                                                                                                                    6.1   630
                                                                                                                                                  59. 5
                                                                                                                                                                       3.5
                                                                                                                       "N         f 
                                                                                                                        }  272-6  \
                                                                                                                       J         (. 
                                                                                     13   Water from phase
                                                                                           separation
                                                                                                                           129.8
                                                                                                                            70.8
  9.6        25.6

151.4   41.2    9.3        35.5

 51.6             78.2


         7.1   63.7        
                                                                                                        TOTAL 7,8,9,13
                                                                                                                                          842.6  107.8  105.6   78.2   39.0
                                                                                                                                                           (continued)

-------
Table A2-1 (continued)




Units:  10  Lb/streain hr.




LOCATION:  Warrick, Indiana
2
4

5
6

7
a



9
13


Coal, as-received 1285.5 119.6
Water lost in
drier 113.2 113.2
Coal, dry 1172.3 6.4
Makeup hydrogen 74
TOTAL 5,6 1246.3
Oil 706.4 6.4
Gas: CO from CO
in makeup
hydrogen "> ( 
\ 282.8 /
Other J V 
Char 158.3
Water from phase
separation 98.8
TOTAL 7,8,9,13 1246.3
833 59.1 120.8 106.7 46.3

    
833 59.1 120.8 106.7 46.3
9.6 51.6 12.8
842.6 110.7 133.6 106.7 46.3
630 59.5 7  3.5

9.6  25.6

151.4 41.3 12.1  42.8
51.6   106.7

9.9 88.9
842.6 110.7 133.6 106.7 46.3
LOCATION:  Harlan, Kentucky

4

5
6

7
8



9
13



Water lost in
drier 33.1
Coal, dry 1037.6
Makeup hydrogen 74
TOTAL 5,6 1111.6
Oil 705.4


in makeup
hydrogen > j
254.5
Other J 1
Char 92.3
Water from phase
separation 59.4
TOTAL 7,8,9,13 1111.6


33 ^ 	 	 	 	 	
5.4 833 54.6 81.4 40.7 22.5
9.6 51.6 12.8  
842.6 106.2 94.2 40.7 22.5
5.4 630 59.5 7  3.5



;9.6  25.6  
151.4 40.8 8.1  19.0
51.6   40.7 

5.9 53.5 
842.6 106.2 94.2 40.7 22.5
                                                                                                                                                        (continued)

-------
Table A2-1 (continued)

Units:  10  Hi/stream hr.

LOCATION:  Pike,  Kentucky
Stream
2 Coal, as-received
4 Water lost in
drier
Total
1046.5

26.2
Moisture C
31.4 833

26.2
H
53.4


O
55.5


Ash HSE
50.2 23.0


5   Coal, dry          1020.3     5.2   833     53.4   55.5    50.2    23.0

6   Makeup hydrogen      74             9.6   51.6   12.8

    TOTAL 5,6          1094.3         842.6  105.0   68.3    50.2    23.0
7
8
9
13

Oil 705.2
Gas: CO from CO
in makeup
hydrogen -\
} 253.9 j
Other ) '
Char 101.8
Water from phase
separation 33.4
TOTAL 7,8,9,13 1094.3
5.2 630 59.5 7  3.5
f  9.6  25.6 
1  151.4 42.2 5.6  19.5
51.6   50.2
  3.3 30.1  
842.6 105.0 68.3 50.2 23.0
                                                                                         LOCATION:   Tus
                                                                                                             5,  Ohio
                                                                                                Coal,  as-received  1169.9
                                                                                                                   Total   Moisture   C_

                                                                                                                             73.7   833
               2.      P_     Ash    NCS

              57.3   94.8   65.5   45.6
                                                                                            4   Water lost in
                                                                                                 drier
                                                                                                                     67.9
                                                                                                                             67.9
                                                                                            5   Coal,  dry          1102.0

                                                                                            6   Makeup hydrogen      74

                                                                                                TOTAL 5,6          1176.0
5.8   833     57.3   94.8    65.5    45.6

        9.6   51.6   12.8

      842.6  108.9  107.6    65.5    45.6
7
8
9
13

Oil
Gas: CO from CO
in makeup
hydrogen
Other
Char
Water from phase
separation
TOTAL 7,8,9,13
705.8 5.8
} -- c
117.1 
72.8
1176.0 
630 59.5 7  3.5
9.6  25.6
151.4 42.1 9.5  42.1
51.6   65.5 
7.3 65.5  
842.6 108.9 107.6 65.5 45.6
                                                                                                                                                      (continued)

-------
Table A2-1 (continued)





Units:  10  Ib/stream hr.




LOCATION:  Jefferson, Ohio
Stream Total Moisture C H

4 Water lost in
drier 22.2 22.2
5 Coal, dry 1149.3 5.9 833 57.4
6 MaXeup hydrogen 74  9.6 51.6
TOTAL 5,6 1223.3  842.6 109.0
7 Oil 705.9 5.9 630 59.5
8 Gas: CO from CO
in makeup
hydrogen "^ f  9.6
\ 307.4 /
Other J I--- 151.4 45.5
9 Char 169.9  51.6
13 Water from phase
separation 40.1   4.0
TOTAL 7,8,9,13 1223.3 -- 842.6 109.0
0 Ash NSS



62.1 118.3 72.6
12.8
74.9 118.3 72.6
7  3.5

25.6

6.2  69.1
116.3

36.1
74.9 118.3 72.6
LOCATION:   Somerset, Pennsylvania
                                                                                                                       Total    Moisture    C
2
4
5
6

7
8
9
13

Coal, as-received 1125.7 20.3 833 45.0 34.9 153.1
Water lost in
drier 14.7 14.7
Coal, dry 1111.0 5.6 833 45.0 34.9 153.1
Makeup hydrogen 74  9.6 51.6 12.8
TOTAL 5,6 1185.0  842.6 96.6 47.7 153.1
Oil 705.6 5.6 630 59.5 7
Gas: CO from CO
in makeup
hydrogen -s r -~ 9.6  25.6
\ 261.8 1
Other J L -- 151.4 35.8 3.5
Char 204.7  51.6   153.1
Water from phase
separation 12.9    1.3 11.6
TOTAL 7,8,9,13 1185.0  842.6 96-6 47.7 153.1
39.4

39.4
-
39.4
3.5
35.9
-

39.4
                                                                                                                                                         (continued)

-------
          Table A2-1 (continued)

          Units:  10  Lb/stream hr.

          LOCATION:   Mingo,  West Virginia
                                                                                                  LOCATION:   LaXe  de  Smet, Wyoming
Ln
O
          Stream                    Total   Moisture    C_

             2   Coal,  as-received  1047.8     23.1    833
                                                 i      O     Ash    N5S

                                                54.5   61.8   51.3   24.1
                                                                                                                            Total    Moisture
                 Water lost in
                  drier
                                      17.9
                                              17.9
5   Coal,  dry          1029.9     5.2    833      54:5    61.8   51.3   24.1

6   Makeup hydrogen      74              9.6    51.6    12.8

    TOTAL 5,6          1103.9          842.6   106.1    74.6   51.3   24.1
7
a
9
13

Oil
Gas : CO from CO
in makeup
hydrogen "
Other
Char
Water from phase
separation
TOTAL 7,8,9,13
705.2 5.2
\ 256.0 |
/ V. ~ 
102.9
39.8
1103.9
630 59.5 7  3.5
9.6  25.6
151.4 42.6 6.2  20.6
51.6   51.3
4.0 35.8
842.6 106.1 74.6 51.3 24.1
                                                                                                     2   Coal,  as-received   1724.7    407.0   833

                                                                                                     4
                                                 H      9.     Ash    N6S

                                                60.4  227.7  167.3   29.3
                                                                                            Water lost in
                                                                                             drier
                                                                                                                             398.4   398.4
S   Coal,  dry          1326.3

6   Makeup hydrogen      74

    TOTAL 5,6          1400.3
8.6   833     60.4  227.7   167.3    29.3

        9.6   51.6   12.B         

      842.6  112.0  240.5   167.3    29.3
                                                                                        7   Oil

                                                                                        8   Gas: CO_ from CO
                                                                                                  in maXeup
                                                                                                  hydrogen

                                                                                                 Other

                                                                                        9   Char                218.9
                                                                                                                             708.6     8.6   630     59.5     7
                                                                                                                 drogen  "\          f 
                                                                                                                          \  267.1
                                                                                                                 er      J          ^ 
                                                                                                    13   Water from phase
                                                                                                          separation         205.7
                                                                                                         TOTAL 7,8,9,13
                                                                                                                                                                            3.5
                                          9.6          25.6

                                        151.4    31.9    22.8          25.8

                                         51.6               167.3


                                         00      20.6   185.1
                                                                                                                            1400.3         842.6   112.0   240.5   167.3    29.3
                                                                                                                                                               (continued)

-------
Table A2-1 (continued)




Units:  10  Ib/stream hr.




LOCATION:  Jim Bridger, Wyoming
LOCATION:  Gallup, New Mexico
                          Total   Moisture
                                                                                                                    Total    Moisture
2 Coal, as-received 1605.1 340.3 833 51.4 223.1 131.6 25.7
4 Water lost in
drier 332.3 332.3
5 Coal, dry 1272.8 8.0 833 51.4 223.1 131.6 25.7
6 Makeup hydrogen 74  9.6 51.6 12.8
TOTM, 5,6 1346.8  842.6 103.0 235.9 131.6 25.7
7 Oil 708.0 8.0 630 59.5 7  3.5
8 Gas: CO rom CO
in makeup
hydrogen N r  9.6  25.6
\ 25"'5
Other J L-- 151.4 23.4 22.3  22.2
9 Char 183.2  51.6   131.6
13 Water from phase
separation 201.1   20.1 181.0
2 Coal, as-received 1318.0 199.0 833 61.9 137.1 67.2
4 Water lost in
drier 192.4 192.4
5 Coal, dry 1125.6 6.6 833 61.9 137.1 67.2
6 Makeup hydrogen 74  9.6 51.6 12.8
TOTAI, 5,6 1199. &  842.6 113.5 149.9 67.2
7 Oil 706.6 6.6 630 59.5 7
8 Gas: CO from CO
in makeup
hydrogen s r  9.6  25.6
259.1
Other ) \.  151.4 42.5 13.7
9 Char 118.8  51.6  - 67.2
13 Water from phase
separation 115.1   11. S 103.6
19.8

19.8
19.8
3.5
16.3


       TOTAL  7,8,9,13
                                            842.6   103.0   235.9   131.6   25.7
                                                                                                 TOTAL 7,8,9,13      1199.6
                                                                                                                                     842.6  113.5  149.9    67.2   19.E

-------
                TABLE A2-2.  SUMMARY OF FLOWS FOR HYDROGEN PRODUCTION AND OTHER WATER STREAMS

                                          IN  50,000  BBL/DAY  SYNTHOIL PLANTS
       Units:  103 lfe/hr
C
0
ui <
M C
td a)
is s>5
203
199
155
274
73
73
64

y
u
Q) 4-1
H 01
ft 
196
197
152
268
63
77
66
m
nJ
(0
M
m
u o
CO -H

EH O
220
197
154
278
83
65
61
o
w
0)
4H O
IH -rH
0) ,
in O
214
189
148
265
59
77
66
td
H
*ia
4-1 >
ID rH
>H U)
OJ C
e c
O Q)
en ft
213
193
163
266
59
82
68
H
C
Cn
H
O
Cn 4-1
CJ to
H 0)
S 5
196
197
151
267
62
77
66
4-1
0)
CO
CD en
id c
cu E
td ^i
1-3 3
413
271
183
352
243
25
45
0)
en
H tj1
>H C
CQ -H
E |

>-3 3
449
322
196
351
234
22
43
o
u
H
^ X
a o
3 S
rH
rH 5
td o)
0 2
258
216
151
302
130
46
53
        Stream

           3  Coal to gasifier

          10  Oxygen to gasifier

U         21  Steam to gasifier

          14  Water to gas quench

          15  Medium quality con-
              densate from hydrogen

          16  Steam to second stage
              shift

          17  Clean condensate

          13  Water from phase
              separation                   23    71    99    59    33    73    40    13    40   206    201    115

-------
       TABLE A2-3.   SYMBOLS AND VALUES USED TO CALCULATE BALANCES AROUND
                  GASIFIER IN 50,000 bbl/day SYNTHOIL PLANTS
    TOTAL COAL:
Flow Rates
 Wc(lb/hr)
     Enthalpies
H (Btu/lb)        VWC
                           (moles/hr)
                     (Btu/mole)
                 (Btu/hr)
Coal carbon
Coal hydrogen
Coal oxygen
Coal moisture
Char carbon
Steam
Oxygen
Off-gas:
H2
CO
co2
H 0
c.W^/12*
h.Wc/2*
x.Wc/32*
w.W /18*
4,300
MST
OX

11,100
15,500
M
C02
Muo
 



174,000 0.748 x 1Q9
21,100 21,100 M
O J.
0 0

135,300 1.502 x 1Q9
135,200 2.096 x 1Q9
20,500 20,500 M
34,800 34,800 MTI0^
*c,  h,  x, w  are  weight  fractions in as-received coal.
                                     53

-------
                          TALE  A2-4.    SUMMARY  OF GAS  STREAMS  FOR  HYDROGEN  PRODUCTION
                                                IN  50,000  BBL/DAY  SYNTHOIL  PLANTS
Units:   10  mole/hr.
4) 
-------
                       TABLE A2-5.  PLANT ENERGY REQUIREMENTS IN 50,000 BBL/DAY SYNTHOIL PLANTS
                  9
        Units:  10  Btu/hr.
Jefferson,
Alabama
0.26
0.17
0.4
0.23
0.02
0.49
-.05
0.49
0.39
0.17
0.50
0.50
Gibson,
Indiana
0.37
0.18
0.4
0.23
0.02
0.50
-.05
0.49
0.42
0.17
0.50
0.53
War rick,
Indiana
0.38
0.19
0.4
0.23
0.02
0.50
-.05
0.49
0.41
0.17
0.50
0.53
Harlan,
Kentucky
0.25
0.16
0.4
0.23
0.02
0.50
-.05
0.49
0.40
0.17
0.50
0.50
Pike,
Kentucky
0.24
0.15
0.4
0.23
0.02
0.50
-.05
0.49
0.40
0.17
0.50
0.49
Tuscarawas ,
I Ohio
0.30
0.17
0.4
0,23
0.02
0.50
-.05
0.49
0.40
0.17
0.50
0.51
Jefferson ,
Ohio
0.30
0.17
0.4
0.23
0.02
0.48
-.05
0.49
0.38
0.17
0.50
0.50
Somerset ,
Pennsylvania
I
0.24
0.16
0.4
0.23
0.02
0.50
-.06
0.49
0.39
0.17
0.50
0.49
Mingo,
West Virginia
1
0.23
0.15
0.4
0.23
0.02
0.49
-.05
0.49
0.40
0.17
0.50
0.49
Jj
0)
W
at (r>
'd c
rH
S %
%
0.78
0.25
0.4
0.23
0.02
0.56
-.05
0.49
0.51
0.17
0.50
0.64
Jim Bridger,
Wyoming
0.69
0.23
0.4
0.23
0.02
0.57
-.05
0.49
0.51
0.17
0.50
0.62
Gallup ,
New Mexico
0.47
0.19
0.4
0.23
0.02
0.51
-.05
0.49
0.44
0.17
0.50
0.55
        Drying coal to
         liquefaction

        Slurry pumps

        Heat exchanger of
         phase separation

^       Char de-oiling

        Solids feed to
         hydrogen gasifier

        Acid gas removal in
         hydrogen production

        Waste heat recovery in
         hydrogen production

        Hydrogen compression
        Oxygen production

        Electrical generation

        Water treatment &
         other low-level uses

        Boiler stack loss

        Approximate total
         heat load               3.57   3.76   3.77   3.57   3.54   3.64   3.59   3.53   3.52   4.5    4.38   3.92

-------
            TABLE A2-6.  APPROXIMATE THERMAL EFFICIENCIES OF 50,000 BBL/DAY SYNTHOIL PLANTS
           9
 Units:   10 Btu/hr.
c
o
w tg
^ B

M a
rti 0)
>fi w

tv
u
- 3
0) 4J
^! C
H (1)
in
(0
fti
M

0 0
in -H
c
0
in
M
a)
m o
M-l -H
0) J5
^ o
(0
-H
^
-P >
i
M in
(U C
e c
O 0)
W (X
m
H
C
Cn
H

O
Cn 4->
C in
H (U
s s
0)
w
a) Cn
T^l C
H
0) g
31
V-l
0)
d
H tn
n c
n -i-i
9|
o
o
 X
CM 01
D S
r-H
H 5
tt) Q)
U 3
 Coal  to  synthoil  reactor     15     14.9    14.97   14.88  14.96  15.09  15.35  14.72  14.98  14.14  13.64   14.39

 Coal  to  gasifier             2.79    2.85    2.87    2.82   2.80   2.84   2.80   2.79   2.80   3.39    3.81    2.92

    Total  coal              17.79   17.74   17.84   17.7   17.76  17.93  18.15  17.51  17.78  17.53  17.45   17.81

 Heating  value of  product
  oil                        12.7    12.7    12.7    12.7   12.7   12.7   12.7   12.7   12.7   12.7   12.7    12.7

 Heating  value of  gas
  produced                    4.72    4.68    4.69    4.69   4.77   4.74   4.97   4.39   4.79   4.0     3.48    4.73

 Heating  value of  gasifier
  off-gas burnt for fuel      0       0       0       0      0      0      0      0      0      0.50.90

 Plant driving energy        -3.57   -3.76   -3.77   -3.57  -3.54  -3.64  -3.59  -3.53  -3.52  -4.5   -4.38   -3.92

    Total output  energy     13.9    13.6    13.6    13.8   13.9   13.8   14.1   13.6   14.0   12.7   12.7    13.5

Unrecovered heat             3.94    4.12    4.22    3.88   3.83   4.13   4.07   3.95   3.81   4.83    4.75    4.3

Approximate conversion
 efficiency %               77.9    76.8    76.3    78.1   78.4   77.0   77.6   77.4   78.6   72.4   72.8    75.9

-------
            TABLE A2-7.  DISPOSITION OF UNRECOVERED HEAT IN 50,000 BBL/DAY SYNTHOIL PLANTS
          9
Units:  10  Btu/hr.
Jefferson,
Alabama
0.26
0.5
0.23
0.051
0.051
0.10
1.192
0.49
0.12
0.87
0.27
1.00
Gibson,
Indiana
0.37
0.53
0.23
0.051
0.054
0.10
1.335
0.50
0.15
0.90
0.28
0.96
1
Warrick ,
Indiana
0.38
0.53
0.23
0.051
0.057
0.10
1.348
0.50
0.15
0.90
0.28
1.04
Harlan,
Kentucky
0.25
0.50
0.23
0.051
0.048
0.10
1.179
0.50
0.13
0.87
0.27
0.93
Pike,
Kentucky
!
0.24
0.49
0.23
0.051
0.045
0.10
1.156
0.50
0.13
0.86
0.27
0.91
Tuscarawas ,
Ohio
0.30
0.51
0.23
0.051
0.051
0,10
1.242
0.50
0.14
0.88
0.27
1.10
I
i Jefferson,
J Ohio 
!
0.30
0.5
0.23
0.051
0.051
0.10
1.232
0.48
0.12
0.86
0.28
1.10
Somerset,
Pennsylvania
0.24
0.49
0.23
0.051
0.048
0.10
1.159
0.50
0.13
0.86
0,27
1.03
Mingo ,
iWest Virginia
0.23
0.49
0.23
0.051
0.051
0.10
1.152
0.49
0.13
0.86
0.27
0.91
j
Lake de Smet ,
Wyoming
0.78
0,64
0.23
0.051
0.075
0.10
1.876
0.56
0.26
1.01
0.31
0.81
!
Jim Bridger,
Wyoming
0.69
0.62
0.23
0.051
0,069
0.10
1.76
0.57
0.25
0.99
0.31
0.87
Gallup,
i New Mexico
i
0.47
0.55
0.23
0.051
0.057
0.10
1.458
0.51
0.17
0.92
0.29
0.95
Coal drying

Boiler stack loss

Char de-oiling

Electricity used

Slurry pump loss

Other direct loss

  Subtotal direct losses


Acid gas removal regen-
 erator condenser

Air cooling in phase sep-
 aration & hydrogen plant  0.12

Turbine drive condensers

Compressor interstage
 cooling
Wet cooling load

  Grand Total              3.94   4.12   4.22   3.88   3.83   4.13   4.07   3.95   3.81   4.83   4.75   4.3

-------
                              APPENDIX  3
                    CALCULATIONS  ON  THE  HYGAS  PROCESS
     Calculations  on the  Hygas  process  are  needed for bituminous coals at:
                     1.   Jefferson,  Alabama
                     2.   Gibson,  Indiana
                     3.   Warrick,  Indiana
                     4.   Tuscarawas,  Ohio
                     5.   Jefferson,  Ohio
                     6.   Armstrong,  Pennsylvania
                     7.   Fayette,  West  Virginia
                     8.   Monongalia,  West Virginia
                     9.   Mingo, West Virginia
for subbituminous  coals  at:
                    10.   Gillette, Wyoming
                    11.   Antelope  Creek, Wyoming
                    12.   Belle  Ayr,  Wyoming
                    13.   Hanna  Coal  Field,  Wyoming
                    14.   Decker, Montana
                    15.   Colstrip, Montana
                    16.   El  Paso,  New Mexico
                    17.   Gallup, New Mexico
and for lignites at:
                    18.   Marengo,  Alabama
                    19.   East Moorhead,  Montana
     Gasifier and  pretreatment  balances  have been provided by the Institute
of Gas Technology  for the Hygas-oxygen  process operating on two coals shown
on Table A3-1.  Complete  calculations of material and energy have been made
for two reference  plants, one  in West Virginia and one in Wyoming.  The
                                   58

-------
required information for plants consuming bituminous coals has been taken
from the West Virginia reference plant.  The required information for plants
consuming subbituminous coals and lignites has been taken from the Wyoming
reference plant.
     First the two reference plants will be described.  The flow diagram is
shown on Figure A3-1.  Wyoming coal is dried to 2 percent moisture before
feeding to the gasifier.  West Virginia coal is pretreated in air to prevent
caking.  Pretreatment material rates are given on Table A3-2.  The pretreatment
balance was made by assuming a 1.1 wt % loss as fines and 1.08 wt % loss as
tar and oil.  The coal incurs about a 10 percent weight loss during treatment.
The pretreatment energy information is given on Table A3-3.  The imbalance on
the pretreater is assumed lost to the atmosphere.
     The coal is slurried to 50 percent solid concentration  (by weight) with
recycle slurry oil from downstream in the process.  The char-oil slurry is
then pumped to the gasifier operating pressure of 1200 psig and heated in an
external heater to 200F.  Gasifier flow rates are given on Table A3-4, and
energy rates are given on Table A3-5.  The gasifier is in thermal balance,
and the only energy rates listed are those needed to define the plant unrecovered
heat and cooling load.  The raw off-gas contains the slurry oil as vapor.
The oil made about equals the oil lost in purification or left in the product
gas.
     According to most process flow sheets, the gasifier product gas is
quenched with oil to about 400F to cool the gas and recover a portion of the
slurry oil without condensation of water.  The steam is left in the feed gas
so that the amount of steam required for shift conversion is minimized.
     A portion of the gas next undergoes shift reaction at an equilibrium
temperature of 750F to adjust the ratio of hydrogen to CO for the downstream
methanation reaction.  The shifted gas is cooled to 100F to ensure condensa-
tion of the oil.  Water also condenses at this point.  A circulating water
scrub may be used to ensure that all the ammonia, phenol and other soluble
species are removed from the gas.   It has been assumed that these species can
be adequately removed by the quantity of water which condenses.  Circulating
water has not been shown on Figure A3-1.
     A physical-solvent based system is used for acid-gas removal to recover
the remainder of the BTX stream, dehydrate the gas, generate an H S-rich gas
                                   59

-------
for sulfur recovery,  discharge a CC^-rich gas with minimum H S concentration
and provide a treated gas of sufficient purity that only a nominal sulfur
guard is required prior to methanation.  Based on the recommendation of  IGT,
the following losses are assumed to occur in gas purification:  0.5% loss  of
H  and CO, 1% loss of CH. and 25% loss of C H .  The process is assumed
 2                      4                  ^ o
capable of reducing CO  to one percent.  All other acid gases were completely
absorbed.
     Gas and water streams for the two reference plants are shown on Table
A3-6.  The calculations are illustrated by the Wyoming case.  In the raw gas,
Stream 6, there is:
                              CO        20.55
                              H2        25.21
                              Total:    45.76
 After shift, in Stream 10, one wants H /CO = 3.1, so in Stream  10  one must have:
                              CO        11.16
                              H2        34.60
                              Total:    45.76
 The moles of gas shifted are 20.55 - 11.66 = 9.39, so CO  in Stream  10  =
 19.32 + 9.39, and the HO in Stream 11 = 25.81 - 9.39  (assuming complete
 condensation at 100F)-  Most of the "other gases" are assumed  to  leave with
 the condensate.  A little N  will be left in the gas as shown.   (For the  West
 Virginia plant the ratio after shift was H /CO = 3.05, because  there is less
 ethane to hydrogenate in the methanator.)
     Streams 8 and 9, which are needed for heat calculations, can  now be
 found.  Let x be the fraction of gas in Stream 6 which enters the  shift reactor.
 Since 9.39 thousand moles/hr are shifted, the composition of Stream  9 is:
                         CO   20.55x - 9.39
                         H2   25.21x + 9.39
                         C02  19.32x +9.39
                         H20  25.81x - 9.39
 and since Stream 9 is in equilibrium at 750F:
                            (CO )(H )
                                       = 11.8
                             (CO)(H20)
so, x = 0.827.
                                   60

-------
     Stream 12 reflects the losses after gas purification, as stated above.
In methanation all of the CO is assumed reacted to methane and water, and the
ethane is assumed hydrogenated to methane.
     The heat balance and additional energy information for the gasifier
trains are given on Table A3-7.  The heat loads were calculated from the
enthalpies of the streams listed on Table A3-6,  For a solvent type acid gas
removal process, 28,400 Btu are consumed to remove 1 Lb mole of CO .
     On Table A3~8 is tabulated the total plant driving energy (most of which
is taken from preceding tables,, the rest of which is arbitrary) and the
calculation of unrecovered heat and conversion efficiency.  Table-A3-8 suggests
that for Wyoming, all the net driving energy goes to produce steam for the
gasifier and that ail the steam used for other uses could be raised in waste
heat recovery units.  At West Virginia even some of the steam for the gasifier
is shown raised in waste heat recovery units.  This is not practical.  Waste
heat is not available to raise steam at much over 700 psi.  Steam for the
gasifiers must be raised in a boiler and, in addition, some of the 700 psi
steam from waste heat recovery must be superheated in a boiler for use to
drive turbines.  In fact, the plants have surplus low temperature steam.
Unless this steam is used, the theoretical plant conversion efficiencies
given overstate the practical efficiency.  This does not affect the cooling
water requirements as the surplus waste heat will be lost through air coolers,
not by evaporative cooling.
     The ultimate disposition of unrecovered heat, needed for estimation of
cooling water,- is presented on Table A3-9 and was calculated as follows.  The
direct losses are taken from preceding tables, except electricity used which
is 30,000 kw and slurry pump loss which is 30 percent of the driving energy.
The dry cooling load is from Table A3-7.  The wet cooling load is from Table
A3-7 plus the "allowance" on Table A3-8.  The turbine condenser load is 100
percent of pretreatment air compressor, plus 70 percent of slurry pump, plus
70 percent of oxygen production compressors, plus 70 percent of energy to
produce electricity.  The gas compressor interstage cooling load is 30 percent
of the oxygen production compressors.
     From the reference plants the necessary information has been scaled for
all the desired plants and entered on Table A3-10 in weight flow units and on
                                      61

-------
Table A3-11 in energy flow units.  First the energy in the  coal to pretreat-^
                                                                            1
ment was taken to be that of the reference plants and the weight  of  coal is!
as determined.
     All coals are dried to 2 percent.  If W Ib coal/hr  containing w fracti'aS
moisture are dried to 2 percent, then the water evaporated  is:

                    w.W -  (l-w)W x 2/98 = W(1.0204w - 0.0204)
The weight of water evaporated in the dryer  is  entered  on  Table  A3-10.   The
weight of steam to the gasifier is taken  from the  reference  plants  (Stream -5
as are the effluent water streams  (Streams 11 and  14);  all water streams are
entered on Table A3-10.
     The energy to dry coal is 1150 Btu/lb water evaporated, and the total
energy is entered on Table A3-11.  Next on Table A3-11  is  the other driving*
energy from Table A3-8, the net driving energy, the  boiler stack loss which'
is 12 percent of the boiler fuel, and the boiler fuel.   The  coal to the
boiler is copied, in weight units, on Table  A3-10.                          l'|
     The energy table is then completed by entering  fines, tar and  oil, and I
product gas from Table A3-8, and calculating the unrecovered heat and conver;
sion efficiency.  Since the only changes  in  the ultimate disposition of    ^
unrecovered heat were in the direct losses,  these  were  not entered  on Table $
A3-11 but taken directly from Table A3-9  onto the  work  sheets in a  later
appendix.
                                       62

-------
                                        OXYGEN   STEAM
    WYOMING
          COAL
W, VIROINlA



     COAL
                                              WATER

1
HEAT
EXCHANGER
\
	 S^j METHA
1
>
NATOft
                                                     STEAM

                                                      }f
                                                                                                       PRODUCT GAS (T?)
                                                                                                                  ^=/
                                               BFW
                                                  8FW
                                       Figure A3-1.  Flow diagram for Hygas process.

-------
TABLE A3-1.  ANALYSIS OF COAL USED  IN  REFERENCE HYGAS PLANTS  (wt %)










                             West Virginia          Wyoming




           Moisture               2.5                  19.9




           C                     74.6                  54.2





           H                      4.7                   4.0




           O                      3.3                  14.5




           N                      1.5                   0.8




           S                      2.7                   0.6




           Ash                   10.7                   6.0






                                 100                  100
                                   64

-------
                                       TABLE  A3-2.    PRETREATMENT MATERIAL RATES  FOR  REFERENCE  HYGAS  PLANTS
                        TABLE A3-2.  PRETREATMENT MATERIAL RATES FOR REFERENCE RYGAS PLANTS
01
(Jl
                               Moisture
                               C
                               H
                               O
                               N
                               S
                               Ash
                 WEST VIRGINIA:
                      C
                      H
                      0
                      N
                      S
                      Ash
                      Moisture
                                  Coal IN
                                (103  Ib/hr)
  809
   51
   36
   16
   30
  116
	26^
1,084
              Coal IN
             HO3 Ib/hr)
                262
                713
                 53
                191
                 10
                  e
                 78
                                                1,315
737
 36
 29
 15
 21
113
                (10  Ib/hr)
                    22
                   713
                    53
                   191
                    10
                     8
                    76
                                1,075
                             Hater Vapor OUT
                                 240
             Coal OUT    Fines OUT
           (103 Ib/hr)    (103 Ib/hr)
7.7
0.6
0.7
0.2
0.4
2.2
Tar 6 Oil OUT
 (103 Ib/hr)
    9.4
    0.8
    0.9
    0.1
    0.4
                                                                          11.6
(803 x 103 Ib/hr)
{10 moles/hr)
N2 22.0
O2 5.8
CO
co2
H2
so2
CH4
C2H6
C3He
Gas OUT
(10 moles/hr)
21.0
0
0.7
2.8
6.3
0.2
0.5
0.1
0.2

-------
        TABLE A3-3.  PRETREATMENT ENERGY RATES FOR REFERENCE HYGAS PLANTS
          9
Units:  10  Btu/hr
                                            Wyoming     West Virginia
          IN

               Coal                          12-18         14-70
          OUT

               Coal                          12.18         12.79

               Steam                         0.26

               Fines,  tar &  oil  (HHV)                     0.32

               Sensible heat of  effluent
               solids  at 800F                            0.14

               Total heat of effluent
               gases at 800F                            0.82

               Radiation & convective
                losses                                     0.63



           Heat to dry  coal                   0.26          0

           Energy to compress air to
           10 psig                                        0.09
                                         66

-------
          TABLE A3-4.  GASIFIER FLOW RATES FOR REFERENCE HYGAS  PLANTS
      Stream
         3

         4

         5

         7
Pretreated coal

Slurry oil

Oxygen

Steam

Ash residue*
                                         Wyoming
                                        [10  Ib/hr)
                                              West Virginia
                                               (10   Ib/hr)
1
1

1

,075
,075
249
,015
99
951
951
295
1,434
132
                        (10  moles/hr)
                                                           (10  moles/hr)
              Raw gas:

                   CO

                   H2
                   co2



                   CH.
                   C2H6
                   Other**
20.
25.
19.
25.
13.
1.
0.
55
21
32
81
77
04
76
14
26
25
34
15
0
1
.41
.61
.68
.10
.82
.37
.44
Composition of ash residue:  Wyoming C wt % 17.80, H wt % 0.19; West
 Virginia C wt % 9.56,  H wt % 1.09.
   ,  NH,  HS,  HCN, COS.
                                     67

-------
       TABLE A3-5.  GASIFIER ENERGY INFORMATION FOR REFERENCE HYGAS PLANTS
Units:  10  Btu/hr.
     Steam  (1250 psia, 1000F)

     Energy to produce oxygen

     Slurry pump

     Recycle oil heater

     Sensible & chemical heat in ash
     residue at 1850F
Wyoming

  1.48

  0.57

  0.04

  0.06


  0.32
West Virginia

    2.09

    0.68

    0.04

    0*


    0.31
 *The  coal  is not from the pretreatment and the slurry heater  is  not needed.
                                       68

-------
Units:  10  molea/hr.



5 treara numhters from Figure A3-1.
                              TABLE A3-6.  GAS  AND  WATER STREAMS  FOR  REFERENCE  HYGAS  PLANTS
         Stream 10:
Wyoming
CO
H2
co2
H20
CH
4
C2H6
Other
CO
H2
C2
"l
CH4
C,H
2 6
Other
CO
H2
co2
H20
CH4
C2H6
Other
3
4
3
4
2

0
0
7
30
25
11
11
0

0
11
34
28
0
13
1
0,
.56
.36
.34
. 47
.38

. 18
. 13
.60
.24
. 37
.95
. 39
.86

.63
. 16
.60
.71

. 77
.04
.09
West Virginia
7.
14
14
18
8

0
0
2.
16.
15.
10.
7.
0

0.
10
30
29.
0
15.
0.
0.
.98
.75
.23
.89
.49

.21
.80
. 14
. 14
.74
.92
.33
.16

.64
.12
.89
.97

.82
.37
.09
Wyoming
Stream 11:

Stream 12:





Stream "13 :





Stream 14:
Stream 15:



H20
Other
CO
H2
co2
CH4
C2H6
N2
H2
C2
CH4
C2H6
H2
"2
H2
H2
co2
CH4
N
16
0.
11
34
0
13.
0
0
0.
0.
26.
0
11.
0
11
0
0
26
0.
.42
.67
.10
.43
.60
.63
.78
.09
. 35
.60
.29

.10
.09
.10
.35
.60
.29
.09
West Virginia
29
1
10
30
0
15
0
0
0.
0.
26.
0
10
0
10
0
0.
26
0
.81
.35
.12
.89
.56
.82
.37
.09
.65
.56
68

.00
.09
.00
.16
.56
.68
.09
                                                                                Stream 15, scf/day:




                                                                                          Btu/hr:
                                                                                                         250 x  10
                                                                                                        10.11  x 10
                                                                                                                           250 x 10
                                                                                                                          10.34 f. 10

-------
    TABLE A3-7.   APPROXIMATE HEAT BALANCE AND ENERGY  INFORMATION  ON  GASIFIER
                        TRAIN FOR REFERENCE HYGAS  PLANTS
          9
Units:   10  Btu/hr

                                                 Wyoming           West Virginia
IN
  Pretreated coal                                  12.18               12.79
  Steam                                             1-48                2.09
  Recycle oil heater                                0.06
 OUT
                                                   13.72               14.88
   Product gas                                      10.11               10.34
   Steam produced                                    2.38                3.10
   Combustibles  lost in gas purification            0.26                0.25
   Dry cooling of process  streams                    0.55                0.78
   Wet cooling of process  streams                    0.10                0.10
   Sensible  & chemical heat in  ash  residue           0.32                0.31
                                                   13.72               14.88
 Energy consumed in gas purification                 0.80                0.84
                                         70

-------
    TABLE A3-8.  DRIVING ENERGY FOR REFERENCE HYGAS  PLANTS,  FUEL REQUIRED IN
                    BOILER, EFFICIENCY, AND UNRECOVERED  HEAT
Units:  109 Btu/hr
Driving Energy
Coal drying
Pretreatment air compression
Slurry pump
Recycle oil heater
Oxygen production
Gas purification
Gasifier steam
Electrical production  (30,000 kw)
Steam raised in process
Allowance for water treatment & other
low-level uses
Net driving energy required
Boiler stack losses
Coal to boiler
Coal to pretreatment
Fines, tar & oil
Product gas
Unrecovered heat
Wyoming

  0.26

  0.04
  0.06
  0.57
  0.80
  1.48
  0.35
(-2.38)

  0.30
  1.48
  0.20
  1.68
 12.18

 10.11
  3.75
                                                                   West Virginia
 0.09
 0.04
 0
 0.68
 0.84
 2.09
 0.35
(-3.10)

 0.30
 1.29
 0.18
 1.47
14.70
 0.32
10.34
 5.51
Conversion efficiency
 72.9%
65.9%
                                       71

-------
TABLE A3-9.  ULTIMATE DISPOSITION  OF  UNRECOVERED HEAT FOR REFERENCE HYGAS PLANTS
          9
Units:  10  Btu/hr
Coal drying
Boiler stack losses
Pretreatment losses
Slurry pump
Hot ash residue
Electricity used
Combustibles lost  in purification
     Subtotal Direct Losses
Wyoming
  0.26
  0.20

  0.01
  0.32
  0.11
  0.26
West Virginia

     0.18
     1.59
     0.01
     0.31
     0.11
     0.25
  1.16
     2.45
 Assigned  to  dry  cooling
 Assigned  to  wet  cooling
 Acid gas  removal regenerator  condenser
 Total turbine  condensers
 Total gas compressor interstage  cooling
      Total
  0.55
  0.40
  0.80
  0.67
  0.17
  3.75
     0.78
     0.40
     0.84
     0.84
     0.20
     5.51
                                        72

-------
TABLE  A3-10.    FLOW  RATES  IN  250 x  10    SCF/DAY HYGAS  PLANTS
  Units.   10   Lb/hr
c
0

v 3


0) ,-(


- nj
g 5


* C
U H



U C
H a


ra c
S H
(0
3
fD
M
fl
U 0
tn -H
g
C
0
m

Vt o

flj j^
H, o
tr>
c
0
M


2

>

>,
C

OJ
tt.
"Si

CJ -H
4J
0} jJ
>i 10

a -H
H M
(0 --!

O AJ
c in
0 0)
 2



Q-
O>
c
X
"&
M

>

10
U

1)
-J Qi


r-* O
-H >>
o 4
  Coal  to pretreatment  1149.3   1204.9   1261.8   1139.5    1122,1   1097.0   1050.0   1035.2   1028.0   1537.9

  Water evaporated in
  drying                 0*      92.73    88.05    44.46      0*       0*       5.43     6.41     0*      445.69

  Steam to gasifier     1,434    1,434    1,434    1,434     1,434    1,434    1,434    1,434    1,434    1,015

  Dirty condensate       537      537      537      537      537      537      537      537      537      296

  Methanation water      180      1BO      180      180      180      180      180      180      180      200

  Coal  to boiler        114.93   130.33   135.62   117.83    112.21   109.70   105.71   104.23   102.80   248.74
u

Oi
o c
i 1 -H
-U 0
s?
^
M

C
-i B
rH 0
Sf
-H 0

0 2
U

C rH
C OJ
rd -H


' 
)-. C
11 IU
Ji -M
CJ C
01 O
Q 


Q.
ij 3
V) -P
rH C
0 0
U E
O
U
- -i-i
O X
w a>
a z
P-
3
0
0
- X
Is
nj 
u z


" s
c 3
Jj J5
M >9
j:

8 .
Z 
yi c
S r
 Coal to pretreatment  1353.3   1308.3   1142.6   128.;.8   1367.0   1413.0   1077.9   2280.9   1730.1

 Water evaporated in
 drying

 Steam to gasifier

 Dirty condensate

 Hethanation water

 Coal to boiler
334.19    263.00   114.27   287.12    312.47   206.19   144.09   1086.93  602.01

 1,015     1,015    1,015    1,015     1,015    1,015    1,015    1,015    1,015

 296      296      296      296      296      296      296      296      296

 200      200      200      200      200      200      200      200      200

202.22    185.62   143.53   185.65    202.02   192.58   139.82   147.79   308.24
  Coal  moisture content is below 2.5%.
                                              73

-------
                                       6
TABLE A3-11.  ENERGY  FLOWS IN 250 x 10  SCF/DAY  HYGAS PLANTS
q
Units: 10 Btu/hr

Coal to pretreatment
Coal drying
Other driving energy
Net driving energy
Boiler stack loss
Coal to boiler
Fines, tar b oil
Product gas
Unrecovered heat
Conversion effi-
ciency (\)
Coal to pretreatment
Coal drying
Other driving eneroy
Net driving energy
Boiler stack loss
Coal to boiler
Fines, tar I, oil
Product gas
Unrecovered heat
Conversion effi-
ciency ( \ )


Jefferson,
Alabama
14.70
0
1.29
1.29
0.18
1.47
0.32
10.34
5.51
65.92
Antelope Creek,
Wyoming
12.18
0. 38
1.22
1.60
0. 22
1.82
0
10.11
3.89

72.21


GLbson ,
Indiana
14.70
0.11
1.29
1.40
0.19
1.59
0.32
10.34
5.63
65.44
Belle Ayr,
Wyoming
12.18
0. 30
1.22
1.52
0.21
1.73
0
10. 11
3.80

72.68


Warrick,
Indiana
14.70
0.10
1.29
1.39
0.19
1.5B
0.32
10.34
5.62
65.48
M O
o a
u
Q ri
C M
C V
X I*
12.18
0.13
1.22
1.35
0.18
1. 53
0
10.11
3.60

73.74


0 C
J 0
a n
iti QJ
0 O "^ O
14.70 14.70
0.05 0
1.29 1.29
1.34 1.29
0.18 0.18
1.52 1.47
0.32 0.32
10.34 10.34
5.56 5.51
65.72 65.92
  n
O M V -H
Sm  >
EC > 
14.70 14.70
0 0.01
1.29 1.29
1.29 1.30
0.1B 0.18
1.47 1.48
0.32 0.32
10.34 10.34
5.51 5.52
65.92 65.88
0 0
o o
ox - X
ft V Oj Q)
a E 3 E
&l M
M & R3 
12.18 12.18
0.24 0.17
1.22 1.22
1.46 1.39
0.20 0.19
1.66 1.58
0 0
10.11 10.11
3.73 3.65

73.05 73.47

4 Q
- C C
M * H V
n) -H M 4J en
C 0 w -g
CO) C W MO
O W -H 01 -H >,
14.70 14.70 12.18
0.01 0 0.51
1.29 1.29 1.22
1.30 1.29 1.73
0.1B 0.18 0.24
1.48 1.47 1.97
0.32 0.32 0
10.34 10.34 10.11
5.52 5.51 4.04
65.88 65.92 71.45
a

U
MB WC
12.18 12.18
1.25 0.69
1.22 1.22
1.47 1.91
0.20 0.26
1.67 2.17
0 0
10.11 10.11
3. 74 4.24

73.00 70.45
                               74

-------
                                   APPENDIX 4
                        CALCULATIONS ON THE BIGAS PROCESS
     Calculations for the Bigas process are required for bituminous coals at:
                     1.   Bureau, Illinois
                     2.   Shelby, Illinois
                     3.   Vigo, Indiana
                     4.   Kemmerer, Wyoming
 and for lignites at:
                     5.   Slope, North Dakota
                     6.   Center, North Dakota
                     7.   Scranton, North Dakota
                     8.   Chupp Mine, Montana
     Two designs (for economic analysis) are available from the Bureau of
Mines .   We have extracted all necessary information from these reference
designs, one for a Montana subbituminous coal and one for a Kentucky bitumi-
nous coal,  and used the  reference designs as models from which to determine
the required information by extrapolation to the chosen coals.  It should be
noted that  at this time  representative steady state operation of the Bigas
plant has not been achieved.   First, details of the reference designs will be
given.
     The process flow diagram is Figure A4-1.  Coal is fed, as a 50 percent
slurry in water, to a spray dryer as shown in the upper center of the figure.
The main flow streams,  taken from Reference 1, are entered on Table A4-1 as
are the gas stream analyses at five points labeled in Figure A4-1.  The elemental
balances are reasonably  closed.  The Bigas process yields negligible hydrocarbon
byproduct'..  The hydrogen balances, expressed as equivalent weights of water,
are shown on Table A4-2.
     On Table A4-3 are presented the analyses of the chosen coals calculated
after drying to 1.3 percent moisture as is done in the reference plants.
                                        75

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Also shown on Table A4-3 are:   1)  calculated  higher heating  values;  2)  Ib/hr
                                 9
dried coal fed assuming 12.5 x  10  Btu/hr  for bituminous  coals  and
         n
12.1 x 10  Btu/hr for lignites;  3) Ib/hr water evaporated to dry the coal to
1.3 percent calculated as 0.987wx/(100-w)  where x = Ib/hr dried coal and w =
% moisture in as-received coal;  4) Ib/hr as-received coal which equals
moisture plus dried coal.
     On Table A4-4 are given water equivalent hydrogen balances for the
chosen Bigas plants.  Most of the  quantities  come from Tables A4-2 and A4-3.
It  is assumed that if steam heat is  needed in the spray dryer,  the heat can
be  transferred through a wall so that water is not consumed.  Live steam, as
shown in the Kentucky reference plant,  has not been assumed.  The balances on
Table A4-4 are forced to close  because  the condensate is  varied to ensure
this.
     To determine the cooling water  requirement,  an estimate is made of the
auxiliary  energy required to drive the  plants.   The estimate is given on
Table A4-5 as well as the plant thermal efficiency.  The  energy needed to
vaporize water in the feed coal is calculated for each coal.  This energy is
 lost up  the  stack.
      The  slurry  feed pump for the  western  Kentucky reference plant  consumes
                                        9
 about 4,000  hp,  that is about 0.035  x  10   Btu/hr assuming a  steam turbine
 drive requiring  11,700 Btu/kw-hr.  The  energy for other plants  has been
 scaled by  the  rate of dry coal  feed.   Of this energy 70 percent is lost in
 the turbine  condenser and 30 percent is lost  through heating the slurry or
 through pipe walls.
      The  gas purification system is  assumed to be hot potassium carbonate
 requiring  30,000 Btu/mole CO^ removed  with 34 x 1Q3 moles CO  removed per
 hour on the  average  (the average difference between Streams  2 and 3 on Table
 A4-1).   This energy is dissipated  in the condenser of the acid  gas removal
 regenerator.
      The gasifier steam is given in  Table  A4-4.
      The production of 495 x 10 Ib/hr  of  oxygen at 1,250 psig  requires
 93,000  kw  or 1.09 x 1Q9 Btu/hr.  The energy input is for  steam  to compressor
 drives  for compressing air and  oxygen.  The energy content of the compressed
oxygen  is  very small; 70 percent of  the input energy is lost in the turbine
 condensers and 30 percent is lost  in the compressor interstage  coolers.
                                       76

-------
     Enough electricity is generated to run the plant  (particularly  the


cooling water circulation pumps and the acid gas removal  liquor  circulation

                                                   9
pumps).  42,000 kw are generated requiring 0.5 x 10  Btu/hr with 70  percent

                  q
of this (0.35 x 10' Btu/hr) being lost in the turbine  condensers.


     An additional allowance is made, based on experience, for energy  consumed


in water treatment and for other losses.

                                     1          9
     According to the Bureau of Mines , 2.2 x 10  Btu/hr  will be recovered in


the two waste heat recovery units.  This is quite a. conservative recovery.


     The balance of the energy required is produced by raising steam in  a


coal fired boiler assumed to operate at 85 percent efficiency with .15  percent


stack loss.


     The overall thermal efficiency is calculated from the formula:
                                HHV product fuel
                          HHV coal to gasifier + boiler





     The energy not recovered as product fuel is also  listed on Table A4-5.


It is obtained by burning coal in a boiler.  It remains to find how  this


energy is dissipated to the atmosphere and how much cooling water is needed.


Part of this information is presented on Table A4-6.   On this table  the stack


losses are the sum of drying energy and boiler stack losses.  The electricity


generated and slurry pump transmitted energy is next listed.  The carbon


losses have been entered so as to force total unrecovered heat to equal the

                                         9
values on Table A4-5.  A loss of 0.4 x 10  Btu/hr for  bituminous coals and

                                                        9
nearly zero for lignites occurs simply because 12.5 x  10  Btu/hr are fed as

                                   9
bituminous coals and only 12.1 x 10  Btu/hr as lignites.  When the losses for


bituminous coals are converted to weight units by taking 14,500 Btu/lb for


carbon, the apparent loss is 4 percent of the carbon in the feed coal for all


cases, and this is problably too high.  However, for the purpose of  studying


water quantities all that matters is that this energy  loss has been  assigned


to "direct losses" which cannot require cooling water.


     The coal ash leaves the gasifier as slag with a heat content of about


560 Btu/lb which is used to evaporate quench water.
                                       77

-------
     The energy to the acid gas removal system is  listed next.  The  con-
densers are frequently air cooled.  Reference 2 shows that  air  cooling is
preferable if cooling water costs more than about  $0.46/thousand  gallons.   A
lot of heat is dissipated through the condensers on  the turbine drives for
oxygen production, electrical generation and the slurry pumps.  Dry  cooling
is expensive here, but a wet/dry combination will  be used at some sites.
Interstage cooling on air and oxygen compressors will be wet cooling,  unless
cooling water is severely restricted or very expensive  (Reference 2).
     The remaining unrecovered heat is lost by cooling process  streams in the
gas production train and is also the auxiliary energy added for water  treat-
ment and allowances in Table A4-5.  It is shown  that air,  or dry cooling, is
more economical on process streams down to about 140F, with wet  cooling
below  this temperature.  Much the largest part of  the load,  which is condens-
ing water out of gas streams, occurs above 140F.  Most of  the  auxiliary
energy will  go to ammonia recovery stills which are  likely  to require  wet,
low-temperature condensers.  On Table A4-6 the balance of the unrecovered
heat has been  arbitrarily distributed 50 percent to  wet cooling and  50 percent
 to dry cooling.
     In copying the water quantities from Table A4-4 onto the work sheets,
the quantity of dirty water input was taken as the sum of water to char
quench and water  to slurry coal.

REFERENCES,  APPENDIX 4
  1.  Bureau  of Mines, "Preliminary Economic Analysis of BCR Bi-Gas Plant
     Producing 250 million SCFD High-Btu Gas from  Two Coal  Seams: Montana
     and Western Kentucky," Report ERDA 76-48, FE-2083-2, UC-90-C, March  1976.
  2.  "Water  Conservation and Pollution Control in  Coal Conversion Process,"
     Report  EPA 600/7-77-065, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency,  June  1977.
                                        78

-------
Figure A4-1.   Bigas Process Flowsheet,

-------
TABLE A4-1.  FLOW RATES IN  REFERENCE  BIGAS  PROCESSES"
Western
Feed to Gasifier
Coal (1.3% moisture)
Oxygen
Steam
Water Feeds
Steam to dryer
Water vaporized to
quench char
 Product Gas

Gas Streams
(10 moles/hr)
1, Gasifier off-gas
2, Aftershift
3, Into methanation
4, Out of methanation
5, Product
946 x
12.5 x
499 x
410 x
201 x
214 x
250 x
9.90 x

C2 CO CH4
11.6 36.5 12.
32.3 13.0 12.
0.3 13.0 12.
0.3 0 25.
0.3 0 25.
10
10
10
10
10
10
10
10

9
2
2
1
1
Kentucky
3 Ib/hr
9 Btu/hr
3 Ib/hr
3 Ib/hr
3 Ib/hr
3 Ib/hr
scf/day
Btu/hr

H2 H2 Other
20.2 7.3 1.8
40.5 56.9 1.8
40.5 0.4 0.5
1.5 13.0 0.5
1.5 0 0.5
Montana
1089 x
12.1 x
488 x
691 x

214 x
250 x
9.90 x

C2 CO CH4
18.6 30.6 12.
35.1 13.0 12.
0.3 13.0 12.
0.3 0 25.
0.3 0 25.
10 3 Ib/hr
10 Btu/hr
10 3 Ib/hr
10 3 Ib/hr
0
10 3 Ib/hr
106 scf/day
10 9 Btu/hr

H2 H2
7 23.8 17.7
4 40.2 70.9
4 40.2 0.4
3 1.2 13.0
3 1.2 0





Other
0.6
0.6
0.4
0.4
0.4

-------
             TABLE A4-2.  WATER EQUIVALENT HYDROGEN BALANCES  FOR
                       TWO BIGAS PLANTS FROM REFERENCE  1
                                             Water Equivalent  to  Hydrogen
                                             	(103  Ib/hr)	
                                           Western Kentucky         Montana
IN
Water equivalent of hydrogen in coal               428                  446
1.3% moisture in coal                                13                   14
Steam to gasifier                                  410                  691
Water vaporized to quench char                     214                  214
Live steam to spray drier                          201                    0
Water vaporized from coal slurry  (equals
  weight of coal fed)                              946                1,089
                                                 2,212                2,454

OUT
Condensate (Stream 2-3)                          1,017                1,269
Water from methanation (Stream 4)                  234                  234
Water equivalent of hydrogen in product
  gas (Stream 5)                                   931                  932
                                                 2,182                2,435
          Error in balance:                       1.4%                 0.1
                                       81

-------
TABLE A4-3.   ANALYSES OF VARIOUS COALS DRIED TO 1.3%  MOISTURE



                    FOR FEED TO  BIGAS  PROCESS
                          w. Kentucky  Bureau, Shelby,  Vigo,  Kemmerer,
(Ref. 1) 111- Hi-

Type
Moisture
C
H
0
N
S
Ash
HHV calculated*
Dried coal feed**
As received coal feed
Water removed on drying**


Type
Moisture
C
H
0
N
S
Ash
HHV calculated*
Dried coal feed**
As-received coal feed**
Water removed on drying**
*103 Btu/lb.
**103 Ib/hr.

1.3
73.4
5.0
7.9
1.4
3.8
7.2
S 13-3
T
946

Montana
[Ref. 1)
sub-
bit.
1.3
66.8
4.6'
18.2
0.8
0.7
7.6
11.1
1089




1.3
70.6
4.9
9.7
1.4
3.4
8.7
12.7
984
1170
186
Slope,
N.D.

1.3
64.2
4.7
8.2
1.5
3.5
16.6
11.8
1059
1228
169
Center,
N.D.
Ind.

1.3
74.9
5.2
9.5
1.6
0.7
7.7
13.4
933
1111
178
Scran ton.
N.D.
Hyp.

1.3
73.0
5.1
9.1
1.2
1.0
9.3
13.1
954
981
27
Chupp Mine,
Mont.


1.3
58.4
4.7
19.4
1.1
3.2
11.9
10.0
1210
2164
954

1.3
61.8
4.3
17.0
0.9
1.4
13.3
10.4
1163
1814
651

1.3
62.7
4.3
16.2
1.0
2.1
12.4
10.6
1141
1898
757

1.3
64.5
4.0
17.0
1.0
0.5
11.7
10.6
1141
1840
696

                                  82

-------
                   TABLE A4-4.  WATER EQUIVALENT HYDROGEN BALANCES FOR BIGAS PLANTS
Units:  10  Ib/hr as HO.
                                 Bureau,  Shelby,  Vigo,  Kernmerer,  Slope,  Center,  Scranton,  Chupp Mine,
                                  111.     111.    Ind.     Wyo.       N.D.     N.D.       N.D.        Mont.
IN

Water equivalent of hydrogen
  in coal

Moisture in coal

Steam to gasifier

Water vaporized to quench char

Water to slurry coal

     TOTAL
OUT

Condensate

Water from methanation

Water equivalent of hydrogen
  in product gas

     TOTAL
434
13
410
214
984
2055
890
234
931
2055
448
14
410
214
1059
2145
980
234
931
2145
437
12
410
214
933
2006
841
234
931
2006
438
12
410
214
954
2028
863
234
931
2028
512
16
691
214
1210
2643
1478
234
931
2643
450
15
691
214
1163
2533
1368
234
931
2533
442
15
691
214
1141
2503
1338
234
931
2503
411
15
691
214
1141
2472
1307
234
931
2472

-------
                             TABLE A4-5.  REQUIREMENTS FOR AUXILIARY ENERGY IN BIGAS PLANTS
         Units:   10   Btu/hr.
CO
 Coal  drying

 Slurry  pump

 Gas purification
 Gasifier  steam

 Oxygen  production

 Electrical  production

 Water treatment  &  allowances

    TOTAL

 Less energy recovered

    Energy out of boilers

Boiler  stack losses

    Net coal to boilers

Plant overall thermal
  efficiency %

Unrecovered energy

As-received coal feed to

  boiler (1Q3 Ib/hr)
Bureau,
111.
0.19
0.04
1.02
0.45
1.09
0.50
0.30
3.59
(2.20)
1.39
0.24
1.63
70.1
4.23
She Iby ,
111.
0.17
0.04
1.02
0.45
1.09
0.50
0.30
3.57
(2.20)
1.37
0.24
1.61
70.2
4.21
Vigo,
Ind.
0.18
0.04
1.02
0.45
1.09
0.50
0.30
3.58
(2.20)
1.38
0.24
1.62
70.2
4.22
Kemmerer ,
Wyo.
0.03
0.04
1.02
0.45
1.09
0.50
0.30
3.43
(2.20)
1.24
0.22
1.46
71.0
4.06
Slope,
N.D.
0.95
0.05
1.02
0.76
1.09
0.50
0.30
4.67
(2.20)
2.47
0.43
2.90
66.0
5.10
Center,
N.D.
0.65
0.04
1.02
0.76
1.09
0.50
0.30
4.36
(2.20)
2.16
0.38
2.54
67.6
4.74
Scranton, '
N.D.
0.76
0.04
1.02
0.76
1.09
0.50
0.30
4.47
(2.20)
2.27
0.40
2.67
67.0
4.87
Chupp Mine ,
Mont.
0.70
0.04
1.02
0.76
1.09
0.50
0.30
4.41
(2.20)
2.21
0.39
2.60
67.3
4.80
                                          151
158
143
113
514
378
415
394

-------
                        TABLE A4-6.   ULTIMATE DISPOSITION OF UNKECOVEKED HEAT IN BIGAS PLANTS
         Units:   10  Btu/hr.
         Stack losses
         Electricity used & pump
           losses
         Carbon loss
             SUBTOTAL,  Direct Losses
         Slag quench

         Acid gas removal regenerator
           condenser
CD
01        Turbine steam condensers
         Compressor interstage
           cooling
         Air cooling in the process

         Water cooling in the process
             GRAND TOTAL, Unrecovered
             Heat
         Carbon lost as % of feed coal
                                         Bureau,   Shelby,   Vigo,   Kemmerer,   Slope,   Center,  Scranton,  Chupp Mine,
111.
0.43
0.16
0.41
1.00
0.04
1.02
1.14
0.33
0.35
0.35
4.23
4.1
111.
0.41
0.16
0.41
0.98
0.10
1.02
1.14
0.33
0.32
0.32
4.21
4.1
Ind.
0.42
0.16
0.40
0.98
0.04
1.02
1.14
0.33
0.36
0.35
4.22
3.9
Wyo.
0.
0.
0.
0.
0.
1.
1.
0.
0.
0.
4.
3.
25
16
40
81
04
02
14
33
36
35
05
9
N.D.
1.38
0.16
0.01
1,55
0.08
1.02
1.14
0.33
0.49
0.48
5.09
0.1
N.
1.
0.
0.
1.
0.
1.
1,
0.
0.
0.
4.
0.
D.
03
\
16
01
20
08
02
14
33
49
48
74
T
_L
M.
1.
0.
0.
1.
0.
1.
1.
0.
0.
0.
4.
0.
D.
16
16
01
33
08
02
14
33
49
48
87
1
Mont.
1.
0.
0.
1.
0.
1.
1.
0.
0.
0.
4.
0.
09
16
02
27
08
02
14
33
48
48
80
2

-------
                                  APPENDIX 5
                     CALCULATIONS ON THE SYNTHANE PROCESS
     Synthane plant designs are required for bituminous  coals  at:
                   1.  Jefferson, Alabama
                   2.  Gibson, Indiana
                   3.  Sullivan, Indiana
                   4.  Floyd, Kentucky
                   5.  Gallia, Ohio
                   6.  Jefferson, Ohio
                   7.  Armstrong, Pennsylvania
                   8.  Kanawha, West Virginia
                   9.  Preston, West Virginia
 and for subbituminous  coals  at:
                   10.  Antelope Creek, Wyoming
                   11.  Spotted Horse, Wyoming
                   12.  Colstrip, Montana
     Designs for economic  analysis   have been  given by the Bureau of Mines
for a Wyoming subbituminous  and a Pittsburgh  seam bituminous coal.  We have
taken the gasifier details from Reference  1,  and an ash quench design from
Reference 2, and made the  calculations  for the  rest of the plant.   The design
using the Wyoming coal  has been presented  in  great detail , and the design
using the Pittsburgh  coal  follows the  same procedure.  Both the Wyoming and
the Pittsburgh designs  are given below.  The water streams and heat loads for
all the bituminous coals have been  extrapolated from the Pittsburgh design.
The water streams and heat loads  for all the  subbituminous coals have been
extrapolated from the Wyoming design.
     Figure A5-1 is the flow  diagram.   The coal analyses, after drying to 4.3
percent moisture where  drying is  required, are given on Table A5-1.  Flow and
                                       86

-------
energy rates for the two reference designs are given on Table A5-2.   The
stream numbers on Table A5-2 correspond to those on Figure A5-1.   The coal
feed, oxygen feed, steam feed, gasifier off-gas and product  gas  (Streams  1,
2, 3, 4 and 13) come from Reference 1.  The char compositions, and hence  the
heating value, were estimated from Reference 2 and are presented  in  Table A5-
11 (details will be found in Reference 3),  The heating value of  the tar  was
calculated from the composition which is the residue of carbon and hydrogen
to close the elemental balances around the gasifier.  There  is no need here
to distinguish tar and char, and the distinction is approximate.
     The total condensate (Stream 5 plus Stream 6) results when the  gasifier
off-gas is cooled to 273F as shown in Figure A5-1.  The steam raised by
quenching char (Stream 6) will vary with the ash content of  the coal and  has
been estimated for each case.
     The shift gas reaction is taken to be in equilibrium at 750F,  so that
in Stream 8:
                                 (CO )(H )
                                          = 11.8
                                 (H20)(CO)
Also in Stream 8:
                        (H )/(CO) is set equal to 3.18

These two equations, with the carbon, hydrogen and oxygen elemental balances
around the shift reactor,  fix both Streams 7 and 8.
     The water left in the gas after shift is mostly condensed when the  gas
is cooled to 225F, as shown on Figure A5-1, and the balance  is  condensed  at
100F after acid gas removal.  Water made in the methanator is equivalent  to
the CO reacted as shown on Table A5-2.
     Overall hydrogen balances for the two reference plants,  with hydrogen
expressed in units of HO equivalent, are given in Table A5~3.   Hydrogen
balances for the chosen sites are given in Table A5-4.  On Table A5-4  the
moisture and hydrogen in the coal are taken from Table A5-1 when the coal
                       9                                           9
feed rate is 15,91 x 10  Btu/hr for bituminous coals and 17,08 x 10  Btu/hr
                                       87

-------
for subbituminous coals.   The rate of ash production varies with  the  coals.
This results in variations in the small quantity of steam raised  by quenching
ash.  This further results in small variations in the steam added for the
shift reaction and in the condensate recovered after the scrub.   All  the
remaining streams are unchanged from the reference plants.  This  procedure
gives the biggest errors when the ash content of the coal is most different
from the reference coal.
     Heat balances around the gasifiers at the two reference locations are
shown on Table A5-5.   An "unaccounted loss" has been introduced to force a
balance.  This is assumed lost directly to the atmosphere.  By calculating
the duty of the various heat exchangers and waste heat recovery units, the
heat balance has been extended to the complete gasifier train as  shown on
Table A5-6.  An additional unaccounted loss has been found which  is arbitrarily
assumed 50 percent lost to cooling water and 50 percent lost directly to the
atmosphere.
     Some of the char from the gasifier is burnt in a boiler to provide energy
to drive the plant.  The amount of char burnt is calculated in Table  A5-7.
Wyoming coal is dried from 20 percent to 4.3 percent moisture and the coal is
heated to 220F.  Pittsburgh coal requires no drying.  The lock hopper
compressors use 6,800 kw  .  Gas purification is by the hot potassium  carbonate
process consuming 30,000 Btu/mole CO .   The energy for oxygen production is
that required  to compress air to 90 psia and oxygen from 15 psia  to 1015 psia,
which is 2.17  x 10  Btu/lb oxygen.  The electricity produced is more  than
enough for pumping the circulating cooling water and gas purification liquor  .
The other uses listed are arbitrary.  The steam raised in the process can all
be used, and so it is subtracted from the need.
     The overall plant heat balances can now be calculated and are presented
in Table A5-8.  It remains to find how the unrecovered heat is dissipated to
the atmosphere and how much cooling water is needed.  Part of this information
is presented on Table A5-9.  Most of the entries come directly from preceding
tables.   The electricity used is 31,000 kw.  The unaccounted losses in the
gasifier train have been assumed 50 percent lost to the atmosphere and 50
percent lost to cooling water.  The first group of losses has been called
"direct losses" because the loss is directly to the atmosphere and water
cannot be used.
                                       88

-------
                                                        9
    In the list of driving energy requirements, 0.3 x 10  Btu/hr was added
for water treatment and other uses.  A lot of this energy is used in ammonia
recovery stills which are likely to need wet cooling to a low temperature.
All of this energy is assumed lost to cooling water.  The steam turbines
driving the electric generator, the lock hopper compressors, and the air and
oxygen compressors are taken to be condensing steam turbines with 70 percent
of the energy lost in the condensers.  For gas compressors the other
30 percent of the energy is lost in interstage cooling because the energy
stored in a compressed gas is very small.  Whether or not the turbine condensers
and interstage coolers will be wet cooled or combined wet and dry. will depend
on cost and will vary from site to site .  The energy put into acid gas
removal is mostly lost in the regenerator condenser.  It is quite feasible
for this to be a dry condenser ,  but the decision will vary with the site.
    The ultimate disposition of unrecovered heat has been extended to the
desired sites on Table A5-10.  Coal drying requirements have been calculated
for each site.  In all other respects the plants follow the reference plants.
The plant thermal efficiencies vary, but this is reflected in variations in
direct losses and not in cooling requirements.
    In evaluating solid residues account had to be taken of ash leaving the
plant in char.  The quantities of char sold, or not fired to the boiler, and
of char fired are given on Table A5-10 in energy units.  The ash in the
entering coal is distributed between sold and fired in the ratio of the char
energies.  Of the ash in the char fired, 80 percent is fly ash and  20 percent
is bottom ash.
    In estimating water for flue gas desulfurization the char composition of
the reference plants was assumed and the char weight fired was estimated from
the char energy fired.

REFERENCES, APPENDIX 5
1.  Bureau of Mines, "Preliminary Economic Analysis of Synthane Plant
    Producing 250 million SCFD High-Btu Gas from Two Coal Seams:  Wyodak
    and Pittsburgh," EPJ3A-76-59,  March 1976 (available from NTIS) .
2.  Strakey,  J.P-, Jr.,  Forney, A.J., and Haynes,  W.P., "Effluent
    Treatment and its Cost for the Coal-to-SNG Process," presented at
    American Chemical Society 168th National Meeting, Atlantic City,
                                     89

-------
     N.J.,  September 1974,  Div.  of Fuel Chemistry reprint Vol.  19,
     No.  5,  p.  94.

3.    Water  Purification  Associates,  "Water Conservation and Pollution Control
     in Coal Conversion  Processes,"  Report EPA 600/7-77-065, U.S.  Environ-
     mental Protection Agency, June  1977.
                                     90

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COAL
                                                                          ISO"?
                                                                                            WAIt
                        Figure A5-1.  Flow diagram for Synthane processes.

-------
TABLE A5-1.   ANALYSES  OF VARIOUS  COALS DRIED TO  4.3%  MOISTURE*



                    FOR FEED  TO SYNTHANE  PROCESS

Moisture
C
H
0
N
S
Ash
Type
Calculated
HHV
is ir
v " 
4.3 2.5
64.5 73.8
4.1 5.2
16.8 8.0
1.0 1.5
0.8 1.6
8.5 7.4
Sub-
bit.

10,600 13,400
Jeffers
2
71
4
3
1
0
16



12,
0
.3
.0
.4
.8
.5
.9
.1



800
c
0
m 
31
0 M
4,
72
4.
8,
1
2.
6,
.3
.5
.9
.1
.2
.2
.8
Bituminous


13,000
-H
<-* 
3 C
tfl M
4.3
70.7
5.0
7.9
1.5
2.4
8.2



12 , 800
a
Si
3.4
79.8
5.2
6.5
1.6
0.6
2.9



14,300

I
3. o,
2.3
73.6
4.9
5.3
1.4
2.8
fs
S a
1.9
75.1
4.9
6.7
1.4
0.7
9.7 9.3
13,400 13,400
4J 0}
0. X
2.5
74.6
4.7
3.3
1.5
2.7
10.7
13,600
O
!
V '
*J o
5. 1"
4.3
68.2
4.7
15.6
0.8
0.6
5.8
11,600
f f,
5^
9 "
O, 4J
CO (/>
4.3
62.2
4.7
16.3
0.9
1.2
10.4
S ubb i tumi nous
10,700
Q.
i .
0) JJ
^ C
5 
4.3
66.4
4.4
14.7
1.0
0.5
8.7
11,200
    Coals with less than 4.3 moisture listed "as-received."
                                     92

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             TABLE  A5-2.    FLOW  AND  ENERGY  RATES  FOR


                      REFERENCE  SYNTHANE  PLANTS
Coal feed0




Oxygen feed


Steam feed


product gas U~3)




Char
                                PITTSBURGH
                             1187 x  10  Ib/hr
         15.91 x 10  Btu/hr
           304 x 10  Ib/hr


          1170 x 103 Ib/hr
          9.79 x 10  Btu/hr
           362 x 10  Ib/hr
                             3.55 x  10  Btu/hr
                              0.6 x  10  Btu/hr
                                                               1605 x 10  Ib/hr
                                          17.08 x 10  btu/hr
                                            482 x 10  Ib/hr
                                            978 * 10  Ib/hr
                                           9.79 x 10  Btu/hr
                                            410 x 10  Ib/hr
                                                              4.02 x 10  Btu/hr
                                                               0.8 x 10  Btu/hr
                                PITTSBURGH
Gas Streams

(103 moles/hr)



Gaaifier  off-gas


Dirty Condensate (5)


Char quench (6J


Steam for Shift


After Shift


Condenaate after

Shift


Condensate after  ^

Acid Gas  Removal (10'


Me thanation

Water (12)
       CO
19.66  11.34 16.63 18.91 40.08   0.54


                       33.23


                        3.76


                        3.68


23.77   7.22 16.63 23.02  6.42   0.54


                        5.02




                        1.4




                        7.22
                                   CO,    CO    CH    H    H O   C H
                                     2           42226
25.89  16.70 15.24 16.03 36.43   1.12


                       28.68


                        4.27


                       10.51


34.77   7.82 15.24 24.91  9.38   1.12


                        7.68




                        1.7




                        7.82
                                        93

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          TABLE A5-3.
WATER EQUIVALENT  HYDROGEN BALANCES
FOR SYNTHANE REFERENCE  PLANTS
IN

Moisture in coal

Water equiv. to hydrogen in coal

Steam to gasifier and shift converter



                TOTAL
                                                        10  Ib/hr
                         PITTSBURGH



                            30

                           556

                          1236
                          1890
WYOMING



   69

  592

 1167
 1828
OUT

Condensate after scrubbing

Condensate after shift reactor

Condensate after acid gas removal

Methanation water

Water equiv. to hydrogen in byproducts

Water equiv. to hydrogen in product gas



                TOTAL

                Error
598
90
25
130
87
920
1850
2.1%
516
138
31
141
87
920
1833
0.3%
                                 94

-------
  TABLE  A5-4.    WATER  EQUIVALENT  HYDROGEN  BALANCES

       AND FEED  COAL  RATES  FOR  SYNTHANE  PLANTS
Units:  103 Lb/hr
                                   a    o         e              o    c
                                   MCt4bCC>C~    (0    t-t    H   .C     O  
                             _    U)4-**WOin-HH-^>,    r-fO^OW   J >   Ifl >
                         4->O  OO|-^C'*-IS3J3T3'HT3  O''~'-HIW-H  C' C     QJ
                              .            .
                         4-> O  QO-HCl*-(S3J3
                           S>>  Q, >  0 O  OJ -H  -H
                           4  LOS  uz  h>*co
As-received coal        1472 1596 1525 1243 1224 1243 1113 1315 1215 1167 1187 1170
to drying

Dried coal to           1409 1527 1459 1214 1171 1190 1075 1258 1186 1160 1164 1141
gasifier
HYDROGEN BALANCE
Moisture in               63   69   66   29   53   53   38   57   29   27   23   29
coal

Water equiv. to          623  675  604  492  540  559  521  568  536  523  523  495
hydrogen in coal

Steam to gasifier       1177 1162 1168 1215 1237 1234 1247 1228 1229 1231 1232 1229
and shift converter

                        1863 1906 1838 1736 1830 1846 1806 1853 1794 1781 1778 1753
Condensate after         526  511  518  578  599  595  609  590  591  593  594   591
scrub

Condensate after         138  138  138   90   90   90   90   90   90   90   90    90
shift reactor

Condensate after          31   31   31   25   25   25   25   25   25   25   25    25
acid gas removal

Methanation              141  141  141  130  130  130  130  130  130  130  130   130
water

Water equiv.  to           87   87   87   87   87   67   87   87   87   87   87    87
hydrogen in byproducts

Water equiv.  to          920  920  920  920  920  920  920  920  920  920  920   920
hydrogen in product gas

                        1843 1828 1835 1830 1851 1847 1861 1842 1843 1845 1846  1843


Error                   1.1% 4.14 0.2* 5.4% 1.1%  0   3.04 0.64 2.7% 3.6% 3.8%  5.1%
                                      95

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           TABLE A5-5.  SYNTHANE GASIFIER HEAT BALANCES
                        FOR REFERENCE LOCATIONS
                                         10   Btu/hr
 IN
 OUT
                              PITTSBURGH
                   WYOMING
 Coal
15.91
17.08
 Steam
 1.34
 1.12
                                 17.25
                    18.20
Gas
                                 12.46
                                                      12.14
Steam raised in jacket
                                  0.38
                                                       0.61
Char heating value
 3.67
                                                       4.16
Char sensible energy
 0.08
                                                       0.09
Tar heating value
 0.60
                                                       0.80
Unaccounted losses
                                  0.06
                                                       0.40
                                 17.25
                                                      18.20
                                96

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             TABLE A5-6.
HEAT .BALANCE AROUND  THE  SYNTHANE
GASIFIER TRAIN FOR REFERENCE  PLANTS
IN


Coal

Steam
OUT


Product gas

Char

Tar

Losses around gasifier

Combustibles lost in gas purification

Sensible heat of condensate

Steam produced in waste heat
recovery (stream () )  and methanation
Dry cooling of process streams

Wet cooling of process streams

Unaccounted losses
10 Btu/hr
PITTSBURGH
15
1
17
9
3
0
0
0
0
1
1
0
0
.91
.51
.42
.79
.67
.60
.06
.10
.15
.40
.38
.07
.20
WYOMING
17.
1.
18.
9.
4.
0.
0.
0.
0.
1.
1.
0.
0.
08
43
51
79
16
80
40
10
14
61
33
07
11
                                            17.42
                                     18.51
                                   97

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                TABLE A5-7-   DRIVING ENERGY FOR  REFERENCE
                              SYNTHANE PLANTS
                                                   10   Btu/hr
                                         PITTSBURGH
                                                              WYOMING
Coal drying
                                                                0.42
Lock hoppercompressors
                                             0.08
                   0.08
Gas purification
 0.69
                                                                1.01
Process steam
                                             1.51
                   1.43
Oxygen production
 0.66
 1.05
Electrical production  (31,000 kw)
 0.36
 0.36.
For water treatment and other uses
 0.30
 0.30
Driving energy required
 3.60
 4.65
Less steam raised in process
(1.40)
(1.61)
Net heat required from fuel
 2.20
 3.04
CHAR FIRED BOILER
Heat yield
                                              2.20
                   3.04
Stack loss
                                              0.30
                   0.41
Hot bottom ash
                                              0.02
                                                                0.02
                                     98
                                              2.52
                                                                3.47

-------
  TABLE A5-8.  OVERALL PLANT HEAT BALANCES FOR REFERENCE
               SYNTHANE PLANTS
IN
OUT
                                           10  Btu/hr
                                  PITTSBURGH
                WYOMING
Coal
15.91
17.08
Product gas
 9.79
Char not burnt in boiler
 1.15
 0.69
Tar
 0.60
 0.80
Unrecovered heat
 4.37
 5.80
                                     15.91
                 17.08
Plant thermal efficiency
72.5%
66.0%
                             99

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            TABLE A5-9.   ULTIMATE DISPOSITION OF UNKECOVERED HEAT
                         IN REFERENCE SYNTHANE PLANTS


                                           	 109 Btu/hr
                                           PITTSBURGH       WYOMING
Coal drying                                                  '42
Heat lost in hot condensate                    0.15           0.14


Losses around gasifier                         0.06           0.40


Electricity used                               0.11           0.11


Char boiler stack losses                       0.30           0.41


Combustibles lost in gas purification          0.10           0.10


50% of gasifier train unaccounted losses       0.10           0.05
Subtotal direct losses                         0.82            1.63
Air cooling of plant process streams           1.38            1.33


Wet cooling of plant process streams + 50%
of gasifier train unaccounted losses + other   0.47            0.43
uses of driving energy

Bottom ash quench from char boiler             0.02            0.02


Total turbine condenser losses                 0.77            1.04


Total compressor interstage cooling            0.22            0.34


Acid gas removal regenerator condenser         0.69            1.01


                                               4.37            5.80



                                     100

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TABLE A5-10.    DRIVING  ENERGY,  THERMAL  EFFICIENCY  AND  ULTIMATE  DISPOSITION
                         OF  UNRECOVERED HEAT FOR  SYNTHANE  PLANTS
    Units:  10  Btu/hr


    Coal drying
    Other driving energy  from Table A5-7
    Total driving energy
    Net heat required  from  fuel
    Char fired to boiler
    Char not fired in  boiler
    Unrecoverad heat
    Plant thermal efficiency
  0     0.07  0.11  0     0.04   0000
  3.60  3.60  3.60  3.60   3.60   3.60   3.60   3.60  3.60
  3.60  3.67  3.71  3.60   3.64   3.60   3.60   3.60  3.60
  2.20  2.27  2.31  2.20   2.24   2.20   2.20   2.20  2.20
  2.52  2.59  2.64  2.52   2.56   2.52   2.52   2.52  2.52
  1.15  l.OS  1.03  1.15   1.11   1.15   1.15   1.15  1.15
  4.37  4.44  4.49  4.37   4.41   4.37   4.37   4.37  4.37
  72.5 72.14  71.8*  72.5%  72.3*  72.5%  72.54  72.54 72.51
    Direct losses
    Air cooling of plant process streams {Table A5-9)
    Wet cooling (Table A5-9)
    Bottom a^h quench  from boiler (Table A5-9)
    Turbine  condenser loss  (Table A5-9)
    Compressor interstage  (Table A5-9)
    Acid gas system  (Table A5-9)
  0.82  0.89   0.94   0.82   0.86  0.82  0.82  0.82  0.82
  1.38  1.38   1.3U   1.38   1.3H  1. 3U  1.38  1.38  1.38
  0.47 '0.47   0.47   0.47   0.47  0.47  0.47  0.47  0.47
  0.02  0.02   0.02   0.02   0.02  0.02  0.02  0.02  0.02
  0.77  0.77   0.77   0.77   0.77  0.77  0.77  0.77  0.77
  0.22  0.22   0.22   0.22   0.22  0.22  0.22  0.22  0.22
  0.69  0.69   0.69   0.69   0.69  0.69  0.69  0.69  0.69
                                                       4.37  4.44  4.49   4.37   4.41   4.37   4.37  4.37  4.37
                                                            o o
                                                            i >i
                                                            i  I
                                                      c >.
                                                      < X
                                                                  u
    Coal drying
    Other driving energy from Table  A5-7
    Total driving energy
    Net heat required from fuel
    Char fired to boiler
    Char not fired in boiler
    Unrecovered heat
    Plant thermal efficiency
0.54  0.63  0.51
4.23  4.23  4.23
4.77  4.86  4.74
3.16  3.25  3.13
3.61  3.71  3.57
0.55  0.45  0.59
5.94  6.04  5.90
65. ;<, 64.64 65.54
   Direct losses
   Air cooling of  plant  process  streams  (Table A5-9)
   Wet cooling (Table  A5-9)
   Bo t torn ash quench  from boiler  (Table A5-9)
   Turbine  condenser  loys  (Table A5-9)
   Compressor interstage  (Table A5-9)
   Acid gas  system (Table  A5-9)
1.77  1.87  1.73
1.33  1.33  1.33
0.43  0.43  0.43
0.02  0.02  0.02
].04  1.04  1.04
0. 34  0.34  1.04
1.01  1.01  1.01
5.94  6.04  5.90
                                                      101

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             TABLE A5-11.  CHAR COMPOSITIONS IN REFERENCE
                           SYNTHANE PLANTS
                                 PITTSBURGH
                           WYOMING
       C
       71.4%
63.6%
                                     0.9
                              1.0
                                     0.5
                              1.4
                                     1.1
                                                           0.4
                                     1.5
                                                           0.3
     Ash
                                    23.9
                                                          33.3
                                   100
                                                          100
HHV (calc'd.)
10/900 Btu/lb.
                                                     9,700  Btu/lb.
                                 102

-------
                                   APPENDIX 6
                        CALCULATIONS ON THE LURGI PROCESS
BASIS OF ANALYSIS
     Calculations for the Lurgi process are required for bituminous coals at:
                          1.   Bureau, Illinois
                          2,   St.  Clair, Illinois
                          3.   Fulton, Illinois
                          4.   Muhlenberg, Kentucky
                          5,   Kemmerer, Wyoming
for subbituminous coals at:
                          6.   El Paso, New Mexico
                          7.   Gallup, New Mexico
                          8.   Jim Bridger Mine, Wyoming
                          9.   Decker. Montana
                         10.   Foster Creek Montana
                         11.   Wesco, New Mexico
and for lignites at:
                         12.   Knife River, North Dakota
                         13.   Williston, North Dakota
                         14.   Marengo, Alabama
     For bituminous coals,  process water streams have been calculated using
the rules given below which were taken from Fluor Engineers and Constructors ,
A detailed analysis of a Lurgi SNG plant using Navajo subbituminous coal has
been presented by El  Paso .  From this reference we have abstracted a set of
rules,  also shown below, and  used them for subbituminous coals.  These rules
                                           2 3
give the reported water streams for El Paso '  within 4 percent.  When these
rules are applied to  Wesco, the calculated steam feed and dirty condensate
are lower than the reported values    by 22-30 percent.  The water consumed
                                       103

-------
is the same,  but more steam goes into the gasifier and is recovered unchanged
than is calculated.   The process water streams for El Paso and Wesco are
those reported in References 2 to 6;  they were calculated by us.  The use of
El Paso instead of Wesco as a model makes no difference to net water consump-
tion but yields lower inlet and outlet streams with less cost for water
treatment.
     Judging from Reference 7, a lignite feed requires more steam to the
gasifier than does a subbituminous feed.  Lignite rules are also given below.

Bituminous Coals
     1.  Steam fed to the gasifier equals 2.58 Ib per Ib of dry, ash-free
coal.
     2.  Of the steam fed to the gasifier, 72.3 percent passes through
unchanged.  This unchanged steam plus all the moisture in the feed coal
appears as moisture in the gasifier off-gas.
     3.  Fourteen percent of the carbon in the coal is converted to methane
and 1.05 percent is converted to C H  plus C H , which is taken here to be
                                  24       26
entirely C H .
          2 6
     4.  Solid and oil products are assumed to contain zero oxygen.  Because
phenol is produced this is not strictly accurate, but it is a very good
approximation.  All of the oxygen in total feed streams appears as HO, CO
and CO2-  The H^ was calculated in Step 2.  The molar ratio of CO:CO  in
the off-gas is 0.49, so the weight ratio of oxygen in CO to oxygen in CO  is
0.245.  With this information the oxygen balance can be closed and the weights
of CO and CO  determined.
     5.  The balance of the carbon appears in the oil and solid residue.
     6.  All of the sulfur in the coal is converted to H S.  All of the
ammonia in the coal is converted to NH .
     7.  The molar ratio H^CO in the off-gas is 2.79.  The weight ratio is
therefore 0.20.   This gives the H  in the off-gas.
     8.  Any remaining hydrogen appears in the oil and solid product.
     This completes the gasifier rules.  To calculate the gas reactions, the
off-gas composition is first retabulated in moles.
     9.  Enough gas is passed through a shift reactor to produce a molar
ratio H2:CO of 3.05.   If the moles of hydrogen and the moles of' CO in the
                                       104

-------
off-gas are M  and M  ,  and if the amount of shift reaction  is
             H      CO
                             xH O + xCO = xCO  + xH
then
                                M  + x

                                  - = 3'05
                                 co
                                  4.05x = 3.05 MCQ - MH





All of the water remaining in the gas after shift reaction is  recovered  as


dirty condensate.


    10.  A perfect acid gas removal is temporarily assumed  (this  is  adjusted


later).  All of the CO is converted to methane by the reaction:
                              CO + 3H  = CH  + HO





The water obtained from this reaction, "methanation water", is  clean  enough


to recycle to the boiler feed.


    11.  The dried product gas is assumed to contain some CO  and/or  N   and

                                                    5
to have a heating value of 950 Btu/scf (or 3.61 x 10  Btu/mole).  The heating


value of the product gas for a standard size plant is:




              950 Btu/scf x 250 x 106/24 scf/hr = 9.90 x 1Q9 Btu/hr
If, for the basis of the preceding calculations which is 1,000  Ib  as-received


coal, the dried product gas is found to have a heating value of HHV Btu,  then


the actual plant streams equal the streams calculated multiplied by:





                             9.90 x 109/HHV in Ib/hr





The heating value of the gas is calculated as:
123,000 x (moles H )  + 382,000 x (moles CH )  = 668,000 x  (moles/C  H  )  in  Btu
                  2                       4                      26
                                       105

-------
 Subbituminous Coals


      1.   The carbon in the coal is distributed 14 percent to  CH  ,  1.4 percent


 to C H^,  15 percent to ash residue, oil, phenol and other byproducts, 40.8
     2 6

 percent  to CO  and 28.7 percent to CO.   The molar ratio CO:CO = 0.7.


      2.   Oxygen appears in the off-gas  only as HO, CO and CO .  Oxygen in


 the residues is ignored.  The ratio feed steam/feed oxygen is  4 Ib/lb


 (7.1 moles/mole)  and 45 percent of the  feed steam decomposes.  Let:
      W    be steam fed;  it contains 0.889 W    oxygen
       Hzu                                  H2O
      W  be the coal moisture;  it contains 0.889 W  oxygen
       *                                          C
      W  be the coal oxygen
      0.25 W    is the  oxygen  feed
 Let:
      wco be  the  off-gas  CO;  it  contains  0.571 W   oxygen
     WC02 be the off-
-------
     3.   All the sulfur in the coal is converted to H S.  All  the  nitrogen  in
the coal is converted to NH .   Effluents other than gas contain
0.0833 Ib hydrogen/lb carbon (1 mole/mole).  The balance of  the hydrogen
appears as molecular hydrogen in the off-gas.
     4.   The gas reaction rules and the scaling to size are  as Rules  9, 10
and 11 for bituminous coals.
Lignites
     For lignite the rules for subbituminous coals were used, with the excep-
tion of Step 2.   The ratio of steam to oxygen in the feed for lignite was
taken to be 8.5 moles/mole (4.78 Ib/Lb).  The equation for the steam feed
rate becomes:
                               = 0.571WCO+ 0.727 W^ - WQ
PROCESS WATER
     The gasifier material balances are given on Table A6-1.  The gas train
balances and scale factors are given on Table A6-2.  Process water and other
streams are summarized on Table A6-3, on which is shown:

 Coal to gasification = Scale factor x 10  Ib/hr
    Steam to gasifier = Scale factor x steam on Table A6-1 Ib/hr
     Dirty condensate = Moles HO after shift x 18 x scale factor Ib/hr
    Methanation water = Moles HO after methanation x 18 x scale factor Ib/hr

COOLING WATER
     Lurgi plants use rectisol gas purification and other proprietary sub-
systems for which information is not published, and the plant driving energy
and efficiencies have not been calculated.  Instead the overall plant effi-
                                                                       2 7
ciency is taken to be 67 percent for bituminous and subbituminous coals '
                           g
and 65 percent for lignites .  The ca
with the results shown on Table A6-3.
                           g
and 65 percent for lignites .   The calculations then proceeded as follows,
                                           9
     1.  The product gas energy is 9.9 x 10  Btu/hr by design.
                                       107

-------
     2.   Byproduct energy is :


                       (14,500 C + 62,000 H)(scale factor)


were C and H are Ib carbon and hydrogen in "other products" on Table A6-1.

     3.   The plant efficiency which is given above is equal to:


             (product energy  + byproduct energy)/(total coal energy)


From this is calculated the total coal energy.
     4.   Since the coal to gasifier is known, the coal to the boiler is the

extra coal to make the correct total.
     Note that for El Paso and Wesco the coal streams and unrecovered heat are

calculated as for the other sites.
     The load on wet cooling  at each site has been assumed to be a fraction of

the unrecovered heat which, to facilitate comparison, has been taken to be the

same as for Synthane plants on the same site or in the same area.  The

fractions used are shown on worksheets in Appendix 10.


REFERENCES, APPENDIX 6

1.   Fluor Engineers and Constructors, Inc., "Economics of Current and
     Advanced Gasification Processes for Fuel Gas Production," p. 85,
     Report EPRI-AF-244, Electric Power Research Institute, Palo Alto,
     Calif., 1976.

2.   El Paso Natural Gas Company, "Second Supplement to Application of
     El Paso Natural Gas Company for a Certificate of Public Convenience
     and Necessity," Federal Power Commission Docket CP73-131, 1973.

3.   Milios, Paul, "Water Reuse at El Paso Company's Proposed Burnham I
     Coal Gasification Plant," presented at AIChE 67th Annual Meeting,
     Washington, D.C., Dec. 1-5, 1974.

4.   Moe, J. M., "SNG from Coal via the LURGI Gasification Process,"
     iGT Symposium on. Clean Fuels from Coal, Institute of Gas Technology,
     Chicago, 111., Sept. 10-14, 1973.

5.   Strasser,  J.  D., "General Facilities Offsite, and Utilites for Coal
     Gasification Plants," IGT Symposium on Clean Fuels from Coal, Institute
     of Gas Technology, Chicago, 111., Sept. 10-14, 1973.
                                    108

-------
6.    Berty,  T.  E.,  and Moe,  J.  M.,  "Environmental Aspects of the Wesco
     Gasification Plant,"  Symposium Proceedings:  Environmental Aspects
     of Fuel Conversion Technology  (May 1974,  St.  Louis,  Mo.), U.S.  Environ-
     mental  Protection Agency,  EPA-650/2-74-118,  1974.

7.    Batelie Columbus  Laboratories, "Detailed  Environmental Analysis
     Concerning a Proposed Gasification Plant  for Transwestern Coal  Gasi-
     fication Co.,  Pacific Coal Gasification Co.,  Western Gasification Co.,
     and  the Expansion of  a  Strip Mine Operation  Near Burnham, New Mexico,
     Owned and Operated by Utah International  Inc.,"  Federal Power Commis-
     sion, Feb.  1,  1973.

8.    Michigan-Wisconsin Pipeline Co.  and American Natural Gas Coal Gasifica-
     tion  Co.,  "Application  for Certificates of Public  Convenience and
     Necessity before  the  Federal Power Commission,"  Docket CP75-27B.
                                       109

-------
                                              TABLE  A6-1.   LURGI GASIFIER  MATERIAL BALANCE
             Location:  Bureau,  111inoi s
                                                 Coal:   Bituminous
                                                                                        Location:  St. Clair, Illinois
                                                                                                                          Coal:  Bituminous
o
Basis: 1000 lb
All units: lb
Coal : MAF
Moisture
Ash
Steara
Oxygen
TOTAL IN
Gas: H2O
C"4
C2H6
NH3
V
CO
C2
H2
Other
TOTAL OUT
As Received coal
Total C H O N
765 601 41 83 11
161 17.8 143.2
74
1974 219 1755
414 414
3388 601 278 2395 11
1588 176 1412
112 84 28
8 6.4 1.3
13 2.4 11
31 1.8
338 145 193
1086 296 790
68 67.6
144 69.6 0.9 0
3388 601 278 2395 11

E Ash
29

74


29 74


29
74
29 74
Basis: 1000 lb As
All units: lb

Coal: MAF
Moisture
Ash
Steam
Oxygen
TOTAL IN
Gasi H^O
CH
4
C0H,
2 6
NH
3
H.S
2
CO
co_
2
H2
Other
TOTAL OUT
Received coal

Total C H O
776 611 42 74
113 13 100
111
2002 222 1780
420 420
3422 611 277 2374
1560 173 1387
114 86 28

8 6.4 1.6

15 2.6

39 2

340 146 194
1090 297 793

68 68
186 76 0.8 0
3422 611 277 2374


N S Ash
12 37

111


12 37 111





12

37





111
12 37 111
                                                                                                                                        (continued)

-------
TABLE A6-1.   Continued
Locat_io_n^   Fulton ,  Illinois
                                           oal;   Bltumijio
Basis : 1000 Lb A3
All units : Ib

Coal : MAT
Moisture
Ash
Steam
Oxygen
TOTAL IN
Gas; HO
2
CH
4
C H
2 6
NH
3
H S
2
CO
CO'
2
H
2
Otlier
TOTAL OUT
Received coal

Total C H O
744 588 41 73
156 17 139
100
1920 213 1707
403 403
3323 588 271 2322
1544 172 1372

109 82 27

8 6 1.5

13 2

33 2

327 140 187
1049 286 763

65 65

175 74 1.5 0
3323 583 271 2322


N S Ash
11 31

100


11 31 100






11

31






100
11 31 100
                                                                                          Location;  Muhlenberg,  Kentucky
                                                                                                                                    Coal;   B i t umino us
Basis- 1000 Ib A
All rniits: Ib

Coal : RAF
Moisture
Ash
Steam
Oxygen
TOTAL IN
Gas : HO
CH4
C2H6
V
CO
TO2
H2
Other
TOTAL OUT


Total C H O N
818 648 47 83 14
110 12 98
72
2110 234 1876
443 443
3553 648 293 2500 14
1636 182 1454
121 91 30
972
17 3 14
28 2
360 154 206
1155 315 840
72 72
155 81 2 0
3553 648 293 2500 14


S Ash
26

72


26 72


26


72
26 72
                                                                                                                                                 (continued)

-------
TABLE  A6-J, ,   Continued
Lo-c a c i on ^   tCenine r er ,  Wyoming
                                           Coal:   Bitumino
Bas i S : 1000 Lb
All uni ts : Ib

Coal : HAP
Moisture
Ash
Steam
Oxygen
TOTAL IN
Gas  H^O
CH
4
C,H,
2 6
NH
3
H2S
CO
co2
H
2
Other
TOTAL OUT
fl-3 Received coal

Total C H 0
880 718 50 90
28 3 25
92
2270 252 2018
476 476
3746 718 305 2609
1669 185 1484
135 101 34

10 7.5 2

15 3

11 0.6
387 166 221
1243 339 904
77 77

199 104 3 0
3746 718 305 2609


N S Ash
12 10

92


12 10 92





12

10




92
12 10 92
                                                                                              Location;   Gallup, New  Mexico
                                                                                                                                         Coal:   Subbituminous
Basis i 1000 Ib
All units: Ib

Coal : MAF
Moisture
Ash
Steam
Oxygen
TOTAL IN
Gas : H.O
2
CH
4
C2H6
NH
3
H2S
CO
C2
H2
Other
TOTAL OUT
As Received coal

Total C H O
798 632 47 104
151 17 134
51
1269 141 1128
317 317
2586 632 205 1683
848 94 754

119 89 30

11 9 2
13 2

4 0
422 181 241
946 253 688
69 69
154 95 8
2586 632 205 1683


N S Ash
11 4

51


11 4 51





11

4



51
11 4 51
                                                                                                                                                         (continued)

-------
TABLE A6-1.  Continued
Basis: 1000 Ib
All units: Ib
Coal: KAF
Moisture
Ash
Steam
Oxygen
TOTAL IN
Gas : HO
CH4
C2H6
V
CO
co2
Other
TOTAL OUT
As Received coal
Total C H O
706 519 32 139
212 24 188
82
961 107 854
240 240
2201 519 163 1421
739 82 657
97 73 24
972
13 2
5 0
348 149 199
777 212 565
47 47
166 78 6 0
2201 519 163 1421
N S Ash
11 5
82
11 5 82
11
5
82
11 5 82
                                                                                        Location:   Decker, Montana
                                                                                                                                Coal:  Suhbituminous
Basis: 1000 Ib
All units: Ib
Coal: MAP
Moisture
Ash
Steam
Oxygen
TOTAL IN
Gas: H2O
CH4
C2H6
V
CO
CO.,
H2
Other
TOTAL OUT
As Received coal
Total C H O
724 572 32 109
239 27 212
37
1128 125 1003
282 - 282
2410 572 184 1606
858 95 763
107 80 27
10 8 2
7 1
5 0
383 164 219
858 234 624
52 52
130 86 7
2410 572 184 1606

N S Ash
6 5

37


6 5 37
6
5

37
6 5 37
                                                                                                                                                (continued)

-------
TABLE A6-1.  Continued
Locationi  Foster Creek,  Montana
                                         Coal;  Subbituminoua
Basis: 1000 Ib A3
All units: Ib
Coal: HAF
Moisture
Ash
Steam
Oxygen
TOTAL IN
Gas: HO
C2H6
NH3
V
CO
co2
H3
Other
TOTAL OUT
Received Coal
Total C H 0
616 457 29 118
307 34 273
77
853 95 758
213 213
2066 457 158 1362
775 86 689
85 64 21
862
9 2
5 0
306 131 175
685 187 498
41 41
152 69 6
2066 457 158 1362
N S Ash
7 5

77


7 5 77

7
5
77
7 5 77
Basis: 1000 Lb A3
All units: Ib

Coal i MAF
Moisture
Ash
Steam
Oxygen
TOTAL IN
Gas: H O
2
CH
4
C H
2 6
NH
3
H S
2
CO
co2
H
2
Other
TOTAL OUT
Received Coal

Total C H 0
589 425 28 123
350 39 311
61
861 96 765
215 215
2076 425 163 1414
885 98 787

80 60 20

761

7 1

7 0

285 122 163
638 174 464
38 38

129 63 5
2076 425 163 1414


N S Ash
6 7

61


6 7 61






6

7





61
6 7 61
                                                                                                                                                (continued)

-------
 TABLE A6-1.   Continued
Location:  Williston, North Dakota




Basis :   1000 Ib As Received Coal
                                          Coal;   Lignite
A_ll units: Ib
Coal; HAF
Moisture
Ash
Steam
Oxygen
TOTAL IN
Gas; HO
NH3
V
CO
"2
H2
Other
Total C
544 391
400
56
79J
198
1991 391
894
73 55
6 5
9
6
262 112
586 160
35
120 59
H O N S Ash
28 112 7 6
44 356
56
88 705
198
160 1371 7 6 56
99 795
18
1
2 7
0 6
150
426
35
5 56
TOTAL  OUT
                     1991
                                      160    1371
                                                                                         Location:   Harenqo,  Alabama
                                                                                                                                 Coal:   Lignite
Basis : 1000 Ib As
All units, Ib

Coal i HAF
Moisture
Ash
Steam
Oxygen
TOTAL IN
Gas j HO
CH
4
C H,.
2 6
NH
3
H S
2
CO
CO
2
H
2
Other
Received coal

Total C H O H S Ash
465 321 22 98 6 18
487 54 433
48 48
639 71 568
160 160
1799 321 147 1259 6 18 48
885 98 787
60 45 15

541

7 16

19 1 18

215 92 123
480 131 349

27 27

101 49 4 48
                                                                                         TOTAL OUT
                                                                                                             1799
                                                                                                                               147

-------
                                                     TABLE  A6-2.    LURGI  GAS  TRAIN BALANCE
Loca tion:   Bureau,  111inois
                                 Coal:  Bituminous
Basis : 1000 Ib As
All Units : Moles

CH4
CO
co2
H2
Product HHV, 7. 26
Scale Factor  9.9
Received Coal
Gasi f ier
Off-Gas
aa. 22
7
0.27
12.07
24.68
34
After
Shift
87.53
7
0.27
11.38
25.37
34.69
After
Clean-up
0
7
0.27
11.38
0
34.64
After
Methanation
11.38
18.38
0.27
0
0
0.50
x 106 Btu
x 109/HHV - 1364 hr"1
Location: St. Clair, Illinois
Basis: 1000 Lb A3
All Units : Moles

CH4
C2H6
CO
C2
H
Received Coal
Gasifier
Off-Gas
86.67
7.13
0.27
12.14
24.77
34
Coal :
After
Shift
85.92
7.13
0.27
11.39
25.52
34.75
Bituminous
After
Clean-up
0
7.13
0.27
11.39
0
34.75
After
Me thana tion
11.39
18.52
0.27
0
0
0.58
                                                                               Location:  Fulton,  111inoia
                                                                                                               Coal:   Bituminous
Basis: 1000 Ib A3 Received Coal
All Units: Moles
H20
CH4
C2H6
CO
co2
Product HHV, 7.02 x
Scale Factor " 9.9
Gasifier
Off-Gas
85.78
6.81
0.27
11.68
23.84
32.5
After After
Shift Clean-up
85.01 0
6.81 6.81
0.27 0.27
10.91 10.91
24.61 0
33.27 33.27
After
Methanation
10.91
17.72
0.27
0
0
0.54
106 Btu
x 109/HHV - 1410 hr"1
Location: Muhleruperg, Kentucky
Basis: 1000 Ib As
All units: Moles
H2
CH4
C2H6
CO
W2
H2
Received Coal
Gasifier
Off-Gas
90.89
7.56
0.30
12.86
26.25
36
Coal: Bituminous

After After
Shift Clean-up
90.09 0
7.56 7.56
0.30 0.30
12.09 12.09
25.45 0
36.80 36.80

After
Methanation
13.66
21.22
0.30
0
0
0.53
Product  HHV, 7.33 x 10  Btu


Scale Factor - 9.9 x 109/HHV - 1351 hr
-1
                                            Product HHV, 8.37 x 10  Btu

                                                                 9             -1
                                            Scale Factor - 9.9 x lo /HHV - 1183  hr
                                                                                                    (continued)

-------
                  TABLE A6-2.  LURGI GAS TRAIN  BALANCE
Basis: 1000 Ib As
All Units: Moles
H2
CH4
C2H6
CO
co2
"2
Product HHV, 8.46 x
Scale Factor  9.9
Loca t ion : Gallup,
Basis : 1000 Ib As
All Units: Holes

CH4
C2H6
CO
co2
H2
Product HHV, 7.84 x
Received Coal
Gas i f ier
Off-Gas
92.72
8.44
0.33
13.82
28.25
38.5
After
Shift
91.82
8.44
0.33
12.92
29.15
39.40
After After
Clean-up Methanation
0 12.92
8.44 21.36
0.33 0.33
12.92 0
0 0
39.40 0.64
6
10 Btu
x 109/HHV - 1170 hr"1
New Mexico
Received Coal
Gasif ier
Off-Gas
47.11
7.44
0.37
15.07
21. 5
34. 5
106 Btu
Coal:

After
Shift
44. 28
7.44
0.37
12. 24
24.33
37.33

Subbi t um i nous
After After
Cleaji-up Methanation
0 12.24
7.44 19.68
0.37 0.37
12.24 0
0 0
37.33 0.61

Scale Factor = 9.9 "  10 /HHV  -  1263  hr
                                                                                        Location:   Jim Bridger Mine,  Wyoming
                                                                                                                                   Coal:   Subbituminous
Basis i 1000 Ib As
All Units: Moles
H2
CH4
C2H6
CO
co2
H2
Product HHV, 5.96
Scale factor  9.9
Location: Decker,
Basis: 1000 Ib As
All Units: Moles
H20
CH4
C2H6
CO
C2
H2
Received Coal
Gasifiar
Off-Gas
41.06
6.06
0.30
12.43
17.66
23.5
After
Shift
37.50
6.06
0.30
8.87
21.22
27.06
After
Clean-up
0
6.06
0.30
8.87
0
27.06
After
Methanation
8.87
14.93
0.30
0
0
0.45
x 106 Btu
x 109/KHV . 1661 hr"1
Montana
Received Coal
Gasif ier
Off-Gas
47.67
6.69
0.33
13.68
19.5
26
Coal:
After
Shift
43.79
6.69
0.33
9.80
23.38
29.88
Subbituminous
After
Clean-up
0
6.69
0.33
9.80
0
29.88

After
Methanation
9.80
16.49
0.33
0
0
0.48
                                                                                                              6
                                                                                        Product HHV, 6.53  10  Btu

                                                                                        Scale Factor - 9.9 * 109/HHV - 1505 hr"1
                                                                                                                                                      (continued)

-------
              TABLE  A6-2.   Continued
00
Location: Foster
Basis: 1000 Ib As
All Units: Holes

CH4
C2H6
CO
co2
H2
Received Coal
Gasifier After
Off-Gas Shift
43.05 39.88
5.31 5.31
0.27 0.27
10.93 7.76
15.57 18.74
20.5 23.67
: Subbi tuminous
After After
Clean-up Hethanation
0
5.31
0.27
7.76
0
23.67
7.76
13.07
0.27
0
0
0.39
Product HHV, 5.22 x 10 Btu
Scale Factor = 9.9 x 109/HHV = 1897 hr"1
Location: Knife River, North Dakota
Basis: 1000 Ib As
All Units: Holes

CH4
C2H6
CO
C2
H2
Product HHV, 4.86 
Scale Factor - 9.9
Received Coal
Gasifier After
Off-Gas Shift
49.17 46.19
5.00 5.00
0.23 0.23
10.18 7.20
14.5 17.48
19 21.98
: 106 Btu
x 109/HHV - 2037 hr"1
Coal:
After
Clean-up
0
5.00
0.23
7.20
0
21.98

Lignite
After
Hethanation
7.20
12.20
0.23
0
0
0.38

                                                                                                    Location;   Williston, North Dakota
                                                                                                                                                 Coa1;   Lignite
Basis: 1000 Ib As
All Units: Holes

CH4
C2H6
CO
co2
H2
Product HHV, 4.41
Scale Factor  9.9
Location ; Marengo
Basis: 1000 Ib As
All Units: Moles
H20
C2H6
CO
co2
H
Received Coal
Gasifier
Off-Gas
49.67
4.56
0.20
9.36
13.32
17.5
After
Shift
46.94
4.56
0.20
6.63
16.05
20.23
After
Clean-up
0
4.56
0.20
6.63
0
20.23
After
Hethanation
6.63
11.19
0.20
0
0
0.34
x 106 Btu
x 109/HHV - 2245 hr"1
, Alabama
Received Coal
Gasifier
Off-Gas
49.17
3.75
0.17
7.68
10.90
13.5
Coal;

After
shift
46.72
3.75
0.17
5.23
13.35
15.95
Lignite

After
Clean-up
0
3.75
0.17
5.23
0
15.95


After
Hethanation
5.23
B.98
0.17
0
0
0.26
                                                                                                    Product HHV,  3.58 x 10  Btu
                                                                                                    Scale  Factor  - 9.9 x lo /HHV - 2765 hr"1

-------
TABLE A6-3.   PROCESS WATER AND OTHER STREAMS  IN 250 x 10  SCF/DAY LURGI PLANTS

Units: 10 lb/hr
Coal to gasification
Coal to boiler
Steam to gasif ier
Dirty condensate
Kettianation water
9
Units: 10 Btu/hr
Product gas
Byproducts
Efficiency, %
Coal to gasifier
Coal to boiler
Unrecovered heat
Bureau ,
Illinois

1364
204
2693
2149
279

9.9
1.5
67
16 9
14.7
2.2
5.6
St. Clair,
Illinois

1351
199
2705
2089
277

9.9
1.6
67
17 1
L i . L
14.9
2.2
5.6
Fulton,
Illinois

1410
207
2707
2158
277

9.9
1.6
67
17.2
15.0
2.2
5.8
Muhlenberg ,
Kentucky

1183
269
2496
1918
291

9.9
1.5
67
17 . 1
13.9
3.2
5.6
Kenunerer ,
Wyoming

1170
220
2656
1934
272

9.9
2.0
67
17.7
14.9
2.3
5.9
El Paso,
New Mexico

1672
463
1640
1080
270

9.9
2.4
67
18 . 4
14.4
4.0
6.1
Gallup,
New Mexico

1263
355
1603
1007
278

9.9
2.4
67
13 . 3
14.3
4.0
6.0
Jijn Bridger
Wyoming

1661
519
1596
1121
265

9.9
2.5
67
18 . 5
14.1
4.4
6.1
Decker,
Montana

1505
448
1698
1186
265

9.9
2.5
67
1 A f.
lo . o
14.3
4.3
6.1
Foster Cree
Montana

1897
574
1618
1362
265

9.9
2.6
67
19 . ~)
14.3
4.3
6.2
Hesco,
New Mexico

1689
475
1990
1490
310

9.9
2.4
67
18 . 3
14.3
4.0
6.0
0) O
> x
72 Q
0 P.
50
Z

2037
589
1754
1694
264

9.9
2.1
65
18 . 4
14.3
4.1
6.5
Williston,
North Dakot

2245
678
1780
1897
268

9.9
2.6
65
19.3
14.8
4.5
6.7
Marengo,
Alabama

2765
345
1767
2325
260

9.9
2.7
65
19 . 3
14.8
4.5
6.8

-------
                                   APPENDIX 7
                           COOLING WATER REQUIREMENTS
INTRODUCTION
     Throughout this report the terms wet or evaporative cooling and dry or
air cooling have been used.  Detailed discussion has been given in Refer-
ence 1.  It is sufficient to say that a heat exchanger can be directly cooled
by a stream of air, or cooled by circulating water which is itself cooled by
evaporation and convection in a cooling tower.
     In conformity with the discussion of Reference 1, all the cooling loads
in the plants have been assigned to the categories given on Table A7-1.  As
has been shown , process streams are cooled to 140F by dry cooling and below
this by wet cooling.  The acid gas removal regenerator condenser can be
economically dry cooled at all plants when the hot potassium carbonate
process is used and 90 percent dry-10 percent wet cooled when a physical
solvent process is used .  The gas purification system of choice has been
assigned to each process by the original designers.  It is somewhat arbitrary
and has only a small effect on the cumulative water consumption.
     The cooling of steam turbine condensers and of gas compressor interstage
coolers will depend on the cost of water and, therefore, on the site .  On
Table A7-2 sites have been given a numerical classification for water cost
and availability.   The numerical classification determines whether turbine
condensers are all wet cooled or whether parallel wet and dry condensers are
used, and whether gas compressor interstage coolers are all wet cooled or
whether series dry and wet coolers are used.  The decision depends in part on
the economics of cooling, which is discussed below.  The approximate economics
are shown graphically on Figures A7-1 to A7-5 for turbine condensers and
Figures A7-6 to A7-10 for interstage cooling.
                                       120

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     The numerical classification of sites is:

                        % Turbine Condenser       % Gas Compressor
      Water Cost &         Cooling Load        Interstage Cooling Load
    Availability No.*       Wet Cooled	          Wet Cooled
           1                    100                      100
           2                     10                      100
           3                     10                       50
    *No.  1 indicates plenty of water available within about 10 miles.
     No.  2 indicates limited local supply or a plentiful supply 25 to 30
     miles away.   Number 3 indicates substantial pumping costs and the need
     for a reservoir.
     Also shown on Table A7-2 is the appropriate annual average evaporation
rate.  This number is only very slightly dependent on site.
     Calculations of cooling water evaporated have been made for each
site/process on the worksheets in a following appendix.

COOLING STEAM TURBINE CONDENSERS
     On Figure A7-11 is shown a parallel dry/wet cooling system for a turbine
condenser.   The following calculations are intended to determine what fraction
of the cooling load should be designed wet and what fraction should be
designed dry;  also, the water consumption is to be determined.  Dry cooling
has the advantage over wet cooling in that water is not used.  It has the
disadvantage of a higher capital investment and a higher condenser tempera-
ture.  The  higher condenser temperature means a lower efficiency for the
turbine;  that is, more energy as steam is consumed by the turbine for each
kw-hr of shaft work performed.
     Before an economic analysis can be made, a physical analysis is necessary
To obtain the desired information the cooling system is first designed and
then its operation is analyzed, month by month, for a year.  Finally the
economic analysis is made,  and this depends on the cost of water.
                                       121

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Turbine Characteristics
     In a steam turbine drive system the steam rate required by  the  turbine
to produce a certain shaft power output depends on the inlet steam condition,
the condenser pressure and the turbine efficiency.  Usually the  higher  the
inlet steam pressure and temperature, the higher will be the thermal efficiency
of the system.  In the present application where the steam is partially
produced by waste heat recovery, the usual steam pressure is in  the  range of
715 to 915 psia, and the superheated temperature in the range of 600F  to
900F.  Also, in the present application where the steam turbine drive  is
used mainly for gas compression purposes, the type of turbine drive  used
usually has a maximum efficiency of about 80 percent when the condenser
pressure is in the range of 3 to 5 in. Hg absolute.  The corresponding  steam
saturation temperatures for the two condenser pressures are 115F and 134F
respectively.  Above 134F, efficiency falls.  We have assumed that  below
115F, the efficiency also falls.  This is a function of the exhaust losses and
may not be true for all turbines.  However, usually there is no  positive
advantage in cooling below 115F, so the procedure adopted in this study, which
is never to cool below 115F, is reasonably generally applicable when cooling
water is scarce.
     The heat rates required when the condenser temperature is in the range
of 115F to 134F have been calculated for the various inlet steam conditions
mentioned and are plotted in Figure A7-12.  The calculations were made  using
an overall turbine efficiency of 80 percent including the bearing efficiency.
The results in Figure A7-12 show that the steam rates for .the four inlet
steam conditions are quite close and that they can be represented by a  single
straight line going from a steam rate value of 11,700 Btu/kw-hr  at the
condenser temperature of 115F to a value of 12,200 Btu/kw-hr at the condenser
temperature of 134F.
     The increase in steam rate with condenser temperature indicates that
there is a certain fuel penalty to be considered in evaluating the cost of
various cooling systems.
     The condenser cooling loads when the condenser temperature  is in the
range of 115F to 134F have also been calculated for the four inlet steam
conditions mentioned and are plotted in Figure A7-13.  The results indicate
that the condenser loads for the four inlet steam conditions are also quite
                                       122

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close and that they can be represented by a single  straight  line,  going from
a value of 8,200 Btu/kw-hr at the condenser temperature  of 115F  to a value
of 8,700 Btu/lcw-hr at the condenser temperature  of  134F.  This  typical line
will be used for condenser load calculations when the  economics  of condenser
cooling systems are evaluated.
     In analytical form the turbine heat rate is
     QH (Btu/kw-hr)  = 11,700 + 500
                                    T  - 115
                              = 8,674 + 26.32 T  , for  115  <  T   <  134
                                               C             L.
(1)
and the condenser cooling load is
                 O (Btu/kw-hr) = 5,174 + 26.32 T  , for  115  T   <_134
                                                I	             L^
(2)
The nomenclature is shown on Table A7-3.

Design Conditions
     Design ambient conditions are given on Table A7-4 with  complete  monthly
average ambient conditions.  The condenser design condition  is  a  condensing
temperature of 134F.   This is a high design temperature  chosen because  the
design ambient conditions are, on the average, not exceeded  more  than ten
hours in a year.  The design conditions for circulating cooling water are  a
hot water temperature, t, ,  of 119F which is a reasonable  and usual 15F
below the design condensing temperature, and cold water temperature,  t , of
94F.  The cold water temperature means that the circulating pumps must  be
sized for a 25F rise which is usually found to be economical.
     If x is the fraction of condenser load which is dry  at  design condition,
                                  O  ^ = 8,700x
                                  "D, d
     The dry condenser area, A  is given by
                               O    = U A   (LMTD)
                               VD,d    D D       D
(4;
                                       123

-------
where
                         LMTD   =
                                 (TC - TD,c) ' (TC - TD,h)
                                      In
                                          TC "
                                          TC - TD,h
                                                                             (5)
The temperature of the heated  air leaving the dry condenser  is  found from the


empirical equation
                        T    -  T     =  0.005 U (T  - T    )
                         D,h    D,c           D  C    D,c
(6)
from which
                 (TC - TD,c} -  (TC  -  TD,h)  = -5 UD(TC -
(7)
                       TC - TD,h =  (TC  -  TD,c)(1 - -5 V
(8)
so,
              LMTD  =
                  D
                            0.005 UD(Tc  -  T   J
                        In
                                   T   -  T
                                    C     D, c
                             (T  - T    )(1-0.005 U )
                              C-    D, c            D
                    = 0.005
                                                  - 0.005
(9)
     Values of UD are given on Table A7-5.   Since the design condenser  tempera-
ture
                                   T    =  134
                                    C,d
(10)
                                        124

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the design log mean temperature difference, IKTD    ,  can be  found from
                                                D, d

Equation (9)  and the area from Equations  (3)  and  (4) .
DESIGN OF WET CONDENSER AND COOLING TOWER


     To design the cooling tower, information on  the  efficiency of the


packing is needed.  It must be remembered that our  objective  in designing a


tower is not to build a tower but to determine its  operation  at off-design


conditions.  The choice of tower type and fill pattern  is  therefore not very


important.  For this study we have used the comprehensive  graphical data
given in Kelley ' s Handbook  based on 18 ft of air  travel  and 30  ft height  of


fill type H.   The tower design parameter, which  is given  the symbol K Y/L
                                                                      a

and is called "characteristic," is taken from Reference 2 for the  condition
                       "Wet Bulb" = T
                                     W,d
                         "Range" = t,  - t  = 25 F
                                    h    c
                                                                            (11)
                      "Approach" = t  - T    = 94 - T  ^
                                    c    W,d         W,d


T    is the design air wet bulb temperature.
 w, d

    The equations which give the wet condenser area are
                                                                            (12)
                     Qrl ,  = 8700(1 - x) = U A (LMTD)
                      W,d                   W W      W,d
                                                                            (13)
                       (LMTD)
                                     (T  - t ) -  (T  -  t  )
                              w,d
                                   ;i34
                                 = 25.5
                                                  h
                                             C    h
                                                            (all  design)
                                           94) -  (134 -  119)
                                           134
                                                  94
                                                  119
                                                                            (14)

-------
     The equations which give the rate of  circulation of cooling water are

                             R  (Ib/kw-hr)  = Qr7  ,/25                         (15)
                              L              W,a

                   R (gal/min)/kw) = R/(8.33)(60) =  0.002 R               (16)
                    G                 -Li                      -*-*

Off-Design Conditions, General
     Calculations were made using monthly  average  ambient conditions for each
month of a year beginning with the hottest and  ending with the coldest.   This
is more convenient than considering the months  in  chronological order.   The
condenser temperature is first determined.  If  this is apparently below
115F, then it is controlled at 115F using the following control philosophy.
First, the heat rejection load of the cooling tower is reduced by altering
the pitch of the fans or by turning the fans off.  When the ambient air
temperature is sufficiently low, the evaporative tower is shut down and the
heat load is carried by the dry cooler which controls the turbine back  pressure
by altering the fan blade pitch.  When the cooling tower is shut down,  the
circulation of water is stopped.  Water circulation is either full on or off.
Throttling the circulation pumps leads to  stagnation,  fouling and scaling and
is not practiced.

Determination of Condenser Temperature
     Determination of the condenser temperature is a  trial-and-error calculation
made as follows.
     1)  A condenser temperature,  T , is assumed.
     2)  The total cooling load, Q, is calculated from Equation (2).
     3)  The dry log mean temperature difference is calculated from Equation
(5).
     4)  The dry cooling load is calculated from the  equation

                                QD = VD(mTD)D                            (1?)

     5)  The wet cooling load is calculated from the  equation

                                   Qw = Q  - QD                              (18)

     6)   The cooling water temperatures are calculated from the wet cooling
load.   The  "range"  is given by the equation

                                       126

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so,
                                                                            (20)
     The rate of heat transfer in the wet condenser is given by
                                     uwVWTD)w
where
(LMTD)   = (t  -
      W     h
                                                                            (22)
Algebraic manipulation of the above four equations gives
                                                  T  *~ t
                      in
                                                                            (23)
or
                         In
                             Tc-
                        Vw/Ri
(24)
so,
                                     VRL
                                                                            (25)
Equation (25)  can be solved for t,  and Equation  (20)  for t  .
                                 h                        c

     7)   Reference 2 is used to find whether, in fact, the cooling  tower


will give the  water temperatures found for the prevailing wet bulb  temperature


T .   Reference 2 gives the approach, t  - T  , when the wet bulb  temperature,
 w                                    c    w

T ,  the  range, t,  - t , and the tower characteristics are known.   If  t ,
 w              h    c                                                 c

calculatec from the approach, is too high then the tower cannot  do  the job


and a higher condenser temperature must be tried.
                                        127

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     8)  The fan and pump energy needs are calculated from the  equations

                           Dry condenser fan energy E  =  0.0149 A          (26)

                           Cooling tower fan energy EW =  0.0089 RQ         (27)

              Cooling water circulation pump energy E  =  0.0246 R          (28)

These equations are used only when the condenser temperature  is above 115 F.
When the condenser temperature is controlled at 115F, the equation given  in
later steps should be used.
     9)  To calculate the water consumption, the rate of  air  flow through  the
tower must be known.  The ratio of water flow to air flow,  R  /R ,  is part  of
the design of the tower (see Reference 2) and is known.   Since  the water
flow, R , is known, the air flow, R , is also known.  Knowing the  dry bulb
       L                           A
and wet bulb temperatures the absolute humidity of the entering air,  H.  Ib
water/lb dry air, can be read from a standard psychometric chart.   When  the
dry and wet bulb temperatures are below 30F, the absolute humidity of the
entering air is taken to be zero.  It is also possible to calculate the
enthalpy of the entering air, i..  Enthalpies of humid air are  normally
measured above 0F for dry air and liquid water at 32 F

                     i = 0.24 TD + Hi[1075 + 0.45(TD - 32)]                (29)

In Equation (29), 0.24 is the specific heat of dry air, 0.45  is the specific
heat of water vapor and 1075 is the latent heat of vaporization of water at
32F.
     Next,  the condition of the air exiting the tower can be  found.   The
enthalpy of the exit air is
                                                                            (30)
because the circulating water transfers the wet cooling load to  the  air.
Experience shows that the leaving air is within a few percentage points of
                                       128

-------
saturation and it is sufficiently accurate to assume  it  to  be  saturated.   In


Reference 2 is given a table of saturated air enthalpies  against temperature


from which the temperature of the air leaving the tower  can be read,.   The


psychometric chart gives the humidity of the leaving  air, H .   The  rate  of


water evaporation is





                              R (H  - H.) Ib/kw-hr                          (31)
                               A  e    i




Equation (31)  applies when the tower is not bypassed.  When the tower  is


bypassed the modification given in Step 18 is used.





Operation with 115F Condenser Temperature


     When the condenser temperature is known, the calculation  is as follows.


     10)  The total cooling load is 8,200 Btu/kw-hr.


     11)  The dry log mean temperature difference is  given  by  the equation
               LMTDQ = 0.005 UD(115 - TD c) / i-In(l - 0.005 U)(32)
     12)   The dry cooling load is given by Equation  (17)


     13)   The wet cooling load is given by the equation
                                 Qw = 8,200 - QD                            (33)





     14)   The hot temperature of the circulating cooling water,  t  ,  is  given


by Equation (25)  and the cold temperature, t  , by Equation  (20).   The cold


temperature is the temperature of blended water entering the  condenser,  not


the temperature at the bottom of the cooling tower.  The tower  is  bypassed.


     15)   The temperature at the bottom of the cooling tower, t  ,  is found


from Reference 2.  It is that temperature which makes both  the  range, t  -


t , and approach, t  - T ,  correct at the same time.  When  the wet bulb


temperature is very low such that it is no longer on the graphs, an  arbitrary


37F approach is  chosen.  This makes the tower bottom temperature  37 higher


than the wet bulb temperature.
                                        129

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     16)   The fraction of the flow which bypasses  the  tower,  y, is given by

                            yR t  +  (1 - y)R t  =  Rt                       (34)
                              L h           L r     L c

                                   y = t _ tr                              (35)

If y ^ 1, we skip to Step 19.
     17)   The dry condenser fan energy is given by Equation (26) .   The cooling
water circulation pump energy is given by Equation (28) .   The cooling tower
fan energy is

                              E  = 0.0089(1 - y)R,_                         (36)
                               W                 G

     18)   The water evaporation is calculated as in Step  9, except that the
air rate is now  (1 - y)R , where R  is the design  air  rate.
     19)   If the ambient conditions are so cold that the  cooling tower is
completely bypassed, the rate of water evaporated  is zero,  the cooling tower
fan energy is zero and the cooling water circulation pump energy is zero.
The only quantity to be calculated is the dry condenser fan energy.  To do
this we first need to know the air temperature, T1,  at which  the dry condenser
will carry the whole load.  This is given by
                                                          UD)|
8200 = UDAD x 0.005 U (115 - T')/ |-ln(l - 0.005  U^)|               (37)

                     -8200 ln(l - 0.005 U )
          115 - T- = 	_                         (38)
                          0.005 U  A
The fan factor, F, is read from the vertical scale  of  Figure A7-14 when the
horizontal scale point is  (T^ - T ).  The dry  condenser fan energy is

                                E  = 0.0149 FA                             (39)
                                       130

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Results
     The  results  of the month-by-month calculations are given for 0,  25,  50,
75 and 95 percent dry cooling at each of the four sites on Table A7-7 to  A7-
10.   Summaries  are given on Table A7-11.  To make the summaries, equal weight
was given to each month:  for example, the fan and pump energies from Tables
A7-7 to A7-10 were totaled and divided by 12 to obtain the value entered  on
Table A7-11.  The fuel penalty is that part of the turbine heat rate in
excess of the minimum value,  11,700 Btu/kw-hr,

Costs
     Unit costs are given on Table A7-6.  The annual average costs, tabulated
on Table  A7-12, were calculated according to the following examples:

                                        2               2
Dry condenser cost (/kw-hr)  = (area, ft AW) (cost, /ft ) (Vyr) (1/7000 hrs/yr)
 Electrical energy (C/kw-hr)  = (energy, kw-hr/kw-hr)(cost,  /kw-hr)
      Fuel penalty (C/kw-hr)  = (fuel penalty, Btu/kw-hr)(steam, /Btu)

Please note that "total costs" (/kw-hr) refers only to those costs dependent
on the choice of cooling system.   Other components of production cost are not
included.
     Various water costs were assumed, and the results are shown graphically
in Figures A7-1 to A7-4 and summarized on Figure A7-5.  It is clear that  at
all sites there is a cost of water above which it is economical to use parallel
wet/dry condensers.   It is also clear that when parallel wet/dry condensers
are used, the load on wet cooling is reduced to a small percentage of the load
with all  wet cooling.   Accurate generalization of actual numerical values is
not possible.  Not only do the numerical values depend on the climate, as
shown on  Figure A7-5,  but they depend on the way the calculations were made
and, particularly, on the relative costs of wet and dry condenser surface
and the cost of cooling towers.  Capital costs are always changing.   The costs
used here are late 1977; wet condenser surface and cooling towers have had
recent cost increases, while dry condensers have not.   This will change.
     We have adopted the policy of using wet/dry cooling at many sites where
water is  less than freely available, but not at all sites.   If the cost of
                                       131

-------
20C/1000 gallons shown on Figure A7-5 were totally  and permanently trust-
worthy, parallel wet/dry condensers would be used everywhere,  always.   When
wet/dry cooling is used, we have dropped the load on wet  cooling to 10 percent
of the case for all wet cooling.  Figure A7-5 suggests a  value as low as 2
percent, so our choice is conservative for the cost year  and basis used.
     Because of the way the calculations were made, the hot  and cold circu-
lating water temperatures are both changed to control the system.   Now, the
cooling system may have other connections such as to process coolers,  and the
hot water returning to the tower may have a temperature derived from mixing
all the returning streams.  However, there is no other way of  making calcula-
tions.  If the cooling tower is not reserved exclusively  for turbine condensers,
then the calculations made are indicative but not a precise  representation of
reality.  Fortunately the chosen configuration, when not  all wet, is 90
percent dry and only 10 percent wet.  The wet condensers  will  only be  turned
on for a few months of the year, and even then they will  carry such a  small
fraction of the load that control may not be required.

INTERSTAGE COOLING OF GAS COMPRESSORS
     To study the effect of series dry-wet coolers on interstage  gas com-
pressors, an air compressor has been chosen as the example.  Air  is com-
pressed from ambient temperature and 15 psia to 90 psia and  104F (or  cooler) ,
in which condition air enters the separation plant to be  separated into
nitrogen and oxygen.   Air compressors are used in all plants,  and they are
the biggest compressors in the gas plants.
     The compressor is shown on Figure A7-15.   It is a three-stage compressor
with a compression ratio of 1.817 per stage.   The temperatures  T   and  T. =
                                                                X      1
109F are design conditions.   The stage outlet temperatures  are calculated
from the equation
                               = T  r(n-1)/n                           (40)
                                       132

-------
where
           T ,  T.  are outlet and inlet temperatures,  R,  (R  =  460  +  F)
           r is the compression ratio
           (n-l)/n = 0.371 for air
     The only number which must be chosen is T   the temperature between  the
                                              A

air cooler and the wet cooler.  The following calculations are  intended to


determine what T  should be.
                X

     To begin, it is necessary to know the power consumed by  a  gas  compressor.


     The general equations for the horsepower needed to drive a gas compressor

   3
are :
                           HP = WH/33,OOOe
(41)
                  H =!
                                                   ~ X
(42)
                           (n-l)/n =  (k-l)Ae
(43)
     HP is horsepower


     W is gas flow in Ib/min


     H is polytrophic head (ft-lb)/lb


     e is polytrophic efficiency


     Z ,  Z  are compressibility factors for suction and discharge
      o   Q

     M  is molecular weight
      w

     T  is suction temperature, R(R = 460 + F)


     r is the compression ratio


     k is ratio of specific heats
                                       133

-------
     For air,  the  appropriate values of the parameters are
w
e -
Z
s
Z
d
k
M
w
D/n -
16.67
0.77
1.0

1.0

1.40
29

0.371
     The choice of W means that all calculations are based on 1,000 Ib/hr of


gas.  Note that 1,000 Ib/hr of air is equivalent to 233 Ib/hr of oxygen.


     The short equation, where P is the power in kw (= 1.341 HP),  is:





                         P = 0.0702 T.(r"371 - 1)                     (44)






Design


     Monthly average and design ambient conditions are as previously given


for turbine condenser calculations.  Hot and cold water design temperatures


are 119F and 94F as above, and the tower characteristics are as  previously


found.  For interstage cooling the tower is assumed independent of the tower


for the turbine condensers.  This means a segregated cooling loop  which is


acceptable practice but not always done.  The two cooling loops are assumed


segregated in this study to limit thecalculation and to aid in understanding


the theory.



     T  is chosen and the areas of the various wet and dry coolers determined.
      X

The heat transfer coefficient varies with the gas pressure as shown on Table


A7-5.   The load on the cooler, Btu/hr, is






                (gas rate, Ib/hr)(T.  - T   )c                         (45)
                                   in    out  p





The gas rate is 1,000 Ib/hr.  The specific heat is sufficiently  independent


of temperature and pressure to be taken as constant.  We have used
                        c (air) = 0.241                                (46)
                                       134

-------
so,  the  load
                           Q = 24KT.  - T    )                         (47)
                                    in    out




     The wet and dry cooler areas following each  stage  are  calculated and


tabulated.   The calculation proceeds as follows.


     1)   For the design ambient temperature, calculate  the  first stage outflow


temperature T    from Equation (40) which, for this  compressor,  is
             1,0




                            T    = 1.248 T.                            (48)
                             out          in




     2)   Calculate the area of the air cooler from the  equations




                      Q_ = U A (LMTD)  = 241(T -T )                    (49)
                       JJ    L) U      U        O   A

                                     in
where GTD is the greater of the temperature differences





                       (T  - T   )  and  (T  - T    )
                         o    D,h        X    D,d




and LTD is the lesser temperature differences.  The nomenclature  is  given  on


Figure A7-15 and Table A7-3.


     The hot temperature on the ambient side of the cooler  is  given  by




                                                + T

                     T    - T    = 0.005 U   -2-	 - T   , J           (51)
                      D,h    D,d          D \   2       D,d
                                            \               /


All four temperatures are known and A  can be found for each stage.


     3)   Calculate the area of the wet cooler from the equation
                    Q  = U A (LMTD)  = 241  (T  - T.)                   (52)
                     www      w         X    i
                                       135

-------
where LMTD  is given by an equation similar to Equation  (50)  in which the
          w

temperature differences are
                         (Tx - th) and  (T. - tc)





The design conditions are:  T  as chosen, t  =  119F,  T   =  109F,  t = 94F.
                             A             n           J-            *~

The wet area is calculated for all stages.


     4)  The water circulation rates for each wet cooler  are  calculated from


Equations  (15) and (16).  The total flow is the sum of the  individual flows.





Off-Design Conditions


     When turbine condensers were studied, there was actually a penalty for


cooling too low.  In this case there is a benefit for  cooling to a lower,  and


still  lower temperature  namely, the compression energy is  decreased.   At


first  sight the optimum strategy is not apparent:  whether  to control the


inlet  temperature to each stage or let it go as cold as possible.   However,


calculations show that maximum cooling is always preferable.   An example can


be given to show this.  With the temperature between dry  and  wet cooling


equal  to 160 F in Farmington, New Mexico, the maximum  cooling calculations


show a cost of 65.54 f/1000 lb and a water evaporation rate of 1.929 gal/1000 Ib


 (Table A7-20) .  If water is turned off for months 1, 2, 3,  11 and 12,  the


cost goes up by 0.65 C/1000 lb and the water consumption  goes down by 0.562


gal/1000 lb  (Tables A7-13 and A7-14) .  This cost of water is  $11. 57/thousand


gallons, which is too high.





Operation with Maximum Cooling


     5)  The calculation must begin at the entry to the first stage and


proceed through each piece of equipment in series.  First the exit temperature


from Stage 1 is calculated.


     6)  Next, T    is calculated by simultaneous solution  of Equations (49) ,
                A , 1

 (50) and (51).  A trial-and-error solution is used.  A value  is assumed for


Tv' Tn >, is calculated from Equation  (51) and LMTD  is calculated from
 A   u , n                                          ij

Equation (50).  The assumed value for T  is correct if Equation (49) is true.
                                       A
if
                     U A  (LMTD)  < 241  (T  - T  )
                      D D      D         O    X
                                        136

-------
then T  has been chosen too low and a larger value must be tried.
      A

     7)  Next, T  .  is calculated  (also be trial and error) .  A value for
                2. , l

T  .  is assumed and Q  calculated from Equation  (52) .  The hot and cold water


temperatures are then calculated from the equations
                                          - t  - T. + t
                      VVV ' Vw -
1   -x - fch

lnT~^^
    1    C
that is.
and
                                 j T  - T  - 0 /R

                          = UQ  ^	1    W  L'                     (55)
                             W W        T   t
                                  .       X    h
                                  In 	
 so,
                      th(e -1) = e (VQW/V - Tx                     (56)
where
                         k = if ( WVV                        (57)





 If the cold water temperature calculated this way is colder than the value

                                 2
 given by the cooling tower curves  at the prevailing wet bulb temperature and


 hot water temperature, then T  .  has been chosen too low and a higher temper-
                             z , 1

 ature must be tried.


     8)   Steps 5, 6 and 7 are then repeated for Stage 2.  This will result in


 a hot and cold water temperature different from those calculated in Step 7.


 However,  the cold water to both wet coolers must have the same temperature


 because  it all comes from the same cooling tower basin.  The hot water temper-


 ature to the tower is the temperature resulting from mixing the two streams.
                                       137

-------
It is necessary, therefore, to determine those hot  and  cold water  temperatures
which satisfy the calculations for both stages.   In fact,  only  one repeat
calculation is needed using an average of the water temperatures found  for
Stages 1 and 2 separately.
     9)  For air separation there is little benefit to  having T .   <  95F so
                                                                cilir
the third stage water cooler is turned off when T    <_  95F.
                                                  A , O
    10)  The calculations of all the temperatures are made month by month
beginning with the hottest month and continuing through successively  cooler
months.  In the colder months little benefit is obtained from the  wet cooler.
The purpose of the wet cooler is to decrease the  energy consumed in compression.
When  (T -T.) _<_ 5F, the wet cooler gives less than  one  percent  reduction in
       x  i
compression energy and we considered turning off  the wet coolers,  circulating
water and tower.  However, we found no cases where  T -T. < 5F.
                                                     A   1
    11)  From the above calculations the grand total wet load each month is known,
and so the water evaporated can now be calculated using the procedure previously
given.
    12)  The fan and pump energies are calculated as previously described.
    13)  The compression energy is calculated from  Equation  (41).
Results
     The results are shown on Tables A7-15 to A7-18, with summaries on Table
A7-19 and costs on Table A7-20.  The cost of compression energy  is calculated
from steam at $1.80/10  Btu and a heat rate of 11,700 Btu/kw-hr, making
2.106/kw-hr.   As with turbine condensers, please note that  the  "total costs"
(C/1000 lb) refer only to those costs dependent on the choice  of cooling  system.
Other cost components such as purchase of the compressors are  omitted.
     As a result of these calculations, it is clear that there is a price of
water above which the use of series dry/wet interstage cooling is the economic
choice.  This price of water is about $1.50/10  gal, and dry  cooling will  only
be introduced into interstage cooling of air compressors when  water is scarce.
Once the decision has been made to use partial dry cooling,  the  fraction  of
the load to be carried by the dry cooler is found to vary significantly with
the cost of water.  The effect of the cost of water is more  gradual than  was
found from the calculations on turbine condensers.  Also, the  fraction of
the load carried by the dry cooler depends on how the cooling  system  is
                                       138

-------
operated.  Finally, the calculations were made on air compressors and there

are other compressors.

     For estimation on a large number of plants, we have assumed that when
water is sufficiently scarce, dry cooling is used; then dry cooling will carry
50 percent of the load of all interstage compressors in all plants in all

locations.  This is the best that we can do at this time, but please recognize

that it is quite a rough approximation.


REFERENCES, APPENDIX 7

 1.  Water Purification Associates, "Water Conservation and Pollution Control in
     Coal Conversion Processes," U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Report
     EPA 600/7-77, June 1977.

 2.  Kelly's Handbook of Crossflow Cooling Tower Performance, Neil W. Kelly
     and Associates, Kansas City,- Missouri.

 3.  Neerken, R.F., "Compressor Selection for the Chemical Process Industries,"
     Chemical Engineering 78-94, January 20, 1975.
                                       139

-------
                                                             	 1
                                                            _ 0.5
                                                                      oo
                                                                      LU
                                                                      Q
                                                                      O
                                                                      tH

                                                                      I
                                                                      O
                         0.2         0.4         0.6

                          WATER CONSUMPTION, GAL/KW-HR
0.8
Figure A7-1.   Cost of steam turbine condenser cooling in Farmington,
                                 New Mexico.
                                    140

-------
    0.30
    0.25
ce:
in
 i
-<=>-
    0.20
    0.15
     0.10
           \
            \
             V-
        I
    0.5
ct:
a

a
LU
^
CD


UJ
Q


O
                    0.2          0.4          0.6


                     WATER  CONSUMPTION, GAL/KW-HR
0.8
Figure A7-2,   Cost of steam turbine  condenser cooling in Casper, Wyoming
                                   141

-------
  o:
  31
   I
  O
  O
       0.30
       0.25
0.20
0.15
        0.10 _
                       0.2
                             0.4
0.6
                                                                 0.5
                                                                >-

                                                                O

                                                                O
                                                                UJ
                                                                z.
                                                                CD
                                                                it
                                                                U~l
                                                                LU
                                                                Q

                                                                Z
                                                                O
                                                                HI
                                                                I
                                                                O
0.8
                        WATER CONSUMPTION,  GAL/KW-HR
Figure A7-3.
      Cost  of  steam turbine condenser cooling  in  Charleston,

      W.  Virginia.
                                   142

-------
    OO
    o
    O
        0.3
        0.25
         0.2
0.15
         0.1
                                                      GAL

                         0.2
                             0.4
0.6
                                                        0.5
                                                                     ex.
                                                                     Q
                                                                     Q
                                                                     UJ
                                                                     CD
                                                                     UJ
                                                                     Q
                                                                     O
                                                                     ("
                                                                     M
                                                                     O
0.8
                          WATER CONSUMPTION, GAL/KW-HR
Figure A7-4.  Cost of steam turbine  condenser cooling in Akron, Ohio.
                                    143

-------
    o
    o
c

o
    CO

    o

2T
O
    CsL
    LU
         100
      80
          60
          40
          20
                 CASPER,
                                     1^_FARMINGTON
                                     I
CHARLESTON
                             AKRON
                          10
                                  20
                     30
40
                           WATER COST,  CENTS/10   GAL
Figure A7-5.
          The effect of water cost on water  consumed for cooling

          turbine condensers.
                                  144

-------
       66
  CO
  o
  CD
  O
   CO
   O
   O
       65
       64
                           J_
                     246


                  WATER CONSUMPTION, GAL/1,000  LB
Figure A7-6.  Cost of interstage cooling -for  compressing 1,000 Ib

                air at Farmington, New Mexico.
                               145

-------
         66
   CO
   O
   o
   O
   CO
   o
          65
          64
              0246


                      WATER CONSUMPTION, GAL/1,000 LB
8
Figure A7-7.   Cost of interstage cooling for compressing  1,000  Ib air

                         at  Casper,  Wyoming.
                                   146

-------
         66
   O
   o
   o
   CO
   o
   o
         65
          64
                         246


                        WATER CONSUMPTION,  GAL/1,000 LB
Figure A7-8.
Cost of interstage cooling for compressing 1,000 Ib air

      at Charleston, W. Virginia.
                                  147

-------
      66
 CO
 o
 CD
 O
 -fc>-
  c/1
  O
  O
      65
      64
                            _L
                      246


                     WATER CONSUMPTION, GAL/1S000  LB
Figure A7-9.  Cost of interstage cooling for compressing 1,000 Ib

                        air  at Akron, Ohio.
                               148

-------
03
O
o
O
CC
o
UJ
O

UJ
o
CJ

o;
     100
80
60
      40
      20
     ^-  FARMINGTON
                                   AKRON
                                    CASPER
                            X\   \\
               CHARLESTON -~\\    \
                100
                     150
200
250
                      WATER COST,  CENTS/10  GAL
 Figure  A7-10.   The  effect of water cost on water consumed for

        interstage  cooling when compressing 1,000 Ib air.
                                149

-------
Ln
O
>
STEAM
FROM
TURBINE
CONDE
k

CO OO OO CO
1
1
Tc
NSATE
1
1
DRY

WET
Tc
	 	 af

l


'



EVAPORATION
A
tb RL
*" I
1- -,
BYPASS UA " "
t "* r^\ . tw \
^^ AIR RATE,
                              Figure A7-11.   Turbine condenser cooling systems.

-------
   15
ffl
fO
O
LJ
H
<
o:
                    STEAM
                     TEMP
      (I)  600
      (2)  700
      13)  900
      (4)  900
  STEAM
PRESSURE
  (PS!A)
   715
   915
   7!5
   915
UJ
I-
    no
115       120               130    134

  CONDENSER TEMPERATURE  (F)
                         140
             Figure A7-12.  Turbine heat rates at full load.
                            151

-------
     15
 13

 CO

10
 o



 o

 O
  cc
  LJ
  tf)
  z
  LJ
  Q
  Z
  O
  o
     10
                     STEAM
                      TEMP
                   (I)  600

                   (2)  700

                   (3)  900

                       900
                                 STEAM
                               PRESSURE

                                 (PSIA)

                                   715

                                   915

                                   715

                                   915
              en
              X
               ro
o>
x
      no
             115       120               130     134


               CONDENSER  TEMPERATURE  (F)
          140
Figure A7-13.  Turbine condenser cooling requirements at full load.
                              152

-------
       0        20        40         60        80
         AMBIENT  TEMPERATURE  DROP(F)

Figure A7-14.  Fan power reduction factor for air coolers.
                         153

-------
AMBIENT
 Tr J
15 psia
         N
          i
            27.26 psia
  T
   3,o =
   250F
\

3
           IX]
    90 psia
                   Figure A7-15.  Air compressor design  conditions.

-------
                  TABLE A7-1.   ASSIGNMENT OF COOLING LOADS



Assigned to dry cooling:                   0% wet

Assigned to wet cooling:                   100% wet

Gas purification regenerator condenser:     100% dry for Synthoil, Bigas
                                           and Synthane; 90% dry, 10% wet
                                           for SRC and Hygas

Steam turbine condensers:                   site dependent

Gas compressor interstage  coolers:          site dependent

-------
                                              TABLE  A7-2.   WATER  AVAILABILITY  AND EVAPORATION  RATE
Je f ferson
Ha rengo

I_I linoi_s
Bureau
Shelby
St. clair
White
Fulton
Saline

1ndian a
Gibson
Vigo
 Ohio
 GalUa
 Tuscarawas
 Jefferson

 Penjrsy Ivania
 Armstrong
 Somerse t

 West  Virginia
 Fayette
 K^nawha
 Marshall
 Honongalia
 Preston
 Mingo
Water
Aval lability*
1
2
1
3
1
1
3
3
1
1
1
1
3
3
1
2
2
1
2
1
1
2
1
1
1
2
2
2
Btu/lb
Evaporated
1310
1310
1390
1390
1380
1370
1390
1370
1370
1390
1380
1370
1360
1350
1370
1370
1360
1420
1410
1400
1410
1410
1360
1360
13BO
1380
1380
1360
Wy pm ing
Gillette (WyodaJO
L^ke de Sme t-Banner-Healy
Antelope Creek Mine  (Verse)
Spotted Horse Strip-Felix  Bed
Jim Bridger Mine
Belle Ayr Mine
Hanna Coal Field {Rosebud  84,5)
Kemmerer
Rainbow 88 Mine

North^ Dakota
     ^
Slope (Harmon)
Knife River
Dickinson
Williston
Center
Bentley
Underwood
Scrajiton

Montana
Decker (Dietz)
Otter Creek (Knobloch)
East Moorhead Coal Field
Foster Creek
Pumpkin Creek
Coalridge
U.S. Steel, Chupp Mine
Colstrip
El Paso
Wesco
Gallup
Water
Availability*
3
1
3
3
2
3
1
2
1
3
2
3
1
3
3
1
3
1
3
3
2
3
3
1
2
3
3
3
Btu/Lb
Evaporated
1401
1401
1397
1401
1397
1401
1397
1397
1397
1417
1420
1420
1420
1420
1420
1420
1417
1407
1407
1407
1414
1414
1407
1417
1414
1375
1375
1375
*Classif ication: 1 *= water available,  2
 3  water expensive to supply.
                                          water  marginally available,
                                                        (continued)

-------
                                                        TABLE  A7-3.    NOMENCLATURE
condenser area, ft

cooling tower circulation pump ene rgy, kw

dry condenser fan energy, kv

cooling tower fan energy, kw

dry condenser fan factor

absolute humidity of air, l_b water/lb  dry  air

enthaipy of air, Btu/lb  dry air

log mean temp-e racure difference,  F

compression pouer,  kw

condenser cooling load,  Btu/kw-hr

condenser dry cooling load, Btu/kv-hr

turbine hea t ra te,  8 tu/kw-hr

condenser wet cooling load, Btu/kw-hr

compress ion ratio

air rate through the to-wer, Lb/hr

cooling water circulation rate, gpm/kw

cooling water circulation rate, Ib/kw-hr

5 team condensing tempe rature, CF

cold circulating water temperature,  F

air dry bul_b temperature, "F

air temperature at which dry condenser wi11  carry whole  load,

hot circulating water temperature,  F

temperature at bottom of cooling  tover,  eF

air wet bulb temperature, "F
          heat  transfer coefficient,  Btu/(hr){ft )(*F)

          fraction  of  cooling  load carried dry

          fraction  of  circulating water that bypasses  the  cooling  tower
          cold or entry  temperature

          condensing  temperature

          dry

          design  condition

          exiting,  or out

          hot, or exit temperature

          entering, or in

          out, or discharge

          wet

          temperature between dry and wet series coolers between compression
          stages
1,2,3     compressor stages

-------
                   TABLE A7-4.  AVERAGE AMBIENT  CONDITIONS
Farmington, N.M.
Month
1 , January
2 , February
3, March
4, April
5, May
6 , June
7, July
8, August
9, September
10, October
11, November
12, December
Design
DBT*
26
33
42
49
60
70
76
73
64
51
39
27
98
WBT**
23
28
33
37
45
51
58
57
49
41
32
24
65
Casper, Wyo.
DBT
24
26
32
41
54
65
71
70
59
47
32
30
96
WBT
20
22
27
34
44
51
55
53
46
38
27
25
60
Charleston, W.V.
DBT
36
38
45
55
64
72
75
74
69
57
46
38
WBT
33
34
40
49
58
67
69
68
64
52
41
34
Akron , Ohio
DBT
27
28
37
47
59
68
72
71
65
53
40
30
WBT
25
26
35
44
54
63
66
65
60
49
38
28
                                                    87
79
83
                                                                            76
 *DBT = dry bulb temperature  (F).
**WBT = wet bulb temperature  (F).
                                       158

-------
    TABLE A7-5.   HEAT TRANSFER COEFFICIENTS, FAN AND  PUMP  ENERGIES
                                              U[Btu/(hr)(ft  )(F)3
Dry
Condensing steam from turbine drives : 120


Cooling a compressed gas :
10 psig
50 psig
100 psig
300 psig
>_ 500 psig

Air

10
20
30
40
50
Dry
Hydrogen

30
45
65
85
95


Air

12
20
40
60
70
Wet
170
Wet
Hydrogen

35
75
100
135
150
        Dry cooler fans:  kw =  0.0112  x  area (U <_ 50)
                             =  0,0130  x  area (50 >_ U > 100)
                             =  0.0149  x  area (U >_ 100)

     Cooling tower fans:  kw =  0.0089  x  gpm circulated

Circulating water pumps:  kw =  0.0246  x  gpm circulated
                                   159

-------
                             TABLE A7-6.  UNIT COSTS
Condensers and
heat exchanger:
     Dry cooling
     Wet cooling
Other:
     Cooling tower
     Electrical energy
     Steam
                            Cost
                        Pressure
                         (p,psig)
        2*
  $22/ft
  $Il.O/ft'
  $12.I/ft'
  $13.2/ft'
  $19.2/ft':
$20/gpm circulated
    2/kw-hr
 $1.80/106 Btu
   p < 300
300 ^ p < 450
450  p < 600
   p > 600
                                                                Annual Charges
                                                               for Amortization
                                                               Plus Maintenance
17%/yr
20%/yr
                      15%/yr
*Based on bare tube area of finned tubes.
                                      160

-------
                        TABLE A7-7.   CALCULATIONS  ON  STEAM TURBINE CONDENSERS AT FARMINGTON, MEW MEXICO
Design Conditions:  Fraction designed  dry  0.
                       2                                 ' 2
Dry condenser area 0 ft /kw, wet  condenser area  2.0069  ft
Cooling tower information:  characteristic,  KaY/L =  1.24, water/gas  rates  2.12,
                            circulation  rate 348 Ib/kw-hr,  0.696  gpm/kw.
Month
10
11
12
Condenser temperature (F)
Turbine heat rate (Btu/kw-hr)
Total condenser load (Btu/kw-hr)
Dry condenser load (Btu/kw-hr)
Wet condenser load (Btu/kw-hr)
Hot water temperature (F)
Cold water temperature (F)
Tower bottom temperature (F)
Fraction circulating water
that bypasses tower
-3 kw-hr

Dry fan power (10 , )
-3 kw-hr

Coolg tower fan pwr (10 , , )
KW nr
-3 kw-hr

Circulating pump pwr (10
Water evaporated (Ib/kw-hr)
115
11,700
8,200
0
8,200
101
77
60

0.41

0

3.65

) 17.1
5.52
115
11,700
8,200
0
8,200
101
77
65

0.33

0

5.39

17.1
5.57
117
11,753
8,253
0
8,253
103
79
79

0

0

6.19

17.1
5.41
119
11,806
8,306
0
8,306
105
81
81

0

0

6.19

17.1
5.67
124
11,938
8,437
0
8,437
109,
85
85

0

0

6.19

17.1
6.06
126
11,990
8,490
0
8,490
111
87
87

0

0

6.19

17.1
6.45
131
12,122
8,622
0
8,622
116
91
91

0

0

6.19

17.1
6.69
129
12,069
8,569
0
8,569
114
90
90

0

0

6.19

17.1
6.601
125
11,964
8,464
0
8,464
110
86
86

0

0

6.19

17.1
6.23
120
11,832
8,332
0
8,332
106
82
82

0

0

6.19

17.1
5.78
116
11,727
8,227
0
8,227
102
78
78

0

0

6.19

17.1
5.36
115
11,700
8,200
0
8,200
101
77
61

0.40

0

3.72

17.1
5.36
                                                                                                                    (continued)

-------
TABLE A7-7  (continued)

Design Conditions:  Fraction  designed  dry  0.25.
                             2                                )
Dry condenser area  0.7689  ft  AW,  wet  condenser  area  1.5051 ft AW.
Cooling tower information:   characteristic,  KaY/L = 1.24, water/gas rates 2.12,
                             circulation  rate 261 IbAw-hr, 0.522 gpmAw.

Month                                123456789      10      11      12

Condenser temperature  (F)          115     115      115     115     115     119     123     122     115     115     115     115
Turbine heat rate  (Btu/kw-hr)     11,700   11,700  11,700   11,700  11,700  11,806  11,911  11,885  11,700  11,700  11,700  11,700
Total condenser  load  (BtuAw-hr)   8,200    8,200    8,200    8,200    8,200   8,306   8,411   6,385   8,200   8,200   8,200   6,200
Dry condenser load  (BtuAw-hr)     5,377    4,954    4,410  .  3,987    3,322   2,960   2,839   2,960   3,081   3,867   4,592   5,316
Wet condenser load  (BtuAw-hr)     2,823    3,246    3,790    4,213    4,877   5,346   5,572   5,425   5,119   4,334   3,609   2,884
Hot water temperature  (F)          109     108      106     105     104     107     110     109     103     105     107     108
Cold water  temperature  (F)          96      95      92       89       85       86       89       89       84       88       93      97
Tower bottom temperature  (F)        60      65      70       84       83       86       89       89       83       82       69      61
Fraction circulating water
   that bypasses tower              0.78     0.70     0.33    0.24    0.10     000     0.05    0.26    0.75    0.77
Dry fan power (10~3 -kw"^r)          11.5     11.5     11.5    11.5    11.5    11.5     11.5    11.5    11.5    11.5    11.5    11.5
                    kw-hr
Coolg tower fan  pwr  (10~3 ^^)    1.02     1.39     3.11     3.53     4.16    4.64     4.64    4.64    4.41    3.44    1.16    1.C6
                           kw-hr
Circulating pump pwr  (10~3 ^W"^r)   12.8     12.8     12.8     12.8     12.8    12.8     12.8    12.8     12.8     12.8     12.8    12.8
Water evaporated (IbAw-hr)         1.96     2.23     2.45     2.84     3.46    4.36     4.70    4.16     3.70     2.94     2.61    2.01


                                                                                                                     (continued)

-------
TABLE A7-7  (continued)

Degj-gn Conditiors;  Fraction designed dry 0.50.
                            2                                  2
Dry condenser area 1.5378 ft /kw, wet condenser area  1.0035  ft /kw.
Cooling tower information:  characteristic, KaY/L = 1.24, water/gas rates 2.12,
                            circulation  rate  174 Ib/kw-hr, 0.348 gpm/kw.

Month                                123456789      10      11      12
Condenser temperature (F)
Turbine heat rate (Btu/kw-hr)
Total condenser load (Btu/kw-hr)
Dry condenser load (Btu/kw-hr)
Wet condenser load (Btu/kw-hr)
Hot water temperature (F)
Cold water temperature (F)
Tower bottom temperature (F)
Fraction circulating water
that bypasses tower
r , i~3 kw-hr v
Div fan power (10 )
kw hr
3 kw hr

Coolq tower fan pwr (10 , , )
3 kw-hr
 3 kwhr

Circulating pump pwr (10 -  j
Water evaporated (Ib/kw-hr)
115
11,700
8,200
8,200
0
__
--
_.

1.0
5.25

0

i 0
0
115
11,700
8,200
8,200
0
_



1.0
7.79

0

0
0
115
11,700
8,200
8,200
0
--
__
~

1.0
14.77

0

0
0
115
11,700
8,200
7,975
224
114
113
92

0.95
22.9

0.15

8.56
0.16
115
11,700
8,200
6,646
1,554
110
101
88

0.59
22.9

1.27

8.56
1.06
115
11,700
8,200
5,438.
2,762
105
90
85

0.75
22.9

0.77

8.56
2.18
117
11,753
8,253
4,954
3,299
106
87
87

0
22.9

3.10

8.56
2.56
115
11,700
8,200
5,075
3,125
104
86
85

0.05
22.9

2.94

8.56
2.45
115
11,700
8,200
6,163
2,037
108
96
86

0.45
22.9

1.70

8. 56
1.49
115
11,700
8,200
7,734
466
113
111
88

0.92
22.9

0.25

8.56
0.24
115
11,700
8,200
8,200
0
__
--
-_

1.0
11.57

0

0
0
115
11,700
8,200
8,200
0

--


1.0
4.81

0

0
0
                                                                                                                    (continued)

-------
en
      TABLE A7-7  (continued)

      Design Conditions:  Fraction designed dry 0.75.
                                  2                                 ?
      Dry condenser area 2.3069 ft Aw, wet condenser area 0.5017 ft Aw.
      Cooling tower information:  characteristic, KaY/L = 1.24, water/gas rates 2.12,
                                  circulation  rate  87 IbAw-hr, 0.174 gpm/kw.

      Month                                12       3456789      10      11      12

      Condenser temperature  (F)          115      115     115     115     115     115     115     115     115     115     115     115
      Turbine heat rate  (BtuAw-hr)     11,700   11,700  11,700   11,700  11,700  11,700  11,700  11,700  11,700  11,700  11,700  11,700
      Total condenser load  (Btu/kw-hr)  8,200   8,200   8,200   8,200    8,200   8,200   8,200   8,200   8,200   8,200   8,200   8,200
Dry condenser load (Btu/kw-hr) 8,200
Wet condenser load (BtuAw-hr) 0
Hot water temperature (F)
Cold water temperature (F)
Tower bottom temperature (F)
Fraction circulating water
that bypasses tower 1.0
-3 kw-hr
Dry fan power (10 T 	 ;  ) 4.50
kw-hr
,-., ^ ^ ,,^-3 kw-hr,
kw-hr
-3 kw-hr.

Water evaporated (Ib/kw-hr) 0
8,200 8,200 8,200 8,200 8,157
0 0 0 0 43
115
114
88

1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0 0.96
4.98 6.19 7.97 15.5 34.4

0 0 0 0 0.06
0000 4.28
0000 0.035
7,069
1,131
107
94
92

0.13
34.4

1.35
4.28
0.93
7,613 8,200 8,200 8,200
587 0 0 0
111
104
89

0.68 1.0 1.0 1.0
34.4 21.21 8.83 4.85

0.49 000
4.28 000
0.453 000
8,200
0




1.0
4.54

0
0
0
                                                                                                                          (continued)

-------
TABLE 7-7 (continued)

Design Conditions;  Fraction designed dry 0.95.
                           2                                 2
Dry condenser area 2.922 ft /kw, wet condenser area 0.1003 ft
Cooling tower information:  characteristic, KaY/L = 1.24, water/gas rates 2.12,
                            circulation rate 17.4 Lb/kw-hr, 0.0348 gpm/kw.

Month                               12       3456789      10      11      12
Condenser temperature (F) 115
Turbine heat rate (Btu/kw-hr) 11,700
Total condenser load (Btu/kw-hr) 8,200
Dry condenser load (Btu/kw-hr) 8,200
Wet condenser load (Btu/kw-hr) 0
Hot water temperature (F) 
Cold water temperature (F)
Tower bottom temperature (F)
Fraction circulating water
that bypasses tower 1.0
,,~-3 kw-hr,
Dry fan power (10 ~ 	 :  ) 5.22
kw-hr
-3 kw-hr
Coolg tower fan pwr (10 , , ) 0
kw-hr
-3 kw-hr.
Circulating pump pwr (10 ~  r  ) 0
Water evaporated (Ib/kw-hr) 0
115 115 115
11,700 11,700 11,700
8,200 8,200 8,200
8,200 8,200 8,200
000
__
_
--
1.0 1.0 1.0
5.70 6.26 7.27
000
000
000
115
11,700
8,200
8,200
0
__
__

1.0
10.8
0
0
0
115
11,700
8,200
8,200
0

__

1.0
20.2
0
0
0
115 115 115 115 115 115
11., 700 11,700 11,700 11,700 11,700 11,700
8,200 8,200 8,200 8,200 8,200 8,200
8,200 8,200 8,200 8,200 8,200 8,200
000000


__
1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0
33.18 25.69 13.63 7.71 6.05 5.27
000000
000000
000000

-------
                         TABLE A7-8.   CALCULATIONS  ON STEAM  TURBINE CONDENSERS AT CASPER, WYOMING





Design Conditions:   Fraction designed dry 0.


                        2                                 2
Dry condenser  area  0 ft /kw, wet condenser area 2.0069 ft AW.


Cooling tower  information:   characteristic,  KaY/L = 1.17, water/gas  rates  2.24,

                             circulation rate  348 Ib/kw-hr,  0.696  gpm/kw.





Month                                1       2       3       4       5        6        7        8        9       10       11       12
Condenser temperature (F)
Turbine heat rate (Btu/kw-hr)
Total condenser load (BtuAw-hr)
Dry condenser load (Btu/kw-hr)
H
g} Wet condenser load (Btu/kw-hr)
Hot water temperature (F)
Cold water temperature (F)
Tower bottom temperature (F)
Fraction circulating water
that bypasses tower
rs_ c ,,,-,~ 3 kw-hr,
JJry tan power (10 , )
Pnnlrr -H-tr^-i- T-i ^ir-i- MA KW" nr.
i-ooig cower ran pwr ^J-U T~  )
}tw~*nr
Circulating pump pwr (10 )
Water evaporated (lb/kw-hr)
115
11,700
8,200
0
8,200
101
77
57
0.45
0
3.40
17.12
5.54
115
11,700
8,200
0
8,200
101
77
59
0.43
0
3.53
17.12
5.57
116
11,727
8,227
0
8,227
102
78
78
0
0
6.19
17.12
5.28
122
11,885
8,385
0
8,385
108
83
83
0
0
6.19
17.12
5.47
127
12,016
8,516
0
8,516
112
88
88
0
0
6.19
17.12
6.00
130
12,096
8,596
0
8,596
115
90
90
0
0
6.19
17.12
6.39
131
12,122
8,622
0
8,622
116
91
91
0
0
6.19
17.12
6.56
130
12,096
8,596
0
8,596
115
90
90
0
0
6.19
17.12
6.52
129
12,069
8,569
0
8,569
114
90
90
0
0
6.19
17.12
6.22
122
11,885
8,385
0
8,385
108
83
83
0
0
6.19
17.12
5.78
116
11,727
8,227
0
8,227
102
78
78
0
0
6.19
17.12
5.28
115
11,700
8,200
0
8,200
101
77
62
0.38
0
3.84
17.12
5.4S
                                                                                                                     (continued)

-------
TABLE A7-8  (continued)





Design Conditions:  Fraction designed dry 0.25.



Dry condenser area 0.728 ft /kw, wet condenser area 1.5051 ft /kw.


Cooling tower information:  characteristic, KaY/L = 1.17, water/gas rates 2.24,

                            circulation  rate 261 Ib/kw-hr, 0.522 gpm/kw.





Month                               1       2       3       4       5       6       7       8       9      10      'll      12





Condenser temperature  (F)          115      115     115     115     115     118     122     121     115     115     115     115



Turbine heat rate  (Btu/kw-hr)    11,700  11,700  11,700   11,700  11,700  11,780  11,885  11,859  11,700  11,700  11,700  11,700



Total condenser  load  (Btu/kw-hr)   8,200   8,200   8,200   8,200   8,200   8,279   8.,385   8,358   8,200   8,200   8,200   8,200



Dry condenser load  (Btu/kw-hr)     5,206   5,091   4,747   4,233   3,203   3,032-  2,917   2,917   3,203   3,890   4,748   4,862



Wet condenser load  (Btu/kw-hr)     2,995   3,109   3,452   3,967   4,997   5,248   5,468   5,441   4,997   4,311   3,452   3,338




Hot water temperature  (F)



Cold water  temperature (SF)



Tower bottom temperature  (F)



Fraction circulating water

   that bypasses tower


               .,  -3 kw-hr.
Dry tan power  (10	)


                        -3 kw-hr,
Cooig tower fan  pwr  ilO        )
                          K W" H IT


Circulating pump pwr  (10*3 ^)  12.8    12.8     12.8    12.8    12.8     12.8    12.8    12.8    12.8    12.8     12.8
                           KW il2T


Water evaporated (Ib/kw-hr)         2.07     2.14     2.40     2.71     3.52     3.91    4.20    4.06     3,56     2.91     2.40     2.33








                                                                                                                    (continued)
108
97
57
0.78
10.8
1.02
108
96
59
0.75
10.8
1.16
107
94
64
0.70
10.8
1.39
106
91
71
0.57
10.8
2.00
104
84
84
0
10.8
4.65
106
86
86
0
10.8
4.65
109
88
88
0
10.8
4.65
108
88
88
0
10.8
4.65
104
84
84
0
10.8
4. 65
105
89
84
0.24
10.8
3.53
107
94
64
0. 70
10.8
1.39
107
95
62
0,73
10.8
1.25

-------
H
CTi
CD
     TABLE A7-8  (continued)



     Design Conditions;  Fraction  designed  dry  0.50.


     Dry condenser area  1.4568  ftVkw, wet  condenser  area  1.0035  ft2Aw.

     Cooling tower information:  characteristic,  KaY/L = 1.17, water/gas rates 2.24,
                                 circulation  rate 174 Ib/kw-hr, 0.348 gpm/kw.



     Month                                12       3456789      10      11      12



     Condenser temperature  (F)          115     115      115     115      115      115     115     115     115     115     115     115


     Turbine heat rate  (Btu/kw-hr)     11,700   11,700   11,700   11,700  11,700  11,700  11,700  11,700  11,700  11,700  11,700  11,700


     Total condenser  load  (Btu/kw-hr)  8,200    8,200    8,200    8,200    8,200   8,200   8,200   8,200   8,200   8,200   8,200   8,200


     Dry condenser load  (BtuAw-hr)    8,200    8,200    8,200    8,200    6,982   5,723   5,036   5,151   6,410   7,784   8,200   8,200
Wet condenser load (Btu/kw-hr) 0
Hot water temperature (F)
Cold water temperature (F) - 
Tower bottom temperature (F)
Fraction circulating water
that bypasses tower 1.0
r^  .c  _ . . /i r\~ ^ Kw*~nrx r A ^
Dry ran power ilu - 	 ;  ; 3.42
kw-hr
-3 kw-hr
Coolg tower fan pwr (10 ) 0
3 kw hr
Circulating pump pwr (10 r  r  ) 0
}cwrijr
Water evaporated (Ib /kw-hr) 0
000 1,218
HI
104
87

1.0 1.0 1.0 0.71
6.07 8.79 17.97 21.7

000 0.90
000 8.56
0 0 0 0.87
2,477
106
92
86

0.30
21.7

2.17
8.56
1.86
3,164
104
86
86

0
21.7

3.10
8.56
2.40
3,049
104
87
86

0.06
21.7

2.91
8.56
2.36
1,790
109
99
87

0.55
21.7

1.39
8.56
1.29
416 0
114
111
90

0.91 1.0
21.7 8.79

0.29 0
8.56 0
0.009 0
0

--


1.0
7.73

0
0
0
                                                                                                                          (continued)

-------
TABLE A7-8  (continued)

Derj.gn Conditions;  Fraction designed  dry  0.75.
                            2                                  2
Dry condenser area 2.185  ft /kw, wet condenser  area  0.5017  ft /Tew.
Cooling tower information:  characteristic,  KaY/L  =  1.17, water/gas  rates  2.24,
                            circulation  rate 87 Ib/kw-hr, 0.174  gpm/kw.

Month                               12        3456789      10      11      12
Condenser temperature (F) 115
Turbine heat rate (BtuAw~hr) 11,700
Total condenser load (Btu/kw-hr) 8,200
Dry condenser load (BtuAw~hr) 8,200
cri Wet condenser load (Btu/kw-hr) 0
Hot water temperature (F)
Cold water temperature (F)
Tower bottom temperature (F)
Fraction circulating water
that bypasses tower 1.0
n -ir ^ L i - 1 - - T M n~ Kw-nr. ^,
ury ran power liu , , ) 4aJU
c kw-hr
-3 kw-hr
Coolg tower ran pwr (10 . . ) 0
^ e kw-hr
 n~3 kw-hr.
Circulating puirip pwr (10 . ) 0
Water evaporated (Ib /kw-hr) 0
115 115
11,700 11,700
8,200 8,200
8,200 8,200
0 0
__
--

1,0 1.0
4.43 4.85
0 0
0 0
0 0
115 115 115
11,700 11,700 11,700
8,200 8,200 8,200
8,200 8,200 8,200
000


__
1.0 1.0 1.0
6.32 11.69 27.05
000
000
000
115
11;700
8,200
7,554
646
111
103
89
0.64
32.5
0.56
4.28
0.48
115 115
11,700 11,700
8,200 8,200
7,726 6,200
474 0
112
106
89
0.74 1.0
32.5 16.38
0.40 0
4.28 0
0.36 0
115 115 115
11,700 11,700 11,700
8,200 8,200 8,200
8,200 8,200 8,200
000
__
__

1.0 1.0 1.0
7.72 4.85 4.66
000
000
000
                                                                                                                    (continued)

-------
     T/VBLE A7-8  (continued)
     Design Conditions:  Fraction  designed  dry  0.95.
     Dry condenser area  2.7680  ft  /kw, wet  condenser  area 0.1003 ft /kw.
     Cooling tower information:  characteristic, KaY/L = 1.17, water/gas rates 2.24,
                                 circulation  rate  17.4 IbAw-hr, 0.0348
     Month                                123456789      10      11       12

     Condenser  temperature (F)          115      115      115      115      115     115     115     115     115     115     115      115
     Turbine heat  rate  (Btu/kw-hr)     11,700  11,700  11,700   11,700   11,700   11,700  11,700  11,700  11,700   11,700   11,700   11,700
     Total condenser  load (Btu/kw-hr)   8,200   8,200   8,200    8,200    8,200    8,200    8,200    8,200    8,200    8,200    8,200    8,200
     Dry condenser load  (Btu/kw-hr)     8,200   8,200   8,200    8,200    8,200    8,200    8,200    8,200    8,200    8,200    8,200    8,200
h-1
-J    Wet condenser load  (BtuAw-hr)       000000000000
     Hot water  temperature (F)
     Cold water temperature  (F)
     Tower bottom  temperature  (F)                                                            --      --
     Fraction circulating water
        that bypasses tower              1.0      1.0      1.0      1.0     1.0     1.0     1.0     1.0     1.0     1.0     1.0     1.0
     Dry fan power (10~3  ^~)          4.95    4.99    5.32     6.06     8.66   15.71   24.29   22.11   10.81    6.89    5.32    4.65
                          Kw  jiir
     Coolg tower fan pwr  (10~3 ^~-)     000000000000
                               kw-hr
     Circulating pump pwr (10~3  !"\^")    000000000000
     Water evaporated  (lb/kw-hr)          000000000000

-------
                        TABLE A7-9.  CALCULATIONS ON STEAM TURBINE CONDENSERS AT CHARLESTON, WEST VIRGINIA





       Conditions :  Fraction designed dry 0.


                       2                                 2
Dry condenser area 0 ft /kw, wet condenser area  2.0069  ft /kw=


Cooling tower information:  characteristic, KaY/L = 1.44, water/gas  rates  1.45,

                            circulation  rate  348 Ib/kw-hr, 0.6^6 gpra/kw.





Month                                1       2       3        4        5        6        7        8        9       10       11      12




Condenser temperature  (F)          115     115      115     117      122      126      128      127      125      120     115     115



Turbine heat rate  (BtuAw-hr)    11,700   11,700  11,700 11,753  11,885   11,990   12,042   12,016   11,964  11,832  11,700  11,700



Total condenser  load  (Btu/kw-hr)   8,200   8,200   8,200  8,253    8,385    8,490    8,542    8,516    8,464   8,332   8,200   8,200
Dry condenser load (Btu/kw-hr)
Wet condenser load (Btu/kw-hr)
Hot water temperature (F)
Cold water temperature (F)
Tower bottom temperature (F)
Fraction circulating water
that bypasses tower
-3 kw-hr
Dry fan power (10 , , )
J r kw-hr
-3 kw-hr.
Coolo tower fan pwr (10  	 ;  j
r kw-hr
-3 kw-hr,
Circulating pump pwr (10 ~  T J
Water evaporated (Ib/kw-hr)
0
8,200
101
77
74

0.11
0
5.51
17.12
5.13
0
8,200
101
77
74

0.11
0
5.51
17.12
5.17
0
8,200
101
77
76

0.04
0
5.95
17.12
5.32
0
8,253
103
79
79

0
0
6.19
17.12
5.66
0
8,385
108
83
83

0
0
6.19
17.12
5.98
0
8,490
111
87
87

0
0
6.19
17.12
6.24
0
8,542
113
89
89

0
0
6.19
17.12
6.36
0
8,516
112
88
88

0
0
6.19
17.12
6.02
0
8,464
110
86
86

0
0
6.19
17.12
5.98
0
8,332
106
82
82

0
0
6.19
17.12
5.71
0
8,200
101
77
77

0
0
6.19
17.12
5.33
0
8,200
101
77
74

0.11
0
5.51
17.12
5.17
                                                                                                                     (continued)

-------
TABLE A7-9  (continued)


Design Conditions:  Fraction designed dry 0.25.

Dry condenser area 0.5889  ft AW, wet condenser area 1.5051 ft2Aw.
Cooling tower information:  characteristic, KaY/L = 1.44, water/gas rates 1.45,
                            circulation  rate 261 IbAw-hr, 0.522 gpmAw.


Month                                123456789      10      11      12


Condenser temperature  (F)          115      115     115     115     118     124     126     125     122     115     115     115

Turbine heat rate  (Btu/kw-hr)     11,700  11,700  11,700   11,700  11,780  11,938  11,990  11,964  11,885  11,700  11,700   11,700

Total condenser load  (Btu/kw-hr)  8,200   8,200   8,200   8,200    8,279   8,437   8,490   8,464   8,385   8,200   8,200    8,200
Dry condenser load (Btu/kw-hr)
Wet condenser load (BtuAw-hr)
Hot water temperature (F)
Cold water temperature (F)
Tower bottom temperature (F)
Fraction circulating water
that bypasses tower
3 kw hr

Dry fan power (10  	   )
kw-hr
-3 kw-hr.
Coolg tower fan pwr (10 ~ 	 r  )
kw-nr
i . . ,,-3 kw-hr.

Water evaporated (lbAw~hr)
3,655
4,545
105
87
77

0.36

8.77

2.97

12.8
2.87
3,563
4,637
104
87
76

0.39

8.77

2.83

12.8
2.98
3,239
4,961
103
85
77

0.46

8.77

2.51

12.8
3.31
2,776
5,424
103
62
79

0.13

8.77

4.04

12.8
3.77
2,498
5,781
105
83
83

0

8.77

4.65

12.8
4.12
2,406
6,031
110
87
87

0

8.77

4.65

12.6
4.45
2,360
6,130
112
68
88

0

8.77

4.65

12.8
4.50
2,360
6,104
111
88
88

0

8.77

4.65

12.8
4.47
2,453
5,932
108
86
86

0

6.77

4.65

12.8
4.30
2,683
5,517
102
81
79

0.09

8.77

4.23

12.8
3.75
3,193
5,007
103
84
78

0.24

8.77

3.53

12.8
3.28
3,563
4,637
104
87
76

0.39

8.77

2.83

12.8
2.98
                                                                                                                     (continued)

-------
TABLE A7-9 (continued)





Design Conditions;  Fraction designed dry 0.50.


                           2                                 2
Dry condenser area 1.177 ft fKu, wet condenser area 1.0035 ft AW.


Cooling tower information:  characteristic, KaY/L = 1.44, water/gas rates 1.45,

                            circulation rate 174 Ib/kw-hr, 0.348 gpm/kw.





Month                               1       2       3       4       5       6       7       8       9      10      11      12




Condenser temperature  (F)         115     115     115     115     115     122     124     123     119     115     115     115



Turbine heat rate  (BtuAw-hr)    11,700  11,700  11,700  11,700  11,700  11,885  11,938  11,911  11,806  11,700  11,700  11,700



Total condenser load  (BtuAw-hr)  8,200   8,200   8,200   8,200   8,200   8,385   8,437   8,411   8,306   8,200   8,200   8,200



Dry condenser load  (Btu/kw-hr)    7,306   7,121   6,474   5,549   4,716   4,624   4,532   4,532   4,624   5,364   6,381   7,121



Wet condenser load  (Btu/kw-hr)     894    1,079   1,726   2,651   3,484   3,761   3,905   3,879   3,682   2,836   1,819   1,079



Hot water temperature  (F)



Cold water temperature  (F)



Tower bottom temperature  (F)



Fraction circulating water

   that bypasses  tower             0.85    0.81    0.65    0.42    0.05     0000      0.33    0.62    0.81


                  -1 ku-hr
Dry fan power  (10  ,   '-)        17.54   17.54   17.54   17.54   17.54   17.54   17.54   17.54   17.54   17.54   17.54   17.54
  1     *           kw~hr


Coolg tower fan pwr  do"3 ~^)   0.46    0.59    1.08    1.80    2.94    3.10    3.10    3.10    3.10    2.08    1.18    0.59
                          KW** nr

                        _ > vw_hr
Circulating pump  pwr  (10   )  8.56    8.56    8.56    8.56    8.56    8.56    8.56    a. 56    8.56    8.56    8.56    8.56
                           KW*" Ai


Water evaporated  (IbAw-hr)        0.57    0.70    1.22    1.84    2.52    2.76    2.76    2.76    2.69    1.97    1.20    0.70







                                                                                                                    (continued)
112
107
79
111
105
80
109
99
80
106
91
80
103
83
82
109
87
87
111
88
88
110
87
87
106
85
85
105
89
81
109
98
80
111
105
80

-------
TABLE A7-9  (continued)





Design Conditions:  Fraction designed dry 0.75.



Dry condenser area  1.7668  ft /kw, wet condenser area 0.5017 ft2/kw.


Cooling tower information:  characteristic, KaY/L = 1.44, water/gas rates 1.45,

                            circulation rate  87 lb/kw-hr, 0.174 gpm/kw.




Month                                123456789      10      11      12




Condenser temperature  (F)          115      115     115     115     115     118     122     121     116     115     115     115



Turbine heat rate  (Btu/kw-hr)     11,700  11,700  11,700  11,700  11,700  11,780  11,885  11,859  11,727  11,700  11,700  11,700



Total condenser  load  (BtuAw-hr)  8,200   8,200   8,200   8,200    8,200   8,306   8,385   8,358   8,227   8,200   8,200   8,200



Dry condenser load  (BtuAw-hr)    8,200   8,200   8,200   8,200    7,080   6,525   6,525   6,525   6,525   8,052   8,200   8,200



Wet condenser load  (Btu/kw-hr)       0000      1,120   1,781   1,860   1,833   1,702    148       0        0



Hot water temperature  (F)          ~            --      --      107     107     109     108     104     114



Cold water temperature  (F)         --            --             94      86       88       87       85     112



Tower bottom temperature  (F)       ~                         83      86       88       87       85       84



Fraction circulating water

   that bypasses tower              1.0      1.0     1.0     1.0     0.46     0000     0.93    1.0     1.0



Dry fan power (10~3 ~~-)          6.66     7.11   10.79   24.48    26.33   26.33   26.33    26.33   26.33    26.33   11.58    7.11
                    /tw  nr


Coolg tower fan pwr (10~3 ^~-)     0000      0.84     1.55     1.55     1.55    1.55    0.11     0        0
                           /cw nr


Circulating pump pwr  (10~3 |^W~^r)    0       0      0        0      4.28     4.28     4.28     4.28    4.28     4.28     0        0
                           KW nr


Water evaporated (IbAw-hr)          0000      0.77     1.30     1.38     1.36    1.24     0.13     0        0







                                                                                                                     (continued)

-------
-J
tn
     TABLE A7-9 (continued)

     Design Condit-' ons :   Fraction designed dry 0.95.
                                2-                                 2
     Dry condenser area 2.238 ft /kw, wet condenser area 0.1003 ft /kw.
     Cooling tower information:  characteristic, KaY/L = 1.44, water/gas rates 1.45,
                                 circulation rate 17.4 Ib/kw-hr, 0.0348 gpm/kw.

     Month                               123456789      10      11      12
Condenser temperature (F)
Turbine heat rate (BtuAw~hr)
Total condenser load (Btu/kw-hr)
Dry condenser load (Btu/kw-hr)
Wet condenser load (Btu/kw-hr)
Hot water temperature (F)
Cold water temperature (F)
Tower bottom temperature (F)
Fraction circulating water
that bypasses tower
-3 kw-hr

Dry fan power (10 , . )
KW nr
-3 kw-hr

CoolQ tower fan pwr (10 : 	   )
kw-hr
-3 kw-hr

Circulating pump pwr (10 ~ 	 ~
kw-nr
Water evaporated (Ib/kw-hr)
115
11,700
8,200
8,200
0
__
__


1.0

5.33

0

5 0
0
115 115
11,700 11,700
8,200 8,200
8,200 8,200
0 0

__
__

1.0 1.0

5.67 7.00

0 0

0 0
0 0
115 115
11,700 11,700
8,200 8,200
8,200 8,200
0 0

__


1.0 1.0

12.17 24.01

0 0

0 0
0 0
117
11,753
8,253
7,913
340
105
86
86

0

33.3

0.31

0.86
0.34
121
11,859
8,358
8,089
269
112
96
96 

0

33.3

0.31

0.86
0.20
120
11,832
8,332
8,089
243
112
98
98

0

33.3

0.31

0.86
0.18
115 115
11,700 11,700
8,200 8,200
8,089 8,200
111 0
111
105
87

0.75 1.0

33.3 13.67

0.07 0

0.86 0
0.08 0
115 115
11,700 11,700
8,200 8,200
8,200 8,200
0 0
__
--


1.0 1.0

7.34 5.67

0 0

0 0
0 0

-------
CF>
                               TABLE  A7-10.   CALCULATIONS ON STEAM TURBINE CONDENSERS AT AKRON, OHIO


      Design Conditions:  Fraction designed dry  0.

      Dry condenser area  0  ft  /kw, wet  condenser area  2.0069  ft /kw.

      Cooling tower information:  characteristic,  KaY/L =  1.45, water/gas rates 1.41,
                                  circulation  rate 348 Ib/kw-hr, 0.696 gpm/kw.


      Month                                123456789      10      11       12

      Condenser temperature (F)          115     115     115     115     119      124     126     125     122     117     115      115

      Turbine heat rate  (Btu/kw-hr)     11,700  11,700   11,700 11,700  11,806  11,938  11,990  11,964  11,885   11,753   11,700   11,700

      Total condenser  load  (Btu/kw-hr)   8,200    8,200   8,200  8,200    8,306   8,437   8,490    8,464    8,385    8,253    8,200    8,200

      Dry condenser load  (Btu/kw-hr)       000000000000

      Wet condenser load  (BtuAw-hr)     8,200    8,200   8,200  8,200    8,306   8,437   8,490    8,464    8,385    8,253    8,200    8,200
Hot water temperature (F)
Cold water temperature (F)
Tower bottom temperature (F)
Fraction circulating water
that bypasses tower
-3 kw-hr

Dry fan power (10  )
-3 kw-hr.
Coolg tower ran pwr (10 )
 _ ,-, -3 kw-hr,
101
77
62

0.38

0
3.84
17 19
101
77
63

0.37

0
3.90
17 19
101
77
75

0.08

0
5.69
17 17
101
77
77

0

0
6.19
17 19
105
81
81

0

0
6.19
17 19
109
85
85

0

0
6.19
17 19
111
87
87

0

0
6.19
17 19
110
86
86

0

0
6.19
17 19
108
83
83

0

0
6.19
17 19
103
79
79

0

0
6.19
17 19
101
77
74

0. 11

0
5.51
17.1?
101
77
65

0.33

0
4.15
17.12
      Water evaporated  (IbAw-hr)         5.12     5.09    5.12    5.33    5.81    5.81    6.00    6.09    5.93    5.57    5.19    5.08



                                                                                                                           (continued)

-------
TABLE A7-10  (continued)





Design Conditions:  Fraction designed dry 0.25.


                           2                                 2
Dry condenser area 0.543 ft /kw, wet condenser area 1.5051 ft /kw.


Cooling tower information:  characteristic, KaY/L = 1.45, water/gas rates 1.41,

                            circulation rate 261 Ib/kw-hr, 0.522 gpm/kw.





Month                               1       2       3       4       5       6       7       8       9      10      11      12




Condenser temperature  (F)          115      115     115     115     115     122     125     124     120     115     115     115



Turbine heat rate  (Btu/kw-hr)    11,700  11,700  11,700   11,700  11,700  11,885  11,964  11,938  11,832  11,700  11,700  11,700



Total condenser  load  (Btu/kw-hr)   8,200   8,200   8,200   8,200    8,200   8,385   8,464   8,437   8,332   8,200   8,200   8,200
Dry condenser load (Btu/kw-hr)
Wet condenser load (Btu/kw-hr)
Hot water temperature (F)
Cold water temperature (F)
Tower bottom temperature (F)
Fraction circulating water
that bypasses tower
-3 kw-hr

Dry fan power (10 , , )
J kw-hr
-3 kw-hr

Coolg tower fan pwr (10 )
kw-hr
~ 3 kw hr

Circulating pump pwr (10 )
kw nr
Water evaporated (Ib /kw-hr)
3,754
4,446
105
88
62

0.60

8.09

1.86


12, 8
2.83
3,712
4,488
105
87
63

0.57

8.09

2.00


12.8
2.03
3,328
4,873
104
85
76

0.39

8.09

2.84


12.8
3.10
2,901
5,299
103
83
77

0.23

8.09

3.58


12.8
3.71
2,389
5,811
102
79
79

0

8.09

4.65


12.8
4.14
2,304
6,080
108
85
85

0

8.09

4.65


12.8
4.39
2,261
6,203
111
87
87

0

8.09

4.65


12. 8
4.52
2,261
6,176
110
86
86

0

8.09

4.65


12.8
4.50
2,346
5,985
106
83
83

0

8.09

4.65


12.8
4.21
2,645
5,555
102
81
78

0. 13

8.09

4.05


12.8
4.90
3,200
5,001
103
84
75

0.32

8.09

3. 16


12.8
3.18
3,626
4,574
104
87
65

0.56

8.09

2.05


12.8
2.31
                                                                                                                    (continued)

-------
03
     TABLE A7-10  (continued)


     Design Conditions:  Fraction designed dry 0.50.

     Dry condenser area  1.0855  ft /kw, wet condenser area 1.0035 ft AW.
     Cooling tower information:  characteristic, KaY/L = 1.45, water/gas rates 1.41,
                                 circulation  rate  174 lb/kw-hr, 0.348 gpm/kw.


     Month                                1'      2      3       4       5       6       7       8       9       10       11       12
Condenser temperature (F)
Turbine heat rate (Btu/kw-hr)
Total condenser load (BtuAw~hr)
Dry condenser load (Btu/kw~hr)
Wet condenser load (Btu/kw-hr)
Hot water temperature (F)
Cold water temperature (F)
Tower bottom temperature (F)
Fraction circulating water
that bypasses tower
T-, ^ n ^~3 kw-hr ,
Dry fan power (10 1 , J
kw hr
,-,^~3 kw-hr ^

Coolg tower fan pwr (10 , )
 , in~3 kw-hr.
Circulating pump pwr (10 : 	 ;  )
kw-hr
Water evaporated (lb/kw-hr)
115
11,700
8,200
7,506
694
113
109
62

0.92
16.17

0.25
8.56

0.45
115
11,700
8,200
7,420
779
112
108
63

0.92
16.17

0.25
8.56

0.46
115
11,700
8,200
6,653
1,547
110
101
78

0.72
16.17

0.87
8.56

0.98
115
11,700
8,200
5,800
2,400
107
93
79

0.50
16.17

1.55
8.56

1.55
115
11,700
8,200
4,776
3,424
103
84
81

0.14
16.17

2.67
8.56

2.39
120
11,832
8,332
4,435
3,897
107
84
84

0
16.17

3.10
8.56

2.81
124
11,938
8,437
4,435
4,002
110
87
87

0
16.17

3.10
8.56

2.92
123
11,911
8,411
4,435
3,976
109
86
86

0
16.17

3.10
8.56

2.88
118
11,780
8,279
4,520
3,759
105
83
83

0
16.17

3.10
8.56

2.68
115
11,700
8,200
5,288
2,912
105
88
80

0.32
16.17

2.11
8.56

2.00
115
11,700
8,200
6,397
1,803
109
99
78

0.68
16.17

0.99
8.56

1.16
115
11,700
8,200
7,250
950
112
107
65

0.89
16.17

0.34
8.56

0.63
                                                                                                                          (continued)

-------
TABLE A7-10  (continued)





Design Conditions:  Fraction designed dry 0.75.



Dry condenser area 1,628 ft /kw, wet condenser area 0.5017 ft /kw.


Cooling tower information:  characteristic, KaY/L = 1.45, water/gas rates 1.41,

                            circulation rate 87 Ib/kw-hr, 0.174 gpm/kw.





Month                               123456789       10       11       12




Condenser temperature  (F)          115     115     115     115     115      118     122      121      115      115      115      115



Turbine heat rate  (Btu/kw-hr)    11,700  11,700  11,700   11,700   11,700  11,780  11,885   11,859  11,700   11,700   11,700   11,700



Total condenser  load  (Btu/kw-hr)   8,200   8,200   8,200   8,200    8,200   8,279    8,385    8,358    8,200    8,200    8,200    8,200



Dry condenser load  (Btu/kw-hr)     8,200   8,200   8,200   8,200    7,163   6,396    6,396    6,396    6,396    7,931    8,200    8,200



Wet condenser load  (BtuAw-hr)      0000      1,037   1,883    1,989    1,962    1,804     270       0        0



Hot water temperature  (F)                                  108      105     108      107      103      113



Cold water temperature  (F)               --      --             96       83       85       85       82      110



Tower bottom temperature  (F)                                82       83       85       85       82       82



Fraction circulating water

   that bypasses  tower              1.0     1.0     1.0     1.0     0.54      0000       0.90     1.0      1.0



Dry fan power  (10~3 kw'hr)          4.90    5.12    8.25   17.39    24.3    24.3     24.3    24.3     24.3     24.3      9.95     5.60
  1                 kw-hr


Coolg tower  fan  pwr  (10~3 ^W~hr)    0000      0.71     1.55    1.55     1.55     1.55     0.16      0        0
                          kw-nr


Circulating  pump pwr  (10~  r^~)   0000      4.28     4.2.8    4.28     4.26     4.28     4.28      0        0



Water e'/aporated (lb,/kw-hr)         0000      0.76     1.36    1.45     1.42     1.29     0.19      0        0








                                                                                                                     (continued)

-------
TABLE A7-10  (continued)


Design Conditions:  Fraction designed dry 0.95.

Dry condenser area 2.062 ft AW, wet condenser area 0.1003 ft2Aw.
Cooling tower information:  characteristic, KaY/L = 1.45, water/gas rates 1.41,
                            circulation rate 17.4 Ib/kw-hr, 0.0348
Month                                123456789      10      11      12
Condenser temperature (F) 115 115
Turbine heat rate (Btu/kw-hr) 11,700 11,700
Total condenser load (Btu/kw-hr) 8,200 8,200
Dry condenser load (Btu/kw-hr) 8,200 8,200
co Wet condenser load (Btu/kw-hr) 0 0
o
Hot water temperature (F)
Cold water temperature (F) 
Tower bottom temperature (F)  - 
Fraction circulating water
that bypasses tower 1.0 1.0
_ -> ku-hr
n---r f - - - T T - ^- Mn i A Ac \ en
JJry fan power (iu , , ) 4.4D 4.3^
-3 kw-hr
Coolg tower fan pwr (10 ~  r~~) 0 0
,,,,-3 kw-hr,
Circulating pump pwr (10 ) 0 0
Water evaporated (IbAw-hr) 0 0
115 115 115 117
11,700 11,700 11,700 11,753
8,200 8,200 8,200 8,277
8,200 8,200 8,200 7,939
0 0 0 338
106
88
88
1.0 1.0 1.0 0
5.62 8.66 20.03 30.7
000 0.31
0 0 0 0.86
000 0.23
122
11,885
8,385
8,101
284
112
96
96
0
30.7
0.31
0.86
0.21
121
11,859
8,358
8,101
257
112
97
97
0
30.7
0.31
0.86
0.19
115 115 115
11,700 11,700 11,700
8,200 8,200 8,200
8,101 8,200 8,200
99 0 0
112
106
85
0.78 1.0 1.0
6.75 12.60 6.27
0.07 0 0
0.86 0 0
0.07 0 0
115
11,700
8,200
3,200
0

--

1.0
4.67
0
0
0

-------
TABLE A7-11.    SUMMARY  OF WET/DRY  CONDENSER  COOLING CALCULATIONS
                                    Farmington, New Mexico
         Fraction designed dry                  0.95     0.75   0.50    0.25     0
         Dry condenser area ft.2/ku              2.92     2.31   1.54    0.77     0
         Wet condenser area ft  AW              0.100    0.50   1.00    1.51     2.01
         Circulation rate gpmAw                0.0348   0.174   0.348   0.52     0.696
         Avg fuel penalty BtuAw-hr             0        0      4.417  41.833  158.42
         Avg fan  pucip energy  kw-hrAw-hr      0.012    0.016   0.023   0.027    0.023
         Avg water consumption  galAw-hr        0*       0.014   0.101   0.374    0.707
                                        Casper, Wyoming
         Fraction designed dry                 0.95     0.75   0.50    0.25     0
         Dry condenser area ft2 AW             2.77     2.19   1.46    0.728    0
         Wet condenser area ft2Aw             0.100    0.50   1.00    1.51     2.01
         Circulation rate gpmAw               0.0348   0.174   0.348   0.522    0.696
         Avg fuel penalty BtuAw-hr             0        00       35.33   193.58
         Avg fan 6 pump energy kw-hrAw-hr      0.010    0.014   0.021   0.027    0.023
         Avg water consumption galAw-hr        0*       0.008   0.088   0.362    0.701
                                   Charleston., West Virginia
         Fraction designed dry                 0.95     0.75   0.50     0.25     0
         Dry condenser area ft AW              2.24     1.77   1.18     0.59     0
         Wet condenser area ft2AW              0.10     0.50   1.00     1.51     2.01
         Circulation rate gpmAw               0.0348   0.174  0.348    0.522    0.696
         Avg fuel penalty BtuAw-hr            28.58    37.58  61.67    88.08   131.83
         Avg fan C pump energy kw-hrAw-hr      0.018    0.022  0.028    0.025    0.023
         Avg water consumption galAw-hr        0.008    0.062  0.215    0.448    0.681
                                          Akron, Ohio
         Fraction designed dry                  0.95     0.75   0.50     0.25     0
         Dry condenser area ft  Aw              2.06     1.63   1.09     0.54     0
         Wet condenser area ft  AW              0.10     0.50   1.00     1.51     2.01
         Circulation rate gpmAw                0.0348   0.174   0.348    0.522    0.696
         Avg fuel penalty BtuAw-hr            33.08    35.33  55.08    68.25    94.67
         Avg fan 6 pump energy  kw-hrAw-hr      0.014    0.019   0.027    0.024    0.023
         Avg water consumption  galAw-hr        0.007    0.065   0.209    0.438    0.66
         *Less than 0.001.
                                                 181

-------
TABLE A7-12.    ANNUAL  AVERAGE  COSTS  FOR  WET/DRY  CONDENSER  COOLING
                                            Farmington,  New Mexico
                 Fraction  designed dry
                 Dry condenser cost C/Vw-hr
                 Wet condenser cost
                 Electric  energy  C
                 Fuel penalty t/kv-
                 Cooling tower
                 Total C/kw-hr
                 Avg water consumption gal/kw-hr
                 Fraction designed  dry
                 Dry condenser  cost C/k^-hr
                 Wet condenser  cost C/kv-hr
                 Electric energy  t/kw-hr
                 Fuel penalty 
-------
TABLE A7-13.  SUMMARY OF WET/DRY  COMPRESSOR INTERSTAGE
              COOLING FOR AIR  COMPRESSORS  AT FARMINGTON,
              N.M., WITH WET COOLER OFF  FOR MONTHS  1,  2,
              3, 11, AND 12
Basis:   1000 Ib air compressed/hr


Design intermediate temperature, F        160
                   2
Dry cooler area, ft /1000 Ib/hr           40.059

Wet cooler area, ft2/1000 Ib/hr           83.853

Circulation Rate, gpm/1000 Ib/hr           3.046

Avg, fan & pump energy, kw-hr/1000 Ib      0.509

Compression energy, kw-hr/1000 Ib         28.140

Water consumed, gal/1000 Ib                1.367
                         183

-------
TABLE A7-14.  ANNUAL AVERAGE COST FOR WET/DRY
              COMPRESSOR INTERSTAGE COOLING FOR
              AIR COMPRESSOR AT FARMINGTON, N.M,
              WITH WET COOLER OFF FOR MONTHS 1,
              2, 3, 11, AND 12
Basis:   1000 Ib air compressed/hr


Design intermediate temperature, F       160

Dry cooler cost, C/1000 Ib                2.140

Wet cooler cost, C/1000 Ib                2.636

Tower cost, C/1000 Ib                     0.131

Fan and pump energy, C/1000 Ib            1.018

Compression energy cost, C/1000 Ib       59.263

Total,  C/1000 Ib compressed              65.188

Water consumed, gal/1000 Ib               1.367
                   184

-------
             TABLE A7-15.   CALCULATIONS ON INTERSTAGE COOLING OF AN AIR COMPRESSOR  HANDLING  1000 LB AIR/HR AT FARMINGTON, N.M.
CO
Ln
             Desi
gn intermediate temperature T " 140F
q_n_ ft2/1000 Ib
ft2/1000 Ib
AD,1 D 29.306 Aw/1 =
AD|2 ~ 16.147 AWj2 -
AD'3 = 13.027 t
Total: 58.480
Month
T,
1,0
Tx,l
T2,i
T
2,0
T
X,2
T, .
3,1
T,
3,0
T
X,3
Tair
t (avg)
c
th (avg)
QW1
QW2
QW3
Total Qw
il air fan energy

-------
           TABLE A7-15.   (Fartnington,  N.M.)   Continued
           Design intermediate temperature  T   -  160'F   Fraction dry load - 0.638
CD
CTi
Design ft /1000 Ib
AD,1 " 19.688
ADi2 - 11.26
An'-i = 9.111

Total: 40.059
Month
Tl,o
T
T2 i
T2,o
T
X,2
T .
T
3 ,o
T
X,3
air
t (avg)
c
th (avg)
QW1
CW2
QW3
Total Qw
Total air fan energy
(kw-hr/1000 Ib)
Tower fan energy
(kw-hr/1000 Ib)
Circulation pump energy
(kw-hr/1000 Ib)
Compression energy
(kw-hr/1000 Ib)
Water consumed
(gal/1000 Ib)

	 x
ft2/1000 Ib
Aw,l 
AW,2 "
AW,3 '

1
146.
80
62
191
93
68
199

97
67
59

70
4338
6025
7230
17593
0.449

0.027

0.075

26.743

1.147

39.61
23.767
20.476

83.853
2
5 155.
88
68
199
101
75
208

104
73
64

75
4820
6266
7471
18557
0.449

0.027

0.075

27.091

1.302

lb/1000 Ib gpm/1000
RL,1 " 491.64 R
RL,2 " 491.64 R
RT.rl - 539.84 R

1523.12
3 4
3 166.4 175.2
98 106
75 78
208 211
110 115
80 84
214 219

112 118
78 82
72| 72
'
86 86
5543 6748
7230 7471
8194 8676
20967 22895
0.449 0.449

0.027 0.027

0.075 0.075

27.457 27.701

1.613 1.880

C,l " -
G,2  0.
G 3 " 1-

3.
5
189.0
118
87
223
127
91
228

126
87
79

96
7471
8676
9399
25546
0.449

0.027

0.075

28.171

2.242

Ib
983 Qw,l
983 Qw,2
080 Qw(3

046
6
201.4
129
94
231
136
96
234

137
93
84

102
8435
9640
10604
28679
0.449

0.027

0.075

28.554

2.639







" 12,291 Cooling Tower Characteriutic
- 12,291 KaY/L - 1.24
13'496 Water/Gas Rate in Tower
38,078 R,/I
Li
7
208.9
136
98
236
141
101
240

143
98
88

107
9158
9833
10648
29839
0.449

0.027

0.075

28.815

2.760

8
205.2
132
96
234
139
99
238

140
96
86

105
8676
9640
10604
28920
0.449

0.027

0.075

28.693

2.674

VA - 2.12
9
194.0
122
90
226
130
93
230

132
90
81

98
7712
8917
10122
26751
0.449

0.027

0.075

28.327

2.372


10
178.0
108
82
216
118
88
224

122
85
76

90
6266
7230
8917
22413
0.449

0.027

0.075

27.875

1.837


11
162.8
95
73
205
107
78
211

109
77
66

80
5302
6989
7712
20003
0.449

0.027

0.075

27.335

1.475


12
147.8
81
63
193
95
69
200

98
68
60

70
4338
6266
7230
17834
0.449

0.027

0.075

26.795

1.207

(continued)

-------
TABLE A7-15.   (Farmington,  H.M.)   Continued
Intermediate temr.
ft2/1000 Ib
ADr i - 12.743 f
AQ'2 - 7.779 f
An' T - 6.297 t
'
Total: 26.819
Month
T,
1,0
T
X, 1
T2,i
T
2 ,o
T
X.2
T
T
3,0
T
X,3
T ,
air
t ( avg )
c
t (avg)
''til
'\a
^W3
'al ^H
iir fan energy
ir/1000 Ib)
:an energy
ir/1000 Ib)
ition pump energy
ir/1000 Ib)
i si on energy
ir/1000 Ib)
.onsumed
'1000 Ib)
w,l
6.091 RL<2 - 684.44 PQ] 2 - 1.369 Qy _2
1.647 R/i - 732.64 Rr\ - 1.465 Qw'-,

91.123
1
146.5

98

63
193

116

73
205

122

71

59

73
8435
10363
12291
31089
0.300

0.037

0.103

26.847

2.106

2
155.3

106

67
198

122

77
210

128

75

66

82
9399
10845
12773
33017
0.300

0.037

0.103

27.109

2.416

r
2101.52
3 4
166.4 175.2

116 124

70 82
211 216

133 139

84 87
219 223

137 143

82 84

72 74

87 91
9158 10122
11809 12532
13255 14219
34222 36873
0.300 0.300

0.037 0.037

0.103 0.103

27.579 27.823

2.654 3.070

'

4.203
5
189.0

137

90
226

149

94
231

152

91

.81

100
11327
13255
14701
39283
0.300

0.037

0.103

28.275

3.463

6
201.4

148

96
234

158

98
236

159

94

85

105
12532
14460
15665
42657
0.300

0.037

0.103

28.623

3.891

- 17,11
- 17.11
- 18,31

1 Cool
1 Ka'//
 Wate
52,538 P-. /P.
Lt
i
208.9

155

100
239

164

102
241

165

99

88

110
13255
14942
15906
44103
0.300

0.037

0.103

28.867

4.165

8
205,2

152

98
236

161

101
240

163

97

87

108
13014
14460
15906
43380
0.300

0.037

0.103

28.763

4.046

ing Tower CharocteriBtic
L - 1.24
r/Gas P^te in Tower
A - 2'12
9
194.0

142

92
229

153

96
234

156

92

83

101
12050
13737
15424
41211
0.300

0.037

0.103

28.414

3.665


10
178.0

127

87
223

144

90
226

145

86

73

89
9640
13014
14219
36873
0.300

0.037

0.103

27.997

3.035


11
162.8

113

77
210

131

84
219

136

82

71

86
8676
11327
13014
33017
0.300

0.037

0.103

27. 509

2.511


12
147.8

99

63
193

116

73
205

123

72

59

73
8676
10363
12291
31330
0.300

0.037

0.103

26.665

2.142

(continued)

-------
              TABLE  A7-15.   (Farmington, N.M.)   Continued


              Design  intermediate temperature T   all wet
CO
CO
Design ft /1000 lb
AD,1 " 
AD,2  
AD,3 " 
Total: 0
Month
T,
1,0
T
T .
2,1
T
2,o
TX,2
T3,i
T
3,0
T
X,3
T .
air
t (avg)
c
t (avg)
QW1
QW2
QW3
Total Q
Total air fan energy
(kw-hr/1000 lb)
Tower fan energy
(kw-hr/1000 lb)
Circulation pump energy
(kw-hr/1000 lb)
Compression energy
(kw-hr/1000 lb)
Water consumed
ft2/!
Aw,i 
AW,2 '
AW,3 '

1
146.
147
72
204
204
84
219

219

82
66

85
18075
28920
33017
80012
0

0.066

0.183

27.196

5.837
 x.
000 lb
51.365 F
30.820 F
24.375 F

106.560
2
5 155.3
155
77
210
210
89
225

225

87
71

91
18798
29161
33258
81217
0

0.066

0.183

27.492

6.216
lb/1000
1L,1 " 1.
1L,2  l:
1L,3 ' 1
lb gpm/1000 lb
224.28 R- i - 2.449 Qw,l
224.28 R j - 2.449 fy 2
272.48 R , - 2.545 ft, -,
	 C
3721.04
3
166.4
166
83
218
218
95
233

233

93
77

97
20003
29643
33740
83386
0

0.066

0.183

27.857

6.616
4
175.2
175
86
221
221
98
236

236

95
79

100
21449
29643
33981
85073
0

0.066

0.183

28.084

7.101
jf -* 	

7.443
5
189.0
189
93
230
230
102
241

241

99
84

106
23136
30848
34222
88206
0

0.066

0.183

28.467

7.796
6
201.4
201
97
235
235
104
244

244

101
86

109
25064
31571
34463
91098
0

0.066

0.183

28.745

8.323
 30,607 Cooling Tower Characteristic
- 30,607 KaY/L - 1.24
" 31,812 Water/Ga3 Rate in Tower
93,026 RL/F
7
208.9
209
102
241
241
108
249

249

103
90

114
25787
32053
35186
93026
0

0.066

0.183

29.006

8.639
8
205.2
205
100
239
239
107
248

248

103
89

113
25305
31812
34945
92062
0

0.066

0.183

28.902

8.471
Lft - 2.12
9
194.0
194
95
233
233
103
243

243

100
85

108
23859
31330
34463
89652
0

0.066

0.183

28.589

7.902

10
178.0
178
90
226
226
101
240

240

98
83

103
21208
30125
34222
85555
0

0.066

0.183

28.240

7.206

11
162.8
163
81
215
215
94
231

231

92
75

95
19762
29161
33499
82422
0

0.066

0.183

27.753

6.532

12
147.8
148
73
205
205
85
220

220

83
67

86
18075
28920
33017
80012
0

0.066

0.183

27.248

5.942
                (gal/1000  lb)

-------
            TABLE A7-16.  CALCULATIONS ON INTERSTAGE COOLING OF AN AIR COMPRESSOR HANDLING 1000 LBS AIR/KR AT CASPER, WYOMING




            Design intermediate temperature T  - 140F
CD
Design t2/1000 Ib
ft2/1000 Ib lb/1000 Ib gpm/1000
AD,1 ' 28.156 AW(1 -
AD 2 - 14.334 A
AP/T  11.572 A

Total-. 54.052
Month
T
1,0
Tx,l
T2,i
T2,o
TX,2
T3,i
T.
3,0
T
X,3
T .
air
t (avg)
c
th (avg)
Q
Q
Q
Total Q
Total air fan energy
(kw-hr/1000 Ib)
Tower fan energy
(kw-hr/1000 Ib)
Circulation pump energy
(kw-hr/1000 Ib)
W,2 '
W,3 "

1
34.914 RL
20.948 RL
19.506 R,

75.368
2
144.0 146.5

62
55
183
75
62
191

77
77
54

61
1687
3133
0
4820
0.605

0.011

0.029

Compression energy 26.482
(kw-hr/1000 Ib)
Water consumed
(gal/1000 Ib)

0.304


64
57
185
77
64
194

80
80
56

63
1687
3133
0
4820
0.605

0.011

0.029

1 - 298
2 - 298
,3 " 347

944
3
154.0

71
64
194
84
70
201

86
86
60

68
1687
3374
0
.84 R ! - 0.
.84 R j " 0.
.04 R

.72
4
165.2

80
70
201
92
77
210

95
76
67

77
2410
3615
4579
5061 10604
0.605

0.011

0.029

0.605

0.017

0.046

26.586 26.917 27.300

0.314


0.354


0.810

Ib

599 Qw,l - 7471
598 Qyj ^
, - 0.694 Qu ,

1.
5

890
6
181.5 195.2

95
81
215
105
87
223

108
85
76

89
3374
4338
5543
13255
0.605

0.017

0.046

27.892

1.134


106
89
225
116
95
233

119
93
82

98
4097
5061
6266
15424
0.605

0.017

0.046

28.362

1.392

, - 7471
|  8676

23,618
7
202.7

113
93
230
122
99
238

124
96
85

102
4820
5543
6748
17111
0.605

0.017

0.046

28.606

1.580





Cooling Tower Characteristic
KaY/Z, - 1.17



Water/Gas Rate in Tower
R /R - 2.24
L A
8 9
201.4 187.7

112 100
92 83
229 218
121 110
98 89
237 225

123 112
95 87
84 76

101 92
4820 4097
5543 5061
6748 6025
17111 15183
0.605 0.605

0.017 0.017

0.046 0.046

28.554 28.049

1.570 1.327


10
172.7

87
75
208
98
82
216

'101
81
70

83
2892
3856
4820
11568
0.605

0.017

0.046

27.579

0.927


11
154.0

71
64
194
84
70
201

86
86
60

68
1687
3374
0
5061
0.605

0.011

0.029

26.917

0.354


12
151.5

69
61
190
81
68
199

84
84
59

68
1928
3133
0
5061
0.605

0.011

0.029

26.795

0.349

(continued)

-------
           TABLE A7-16.   (Casper, Wyoming)  Continued
ID
O
Design intermediate temperature T  160F
Design ft2/1000 Ib
AD,1 " 18.890
AD/2 " 11.037
An -, - 9.396
Totals 39.323
Month
T
1,0
Tx,l
T2,i
T
2,0
T 
X,2
T
T,
3,0
T
X,3
T .
air
t (avg)
c
th (avg)
Qwl
Qw2
Q
Total Qw
Total air fan energy
(kw-hr/1000 Ib)
Tower fan energy
(kw-hr/1000 Ib)
Circulation pump energy
(kw-hr/1000 Ib)
Compression energy
(kw-hr/1000 Ib)
Water consumed
(gal/1000 Ib)
ft /1000 Ib lb/1000 Ib gpm/1000 Ib
AW,1  39.612 RL,,! " 491.64 RG/I - 0.983 Ow,l
AW,2 " 23.767 RL,2 " 491.64 Rf.i2 - 0.983 Qw,2
AW,3 "

1
144.

80
61
190

93

67
198

93

64

57

68
4579
6266
6989
17834
0.440

0.027

0.075

26.67

1.151

 12,291 Cooling Tower Characteristic
- 12,291 KaY/L - 1.17
20.476 RL.3 - 539.84 R,,., " 1.080 Ow.3 ' 13,496 ,_,,,-.., 0 =  ^ Tn.r-
83.855
2
0 146.5

82
63
193

95

69
200

95

66

59

70
4579
6266
6989
17834
0.440

0.027

0.075

26.78

1.216

1523.12 3.046
3
154.0

89
69
200

102

75
208

102

72

65
1
76
4820
6507
7230
18557
0.440

0.027

0.075

27.09

1.314

4
165.2

99
76
209

111

82
216

110

79

71

84
5543
6989
7471
20003
0.440

0.027

0.075

27.49

1.535

5
181.5

113
85
220

123

89
225

122

86

77

93
6748
8194
8676
23618
0.440

0.027

0.075

28.00

2.000

6
195.2

125
93
230

134

96
234

130

91

84

101
7712
9158
9399
26269
0.440

0.027

0.075

28.45

2.343

38,078 RL/Rfl "2.24
7
202.7

132
96
234

139

100
239

138

96

86

105
8676
9399
10122
28197
0.440

0.027

0.075

28.68

2.571

8
201.4

131
95
233

138

99
238

137

95

86

104
8676
9399
10122
28197
0.440

0.027

0.075

28.62

2.563

9
187.7

119
86
221

126

89
225

125

86

77

93
7953
8917
9399
26269
0.440

0.027

0.075

28.10

2.367

10
172.7

105
80
214

116

85
220

116

82

74

88
6025
7471
8194
21690
0.440

0.027

0.075

27.72

1.755

11
134.0

89
69
200

102

75
208

102

72

65

76
4820
6507
7230
18557
0.440

0.027

0.075

27.09

1.314

12
151.5

86
66
196

99

72
204

99

69

62

74
4820
6507
7230
18557
0.440

0.027

0.075

26.95

1.224

                                                                                                                    (cbntinued)

-------
Design ft2/1000 Ib
AD(1  12.254 P.
AD'2 - 6.255 P
An'-, = 5.068 P
U r J
Total: 23.577
Month
T
1,0
T .
T
2,i
T
2,0
T
X,2
T3,i
T,
3,0
T
X,3
T .
air
t (avg)
c
th (avg)
QW1
Qw2
CW3
Total Qw
Total air fan energy
(kw-hr/1000 Ib)
Tower fan energy
(kw-hr/1000 Ib)
Circulation pump energy
(kw-hr/1000 Ib)
Compression energy
(kw-hr/1000 Ib)
Water consumed
(gal/1000 Ib)
ft2/ioo
>W,1 * ^
LW 2 " 2
iw'3 " 2
Jt
0 Ib lb/1000 Ib gpm/1000 Ib
3.485 RL,i - 684.44 R, ( i - 1.369 Qvi,l
6.091 RL(2 - 684.44 RQ, 2 " 1-369 Qy^
1.647 Rj.'-,  732.64 R, ' , ** 1.465 Qj/,

91.123
1
144.0

97
65

195

128

75
208

136

73

61

76
7712
12773
15183
35668
0.264

0.037

0.103

26.882

2.489

2
146.5

100
67

198

131

76
209

137

74

62

78
7953
13255
15183
36391
0.264

0.037

0.103

26.969

2.590



2101.52
3
154.0

106
77

210

140

85
220

146

83

68

83
6989
13255
15183
35427
0.264

0.037

0.103

27.405

2.658

4
165.2

116
80

214

146

91
228

155

90

75

92
8676
13255
15665
37596
0.264

0.037

0.103

27.718

2.951


*
4.203
5
181.5

132
88

224

158

97
235

164

94

81

100
10604
14701
16870
42175
0.264

0.037

0.103

28.188

3.593

6
195.2

144
95

233

167

102
241

172

99

86

'106
11809
15665
17593
45067
0.264

0.037

0.103

28.589

4.010

" 17,111 Cooling Tower Characteristic
. - 17,111 KaY/L - 1.17
I  L 	 Water/Gas Rate in Tower
52,538 R /R - 2.24
7 B
202.7 201.4

151 150
98 97

236 235

171 170

104 103
244 243

176 175

101 100

88 87

109 108
12773 12773
16147 16147
18075 18075
46995 46995
0.264 0.264

0.037 0.037

0.103 0.103

28.780 28.728

4.336 4.302

9
187.7

137
90

226

161

97
235

166

94

81

101
11327
15424
17352
44103
0.264

0,037

0.103

28.310

3.829

10
172.7

124
84

219

146

92
229

158

91

78

95
9640
13014
16147
38801
0.264

0,037

0,103

27.910

3.176

11
154.0

106
77

210

140

85
220

146

83

68

83
6989
13255
15183
35427
0.264

0.037

0.103

27.405

2.658

12
151.5

104
71

203

135

80
214

142

78

66

82
7953
13255
15424
36632
0.264

0.037

0.103

27.178

2.703

(continued)

-------
TABLE A7-16.   (Cajper, Wyoming)  Continued




Design intermediate temperature T   all wet
Design ft /1000 Ib
AD,1  0
AD,2 - 0
AD,3 m 
Total: 0

Month
T
1,0
Tx,i
T2,i
T_
2,O
? ,
X, 2
T
3 ,i
T,
3,0
T
X,3
T .
air
t (avg)
fc). (avg)
W1
QW2
CW3
Total Qw
Total air fan energy
(kw-hr/1000 Ib)
Tower fan energy
(kw-hr/1000 Ib)
Circulation pump energy
(kw-hr/1000 Ib)
Compression energy
(kw-hr/1000 Ib)
Water consumed
ft2/ioc
AW,1 " !
AW,2 " :
AW,3  ;
It

1
144.0

144
69
200

200

78

211

211

77

61
81
18075
29402
32294
79771
0

0.065

0.180

27.004

5.890
A
)0 Ib lb/1000 Ib gpm/1000 Ib
51.134 RL(1 - 1205.0 R i - 2.410 (?W(1
)0.681 RL(2 " 1205.0 R 2 - 2.410 Q^j
24.292 RT'T - 1253.2 R', - 2.506 &/ ,
36.107

2
146.5

147
73
205

205

83

218

218

82

66
86
17834
29402
32776
80012
0

0.065

0.180

27.196

5.949
3663.2 7.326

3
154.0

154
78
211

211

89

225

225

88

72
91
18316
29402
33017
80735
0

0.065

0.180

27.492

6.223

4
165.2

165
86
221

221

98

236

236

96

79
100
19039
29643
33740
82422
0

0.065

0.180

27.944

6.577

5
181.5

182
91
228

228

102

241'

241

100

83
105
21931
30366
33981
86278
0

0.065

0.180

28.327

7.362

6
195.2

195
98
236

236

106

246

246

102

88
111
23377
31330
34704
89411
0

0.065

0.180

28.710

7.951
- 30,125 Cooling Tower Characteristic
, - 30,125 KaY/L - 1.17
1 "  ( 	 Water/Gas Rate in Tower
91,580 R /R. " 2.24

7
202.7

203
100
239

239

108

249

249

104

90
113
24823
31571
34945
91339
0

0.065

0.180

28.885

8.285
L
8
201.4

201
99
238

238

107

248

248

103

89
112
24582
31571
34945
91098
0

0.065

0.180

28.832

8.245
A
9
187.7

188
95
233

233

106

246

246

102

87
109
22413
30607
34704
87724
0

0.065

0.180

28.554

7.657

10
172.7

173
88
224

224

99

238

238

97

81
102
20485
30125
33981
84591
0

0.065

0.180

28.101

7.028

11
154.0

154
78
211

211

89

225

225

88

72
91
18316
29402
33017
80735
0

0.065

0.180

27.492

6.223

12
151.5

152
76
209

209

85

220

220

84

69
88
18316
29884
32776
80976
0

0.065

0.180

27.352

6.184
   (gal/1000 Ib)

-------
TABLE A7-17.  CALCULATIONS ON INTERSTAGE COOLING OF AN AIR COMPRESSOR HANDLING 1000 LBS/HR AT CHARLESTON, W.VA.
Design intermediate temperature T   140F
Design ft2/1000 Ib
AD(1 - 23.206
AD 2 - 11.811
A ', - 9.579

Total: 44.596
Month
T
1,0
Tx i
T
2,i
T
2,0
T
X,2
T
3,i
T
3,0
T
X,3
T .
air
tc (avg)
th (avg)
Qwl
QW2
QW3
Total Qw
Total air fan energy
(kw-hr/1000 Ib)
Tower fan energy
	 A
ft2/1000 Ib
AW,1 "
AW,2 "
AW,3 

1
34.914
20.948
19.506

75.368
2
159.0 161.

84
69

200

100

78

211

104

76

65
79
3615
5302
6748
15665
0.499

P. 017

86
70

201

102

80

214

107

78

66
81
3856
5302
6989
16147
0.499

0.017
lb/1000 Ib gpm/1000
RL;1 - 298
RL 2 - 298
RL 3 - 347

944
3
5 170.2

94
76

209

109

85

220

113

82

70
87
4338
5784
7471
.84 R
.84 R
.04 R

.72
4
182.7

105
84

219

119

91

228

122

88

75
95
5061
6748
8194
17593 20003
0.499

0.017
0.499

0.017
6,1 - -
62 - 0.
03 ' -
U( j 	
1.
5
Ib
598 Qytl
598 Qw' 2
694 a,'
	 *H , J
890
6
194.0 203.9

115
92

229

128

98

236

131

94

82
103
5543
7230
8917
21690
0.499

0.017

123
98

236

136

102

241

138

100

86
108
6025
8194
9158
23377
0.499

0.017

- 7471
- 7471
. 8676

23,618
7
207.7

127
100

239

139

106

246

142

102

89
113
6507
7953
9640
24100
0.499

0.017




Cooling Tower Characteristic
KaY/L - 1.44



Water/Gas Rate in Tower
RL/RA - 1.45
8 9
206.4 200.2

125 120
99 95

238 233

138 133

105 102

245 241

141 136

101 98

88 85
112 107
6266 6025
7953 7471
9640 9158
23859 22654
0.499 0.499

0.017 0.017

10
185.2

107
86

221

121

93

230

124

90

78
97
5061
6748
8194
20003
0.499

0.017

11
171.5

95
77

210

110

86

221

114

84

71
88
4338
5784
7230
17352
0.499

0.017

12
161.5

86
70

201

102

80

214

107

78

66
81
3856
5302
6989
16147
0.499

0.017
   (kw-hr/1000  Ib)
Circulation pump  energy  0.046
   (kw-hr/1000  Ib)
Compression energy     27.213
   (kw-hr/1000  Ib)
Water  consumed          1.103
   (gal/1000 Ib)
 0.046   0.046   0.046   0.046   0.046   0.046   0.046   0.046   0.046   0.046   0.046

27.300  27.614  28.031  28.449  28.763  28.919  28.867  28.658. 28.136  27.666  27.300

 1.134   1.267   1.666   1.869   2.073   2.151   2.135   1.987   1.650   1.330   1.134

                                                                       (continued)

-------
TABLE A7-17.   (Charleston, W. Va.) Continued




Design intermediate temperature T.. "  160T
Design ft2/1000 Ib
AD,1 ' 15.307
AD/'2 - 7.818
Ap , = 6.337
'
Total: 29.462
Month
T,
1,0
Tx,l
T2,i
T
2,0
T
X,2
T3,i
T
3,0
T
X,3
T
air
t (avg)
c
th (avg)
Q
CW
0
VW3
Total 0
Total air fan energy
(kw-hr/1000 Ib)
Tower fan energy
(kw-hr/1000 Ib)
Circulation pump energy
(kw-hr/1000 Ib)
Compression energy
(kw-hr/1000 Ib)
Water consumed
(gal/1000 Ib)

ft2/H
AH,1 "
AW,2 "
AW,3 "

1
159.

102
72
204

126

82
216

133

81

66

84
7230
10604
12532

30366
0.330

0.027

0.075

27.335

2.180


	 A
000 Ib lb/1000 Ib gpm/1000 Ib
39.612 RL/1 - 491.64 RG| ]_ - 0.983 Qw,l
23.767 RL(2 - 491.64 RG( 2 - 0.983 Ow,2
20.476 RT._,  539.84 Rr. , - 1.080 Qu i

83.855
2
0 161.5

105
74
206

128

84
219

135

82

68

86
7471
10604
12773

30848
0.330

0.027

0.075

27.439

2.232




1523.12
3
170.2

112
78
211

134

88
224

141

86

71,
I
91
8194
11086
13255

32535
0.330

0.027

0.075

27.701

2.522


4
182.7

124
86
220

144

93
230

149

90

77

98
9158
12291
14219

35668
0.330

0.027

0.075

28.101

2.938




3.046
5
194.0

134
94
231

154

101
290

158

96

84

107
9640
12773
14942

37355
0.330

0.027

0.075

28.536

3.203


6
203.9

143
99
238

161

105
245

165

101

87

112
10604
13496
15424

39524
0.330

0.027

0.075

28.832

3.493


" 12,291 Cooling Tower Characteristic
- 12,291 KaY/L "1.44
" 13f496 Water/Gas Rate in Tower
38.078 RL/P
7
207.7

146
101
240

164

107
248

168

102

89

114
10645
13737
19280

43862
0.330

0.027

0.075

28.954

3.909


8
206.4

145
100
239

163

106
246

166

102

88

113
10845
13737
15424

40006
0.330

0.027

0.075

28.902

3.569


* ' 1-45
9
200.2

139
96
234

158

104
244

163

100

85

109
10363
13014
15183

38560
0.330

0.027

0.075

28.710

3.064



10
185.2

126
88
224

147

96
234

152

93

79

101
9158
12291
14219

35668
0.330

0.027

0.075

28.223

2.963



11 12
171.5 161.5

114 105
79 74
213 206

136 128

90 84
226 219

143 135

88 82

72 68

92 86
8435 7471
11086 10604
13255 12773

32776 30848
0.330 0.330

0.027 0.027

0.075 0.075

27.770 27.439

2.522 2.232

(continued)

-------
kO
Ul
              TABLE A7-17.   (Charleston,  W.  Va.)   Continued

              Design intermediate  temperature  T  - 180F
ft2/1000 Ib ft2/1000 Ib
AD,1 ' 9.381 AW(1 -
AD,2 " 4-788 Aw 2 "
AD'3 - 3.880 Aw'(3 -

Total: 18.049
Month 1
43.485
26.091
21.647

91.123
2
TX Q 159.0 161.
TX 1 12
T2!i 75
T2,o 208
TX,2 154
T3 i 86
T3!o m
TX,3 163
T . 84
air
t (avg) 68
t (avg) 88
Q 10845
VW1
Q 16388
Q 19039
:al Q 46272
lir fan energy 0.202
vr/1000 Ib)
:an energy 0.037
ir/1000 Ib)
ition pump energy 0.103
ir/1000 Ib)
ision energy 27.457
ir/1000 Ib)
:onsumed 3.393
123
77
210
156
87
223
165
85
70
89
11086
16629
19280
46995
0.202

0.037

0.103

27.544

3.480
lb/1000
Ib gpm/1000
RL,1 " 684.44 RG
RL,2 " 684.44 RG
RL'3 - 732.64 RG
'

2101.52
3
5 170.2
130
81
215
161
91
228
170
89
73
89
11809
16870
19521
48200
0.202

0.037

0.103

27.805

3.741
4
182.7
143
87
223
170
96
234
177
93
77
100
13496
17834
20244
51574
0.202

0.037

0.103

28.171

4.280
,1 ' 1-
,2 ' i-
,3 " !

4.
5
Ib
369 Qw(1
369 Qw 2
465 {^'3

203
6
194.0 203.9
153
94
231
178
101
240
184
97
83
107
14219
18557
20967
53743
0.202

0.037

0.103

28.536

4.645
162
100
239
186
106
246
191
102
88
113
14942
19280
21449
55671
0.202

0.037

0.103

28.867

4.872






" 17,111 Cooling Tower Characteristic
 17,111 KaY/L  1.44
 18,316 water/Gas Rate in Tower
52,538 RL/RA " 1-45
7
207.7
166
102
241
189
108
249
194
103
89
115
15424
19521
21931
56876
0.202

0.037

0.103

28.989

5.080
8
206.4
164
101
240
188
107
248
193
102
89
114
15183
19521
21931
56635
0.202

0.037

0.103

28.936

5.063
9
200.2
159
98
236
183
105
245
189
100
87
111
14701
18798
21449
54948
0.202

0.037

0.103

28.763

4.837
10
185.2
145
89
225
172
98
236
179
94
80
103
13496
17834
20485
51815
0.202

0.037

0.103

28.275

4.315
11
171.5
132
82
216
162
92
229
171
90
74
95
12050
16870
19521
48441
0.202

0.037

0.103

27.857

3.723
12
161.5
123
77
210
156
87
223
165
85
70
89
11086
16629
19280
46995
0.202

0.037

0.103

27.544

3.480
                 (gal/1000 Ib)
                                                                                                                      (continued)

-------
TABLE A7-17.   (Charleston, H. Va.)  Continued




Design intermediate temperature T   all wet
Design ft /1000 Ib
ADjl - 0 J
AD,2   J
AD,3 =  '
Total: 0
Month
T,
1,0
T
T-, .
2,1
T
2,0
TX 2
T
3,i
T
3,0
T
X,3
T
air
t (avg)
c
t^ (avg)
QW1
QW2
QW3
Total Qw
Total air fan energy
(kw-hr/1000 Ib)
Tower fan energy
(kw-hr/1000 Ib)
Circulation pump energy
(kw-hr/1000 Ib)
Compression energy
(kw-hr/1000 Ib)
Water consumed
(gal/1000 Ib)
ft2/ioc
,w/1 - 4
\H'2 - 2
S/3  2
A
10 Ib lb/1000 Ib gpn/1000 Ib
9.812 RL,1 ' 1099.96 RG( ^ - 2.198 Qy,l
:9.887 RL'2 = 1098.96 RQ' 2 - 2.198 BW' 2
18.579 RT', - 1147.16 Rr.' , - 2.294 ft/,

108.278
1
159.0

159
77

210

210
88

224

224

82

69

91
19762
29402
34222
83386
0

0.060

0.165

27.527

6.204

2
161.5

162
78

211

211
89

225

225

83

70

93
20244
29402
34222
83868
0

0.060

0.165

27.596

6.287

'

3345.08
3
170.2

170
84

219

219
94

231

231

87

75

98
20726
30125
34704
85555
0

0.060

0.165

27.910

6.730

4
182.7

183
89

225

225
97

235

235

90

78

102
22654
30848
34945
88447
0

0.060

0.165

28.223

7.339



6.690
5
194.0

194
95

233

233
103

243

243

94

84

109
23859
31330
35909
91098
0

0.060

0.165

28.589

7.782

6
203.9

204
100

239

239
107

248

248

99

88

114
25064
31812
35909
92785
0

0.060

0.165

28.885

8.170

- 27,474 Cooling Tower Characteristic
- 27,474 KaY/L - 1.44
	 l 	 	 Water/Gas Rate in Tower
83,627 RL/R
7
207.7

208
102

241

241
108

249

249

100

89

115
25546
32053
35909
93508
0

0.060

0.165

28.989

8.364

8
206.4

206
101

240

240
107

248

248

99

88

114
25305
32053
35909
93267
0

0.060

0.165

28.937

8.336

A'1'45
9
200.2

200
98

236

236
105

245

245

97

86

112
24582
31571
35668
91821
0

0.060

0.165

28.763

8.087


10
185.2

185
92

229

229
100

239

239

92

81

105
22413
31089
35427
88929
0

0.060

0.165

28.362

7.339


11
171.5

172
85

220

220
95

233

233

88

76

100
20967
30125
34945
86037
0

0.060

0.165

27.962

6.785


12
161.5

162
78

211

211
89

225

225

83

70

93
20244
29402
34222
83868
0

0.060

0.165

27.596

6.287


-------
TABLE A7-18.  CALCULATIONS  ON INTERSTAGE COOLING OF AN AIR COMPRESSOR HANDLING  1000 LBS  AIR/ AT AKRON, OHIO
Design intermediate  temperature T
                                      140F
Design ft2/1000 Ib
AD|1 - 21.231
AD|2  10.854
AH'T = 8.763
L* , J
Totali 40.848
Month
T
I/O
T
T
2,i
T
2,o
T
X, 2
T
T
3,0
T -,
X,3
T
air
t (avg)
c
th (avg)
QW1
QH2
QW3
Total Qw
Total air fan energy
(kw-hr/1000 Ib)
Tower fan energy
(kw-hr/1000 Ib)
ft2/10i
A^j j_ ra ,
AW,2 " :
AW,3
30 Ib
34.914
20.948
L9.506

75.368
1
147.8

78
61

190

96

71
203

101

69

56

73
4097
6025
7712
17834
0.457

0.017

Circulation pump energy 0.046
(kw-hr/1000 Ib)
Compression energy
(kw-hr/1000 Ib)
Water consumed
(gal/1000 Ib)

26.795

1.038

2
149.0

79
63

193

98

73
205

103

72

58

74
3856
6025
7471
17352
0.457

0.017

0.046

26.882

1.030

lb/1000
RL,l  2
RL,2 - 2
RL,3 " 3
Ib gpm/1000
98.84 RG,i - 0.
98.84 RG'2 - 0.
47.04 Rrt', - 0.

944.72
3
160.3

89
72

204

107

82
216

113

81

67

84
4097
6025
7712
17834
0.457

0.017

0.046

27.352

1.231

4
172.7

100
80

214

117

89
225

122

87

73

92
4820
6748
8435
20003
0.457

0.017

0.046

27.788

1.544


1.
5
187.7

113
89

225

129

97
235

133

94

79

102
5784
7712
9399
22895
0.457

0.017

0.046

28.293

1.914

Ib
598 S?w,l - 7471
598 Qwj2 " 7471
694 Cv/3 - 8676
f
890 23,618
6 7
198.9 203.9

123 128
96 100

234 239

138 142

103 107
243 248

142 146

99 102

84 88

109 114
6507 6748
8435 8435
10363 10604
25305 25787
0.457 0.457

0.017 0.017

0.046 0.046

28.676 28.885

2.172 2.276

Cooling Tow
KaY/L -1.4
Water/Gas P
er Characteristic
5
late in Tower
RL/RA - 1.41
8
202.7

127
99

238

141

106
246

145

101

87

113
6748
8435
10604
25787
0.457

0.017

0.046

28.832

2.252

9
195.2

120
94

231

135

101
240

139

98

83

107
6266
8194
9881
24341
0.457

0.017

0.046

28.258

2.083

10
180.2

107
85

220

123

93
230

128

90

76

97
5302
7230
9158
21690
0.457

0.017

0.046

28.049

1.745

11
164.0

92
74

206

110

84
219

116

82

68

86
4338
6266
8194
18798
0.457

0.017

0.046

27.788

1.375

12
151.5

81
64

194

99

74
206

104

73

60

75
4097
6025
7471
17593
0.457

0.017

0.046

26.952

0.997

(continued)

-------
             TABLE  A7-18.   (Akron,  Ohio)   Continued




             Design intermediate temperature T_.  160F
TO
Design ft2/1000 lb ft2/1000 lb lb/1000 lb gpm/1000 lb
AD,1 ' 13.813 Aw>1 - 39.612 RL,1 - 491.64 RO,!  0.983 Cw,l " 12,291 Cooling Tower Characteristic
AD,2 " 7.085 AW(2 = 23.767 RL/2 - 491.64 RG,2 " 0.983 Qw,2 " 12,291 KaY/L - 1.45
AD(1 - 5.718 Aw ., - 20.476 RT..-, " 539.84 RG'. , - 1.080 Qw.l - 13,496 ,.,__,,. ,.. 4  nv,.
Total: 26.616
Month
T,
1,0
T
T2 i
T
2,o
TX,2
T
3,i
T
3,o
T
X,3
T .
air
t (avg)
th (avg)
Q
Qw2
QW3
Total Q
Total air fan energy
(kw-hr/1000 lb)
Tower fan energy
(kw-hr/1000 lb)
Circulation pump energy
(kw-hr/1000 -lb)
Compression energy
(kw-hr/1000 lb)
Water consumed
(gal/1000 lb)

83.855
1
147.8
96
64
194
122
74
206

129
72
57
76
7712
11568
13737
33017
0.298

0.027

0.075

26.900

1.971


2
149.0
97
65
195
123
76
209

131
74
59
78
7712
11327
13737
32776
0.298

0.027

0.075

26.969

1.997


1523.12
3
160.3
107
76
209
135
87
223

143
85
70
89
7471
11568
13978
33017
0.298

0.027

0.075

27.509

2.360


4
172.7
119
82
216
143
92
229

151
89
74
95
8917
12291
14942
36150
0.298

0.027

0.075

27.875

2.853


3.046
5
187.7
133
91
228
155
99
238

161
96
80
104
10122
13496
15665
39283
0.298

0.027

0.075

28.362

3.281


6
198.9
143
97
235
163
104
244

168
100
85
111
11086
14219
16388
41693
0.298

0.027

0.075

28.710

3.618


38,078 RI/RA " 1'41
7
203.9
147
100
239
167
107
248

173
103
88
114
11327
14460
16870
42657
0.298

0.027

0.075

28.885

3.774


8
202.7
146 '
99
238
166
106
246

171
102
87
113
11327
14460
16629
42416
0.298

0.027

0.075

28.832

3.761


9
195.2
139
95
233
161
103
243

167
99
84
109
10604
13978
16388
40970
0.298

0.027

0.075

28.606

3.501


10
180.2
126
87
223
150
96
234

156
93
78
101
9399
13014
15183
37596
0.298

0.027

0.075

28.136

3.060


11 12
164.0 151.5
111 100
77 68
210 199
137 126
88 79
224 213

145 135
85 77
70 62
91 81
8194 7712
11809 11327
14460 13978
34463 33017
0.298 0.298

0.027 0.027

0.075 0.075

27.596 27.109

2.542 1.971

(continued)

-------
TABLE A7-18.   (Akron, Ohio)  Continued



Design intermediate temperature T   180F


           2              2
Design   ft /1000 Ib    ft /1000 Ib    lb/1000 Ib    gpm/1000 Ib
AD,1 " 8.159 Aw/1 - 43.485 RL,i - 684.44 RG/I - 1.369 >H,1
AD,2 * 4.182 AH(2 " 26.091 RL/2  684.44 RG< 2 " 1.369 Ow,2
AD'3 - 3.374 Au'|-, - 21.647 RT.'-, - 732.64 RG' i - 1.465 ft/-,
Total: 15.715
Month
T
1,0
T
T2 i
T
2,o
T
X,2
T
T
3,0
T
X,3
T ,
air
t (avg)
th (avg)
QW1
Qw2
Q
Total Q
Total air fan energy
(kw-hr/1000 Ib)
Tower fan energy
(kw-hr/1000 Ib)
Circulation pump energy
(kw-hr/1000 Ib)
Compression energy
(kw-hr/1000 Ib)
Water consumed
(gal/1000 Ib)

91.123
1 2
147.8

114
66
196
149
77
210

159

75

59
80
11569
17352
20244
49164
0.176

0.037

0.103

26.987

3.042

149.0

115
67
198
150
78
211

160

76

60
80
11568
17352
20244
49164
0.176

0.037

0.103

27.039

3.095

2101.52
3 4
160.3

126
78
211
162
89
225

172

87

70
92
11568
17593
20485
49646
0.176

0.037

0.103

27.718

3.578

172.7

138
84
219
171
94
231

179

91

75
97
13014
18557
21208
52779
0.176

0.037

0.103

27.944

4.079

4.203
5 6
187.7

152
92
229
181
100
239

189

97

81
105
14460
19521
22172
56153
0.176

0.037

0.103

28.397

4.706

198.9

162
98
236
189
105
245

195

101

86
112
15424
20244
22654
58322
0.176

0.037

0.103

28.745

5.064

- 17,111 Cooling Tower Characteristic
! - 17,111 KaY/L - 1.45
1  ' 	 Water/Gas Rate in Tower
52,538 RL/RA - 1-41
7 8 9 10 11 12
203.9

167
101
240
193
108
249

199

104

88
115
15906
20485
22895
59286
0.176

0.037

0.103

28.919

5,260

202.7

166
100
239
192
107
248

198

102

87
114
15906
20485
23136
59527
0.176

0.037

0.103

28.867

5.296

195.2

159
96
234
186
104
244

194

100

85
110
15183
19762
22654
57599
0.176

0.037

0.103

28.641

S.081

180.2 164.0

144 129
88 79
224 213
176 164
97 89
235 225

184 173

94 87

78 70
102 93
13496 12050
19039 18075
21690 20726
54225 50851
0.176 0.176

0.037 0.037

0.103 0.103

28.171 27.648

4.348 3.793

151.5

118
69
200
152
80
214

162

78

62
83
11809
17352
20244
49405
0.176

0.037

0.103

27.143

3.060

(continued)

-------
            TABLE A7-18.  (Akron, Ohio)  Continued
            Design intermediate^tempeiatura^ T   all wet
NJ
o
o
.gn ft /1000 Ib
AD/1 - 0
AD,2 " 
AD,3  
Total: 0
Month
T,
1,0
Tx,i
T2,i
T
2,o
T
X,2
T
3,i
T
3,0
T
X,3
T
air
t (avg)

th (avg)
QW1
QW2
QW3
Total Qw
il air fan energy
cw-hr/1000 Ib)
:r fan energy
cw-hr/1000 Ib)
:ulation pomp energy
cw-hr/1000 Ib)
>ression energy
cw-hr/1000 Ib)
>r consumed
ft /10
ftw,l -
AW,2 "
AW,3 
00 Ib lb/1000 Ib gpm/1000 Ib
49.178 RL(i - 1050.76 RG(1  2.102 QWJ
29.507 RL(2  1050.76 RG'2 - 2.102 Ow(-
28.308 RT. , - 1098.96 R^' , - 2.198 Qu ,

106.993
1
147.8

148
68
199

199
79

213

213

72

59

82
19280
28920
33981
82181
0

0.057

0.157

27.056

5.232
2
149.0

149
69
200

200
81

215

215

75

61

84
19280
28679
33740
81699
0

0.057

0.157

27.126

5.395


3200.48
3
160.3

160
79
213

213
91

228

228

85

71
1
94
19521
29402
34463
83386
0

0.057

0.157

27.631

6.186
4
172.7

173
85
220

220
96

234

234

88

75

100
21208
29884
35186
86278
0

0.057

0.157

27.997

6.840


6.402
5
187.7

188
93
230

230
101

240

240

93

81

107
22895
31089
35427
89411
0

0.057

0.157

28.432

7.493
6
198.9

199
98
236

236
105

245

245

96

85

112
24341
31571
35909
91821
0

0.057

0.157

28.745

7.957
 26,269 Cooling Tower Characteristic
1 - 26,269 KaY/L - 1.45
, - 27,474 Water/Gas Rate in Tower
80,012 RL/RA ' i-41
7
203.9

204
101
240

240
108

249

249

98

88

115
24823
31812
36391
93026
0

0.057

0.157

28.919

8.801
8
202.7

203
100
239

239
107

248

248

97

87

114
24823
31812
36391
93026
0

0.057

0.157

28.867

8.311
9
195.2

195
97
235

235
104

244

244

95

85

110
23618
31571
35909
91098
0

0.057

0.157

28.658

7.820
10
180.2

180
89
225

225
99

238

238

90

78

103
21931
30607
35668
88206
0

0.057

0.157

28.223

7.221
11
164.0

164
80
214

214
91

228

228

85

71

95
20244
29643
34463
84350
0

0.057

0.157

27.701

6.376
12
151.5

152
71
203

203
83

218

218

77

63

86
19521
28920
33981
82422
0

0.057

0.157

27.231

5.177
              (gal/1000 Ib)

-------
    TABLE A7-19.   SUMMARY OF  WET/DRY  COMPRESSOR INTERSTAGE COOLING FOR AIR COMPRESSOR
Fannlngton, New Mexico
Basis: 1000 Ib air compress ed/hx
Design intermediate temperature, "F
Dry cooler area, ft /1000 Ib/hr
Wat cooler area, ft2/1000 Ib/hr
Circulation rate, gpm/1000 Ib/hr
Avg . fan  pujnp energy, kw-hr/1000 Ib
Compression energy, kw-hr/1000 Ib
Water consumed, gal/1000 Ib
M
O
1  i
Casper
Basis: 1000 Ib/air compressed/hr
Design intermediate temperature, "F
Dry cooler area, ft /1000 Ib
Wet cooler area, ft /1000 Ib
Circulation rate, gpn/1000 Ib/hr
Avg. fan  pump energy, kw-hr/1000 Ib
Compression energy, kw-hr/1000 Ib
Water consumed, gal/1000 Ib

140
58.480
75.368
1.890
0.704
27.618
0.851

, Wyoming

140
54 .052
75.368
1. 890
0.658
27.503
0.868

160
40.059
83.853
3.046
0.551
27.796
1.929



160
39.323
83.855
3.046
0.542
27.640
1.779

180
26.819
91.123
4.203
0.440
27.889
3.097



180
23.577
91.123
4.203
0.404
27.839
3.275

all wet
0
106.560
7.443
0.249
28.132
7.215



all wet
0
106.107
7.326
0.245
27.991
6.965
                                                                                     Charlestonj__West Virginia
Basis: 1000 Ib air compressed/hr
Design intermediate temperature, F
Dry cooler area, ft /1000 Ib/hr
2
Wet cooler area, ft /1000 Ib/hr
Circulation rate, gpm/1000 Ib/hr
Avg. fan & pump energy, kw-hr/1000 lt>
Compression energy, kw-hr/1000 Ib
Water consumed, gal/1000 Ib
AJcron
Basis: 1000 Ib air compressed/hr
Design intermediate temperature, F
Dry cooler area, ft /1000 Ib/hr
2
Wet cooler area, ft /1000 Ib/hr
Circulation rate, gpm/1000 Lb/hr
Avg. fan & pump energy, kw-hr/1000 Ib
Compression energy, kw-hr/1000 Ib
Water consumed, gal/1000 Ib

140
44.596

75.368
1.890
0.562
28.076
1.625
, Ohio

140
40.848

75.368
1.890
0.520
27.879
1.638

160
29.462

83.855
3.046
0.432
28.162
2.902


160
26.616

83.855
3.046
0.400
27.957
2.891

180 all wet
18.049 0

91.123 108.278
4.203 6.690
0.342 0.225
28.229 28.278
4.242 7.309


180 all wet
15.715 0

91.123 106.993
4.203 6.402
0.316 0.214
28.018 28.049
4.200 6.651

-------
TABLE A7-20.   ANNUAL AVERAGE  COST FOR WET/DRY COMPRESSOR  INTERSTAGE



                       COOLING  FOR AIR COMPRSSOR
                           Farmington. New Mexico
Basis: 1000 Ib air compressed/hr
Design intermediate temperature, F
Dry cooler cost, 4/1000 Ib
Wet cooler cost, 4/1000 Ib
Tower cost, 4/1000 Ib
Fan and pump energy, 4/1000 Ib
Compression energy cost, 4/1000 Ib
Total, 4/1000 Ib compressed
Water consumed, gal/1000 Ib
Casper ,
Basis: 1000 Ib air compressed/hr
Design intermediate temperature, "F
Dry cooler cost, 4/1000 Ib
Wet cooler cost, 4/1000 Ib
Tower cost, 4/1000 Ib
Fan and pump energy, 4/1000 Ib
Compression energy cost, 4/1000 Ib
Total, 4/1000 Ib compressed
Water consumed, gal/1000 Ib
Charleston ,
Basis: 1000 Ib air compressed/hr
Design intermediate temperature, F
Dry cooler cost, 4/1000 Ib
Wet cooler cost, 4/1000 Ib
Tower cost, 4/1000 Ib
Fan and pump energy, 4/1000 Ib
Compression energy cost, 4/1000 Ib
Total, 4/1000 Ib compressed
Water consumed, gal/1000 Ib
Akron
Basis: 1000 Ib air compressed/hr
Design intermediate temperature, *F
Dry cooler cost, 4/1000 Ib
Wet cooler cost, 4/1000 Ib
Tower cost, 4/1000 Ib
Fan and pump energy, 4/1000 Ib
Compression energy cost, 4/1000 Ib
Total, 4/1000 Ib compressed
Water consumed, gal/1000 Ib

140
3.123
2.367
0.081
1.408
58.164
65.142
0.851
, Wyoming

140
2.886
2.367
0.081
1.316
57.921
64.571
0.86B

160
2.139
2.633
0.131
1.102
58.538
64.543
1.929


160
2.100
2.633
0.131
1.084
58.210
64.157
1.779

180
1.432
2.861
0.180
0.88
58.734
64.088
3.097


180
1.259
2.861
0.180
0.808
58.629
63.738
3.275

all wet
0
3.346
0.319
0.498
59.246
63.409
7.215


all wet
0
3.332
0.314
0.490
58.949
63.085
6.965
West Virginia

140
2.381
2.367
0.081
1.124
59.128
65.081
1.625
, Ohio

140
2.181
2.367
0.081
1.040
58.713
64.382
1.638

160
1.573
2.633
0.131
0.864
59.309
64.510
2.902


160
1.421
2.633
0.131
0.800
58.877
63.'862
2.891

180
0.964
2.861
0.180
0.684
59.450
64.140
4.242


180
0.839
2.861
0. 180
0.632
59.006
63.519
4.200

all wet
0
3.400
0.287
0.450
59.553
63.690
7.309


all wet
0
3.349
0.275
0.428
59.071
63. 123
6.651
                                    202

-------
                                   APPENDIX 8
               BOILERS,  ASH DISPOSAL AND FLUE GAS DESULFURIZATION
     In the four SNG processes, coal or char is burnt to raise steam in a
boiler.  The furnaces are assumed to be dry bottomed pulverized coal type
with 80 percent of the ash as fly ash and 20 percent as bottom ash.  As
occurs in some 65 percent of the power generating stations today, fly ash is
assumed to be handled dry; that is, water is added to wet the ash equal to 10
percent of the ash weight.  Furnace bottom ash is assumed sluiced  (as it
usually must be)  with recycled sluice water.  The thickened ash slurry
removed is 35 percent water.  All ash from all gasifiers is assumed handled
with the bottom ash.   The water evaporated to quench gasifier ash is included
in the wet cooling load of the various processes.  The heat from quenching
furnace bottom ash is normally lost by convection from the ash bins.  The
evaporation load is small and ignored, as is any evaporation caused by radi-
ant heat transfer through the furnace ash throat to the bottom ash collection
hopper.
     Where a solid fuel (coal or char) boiler is used, flue gas desulfuri-
zation by a wet lime/limestone scrub is used.  The water consumed in this
scrubber is calculated from the equations :

Ib makeup water evaporated per Ib coal or char fired

                                    = 12'8(lf + if*  + 10-5(f - 3} - W- 9h

              Ib water in sludge per Ib coal or char fired = 13.8s

                 Ib wet sludge per Ib coal or char fired = 19.7s
                                        203

-------
where c, s, h, x and w are the weight fractions of carbon, sulfur, hydrogen,

oxygen and water in the fuel as fired.  The wet sludge is 30 percent solids

and 70 percent water.

     The various sludge and ash numbers have been calculated for each

site/process on the worksheets in Appendix 10.


REFERENCE, APPENDIX 8
 1.  Goldstein,  D.J.  and Yung,  D.,  Water Purification Associates, "Water
     Conservation and Pollution Control in Coal Conversion Processes,"
     U.S.  Environmental Protection  Agency, Report EPA-600/7-77, June 1977.
                                       204

-------
                                  APPENDIX 9
                            ADDITIONAL WATER NEEDS
     Needs for water not defined in the preceding appendices on process
water,  ash disposal and flue gas desulfurization, and on cooling are:
                         Dust control
                         Sanitary, potable and service water
                         Evaporation from storage ponds
                         Revegetation

DUST CONTROL
     Water sprayed for dust control in the mine, on the road from the mine
to the  plant,  and in the plant depends on the rate of handling of coal and
on the  length  of the mine roads.  Considered first is dust control on the
mine roads.
     The length of unpaved haul roads and mine bench areas depends on the
mine productivity as measured by the amount of coal recoverable per unit
area of stripped land.   In the present study the following mine yields are
used:

                         Location            10  Ib/acres
                   Beulah, North Dakota         50,000
                   Gillette, Wyoming '         180,000
                                     4
                   Navajo, New Mexico           74,000
                   Colstrip, Montana            80,000
                                       205

-------
For want of other information, these yields are taken to be representative
of all mines in the state.  In the assumed mine model, the mining of
100 acres per year would require 2 miles of 45 ft wide unpaved haul roads
to serve as spurs to conveyor belts that would feed the coal to the plant.
Such a belt line operation is described in Reference 1.  The bench area
acreage that would have to be wetted down is approximately equal to four
times the daily acreage that is mined.  The sum of the two unpaved areas
determines the area where dust control must be practiced.  This area is
5,320 ft /(acre mined/yr).
     The simplest means of holding down fugitive dust is to wet down the
mine area and haul roads.  It is assumed that the roads and mine area can be
kept in a wetted condition through an annual deposition of water equal to
the net annual evaporation rate.  Any rainfall is taken to be an additional
safety factor.  The annual pond evaporation rates for the areas examined
are:

                         Location          inches/year
                   Beulah, North Dakota         45
                   Gillette, Wyoming            54
                   Navajo, New Mexico           61
                   Colstrip, Montana            49

     The lay-down rate can be calculated from the relation:

               lay-down rate = disturbed area x evaporation rate

That is,  for 10  Ib coal mined:

lay-down rate, Ib = (10  Ib coal)  x (acres mined/103 Ib coal)
              x (5230 ft  wetted/(acre mined/yr)  )  x (1 ft/12 inches)
              x (wetting rate,  inches/yr)  x (62.4 Ib water/ft
                                                             3,
                                       206

-------
This equation gives:
                Location
          Beulah, North Dakota
          Gillette, Wyoming
          Navajo, New Mexico
          Colstrip, Montana
Water for Road, Mine &
Embankment Dust Control
(Ib water/10  Ib coal)
         24.5
          8.2
         22.4
         16.7
     For most of the processes the coal mining rate  is  equal  to  the  coal
utilization rate, as given in the various process description sections.
However, because the Lurgi gasifiers cannot accept fines,  the coal mining
rate for Lurgi is equal to 1.2 times the utilization rate.  The  fines  are
assumed to be sold.
     East of the Mississippi, dust control of this type  is assumed not to be
required.  However,- when the coal is mined underground  a variable amount of
water is consumed in the mine.  An average value of  50  Ib water/10   Ib coal
is used in this study.  Water sprayed for dust control  underground is  taken
to be of a better quality than water sprayed for dust control above  ground
because of the confined area and the possible harm to people.
     In addition to the water sprayed on roads, water must be sprayed on the
coal itself.  In all coal preparation plants, dust is generated  in the
stages of loading and unloading, breaking, conveying, crushing,  general
screening and storage.  The water required to hold down  this  dust will be
considered next.
     The ways of preventing dust from becoming airborne  are through  the
application of water sprays or of nontoxic chemicals and the  use of  dry or
wet dust collectors with partial or total enclosure.  It is assumed  that the
principal dust generating sources will be enclosed and  that,  where feasible,
air will be circulated and dry bag dust collection employed.   Whenever coal
pulverization is necessary, it will be done under conditions  of  total  enclos-
ure with no fugitive dust or hold-down water requirements.  In inactive
storage the use of water for holding down dust can be minimized  by the use of
nontoxic chemicals.
                                       207

-------
     Despite the design precautions indicated, in large-scale plants with
many transfer points, transfer belts, surge bins, storage silos and active
storage sites, it is necessary to employ water sprays to wet down the  coal.
This is also generally necessary with breaking and primary crushing operations
                                              4
An examination of the Wesco Lurgi plant design  and the TOSCO oil shale plant
of coal handled and crushed is a reasonably conservative estimate.  This
applies to the mine area.
     Within the boundaries of any of the plants, water will also be needed
for dust control.  Somewhat less water would be required in the plants than
in the mines, since many of the operations tend to be enclosed.  On this
basis a good assumption is a consumptive use of one-half that applicable to
the mine areas, specifically, !_ Ib of water for every 100 Ibs of coal
handled and transferred.  This is a little less water than that deduced from
the data of Reference 3.
     The total water for dust control is shown on Table A9-1.

SANITARY, POTABLE AND SERVICE WATER
     This requirement depends on the number of people employed in the mine
and plant.  The number of people employed differs from site to site and
process to process, but the variations are, in fact, small so a single number
will suffice for all process/site combinations.  About 650 people are
employed in the plants and about 270 more in the mines ' ' ' ' .  Each
person uses about 32 gal/man-shift.   The total consumption of sanitary and
potable water is therefore:

920 people x 32 gal/man-shift x 5 shifts/week x 1 week/168 hrs
                                           x 8.33 Ib/gal = 7300 Ib/hr

This is all recovered as sewage.
     The service water usage in the  mine and plant such as for equipment
washing, maintenance,  pump seals, etc., along with the fire water usage
through evaporation loss, is a difficult quantity to estimate.  However, an
analysis of a number of mine designs indicates that this usage is essentially
nonrecoverable and can be related to the usage of sanitary and potable water.
                                       208

-------
     The estimated ratio for service to sanitary usage for a proposed
10 x 10  ton/yr surface mine near Gillette, Wyoming is about 1.6 .  This
                                                         P
same figure for the proposed Kaiparowits underground mine  is about 1.3,
based on estimated sanitary water usage.  The two values are sufficiently
close that the average service water usage for the mine has been taken to be
1.5 times the sanitary water usage.  Moreover, all of the water is taken to
be consumed, since recovery in the mine work areas would prove quite difficult
In the plant the service water requirement is probably higher and is taken
to be two times the sanitary and potable needs with about 65 percent recovered
as sewage.
     The total water requirements are shown on Table A9-1.

RE VEGETATION
     As part of any reclamation of mined land in arid and semi-arid regions,
there exists a potential requirement for supplemental irrigation water
associated with the establishment of soil stabilizing plant cover on mine
spoils.  It is concluded that coal mined areas with greater than 10 inches
of mean annual precipitation can be reclaimed without supplemental irriga-
    9
tion .  Where there is less than 10 inches of annual rainfall, partially
reshaped coal mine spoils can be successfully revegetated with supplemental
irrigation of about 10 inches during the first growing season, with no
further requirement during subsequent growing seasons  .  Only at the Navajo,
New Mexico site is irrigation for revegetation required.  The water require-
ment can be calculated from the following formula:

  Revegetation water, Ib/hr = (Ib coal/hr) x  (acres mined/74 x 10  Ib coal)
                                                              2
                              x  (10 inches water) x (43,560 ft /acre)
                              x  (1 ft/12 inches) x  (62.4 lb/ft3)
Revegetation water in New Mexico is:
                           30.6 Ib water/103 Ib coal
                                       209

-------
EVAPORATION
     All plants require a reservoir from which evaporation will occur.  Net
evaporation rates (pond evaporation minus precipitation) are:

                                       Net Evaporation
                                         (inches/hr)
                      North Dakota            30
                      Wyoming                 40
                      New Mexico              53
                      Montana                 35

East of the Mississippi, precipitation usually exceeds evaporation.
     The rate of loss of water by evaporation in Ib/hr is:

             (reservoir capacity, in )    (evaporation rate, in/yr)
                                       x         3
                reservoir depth, in      (27.7 in /lb)(8550 hr/yr)

Take the reservoir depth to be 30 ft = 360 inches and the reservoir capacity
to be about 2 weeks, or 4 percent of the annual water consumption.  If Q is
the water consumption in Ib/hr, the reservoir capacity is:

                (0.04 x Q x 8550) lb x 27.7 in3/lb = 9473 Q in3

The evaporation rate is:

                  0.000111 Q (evaporation rate, in/yr) Ib/hr

     Evaporation rates are also entered on Table A9-1.

REFERENCES,  APPENDIX 9

 1.   Wyoming Coal Gas Co.  and Rochelle  Coal Co., "Applicant's Environmental
     Assessment for  a Proposed Gasification Project in Campbell and Converse
     Counties,  Wyoming," prepared by SERNCO,  October 1974.
                                       210

-------
 2.   Geological Survey, "Proposed Plan of Mining and ReclamationCordero
     Mine,  Sun Oil Co., Coal Lease W-8385, Campbell County,  Wyoming," Final
     Environmental Statement No.  76-22, U.S.  Dept.  of the Interior, April 30,
     1976.

 3.   North  Dakota Gasification Project for ANG Coal Gasification Co.,
     "Environmental Impact Report in Connection with Joint Application of
     Michigan Wisconsin Pipe Line Co.  and ANG Coal  Gasification Co. for a
     Certificate of Public Convenience and Necessity, Woodward-Clyde
     Consultants," Fed. Power Commission Docket No. CP75-278,  Vol. Ill,
     March  1975.

 4.   Batelle  Columbus  Laboratories,  "Detailed Environmental Analysis Concern-
     ing a  Proposed Gasification  Plant for Transwestern Coal Gasification Co.
     Pacific  Coal Gasification Co.,  Western Gasification and the Expansion
     of a Strip Mine Operation near  Burnham,  New Mexico, Owned and Operated
     by Utah  International Inc.," Fed.  Power  Commission, February 1, 1973.

 5.   Gold,  H.,  et al,  "Water Requirements for Steam-Electric Power Generation
     and Synthetic Fuel Plants in the  Western United States,"  EPA Report
     600/7-77-037, February 1977.

 6.   Colony Development Operation,  "An Environmental Impact  Analysis for a
     Shale  Oil  Complex at  Parachute  Creek, Colorado,  Part 1Plant Complex
     and Service  Corridor," Atlantic Richfield Co., Denver,  Colo., 1974.

 7.   Atlantic Richfield Co.,  "Preliminary Environmental Impact Assessment
     for the Proposed  Black Thunder  Coal Mine,  Campbell County,  Wyoming"  and
     "Revised Mining and Reclamation Plan for the Proposed Black Thunder
     Coal Mine,"  1974;  also,  "Black  Thunder Mine, 10 Million Ton Per Year
     Water  Supply" (personal communication, Hugh W. Evans),  Denver,  Colo.,
     March  6, 1975.

 8.   Bureau of  Land Management, "Final Environmental Impact  Statement Pro-
     posed  Kaiparowits  Project,"  Chapter I, FES-76-12,  U.S.  Dept.  of the
     Interior,  March 3, 1976.

 9.   National Academy  of Sciences, Rehabilitation Potential  of Western Coal
     Lands, pp.  32-33,  Ballinger  Publishing,  Cambridge,  Mass.,  1974.

10.   Aldon, F.E.,  "Techniques  for Establishing Native Plants on Coal Mine
     Spoils in  New Mexico," in Proc. Third Symposium on Surface Mining and
     Reclamation,  Vol.  I,  pp.  28-28, National Coal  Assoc., Washington,
     D.C.,  1975.
                                       211

-------
Dust Control:
                        TABLE A9-1.   OTHER WATER NEEDS
                                                Water Required
                        Sites                 Ib/lb Coal Handled*
               North Dakota                         0.055
               Wyoming                              0.038
               New Mexico                           0.052
               Montana                              0.047
               East & Central:
                    Surface Mining                  0.03
                    Underground Mining              0.08
Service, Sanitary and Potable Water:
                               Water Required    Sewage Recovered
              Sites              103 Ib/hr          1Q3 Ib/hr
      All sites, all plants         21                  14

Revegetation Water:

                                            Water Required
                        Sites            Ib/lb Coal Handled*
                   New Mexico only              0.0306

Evaporation:
                                              Evaporation Losses as
                       Sites                   % of Water Consumed
               North Dakota                          0.33
               Wyoming                               0.44
               New Mexico                            0.59
               Montana                               0.39
               Eastern S Central States              0.0
*For Lurgi plants,  coal  handled equals 1.2 times coal consumed.
                                       212

-------
                                   APPENDIX 10
      WORK SHEETS FOR NET WATER CONSUMED AND WET SOLID RESIDUALS GENERATED

     A three-page work sheet is presented for each plant/site combination.
On the first page is listed the coal quantities from the process appendix
and flue gas desulfurization information (where needed) as well as water for
ash handling from Appendix 8.   On the second page the water and water streams
are listed;  process water streams from the process appendix, other streams
from Appendix 9,  and the grand total raw water input and treatment sludges
from Appendix 11.  On the third page the conversion efficiency, heat loss
and the water evaported for cooling are given, calculated from the information
in the process appendices and Appendix 7.  The work sheets are enclosed in the
following order:
                              Solvent Refined Coal
                              Synthoil
                              Hygas
                              Bigas
                              Synthane
                              Lurgi
For each process  a cover sheet is given showing where each of the quantities
found in the work sheet comes from.
                                        213

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                                                                                    WORK SHEET I   WATER QUANTITY CALCULATIONS FOR
                                                                                                    SRC PROCESS
                                                                                                              PRODUCT  SIZE:    10,000  ton/day
                                                                                                              ENERGY:          Table AJL-7,  Stream 3
SOLVENT REFINED COAL
                                                                     Coal Analysis  (wt % as-received)
                                                                                          Moisture
                                                                                             C
                                                                                             H
                                                                                             O
                                                                                             N
                                                                                             S
                                                                                             Ash

                                                                                          HHV Calculated
                                                                                             (103 Btu/lb)
                                                                     COAL FEED
                                                                       to dissolver:
            Tables  3-18,3-19
100
                                                                                       Table Al-3
                                                                                       Table Al-7, Stream  5
     to gasifier:  Table Al-4, Stream  17
                   Table Al-8, Stream  17
                                                                     ASH HANDLING
                                                                                          Bottom ash:   dry
                                                                                                       water
                                                                                                       sludge
                                                                                          Fly ash:  dry
                                                                                                    water
                                                                                                    sludge
          Appendix 8
                                                                                                                                        (continued)

-------
                               (continued)
                                                                                                                                   (continued)
 PROCESS  WATER
 a.   Steam and boiler feed water required      Table Al-4,  Stream 11 s 14 + 10,000 Ib/hr

 b.   Dirty condensate from dissolving section  Table Al-3,  Stream 5 + 10,000 Ib/hr

 c.  .Medium quality condensate from gasifier   Table Al-4,  Stream 13

 d.   Medium quality condensate after shift     Table Al-4,  Stream 15
                                                Energy Totals
                                                           Feed
                                                           Product  and byproduct
                                                           Unrecovered heat
                                                    10   Btu/hr
                                                   Table Al-10
                                                   Table Al-10  (Total output energy)

                                                   Table Al-10
 OTHER WATER NEEDS
                                                                                                              Conversion  efficiency
                                                                                                                                                       Table Al-10
 a =   Dust  control
 b.   Service,,  sanitary & potable water:

           Required

           Sewage recovered

 c.   Ravegetation water

 d.   Evaporation from storage ponds

     GRAND TOTAL RAW WATER INPUT TO PLANTi
TREATMENT SLUDGES
a.  Lime softening

b.  Jon exchange
c.  BiotreatiDent
Appendix 9
Appendix 11
                                                        10   Ib/hr
                                                    solids      water   sludge
                                                Disposition  of  Unrecovered Heaji
     Appendix 11
Direct loss

Designed dry

Designed wet

Acid gas removal
  regenerator condenser
Total turbine condensers

Total gas compressor
  interstage cooling
                                                                             10  Btu/hr_   % wet^
                                                                             Table Al-11
                                                                             Table Al-11
                                                                             Table Al-11
                                                                                                                                 Table Al-11
                                                                                                                                 Table Al-11
                                                                                                                                 Table Al-11
                                                                                                                                 Table Al-11
                                                                  10  Ib water
                                                   Btu/lb evap     evap/hr  	

-------
                       WORK SHEET:   WATER QUANTITY  CALCULATIONS  FOR
                                       SRC PROCESS
                                                                         Marengo, Alabama
                                                                                                      (continued)
cn
SITE:  Marengo,  Alabama
       Ground water 6  Surface water

Coal Analysis (wt  as-received)
                    Moisture
                       C
                       H
                       O
                       N
                       S
                       Ash

                    HHV Calculated
                       (103 Btu/lb)
                                                 PRODUCT SIZE:   10,000 ton/day
                                                                   9
                                                 ENERGY: 12.92 X 10  Btu/hr
                                                48.7
                                                32.1
                                                0.6
                                                 100
                                                 5.34
        COAL FEED
          to dissolver:
        FGD WATER
                            3231    10   Ib/hr
                            17.3    109  Btu/hr
          Vaporized
          With sludge
             TOTAL:
          FGD sludge produced, wet
        ASH HANDLING
-0.11   Ib/lb coal
 0.25   Lb/Ib coal
                          to gasifier:
                                          500
                                          2.67
                            Bottom ash:  dry
                                         water
                                         sludge
                            Fly ash:  dry
                                      water
                                      sludge
                                                                   _10  Ib/hr
                                                                      9
                                                                    10  Btu/hr
_10  Ib/hr
 103 Ib/hr
                                                 10  Ib/hr
                                                 103 Ib/hr
                                                                       PROCESS WATER

                                                                       a.  Steam and boiler feed water required
                                                                       b.  Dirty condensate from dissolving  section
                                                                       c.  Medium quality condensate from gasifier
                                                                       d.  Medium quality condensate after shift
                       OTHER WATER NEEDS

                       a.  Dust control
                       b.  Service, sanitary c potable water:
                                 Required
                                 Sewage recovered
                       c.  Revegetation water
                       d.  Evaporation from storage ponds
                            GRAND TOTAL RAW WATER INPUT TO PLANT:
                                                                                                                                                       153
                                                                                                                                                       112
                                                                                                                                                     1,354
                       TREATMENT SLUDGES    ( Note:  Ground water and  Surface  water are the same)
                                                                               103  Ib/hr
                                                                           solids       water t, sludge
                                                                            0.3             1.7
                                                                       a.  Lime softening
                                                                       b.  Ion exchange
                                                                       c.  Biotreatment
                                                                                                                                                                       27
                                                                                                                                                                     (continued)

-------
Harengo, Alabama    SRC
                             (continued)
                                                                                                     WORK SHEET:  WATER QUANTITY CALCULATIONS FOR
                                                                                                                     SRC PROCESS
En e r gy_JTp ta_ls_

          Feed
          Product  and  byproduct
          Unrecovered  heat

          Conversion efficiency

Disposition of Unrecovered  Heat

                            r9
Direct loss
Designed dry
Designed wet
Acid gas removal
  regenerator condenser
Total turbine condensers
Total gas compressor
  interstage cooling
                                                 10   Btu/hr
                                                   19.9
                                                  59.4  %
                                       % wet    Btu/lb  evap
                                          0        1,310
                                                   1,310
                                                   1,310
                                                   1,310
                                                   1,310
                                                               10  Ib water
                                                                 evap/hr
                                                                     786
                                                                    1,303
                                                                                       SITE:  Bureau,  Illinois
                                                                                         Coal Analysis  (wt % as-received)
                                                                                                             Moisture
                                                                                                                C
                                                                                                                H
                                                                                                                O
                                                                                                                N
                                                                                                                s
                                                                                                                Ash
                                                                                                                               PRODUCT SIZE:  10,000 ton/day
                                                                                                                               ENERGY:  13.16 X 1Q9 Btu/hr
                                                                                                                                7.4
                                                                                                             HHV Calculated
                                                                                                                (103 Btu/lb)
COAL FEED

to dissolver: 1,725 J03 lb/hr
FGD WATER
Vaporized
With sludge
TOTAL:
FGD sludge
ASH HANDLING

18.6 109 Btu/hr
-56 Ib/lb coal
O-40 Ib/lb coal
produced, wet
Bottom ash: dry
water
sludge
Fly ash: dry
water
sludge
to gasifier:





103 lb/hr
129
69.4
198
0
0
0
77 - 103 lb/hr
-B3 109 Btu/hr
0 103 lb/hr
0 103 lb/hr
0 103 lb/hr
0 103 lb/hr

                                                                                                                                                         (continued)

-------
       Bureau, Illinois
                                      (continued)
                                                                                                    Bureau, Illinois   SRC
                                                                                                                                  (continued)
       PROCESS WATER
       a.   Steam and boiler feed water  required
       b.   Dirty condensote from dissolving  section
       c.   hedium quality condensate from gasifier
       d.   Medium quality condensate after shift
                                                      81
                                                      85
                                                                                            Energy Totals
          Feed
          Product and byproduct
          Unrecovered heat
                                                                                                                                               10   BtuAir
                                                                                                                                                      15.0
to
M
CO
OTHER HATER NEEDS

a,   Dust control
b.   Service, sanitary & potable water:
          Required
          Sewage recovered
c.   Revegetation water
d.   Evaporation from storage ponds
     GRAND TOTAL RAW WATER INPUT TO PLANT:
       TREATMENT SLUDGES
       a.   Lime softening
       b.   Ion exchange
       c,   Biotreatment
                                                          1,747
                                                              10  Ib/hr
                                                          solids      water  &  sludge
                                                            1.5              7.0
                                                                    17
                                                                                                             Conversion efficiency
Disposition of Unrecovered Heat
Direct loss
Designed dry
Designed wet
Acid gas removal
  regenerator condenser
Total turbine condensers
Total gas compressor
  interstage cooling
                                                                                                                               10  Btu/hr   % wet
                                                                                                                                  1.86         0
                                                                                                                                  0.27
                                                                                                                                             100
                                                                                                                                               10
                                                                                                                                              100
Btu/lb evap
  1,390
  1,390
                                                                                                                                                        1,390
                                                                                                                                                        1,390
                                                                                                                                                        1,390
                                                                                                                                                        1,390
                                                                                                                                                                    10  Ib water
                                                                                                                                                                         612
                                                                                                                                                                       1,404

-------
              WORK SHEET:   WATER QUANTITY CALCULATIONS FOR
                               SRC PROCESS
                                                                                            White,  Illinois   SRC
                                                                                                                          {continued}
SITE:  White, Illinois
Coal Analysis  (wt ^ as-received)
                    Moisture
                       C
                       H
                       O
                       N
                       S
                       Ash
COAL FEED
  to dissolver:
                    HHV Calculated
                        (103  Btu/Lb)
                   1,557   10   Ib/hr
                    18.8   10   Btu/hr
FGD WATER
  Vaporized
  With sludge
     TOTAL:
  FGD sludge produced, wet
ASH HANDLING
                                         PRODUCT SIZE:  10,000  ton/day
                                                            9
                                         ENERGY:  13.16  X  10 Btu/hr
                                         7.1
                                              to gasifier:
                     0.73   lb/lb coal
                     0. 39   lb/lb coal
                                                               16.0   10 J Ib/hr
                                                               0.19  IO9 Btu/hr
                                                                    _10  Ib/hr
                                                                     IO3 Ib/hr
                                                                    _10  Ib/hr
                                                                     IO3 Ib/hr
                    Bottom  ash:   dry
                                  water
                                  sludge
                    Fly ash:  dry
                              water
                              sludge
                                                   10  Ib/hr
                                                     142
                                                                                           PROCESS WATER

                                                                                           a.  Steam and boiler  feed water required
                                                                                           b.  Dirty condensate  from dissolving section
                                                                                           c.  Medium quality  condensate  from gasifier
                                                                                           d.  Medium quality  condensate  after shift
                                                                                           OTHER HATER NEEDS

                                                                                           a.  Dust control
                                                                                           b.  Service, sanitary  C. potable  water:
                                                                                                     Required
                                                                                                     Sewage recovered
                                                                                           c.  Revegetation water
                                                                                           d.  Evaporation from storage  ponds
                                                                                                GRAND TOTAL RAW WATER  INPUT TO PLANT:
                                                                                           TREATMENT SLUDGES
                                                                                             Lime softening
                                                                                           b.  Ion exchange
                                                                                           c.  Biotreatraent
                                                                                                                                              10  Ib/hr
                                                                                                                                                 228
                                                                                                                                              10  Ib/hr
                                                                                                                                                 126
                                                                                                                                               1,617
                                                                                                                                                              (continued)

-------
          white,  Illinois    SRC
                                        (continued)
                                                                                                                WORK SHEET:  WATER QUANTITY CALCULATIONS  FOR
                                                                                                                                SRC PROCESS
M
NJ
O
          Energy  Totals

                    Feed
                    Product  and  byproduct
                    Unrecovered  heat

                    Conversion efficiency

          Disposition  of  Unrecovered Heat
                                                   10  Btu/hi
                                                    19.Q
                                                    15.6
Direct loss
Designed dry
Designed wet
Acid gas removal
  regenerator condenser
Total turbine condensers
Total gas compressor
  interstage cooling
                            10  Btu/hr   * wet
                               1.49         0
                                         0.62
                                         0.24
                                       .  0.69
                                         0.21
100
                                                    100
Btu/lb evap
  1,370
  1,370
                                                              1,370
          1,370
          1,370
                                                              1,370
                                                                          10  Ib water
                                                                            evap/hr
                                                                                 453
                                                                                 175
                            ,504
                                                                                 153
                                                                               1,265
                                                                                                  SITE:  Fulton, Illinois
                                               Coal Analysis  (wt  *  as-received)
                                                                   Moisture
                                                                      C
                                                                      H
                                                                      O
                                                                      N
                                                                      S
                                                                      Ash

                                                                   HHV Calculated
                                              COAL FEED
                                                                                                                                 PRODUCT SIZE:  10,000  ton/day
                                                                                                                                                    9
                                                                                                                                 ENERGY:  13.16  x  10  Btu/hr
                                                                                                                                  3.1
                                                                                                                          (10  Etu/lb)    	10.65
                                                 to  dissolver:     I-76*1   1Q3  Ib/hr          to gasifier:     60-  1Q3  Ib/hr
                                                                                                                       1S-B   10  Btu/hr
FGD WATER
  Vaporized          -56
  With sludge        -49
     TOTAL:
  FGD sludge produced, wet
ASH HANDLING
                                                                        coal
                                                                        coal
__6_i_10  Btu/hr

_5	10 3 It/hr
       .3
                                                                                                                                                                       10
                                                                                                                                                                  0	10  Ib/hr
                                                                                                                                                                  0    10  Ib/hr
                                                                                                                      Bottom  ash:   dry
                                                                                                                                    water
                                                                                                                                    sludge
                                                                                                                      Fly  ash:  dry
                                                                                                                                water
                                                                                                                                sludge
                                                                                                                                               98.2
                                                                                                                                              261
                                                                                                                                                                    (continued)

-------
          Fulton, Illinois   SRC
                                        (continued)
                                                                                                   Fulton,  Illinois    SRC
                                                                                                                                 (continued)
         PROCESS WATER
         a.  Steam and boiler feed water  required
         b.  Dirty condensate from dissolving  section
         c.  Medium quality condensate  from gasifier
         d.  Medium quality condensate  after shift
                                                                                                 Energy Totals
                                                                                                  Feed
                                                                                                  Product  and  byproduct
                                                                                                  Unrecovered  heat
                                                                                                                                           10" Btu/hr
                                                                                                                                             19. 4
NJ
ro
OTHER WATER KEEPS

a.   Dust control
b.   Service, sanitary  potaile water:
          Required
          Sewage recovered
c.   Revegstation water
d.   Evaporation from storage ponds
     GRAND TOTAL RAW WATER INPUT TO PLANT:
         TREATMENT SLUDGES
                                                                                                           Conversion  efficiency
                                                                                                 Disposition of Unrecovered  Heat
Direct loss
Designed dry
Designed wet
Acid gas removal
  regenerator condenser
Total turbine condensers
Total gas compressor
  interstage cooling
                                                                                                                              10  Btu/hr   % wet    Btu/Ib evap
                                                                                                                                 1.B9         0       1,390
                                                                                                                                 0.25
                                                                                                                                 0.85
                                                                                                                                 0. 28
                                                                                                                                 0.80
                                                                                                                                 0. 25
                                                                                                                                            100
1,390
1,390
                                                                                                                                             1,390
                                                                                                                                             1,390
                                                                                                                                                      1,390
                                                                  10  Lb water
                                                                    evap/hr
         a.   Lame softening
         b.   Ion exchange
         c.   Biotreatment
         d.   Electrodialysis

-------
                         WORK SHEET:  WATER QUANTITY CALCULATIONS FOR

                                         SRC PROCESS
 Saline, Illinois   SRC
                               (continued)
           SITE:   Saline,  Illinois
                                                   PRODUCT SIZE:  10,000 ton/day
to
to
to
9
ENERGY: 13.16 X 10 Btu/nr
Coal Analysis (wt \ as-received)
Moisture 6.8
C 67.9
H 4.5
0 6.8
N 1.4
S 3.1
Ash 9.5
100
HHV Calculated
(103 Btu/lb) 12.26
COAL FEED
to dissolver: 1,527 io3 Ib/hr to gasifier: 50-5
18.7 109 Btu/hr 0.62
FGD WATER
Vaporized 0.76 lb/lb coal 0
With sludge 0.43 u,/lb coal 
TOTAL: 0
FGD sludge produced, wet 0
ASH HANDLING
IO3 Ib/hr
Bottom ash: dry 150
water 80.7
sludge 231
Fly ash: dry 
water 
aludqe 
10 3 Ib/hr
9
10 Btu/hr
IO3 Ib/hr
IO3 Ib/hr
10 3 Ib/hr
IO3 Ib/hr

                                                                                                       PROCESS HATER




                                                                                                       a.  Steam and boiler feed water  required


                                                                                                       b.  Dirty condensate from dissolving  section


                                                                                                       c.  Medium quality condensate from gasifier


                                                                                                       d.  Medium quality condensate after shift
OTHER WATER KEEPS




a.  Dust control


b.  Service, sanitary & potable  water:


          Required


          Sewage recovered


c.  Revegetation water


d.  Evaporation from storage ponds


     GRAND TOTAL RAW WATER INPUT TO PLANT:
                                                                                                       TREATMENT SLUDGES
                                                                                                       a.  Lime softening

                                                                                                       b.  Ion exchange

                                                                                                       c.  Biotreatment
                                                      272
                                                                                                                                                          1,020
                                                                                                                                                             0.06
                                                                                                                                                                          (continued)

-------
         Saline, Illinois   SRC
                                        (continued)
                                                                                                                   WORK SHEET:  WATER QUANTITY CALCULATIONS  FOR
                                                                                                                                   SRC PROCESS
ro
M
LO
Energy Totals

          Feed
          Product  and  byproduct
          Unrecovered  heat

          Conversion efficiency

Disposition of Unrecovered  Heat
        Direct  loss
        Designed  dry
        Designed  wet
        Acid gas  removal
          regenerator  condenser
        Total turbine  condensers
        Total gas  compressor
          interstage cooling
                             10   Stu/hr
                                1.63
                                                            10  Btu/hr
                                                              19.3
                                                                  10   Ib water
                                            wet    Btu/lb  evap     evap/hr
                                                     1,370
                                                     1,370
                                                     1,370
                                                     1,370
                                                     1,370
                                                     1,370
                                                                                                    SITE:  Rainbow  It8, Wyoming
Coal Analysis  (wt  t  as-received)
                     Moisture
                        C
                        H
                        O
                        N
                        S
                        Ash
                                                                                            COAL FEED
                                                                                              to dissolver:     1,569   10   Ib/hr
                                                                                                                 18.2   109 Btu/hr
FGD WATCH
  Vaporized
  With sludge
     TOTAL:
  FGD sludge produced, wet
ASH HANDLING
                                                                                                                  0.6B  ib/lb coal
                                                                                                                  0.12  Ib/Lb coal
                                                                                                                                             PRODUCT  SIZE:  10,000 ton/day
                                                                                                                                             ENERGY:  13.16 X 1Q9 Btu/hr
                                                                                                                         HHV Calculated
                                                                                                                            (103 Btu/Lb)     11.65
                                              to gasifier:
                                                                                                                         Bottom ash:  dry
                                                                                                                                      water
                                                                                                                                      eludge
                                                                                                                         Fly ash:  dry
                                                                                                                                   water
                                                                                                                                   sludge
                                                                                                                                                        10   Lb/hr
                                                                                                                                                           89.5
                                                                                                                                                             3.0   10  Ib/hr
                                                                                                                                                            1.03  10  Btu/hr
_10  Ib/hr
 103 Lb/hr
                                                                                                                                                                 _10  IJb/hr
                                                                                                                                                                  103 Ib/hr
                                                                                                                                                                       (continued)

-------
            Rainbow  38, Wyoming    SRC
                                          (continued)
                                                                                                       Rainbow 98, Wyoming   SRC
                                                                                                                                     (continued)
           PROCESS WATER
           a.  Steajn and boiler  feed  water required
           b.  Dirty condensate  from  dissolving  section
           c.  Medium quality condensate  from gasifier
           d.  Medium quality condensate  after shift
                                                     ,312
                                                                                           Energy Totals
                                                                                                     Feed
                                                                                                     Product And byproduct
                                                                                                     Unrecovered heat
10  Btu/hr
  19.3
  15.1
           OTHER WATER HEEDS
                                                                                                                Conversion efficiency
                                                                                                                                                           78.8
M
to
a.  Dust control
b.  Service, sanitary & potable water:
          Required
          Sewage recovered
c.  Pevegetation water
d.  Evaporation from storage ponds
     GRAND TOTAL RAW WATER INPUT TO PLANT:
           TREATMENT SLUDGES
                                                                  63
           a.  Lime softening
           b.  Ion exchange
           c.  Biotreatment
                                                                                                      Dispogition of Unrecovered Heat
Direct loss
Designed dry
Designed wet
109 Btu/hr
1.72
0.32
O.S6
% wet
0
0
100
Btu/lb evap
1,397
1,397
1,397
103 Ib water
evap/hr
0
0
401
                                                                                           Acid gas removal
                                                                                             regenerator condenser        0 32
                                                                                           Total turbine condensers       0 87
                                                                                           Total gas corrtpressor
                                                                                             interstage cooling           0- 29
                                                                                                                TOTAL:
                                                                                                                                                 100
                                                                                                                                                           1,397
                                                                                                                                                           1,397
                                                                                                                                                           1,397
                                                                                                                                                                            1,255
                                                                 0.18
                                                                                 0.90

-------
               WORK SHEET:   WATER QUANTITY CALCULATIONS FOR
                               SRC PROCESS
                                                                                             Gillette, Wyoming   SRC
                                                                                                                           (continued)
SITE:  Gillette, Wyoming
Coal Analysis  (wt  %  as-received)
                     Hois ture
COAL FEED
  to dissolver:
FGD WATER
    C
    H
    0
    N
    S
    Ash

 HHV Calculated
    (103 Btu/Ub)

2,264  103 Ib/hr
                     17.9  10  Btu/hr
  Vaporized
  With sludge
     TOTAL:
  FGD sludge produced,  wet
ASH HANDLING
  0.24  Ib/lb coal
  0.10  Ib/lb coal
                     PRODUCT SIZE:  10.000 ton/day
                                        9
                     ENERGY:  12-92 * 10  Btu/hr
                     Bottom ash:   dry
                                  water
                                  sludge
                     Fly  ash:   dry
                               water
                               sludge
                                              to gasifier:
                                                                      10  Ib/hr
                                                                 1-15  10  BtuAir
_10  Ib/hr
 103 Ib/hr
                                                 _10  Ib/hr
                                                  103 Ib/hr
                                   289
                       PROCESS WATER

                       a.  Steam  and  boiler feed water required
                       b.  Dirty  condensate from dissolving section
                       c.  Medium quality  condensate from gasifier
                       d.  Medium quality  condensate after shift
                       CITHER WATER NEEDS

                       a.  Dust control
                       b.  Service, sanitary  & potaljle  water:
                                 Required
                                 Sewage recovered
                       c.  Revegetation water
                       d.  Evaporation from storage ponds
                            GRAND TOTAL RAH WATER INPUT TO PLANT:
                                                                        TREATMENT SLUDGES
                                                                        a.   Lime softening
                                                                        b.   Ion exchange
                                                                        c.   Biotreatroent
                                                                                                                                               10  Ib/hr
                                                                                                                                                  308
                                                                                                                                                   97
                                                                                                                                               10  Ib/hr
                                                                                                                                                   92
                                                                               10  Ib/hr
                                                                           solids      water  sludge
                                                                             1.0             5.0
                                                                                                                                                                 IB
                                                                                                                                                              (con ti_nued)

-------
 Gillette,  Wyoming
                               (continued)
              WORK SHEET:  WATER QUANTITY CAJjCULATIONS FOR
                              SRC PROCESS
Energy Totals
Feed
Product and byproduct
Unrecovered heat
Conversion efficiency
j,j Disposition of Unrecovered Heat
cr>
109 Btu/hr  wet
Direct loss 2.60 0
Designed dry 0.46 0
Designed wet 0.56 100
Acid gas removal
regenerator condenser 0.34 10
Total turbine condensers 0.93 10
Total gas compressor
interstage cooling 0.31 50
TOTAL: 5.20
10 Btu/hr
19.1
13.9
5.2
72.8 
Btu/lb evap
1,401
1,401
1,401
1,401
1,401
1,401

103 Ib water
evap/hr
0
0
400
24
66
111
601
                                                                                        SITE:   Antelope  Creek, Wyoming
                                                                                        Coal  Analysis (vt % as-received)
                                                                                                            Moisture
                                                                                                               C
                                                                                                               H
                                                                                                               O
                                                                                                               N
                                                                                                               S
                                                                                                               Ash
COAL FEED
  to dissolver:
                                                                                                            HHV Calculated
                                                                                                               (103 Btu/lb)

                                                                                                                    3
                                                                                                           1,971
                                                                                                                      Ib/hr
                                                                                                            I7-7  10  Btu/hr
                                                                                        FGD WATER
                                                                                          Vaporized
                                                                                          With sludge
                                                                                             TOTAL:
                                                                                          FGD sludge produced, wet
                                                                                        ASH HANDLING
                     0.35  Ib/lb  coal
                     0.07  Ib/lb  coal
                                        PRODUCT SIZE:  10,000 ton/day
                                        ENERGY:  12.92 X 10  Btu/hr
                                        52.6
                                         3.6
                                                                                                                                     to gasifier:
                                                                                                                                                             10  Ib/hr
                                                                1.26 10  Btu/hr
_10  Ib/hr
 103 Ib/hr
                                                                    _10  Ib/hr
                                                                     103 Ib/hr
                                                                                                            Bottom ash:  dry
                                                                                                                         water
                                                                                                                         sludge
                                                                                                            Fly ash:  dry
                                                                                                                      water
                                                                                                                      sludge
                                                   10  Ib/hr
                                                      95.0
                                                      51.2
                                                                                                                                                           (continued)

-------
            Antelope  Creek,  Wyoming  SRC  (continued)
                                                                                                       Antelope,  Wyoming   SRC	(continued)
           PROCESS  WATER

           a.   Steam and boiler feed water required
           b.   Dirty condensate from dissolving section
           c.   Medium quality condensate from gasifier
           d.   Medium quality condensate after shift
                                                   10  Ib/hr
                                                      323
                                                                                           Energy Totals
                                                                                                     Feed
                                                                                                     Product and byproduct
                                                                                                     Unrecovered heat
                                                                                                                                              10  Btu/hr
                                                                                                                                                19.0
to
NJ
OTHER WATER NEEDS

a.  Dust control
b.  Service, sanitary  &  potable  water:
          Required
          Sewage recove red
c.  Reve-getation water
d.  Evaporation from 5torage  ponds
     GRAND TOTAL RAW WATER  INPUT TO PLANT:
          TREATMENT  SLUDGES
           a.   Lime  softening
           b.   Ion exchange
           c.   Biotreatment
           d.   Electrodialysis
                                                             10  Ib/hr
                                                                 81
                                                                  10  Ib/hr
                                                              solids      water  6 sludge
                                                                       1.3
                                                                                                                Conversion efficiency
                                                                                                     Disposition of Unrecovered Heat
Direct loss
Designed dry
Designed wet
Acid gas removal
  regenerator condenser
Total turbine condensers
Total gas compressor
  interstage cooling
                             10  Btu/hr
                               2.21
                                                                                                                                     0.36
              10  Lb water
Btu/lb evap     evap/hr
  1, 397               0
  1,397               0
                                                                                                                                                          1,397
                                                                                                                                                          1,397
                                                                                                                                                          1,397
                                                                                                                                               1,397

-------
                       WORK SHEET:   WATER QUANTITY CALCULATIONS FOR
                                       SRC PROCESS
                                                                        Dickinson, North Dakota  SRC  (continued)
K)
03
         SITC:  Dickinson, North Dakota
         Coal Analysis (wt t as-received)
                             Moisture
                                C
                                H
                                O
                                N
                                S
                                Ash

                             HHV Calculated
                                (103 Btu/lb)
         COAL FEED
           to dissolver:
2,758  10" Ib/hr
 17.4  109 Btu/hr
         FCD WATER
           Vaporized
           With sludge
              TOTAL:
           FGD sludge produced,  wet
         ASH HANDLING
  0.23  lb/lb coal
  0.07  Lb/lb coal
                                                 PRODUCT SIZE:  10.000 ton/day
                                                 ENERGY:  12.92 x 10  Btu/hr
                     41.2
                      2.7
                     11.0
                      0.5
                      6.31
                                                      to  gasifier:
                                                  10J  Ib/hr
J..94 10' Btu/hr
     _10J Ib/hr
      103 Lb/hr
                                                 _10J Ib/hr
                                                 _103 Ib/hr
                             Bottom ash:  dry
                                          water
                                          sludge
                             Fly ash:   dry
                                       water
                                       sludge
                                   107
                                   307
                            PROCESS  HATER

                            a.   Steam and boiler feed water required
                            b.   Dirty condensate from dissolving section
                            c.   Medium quality condensate from gasifier
                            d.   Medium quality condensate after shift
OTHER HATER NEEDS

a.  Dust control
b.  Service, sanitary fi potable  water:
          Required
          Sewage recovered
c.  Revegetation water
d.  Evaporation from storage ponds
     GRAND TOTAL RAW HATER INPUT TO  PLANT:
                                                                       TREATMENT SLUDGES
                                                                       a.   Lime  softening
                                                                       b.   Ion exchange
                                                                       c.   Biotreatroent
                                                                                                                          10" Ib/hr
                                                                                                                             167
                                                                                                                           solids       water t  sludge
                                                                                                                             0.37
                                                                                                                                                                     (continued)

-------
 Dickinson,  North Dakota   SRC (continued)
                                                                                                        WORK. SHEET i  WATER QUANTITY  CALCULATIONS FOR

                                                                                                                        SRC PROCESS
                                                                                          SITE:   Bentley,  North Dakota
                                                                                                                                  PRODUCT SIZE:  10,000 ton/day
                                                                                                                                                      9
                                                                                                                                  ENERGY:  12.92  X  10  Btu/hr
Energy Totals
10 Btu/hr
Feed 19.3
Product and byproduct 12.8
Unrecovered heat 6.5

Disposition of Unrecovered Heat
103 Ib water
10 Btu/hr % wet Btu/Lb evap evap^hr
Direct loss 3.25 0 1,420 0
Designed dry 0.63 0 1,420 0
Designed wet 0.64 100 1,420 451
Acid gas removal
regenerator condenser 0.49 10 1,420 35
Total turbine condensers 1.14 10 1,420 80
Total gas compressor
interstage cooling 0.40 50 1,420 141
TOTAL- 6-55 707

Coal Analysis (wt * as-received)
Moisture 36.4
C 41.6
H 3.1
0 H-3
N 0-6
S 1-2
Ash 5.8
100
HHV Calculated
(103 Btu/Lb) 7-1'1
COAL FEED
to dissolver: 2,493 103 Lb/hr to gasifier: 225 lo3 Lb/hr
17.8 lo9 Btu/hr 1.61io9 Btu/hr
FGD WATER
Vaporized 0.13 Lb/Lb coal 0 io3 Lb/hr
With sludge 0.17 lb/lb coal 0 io3 Lb/hr
TOTAI,: 0 10 lb/hr
FGD sludge produced, wet 0 lo Lb/hr
ASH HANDLING
IO3 Lb/hr
Bottom ash: dry 150
water 	 84 t 9
sludge 243
Fly ash: dry 
water 
sludge 
                                                                                                                                                             (continued)

-------
           Bentley,  Nortti Dakota   SRC   (continued)
                                                                                                     Bentley, North DaXota    SRC   (continued)
          PROCESS WATER

          a.   Steam and boiler feed water required
          b-   Dirty condensate from dissolving section
          c.   Medium quality condensate from gasifier
          d.   Medium quality condensate after shift
                                                      113
                                                                                           Energy Totals
          Feed
          Product  and  byproduct
          Unrecovered  heat
                                                                                                                                               10   Btu/hr
                                                                                                                                                19.4
N;
to
o
OTHER WATER NEEDS

a.   Dust control
b.   Service,  sanitary S potable wateri
          Required
          Sewage recovered
c.   Rfivegetation water
d.   Evaporation from storage ponds
     GRAND TOTAL RAW WATER INPUT TO PLANT:
         TREATMENT SLUDGES
         B.  Lime softening
         b.  Ion exchange
         c-  Biotreatment
                                                                 21
                                                                947
                                                                0.8
                                                                                  sjludge
                                                                                                              Conversion efficiency
Pi spos j.tion_j3fUn,re cove red Heat
                                                                                                                                 10  J3tu/hr.   t wet    B t u/ Ib e_v ap
                                                                  10   1>  water
                                                                    e^vap/hr
Direct loss
Designed dry
Designed wet
Acid gas removal
regenerator condenser
Total turbine condensers
Total gas compressor
interstage cooling
2.
0.
0.
0.
1.
0
86
55
73
39
05
.36
0
100
10
10
50
L
lj
l,
lj
i^
i
,420
,420
,420
,420
,420
,420
0
0
514
27
74
127
                                                                                                                                     5.94
                                                                       1.7

-------
                       WORK SHEET:  WATER QUANTITY CALCULATIONS  FOR
                                       SRC PROCESS
                                                                                                    Underwood,  North Dakota  SRC (continued)
NJ
U)
         SITE:   Underwood, North Dakota
Coal Analysis  (wt % as-received)
                    Moisture
                       C
                       H
                       0
                       >1
                       S
                       Ash
                             HHV Calculated
                                 (103 Btu/lb)
         COAL FEED
           to dissolver:   2,429   10  Ib/hr
                             17.3   109 Btu/hr
FGD WATER
  Vaporized
  With sludge
     TOTAL:
  FGD sludge produced, wet
ASH HANDLING
                             0.14   lb/]_b  coal
                             0.07   Ib/lb coal
                                         PRODUCT SIZE:  10,000  ton/day
                                         ENERGY:  12.92  x 10 9 Btu/hr
                                         35.4
                                         42.7
                                                  12.2
                                                  0.6
                             Bottom ash:  dry
                                          water
                                          sludge
                             Fly ash:  dry
                                       water
                                       sludge
                                              to gasifier:    272    10  Ib/hr
                                                                1.94 io9 Btu/hr
                                                                    _10  Ib/hr
                                                                    _103 Ib/hr
                                                                    _103 Ib/hr
                                                                     103 Ib/hr
                                                   10  Lb/hr
                                                       151
                                                       81.4
                                                       233
                                                                                                   PROCESS  WATER

                                                                                                   a.   Steam and boiler feed water required
                                                                                                   b.   Dirty condensate from dissolving section
                                                                                                   c.   Medium quality condensate from gasifier
                                                                                                   d.   Medium quality condensate after shift
                                                                                          OTHER WATER KEEPS

                                                                                          a.   Dust control
                                                                                          b.   Service,  sanitary S potable water:
                                                                                                    Required
                                                                                                    Sewage recovered
                                                                                          c.   Revegetation water
                                                                                          d.   Evaporation from storage ponds
                                                                                               GRAND TOTAL RAW WATER INPUT TO PLANT:
                                                                                                  TREATMENT  SLUDGES
                                                                                          a.   Lime softening
                                                                                          b.   Ion exchange
                                                                                          c.   Biotreatment
                                                                                                                                             10   IL/hr
                                                                                                                                                383
                                                                                                                                                     10  Ib/hr
                                                                                                                                                        147
                                                                                                                                                          10   Ib/hr
                                                                                                                                                      solids^       water & sludge
                                                                                                                                                                     (continued)

-------
 Underwood,  North Dikota
                               (continued)
                                                                                                       WORK SHEET:  WATER QUANTITY CAJjCULATIONS FOR
                                                                                                                       SRC PROCESS
Energy
          Feed
          Product and byproduct
          Un re cove red heat

          Conversion efficiency

Disposition of JJnrecovered Hej^
10  Btu/hr
  19.3
  13.3
 - 6.0
                                                                10  Ib water
M
OJ
M
Direct loss
Designed dry
Designed wet
Acid gas removal
regenerator condenser
Total turbine condensers
Total gas compressor
interstage cooling
TOTAL:
10 Btu/hr
2.83
0.59
0.58
0.44
1.13
0.40
5.96
% wet
0
0
100
10
100
100

Btu/lb evap
1,420
1,420
1,420
1,420
1,420
1,420

evap/>ir
0
0
408
31
796
282
1,517
                                                                                         SITE:  Otter Creek,  Montana
Coal Analysis {vt % as-received)
                    Moisture
                       C
                       H
                       O
                                                                                         COAL FEED
                                                                                           to dissolvert
                                                              S
                                                              Ash

                                                           HKV Calculated
                                                              (103 Btu/lb)

                                                          2,062   10"
                                                                                                                   10  Btu/hr
                                                                                         TCP WATER
                                                                                           Vaporized
                                                                                           with sludge
                                                                                              TOTAL:
                                                                                           FGD sludge produced, wet
                                                                                         ASH HANDLING
                                                           0.29   lta/lt> coal
                                                           0.08   lb/lb coal
                                                                               PRODUCT SIZEi  10,000 ton/day
                                                                                                  9
                                                                               ENERGY:  12.92 X 10  Btu/hr
                                                                                                                                 29.4
                                                                                                                                  100
                                                                                                                                       to gasifier:
                                                                                                             Bottom ash :  dry
                                                                                                                          water
                                                                                                                          sludge
                                                                                                             Fly ash:  dry
                                                                                                                       water
                                                                                                                       sludge
                                                                                             181
                                                                                                                                                              lo  Ib/hr
                                                                                                                                                         2.37  IQ  Btu/hr
                                                                    _10  Ib/hr
                                                                    _103 Ib/hr
                                                                    _103 Ib/hr
                                                                     103 Ib/hr
                                                                                                                                                           (continued)

-------
             Otter Creek,  Montana   SRC   (continued)
                                                                                                       Otter Creek, Montana
                                                                                                                                      (continued)
          PROCESS  WATER
          a.   Steam and boiler feed water  required

          b .   Dirty condensa te f rom dissolving  section

          c.   Medium quality condensate  from  gasifier

          d .   Medium qua 1i ty condensate  after shift
                                                                                                      Energy  Totals
                                                                                                       Feed

                                                                                                       Product and byproduct

                                                                                                       Unrecovered heat
                                                                                                                                                 10   Btu/hr

                                                                                                                                                  19.4
NJ
GJ
LO
OTItER  WATER KEEPS



a .  Dus t  control

b.  Service,  sanitary & potable water:

           PJS q ui r e d

           Sewage recovered

c.  Revpgetation water

d .  E~vapora tion from s to rage ponds

     GRAND TOTAL RAW WATER INPUT TO PLANT:
          TREATMENT  SLUDGES
          a.   Li me  softening

          b.   Ion exchange

          c.   Biotrea Lmen t

          d    Electrodialysis
                                                              10  Ib/hr

                                                                 110
                                                                   10  Lb/hr

                                                               3 o1i d 3      water  fi  sludge
                                                                                                                 Conversion efficiency
                                                                                                      Disposition  of  Unrecovered Heat
Direct loss

Designed dry

Designed wet


Acid gas removal
  regenerator  condenser

To Lai turbine  condensers


Total gas compressor
  interstage cooling
                             10  Btu/hr    * wet

                                 2.51         0
                                                                                                                                                           "70.1
               10   It water
Btu/lb evap     evap/hr

  1,407               0

  1,407               0
                                                                                                                                                            1, 407

                                                                                                                                                            1,407

-------
              WORK SHEET:   HATER QUANTITY CALCULATIONS FOR
                              SRC PROCESS
                                                                                          Pumpkin Creek, Montana
                                                                                                                        (continued)
SITE:   Punpkin  Creek,  Montana
Coa 1 ^AnaJy5is  fwt.    as-reegj^vgdj
                                        PRODUCT SIZE:  io,000 ton/day
                                        ENERGY;  12.92  x 10.9 Btu/hr
COAL FEED
to diesolver:
FGD WATER
Vaporized
With sludge
Moisture 30.7
C 44.6
H 3.1
0 12.5
N 0.7
E 0.5
Ash 7.9
100
HHV Calculated
(103 Btu/lb) 7.46
2,325 103 Ib/hr to gasifier:
17.3 109 Btu/hr
0.21 Ib/lb coal
0.07 Ib/lb coal
TOTAL:
FGD sludge produced, wet
ASH HANDLING

10 3 Ib/hr
Bottom ash: dry 205
water 110
sludge 315
Fly ash: dry 
water 
sludge 
270 103 Ib/hr
g
2.01 10 Btu/hr
0 103 Ib/hr
0 10 3 Ib/hr
0 103 Ib/hr
0 103 Ib/hr

PROCESS WATER


a.  Steam and boiler feed water required

b.  Dirty condensate from dissolving  section

c.  Medium quality condensote  from  gasifier

d.  Medium quality condensate  after shift
                                                                                         OTHER WATER NEEDS


                                                                                         a.   Dust control
                                                                                         b.   Service, eanitary 6 potable water:

                                                                                                   Required
                                                                                                   Sewage recovered

                                                                                         c.   Revegetation water

                                                                                         d.   Evaporation from storage ponds

                                                                                              GRAND TOTAL RAW WATER INPUT TO  PLANT:
                                                                                         TREATMENT SLUDGES
                                                                                         a.   Lime  softening
                                                                                         b.   Ion exchange
                                                                                         C.   Biotreatment
                                                                                                                                            10  llj/hr
                                                                                                                                               396
                                                                                                                                               0,36
                                                                                                                                                            (continued)

-------
         Pumpkin  Creek,  Montana
                                         (continued)
                                                                                                                   WORK SHEETi   WATCR QUANTITY CALCULATIONS FOR
                                                                                                                                    SRC PROCESS
                                                                                                     SITE i   coalridge, Montana
NJ
LU
Ui
         Energy Totals

                   Feed
                   Product and  byproduct
                   Unrpcove red  heat

                   Conversion efficiency

         Pi sposition of Unrecovered Heat
Direct  loss
Designed  dry
Designed  wet
Acid gas  removal
  regenerator  condenser
Tota 1 turbine  condensers
Tot a. 1 gas  compressor
  Interstage cooling
                                                     10   Btu^/hr
                                                      19.4
leat
9
10 Btu/hr
2. 70
0. 58
0. 67
0.45
1. 14
 wet
0
0
100
10
10
Btu/Lb evap
1 ,414
1,414
1, 414
1,414
1,414
10 Ib water
evap/hr
0
0
474
32
81
                                                                                                                 HHV Calculated
                                                                                                                     (103  Btu/Lb)
                                                                                                    COAL FEED
                                                                                                       to dissolver:   2.946    10  Ib/hr
                                                                                                                        16.5    109 Btu/hr
                                                                                                    FGD  WATER
                                                                                                      Vapori red
                                                                                                      With sludge
                                                                                                          TOTAL:
                                                                                                      FGD sludge produced, wet
                                                                                                    ASH  HANDLING
- 0.01   Ib/lb  coal
  0.06   Lb/lb  coal
                                                                                                                                      PRODUCT SIZE:  10,000  ton/day
                                                                                                                                      ENERGY:  12.92 x 109 Btu/hr
Coal Analysis (ut  as-received)
Mois tu re
C
H
O
N
S
Ash

IP
35
2.
13.
0
0.
7.

J 	
. 2
.4
.5
.6
. 4
. 5
                            to gasifier:    620	10  Ib/hr
                                               3.47  10  Btu/hr
                                                   _10  Lb/hr
                                                    103 Lb/hr
                                                                                                                                                                   10  Ib/hr
                                                                                                                         Bo t torn  ash :   dry
                                                                                                                                       water
                                                                                                                                       sludge
                                                                                                                         Fly  ash:   dry
                                                                                                                                    water
                                                                                                                                    sludge
                                                                                                                                                                         (continued)

-------
  Coa 1 r 1 dge,  Hontana   s RC
                               (continued)
                                                                                          Coalridge, Montana
                                                                                                                       (continued)
PROCESS WATER

a.  Steam  and boiler  feed  water required
b.  Dirty  condensate  from  dissolving  section
c.  Medium quality  condensate  from gasifier
d.  Medium quality  condensate  after shift
10  lb/hr
   521
   330
   251
                                                                                        ENERGY
Energy^ Totals^
                                                Feed
                                                Product and  byproduct
                                                Unrecovered  het
                                                   10  Btu/hr
                                                     20.0
                                                     11.8	
OTHER WATER KEEPS

a.  Dust control
b.  Service, sanitary  6 potable water:
          Required
          Sewage recovered
c.  Revegetation water
d.  Evaporation from storage ponds
     GRAND TOTAL RAW WATER INPUT TO PLANT:
TREATMENT SLUDGES
a.  Lime softening
b.  Ion exchange
c.  Biotreatment
10  lh/hr.
   167
    14
 1,081
                                                                                                  Conversion efficiency
                                      Disposition  of JJnrecovered Heat
Direct loss
Designed dry
Designed wet
Acid gas removal
  regenerator condenser
Total turbine condensers
Total gas compressor
  interstage cooling
                                                                                                                                             59.1  \
                                                                                                                         8.17
                                                                                                       10  tt> water
10 Btu/hr
3.60
0.95
0.85
0.65
1.55
 wet
0
0
100
10
10
Btu/lb evap
1,407
1,407
1,407
1,407
1,407
evap/hr
0
0
604
45
110
                                                                                                                                             1,407
                                                                                                                                                               965
   0.53
                   2.7

-------
                           WOPX SHEET:   WATER QUANTITY CALCULATIONS FOR
                                            SRC PROCESS
                                                                                                          Colstrip, Montana   SRC
                                                                                                                                        (continued)
IV)
UJ
--J
             SITE:   Colstrip,  Montana
             Coai Analysis (wt % as-received)
                                 Mois ture
             COAL FEED
               to d is solver:
    C
    H
    0
    N
    S
    Ash

 HHV Calculated
    (103 Btu/lb)

1,979   103 lb/hr
         g
 17.6   10  Btu/hr
             FCD HATEP
               Vapori zed
               With  sludge
                  TOTAL:
               FGD sludge produced, wet
             ASH HANDLING
  0-37  Lb/lb coal
  0.06  Ib/lb coal
                                                      PRODUCT SIZE:  10,000 ton/day
                                                      ENERGY:  12.92  X 10.9 Btu/hr
                                 Bottom ash:  dry
                                              water
                                              3ludge
                                 Fly ash:  dry
                                           water
                                           sludge
                                                           to gasifier:   _1BO	10   lb/hr
                                                                             1.60 109  Btu/hr
_10  Lb/hr
_103 lb/hr
_103 lb/hr
 103 lb/hr
                        PROCESS WATER

                        a.   Steam and boiler feed water  required
                        b.   Dirty condensate from dissolving  section
                        c.   Medium quality condensate from gasifier
                        d.   Medium quality condensate after shift
                        OTHER WATER HEEDS

                        a.   Dust control
                        b.   Service,  sanitary & potable water:
                                  Required
                                  Sewage recovered
                        c.   Revegetation water
                        d.   Evaporation from storage ponds
                             GRAND TOTAL RAW WATER INPUT TO PLANT:
                                                                        TREATMENT SLUDGES
                                                                        a.  Lime  softening
                                                                        b.  Ion exchange
                                                                        c.  Biotreatment
                                                                                                                                                            10  lb/hr
                                                                                                                                                               364
                                                                                                                                                                55
                                                                                                                                                               114
                                                                                                                                                            10  lb/hr
                                                                                                                                                               101
                                                                                                                                 10  Ib/hr
                                                                                                                             solids      water fe sludge
                                                                                                                                                               0.1
                                                                                                                                                                               0.6
                                                                                                                                                                              22
                                                                                                                                                                            (continued)

-------
                                                 Colstrip, Montana
                                                                              (continued)
                                                Energy Totals
                                                          Peed

                                                          Product and  byproduct

                                                          Unrecovered  heat
                                                                                                  10  Btu/hr

                                                                                                    19.2
                                                         Conversion  efficiency
to
UJ
CO
                                               Disposition of Unrecovered Heat
Direct  loss

Designed dry

Designed wet


Acid gas removal
  regenerator condenser

Total turbine condensers


Total gas compressor
  interstage cooling
                                                                                                                10  Lb water
10 Btu/hr
2.27
0.45
0.62
0.40
1.03
 wet
0
0
100
10
10
Btu/lh evap
1,414 .
1,414
1,414
1,414
1,414
evap/hr
0
0
438
28
73
                                                                                                    1,414
                                                                                                                      255
                                                                                                                      794

-------
              WORK  SHEET:   WATER QUANTITY CALCUlJiTIOKS FOR
                               SYNTHOIL PROCESS
                                         PRODUCT SIZE:  50,000 bbl/day
                                         ENERGY:  12.7 X  1Q9 Btu/hr
Coal Analysis  (wt    as-received)
                     Moisture
                       C
                       H
                       O
                       N
                       S
                       Ash
        Tables  3-18,  3-19
                    HHV Calculated
                        (103  Btu/lb)
COAI. FEED
  to reactor:  Table  A2-1,  Stream 2
               Table  A2-6
to gasifier:  Table A2-2,  stream 3
              Table A2-6
ASH HANDLING
                    Bottom ash:   dry
                                  water
                                  sludge
      Appendix 8
                                                                   (continued)

-------
                                      (continued)
                                                                                                                                      (continued)
       PROCESS WATER
a.  Steam  and  boiler feed water required
b.  >uench water required
c.  Dirty  condensete
d.  Medium quality condejisate from
    hydrogen production
                                                     Table A2-2,  Streams  21  C 16
                                                     Table A2-2,  Stream 14
                                                     Table A2-2,  Stream 13
                                                     Table A2-2,  Stream 15
                                                                                                 Energy j*ptals
       e.   Clean condensate from hydrogen production  Table A2-2,  Stream 17
                                                                                                           Feed
                                                                                                           Product  and byproduct
                                                                                                           Unrecovered heat

                                                                                                           Conversion efficiency
10  Btu/hr
Table A2-6
Table A2-6
Table A2-6

Table A2-6
O
OTHER WATER  MEEDS

a.  Dust control
b.  Service, sanitary    potable water:
          Required
          Sewage recovered
c.  Re vegetation water
d.  Evaporation from storage ponds
     GRAND TOTAL RAW WATER IKPUT TO PLANT:
       TREATMENT SLUDGES
       a.   Lime softening
       b.   Ion exchange
       c.   Biotrehtment
                                                                                                        Disposition of Unrecovered jleat
                                                           Appendix 9
                                                           Appendix  11
                                                               10  lb/hr
                                                           solids      water & sludge
                                                          Appendix 11
                                                                                                                                                                         10  Ib water
10 Btu/hr * wet
Direct loss
Designed dry
Designed wet
Acid gas removal
regenerator condenser
Total turbine condensers
Total gas compressor
interstage cooling
TOTALs
Table
Table
Table
Table
Table
Table
Table
A2-7
A2-7
A2-7 ^
0>
A2-7 ^
A2-7 i.
A2-7
A2-7
Btu/lb evap evap/hr


a- P
t-1 Q
lt> C


-------
               WORK SHEET:  WATER QUANTITY CALCULATIONS FOR
                               EYNTHOIL PROCESS
                                                                                              Jefferson,  Alabama
                                                                                                                           (continued)
SITE:   Jefferson,  Alabama
                                         PRODUCT  SIZE:   50,000 bbl/day
                                         ENERGY:   12.7  X 1Q9 Btu/hr
                                                                                            PROCESS WATER
Coal Analysis  (wt %  as-received)
                     Moisture
                        C
                        H
                        O

                        S
                        Ash

                     HHV Calculated
                        (103 Btu/Lb)

COAL FEED
  to reactor:        ^
ASH HANDLING
                          _10
                             q
                           10  Btu/hr
                                          71.0
                                          12.79
                     Bottom ash:  dry
                                  water
                                  sludge
                                             to gasifier:
                                                                21B   10  Ib/hr
                                                                2-79   109 Btu/hr
a.  Steam and boiler feed water  required
b.  Quench water required
c.  Dirty condensate
d.  Medium quality condensate  from
    hydrogen production
e.  Clean condenaate from hydrogen  production
OTHER WATER NEEDS

a.  Dust control
b.  Service, sanitary & potable water:
          Required
          Sewage recovered
c.  Revegetation water
d.  Evaporation from storage ponds
     GRAJTO TOTAL RAW WATER INPUT TO PLANT:
                                                                                           TREATMENT  SLUDGES
                                                                                           a.  Lime  softening
                                                                                           b.  Ion exchange
                                                                                           c.  Biotreatment
                                                                                                                                                 59
                                                                                                                                              2,237
                                                                                                                                                   10  Ib/hr
                                                                                                                                               solids      water   sludge
                                                                                                                                                              (continued)

-------
   Jefferson, Alabama
                               (continued)
Ejiergy Totals
          Feed
          Product  and byproduct
          Unrecovered heat
                                                   10  Btu/hr
                                                       17.9
          Conversion efficiency
Disposition of Unrecovered Heat
Direct loss
Designed dry
Designed wet
Acid gas rejsoval
  regenerator condenser
Total turbine condensers
Total gas compressor
  interstage cooling
                            10  Btu/hr    * wet
                               1.192
                               0. 12
                               0.87
                               0 27
                                                                 10"  U> water.
                                                   Btu/lb evap     evap/Tir
1,310
1, 310
1,310

1,310
1,310

1,310
                                                                     763
                                                                     664
                                                                     206
                                                                   1,633
                                                                                                        WORK SHEET:   WATER QUANTITY CALCULATIONS FOR
                                                                                                                        SVNTHOIL PROCESS
                                                                                          SITE:    Gibson,  Indiana
                                                                                                                                  PRODUCT SIZE:  50,000 bbl/day
                                                                                                                                                    9
                                                                                                                                  ENERGY:  12.7 x 10  Btu/hr
                                      Coal  Analysis  (wt  % as-received)
                                                         Moisture
                                                            C
                                                            H
                                                            O
                                                            N
                                                            S
                                                            Ash

                                                         HHU Calculated
                                                                                                                                  100
                                                                                                                 (10  Btu/lb)       12.20
                                                                                            to reactor:
                                                                                                              1,221  10   Ib/hr         to gasifier:      234   1Q   Ib/hr
                                                                                                              14.9   109  Btu/hr                          2.85  1Q9  Btu/hr
                                                                                         ASH HANDLING
                                                                                                              Bottom ash:   dry
                                                                                                                           water
                                                                                                                           sludge
10  Ib/hr
   93.1
   50.2
  143
                                                                                                                                                            (continued)

-------
  Gibson,  Indiana
                                (continued)
 PROCESS WATER

 a.   Steam and boiler feed water  required
 b.   Quench water required
 c,   Dirty condensate

 d.   Medium quality condensate  from
     hydrogen production
 e.   Clean condensate from hydrogen  production
10  Ib/hr
  215
    71
    95
    S9
OTHER  WATER KEEPS
a .   Dust  control
b .   Service ,  sa_ni tary  potable water :
           Required
           Sewage recovered
c.   Revegetation water
d .   Evaporation from storage ponds
     GRAND TOTAL RAW WATER IWPUT TO PLANT:
    21
                                                     2,028
TREATMENT  SLUDGES
a .   L-ime  sof tening
b.   Ion exchange
c .   B lot. re a tment
                                                         10  Ih/hr
                                                     solids      water & sludge
                  0.57
                                                                                                Gibson,  Indiana
                                                                                                                            (continued)
                                         Energy^ Tgta 13
                                                   Feed
                                                   Product and byproduct
                                                   Un re cove red heat
                                                                                            10  Btu/Tir
                                                                                              17.7
                                                                                                       Conversion efficiency
                                                                                                                                                   76.8
                                                                                             Disposition of Unrecove^red Heat
Direct loss
Designed dry
Designed wet
Acid gas removal
regenerator condenser
Total turbine condensers
!09
1
0
0
0
0
Btu/hr
.335
.15
.96
.50
.90
% wet
0
0
100
0
100
Btu/lb evap
1,370
1,310
1,370
1,370
1,370
103 lb water
evap/hr
0
0
701
0
657
                                                                                            Total  gas  compressor
                                                                                               interstage cooling
                                                                                                                                                  1,370
                                                                                                                                                                   1,562

-------
WORK SHEET:  WATER QUANTITY CALCULATIONS  FOR
                 STrJTHOIL PROCESS
Warrick, Indiana
                              (continued)
S1TE: Warrick, Indiana PRODUCT SIZE: 50,000 bill/day
ENERGY : 12 7 s 109 Bm/>,r PROCESS WATER
Coal Analysis (wt ^ as-received) a. Steam and boiler feed water required


 	 ^  6_ ,j_ Medium quality condensate from
O 94 hydrogen production
M i 2 e. Clean condensate from hydrogen production
E 2.4
Ash 8.3
100 OTHER HATER NEEDS
HHV Calculated
(103 Btu/lb) 11.65  Dust control
b. Service, sanitary 6 potable water:
COAL FEED Required
to reactor: 1,286 103 Ib/hr to gasifier: 246 lo3 Ib/hr Sewage recovered
15.0 109 Btu/hr 2.87 lo9 Btu/hr c- Revegetation water
d. Evaporation from storage ponds
ASH HANDLING GRAND TOTAL RAW WATER INPUT TO PLANT:
103 Ib/hr
Bottom ash: dry 127.1
water 68.4 TREATMENT SLUDGES
sludge 195.6

a. Lime softening
b. Ion exchange
c. Biotreatment

103 Ib/hr
211
289 '
99
103
57



103 Ib/hr
46
21
14
0
0
2,126


103 Ib/hr
solids water 6 sludge
	 	
	 13
0.02 0.08
                                                                                                                                                      (continued)

-------
   Warr ck,  Indiana
                                (continued)
Energy  Totals
           Feed
           Product and byproduct
           Unrecovered heat
10  Btu/hr
  17.6
  13.fa
           Conversion efficiency
Dispos i tion of Unrecovered Heat
Direct  loss
Designed  dry
Designed  wet
Ac id gas  removal
  regenerator condenser
Total tU-rbine condensers
Total gas  compressor
  interstage  cooling
                                                                  10  Ib water
10 Btu/hr
1.348
0.15
1.04
% wet
0
0
100
Btu/li evap
1,370
1, 370
1,370
evap/hr
0
0
759
 1,370
 1,370
 1,370
                     657
                                                                       1,620
                                                                                                                 WORK SHEET:   WATER QUANTITY CALCULATIONS  FOR
                                                                                                                                 SYNTHOIL PROCESS
                                                                                                   SITE:    Harlan,  Kentucky
                                                                                       PRODUCT SIZE:   50,000 bbl/day
                                                                                       ENERGY:   12.7  x 1Q9 Btu/hr
Coal Analysis  (wt % as-received?
                    Moisture
                       C
                       H
                       O
                       N
                       S
                       Ash

                    HHV Calculated
                       (103 Btu/lb)
77.8
                                                                                                                                           100
                                              COAL FEED
                                                to reactor:
                    1,071 jo  lij/hr          to gjLsifier:      203   10  Ib/hr
                    14.9  1Q9 Btu/hr                           2-B2  109 BtuAr
                                              ASH HANDLING
                                                                   Bottom ash:   dry
                                                                                water
                                                                                sludge
                                                                                                                                                         74.5
                                                                                                                                                                     (continued)

-------
   Ha rlan,
                                (continued)
 PROCESS WATER
 a.   Steam ajid boiler feed water  required
 b .   Qu e n ch water required
 c.   Dirty condensate
 d.   Medium quality condensate  from
     hydrogen production
 e.   Clean condensate from hydrogen production
274
 59
OTHER WATER KEEPS
a .   Dust control
b.   Service,  sanitary & potable water:
           Required
           Sewage recovered
c.   Re vegetation water
d.   Evaporation from storage ponds
     GRAND TOTAL RAW WATER INPUT TO PLANT:
                                                     1,406
TREATMENT SLUDGES
a.  Lime softening
b.  Ion exchange
c.  Biotreatment
                                                         10   Ib/hr
                                                    solids      water 6 3ludge
0.01
               15
                                                                                                Harlan, Kentucky
                                                                                                                            (continued)
                                                                                             Energy Totals
                                                 Feed
                                                 Product and byproduct
                                                 Unrecovered heat
                                                                                          10  Btu/hr
                                                                                            17.7
4.1
                                                                                                       Conversion efficiency
                                                                                                                                                  78.1
                                                                                             Disposition of Unrecovered  Heat
                                       Direct loss
                                       Designed dry
                                       Designed wet
                                       Acid gas removal
                                         regenerator condenser
                                       Total turbine condensers
                                       To ta 1 gas comp res sor
                                         interstage cooling
                                                                                                                          10   Btu/hr   % wet    Btu/lb evap
                                                                                                                                                               10   Ib water
1.
0.
0.
0
0
0
3
.179
.13
.93
.50
.87
.27
.88
0
0
100
0
10
50

1,
1,
1,
1,
1,
1,

350
350
350
350
350
350

0
0
689
0
64
100
853

-------
               WORK SHEET:   HATER QUANTITY CALCULATIONS FOR
                               SYNTHOIL PROCESS
SITE;    Pike, Kentucky
                                         PRODUCT SIZE:  50,000 bbl/day
                                         ENERGY;  12.7 X 1Q9 Btu/hr
Coal Analysis  (wt t as-received)
                    Moisture
                       C
                       H
                       0
                       N
                       S
                       Ash

                    HHV Calculated
                       (103 Btu/lb)
                                          79.6
                                           5.1
                                           5.3
                                         100
COAL FEED
  to reactor:
                     1,047 10   Lb/hr
                            9
                     14.9  10   Btu/hr
                                             to gasifier:
196   10  Lb/hr
        9
2.62  10  Btu/hr
ASH HANDLING
                    Bottom ash:   dry
                                  water
                                  sludge
                               Pike,  Kentucky
                                                           (continued)
                             PROCESS HATER

                             a.   Steam and boiler feed water required
                             b.   Quench water required
                             c.   Dirty condensate
                             d.   Medium quality condensate from
                                 hydrogen production
                             e.   Clean condensate from hydrogen production
                                                                                                                                               10  Ib/hr
                                                                                                                                                  229
                                                                                            OTHER HATER NEEDS
a.  Dust control
b.  Service, sanitary 6 potable water:
          Required
          Sewage recovered
c.  Revegetation water
d.  Evaporation from storage ponds
     GRAND TOTAL RAW WATER INPUT TO PLANT;
                                                                                                                                                1,359
                            TREATMENT  SLUDGES
                                                                                            a.   Lime softening
                                                                                            b.   Ion exchange
                                                                                            c.   Biotreatfflent
                                                                                    10  Ib/hr
                                                                                so .lid s      water
                                                                                                                                                              (continued)

-------
            Pike .^Kentucky
                                         (continued)
                                                    WORK SHEET:   WATER QUANTITY CALCULATIONS FOR
                                                                    SYNTHOIL PROCESS
CD
         Energy Totals
                   Feed
                   Product  a_nd  byproduct
                   Unrecovered  heat

                   Conversion efficiency
                                                             10   Btu/hr
                                                              17.8
78,4 \
Disposition of Unrecovered
Direct loss
Designed dry
Designed wet
Acid gas rejsoval
regenerator condenser
Total turbine condensers
Total gas compressor
interstage cooling
Heat
9
10 Btu/hr \ wet
1.156 0
0.91 100
0.50 0
O.B6 10
0.27 100
Btu/Ib evap
1,360
1,360
1,360
1,360
1,360
1,360
103 Ib water
evap/hr
0
0
669
0
63
199
                                        3.83
                                                                                 931
                                                                                                            Tuscarawas,  Ohio
                                                                                                           .(Ground water  and
                                                                                                           surface water)
Coal Analysis [wt % as-received}
                    Moisture
                       C
                       H
                       0
                       N
                       S
                       Ash

                    KHV Calculated
                       (103 Btu/li)
                                                                                                      to  reactor:
                                                                                                   ASH HANDLING
                                                          1.170 ip-1 li/hr
                                                          15.1  109 Btu/hr
                                                                              PRODUCT SIZE:  50,000 bbl/day
                                                                                                9
                                                                              ENERGY:  12.7 X 10  Btu/hr
                                                                                B.I
                                                                                                                                              5.6
                                                          Bottom ash:  dry
                                                                       water
                                                                       sludge
                                                                                                                                                to gasifier:       220   103
                                                                                                                                                                   2-B4  10  Btu/Hr
                                                                                                                                                                      (continued)

-------
   Tuscarawas,  Ohio
                                (continued)
                                                                                               Tuscarawaa,  Ohio
                                                                                                                            (continued)
PROCESS  WATER
a.  Steam  and boiler feed  water required

b .  OTJench water r*xjui red

c.  Dirty  condensate

d .  Medium quali ty condens ate  from
    hydrogen  production

e.  Cl i;an  condensate from  hydrogen production
                                       Energy Totals
                                                 Feed
                                                 Product  and byproduct
                                                 Unrecovered heat


                                                 Conversion  efficiency
                                                                                           10  Btu/hr

                                                                                             17,9
OTHER WATER  NEEDS


a.   Dust control

b.   St-ivice,  e ani tary & potable  water ;

          Requii ed

          Sewage  recovered

c.   FU;vegetation  water

d.   Evapora 11on  from s torage ponds

     GRAND TOTAL  RAW WATER INPUT TO PLANT:
TRKATKHNT SLJJIX^ES
                                                      1,493
 S u r ftic e  Water

    103 ib/hr

solids      water  &  sludge

 0.8              4. 3

                14
                                       Dispjpsition of Unrecovered Heat
                                       Direct loss

                                       Designed dry

                                       Designed wet

                                       Acid gas removal
                                         regenerator condenser

                                       Total turbine condensers

                                       Total gas compressor
                                         interstage cooling
                                                                                                         10  Ib water
10
1
0
1
0
0
0
4
Btu/hr
. 242
. 14
.10
.50
.88
.27
.13
4 wet
0
0
100
0
10
100

Btu/lb evap
1.410
1.410
1,410
1,410
1,410
1,410

evap/hr
0
0
780
0
62
191
1,033

-------
                           WORK SHEET:  WATER QUANTITY CALCULATIONS FOR

                                           SYNTHOIL PROCESS
                                                                         Jefferson, Ohio
                                                                                                     (continued)
            SITE:    Jefferson, Ohio
            Coal Analysis  (wt a as-received)

                                 Moisture

                                    C

                                    H

                                    0

                                    N

                                    S

                                    Ash
Ln
O
            COAL FEED
              to reactor:
            ASH HANDLING
HHV Calculated

   (103 Btu/lb)
                                 1, 172,10
                                        9
                                 15.4  10   Btu/hr
                                                     PRODUCT SIZE:  50,000 bbl/day

                                                     ENERGY:  12.7 x 10  Btu/hr
                       5.3
                      10.1
                                                         to gasifier:
                                           214    10   Lb/hr
                                                  9
                                           2.BO  10   Btu/hr
PROCESS HATER




a.  Steam and boiler  feed water  required

b.  Drench water required

c.  Dirty condensate


d.  Medium quality condensate from

    hydrogen production

e.  Clean condensate  from hydrogen production
                                                                                                       OTHER WATER NEEDS
a.  Dust control

b.  Service, sanitary & potable water:

          Required

          Sewage recovered

c.  Revegetation water

d.  Evaporation from storage ponds

     GRAND TOTAL RAW WATER INPUT TO  PLANT:
                                                                                                                                                          10  Ib/hr

                                                                                                                                                             225
                                                                                                                                                            2,069
                                Bottom  ash:   dry

                                              water

                                              sludge
                                                                  215.3
                                                                      TREATMENT  SLUDGES
                                                                                                       a.   Lime softening

                                                                                                       b.   Ion exchange

                                                                                                       c.   Biotreatment
                                                                                                                               10   Ib/hr

                                                                                                                          solids      water  S  sludge
                                                                                                                                                                         (continued)

-------
                     i,  Phi?..
                                         (continued)
                                                                                                           WORK SHEET:   WATER QUANTITY CALCULATIONS FOR
                                                                                                                            SYNTHOIL PROCESS
                                                                                                       SITE:    Somerset, Pennsylvania
1-0
Ln
          Energy Totals

                    Feed
                    Product and byproduct
                    Unrecovered heat

                    Conversion efficiency

          Disposition of Unrecovered Heat
                                                   10  Btu/hr
                                                     18.2
Direct  loss
Designed dry
Designed wet
Acid gas removal
  regenerator  condenser
Total turbine  condensers
Total gas compressor
  interstage cooling
                                      10  Btu/hr    \ wet
                                         1.232         0
Btu/l) evap
 1,400
 1,400
 1,400

 1,400
 1,400
                                                                           10  Ib water
                                                                             evap/hr
                                                                                 614
                                                                               1,600
                                                                                                      COAL FEED
                                                                                                        to reactor:
                                                                                                      ASH HANDLING
                                                                                                                                      PRODUCT SIZE:  50,000 bbl/day
                                                                                                                                      ENERGY:  12.7 x 1Q9 Btu/hr
                                          Coal Analysis  (wt % as-received)
                                                              Moisture               1.8
                                                                 C                  74.0
                                                                 H                   4.0
                                                                 0                   3.1
                                                                 N                   1.4
                                                                 S                   3.1
                                                                 Ash                13-6
                                                                                   100
                                                              HHV Calculated
                                                                                                                     (10  Btu/lb)       13-c
                                                                                                                                ,_10  Ib/hr         to gasifier:       213   10  Ib/hr
                                                                                                                             ,7  10  Btu/hr
                                                                                                                 Bottom ash:  dry
                                                                                                                              water
                                                                                                                              sludge
                                                                                                                                                                      2.79  10  Btu/hr
                                                                                                                                                         10  Ib/hr
                                                                                                                                                            182.1
                                                                                                                                                                         (continued)

-------
    Somerset, Pennsylvania
                                (continued)
                                                                                             Somerset, Pennsylvania	^(continued)
 PROCESS WATER
 a.   Steam arid boi 1 er  feed water required
 b.   Quench water  required
 c.   Dirty condensate
 d.   Medium quality  condensate  from
     hydrogen production
 e.   Clean condensate  from hydrogen production
                                                        59
                                                                                           Energy Totals
          Feed
          Product and byproduct
          Unrecovered heat

          Conversion efficiency
                                                                                                                                             10  Btu/hr
                                                                                                                                               17.5
 OTHER WATER NEEDS

 a.   Dust control
 b.   Service,  sanitary t potable water:
           Required
           Sewage recovered
 c.   Revegetation water
 d.   Evaporation from storage ponds
      GRAND TOTAL RAW WATER INPUT TO PLANT:
TREATMENT SLUDGES
a.  Lime softening
b,  Ion exchange
c,  Biotreatment
                                                                                           Disposition of Unrecovered Heat
                                                     1,581
                                                         10   Lb/hr
                                                    solids^       water & sludge
                                                                      16
Direct loss
Designed dry
Designed wet
Acid gas removal
  regenerator condenser
Total turbine condensers
Total gas compressor
  interstage cooling
                                                                                                                       10  Btu/hr    wet
                                                                                                                          1.159
                                                                                                                          0.13
                                                                                                                          0.27
                                                                                                                                        0
               10   Ib  water_
Btu/lb evap    	 evap/hr
  1,410            	0_
  1,410            	0_
  1,410              730
                                                                                                                                               1,410
                                                                                                                                               1,410
                                                                                                                                               1,410
                                                                                                                                                                    61
                                                                                                                                                                   9B2
                                                       0.002

-------
                        WORK SHEET:   HATER QUANTITY CALCULATIONS FOR
                                         SYNTH01L PROCESS
                                                                            Minqo, West Virginia
                                                                                                         (continued)
          SITE:    Mingo,  West Virginia
          Coal Analysis  (xt  \  as-received)
t\J
LD
          COAL  FEED
HHV Calculated

   (103 Btu/Lb)
                                1,04B 10  Ib/hr
                                       g
                                15.0  10  Btu/hr
                    PRODUCT SIZE:  50,000 bbl/day
                                      g
                    ENERGY:  12.7 X 10  Btu/hr
Moisture
C
H
O
N
S
Ash
2.
79.
5.
5.
1
0
4
2
5
2
9
.4
.9
.9
                                                        to  gasifier:
                                           196   10  Lb/hr
                                                   g
                                           2.80  10  Btu/hr
PROCESS WATER



a.  Steam and boiler feed water  required

b.  O^iench water required

c.  Dirty condensate


d.  Medium quality condensate  from
    hydrogen production

e.  Clean condensate from hydrogen  production
OTHER WATER NEEDS



a.  Dust control

b.  Service, sanitary G potable water:

          Required

          Sewage recovered

c.  Revegetation water

d.  Evaporation from storage ponds

     GRAND TOTAL RAH HATER INPUT TO PLANT:
                                                                                                                                                            10  Ib/hr

                                                                                                                                                               228
                                                                                                                                                            10   Ib/hr

                                                                                                                                                                37
                                                                                                                                                             1,352
                               Bottom  ash:   dry

                                             water

                                             sludge
                                                                         TREATMENT SLUDGES
                                                                                                        a.  T.I me softening

                                                                                                        b.  Ion exchange

                                                                                                        c.  Biotreatment
                                                                                                                                 10  Ib/hr

                                                                                                                             solids      water 6 sludge
                                                                                                                                                                           (continued)

-------
               _V' i rgini a
                               (continued)
                                                   WORK SHEET:  WATER QUANTITY CMjCULATIONS FOR
                                                                   SYNTHOIL PROCESS
 Er^e rgy To t a 1 s


           Feed

           Product and byproduct

           Unrecovered heat


           Conversion  efficiency


Disposit^ion  of Unrecovered Heat
10  Btu/hr

  17.8
Direct loss

Designed dry
Designed wet

Acid gas removal
  regenerator condenser
Total turbine condensers

Total gas compressor
  interstage cooling
                                                                 10  lb water
                             10  Btu/hr    % wet     Btu/lb evap     evap/hr
_L
0
0
0
0
0.
.152
.13
.91
.49
.86
.27
0
0
100
0
10
100
1,360 _
1,360 _
1,360
1,360
1,360
1,360
0
0
669
0
63
199
                                                                       931
                                                                                         SITE:    Lake de Smet,  Wyonung
Coal Analysis (wt  as-received)

                    Moisture

                       C

                       H

                       O

                       H

                       S

                       Ash


                    HHV Calculated

                       (103 Btu/lb)
                                       to reactor:
                                     ASH HANDLING
                                                                             PRODUCT SIZE:   50,000  bbl/day

                                                                             ENERGY:   12.7  X 1Q9  Btu/hr
                                                                                0.7
                                                                                1.0
                                                                                9.7
                                                                                                                                 100
                                                          14.1 10  Btu/hr
                                                         Bottom ash:  dry

                                                                      water

                                                                      sludge
                                            to gasifier:       413   10   Ib/hr
                                                               3.39  109  Btu/hr
                                                                                                                                                          (continued)

-------
               Lake de Smet.
                                            (continued)
                                                                                                           Lake de  Smet ,  Wyoming
                                                                                                                                        (continued)
            PROCESS WATER
            a.  Steam  and  boiler feed water required
            b.  Quench water required
            c.  Dirty  condensate
            d .  Hediura quality con dens ate from
                hydrogen production
            e .  Clean  condensate from hydrogen production
                                                                                            Energy Totals
                                                                                                      Feed
                                                                                                      Product  and  byproduct
                                                                                                      Unrecovered  heat

                                                                                                      Conversion efficiency
                                                    10   Btu/hr
                                                     17.5
            OTHER WATER
NJ
Ln
LTI
a .   Dust control
b .   Service , sanitary & potable water:
          Required
          Sewage  recovered
c.   Revegetation  water
d.   Evaporation  from storage ponds
     GRAND  TOTAX  RAW HATER INPUT TO PiLANT :
            TREATMENT  SLUDGES
            a.   La_me  softening
            b.   Ion exchange
            c,   Biotreatment
                                                    10   Ib/hr
                                                        82
                                                                 1,805
                                                                     IO  Ib/hr
                                                                 solids      water  sludge
                                                                       13
                                                                                                        Disposition  of  Unrecovered Heat
Direct loss
Designed dry
Designed wet
Acid gas removal
  regenerator condenser
Total turbine condensers
Total gas compressor
  interstage cooling
io9
1
0
0
0
1
0
4
Btu/hr
.876
.26
.81
.56
.01
.31
.83
 wet
0
0
100
0
100
100

Btu/lb evap
1,401
1,401
1,401
1,401
1,401
1,401

10 Ib water
evap/hr
0
0
578
0
721
221
1,520
                                                                        1.7

-------
WORK SHEET;  WATER QUANTITY CALCULATIONS FOR
                                                                                Jim Bridger, Wyoming
                                                                                                             (continued}
SITE; jiB Bridger, Wyoming PRODUCT SIZE; 50/OOO bbl/day
EHERCY- 1" - x 109 Btu-hx PROCESS WATER
Coal Analysis (wt * as r c " ed) a" Steam and Boiler feed water required
ur.tc*.,. i-r i b- Ouench water required

_ _, _ c. Dirty condensate

H 3.2 d. Medium quality condensate frco
 . , _ hydrogen production

 . . e. Clean condensate frcan hydrogen production

S 0.5
Ash 8.2
1QO OTHER WATER NEEDS
to
01 (in3 Ht-u/lhl 8 50 * Dast colrtro1

b. Service, sanitary & potable water:
COM, FEED Required
to reactor: 1,605 J03 Xb/Ju: to gasifier: 9 103 lh/hr SeM9e recovered
13.6 io9 Btu/hr 3.81 109 BtuAur c" Vegetation v^ter
d. Evaporation froa storage ponds
__u Uftl~T,u- GRAKD TOTAL RAH WATER INPUT TO PLAHT:
10 3 Ib/hr
Bottoa ash: dry 168,4
vater 90.7 TREMME8T SWDGES
sludge 259

a. Jiitse softanlsg
b. Xon exchange

1O3 lt/hr
213
351

201


234

43




103 Ib/hr
78

21
14
0
5
1,205



1O3 Ib/hr
solids water  sludge
	 	
	 14
                                                                              c.  Biotxeatsent
                                                                                                                                    0.32
                                                                                                                                                     1.6
                                                                                                                                                (continued)

-------
            Jim Bridqer, Wyoming
                                         (continued)
                                                                             WORK SHEET i   WATER QUANTITY  CALCULATIONS FOR
                                                                                             SVNTHOIL PROCESS
                                                                                                       SITEi   Gallup,  New  Mexico
Ul
-J
           Energy Totals

                    Feed
                    Product and byproduct
                    Unrecovered heat

                    Conversion efficiency

           Disposition of Unrecovered Heat
          Direct loss
          Designed dry
          Designed wet
          Acid gas removal
            regenerator condenser
          Total turbine condensers
          Total gas compressor
            interstage cooling
                                       10  Btu/hr
                                         1.76
0.87
                                         0.31
                                         4.75
            100
                    10   Btu/hr
                     17.5	
                     12.7
                     72.B   \
                                  10  Ib water
                    Btu/lb  evap     evap/hr
                     1,397             	0_
                     1,397             	0
                     1,397
                     1, 397
                     1,397
                     1,397
                                        623
                                                                                                                                               PRODUCT SIZE:   50,000 bbl/day
                                                                                                                                               ENERGYi   12.7 x  109 Btu/hr
Coal Analysis  (wt  *  ds-recelved)
                     Moisture              15-1
                       C                  63.2
                       H                   4.7
                       O                  10.4
                       N                   1.1
                       S                   -4
                       Ash                 5.1
                                        100
                    HHV Calculated
                       (103 Btu/lb)       11.30
COAL FEED
  to reactor:       1,316  1Q3 Ib/hr
                    14.9   109 Btu/hr
ASH HANDLING

                    Bottom ash:   dry
                                 water
                                 sludge
                                                                                                          to gasifien      258    10  Ib/hr
                                                                                                                            2.92   1Q9 Btu/hr
                                                                                                                                                                        (continued)

-------
              Gallup,  Hew  Mexico
                                           (continued)
                                                                                                        Gall up,  New  Mexico
                                                                                                                                    (continued)
           PROCESS  WATER



           a.  Steam arid boiler feed water required

           b.  Quench water  required

           c .  Di r ty condensate


           d.  Medium quality  condensate from
               hydrogen  production

           e.   Clean  condensate from hydrogen production
                                                    10  Ib/hr

                                                       197
                                                        53
                                                                                           Energy  Totals
          Feed

          Product and byproduct

          Unrecovered heat


          Conversion efficiency
                                                                                                                                             10   Btu/hr

                                                                                                                                               17. B
                                                                                                                                                4.3
K)
Ln
CO
OTHER WATER ffEEDS



a.  Dust  control

b.  Service,  sanitary & potable water:

           Required

           Sewage  recovered

c.  Revegetation  water

d.  Evaporation from storage ponds

     GRAND TOTAL  RAW HATER IKPUT TO PLANT:
          TREATMENT SLUDGES
          a.   L-Lme  softening

          b.   Ion exchange

          c.   Biotreatment

          d.   Electrodialysis
                                                                   21
                                                                    8
                                                                1,313
                                                                   10  Ib/hr

                                                               solids      water &jsludge
                                                       0.19
Disposition of Unrecoyered
Direct loss

Designed dry

Designed wet


Acid gas removal
  regenerator condenser

Total turbine condensers


Total gas compressor
  interstage cooling
                                                                                                               TOTAL:
                                                                                                                                                                       10"  Ib water
10 Btu/hr
1.458
0.17
0.95
0.51
0.92
0.29
4.3
\ wet
0
0
100
0
10
50

Btu/lb evap
1,375
1,375
1,375
1,375
1,375
1,375

evap/hr
0
0
691
0
67
105
663

-------
                                                                                                                           WORK SHEET i   WATER QUANTITY CALCULATIONS FOP
                                                                                                                                            HYGAS PROCESS
                                                                                                             SITE:
                                                                                                                                                      PRODUCT SIZE:  250 X 10   SCF/day
                                                                                                                                                      ENERGY:  Table A3-11 (Product gas)
                                                                                                             Coal Analysis  (wt
                                                                                                                                           ed)
to
Ln
                    Moisture
                       C
                       H
                       O
                       N
                       S
                       Ash

                    HHV Calculated
                       (103 Btu/lb)
COAL FEED
  to reacton    Table A3-10
                 Table A3-11
                                                                                                             FGD WATER
                                                                                                               Vaporized
                  Appendix 8
                                                                                                               With sludge     Appendix 8
                                                                                                                  TOTAL!
                                                                                                               FGD sludge produced, wet
                                                                                                             ASH HANDLING
                                                                                                                                                                 Tables 3-18, 3-19
                                                                                                                                                      100
                                                                                                                                                           to boiler:   Table A3-10
                                                                                                                                                                        Table A3-11
                                                              Calcd. 103
                                                                     10  Ib/hr
                                                                     10  Ib/hr
                                                                                                                                 Bottom ash:  dry
                                                                                                                                              water
                                                                                                                                              sludge
                                                                                                                                 Fly ash:  dry
                                                                                                                                           water
                                                                                                                                           sludge
                                                  Appendix 8
                                                                                                                                                                               (continued)

-------
                                          (continued)
                                                                                                                                     (continued)
          PROCESS WATER
NJ
CTi
O
          a,   Steam and boiler  feed water required
          b.   Di rty condensate
          c .   Me tliajiat ion water
          OTHR WATER
a .  Dust control
b .  Service ,  sanitary  & pot-able water :
           Required
           Sewage  recovered
c.  Fevegetation  water
d.  Evaporation from storage ponds
     GRAND TOTAL  RAW WATER INPUT TO PLANT
         TREATMENT  SLUDGES
         a.  Liae softening
         b.  Ion exchange
         c.  Biotreatment
                                                   Table  A3-1Q
                                                   Table  A3-10
                                                            Table A3-10
Appendix 9
                                                              Appendix  11
                                                                  10  Ib/hr
                                                              solids      water    sludge
                                                         Appendix 11
                                         Energy  Totals

                                                  Feed
                                                  Product  and byproduct
                                                  Unrecovered heat

                                                  Conversion efficiency

                                         Disposition of Unrecovered Heat
                                                                                                                                                10  Btu/hr
                                                                                                                                        Table A3-11  (coal  to  pretreaUnent & boiler)
                                                                                                                                        Table A3-11  (Product  gas  &  fines, tar and oil)
                                                                                                                                              Table  A3-11

                                                                                                                                              Table  A3-11
                                         Direct  loss
                                         Designed dry
                                         Designed wet
                                         Acid  gas removal
                                           regenerator  condenser
                                         Total turbine  condensers
                                         Total gas compressor
                                           interstage cooling
                                                                                                                                   10  Btu/hr   % wet
                                                                                                                              Calcd.  from effi-
                                                                                                                               ciency
                                                                                                                                    Table  A3-9
                                                                                                                          Table A3-11
                                                                                                          10  Ib wacer
                                                                                            Btu/lb evap     evap/hr	

-------
              WORK SHEET:   WATER QUANTITY CALCULATIONS FOR

                               HYGAS  PROCESS
SITE:  Jefferson, Alabama
                     PRODUCT SIZE:  250 X  10   SCF/day

                     ENERGY:  10.34 x 10   Btu/hr
Coal Analysis  (wt % as-received)

                    Moisture

                        C

                        H

                        O

                        N

                        S

                        Ash
                     HHV Calculated

                        (103 Btu/lb)
COAL FEED


  to reactor:




FGD HATER

  Vaporized


  With sludge


     TOTAL:


  FGD sludge produced,  wet


ASH HANDLING
                    1,149  10  Ib/hr
                             9
                    14.7   10  Btu/hr
0.84    Lb/lb coal

0. 12    IVlb coal
                                              to boiler:
                                            115    10  Ib/hr
                                                    9
                                            1.47   10  Btu/hr
                                                               96.5    10  Ib/hr

                                                               13.8    103 Ib/hr
                                                              110
                                                               19.7	10
                                                  10  Ib/hr
                                                    3
                     Bottom ash:  dry

                                  water

                                  sludge

                     Fly ash:  dry

                               water

                               sludge
                                   16.3
                                                                                                  Jefferson, Alabama
                                                                                                                               (continued)
                                                                                                PROCESS WATER




                                                                                                a.   Steam and boiler feed water required

                                                                                                b.   Dirty condensate

                                                                                                c.   Methanation water
                                                                                                                                                    1,434

                                                                                                                                                      537
                                                                            OTHER HATER HEEDS
                                                                            a.   Dust control

                                                                            b.   Service, sanitary  potable  water:

                                                                                      Required

                                                                                      Sewage recovered

                                                                            c.   Re vegetation water

                                                                            d.   Evaporation from storage ponds

                                                                                 GRAND TOTAi RAW WATER INPUT TO  PLANT;
                                                                                                                                                    2,130
                                                                                                TREATMENT SLUDGES
                                                                                                a.   Lime  softening

                                                                                                b.   Ion exchange

                                                                                                c.   Biotreatment
                                                                                                                                                    solida      water  sludge

                                                                                                                                                      0.01          0.05
                                                                                                                                               80
                                                                                                                                                                  (continued)

-------
    Je fferson, Alahama
                               (continued)
                                                                                                          WORK SHEET:  WATER QUANTITY  CAI>CULATIONS FOR
                                                                                                                          HYGAS  PROCESS
Energy Total
Feed
Product and byproduct
Oncecovered heat
Conversion efficiency
Disposition of Unrecovered Heat
IxJ g
(j\ 10 Btu/hr * wet
NJ
Direct loss 2.92 0
Designed dry 0.55 0
-Designed wet 0.40 100
Acid gas removal
regenerator condenser 0.80 10
Total turbine condensers 0.67 100
Total gas compressor
interstage cooling 0.17 100
TOTAL: 5.51
10 Btu/hr
16.2
10.7
5.5
65.9 
Btu/lb evap
1,310
1,310
1,310
1,310
1,310
1,310

10 3 Ib water
evap/hr
0
0
305
61
511
130
1,007
SITE:  Marengo, Alabama
        (Ground water and
       surface water)

Coal Analysis  (wt \ as-received)
                    Moisture
                       C
                       H
                       0
                       N
                       S
                       Ash

                    HHV Calculated
                        (103 Btu/lb)
COAL FEED
  to reactor:

FGD WATER
  Vaporized
  With sludge
     TOTAL:
  FGD gludge produced, wet
ASH HANDLING
2.2BJ  IQJ m/hr
_12.2   109 Btu/hr
                                                                                                                                     PRODUCT SIZE:  250 X 10  SCF/day
                                                                                                                                     ENERGY:  10.34 X 109 Btu/hr
                                                                                                                                      32.1
                                                                                                                                       2.2
                                                                                                                                     100
                                                                                                                                       5.34
                                                                                                                                          to boiler:
                                                                                                                              coal  (treat as zero)
                                                                                                                  - 2S   Ib/lb coal
                                                                                                                                                            148    10  Ib/hr
                                                                                                                                                                  10  Btu/hr
                                                                                                                                                           52.8
                                                 _10  Ib/hr
                                                  103 Ib/hr
                                                 _10  Ib/hr
                                                  103 Ib/hr
                    Bottom ash:   dry
                                  water
                                  sludge
                    Fly  ash:   dry
                               water
                               sludge
                                                                                                                                                   59.1
                                                                                                                                                  170
                                                                                                                                                    5.6B
                                                                                                                                                    0.57
                                                                                                                                                    6.25
                                                                                                                                                               (continued)

-------
                                (continued)
PROCESS WATER
a.  Steam a_nd  boiler feed water required
b .  Dirty condensate
c.  He than at ion  water
                                                     1,015
OTHER WATER
a .   Dus t control
b.   Service,  sanitary t potable water ;
           Required
           Sewage  recovered
c .   P.e vegetation  water
d ,   Evaporation  f rom storage ponds
     GRAND TOTAL  RAW WATER INPUT TO  PLANT;
                                                    10  Ib/hr
                                                        73
1,298
TREATHENT SLUDGES
a.   Lime  softening
b.   Ion  exchange
c.   Biotreatment
                                                         10  Ib/hr
                                                     solids      water  &  sludge
                                                                      0.005
                                                                                                 Harengo,  Alabama
                                                                                                                            (continued)
                                                                                             Energy Totals
                                                 Feed
                                                 Product  and  byproduct
                                                 Un recovered  heat
                                                                                           10  Btu/hr
                                                                                             13.9
                                                                                                       Conversion efficiency
                                                                                                                                                  73.00*
                                       Disposition o Un re cove red Heat
Direct loss
Designed d_ry
Designed wet
Acid gas removal
  regenerator condenser
Total turbine condensers
Total gas compressor
  interstage cooling
                                                                    10  Btu/hr   % wet
                                                                                                                            0.67
                                                                                                                                         10
                                                                                                                                         10
               10"  Ib water
Btu/lb evap      evap/hr
  1,310                0
  1,310                0
                                                                                             1,310
                                                                                             1, 310
                                                                                             1, 310
                                                                                             1,310
                                                                       3.74
                                                                                                               547

-------
               WORK SHEET:  WATER QUANTITY CALCULATIONS FOR
                               KYGAS PROCESS
 SITE:   Gibson,  Indiana
                                         PRODUCT SIZE:  250 X 10  SCF/day
                                         ENERGY:  10.34 X IO9 Btu/hr
.nalysis (







wt  as-received)
Moisture
C
H
0
N
S
Ash

10.
68.
4.
7,
1.
2.
6.

.0
2
,6
.6
.1
.1
,4
                     HHV Calculated
                        (10 3  Btu/lb)
1,205
COAL FEED
  to reactor:

FGD WATER
  Vaporized
  With eludge
     TOTAL:
  FGD sludge produced, wet
ASH HANDLING
           lb/hr
1-1.7   io  Btu/hr
0.73
              coal
0.29
        Lb/lb coal
                                         100
                          to boiler:
130	10  lb/hr
                                           159   iQa  Btu/hr
95.1  10J lb/hr
37.8  IO3 lb/hr
                                          133
                                                  IO   Lb/hr
                                           54.0  ,10  lb/hr
                    Bottom ash:  dry
                                 water
                                 sludge
                    Fly ash:  dry
                              vater
                              sludge
                                                     78.8
                                  6.67
                                  0.67
                                                                                                Gibson,  Indiana
                                                                                                                            (continued)
                                                                         PROCESS  WATER
                                                                                             a.  Steam and boiler feed water required
                                                                                             b.  Dirty condensate
                                                                                             c.  Metriajiation water
                                                                                                                               537
                                                                                             OTHER WATER NEEDS
a.  Dust control
b.  Service, sanitary & potable water:
          Required
          Sewage recovered
c.  Revegetation water
d.  Evaporation from storage ponds
     GRAND TOTAi RAW WATER INPUT TO PLANT:
                                                                         TREATMENT SLUDGES
                                                                         a.   Lime  softening
                                                                         b.   Ion exchange
                                                                         c.   Biotreatment
                                                                                      10  lb/hr
                                                                                  solids      water E sludge
                                                                                                   4.0
                                                                                                                                0.80
                                                                                                                                                                 BO
                                                                                                                                                                  0.5
                                                                                                                                                                (continued)

-------
    Gibson,  Indiana
                                (continued)
                                                                                                            WORK SHEET:   WATER QUANTITY CA1/3JLATIONS FOR

                                                                                                                             HYGAS PROCESS
                                                                                              SITE:   Warrick, Indiana
PRODUCT SIZE:   250 x 10& ECF/day
                    9
ENERGY:   10.34 X 10  Btu/hr
Energy Totals^
Feed
Product and byproduct
Unrecovered heat
Conversion efficiency
Disposition of Unrecovered Heat
tO 10 Btu/hr  wet
Ln Direct loss 3.04 0
Designed dxy -55 
Designed wet -4 10
Acid gas rejnoval
regenerator condenser 0.80 10
Total turbine condensers 0.67 100
Total gas compressor
interstage cooling -17 10
TOTAL: 5-63
10 Btu/hr
16. 3
10.7
5.6
65.4 s
Btu/lb evap
1,370
1,370
1,370
1,370
1,370
1,370

103 Ib vater
evap/hr
0
0
292
58
489
124
963
Cool Analysis (wt % as-received)
Moisture 9 . 3
c 64.8
H 4.6
0 9.4
N I-2
S 2-4
Ash 8-3
100
HHV Calculated
(103 Btu/lb) 1;L-65
COAL FEED
to reactor: 1,262 10 Ib/hr to boiler:
14 -7 109 Btu/hr
FGD WATER
Vaporized 0.69 Ib/lb coal
With sludge 0.33 Ib/liJ coal
TOTAL:
FGD sludge produced, tfet
ASH HANDLING
10 3 Ib/hr
Bottom ash: dry 107
water 57.6
sludge 16S
Fly ash: dry . 9-01
water 0-9
sludge 9.91









136 103 Ib/hr
1'58 109 Btu/hr

93.6 lo3 Ib/hr
44.8 io3 Ib/hr
138 103 it/hr
63.9 103 uj/hr







                                                                                                                                                                 (continued)

-------
   Warrtck. Indiana
                                (continued)
 PROCESS WATER

 a,   Steara and boiler  feed water  required
 b.   Di rty condensate
 c.   Me thanation water
10  Ib/hr
 1,434
   537
OTHER WATER NEEDS

a.  Dust  control
b.  Service,  sanitary a potable water:
           Required
           Sewage recovered
c.  Revegetation water
d.  Evaporation from storage ponds
     GRAND TOTAX RAW WATER INPUT TO PLANT:
10  Ib/hr
    42
    21
 2 016
TREATMENT  SLUDGES
a.  Lime  softening
b.  Ion exchange
c.  Biotreatment
                                                         10   Ib/hr
                                                    solids      water  & ^sludge
                                                       0,05           0.27
                 0.5
                                                                                                  Warrick, Indiana
                                                                                                                             (continued)
                                           En e rgy
                                                                                                         Feed
                                                                                                         Product and byproduct
                                                                                                         Unrecovered heat
                                                                                              10  Btu/hr
                                                                                               16. 3
                                                                                               10.7
                                                     Conversion efficiency
                                           Disposition of Unrecovered Heat
Direct loss
Designed dry
Designed wet
Acid gas removal
  regenerator condenser
Total turbine condensers
Total gas compressor
  interstage cooling
                                                                                                            10  Ib water
10 Btu/Kr
3.03
0.55
0.40
0.80
0.67
0.17
5.62
 wet
0
0
100
10
100
100

Btu/U) evap
1,370
1,370
1,370
1,370
1,370
1, 370

evap/hr
0
0
292
58
489
124
963

-------
WORK SHEET:  WATER QUANTITY CALCULATIONS FOR
                HYGAS  PROCESS
SITE: Tuscarawas, Ohio
(Ground water and

Mois ture
C
H
0
N
S
Ash
HHV Calculated
(103 Btu/Lb)
COAL FEED
to reactor: 1,140 10 Ib/hr
9
14.7 10 Btu/hr
FGD WATER
Vaporized 0.80 Ib/lb coal
With sludge 0.34 Ib/lb coal
TOTAL:
FGD sludge produced, wet
ASH HANDLING
Bottom ash : dry
water
s ludge
Fly ash: dry
water
sludge
PRODUCT SIZE: 250 X 10 SCF/day
9
ENERGY: 10.34 X 10 Btu/hr

6.3
71.2
4.9
8.1
1.4
2.5
5.6
100
12.90

to boiler: 118 103 Ib/hr
1.52 109 Btu/hr

94.3 lo3 Ib/hr
40.1 103 Ib/hr
134 io3 Ib/hr
57.2 103 Ib/hr

10 3 Lb/hr
65.1
35.1
100
5.28
0.53
5.81
                                                                                 Tuscarawas, Ohio
                                                                                                              (continued)
                                                                               PROCESS WATER
                                                                               a.  Steam and boiler feed water required
                                                                               b.  Dirty condensate
                                                                               c.  Hethaiiation water
                      1,434
                        537
                                                                               OTHER WATER NEEDS

                                                                               a.  Dust control
                                                                               b.  Service, sanitary  potable water:
                                                                                         Required
                                                                                         Sewage recovered
                                                                               c.  Revegetation water
                                                                               d.  Evaporation from storage ponds
                                                                                    GRAND TOTAL RAW WATER INPUT TO PLANT:
                     10  Ib/hr
                        101
                         21
                      1,600
                                                                               TREATMENT SLUDGES         _

                                                                                                   Solids
                                                                               a.   Lime softening    0.86
                                                                               b.   Ion exchange      	
                                                                               c.   Biotreatment
                                                                                                         Ground water
                                                                                                                                      Surface water
                                                                                                     0.1
water & sludge
     4.3
                                                                                                                                                 (continued)

-------
(continued)
ENCPCY
Energy Totals
q
10 Btu/hr
Feed 16.2
Product and byproduct 10.7
Unrecovered neat 5.5

Conversion efficiency 65.7 %

Disposition of Unrecovered Heat
103 U> water
10 Btu/hr % wet Btu/li> evap evap/hr
Direct loss 2-97 0 1,410 0
Designed dry -s5 0 1,410 0
Designed wet 0.40 100 1,410 284.

regenerator condenser 0-80 10 1,410 57
Total turbine condensers 0.67 10 1,410 46

Interstage cooling 0.17 100 1,410 121

TOTAL: 5.56 510





HYGAS PROCESS
SITE: Jefferson, Ohio PRODUCT SIZE: 2SO x 10 SCF/day
ENERGY: 10.34 X 109 Btu/hr
Coal Analysis (wt % as-received)
Moisture 2. 4
C 71.1
H 4.9
0 5.3
N 1.2
S 5.0
Ash 10.1
100
HHV Calculated
(103 Btu/lb) I3- 10
COM, FEED
to reactor: 1,122 103 Lb/hr to boiler: 112 103 Ib/hr
11-7 109 Btu/hr 1.47 109 Btu/hr
FGD WATER
Vaporized 0.86 Ib/lb coal 96.5 lo3 Ib/hr
With sludge 0.69 Ib/lb coal 77.4 103 Ib/hr
TOTAL: 174 103 Ub/hr
FGD sludge produced, wet 110 103 Ib/hr
ASH HANDLING
103 Ib/hr
Bottom ash: dry 116
water 62.2
sludge 179
Fly ash: dry 9.07
water 0.91
                                                                                        sludge
                                                                                                                           (continued)

-------
   Jefferson/  Ohio
                               (continued)
PROCESS WATER
a.  Steam  and boiler  feed  water required
b.  Dirty  condensate
c.  Hethanation water
                                                    1,434
OTHER WATER NEEDS

a.  Dust control
b.  Service/ sanitary  & potable  water:
          Required
          Sewage recovered
c.  Revegetation water
d.  Evaporation from storage  ponds
     GRAND TOTAL RAW WATER  INPUT TO  PLANT:
10  Ib/hr
   37
                                                   2,031
TREATMENT SLUDGES
a.  Lime softening
b.  Ion exchange
c.  Biotreaunent
                                                        10  Ib/hr
                                                    solids      water & sludge
                                                                    0.3
                                                                    0.5
                                                                                               Jefferson, Ohio
                                                                                                                          (continued)
                                                                                           Energy Totals
                                                                                                     Feed
                                                                                                     Product and byproduct
                                                                                                     Unrecovered heat
                                                                                          10  Btu/hr
                                                                                            16.2
                                                                                            10.7
                                                                                             5/51
                                                  Conversion efficiency
                                       Disposition  of  Unrecovered Heat
                                       Direct  loss
                                       Designed  dry
                                       Designed  wet
                                       Acid gas  removal
                                         regenerator  condenser
                                       Total turbine  condensers
                                       Total gas  compressor
                                         interstage cooling
                                                                    10  Btu/hr      wet
                                                                                                                          0.67
              10  Ib water
Btu/lb evap     evap/hr
  1,400               0
  1,400
  1,400
                                                                                                                                               1,400
                                                                                                                                               1,400
  1,400
                      0
                                                                       5.51

-------
                         WORK SHEET:  WATER  QUANTITY CALCULATIONS TOR
                                         KYGAS  PROCESS
                                                                                                         Armstrong, Pennsylvania
                                                                                                                                      (continued)
ro
-j
O
           SITb:  Armstrong, Pennsylvania
           Coal Analysis (wt % as-received)
                               Moisture
                                  C
                                  H
                                  O
                                  N
                                  S
                                  Ash
          COAL FEED
             to  reactor:
                               KHV Calculated
                                  (103 Btu/lb)
                              1,09''  10  Ib/hr
                              14.7   10' Btu/hr
            Vaporized
            with  sludge
               TOTAL:
            FGD sludge produced,  wet
          ASH HANDLING
P-H   Ib/Lb coal
-39   Lb/lb coal
                                                    PRODUCT SIZE:  250 X 10  SCT/day
                                                    ENERGY:  10.34 X 10  Btu/hr
                      73.6
                              Bottcan  ash:   dry
                                            water
                                            sludge
                              Fly  ash:   dry
                                         water
                                         sludge
                      13.40
                                                         to  boiler:
                                           "   10  Ib/hr
                                           1-47  109 Btu/hr
96-s_  _10  Lb/hr
42-B   103 Ib/hr
                                         J-39     1Q3 Ib/hr
                                          61.1   103 Ib/hr
                                 167
                                   0.85
                                                                        PROCESS WATER

                                                                        a.  Steam and boiler  feed water required
                                                                        b.  Dirty condensate
                                                                        c.  Methonation water
                              OTHER WATER HEEDS

                              a.  Dust control
                              b.  Service, sanitary  & potable water:
                                        Required
                                        Sewage recovered
                              c.  Revegetation water
                              d.  Evaporation from storage ponds
                                   GRAND TOTAL RAW WATER INPUT TO PLANT:
TREATMENT SLUDGES
                                                                        a.  Lime softening
                                                                        b.  Ion exchange
                                                                        c.  Biotreatment
                                                                                                                                                              21
                                                                                   2,096
                                                                                      10  Ib/hr
                                                                                  solids      water &  sludge
                                                                                                                              0.1
                                                                                                                                             0.5
                                                                                                                                                                          (continued)

-------
Armstrong, Pennsylvania    (continued)
                                                                                                     WORK SHEET i  WATER QUANTITY CALCULATIONS  FOR
                                                                                                                     HYGAS PROCESS


                                                                                       SITE:  Fayette, West Virginia           PRODUCT SIZE:   250 x 10  SCF/day
Energy Totals
IO9 Btu/hr
Feed 16.2
Product and byproduct 10.7
Unrecovered heat ^-^
Conversion efficiency 65.9 %
Disposition of Unrecovered Heat
10 Ib water
10 Btu/hr % wet Btu/lb evap evap/hr
tj Direct loss 2- 0 1,410 0
-J Designed dry -55  i'410 
*~ Designed wet -4 10 L410 28<
Acid gas removal
regenerator condenser -B 1 l'410 57
Tot*l turbine condensers 0.67 100 1,410 475
Total gas compressor
Jnterstaoe coolinq -" 10 i'410 121
TOTAL: 5.51 937

ENERGY: 10.34 X IO9 Btu/hr
Coal Analysis (wt \ as-received)
Moisture 3.0
C 78.5
H 4.6
0 3.7
N 1.4
S 0.8
Ash 8-
100
HHV Calculated
(IO3 Btu/lb) 14.00
COAL FEED
to reactor: 1,050 io3 Ib/hr to boiler: 106 io3 rb/hr
14.7 10 Btu/hr 1.4B IQ Btu/hr
FGD WATER
Vaporized 0.91 lb/lb coal 96.2 103 Lb/hr
With sludge 0.11 lb/lb coal H-6 Io3 Ib/hr
TOTAL: 108 103 ib/hr
FGD sludge produced, wet 16.6 ^Q Ib/hr
ASH HANDLING
IO3 Ib/hr
Bottom ash: dry 85.7
water 46.1
sludge 132
Fly ash: dry 6.77
water 0.68
sludge 7.45
                                                                                                                                                        (continued)

-------
             Fayette, West Virginia
                                          (continued)
                                                                                                          Fayette, West Virginia     (continued)
           PROCESS WATER
to
-J
to
           a.  Steam and boiler feed water required
           b.  Dirty condensate
           c.  Hethajnation water
OTHER WATER NEEDS

a.  Dust control
b.  Service, sanitary & potable water:
          Required
          Sewage recovered
c.  Revegetation water
d.  Evaporation from storage ponds
     GRAND TOTAL RAW WATER INPUT TO  PLANT:
           TREATMENT SLODGES
           a.   Lime softening
           b.   Ion exchange
           c.   Biotreatment
                                                    1,434
                                                      537
                                                               2,032
                                                        10  Ib/hr
                                                    solids      water & sludge
                                                      0.1           0.3
                                                                    80
Energy Totals

          Feed
          Product and byproduct
          Unrecovered heat

          Conversion efficiency

Disposition of Unrecovered Heat

                             ,.9
Direct loss
Designed dry
Designed wet
Acid gas removal
  regenerator condenser
Total turbine condensers
Total gas compressor
  interstage cooling

          TOTAL:
                                                                                                                                     0.67
                                                                                                                                     0.17
                                                                                                                                                 10
                                                                                                                                                100
                                                                                                                                             10  Btu/hr
                                                                                                                                               16.2
                                                                                                                                               10.7
                                                                                                                                                5.5 	
10  Btu/hr   % wet    Btu/Ib evap
   2.93         0       1,360
   0.55         0       1,360
                                                                                                                                                          1,360
                                                                                                                                               1,360
                                                                                                                                               1,360
                                                                                                                                                          1,360
                                                                                                                                                                      10   Ib water
                                                                                                                                                                       evap/hr
                                                                                                                                                                             59
                                                                                                                                                                            125
                                                                                                                                                                 971

-------
                        HORK  SHEET:   WATER QUANTITY CALCULATIONS FOR
                                        HYGAS PROCESS
                                                                                                          Honongalia, West Virginia    (continued)
         SITE:  Monongalia,  West  Virginia
                                                  PRODUCT SIZE:   250  x  10   ECF/day
                                                  ENERGY:  10.34  x  109  Btu/hr
KJ
^J
OJ
Coal Analysis (wt  as-received)
Moisture 3 . 1
C 78.8
H 4.9
0 4.2
N 1-5
S 1-1
Ash 6.4
100
HHV Calculated
(103 Btu/lb) I4-20
COAL FEED
to reactor: 1,035 10 Ib/hr to boiler:
14.7 109 Btu/hr
FCD WATER
Vaporized 0.92 Ib/lb coal
With sludge 0.15 Lb/lb coal
TOTAL:
FGD sludge produced, wet
ASH HANDLING
103 Ib/hr
Bottom ash: dry 67.6
water 36-4
sludge 104
Fly ash: dry 5- 34
water -53
sludge 5-87










104 103 Ib/hr
1.48 io9 Btu/hr

95.9 io3 Ib/hr
15.6 JO3 Ib/hr
112 IO3 Ib/hr
22.3 IO3 Ib/hr








PROCESS WATER

o.  Steam and boiler  feed water required
b.  Dirty condensate
c.  Methanation water
OTHER WATER NEEDS

a.  Dust control
b.  Service, sajiitary  &  potable  water:
          Required
          Sewage recovered
c.  Revegetation water
d.  Evaporation from storage ponds
     GRAND TOTAL RAW WATER  INPUT TO  PLANT:
                                                                                                       TREATMENT SLUDGES
                                                                                                       a.  Lime softening
                                                                                                       b.  Ion exchajige
                                                                                                       c.  Biotreatment
                                                                                                                                                            1,577
                                                                                                                                                               10  Ib/hr
                                                                                                                                                           solids      water S sludge
                                                                                                                                                              0.02
                                                                                                                                                                            0.11
                                                                                                                                                                         (continued)

-------
     Monongalia,  West Virginia  (continued)
                                                                                                            WORX SHEET:  WATER QUANTITY CALCULATIONS FOR
                                                                                                                            HYGAS PROCESS
                                                                                              SITE;  Mingo, West Virginia
                                                                                                                                      PRODUCT SIZE:  250 X 10  SCF/day

                                                                                                                                      ENERGY:  10.34 X 1Q9 Btu/hr
 Energy  Totals


           Feed
           Product and byproduct
           Unrecovered heat


           Conversion efficiency


Disposition  of Unrecovered Heat
                    10  Btu/hr
                      16.2
                      10.7
                       5.S


                      65.9  
Direct loss
Designed dry
Designed wet

Acid"gas removal
  regenerator condenser
Total turbine condensers

Total gas compressor
  interstage cooling
                             10  Btu/hr
                                2.93
0.67
                    Btu/Lb evap
                      1,380
                      1,380
                     1,380
                     1,380
                     1,380
                     1,380
                                                                 10  Ib water
                                                                   evap/hr
                                                                       520

Moisture 2-2
C 79.5
H 5.2
0 5.9
M I-"
S 0.9
Ash 4-9
100
HHV Calculated
(103 Btu/lb) 14.30
COAL FEED
to reactor: 1,028 10 Ib/hr to boiler:
14.7 109 Btu/hr
FGD WATER
Vaporized 0.94 Ib/lb coal
With sludge 0.12 Lb/Lb coal
TOTAL:
FGD sludge produced, wet
ASH HANDLING
103 Lb/hr
Bottom ash: dry 51.4
water 27.7
sludge 79.1
Fly ash: dry 4.03
water 0.40
sludge 4.43










103 103 Ib/hr
i-47 109 Btu/hr

96 -6 io3 Lb/hr
12-3 103 Lb/hr
109 103 Lb/hr
17-6 103 Lb/hr







                                                                                                                                                                (continued)

-------
   MInge ,_ We3 t Vi rgini_a.
                                (continued)
                                                                                                  Mingo,  West Virginia
                                                                                                                             (continued)
PROCESS WATER
a. Steam and boiler feed water required
b. Dirty condensate
c. Hethanation water
OTHER WATER NEEDS
a.
b.
c.
d.
TRE
a.
b.
Dust control
Service, sanitary fi potable water:
Required
Sewage recovered
Evaporation from storage ponds
GRAND TOTAL RAH WATER INPUT TO PLANT:
1ATMZNT SLUDGES
Lime softening
Ion exchange
103 Ib/hr
1,434
537
ieo
103 Ib/hr
34
21
14
0
0
1,507
10 3 Ib/hr
solids water G sludge
0.03 0.17
	 80
ENERGY
Energy Totals
Feed
Product and byproduct
Conversion efficiency
Disposition of Unrecovered Heat
9
10 Btu/hr  wet

Designed dry 0.55 0
Designed wet 0.40 100
Acid gas removal
regenerator condenser 0.80 10
Total turbine condensers 0.67 10
Total gas compressor
interstage cooling 0.17 100
TOTAL: 5.51
109 Btu/hr
16.2
10.7
5.5
65.9 \
10 Ib water
Btu/lb evap evap/hr
1,360 0
1,360 0
1,360 294
1,360 59
1,360 49
1,360 125
527
c.  Biotreatment
                                                       0.1

-------
               WORK SHEET:  WATER QUANTITY  CALCULATIONS  FOR
                               HYGAS PROCESS
 SITE:   Gillette,  Wyoming
                                         PRODUCT  SIZE:   250 X 10  SCF/dsy
                                         ENERGY:   10.34  x IO9 Btu/hr
Coal Analysis  (wt  ^  as-received)
                     Mois ture
                       C
                       H
                       O

                       s
                       Ash

                     HHV Calculated
                        UO  Btu/lb)
COAL FEED
  to reactor:
FCD WATER
                    1,538  io
                    12.2
                           10   Btu/hr
  Vaporized
  With sludge
     TOTAL:
  FGD sludge produced, wet
ASH HANDLING
                   0-24    Ib/Ib coal
                   0-10    Lb/Ib coal
                                          30.4
                                           0.1
                                         100
                    Bottom  ash:   dry
                                  water
                                  sludge
                    Fly ash:   dry
                               water
                               sludge
                                              to boiler:
                                                   10  l>/hr
                                                     124
17.1
         249   IO3 Ib/hr
                                                                      IO  Btu/hr
         59-7  IO3 Ib/hr
         24-9  IO3 Ib/hr
         84-6  IO3 Ib/hr
         35-5  IO3 Ib/hr
                                                                                               Gillette, Wyoming
                                                                                                                            (continued)
                                       PROCESS  WATER

                                       a.   Steam  and boiler  feed  water  required
                                       b.   Dirty  condensate
                                       c.   Methanation  water
                                                                                             OTHER WATER NEEDS
a.  Dust control
b.  Service, sanitary & potable water:
          Required
          Sewage recovered
c.  Revegetation water
d.  Evaporation from storage ponds
     GRAND TOTAL RAW WATER INPUT TO PLANT:
                                                                                                                                                 1,267
TREATMENT SLUDGES
                                      a.   Lime  softening
                                      b.   Ion exchange
                                      c.   Biotreatment
                                                    solids      water & sludge
                                                      1.2           6.0
                                                                                                                                                   0.2
                                                                                                                                                                52
                                                                                                                                                                 1.0
                                                                                                                                                               (continued)

-------
     i 11 pt- t-f . Mynmi ng
                               (continued)
Energy Totals
          Feed
          Product  and byproduct
          Unrecovered heat
                                                   10  Btu/hr
                                                     14.2
                                                     10.1
                                                      4.1
          Conversion  efficiency
                                                     71.5  
Disposition of Unrecovered  Heat
Direct loss
Designed dry
Designed wet
Acid gaLS removal
  regenerator condenser
Total turbine condensers
Total gas compressor
  interstage cooling
                             10   Btu/hr   t  wet
                                1.45          0
                                0.55
                                            50
              10  It water
Btu/lb evap     evap/hr
  1,401               0
  1,401               0
                                                     1,401
                                                     1,401
                                                     1,401
                                                     1,401
                                                                       286
                                4.04
                                                                                                        WORK SHEET:  WATER QUANTITY CALCULATIONS FOR
                                                                                                                        HYGAS PROCESS
                                                                                          SITE:   Antelope Creek, Wyoming
                                                                                                                                  PRODUCT SIZE:  250 X 10  SCF/day
                                                                                                                                  EKERGY:  10.34 x 109 Btu/hr
                                       Coal Analysis  (wt % as-received)
                                                           Moisture             26.2
                                                              C                 52.6
                                                              H                  3-6
                                                              O                 12.0
                                                              N                  0-6
                                                              S                  0.5
                                                              Ash                4.5
                                       COAL FEED
                                         to reactor:
 HHV Calculated
    (103 Btu/lb)

1,353  1Q3 Ib/hr
12-2   10  Btu/hr
                                       FGD WATER
                                         Vaporized
                                         With sludge
                                            TOTAL:
                                         FGD sludge produced, wet
                                       ASH HANDLING
                                                                                                             0.35    lb/lb coal
                                                                                                             0.07    li/lb coal
                                                                                                                                    9-
                                                                                                                                       to boiler:
                                                                                                                                                        202   IP"1 Ib/hr
                                                                                                                                                        I-82  10  Btu/hr
                                                                                                                                                        70.B  10J
                                           14-2  10  Ib/hr
                                           84.9  iQ3 li/n,-
                                           20-2  103 IJb/hr
                                                                                                              Bottom ash:  dry
                                                                                                                           water
                                                                                                                           sludge
                                                                                                              Fly ash:  dry
                                                                                                                        water
                                                                                                                        sludge
                                                                                                                                              62.7
                                                                                                                                              96-5
                                                                                                                                               7-2a
                                                                                                                                               -73
                                                                                                                                                           (continued)

-------
   Antelope Creek,  Wyoming
                                (continued)
                                                                                                 Antelope Creek, Wyoming    (continued)
 PROCESS HATER
 a.   Steam and boiler  feed water  required
 b.   Dirty condensate
 c.   Methanation water
        OTHER WATER MEEDS

        a.   Dust control
        b.   Service, sanitary & potable  water:
IV)                Required
03                Sewage recovered
        c.   Reve^etation water
        d.   Evaporation from storage ponds
             GRAND TOTAL RAH WATER INPUT TO PLANT:
TREATMENT SLUDGES
 a.   Lime  softening
 b.   Ion exchange
 c.   Siotreatment
d.   Electrodialysis
                                                     1,015
                                                       200
                                                    10   Lb/hr
                                                        59
                          Energy Totals
                                                     1,359
                                                         10   lb/hr
                                                    solids      water  &  sludge
                                                       0.02           0.08
 52
                                    Feed
                                    Product and byproduct
                                    Unrecovered heat

                                    Conversion efficiency
                                                                            10  Btu/hr
                                                                              14.0
                                                                                             Disposition of Unrecovered Heat
                                                                                                                                                              10   Lb water
                                                                                                                         10  Btu/hr   % wet    Btu/lb  evap     evap/hr
                          Direct loss
                          Designed dry
                          Designed wet
                          Acid gag removal
                            regenerator condenser
                          Total turbine condensers
                          Total gas compressor
                            interstage cooling
                                                                                                                            1.30
                                                                                                                            0.67
                                                                                                                                    0.17
                                                          3.89
                                                                                                                                                50
                                                                                                                                                  1,397
                                                                                                                                                  1,397
                                                                                                                                                  1,397
                                                                                                                                                  1,397
                                                                                                                                                  1,397
                                                                                                                                                         1,397
                                                                                                                                                                     57
                                                                                                 452
135

-------
              WORK  SHEET:   WATER QUANTITY CALCULATIONS FOR
                               WYGAS PROCESS
SITE:  Belle Ayr, Wyoming
                                         PRODUCT SIZE:  250 x 10  SCF/day
                                         ENERGY:  10.34 X 1Q9 Btu/hr
Coal Analysis  (wt \ as-received)
                    Moisture              21.7
                       C                  54. 3
                       H                   3.9
                       0                  13.2
                       N                   0.9
                       S                   0.5
                       Ash                 5.5
                    HHV Calculated
                        (103  Btu/lb)
COAL FEED
  to reactor:

FGD WATER
  Vaporized
  With sludge
     TOTAL:
  FGD sludge produced, wet
ASH HANDLING
                    1,308   1QJ  Ib/hr
                    12.2    1Q9  Btu/hr
                            Lb/Ib  coal
                    0.069    Ib/lb  coal
                                           9.31
to boiler:
                       10  Ib/hr
                       109 Btu/hr
                 78-  103 Ib/hr
                 12-8  103 Ib/hr
                 91    103 Ib/hr
                I"	103 U)/hl
                    Bottom  ash:   dry
                                  water
                                  sludge
                    Fly  ash:   dry
                               water
                               Bludge
                                                      0.82
                                                                                               Belle Ayr, Wyoming
                                                                                                                           (continued)
                                                                                             PROCESS WATER
                                                                                             a.   Steam and boiler feed water required
                                                                                             b.   Dirty condensate
                                                                                             C.   Methanation water
                                              OTHER WATER NEEDS

                                              a.   Dust  control
                                              b.   Service,  sanitary  t potable  water:
                                                         Required
                                                         Sewage recovered
                                              c.   Revegetation water
                                              d.   Evaporation from storage  ponds
                                                   GRAND TOTAL RAW WATER  INPUT TO  PLANT:
                                                                                                                                               10  Ib/hr
                                                                                                                                                   57
1,380
                                                                                            TREATMENT SLUDGES
                                                                                            a.  Lime softening
                                                                                            b.  Ion exchange
                                                                                            c.  Biotreatment
                                                                                                                                                    10   Ib/hr
                                                                                                                                                solids       water & sludge
                                                                                                                                                  1.3           6.5
                                                                                                                                                               52
                                                                                                                                                              (continued)

-------
                                {continued)
                                                                                                           WORK SHEET:   HATER QUANTITY CALCULATIONS FOR
                                                                                                                           bYGAS PROCESS
                                                                                             SITE:   Hanna  Coal  Fid., Wyoming
                                                                                                     PRODUCT SIZE:  250 X 10  SCT/day
                                                                                                     ENERGY:  10.34 x 109 Btu/hr
           Feed
           Product and byproduct
           Unrecovered heat

           Conversion efficiency

Disposition  of Unrecovered Heat
                                                    10   Btu/hr
                                                     13.9
                       3.8
ro
00
O
Direct loss
Designed dry
Designed wet
Acid gas removal
Total turbine condensers
109
i
0
0
0
0
Btu/hr
.21
.55
.40
.80
.67
 wet
0
0
100
10
10
Btu/lb evap
1
1
1
1
1
,401
,401
,401
,401
,401
10 Ib water
evap/>ir
0
0
286
57
48
Total gas compressor
  interstage cooling
0.17
            50
                     1,401
                                                                       452
Coal Analysis (wt % as-received)
                    Moisture
                       C
                       H
                       O
                       N
                       S
                       Ash

                    HHV Calculated
                        (103 Btu/lb)
COM. FEED
  to reactor i      1,143  10  Ifc/hr
                   12.2   109 Btu/hr
                                                                                                      60.5
                                                                                                      12.5
                                                                                                                                     100
FGD HATER
  Vaporized
  With sludge
     TOTAL:
  FGD sludge produced, wet
ASH HANDLING
                                                                                                                 0.60   Lb/Lb coal
                                                                                                                 0.15   Lb/lb coal
                                                                                                                 Bottom ash:  dry
                                                                                                                              water
                                                                                                                              sludge
                                                                                                                 Fly ash:  dry
                                                                                                                           water
                                                                                                                           sludge
                                                                                                                                          to boiler:
                                                                                                                                                                  10   Ib/hr
                                                                                                                                                           1.53   10  Btu/hr
                                                                                                                                                          66.1    1Q3  Ib/hr
                                                                                                                           21.5    1Q   Ib/hr
                                                                                                                                                                  10   Ib/hr
                                                                                                                                                         108
                                                                                                                                                           30-S    IQJ  Ib/hr
                                                                                                                                               10  Lb/hr
                                                                                                                                                  94.9
                                                                                                                   9.30
                                                                                                                   0.93
                                                                                                                  10.2
                                                                                                                                                               (continued)

-------
             Hanna Coal	Fid., Wyoming
                                          (continued)
                                                                                                           Hanna Coal Fjj.,  Wyoming   (continued)
NJ
CO
          PROCESS  WATER


          a.   Stearo and boiler feed water  required
          b.   Dirty condensate
          c.   Methanation water
OTHER WATER MEEDS


a.  Dust control

b.  Service, sanitary  6  potable water:

          Required

          Sewage recovered

c.  Ravagetation water

d .  Evaporation f rom s torage ponds

     GRAND TOTAL RAW WATER INPUT TO PLANT:
          TREATMEirr  SLUDGES
          a.  Lime  eoftening

          b.  Ion exchange
          c.  BiotreaCment
                                                    10  Ib/hr
                                                     1,015
                                                               1,750
                                                                 1.33
Energy Totals


          Feed

          Product  and byproduct

          Unrecovered heat


          Conversion efficiency


Disposition of__ Umrecovered Heat
                                                                                                                                                10   Btu/hr
                                                                                                                                                 13,7
                                                                                                                                                            73.7
                               9
                             10  Btu/hr   % wet    Btu/lb evap
10  Ib water
  evap/hr
Direct loss
Designed dry
Designed wet

Acid gas removal
  regenerator condenser
Total turbine condensers

Total gas compressor
  interstage cooling
1.01
0.55
0.40
0.80
0.67
0
0
100
10
100
1,397
1,397
1,397
1,397
1,397
0
0
286
57
480
                                                                                                                                      -17
                                                                                                                            3  60
                                                                                                                                                            1,397
                                                                                                                                                                              122
                                                                                                                                                                    945

-------
               WORK  SHEET:   WATER QUANTITY CALCULATIONS FOR
                               IfYGAS PROCESS
SITE:  Decker, Montana
                                         PRODUCT SIZE:  250 x 1Q  SCF/day
                                         ENERGY:  10, 34 X 10  Btu/hr
Coal Analysis  (wt  * as-received)
                    Moisture
                       C
                       H
                       O
                       N
                       S
                       Ash
                                         100
03 HHV Calculated
(103 Btu/lb)
COAL FEED
to reactor: 1,265 lo3 lb/hr
12.2 lo9 Btu/hr
TCD WATER
Vaporized 0.42 Ib/lb coal
With sludge 0.07 Ib/lb coal
TOTAL:
FGD sludge produced, wet
ASH HANDLING
Bottom ash: dry
water
sludge
Fly ash: dry
water
sludge
9.48
to boiler: 18& 103 lb/hr
1.76 io9 Btu/h:
78.0 103 lb/hr
13-0 IO3 lb/hr
91-0 IO3 lb/hr
18-6 IO3 li/hr
IO3 lb/hr
48.9
26.3
75.3
5.50
0.55
6.05
                                                                                                           Decker,  Montana
                                                                                                                                     (continued)
                                                                                                       PROCESS WATER
a.  Steam arid boiler feed water  required
b.  Dirty condensate
c.  Methanation water
                                                                                                                                                            1,015
OTHER WATER NEEDS

a.  Dust control
b.  Service, sanitary 6 potable water:
          Required
          Sewage recovered
c.  Revegetation water
d.  Evaporation from storage ponds
     GRAND TOTAL RAW WATER INPUT TO  PLANT!
10  lb/hr
      67
                                                                                                                                                             1,900
                                                                                                       TREATMENT SLUDGES
                                                                                                       a.   Lime softening
                                                                                                       b.   Ion exchange
                                                                                                       c.   Biotreatment
                                                                                                       d.   Electrodialysis
                                                                                                                                                               10  Ib/hr
                                                                                                                                                           solids      water & sludge
                                                                                                                                                           0.05
                                                                                                                                                                           0.3
                                                                    1.0
                                                                                                                                                                         (continued)

-------
    DecXer,  Montana
                               (continued)
                                                                                                          WORK SHEET:   WATER QUANTITY CALCULATIONS FOR
                                                                                                                           HYGAS PROCESS
Energy Totals
                                                    10   Btu/hr
                                                                                            SITE:  East Hoorhead, Montana
                                                                                            Coal Analysis  (wt \ as-received)
PRODUCT SIZE:   250 x 1Q6 EOT/day
ENERGY:   10.34  x  1Q9 Btu/hr
Feed j 3 q
Product ajid byproduct 10.1
Unrecovered heat 3.6
Conversion efficiency 72.5 1
Disposition of Unrecovered Heat
2 9 103 Lb water
10 Btu/hr % wet Btu/lb evap evap/hr
Direct loss 1.24 0 1,407 0
Designed dry 0.55 0 1,407 0
Designed wet 0.40 100 1,407 284
Acid gas removal
regenerator condenser 0.80 10 1,407 57
Total turbine condensers 0.67 100 1,407 476
Total gas compressor
interstage cooling 0.17 100 1,407 121
TOTAL: 3.83 938

Moisture 36 . 1
C 42.4
H 2.8
0 11.4
H 0.7
S 0.6
Ash 6.2
100
HHV Calculated
(103 Btu/lb) 7-04
COAL FEED
to reactor: 1,730 103 lb/hr to boiler: 308 1Q3 Lb/hr
12.2 109 Btu/hr 2.17 109 Btu/h
FGD WATER
Vaporized 0.13 lb/Lb coal 40 . 1 103 1:b^hr
With eludge -08 lb/lb coal 24.7 103 n,/^
TOTAL: 64.7 103 ]^fhr
FGD sludge produced, wet 35.2 ^n3 Lb/hr
ASH HANDLING
103 Lb/hr
Bottom ash:dry 111
water 59 . 8
sludge 171
Fly ash: dry 15.3
water 1.53
sludge 16.8
                                                                                                                                                               (continued)

-------
               d5 c Moorhead, Montana    (continued)
                                                                                                           East Moorhead, Montana     (continued)
KJ
CO
          PROCESS WATER

          a.   Sneam ajid boiler feed  water required
          b.   Di rty condensate
          c.   Hethanation water
OTHER WATER  HEEDS

a.   Dust control
b.   Service ,  sanitary & pota_ble water;
          Required
          Sewage recovered
c.   Revegetation water
d.   Evaporation  from storage ponds
     GRAND TOTAL RAW WATER IKPUT TO PLANT:
         TREATMENT SLUDGES
         a.  Lime  softening
         b.  Ion exchange
         c.  Biotreatment
103 Lb/hr
1,015
296
200
103 lb/hr
95
21
14
0
5
1,263
103 lb/hr
solids water 6 sludge
1.2 6.0
	 52
Energy Totals
Feed
Product and byproduct
Unrecovered heat
Conversion efficiency
Disposition of Unrecovered Heat
10 Btu/hr  wet
Direct loss 1.65 0
Designed dry 0.55 0
Designed wet 0-40 100
Acid gas removal
regenerator condenser 0.80 10
Total turbine condensers 0.67 10
Total gas compressor
interstage cooling -17 50
TOTAL: 4-24
9
10 Btu/hr
14.4
10.1
4. 24
70.5 %
Btu/Lb evap
1,407
1,407
1,407
1,407
1,407
1,407

103 Ib water
evap/hr
0
0
284
57
48
60
449

-------
                      WORK SKEET:  WATER QUANTITY CALCULATIONS FOR
                                      KYGAS PROCESS
                                                                                                        Colstrip,  Montana
                                                                                                                                  (continued)
NJ
03
Ln
        SITE:   Colstrip,  Montana
        Coal Analysis (wt % as-received)
                            Mois ture
                               C
        COM. FEED
          to reactor:
    H
    0
    N
    S
    Ash

 HHV Calculated
    (103  Btu/lb)

1,161   IQ]  u,/hr
                                    y
                           12.2   10  Btu/hr
        FGD HATER
          Vaporized
          With sludge
             TOTAL:
          FGD sludge produced, wet
        ASH HANDLING
 0.37   Ib/Lb coal
 0.06   Lb/lb coal
                                                PRODUCT  SIZE:   250 x 10  SCF/day
                                                ENERGY:   10.34 x 109 BtuAir
                            Bottom ash:  dry
                                         water
                                         sludge
                            Fly ash:   dry
                                      water
                                      sludge
                                                      to boiler:
202   10  Ib/hr
                                                                       1.80  10   Btu/hr
                                           74.8   10  Ib/hr
                                          12.1   10  Ib/hr
                                          B6.9   103 Ib/hr
                                          17.3   1Q3 Ib/hr
                               10  Lb/hr
                                 97.1
                                 52.3
                                  11.2
                                   1.12
                                  12.3
                                                                        PROCESS WATER

                                                                        a.   Steam and boiler feed water  required
                                                                        b.   Dirty condensate
                                                                        c.   Methanation water
OTHER WATER NEEDS

a.  Dust control
b.  Service, sanitary  s  potable water:
          Required
          Sewage recovered
c.  Revegetation water
d.  Evaporation from storage  ponds
     GRAND TOTAL RAH WATER  INPUT TO  PLANT:
                                                                       TREATMENT SLUDGES
                                                                       a.   Lime  softening
                                                                       bo   Ion exchange
                                                                       c.   Biotreatment
                                                                                                                                                       1,015
                                                                                            water S sludge
                                                                                                Q.003
                                                                                               52
                                                                                                                                                                       1.0
                                                                                                                                                                     (continued)

-------
    Costnp, Montana
                               (continued)
                                                                                                     WORK SHEET:   WATER QUANTITY CALCULATIONS FOR
                                                                                                                      HYGAS PROCESS
                                                                                       SITE:  El Paso, New Mexico
                                                                                                                                PRODUCT  SIZE:   250  X 10  SCT/day

                                                                                                                                ENERGY:   10.34  X 10  Btu/hr
Energy Totals
10 Btu/hr
Feed 14.0
Product and byproduct 10.1
Unrecovered heat 3.9

Conversion efficiency 72.3 \

Disposition of Unrecovered Heat
9 103 Ib water
10 Btu/hr % wet Btu/Ib evap evap/hr
Direct loss 1.28 0 1,414 0
Designed dry 0.55 0 1,414 0
Designed wet 0.40 100 1,414 283

regenerator condenser 0.80 10 1,414 57
Total turbine condensers 0.67 10 1,414 47

interstage cooling 0.17 100 1,414 120

TOTAL: 3-87 507







Coal Analysis (wt \ as-received)
Moisture !6 . 3
c 49.2
H 3.6
0 10-2
N -fl
S 0.7
Ash !9-2
100
HHV Calculated
(103 Btu/lb) 8-62
COAL FEED
to reactor: 1,413 103 Ib/hr to boiler: 193 103 Ib/hr
12 -2 109 Btu/hr 1'66 109 BtuA'r
FGD WATER
Vaporized 0.42 Ib/lb coal 80.9 103 Ib/hr
With sludge 0.10 Ib/lb coal 19.3 1Q3 Ib/hr
TOTAL: 100 103 Ib/hr
FGD sludge produced, wet 27.5 10 Ib/hr
ASH HANDLING
103 Ib/hr
Bottom ash: dry 279
water ISO
sludge 429
Fly ash: dry 29.6
water 2.96
sludge 32.5
                                                                                                                                                          (continued)

-------
El Paso, New Mexico

ppf/JESS WATER
10 ib/hr
a. St<-aja a/id boiler fef-d water required 1,015
b Dirty rondf-naate nh
<-. M'jthination wat'-r 20


ryrHEH WATER NEEDS
103 ib/hr
a. Dust control 84
b ^<-rvicc -anitar t jtarle
Required 21
j 14


CKAJID TCTIAL RAW WATEK IlfflJT TO PLAIfT: 1,436

T(
-------
                       WORK SHEET:  HATER QUANTITY CALCULATIONS FOR
                                        HYGAS  PROCESS
                                                                                                       Gallup,  New Mexico
                                                                                                                                 (continued)
NJ
CO
CO
         SITE:  Gallup, New Mexico
Coal Analysis  (wt  %  as-received)
                     Mois ture
                        C
                        H
                        O

                        S
                        Ash

                    HHV Calculated
                        (103  Btu/lb)
COAL FEED
                           ,3
           to  reactor:
        FGD WATER
                                   10
                            I2-2   109 Btu/hr
  Vaporized
  With sludge
     TOTAL:
  FGD sludge produced, wet
ASH HANDLING
                             0.61   Ib/lb coal
                             0,06   Ib/lb coal
                                                  PRODUCT SIZE;   250 x 10  SCF/day
                                                  ENERGY:   10.34  X 1Q9 Btu/hr
                                                    4.7
                                                   5.1
                                                 100
11.30
                            Bottom  ash:   dry
                                          water
                                          sludge
                            Fly  ash:   dry
                                       water
                                       sludge
                                                      to boiler:
                     140   IP"1 Ib/hr
                     1-5S  109 Btu/hr
                    85.3   10  Ib/hr
                     8.39  103 Ib/hr
                    93.7   103 li/hr
                    12.0   10  Ib/hr
            5.70
            0.57
                                                PROCESS WATER

                                                a.  Steam and boiler feed water required
                                                b.  Dirty condensate
                                                c.  Methanation water
                                                                                                   OTHER WATER NEEDS
                                                                                          a.  Dust control
                                                                                          b.  Service, sanitary 6 potable water:
                                                                                                    Required
                                                                                                    Sevage recovered
                                                                                          c.  Revegetation water
                                                                                          d.  Evaporation from storage ponds
                                                                                               GRAND TOTAL RAW WATER INPUT TO PLANT:
                                                                                                  TREATMENT  SLUDGES
                                                a.   Lime softening
                                                b.   Ion exchange
                                                c.   Biotreatment
                                                d.   Electrodialysis
                                                                                                                                                     10  Ib/hr
                                                                                                                                                      1,015
                                                                                                                                                      1,412
                                                                                                                                                      solids
                                                                                                                                                      0.02
                                                                                                                                                         vater  &  sludge
                                                                                                                                                              0.11
                                                                                                                                                                     52
                                                                                                                                                            137
                                                               6.27
                                                                                                                                                                    (continued)

-------
                                                             Gallup,  New  Mexico         (continued)
                                                         Energy  Totals
                                                                                                           109 Btu/hr
                                                                   Feed                                      13.B
                                                                   Product and byproduct                     10.1	
                                                                   Unrecovered heat                           3 . 7	

                                                                   Conversion efficiency                     73.5 %

                                                         Disposition of Unrecovered Heat

                                                                                       g
                                                                                     10  Btu/hr   % wet    Btu/Lb evap     evap/hr
NJ                                                       Direct  loss                    1.06         0       1,375               0
lQ                                                       Designed dry                   0.55         0       1.375           	0_
                                                         Designed wet                   O."0       1-00       1,375             291
                                                         Acid  gas removal
                                                           regenerator condenser        0-80        10       1,375              58
                                                         Total turbine condensers        -&7        !       1,375              49
                                                         Total  gas  compressor
                                                           interstage  cooling
                                                                                        3.65

-------
                                                                                                                           WORK SHEET:   WATER QUANTITY CALCULATIONS FOR

                                                                                                                                           BIGAS PROCESS
                                                                                                                                                     PRODUCT SIZE:  250 X 10 EOF/day


                                                                                                                                                     ENERGY:  9.9 x 10  Btu/hr
to
O
Coal Analysis  (wt   as-received)


                     Moisture


                        C


                        H


                        O


                        N


                        S


                        Ash




                     HHV Calculated




COAL FEED


  to reactor:

     bituminous
     lignite


FGD HATER


  Vaporized


  With sludge


     TOTAL:


  FGD Bludge produced,  wet


ASH HANDLING





                     Bottom ash:   dry


                                  water


                                  sludge


                     Fly ash:  dry


                               water


                               sludge
                                                                                                                                                                Tables  3-18,  3-19
                                                                                                                                                     100
                                                                                                                                                          to boiler:
                                                                                                                                                                         Table  A4-5
                                                                                                                                                                         Table  A4-5
                                                                                                                                                                                 _10  Ib/hr


                                                                                                                                                                                  103 Ib/hr
                                                                                                                                                                                 _10  Ib/hr

                                                                                                                                                                                  103 Ib/hr
                                                                                                                                                                    Ib/hr
                                                                                                                                                                Appendix 6
                                                                                                                                                                               (continued)

-------
                                (continued)
                                                                                                                                  (continued)
 PROCESS WATER

                                                     ID3 Ib/hr

 a.   Steam and boiler  feed  water required           Tabj.e A4-4  (steajti  to  gaaifier)

 b.   Dirty water input           Table A4-4  (water to quench L water to slurry  coal)
c.   Di r ty condensate

d,   M^'thanation water
Table A4-4

Table A4-4
                                             Energy  Totals
Feed

Product and byproduct
Unrecovered heat
10  Btu/hr

Calculated

   9.9

Table A4-5
OTHEK  WATTR NEEDS
                                                                                                            Conversion  efficiency
                                                                                                                                                      Table A4-5
a.  DTJSt  control

b.  Sen/ice,  sanitary  &  potable water:

           Requi red

           Sewage recovered

c.  Kevegeta tion water

d.  Evaporat ion from a torage  ponds

     GRAND TOTAL RAW WATER  INPUT TO PLANT:
T H F.A TM rjrr  s Ij
                                                                                                  Disposition of Unrecovered Heat
                                                     Appendix 11
                                             Direct loss

                                             Designed dry

                                             Designed wet

                                             Acid gas removal
                                               regenerator condenser

                                             Total turbine condensers

                                             Total gas compressor
                                               interstage cooling
                   10   Btu/hr   % wet

                   Table A4-6

                   Table A4-6
                   Table A4-6"
                                                                                                                10   lb water
                                                                                                 Btu/lb evap     evap/hr
a.   Lime  aof tening

b,   Ion excha/ige
      Appendix 11
                                                                                               *Slag quench and wet  cooljng  in the process

-------
WORK SHEET:  WATER QUANTITY CALCULATIONS FOR
                BIGAS PROCESS
                          PRODUCT SIZE:  250 x .10   SCF/day
(Illinois river water and ^^ ; g ^ ^ ^ 8(;u/hr
we 1 1 water )
Moisture 16.1
C 60.1
H 4.1
0 8.3
N 1.1
S 2.9
Ash 7.4
100
HHV Calculated
(103 Btu/lb) 10.76
COAL FEED
to reactor: 1,170 10 Ib/hr to boiler: 151
12.6 109 Btu/hr 1-62
FGD WATER
Vaporized 0.57 Ib/Lb coal 86.1
With sludge 0.40 Ib/lb coal 60.4
TOTAL: 146
FGD sludge produced, wet 86.3
ASH HANDLING
10 3 Ib/hr
Bottom ash: dry 88.8
water 47.3
sludge I"
Fly ash: dry B-94
water O-8'
sludge 9-83










10 3 J-b/hr
109 Btu/hr

10 3 Ib/hr
10 3 Ib/hr
10 3 Ib/hr
103 Ib/hr








Bureau,  Illinois
                           (continued)
                                                                              PROCESS WATER
                                                                              a.   Steam and boiler feed water required
                                                                              b.   Dirty water input
                                                                              c.   Dirty condensate
                                                                              d.   Methanation water
                                                1,193
                                                  890
                                                                              OTHER MATER NEEDS
                                                                              a.   Dust control
                                                                              b.   Service,  sanitary fi potable water:
                                                                                        Required
                                                                                        Sewage recovered
                                                                              c.   Revegetation water
                                                                              d.   Evaporation  from storage ponds
                                                                                  GRAND TOTAL RAW HATER INPUT TO PLANT:
                                                                                                                                   106
                                                   21
                                                2,151
                                                                             TREATMENT  SLUDGES
                                                                             a.   Lima  softening
                                                                             b.   Ion exchange
                                                                                                             Well water
                                                                                                                                  Illino
                                                                                                                                 solids
                                                             water & sludge
                                                                 0.3
                                                                11
                                                                                                                                                (continued)

-------
              bureau,  Illinois
                                            (continued)
                                                                                                                       WORK SHEET:  WATER QUANTITY CALCULATIONS FOR
                                                                                                                                        BIGAS  PROCESS
N >
O)
OJ
            Energy Totals

                       Feed
                       Product and byproduct
                       Unrecovered heat

                       Conversion efficiency

            Disposition  of Unrecovered Heat
                      10  Btu/hr
                        14.2
            Direct  loss
            Designed  d^y
            Designed  wet
            Acid  gas  removal
               regenerator condenser
            Total turbine condensers
            Total ga3 compressor
               interstage  cooling
10  Btu/hr   % wet
   1 .00         	0
              10  Lb water
3tu/lb evap     evap/hr
   1, 390          _ 0
   1, 390
   1,390
                          1,390
                          1, 390
                                             0_
                                            281
                                            820
                                                                   1, 390
                                                                                   1, 338
                                                                                                         SITE.   Shelby, Illinois
                                         Coal Analysis (wt * as-received)
                                                             Moisture
                                                                C
                                                                H
                                                                0
                                                                N
                                                                S
                                                                Ash
COAI. FEED
  to reactor:
HHV Calculated
   (LO3 Btu/Lb)

        3
                           10
                                                                                   12.5   10   Btu/hr
                                                            O.SS
  Vaporized
  With sludge
     TOTAL.:
  FCD sludge produced, wet
ASH HANDLING
      _Lb/Lb coal
       Lb/Lb coal
                                                                                                                                                  PRODUCT SIZE:  250 x .10  SCF/day
                                                                                                                                                  ENERGY:  9.9 x 109 Btufttl
                                          13.9
                                                                                                          7.2
                                                                                                         14.5
                                              to boiler:
                                                                      10   Ib/hr
                                                                                                                             1.61   10  Btu/hr
                                                                                                                  lb/hr
                                                                                                                             67-9   103  Lb/hr
                                                                                                                            155 _ 10 3  Lb/hr
                                                                                                                             97.1   103  Lb/hr
                                                                                                                            Bottom  ash:   dry
                                                                                                                                          water
                                                                                                                                          3ludge
                                                                                                                            Fly  ash:   dry
                                                                                                                                       water
                                                                                                                                       sludge
                                                                                                                                                           10  Lb/hr
                                                                                                                                                             183
                                                                                                                                                                           (continued)

-------
     Shelby,  Illinois
                                (continued)
                                                                                                 Shelby, Illinois
                                                                                                                              (continued)
 PROCESS WATER

 a.  Steam and boiler  feed water  required
 b.  Dirty water input
 c.  Dirty condensate
 d.  Metlhanation water
10  Ib/hr
   410
 1,273
   9 SO
   234
Energy Totals
          Feed
          Product and byproduct
          Unrecovered heat
                                                   10   Btu/hr
 OTHER WATER REEDS
                                                                                                         Conversion efficiency
                                                                                                                                                     70.2%
 a.   Dust control
 b.   Service,  sanitary G. potable water:
           Required
           Sewage recovered
 c.   Revegetation water
 d.   Evaporation from storage ponda
     GRAND  TOTAL RAW HATER INPUT TO PLANT:
TREATMENT SLUDGES
a.  Lime softening
b.  Ion exchange
                                           Disposition of Unrecovered Heat
   21
    0
                                                    1,355
                                                    solids
                                                                water & sludge
Direct loss
Designed dry
Designed wet
Acid gas removal
  regenerator condenser
Total turbine condensers
Total gas compressor
  interstage cooling
                                                                                                         TOTAL:
                                                                       10  Btu/hr      wet    Btu/lb evap
                                                                                                            10  Ib water
                                                                                                              evap/hr
0.98
0.32
0.42
1.02
1.14
0.33
4.21
0
0
100
0
10
50

J
1
1
1
1
1

,390
,390
,390
,390
,390
,390

0
0
302
0
82
119
503

-------
              WORK SHEET:  WATER  QUANTITY CALCULATIONS FOR
                               BIGAS  PROCESS
                                                                          Vigo,  Indiana
                                                                                                      (continued)
SITE:  Vigo, Indiana
Coal Analysis  (wt  *  as-received)
                     Moisture
                        C
                        H
                        O
                        N
                        S
                        Ash

                     HHV Calculated
                        (Id3 Btu/lb)
COAL  FEED
   to  reactor:

FGD WATER
   Vaporized
   With sludge
      TOTAL:
   FGD sludge produced, wet
ASH HANDLING
1,111  103 Ib/hr
         9
12.5   10  Btu/hr
       _lb/Ib coal
        Ib/lb coal
                     PRODUCT SIZE:  250 x .10  SCF/day
                                      9
                     ENERGY:  9.9 X 10  Btu/hr
                      16.2
                      11.26
                     Bottom ash:  dry
                                  water
                                  sludge
                     Fly ash:  dry
                               water
                               sludge
to boiler:
                                          143
                                10   Ib/hr
                                 87.8
                                 47.3
                                 135
                       10
                1.61   10  Btu/hr
                                          84.4    10   Ib/hr
                12.9   10  Ib/hr
                97.2   103 Ib/hr
                18.4	103 Ib/hr
                                             PROCESS WATER

                                             a.   Steajn and boiler feed water required
                                             b.   Dirty water input
                                             c.   Dirty condensate
                                             d.   Methanation water
OTHER HATER NEEDS

a.  Dust control
b.  Service, sanitary & potable water:
          Required
          Sewage recovered
c.  Revegetation water
d.  Evaporation from storage ponds
     GRAND TOTAL RAW WATER INPUT TO PLANT:
                                                                       TREATMENT SLUDGES
                                                                                           a.  Lime softening
                                                                                           b.  Ion exchange
                                                                                                                                                 410
                                                    1,147
                                                      841
                                                                                                                             234
                                                                                                                                      water    sludge
                                                                                                                                            4 0
                                                                                                                                                             (continued)

-------
   Vigo, Indiana
                               (continued)
                                                                                                         WORK SHEET:   HATER QUANTITY CALCULATIONS FOR
                                                                                                                          BIGAS PROCESS
                                                                                           SITE:  Kerranerer, Wyoming
 Energy Totals

           Feed
           Product and byproduct
           Unrecovered heat

           Conversion  efficiency

 Disposition  of Unrecovered Heat
Direct loss
Designed dry
Designed wet
Acid gas removal
  regenerator condenser
Total turbine condensers
Total gas compressor
  interstage cooling
                             10  Btu/hr   % wet
                                0.98         0
0.36
0. 39
           100
0.33
                                           100
                   10  Btu/hr
                    1-1.1	
                    70.2
                   Btu/lb evap
                      1,390
                      1,390
                      1,390
                      1,390
                      1,390
                                                      1,390
                                                                 10  Ib water
                                                                   evap/hr
                                       820
                                       237
                                                                     1,338
                                                                                                                                    PRODUCT SIZE:   250 x .10  SCF/day
                                                                                                                                    ENERGY:  9.9 x 1Q9 Btu/hr

Moisture 2.8
C 71.8
H 5.0
O 9.0
N 1-2
s i.o
Ash 9.2
100
HHV Calculated
(103 Btu/lb) 12.88
COAL FEED
to reactor: 981 10 Ib/hr to boiler: 113
9
1.2.6 10 Btu/hr 1.46
FGD WATER
Vaporized 0.8-1 Ib/lb coal 94.9
With sludge 0.14 Lb/lb coal 15.8
TOTAL: m
FGD sludge produced, wet 22.6
ASH HANDLING
10 Ib/hr
Bottom ash: dry 92.3
water 49.7
sludge 142
Fly ash: dry 3.32
water 0.83
sludge 9.15









103 Ib/hr
109 Btu/hr

103 Ib/hr
10 3 Ib/hr
103 Ib/hr
103 Ib/hr








                                                                                                                                                             (continued)

-------
   Kemmere^r,  Wyoming
                                (cont inued)
PROCESS WflTTH


a.   Steam and  boiler feed water required
b.   Dirty water  input
c.   Dirty condensate
d.   Me thanation wate r
10" Ib/hr
OTKER WATER  KEEPS
a .   Dust  control
b.   Service,  sanitary & potable  water:
           Re q u i r e d
           Sewage re cove red
c.   Revegetation water
d .   Evaporation f rom storage ponds
     GRAND TOTAL RAH WATLR  INPUT TO PLANT:

TR11ATMHNT SLUDGES
a. -   Lj_me softening
b.   Ion  exchange
                                                          10"  Lb/hr
                                                     solids       water & sludge
                                                                                                Kemmerer,  Wyoming
                                                                                                                              (continued)
                                          Energy Totals
                                                    Feed
                                                    Product and byproduct
                                                    Unrecovered heat
10" Btu/hr
 14.1	
                                                                                                                                                    4.05
                                                                                                        Conversion efficiency
                                                                                              Disposition of Unrecovered  Heat
                                                                                                            10' Ib water
Direct loss
Designed dry
Designed wet
Acid gas rejnoval
regenerator condenser
Total turbine condensers
Total gas compressor
interstage cooling
TOTAL:
10 Btu/hr
0.81
0.36
0.39
1.02
1.14
0.33
4.05
t wet
0
0
100
0
10
100

Btu/lb evap
1,397
1,397
1,397
1, 397
1, 397
1,397

evap/hr
0
0
279
0
82
236
597

-------
                            WORK SHEET:  HATER QUANTITY  CALCULATIONS FOR
                                            BIGAS PROCESS
                                                                                                              Slope, North Dakota
                               (continued)
tv)
VD
CD
             SITE:   Slope,  North DaJcota
             Coal Analysis  (wt % as-received)
                                  Hois ture
                                     C
                                     H
                                     O
                                     N
                                     S
                                     Ash
                                  HHV Calculated
             COAL. FEED
                                                      PRODUCT SIZE:   250 x 10  SCF/day
                                                      ENERGY:  9.9 x 1Q9 Btu/hr
                                                      100
  to reactor:

FGD WATER
  Vaporized
  With sludge
     TOTAL;
  FGD sludge p
ASH HANDLING

?.ie

12. ;

	 Q_


:d,

(10 8tu/lb) S.62
y 	 10 Ib/hr to boiler: 514
q
i 10 Btu/hr 2.B9
,nfillb/lb coal 0
, ?s Ib/lb coal 129

129
wet 184
10 Ib/hr

103 l>/hr
q
10 Btu/hr
103 Lb/hr
10 3 IbAr
3
10 Ib/hr
10 3 Ib/hr

Bottom ash: dry 152


Fly


water 81.8
sludge 234
a-sh: dry 27.6
water 2.75
sludge 30. 3_





PROCESS HATER

a.  Steam and boiler feed  water required
b.  Dirty water input
c.  Dirty condenaate
d.  Methanation water
OTHER HATER HEEDS

a.  Dust control
b.  Service, sanitary  & potable water:
          Required
          Sewage recovered
c.  Revegetation water
d.  Evaporation from storage  ponds
     GRAND TOTAL RAW WATER  INPUT TO PLANT:
                                                                                                           TREATMENT SLUDGES
                                                                                                           a.   Lime softening
                                                                                                           b.   Ion exchange
                                                                                                                                                              10  Ib/hr
                                                                                                                                                                 691
                                                                                                                                                               1,410
                                                                                                                                                               solids
                                                                                                                                                                           wajier  &  sludge
                                                                                                                                                                              (continued)
                Due  to  large  n-oistuxe content of coal;  treat  as  ze

-------
  5 loe ,  Noj^
                               (continued)
E_ne_rgy Totals
          Feed
          Product  and  byproduct:
          Unrecovered  heat
10  Btu/hr
  15.1
   9.9
          Conversion  efficiency
                                                      66.0 *
Disposition of Unrecovered Heat
Direct loss
Designed dry
Designed wet
Acid gas removal
  regenerator condenser
Tota1 turbine condensera
Total gas compressor
  inters taga cooling
                             10  Btu/hr   % wet
                                                                 10   Ib water
                                                   Btu/Ib evajJ     evap/hr
1.55
0.49
0.56
1.02
1.14
0
0
100
0
10
1,417
1.417
1,417
1,417
1,417
0
0
395
0
80
                                0.33
                                                      1,417
                                                       WORK SHEET:  WATER QUANTITY CALCULATIONS FOR
                                                                       BIGAS PROCESS
                                                                                            SITE:  Center, North Dakota
                                                                                                                                     PRODUCT SIZE:  250 x 10  SCF/day
                                                                                                                                     ENERGY:  9.9 X 1Q9 Btu/hr
Coal Analysis  (wt % as-received)
                    Moisture
                       C
                       H
                       0
                       N
                       S
                       Ash

                    HHV Calculated
                       (103 Btu/Lb)
                                        COAL FEED
                                          to reactor:
                                                            1,814  10  Lb/hr
                                                            12.2   109 Btu/hr
                                        FGD HATER
                                          Vaporized         0.10    Ib/lb coal
                                          With sludge       0.12    Ib/lb coal
                                             TOT AX. :
                                          FGD sludge produced,  wet
                                        ASH HANDLING
36.2
39.9
                                                                                                                                     11.0
                                                                                                                                     100
                                                                                      to boiler:
                                                                                                      378
                                                                                                              10   Ib/hr
                                                                                                      2.54    10   Btu/hr
                                                              37.8   10  Ib/hr
                                                              -15.4   10  Lb/hr
                                                              Bi.2   1C)  Lb/hr
                                                                                                                                                          64. B   10  Lb/hr
                                                                                                                Bottom ash :   dry
                                                                                                                             water
                                                                                                                             sludge
                                                                                                                Ply ash:  dry
                                                                                                                          water
                                                                                                                          Bludge
                                                                                              87.5
                                                                                                                                                              (continued)

-------
             Center, North DaXota
                                         (continued)
                                                                                                        Center, North Dakota
                                                                                                                                     (continued)
to
O
O
          PROCESS  WATER




          a.   Steam and boiler feed water  requi red

          b.   Dirty water input


          c.   Dirty condensate


          d.   He thanation wate r
OTHER WATER NEEDS




a.   Dust control

b.   Service,  sanitary fi potable water:


          Required


          Sewage recovered


c.   Revegetation water

d.   Evaporation from storage ponds

     GRAND TOTAL RAW HATER IKPUT TO PLANT:
         TREATMENT  SLUDGES
                                                                                             Energy Totals
         a.  Lime softening

         b.  Ion exchange

l'377 



10 3 Ib/hr

21
14




1,401


3
solids water & sludge
0 0
	 29

Feed
Product and byproduct

Conversion efficiency
Disposition of Unrecovered Heat

9
10 Btu/hr % wet
Direct loss l . 20 0
Designed dry 0.49 0

Designed wet 0.56 100

Acid gas removal
regenerator condenser 1.02 0
Total turbine condensers 1. 14 10
Total gas compressor
interstage cooling 0.33 50

TOTAL: 4.74

10 Btu/hr
14.7
9,9

67.6 %


10 Ib water
Btu/lb evap evap/hr
1,420 0
1,420 0

1,420 394


1,420 0
1,420 80
1,420 116

590


-------
                            WORX SHEET:  WATER QUANTITY  CALCULATIONS FOR
                                            BIGAS  PROCESS
                                                                                                             Scranton,  North Dakota
                                                                                                                                          (continued)
LO
O
              SITE:   Scranton, North Dakota
              Coal  Analysis (wt \ as-received)
                                  Moisture
                                     C
                        H
                        O
                        H
                        S
                        Ash

                     HHV Calculated
              COAX FEED
                to reactor:
              FGD WATER
                                             Ib/hr
                                  12. 2   109 Btu/hr
  Vaporized
  With sludge
     TOTAL:
  FGD sludge produced, wet
ASH HANDLING
                                  0.04    lb/ lb  coal
                                  0.18    Ib/lb  coal
                                                       PRODUCT SIZE:  250 x 10  SCF/day
                                                       ENERGY:  9.9 X 1Q9 Btu/hr
                                                        38.2
                                  Bottom ash:  djry
                                               water
                                               sludge
                                  Fly ash:  dry
                                            wate r
                                            sludge
                                                         6-43
                                                            to boiler:
                                                               415     103 Ib/hr
                                                                        9
                                                               2.67    10  Btu/hr
                                                                            15.6   10  Lb/hr
                                                                            74.7   10  Ib/hr
                                                                            91.3   10  Ib/hr
                                                                           106.7   10  Ib/hr
                                                   10  Ib/hr
                                                      149
                                                       80.0
                                                      229
                                                       24.9
                                                                                             PROCESS WATER

                                                                                             a.   Steam and boiler feed water  required
                                                                                             b.   Dirty water input
                                                                                             c.   Di rty condenaate
                                                                                             d.   Methanation water
OTHER HATER NEEDS

a.  Dust control
b.  Service, sanitary  &  potable water:
          Required
          Sewage recovered
c.  Revegetation water
d.  Evaporation from storage  ponds
     GRAND TOTAL RAH WATER INPUT TO PLANT:
                                                                                                          TREATMENT SLUDGES
                                                                                                          a.  Lime softening
                                                                                                          b.  Ion exchange
                                                                                                                                                              10   Ib/hr
                                                                                                                                                                691
                                                                                                                                                              10   Ib/hr
                                                                                                                                                                 126
                                                                                                                                                               1,419
                                                                                                                                                              solids
                                                                                                                                                                          water  &  sludge
                                                                                                                                                                0.27           1.4
                                                                                                                                                                             (continued)

-------
Scra_nton, North Dakota
                             (continued)
ENERGY
Energy Totals
9
Feed 14,9
Product and byproduct 9f9
Unrecovered heat 5 0



Disposition of Unrecovered Heat
i^j 10 Ib water
O 10 Btu/hr * wet Btu/Lb evap evap/hr
ro
Direct loss 1.33 0 1,417 0
Designed dry 0.49 0 1,417 0
Designed wet 0.56 100 1,417 395

Acid gas removal
regenerator condenser 1.02 0 1,417 0
Total turbine condensers 1.14 10 1,417 80

Total gas compressor
interstage cooling 0.33 50 1,417 116

TOTAL: 4 87 591







BIGAS PROCESS
SITE: Chupp Mine, Montana PRODUCT SIZE: 250 x 10& SCF/day
ENERGY: 9.9 x 109 Btu/hr
Moisture 38.3
C 40.4
H 2.5
0 10.6
N 0.6
S 0.3
Ash 7.3
100
HHV Calculated
(103 Btu/Lb) 6.60
COAL FEED
to reactor: 1,840 llr.
ASH HANDLING
103 Lb/hr
Bottom ash: dry 140
water 75.4
sludge 215
Fly ash: dry 23.0
water 2.30
sludge 35.3
                                                                                                                                                           (continued)

-------
                  Ch upp  Mine,  Montana
                                               (continued)
                                                                                                               Chupp Mine, Montana
                                                                                                                                            (continued)
               PROCESS  WATER



               a .  Steajn  and boi ler feed water  requi red

               b,  Dirty  water input

               c.  Dirty  condensate

               d.  He thanation wate r
                                                    10   Ib/hr
                                                                                             Energy Totai
                                                                                                       Feed

                                                                                                       Product  and byproduct

                                                                                                       Unrecovered heat
                                                                                                                                                  10   Btu/hr

                                                                                                                                                    14.7
               OTHER WATER HEEDS
                                                                                                                      Conversion efficiency
O
a.   Du5 t  contro1

b.   Service,  sanitary  potable water

           Required

           Sewage recovered

c.   Revegetation water

d.   Evaporation from s torage ponds

     GRAND TOTAL PJ\W WATER IWPUT  TO
               TREATHQrr SLUDGES
               a.   Lime softening

               b.   Ion  exchange
                                                                                 water s sludge
                                                                                                            Disposition of Unrecovered Heat
Direct  loss

Designed dry

Designed wet

Acid gas removal
  regenerator condenser

Total turbine condenaers

Total gas compressor
  interstage cooling
                                                                                                                                                                               10   lb water
                                                                                                                                                                 Btu^/lb  evap   	evap/hr
                                                                                                                                             0.56
                                                                                                                                                        100
                                                                                                                                                                   1,417
                                                                                                                                                                                   1,433

-------
                                                                                                                      HORX EHEETi  WATER QUANTITY CALCULATIONS FOR
                                                                                                                                       SYVTHAKE  PROCESS
                                                                                                         SITE,
                                      PRODUCT SIZEi  250 x  10*  SCF/day
                                      ENERGYi  9.79 x  109 Btu/hr
                                                                                                             Coal Analysis  (wt > as-received)       Char Analysis  (wt %]
                                                                                                                                                                     Table A5-11
                                                                                                                                 100
U)
O
       HHV Calculated
         3
                                                                                                                 (10  Btu/lb)
                                                                                                        COAI. FEED TO REACTOR:
                                                                                                                         Table A5-4
                                                                                                                         Calculated  109 Btu/hr
                                                                                                        FGG WATER
                                                                                                          Va
                                                                                                          With
                                                                                                             TOTALi
                                                                                                          PGD sludge produced, wet
                                                                                                        ASH HANDLING
Vaporized   ^   Last 2 paragraphs
             f   inAppendix 5
With sludge )   Also Appendix 8
                                                                                                                            Bottom ash:  dry
                                                                                                                                         water
                                                                                                                                         sludge
                                                                                                                            Fly ash:  dry
                                                                                                                                      water
                                                                                                                                      eludge
                                                                                                                                                      CHAR FEED TO BOILER i
                                                                       9
                                                          Calculated 10  Btu/hr
                                                          Table A5-10
_10  Ib/hr
 103 Ib/hr
                                                           Calcd.  10  Ib/hr
                                                          	103 Ib/hr
                                                                                                                                                           10  Ib/hr
                                                                                                                                                                          (continued)

-------
                                            (continued)
                                                                                                                                            (continued)
            PROCESS  WATER
U)
O
tn
             a.   Steam to gaaifier  & shift converter

             t>.   Dirty condensate (after scrub)

             c.   Kedium gua-lity condensata *

             d.   Kethanation water
OTHER HATER EffT'nS



a.  Dust control

b=  Service,  sanitary C potable water:

          Reqaired

          Sewage recovered

c.  Revegetation water

d.  Evaporation from storage ponds

     GPAND TOTAL RAW WATER INPUT  TO PLANT i
            TRZATKENT SLUDGES
            a.   Lima softening

            b.   Ion exchange

            c.   B i o tre a tmen t
                                                    Table A5-4

                                                    Table A5-4
                                                    Table A5-4

                                                    Taile A5-4
Energy Tqtalg^
                                                                 Appendix 11
                                                                       10  Ib/hr

                                                                  solids      water    sludge
                                                           Appendix 11
                                                                                                                                                    10  Btu/hr
Feed
Product and byproduct
Dnrecovered heat
Conversion efficiency
Disposition of Unrecovered Heat
Direct loss
Designed dry
Designed wet
Acid gas removal
regenerator condenser
Total turbine condensers
Total gas compressor
interstage cooling
TOTAL:
9
10 Btu/hr * wet
Table A5-10
Table A5-10
Table A5-10*
i
Table A5-10 G
Table A5-10 5
t~-
Table A5-10

Calculated
Ta.le A5-10 (Char not fired
Table A5-10
Table A5-10
103 Ib water
Btu/lb evap evap/hr



s S
CD E-,
R 
C a

                fter  shift reactor 6 after  acid gas removal.
                                                                                                             "Wet cooling 6 bottom ash quench.

-------
               WORK SHEET:   WATER QUANTITY CALCULATIONS FOR
                                SYNTHANE PROCESS
                                             Jefferson, Alabama
                                                                                                                             (continued)
 SITE:  Jefferson,
      Coal  Analysis  (vt*  as-received)
                                         PRODUCT SIZE:  250 x 10  SCF/day
                                                           Q
                                         ENERGYt  9.79 x  10  Btu/lir
                                            Cha^Analysis  fwt %?
Moisture
C
I
0
N
S
Ash
HHV Calculated
(103 Btu/Lb)
OJ COAL FEED TO REACTOR:
O
(Jl 1.243
..J.5...3
FGD. WATER
Vaporiled 0.79
With sludga 0.2J_
2.3
71.0
4.4
3.8
1.5
0.9
16.1
100
12.79
103 Ib/hr
9
10 Btu/hr
Ib/lb coal
Ib/lb coal

71.4
0.9
0.5
1.8
1.5
23.9
100
10.90
CHAR FEED TO BOILER:
231
2.5:
182
	 ii
     TOTAL:
  FGD sludge produced, wet
ASH HANDLING
                    Bottom ash:   dry
                                  water
                                  sludge
                    Fly ash:  dry
                              water
                              sludge
                                                                    _10  Ib/hr
                                                                     109 Btu/hr
                                                                     10  Ib/hr
                                                                     ID3 Ib/hr
         230   10  Ib/hr
          6S.23103 Ib/hr
                                                      27.5
14.8
PROCESS WATER

a.  Steam required
b.  Dirty condensate
c.  Medium quality condensate
d.  Hethanation water
                                        OTHER WATER NEEDS

                                        a.   Dust control
                                        b.   Service, sanitary & potable water:
                                                  Required
                                                  Sewage recovered
                                        c.   Revegetation water
                                        d.   Evaporation from storage ponds
                                             GRAND TOTAL RAW WATER INPUT TO PLANT I
                                                                                             TREATMENT  SLUDGES
                                        a.  Lime  softening
                                        b.  Ion exchange
                                        c.  Biotreatoent
                                                                                             1,215
                                                                                               578
                                                                                                                                                   1,981
                                                        10   Ib/hr
                                                   solids      water  &  sludge
                                                    0.06              0.3
                                                                                            0.68
                                                                                                                                                                  69
                                                     121
                                                                                                                                                                (continued)

-------
Jefferson, Alabama
                          (continued)
ENERGY
Energy Totals
Feed
Product and byproduct
Unrecovered heat
Conversion efficiency
Disposition of Unrecovered Heat
109 Btu/hr
Direct loss 0  82
Designed dry 1.38
Designed vet 0.49
A.cid gas reitsoval
regenerator condenser 0.69
Total turbine condensers 0.77
Total gas compressor
Interstage cooling 0.22
TOTAL: 4-37
109 Btu/Tir
15.9
11.5
4.4
72.5,
10 3 lb water
% wet Btu/lb evap evap/hr
0 1,310 0
0 1,310 0
100 1,310 374
0 1,310 0
100 1,310 588
100 1,310 168
1,130
                                                                                                       WORK  SHEET:   WATER QUANTITY CALCULATIONS FOR
                                                                                                                         SVWTHANE PROCESS
                                                                                         SITE; Gibson, Indiana
                                                                                                                                  PRODUCT SIZEi  250 x 1Q  SCF/day
                                                                                                                                  ENERGYi  9.79 x 109 Btu/hr
                                                                                              Coal Analysis  (vt t as-received)       Char Analysis  (wt t)
     Moisture
        C
        H
        O
        H
        S
        Ash

         HHV Calculated
        (103 Btu/lb)
COAL FEED TO REACTOR;
                                                                                                                   10.0
                                                                                                                   68.2
                                                                                                                    4.6
                                                                                                                    1.1
                                                                                                                    2.1
                                                                                                                  100
                                                                                                                   12.20
FGD WATER
  Vaporized
  With sludge
     TOTALI
  FGD sludge produced, wet
ASH HANDLING
                                                                                                                   10  Lb/hr
                                                                                                                     9
                                                                                                                   10  Btu/hr
                                                                                                                    Lb/lb coal
                                                                                                                    Ib/lb coal
                                                                                                                                               71.4
                                                                                                                                               23.9
                                                                                                                                       CHAR FEED TO BOILER:
                                                                     10  LbAr
                                                                                                                                                        2,59   10  Btu/hr
                                                                                                                                                        188
                                                                     10  Ib/hr
                                                                                                                                                        49.1  10  Lb/hr
                                                                                                                                                       237
                                                                                                                                                              10  Ib/hr
                                                                                                                                                        70.1  10  Ib/hr
                                                                                                             Bottom ash:  dry
                                                                                                                          water
                                                                                                                          sludge
                                                                                                             Fly ash:   dry
                                                                                                                       water
                                                                                                                       sludge
                                                                                                                                                           (continued)

-------
                Gi-bson,  Indiana
                                          (continued)
                                                                                                         Gibson, Indiana
                                                                                                                                   (continued)
           PROCESS WATER
           a.  Steam required
           b-  Dirty condensate
           c.  Medium quality condensate
           d.  Hethanation water
                                                     1,237
                                                       599
                                                                                                    Energy Totals
                                                                                                   Feed
                                                                                                   Product and byproduct
                                                                                                   Unrecovered heat
10  Btu/hr
   15.9
  'll.S
Ul
O
CD
OTHER WATER NEEDS

a.  Dust control
b.  Service, sanitary  ft  potable  water:
          Required
          Sewage recovered
c.  Revegetation water
d.  Evaporation from storage ponds
     GRAND TOTAL RAW WATER  INPUT TO  PLANT!
           TREATMENT SLUDGES
           a.   Lime softening
           b.   Ion exchange
           c.   Biotreatment
                                                                                                              Conversion efficiency
                                                                                                                                                         72.1
                                                                   14
                                                                1,926
                                                                    10   Ib/hr
                                                              solids      water  s  sludge
                                                               0.77              3.85
                                                                     71
Disposition of Unrecovered Heat
Direct loss
Designed dry
Designed wet
Acid gas removal
regenerator condenser
Total turbine condensers
109 Btu/hr
0.89
1.38
0.49
0.69
0.77
% wet
0
0
100
0
100
Btu/lb evap
1,370
1,370
1,370
1,370
1,370
10 3 Ib water
evap/hr
0
0
358
0
562
                                                                                                    Total gas compressor
                                                                                                      interstage cooling
                                                                                                                          0.22
                                                                                                                                     100
                                                                                                                                               1,370
                                                                                                                                                                 161
                                                                                                                                                                         1,081
                                                     0.7
                                                                      3.5

-------
                          WORK SHEET:  WATER QUANTITY CALCULATIONS FOR
                                           SYNTHANE PROCESS
                                                                                                 Sullivan,  Indiana
                                                                                                                            (continued)
            SITE:  Sullivan,  Indiana
O
                 Coal Analysis
                                   % as-received)
Moisture
C
H
0
H
S
Ash
13.
63.
4.
7 .
1
2
7
5
,9
5
,1
.4
.2
. 4
                                                     PRODUCT SIZE:   250  X  10   SCF/day
                                                                       Q
                                                     ENERGY!  9.79 X 10  Btu/hr
                                                        Char Analysis  (wt  %)
         HHV Calculated
         (103 Btu/lb)
COAI, PEED TO REACTOR:
                                1,243   10   Ib/hr
                                14.4    10   Btu/hr
            FGD WATER
              Vaporized         0.'
              With sludge       0. :
                 TOTAL:
              FGD sludge produced, wet
            ASH HANDLING
                           _lb/Ib coal
                            Ib/lb coal
                                Bottom  ash:   dry
                                              water
                                              sludge
                                Ply  ash:   dry
                                           water
                                           sludge
                                                          CHAR FEED TO  BOILER;
                                                                            242
                                                                                 _10  Ib/hr
                                                                           2.64   109 Btu/hr
                                                                191
    _10  Ib/hr
50.0 1Q3 Ib/hr
                                                                241
                                                                     _10   Ib/hr
                                                                 71.5 lo3  Ib/hr
                                                        7.12
                                                        5.29
                                                                                             PROCESS WATER

                                                                                             a.   Steam required
                                                                                             b.   Dirty condensate
                                                                                             c.   Medium quality condensate
                                                                                             d.   Hethanation water
                            OTHER HATER NEEDS

                            a.   Dust control
                            b.   Service,  sanitary & potable water:
                                      Required
                                      Sewage recovered
                            c.   Revegetation water
                            d.   Evaporation from storage ponds
                                 GRAND TOTAL RAW WATER INPUT TO PLANT:
                                                                                            TREATMENT SLUDGES
                                                                                            a.  Lime  softening
                                                                                            b*  Ion exchange
                                                                                            c.  Biotreatment
                                                                                  1,234
                                                                                    595
                                                                                                                                                                115
                                                                                                                                                               1,847
                                                                                     10  Ib/hr
                                                                                solids      water s sludge
                                                                                                                                                                   1.1
                                                                                                                                                                           (continued)

-------
                  Sullivan, Indiana
                                            (continued)
                                                      WORK SHEET:  WATER QUANTITY CALCULATIONS FOR
                                                                       SYNTHANE PROCESS
CO
H
O
             Energy Totals

                       Feed
                       Product and byproduct
                       Unrecovered heat

                       Conversion efficiency

             Disposition of Unrecovered Heat
10  Btu/hr
   15.9
   71.8,



10 Btu/hr  wet
Direct loss
Designed dry
Designed wet
Acid gas removal
regenerator condenser
Total turbine condensers
Total gas compressor
interstage cooling
TOTAL:
0.
1.
0.

0
0

0.
4
.94 0
. 38 0
.49 100

.69 0
.77 100

.22 100
.49

Btu/Lb evap
1,330
1,380
1,380

1,380
1,380

1,380

103 Ib water
evap/hr
0
0
355

0
560

159
1,074
                                                                                                        SITE:  Floyd,  Kentucky
                                             Coal Analysis (wt % as-received)
Moisture
   C
   H
   O
   N
   S
   Ash
                      3.4
                                                                   1.6
                                                 HHV Calculated
                                                   3
                                                (10  Btu/lb)
                                        COAL FEED TO REACTOR:
                                                                                                                            1,113 10  lb/hr
                                                                                                                            15.9  109 Btu/hr
                                                                                                                            0.79
                                        FGD HATER
                                          Vaporized
                                          With sludge
                                             TOTAL:
                                          FGD sludge  produced,  wet
                                        ASH HANDLING
                                                                                                                                  _lb/lh coal
                                                                                                                                   Ib/lb coal
                                                                                PRODUCT SIZE:  250 x  10  SCF/day
                                                                                ENERGY:  9.79 x  1Q9 Btu/hr
                                                                                   Char Analysis  (wt.  %)
                                                                                                                            Bottom ash:  dry
                                                                                                                                         water
                                                                                                                                         sludge
                                                                                                                            Fly  ash:   dry
                                                                                                                                      water
                                                                                                                                      sludge
                                                                                              1.5
                                                                                             10.90
                                                                                                                                                     CHAR PEED TO BOILER:
                                                                                                      231.2  10   Ib/hr
                                                                                                      2.52   1Q9  Btu/hr
                                                                                                                                                                      182
                                                               _10  Lb/hr
                                                           17.8  io3 Lb/hr
                                                                                                                                                                      231
                                                                                                                                                                             10   lb/hr
                                                                                                                                                                       68.2  10J  lb/hr
                                                                                                                                                                          (continued)

-------
    Floyd,  Kentucky
                               (continued)
                                                                                                 _Floydlf  Kentucky
                                                                                                                            (continued)
PROCESS WATER

a.  Steaffi required
b,  Dirty condensate
c.  Kediuss quality condensate
d.  M-athanation  water
1,247
                                       Energy Totals
                                                 Feed
                                                 Product and byproduct
                                                 Unrecovered heat
                                                                                           10  Btu/hr
                                                                                              15.9
OTHER WATER HEEDS

a.  Dust control
b   Service ,,  sanitary  potable wate r :
           Re-quired
           Sewage recovered
c .  Re vegetation water
d.  Evaporation from storage ponds
     GRAND TOTAI, RAW WATER INPUT TO  PLANT:
TREATMEWT SLUDGES
a.   Lome  softening
br   Ion exchange
c.   Biocreatment
                                                    10  Ib/hr
                                                      108
                                                      1, 320
                                                          10  Ib/hr
                                                     solidg      water  &  sludge
                 71
                                                                                                       Conversion efficiency
                                       Disposition^ of Unrecovered Heat
                                                                                                                                                   72.5%
                                       Direct loss
                                       Designed dry
                                       Designed wet
                                       Acid gas ransoval
                                         regenerator condenser
                                       Total turbina condensers
                                       Total gas compressor
                                         interatage cooling
                                                                                                                         10  Btu/hr
                                                                                                                            0.22
                                                                                                                                                              10  Ib water
                                                                                                                                         wet    Btu/Ib evap     evap/hr
0.82
1,38
0.49
0.69
0. 77
0
0
100
0
10
1,360
1,360
1,360
1, 360
1,360
0
0
360
0
57
                                                                                                                                                   1,360
 0.72

-------
               WORK SHEET:  HATER QUANTITY CALCULATIONS FOR
                                SYNTHANE PROCESS
                                                                                                Gallia, Ohio
                                                                                                                          (continued)
SITE:  Gallifl,  Ohio
     Coal  Analysis  (wt % as-received)
                                         PRODUCT SIZE:  250 x 10  SCF/day
                                         ENERGY!  9.79 x 10  Btu/hr
                                            Char Analysi*  (wt %)
     Moisture
        C
        H
        O
        N
        S
        Ash
                            4.6
                            3.2
         HHV Calculated
           3
         (10  Btu/lb)
COAL FEED TO REACTOR;
                           11.70
                    1.315   10J Ib/hr
                    15.4   io9 Btu/hr
                    0.79
                    0.21
FGD HATER
  Vaporized
  Hith sludge
     TOT Ail
  FGD sludge produced,  wet
ASH HANDLING
_lVlb coal
 Ib/lb coal
                    Bottom  ash:   dry
                                  water
                                  sludge
                    Fly  ash:   dry
                               water
                               sludge
                                                      71.4
                                                       0.5
                                                      23.9
                                                      10.90
                                              CHAR FEED TO BOILER I
                                                               235
                                                              	10'
                                                               2.56  10!
Ib/hr
Btu/hr
                                                   10  Ib/hr
                                                      18.0
                                                      27.7
                                                       7.19
                                                      79.1
                                                                 PROCESS WATER

                                                                 a.  Steam required
                                                                 b.  Dirty condensate
                                                                 c.  Medium quality condensate
                                                                 d.  Methanation water
                                                                 OTHER HATER NEEDS

                                                                 a.  Dust control
                                                                 b.  Service, sanitary  potable water:
                                                                           Required
                                                                           Sewage recovered
                                                                 c.  Revegetation water
                                                                 d.  Evaporation from storage ponds
                                                                      GRAND TOTAL RAW WATER INPUT TO PLANT:
                                                                                            TREATMENT SLODGES
                                                                                            a.   Lime softening
                                                                                            b.   Ion exchange
                                                                                            c.   Biotreatment
                                                                                                                                                  124
                                                                                                                                                   21
                                                                                                                                                1,896
                                                                                                                                                    10  Ib/hr
                                                                                                                                               solids      water fc sludge
                                                                                                                                                                 0,3
                                                                                                                                                0.06
                                                                                                                                     70
                                                                                                                                                             (continued)

-------
             nhio
                               (continued)
                                                                                                         WORK SHEET:   WATER QUANTITY CALCULATIONS  FOR
                                                                                                                          SYHTHANE PROCESS
                                                                                          SITE: Jefferson,  Ohio
Energy Totals^


          Feed

          Product and byproduct

          Unrecovered heat


          Conversion efficiency


Disposition  of Unrecovered  Heat
Direct loss

Designed dry

Designed wet

Acid gas removal
  regenerator condenser

Total turbine condensers

Total gas compressor
  interstage cooling
                                0.86
                                0.49
                                0.77
                                           100
                                                   10   Btu/hr
                                                     15.9
                                                      72.3%
                             10   Btu/hr   % wet    Btu/lb evap
                                                      1,420

                                                      1,420
                                                      1,420
                                                      1,420

                                                      1,420
                                                      1,420.
                                                                 10  It water
                                                                   evap/hr
                                                                      345
                                                                      155
                                                                    i-*2
                                                                                                                                   PRODUCT SIZE:   250  x  10   SCF/day
                                                                                                                                   ENERGY:  9.79  x 10  Btu/hr
                                                                                               Coal Analysis  (wt  %  as-received)       Char Ana^ysia^  (yt^ *)
Moisture 2.4
C 71.1
H 4.9
0 5.3
N 1.2
S 5.0
Ash 10.1
100
HHV Calculated
(103 Btu/Lb) 13.10
COAL FEED TO REACTOR:
1,215 103 jfc/hr
15 -9 109 Btu/hr
FGD WATER
Vaporized 0.79 lb/lb coal
With sludge -2l lb/lb coal
TOTAL:
FGD sludga produced, wet
ASH HANDLING
Bottom ash: dry
water
sludge
Ply ash: dry
water

71.4
0.9
0.5
1.8
1.5
23.9
100
10.90
CHAR FEED TO BOILER:
231
2.52
182
47.3
230
68.2
103 Ib/hr
16.9
9.07
25.9
67.4
6.74
10 3 Ib/hr
9
10 Btu/hr
10 3 Ib/hr
10 3 Ib/tir
103 Ib/hr
103 Ib/hr

                                                                                                                        sludge
                                                                                                                                                            (continued)

-------
     Jefferson, Ohio
                               (continued)
PROCESS  WATER

a.   Steam required
b.   Dirty condensate
c.   Medium qua-lity condensate
d.   Methanation water
OTHER HATER KEEPS
a.  Dust  control
b.  Service,  sanitary    potable water:
          Required
          Sewage recovered
c.  Revegetation water
d.  Evaporation from storage  ponds
     GRAND TOTAL RAW WATER INPUT TO PLANT:
                                                     1,810
TREATMENT SLUDGES
a.  Lijne softening
b.  Ion exchange
c.  Biotreatment
                                                         10  Ib/hr
                                                    solids      water  sludge
                                                     0.06             0.3
70
                                                                                                   Jefferson,  Ohio
                                                                                                                            (continued)
                         Energy Totals
Feed
Product and byproduct
Unrecovered heat
Conversion efficiency
Disposition of Unrecovered Heat
9
10 Btu/hr  wet
Direct loss 0.82 0
Designed dry 1.38 0
Designed wet 0.49 100
Acid gas removal
regenerator condenser 0.69 0
Total turbine condensers 0.77 100
Total gas compressor
interstage cooling 0.22 100
TOTALi 4.37
10 Btu/hr
15.9
11.5
4.4
72. 5
Btu/Xb evap
1,400
1,400
1,400
1,400
1,400
1,400

10 Lb water
evap/hr
0
0
345
0
542
155
1,042

-------
              WORK SHEET:   WATER QUANTITY CAJ^CUUATIONS  FOR
                                SYNTHAUE PROCESS
SITE :  Anns trong, Pennsylvania
                                         PRODUCT SIZE:   250  x 10  SCF/day
                                         ENERGY;  9.79  X 1Q9 BtU/hr
     Coal AnalysJ3  (wt  ^  as-received)
                                            Char Analysis  (wt. %)
     Moisture
        C
        H
        0
        M
        S
        Ash
                            2.3
                          100
         HlfV Calculated
         (103 Btu/lb)
COAL FEED TO REACTOR:
                    1,187  1Q3
                           10  Btu/hr
                    0.79
FCD HATER
  Vaporized
  With sludge
     TOTAL:
  FGD aludge produced,  wet
ASH HANDLING
                           _l_b/lb coal
                            Lb/lb coal
                     Bottom ash:  dry
                                  water
                                  a ludge
                     Fly ash i   dry
                               water
                               sludge
                                                       0.5
                                              CHAR FEED TO BOILER:
                                                    10   Lb/hr
                                                                231	10  Ib/hr
                                                                2-52  10  Btu/hr
182.3 ioj li,/hr
 41-B 1Q3 Ib/hr
230   103 it/hr
                                                                 6B-2 10  Ib/hr
                                                                                                   A-na3Lrong , Pennsylvania	(continued)
                                                                                               PROCESS MATER
                               a.   Stean required
                               b.   Dirty condensate
                               c.   H-edium quality  condensate
                               d.   Methanation water
                                                                                                                                                    1,231
                                                                                                                                                      593
                                                                                                                                                      115
                                                                                                                                                      130
                                                                                               OTHER WATER NEEDS
                                                                                               a.   Dust control
                                                                                               b.   Service, sanitary  potable  water:
                                                                                                         Required
                                                                                                         Sewage recovered
                                                                                               c,   Revegetation water
                                                                                               d.   Evaporation from storage ponds
                                                                                                    GRAND TOTAL RAW WATER  INPUT TO PLANT:
                                                                                                                                                    1,872
                                                                                               TREATMEOT SLUDGES
                                                                                               a.   Lime softening
                                                                                               b.   Ion exchange
                                                                                               Cc   Biotreatment
                                                                                         10   Ib/hr
                                                                                   solids       water S sludge
                                                                                                      0.31
                                                                                                                                                    0.06
                                                                                                                                                                     70
                                                                                                      1.2
                                                                                                                                                                  (continued)

-------
                   Armstrong. Pennsylvania   (continued)
WORK SHEET:  HATER QUANTITY  CALCULATIONS FOR
                 SYNTHANE PROCESS
                                                                                                         SITE: Kanauha, West Virginia
                           PRODUCT SIZE:  250 X 10 SCF/day
                           ENERGY:  9.79 x 10 9 Btu/hr
              Energy Totals
                                                                                                              Coal  Analysis  fvt  *  as-received)      Char ^nalysia  (vrt

10 Btu/hr

Feed 15.9
- '
Product and byproduct 11.5

Unrecovered heat ^"4


Conversion efficiency 72.5%


Disposition of Unrecovered Heat
103 Ib water
109 Btu/hr % wet Btu/lli evap evap/hr

Direct loss -82  1'410 

De.igned dry 1.38 0 1,410 0

Designed vet 0.49 100 1,410 348

Acid gas removal
regenerator condenser 0.69 0 1,410 0

ivM-,1 .-,*( ,,rtn.,r 0.77 100 1,410 546

Total gas compressor
interstage cooling 0.22 100 1,410 156


wrrr, 4.37 1-050







Moisture






N


Ash

HHV Calculated


COAL FEED TO REACTOR:

1,187


FGD HATER
Vaporized 0.79


TOTAL:

F
-------
           a ,  West Virginia
                               (continued)
                                                                                                Kanawha,  We a1 Virginia	(continued)
PROCESS WATER

a.  Steam required
b.  Dirty condensate
c.  Medium quality  condensate
d.  Keth&nation water
1,232
  594
                                                                                          Energy Totals
                                                                                                    Feed
                                                                                                    Product  and  byproduct
                                                                                                    Unrecovered  heat
                                                                                        .10   Btu/hr
                                                                                           15.9
                                                                                           11.5
OTHER WATER NEEDS
                                                                                                    Conversion efficiency
                                                                                                                                                72.5%
a.   Dust control
b.   Service, sanitary    potable  water:
          Required
          Sewage  recovered
c.   Revegetation  water
d.   Evaporation from storage  ponds
     GRAND TOTA-L  RAW WATER  INPUT TO PLANTi
TREATMENT SLUDGES
a.   Lime softening
b.   Ion exchange
c.   Biotreatment
                                                                                          Disposition of Unrecovered Heat
                                                         0
                                                     1,865
                                                          10   Ib/hr
                                                    solids       water  &  sludge
Direct loss
Designed dry
Designed wet
10 Btu/hr
0.82
1. 38
0. 49
% wet
0
0
100
Btu/lb evap
1,360
1,360
1,360
103 Ib water
evap/hr
0
0
360
                                                                                          Acid gas removal
                                                                                            regenerator condenser
                                                                                          Total turbine condensers
                                                                                          Total gaa compressor
                                                                                            Interstage cooling
                                                                                                                                                1,360
                                                                                                                                                1,360
                                                                                                                                                1,360
                                                                                                                                                              1,068

-------
              WORK SHEET:   WATER QUANTITY CALCULATIONS  FOR
                                SYNTHANE PROCESS
                                                                                                  Preston,  West  Virginia    (continued)
SITE: Preston, West Virginia
                                         PRODUCT SIZE;   250  x  10   SCF/day
                                                                                             PROCESS WATER
Coal Analysis (wt * as-received)
Moisture
C
H
O
N
S
Ash
2.5
74.6
4.7
3.3
1.5
2.7
10.7
100
HHV Calculated
l_i (IO3 Btu/lb) 13.60
COAL FEED TO REACTOR:
1,170
15.9
FGD WATER
Vaporized 0.79
With sludge 0.21
TOTAL:
FGD sludge produced, wet
ASH HANDLING
10 3 Ib/hr
IO9 Btu/hr
lb/lb coal
Ib/lb coal

Bottom ash: dry
water
sludge
Fly ash: dry
water
sludge
ENERGY: 9.79 X 10 Btu/hr
Char Analysis (wt \)

71.4
0.9
0.5
1.8
1.5
23.9
100
10.90
CHAR FEED TO BOILER:
231 io3 Ib/hr
2.52 io9 Btu/hr
183 io3 Ib/hr
47.8 IO3 Ib/hr
230 io3 Ib/hr
68.2 IO3 Ib/hr
IO3 Ib/hr
17.2
9.26
26.5
68.8
6.88
75.7
10 3 Ib/hr
a. Steam required 1 , 229
c. Medium quality condensate 115
d. Methanation water 130
OTHER WATER NEEDS
IO3 Ib/hr
a. Dust control 112
b. Servica, sanitajry & potable water:
Required 21
Sewage recovered 14
Reve etation water 0

GRAND TOTAL RAW WATER INPUT TO PLANT: 1,392
TREATMENT SLUDGES
IO3 Lb/hr
solids water & sludge
a. Lime softening 0.03 0.15
b. Ion ejcchange 	 70
c. Biotreatment 0.23 1.2

                                                                                                                                                               (continued)

-------
     Preston, West VITginia    (continued)
                                                     WORX SHEET:  WATER QUANTITY CALCULATIONS FOR
                                                                      SYNTHANE PROCESS
                                                                                          SITE: Antelope Creek, Wyoming
                                                                               PRODUCT SIZE:.  250 Jt 10   SCF/day
                                                                               ENERGYi  9.79 x 10  Btu/hr
 Energy Totals


          Feed

          Product and byproduct

          Unrecovered heat


          Conversion efficiency


Pi sposition of Unrecovered  Heat
10  Btu/hr
   IS.9
   72.5%
Direct loss

Designed dry

Designed wet

Acid gas removal
  regenerator condenser

Total turbine condensers

Total gas compressor
  interstage cooling
                             10  Btu/hr   % wet
                                                                 10  Ib water
                                                   Btu/lb evap     evap/hr
0.
1.
0.
0.
0.
0
4
82
38
49
69
.77
.22
.37
0
0
100
0
10
100

1,380
1, 380
1,380
1,380
1,380
1,380

0
0
355
0
56
159
570
Coal Analysis (wt 
Moisture
C
H
0
H
S
Ash
HHV Calculated
UO3 Btu/Lb)
COAL FEED TO REACTOR:
1,472
13.3
FGD WATER
Vaporised 0.70
With sludge 0.041
as-received)
26.2
52.6
3.6
12.0
0.6
0.5
4.5
100
9.00
103 Ib/hr
109 Btu/hr
Ib/lb coal
Ib/lb coal
TOTAJ.:
FGD eludge produced, wet
ASH HANDLING
Bottc
Fly s
Jffi ash: dry
water
sludge
ish: dry
water
sludge
Char Analysis (wt )

63.6
1.0
1.4
0.4
0.3
33.3
100
9.73
CHAR FEED TO BOILER:
370 103
3.61 109
259 103
15.2 lo3
274 IQ3
2.20103
103 Ib/hr
11.5
6.19
17.7
46.0
4.60
50.6
Ib/hr
Btu/hr
Ib/hr
Ib/hr
Ib/hr
Ib/hr
                                                                                                                                                            (continued)

-------
                   Antelope_Creek,  Wyoming	(continued)
                                                                                                             Antelope Creek, Wyoming   (continued)
              PROCESS WATER
*.  Steam required
b.  Dirty condensate
c.  Medina qua-lity  condensate
d.  Methanation water
                                                                  1,177
                                                                    526
                                                                                                        Energy Totals
                                                                                                                  Feed
                                                                                                                  Product and byproduct
                                                                                                                  Unrecovered heat
                                                                                                                                                           10  Btu/hr
                                                                                                                                                             17.1
              OTHER WATER NEEDS
                                                                                                                  Conversion efficiency
U)
(O
O
a.  Dust control
b.  Service, sanitary  & potable  water:
          Required
          Sewage recovered
c.  Revegetation water
d.  Evaporation from storage ponds
     GRAND TOTAL RAW WATER  INPUT TO PLANT:
              TREATMENT SLUDGES
              a.   Lime softening
              b.   Ion exchange
              c.   Biotreanaent
              d.   Electrodialysis
                                                                                                        Dispositionof Unrecovered Heat
                                                                     21
                                                                  1,432
                                                                       10  Ib/hr
                                                                  solids       water s sludge
                                                                  0.03             0.14
                                                                     66
                                                     0.33
                                                                      1.65
Direct loss
Designed dry
Designed wet
Acid gas removal
  regenerator condenser
Total turbine condensers
Total gas compressor
  interstage cooling
                                                                                                                                    10  Btu/hr
                                                                                                                                       1.77
                                                                                                                                       0.34
                                                                                                                                       5.94
                                                   Btu/lb evap
                                                      1,397
                                                                                                                                                             1,397
                                                                                                                                                             1,397
                                                                                                                                                             1,397
                                                                                                                                                             1,397
                                                                                                                                                             1,397
10  Ib water
  evap/hr

-------
                           WORK SHEET >   WATER QUANTITY CALCULATIONS FOR

                                             SYNTHANE PROCESS
                                                                                               Spotted Horse,  Wyoming	(continued)
            SITEi Spotted Horse, Wyoming
                                     PRODUCT SIZE:   250 X 10  SCF/day
                                                        9
                                     ENERGY i   9.79  x 10  Btu/hr
                                                                                                           PROCESS WATER
LO
to
                                         3.5
                     N

                     S

                     Aih
                                       100
                      HHV Calculated

                     HO3 Btu/Lb)       8.06
            COAL  FEED TO REACTOR:
            FCD WATER

              Vapo ri red

              WLtLh  sludge


                  TOTAL:
                                 1,596  10  Lb/hr

                                 12.9   109 Btu/hr
               0.70     Ib/Ib coal

               0.04	Ib/lb coal
              FGD  sludge produced,  wet

             ^H  HAJIDLINC
Coal Analysis (wt % as-received)       Char Analysis  (wt %)


Moisture              78.n

   C

   H


   O
                                  Bottom ash:  dry

                                               wa te r

                                               Bludge

                                  Fly ash:  dry

                                            water

                                            sludge
                                                                    63.6
                                                                     1.4

                                                                     0.4
                                                    0.3
                                                                    33. 3

                                                                   100
                                                                    9.73


                                                            CHAR FEED TO BOILER:
                                                10   Lb/hr

                                                   22.2

                                                   12.0

                                                   34. 2

                                                   88.6
                                                   97.7
                                                                             381    10  lb/hr
                                                            3.71  10   Btu/hr
267   10   Lb/hr

 15.6 103  Lb/hr
                                                                             282    10  Lb/hr

                                                                                2.26.103 Lb/hr
                              a.   Steam required

                              b.   Dirty condensate

                              c.   Medium quality condensate

                              d.   1-tetha/iation water
                              OTHER WATER HEEDS



                              a.   Dust  control

                              b.   Service,  sajiitary  potable water:

                                        Required

                                        Sewage  recovered

                              c.   Revegetation  water

                              d.   Evaporation from storage ponds

                                   GRAND TOTAL  RAW WATER INPUT TO  PLANT:
                                                                                         TREATMENT SLUDGES
                             a.  Lime softening

                             b.  Ion exchange

                             c.  Biotreatment
                                                                                                                                                                 1,162
                                                                                                                                                                 1,315
                                                                                                                                              solids
                                                                                                                                                           water 6 sludge

                                                                                                                                                                 6.41
                                                                                                                                                                              (continued)

-------
                 Jjpotted Horse,  Wyoming	(continued)
                                                                          WORK SHEET:  WATER QUANTITY CALCULATIONS FOR
                                                                                           SYNTHANE PROCESS
LO
NJ
ro
             Engrgy Totals

                       Feed
                       Product arid byproduct
                       Unrecovered heat

                       Conversion efficiency

             Disposition  of  Unrecoyered Heat
                    10   Btu/hr
                      17.1
                      11.0
                       6.1
            Direct  loss
            beiigned dry
            Designed wet

            Acid gas removal
              regenerator condenser
            Total turbine condensers

            Total gas compressor .
              interstage cooling
   1.87
   1.33
0.45
1.01
1.04
0.34
            10
            50
1,401
1 401
                      1,401
1 401
1,401
                      1,401
                                                                             10  Ib water
10  Btu/hr   % wet    Btu/lb evap     evap/hr
                                      321
                                      171
                                                                                                        SITE: Colstrip,  Montana
                                                                    Coal Analysis (wt
                                                                    Moisture
                                                                       C
                                                                       H
                                                                       O
                                                                       M
                                                               as-received)
                                                                24.4
                                                                    S
                                                                    Ash
                                                                52.4
                                                                 3.5
                                                                                       6.9
                                                                                                                                 100
                                                                     HHV Calculated
                                                                       3
                                                                    (10  Btu/lb)
                                                            COAL FEED TO REACTOR:
                                                                                                                                   8.91
                                                                                  1,525  10  Ib/hr
                                                                                  13.6   109 Btu/hr
                                                               FGD HATER
                                                                 Vaporized
                                                                 With sludge
                                                                    TOTAL:
                                                         0.70
                                                         0.04
_lb/li> coal
_lb/lb coal
                                                                                                         FGD sludge produced,  wet
                                                                                                       ASH  HANDLING
                                                                                                    PRODUCT SIZE:  250 X  10   SCF/day
                                                                                                                      9
                                                                                                    ENERGY:  9.79 x  10  Btu/hr
                                                                                                       Char Analysis  (vt  %)
                                                                                                                            Bottom ash:   dry
                                                                                                                                         water
                                                                                                                                         sludge
                                                                                                                            Fly ash:   dry
                                                                                                                                      water
                                                                                                                                      sludge
                                                                                                                                                            100
                                                                                                                                                              9.73
                                                                                                         CHAR FEED TO BOILER:
                                                                                                                          36710  Ib/hr
                                                                                                                          3.57   10  Btu/hr
                                                                                                                          257    IQJ Ib/hr
                                                                                                                           14.7  10  Ib/hr
                                                                                                                          ?72    103 Ib/hr
                                                                                                                            2-17103 Ib/hr
                                                                                                              10  Ib/hr
                                                                                                                 18.1
                                                                                                                  9.72
                                                                                                                 27.8
                                                                                                                                                                          (continued)

-------
                 Colstrip, Montana
                                            (continued)
                                                                                                             Colstrip,  Montana
                                                                                                                                       (continued)
             PROCESS _WATR


             a.  Steam required

             b.  Dirty condensate

             c.  Medium quality condensate

             d.  Hethanation water
                                                     1,168
                                                                                          Energy  Totals
                                                                                                     Feed
                                                                                                     Product juid byproduct

                                                                                                     Unrecovered heat
                                                    10  Btu/hr
                                                    	17.1

                                                      11.2
                                                        S.9
LO
NJ
UJ
OTHR WATER NEEDS


a,   Dust control

b.   Service, sanitary  fi  potable water:

          Required

          Sewage  recovered

c,   Revegetation  water

d.   Evaporation from storage ponds

     GRAND TOTAL  RAW WATER INPUT TO PLANT i
             TREATMENT SLUDGES
              a.   J-ime softening

              b.   Ion exchange

              c.   Biotreatraent
                                                                   1,420
                                                                       10" IVhr

                                                                  solids      water^ C sludge

                                                                                    0.16
                                                                      79
                                                                                                                  Conversion efficiency
                                                                                                       Disposition  of  Unrecovered Heat
                                                                                                                                                              65.5 
Direct loss
Designed dry

Designed wet

JU:id gas removal
  regenerator condenser
Total turbine condensers

Total gas compressor
  interstage cooling
                             10  Btu/hr   I wet    Btu/Lb  evap
10  1> water
  evap/hr^
1
1
0.
1.
1.
0.
5
.73
.33
.45
.01
.04
.34
.90
0
0
100
0
10
100
1.414
1,414
1,414
1,414
1,414
1,414

0
0
316
0
74
240
632

-------
                                                                                                                         WORK SHEET t   WATER QUANTITY CALCULATIONS FOR
                                                                                                                                            LURGI PROCESS
                                                                                                           SITE!
                                                                                                                                                   PRODUCT SIZE:  250 x 10  SCP/day
                                                                                                                                                   ENERGY!  9.9 x 10  Btu/hr
W
NJ
Coal Analysis (wt 4 as-received)
                    Moisture
                       C
                       H
                       O
                       N
                       S
                       Ash

                    HHV Calculated
                       (103 Btu/lb)
 COAL FEED
  to reactor:    Table A6-3
                 Table A6-3
                                                                                                          FGD HATER
                                                                                                            Vaporized
                                                                                                            With  sludge
                                                                                                               TOTALi
                  Appendix 8
                  Appendix 9
                                                                                                            PGD sludge produced,  wet
                                                                                                          ASH HANDLING
                                                                                                                                                              Tables  3-18,  3-19
                                                                                                                                                        to boiler:
                                                                                                                                                                      Table  A6-3
                                                                                                                                                                      Table  A6-3
_10  Ib/hr
 103 Ib/hr
                                                             Calcd.   10   Ib/hr
                                                            	103  Ib/hr
                    Bottom ash:  dry
                                 water
                                 sludge
                    Fly ash:  dry
                              water
                              sludge
                                                                                                                                                             Appendix 8
                                                                                                                                                                            (continued)

-------
                                       (continued)
        PROCESS_WATER




        B.  Steam and boiler  feed water required

        b.  Dirty condensate

        c.  Methanation water
                                                    10   Ib/hr

                                                   Table A6-3


                                                   Table A6-3

                                                   Table Afe-3
        OTHER WATER  NEEDS
10
ro
Ln
a.   Dust control

b.   Service, sanitary  & potable water:

          Required

          Sewage recovered

c.   Re vegetation water

d.   Evaporation from  storage ponds

     GRAND TOTAL. RAW  WATER INPUT TO PLANT i
                                                            Appendix 9
                                                            Appendix 11
        TREATMENT  SLUDGES
        a.   Lime  softening

        b.   Ion exchange

        c.   Biotreatment
                                                             solids       water C sludge
                                                          Appendix  11
                                                                                                                                      (continued)
Em? r gy^ To ta 1 s
                                                                                                                Feed

                                                                                                                Product and  byproduct

                                                                                                                Unrecovered  heat
                                                        Btu/hr
                                                                                                                                                          Table A6-3
                                                                                                                                                          Table A6-3
                                                                                                                                                       A6-j  (Product  gas  & byproduct)
                                                                                                                Conversion efficiency
                                                                                                                                                          Table  A6-3
          Total unrecovered  heat

          % of unrecovered heat
            wet cooled

          Wet cooling load

          Btu/lb evap

          10  Ib water evap/hr
Table A6-3



From jjther gas plants  in  the  same area*

Calculated

Table A7-2

Calculated
                                                                                                      "Synthane

-------
WORK SHEET:  WATER QUANTITY CALCULATIONS  FOR
                   LURGI PROCESS
SITE: Marengo, Alabajna
water)
Coal Analysis (wt % as-received)
Moisture
C
H
O
N
S
Ash
HHV Calculated
(103 Btu/lb)
COAL FEED
to reactor: 2,765 10 lb/hr
q
14 8 10 Btu/hr
FGD WATER
Vaporized 0.11 Ib/lb coal
With sludge 0.25 Ib/lb coal
TOTAL:
FGD sludge produced, wet
ASH HANDLING

Bottom ash: dry
water
8 ludge
Fly ash: dry
water
sludge
PRODUCT SIZE: 250 x 10 SCF/day
o

48.7
32.1
2.2
9.8
0.6
1.8
4. S
100
5.34

to boiler: 845 103 lb/hr
4.51 10* Btu/hr

0 103 lb/hr
211 103 lb/hr
211 103 lb/hr
302 10 lb/hr

1O3 lb/hr
141
75.8
217
32.6
3.25
35.7
                                                                                  Marenqo. Alabama
                                                                                                            (continued)
                                                                              PROCESS WATER
                                                                              a.   Steam and boiler feed water required
                                                                              b.   Dirty condensate
                                                                              c.   Methanation water
1,767
2,325
                                                                                                                                   260
                                                                             OTHER WATER NEEDS
                                                                              a .   Dus t contro 1
                                                                              b.   Service,  sanitary & potable water;
                                                                                        Required
                                                                                        Sewage recovered
                                                                              c.   Revegetation water
                                                                              d.   Evaporation from storage ponds
                                                                                  GRAND TOTAL RAW WATER INPUT TO PLANT:
                                                                             TREATMENT  SLUDGES
                                                                             a.  Lime  softening
                                                                             b.  Ion exchange & reverse osmosis
                                                                             c.  Biotreataient
                                                                                                                                             water ft  sludge
                                                                                                                                               (contLnued)

-------
   Harenqo,  Alabama
                               {continued)
                                               WORK SHEET:  WATER QUANTITY CALCULATIONS FOR
                                                                  LURGI PROCESS
Energy Totals

          Feed
          Product and byproduct
          Unrecovered heat

          Conversion efficiency

Disposition of Unrecovered  Heat

          Total unrecovered heat
          % of Unrecovered  heat
          wet cooled
          Wet cooling load
          Btu/lb evap
          10  Lb water  evap/hr
 10  Btu/hr
    19.3
   'l2.6
     6. 76
    6.76   10  Btu/hr
    1.2S   10  Btu/hr
1,310
  980
                                                                                  SITE:   Bureau,  Illinois
Coal Analysis  (wt  t  as-received)
                     Moisture
                       C
                       H
                       0
                       N
                       S
                       Ash
                                                    HHV Calculated
 COAL FEED
  to reactor:

FGD WATER
  Vaporized
  With sludge
     TOTAL:
  FGD sludge produced, wet
ASH HANDLING
1,364  10  Ib/hr
         g
14.7   10  Btu/hr

0.57    Lb/lb coal
0.40    lb/Ib coal
                                                                                                                           PRODUCT SIZE:   250 x 10  SCF/day
                                                                                                                           ENERGY:  9.9 x  1Q9 Btu/hr
                      16.1
                                                                           1.1
                                                                         100
                                                        (10  Btu/Lb)       10.16
to boiler:      204    10   Lb/hr
                2.2    109  Btu/hr
                                                                                                                                                116     10  Ib/hr
                                                                                                                                                 81.6   10  Ib/hr
                                                                                                                                                19B     103 Ib/hr
                                                                                                                                                117     10  Lb/hr
                                                                                                      Bottom ash:  dry
                                                                                                                   water
                                                                                                                   sludge
                                                                                                      Fly ash:   dry
                                                                                                                water
                                                                                                                sludge
                                                                                                                                                    (continued)

-------
     Bureau,  Illinois
                                (continued)
                                                                                             Bureau,  Illinois
                                                                                                                        (continued)
PROCESS WATER
a. Steam and boiler feed water required
b* Dirty condensate
c. Hethanation water
OTHER WATER NEEDS
a. Dust control
b. Service, sanitary S, potable water:
Required
LO
^ Sewage recovered
00
c. Revegetation water
d. Evaporation from storage ponds
GRAND TOTAL RAW WATER INPUT TO PLANT:
TREATMENT SLUDGES
a. Lime softening
b. Ion exchange
ENERGY
10 3 Ib/hr
2.693 Energy Totals
2.149 109 Btu/hr
279 Peed 16.9
Product and byproduct 11.4
Unrecovered heat 5.55
10 Ib^hr Conversion efficiency 67 4
150
Disposition of Unrecovered Heat
21
14 Total Unrecovered heat 5.55 lo9 Btu/hr
0
0 wet cooled 44 %
2,668 Wet cooling load 2.44 109 Btu/hr
Btu/lb evap 1,390
10J Ib water evap/hr 1,757
10 3 Ib/hr
solids water & sludge
1 4 6.7
ISO
c.  Biotreatment

-------
                          WORK SHEET:   HATER QUANTITY CALCULATIONS  FOR
                                             LURGI PROCESS
                                                                                                           St. Clair. Illinois
                                                                                                                                      (continued)
OJ
r-o
                    st.  Clair,  Illinois
                    (Underground and Surface
                    Coal Mining)
PRODUCT EliE:   250  X  10   SCF/day
                  Q
ENERGY:  9.9 X  10  Btu/hr
Coal Analysis (wt % as-received)
Moisture 11.3
C 61.1
H 4.2
O 7.4
N 1.2
S 3.7
Ash 11.1
100
HHV Calculated
(103 Btu/Lb) 11.07
COAL FEED
to reactor: 1,351 1Q3 Ib/hr to boiler: 199
14.9 109 Btu/hr 2'2
FGD WATER
Vaporized 0.63 lb/Ib coal 125
With sludge 0.51 lb/Ib coal 101
TOT*,, 226

ASH HANDLING
103 Ib/hr
Bottom ash: dry I54
water 83. 1
sludqe 23S
Fly ash: dxv 17'7
water 1-"
sludae 19'4
103 Ib/hr
109 Btu/hr
103 Ib/hr
103 Ib/hr
103 Ib/hr
103 Ib/hr

PROCESS HATER

&.  Steam and boiler feed water  required
b.  Dirty condensate
c.  Methanation water
                                                                                                                        (Surface coal mining
                                                                                                                        \ Underg
                                                   OTHER WATER HEEDS

                                                   a.   Dust  control  ,                    .
                                                                     '  n rground coal mining
                                                   b.   Service,  sanitary  & potable water:
                                                            Required
                                                            Sewage  recovered
                                                   c.   Revegetation  water
                                                   d.   Evaporation from storage  ponds
                                                        GRAND TOTAL  RAW WATER INPUT TO PLANT:
                                                                    (Surface coal mine
                                                                    \Underground coal mine
                                                                                                                                                          10  Ib/hr
                                                                                                                                                           2,653
                                                                                                                                                           2,736
                                                                                                       TREATMENT  SLUDGES   (Note:  Surface coal mining  underground  coal  mining are  the same)
                                                                                                      a.  Lime softening
                                                                                                      b.  Ion exchange
                                                                                                      c.  Biotreatment
                                                                                                                                                           0.07
                                                                                                                                                                      water    sludge
                                                                                                                                                                            0.33
                                                                                                                                                                        (continued)

-------
                          St. Clair.  Illinois
                                                      (continued)
                                                                                                WORK SHEET:  WATER QUANTITY CALCULATIONS FOR
                                                                                                                   LURGI PROCESS
Ul
CO
O
Energy Totals

          Feed
          Product and byproduct
          Unrecovered heat

          Conversion efficiency

Disposition of Unrecovered Heat

          Total Unrecovered heat
          % of Unrecovered heat
          wet cooled
          Wet cooling load
          Btu/lb evap
          10  Ib water evap/hr
 5.61  1Q^  Btu/hr

44     %
 2.48  io9  Btu/hr
                                                                         1,370
                                                                         1,752
                                                                                                         SITE:    Fulton, Illinois
                                                                                                         Coal Analysis (wt % as-received)
                                                                                                                             Moisture
                                                                                                                                C
                                                                                                                                H
                                                                                                                                O
                                                                                                                                N
                                                                                                                                S
                                                                                                                                Ash
                                                                                                         COAL FEED
                                                                                                                             HHV Calculated
                                                                                                                                (103 Btu/lb)
  to reactor:       1,410  1QJ Lb/hr
                    15.0   IO9 Btu/hr
FGD WATER
  Vaporized
  With sludge
     TOTAL:
  FGD sludge produced, wet
ASH HANDLING
                                                                                                                            0.56    Lb/lb coal
                                                                                                                            0.43    Lb/Lb coal
                                                                                                                          PRODUCT  SIZE:   250 x  10   SCF/day
                                                                                                                                           9
                                                                                                                          ENERGY:   9.9 X  10  Btu/hr
                                          15.6
                                           1.1
                                          10.65
                                                                                                                                                      to boiler:      207    IP"1 Ib/hr
                                                                                                                                                                      2.2    109 Btu/hr
                                                                                                                                                      10"  Lb/hr
                                                                                                                                                         3
                                                                                                                                                                       S9.0  10
                                                                                                                                                                      205    103 Ib/hr
                                                                                                                                                                      127    IOJ Lb/hr
                                                                                                                             Bottom ash:   dry
                                                                                                                                          water
                                                                                                                                          sludge
                                                                                                                             Ply ash:   dry
                                                                                                                                       water
                                                                                                                                       sludge
                                                                                                                                       16.6
                                                                                                                                                                          (continued)

-------
                 Fulton,  Illinois
                                           (continued)
                                                                                                           Fulton,  Illlnoig
                                                                                                                                       (continued)
LJ
OJ
H
             PKDCMS WATCH

             a.  Steam a/id bailor feed water required
             b.  Dirty condensato
             c,  Methttnatiori water
OTHER WATER HEEDS

a.  Dust control
b.  Service, Bfl/iitary b potable woteri
          Required
          Sewogo recovered
c.  Revecjetntion water
d.  Evaporation from storage poftds
     GHA1TD TOTAL RAW WATER IHPUT  TO
             Tf-K/iTHEHTSUJlXjES
             o.  Lime coftening
             bn  Ion exchange t reverse ostnoais
             c,  Biotr eabcoertt
             d,  C1cctrodialysis
                                                                     0
                                                                    osa'
                                                                      10"  lb/hr
                                                                 Bolids      water  fc  aludge
                                                                    163
          I-oad
          Product nrid byproduct
          Unrecoverad haat

          Conversion efficiency

Disposition ol Unrecovered Hent

          Total unrecovored heat
          % of unrccovercd boat
          wet cooled
          Wet cooling load
          Btu/lb evop
          10  Ib water evap/hx
                                                                                                                                             10  Btu/hr
                                                                                                                                                17.2
                                                                                                                                              '  11.4
                                                                                                                                                 5.8
                                                                                                                                                             67
5.76  ID" Btu/hr
                                                                                                                                                             25
1-44 ioa Btu/hr
                                                                                                                                                          1,380
                                                                                                                                                          1,034

-------
                             WORK  SHEET:   WATER  QUANTITY CALCULATIONS FOR
                                                LURGI PROCESS
                                                                                                              Muhlenberg,  Kentucky
                                                                                                                                        (continued)
               SITE:    Muhlenberg,  Kentucky
OJ
U>
NJ
               COAL FEED
                to reactor:
              FGD HATER
 HHV  Calculated
    (103  Btu/lb)
1,183  IP"1 Ib/hr
13.9   lo9 Btu/hr
                Vaporized
                With eludge
                   TOTAL i
                FGD sludge produced, wet
              ASH HANDLING
0.68    ib/lb coal
0. 36	Ib/lb coal
                     PRODUCT SIZE:   250  x 10  SCF/day
                                       o
                     ENERCK:  9.9 X  10  Btu/hr

Moisture
C
H
0
N
S
Ash

11.
64
4
8
1
2
7

.0
.8
.7
.3
.4
.6
.2
                                                       100
                                                            to boiler:
                                                                             26910   Ib/hr
                                                                            3-17    10  Btu/hr
1S2-9  1Q  Ib/hr
 96-B  io3 ib/hr
2BO    1Q3 lt,/hr
                                           138-3  IO3 Ib/hr
                                  Bottom ash:  dry
                                               water
                                               aludge
                                  Fly ash:  dry
                                            water
                                            sludge
                               10  Ib/hr
                                 69.1
                                 48.0
                               137.0
                                 17.0
                                                                                                         PROCESS WATER

                                                                                                         a.  Steam  ajid boiler  feed water recjuired
                                                                                                         b.  Dirty  condensate
                                                                                                         c.  Methanation water
                             OTHER WATER HEEDS

                             a.   Dust control
                             b.   Service, sanitary & potable water:
                                       Required
                                       Sewage recovered
                             c.   Revegetation water
                             d.   Evaporation from storage ponds
                                  GRAND TOTAL RAH HATER INPUT TO PLANT:
TREATMENT SLUDGES
                             a.   Lime softening
                             b.   Ion exchange  reverse osmosis
                             c.   Biotreatment
                                                                                                                           1,918
                                                                                                                                                            10  Ib/hr
                                                                                                                                                                52
                                                                                                                                                              1,478
                                                                                                                                 10   Ib/hr
                                                                                                                           solids      water  &  sludge
                                                                                                                                                                                 3.1
                                                                                                                                                                            (continued)

-------
                    Muhlenburg,  Kentucky	(continued)
                                                                                                                 WORK SHEET:  WATER QUANTITY CALCULATIONS  FOR
                                                                                                                                    LURGI PROCESS
U)
OJ
LO
ENERGY

Energy Totals

          Feed
          Product and byproduct
          Unrecovered heat

          Conversion efficiency

Disposition of Unrecovered Heat

          Total Unrecovered  heat
          % of Unrecovered heat
          vet cooled
          Wet cooling load
          Btu/Lb evap
          10  Ib water evap/hr
                                                                    10  Btu/hr
                                                                      17.1
                                                                      11.4
                                                                      67
                                                                       5.63  10   Btu/hr
                                                                       0.73  103  Btu/hr
                                                                   1,370
                                                                     533
                                                                                                   SITE:    Jim Bridger,  Wyoming
Coal Analysis  (wt  as-received)
                    Moisture
                       C
                       H
                       O
                       H
                       S
                       Ash
                                                                                                   COAL FEED
                                                                                                                      HHV Calculated
                                                                                                                          (103 Btu/Lb)
  to reactor:      1,661  10  lb/hr
                   14.1   109 Btu/hr
FGD WATER
  Vaporized
  With sludge
     TOTAL:
  FGD sludge produced,  wet
ASH HANDLING
                                                                                                     0.3B    Lb/lb  coal
                                                                                                     0.07    Lb/lb  coal
                                                                                                                                           PRODUCT SIZE:   250  x  10   SCF/day
                                                                                                                                                             q
                                                                                                                                           ENERGY:  9.9 X  10  Btu/hr
                                                                                                                                             1.1
                                            .50
to boiler:      519     10   Lb/hr
                4.41    109  Btu/hr
                                                                                                                                                                197    10  Lb/hr
                                                                                                                                                                 36.3  1Q-1 Lb/hr
                                                                                                                                                                234    1Q3 lb/hr
                                                                                                                                                                 51.9  103 Lb/hr
                                                                                                     Bottom ash:  dry
                                                                                                                  water
                                                                                                                  sludge
                                                                                                     Fly ash:  dry
                                                                                                               water
                                                                                                               sludge
                                                                                                                                                      145
                                                                                                                                                       77.9
                                                                                                                                                      223
                                                                                                                                                       34.1
                                                                                                                                                       37.5
                                                                                                                                                                    (continued)

-------
     Jim Bridget",  Wyoming	(continued)
                                                                                              Jim Bridqer,  Wyoming	(continued)
 PROCESS WATER

 a.   Steam and boiler feed water required
 b.   Dirty condensate
 c.   Methanation water
 OTHER WATER NZEDS

 a.   Dust  controi
 b.   Service,  sanitary  t potable  water:
           Required
           Sewage recovered
 c-   Revegetation water
 d.   Evaporation from storage ponds
     GRAND TOTAL RAW WATER  INPUT TO PLANT:
TREATMENT SLUDGES
a.   Lime softening
b.   Ion exchange
c.   Biotreatment
10  lb/hr
 1,596
 1,121
10  lb/hr
   100
 1,548
                                                         10  lb/hr
                                                    eolids      water & sludge
ENERGY

Energy Totals

          Feed
          Product and byproduct
          Unrecovered heat

          Conversion efficiency

Disposition of Unrecovered Heat

          Total Unrecovered heat
          \ of Unrecovered heat
          wet cooled
          Wet cooling load
          Btu/lb evap
          10  Ib water evap/hx
                                                                                          10  Btu/hr
                                                                                            18.5
                                                                                             6.11  10   Btu/hr
                                                                                                                                                1-13  10   Btu/hr
                                                                                                                                            1,401
                                                                                                                                              807
                                                    0.71

-------
                       WORK SHEET:  WATER QUANTITY  CALCULATIONS FOR
                                          LURGJ PROCESS
                                                                                                         Kemmerer, Wyoming
                                                                                                                                    (continued)
         SITE:   Kemmeier, Wyoming
PRODUCT SIZE:   250  x  10"  SCF/day
ENERGY:  9.9 X  1Q9  Btu/hr
LJ
Ul
ui
Coal Analysis (wt * as-received)
Moisture 2 . B
C 71.8
H 5.0
0 9.0
N 1.2
S 1.0
Ash 9.2
100
KHV Calculated
(103 Btu/lb) I2-88
COAL FEED
to reactor: 1,170 lo3 Lb/hr to boiler: 220
I*. 9 109 Btu/hr 2.83
FGD WATER
Vaporized 0.64 Ib/Lb coal IBS
with sludge 0.14 Lb/Lb coal 30.8
TOTAL: 216
FGD sludqe produced, wet 44.0
ASH HAJIDLJNG
10 Ib/hr
Bottom asn: dry -^2
water 60-1
sludge 172

water 1-62
sludge 17'8










103 Ib/hr
ID9 Btu/hr

103 Ib/hr
103 Ib/hr
10 3 Ib/hr
103 Lb/hr







                                                                                                     PROCESS HATER

                                                                                                     a.   Steam and boiler feed water required
                                                                                                     b.   Dirty condensate
                                                                                                     c.   Methanation water
                                                   OTHER WATER NEEDS

                                                   a.   Dust control
                                                   b.   Service, sanitary  potable water:
                                                             Required
                                                             Sewage recovered
                                                   c.   Revegetation water
                                                   d.   Evaporation from storage pondfi
                                                        GRAND TOTAL RAW WATER IOTUT TO PLANT:
                                                                                                    TREATMENT SLUDGES
                                                                                                    a.  Li me softening
                                                                                                    b.  Ion exchange  reverse  osmosis
                                                                                                    c.  Biotreatment
                                                                                                       1,934
                                                                                                         272
                                                                                                                                                        1,925
                                                                                                                                                             10' Ib/hr
                                                                                                                                                        solids      water    sludge
                                                                                                                                                        1.91
                                                                                                                                                                       (continued)

-------
    Kenwerer,  Wyoming
                               (continued)
                                               WORK SHEET:  HATER QUANTITY  CALCULATIONS  FOR
                                                                  LURGI PROCESS
                                                                                    SITE:    Knife River,  North DaXota       PRODUCT SIZE:  250 x 10* SCF/day
Energy Totals

          Feed
          Product and byproduct
          Unrecovered heat

          Conversion efficiency

Disposition of Unrecovered Heat

          Total Unrecovered heat
          % of Unrecovered heat
          wet cooled
          Wet cooling load
          Btu/Ub evap
          10  lt> water evap/hr
10  Btu/hr
   17.7
   11.9
   67
         10  Btu/hr
   20.6  %
    1-21 109 Btu/hr
1,397
  866
Coal Analysis  (wt % as-received)
                    Moisture
                       C
                       H
                       O
                       N
                       S
                       Ash

                    HHV Calculated
                       (103 Btu/lb)
                                                                                                                            ENERGY:   9.9 x 109 Btu/hr
 35.0
 42.5
  2.8
 12.3
  0.6
  0.7
  6.1
100
                                                                           7.00
COAL FEED
to reactor:
FGD WATER
Vaporized
Kith sludge
2,037
14.3
0.14
0.10
10 3 Ib/hr
109 Btu/hr
_lb/lb coal
Ib/li coal
TOTAL:
PGD sludge produced, wet
ASH HANDLING
to boiler: 589
4.12
82.5
SB. 9
141
84.1

10 3 Ib/hr
109 Btu/hr
103 Ib/hr
_103 Ib/hr
103 Ib/hr
103 Ib/hr

                                                                                                       Bottom ash:  dry
                                                                                                                    water
                                                                                                                    sludge
                                                                                                       Ply ash:  dry
                                                                                                                 water
                                                                                                                 sludge
                                                                                     70.8
                                                                                      2.87
                                                                                     31.6
                                                                                                                                                     (continued)

-------
                   e River , North Dakota  (continued)
                                                                                                          ICnife River, North Dakota   (continued)
U>
LO
           PROCESS WATER


           a.  Steam and boiler feed water  required
           b.  Dirty condensate
           c.  Methanation water
           OTHER WATER NEEDS
a.  Dust control
b.  Service, sanitary  & potable water:
          Required
          Sewage recovered
c.  Revegetation water
d.  Evaporation from storage  ponds
     GRAND TOTA1, RAW WATER  INPUT TO PLANT:
           TREATMENT SLUDGES
           a.   Lime softening
           b.   Ion exchange & reverse osmosis
           c.   Biotreatioent
                                                                1,199
                                                                     10   Ib/hr
                                                               solids      water  &  3ludga
 Energy Totaj.3

          Feed
          Product  and byproduct
          Unrecovered heat

          Conversion  efficiency

Disposition of Unrecovered Heat

          Total Unrecovered heat

          %  of  unrecovered heat
          wet cooled
          Wet cooling load
          Btu/lb  evap
          10 Ib  water evap/hr
                                                     1.1
                                                                                                                                               10   Btu/hr
                                                                                                                                                18.4
                                                                                                                                                           65
10  Btu/hr
                                                                                                                                                            1-19  10   BtuAir
                                                                                                                                                        1,420

-------
                        WORK SHEET:   WATER QUANTITY CALCULATIONS FOR
                                            UIRGI  PROCESS
                                                                           Hilliston, North Dakota    (continued)
          SITE:    Williston, North  Dakota
          Coal Analysis  fwt % as-received)
                              Moisture
                                 C
                                 H
                                 O
                                 N
                                 S
                                 Ash
U)
to
00
           COAL FEED
            to reactor:
          FGD WATER
 HHV Calculated
    (103 Btu/lb)
                             2,245  10  Ib/hr
                                      p
                             14.B   10  Btu/hr
            Vaporized
            WiUi sludge
               TOTAL:
            FGD sludge produced,  wet
         ASH  HANDLING
0.53    lb/lb coal
O.OB    lb/lb coal
                                                   PRODUCT SIZE:   250 x 10  SCF/day
                                                   ENERGY:  9.9 X 109 Btu/hr
                       2.8
 11.2
  0.7
  0.6
  5.6
100

  6.58
                              Bottom ash:  dry
                                           water
                                           sludge
                              Fly ash:  dry
                                        water
                                        sludge
                                                       to boiler:
                                          678    10J Ib/hr
                                          -1.46   1Q9 Btu/hr
                     359    1Q-* Ib/hr
                      54.2  103 Ib/hr
                     413    103 Ib/hr
                                           77.5  io  ib/hr
                                 71.8
                                205
                                  3.04
                                                                       PROCESS WATER

                                                                       a.  Steam and boiler feed water required
                                                                       b.  Dirty condensate
                                                                       c.  Methanotion water
OTHER WATER NEEDS

a.  Dust control
b.  Service, sanitary & potable water:
          Required
          Sewage recovered
c.  Revegetation water
d.  Evaporation from storage ponds
     GRAND TOTAL RAW WATER INPUT TO PLANT:
TREATMENT SLUDGES
                                                                       a.   Lime softening
                                                                       b.   Ion exchange
                                                                       c.   Biotreatment
                                                                                                    10  Ib/hr
                                                                                                     1,780
                                                                                                     1,897
                                                                                                       268
                                                                                                                         10  Ib/hr
                                                                                                                            191

                                                                                                                             21
                                                                                                      2,464
                                                                                                                               10   Ib/hr
                                                                                                                          solids      water t sludge
                                                                                                                           0.09
                                                                                                                                            0.45
                                                                                                                                                                        97
                                                                                                                                                        1.20
                                                                                                                                                                       (continued)

-------
   Williston,  North Dakota    (continued)
                                             WORK SHEET:  HATER  QUANTITY  CALCULATIONS FOR
                                                                 U1RCI  PROCESS
Energy Totals

          Feed
          Product and byproduct
          Unrecovered heat

          Conversion efficiency

Disposition of Unrecovered Heat

          Total unrecovered heat
          % of unrecovered heat
          wet cooled
          Wet cooling load
          Btu/lb evap
          10  Lb water evap/hr
 10  Btu/hr
  19. 3
  12.5
          10   Btu/hr
    2-BB  109 Btu/hr
1,420
2,028
                                                                                 SITE; Decker, Montana
Coal Analysis  (wt % as-received)
                    Moisture
                       C
                       H
                       O
                       N
                       S
                       Ash
                                COAL FEED
                                 to reactor:
FGD WATER
  Vaporized
  With sludge
     TOTALi
  FGD sludge produced, wet
ASH HANDLING
                    HHV Calculated
                        (103 Btu/lb)
l.SOS  10   Lb/hr
        9
14.3   3-0   Btu/hr

0.42    Ib/lb coal
0.07    Ib/lb coal
                                                                        PRODUCT SIZE:   250 x 10  SCF/day
                                                                        ENERGY:   9.9 x  109 Btu/hr
                                                                          3.2
                                                                         0.5
                                                                          3.7
                                                                            to boiler:
                                                                                                    10   Ib/hr
                                                                     10   Btu/hr
                                                                                                                                                 . B  10  Ib/hr
                                                                                                     Bottom ash:   dry
                                                                                                                  water
                                                                                                                  eludge
                                                                                                     Fly ash:   dry
                                                                                                               water
                                                                                                               sludge
                                                                                   31.8
                                                                                                                                                  (continued)

-------
                   Decker,  Montana
                                             (continued)
                                                                                                          _peckejr, Montana
                                                                                                                                      (continued)
o
              PROCESS HATER

              a.  Steam  and boiler  feed water required
              b.  Dirty  condensate
              c.  Methajiation water
              OTHER WATER
a.  Dust control
b.  Service, sanitary & potable wateri
          Required
          Sewage recovered
c.  Revegetation water
d.  Evaporation from storage ponds
     GRAND TOTAL RAW WATER INPUT TO  PLANT:
              TREATMENT SLUDGES
                                                    1,696
                                                    1,186
                                                                  2,472
Energy Totals

          Feed
          Product and byproduct
          Unrecovered heat

          Conversion efficiency

Disposition of Unrecovered Heat

          Total Unrecovered heat
          % of Unrecovered heat
          wet cooled
          Wet cooling load
          Btu/lb evap
          10  Ib water evap/hr
                                                                                                                                            10" Btu/hr
                                                                                                                                              IB. 6
                                                                                                                                              12.4
                                                                                                                                                            67
                                                                                                                                                             6.12  lpa Btu/hr
                                                                                                                                                                   10* Btu/hr
                                                                                                                                                         1,407
                                                                                                                                                         1,500
              a.  Lime softening
              b.  Ion exchange
              c.  Biotreatment
              d.  Electrodialysis
                                                                  0.08
                                                                    91
                                                    0.75
                                                                   247

-------
              WORK SHEET;  WATER QUANTITY  CALCULATIONS FOR
                                 LURGI  PROCESS
                                                                                                Foster Creek,  Montana
                                                                                                                          (continued)
SITE: Foster Creek, Montana
Coal Analysis  (wt \ as-received)

                    Moisture

                       C

                       H

                       O

                       N

                       S

                       Ash



                    HHV Calculated
                                         PRODUCT SIZE:   250 x 10  SCF/day
                                                          9
                                         ENERGY:   9.9 x 10  Btu/hr
                                          45.7
                                           0.7
                                           7.7
 COAL FEED
  to reactor:
                        (10   Btu/Lb)
                   _1,B97  10   Ib/hr

                    14.3   IO9  Btu/hr
FCD WATER

  Vaporized

  With sludge

     TOTAL:

  FGD sludge produced,  wet

ASH HANDLING
0.22    Lb/lb coal

0.07    Lb/Lb coal
                     Bottom ash:   dry

                                  water

                                  gludge

                     Fly ash:  dry

                               water

                               sludge
                                              to boiler:
                                                               574     10  Lb/hr
                                                               4.33    10  Btu/hx
                                                               126    10  Ib/hr
                                                                40. 2
                                                                          Ib/hr
                                                               167    10  Ib/hr

                                                                57.4  io3 Lb/hr
                                                        3.54
                                                                       PROCESS WATER



                                                                       a.  Steam and boiler  feed  water required

                                                                       b.  Dirty condensate

                                                                       c.  MetJianation water
                                                                       OTHER WATER NEEDS




                                                                       a.  Dust control

                                                                       b.  Service, sanitary fi potable water;

                                                                                 Required

                                                                                 Sewage recovered

                                                                       c.  Revegetation water

                                                                       d.  Evaporation from storage ponds

                                                                            GRAND TOTA1, RAW WATER IKPUT TO PLANT:
                                                                                           TREATMENT SLUDGES
                                                                                           a.  Lime softening

                                                                                           b.  Ion exchange S reverse osmosis

                                                                                           c.  Biotreatment
                                                                                                                                              10  Ib/hr
                                                                                                                                               1,312
                                                                                                                                               0.87
                                                                                                                                                             (continued)

-------
   Foster Creek, Montana       (continued)
                                                                                                                   HORX SHEET:   HATER QUANTITY CAICULATIONS FOR
                                                                                                                                      LURGI PROCESS
OJ
4^
KJ
Energy Totals

          Feed
          Product and byproduct
          Unrecovered heat

          Conversion efficiency

Disposition of Unrecovered Heat

          Total Unrecovered heat
          * of Unrecovered heat
          wet cooled
          Wet cooling load
          Etu/lb evap
          10  Ib water evap/hr
                                                                        Btu/hr
                                                                      18.6
                                                                       12.5
                                                                        6.16
6-16  iQ9 Etu/hr
                                                                             10  Btu/hr
                                                                                                     SITE:  El  Paso,  New  Mexico
Coal Analysis (wt * as-received)
                    Moisture
                       C
                       H
                       O
                       N
                       S
                       Ash

                    HHV Calculated
                       (103 Btu/lb)
 COAL FEED
  to reactor:       1,672  IQ  lb/hr
                   14-4   109 Btu/hr
                                                                                                    FGD HATER
                                                                                                      Vaporized
                                                                                                      With sludge
                                                                                                         TOTAL:
                                                                                                      FGD sludge produced, wet
                                                                                                    ASH HANDLING
                                                                                                      0.42    lb/lb coal
                                                                                                      0.10    Ib/Uj coal
                                                                                                                           PRODUCT SIZE:  250 X 10 SCF/day
                                                                                                                           ENERGY:  9.9 X 109 Btu/hr
                                                                                                                                               8.62
                                                                                                                                                  to boiler:
                                                                                                                                                                         10  ]_b/hr
                                                                                                                                                                  3-99   109 Etu/hr
                                                                                           "6-3  103 Ib/hr
                                                                                                                                                 66-1  103 Ib/hr
                                                                                                                        Bottom  ash:   dry
                                                                                                                                      water
                                                                                                                                      sludge
                                                                                                                        Fly ash:  dry
                                                                                                                                  water
                                                                                                                                  sludge
                                                                                                                                       182
                                                                                                                                                                      (continued)

-------
                El  Paso,  New  Mexico
                                           (continued)
                                                                                                           El Paso, New Mexico	(continued)
OJ
J^
OJ
            PROCESS  WATER

            a.   Steam and boiler feed water required
            b.   Dirty condensate
            c.   Hethanation  water
OTHER WATER REEDS

a.  Dust control
t>.  Service, sanitary  6 potable water:
          Required
          Sewage recovered
c.  Revegetation water
d.  Evaporation from storage ponds
     GRAND TOTAL RAW WATER INPUT TO PLANT:
           TREATMENT  SLUDGES
           a.  Lime  softening
           b.  Ion exchange
           c.  Biotreatment
                                                    10  Ib/hr
                                                                1,725
                                                                     10  Ib/hr
                                                                Boj.ids      water  &  sludge
           Feed
           Product and byproduct
           Unrecovered heat

           Conversion  efficiency

Disposition __gf_ U"_f g_covered^_Hea;t

          Total unrecovered heat
          ^ of unrecovered heat
          wet cooled
          Wet cooling load
          Btu/lb evap
          10  Ib water evap/hr
                                                                                                                                               10  Btu/hr
                                                                                                                                                 18.4
                                                                                                                                                 12. 3
                                                                                                                                                  6.07
                                                                                                                                                             &-07  10  BtuAr
                                                                                                                                                                       Btu/hr

-------
WORK SHEET:  WATER QUANTITY  CALCULATIONS  FOR
                   LURGI  PROCESS
9
ENERGY. 9.9 * 10 Btu/hr
Coal Analysis (wt t as-received)
Moisture 12. 4
S 0.7
Ash 25.6
100
HHV Calculated
(103 Btu/lb) 8.44
COAL FEED
to reactor: 1,689 1Q3 lb/hr to boiler: 475
14.3 109 Btu/hr 4.01
FGD WATER
Vaporized 0.45 Lb/lb coal 214
With sludge 0.10 Ib/lb coal 47.5
TOTAL: 262
FGD sludge produced, wet 67.9
ASH HANDLING
103 lb/hr
Bottom ash: dry 4^7 	
water 24&
sludge 73
Fly ash: dry 97.3
water 9.73
sludge 107





103 lb/hr
109 Btu/hx

103 lb/hr
103 lb/hr
103 lb/hr
103 Ih/hr





                                                                                  Wesco, New Mexico
                                                                                                             (continued)
                                                                              PROCESS WATER

                                                                              a.  Steam arid boiler feed water required
                                                                              b.  Dirty condensate
                                                                              c.  Methanation water
                                                                                                                                    310
                                                                              OTHER WATER NEEDS
                                                                              a.  Dust control
                                                                              b.  Service, sanitary  t potable water:
                                                                                        Required
                                                                                        Sewage recovered
                                                                              c.  Revegetation water
                                                                              d.  Evaporation from storage ponds
                                                                                   GRAND TOTAL RAW WATER INPUT TO PLANT:
                                                       11
                                                    1,865
                                                                              TREATMENT SLUDGES
a.  Lime softening
b.  Ion exchange & reverse osmosis
c.  BiotreatnMnt
                                                                                                                                       10  lb/hr
                                                                                                                                  solids      water t sludge
                                                                                                                                                    4.8
                                                                                                                                                 (continued)

-------
   Wesco. New Mexico
                               (continued)
                                              WORK  SHEET:   WATER QUANTITY CALCULATIONS FOR
                                                                  LURGI PROCESS
Energy Totals

          Feed
          Product and byproduct
          Unrecovered heat

          Conversion efficiency

D^spgsit^on of Unrecovered Heat

          Total unrecovered heat
          * of unrecovered heat
          wet cooled
          Wet cooling load
          Btu/lb evap
          10  Ib water evap/hr
10  Btu/hr
   18. 3
    6-M  109 Btu/hr
    1-09 Id9 Btu/hr
1.375
  793
                                                                                   SITE:  Gallup,  New  Mexico
Coal Analysis  (wt  %  as-received)
                     Moisture
                        C
                        H
                        O
                        N
                        S
                        Ash
                                 COAL FEED
                                  to reactor:
                    1,263   IP*1  Ib/hr
                             9
                    14.3    10  Btu/hr
FGO HATER
  Vaporized
  With sludge
     TOTAL:
  FGD sludge produced, wet
ASH_HANDLING
                                                                                                      0.61    Ib/lb coal
                                                                                                      0.06    Ib/lb coal
                                                                         PRODUCT SIZE:  250 > 10" SCF/day
                                                                         ENERGY;  9.9 x 1Q9 Btu/hr
                                                                         10.4
                                                                          1.1
                                                                          0.4
                                                                          5. 1
                    HHV  Calculated
                        (103  Btu/li>)       11.30
                                                                             to boiler:
                                                                                                     10
 4.01   10a Btu/hr

 217    103 it/hr
  21.3  io3 ib/hr
. 23B    1Q3 ib/hr
                                                                                                                                                 30-"  103  ib/hr
                                                                                                       Bottom ash t   dry
                                                                                                                    water
                                                                                                                    sludge
                                                                                                       Fly  ash:   dry
                                                                                                                 water
                                                                                                                 sludge
                                                                                     36.6
                                                                                   105
                                                                                    14.5
                                                                                    15.9
                                                                                                                                                    (continued)

-------
     Gallup,  New Mexico
                                (continued)
                                                                                                 G a11up,  H ew He x i co
                                                                                                                            (continued)
 PROCESS WATER
 a.  Steajn and boiler feed water  required
 b.  Dirty condensate
 c.  MetJianation water
 OTHER WATER KEEPS

 a.   Dust control
 b.   Service,  sanitary & potable water:
           Required
           Sewage recovered
 c.   Revegetation water
 d.   Evaporation  from storage ponds
      GRAND TOTAL RAW WATER INPUT TO PLANT:
TREATMENT  SUJPGES
a.  Lime softening
b-  Ion exchange
c.  Biotreatment
d.  Electrodialysis
1,603
1,007
                                                       276
En e r gy^ _Tot_a _ls_
   59
                                                     1,778
                                                          10  Ifr/hr
                                                     B_pli_ds_      vater & sludge
                                                     0.03             0.15
                85
          Peed
          Product and byproduct
          Unrecovered heat

          Conversion efficiency

         on of Unrecovered Heat

          Total Unrecovered heat
          % of Unrecovered heat
          wet cooled
          Wet cooling load
          Btu/lb evap
          10  Ib water evap/hr
                                                                                           10  Btu/hr
                                                                                             18,3
                                                                                             67   %
                                                                                              6-04  10  Btu/hr
                                                                                                                                                             Btu/hr
                                                                                                                                                1,375
                                                                                                                                                  793

-------
                                  APPENDIX 11
                            WATER TREATMENT PLANTS
     In this appendix we estimate the dollar and energy  cost of the water
treatment sections of each process/site combination.  The quantity of waste
sludge and waste soluble salts is also estimated.   (The  costs  and energy
requirements for disposing of the wet-solid residual streams are not included
in this study.) The background information for this appendix will be found in
Reference 1.
     In making these estimates the following sequence of decision and calcu-
lation is used:
     1)  Individual water treatment blocks are chosen and a water flow  diagram
is made.  The blocks used are described briefly in the following paragraph;
details are given in Reference 1.  For convenience in presentation and  to
avoid printing many similar diagrams, standardized flow  diagrams, each
applicable to one or more processes at many sites, are given on Figure  All-1
(A through E) and in Figure All-2 (Scheme 1 through Scheme 3).
     2)  For each process/site combination the flows of  all streams  are
entered on the summary Table All-4 (which has a page for each  process/site).
The streams are entered by number, corresponding to the  flow diagram.   Since
water losses in waste sludge are accounted for, this step proceeds simul-
taneously with the next step.  On each page of Table All-4 will be found
reference to the applicable flow diagrams.
     3)  For each treatment block at each process/site,  the dollars  cost,  the
energy cost and the water produced are calculated and entered  on  the summary
table.   Each result is the product of a unit cost and a  parameter measuring
quality.  The unit costs are given on Table All-1 and the quality parameters
on Tables All-2 and All-3.
     Brief mention is now made of the treatment blocks used.
                                        347

-------
     Lime soda softening.  This is used on cooling water makeup  and blowdown,
and occasionally on total plant raw water or boiler  feed.  Theoretical lime,
soda ash and magnesia additions are assumed for cost estimation.  The
treatment conditions are 1) Ca   reduced to 20 mg/1, 2) Mg    reduced to
7 mg/1, 3) 1 mg SiO  removed per 2 mg Mg  .  Two or  three probable locations
are shown on Figure 11-1; not all locations will be  used at the  same time.
     Electrodialysis.  This is required for all plants when the  raw intake
water is brackish.  The cost depends on the fraction of total dissolved
solids removed, and the fraction is taken to be one  of four stages:  50%
demineralization, 75%, 87.5% 93.8%.  The water recovery is 90%.  Two locations
are shown, one on Figure All-1 and one on Figure All-2.  In fact, they will
be separate streams in the same piece of equipment.
     Ion exchange.  This is required for all boiler  feed water procedures.
The cost of the ion exchange depends on the quality of the intake water,
which is usually site dependent, and on the pressure of the steam raised in
the boiler.  All the plants use a lot of high pressure steam  for driving
machinery, but this condensate is returned with less than 2 percent loss.  The
big need for boiler water makeup is for steam which enters into  reaction.
Thus to some extent the Lurgi, SRC and Synthoil plants make  lower
pressure steam at less cost, and Hygas, Bigas and Synthane make higher
pressure steam at more cost for boiler feed water treatment.  Based on
Reference 1, three ion exchange systems have been chosen and  costed; they
are shown on Figure All-2.  Scheme 1 is the general purpose scheme for
reasonable river water.  Scheme 2 is for presoftened high alkalinity water.
Scheme 3 is for brackish water intake.
     Condensate polishing, while necessary,  is minor and its cost is treated
as zero in the calculations.
     Phenol extraction.  This is a solvent extraction of phenolic compounds.
The phenols are recovered, which helps to defray the cost.   This process is
used only when the foul condensate has a high concentration of phenol.   The
process is not used for Lurgi or Synthane when the coal fed is bituminous.
It is not used for Hygas and Bigas processes.   Ninety-five percent removal
is assumed.   Since 1 mg phenol is equivalent to 2.38 mg BOD, the BOD is
reduced during phenol extraction by 2.26p,  where p is the influent phenol
concentration.
                                       348

-------
     Ammonia separation.  This is required at  all process/sites.   It  is  a
distillative, extractive process.  Ammonia is  assumed  recovered  as 30 wt %
solution and sold to help defray costs.  Ammonia is  usually  reduced to
450 mg/1, at which concentration it is a suitable nutrient for subsequent
biotreatment.
     Biotreatment.  Because of lack of clear information  on  how  much  organic
contamination is acceptable in cooling water,  this procedure is  used  on  dirty
condensate from all plants except Bigas.  Two  multistage, high purity oxygen
activated sludge tanks are used in series and  the removal percentage  is  high;
costs, energy and sludge are therefore calculated on the  assumption of 100
percent removal.
     Filter.  Water effluent from dissolved air floation  in  biotreatment
contains about 100 mg/1 suspended solids.  This is usually undesirable for
cooling tower feed.  A sand filter is assumed  to remove 80 percent of the
solids and to give a waste backwash stream which is  5  percent solids.  The
filter backwash is returned to the biotreatment clarifiers and so  is  not
shown on the flow diagram.
     Acid treatment of cooling water.  This is used  on all high  alkalinity
cooling water makeup streams.  Since more than 90 percent of the alkalinity
must be replaced to do any good, a 100 percent replacement is assumed.
     Chemicals added to cooling water.  Biocides, anticorrosion chemicals and
suspending agents are added to the cooling water.  Their  cost is shown on
Table All-1.
     Potable water treatment.  This is just chlorination; the quantity is
low and the cost is treated as zero.
     Reverse osmosis.  This is used to return  treatment condensate to the
boiler in those Lurgi plants where all of the condensate is  not required
in the cooling tower.  It is followed by activated carbon adsorption.
     Activated carbon adsorption.  This is used when treated condensate  is
returned to a boiler.
     The following additional notes apply to specific  conversion processes.
     Synthane.   Since so much of the ash is removed  from Synthane plants
as dry fly ash,  not enough cooling tower blowdown can be disposed of with
the ash to control the tower.  To maintain the concentration in the circu-
lating cooling water at 10 cycles blowdown is removed,  softened and used
                                       349

-------
as makeup to the flue gas desulfurization scrubber.  All Synthane plants are
shown on Figure All-lA.
     Lurgi.  Many Lurgi plants yield more treated condensate than is required
in the cooling tower.  These plants use flow diagram Figure All-IB.  When
all the condensate is consumed in the cooling tower, the same flow diagram
as Synthane is used  (see Figure All-lA).   In selected plants, and as required,
cooling tower blowdown in addition to that used for ash handling is taken
to maintain 10 cycles of concentration.
     Bigas.  Figure All-1C applies to all Bigas plants and to no others.
In some plants, fresh water or softened tower blowdown is used for dust
control and FGD makeup because there is not enough condensate.  Where necessary
the tower  is blown down to maintain 10 cycles.
     Synthoil.  Synthoil plants take in large amounts of quench water into
the hydrogen production train and put out large amounts of condensate.
Figure 11-ID applies to all Synthoil plants, and on this figure Stream 33 is
the net of input minus output water to the hydrogen plant.  Furthermore, all
cooling towers are blown down at 10 cycles to Stream 33.  In doing this we
have assumed that the inorganic salts dissolved in the quench water are
removed with fly ash somewhere beyond the point of quench and do not accumulate
in the system.  If the plant were not designed this way, or if this were
not possible, then the quench water would have to be of boiler feed quality
with hydrogen plant condensates returned through a polishing demineralizer.
     SRC.  Figure All-IE is used for all plants.  Condensate from the hydrogen
plant is usually softened before use as makeup to the cooling tower.  The
treated organically contaminated Stream 14 is small and with little organic
matter in the cooling tower the blowdown is used for dust control as well as
ash disposal.  Tower cycles of concentration sometimes reach as high as 14,
and when high cycles are used the makeup is softened to ensure satisfactory
operation.
     Hygas.  Hygas plants use the same flow scheme as Synthane, in Figure
All-lA.
                                        350

-------
REFERENCE - APPENDIX 11

 1.  Goldstein, D.J. and Yung, D., "Water Conservation and Pollution Control
     in Coal Conversion Processes," Report EPA-600/7-77, U.S. Environmental
     Protection Agency, Research Triangle Park, N.C., June 1977.
                                        351

-------
                                                  Streams are numbered for identification
OJ
Ul

21
24
25
28
1
(REVEGETATION^)
27
i
POTABLE
WATER
TREATMENT
u
/"SERVICE & A
\SANITARY USE,/

20
35
20 	
(EVAPORATION)*^

N
Flow rates are given in Appendix 11 lw" ">tn

( RESERVOIR ")-^-* EVAPORATION ( RESERVOIR )-J1* EVAPORATION


i' " '
3 3

SOFTENER NO. 1 [f> SLUDGE SOFTENING NO.l f^>SLUDGE
	 n 	 ' 1 . i iv
BOILE
TREA
FIG.
*5 	   	 2 ,,
R FEED * 	

H-2 " ,,,cTr ^- BOILER FEED CARBON
|8 '" V- TREATMENT ADSORPTION'
,. rnNnFNSATF a [' |
POLISHING 1 M CONDENSATE REVERSE
IT ( REVEGETATION ) POLISHING OSMOSIS
,, /- ^\ ' 	 |7 //
53 	 { PROCESS ) * \^-
^ J 	 1 .13 f \ WASTF
1 " * \ PROCESS I
IB A ^ 	 . 	 '
EXTRACTION  * PHENOL POTABLE WATER 1

i 	 ' TREATMENT PHENOL 	 . PHENOL
L 1 	 -T- 	 1 EXTRACTION 1^
	  	 us |9
AMMONIA _^ AII10NIA * ^
SEPARATION ' / SERVICE & ^\ AMMONIA
I 	 	 1 nrnunitt  ^ fiMMnuTfl
5 (
-* BIOTRE/

[ FIL1

10 \^ANIIAKT Ubty SEPARATION -"-""
.TMFNT => 51 UDGF 'In
29 V
18 * BlUIRtAIMtNl ^>SLUDlit
	 , ,, 18 k

rER I " I 	 * 	 1
FILTER
/- DUST A f cr.n >(  ,
32
I,
/ 	 	 N V CONTROL J \"" J " /'DUST \ S '
	 *f rnnt i ur \ 	 ^  i  ' 13 ' r 1 / FRn
^ TOWER ) C COOLING ^ Vj^TRGL^ V, 	

(AS
DISPC

39 31 ISOFTFNFR I ,n ^-^. luiitn y
,5 I NO 3 I .. v..^^  	 1 	 "
H ^\ "v ^ 	 ' i 15
SAL ^) SLUDGE ^ ASH "^
^DISPOSAL J

Figure A11-1A.  Hater treatment plant block diagram for all Synthane,
                   some  Luxgi and all Hygas.
                                                                                     Figure All-IB.  Water treatment plant
                                                                                               Block diagram for some Lurgi.
                             Figure All-1    Water treatment  block  diagrams.

-------
                                                        RAW WATER
Streams are numbered  for identification
Flow  rates are given  in Appendix  11
                                                                                                                                      RAW WATER
U)

LJ
C RESERVOIR y^-* EVApOWTION
21
1
1
j.3
| SOFTENING NO.l |=>SLUDGE
s
U
-4
5
,, BOILER FEED
TREATMENT > WASTE
FIG. 11-2
27 " ja
1 34 t CONDENSATE
POTABLE WATER POLISHING
TREAlMtNV
} A /" 	 : 	
7
[ PROCESS )
( SERVICE i }
\SANITARY USE/ - ^^
SEPAR

PACICAGE
SEWAGE PLANT
29
10
e
A!?ON ^AMMONIA
10
11
13
14
32 r rmi ING "N 37
\, TOWER J  ' 
33 >^
/
(^EVAPORATION)^ j
38 ^ 	 ' 	 	 ;
^CONTROL J C FG
1
31  SOFTFNINR -K...
NO. 3 -^5LU
/" ASH A
^DISPOSAL J
21
24
25
2fl
1
( REVEGETATION)

r
POTABLE WATER
TREATMENT
I"
/"SERVICE & ^\
\S_ANITARY USE^/
29
30

EVAPORATION)*^'

^ RESERVOIR 3-^^ EVAPORATIO
h


33
23
^
'
SOFTENING NO.l [:
(5
BOILER FEED
TREATMENT -^
FIG. 11-2 ""
I
CONDENSATE
POLISHING
S 	 ^
*f PROCESS J
PHENOL
EXTRACTION
I"
AMMONIA 	 ,
SEPARATION
I10
BIOTREATHENT -
f)
35
32
^
31
(

FILTER |
14
^ COOLING A
^ TOWER J
39
 15
^ ASH A
v DISPOSAL J
^> SLUDGE
> WASTE
 PHENOL
 AMMONIA
> SLUDGE
le
ia
( DUST
                                                                                                      Figure All-ID.   Water treatment block diagram for Synthoil process.
                          Figxure AA1-1C.  Water treatment plant block diagram
                                                 for  Bigas process.
                                                                             Figure  All-1    (continued)

-------
                                   Streams are numbered for identification
                                   Flow rates are given in Appendix  11
RAW WATER
                                                                                      RESERVOIR  )-22- EVAPORATION
                                                                                                     33
U>
Ul
                                                                                                                       SLUDGE
                                                                    Figure All-IE.  Hater treatment block diagram
                                                                                for SRC process.
                                                                            Figure All-1   (concluded)

-------
         WEAK-ACID
             IX
>
r
STRONG-AGIO
IX



>
(
WEAK-BASE
IX


>
r
STRONG-BASE
IX



MIXED BED
    IX
                                                     SCHEME  1
u>
Ln
Ln
|


STRONG-ACID
IX




>


r
WEAK-BASE
IX




1


MIXED BED
IX



	 -
                                                     SCHEME 2
      BRACKISH
      WATER
i
r
WEAK
ACID
IX




\
DEGASIFIER





                                      ELECTRODIALYSIS
                                            No.  1

>
r
STRONG
ACID
IX




>
r
WEAK
BASE
IX




>
r
STRONG
BASE
IX




1
MIXED
BED
IX


...w
                                                     SCHEME 3
                 Figure All-2.  Boiler  feed water  treatment schemes.

-------
             $ x 103
UJ
<_n
CFi
           oo
           o
           o
GO
600
500
400
300
200
100
  0
                                                    (103  gpm)
0.6 gpm/ft
                                                                         8     9     10
                                   Figure All-3.  Clarifier
                                                             costs.

-------
    1

    2

    3

    4
One Stage, approximately  50%  demineralizatlon


Two Stages, approximately 75% demineralization


Three Stages, approximately 87.5% demineralization


Four Stages, approximately 93.8% demineralization
  13
   CX
   60
   J-l
   c
   01
   O)
   01
  D.
  rt
       0=2
       0.0
           0.5    1      2      4   6  8 10     20     40  60 80 100
                            Capacity (10  gal/day)
Figure All-4  Approximate  electrodialysis capital investment
              as  a  function  of  capacity  for various numbers
              of  stages.   (Each stage  removes approximately
                     50% of salts  in  its  feed water).
                                  357

-------
                                                         TABLE  All-1.    WATER  TREATMENT  BLOCKS  AND  OTHER COSTS
Ln
CD
Lime  Soda  Softening

     Cos t:      clarifiers:  capital cost is taken from Figure  11-3 with the
                           result multiplied by 2.0 for updating and spare
                           capacity.   To enter Figure 11-3, note that

                                10  Ub water/hr - 0.002 x  10  gpm.

                           Capital charges axe 12*/yr for  7000 hours per
                           year; so if

                                Y - installed cost in 10 5 from Figure 11-3

                           charges are

                                2Y x  103 x 0.12/7000    S/hr
                              - 3.43Y C/hr.

               chemicals:   costs are  given below.

     Energy;    negligible.

     was te:     Based on dry weight of  CaCO^ precipitated with  the sludge
               assumed to be 20* solids.
                                                                                                          Waste:
                                                                                                                    Electricity charges are 0.8C/I10   gallons)(100 mg/1 removed),
                                                                                                                    so if z is the reduction of TDS in mg/1, electricity charges
                                                                                                                    are 0.000960 zQ C/hr.

                                                                                                                    Total charge in C/hr is

                                                                                                                                 1.14 YQ + 2.40 Q + 0.000960 zQ

                                                                                                                    0.4 kw-hr/(103 gallons) (100 mg/1  removed),
                                                                                                                     - 0.000480 z kw-hrs/103 Ib water
                                                                                                                      5.62 zQ Btu/hr.

                                                                                                                    10% of the feed flow
                                                                                                      Ion Exchange  (see Figure 11-2 for schemes)

                                                                                                          Cost:     Scheme 1
Scheme 2:

Scheme 3:

Negligible

6% of feed water
                                                                                                                                 10.5 Q C/hr for Hygas,  Bigas  (. Eynthane
                                                                                                                                  9.5 Q C/hr for Lurgi,  Synthoil  & SRC
                                                                                                                                 Where Q - flow rate.io3 Ib  water/hr
                                                                                                                                  6.5 Q C/hr
                                                                                                                                 11.5 Q C/hr not including  the  electrodialysis
           Electrodialysis

                Cost:
                          The cost is  the  sum of  capital  charges, membrane replacement,
                          etc.,  and electricity.
                          Capital  cost is  taken from Figure 11-4 and multiplied by 1.35  to
                          update.   To  enter  Figure  11-4,  note that

                                       103 Ib/hr  -  0.00288 x 106 gal/day.

                          Capital  is charges  at 17%/yr for 7000 hrs/yr and if

                                       Y - capital  investment shown on Figure 11-4
                                       Q  flow rate, 103  Ib water/hr.
                                                                                          Phenol Extraction

                                                                                               Cost:      300 C/thousand gallons, 36C/10  Ib,  36Q C/hr where Q is  the
                                                                                                         feed rate  in 103 Ib/hr.   Sale of phenol yields 2.3C/lb  phenol.
                                                                                                         If  y is phenol concentration in the  feed stream in mg/1  the
                                                                                                         rate of recovery of phenol is 0.95 y Q/1000 Ib/hr.
                                                                                                         The net process cost, in C/hr, is

                                                                                                                     36 0 - 0.00219 yQ.

                                                                                               Energy;    10   Btu/thousand gallons; 120,000 0 Btu/hr.

                                                                                               Waste:  negligible
                          charges  are

                                       (1.35Y)(Q/0.00288)(0.17J/7000 S/hr
                                    -  1.14  YQ  C/hr.

                          Membrane charges are  20C/thousand gallons of throughput, or
                          2.40  0 C/hr.

-------
OJ
Ln
ID
               Table  AJ.1-1  (cc..tinued)

               Ammonia Separation
                    Cos C :
               Biotreatment
Gas plants:  MGD   <  1.5,  cost  =  [4.75  -  0.5 MGD)  5/10  gals
  where MGD    106  gallorus  feed/day.
  That 13, if  C -  feed  in  103  Ib/hr.
  Q < 520; cost -  157.0 -  0.0173  Q] Q  C/hr.
  If Q _>  520,  cost - S4/103  gallons,
  that is 4 3 0. C/hr.

SRC & Synthoil:  Q < 867,  cost =.  (63.0 - 0.01730.1  Q C/hr.
                 Q .> 667;  cost -  48 Q  c/hr.

All plants;  credit  7C/lb  ammonia recovered.

If y is the  concentration  of airmonia  in  the feed streajn in
mg/1, the rate of  recovery of  ajnmonia  is

              (y -  450)  Q/1000  Ib/hr,

The value of the recovered anunonia is

             0.007 (y - 450)Q  C/hr.

1.7 x 10  Btu/thousand  gallons;  204,000  Q Btu/hr.

Lose 2. 3  Ib  water/Lb amronia recovered.
                    Cos t:      A-L1 Hygas  S bituminous  coals  in  Lurgi and Synthane:

                               2.5C/lb BOD  removed,  that is 0.0025 yQ C/hr,  where
                                y  BOD  concentration in mg/1  and Q  feed rate in 10  Ib/hr

                              All SRC &  Synthoil,  and subbituminous coals and lignites in
                              Luxgi and  Synthane:

                                2.1 f/lb BOD  renoved, that  is  0.0021 y<2 */hr.

                    Energy:    All plants:   4  Btu/lb  BOD removed,  that is 4 yQ Btu/hr.

                    Waste:    0.1 Lb dry waste/lb  BOD removed.  Cost includes dissolved
                              air flotation and vacuum filtration and sludge is discharged
                              at 20 solids.
Filter

     Cost:
                                                                                                                        Capital cost is 5100/gpm = S200/10   Ib/hr.  Charges  are
                                                                                                                        12%/yr for 7000 hrs/yr, so operating cost  is:

                                                                                                                                     S200 x 0.12/7000 - 0.343  c/hr  for  10   Ib/hr.

                                                                                                                        Negligible

                                                                                                                        None.  Backwash is returned to clarifiers in biotreaUnent.
                                                                                                         Acid Treatment of Cooling Water

                                                                                                              Cost:
Chemicals

     Cost:
                                                                                                                        If x  mg/1 HCO-j then x/61 = meq/1 HCO-j.  100*  replacement
                                                                                                                        by H2S04 (equivalent weight 49) means  (49/61) x mg/1  acid.
                                                                                                                        Cost:                                                 3
                                                                                                                                     0.00305 xQ C/hr where Q = flowrate in  10  Ib/hr.
                                         3.8 e/ib

                                         2.7 
-------
                                                    Table  All-1
                                                    Reverse  Osmosis
                                                         Coat;      /10  water treated - 19.5 -  0.0043Q where g is flowrate in
                                                                   103 Ib/hr;  therefore
                                                                                f/hr - 19.50. -  0.0043Q2
                                                                   Sequestering chemicals  are  included in the cost.
                                                         Haste:     10*  of feed water.
                                                   Activated  Carbon Adsorption


                                                         Cost;      $1/10  gallons treated - 12  0  C/hr.


                                                         Energy:    4,500 Btu/10  Ib water treated -  4,500 0 Btu/hr.


                                                         Waste;     Negligible.
U>
CTi
O

-------
                                        TABLE All-2.   EFFLUENT WATER QUALITY
Concentrations in







Phenol as C,H,OH
b b

Ammonia as NH

BOD

Ca**
f+
Mg

HCO ~
Sulfide as S
S4









Phenol as C^H.OH
6 b
Amoonia * ? NH

BOD
-M-
Ca
Mg**

HCO
ng/1


SRC  Synthoil
Hydxoge nation
section
condensate
All Coals
6,000

13,000

30,000

v. 20

x. 15

4,000
14,000
s




Synthane fi Lurgi
Dirty condensate
Subbi tuminous
 Lignite

6,000
7,000

20,000
x, 20
v- 15

14,000





Bigas
condensate
All Coals
s

4,500

s

x. 120

x. 50

x, 100
3
-x, 100



Synthane





SRC  Synthoil
Gasification
Condensate
s

a

B

-v. 120

x. 50

x, 100
3
x, 100



Synthane
Medium quality Medium quality
condensate
Bi tuminous
Coals

300
500

1,000
s
3

1,000
condensa te
Subbi tuminous
 Lignite

600
500

2,000
s
s

1,000




Synthane  Lurgi
Dirty condensate
Bi tuminou3
Coals
3,000

7,000

10,000

V 20

V 15

14,000
1,000
s



Hygas
Dirty
condensate
Bituminous
Coals

300
4,500

2,000
v 20
X. 15

11,000
Effluent
Hygas from Effluent
Dirty -condenaata Methanation Phenol from
Subbituminous water Extraction Ammonia
 Lignite All Plants (see Note 1) Separation

Phenol as C H OH 4,000  O.OSp

Ammonia as NH 4,500 s unchanged 450
BOD 14,000  b - 2.26p

Ca** -x- 20

Mg** 1- 15

HCO3~ 11,000 a

Sulfide as S a

4
Effluent
from
Biotreatment
(see Note 2)
Phenol as C.H..OH
o b

Ammonia as NH_ ~~
3
Note 1. p  mg/1 phenol in
BOD  influent
^w- ^ 6Q t - mg/1 BOD in influenl
++ Note 2. Lime added to neutralizi
and carbon dioxide
HCO - -x, 4o added by treatment.
Sulfide as S

4

Sulfide as S
    small

-------
                                                           TABLE  All-3.    RAW WATER QUALITIES
       Concentrations in
                                                                                    Concentrations in mq/1
LJ
CTi
SOURCE

PROCESS
SITE
-n-
Ca
Mg"
HCO
so/
TDS
sio2
pH (units)

SOURCE
PROCESS
SITE
Ca++
H-
M9
HC03-
S4~
TDS
Si02
pH (units)
Tombigbee R. at
Jackson, Ala.
Hygas, Lurgi, SRC
Harengo, Ala.
15
3.1
53
18
91
9.1
6.9

Illinois R. at
Harseilles, 111.
Bigas
Bureau, 111.
69
24
247
102
466
7
7.5
Alabama R. at
Selma, Ala.
Hygas, Synthane,
Eynthoil
Jefferson, Ala.
12
3.2
53
92
76
7
7.3
Well water from
Alluvial Ground at
Bureau, 111.
Bigas, Lurgi, SRC
Bureau, 111.
60
18
200
90
360
7.5
7.4
Well water at
Harengo, Ala.
Hygas, Lurgi, SRC
Harengo, Ala.
2.4
0.4
600
17
880
9
8.3

Ohio R. at
Grand Chain. 111.
Bigas, Lurgi, SRC
St. Clair,. White.
Saline, Shelby, 111.
36
9
106
60
209
6.5
7.4
SOORCE
PROCESS
SITE
Ca++
Hg^
HCO3~
so/
TDS
Si02
pH I units )
SOURCE
PROCESS
SITE
C."
Kg*4
HCOj"
so4
TDS
Si02
pH (units)
Green R. at
Beech Grove, Ky.
Lurgi
Muhlenberg, Ky ,
39
9
115
54
191
5.9
6.9
Kanawha R. at
Kanawha Falls,
W.Va.
Hygas, Synthane
Synthoil
Fayette, Kanawha,
Preston, Mingo, W.Va
21
5
62
29
134
7.3
7.1
Huskingum R. at
McConnelsville, Ohio
Hygas, Synthoil
Tuscarawas, Ohio
83
17
132
145
582
6.3
7.2
Well water from
Alluvial Ground at
Tuscarawas , Ohio
Hygas, Synthoil
Tuscarawas, Ohio
75
20
217
60
363
7
7.5
Allegheny R. at
Oakjnont, Pa.
Hygas, Synthane,
Synthoil
Armstrong, Somerset, Pa.
Monongalia, W.Va.
34
10
17
108
215
7
6.2











-------
          Table All-3.  (continued)





           Concentrations in pg/1
                                                                                                           Concentrations in tag/1
u>
en
u>
SOURCE
PROCESS
SITE
Ca*+
-I-+
Hg
HCO/
50 4~
TDS
sio2
pH (units)
Ground water
Lurgi , SRC
Fulton, 111.
90
50
250
1000
2000
9.0
7.7
White R. at
Hazleton, Ind.
Hygas, Synthane,
Synthoil, Bigas
Gibson, Vigo,
Sullivan, Ind.
51
16
166
110
269
5.7
7.7
Ohio R. at
Cannelton Dam, Ky.
Hygas, Synthoil,
Synthane
Warrick, Ind., Floyd,
Harlan, Pike, Ky .
Gallia, Jefferson, Ohio
3B
10
97
69
216
4.6
7.1
SOURCE
PROCESS
SITE
Ca~
Mg~
HCO^
so,"
TDS
sio2
SOURCE
PROCESS
SITE
Ca~
9~
HCO/
S4"
TDS
Sio2
Tongue R. at
Goose Creek below
Sheridan, Wyo.
Synthoil
Lake de Smet, Wyo.
59
36
245
137
451
8.3
Green R. below
Green River, Wyo.
Synthoil, Lurgi, SRC
Jim Bridger,
Rainbow IB, Wyo.
55
21
175
164
394
5.7
Medicine Bow R.
above Seminee Res.,
near Hanna, Wyo.
Hygas
Hanna, Wyo.
109
60
189
537
945
7.4
Beaver Creek near
Newcastle, Wyo.
Hygas, Synthane, SRC
Antelope Creek, Wyo.
446
156
183
1802
4667
6.8
Hams Fork near
Granger, Wyo.
Bigas, Lurgi
Kennnerer, Wyo.
65
30
211
171
429
4.2
Ground water
SRC
Otter Creek, Mont.
70
100
600
1200
2200
12

-------
Table All-3.  (continued)








Concentrations  in tog/1
Concentrations in
SOURCE
PROCESS
SITE
Cn*"*
wg^
HCO
SO/
TDS
sio2
SOURCE
PROCESS
SITE
Ca~
-H-
Mg
HCO ~
S04~
TDS
Si02
Yellowstone R. at
Terry, Mont.
Bigas
Slope, N.D.
54
21
173
187
424
9.6
Missouri R. near
williston, N.D.
Lurgi
Hilliston, N.D.
62
21
191
176
436
9.3
Knife R. at
Hazen, N.D.
Lurgi, Bigas, SRC
Bently, Center,
Knife River, N.D.
69
39
511
419
1037
11
Grand River at
Shadehill, S.D.
Biga,
Scranton, N.D.
39
21
363
412
931
5.6
Lake Sakakawea, N.D.
SFC
Underwood, Dickinson, N.D.
49
19
181
170
428
7
San Juan R. in N.M.
Hygas , Lurgi
Wesco, El Paso, N.M.
55
9
143
114
300
12
SOURCE
PROCESS
SITE
Ca~
Mg~
HCO/
S04~
TDS
Si02
SOURCE
PROCESS
SITE
Ca++
Mg~
HC03~
S4~
TDS
sio2
Yellowstone R. in
Mont.
Hygas, Syn thane, SRC
Colitrip, Mont.
40
14
138
109
284
10
Missouri R. at
Culbertson, Mont.
SRC
Coalridge, Mont.
63
21
197
168
427
6.3
Powder R. at
Arvada, Wyo.
Hygas , Synthane
Spotted Horse, Wyo.
East Moorehead, Mont.
138
69
247
769
1580
9.5
Yellowstone R. , average
between Sidney, Terry,
Mont.
Bigas
U.S. Steel, Mont.
55
21
183
197
439
10
Tongue R., average between
Decker, Miles City,
Mont.
Lurgi , SRC
Pumpkin Creek,
Foster Creek, Mont.
52
36
222
167
328
e
Crazy Woman Creek at
Upper Station near
Arvada, Wyo.
Hygas, SRC
Belle Ayr,
Gillette, Wyo.
133
66
216
620
1046
"

-------
                                                  Table All-3.  (continued)



                                                   Concentrations in mg/1
OJ
O^
Ln
SOURCE
PROCESS
SITE
Ca~
H9~
HCO3"
S<"
TDS
Sio2
Well vater
Hygas, Lurgi
Decker, Mont.
13
6
1700
13
2400
7
Groundwater in N.h.
Hygas, Lurgi,
Synthoil
Gallup, N.H.
12
13
408
509
2655
5.6
Colorado River
near Glenwood Springs, Col
Paraho Direct, Paraho
Indirect, TOSCO II
Parachute Creek, Colo.
61
20
137
98
589
14

-------
TABLE All-4  WATER TREATMENT  PLANTS
                   LURGI
                      366

-------
                                    TABLE  All-4.   WATER TREATMENT PLANTS
                                                                                                                                     TABLE All-4.  WATER TREATMENT PLANTS
                                                   Site  Williston, N.D.
                                                                                                                       Lurgi
                                                                                                                                                   Site   Decker, Mont.
CT>
Flow Diagram Figure A11-1A
Flow rates by stream number (10 Ib/hr):
1- 2456 10. 1868 21. 847 31. 150
3. 1609 11. 1868 22. 8 32. 826
4. 1609 14. 1427 24. 0 33. 268
5- 1609 15. 75 25. 847 34. 268
6. 1512 16. 455 26. 0 36. 0
7. 1780 17. 264 27. 21 37. 150
8. 1B97 18. 191 28. 21 39. 225
9. 1897 20. 2028 29. 14 40. 2464 RAW WATER
Treatment blocks:
waste (103 l>/hr>
sludge or
C/hr 10 Btu/hr dry solution
Lime-Soda Softening -No. 1 NOT USED
Lime-Soda Softening - No. 3 907 0.09 0.45
Ion Exchange - Scheme 1 15,300 97
Phenol Extraction 43,400 228
Aimwnia Separation (-5,410) 387
Biotreatment 25,300 48 1.20 4.8
Filter 489
Acid addition to cooling water 655
Other chemicals to cooling water 4,120
Total 84,800 663
Flow Diagram Figure All-lA
Flow rates by stream number (10 Ib/hr):
1. 2472 10. 1168 21. o 31. 134
3. 2472 11- 1168 22. 9 32. 680
4. 2225 14. 987 24. 701 33. 265
5. 1524 15. 33 25. 701 34. 265
6. 1433 16. 195 26. 0 36. 0
7. 1698 17. 86 27. 21 37. 134
B. 1186 18. 109 28. 21 39. 167
9. 1186 20. 1500 29. 14 40. 2481 RAW WATER
Treatment blocks:
waste (10 Ib/hr)
sludge or
*/hr 10 Btu/hr dry solution
Lime-Soda Softening - No. 1 NOT USE)
Lime-Soda Softening - No. 3 905 0.08 0 40
Electrodialysis' 12,700 33.3 247
Ion Exchange - Scheme 3_ 17,500 91
Phenol Extraction 27,100 142
Ammonia Separation (-3,380) 242
Biotreatment 16,000 30.6 0.75 3.8
Filter 339
Acid addition to cooling water 1,200
Other chemicals to cooling watec 3,060
Total 75,400 448
                                                                                                          *Located  roughly  in place of Softening No. 1.

-------
TABLE All-4.   HATER TREATMENT PLANTS
                                                                                                   TABLE All-4.  WATER TREATMENT PLANTS
Flow Diagram Figure All-IB
Ftov rates by stream number (10 Ib/hr):
i. 1307 10.1353 20. 806 29.14
2. 1286 11-1353 21. 21 32. 170
3. 1286 12.0 22. 5 33. 265
4. 1286 13.1063 23. 153 34. 265
5. 1439 14.1063 24. o 36. 0
&. 1353 15.87 25. 21 38. 0
7. 1618 16.304 26. 0 39. 87
OJ a 1362 17.166 27. 21 40. 1312 RAW HATER
O^
CO 9. 1362 18.138 28. 21
Treatment blocks:
waste (103 lb/hr>
sludge or
C/hr 10 Btu/hr dry solution
Lime-Soda Softening - No. 1 NOT USED
Ion Exchange - SchenK 	 1_ 13,700 86
Phenol Extraction 31,100 163
Armenia Separation (-3,880) 27.8
Biotreatment 18,300 34.9 0.87 4.4
filter 365
Acid addition to cooling water 130
Other chemicals to cooling water 1,590
Reverse Osmosis 3,190 1.7 17
Activated Carbon Adsorbtion 1,840 0.69
Total 66'30 228
Process Lurgi Site El Paso, N.H.
Flow Diagram Figure A11-1A
Flow rates by stream number (10 Ib/hr) :
1. 171S 10. 1064 21. 258 31. 0
3. 1457 11. 1064 22. 10 32. 159
4. W57 14. 699 24. 0 33. 270
5. H57 15. 190 25. 258 34. 270
6. I370 16. 375 26. 78 36. 0
7. I640 17. 241 27. 21 37. 0
8. 180 18. 134 28. 21 39. 189
9- 1080 20. 79j 29. 14 40. 1725 RAW WATER
Treatment blocks:
waste (103 Ib/hr)
sludge or
C/hr 10 Btu/hr dry solution
Lime-Soda Softening - No. 1 Ncrr USEQ
Lime-Soda Softening - No. 3 NOT USED
Ion Exchange - Schema 1 13,900 88
Phenol Extraction 24,700 130
Ainnonia Separation (-3,080) 220
Biotreatnent 14,600 27.8 0.69 3.5
Filter 240
Acid addition to cooling water I54
Other chenicala to cooling water 3,460
Total 54,000 378

-------
                          TABLE All-4.  HATER  TREATMENT PLANTS
                                                                                                                                 TABLE All-4.  WATER TREATMENT PLANTS
Process    Lurqi
                                     Site
                                              We3co, N.M.
                                                                                                                                               Site  Gallup, N.H.
Flow Diagram Figure All-LB
Flow rates by stream number (10 Ib/hr) :

1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.

1854
1754
1754
1754
1787
1680
1990
1-190
1490

10.
11.
12.
13.
14.
15.
16.
17.
18.

. 1468
. 1468
.0
. 1085
. 1085
, 256
. 397
261
136

20.
21.
22.
23.
24.
25.
26.
27.
28.
	 	 	 | .LIJ- vj i 	 	 ,  *_: 	 . 	
Flow Diagram Figure A11-1A
Flow rates by stream number (10 Ib/hr):
792
100
11
33
0
100
79
21
21
29.
32.
33.
34.
36.
38.
39.
40.

14
37
310
310
0
0
254
1865 RAH WATER


1.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.

1768
1768
1654
1410
1325
1603
1007
1007

10.
11.
14.
15.
16.
17.
18.
20.

992
992
716
38
290
188
102
792

21.
22.
24.
25.
26.
27.
28.
29.

0
6
244
244
59
21
21
14

31.
32.
33.
34.
36.
37.
39.
40.

50
164
278
278
0
50
88
1778 RAW WATEI
Treatment blocks:
Lime-Soda  Softening - No. 1

Ion Exchange  - Scheme  1

Phenol  Extraction

Ammo ru. a Separation

Biotreatment

Filter

Acid addition to cooling water

Other chemicals to cooling water    4,650

Reverse  Osmosis

Activated  Carbon Adsorbtion

     Tnt-Al                          72,900

17
34
(-4
19


4


C/hr
,000
,100
,250)
,900
372
132
,650
716
396
waste (10 Ib/hr)
sludge or
10 Btu/hr dry solution
NOT USED
107
179
304
37.8 0.95 4.8



0.37 3.7
0.15
                                                                                                       Treatment blocks:
                                                                                                       Lime-Soda Softening - No. 1

                                                                                                       Lime-Soda Softening - No. 3
                                                                                                       Electrodialysis *
                                                                                                       Ion Exchange - Scheme  3

                                                                                                       Phenol Extraction

                                                                                                       Ammonia Separation

                                                                                                       Biotreatment

                                                                                                       Filter

                                                                                                       Acxd addition to cooling water

                                                                                                       Other chemicals to cooling water

                                                                                                            Total
C/hr
892
6,090
16,200
23,000
(-2,870)
13,400
246
226
1,610
waste (10 Lb/hr)
sludge or
10 Btu/hr dry solution
NOT USED
0.03 0.15
16.5 114
85
121
205
25.6 0.64 3.2



                                                                                                                                           58,800
                                                    521
                                                                                                       Located roughly in place of Softening No. 1.

-------
                          TABLE All-4.  WATER TREATMENT PLANTS
                                                                                                                             TABLE All-4.  WATER TREATMENT PLANTS
Process    Lurqi
                                                                                                                                        Site
Flow Diagrajn Figure All-IB
Flow rates by streajn number (10 Ib/hr) :
1. 810
2. 769
3. 789
4. ?89
5. 16o:!
6. 1507
7. 1767
u. s- 2325
0
Treatment blocks:

10. 2290 20. 980 29. 14
11- 2390 21. 21 32. 904
12. 874 22. 0 33. 260
13. 1089 23. 814 34. 260
14. 1963 24. 0 36. 0
15. 79 25. 21 38. 30
16. 341 26. 0 39. 109
17. 211 27. 21 40. 810 RAW WATER
18. 13 28. 21
waste (103 Ib/hr)
sludge or
C/hr 10 Btu/hr dry solution
Lime- Soda Softening - No. 1 NOT USED
Ion Exchange - Scheme 1 15,200 96
Phenol Extraction 53,200 297
Ammonia Separation (-6,630) 474
Biotreatment 36,900 59.0 1.47 7.4
Filter 670
Acid addition to cooling water 130
Other chemicals to cooling water 2,000
Reverse Osmosis 14,100 9.04 90.4
Activated Carbon Adsorbtion 9,770 3.66
Total
125,000 825
Flow Diagrajn Figure All- IB
Flow rates by stream number (10 Ib/hr) :
1. 810 10.2290 20. 980 29. 14
2. 789 11.2290 21. 21 32.904
3. 789 12.874 22. 0 33. 260
4. 789 13.1089 23. 814 34. 260
5. 1603 14.1963 24. 0 36. 0
6. 1507 15.79 25. 21 38. 30
7. 1767 16.341 26. 0 39. 109
8. 2325 17.211 27. 21 40. BIO RAW WATER
9. 2325 18.130 28. 21
Treatment blocks:
waste (103 Ib/hr)
sludge or
*/hr 10 Btu/hr dry solution
Lime-Soda Softening - No. 1 NOT USED
Ion Exchange - Scheme 1 	 10,400 96
Phenol Extraction 53,200 279
Ammonia Separation (-6,630) 474
Biotreatment 36,900 59.0 1.47 7.4
Filter 670
Acid addition to cooling water 130
Other chemicals to cooling water 2,000
Reverse Osmosis 14,100 9.04 90.4
Activated Carbon Adsorbtion 9,770 3.66
Total 121,000 825

-------
                          TABLE All-4.  WATER TREATMENT  PLANTS
                                                                                                                         TABLE All-4.   WATER TREATMENT PLANTS
 Process   Lurgi
                                      Site    Fulton, Illinois
Flow Diagram Figure All-IB
Flow rates by stream number (10 Ib/hr) :
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
a.
OJ
~J 9.
2058
1831
2058
1852
2585
2430
2707
2158
2158
10.
11.
12.
13.
14.
15.
16.
17.
18.
. 2125
727
1149
1149
1876
80
263
205
58
20.
21.
22.
23.
24.
25.
26.
27.
28.
1034
0
0
754
21
21
0
21
21
29.
32.
33.
34.
36.
38.
39.
40.
14
762
277
277
0
35
115
2058 RAW WATER
Flow Diagram Figure All-IB
Flow rates by s
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
1478
1457
1457
1457
2346
2205
2496
1918
1918
itream number (10 Ib/hr) :
10
11.
12.
13.
14.
15.
16.
17.
18.
.1889
.1889
.979
.592
.1571
.50
,332
280
52
20.
21.
22.
23.
24.
25.
26.
27.
28.
533
21
0
889
0
21
0
21
21
29.
32.
33.
34.
36.
38.
39.
40.
14
988
291
291
0
9
59
1478 RAW WATE
Treatment blo_cXs_;
 Lira-Soda  Softening - No.  1

 Electrodialysis*

 Ion Exchange - Scheme 	3_

 Phenol Extraction

 Ammonia Separation

 Biotreatment

 Filter

 Acid  addition to  cooling water

Other  chemicals to cooling water

Reverse  Osmosis

Activated  Carbon  Adsorbt-ion

     Total

 "Located in  place of Softening Ho
                                    10,100

                                    29,700
                                                              waste (10  Lb/hr)

                                                                      sludge or
                                                10  Btu/hr    dry     solution
                                               	  Not  Used  	
                                                     23
63,000
(-6,150)
17,100
654
154
2,100
12,400
9,050
138,000
. 1.
259
440
55.6



7.62
3.4
789

206

155
                                                                         3.42
                                                                         7.6
                                                                                                Treatment blocks:
Lime-Soda Softening - No.  1

Ion Exchange - Scheme   j

Phenol Extraction

Ammonia Separation

Biotreatment

Filter

Aci d addition to cooling water        300

Other chemicals to cooling water    1,060

Reverse Osmosis                    15,100

Activated Carbon Adsorbtion        10,700

     Total                        114,000
22,300
43,800
(5,470)
25,900
539
waste (10 Ib/hr)
sludge or
10 Btu/hr dry solution
NOT USED
140
230
391
49.4 0.61 3.1
                                                                                                                                                     9.88

                                                                                                                                                     4.0

-------
Process     Luroi
                          TABLE All-4.  WATER TREATMENT PLANTS







                                        Site    Bureau, Illinois
TABLE All-4.  WATER  TREATMENT PLANTS
                                                                                               Process     Luroi
                                                                                                                                       Site St.  Glair,  Illinois (surface mining)
Flow Diagram Figure A11-1A
Flow rates by stream number (10 Ib/hr) i
1. 2628 10. 2117 21. Q 31- 138
3. 2628 11. 2117 22. o 32. 39
4. 2628 14. 1913 24. 60 33. 279
5. 2568 15. 57 25. 60 34. 279
6. 2414 16. 218 26. 0 36. o
7. 2693 17. 68 27. 21 37. 138
8. 2149 18. 150 28. 21 39. 195
9. 2149 20. 1757 29. 14 40. 2628 RAW WATER
Treatment blocks:
waste (103 Ib/hr)
sludge or
/nr 10 Btu/hr dry solution
Lime-Soda Softening - No. 1 2,300 1.3 6.3
Lime-Soda Softening - No. 3 905 0.08 0.4
Ion Exchange - Scheme 2 16,700 150
Phenol Extraction 63,300 258
Ammonia 'Separation (-6,130) 438
Biotreatment 17,100 27.3 0.68 3.4
Filter 656
Acid addition to cooling water NOT USED
Other chemicals to cooling water 3,570
Total 98,400 723
Flow Diagram Figure AJ.1-LA
Flow rates by stream number (10 Ib/hr) :
1. 2653 10. 2057 21. 70 31. 110
3. 2583 11. 2057 22. 0 32. 49
4. 2583 14. 1898 24. 0 33. 277
5. 2583 15. 85 25. 70 34. 277
6. 2428 16. 173 26. 0 36. 0
7. 2705 17. 117 27. 21 37. 110
8. 2089 18. 56 28. 21 39. 195
9. 289 20. 1752 29. 14 40. 2653 RAW WATER
Treatment blocks:
waste (103 Ib/hr)
, sludge or
C/hr 10 Btu/hr dry solution
Lime-Soda Softening - No. 1 NQT USD
Lime-Soda Softening - No. 3 g0i o 07 0 33
Ion Exchange - Scheme T 24,500 160
Phenol Extraction 61,500 252
Ammonia Separation (-5,950) 426
Biotreatment 16,600 26.5 0.66 3.3
Filter 651
Acid addition to cooling water 247
Other chemicals to cooling water 3,570

Total 102,000 705

-------
                          TABLE All-4.  WATER TREATMENT  PLANTS
                                                                                                                          TABLE All-4.  WATER TREATMENT PLANTS
            LUTQi
                                                  St.  Clair,  Illinois (underground  coal  mine)     Process      Lurgi
                                                                                                                                        Site
Jim Br_idger_, Wyo.
Flow Diagram Figure A11-1A
                                                                                                Flow  Diagram Figure A11-1A
     rates by stream  number (10  Ib/hr)i
                                                                                                Flow  rates  by stream number f10  Ib/hr)!
1. 2736 10. 2057 21. 153 31. 110
3. 2583 11. 2057 22. 0 32. 132
4. 2b83 14. 1815 24. 0 33. 277
5. 2583 15. 85 25. 153 34. 277
,. 2428 16. 256 26. 0 36. 0
7. 2705 17. 117 27. 21 37. 110
8. 2089 18. 149 28. 21 39. 195
g_ 20B9 20. 1752 29. 14 40. 2736 RAW WATER
Treatment blocks:
waste (103 Ib/hr)
sludge or
C/hr 10 Btu/hr dry solution
Lime-Soda Softening - No. 1 NOT USED
Lime-Soda Softening - No. 3 901 0.07 0.33
Ion Exchange - Scheme 1 24,500 160
Phenol Extraction 61,500 252
Ammonia Separation (-5,950) 426
Biotreatment 16,600 26.5 0.66 3.3
Filter 623
Acid addition to cooling water 264
other chemicals tc- cooling water 3,570
1. 1541 10. 1104 21. 125 31. o
3. 1416 11. 1104 22. 7 32. 104
4. 1416 14. 784 24. 0 33. 265
5. 1416 15. 81 25. 125 34. 265
6. 1331 16. 334 26. 0 36. 0
7. 1596 17. 234 27. 21 37. 0
8. 1121 18. 100 28. 21 39. Bl
9. 1121 20. 807 29. 14 40. 154B RAW HATER
Treatment blocks:
waste (103 Ib/hr)
sludge or
(/hi 10 Btu/hr dry solution
Lime-Soda Softening - No. 1 NOT USED
Lime-Soda Softening - No. 3 NOT USED
Ion Exchange - Scheme 1 13,500 85
Phenol Extraction 25,600 135
Ammonia Separation (-3,200) 229
Biotreatment 14,900 28.4 0.71 3.6
Filter 269
Acid addition to cooling water 151
Other cheraicals to cooling water 1^480

Total 102,000 705
Total 52,700 392

-------
                          TABLE All-4.  WATER TREATMENT PLANTS
                                                                                                                       TABLE All-4.  HATER TREATMENT PLANTS
           Lurgi
                                     Site
                                                                                                                                  Site
                                                                                                                                          Knife River, N.D.
Flow Diagram Figure All-IB
Flow Diagram Figure All-IB
Flow rates by stream number (10 Ib/hr) : pl
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
1917
1896
1896
1896
2536
2384
2656
1934
1934
10.
11.
12.
13.
14.
15.
16.
17.
18.
1905
1905
677
962
1639
62
280
216
64
20.
21.
22.
23.
24.
25.
26.
27.
28.
866
21
8
640
0
21
0
21
21
29.
32.
33.
34.
36.
38.
39.
40.

14
711
272
272
0
34
96
1925 RAW WATER

1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
e.
9.
jw rates by stream number (10 Ib/hr) :
1195
1174
1174
1174
1585
1490
1754
1694
1694
10.
11.
12.
13.
14.
15.
16.
17.
18.
1668
1668
435
934
1369
74
313
141
172
20.
21.
22.
23.
24.
25.
26.
27.
28.
838
21
4
411
0
21
0
21
21
29.
32.
33.
34.
36.
38.
39.
40.

14
457
264
264
0
22
96
1199 RAW WAI

 Treatment blocks:
 Line-Soda  Softening - No.  1

 Ion  Exchange - Schema   1

 Phenol Extraction

 Ansnonia Separation

 Biotreatment

 Filter

 Acid addition to cooling water
 24,100



(-5,510)

 47,600

    562

    200
Other chemicals to cooling water    1,760

Reverse Osmosis                    11,700

Activated Carbon Adsorbtion

     Total
  7.680
 10  Btu/hr    dry

NOT USED



NOT USED

   395

    76.2       1.91
                 7.1

                 2.9
                                                             waste (10  Ib/hr)

                                                                     sludge or
                                                                     solution
                                      152
                            9.5
                                       71.0
 88,000
                                                                                              Treatment blocks:
Lime-Soda Softening - No. 1

Ion Exchange - Scheme   1

Phenol Extraction

Ammonia Separation

Biotreatment

Filter

Acid addition to cooling water

Other chemicals to cooling water

Reverse Osmosis

Activated Carbon Adsorbtion

     Total
/hr 106 Btu/hr
NOT USED
15,100
38,700 203
(-4,830) 346
22,600 43.0
470
170
1,760
8,010 4.57
4,930 1.85

waste (10 Ib/hr)
sludge or
dry solution
95
1.1 4.3
46
                                                                                              86,900

-------
SOLVENT REFINED COAL
         375

-------
                        TABLE All-4.   WATER TREATMENT PLANTS
Process    SRC
                                                                                               Process   SRC
                                                                                                                       TABLE All-4.   WATER TREATMENT PLANTS







                                                                                                                                              Site     Marengo,  Ala.   (ground water)
Flow Diagram Figure All-IE
Flow rates by stream number (10 Ib/hr) i
1- 1354 9. 247 21. 1273 29. 14
3- 455 10. 247 22. 0 32. 1252
4. 455 14. 259 24. 0 33. 376
5. 455 15. 96 25. 1273 39. 208
7. 428 18. 112 27. 21 40. 1354 RAW WATER
8. 247 20. 1303 28. 21
Treatment Blocxjs:
waste <103 Ib/hr)
sludge or
C/hr 10 Btu/hr dry solution
Lime-Soda Softening - No. 1 NOT USED
Lime-Soda Softening - No. 2 1,300 0.3 1.7
Electrodialysis NOT USED
Ion Exchange - Scheme 1 4,320 27
Phenol Extraction 5,630 29.6
Anmonia Separation (-7,200) 50.4
Biotreatment 8,540 16.2 0.4 2.0
Filter 89
Acid addition to cooling water 234
Other chemicals to cooling water 2,560
Total 15,500 96-2
Flow Diagram Figure All-IE
Flow rates by stream number (10 l)/hr) :
1. 1354 9. 247 21. 1273
3. 455 10. 247 22. 0
4. 455 14. 259 24. 0
5. 455 15. 96 25. 1273
7. 428 18. 112 27. 21
8. 247 20. 1303 28. 21
Treatment Blocks:

/hr 106 Btu/hr
Lime- Soda Softening - No. 1 N&p USED
Lime-Soda Softening - No. 2 1,300
Electrodialysis NOT USED
Ion Exchange - Scheme _j 	 4 320
Phenol Extraction 5,650 29 6
Ammonia Separation (-7,200) 50.4
Biotreatment a S3o
Filter 89
Acid addition to cooling water 2,323
Other chemicals to cooling water 2,560
Tot^1 17,600 119

29. 14
32. 1252
33. 376
39. 208
40- 1354 RAW WATER

waste (103 Ib/hr)
sludge or
dry solution
0.3 1.7

27


0.4 2.0




-------
                        TABLE All-4.   WATER TREATMENT PLANTS
                                                                                                                        TABLE All-4.  WATER TREATMENT PLANTS
Process    SRC
                                               Site   Bureau, 111,  (well water)
                                                                                                Process   SRC
                                                                                                                                               Site  White, 111.
Flow Diagram Figure All-IE
                                                                                                Flow Diagram Figure All-IE
Flow rates  by_stirtiam nlumber  (10   Ib/hr):
                                                                                                Flow rates by stream number (10  Ib/hr):
1. 1747 9- 81 21. 0 29. 14
3. 1853 10. 81 22. 0 32. 1518
4. 1846 14. 94 24. 1539 33. 106
5. 307 15. 69 25. 1539 39. 208
7. 290 18. 139 27. 21 40. 1747 RAW WATER
8. 81 20. 1406 28. 21
Treatment Blocks:
waste (103 Ib/hr)
sludge or
C/hr 10 Btu/hr dry solution
Lime-Soda Softening - No. 1 2,670 1.5 7.0
Lime-Soda Softeninq - No. 2 NOT USED
Electrodialysis NOT USED
Ion Exchange - Scheme 2 2,000 I7
Phenol Extraction 1,850 9.7
Ammonia Separation (-2,130) 16.5
Biotreaunent 2,800 5.3 0.16 0.8
Filter 32
Acid addition to cooling water 460
Other chemicals to cooling water 2,560
Total 10,200 31.5
1. 1617 9. 48 21. 0 29. 14
3. 1690 10. 48 22. 0 32. 1425
4. 1687 14. 62 24. 1445 33. 73
5. 242 15. 76 25. 1445 39. 202
7. 228 18. 126 27. 21 40. 1617 RAW WATER
8. 48 20. 1285 28. 28
Treatment Blocks:
waste (103 Ib/hr)
sludge or
C/hr 10 Btu/hr dry solution
Lime-Soda Softening - No. 1 1,870 0.7 4
Lime-Soda Softening - No. 2 NOT USED
Electrodialysis NOT USED
Ion Exchange - Scheme 2 1,490 14
Phenol Extraction 1,100 5.8
Ammonia Separation (-1,230) 9.8
Biotreatment 1,660 3.2 0.08 0.4
Filter 21
Acid addition to cooling water 180
Other chemicals to cooling water 2,480
Total 7,670 18.8

-------
  Process    SRC
 TABLE  All-4.  WATER TREATMENT  PLANTS








	               Site   Fulton, 111.
                                                                                                Process   SRC
 TABLE All-4.  WATER TREATMENT PLANTS








	               Site    Saline. 111.
  Flow Diagram Figure A11-1E
  Floy rates  by  streaja number  (10  Ib/hr) ;
                                                                                                Flow Diagram Figure All-IE
                                                                                                Flow rates by stream number  (10   Ib/hr) i
1. 1297 9. 66 21. 0 29. 14
3. 1393 10. 66 22. 0 32. 853
4. 1156 14. 80 24. 874 33. 96
5. 282 15. 98 25. 874 39. 153
7. 271 18. 55 27. 21 40. 1297 RAW WATER
8. 66 20. 780 28. 21
Ul
-J
CD
Treatment Blocks;
waste (103 Ib/hr)
filudge or
C/hr 10 Btu/hr dry solution
Lime-Soda Softening - No. 1 NOT USED
Lime-Soda Softening - No. 2 NOT USED
Electrodialysis* ' 11,600 26.6 237
Ion Exchange - Scheme 3 3,200 11
Phenol Extraction 1,510 7.9
Ammonia Separation (-1,720) 13.5
Biotreatment 1,950 3.7 0.09 0.5
Filter 27
Acid addition to cooling water 7g
Other chemicals to cooling water 2,200
Total 18,800 52
1. 1020 9- 42 21. 0 29- 14
3. 1110 10. 42 22. 0 32. 799
4. 1108 14. 56 24. 820 33. 90
5. 288 15. 81 25. 82o 39. 128
7. 272 18. 47 27. 21 40. 1020 RAW WATER
8. 42 20. 727 28. 21
Treatment Blocks l
waste (103 Ib/hr)
sludge or
*/hr 10 Btu/hr dry solution
Lime-Soda Softening - No. 1 1,390 0.4 2
Lime-Soda Softening - No. 2 NOT USED
Electrodialysis NOT USED
Ion Exchange - Scheme 2 1,870 16
Phenol Extraction 960 5.04
Ammonia Separation (-1,070) 8.57
Biotreatment 1,230 2.36 0.06 0.3
Filter 19
Acid addition to cooling water 99
Other chejnicals to cooling water 1,570
Total 6,100 16.0
located roughly in place  of  Softening No.1 .

-------
                        TABLE All-4.   WATER TREATMENT PLANTS
                                                                                                                       TABLE All-4.  WATER TREATMENT PLANTS
Process   SRC
                                               Site   Gillette, Wyo.
                                                                                                                                             Site    Antelope Creek, Wyo.
Flow Diagram Figure  All-IE
Flow rates by  stream number  (10   Lb/hr)i
Flow Diagram Figure  All-IE


Flow rates by streaj^nuinber {10  Ih/hr) :
1. 797 9. 186 21. 0 29. 14
3. 951 10. 181 22. 5 32. 599
4. 946 14. 195 24. 620 33. 154
5. 326 IS. 101 25. 620 39. 193
7. 308 18. 92 27. 21 40. 802 RAW WATER
8. 186 20. 601 28. 21
Treatment Blocks:
waate (1Q3 Ib/hr)
sludge or
C/hr 10 Btu/hr dry solution
Lime-Soda Softening - No. 1 2,090 1.0 5.0
Lime-Soda Softening - No. 2 NOT USED
Electrodialysis NOT USED
Ion Exchange - Scheme 2 2,120 18
Phenol Extraction 4,250 22.3
Ainmonia Separation (-5,220) 37.9
Biotreatment 6,250 11.9 0.30 1.5
Filter 67
Acid addition to cooling water small
Other rhpmi r-l <* to cooling water 2,370
Total 11,900 72.1
1. 841 9. 166 21. 0 29. 14
3. 992 10. 161 22. 5 32. 510
4. 873 14. 175 24. 531 33. 151
5. 342 15. 51 25. 531 39. 132
7. 323 18. 81 27. 21 40. 846 RAW WATER
8. 166 20. 553 28. 21
Treatment Blocks:
waste (103 Ib/hr)
sludge or
C/hr 10 Btu/hr dry solution
Lime-Soda Softening - No. 1 NOT USED
Lime-Soda Softening - No. 2 NOT USED
Electrodialysis" 8,120 25.7 120
Ion Exchange - Scheme 3 3,930 19
Phenol Extraction 3,800 19.9
Ammonia Separation (-4,600) 33.9
Biotreatment 5,550 10.6 0.26 1.3
Filter 60
Acid addition to cooling water small
Total 18,500 90.1
                                                                                              * Situated about where  Softening No.  1
                                                                                                is shown on Figure  All-IE.

-------
                        TABLE All-4.  HATER TREATMENT PLANTS
                                                                                                                     TABLE All-4.  WATER TREATMENT  PLANTS
                                              Site    Rainbow t8.  Wvo.
                                                                                              Process    SRC
                                                                                                                                           Site   Dickinson. N.D.
Flow Diagram Figure  All-IE
                                                                                              Flow Diagram Figure All-IE
Flow rates by stream number (10  Ib/hr) :
Flow rates by stream number  (10   Ib/hr) :
1- 1487 9. Ill 21. 0 29. 14
3. 1602 10. 108 22. 12 32. 1244
4. 1596 14. 122 24. 1265 33. 115
5. 331 15. 48 25. 1265 39. Ill
7. 312 18. 63 27. 21 40. 1499 RAW WATER
8. Ill 20. 1255 28. 21
Treatment Blocks:
waste (103 Ib/hr)
sludge or
C/hr 10 Btu/hr dry solution
Lime-Soda Softening - No. 1 2,310 1.1 6.0
Lime-Soda Softening - No. 2 NOT USED
Electrodialysis NOT USED
Ion Exchange - Scheme 2 2,150 19
Phenol Extraction 2,540 13.3
Ammonia Separation (-2,940) 22.6
Biotreatment 3,730 7.1 0.18 0.90
Filter 42
Acid addition to cooling water 268
CW-HT r*\Amicals to cooling water 640
Total 8,700 43-
1. 903 9. 234 21. 761
3. 396 10. 227 22. 4
4. 396 14. 241 24. 0
5. 396 15. 107 25. 761
7. 374 18. 167 27. 21
8. 234 20. 707 28. 21
Treatment Blocks :
/hr 106 Btu/hr
Lime-Soda Softening - No. 1 NOT USED
Lime-Soda Softening - No. 2 NOT USED
Electrodialysis NOT USED
Ion Exchange - Scheme 	 1_ 3,760
Phenol Extraction 5,350 28.1
Ammonia Separation (-6,760) 47.7
Biotreatment ',810 -9
Filter 83
Acid addition to cooling water 433
Other chemicals to cooling water 3,370 	
Total 14,100 90.7
29. 14
32. 740
33. 254
39. 274
40. 907 RAW WATER

waste (103 Ib/hr)
sludge or
dry solution


22


0.37 1.9




-------
                        TABLE All-"!.  WATER TREATMENT PLANTS
                                                                                                                      TABLE All-4.   WATER TREATMENT PLANTS
Process   SRC
                                              Site    Bentley, N.D.
                                                                                              Process    SRC
                                                                                                                                            site 	Underwood. N.O.
Flow Diagram Figure  All-IE
Flow rates by  atreajn number (10  Ib/hr) :
1.
3.
4.
5.
7.
8.
943
1147
1143
367
346
213
9.
10.
14.
15.
18.
20.
213
207
221
85
148
743
21.
22.
24.
25.
27.
28.
0
4
776
776
21
21
Treatment Blocks:
                                                10  Btu/hr
Lime-Soda Softening  -  No.  1
Lime-Soda Softening  -No.  2
Electrodialysis
Ion Exchange - Scheme   2
Phenol Extraction
AJnmonia Separation
Biotreatiaent
Filter
Acid addition to cooling water
Other chemicals tx> cooling water
     Total
                                     1,900
2S.6
43.5
13.6
                                                                 29.  14
                                                                 32.  755
                                                                 33.  204
                                                                 39.  233
                                                                 40.  947    RAW WATER
            waste  (10   Ib/hr)
                    sludge or
           dry      solution
           0.8         4
           0.34
                       1.7
                                                                                              Flow Diagram Figure All-IE
                                                                                              Flow jrates by  stream number (10   jJo/hr^i
                                                                 9.  226
                                                                10.  219
                                                                14.  233
                                                                15.  81
                                                                18.  147
                                                                20.  1517
 1.  1714
 3.  1945
 4.  1939
 5.  406
 7.  383
 8.  226
                                                                                              Treatment Blocks:
Lime-Soda Softening - No.  1
Lime-Soda Softening - No.  2
Electrodialysis
Ion Exchange - Scheme 	2_
Phenol Extraction
Ammonia Separation
Bio treatment
Filter
Add addition to cooling water
Other chemicals to cooling water
     Total
-b/hr) i
21. 0
22. 10
24. 1533
25. 1533
27. 21
28. 21


g
/hr 10 Btu/hr
2,670
NOT USED
NOT USED
2,640
5,170 27.1
(-6,500) 46.1
7,560 14.4
80
NOT USED
2,800
14,400 87.6

29. 14
32. 1512
33. 231
39. 228
40. 1724 RAH WATER

3
waste (10 Ib/hr)
sludge or
dry solution
1.2 6


23


0.36 1.8





-------
                         TABLE All-4.   WATER TREATMENT PLANTS
                                                                                                                        TABLE All-4.   WATER TREATMENT PLANTS
 Process    SRC
                                                lte   Otter Creek. Hont.
                                                                                                 Process   SRC
                                                                                                                                              Site   Pumpkin Creek,  Mont.
 Flow Diagrajn Figure All-IE
                                                                                                 Flow Diagram Figure All-IE
 Flow rates by  streajn number (10  Ib/hr? :
                                                                                                 Flow rates by stream number (10  Ib/hr) :
1. 1186 9. 161 21. 0 29. 14
3. 1413 10. 156 22. 6 32. 736
4. 1230 14. 170 24. 757 33. 227
S. 473 15. 63 25. 757 39. 173
7. 445 18. 110 27. 21 40. 1192 RAW WATER
8. 161 20. 733 28. 21
CD
to
Treatment Blocks:
waste (103 Ib/hr)
sludge or
C/hr 10 Btu/hr dry solution
Line-Soda Softening - No. 1 NOT USED
Lime-Soda Softening - No. 2 1,300 0.2 1.0
Electrodialysis* 9,000 20.0 183
Ion Exchange - Scheme 3 5,400 28
Phenol Extraction 3,680 19.3
Ammonia Separation 1-4,450) 32,8
Biotreataent 5,390 10.3 0.26 1.3
Filter 58
Acid addition to cooling water 453
Other chemicals to cooling water 7&0
Total 21,600 83
1. 947 9. 222 21. 750 29. 14
3. 420 10. 216 22. 5 32. 729
4. 420 14. 230 24. 0 33. 223
S. 420 15. 110 25. 750 39. 231
7. 396 18. 121 27. 21 40. 952 RAW WATER
8. 222 20. 728 28. 21

Treatment Blocks:
waste (103 Ib/hr)
, sludge or
*/hr 10 Btu/hr dry solution
Lime-Soda Softening - No. 1 NOT USED
Lime-Soda Softening - No. 2 1,300 o.2 1.0
Electrodialysis NOT USED
Ion Exchange - Scherae 1 3,990 24
Phenol Extraction 5,080 26.6
Ammonia Separation (-6,370) 45.3
Biotreatment 7,460 14.2 0.36 1.8
Filter 79
Acid addition to cooling water 522
Other chemicals to cooling water 2,840
Total 14,900 86.1
located roughly in place of Softening Ho.l  .

-------
             TABLE All-4.  WATER TREATMENT PLANTS
                                                                                                            TABLE All-4.  WATER TREATMENT PLANTS
SRC
                                    Site    Coalridqe, Hont.
Flow Diagram Figure All-IE
Flow rates by stream number (10 Ib/hr) :
1. 1075 9- 330 21. 0
3. 1514 10. 320 22. 6
4. 1509 14. 334 24. 963
5. 552 15. 144 25. 963
7. 521 18. 167 27. 21
8. 330 20. 965 28. 21
Treatment Blocks:
C/hr 10 Btu/hr
Lime-Soda Softening - No. 1 2,050
Lame-Soda Softening - No. 2 NOT USED
Electxodialysis NOT USED
Ion Exchange - Scheme 2 3,590
Phenol Extraction 7,540 39.6
Ammonia Separation (-10,100) 67.3
Biotreatm-nt 11,000 21.0
Filter 11S
Acid addition to cooling vater NOT USED
Other rhf>T-l ^*1 K ^ cooling water 3f330
Total 17,500 128

29. 14
32. 942
33. 440
39. 311
40. 1081 RAW WATER


waste (103 Ib/hr)
sludge or
dry solution
1.0 5.0

31


0.53 2.7


                                                                                     Process   SRC
                                                                                                                                  Site   Colstrip, Mont.
                                                                                     Flow Diagram Figure All-IE
                                                                                     Flow rates by stream number (10  Ib/hr) :
                                                                                                          9.  160
                                                                                                         10.  155
                                                                                                         14.  169
                                                                                                         15.  80
                                                                                                         18.  101
                                                                                                         20.  794
 1-  1045
 3.  386
 4.  386
 5.  386
 7.  364
 B.  160
                                                                                    Treatment Blocks :
Lime-Soda Softening - No.  1
Lime-Soda Softening - No.  2
Electrodialysis
Ion Exchange - Scheme   1
Phenol Extraction
Ammonia Separation
Biotreatment
Filter
Acid addition to cooling water
Other chemicals to cooling water
     Total
        21.  827
        22.  6
        24.  0
        25.  827
        27.  21
        28.  21
                                                                                                                          C/hr      10  Btu/hr
                                                                                                                               NOT  USED
                                                                                                                         1,150
                                                                                                                                NOT  USED
  3,670
  3,660
(-4,420)
  5,350
     58

   360
  2,230
 12,100
                                                                                                                                       19.2
                                                                                                                                       32.6
                                                                                                                                       10.2
29. 14
32. 806
33. 169
39. 181
40. 1051  HAW WATER
                                                               waste (10 . Ib/hr)

                                                              dry
                                                                                                                                                           sludge or
                                                                                                                                                           solution
                                                                                                                                                  0.1
                                                                                                                                                                0.6
                                                                                                                                                               22
                                                                                                                                                                1.3
                                                                                                                                       62.0

-------
SYNTHANE
     384

-------
                                            TABLE All-4.  WATER TREATMENT PLANTS
                                                                                                                                         TABLE  All-4.   WATER TREATMENT PLANTS
               Process   Synthane
                                                        Site    Jefferson,  Ala.
                                                                                                              Process   Synthane
                                                                                                                                                               Gibson,  Indiana
UJ
CD
Ul
Flow Diagram Figure All-LA
Flow rates by stream number (10 Ib/hr):
1. 1981 10. 569 21. 827 32. 806
3. 1154 11. 684 22. 0 33. 245
4. 1154 14. 450 24. 0 34. 130
5. 1154 15. 26 25. B27 36. 115
6. 1085 16. 248 27. 21 37. 100
7. 1215 17. 130 28. 21 39. 126
8. 573 IB. 118 29. 14 40. 1981 RAW WATER
9. 578 20. 1130 31. 100
Treatntent blocks:
waste (103 Ib/hr)
sludge or
C/hr 10 Btu/hr dry solution
Lime-Soda Softening - No . 1 NOT USED
Lime-Soda Softening - No. 3 899 0.06 0.3
Ion Exchange - Scheme 1 12,100 69
Phenol Extraction NOT USED
Ammonia Separation (-1,650) 118.0
Biotreatment 17,100 27.0 0.68 3.4
Filter 154
Acid addition to cooling water 185
rrfhvr chemicals to cooling water 2,050
Flow Diagram Figure A11-1A
Flow rates by stream number (10 Ib/hr) :
1. 1926 10. 590 21. o 32. 724
3. 1926 11. 705 22. 0 33. 245
4. 1923 14. 477 24. 745 34. 130
5. 1178 15. 8 25. 745 36. 115
6. 1107 16. 242 27. 21 31. u2
7. 1237 17. 125 28. 21 39. 120
8. 599 18. 117 29. 14 40. 1926 RAW WATER
9. 599 20. 1081 31. 112
Treatment blocks:
waste (103 Ib/hr)
sludge or
(/hi 10 Btu/hr dry solution
Lime-Soda Softening - No. 1 1,690 0.69 3.45
Lime-Soda Softening - No. 3 901 0.08 0.40
Ion Exchange - Scheme 2 7,660 71
Phenol Extraction NOT USED
Ammonia Separation (-1,710) 122
Biotreatjnent 17,600 28.2 0.70 3.50
Filter 164
Acid addition to cooling water NOT USED
Other chemicals to cooling water 1,960
                                                                                                                                                              ISO

-------
                             TABLE All-4.   WATER TREATMENT PLANTS


 Process   Synthane
Flow Diagram Figure All-LA
Flow rates by stream
1- 1847
3. 1847
4. 1845
5. 1174
6. 1104
ro 7' 1234
CTl 8. 595
9. 595
Treatment blocks:
T.I ire -Soda Softening -
Lime-Soda Softening -
Ion Exchange - Scheme
number (10 Ib/hr):
10. 586 21. 0
11. 701 22. 0
14. 543 24. 671
15. 12 25. 671
16. 179 27. 21
17. 134 28. 21
18. 45 29. 14
20. 1074 31. 107
/hr 106 Btu/hr
No. 1 1,600
No. 3 1,200
2 7,630
32. 650
33. 245
34. 130
36. 115
37. 107
39. 119
40. 1847 RAW HATER

waste (103 li>/hr)
sludge or
dry solution
0.4 2.0
0.06 0.3
70
Phenol .Extraction

AnHnonia Separation               (-1,700)

Biotreatment                       5,640

Filter                               165

Acid addition  to cooling  water

Other chemicals to  cooling water  1,940

     Total                        16.500
NOT USED

   121

     9.0
              0.2
                         1.1
                                                                                               Process   Synthane
                                                                             TABLE All-4.  WATER TREATMENT PLANTS
                                                                                                                                                Floyd,  Ky.
                                                                                               Flow Diagram Figure A11-1A
                                                                                               Flow rates by stream number  (10  Ib/hr) :
1.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
1320
1188
1188
1188
1117
1247
609
609
10.
11.
14.
IS.
16.
17.
18.
20.
600
715
442
4
287
179
108
498
21.
22.
24.
25.
27.
28.
29.
31.
132
0
0
132
21
21
14
51
32.
33.
34.
36.
37.
39.
40.

Ill
245
130
115
51
55
1320

Treatment blocks :
                                    C/hr

Lime-Soda Softening - No.  1

Lime-Soda Softening - No.  3          892

Ion Exchange - Scheme _L         12,500

Phenol Extraction

Ammonia Separation               (-1,740)

Biotreatment                      17,900

Filter                               152

Acid addition to cooling water       140

Other chemicals to cooling water   1,010

                                  30,800
10  Btu/hr    dry

NOT USED

             0.03



NOT USED

   124

    29       0.72
                                                                                                                                                          waste (10  Lb/hr)

                                                                                                                                                                  sludge or
                                                                                                                                                                  solution
                                                                                                                                                                     0.15

                                                                                                                                                                    71
                                                                                                                        3.6

-------
 Process   Synthane
                            TABLE All-4.   WATER TREATMENT PLANTS


                                        Site  Gallia, Ohio
                                                                                                Process   Synthane
                                                                                          TABLE All-4.   WATER TREATMENT PLANTS
                                                                                                                                                Jefferson,  Ohio
 Plow Diagram Figure All-lA
 Flow rates by stream numbex  (10  Ib/hr);
                                                                                                Flow Diagram Figure All-lA
                                                                                                Flow rates  by stream number (10  Ib/hr);





Ul
CD
^J

1.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
1896
1168
1168
1168
1098
1228
590
590
10.
11.
14.
15.
16.
17.
18.
20.
581
696
451
17
259
135
124
1042
21.
22.
24.
25.
27.
28.
29.
31.
728
0
0
728
21
21
14
99
32.
33.
34.
36.
37.
39.
40.

707
245
130
115
99
116
1896 RAW WATER

1.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
Wo
1169
1169
1169
1099
1229
591
591
10.
11.
14.
15.
16.
17.
18.
20.
582
691
538
16
173
130
43
1042
21.
22.
24.
25.
27.
28.
29.
31.
641
0
0
641
21
21
14
100
32.
33.
34.
36.
37.
39.
40.

620
245
130
115
100
116
1810

Treatment  blocks:
Lime-Soda  Softening - No. 1

Lime-Soda  Softening - No. 3

Ion Exchange  -  Schema  1

Phenol Extraction

Ammonia  Separation

Biotreatment

Filter

Acid addition to cooling water
   C/hr




    899

 12,300



(-1,680)

  5,600

    155

    264
10  Btu/hr    dry

NOT USED

              0.06



NOT USED

   120

     9.0      0.2
                                                           waste  (10  Ib/hr)

                                                                   sludge or
                                                                   solution
 0.30

70
                         1.1
                                                                                                Treatment blocks:
Lima-Soda Softening - No. 1

Lime-Soda Softening - No. 3

Ion Exchange - Scheme   1

Phenol Extraction

Aosnonia Separation

Biotreatment

Filter

Acid addition to cooling water
   C/hr




    899

 12,300



(-1,680)

  5,610

    185

    249
21. 641
22. 0
24. 0
25. 641
27. 21
28. 21
29. 14
31. 100


10 Btu/hr
NOT USED

32. 620
33. 245
34. 130
36. 115
37. 100
39. 116
40. 1810 RAW WATER

waste (103 Ib/hr)
sludge or
dry solution

0.06 0.3
                                                                                               70
                                                                       NOT USED

                                                                          121

                                                                            9.0
Other chemicals  to  cooling water  1.890

     Total                        19,400
                                                129
                                                              Other chemicals to cooling water   2,120

                                                                   Total                        19,700
                                                                                                                                               130

-------
                            TABLE All-4.  HATER TREATMENT PLANTS
                                                                                                                          TABLE All-4.   HATER TREATMENT PLANTS
 Process   Synthane	


 Flow Diagram Figure A11-1A


 Plow rates by stream number
       Site   Armstrong.  Pa.
                                                              Process    Synthane
                                                              Flow  Diagram Figure  A11-1A
                                                                                                         Kanawha, West Virginia





UJ
CD
CO

1.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
1872
1171
1171
1171
1101
1231
593
593
10.
11.
14.
15.
16.
17.
18.
20.
584
714
487
15
241
128
113
1050
21.
22.
24.
25.
27.
28.
29.
31.
701
0
0
701
21
21
14
102
32.
33.
34.
36.
37.
39.
40.

680
245
115
130
102
117
1872 RAH WATER

1.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
1865
1172
1172
1172
1102
1232
594
594
10.
11.
14.
15.
16.
17.
18.
20.
let \J.w A*-*/
585
700
471
14
243
130
113
1029
21.
22.
24.
25.
27.
28.
29.
31.
693
0
0
693
21
21
14
100
32.
33.
34.
36.
37.
39.
40.

672
245
130
115
100
114
1865 RAW WATER

Treatment blocJcs:
Lime-So
-------
Process   Synthane
                           TABLE All-4.   WATER TREATMENT PLANTS
                                        Site   Preston, West Virginia
Flow Diagram Figure A11-1A
Flow rates by streaJD number  (10   Ib/hr):






U)
03
1.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
1392
1169
1169
1169
1099
1229
591
591
10.
11.
14.
15.
16.
17.
18.
20.
582
712
431
16
295
183
112
570
21.
22.
24.
25.
27.
28.
29.
31.
223
0
0
223
21
21
47
32.
33.
34.
36 ~.
37.
39.
40.
202
24S
130
115
47
63
139
Treatment blocks:
Lime-Soda Softening - No. 1
Lime-Soda Softening - No. 3
Ion Exchange - Scheme   1
Phenol Extraction
Ammonia Separation
Biotreatment
Filter
Acid addition to cooling water
Other chemicals to cooling water   1,150

     Total                        18'600
C/hr
891
12,300

(-1,680)
5,730
148
91
1,150
waste (10 Ib/hr)
sludge or
10 Btu/hr dry solution
NOT USED
0.03 0.15
70
NOT USED
120.6
9.2 0.2 1.2



                                                130
                                                                                                                         TABLE All-4.  WATER TREATMENT  PLANTS
                                                                                              Process   Synthane
                                                                                              Flow Diagram Figure A11-1A
                                                                                                                                     Site   Antelope Creek, Wyo.
                                                                                              1.
                                                                                              3.
                                                                                              4.
                                                                                              5.
                                                                                              6.
                                                                                              7.
                                                                                              e.
                                                                                              9.
     1426
     1426
     1283
     1102
     1036
     1177
     526
     526
                                                                                              Treatment blocks:
Lime-Soda Softening - No. 1
Lime-Soda Softening - No. 3
Electrodialysis *
Ion Exchange - Scheme
Phenol 'Extraction
Ammonia Separation
Biotreatment
Filter
Acid addition to cooling water
Other chemicals to cooling water   1,060
     Total                        42,600
U.1-1A
number (10 Ib/hr) :
10. 518 21. 0
11. 667 22. 6
14. 416 24. 181
15. 11 25. 181
16. 285 27. 21
17. 227 28. 21
IB. 58 29. 14
20. 518 31. 47
*/hr 106 Btu/hr
No. 1 NOT USED
No. 3 891
9,550 32.1
: 3 12,700
12,000 63.1
(-1,500) 107.3
7,820 14.9
126

32. 160
33. 310
34. 141
36. 169
37. 47
39. 58
40. 1432 HAW WATER

waste (103 Ib/hr)
sludge or
dry solution

0.03 0.14
143
66


0.33 1.65

                                                                                                                                            217
                                                                                                   Located roughly  in  the  place of Softening No. 1.

-------
                             TABLE All-4.  WATER TREATMENT PLANTS
                                                                                                                             TABLE All-4.  WATER TREATMENT PLANTS
 Process    Synthane
 Flow Diagram Figure All-LA
FUov rates by st-reajn number  (10   Ib/hr) i
                                         Site   Spotted Horse, Wyo.
                                                                                                  Process    Synthane
                                                                                                 Flow  Diagram Figure All-LA
                                                                                                 Flow rates by stream  number  (10  Ib/hr):
                                                                                                                                         Site   CoIs trip,  Montana






Ul
v>
o
1.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
1309
1309
1303
1086
1021
1162
511
511
10.
11.
14.
15.
16.
17.
18.
20.
503
672
378
21
308
246
62
517
21.
22.
24.
25.
27.
28.
29.
31.
0
6
217
217
21
21
14
36
32.
33.
34.
36.
37.
39.
40.

196
310
141
169
36
57
1315 RAW WATER

1.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
1415
1093
1093
1093
1027
1168
518
518
10.
11.
14.
15.
16.
17.
IB.
20.
510
679
401
17
292
219
73
632
21.
22.
24j
25.
27.
28.
29.
31.
322
5
0
322
21
21
14
53
32.
33.
34.
36.
37.
39.
40.

301
310
141
169
53
70
1420

                                                                                                                                                                              RAW WATER
Treatn>ent  blocks:
Lime-Soda Softening - No. 1
Lime-Soda Softening - No.' 3
Ion Exchange - Scheme 2
Phenol Extraction
Anroonia Separation
Biotreatment
Filter
Acid addition to cooling water
Other chemicals to cooling water
Total
C/hr
2,140
890
7,060
11,700
(-1,4601
7,510
130

1,040
29,000
waste (103 Ib/hr)
filudge or
10 Btu/hr dry solution
1.3 6.3
0.02 0.11
65
61.3
104.2
14.3 0.30 1.5

NOT USED

180
                                                                                                 Treatment blocks:
                                                                                                 Lime-Soda Softening - No. 1




                                                                                                 Lime-Soda Softening - No. 3




                                                                                                 Ion Exchange - Scheme   1




                                                                                                 Phenol ".Extraction




                                                                                                 Ammonia  Separation




                                                                                                 Biotreatment




                                                                                                 Kilter




                                                                                                 Acid addition to cooling water       ^75




                                                                                                 Other chemicals to cooling water    280





                                                                                                      Total                        31,900
                                                                                                                                                            waste  (10  Ib/hr)
t/hr
892
11,500
11,800
(-1,470)
7,610
10 Btu/hr drv
NOT USED
0.03

62.2
105.7
14.5 0.03
sludge or
solution

0.16
79


1.5






137

-------
HYGAS
  391

-------
                          TABLE All-4.  WATER TREATMENT PLANTS
                                                                                                                            TABLE All-4.  WATER TREATMENT PLANTS
Process     Hygaa_
                                         Site   Jefferson,  Ala.
Flow Dlagrajn Figure A11-1A
Flow rates by stream number (10 Ib/hr) :
1. 2130 10. 532 21. 796 31. 9
3. I"4 11. 532 22. 0 32. 775
4. 1334 14. 344 24. 0 33. 180
5. I"4 15. 103 25. 796 34. 1BO
6. 1254 16. 202 26. 0 36. 0
U> 7. I"" 17. 101 27. 21 37. 9
NJ 8. 537 18 10-1 28. 21 39. 112
9. 537 20. 107 29. 14 40. 2130 RAW HATER
Treatment blocks:
waste (103 Ib/hr)
sludge or
C/hr 10 Btu/hr dry solution
Lima-Soda Softening - No. 1 NOT USED
Ljjne-Soda Softening - No. 3 686 0.01 0.05
Ion Exchange - Schejne 1 14,000 60
Phenol Extraction NOT USED
Ajnnonia Separation 7,870 109
Biotreatment 2,660 4.2 0.1 0.5
Filter 118
Acid addition to cooling water 167
Other chemicals to cooling water 1,630
Total 27,600 113
Flow Diagram Figure A11-1A
Plow rates by stream number (10 Ib/hr) :
1. 1298 10. 293 21. 431 31. 1
3. 867 11. 293 22. 0 32. 410
4. 867 14. 198 24. 0 33. 200
5. 867 15. 60 25. 431 34. 200
6. 815 16. 109 26. 0 36 . 0
7. 1015 17. 36 27. 21 37. 1
8. 296 18. 73 28. 21 39. 61
9. 296 20. 547 29. 14 40. 1298 RAW HATER
Treatment blocks:
waste (103 Ib/hr)
sludge or
C/hr 10 Btu/hr dry solution
Lime-Soda Softening - No. 1 NOT USED
Lime-Soda Softening - No. 3 884 0.001 0.005
Ion Exchange - Scheme 1 9,100 52,
Phenol Extraction 7,220 35.5
AniDOnia Separation 6,960 60.4
Biotreatment 3,630 8.2 0.2 1.0
Filter 6a
Acid addition to cooling water 90
Other chemicals to cooling water 994
Total 28,900 104

-------
              TABLE All-4.  WATER TREATMENT PLANTS
                                                                                                               TABLE  All-4.   WATER TREATMENT PLANTS
Hyqas
                             Site    Harengo,  Ala,   (well water)
                                                                                                 Hygaa
                                                                                                                              Site
                                                                                                                                      Gibson, Ind.
Flow Diagram Figure A11-1A
Flow rates by stream number (10 Ib/hr) :
1. 1298 10. 293 21. 431 31. 1
3. 867 11. 293 22. 0 32. 410
4. 867 14. 198 24. 0 33. 200
5. 867 15. 60 25. 431 34. 200
6. 815 16. 109 26. 0 36. 0
7. 1015 17. 36 27. 21 37. 1
8. 296 18. 73 28. 21 39. 61
9. 296 20. 547 29. 14 40. 1298 RAW WATER
Treatment blocks:
waste (103 Ib/hr)
sludge or
C/hr 10 Btu/hr dry solution
Lime-Soda Softening - No. 1 NOT USED
Lime-Soda Softening - No. 3 884 0.001 0.005
Ion Exchange - Scheme 	 1_ 9,100 52
Phenol Extraction 7,220 35.5
Ammonia Separation 6,960 60.4
Biotreatment 3,630 8.2 0.2 1.0
Filter 6a
Acid addition to cooling water '74
Other chemicals to cooling water 994
Total 29,600 104
Flow Diagram Figure A11-1A
Flow rates by stream number (10 Ib/hr) i
1. 2048 10. 532 21. 0 31. 64
3. 2048 11. 532 22. o 32. 690
4. 2045 14. 380 24. 711 33. 180
5. 1334 15. 43 25. 711 34. 180
6. 1254 16. 176 26. 0 36. n
7. 1434 17. 69 27. 21 37. 64
B. 537 18. 107 28. 21 39. 107
9. 537 20. 963 29. 14 40. 2048 RAW WATER
Treatment blocks:
waste (103 Ib/hr)
sludge or
C/hr 10 Btu/hr dry solution
Lime-Soda Softening - No. 1 1,720 0.73 3.65
Lime-Soda Softening - No. 3 900 0.07 0.36
Ion Exchange - Scheme 2 8,670 80
Phenol Extraction NOT USED
Ammonia Separation 7,870 109
Biotreatment 2,660 4.2 0.1 0.5
Filter 136
Acid addition to cooling water NOT USED
Other chemicals to cooling water 1,530
Total 23,500 113

-------
           Hyqas
                          TABLE All-4.  WATER TREATMENT PLANTS
                                        Site  Warrwiek.  Indiana
                                                                                              Process    Hyqas
TABLE All-4.  WATER TREATMENT PLANTS







              Site    Tuscaramas, Ohio  (surface water)
Flow Diagram Figure  JQ1-1A
Flow rates by stream  number (10  Ib/hr);
                                                                                              Flow Diagram Figure All-LA
                                                                                              Flow rates by stream number  (10   Ib/hr) :
1. 2016 10. 532 21. 682 31. 48
3. 1334 11. 532 22. 0 32. 661
4. 1334 14. 409 24. 0 33. 180
5. 1334 15. 59 25. 682 34. 180
6. 1254 16. 132 26. 0 36. 0
7. 1434 17. 90 27. 21 37. 48
8. 537 18. 42 28. 21 39. 107
9. 537 20. 963 29. 14 40. 2016 RAW WATER
Treatinent blocks:
waste (103 Ib/hr)
sludge or
C/hr 10 Btu/hr dry solution
Lime-Soda Softening - No. 1 NOT USED
Lime-Soda Softening - No. '3 1,050 0.05 0.27
Ion Exchange - Scheme _1 	 14,000 80
Phenol Extraction NOT USED
Aumonia Separation 7,870 109
Biotreatn^nt 2,660 4.2 0.1 0.5
Filter 136
Acid addition to cooling water 245
Other chemicals to cooling water 1,740
Total 27,700 113
1. 1600 10. 532 21. 0 31. 21
3. 1600 11. 532 22. 0 32. 240
4. 1595 14. 327 24. 261 33. 180
5. 1334 15. 36 25. 261 34. 180
6. 1254 16. 214 26. 0 36. 0
7. 1434 17. 113 27. 21 37. 21
8. 537 18. 101 28. 21 39. 57
9. 537 20. 510 29. 14 40. 1600 RAH WATER
Treatment blocks:
waste (103 Ib/hr)
fc sludge or
/hr 10 Btu/hr dry solution
Lime-Soda Softening - No. 1 1,890 0.93 4.7
Lime-Soda Softening - No. 3 900 0.02 0.11
Ion Exchange - Scheme 2 8,670 BO
Phenol Extraction NOT USED
Ammonia Separation 7,870 109
Biotreatment 2,660 4.2 0.1 0.5
Filter 112
Acid addition to cooling water NOT USED
Other chemicals to cooling water 1,040
Total 23,200 113

-------
                           TABLE All-4.  WATER TREATMENT PLANTS
                                                                                                                           TABLE All-4.  WATER TREATMENT PLANTS
Process     Hygas
                                                  Tuscaraifas ,  Ohio (around
                                                                                                 Process
                                                                                                            Hygas
                                                                                                                                         Site
Flow Diagram Figure A11-1A
Flow rates by stream number (10 lb/hr) i
1. 1599 10. 532 21. 0 31. 21
3. 1599 11. 532 22. 0 32. 240
4. 1595 14. 327 24. 261 33. ISO
5. 1334 15. 36 25. 261 34. 180
6. 1254 16. 214 26. 0 36. 0
7. 1434 17. 113 27. 21 37. 21
8. 537 18. 101 28. 21 39. 57
J^j 9 537 20. 510 29. 14 40. 1599 RAW WATER
Ln
Treatment blocks:
waste (103 lb/hr)
sludge or
C/hr 10 Btu/hr dry solution
Lime-Soda Softening - No. 1 1,820 0.84 4.2
Lime-Soda Softening - No. 3 900 0.02 0.11
Ion Exchange - Scheme _2 	 8,670 80
Phenol Extraction NOT USED
funnonia Separation 7,870 109
Biotreatment 2,660 4.2 0.1 0.5
Filter H2
Acid addition to cooling water NOT USED
Other chemicals to cooling water 1,040
Total 23,100 113
Flov Diagram Figure A11-1A
Flow rates by stream number (10 Ib/hr) :
1. 2031 10. 532 21. 697 31. 42
3. 1334 11. 532 22. 0 32. 676
4. 1334 14. 372 24. 0 33. 180
5. 1334 15. 63 25. 697 34. 180
6. 1254 16. 169 26. 0 36. 0
7. 1434 17. 132 27. 21 37. 42
8. 537 18. 37 28. 21 39. 105
9. 537 20. 943 29. 14 40. 2031 RAW WATER
Treatment blocks:
waste (10 lb/hr)
g sludge or
C/hr 10 Btu/hr dry solution
Lime-Soda Softening - No. 1 NOT USED
Lime-Soda Softening - No. 3 895 0.06 0.3
Ion Exchange - Scheme 1 14,000 80
Phenol Extraction NOT USED
Ammonia Separation 7,870 109
Biotreatment 2,660 4.2 0.1 0.5
Filter 128
Acid addition to cooling water 197
Other chemicals to cooling water 58
Total 25,8OO 113

-------
                          TABLE All-4.  WATER TREATMENT PLANTS
                                                                                                                       TABLE All-4.   WATER TREATMENT PLANTS
            Hygas
                                        Site
                                                 Armstrong,  Pa.
                                                                                              Process
                                                                                                                                     Site    Fayette,  W.  Va.
Plow Diagrajn Figure A11-1A
Flow rates by






U)
IX)
CTi
1.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
2046
1334
1334
1334
1254
1434
537
537
streajn number (10 Ib/hr) :
10.
11.
14.
15.
16.
17.
18.
20.
532
532
350
59
191
94
97 
937
21.
22.
24.
25.
26.
27.
28.
29.
712
0
0
712
0
21
21
14
31.
32.
33.
34.
36.
37.
39.
40.
45
691
180
180
0
45
104
2046 RAW WATER
Flow Diagram Figure A11-1A
Flow rates by
1.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
e.
9.
2032
1334
1334
1334
1254
1434
537
537
stream number (10 Ib/hr) :
10.
11.
14.
15.
16.
17.
18.
20.
532
532
402
47
139
47
92
971
21.
22.
24.
25.
26.
27.
28.
29.
698
0
0
698
0
21
21
14
31.
32.
33.
34.
36.
37.
39.
40.
61
677
180
1BO
0
61
108
2032 RAW WATEI
Treatment blocks;
Lime-Soda Softening - No. 1

Lime-Soda Softening - No. 3

Ion Exchange - Scheme j-  ^

Phenol Extraction

Ainnonia Separation

Biotreatment

Filter

Acid addition "to cooling water

Other chemicals to cooling water    1,900

     Total
                                                             waste (10  Ib/hr)

                                                                    sludge or
                                               10  Btu/hr    dry     solution
NOT USED
1,020 0.1
14,000
NOT USED
7,870 109
2,660 4.2 0.1
120
35
1,900
0.5
80
0.5
                                   27,700
                                                113
                                                                                             Treatjnent blocks;
                                                                                             Lime-Soda Softening  - No.  1

                                                                                             Lime-Soda Softening  - No.  3

                                                                                             Ion Exchange - Scheme _1	

                                                                                             Phenol Extraction

                                                                                             Amnonia Separation

                                                                                             Biotreatment

                                                                                             Filter

                                                                                             Acid addition to cooling water

                                                                                             Other chemicals to cooling water    1,760

                                                                                                  Total                         27,600
C/hr
950
14,000

7,870
2,660
138
177
1,760
waste (10 Ib/hr)
sludge or
10 Btu/hr dry solution
NOT USED
0.1 0.3
80
NOT USED
109
4.2 0.1 0.5




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                         TABLE All-4.  WATER TREATMENT PLANTS
                                                                                                                       TABLE All-4.  WATER TREATMENT PLANTS
Process    Hygas
                                        Site    Monongalia, W. Va.
                                                                                                                                     Sit*
                                                                                                                                                Mingo, W. Va.
Flow Diagrajn Figure A11-1A
Flow rates by stream number (10 Ib/hr) i
1. 1577 10. 532 21. 243 31. 21
3. 1334 H. 532 22. 0 32. 222
4. 1334 14. 356 24. 0 33. 180
5. 1334 15. 37 25. 243 34. 180
6. I254 16. 165 26. 0 36. 0
7. 1434 17. 91 27. 21 37. 21
k> 8 537 18. 94 28. 21 39 58
^J
9 537 20. 52 29. I4 40. 1577 RM< HATER
Treatment blocks:
waste (10 Ib/hr)
sludge or
C/hr 10 Btu/hr dry solution
Lime-Soda Softening - No. 1 NOT USED
Lime-Soda Softening - No. 3 900 0.02 0.11
Ion Exchange - Scheme  14,000 80
Phenol Extraction NOT USED
Ammonia Separation 7,870 109
Biotreatment 2,660 4.2 0.1 0.5
Filter 122
Acid addition to cooling water 11
Other chemicals to cooling vater 950
Total 26,600 113
Flow Diagrajn Figure A11-1A
Flow rates by stream number (10 Ib/hr) :
/
1. 1507 10. 532 21. 173 31. 30
3. 1334 11. 532 22. 0 32. 152
4. 1334 14. 433 24. 0 33. 180
5. 1334 15. 28 25. 173 34. 180
6. 1254 16. 113 26. 0 36 . 0
7. 1434 1.7. 79 27. 21 37. 30
8. 537 18. 34 28. 21 39. 58
9. 537 20. 527 29. I4 40. I507 RA" WATER
Treatment blocks:
waste (103 Ib/hr)
sludge or
*/hr 10 Btu/hr dry solution
Lime-Soda Softening - No. 1 NOT USED
Lime-Soda Softening - No. 3 900 0.03 0.17
Ion Exchange - Scheme 1 14,000 80
Phenol Extraction NOT USED
Ammonia Separation 7,870 109
Biotreatment 2,660 4.2 0.1 0.5
Filter 148
Acid addition to cooling water 28
Other chemicals to cooling water 1,060
Total 26,700 113

-------
                                 TABLE All-4.   WATER TREATMENT  PLANTS
                                                                                                                               TABLE All-4.  WATER TREATMENT PLANTS
00
        Process    Hygaa	                  Site
        Flow Diagram Figure All-lA
        Flow rates by stream number {10  ll>/hr)
                                                          Gillette, Wyo.
                                                                                                                 Hyga
                                                                                                                                             Site      Antelope  Creek,  Wyo.
                                                                                                      Flow Diagram Figure All-lA
1.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
a.
9.
1261
1261
1255
867
815
1015
296
296
10.
11.
14.
15.
16.
17.
18.
20.
293
293
154
69
153
85
68
452
21.
22.
24.
25.
26.
27.
28.
29.
0
6
388
388
0
21
21
14
31.
32.
33.
34.
36.
37.
39.
40.
0
367
200
200
0
0
69
1267 RAW WATER
1.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
1353
1353
1218
867
815
1015
296
296
10.
11.
14.
15.
16.
17.
18.
20.
293
293
172
35
135
76
59
452
21.
22.
24.
25.
26.
27.
28.
29.
0
6
351
351
0
21
21
14
31.
32.
33.
34.
36.
37.
39.
40.
15
330
200
200
0
15
50
135!
       Treatment bloch-9:




                                             /hr

       Lime-Soda Softening - No. 1         2,060

       Lima-Soda Softening - No. 3

       Ion Exchange - Schema  2

       Phenol Extraction

       Anmonia Separation

       Biotreatrment

       Filter

       Acid addition to cooling water

       Othr chemicals to cooling water    1,130

            Total
 5,640

 7,220

 6,960

 3,630

    53
                          waste (10  Ib/hr)
                                 sludge or
            10   Btu/hr    dry     solution
35.5

60.4

 5.8
                         1.2
         0.2
                                     6.0
                                    52
                     1.0
26,700
               102
                                                                                                      Treatment blocks:
Lime-Soda Softening - No. 1

Lime-Soda Softening - No. 3
Electrodialyais 
Ion Exchange - Scheme 	3_

Phenol Extraction

Ammonia Separation

Biotreatment

Filter

Acid addition to cooling water

Other chemical* to cooling water

     Total
/hr
887
11 , 300
9,970
7,220
6,960
3,630
58
156
815
waste (10 Ib/hr)
aludge or
10 Btu/hr dry solution
NOT USED
0.02 0.08
292 135
52
35.5
60.4
5.8 0.2 1.0



                                                                                                                                         41.000
                                                                                                                                                      394
                                                                                                        Situated roughly in placa of softener No.  1.

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TABLE All-4.  WATER TREATMENT PLANTS
                                                                                              TABLE All-4.   WATER TREATMENT PLANTS
              Site     Belle  Ayr,  Wyo.
                                                                                Hygas
                                                                                                             Site
                                                                                                                     Hanna CCal Fid., Wyo.
Flow Diagram Figure A11-1A
Flow rates by stream number (10 Ib/hr) ;
1. 1374 10. 293 21. o 31- 0
3. 1374 11. 293 22. 6 32. 479
4 1367 14. 44 24. 500 33. 200
5. 867 15. 71 25. 500 34. 200
6 815 16. 263 26. 0 36. 0
7 1015 17. 206 27. 21 37. 0
8. 296 18. 57 28. 21 39. 71
9 296 20. 452 29. 14 40. 1380 RAW WATER
Treatment blocks:
waste (10 Ib/hr)
sludge or
C/Hr 10 Btu/hr dry solution
LiM-Soda Softening - No. 1 2,170 1.3 6.5
Lime-Soda Softening - No. 3 NOT USED
Ion Exchange - Scheme 	 2_ 5,640 52
Phenol Extraction 7,220 35.5
Ammonia Separation 6,960 60.4
Biotreatment 3,630 5.8 0.2 1.0
Filter 15
Acid addition to cooling water NOT USED
Other chemicals to cooling water B73
Total 26,500 102
Flow Diagram Figure A11-1A
Flow rates by stream number (10 Ib/hr} E
1. 1742 10. 293 21. 0 31. 53
3. 1742 11. 293 22. 8 32. 847
4. 1735 14. 203 24. 868 33. 200
5. 867 15. 52 25. 868 34. 200
6. 815 16. 104 26. 0 36. 0
7. 1015 17. 55 27. 21 37. 53
8. 296 IB. 49 28. 21 39. 105
9. 296 20. 945 29. 14 40. 1750 RAW WATER
Treatment blocks:
waste (103 Ib/hr)
6 sludge or
C/hr 10 Btu/hr dry solution
Lijne-Soda Softening - No. 1 2,220 13 65
Lime-Soda Softening - No. 3 392 n.3 0 15
Ion Exchange - Scheme J 	 5,640 52
Phenol Extraction 7,220 35.5
Ajrenonia Separation 6,960 60.4
Biotreatment 3,630 5.8 0.2 1.0
Filter 70
Acid addition to cooling water NOT USED
Other chemicals to cooling water 1,500
Total 28,100 102

-------
                          TABLE All-4.  WATER TREATMENT PLANTS
                                                                                                                        TABLE All-4.   HATER TREATMENT PLANTS
            Hyqas
Flow Diagrajn Figure A11-1A
Flow rates by stream number (]
1.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
O
O 9.
1893
1893
1704
867
BIS
1015
296
296
10.
11.
14.
15.
16.
17.
18.
20.
293
293
226
27
81
14
67
938
Treatment blocks:
                                        Site
                                                Decker. Mont.
 Lime-Soda  Softening  -  No.  1

 Lime-Soda  Softening  -  No.  3
 Electrodialysis*
 Ion Exchange - Scheme  _ 3_

 Phenol Extraction
Biotreatment

Filter

Acid addition to cooling water

Other chemicals to cooling water

     Total
.b/hr) :
21. 0 31. 77
22. 7 32. 816
24. B37 33. 200
25. 837 34. 200
26. 0 36. 0
27. 21 37. 77
28. 21 39. 104
29. 14 40. J900 RAW WATER
waste (103 Ib/hr)
sludge or
C/hr 10 Btu/hr dry solution
NOT USED
696 0.05 0.25
9,720 25.5 189
9,970 52
7,220 35.5
6,960 60.4
3,630 5.8 0.2 1.0
77
1,200
1,660
41.300 127
Flow Diagram Figure A11-1A
Flow rates by streaa number (10 Ib/hr) ,
1. 1258 10. 293 21. 0 31. 0
3. 1258 11. 293 22. 5 32. 364
4. 1252 14. 147 24. 385 33. 200
5. 867 15. 62 25. 385 34. 200
6. 815 16. 160 26. 0 36. 0
7. 1015 17. 65 27. 21 37. 0
8. 296 18. 95 28. 21 39. 62
9. 296 20. 449 29. 14 40. 1263 RAH WATER
Treatment blocks:
waste (103 Ib/hr)
. sludge or

-------
                                 TABLE All-4.   WATER TREATMENT PLANTS
                                                                                                                                TABLE All-4.   WATER TREATMENT PLANTS
                   Hygas
                                                          Colstrip,  Hont.
                                                                                                                  Hygas
                                                                                                                                               Site
                                                                                                                                                        El  Paso,  N.M.
o
Flow Diagram Figure All-LA
Flow rates by stream number (10 Lb/hr):
1. 1301 10. 293 21. 434 31. 3
3. 867 11. 293 22. 5 32. 413
4. 867 14. 150 24. 0 33. 200
5. 867 15. 53 25. 434 34. 200
6. 815 16. 157 26. 0 36. 0
7. 1015 17. 84 27. 21 37. 3
8. 296 18. 73 28. 21 39. 56
g 296 20. 507 29. 14 40. 1306 RAW WATER
Treatment blocks:
waste (103 Lb/hr)
sludge or
C/hr 10 Btu/hr dry solution
Lime-Soda Softening - No. 1 NOT USED
Lime-Soda Softening - No. 3 885 0.003 0.02
Ion Exchange - Scheme _1 	 9,100 52
Phenol Extraction 7,220 35.5
Ajunonia Separation 6,960 60.4
Biotreatment 3,630 5.8 0.2 1.0
Filter 51
Acid addition to cooling water 192
Other chemicals to cooling water 913
Total 29' 102
Flow Diagram Figure All-LA
Flow rates by stream number (10 Lb/hr) :
1. 1428 10. 293 21. 561 31. 0
3. 867 11. 293 22. 8 32. 491
4. 867 14. 122 24. 0 33. 200
5. 867 15. 153 25. 561 34. 200
6. 815 16. 184 26. 49 36. 0
7. 1015 17. 100 27. 21 37. 0
8. 296 18. 84 28. 21 39. 153
9. 296 20. 460 29. 14 40. 1436 RAW WATER
Treatment blocks:
waste (103 Lb/hr)
, sludge or
C/hr 10 Btu/hr dry solution
Lime-Soda Softening - No. 1 NOT USED
Lime-Soda Softening - No. 3 MOT USED
Ion Exchange - ScheJne _1 	 9,100 52
Phenol Extraction 7,220 35.5
Anmonia Separation 6,960 60.4
Biotreatment 3,630 5.8 0.2 1.0
Filter 58
Acid addition to cooling water 229
Other chemicals to cooling water 2,190
Total 29,400 102

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                                                                       TABLE All-4.   HATER TREATMENT PLANTS
                                              Process    Hyqas
                                                                                      Site     Gallup,  N.H.(ground water)
                                              Flow Diagram Figure A11-1A
                                              Flow rates by stream number  (10  Ib/hr)t
O
to
1.  1404
3.  1004
4.  867
5.  867
6.  815
7.  1015
8.  296
9.  296
10.  293
11.  293
14.  168
15.  31
16.  138
17.  74
18.  64
20.  460
21. 400
22.8
24.0
25.400
26. 37
27. 21
28. 21
29. 14
31.  20
32.  342
33.  200
34.  200
36.  0
37.  20
39.  51
40.  1412
                                                                                                                          RAH HATER
                                              Treatment blocks:
                                             Lime-Soda  Softening -  No.  1
                                             Lime-Soda  Softening -  No.  3
                                             Electrodialysis*
                                             Ion Exchange -  Scheme  j	
                                             Phenol Extraction
                                             Airoonia Separation
                                             Biotreatoent
                                             Filter
                                             Acid addition to cooling water
                                             Other chemical! to  cooling water
                                                                                   C/hr     10  Btu/hr
                                                                                         NOT USED
                                      900
                                    6,530
                                    9,970
                                    7,220
                                    6,960
                                    3,630
                                       58
                                      410
                                      730
                             15.4

                             35.5
                             60.4
                              5.8
                                                   Total                          36,400        117
                                                 *  located roughly in place  of of tning Ho.  1.
                                                             waste (10  Ib/hr)

                                                             drj-
                                                            0.02
                                       0.2
                                                                                                                  sludge or
                                                                                                                   solution
                            0.11
                          137
                           52
                                                  1.0

-------
BIGAS
    403

-------
  Process     Blg^s
Flow Diagram Figure A11-1C
Flow rates by stream nuinber (1
1. 2151
3. 187
4. 187
5. 187
6 . 1 ^6
s
^ 8. 890
10. 880
11. 0
Treatment blocks:
12.
14.
15.
16.
17.
18.
20.
21.
22.

14
0
49
14
146
106
1338
1646
0

TABLE All-4.  WATER TREATMENT  PLANTS







              Site    Bureau,  111.  (Illinois  River  water)
                                                                                                                    TABLE All-4.  HATER TREATMENT PLANTS
Lime-Soda  Softening  -  No.  1





Lime-Soda  Softening  -  No.  3





Ion Exchange - Scheme  . 2




Ammonia Separation




Acid addition to cooling watar





Other chemicals to cooling  water




     Total
Flow Diagram Figure All- 1C
'/hr) i
24. 0 34. 234
25. 1646 35. 138
27. 21 36. 1198
28. 21 37. 238
29. 14 38. 100
30. 1625 39. 149
31. 100 40. 2151 RAH WATER
32. 1487
33. 318

waste (103 Ib/hr)
sludge or
C/hr 10 Btu/hr dry solution
NOT USED
899 0.06 0.3
1,220 11
13,040 181
1,830
939
Flow rates by stream
1. 2152
3. 1834
4. 1833
5. 187
6. 176
'7. 410
8. 890
10. 880
11. 0
Treatment blocks:
Lime-Soda Softening -
Lime-Soda Softening -
Ion Exchange - Scheme
Ammonia Separation
number (10
12. 14
14. 0
15. 49
16. 14
17. 146
18. 106
20. 1338
21. 0
22. 0

No. 1
No. 3
2

Acid addition to cooling water
Other chemical* to cooling water
Ib/hr) :
24. 1646 34. 234
25. 1646 35. 138
27. 21 36. 1198
28. 21 37. 238
29. 14 38. 100
30. 1625 39. 149
31. 100 40. 2152 RAW WATER
32. 1487
33. 318

waste (103 Ib/hr)
sludge or
C/hr 10 Btu/hr dry solution
' 1,930 0.9 4.5
900 0.06 0.3
1,220 11
13,040 181
NOT USED
1.830
                                     17,900
                                                  181
                                                                                                  Total
                                                                                                                                 18,900

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                       TABLE All-4.   HATER TREATMENT PLANTS
                                                                                                                     TABLE All-4.  WATER TREATMENT PLANTS
           Bigas
                                     Site
                                              Shelby,  111.
                                                                                                          Bigas
                                                                                                                                   Site   Vigo,  Ind.
Flow Diagram Figure  A11-1C
Flow rates by stream  number  (10   Ib/hr? 3
1. 1355
3. 187
4. 187
S. 187
6. 176
   410
   980
12.
14.
15.
16.
17.
IB.
20.
21.
22.
14
0
100
14
155
Ill
503
866
0
 7.
 8.
10.
11.
Treatment blocXst
Lime-Soda Softening  -  No.  1
Lime-SocLa Softening  -  No.  3
Jon Exchange - Schejne   1
Ammonia Separation
Acid addition to  cooling water
Other chemicals to cooling water
     Total
24.  0
25.  866
27.  21
28.  21
29.  14
30.  845
31.  0
32.  603
33.  302
34. 234
35. 242
36. 1273
37. 242
38. 0
39. 100
40. 1355  RAW WATER
           C/hr      10   Etu/hr
                 NOT USED
                 NOT USED
          1,960
         14,400        200
            163
          1,230        	
         17,800        200
                                        waste (10  Ib/hr)

                                        dry.
                                                                      sludge or
                                                                      solution
Flov Diagram Figure A11-1C
Flow rates by streajn number (10
1. 2092 12. 14
3. 1778 14. 0
4. 1777 15. 48
5. 187 16. 14
6. 176 17. 97
'7. 410 18. 100
8. 841 20. 1338
10. 833 21. 0
11. 0 22. 0
Treatment blocks t
Lime- Soda Softening - No. 1
Lime-Soda Softening - No. 3
Ion Exchange - Scheme 2
Ammonia Separation
Acid addition to cooling water
Other chemicals to cooling water
Total

Ib/hr) i
24. 1590 34. 234
25. 1590 35. 82
27. 21 36. 1147
28. 21 37. 183
29. 14 38. 101
30. 1569 39. 149
31. 101 40. 2092 RAH WATER
32. 1487
33. 314
waste (103 Ib/hr)
, sludge or
/hr 10 Btu/hr dry solution
'1,790 0.7 3.7
980 0.06 0.3
1,220 11
12,300 172
NOT USED
1,830
18,100 172

-------
                       TABLE All-4.   HATER TREATMENT PLANTS
                                                                                                                  TABLE All-4.  WATER TREATMENT PLANTS
            Biqas
                                      Site   Kemmerer/ Hyp.
o
 Plow Diagram Figure A11-1C
 Flov rates by stream number  {10"* Ib/hr)
1.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
10.
11.
1308
187
187
187
176
410
863
855
0
12.
14.
15.
16.
17.
18.
20.
21.
22.
14
0
51
14
111
42
597
808
4
24.
25.
27.
28.
29.
30.
31.
32.
33.
0
808
21
21
14
787
0
648
313
Treatment blocks:
24. 0
25. 808
27. 21
28. 21
29. 14
30. 787
31. 0
32. 648
33. 313

g
ir 10 Btu/hr
34. 234
35. 139
36. 1168
37. 139
38. 0
39. 51
40. 1308 HAH HATER


waste (103 Ib/hr)
sludge or
dry solution
                                                                                            Process
                                                                                                       Bigas
                                                                                                                                Site    Slope,  N.D.,
Lime-Soda Softening - No.  1
Lima-Soda Softening - No.  3
Ion Exchange - Schema   1
Ammonia Separation
Acid addition to cooling water
Other chemicals to cooling water
     Total
                                                     NOT USED
                                                     NOT USED
                                              1,960
                                             12,600        176
                                                450
                                                630        	
                                             15,600        176
11
                                                                                            Flow Diagram Figure  All-1C
                                                                                            Flow  rates by stream number (10  Ib/hr) ;
1.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
a.
10.
11.
1405
486
486
486
457
691
1478
1464
40
12.
14.
15.
16.
17.
18.
20.
21.
22.
54
0
85
54
129
146
592
919
5
24.
25.
27.
28.
29.
30.
31.
32.
33.
0
919
21
21
14
898
0
677
0
                                                                                           Treatment blocks:
Lime-Soda Softening - No.  1
Lime-Soda Softening - No.  3
Ion Exchange - Scheme 	1_
Ammonia Separation
Acid addition to cooling water
Other chemicals to cooling water
     Total
                                                                                                                                                           34.  234
                                                                                                                                                           35.  221
                                                                                                                                                           36.  1424
                                                                                                                                                           37.  221
                                                                                                                                                           38.  0
                                                                                                                                                           39.  85
                                                                                                                                                           40.  1410   RAW WATER
  C/hr     10" Btu/hr
        NOT USED
        NOT USED
 5,100
21,650        302
   241
 1,050        	
28,000        302
                                                                                                                                                        waste  (10J Ib/hr)
                                                                                                                                                                sludge or
                                                                                                                                                        dry     solution
                                                                                        29

-------
                      TABLE All-4.  WATER TREATMENT PLANTS
                                                                                                                   TABLE All-4.  WATER TREATMENT'PLANTS
           Bigas
                                     Site
                                            Center. N.D.
                                                                                                        Bigas
                                                                                                                                 Sits
                                                                                                                                          Scranton, N.D.
Flow Diagram Figure A11-1C
                                                                                             Plow Diagram Figure A11-1C
Flov rates by stream number  (_10   Ib/hr);
                                                                                             Flow rates by stream number (10  ib/hr) i
1. 1397
3. 466
4. 486
5. 486
6. 457
7. 691
8. 1368
10. 1355
11. 0
Treatment blocks:
12. 14
14. 0
15. 90
16. 14
17. 83
18. 119
20. 590
21. 889
22. 4
Lime-Soda Softening - No. 1
Liire-Soda Softening - No. 3
Ion Exchange - Scheme 1
Ammonia Separation
Acid addition to cooling water
Other chemicals to cooling water
Total
24. 0 34. 234
25. 889 35. 188
27. 21 36. 1377
28. 21 37. 186
29. 14 38. 0
30. 868 39. 90
31. 0 40. 1401 RAW WATER
32. 680
33. 22
waste (103 Ib/hr)
sludge or
C/hr 10 Btu/hr dry solution
NOT USED
NOT USED
5,100 29
20,040 279
1,200
1,110
27,500 279
1. 1415
3. 1386
4. 1385
3. 486
6. 457
7. 691
8. 1338
10. I"*
11. 0
Treatment blocks i
12. 14
14. 0
15. 83
16. 14
17. 91
18. 126
20. 592
21. 0
22. 4
Lime-Soda Softening - No. 1
Lime-Soda Softening - No. 3
Ion Exchange - Scheme 2
Ammonia Separation
Acid addition to cooling water
Other chemicals to cooling water
Total
24. 899 34. 234
25. 899 35. 203
27. 21 36. 1355
28. 21 37. 203
29. 14 38. 0
30. 878 39. 83
31. 0 40. 1419 RAW WATER
32. 675
33. 29
waste (103 Ib/hr)
sludge or
i/hr 10 Btu/hr dry solution
1,420 0.3 1.4
NOT USED
3,160 29
19,600 273
NOT USED
1,020
25,200 273

-------
                                                                                 TABLE All-4.  HATER TREATMENT PLANTS
                                                           Process
                                                                      Biqaa
                                                                                               Site
                                                                                                       Chupp Mine,  Mont.
                                                           Flow Diagram Figure A11-1C
                                                           Flov rates by stream number (10  Ib/hr) :
O
00
1.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
a.
10.
11.
2215
486
486
486
457
691
1307
1295
0
12.
14.
15.
16.
17.
IB.
20.
21.
22.
14
0
78
14
47
104
1433
1669
9
24.
25.
27.
26.
29.
30.
31.
32.
33.
0
1669
21
21
14
1648
0
1511
60
34.
35.
36.
37.
3B.
39.
40.


234
137
1355
137
0
78
2224 RAW WATER


Treatment blocks:




C/hr
106 Btu/hr
waste
dry
(103 Ib/hr)
sludge or
solution
                                                          Line-Soda Softening - No. 1


                                                          Lime-Soda Softening - No. 3


                                                          Ion Exchange - Scheme   1


                                                          Ammonia Separation


                                                          Acid addition to cooling water


                                                          Other chemicals to cooling water


                                                               Total
        NOT USED


        NOT USED


 5,100


19,200        267


   725


   960        	


24.0OO        267
29

-------
SYNTHOIL
      409

-------
                         TABLE All-4.  WATER TREATMENT PLANTS
                                                                                                                       TABLE All-4.  HATER TREATMENT PLANTS
Process     Synthoil
                                         Sita   Jefferson, Ala.
                                                                                               Process    Synthoil
                                                                                                                                       Site    Gibson. Ind.
Flow Diagram Figure All-ID
Flow rates by  stream number (10'' Ib/hr) :
Flow'Diagram Figure All-ID






Flow rates by stream number  (10   Ib/hr):
1. 2237 14. 0 23. 0 31. 60
3. 247 15. 121 24. 0 32. 1814
4. 247 16. Ill 25. 1990 33. 140
5. 247 18. Ill 26. 0 35. 15
7. 232 19. 75 27. 21 39. 181
8. 23 20. 1633 28. 21 40. 2237 RAH HATER
9. 23 21. 1990 29. 14
10. 22 22. 0 30. 1829
Treatment blocks:
waste (103 Ib/hr)
sludge or
C/hr 10 Btu/hr dry solution
Lime-Soda Softening - No. 1 NOT USED
Ion Exchange - Scheme 	 1_ 2,350 15
Phenol Extraction 526 2.7
Aimonia Separation (-581) 4.7
Biotreatment 760 1.4 0.04 0.18
Filter NOT USED
Acid addition to cooling water 289
Other chemicals to cooling water 2,230 	
Total 5,570 8.8
1. 2028 14. 0 23. 91 31. 124
3. 2028 15. 50 24. 1797 32. 1735
4. 2025 16. 116 25. 1797 33. 132
5. 229 18. 116 26. 0 35. 0
7. 215 19. 33 27. 21 39. 174
8. 71 20. 1562 28. 21 40. 2028 RAH HATER
9. 71 21. 0 29. 14
10. 69 22. 0 30. 1735
Treatment blocks i
waste (103 Ib/hr)
6 sludge or
C/hr 10 Btu/hr dry^ solution
Lime-Soda Softening - No. 1 1,700 0.6 3
Ion Exchange - Scheme 2 1,490 14
Phenol Extraction 1,620 8.5
Ammonia Separation (-1,850) 14.5
Biotreatment 2,380 4.5 0.11 0.57
Filter NOT USED
Acid addition to cooling water NOT USED
Other chemicals to cooling water 2, 140
Total 7,470 37.5

-------
                         TABLE All-4.   WATER TREATMENT PLANTS
                                                                                                                       TABLE All-4.  WATER TREATMENT PLANTS
           Synthoil
                                         Site  Harrick, Ind.
Flow'Diagram Figure All-ID
Flow rates by stream  number  (10   Ib/hr) :
Process    Synthoil	







Flow Diagram Figure All-ID







Flow rates by stream number  (10   Ib/hr) ;
                                                                                                                                       Site   Harlan, Ky.
1. 2126 14. 0 23. 48 31. 112
3. 224 15. 68 24. 0 32. 1800
4. 224 16. 46 25. 1902 33. 129
5. 224 18. 46 26. 0 35. 0
7. 211 19. 64 27. 21 39. 180
8. 99 20. 1620 28. 21 40. 2126 RAW WATER
9. 99 21. 1902 29. 14
10. 96 22. 0 30. 1800
Treatment blocks :
waste (103 Ib/hr)
sludge or
C/hr 10 Btu/hr dry solution
Lime-Soda Softening - No. 1 NOT USED
Ion Exchange - Scheme 1 2,130 13
Phenol Extraction 2,260 11.9
Amonia Separation (-2,630) 20.2
Biotreatment 3.310 6.3 0.02 0.08
Filter NOT USED
Acid addition to cooling water 489
rr*-Y,<*r r+iomica] to coolina water 2,210
Total 7-770 38-4
1. 1406 14. 0 23. 38 31. 69
3. 243 15. 26 24. 0 32. 948
4. 243 16. 102 25. 1163 33. 137
5. 243 18. 102 26. 0 35. 0
7. 228 19. 31 27. 21 39. 95
8. 59 20. 853 28. 21 40. 1406 RAW WATER
9. 59 21. 1163 29. 14
10. 57 22. 0 30. 1043
Treatment blocks:
vaste (103 Ib/hr)
aludge or
C/hr 10 Btu/hr dry solution
Lime-Soda Softening - No. 1 NOT USED
Ion Exchange - Schenw 1 2,310 15
Phenol Extraction 1,350 7.1
Ainnonia Separation (-1,530) 12.0
Biotreatment 2,040 3.9 0.01 0.05
Filter NOT USED
Acid addition to cooling water 250
Other chemicals to cooling water 1, 170
Total 5,590 23.0

-------
                         TABLE All-4.  HATER TREATMENT PLANTS
                                                                                                                      TABLE All-4.   WATER TREATMENT PLANTS
Process     Synthoil	







Flow'Diagram Figure All-ID







Flow rates  by  stream number (10  llj/hr) :
Site   Pike, Ky_.
                                                     Process
                                                                Synthoil
                                                                                              Site   Tuacaravaa, Ohio  (surface water)
                                                     Flow'Diagram Figure All-ID
1. 1359 14. 41 23. 71 31. 71
3. 244 15. 32 24. 0 32. 993
4. 244 16. 37 25. 1115 33. 172
5. 244 18. 37 26. 0 35. 0
7. 229 19. 0 27. 21 39. 103
8. 66 20. 931 28. 21 40. 1359 RAH HATER
9. 66 21. 1115 29. 14
10. 64 22. 0 30. 993
Treatment blocks:
waste (103 Ib/hr)
sludge or
/hr 10 Btu/hr dry solution
Lime-Soda Softening - No. 1 NOT USED
Ion Exchange - Scheme 	 1_ 2,320 15
Phenol Extraction 1,510 7.9
Anraonia Separation (-1,720) 13.5
Biotreatront 2,210 4.2 0.01 0.05
Filter 14
Acid addition to cooling water 265
Other chemicals to cooling water 1,270
Total 5,870 25.6
1. 1493 14. 0 23. 47 31. 73
3. 1493 15. 42 24. 1256 32. 1148
4. 1489 16. Ill 25. 1256 33. 134
5. 233 18. Ill 26. 0 35. 0
7. 219 19. 26 27. 21 39. 115
8. 73 20. 1033 28. 21 40. 1493 RAW HATER
9. 73 21. 0 29. 14
10. 71 22. 0 30. H48
Treatment blocks:
waste (103 Ib/hr)
g sludge or
C/hr 10 Btu/hr dry solution
Lime-Soda Softening - No. 1 1,800 0.8 4.3
Ion Exchange - Scheme 1 2,210 14
Phenol Extraction 1,670 8.8
Anraonia Separation (-1,920) 14.9
Biotreatnent 2.4SO 4.7 0.01 0.06
Filter NOT USED
Acid addition to cooling water NOT USED
Other chemical! to cooling water 1,420
Total 7,63O 28.4

-------
                        TABLE All-4.   WATER TREATMENT PLANTS
                                                                                                                      TABLE All-4.  WATER TREATMENT  PLANTS
Process    Synthoil
Flow'Diagram Figure All-ID
Flow rates by stream  number  (10   Ib/hr)
                                         Site   Tuscarawag, Ohio  (ground water)
                                                                                              Process    Synthoil
                                                                                                                                      Site    Jefferson,  Ohio
 1.  1493
 3.  1493
 4.  1489
 5.  233
 7.
     219
     73
                      14.  0
                      15.  42
                      16.  Ill
                      18.  HI
                      19.  26
                      20.  1033
                      21.  0
                      22.  0
 8.
 9.  73
10.  71
Treatment blocks:
Lime-Soda  Softening - Ho.  1
IOD  Exchange  -  Scheme  2
Phenol  Extraction
Ammonia Separation
Bio treatment
Filter
Acid addition to cooling water
Other chemicals to cooling water
      Total
/hr) :
23. 47 31. 73
24. 1256 32. 1148
25. 1256 33. 134
26. 0 35. 0
27. 21 39. 115
28. 21 40. 1493 RAW WATER
29. 14
30. 1148
waste (103 lb/hr)
sludge or
C/hr 10 Btu/hr dry solution
1,750 0.7 3.5
1,520 I4
1,670 8.8
(-1,910) 14.9
2,450 4.7 0.01 0.06
NOT USED
NOT USED
1,420
6,900 28.4
Flow' Diagram Figure All-ID
Flow rates by stream number (10 Ib/Oir) :
1. 2064 14. 11 23. 103 31. 103
3. 239 15. 75 24. 0 32. 1767
4. 239 16. 42 25. 1825 33. 140
5. 239 ig. 42 26. 0 35. 0
7. 225 19. 0 27. 21 39. 178
8. 40 20. 1600 28. 21 40. 2064 RAW WATER
9. 40 21. 1825 29. 14
10. 39 22. 0 30. 1767
Treatment blocks:
waste (103 li>/hr>
sludge or
C/hr 10 Btu/hr dry solution
Lime-Soda Softening - No. 1 NOT USED
Ion Exchange - Scheme 1 2,270 14
Phenol Extraction 914 4.8
Ammonia Separation (-1,020) 8.2
Biotreatment 1,350 2.6 0.01 0.03
Filter 4
Acid addition to cooling water 486
Other chejaicala to cooling water 2,190
Total 6,190 15.6

-------
                              TABU; Ail-4.  HATER TREATMENT PLANTS
                                                                                                                            TABLE All-4.  WATER TREATMENT PLANTS
      Process 	Svnthoil
                                              Site   Minqo.  W. Va.
                                                                                                               Synthoil
Site   Somerset, Fa.
      Flow'Diagram Figure A11-1D
                                                                                                    Flow-Diagram Figure All-lD
                                                                                                    Flow rates by stream number (10  Ib/hr) t
J^
x 1352 14. 15 23. 70 31. 70
3 243 15- 33 24. 0 32. 1019
4 243 16- 37 25. 1109 33. 139
5 243 18. 37 26. 0 35. 0
7 228 19. 0 27. 21 39. 103
fl 40 20. 931 28. 21 40. 1352 RAW WATER
9. 40- 21. 1109 29. 14
10. 38 22. 0 30. 1019
Treatment blocks:
waste (103 Ib/hr)
sludge or
^/hr 10 Btu/hr dry solution
Lime-Soda Softening - No. 1 NOT USED
Ion Exchange - Scheme 1 2,310 15
Phenol Extraction 914 4.8
Aaroonia Separation (-1,020) 8.2
Biotreatrent 1.310 2.5 0.01 0.03
Filter 5
Acid addition to cooling water 180
Other chemicals to cooling water 1.270 	
Total "-970 15'5
1. 1581 14. 0 23. 0 31. 11
3. 261 15. 98 24. 0 32. 1091
.4. 261 16. 107 25. 1320 33. 139
5. 261 18. 107 26. 0 35. 69
7. 245 19. 80 27. 21 39. 109
8. 13 20. 982 28. 21 40. 1581 RAW WATER
9. 13 21. 1320 29. 14
10. 13 22. 0 30. 1160
Treatment blocks:
waste (103 Ib/hr)
, sludge or
*/hr 10 Btu/hr dry solution
Lime-Soda Softening - No. 1 NOT USED
Ion Exchange - Scheme 1 2,480 16
Phenol Extraction 297 1.6
Amnonia Separation (-326) 2.7
Biotreatment 449 0.9 0.002 0.01
Filter NOT USED
Acid addition to cooling water 68
Other cheaicals to cooling water 1,340
Total 4,310 5.2

-------
                        TABLE All-4.   WATER TREATMENT PLANTS
                                                                                                                         TABLE All-4.  WATER TREATMENT PLANTS
           Synthoil
                                         Site   Lake de Smet, Wyo.
                                                                                                           Synthoil
                                                                                                                                         Site    Jim Bridger,  Wyo.
Flow-Diagram Figure All-ID
                                                                                                Flew'Diagram Figure All-ID
Flow rates by stream number  (10   Lb/hr) :
                                                                                                Flow rates by stream  number (10  Lb/hr) i
1. 1797 14. 130 23. 57 31. 57
3. 210 15. 112 24. 0 32. 1559
4. 210 16. 82 25. 1587 33. 64
5. 210 18. 82 26. 0 35. 0
7. 197 19. 0 27. 21 39. 169
8. 206 20. 1520 28. 21 40. 1805 RAW WATER
9. 206 21. 1587 29. 11
10. 200 22. 8 30. 1559
Treatment blocks:
waste (103 lb/hr)
sludge or
C/hr 10 Btu/hr dry solution
Lime-Soda Softening - No. 1 NOT USED
Jon Exchange - Scheme 1 2,000 I3
Phenol Extraction 4,710 24.7
Ammonia Separation (-7,090) 42.0
Biotreatrant 6,910 13.2 0.33 1.7
Filter 1
Acid addition to cooling water 1,180
Other chemicals to cooling water I/ 330
Total 9,080 79.9
1. 1200 14. 129 23. 11 31. u
3. 227 15. 91 24. 0 32. 889
4. 227 16. 78 25. 973 33. 74
5. 227 IB. 78 26. 0 35. 0
7. 213 19. 0 27. 21 39. 102
8. 201 20. 916 28. 21 40. 1205 RAW WATER
9. 201 21. 973 29. 14
10. 195 22. 5 30. 889
Treatment blocks:
waste (10 lb/hr)
sludge or
C/hr 10 Btu/hx dry solution
Lime-Soda Softening - No. 1 NOT USED
Ion Exchange - Scheme 1 2,160 14
Phenol Extraction 4,590 24.1
Aaraonia Separation (-6,900) 41.0
Biotreatment 6,730 12.8 0.32 1.6
Filter 40
Acid addition to cooling water 489
Other chemicals bo cooling water 1,250
Total 8,360 77.9

-------
                         TABLE AJ.1-4.  WATER TREATMENT PLANTS
Process     Synthoil	







Flow"Diagram Figure All-ID







FIov rates  by  stream number^ ^10 i_lb/hr)_i
                                         Site   Gallup,  N.M.
1.
3.
4.
5.
7.
B.
9.
10.
1305
1305
1175
210
197
115
115
112
14.
15.
16.
18.
19.
20.
21.
22.
42
43
83
83
0
863
0
8
23.
24.
25.
26.
27.
28.
29.
30.
53
965
965
48
21
21
14
878
31.
32.
33.
35.
39.
40.


53
878
119
0
96
1313 RAW HATER


Treatment blocks:
                                                              waste (10  Ib/hr)
Lime-Soda Softening - No. 1
Electrodialysis*
Ion Exchange - Scheme 3
Phenol Extraction
Anmonia Separation
fliotreatment
Filter
Acid addition to cooling water
Other chemicals to cooling water
Total
*/hr 10 Btu/hr dry
NOT USED
6,230 14.7
2,420
2,630 13.8
(-3,780) 23.5
3,870 7.4 0.19
10
1,050
1,180
13,600 59.4
Bludge or
solution

130
13


0.95



 Located roughly in place of  Softening No.  1

-------
                                  APPENDIX  12
                           CALCULATIONS ON OIL SHALE








     Oil shale conversion plant designs are  required  at  Parachute  Creek,



 Colorado for both directly and indirectly heated  retorts.   The  Paraho  Direct



 and Indirect processes and the TOSCO II process illustrate  the  basic types  of



 surface retorting procedures.  They were selected based  not only on the



 commercial potential of the process, but also on  the  availability  of published



 information.  The Paraho designs for an integrated  oil shale plant are given



 in Ref. 1 while the TOSCO II design is given in Refs. 2  and 3.  These  designs



 have been summarized in Ref. 4.  The calculations presented in  this section



 are for an integrated plant designed to produce 50,000 barrels/day of  synthetic



 crude plus any by-products not utilized as plant  fuel.   The total  heating



 value of the synthetic crude is 2.9 X 10   Btu/day.   If  the by-products  are



 taken together with the synthetic crude, the output is directly comparable  to



 the output of 3.1 X 10   Btu/day for the standard size coal liquefaction



 plants examined in Appendix 2.  Table 12A-1  gives the net input and output



 quantities for a 50,000 barrels/day plant based on  the designs  given in  Refs.



 1 and 3.  The properties of the raw shale and the products  are  given in  Table



 12A-2 ' .   Part of the difference in the mining rates between the  Paraho  and



 TOSCO II processes is a consequence of the difference in the grade of  shale



 assumed to be mined.  The Paraho designs use 30 gal/ton  shale while the  TOSCO



 II design uses 35 gal/ton shale.  In addition, since  the Paraho retort cannot



 accept fines, about 5 percent more shale must be  mined than can be used  .



     A flow diagram for the surface processing of oil shale is  shown in  Figure



 12A-1.   All surface processing operations involve mining, crushing and then



 retorting to produce the shale oil.  The product  of the  retorting  is generally



 too viscous to be piped and is put through an upgrading  process to remove



 nitrogen and sulfur.  The spent shale from the retorting must be disposed.



 Figures 12A-2,  12A-3 and 12A-4 show the three different  retorts considered  in



 this section.  Figure 12A-5 is a diagram of  the upgrading process  slightly



modified from the commercial plant design suggested for  a commercial plant



employing  the TOSCO II retort .
                                        417

-------
         TABLE A12-1.  NET  INPUT AND OUTPUT QUANTITIES FOR AN INTEGRATED
         OIL  SHALE  PLANT PRODUCING 50,000 BARRELS/DAY OF SYNTHETIC CRUDE
 Raw  shale  grade  (gal/ton)
 Mined  shale  (tons/day)
 Sized  shale  (tons/day)
 Purchased  power  (megawatts)
 Liquified petroleum gas  (barrels/day)
 Coke (tons/day)
 Ammonia (tons/day)
 Sulfur (tons/day)
                                        Paraho Direct   Paraho Indirect    TOSCO II
                                                                                  3
30
92,000
88,000
0
-
*
170
80
30
105,000
100,000
0
1970
430
190
90
35
73,000
73,000
95
3300
890
170
200
 ^Specified  as  the  sum of  heat output of coke and low-Btu gas equal to
  54  x  10  Btu/day.
              TABLE A12-2. RAW SHALE AND PRODUCT  OUTPUT PROPERTIES
Material
Raw shale
Raw shale
Crude shale oil
Synthetic crude
Liquified petroleum gas
Coke
Ammonia
Property
30 gal/ton
35 gal/ton
0.928 spec. grav.
0.825 spec. grav.
0.900 spec. grav.
Heating Value
  (Btu/lb)
    2,750
    3,208
   18,550
   20,150
   21,200
   13,850
    8,620
                                       418

-------
 MINING
     OIL SHALE
CRUSHING
           CRUSHED SHALE
RETORTING
                                         EXCESS GAS
             SHALE OIL
 UPGRADING
    AND
 CLEANING
                                          FUEL GAS

                                         FEEDSTOCK &
                                                                     LIQUID FUELS
     DUST AND FINES
    SPENT SHALE
 DUST  AND
  FINES
 DISPOSAL
     BYPRODUCTS
  SHALE
DISPOSAL
COKE,

  SULFUR
3'
 Figure  A12-1.   Flow  diagram  for surface processing of oil shale.  (Reprinted from

                Ref.  4 with the permission of the MIT Press, Copyright 1978 by the

                Massachusetts  Institute of Technology)

-------
t\J
O
                            FEED SHALE
             ROTATING SPREADER
               SHALE  VAPOR
             COLLECTING TUBES
                 DISTRIBUTORS
                DISTRIBUTORS
               MOVING GRATES
                                                                    OIL  MIST
                                                                    REMOVAL
T
 RECYCLE
GAS BLOWER
                                                                   SHALE OIL
                                                                & RETORT WATER
                                                                              DILUTION GAS
                                                                              DILUTION GAS    v
                                                                            COOL RECYCLE GAS
                             PRODUCT
                               GAS
                                                                                           AIR
                                                                                 AIR BLOWER
                                   RETORTED SHALE
                      Figure A12-2.  Paraho retorting process  -  direct mode.   (Reprinted  from Ref.  4

                                     with  the permission  of  the  MIT Press,  Copyright  1978 by  the
                                     Mss sa.cn vis etts  Institute of  Technolocrvl _

-------
                   FEED SHALE
   ROTATING SPREADER
       SHALE VAPOR
     COLLECTING  TUBES
         DISTRIBUTORS
         DISTRIBUTORS
        MOVING GRATES
                                                      OIL MIST
                                                       REMOVAL
                                                           RECYCLE
                                                          GAS BLOWER
                                                     SHALE OIL
                                                   & RETORT WATER
                                                   HOT GAS
                                                   HOT GAS
                                                               COOL RECYCLE GAS
                                                                           PRODUCT
                                                                             GAS
                          RETORTED SHALE
Figure A12-3.
Paraho retorting process - indirect mode.   (Reprinted  from  Ref.  4
with the permission of the MIT Press,  Copyright  1978 by
the Massachusetts Institute of Technology).

-------
           FLUE  GAS TO  ATMOSPHERE

                     i
MINUS 1/2"

RAW SHALE
BALLS-
_
PYROl YQic
DRUM
900F 7-

~l
lh
r
ACCUMU-
LATE R

"ROMMEL
k
                                                                                -RESID.
                                                                                 OIL
                                                              HOT
                                                             SPENT
                                                             SHALE
         SPENT SHALE

            COOLER
                                                                                           EC
                                                                                           o
                                                                                           <
                                                                                           CO
                                                                                       -200 MESH
                                                                                      SPENT SHALE
                                                                                      TO DISPOSAL
                                                                   WATER   STEAM
                     Figure A12-4.   TOSCO II retorting process.

-------
      PLANT FUEL
RETORT ,
VAPORS '
                                             FUEL GAS/LIQUEFIED GAS
NAPTHA/GAS OIL
                 SOUR WATER
                                                        SULFUR
                                            PLANT FUEL
                                                 SYNTHETIC CRUDE
                                                          COKEV
      PLANT FUEL
     Figure  A12-5.
       Shale  oil upgrading plant.    (Reprinted
       from Ref. 4  with  the permission  of the
       MIT Press, Copyright 1978  by the
       Massachusetts Institute  of Technology)
                               423

-------
     The water streams for retorting and upgrading are summarized  in  Table
12A-3 for a 50,000 barrel/day synthetic crude output.  The different  quantities
of water streams are related to whether pyrolysis is a result of direct  heating
                                                              4
in an inert atmosphere or indirect heating by combustion gases  .   The TOSCO  II
process is a net consumer of water compared to the Paraho processes because
the particular design uses wet venturi scrubbers for off-gas cleaning.   In the
upgrading section of the plant, the makeup water is the water consumed in the
hydrogen plant as well as the water consumed in gas treating, in coking  and  in
other process steps.  The foul water, from which ammonia and hydrogen sulfide
are stripped out, is made up principally of the retort water and the  foul
water from the gas treating unit and the coker.  Most of the designs  have
assumed that this foul water will be used for spent shale disposal.   The water
requirements for upgrading operations are fairly close for the three  designs
because of the similar nature of the pre-refinery upgrading processes.   The
Paraho Direct process is a net producer of water for both the retorting  and
upgrading sections, while the TOSCO II water consumes the most water.  However,
in any event, the process water requirements are very small compared  to  both
the cooling water and shale disposal water.
     The thermal balances for each of the three 50,000 barrel/day  oil shale
plants are shown in Table 12A-3 for the retort and in Table 12A-4  for the
                4
integrated plant .  The highest retort efficiency is attained by the  direct
combustion process where no intermediate medium is used to transfer heat for
the pyrolysis.  The slightly higher efficiency for the TOSCO II process  is the
result of solid-to-solid heat transfer as compared to the less efficient gas-
to-solid heat transfer used in the Paraho Indirect retort.  The thermal  efficiency
to produce crude shale oil is quite high.  However, the thermal efficiency for
the integrated plant is of primary interest since the important product  is
upgraded synthetic crude.   The thermal efficiency and evaporated water of the
Paraho Indirect process are comparable with coal liquefaction.  However, the
fraction of unrecovered heat dissipated by wet cooling in the indirect process
is somewhat lower because part of the unrecovered heat is lost up  a furnace
stack,  which is not lost that way in the direct process.
     The underground mining of shale is similar to that for coal.  Table 12A-6
summarizes the water consumed for dust control in the underground  mining of
     1,2
shale   .   Since the Paraho designs do not differentiate between the  requirements
for mining and crushing ,  we have assumed, based on the requirements  as  given

                                        424

-------
                         TABLE A12-3.
t\J

Ln
                                      RETORTING AND UPGRADING PROCESS  WATER STREAMS FOR OIL SHALE PLANTS


                                       PRODUCING 50,000 BARRELS/DAY  OF SYNTHETIC CRUDE

RETORTING
IN
Water addition to shale
Water into venturi scrubbers
OUT
Water out in effluent sludge
Water of retorting
Net water product
UPGRADING
IN
Retort water
Makeup water
OUT
Foul water for reuse
Boiler blowdown
Net water consumed
Net water consumed in
retorting and upgrading

Paraho Direct


28

28
._
272
272
244


272
378
650
439
83
522
128
(116)
103 Ib/hr*
Paraho Indirect


32

32
	
159
159
127


159
433
592
350
95
445
147
20
TOSCO II


50
172
222
53**
83
136
(139)


83
444
527
266
119
385
142
281
       *   5                 6
        10  Ib/hr = 1 gal/10  Btu of synthetic  crude  output.

      **This water is assumed lost from  the plant and is not counted as a product.

-------
                   TABLE A12-4. RETORT  THERMAL BALANCES FOR

                      50,000 BARREL/DAY OIL  SHALE PLANTS


                                                          9
                                                        10  Btu/hr


Heating Value                            Paraho Direct     Paraho Indirect    TOSCO II

Sized shale feed                              20.0              22.9

Retorting heat                                 -                  1.8

Power for retorting*                           0.4               0.5


Crude shale oil                              (14.5)             (16.6)

Untreated product gas                        (  3.1)             (  1.9)

Unrecovered heat                               2.8               6.7




Overall conversion efficiency                  86%                73%            76%
* 10,000 Btu/kwh (34% conversion efficiency).
                                       426

-------
  TABLE A12-5.  THERMAL BALANCES, UNRECOVERED  HEAT REMOVED BY WET COOLING AND
             WATER EVAPORATED IN 50,000 BARREL/DAY OIL SHALE PLANTS
     Heating Value
     Sized shale feed
     Purchased electricity*
     Power to mine and size*
     Synthetic crude
     Liquefied gas
     Coke
     Ammonia
     Unrecovered heat
               10  Btu/hr
Paraho Direct    Paraho Indirect
 20.0

  0.3
(12.1)

(  2.3)
(  0.1)
  5.8
                     22.9

                      0.3
                     (12.1)
                     ( 0.6)
                     ( 0.5)
                     ( 0.1)
                      9.9
                TOSCO  II
                   19.6
                    0.9
                    0.2
                  (12.1)
                  (  0.9)
                  (  1-0)
                  (  0.1)
                                                                           6.6
Overall conversion efficiency
Fraction of unrecovered heat
   to evaporate water
Water evaporated for cooling
   (103 Ib/hr)
    71%
    28%
  1,160
                      57%
                      19%
1,330
                                       68%
                                       18%
                                                                           850
*  10,000  Btu/kwh (34% conversions efficiency).
   Heating value  of coke and low-Btu gas.
                                      427

-------
                      2
in the TOSCO II design  that 70 percent of the dust control water  is  for the

mine and the remaining 30 percent is for crushing and other dust control

operations.   There is about a 30 percent difference in the unit water require-

ments between the two designs, although the absolute requirements  are about

the same.  Table 12A-6 also summarizes the water requirements  for  dust control

in preparing the shale for delivery to the conversion plant and for  storage

within the mine.

     Approximately 80-85 percent of high grade raw shale  remains as  spent shale

after retorting.  If the oil shale grade is specified, the fraction  of the raw

shale to be disposed may be estimated from the following equation.


          Yield  (gal/ton) = 1.97 x Organic Matter (wt %)  - 2.59


Table 12A-6 summarizes the quantities mined, retorted and disposed for a 50,000

barrels/day integrated mine-plant complex.  The processed  shale from  the TOSCO II
                                                 2
retorting process is a fine, black, sandy material , while the  processed shale for

the Paraho retorts are lumps  .

     Different procedures with considerably different water needs  have been

proposed for the disposal of the TOSCO and Paraho spent shales.  In  the TOSCO

II design shown  in Figure 12A-7, the spent shale leaving  the cooler  is moisturized

to approximately 15 percent moisture content in a rotating drum moisturizer.  Steam

and processed shale dust produced in the moisturizing procedure are  passed through

a venturi wet scrubber to remove the dust before discharge to  the  atmosphere.

The moisturized  spent shale is transported by a covered conveyor belt to the

disposal area, and then spread and compacted to a density of about 90 pounds of

dry spent shale per cubic foot.  During the transport, spreading and compaction

operations, about 13 percent of the added moisture evaporates.  This  leaves about

a 13 percent in-place moisture content, defined as an optimum  for  compaction and
                6
setting purposes .

     The importance of the moisturizing is that the addition of the  water to

the TOSCO II type processed shale, at a predetermined shale temperature, leads

to cementation of the shale after compaction.  This cemented shale appears to

permanently "freeze in" the moisture that was added , much of  which  was dirty

process water.   Moreover, the shale becomes effectively impermeable  and resists
                                        428

-------
  TABLE A12-6.  WATER CONSUMED IN DUST CONTROL FOR MINING  AND FUEL PREPARATION
         FOR UNDERGROUND SHALE MINES INTEGRATED WITH  SHALE  OIL PLANTS
                PRODUCING 50,000 BARRELS/DAY OF SYNTHETIC CRUDE
                                        Paraho Direct    Paraho Indirect   TOSCO II
     Shale mined (tons/day)
     Water consumed in mining
          103 lb/hr
          Ib water/10  Ib shale
     Water consumed in fuel
          preparation
          103 lb/hr
          Ib water/10  Ib shale
                        92,000J

                           176^
                            23
                            76
                            10
                    105,000*

                        202+
                         23
                                  87
                                  10
                                              73,300

                                                 195
                                                  32
                                        83
                                        14
* 5 percent more than used
  Based on 70 percent to mining, 30 percent to  crushing
     'TABLE A12-7  OIL SHALE QUANTITIES IN TONS/DAY FOR  INTEGRATED  PLANTS
                PRODUCING 50,000 BARRELS/DAY OF SYNTHETIC  CRUDE
    Process
TOSCO II
Paraho Direct
Paraho Indirect
  Grade
(gal/ton)
    35
    30
    30
 Mined
 73,000
 92,000
105,000
Fines

4,000
5,000
Spent Shale
  60,000
  71,000
  85,000
Disposal
 60,000
 75,000
 90,000
                                       429

-------
                                                                               600 GPM
                                                                             MOISTURIZER
                                                                               SCRUBBER
                                                                                STACK
                    HOT
                   SPENT
                   SHALE
                                    18 GPM
                                     WATER
                                           -200 MESH
                                             SPENT
                                             SHALE
U)
o
 SPENT
 SHALE
COOLER

MOISTURIZER

VENTURI WET
SCRUBBER
                                                                        SLUDGE
                                                                         6 GPM
                                                                                             200 GPM
                                                                                     EVAPORATED IN TRANSPORT
                                                                                                 i
I                                                                 MOISTURIZED SPENT SHALE
                                                                   TO DISPOSAL (200F)
                                           COVERED SPENT
                                          SHALE CONVEYOR
                                                              -K 1,500 GPM IN SHALE
                                                                60,000 TPD DRY SHALE
                 Figure A12-6.   TOSCO II  spent shale  disposal process with
                 quantities appropriate to an integrated plant producing
                 50,000 barrels/day of synthetic  crude.   (Reprinted from
                 Ref.  4 with the permission of the  MIT Press, Copyright
                 1978 by the Massachusetts Institute  of Technology).
                                                                  1,300 GPM  IN
                                                                    COMPACTED
                                                                   SHALE PILE

-------
percolation so that soluble salts cannot be  leached  out     Processed  shale
piles in a TOSCO II commercial embankment  are designed for  a  maximum  depth
of 700 to 800 ft and an average depth of about  250 ft.
     In the TOSCO II design of Ref.  2 the  spent shale is  to be  disposed of  in
a canyon.  The shale is compacted into a shallow embankment and benched to
decrease erosion.  A flood control reservoir is located above the  canyon to
divert water from the canyon.  Any runoff  from  the embankment is diverted back
to the plant for use as moisturizer  water.
     After 20 years of operation of  a 50,000 barrel/day plant the  compacted
                                                          2
spent shale would cover an area of approximately 800 acres  .  This is an average
of about 40 acres/yr and for a compaction  density of 90 Ibs/ft   would correspond
to a mean height of 250 ft.  Irrigated revegetation will be  undertaken as permanent
surfaces are created by the fill.  Prior to  revegetation, water spraying will be
used to control dust.
     In the Paraho design concept for spent  shale disposal  ,  an "earth"' dam
constructed of retorted shale would  be built at the  mouth of  a  valley selected
for a disposal area.  The valley itself would be lined with a heavy compacted,
impervious layer of retorted shale.  By adding  about 20 weight  percent water prior
to compaction, the shale cements up  and the  shale layer would thus be made
impermeable.  The valley would then  form a lined basin  ("bath tub")  into which
the retorted shale could be deposited.  It is assumed that  any  precipitation
leaching through the spent shale would be  held  within the basin.  The important
point here is that the spent shale would be  compacted but not be wetted down,
except for controlling dust and for  revegetation.  Tests  have shown a compaction
density of about 90 Ibs/ft  can be obtained, which is similar to that obtained
for spent shale that has been wetted down.   It  is estimated that less than  one
percent of the total volume of the shale disposed would have  to be wetted to
obtain a material of high strength and low permeability.  Such  a disposal scheme
would substantially reduce the water requirements for oil shale plants.  On the
other hand, the TOSCO procedure, although  more  water consuming, has had sufficient
long-term testing to be reasonably assured that serious environmental problems
will not be encountered.
                                       431

-------
     Estimates of the water needed to revegetate and to control dust prior to
revegetation must rely solely on results of tests on the specific processed
shale in the particular disposal area.   In any case, the amount of water
required will be relatively large compared, for example, to reclaiming strip
mined coal lands in an arid region.  At least 4 ft of water are required for
leaching the salt from the spoils.  Additionally, two to three times this
amount could be required over, say, a five year period to ensure a successful
cover.  To some extent, the amount of water needed for dust control will depend
on how rapidly a vegetative cover is established.
     Table 12A-8 summarizes the reported data on the water requirements for
spent shale disposal.  The Paraho requirements as reported did not distinguish
between that water needed for dust control and that for vegetation.  The estimate
for the revegetation water for the TOSCO II spent shale piles was derived from
averaging 78 gal/min for years 1 to 11 of the plant and 780 gal/min for years
12 to 20.  These figures have been scaled upward somewhat from the values quoted
for the plant size in Reference 2.
     There are within an integrated mine-plant synthetic fuel complex a number
of consumptive uses of water other than those already considered which should
be considered in any water balance.  These uses include sanitary, potable, service
and fire water needs in both the plant and the mine, water for dust control within
the boundaries of the conversion plant itself and evaporation from on-site
reservoirs and settling basins.  The calculation of these consumptive water uses
is given in Appendix 9 for coal conversion.  Table 12A-9 summarizes these
requirements for integrated oil shale plants.
     Table 12A-10 summarizes the net water consumed and wet-solid residuals
generated for all three processes for integrated oil shale plants producing
50,000 barrels/day of synthetic crude.   The absolute quantities have also been
normalized with respect to the heating value of the product fuel.
                                       432

-------
        TABLE A12-8. WATER REQUIREMENTS  FOR SPENT SHALE DISPOSAL FROM
        INTEGRATED PLANTS PRODUCING  50,000  BARRELS/DAY OF SYNTHETIC CRUDE
                                         Water  (10  Ib/hr)
                                   Dust  Control  &                 Ib water per
    Process        Moisturizing      Revegetation     Total    10  Ib spent shale
TOSCO II              1,003
Paraho Indirect         -
Paraho Direct           -
336*
1,160
443
1,389
1,160
443
278
155
71
*Dust control 139 X 10  Ib/hr.  Revegetation  of  197 X 10  Ib/hr is 20 year average
       TABLE A12-9. SERVICE AND OTHER WATER  REQUIREMENTS FOR INTEGRATED OIL
          SHALE PLANTS PRODUCING 50,000 BARRELS/DAY OF SYNTHETIC CRUDE

                                            (103  Ib/hr)
     Purpose                  Paraho Direct     Paraho Indirect    TOSCO II
Sanitary,  potable, service
  usage                           10                  13               10
Plant dust control                30                  32               60
Evaporation                       10                  18               17
     Total                        50                  63                87
                                        433

-------
       TABLE A12-10.  SUMMARY OF WATER  CONSUMED AND WET SOLIDS RESIDUALS
                GENERATED FOR  INTEGRATED  OIL SHALE PLANTS PRODUCING
                      50,000 BARRELS/DAY  OF  SYNTHETIC CRUDE
                                       Paraho Direct  Paraho Indirect  TOSCO II
Net water consumed in retorting
 and upgrading  (10  Ib/hr)                  (116)
Water evaporated for cooling
 (103 Ib/hr)                                1160
Water consumed  for dust control
 in mining  (10  Ib/hr)                       176
Water consumed  for dust control
 in fuel preparation  (10   Ib/hr)              76
Water consumed  for spent shale
 disposal  (103  Ib/hr)                        443
Water consumed  for other plant
 uses (103  Ib/hr)                             50
     Total water consumed  (10  Ib/hr)
     Total water consumed  (gal/10  Btu)

Spent Shale  (tons/day)
Water  (tons/day)
     Total wet-solids residuals
      (tons/day)                         75,000
     Total wet-solids residuals
      (lb/105 Btu)                            520
    20
  1330
   202
    87
  1160
    63
90,000
                                                             620
   281
   850
   195
    83
  1389
    87
1789
18
75,000
	 *
2862 2885
28 29
90,000 60,000
 * 7,800
60,000
                 470
*Negligible
                                       434

-------
REFERENCES - APPENDIX 12


1.    McKee,  J.M.  and Kunchal, S.K.,  "Energy and Water Requirements for an Oil
     Shale Plant Based on Paraho Processes," Quarterly Colorado School of Mines
     71_ (4), 49-64,  Oct 1976.

2.    Colony Development Operation,  "An Environmental Impact Analysis for a
     Shale Oil Complex at Parachute  Creek, Colorado, Part I - Plant Complex
     and Service Corridor,"  (also corrected water system flow diagram, personal
     communication),  Atlantic Richfield Co., Denver, Colorado, 1974.

3.    Whitcombe, J.A.  and Vawter, R.G., "The TOSCO-II Shale Process," Paper
     No. 40a, AIChE  79th National Meeting, March 1975.

4.    Probstein, R.F.  and Gold, H., Water in Synthetic Fuel Production - The
     Technology and  Alternatives. The MIT Press, Cambridge, Mass., 1978.

5.    Development Engineering, Inc.,  "Field Compaction Tests, Research and
     Development Program on the Disposal of Retorted Oil Shale Paraho Oil
     Shale Project,"  Report No. OFR78-76, Bureau of Mines, Dept.  of the
     Interior, Washington, D.C., Feb 1976.

6.    Metcalf & Eddy  Engineers, "Water Pollution Potential from Surface Disposal
     of Processed Oil Shale from the TOSCO II Process," Vol. I, Report to Colony
     Development Operation, Atlantic Richfield Co., Grand Valley,  Colorado,
     Oct 1975.
                                       435

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                                  APPENDIX 13








         WATER AVAILABILITY AND DEMAND IN EASTERN AND CENTRAL REGIONS








     Resource Analysis, Inc., under subcontract to Water Purification Assoc-



iates, prepared a general assessment of the water resources data in the major



coal and oil shale bearing regions of the United States.  Water resources data



was collected and used as a basis for determining the availability of surface



and groundwater resources at specific coal and oil shale conversion plant



sites in the Eastern and Central coal bearing regions and the Western coal



and oil shale bearing regions.   The draft report on the Eastern and Central



regions that was submitted as part of their study is included in its entirety



in this Appendix.
                                       436

-------
  Resource Analysis,  Inc.

    1050 MASSACHUSETTS AVENUE
    CAMBRIDGE, MASSACHUSETTS 02138
    617-354-1 922
             EAST/CENTRAL WATER SUPPLY DATA

                          FOR

         A STUDY OF WATER RELATED SITE AND PLANT

DESIGN CRITERIA TO DETERMINE FEASIBILITY OF SYNTHETIC  FUEL

      PLANT SITING AND LOCAL ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACTS
              Prepared under  subcontract  to
              WATER PURIFICATION ASSOCIATES
                    238 Main Street
             Cambridge, Massachusetts  02142
                   August,1978

                         437

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                        TABLE OF CONTENTS



Section                                                      Page

   1         INTRODUCTION	441

            1.1   Study Objectives 	  441
            1.2   Scope of Studies	442
            1.3   Study Region and Specific Sites  	  443

   2        SUMMARY OF RESULTS AND CONCLUSIONS  	  449

   3        SURFACE WATER RESOURCES 	  454

            3.1   General	454
            3.2   Water, Supply Availability 	  455
            3.3   Surface Water Doctrines  	  460
            3.4   Competing Water Use	464
            3.5   Surface Water Quality	467

   4        GROUNDWATER RESOURCES 	  472

            4.1   General	472
            4.2   Groundwater Availability 	  473
            4.3   Groundwater Doctrines	481
            4.4   Groundwater Quality	483

   5        POTENTIAL ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACTS 	  487

            5.1   Impacts on the Land	487
            5.2   Water Quality Impacts  	  487
            5.3   Impacts on Groundwater Systems 	  489

   6        SITE SPECIFIC SUMMARY 	  493

            REFERENCES AND DATA SOURCES	502
                                 438

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                         LIST OF TABLES






Table No.                       Title                         Page
1.1

1.2
3.1

3.2

3.3

3.4

3.5

4.1

4.2

4.3

5.1

5.2

6.1
6.2
6.3
6.4
6.5
6.6
6.7
List of Primary Coal Conversion Plant Sites
for Eastern and Central Study 	
List of Additional Coal Conversion Plant Sites.
Assessment of Surface Water Sources for Primary
Sites 	
Assessment of Surface Water Sources for
Additional Sites 	 	 .
Consumptive Water and Surplus Supplies in the
Ohio River Basin for 1975 and 2000 	
Significance of the Relevant Chemical and
Physical Properties of Water 	
Chemical Characteristics of the Surface Water
Sources 	
Assessment of Groundwater Availability at Sites
with Insufficient Surface Supplies 	
Assessment of Groundwater Availability for the
Secondary Sites 	 . 	
Chemical Characteristics of Groundwater
Sources 	
Assessment of Potential Impacts at Designated
Groundwater Sites 	
Assessment of Potential Impacts at Supplemental
Groundwater Sites 	
Water Resources Summary for Alabama 	
Water Resources Summary for Illinois 	
Water Resources Summary for Indiana 	
Water Resources Summary for Kentucky 	
Water Resources Summary for Ohio 	
Water Resources Summary for Pennsylvania . . .
Water Resources Summary for West Virginia . . .

444
445

457

459

466

469

470

477

482

486

491

492
495
496
497
498
499
500
501
                                 439

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                         LIST  OF  FIGURES
Figure No.                         Title                        Page

   1.1      Coal  Conversion  Site  Locations  and  Surface
            Water Features	    447

   4.1      High  Yield  Sources  of Groundwater	    475
                                440

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                         1.   INTRODUCTION








1.1   Study Objectives





     This draft report presents a general assessment of the water



resources data that has been reviewed as a part of the East/Central



synthetic fuel plant siting  study being performed under subcontract



to Water Purification Associates, Cambridge, Massachusetts for the



Energy Research and Development Administration.  The objective  of



the water resources portion  of the overall study is  to define the



availability of surface and  groundwater resources at each specific



site  in terms of other competing water users.





     In order to investigate water related aspects of the feasibility



of synthetic fuel  plant siting in the Eastern and Central states,



Water Purification Associates selected approximately 30 primary



specific site locations throughout the region,  each having sufficient



coal  reserves in the immediate area to justify  a conversion plant.



These sites were selected in such a way as to cover a diverse mix of



geographical  and climatological characteristics of the coal producing




regions.




     Sufficient and reliable water supplies are essential to the




siting and operation of the  synthetic fuel production processes under




study.   Significant quantities of water are consumed as a raw material




on  a  continuous basis in the liquefaction and the gasification processes
                                  441

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Where the wet cooling process is used,large amounts of water are lost



to evaporation.   Large quantities of water can also be required where



slurry pipelines are used to transport coal from the source to the



actual conversion site.   The supply of water for these purposes must



be available on a continuous 24-hour basis.  The economics of shutdowns



due to water supply shortages are such, that the reliability of



water supplies are a major consideration in establishing the overall



feasibility of siting at a particular location.  This report presents



the basic water resources information that can be used as a basis for



determining the feasibility in terms of water availability at the



specific sites under study.








1.2   Scope of Studies




      The water resources information included in this report consists



of the data necessary to establish the surface and groundwater supplies



actually available for use in the coal  conversion process at each



prospective site.  Factors entering into this determination are the



extent and variability of nearby streamflows or groundwater aquifers,



legal institutions regulating the use of these waters, and the implica-



tions of competing users for 1imited supplies in certain areas.  Data



on the quality of water in terms of constitutents detrimental to the



coal  conversion process have been compiled for each water source for



which such data was  available.  Also included is a general assessment



of potential environmental impacts of energy development in the Eastern



and Central coal regions.  These potential impacts fall into two general
                                 442

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categories: the environmental impacts due to the actual coal mining



or conversion activities, and the hydrologic impacts associated with



the withdrawal of surface or groundwater supplies.




     In assessing the water resources situation at each designated



site, no attempt has been made to generate new field data.   All data



used in the investigations was previously collected by various



Federal and state governmental agencies, universities, or local



groups.  This study serves primarily to compile the existing data



into a form most useful for establishing the water related  aspects of



synthetic fuel plant siting.  During this process all  data  used was



reviewed for consistency with other data or basic hydrologic principles.



Conclusions were then drawn from the available data as to the existence



of favorable or unfavorable water resources conditions at the various



locations under consideration as synthetic fuel plant  sites.








1.3  Study Region and Specific Sites



     The specific sites selected for detailed feasibility analysis are



located in seven states in the Eastern and Central coal resource



regions of the United States.  The site locations were specified as



county-sized areas in the states of Alabama, Illinois, Indiana,



Kentucky, Ohio, Pennsylvania, and West Virginia.   The  matrix of primary



site locations, type of mining activity, and designated water source pre-



sented in Table 1.1  is intended to cover a representative sampling of the



geographic location, coal reserve characteristics, climate,  and



topography likely to be used as sites for synthetic fuel  plants.  A



number of secondary sites as shown in Table 1.2 were also considered to



determine the overall water availability in the coal regions as a whole,



but were not considered per se in the detailed analysis of specific



                                  443

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                                 Table 1.1

                  LIST OF PRIMARY COAL CONVERSION PLANT
                    SITES  FOR CENTRAL AND EASTERN STUDY
 STATE
Alabama
Illinois
Indiana
Kentucky
Ohio
Pennsylvania


West Virginia
 COUNTY

Jefferson
Morengo
Bureau
Shelby
St. Clair
White
Bureau
Fulton
St. Clair
Saline

Gibson
V i go
Sullivan
Warrick

Floyd
Harlan
Henderson
Muhi enberg
Pike

Gallia
Tuscarawas
Tuscarawas
Jefferson

Allegheny
Somerset

Fayette
Kanawha
Marshall
Monongalia
Preston
Mingo
MINING

  U
  S
  U
  U
  U
  U
  S
  S
  S
  S

  U
  U
  S
  S

  U
  U
  S
  S
  S

  U
  U
  U
  S

  U
  U

  U
  U
  U
  U
  U
  S
                                       1
 COAL'

 B
 L
 B
 B
 B
 B

"B
 B
 B
-B

 B
 B
 B
 B
 B

 B
B
 B
 B

 B  (HV)
 B  (MV,LV)

 B  (MV,LV)
 B  (HV)
 B  (HV)
 B  (HV)
 B  (HV.MV.LV)
 B  (HV)
  WATER SOURCE

Coosa River
Tombigbee River or
   Groundwater

Ground Water
Kaskaskia River
Mississippi River
Wabash River
Illinois River
Ground Water
Mississippi River
Saline River

White River
Wabash River
Wabash River
Ohio River

Big Sandy River
Cumberland River
Ohio
Green River
Surface Water

Ohio River
Tuscarawas River
Ground Water
Ohio River

Allegheny River
Surface Water

New River
Kanawha River
Ohio River
Monongahela River
Cheat River
Big .Sandy River
1
 U = underground mining; S = surface mining.
>
"A = Anthracite; B = bituminous; HV = high volatility, MV = medium volatility,
 LV = low volatility; L = lignite.
                                      444

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                    Table 1.2

 LIST OF ADDITIONAL COAL CONVERSION PLANT SITES
 State
Alabama
   County

Fayette
Marion
Jackson
DeKalb
Water Source

Warrior (R)
Tennessee (R)
Tennessee (R)
Tennessee (R)
II1inois
Mercer
McLean
Mississippi (R)
Illinois (R)
Kentucky
Hopkins
McCreary
Lee
Lawrence
Green (R)
Cumberland
Kentucky
Big Sandy (R)
Ohio


Pennsylvania
Morgan
Venango
Clearfield
Cambria
Muskingum


Allegheny (R)
West Branch
Conemaugh
West Virginia
Randolph
Greenbrier
Tygart
Greenbrier
                         445

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sites.  Figure 1 .1 shows the primary and secondary site location with

respect to the coal  reserves and major water resources features of the

study region.


     Several  aspects of the actual design and operation of a coal

conversion plant are of importance in evaluating the relationship

of the plant to the water resources of the area.  It has been assumed

for the purposes of this study that the consumptive use requirement

for process and cooling water, and all associated uses at each plant

would be about 4500 gallons per minute or an equivalent streamflow

of about 10 cfs.  In order to provide a stand-by water supply for

times of water shortage, a holding pond system having a reserve supply

of one week's water requirement was assumed to be typical.  It was

also assumed that water treatment costs are such that lower quality

water supplies such as brackish groundwater or municipal treatment

plant effluents would be acceptable water sources.  Conversion plants

are expected to be designed to make maximum use of water recycling within

the plant and return no flows or waste residues to the receiving waters.


     The coal conversion plants under consideration,in some instances

where terrain and water supplies permit, may be located at the mine

mouth.   Water use regulations prohibiting non-riparian"1"water use as

discussed in this report, or adverse terrain features may at many

locations require the actual conversion plant to be located some

distance away from the mine.  Unit train or coal slurry  transport of

the coal from mine to conversion plant will be required in these

instances.
 A Riparian water right is defined as a right derived from ownership
 of land adjacent to a natural watercourse.
                                  446

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                                               1
SITE LDCAT10N:

 U PRIMARY SITES

 D SECONDARY  SUES
                      ILLINOIS   BASH
Figure  1.1   Coal  Conversion  Site  Locations  and
            Surface  Water Features(continued)
                             447

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                                                           O CLEARIELD

                                                          CAMBRIA
                                                          D
                                                         GHENY

                                                         SOMERSET
                                                       RANDOLPH




                                                  OGREENBRIER
         MORENGO
                                   SITE LOCATIONS

                                       PRIMARY  SITES

                                     D SECONDARY SITES
                   APPALACHIAN  BASIN
Figure  1.1   Coal  Conversion Site  Locations  and
             Surface Water Features
                                    448

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              2.   SUMMARY OF RESULTS AND CONCLUSIONS



     The most significant findings of the water resources investigations

to-date may be summarized as follows.


     1.  Surface  water supply sources were specified for most of the

sites to be studied.   Sufficient reliable supplies to support one or

more coal conversion  plants exist close to many of the sites, especially

those with a major regulated river flowing through or adjacent to the

study area.  This applies to all sites in the vicinity of the following

major rivers:
                    Mississippi
                    Ohio
                    Wabash-White
                    Kanawha-New
                    Allegheny
                    Tennessee
                    Tombigbee
In most of these instances present water use data and future demand

projections indicate a significant surplus streamflow beyond expected

use, even under low-flow conditions.   For the few cases where data on

other demands is not readily available,  the conversion plant demand  is

generally in the order of less than one  percent of the seven-day,

twenty-year low-flowt  Uses of this magnitude would appear to safely

satisfy the common law requirement of being reasonable relative to

other users.


     2.  Surface water supplies are much less reliable in the smaller

streams in the upper water courses.  The eastern Kentucky and adjacent
 The seven day, twenty-year low flow is defined as the minimum average
 flow over seven consecutive days that is expected to occur with an
 average frequency of once in twenty years.

                                 449

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West Virginia coal  regions in the Big Sandy River Basin; the upper



Cumberland, Kentucky, and Green River basins in eastern Kentucky, and



the northern West Virginia coal region in the Monongahelia Basin fall



into this category.  In these areas extreme low-flows are practically



zero.  A coal conversion plant demand could easily represent a very



significant portion of the seasonal low-flow in many of these areas,



and therefore be judged to be an unreasonably large use.  In order for



a plant to be sited in these regions an alternative or supplemental



supply to streamflows must be assured.  In some cases the construction



of  sizable surface water impoundments may be practical, while in other



cases this would be prohibited by topographical constraints.  Ground-



water supplies to supplement surface supplies during times of scarcity



look favorable in several cases as described below.




     3.  The riparian land requirement in many instances will discourage



the transfer of surface water over even a short distance from small



streams to coal reserves on a non-riparian'site.  Historically industries



using significant amounts of water have located on major rivers with



surplus water supplies for this very reason.  Although several states



are presently considering statutory modifications to the Riparian



Doctrine which might eventually allow users (including non-riparian



users) to reserve definite supplies of surface flows, none of the seven



states in the study region have enacted an effective permit system to-



date.  A non-riparian use of large volumes of water would currently be



feasible from an institutional  point of view only from a major river



(those cited in item 1) with large water surpluses.
                                  450

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     4.  In addition to the 30 or so primary plant sites, several



other regions were considered to determine the overall water avail-



ability of the coal regions as a whole.  These regions were not



considered as such in the detailed analysis of specific sites. Locations



considered in this vein found to have surface supplies generally



favorable for energy development include:  several potential sites in



northern Alabama supplied from the Tennessee River,  in north-



central Illinois supplied from the Mississippi or Illinois Rivers, in



Kentucky from the mid-Green River, in Ohio from the Lower Muskinghum



River, and additional sites in northwest Pennsylvania from the Allegheny



River.   Groundwater supplies in west-central  Alabama also appear to



be favorable.  Regions generally found to have limited water supplies



for energy development include: the upper watersheds of the Cumberland,



Kentucky, Green, and Big Sandy Rivers in eastern Kentucky; the coal



areas of western Pennsylvania except those that carTbe supplied from the



Allegheny, Ohio, or Susquehanna Rivers; and the east-central West



Virginia region.




     5.  Groundwater was specified as a primary source of supply at



a few locations which include Bureau and Fulton Counties in Illinois



and Tuscarawas County, Ohio.  Indications are that there would be no



problem in developing the many high-yield wells that would be required



to provide the reliable supplies at these sites.   Groundwater also



looks promising as a conjunctive supply in certain areas where surface



supplies are seasonally questionable.  Unfortunately, the groundwater



situation is most favorable from alluvial aquifers recharged by major



streams in the valley bottoms where surface supplies are best, and
                                 451

-------
least favorable from less transmissive consolidated aquifers higher

in the watersheds where surface supplies tend to be poorest.  Since

the aquifer structure is highly fractured in many areas under study,

expected well yields can vary tremendously over a county-sized  area.

     6.  Since the rights of a landowner to use groundwater are

generally more absolute than those concerning surface water use, the

development of groundwater supplies as a primary or supplemental source

for energy-related uses requiring large capital investments may be

preferable to surface water on the basis of institutional feasibility.

     7.  Water quality data on a number of constituents having poten-

tially detrimental effects on coal conversion processes were compiled

for many water supply sources.  In surface waters, concentrations of

various constituents were found to vary from location to location

depending on the  local geology, population density, and industrial

development.  Even more significant variations over time are evident at

certain locations with major sources of industrial  pollution or where the

effects of varying dilution rates are particularly severe.  The Muskingum,

White, and Illinois Rivers exhibit this tendency.   The quality of

groundwater supplies is similar to that of surface waters where alluvial

aquifers are used as a source.  Groundwater from deep consolidated

aquifers on the other hand may be brackish and highly mineralized.  The

chemical composition of water from a given well at a particular location

generally will  show very little variation over time, as compared to a  surface
water  source.
     8.  Potential hydrologic impacts are associated with both the

coal  mining operation and the process of converting the coal to synthetic

fuels    The mining operation, whether it be underground or strip mining,
                                 452

-------
creates the potential  for environmental  problems resulting from the



earthmoving operation  (erosion, sedimentation of stream channels, and



scarring the land)  and the mine dewatering process (acid mine drainage



and depletion of groundwater supplies).   Modern mining techniques and



reclamation when properly employed can minimize or eliminate the



problems associated with earthmoving.   Impounding mine drainage for



subsequent evaporation or treatment and  proper underground mining



methods have been used to successfully handle the acid mine drainage



problem.  The possibility that a mining  operation will lower nearby



well yields or cause small locally-used  shallow aquifers to be depleted



is common to nearly all  coal bearing regions.  Because this problem is



very localized and  site dependent the problem must be considered on a



site by site basis  at  a much smaller scale than present site definitions



allow.




     The synthetic  fuel  conversion process has several potential hydro-



logic impacts associated with it as well.   Since no return flows or



waste residues are  to  be returned to the receiving waters the potential



for environmental degradation are minimized.   The major potential  impact,



therefore,is that associated with the use of  groundwater as a source of



water supply.  The  feasibility of using  groundwater as a water supply



source  must be evaluated based on the ability of the local



aquifers to supply  the required yields without widespread lowering of



the water table or  other impairments of  existing users in the area.
                                 453


-------
3.2  Water Supply Availability

     The adequacy of the water supply at each primary site having a

river or stream as its water source was assessed through a comparison

of a typical  plant use with expected low-flows in the stream.   As is

described more fully in Section 3.3., the Riparian Doctrine governing

water use in  the Eastern States requires that each use be reasonable

in relation to other riparian uses.  For preliminary screening  purposes,

plant use at  each site was compared to the low-flow in the associated

water source  to establish whether the use would probably be reasonable,

possibly be reasonable or probably be unreasonable.   The criteria used

in judging the situation at each site were the following:

     1)  Favorable.      Site use is less than about 5 percent of the
                        estimated seven-day, twenty-year low-flow

     2)  Questionable.  Site use is about 10 percent of the estimated
                        seven-day, twenty-year low-flow

     3)  Unreliable.    Site use is more than 20 percent of the estimated
                        seven-day, twenty-year low-flow.


     In this  analysis the water use associated with a typical  plant was

assumed to be approximately 4,500 gpm (about 10.0 cfs, or 7,000 acre-ft/

year).

     The seven-day,  twenty-year low-flow used in the comparison is

defined to be the minimum average flow over seven consecutive days  that

is expected to occur with an average frequency of once in twenty years.

This is an appropriate criteria for sites having a useful life  of about

twenty  years  and holding ponds with a reserve capacity of about a
                                  455

-------
seven-day water supply.   Low-flow values were determined from Stream-
flow Data Program Reports for each state (USGS, 1970), various state
or regional agencies,  or were estimated from historical low-flows at
nearby gauging stations.  Low-flows from major streams affected by
regulation are very difficult to establish accurately.  In many of
these instances, however, flows are relatively high and the objective of
regulation is to achieve higher low-flows.

     Table 3.1 lists the runoff characteristics of each primary supply source
and the results of the assessment based on local low-flows.  The
analysis shows that surface supplies are most favorable for those sites
having the main stream of a major regulated river near by.  These
include all of the sites having the following rivers as designated
sources:

                           Mississippi
                           Ohio
                           Kanawha-New
                           Wabash-White
                           Allegheny

     Surface water supplies are  shown to be much less reliable
for many of the smaller streams away from the major rivers.  In many
of these streams low-flows may in fact be less than the typical coal
conversion plant requirement.  In other cases a plant water requirement
would represent a large portion of the flow and such a use would
probably interfere with other small existing users.

     The analysis described above clearly suggests that there are sites
having abundant supplies at hand where meeting the water requirements
                                  456

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                                                   TABLE 3.1
                                 ASSESSMENT  OF  POTENTIAL SURFACE WATER SOURCES
State
Alabama

Illinois






Indiana


Kentucky




Ohio



Pennsylvania

West Virginia














Drainage USGS Mean Historical 7 day - 20 Yr.
County Source Area Gauge No. Flow Low-Flow Low-Flow Situation Possible Alternate Source
(SM) (CFS) (CFS) (CFS) (1)
Jefferson Coosa 8,390 4070 13,790 370
Morengo Tombigbee 5,900 4450 8,631 165
Bureau Groundwater    
Bureau Illinois 12,040  - 12,500(E) l.BOO(E)
Fulton Groundwater    
St. Clair Mississippi (R) 700,000 0100 177,000 18,000 10
Saline Saline  None  10(E)
Shelby Kaskaskia(R) 1,054 5920 788 0
White Wabash 28,635 3775 27,030 1,650
Gibson White(R) 11,125 3740 11,540 573
Sullivan Wabash(R) 13,161 3420 11,600 858
Vigo Wabash(R) 12,265 3415 10,660 701
Warrick Ohio(R) 107,000 3220 113,700 NA 2
(13
Floyd Levisa Fork 1,701 2098 2,104 20
Harlan Cumberl and(R) 374 4010 689 3
Henderson Ohio(R) 107,000 3220 133,900 NA 15
Muhlenburg Green Pond(R) 6,182 3165 9.201 250
Pike Levisa Fork 1,237 2015 1,458 2
Galia Ohlo(R) --- --- 77,600  8
Jefferson Oh1o(R) ---  40,900 --- 5
Tuscarawas Tuscarawas(R) 2,443 1290 2,453 170
Tuscarawas Groundwater    
Allegheny Allegheny(R) 12,500  19,500(E) 900(E)
Somerset Casselroan 382 0790 655 10
Fayette New(R) 9,000 1930 10,500 950(3) 1
Kanawha Kanawha(R) 10,419 1980 14,480 2,360 1
Marshall Oh1o(R) --- --- 40,900 --- 5
Mingo Tug Ford(R) 850 2140 1,351 17(3)
Honongalia Honongahela(R) 4,407 0725 8,137 20
Preston Cheat 972 0700 2,239 10
(1) Situation assessment: FFavorable, QQuest1onable, U-Unrel 1able
(2) Low-flow (1 day, 50 year) data from Illinois State Water Survey (1975)
(3) Estimated from nearby gauges
(4) Estimated using regression equations 1n Streamflow Data Program Reports
(5) Low flow (7 day, 10 year) from ORBC Table of Instream Flows
(6) Pennsylvania Department of Forests and Haters, Bulletin No. 1 (1966)
(7) Ohio Department of Natural Resources Bulletin 40 (1965)
(E) Estimated from best available Information
(R) River substantially regulated at source location


See
800(2)
See
,000
(NA)
(NA)
800(2)
610(4)
350(2)
300(2)
,000(2)
,000(5))
(NA)
(NA)
,400(5)
(NA)
(NA)
,600(5)
,600(5)
215(7)
See
(NA)
12(4)
,184
,750
,600(5)
30
248
95



(USGS, 1970)





F
F
Table 4.1
F
Table 4.1
F
U Ohio or Prop. Res.
U Lake Shelbyvllle
F
F
F
r 	
F
U Dewey Lake
U Surface Storage
F
Q Groundwater
U Flshtrap Lake or Groundwater
r
f
Q Groundwater
Table 4.1
F
U Quemahonlng Res.
f
f
F
U Groundwater
Q Surface Storage
U Lake Lynn or Groundwater









(NA)  Data  not  available  at  present,  or  nonapplIcable

-------
of one or more conversion plants would be no problem.  There are



others where supplies are such that the designated supply source



could not be relied on during very dry periods and where alterna-



tive or supplemental  source should be developed.   The supplies



available at several  other sources are in between the extremes.  The



adequacy of these sources depends in large part on the extent of



other competing uses  or the likelihood that competing demands will



develop in the future.  Following a discussion of institutional factors



controlling the use of surface supplies,  the available data on present



uses and projected future demand is presented in  Section 3.4.




     As indicated earlier, in addition to the 30  or 50 primary specific



sites, additional sites in several other  regions  were considered in a



general sense to complete the assessment  of overall  water availability



throughout the coal regions.   Using the same analytical  criteria as



described earlier, these additional sites are listed in  Table 3.2 with



their associated water source and a general  assessment of the water



supply availability at each site.  These  results  indicate that several



sites in northern Alabama could be supplied  from  the Tennessee River;



that sites in north-central Illinois could be supplied from either the



Mississippi or Illinois Rivers; and that  additional  sites could be



supplied from the Green River in  Kentucky, the Muskingum  River in  Ohio,



or the Allegheny River  in  Pennsylvania.  The  region  found  to  have  the  least



favorable water supplies for  coal conversion is that at  the upper



reaches of the Cumberland, Kentucky and Big  Sandy Rivers  in Kentucky.
                                 458

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                                                     TABLE 3.2
                                    ASSESSMENT OF ADDITIONAL SURFACE WATER SOURCES
State
Al abama

Illinois

Kentucky



Ohio
Pennsylvania


W. Virginia

County
Fayette
Marlon
Jackson
De Kalb
Mercer
McLean
Hopkins
McCreary
Lee
Lawrence
Morgan
Venango
Clearfield
Cambria
Randolph
Greenbrier
Drainage
Source Area
(SM)
Warrior(R)
Tennessee(R)
Tennessee(R)
Tennessee(R)
Mississlppi(R)
Ill1no1s(R)
Green(R)
Cumberland
Kentucky
B1g Sandy(R)
Musr.ingum
Allegheny(R)
West Branch
Conemaugh
Tygart
Greenbrier
4828
30810
25610
25610
119000
15819
7564
1977
2657
2143
7422
5982
1462
715
408
1835
(1) Situation assessment: F-Favorable
(2) Low-Flow (1 day, 50 year)
(3) Estimated using regression
(4) Pennsylvania Department of


(5) Ohio
(R) River
Department of Natural
from 111
USGS Mean Historical
Gauge No. Flow Low Flow
(CFS) (CFS)
4650
5895
5755
5755
4745
5685
3200
4045
2820
2150
1500
02550
5425
04150
0510
1835
7822
51610
43760
43760
62570
14529
10960
3199
3638
2480
7247
10330
2467
1269
800
1980
; Q=Questionable; U=Unrel
inols State
equations 1n USGS
Forests
and Waters
Resources Bulletin
substantially regulated from
Water Survey
37
105
400
400
5000
1810
280
4
4
8.4
218
334
100
105
0.1
24
(able
Report No.
Streamflow Data Program
Bulletin No.
40 (1965)
1 (1966)

7 day, 20 Yr.
Low Flow Situation
(CFS) (1)
N.A.
N.A.
N.A.
N.A.
6500(2)
N.A.
N.A.
12(3)
8.6(3)
74(3)
565(5)
N.A.
115(4)
155(4)
0.4(3)
43(3)

4 (1975)
Reports (1970)


Q
f
f
f
f
f
F
U
U
Q
f
F
Q
Q
U
Q





Possible Alternate Source
Groundwater
---
---
---
---
Lake Cumberland
Unknown
Ohio River
---
.-.
Unknown
Unknown
Tygart Lake
Bluestone Res.





source location
(NA)  Data  not available at present or non-applicable

-------
3.3  Surface Water Doctrines



     Most regions in the east and centra]  portions of the United States



receive sufficient rainfall, so that surface supplies in many areas are



plentiful.  Relatively high population densities in certain areas,



and great seasonal variabilities in runoff rates, however, result in



many situations where the demand for the use of water creates competition



for the available supplies.  The industrial  use of water for energy



development is often, one of many competing uses to which limited water



 supplies  must  be  allocated.




     The majority of the sites under consideration in this study involve



river or  stream flow as a primary source of water for the conversion



process.  Where such supplies are somewhat limited, the required water



may be available from existing or future reservoirs or from groundwater



systems .    Each    of   these   potential     sources   is



subject to general  legal principles as to  how the water may be used.



Local statutory enactments may also affect use in several states.  For



the purposes of this report, the general aspects of water use regula-



tions were reviewed primarily as applicable  to the surface water supply



assessments described in the previous Section.   Specific state qualifica-



tions are also discussed.





     The use of surface flows in the Eastern United States has tradi-



tionally been  subject to a judicially developed set of legal  principles



known as the Riparian Doctrine which define  water rights as an incidence



of ownership of land that  adjoins  or is  traversed by a natural stream



(Cox_,  1975).   Two separate applications  of the doctrine have been



recognized at  one time or  another.   The  natural flow concept is the
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older of these and has been replaced generally by the concept of



reasonable u