EPA 660/2-74-071
       1974
                        Environmental Protection Technology Series
   Programmed Demonstration for Erosion
         and  Sediment Control Specialists
                                  Office of Research and Development
                                  U.S. Environmental Protection Agency
                                  Washington, D.C. 20460

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               RESEARCH REPORTING SERIES
Research reports of the Office of Research anrl Development,
Environmental Protection Agency, have been grouped into five
series.  These five broad categories were established to
facilitate further development and application of environmental
technology.  Elimination of traditional grouping was consciously
planned to foster technology transfer and a maximum interface
in related fields.  The five series are:

     1.  Environmental Health Effects Research
     2.  Environmental Protection Technology
     3.  Ecological Research
     4.  Environmental Monitoring
     5.  Socioeconomic Environmental Studies
This report has been assigned to the ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION
TECHNOLOGY series.  This series describes research performed
to develop and demonstrate instrumentation,  equipment and
methodology to repair or prevent environmental degradation
from point and non-point sources of pollution.  This work
provides the new or improved technology required for the
control and treatment of pollution sources to meet environmental
quality standards.

This report has been reviewed by the Office of Research and
Development.  Approval does not signify that the contents
necessarily reflect the views and policies of the Environmental
Protection Agency, nor does mention of trade names or commercial
products constitute endorsement or recommendation for use.

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                                    EPA-660/2-74-071
                                          February 1974
PROGRAMMED DEMONSTRATION FOR EROSION
   AND SEDIMENT CONTROL SPECIALISTS
                    By
       Water Resources Administration
              State of Maryland
            Annapolis, Maryland

                    and

              Thomas R.  Mills
            Michael A. Nawrocki
              Gregg R. Squire
              Homer T. Hopkins
              Michael L.  Clar
       Project No.  S800854  (15030 FMZ)
           Program Element 1B2042
             Roap/Task PEMP 03

               Project Officer

              John J .  Mulhern
      Pollution Control Analysis Branch
     Office of Research and Development
          Washington, D. C. 20460

                Prepared for
  OFFICE OF RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT
U. S. ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY
          Washington, D. C. 20460
         For sale by the Superintendent of Documents, U.S. Government Printing Office
                     Washington, D.C. 20402 - Price $2.15

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                              ABSTRACT

This project consisted of the development of a series of technical presenta-
tions and a certification plan for erosion and sediment control specialists
and the demonstration and evaluation of two alternative approaches for pre-
senting information on topics  relating to erosion and sediment control.

Fifteen technical presentations were prepared.  They consisted of a script,
visual aids, and a student handout.  Six of these presentations  were con-
verted to audiovisual presentations for comparison with  the conventional
technical presentations.  Each audiovisual presentation consisted of one or
more cassettes containing a narration on a magnetic tape and a synchronized
film strip,  a workbook,  and an instructor's manual.

This report, as well as accompanying copies of the presentations, under
separate cover, was submitted in fulfillment of Grant No. S800854 (15030FMZ)
by the Water Resources Administration, State of Maryland, under the partial
sponsorship of the U. S. Environmental Protection Agency .

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                            CONTENTS

Section                                                Page

I              CONCLUSIONS                             1

II             RECOMMENDATIONS                        3

III            INTRODUCTION                            6

IV            DEVELOPMENT OF PRESENTATIONS           8

V             PROGRAM DEMONSTRATION AND            23
              EVALUATION

VI            CERTIFICATION PLAN                      34

VII            REFERENCES                             38

VIII           APPENDICES                             39
                             in

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                        ACKNOWLEDGMENTS

This final report for the "Programmed Demonstration for Erosion and Sediment
Control Specialists" was prepared under joint sponsorship of the U.S.
Environmental Protection Agency and the Water Resources Administration,
State of Maryland,  by Hittman Associates, Inc. of Columbia, Maryland.
Sincere thanks are extended to Donald J. O'Bryan, Acting Chief,  Mining
and Land Modification Branch, EPA, and John J . Mulhern,  Project Officer,
EPA, for  their support and guidance throughout the demonstration  program,.

Special thanks goes to members of the Water Resources Administration,
State of Maryland,  especially Marshall T. Augustine,  Roger A. Kanerva,
Roy E. Benner, and Albert E. Sanderson, for their technical guidance and
editorial  help. Additional gratitude is extended to Roger A. Kanerva and
Roy E. Benner for  their assistance  in writing  presentations.

The contributions provided to this program by the use of 35 millimeter
photographic slides from the U.S.  Department of Agriculture, the  Maryland
Water Resources Administration, Mr. Marshall T. Augustine, the Maryland
State Roads Commission, the Soil Conservation Service, the soil and water
conservation  districts of Howard, Montgomery, and Prince Georges counties
in Maryland,  the Baltimore Public Works Commission, and Rummel, Klepper,
and Kahl, Consulting Engineers in  Baltimore are also acknowledged with
sincere thanks.
                                IV

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                          SECTION  I
                       CONCLUSIONS

1.       Sediment & erosion control specialists who participated in the
        audiovisual presentations scored higher on a test than a similar
        group of persons  who viewed the same presentations in a conven-
        tional, lecturer type format.

2.       From statistical analyses, it can be concluded that the audiovisual
        presentations were certainly as effective as the conventional presen-
        tations .

3.       Participants preferred the audiovisual approach over the conven-
        tional approach.

4.       The six audiovisual presentations  comprise a coherent, abbre-
        viated program that can be effectively utilized at the present time
        and later integrated into an  expanded audiovisual program.

5.       The 15 conventional presentations  provide a comprehensive ex-
        posure to all of the major aspects of erosion and sediment control.

6.       The State of Maryland should adopt a certification program re-
        quiring contractors engaged in grading activities to have an on-
        site certified specialist in charge of the implementation of the
        sediment control plans.

7.       Only construction sites requiring a "standard"  sediment  control  plan
        and those not requiring a plan should be excluded from the certi-
        cation requirement.

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 8.      An interim certification should be issued in Maryland with
        experience being the only qualifying criteria.

 9.      A full certification should be required within two years of the
        adoption of a certification requirement.  Experience, plus the
        passing of a written or oral exam, should be the primary qual-
        ifying requirements.
10.      The presentation materials developed in this demonstration  will
        constitute an effective program for qualifying construction per-
        sonnel  and other persons to pass the certification exam.

11.      The Department of Natural Resources, State of  Maryland should
        administer the certification program under a board appointed by
        the Secretary of the Department of Natural  Resources.

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                         SECTION II
                   RECOMMENDATIONS

Combine the presentations on "Climatology, Hydrology and Hydraulics" and
"Rainfall-Runoff Relationships" into one presentation entitled "Hydrology"
and convert it into the audiovisual format.

Convert the following existing presentations into the audiovisual format:
        Presentation No.  2 - Soils
        Presentation No.  6 - Plant Materials
        Presentation No.  9 - Erosion and Sediment Control Planning
        Presentation No. 11 - Wooded Site Development
        Presentation No. 12 - Temporary Soil Stabilization
        Presentation No. 13 - Prevention of Waterway Erosion

Do not convert Presentation No. 14 "Sediment Control Laws and Regulations
for the State of Maryland," into the audiovisual format.

Write a general presentation on "Stormwater Management"  and  a presentation
on the "Universal Soil Loss Equation" and convert them into the audiovisual
format.

Prepare an audiovisual presentation on "Vegetative Soil Stabilization"  for
each of the major plant growing regions in the country.

The conventional presentations  should be given in the following order:

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 (1)      Presentation No. 1 -    Goal, Objectives and Principles of
                               Erosion and Sediment Control
 (2)      Presentation No.. 2 -    Soils
 (3)      Presentation No. 3 -    Climatology, Hydrology and
                               Hydraulics
 (4)      Presentation No. 4 -    Rainfall-Runoff Relationships
 (5)      Presentation No. 5 -    Erosion and Sedimentation
 (6)      Presentation No. 6-    Plant Materials
 (7)      Presentation No. 8 -    Control of Runoff During
                               Construction
 (8)      Presentation No. 10-   Vegetative Soil Stabilization
 (9)      Presentation No. 13-   Prevention of Waterway Erosion
(10)      Presentation No. 12  -   Temporary Soil Stabilization
(11)      Presentation No. 7-    Control of Sediment Generated
                               on Construction Sites
(12)      Presentation No. 9-    Erosion and Sediment Control
                               Planning
(13)      Presentation No. 11-   Wooded Site Development
(14)      Presentation No. 14  -   Sediment Control Laws and
                               Regulations for The State of
                               Maryland
(15)      Presentation No. 15-   Foreman-Inspector Responsibilities

         The audiovisual presentations  should be given  in the following
 order:
 (1)      Goal, Objectives and Principles of Erosion and  Sediment Control.
 (2)      Erosion and Sedimentation
 (3)      Control of Runoff During Construction
 (4)      Vegetative Soil  Stabilization

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(5)     Control of Sediment Generated on Construction Sites
(6)     Foreman-Inspector Responsibilities

Adopt a certification program for erosion and sediment control  specialists
in the State of Maryland.

Exclude government inspectors from requiring a certification to perform
erosion and sediment control inspections.

Issue interim certifications based on experience for two years prior to
requiring a full certification,  which would involve the passing of an exam.

Administer the certification program in the Department of Natural Resources,
State of Maryland, utilizing a professional board appointed by  the Secretary of
the Department.

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                          SECTION III
                        INTRODUCTION

This project, the "Programmed Demonstration for Erosion and Sediment
Control Specialists," was performed under an Environmental Protection
Agency demonstration grant to the Water Resources Administration, State
of Maryland.  Hittman Associates,  Inc., of Columbia, Maryland, was the
prime contractor for the project.

The purpose of the project was to develop a series of presentations on
sediment and erosion control and a certification plan for erosion and sediment
control  specialists, utilizing technology developed on EPA Grant No. 15030FMZ,
and to demonstrate its workability. This primarily involved the development
of 15 presentations on various topics relating  to erosion and sediment control,
the conversion of 6 of these presentations into the audiovisual format, the dem-
onstration of the program,  and the evaluation  of ttie audiovisual approach
against the conventional technical presentations with slides.

In developing the demonstration program, full use was made of the infor-
mation gathered on the "Joint Construction Sediment Control Project", EPA
Grant No.  15030 FMZ, conducted for the State of Maryland by Hittman
Associates. The field demonstration program funded under that project
was continued in this project for the purpose  of acquiring demonstration
materials  for use in developing the slide and  audiovisual programs.

Although the demonstration program was developed for the State of Maryland,
it was anticipated that there would be a nation-wide need for such a program.
Accordingly, it  leans heavily towards general philosophy and universally
applicable principles and practices. Only two presentations, "Vegetative Soil

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Stabilization" and "Sediment Control Laws and Regulations for the State of
Maryland", are directed primarily towards Maryland and other states with
physiographic similarities or similar institutional arrangements.

Due to space  limitations, the presentation materials were not included in
this report.  Instead, copies of all materials were delivered under separate
cover to the project officer.  Samples are included, however,  in the Appen
dices.

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                         SECTION IV
                  DEVELOPMENT OF PRESENTATIONS

GENERAL

The primary effort of this program was the development of 15 conventional
presentations , complete with visual aids and student handouts, and six
audiovisual programs consisting of film scripts, written scripts, work
books, and instructor's manuals.

This work involved the taking and collection of over 4,000 separate 35
millimeter color  and black and  white photographic slides, the contributions
of several writers, both from Hittman Associates and the Maryland Water
Resources Administration, and very close coordination between both parties
and the audiovisual subcontractor for technical review of program material.

CONVENTIONAL PRESENTATIONS

The topics for 15 conventional presentations (see Appendix "A" for presen-
tation sample) were selected so  as to provide an integrated program, rather
than a series of presentations on random topics relating to erosion and sed-
iment control. However, each presentation was written so that it would
entirely, or in large part, stand by itself.  In setting  up the program the
presentations were grouped under three categories -  Basic,  Specialized,
and General. The breakdown is as follows:
        1.  Basic Presentations
            Presentation No.  1  -   Goal, Objectives and Principles
                                 of Erosion and Sediment Control

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        Presentation No. 2 -   Soils
        Presentation No. 3 -   Climatology,  Hydrology and
                              Hydraulics
        Presentation No. 4-   Rainfall-Runoff Relationships
        Presentation No. 5 -   Erosion and Sedimentation
        Presentation No. 6 -   Plant  Materials
2.      Specific Presentations
        Presentation No. 7 -   Control of Sediment Generated
                              on Construction Sites
        Presentation No. 8 -   Control of Runoff During
                              Construction
        Presentation No. 10 -  Vegetative Soil Stabilization
        Presentation No. 12 -  Temporary Soil Stabilization
        Presentation No. 13-  Prevention of Waterway Erosion
3.      General Presentations
        Presentation No. 9 -   Erosion and Sediment
                              Control Planning
        Presentation No. 11 -  Wooded Site Development
        Presentation No. 14 -  Sediment Control  Laws and
                              Regulations for the State of
                              Maryland
        Presentation No. 15 -  Foreman-Inspector Responsibilities

The "Basic" category treats the introductory  and  background aspects of
erosion and sediment control and provides the participant with the basic
knowledge to more fully comprehend the "Specialized presentations.  The

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"Specialized" category covers the actual techniques for controlling erosion
and sedimentation.  The "General" category is intended to provide the par-
ticipant with the general knowledge required  to implement the total program
of erosion and sediment control  and to make him aware of his importance and
function within the control framework.

In addition to the writing of the  presentation material, erosion and sediment
control products and practices were demonstrated in Columbia,  Maryland
for the purpose of obtaining photographs for use as visual aids.

The desired method of operation in preparing the conventional presentations
was to write the script, complete with recommended visual aids, have it
reviewed by the Maryland Water Resources Administration, and then to
collect the visual aids and write the student handout,  (see Appendix "B"
for a sample student handout) To speed progress, photography was often
performed concurrently with the writing of the script.  Unfortunately, this
method of operation was not possible for all of the presentations, in that the
writing was performed during the winter months when pertinent construc-
tion activity had stopped.  This necessitated the taking of numerous pictures
during the preceding summer and fall in anticipation of requirements for the
winter. In that it was impossible to fully anticipate the requirements, it
became a particularly difficult task to obtain many  of the slides.  Solving the
problem required the gathering of slides from outside collections, the use of
captions and artwork,  staging,  and, in the more difficult situations,  rework-
ing the script to accommodate the available slides.

Experience showed that it is very difficult to gather pictures of good practices
in an emerging field such as erosion and sediment control.  The opportuni-
ties to gather slides to prepare  a "horror story"  type of presentation were
abundant, but the same was not true of gathering visuals to prepare the "how
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to do it" type of presentations developed in this demonstration.  To obtain
the proper visuals, considerable field searching was required,  as well as
costly staging operations and artwork.

The length of the presentations varied depending upon how much informa-
tion had to be presented.  The lecture time varied from approximately 30
minutes for Presentation no. 1 up to about 75 minutes for Presentation  No.  10.

The number of slides used in the presentations  ranged between  47 and 104.
In all, over 1,100 slides were used in the  15 conventional presentations.

Final Product
As noted earlier, the materials for each conventional presentation consisted
of a narrator's script,  visual aids, and a participant's handout (see Appen-
dices) .  Each script contains a content outline and the complete narration
of the presentation  (see Appendix "A" for a sample script) .  To provide for
the synchronization of the visual aids with the narration, reference was
made to the required visual in the script.  The visual references were
numbered consecutively and a brief description of the subject matter was
provided.

All  visual aids consisted of 35 millimeter color or black and white slides
(see Appendix "A"  for sample of visuals) .  The slides for each presentation
were packaged in clear plastic storage sheets, each accommodating 20 slides.
The  slide sheets, scripts, and other  presentation material were assembled in
standard three ring notebooks.  Each slide was marked in the upper right
hand corner with the presentation number and the sequence number.  The use
of the number 8-3,  for example,  refers to Presentation No.  8 and the third
slide to  be  shown.
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The participant's handouts contain the important information covered in the
narrator's script, grouped under topical headlines (see Appendix "B" for
a sample handout).

AUDIOVISUAL PRESENTATIONS
The six audiovisual presentations were prepared by Educational Communi-
cations, Incorporated of Wayne, Pennsylvania with technical assistance from
Hittman Associates and the Maryland Water Resources Administration.  Edu-
cational Communications' work was performed under contract with Hittman
Associates.

The six conventional presentations converted into audiovisual presentations
are as follows:
        Presentation No. 1 -    Goal, Objectives and Principles of
                              Erosion  and Sediment Control
        Presentation No. 5 -    Erosion  and Sedimentation
        Presentation No. 7-    Control  of Sediment Generated
                              on Construction Sites
        Presentation'No. ,8 -    Control  of Runoff During
                              Construction
        Presentation No. 10 -   Vegetative Soil Stabilization
        Presentation No. 15 -   Foreman-Inspector Responsibilities

Two criteria were used in selecting  the presentations for  conversion into
the audiovisual format.  First, the presentations were chosen so as to make
up a coherent, abbreviated package that could be used  immediately,'and,
then later be integrated into an expanded program,  including nearly all of
the remaining presentations not yet  converted into the audiovisual format,
and any other presentations that may be developed.  The  second selection
criteria was that all three of the presentation categories be represented
Presentations No. 1 and No. 5 came  from the "Basic" presentation category,
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Presentations No. 7, No. 8, and No. 10 from the "Specific" category, and
Presentation No. 15 from the "General" category.

The first steps in the development of the audiovisual presentations were to
define the target population, general performance objectives, and terminal
behavior, and to select the audiovisual hardware.

Characteristics of Target Population
It was decided by The Water Resources Administration , State of
Maryland , that the presentations would be made available to private contractors
and governmental pollution control agencies.  The target population within
these two sectors was defined as construction foreman and inspectors.  It
was assumed that the personnel within these categories would have completed
a high school education.  It was further assumed that the construction foreman
were  well versed in practical  procedures for translating engineering designs
into structures on the construction site.  The governmental inspectors, on
the other hand, were assumed to have had  less construction experience and
the inability, in most cases, to translate engineering designs.

General Performance Objectives
A foreman who studied the audiovisual presentations was  expected to acquire
the following abilities:
         1.  To be able to look at a plan and  visualize it
            functionally on the site.
        2.  To be able to schedule the work so measures  to
            prevent runoff are coordinated with other con-
            struction.
        3.  To recognize various control structures on the plan
            and transfer these  to the site.
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         H.  To understand his role and responsibilities
             and his relationship with government inspectors.
         5.  To determine whether the proposed plan will
             perform adequately on the site and be able to
             go back to the designer  with recommendations
             for changes if needed.

 A government inspector taking this program was expected to develop
 the following abilities:
         1.  To understand his role and responsibilities.
         2.  To understand the cross relationship between
             himself and the contractors' foreman.
         3.  To determine if the construction site is in  com^
             pliance with the plan and if it will effectively
             control runoff.
         4.  To be able to report on the reasons for problems and
             make proposals for their correction.
         5.  To be able to make a decision as to what recommenda-
             tions he can make and what changes must  go back for
             re-design and approval.
         6.  To be able to prepare effective reports concerning
             each particular situation.

 Terminal Behavior
 The terminal behavior determined at  the outset of the development of the
presentations Was twofold:
         1.  At tHfe conclusion of each of the audiovisual
             programs, trainees  will  be required to com^
             plete a written test.  These tests will incor-
             porate various forms of questions relating

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            directly to the subject matter just covered.
            It will be expected that 90 percent of the
            participants will score a correct response
            on 90 percent of the questions.
      2.    As a more long term requirement of this
            project, it is expected that participants will
            gain increased motivation to perform their
            assigned tasks efficiently and cooperate with
            all those charged with the responsibility of
            reducing  erosion damage.

Audiovisual Hardware

It was decided that the audiovisual equipment should have the following
characteristics:
        1.   Be able to present filmstrips which are
            automatically synchronized to the sound.
        2.   Have the sound tape and filmstrip enclosed
            in one integral cassette.
        3.   Have the capability of being used as a front
            screen projector which could be viewed by
            groups  of approximately 15 persons.
        H.   Be capable of conversion to a rear screen
            projector  for individual viewing.
        5.   Be small and compact enough for  an  individual
            to take home.
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Several brands of audiovisual equipment were evaluated by Hittman Assoc-
iates and the Maryland Water Resources Administration.  The audiovisual
projectors manufactured by Audi scan Incorporated in Bellevue, Washington
were selected for use in  the program  {see Figure 1) .
        Figure 1. Audiovisual machine used in the demonstration.
                 Adjacent screen can be attached for individual
                 or small group use.
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Program Development

Hittman Associates provided the audiovisual subcontractor.  Educational
Communications, Incorporated, with conventional presentations from which to
develop the audiovisual scripts (see Appendix "C" for a sample audiovisual
script) .

Before writing the script for any presentation, specific performance objectives
were determined. In the presentation entitled "Control of Sediment Generated
on Construction Sites", for example, the participant was expected to be able
to accomplish the following things after viewing the presentation.
        1.  Explain the basic principles of sediment
            traps.
        2.  Describe and detail the use of graded
            vegetated buffer areas.
        3.  Explain the importance of leaving natural
            vegetative buffers.
        4.  Describe the use of contour stripping.
        5.  Explain the use and construction of sod
            inlet filters.
        6.  Explain the use and construction of gravel
            inlet filters.
        7.  Describe the use of the sandbag sediment
            trap.
        8.  Explain how the straw bale sediment trap
            is used.
        9.  Detail the use  of the straw bale perimeter
            barrier.
       10.  Describe the use of the excavated sediment
            trap.
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        11.  Distinguish between wet and dry sediment
            basins and the use of each.

In writing these scripts each unit of information was broken into segments
not exceeding approximately 30 words. This formed the descriptive narra-
tion for the presentation.  Each narration segment was accompanied by the
description of a visual or a "frame".  These visuals were specified as either
photographs, artist sketches, or title boards.

The format used for all presentations consisted of first introducing the theme,
then presenting a unit of information.  The information unit was then followed
by a break during which participants were asked to respond to questions in
the workbook (see Appendix "D" for a sample workbook).  After all  units of
information had been covered, a  summary of the material was presented as
a review.

Each presentation had a  specific  theme.  For example, the presentation on
"Vegetative Soil Stabilization" featured Augie the Worm;  "Foreman-Inspector
Responsibilities"  featured Sherlock  Holmes and Doctor Watson as a team of
great  men, and "Control of Sediment Generated on Construction Sites"
featured pre-historic villagers.

As each script was completed it was subject to a word by word critical re-
view by representatives of Hittman Associates and of the Maryland Water
Resources Administration.  Changes were made to increase clarity and
correct any possible misconceptions.

Suitable photographs to  illustrate the concepts described in each visual
frame were selected, where possible,  from the extensive library developed by
Hittman Associates. In a number of cases new on-site photographs had to be
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taken to illustrate specific concepts and in the script "Foreman-Inspector
Responsibilities" role play situations were photographed.

Where it was not possible to obtain suitable photographs, Educational Com-
munications had their artist produce color illustrations.  This art work was
also fully  reviewed by the reviewing committee composed of personnel from
Hittman Associates and the State of Maryland. Upon approval, it was photo-
graphed on 35 millimeter slides.

When all photographs of  artwork and field photographs were selected, they
were arranged in sequence and projected for the review committee.  The
committee not only ruled on the suitability but also suggested appropriate
cropping where needed.  All slides were then copied onto a master filmstrip.

The written narration for the various presentations  was read  by  several
different narrators.  Suitable music was mixed into  the presentations where
needed.  When the recorded sound track had been approved,  the tapes were
impulsed with inaudible  signals to change the visuals and to stop the presen-
tation when participants  were to go to the workbooks.

Final Product
Each audiovisual presentation was packaged in plastic cassettes containing
both a magnetic tape sound track and a synchronized  16 millimeter film
strip  (see Figure 2) .
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           Figure 2.    Cassettes containing a magnetic
                       tape sound track and film strip,
                       and an audiovisual machine, with
                       inserted cassette, ready to operate
Each cassette has a running time of approximately 15 to 20 minutes.  Two of
the presentations required only one cassette to present the information, two
others required two cassettes, and the remaining two required three.

It is estimated that the total time required to present each cassette is about
30 minutes.  This provides for workbook exercises and discussions.

Workbooks were also prepared for the audiovisual presentations  (see
Appendix "D" for a sample workbook).  These were designed to serve as an
additional reinforcement and as a  reference document that the participant
can retain.  In addition to containing questions to be answered at each
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workbook stop during the program presentation, the workbooks contain a
review test, and a descriptive outline of the subject matter.

To assist the supervisor in giving the programs a manual was prepared
for each program (see Appendix "E"  for a sample manual) .  These documents
contain information on how to set up the program and operate the audio-
visual machines,  list the primary objectives of the program, provide a list-
ing of suggested discussion topics, and contain the answers for all of the
questions in the participant's workbook.

Audience
The audiovisual programs were designed primarily for use by participants
in small groups of up to 15 people with a knowledgable supervisor in atten-
dance.  It was also anticipated that on occasions an individual would be asked
to study the programs by themselves.

The equipment selected for use in the demonstration has  the capability of
being connected to a standard 35 millimeter, carrousel type projector for
use by large audiences.  The sound track can still be used, but instead
of the standard 16 millimeter film strip, 35 millimeter slides are used for
visuals (see Figure 3) .
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Figure 3.     Audiovisual  machine connected to
             a  carrousel type projector  for show-
             ing  to a large audience.
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                         SECTION V
     PROGRAM DEMONSTRATION AND EVALUATION

GENERAL
As part of the program,  a demonstration was conducted to evaluate the con-
ventional presentation approach versus the audiovisual approach.  As vis-
ualized, the conventional approach would be a scientist or engineer with
little or no public speaking experience who narrates a slide show and passes
out student handouts. It is thought that in nearly all cases, the narration
would be read verbatum from the script.  It was further assumed that during
the question and answer period, which follows each presentation, some
additional information, not found in the script, may be interjected.

The audiovisual approach was assumed to involve the use of an audiovisual
machine and workbook in the presence of a supervisor.   His primary func-
tion would be to lead group  discussions and answer questions.  The ideal
audience for this approach consists of no more than 15 persons.  However,
as noted earlier in the report, the program can be adapted to larger aud-
iences  by using 35 millimeter slides rather than  the standard 16 millimeter
film strip.

DEMONSTRATION
The demonstration and evaluation was conducted on a typical  target aud-
ience consisting of inspectors and construction foremen.

Due to  the coincidence of the demonstration and evaluation program with
the active construction season, it was not possible to obtain enough time to
demonstrate all of the presentations  and evaluate all six audiovisual programs
                             23

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against their conventional counterparts.  Instead, it was decided to use
only two presentations to compare the different approaches.  These were
the presentations on "Coal, Objectives and Principles of Erosion and Sediment
Control" and on "Erosion and Sedimentation".  A third presentation, entitled
"Control of Runoff During Construction", was demonstrated to gather com-
ments from the audience regarding preferences for the two approaches.

PROCEDURE

Government inspectors and contractor's foremen were invited to participate
in the demonstration and evaluation program.  The program was held at
Hittman Associates  in Columbia, Maryland on June 13, 1973. A total of
26 men arrived.

As each man arrived he was given a form, prepared by the Water Resources
Administration, on which he could record profile information (see Appendix
"F"). Each form was numbered consecutively  from one through twenty-six.
Following an'introduction and statement of the  purpose of the project, the
men  with odd numbered forms were asked to leave the room and go to another
location where they were shown the audiovisual program.  Those with even
numbered forms were asked to stay in the first room and were then given a
conventional presentation.

During the first period,  both groups viewed the presentation on "Coal,
Objectives and Principles of Erosion and Sediment Control". The group
with odd  numbers received the information via an audiovisual program and
the group with even numbers received it via a conventional slide-illustrated
presentation.  In the second period the groups viewed the material on "Erosion
and Sedimentation". Again, the odd numbered group, received the audio-

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 visual version and the even numbered group received the conventional
 presentation.

Both groups were then given the same evaluation test (see Appendix "G") .
This was a test containing 47 questions.  Multiple choice, true or false, and
completion of sentences were the test forms used.  The possible score was 69.

Following the test, both groups had lunch and then they  reversed their roles.
That is, the odd numbered group received a conventional presentation and
 the even numbered group received an audiovisual  program. They both were
 exposed to the same subject, namely "Control of Runoff During Construction."
 Both groups were then given a form on which to evaluate the two different
 methods of presentation (see Appendix "H") .

TEST RESULTS
The odd numbered group of 13 received the audiovisual presentation and
the even numbered group of 13 received the lecture.  Thus, the odd num-
bered group was the experimental and the even numbered group was the
control.

Table 1 shows the raw number of errors scored by each individual.  The
percentage of correct answers has also been calculated.

               TABLE  1.  EVALUATION TEST SCORES
                     Experimental (Audiovisual)
        Subject               Test Errors           Percent Correct
            1                     23                      66
            3                      5                      93
            5                      8                      88
            7                      5                      93
            9                      3                      96
                                25

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   11                       8                      88
   13                       5                      93
   15                       6                      91
   17                       9                      72
   19                       2                      97
   21                      11                      84
   23                       8                      88
   25                       6                      91
                                  TOTAL=      1140

                   Total Errors = 99

                   Mean Errors = 7.7

                   Mean Percent correct
                      answers  =
             CONTROL  (Conventional)

Subject               Test Errors              Percent Correct

    29                          72
    4                     11                          84
    6                     17                          75
    8                      2                          97
   10                     12                          82
   12                      9                          72
   14                      6                          91
   16                      5                          93
   18                      4                          94
   20                     18                          74
   22                      4                          94
   24                     21                          69
   26                     18                          74
                                    TOTAL =        1071

                    Total Errors = 136

                    Mean Errors =10.5
                    Mean percent correct
                       answers = 82%
                        26

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PROFILE OF PARTICIPANTS
Table 2 shows two of the key characteristics taken from the profile forms
completed by the participants.  It has been completed to show if a specific
participant was an inspector (an X opposite the participant number) and
whether he had completed at least two years of college (an X opposite the
participant number in the column headed College) .  Participants without an
X were construction foremen or had not completed two years of college.  All
participants had graduated from high school.
                TABLE 2.  PROFILE OF PARTICIPANTS
                     Experimental (Audiovisual)

         Subject               Inspector              College
           1                       X
           3                       X
           5
           7                       X
           9                       X
           11                       XX
           13                                             X
           15
           17
           19                                             X
           21                       X
           23                       X                     X
           25                       x
                                 27

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                     CONTROL (Conventional)
                                                    College
                                                       X
                                                       X
                                                       X
                                                       X
        Subject               Inspector

          2                      X
          4                      X
          6
          8                      X
          10                      X
          12                      X
          14
          16                      X
          18
          20
          22                      X
          24                      X
          26

PREFERENCE OF PARTICIPANTS
Table 3 shows the subjects in each group who indicated a general preference
for the audiovisual presentation.  Those not marked with an X indicated a
preference for the conventional presentation.

      TABLE 3.  ATTITUDE TOWARDS METHOD OF PRESENTATION
        Experimental
 Subject

     1
     3
     5
     7
     9
    11
    13
    15
    17
    19
    21
    23
    25
              Favorable to A/V
                      X
                      X
                      X

                      X
                      X
                      X
                      X
                      X
                      X
                      X
                      X
Subject

    2
    4
    6
    8
   10
   12
   14
   16
   18
   20
   22
   24
   26
Control

   Favorable to A/V

         X
         X
        X
        X
        X
        X
        X
                Total = 11
                                                  Total = 8
                                28

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STATISTICAL ANALYSES
Since the test population was rather small (thirteen in each of two groups)
and only two conditions existed (an experimental group E instructed by
means of audiovisual programs and a control group C instructed by means
of a lecture), the applicable statistical techniques are the Mann-Whitney U
test and the Kolmogarov-Smirnov two-sample test.

Null  Hypothesis
      H :        There is no difference in the number of errors
       o
                made in answering the evaluation questions giv-
                en the two groups.

Alternative Hypothesis
      H :        The experimental group E will score fewer errors
                in answering  the evaluation questions than will
                the control group C.
Kolmogarov-Smirnow Two-Sample Test
                         Test Scores  (Percentage)
             95-100  90-95   85-90   80-85   75-80   70-75   65-70
 S13  (X)~E     2/13    7/13     10/13    11/13 11/13   12/13   13/13

 S    (X)-C     1/13    5/13     5/13     7/13  8/13    12/13   13/13
    2

 S13/X)
  -S    (X)     1/13    2/13     5/13     4/13  3/13     0       0
       2
                                 29

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The table of Critical Values of K  shows that for N of 13, K  should be 7 or

more at the 0.05 level of probability.  Thus a K  of 5 is not significant at

 a = o.05.
Chi-Square Test

If we extend this with a chi-square approximation:

      x  = 4D  (n1n2/ni+n2^

         = 4  (5/13) 2l3x13/13+l3

         = 100/169 x 169/26

         = .59 x 65

         = 3.84

         df (degree of freedom) = 2

In the table for Critical Values of chi-square we find that x  =3.84 is
significant at 0.2 for 2 degrees of freedom.

  The Mann-Whitney U Test

  The following breakdown shows the scores arranged in rank order with

  the identity of each score indicated as experimental (E)  or control  (C).

  97  97  96 94  94  93 93 93  93 91  91  91  88  88  88  72
  EC   ECCEE  ECEECEE   EE

  72  72  84 84  82  75 74 74  69 66
  CCECCCCCCE


               U = 0+2+2+5+7+11+11+12

                 = 60
                                 30

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The critical value of U for a one-tailed test a - 0.05 and an n  and n




of 13 is 51.  Thus our results are not significant at the 0.01  level.
                                  31

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DISCUSSION
The experimental group taken as a whole did score better on the test than
did the control group.  The experimental group made a total of 99 errors  as
compared with a total of 136 errors made by the control group.  That was a
mean score of 88 percent for the experimental group  and  82 percent for the
control group.

From Table 2 we find that the experimental and control groups were equally
divided with respect to employment and level of education.   Both groups  had
eight inspectors and both had four individuals  who had completed two years
of college.  This distribution was fortuitous considering  that the group selec-
tion was made on a completely random basis.

Although the experimental group scored better than  the control group, the
statistical significance is only marginal. With  such a small  group of sub-
jects who already have some professional experience in the subject area
of the test, it is not surprising to find that there is not a highly significant
difference between the test scores.

The evaluation of the presentation by the individuals in the  two groups does
present some significant information.  Of the 13 subjects  in the experimen-
tal group, 11 were favorable to the audiovisual presentation while only
eight were favorable in the control group.  This might be explained by
the fact that the experimental group  had more exposure to the audiovisual
technique and had thus grown more  accustomed to it. However, both groups
clearly preferred the audiovisual presentation  over the lecture.

Some of the statements expressing preference for the audiovisual  program
were:
                               32

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        "I think the audiovisual method of presentation is a
        100 percent improvement over the old lecture method.";
        "This type of presentation was much more interesting";
        "More lively than the average lecture—this is particu-
        larly important with technical material"; "Held atten-
        tion better"; "Audiovisual program  was far easier to
        follow"; "This was the most effective method of pre-
        senting and demonstrating new material I have ever
        seen."
Criticism of the audiovisual approach mainly concerned the large number of
breaks in the program for questions and discussions.  This may not have
been made had the programs been presented to individuals in a one to one
situation, with a rear screen in a well lighted room.  Part of the problem
with frequent breaks was that changes back and forth from a dark room to
full light had to be made.

In summary, it may be said that the audiovisual presentation was certainly
as effective as a conventional lecture and most individuals preferred it to
the lecture.
                                33

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                             SECTION VI
                       CERTIFICATION PLAN

GENERAL
A requirement of this demonstration program was to develop a plan for the
certification of erosion and sediment control specialists in the State of
Maryland.

The framework for this certification program was developed by  Hittman
Associates, working closely with the Maryland Water Resources Administra-
tion.

It was mutually decided that the primary thrust of the plan would be to
certify the on-site erosion and sediment control specialists.  The word
"specialist" is intended to mean only construction foreman or supervisors.
The majority of the governmental inspectors are not specialists  in that they
are also responsible for the inspection of other construction related functions
and pollution  sources.  Of course,  it is not felt that the erosion  and sediment
control inspector should be denied the opportunity to acquire the certification,
only that its acquisition not be considered an essential  requirement of his job.
However, it is important that  the governmental inspector be exposed to the
program developed in this demonstration.  It is felt that state and local
agencies responsible for erosion and sediment control will readily and
voluntarily utilize the program.  Strong leadership by  the state will be
an important factor in this regard.

On the other hand, it is felt that many of the private construction contractors
performing grading work will not quickly, nor fully utilize the  states'
program unless they  are  legally required to have a certified specialist
                                 34

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in charge of the implementation of erosion and sediment control plans on
their construction sites.  This requirement can be accomplished by an
amendment to the existing Maryland Sediment Control Law and/or Regulations.
This amendment would state to the effect that all contractors performing
grading operations shall have an on-site certified erosion and sediment con-
trol specialist to supervise the implementation of the erosion and sediment
control plans.  Only those construction sites not requiring a sediment control
plan or requiring a standard plan, as defined in the Maryland Sediment
Control Rules and Regulations, would be exempt from this requirement.

IMPLEMENTATION
One integral  part of a program to certify erosion and sediment control
specialists would be the dissemination of the materials developed in this
demonstration to the counties, constructors, and educational institutions
to help personnel  to become knowledgable erosion and sediment control
specialists.  This can best be accomplished by holding small seminars
with a knowledgable person in charge of the presentations.  State and
local governmental agencies, soil and water conservation districts, educa-
tional institutions, and large contractor's would readily utilize the material
for this use.  When a group cannot be assembled, the individual viewing
method could be employed.  The audiovisual programs are well suited  for
this type of information dissemination.

In that it will take some time to certify these specialists,  it is felt than an
interim certification should be initially  issued and a time limit set for full
certification.  It is recommended that an interim certification be required by
July 1,  1974, at which time the amendment to the law and/or regulation
would become effective, and that a full certification be required by July 1,
1976.
                                  35

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Interim Certification
The minimum requirements for interim certification should be three years
grading or related construction experience, one year of which must be in
a supervisory capacity which  includes responsibility for the implementation
of erosion and sediment control plans.  No test would be required, but an
application would have to be made to the Maryland Department of Natural
Resources and approved by the board and an interim certificate issued to
the applicant.

Full Certification
Full certification would  require five years of grading or related construction
experience, two years of which must be in a supervisory capacity which in-
cludes responsibility for implementing erosion and sediment control plans.
Up to two of the  three years of non-supervisory experience could be substi-
tuted  by job-related, post-high school  education.

The applicant would have to apply to the state for the certification and pass
a written or oral test on the subject of erosion and sediment control.   The
tests would be geared to the training program developed in this demonstra-
tion and would be administered two or  more times a year, depending upon
demand. The applicant would be allowed to take an oral exam if he failed the
written test at least twice and  had taken the prescribed state training pro-
gram  consisting of the audiovisual presentations.  No limit would be set on
the number of times the applicant could take the test.

Organization
The program would be administered by a Maryland Board of Erosion and
Sediment Control Specialist, composed of five to seven representative  mem-
bers appointed by the Secretary of the Maryland Department of Natural
                                36

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Resources.  This body would be responsible for promulgating and enforcing
rules and regulations, developing and administering the testing program,
awarding "certificates", and collecting certification fees.  Total or partial
funding would come from an application fee charged for the initial certifica-
tion and  a renewal fee collected every two years.

The board would have to be assembled no later than January  1, 1974. To
achieve interim certification by July 1,  1974, an application form would be
required prior to January 1, 1974.  This could be developed by the Depart-
ment of Water Resources and patterned after the application forms used by
the Maryland State  Board of Well Drillers, the Maryland Board of Certifica-
tion for Industrial Wastewater Works Superintendents,  and other state profes-
sional boards.  The experience of these same boards would also be very
helpful in setting up the administrative structure of the program and in pre-
paring other essential documents.
                                37

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                             SECTION VII
                             REFERENCES

1.    Guidelines for Erosion and Sediment Control Planning and
     Implementation, Water Resources Administration, State of
     Maryland and Hittman Associates, Inc., for EPA, EPA Report
     No.  EPA-RZ-72-015, August 1972.

2.    U.S. Department of Agriculture, Soil Conservation Service,
     College Park, Maryland, Standards and Specifications for
     Soil Erosion and Sediment Control in  Urbanizing Areas, 1969.
                               38

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                             SECTION VIII
                             APPENDICES

Section                                                        Page
A.    Sample Conventional  Presentations and Visuals                40
B.    Sample Conventional  Presentation Handout                    70
C.    Sample Audiovisual Script                                   80
D.    Sample Audiovisual Workbook                                98
E.    Sample Audiovisual Supervisor's Manual                     121
F.    Participant Profile Form                                    130
C.    Evaluation Questions                                       133
H.    Evaluation of Presentation Form                             144
                                 39

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            APPENDIX A

SAMPLE CONVENTIONAL PRESENTATION
          AND VISUALS

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     PROGRAMMED DEMONSTRATION
                 FOR
         EROSION AND SEDIMENT
         CONTROL SPECIALISTS
         PRESENTATION NO. 7

       CONTROL OF SEDIMENT
GENERATED ON CONSTRUCTION SITES
     Project No. S800854 (15030 FMZ)

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                     ACKNOWLEDGEMENT
Acknowledgement is hereby made that this material was pre-
pared under the assistance of a jointly sponsored Grant program
by the U.S.  Environmental Protection Agency and the State of
Maryland.
                             42

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                           LESSON NO. 7

                        CONTENT OUTLINE
I.     INTRODUCTION

II.    VEGETATIVE PRACTICES

      A.    Natural Vegetative Buffers
      B.    Woodland Areas
      C.    Graded Vegetative Buffers
      D.    Contour Strips
      E.    Sod Inlet  Filters

III.   STRUCTURAL

      A.    Dikes and Filters
            1.     Gravel Inlet Filter
            2.     Interceptor Dike and Inlet. Filter
      B.    Sediment Traps
            1.     Sandbag Trap
            2.     Straw Bale Trap
            3.     Straw Bale Barrier
            4.     Excavated Trap
      C.    Sediment Basin
            1.     Dry Basin
            2.     Wet Basin or Pond
            3.     Maintenance

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      The subject of this presentation is "Control of Sediment Generated on




Construction Sites. "  By this,  we mean the trapping of sediment on the



construction site as near its point of origin as possible.  In an indirect



sense, you may think of erosion control practices  as doing this, in that



they are designed to reduce soil erosion which, as you are aware, is the



source of sediment.  However, a point to keep in mind is that we can only



expect reasonable erosion control.  Thus, even with the  best plan,  some



erosion must be anticipated and,  therefore,  some  sediment will be gen-



erated.   This presentation is directed at the control of this sediment.



      In an erosion and sediment control plan, we  establish two separate



lines of defense against sediment damage.  The first defense is the erosion



control which reduces the amount of sediment that will be generated and the



second is the sediment control which prevents much of the  sediment from



uncontrollable  soil erosion from leaving the construction area.  To be fully



effective in preventing costly sediment damage and, at the  same time, to



prevent ugly erosion  and minimize the loss of precious topsoils,  both



defenses must  be used.



      How do we keep this sediment from damaging the environment?  This



is accomplished by using vegetative and structural practices,  some very



simple  and others more complicated,  that trap most of the sediment before




it leaves the construction site.  The purpose of this presentation is



to show you some of these practices and to point out pertinent factors



regarding their construction, use, and maintenance.

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      Sediment control practices are designed to slow the flow of water
either by spreading, ponding, or filtering.  By so doing, the ability of the
water to transport sediment is reduced and sediment settles out of suspen-
sion.  The amount of sediment removed from the runoff is dependent upon
three factors:  First, the speed that the water flows through the trap;
secondly,  the length of time the water is detained; and  lastly, the size and
weight of the sediment particle carried into the trap.
      With regard to the first two factors, the slower the flow of water and
the longer  it is detained,  the greater will be the quantity of  sediment removed
      The size and weight of the sediment particles  determine the speed at
which they settle out of suspension.  The larger and heavier a particle, the
faster it settles out.  The efficiency of sediment trapping is expressed as
the percent of sediment removed from the runoff.
      Now  that we have reviewed the basic principles governing the function
and efficiency of sediment traps, let's look at some of  the practices used to
trap sediment.

      SLIDE NO. 1  -  CAPTION:   VEGETATIVE PRACTICES
                                   STRUCTURAL PRACTICES

      There are two types of sediment control practices — vegetative and
structural.  Let's look at the vegetative practices first.

      SLIDE NO. 2  -  CAPTION:   VEGETATIVE PRACTICES
                                   1.  NATURAL VEGETATIVE BUFFERS
                                   2.  WOODLAND AREAS
                                   3.  GRADED VEGETATIVE BUFFERS
                                   4.  CONTOUR STRIPS
                                   5.  SOD INLET FILTERS

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These include natural vegetative buffers, graded vegetative buffers, contour

strips,  woodland areas,  and sod inlet filters.


      SLIDE NO. 3  -   NATURAL VEGETATIVE BUFFER


      A natural vegetative buffer is  a strip of natural vegetation preserved

along the downhill perimeter of the graded area to slow and filter overland

flow.  Keep in mind that this is one  of the more effective and economical

methods of removing sediment from overland flow.  The preservation of

such a buffer  is most essential along waterways.

      The need for preserving natural buffer areas must be recognized at

the planning and design stage of development and these areas must be

prominently displayed  on the construction plans as off-limits to all construc-

tion activity.


      SLIDE NO. 4  -   UTILITY CONSTRUCTION ALONG A  STREAM


      Except for  essential roadway crossings, no construction must be

allowed within the buffer area.  Good planning by the engineer and careful

grading by the contractor could have preserved a protective buffer along

this stream and prevented serious sediment pollution.  Instead, all of the

vegetation was destroyed along the stream bank and the spoil from the

utility excavation was pushed into the stream.


      SLIDE NO. 5  -   STOCKPILED SOIL ON A FLOODPLAIN ,


      This is  another example of poor sediment control planning.  The

contractor was allowed to stockpile  soil on a floodplain.  Not only is the

chance of sediment pollution from overland flow greatly increased by this

action,  but the prospects of damaging flooding coupled with very severe

erosion is greatly enhanced.
                                    46

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      SLIDE NO.  6  -    NATURAL VEGETATIVE BUFFER DAMAGED
                         BY CONSTRUCTION TRAFFIC


      This is still another example of what not to do to a vegetated buffer

area whether it be natural or planted.  Vegetation damaged by uncontrolled

construction traffic  cannot efficiently filter overland  flow.  Keep all traffic

out of the area and maintain a vigorous cover of vegetation.


      SLIDE NO.  7 -   VEGETATIVE BUFFER BELOW A FILL


      Because of  its low, dense growth and other factors, grass is the best

vegetative filter material.  Thick,  low-growing legumes  such  as white or

red clover are also  effective filters.

      Even during the dormant winter months,  the mat provided by the dead

foliage still slows the flow of runoff and traps sediment before it reaches

the drainage system.


      SLIDE NO.  8   -   WOODLAND LITTER


      The  thick mat of litter covering natural woodland areas also provides

a high degree of filtering action as  well as aiding in the absorption of runoff.


      SLIDE NO.  9  -    SEDIMENT DEPOSITION IN A WOODLAND AREA


      Considerable  care must be exercised,  however, in utilizing woodland

areas for trapping sediment.  The deposition of a couple  of inches or more

of sediment around  a tree may reduce the oxygen supply to the shallow feeder

roots to  such an extent that the tree will die. It is best to use such areas

only for  the filtering of overland flow and not for filtering concentrated

flow containing heavy concentrations of sediment.

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      SLIDE NO. 10 -   TREES DESTROYED BY SEDIMENT


      Remember,  it is a simple matter to reestablish a cover of grass

destroyed by sedimentation,  but not so a stand of trees.


      SLIDE NO. 11 -   CONSTRUCTED VEGETATIVE BUFFER


      When it is not possible to preserve a natural vegetative buffer,  one

can be constructed.  We then refer to it as a constructed vegetative buffer.

Planning for the construction must be done during early design stages.

      The flatter and the longer the buffer area can be made, the more

sediment it will retain.  A positive grade of two percent will provide  con-

trolled spreading and runoff.


      SLIDE NO. 12 -   CONSTRUCTED VEGETATIVE BUFFER


      Timely establishment of vegetation on the buffer is a must if it  is to

be fully effective.


      SLIDE NO. 13 -   SEDIMENT-LADEN RUNOFF FLOWING
                        OVER A GRASSED AREA


      A thick stand^of grass  slows the overland flow and filters out sediment.

In addition to filtering the flow, the vegetation allows more water to be

absorbed by the soil  and thus decreases the ability of the runoff to transport

sediment.
      SLIDE NO. 14 -   SEDIMENT TRAPPED BY GRASS BELOW
         :               A GRADED AREA
      Note the effectiveness of both the flattened slope and the grass in

trapping sediment from the overland flow coming off the graded area.


                                      48

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      SLIDE NO. 15 -   SODDED DRAINAGEWAY ADJACENT TO
                        A GRADED AREA


      Staged grading  is a means of providing a vegetative buffer along a

drainageway.  In this case,  the drainageway was constructed and stabilized

with vegetation prior to the  beginning of roadway construction.


      SLIDE NO. 16 -   GRASSED EMBANKMENT ABOVE A DENUDED
                        BUFFER STRIP AND CHANNEL CHANGE


      This roadway construction  site reflects very poor planning on the

part of the engineer.   The channel change  and buffer strip were  constructed

before the embankment in the foreground.   The buffer strip was not vegetated

prior to the embankment construction.   In fact, the embankment was vege-

tated before the buffer area.


      SLIDE NO. 17 -   SEDIMENT WASHED INTO WATERWAY


By failing to promptly vegetate the buffer strip, thousands of tons of sediment

were washed  into the lower-lying waterway.


      SLIDE NO. 18 -   SEDIMENT-CLOGGED CHANNEL AND
                        RESULTING BANK EROSION


      The heavy deposition  of sediment in  the channel forced  the stream to

meander  and erode the bank.   Additional sediment was introduced into the

drainage  system as a result.


      SLIDE NO. 19 -   VEGETATIVE  CONTOUR STRIPS OR BUFFERS

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      Here is a sediment trapping method that has been borrowed from the




farmer.  It is used to break the flow of runoff on long hillsides and is called




contour stripping.  It involves the establishment of strips of vegetation,




usually grass sod,  along the ground contour at regular intervals up the slope.




These buffer strips slow the flow and reduce the amount of runoff, thereby




reducing erosion, while at the same time trapping much of the sediment




generated from unpreventable erosion.






      SLIDE  NO. 20 -   VEGETATIVE  "RIGHT-OF-WAY"  BUFFER






      The use of a  vegetative buffer near the base  of a highway slope serves



the same function as the contour strips.






      SLIDE  NO. 21 -   SOD INLET FILTER






      The sod inlet filter is another vegetative practice used to control




sediment.  It consists of pads of sod placed around the storm drain inlet and




works on the same  principle as  the vegetative buffer areas previously  dis-




cussed.  The grass slows the flow of water into the inlet and filters  out




appreciable amounts of sediment.   The size.of the sodded area is varied




depending upon the  amount of runoff expected at the inlet.  This practice




should only be used to handle light concentrations of sediment. It can  best




be used after final  grading is complete and during  the establishment of a




vegetative cover.






      SLIDE  NO. 22 -   CONCENTRATED RUNOFF CARRYING SEDIMENT
                                   50

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      Once the flow becomes concentrated, as it does in ditches and other
drainageways,  the trapping of sediment becomes much more difficult and
expensive.

      SLIDE NO. 23 -   STORM DRAIN CLOGGED WITH SEDIMENT

      Although it is not feasible to trap all of the generated sediment, we
can certainly retain enough of it to prevent disastrous damage such as this.
Remember, the amount of sediment that escapes our control practices must
be kept to a level that the waterway can effectively handle.
      To prevent this type of damage, structural practices are also required
to control the sediment.

      SLIDE NO. 24 -   CAPTION:  STRUCTURAL PRACTICES
                                    1.  DIKES AND FILTERS
                                    2.  SEDIMENT TRAPS
                                    3.  SEDIMENT BASINS

      These include dikes and filters, sediment traps,  and sediment basins.
      On urban construction sites and on major highway projects where
storm drains are used, the prevention of sediment damage to the drainage
system becomes a particularly important task.

      SLIDE NO. 25 -   UNPROTECTED  STORM DRAIN INLET

      To provide for  drainage during construction,  storm drains must be
installed well ahead of final grading.  As a result,  sediment  generated on the
graded areas is given unrestricted access to the drainage system downstream
of the construction site.
                                    51

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      SLIDE NO. 26 -   SEDIMENT IN STREAM CHANNEL BELOW
                        STORM DRAIN OUTFALL
      Failure to take adequate measures to trap much of the sediment before

it reaches the storm drainage system will lead  to extremely costly damage

to the storm drain as well as to the waterways lying below the outfall.


      SLIDE NO. 27 -   SEDIMENT  CLOGGING STREAM IN
                        WOODLAND AREA


      This is a common example of what happens  when sediment is given

unrestricted access to the storm drainage system.  The cost to remove

the  sediment from this  stream will run to  several thousands of dollars and,

in many instances,  will be borne by the taxpayer.  Consider also the  damage

to the trees and other vegetation as well as the  total destruction of the stream

ecology which cannot be measured in dollars and  cents.


      SLIDE NO. 28 -   GRAVEL INLET  FILTER


      In this case,  coarse gravel was piled around an inlet to form a  barrier

that will both temporarily impound runoff and act  as a filter.  This structure

is commonly referred to as a gravel  inlet  filter.

      Crushed  stone is  also used to construct this type of filter barrier. In

addition to providing a certain amount of filtering action,  gravel or crushed

stone is highly resistant to erosion should overtopping occur during heavy

storms.
      SLIDE NO. 29 -   GRAVEL INLET FILTER ALONG PROPOSED
      	     ROADWAY GUTTER
                                   52

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      The configuration of the gravel inlet filter will depend upon the type of

inlet being protected.   This,  for example, is a standard inlet used along

concrete roadway gutters in urban areas.  In this case, the stone is placed

directly in front of the inlet opening.  To keep the stone from falling into


      SLIDE NO.  30 -   DRAWING OF GRAVEL INLET FILTER
                        ALONG ROADWAY GUTTER


the storm drain,  concrete blocks are inserted in the opening.  A board

placed across the opening with a space  of at least one-half inch at the top

and bottom will also work.


      SLIDE NO.  31 -   GRAVEL INLET FILTER PONDING RUNOFF


      As mentioned before,  an inlet  filter is designed to temporarily pond

runoff as well as to act as a filter.   Ponding* slows the flow of runoff and

allows much of the sediment to settle out of the  water.


      SLIDE NO.  32 -   GRAVEL INLET FILTER REQUIRING
                        MAINTENANCE


      Prompt maintenance  is a very essential requirement for the successful

operation of a sediment trap.  As you are aware,  in order for this inlet filter

to be fully effective,  it must be able to  temporarily pond and filter the runoff.

Completely clogged with sediment,  it can do neither.


      SLIDE NO.  33 -   BREACHED INTERCEPTOR DIKE
                                    53

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      When clogging occurs, the sediment is simply carried over the stone

and into the storm drain or,  as in this case, the interceptor, dike which

directs the water into the inlet was washed out, allowing the sediment and

runoff to continue down-the right-of-way and onto the lower-lying highway.

From there,  it quickly found its way into the storm drainage  system and

eventually into the natural drainage  courses.

      To prevent this from happening, the trap must be inspected after eacl

storm and cleaned prior to becoming ineffective — not after.  Furthermore,

the sediment that is removed must not be disposed of back on the graded

right-of-way, but instead in a stabilized area away  from the grading where

the sediment cannot be reintroduced into the drainage system.  A solution

that would allow it to be  disposed on the site would be to bury it in a fill.

Care must be exercised,  however, to see  that an adverse foundation con-

dition is  not created.
      SLIDE NO. 34 -   SOIL INTERCEPTOR DIKE AND GRAVEL
                        INLET FILTERS
      On roadway rights-of-way, an interceptor dike is used to intercept

runoff coming down the graded roadway and divert it into storm drain inlets

protected by gravel filters.  By combining the two structures, the trapping

efficiency is greatly increased.  As you can see,  water is ponded along the

entire length of the interceptor dike.

      As well as  aiding in the trapping of sediment, the interceptor dike, as

you may recall from a previous lesson, also helps control erosion by diverting

runoff away from the graded surface.


      SLIDE NO. 35 -   SANDBAG SEDIMENT TRAP
                                    54

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      Any structure that interrupts the flow of runoff that is transporting

the sediment will trap sediment.  The amount of sediment that it will collect

or its efficiency will depend on how long it is able to detain the flow.

      This is a sandbag sediment trap constructed across a ditch upstream

of a storm drain inlet.  This practice is a quick and economical method of

temporarily disrupting flow and trapping the coarser sediment particles.

By positioning these barriers at regular intervals along the ditch,  a high

degree of trapping  efficiency can be achieved.

      The sandbags are filled with soil or stone and are stacked in an inter-

locking fashion to provide additional strength for resisting the force of the

flowing water.


      SLIDE NO. 36 -    CROSS SECTIONAL DRAWING OF TYPICAL
                         SANDBAG STRUCTURE


      A major cause of failure  for many of the temporary sediment traps  is

piping.  This is the flow of water beneath the structure rather than through

or  over the top of the barrier.  By  setting the sandbags  in a trench excavated

a minimum of six inches  in depth and by firmly tamping soil along the uphill

face of the bags, the chance of  piping failure is greatly reduced.


      SLIDE NO. 37 -    STRAW BALE SEDIMENT  TRAP


      Straw or hay bales  are also used to construct  small temporary barriers

to trap sediment.   Straw  bale traps are a fast and economical means of

providing a temporary  sediment trap,  Although they function well when

properly installed,  straw bak: traps :Jo  deteriorate rather rapidly.   One

means of prolonging the service ii/e ~-i the trap is by using wire-tied bales

rather than those tied with twine.
                                    55

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When only twine-tied bales are available, the same effect can be achieved

by securely wrapping them with sturdy wire at the location of the twine.

      In constructing the trap,  the bales are laid on their  sides and staked

in place.  At least two wooden or metal stakes are driven through each bale

and into the ground.


      SLIDE NO. 38 -   CROSS SECTIONAL DRAWING OF A
                        STRAW BALE TRAP


      As in  the case of sandbag traps,  piping beneath the structure can

render the trap ineffective.   To prevent this, the straw bales are also set

in a trench excavated to a depth of at least six inches and  excavated soil is

compacted along the upstream face.


      SLIDE NO. 39 -   SEDIMENT COLLECTED BEHIND A
                        STRAW BALE TRAP


      Like all other  sediment traps,  straw bale and sandbag traps also

require periodic inspection and very prompt maintenance  if they are to

continuously function. Again, sediment removal does not mean shoveling

the  sediment off to one side where the next storm will send it directly back

into the drainage system.  Instead,  properly dispose of it in a noncritical

fill  or some other safe area.


      SLIDE NO. 40 -   STRAW BALE PERIMETER BARRIER


      Before departing from straw bales,  it is important to point out  another

of their applications for trapping sediment.  This is in providing a sediment

barrier along the downhill perimeters of small graded  sites where area

restrictions or other factors prevent the use of other practices.
                                    56

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      In this case,  the bales were placed along the base of a short graded

slope to prevent sediment from being washed out onto the roadway.  The

bales must be placed in the same manner as prescribed for those used to

construct small traps.


      SLIDE NO. 41 -    BARRIER FAILURE


      Close inspection is required to insure that the barrier is retaining the

sediment.  Where failures occur, corrective action must be taken immediately


      SLIDE NO. 42 -    EXCAVATED SEDIMENT TRAP IN A
                         ROADWAY DITCH


      Another means of trapping sediment before it enters the storm drainage

system is to excavate a pit on the upstream side of the  inlet.  As  in the case

of all of the other traps,  its function is to temporarily detain the runoff and

thereby allow some of the sediment to settle out.  The buildup of sediment

at the upstream end of this pit attests to  the effectiveness of this type  of

trap.


      SLIDE NO. 43 -    LARGE  EXCAVATED TRAP AROUND A
                         STORM DRAIN  INLET


      Here is an example of a large excavated sediment trap used on a

school construction site.   It is an excellent  example of  very  good  planning

on the part of the engineer.  This trap cost  very little to construct in that

it made use of existing structures.   The  only additional cost incurred was

in excavating the pit.  Another plus factor was that the  pit was made big

enough to accommodate all of the sediment coming off the graded  area  without

requiring cleaning.  Thus, once the sediment-yielding area is stabilized, the

the pit area can simply be filled in the rest  of the  way with soil and covered

with sod.
                                    57

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      Also,  note the well-constructed diversion dikes leading up to the

sediment trap. Their purpose is to prevent sediment from leaving the

construction site  and to divert it, instead, into the trap.


      SLIDE NO.  44 -   DRY SEDIMENT BASIN


      Sediment basins are the most effective structures for trapping sedi-

ment.  They are used on large construction sites where heavy concentrations

of both runoff  and sediment  are anticipated.

      Sediment basins are formed by constructing an earthen dam across a

drainageway,  thus causing the runoff to pond during storms.  There  are two

basic types  of sediment basin — the dry basin and the wet basin.  The basin

shown on the screen is an example of a dry sediment basin.   It is designed to

only temporarily impound runoff during rainfalls.


      SLIDE NO. 45 -   STANDARD GALVANIZED METAL RISER PIPE


The structure is  drained by a standard metal riser pipe open at the top to

handle runoff  at a controlled rate during storms.  Perforations are provided

along the pipe to  prevent the structure from permanently ponding water.  The

odd-looking device  at the top of the riser pipe is an antivortex plate and

trash rack.  Its purpose is to increase the intake capacity of the pipe and at

the same time to minimize the possibility of trash blockage.


      SLIDE NO. 46 -   RISER PIPE CONNECTED TO
                        HORIZONTAL BARREL


      The riser pipe is connected to a metal horizontal drain pipe, called a

barrel, that conducts the water through the earthen dam.


      SLIDE NO. 47 -   EMERGENCY SPILLWAY


                                   58

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      An emergency spillway is provided in the event the runoff exceeds the



design capacity of the pipe structures.




      A formal design by an engineer or other similarly qualified individual




is required to properly size the basin and all of its components to the




drainage area emptying into the basin.  Another reason for this requirement




is safety.  The failure of larger impoundments could lead to costly property



damage and even loss of life.




      Close control must also be provided to insure that proper construction




practices are employed.  Only suitable soils must be used to construct the




dam and a high degree of compaction must be achieved.






      SLIDE NO. 48 -    DRY SEDIMENT BASIN






      Proper vertical positioning of riser pipe as well as good bonding




between the structure and the  barrel are also very  essential to the proper




performance of the structure as well as safety,






      SLIDE NO. 49 -    PIPING FAILURE  IN A  DRY SEDIMENT BASIN






      Piping failures, that is, flow along the outside of the  drain pipe,  are




all  too common in temporary dry sediment basins.   A cavity at the base of




the riser pipe is  the tell-tale evidence of such failure.  This problem is the




result of poor bonding between the drain pipe and the soil forming the dam.






      SLIDE NO. 50 -    FAILED DRY  SEDIMENT  BASIN






      If not corrected, piping  will,  in time, lead to the total failure of the




dam.
                                    59

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      Before constructing a sediment basin, it is advisable to consult the



state and local regulations governing their design and construction.  One



can obtain these regulations from the local soil and water conservation



district, county or city public works department, or the state pollution



control agency.





      SLIDE NO.  51 -   SEDIMENT BASIN REQUIRING CLEANING






      Another factor that is too often ignored is  cleaning.  Many sediment



control structures are well-conceived, designed, and constructed, but fail



to perform their required function because of the absence of follow-up



maintenance.  In this case, the basin is completely filled with sediment.



The trapping efficiency has dropped to  zero and  incoming sediment has



unrestricted access into the riser pipe and out into the lower-lying drainage



system.



      To prevent this from happening,  it is essential that the erosion and



sediment plan incorporate methods for determining when a basin has filled



to its capacity and strong language as to the immediate requirement for



cleanout once this occurs.






      SLIDE NO.  52 -   MARKED RISER PIPE






      To assist the foreman and inspector in determining when cleaning  is



required, a marking should be made on the riser pipe to indicate the level



that sediment can build up to before cleaning becomes  essential.






      SLIDE NO.  53 -   CLEANING OF A DRY  SEDIMENT BASIN
                                    60

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      Dry sediment basins are usually cleaned with a backhoe or a dragline.

Smaller basins having firm foundations are  sometimes  cleaned with front-

end loaders.


      SLIDE NO.  54 -    RISER PIPE EXTENDING ABOVE DAM


      Earlier,  we mentioned the need to insure that the riser is positioned

properly.  In inspecting construction,  a point to also  check for is that the

top of the pipe is at least one foot below the crest of the dam.  This riser

obviously does not comply.  When an emergency spillway is required, the distance

between the top of the dam and the crest of the emergency  spillway must also be
at least one foot. The construction specifications for the basin must specify this
required freeboard.

      SLIDE NO.  55 -    BREACHED SEDIMENT BASIN


Failure to adhere to these specifications is  likely to result in overtopping

during heavy storms  and breaching of the dam.


      SLIDE NO.  56 -    WET SEDIMENT BASIN

      Dry sediment basins are constructed on drainageways that  only flow

during storms.  Often, it also becomes necessary to  dam permanent

streams in order to trap sediment.  When this becomes necessary,  a wet

sediment basin is constructed.  In other words, a pond  is  created.

      On large residential developments,  recreational impoundments also

function as sediment  traps.  After the  watershed is fully developed, the pond

is cleaned and stocked with fish.

      Wet sediment basins,  or sediment ponds as they are also called,

require a formal design and strict construction control  for safety reasons.
                                   61

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      SLIDE NO. 57 -    DRAGLINE CLEANING OF A SEDIMENT POND


      Cleaning of a sediment pond is a costly operation requiring heavy

equipment, in this case a dragline, and an elaborate scheme to dispose of

the excavated  sediment in a manner that will prevent it" from being reintro-

duced into the drainage system.


      SLIDE NO. 58 -    DREDGING OPERATION


      On larger  sediment ponds,  it is necessary to use portable dredges to

clean the sediment out of the pond.


      SLIDE NO. 59 -    DREDGE SPOIL DISPOSAL


      The dredge spoil is pumped directly from the dredge to the disposal

area.  The disposal area in this case is a dry basin. Upon filling, the basin

area will be graded and, in time,  will be  developed into a recreational park.


      SLIDE NO. 60 -    CAPTION:  REVIEW OF SEDIMENT CONTROL
                                   PRACTICES


      Before going to the question and answer period,  let's take a quick  look

at all of the practices  covered in the  presentation.


      SLIDE NO. 61 -    REPEAT OF SLIDE NO.  3


These included natural vegetative buffer areas . . . .


      SLIDE NO. 62 -    REPEAT OF SLIDE NO.  12


constructed vegetative buffers	


      SLIDE NO. 63 -    REPEAT OF SLIDE NO.  8
                                   62

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natural woodland areas	







      SLIDE NO. 64 -   REPEAT OF SLIDE NO.  19






vegetative contour strips or buffers	






      SLIDE NO. 65 -   REPEAT OF SLIDE NO.  21






sod inlet filter ....






      SLIDE NO. 66 -   REPEAT OF SLIDE NO.  29






gravel inlet filter	






      SLIDE NO. 67 -   REPEAT OF SLIDE NO.  34






interceptor  dike	






      SLIDE NO. 68 -   REPEAT OF SLIDE NO.  35






sandbag trap	






      SLIDE NO. 69 -   REPEAT OF SLIDE NO.  37






straw bale trap	






      SLIDE NO. 70 -   REPEAT OF SLIDE NO.  40






straw bale barrier	






      SLIDE NO. 71 -   REPEAT OF SLIDE NO.  43






excavated trap .....
                                    63

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      SLIDE NO. 72 -    REPEAT OF SLIDE NO. 44






dry sediment basin.  ....






      SI JDK NO. 73  -    REPEAT OF SLIDE NO. 56






and the wet sediment basin or sediment pond.




      This concludes the presentation on controlling  erosion during construction,








      NOTE:     TURN LIGHTS ON








      Are there any  questions or comments on the sediment control practices




covered in this presentation?
                                    64

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                 VISUALS FOR PRESENTATION NO.  7
SLIDE NO. 1
SLIDE NO. 2
SLIDE NO. 3
SLIDE NO. 7
SLIDE NO. 8
    ^ .  "*-. *:

SLIDE NO. 9

   ,
 SLIDE NO.  10
     -.
SLJDL NO.  11
SLIDE NO. 12
 SLIDE NO.  13
SLIDE NO.  14
SLIDE NO. 15

                                                j.i.'
                                 65

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SLIDE NO.  16           SLIDE NO. 17          SLIDE NO. 18
SLIDE NO. 19          SLIDE NO. 20          SLIDE NO. 21
SLIDE NO. 22
                                66

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SLIDE NO. 31
SLIDE NO. 32
SLIDE NO. 33
SLIDE NO.  40
SLIDE NO.  41
SLIDE NO.  42
                               67

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SLIDE NO.  46
SLIDE NO.  47
SLIDE NO.  48
                                 B

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 SLIDE NO.  61
SLIDE NO. 62
SLIDE NO.  63
 SLIDE NO.  64
                                                                I
SLIDE NO.  65
SLIDE NO.
I


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               APPENDIX  B




SAMPLE FOR A CONVENTIONAL PRESENTATION
                  70

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       PRESENTATION NO. 7









      CONTROL OF SEDIMENT




GENERATED ON CONSTRUCTION SITES
            HANDOUT
                 71

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                     ACKNOWLEDGEMENT
Acknowledgement is hereby made that this material was pre-
pared under the assistance of a jointly sponsored Grant program
by the U.S.  Environmental Protection Agency and the State of
Maryland.
                                72

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                           INTRODUCTION
      By the "Control of Sediment Generated on Construction Sites, "
we mean the trapping of sediment on the construction site as near its
point of origin as possible.  In an indirect sense, one might think of
erosion control practices as doing this, in that they are designed to
reduce soil erosion which  is the source of sediment. However,  a
point to keep in mind is that one can only expect reasonable erosion
control.  Thus,  even with  the best plan,  some erosion must be antici-
pated and therefore some sediment  will be generated.

      In an erosion and sediment control plan,  we establish two separate
lines of defense against sediment damage.   The first defense is the ero-
sion control which reduces the amount of sediment  that will be generated
and the second  is the sediment control which prevents  much of the  sedi-
ment from uncontrollable soil erosion from  leaving the construction
area.  To be fully effective in preventing costly sediment damage and,
at the same time,  to prevent ugly "erosion and minimize the loss of
precious topsoils, both defenses must be used.

      Sediment control actually begins during the planning and design
phases of construction, starting with layout  or  alignment studies and
culminating with the preparation of an erosion and  sediment control
plan.   However, in this lesson,  we  will deal only with  sediment con-
trol during construction.   This  involves the  use of  both vegetative and
structural practices, some very simple and others more complicated,
to trap most of the sediment before it leaves the construction site.

      Sediment control practices are designed to slow  the flow of water
either  by spreading, ponding, or filtering.  By so doing,  the ability of
the water to transport sediment  is reduced and sediment settles  out of
suspension.  The amount of sediment removed  from the runoff is depen-
dent upon three factors: First,  the speed that the water flows through
the trap; secondly, the length of time the water  is detained; and last, the
the size and weight of the sediment  particle  carried into the trap.

      There are two types of sediment practices —  vegetative and
structural.
                                    73

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                    VEGETATIVE PRACTICES


      The vegetative practices include:

      (1)   Natural vegetative buffers

      (2)   Woodland areas

      (3)   Graded vegetative buffers

      (4)   Contour strips

      (5)   Sod inlet filters


Natural Vegetative Buffer

      A natural vegetative buffer is a strip of natural  vegetation pre-
served along the downhill perimeter of the graded area to slow and
filter overland flow.  This is one of the more effective and economical
methods of removing sediment from overland flow.  The preservation
of such a buffer is most essential along waterways.

      The need for preserving natural buffer areas must be recognjzed
at the planning and design stage of development and these areas must
be prominently displayed on the construction plans as off-limits to all
construction activity.   Except for essential roadway crossings,  no con-
struction must be allowed within the buffer area.  The contractor  must
not be allowed to stockpile soil on a floodplain.  Not only is the chance
of sediment pollution from overland flow greatly increased by this
action,  but the prospects of  damaging flooding coupled with very severe
erosion is greatly enhanced.

      All construction traffic must  also be kept off the buffer.  A dense
healthy stand of vegetation must be maintained in order for the buffer
to effectively filter runoff.

      Because of its low, dense growth and other factors,  grass is the
best vegetative filter material.  Thick, low-growing legumes such as
white or red clover  are also effective filters.  Even during the dormant
winter months, the mat provided by the dead foliage still slows the flow
of runoff and traps sediment before it reaches the drainage system.


Woodland Areas

      The thick mat of  litter covering natural woodland areas also pro-
vides a high  degree  of filter  action as well as aiding in the  absorption

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of runoff.  Considerable care must be exercised,  however, in utilizing
woodland areas for trapping sediment.  The deposition of several inches
or more of sediment around a tree may reduce the oxygen supply to the
shallow feeder roots to such an extent that the tree will die.  It is best
to use such areas only for the filtering of overland flow and not for fil-
tering concentrated  flow containing heavy concentrations of sediment.
It is a simple matter to reestablish a cover of grass destroyed by sedi-
mentation, but not so a stand of trees.
Graded Vegetative Buffer

      When it is not possible to preserve a natural vegetative buffer,
one can be constructed.  It is then referred to as a graded vegetative
buffer. Planning  for the construction must be done during early design
stages.  The flatter and the longer the buffer area can be made, the
more sediment it  will retain.  A positive grade of two percent will pro-
vide controlled spreading and runoff.

      Timely establishment of vegetation on  the buffer is also  a must if
the buffer is to be fully effective.  A thick stand of grass slows the  over-
land flow and filters out sediment.   In addition to filtering the  flow, the
vegetation allows  more water to be absorbed by the  soil and thus decreases
the ability of the runoff to transport  sediment.

      When grading must be performed along a  waterway,  stage the work
so that grading and vegetative stabilization are  completed along the side
of the waterway first.


Vegetative  Contour Strips
      The use of vegetative contour strips is a practice borrowed from
the farmer.  It is used to break the flow of runoff on long hillsides.  It
involves the  establishment of strips of vegetation, usually grass sod,
along the ground contour at regular intervals up the slope.  These buffer
strips slow the flow and reduce the amount of runoff, thereby reducing
erosion, while at the same time trapping much of the sediment generated
from unpreventable erosion.
 Sod Inlet Filter

      The sod inlet filter is another vegetative practice used to control
 sediment.  It consists of pads of sod placed around the storm drain inlet
 and works on the same principle as the vegetative buffer  areas previously
 discussed.  The grass  slows the flow of water into the inlet and filters
 out appreciable amounts of sediment.  The size of the sodded area is
 varied depending upon the amount of runoff expected at the  inlet.  This
 practice should only be used to handle light  concentrations  of sediment.
 It can best be used after final grading is complete and during the  estab-
 lishment of a vegetative cover.
                                    75

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                     STRUCTURAL PRACTICES
      Structural practices include:

      (1)   Dikes and filters

      (2)   Sediment traps

      (3)   Sediment basins

      On urban construction sites and on major highway projects where
storm drains are used, the prevention of sediment damage to the drainage
system  becomes  a particularly important task.  To provide for drainage
during construction, storm drains must be installed well ahead of final
grading.  As a result, sediment  generated  on the graded areas is given
unrestricted  access to the drainage system downstream of the construc-
tion site.   Failure to take adequate measures to trap much of the sedi-
ment  before it reaches the storm drainage  system will lead to extremely
costly damage to the storm drain as well as to the waterways lying below
the outfall.  The  cost to remove  the sediment from a-stream can run to
several thousands of dollars and, in many  instances, will be borne by
the taxpayer.   Consider also the damage to the trees and other vegeta-
tion as well as the total destruction of the stream  ecology which cannot
be measured in dollars and cents.
Gravel Inlet Filter

      In  constructing a gravel inlet filter,- coarse gravel or crushed stone
is piled around an inlet to form a barrier that will both temporarily im-
pound  runoff and act as a filter.   In addition to providing a certain amount
of filtering action,  gravel or crushed stone is highly resistant to erosion
should overtopping occur during heavy storms.

      The  configuration of the gravel inlet filter will depend upon the
type of inlet being protected.  In the case of a standard curb inlet, the
stone is  placed directly in front of the  inlet opening.  To keep the stone
from falling into the storm drain,  concrete blocks are inserted into the
opening.  A board placed across the opening with a space of at least
one-half inch at the top and bottom will also work.

       Prompt maintenance is a very essential requirement for the suc-
cessful operation of any sediment control structure,  in order for an
inlet filter to be  fully effective, it must be able to temporarily pond and
filter the runoff.  Completely clogged with sediment,  it can do neither.
When  clogging occurs,  the sediment is simply carried over the stone
and  into  the storm drain.  To prevent this from happening, the trap must
be inspected after each storm and cleaned prior to becoming  ineffective —
not after.  Furthermore, the sediment that is removed must  not be dis-
posed  of back on the graded  right-of-way, but instead in a stabilized
                                    76

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area away from the grading where the sediment cannot be reintroduced
into the drainage system.

      On roadway rights-of-way,  an interceptor dike is often used to
intercept runoff coming down the graded roadway and divert it  into
storm drain inlets protected by gravel filters.   As well as  aiding in the
trapping of sediment,  the interceptor dike also helps control erosion by
diverting runoff away from the graded surface.


Sandbag Sediment Trap

      A quick and economical method of temporarily disrupting flow and
trapping the coarser sediment particles is a sandbag sediment trap con-
structed across a ditch upstream of a storm drain inlet.  By positioning
these barriers at regular intervals along the ditch,  a high degree of
trapping efficiency can be  achieved.  The sandbags are filled with soil
or stone and are stacked in an interlocking fashion to provide additional
strength for resisting  the force of the flowing water.

      A major cause of failure for many of the  temporary sediment traps
is piping.   This is the flow of water beneath the structure rather than
through or over the top of  the barrier.  By setting the sandbags in a
trench excavated a minimum of six inches in depth and by firmly tamping
soil along the uphill face of the bags,  the chance of piping failure is
greatly reduced.
Straw Bale Sediment Trap

      Straw or hay bales  are also used to construct small temporary
barriers to trap sediment.  Straw bale traps are a fast and economical
means of providing a temporary sediment trap.  Although they function
well when properly installed,  straw bale traps deteriorate rather rapidly.
One means of prolonging  the service life of the trap is by using wire-tied
bales rather  than those tied with twine.   When only twine-tied bales are
available,  the same effect can be achieved by securely wrapping them
with sturdy wire at the location of the twine.

      In  constructing the  trap, the  bales are  laid on their sides and
staked in place.  At least two wooden or metal stakes  are driven through
each bale and into the ground.

      As in the case of sandbag traps,  piping beneath the structure can
render the trap ineffective.  To prevent this,  the straw bales are also
set in a trench excavated to a depth of at least six inches and excavated
soil is compacted  along the upstream face.

      Like all other sediment traps,  straw bale  and sandbag traps also
require periodic inspection and very prompt  maintenance if they are to
continuously  function.  Again,  sediment removal does not mean shoveling
                                    77

-------
the sediment off to one side where the next storm will send it directly
back into the drainage system.  Instead, properly dispose of it in a safe
area.

      Straw bales  can also be used to provide a sediment barrier along
the downhill perimeters of small graded sites where area restrictions
or other factors prevent the use of other practices. , When used in this
manner, the bales provide a barrier that slows and filters overland flow.

      In constructing a straw bale barrier, the bales are placed in the
same manner as prescribed for straw bale traps used in ditches and
other small waterways.
jCxcavated Sediment Trap

      Another means of trapping sediment before it enters the storm
drainage system is to excavate a pit on the upstream side of the inlet.
As in the case of all of the other traps, its function is to temporarily
detain the runoff and thereby allow some of the sediment to settle out.
This type of trap costs very little to construct in that it makes use of
existing structures.  The only additional cost incurred is in excavating
the pit.
Sediment Basins

      Sediment basins are the most effective structures for trapping
sediment.  They are used on large construction sites where heavy icon-
centrations.of both runoff and sediment are anticipated.  There are two
types of sediment basins — the dry basin and the wet basin.  Both are
constructed by damming a waterway.  Dry sediment basins are con-
structed on waterways that flow only during  storms.  Wet basins,  on the
other hand, are constructed on both intermittent and permanent water-
ways.

      Dry basins and,  in  most instances, wet basins are drained by a
standard metal riser pipe open at the top to  handle runoff at a controlled
rate during storms.  In dry basins, perforations are provided along the
pipe to prevent the structure from permanently ponding water. An anti-
vortex plate and trash rack are  attached at the top of the riser pipe. Their
purpose is to increase the intake capacity of the pipe and at the same
time to minimize the possibility of trash blockage.

      For safety reasons, the top of the riser must be positioned properly.
In small basins,  the top of the pipe must be  at least one foot below the
crest of the dam.  When an emergency spillway is required, the distance
between the top of the dam and the crest of the emergency spillway must
also be at least one foot.   Failure to adhere to these specifications is
likely to result in overtopping during heavy storms and breaching of the
dam.
                                    78

-------
      The bottom of the riser pipe is connected to a metal horizontal
drain pipe, called a barrel,  that conducts the water through the earthen
dam.  Proper bonding between the structure and  the barrel is  also very
essential to the proper performance of the structure as well as safety.
Failure to provide adequate bonding leads to piping failure.  This is the
flow of water, and resulting erosion,  along the outside of the barrel.
A cavity at the base of the riser pipe is the tell-tale evidence of such
failure.

      A formal design by an engineer  or other similarly qualified indi-
vidual is required to properly size the sediment basin and all of its
components to the drainage area emptying into the basin.  Another rea-
son for  this requirement  is safety.  The failure of larger impoundments
could lead to costly  property damage and even loss of  life.

      Close control  must also be provided to insure that proper con-
struction practices are employed.   Only suitable soils must be used to
construct the  dam and a high degree of compaction must be achieved.

      Before constructing a  sediment  basin,  it is advisable to  consult
the state and local regulations governing their design and construction.
One can obtain these regulations from the local soil and  water conser-
vation district, county or city public works department,  or the state
pollution control  agency.

      Periodic cleaning is essential to the successful functioning of a
sediment basin.  Many sediment basins are well-conceived, designed,
and constructed,  but fail  to perform their required function because of
the absence of follow-up  maintenance.   To prevent this from happening,
it is essential that the erosion and sediment plan incorporate methods
for determining when  a basin has filled  to its  capacity and strong lang-
uage  as to the immediate requirement for cleanout once  this occurs.

      To assist the foreman and inspector in determining when cleaning
is required for a dry basin,  a marking should be made on the riser pipe
to indicate the maximum  allowable  sediment level in the structure.

      Cleaning of a sediment pond is a costly  operation requiring heavy
equipment and an elaborate scheme to dispose of the excavated sediment
in a manner that  will prevent it--from being reintroduced into the drain-
age system.

      Dry sediment  basins are usually cleaned with a backhoe  or a drag-
line.  Smaller-ba'sins  having firm foundations are sometimes cleaned
with front-end loaders.   For wet basins  or sediment ponds, it is some-
times necessary  to use portable dredges.
                                     79

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        APPENDIX C




SAMPLE AUDIOVISUAL SCRIPT
              80

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                            PART  I  -  CONTROL  OF  SEDIMENT
                            GENERATED ON  CONSTRUCTION  SITES
                             AUDISCAN   PROGRAM
                                                                          page   i
                                          SCRIPT
                                                       Client :
                                                                 Hittnian
                                                               .. Lesson  #8
Frame
N anration
Visuals
Music up and  under.
Voice over  loudspeaker:

30 seconds  to launch  and counting

(cause)
                                 Slide:
                                  ROCKET ON LAUNCH PAD
 25 .  .  .  24 .  .  .,  on board computer indicates
 malfunction in ground-to-air communications  re-
 corder.  Switch to  first back-up system.
 Computer now indicates  recorder functioning
 normally.  Continue with launch.
                                  Slide:
                                                   CONTROL ROOM
blastoff.
 (sound effect rocket blasting off)
                                  Slide:
                                  ROCKET  GUSHING  FLAMES
                                             81

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                                                                             page
                                AUDISCAN   PROGRAM
                                             SCRIPT
                                                          Client :
                                                          Progi
                                                                     Hittman
                                                                  ..  Lesson #8
   Frame
Narration
Visuals
6.  Sound effect and music.
7.  Sound effect and music under
    As in the exploration of space, here on earth
    man has learned the value of having good back-
    up systems or defenses, should a problem arise.
                                  Slide of earth from space.
 9.   In this program we are going to learn about the
     systems or defenses used to control sediment
     generated on construction sites.
                                  Title Slide:
                                      CONTROL OF SEDIMENT
                                        GENERATED ON
                                     CONSTRUCTION SITES
                                           Part I
10.   By controlling sediment, we mean trapping in on
     the construction site as near to its point of
     origin as possible.
                                 Slide showing erosion trapped at the
                                 construction site.
                                                       3-33 (Slide number)
                                                 82

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                                 AUDISCAN   PROGRAM
                                                                              page
                                              SCRIPT
                                                           Client :
                                                           Progi
                                                                      Hittman
                                                                      Lesson  #8
    Frame
Narration
V isuals
11.   Indirectly, we think of erosion control practices
     as doing this, in that they are designed to re-
     duce soil erosion, which is the source of sedi-
     ment.
                                  Slide of an erosion control practice.
                                                       19-46
12.   Remember however we can only expect reasonable
     erosion control,
                                  Slide of  2nd erosion control practice

                                       SUPER

                                      Reasonable Control



                                  17-72
13.  because even with the best plan, some erosion
     must be anticipated and as a result some sedi-
     ment generated.
                                  Slide  showing a small amount of sedi-
                                  ment which was generated even though
                                  erosion plan was used.
                                                       4-36
14.  In  an erosion and sediment control plan, two
     separate systems or defenses against sediment
     damage are established.
                                  Simple  art
                                                            #1
                                             CONTROL PLAN
                                                            #2
                                                                  SEDIMENT
15.   The first defense is erosion control .  .  .
                                  Slide  of  erosion  control practice

                                      Super

                                   EROSION  CONTROL


                                  14-49
                                                 83

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                                 AUDISCAN   PROGRAM
                                                                              page
                                              SCRIPT
                                                           Client :

                                                           Prog re
                                               Hittman

                                               Lesson #8
    Frame
N anration
V isuals
16.   It reduces  the  amount  of  sediment which will be
     generated.
                                                       Slide of soil interceptor dike
                                                       10-19
17.   The second defense is  sediment control  .  .  .
                                 Slide of sediment control  device

                                     Super Sediment control




                                 3-2
18.  which prevents much of the sediment  from  leaving
     the construction area.
                                                        Slide  of straw bale barrier
                                                       3-80
19.  To be fully effective in preventing costly sedi-
     ment damage and at the same  time  .  .  .
                                 Slide of sediment damage to  pond
                                                       4-69
 20.  prevent ugly erosion and minimize the loss of
     soil, both defenses must be  used.
                                 Slide of erosion.
                                                       AG-57

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                                 AUDISCAN   PROGRAM
                                                                              page  5
                                              SCRIPT
                                                           Client :
                                                           Prog ram:
                                                                     Hittman
                                                                     Lesson #8
    Frame
N a r ration
V isuals
21.  How do we keep this sediment from damaging the
    environment?
                                 Slide showing a mass of sediment
                                 in roadway ditch
                                                       4-44
22.   By using vegetative and structural practices,
     some very simple,
                                  Slide of straw bale  trap
                                                       3-61
23.   and others more complicated, that trap most of
     the sediment before it leaves the construction
     site.
                                 Slide of structural practice
                                                          Super:  STRUCTURAL PRACTICES
                                                       3-76
24.   We are now going to examine some of the principle
     involved in controlling sediment.
                                 Title Board.

                                 PRINCIPLES FOR CONTROLLING SEDIMENT
25.   Sediment is trapped by slowing the flow of water.
                                 Slide of sediment trao spreading the
                                 water.
                                                       3-14
                                                 85

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                                 AUDISCAN   PROGRAM
                                                                             page
                                              SCRIPT
                                                          Client :
                                                           Program:
                                                                     Hittman
                                                                     Lesson #8
    Frame
                 Narration
        Visuals
26.
By slowing,  the ability of the water to trans-
port sediment is reduced  and sediment settles
out of suspension.
Slide showing sediment which has
settled out of suspension.
                                                       3-167
27.
The amount of sediment removed  from the runoff
is dependent upon 3 factors:  first the speed
that water flows through the  trap  . .
Slide of water flowing through  trap.

  Super

       SPEED OF FLOW



3-84
28.  Second,  the length of time the water is detained
                                                  Slide of water in trap.

                                                       Super

                                                         TIME DETAINED


                                                  3-88
29,  And third,  the  size and weight of the sediment
     particle carried  into the trap.
                                                  Photo — close-up of water —  showing
                                                  sediment particles in water.
                                                       3-172
30.  With regard  to  the first two factors, the
     slower the flow of water, and the longer it is
     detained, the greater the quantity of sediment
     deposited.
                                                  Title Board:
                                                     1.  Speed of Flow
                                                     2.  Time Detained
                                                 86

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                                 AUDISCAN   PROGRAM
                                                                              page   7
                                              SCRIPT
                                                           Client:
                                                                      Hittman

                                                           Program:  Lesson #8
    Frame
                     Narration
Visuals
31.
    The size and weight of the sediment particles
    determine the speed at which they settle  out
    of suspension.   The larger and heavier a  parti-
    cle, the faster it settles out.
                                                       ART:
                                                           Large pebble  and  small pebble
                                                           falling in water.
32.
    Efficience of sediment trapping is expressed as
    the percentage of sediment removed from the
    runoff.
     Let's  stop  at  this point  and go to  Question 1  in
     your workbooks.
                                                       TB
                                                         _,,-.  .        Trapped Sediment     inn°
                                                         Efficiency = 	—	   x  lUO-s
                                                                      Total Sed.  Runoff
33.
                                                       Open workbook  to page 1.
                  (STOP)
 34.
 35.
    Now that we've reviewed the basic principles
    governing the function of sediment traps,  let's
    look at some of the practices used to trap
    sediment.
                                                        Slide  of  sediment pond
                                                       3-83
    Various types of vegetative buffers are used,
    These are:
       ^Natural veaetative buffers
       oGraded vegetative buffers
       oContour stripping
       "Woodland areas
       °Sod inlet filters
                                                       TB
                                                          Natural vegetative buffers
                                                          Graded vegetative buffers
                                                          Contour stripping
                                                          Woodland areas
                                                          Sod i.r.le"  ^liters
                                                  87

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                                 AUDISCAN   PROGRAM
                                                                              page
                                              SCRIPT
                                                           Client
                                                            Progi
                                                                      Hittman
                                                                   ..  Lesson #8
    Frame
                 Narration
        Visuals
36.
Leaving a vegetated buffer at the base of a
steep slope is an effective means of trapping
sediment.
Slide of Buffer at Base of Steep  Slope
                                                        9-22
37.
This involves preserving a strip of natural vege-
tation along the sides of the waterway to slow
and filter overland flow coming from higher-
lying graded areas.  This is one of the more
effective and economical methods of removing
sediment from overland flow.
Slide of natural vegetative  buffer
area along a stream.
                                                        25-2
38.
The need for preserving natural buffer areas
must be recognized at the planning and design
stage of development and these areas must be
prominently displayed on the construction plans
as off limits to all construction activity.
Slide - men at drawing board.
 39.  Except for essential roadway crossings,  no con-
     struction must be allowed within the buffer area.
                                                   Slide  of utility  construction
 40.  Vegetation damaged by uncontrolled construction
     activity, whether it be grading practices,  con-
     struction traffic or other means,  cannot effic-
     iently filter overland flow.
                                                  Hold frame 39
                                                        25-33

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                                 AUDISCAN   PROGRAM
                                                                              page
                                              SCRIPT
                                                           Client :
                                                                      Hittman
                                                           Prog ram:
                                                                      Lesson  #8
    Frame
                 Narration
         V isuals
41.
Good planning by  the  engineer  and careful  grading
by the contractor could have preserved a pro-
tective buffer along  this  stream and prevented
serious sediment  pollution.  Instead,  all  of the
vegetation was destroyed along the stream  bank
and the spoil from the utility excavation  was
oushed into the stream.
Slide of utility construction  along
a stream.
                                                      25-20
42.
Where it is not practical to preserve natural
vegetated buffers  or where they do not exist,
provisions should  be made for the construction
of a buffer.
Slide of Sediment deposited on buffer.
                                                      9-17
43.  .Planning for construction of buffers must be done
     during early design stages.
                                                  Slide  of  contractor on  site checking
                                                  the  exact location of a buffer.
                                                      9-35
44.
     The flatter and the longer the buffer area can
     be made, the more sediment it will retain.  A
     positive grade of two percent will provide con-
     trolled spreading and runoff.
                                                  Slide  of  long  flat buffer  area.
                                                      9-10
 15.   Timely establishment of vegetation on the buffer
     is a must to provide effective sediment trapping.
                                                  Slide  of  vegetative  buffer  area

                                                      Super
                                                      VEGETATIVE  BUFFER
                                                      9-6
                                                 89

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                                  AUDISCAN   PROGRAM
                                                                               page  10
                                               SCRIPT
                                                            Client:

                                                            Prog rom:
                                                                 Hittman

                                                                 Lesson #8
    Frame
                 Narration
         Visuals
46.   A Thick stand of grass slows the overland flow
     and filters out sediment.   In addition to
     filtering the flow .  . .
                                                    Slide  of  sediment  trapped by a buffer
                                                       9-18
47.
the vegetation allows more water to be absorbed
by the soil and thus decreases the ability of
the runoff to transport sediment.
   Slide showing close up of sediment
   trapped by grass
                                                       9-13
48.
This flattened slope and grass are very effective
in trapping sediment from the overland flow
coming off the graded area.
Slide of sediment trapped by grass
below a graded area.
                                                       9-3
 49.
Staged grading is a means of providing for the
establishment of a vegetative buffer along a
waterway.
                                                       Slide of sodded drainage way  adjacent
                                                       to a graded area.
                                                       14-34
      Here a waterway was constructed and stabilized
      •vith vegetation prior to the beginning of road-
      way construction.  The resulting vegetative
      buffer will filter the runoff coming from the
                                                  Another slide  of  sodded drainage way
                                                  adjacent to graded  area.
                                                       9-4
                                                  90

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                                 AUDISCAN   PROGRAM
                                                                              page  11
                                              SCRIPT
                                                          Client :

                                                           Prog ram:
                                                                 Hittman

                                                                 Lesson #8
    Frame
                Narration
        Visuals
51.  This roadway  construction  site  reflects  very
    poor planning on  the  part  of  the  engineer.  The
    channel realignment and buffer  strip were  con-
    structed before the embankment  in the  foreground.
                                                  lide of grassed embankment above  a
                                                 denuded buffer strip and channel
                                                      5-19
52.
The buffer strip was not vegetated prior to con-
struction of the embankment.
                                                      Hold frame 51
                                                      5-19
53.
By failing to promptly vegetate the buffer strip,
thousands of tons of sediment were washed into
the lower-lying waterway.
Hide of sediment washed into waterway.
                                                      5-24
     The heavy deposition of sediment in the  channel
     forced the stream to meander and erode the  bank.
     As a result,  additional sediment was introduced
     into the waterway.
                                                 Slide of sediment-clogged channel and
                                                 resulting bank erosion.
                                                       5-23
 .•5.
     It's time for a review.
     answer question 2.
                        Open your workbooks and
Question 2

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                                 AUDISCAN   PROGRAM
                                                                              page   12
                                              SCRIPT
                                                           Client :

                                                           Prog rom:
                                                                 Hittman

                                                                 Lesson #8
    Frame
                 Narration
         Visuals
     Contour stripping  involves the establishment of
     strips  of dense  vegetation, along the ground
     contour at regular intervals up the slope.
                                                 Slide of vegetative contour strips.
                                                                 Art
57.
These buffer strips slow the flow  and  reduce the
amount of runoff,  thereby reducing erosion, while
at the same time trapping much  of  the  sediment
generated from unpreventable erosion.
                                                       Slide of contour farming
58.
The use of a sodded buffer near  the base of this
short slope serves the same function  as contour
strips.
Slide of vegetative "Right-of-way1
buffer.
                                                      3-104
59.
The thick mat of litter covering natural wood-
land areas also provides a high degree of fil-
tering action, as well as aiding in  the absorp-
tion of runoff.
                                                      Slide of woodland litter
                                                      1-197
60.  Considerable care must  be  exercised, however, in
     utilizing woodland areas for  trapping sediment.
                                                 Slide of woodland area
                                                      1-135
                                                 92

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                                 AUDISCAN   PROGRAM
                                                                              page   is
                                              SCRIPT
                                                           Client :
                                                                     Hittman
                                                           Progi
                                                                     Lesson
    Frame
                 Narration
         Visuals
61.
The deposition of a  couple of  inches or more of
sediment  around  a tree may reduce  the  oxygen
supply to the shallow feeder roots  to  such  an
extent that  the  tree will die.
Slide of sediment deposition in a
woodland area.
                                                      4-9
62.  It is best to use such areas  only for the filter-
    ing of overland flow and not  for filtering
    concentrated flow containing  heavy amounts of
    sediment.
                                                  .Slide showing heavy deposition  in
                                                  wooded area.
                                                      4-7
 53.   Remember, it is a simple matter to re-establish
     a cover of grass destroyed by sedimentation,
     but not so a stand of trees.
                                                  Slide of tree damage from sediment
                                                  deposition.
                                                      4-10
     A vegetative practice used at storm drain inlets
     is the sod inlet filter.
                                                       Slide showing sod inlet filter
                                                      3-97
 '5.  This filter is made up of pads of sod placed
     around the storm drain inlet.   It works on the
     same principle as the vegetative buffer.
                                                  Slide  of sod  inlet filter

                                                    Hold frame 64
                                                 93

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                                 AUDISCAN   PROGRAM
                                                                              page   14
                                              SCRIPT
                                                           Client :

                                                            Program:
                                                                 Hittman

                                                                 Lesson #8
    Frame
                 Narration
         Visuals
66.  The grass slows the flow of  water  into  the  inlet
     and filters out appreciable  amounts  of  sediment.
                                                 Close up on inlet in action.
                                                      3-103
67.
The size of the sodded area is  varied,  depending
upon the amount of runoff expected at the  inlet.
Slide of large sodded inlet  filter area.
                                                      3-59
68.
This practice should only be used to handle  light
concentrations of sediment.   It can best be  used
after final grading is complete and during the
establishment of a vegetative cover.
Slide of sod inlet filter
                                                      3-107
69.
      Go  now to Quetsion 3.
                                                               Questions  3
 70.
     Because of its low,  dense  growth  and other fac-
     tors , grass is the best vegetative  filter mater-
     ial.  Thick, low-growing legumes  such  as white
     or red clover are also effective  filters.
                                                 Vegetative buffer
                                                      9-19

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                                AUDISCAN   PROGRAM
                                                                             page
                                                                                      15
                                             SCRIPT
                                                          Client :
                                                                     Hittman
                                                          Progi
                                                                     Lesson #8
   Frame
                Narration
         V isuals
'i.
Even during the dormant winter months, the mat
provided by the dead foliage still slows the  flow
of runoff and traps sediment before it reaches
the waterway.
Slide showing mat of dead foliage like
legumes.
                                                     16-90
2.
Once the  flow becomes concentrated, as it does
in ditches and other waterways, the trapping of
sediment  becomes much more difficult  and expen-
sive.
Slide of concentrated runoff carrying
sediment.
                                                     4-31
 3.
In addition to vegetative practices, structural
practices must be utilized to prevent sediment
from entering the natural drainage system.
                                                     Gravel  inlet filter
                                                     3-74
    Up  to this point we've learned about the princi-
    ples of trapping sediment.
                                                  Slide of sediment trapped in a
                                                  vegetative buffer
                                                     3-140(1)
 >•  We learned that the amount of sediment removed     Slide of sediment in urban pond
    from runoff water is dependent upon three factors
    the speed that water flows through the trap .  .  .
                                                     3-168
                                                 95

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                                 AUDISCAN   PROGRAM
                                                                             page
                                                                                     16
                                              SCRIPT
                                                          Client :

                                                          Progro
                                               Hittman

                                               Lesson #8
    Frame
Narration
Visuals
76.   The  length of time the water is  detained
                                                      Sediment  basin
                                                     3-144
77.  And the size  and weight of the sediment particle
     carried into  the trap.
                                >lide of sediment bedload
                                                     3-171
 78.  We also looked  at the vegetative practices  for
     controlling sediment, including
                                 Slide of sediment deposited  on a
                                 buffer
                                                     9-16
 79.  natural vegetative buffers .  .  .
                                 Slide of natural vegetative buffer
                                                     9-2
80.  graded vegetative buffers
                                iame slide  as  # '36.
                                                     9-22
                                                 96

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                               AUDISCAN   PROGRAM
                                                                           page
                                                                                   17
                                            SCRIPT
                                                        Client:

                                                        Program:
                                               Hittman

                                               Lesson #8
   Frame
Narration
Visuals
81.  Woodland areas and sod inlet filters.
                                                    Slide of  sod inlet filter
                                                    3-97
82.  In part two we'll learn  about the structural
    practices for controlling sediment on the con-
    struction site.   But  first, let's take a break.
                                Slide of  sediment basin
                                                   3-86
                                                       END OF PART I
                                               97

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          APPENDIX D




SAMPLE AUDIOVISUAL WORKBOOK
               98

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CONTROL  OF  SEDIMENT

        GENERATED  ON

 CONSTRUCTION   SITES
        WORKBOOK
              To be used in conjunction
            with the audio-visual program


                      99

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                     ACKNOWLEDGEMENT
Acknowledgement is hereby made that this material was pre-
pared under the assistance of a jointly sponsored Grant program
by the U.S.  Environmental Protection Agency and the State of
Maryland.
                            100

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 CONTENT






 I.  BASIC PRINCIPLES OF CONTROLLING SEDIMENT




II.  VEGETATIVE PRACTICES




     A.  Natural Vegetative Buffers




     B,  Graded Buffers




     C.  Contour Stripping




     D.  Woodland Areas




     E.  Sod Inlet Filters




III.  STRUCTURAL PRACTICES




     A.  Filters and Dikes




         1.  Gravel Inlet Filter




         2.  Interceptor Dike




     B.  Sediment Traps




         1.  Sandbag Trap




         2,  Straw Bale Trap




         3.  Straw Bale  Barrier




     C.  Sediment Basins




         1.  Dry




         2.  Wet - Sediment Pond




 IV.  REVIEW  QUIZ
                                 101

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BASIC PRINCIPLES OF CONTROLLING SEDIMENT




A.  Erosion control is the first line of defense.




    It reduces the amount of sediment that will be




    generated.




B.  Sediment control is the second line of defense.




    It prevents much of the sediment from uncontrol-




    lable soil erosion from leaving the construc-




    tion site.



C.  Sediment traps are designed to slow the flow




    of water.  This reduces the ability of the water




    to transport sediment, and the sediment settles




    out of suspension.




D.  The amount of sediment removed from the runoff




    is dependent upon these three factors:




    1.  Speed that the water flows through the trap.




    2.  Length of time the water is detained.




    3.  Size and weight of the sediment particle car-




        ried into the trap.




    The slower the flow of water and the longer it




    is detained, the greater will be the quantity of




    sediment deposited.  The size and weight of the




    sediment particles determine the speed at which




    they settle out of suspension.  The larger and




    heavier a particle, the faster it settles out.
                            102

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    E.   Efficiency of sediment trapping is expressed as

        the percent of sediment removed from the runoff
                      Amount trapped
        % Efficiency= 	    x 100
                      Total Load
II.  VEGETATIVE PRACTICES

    A.  Natural Vegetative Buffers

        1.  A vegetative buffer at the base of a steep

            slope is an effective means of trapping sed-

            iment .

        2.  This involves preserving a strip of natural

            vegetation along the sides of a waterway to

            slow and filter overland flow coming from

            higher-lying graded areas.

        3.  This is one of the more effective and eco-

            nomical methods of removing sediment from

            overland flow.

        4.  Except for essential roadway crossings, no

            construction should be allowed within the

            buffer area.

    B.  Graded Buffers

        1.  Provisions for construction must be made dur-

            ing early design stages of development.

        2.  The flatter and longer it is, the more sedi-

            ment it will retain.
                                 103

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    3.   A positive grade of at least two percent




        should be provided to prevent ponding.




    4.   Timely establishment of vegetation on the




        buffer is a must in order to provide eff-




        ective sediment trapping.




C.  Contour Stripping




    1.   A method borrowed from the farmer.




    2.   It is used to break the flow of runoff on




        long hillsides.




    3.   It involves the establishment of strips of




        vegetation, usually grass sod,  along the




        ground contour at regular intervals up the




        slope .




    4.   These strips slow the flow and reduce the




        amount of runoff, thus reducing erosion and




        trapping much of the sediment generated




        from unpreventable erosion.



D.  Woodland Areas




    1.   Woodland litter can provide a high degree




        of filtering action as well as aiding in




        the absorption of runoff, but care must be




        exercised because the deposition of a few




        inches of sediment around a tree can cause



        it to die.
                            104

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        2.  Use woodland areas only for the filtering




            of overland flow.




    E.  Sod Inlet Filter




        1.  Made up of pads of sod placed around the




            storm drain inlet.




        2.  The grass slows the flow of water into




            the inlet and filters out appreciable




            amounts of sediment.




        3.  The size of the sodded area is varied




            depending upon the amount of runoff ex-




            pected at the inlet.




        4.  This practice should only be used to




            handle light concentrations of sediment.




        5.  Best used after final grading is complete




            and during the establishment of a vegeta-




            tive cover.






III.  STRUCTURAL PRACTICES
     A.   Filters  and  Dikes




         1.   Gravel Inlet Filter



             a. Used  at storm drain inlets.




             b. Made  of coarse gravel  or  crushed  stone




             c. Will  temporarily  impound  runoff.
                                  105

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    d.   Provides  a  certain amount of  filter-




        ing  action.




    e.   Is highly resistant to  erosion.




    f.   Standard  concrete  building blocks




        are  placed  on the  inside  of the  gravel




        filter  to keep stones from being washed




        into the  storm drain inlet.




    g.   The  configuration  of the  filter  will




        depend  upon the type of inlet being




        protected.



    h.   Prompt  maintenance is very essential.




2.   Interceptor Dike




    a.   Used on roadway rights-of-way.




    b.   Intercepts  runoff  coming  down the  graded




        roadway and diverts it  into storm  drain




        inlets  protected by gravel filters.




    c.   Used with gravel inlet  filter to increase



        trapping  efficiency.




    d.   Helps control erosion by  diverting run-




        off  away  from the  graded  surface.
                         106

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B.   Sediment Traps




    1.   Sandbag Sediment Trap




        a.  A quick and economical method of tempor-




            arily disrupting flow and trapping the




            coarser sediment particles.




        b.  A high degree of trapping efficiency can




            be achieved by positioning these barri-




            ers at regular intervals along the ditch.




        c.  Bags are filled with soil or stone and




            stacked in an interlocking fashion which




            provides additional strength for resist-




            ing the force of the flowing water.




        d.  Piping is a major cause of the failure




            of many temporary sediment traps.




        e.  The sandbags should be set in a trench




            at least six inches in depth.  This will




            greatly reduce the chance of piping fail-




            ure.



        f.  Inspection and prompt maintenance  is required,




     2.  Straw Bale Sediment Trap




        a.  Fast and economical temporary trap.




        b.  Made of bales of straw or hay.




        c.  Deteriorates rapidly.



        d.  Can increase trap effectiveness by using




            wire-tied bales.
                              107

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e.  When constructing  the bales are laid



    on their sides and staked into place.



d.  Piping can render the trap ineffective.



f.  Straw bale trap should be entrenched



    at least six inches and excavated soil should be



    compacted along the upstream face.



g.  Inspection and prompt maintenance is re-



    quired .



Straw Bale Perimeter Barrier



a.  Used to provide a sediment barrier



    along the downhill perimeters of small



    graded sites  where area restrictions



    or other factors prevent the use of



    other practices.



b.  Close inspection is required.



Excavated Sediment Trap



a.  Its function is to temporarily detain



    the runoff and thereby allow some sed-



    iment to settle out.



b.  Costs little to construct.



c.  Once the sediment-yielding area is sta-



    bilized, the pit area can, in some instances,




    be filled in with soil and covered with sod.
                     108

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C.  Sediment Basins




    1.  Sediment basins are the most effective




        structures for trapping sediment.




    2.  Used on large construction sites where




        heavy concentrations of both runoff and




        sediment are anticipated.




    3.  Dry Sediment Basin




        a.  Designed to only temporarily impound




            runoff during rainfalls.




        b.  It is drained by a standard metal




            riser pipe with perforations which




            allow the water to be released at a




            controlled rate.




        c.  It requires a formal design for size




            and safety reasons.




        d.  Only suitable soils must be used to




            construct the dam.




        e.  A high degree of compaction must be




            achieved.




        f.  Proper positioning of the riser pipe




            is essential to proper performance.




        g.  Piping failures are  too common in tempor-




            ary dry  sediment basins.
                              109

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h.  Consult state and local regulations




    governing their design and construction




    prior to starting to build one.



i.  Periodic cleaning is essential if the basin




    is to do its job.




    (1)   usually cleaned with a backhoe or




         dragline



    (2)   smaller basins with firm founda-




         tions are sometimes cleaned with




         front-end loaders



j.  Construction specifications for the ba-




    sin must specify the required freeboard -




    the vertical distance between the crest of




    the emergency spillway at the top of



    the dam.




k.  Failing to provide enough freeboard will




    result in overtopping during heavy




    storms and breeching of the dam.




Wet_Basin - Sediment Pond




a.  Used when it becomes necessary to dam




    permanent streams in order to trap sedi-



    ment.




b.  On large residential developments, re-




    creational impoundments also function as



    sediment traps.
                     110

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c.  Requires a formal design and strict



    construction control for safety



    reasons.



d.  Cleaning a wet  sediment  basin  is  costly




    (1)  dragline is used.



    (2)  portable dredges used on large



         ponds.
                     111

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                                    Fill  in  the blanks
1.    E	 c	is  the first




     line of defense.   It 	 the amount of




     sediment that will be generated.






2.    S	 c	 is  the second




     line of defense.






3.    Sediment traps are designed to slow the flow of
4 .    The amount of 	 removed from the



     runoff is dependent upon three factors:



     a.   S	 that the water  flows



         through the  t 	.




     b.   L                  of time the water is
     c.   S	 and w	 of the




         sediment particles  carried  into the trap.
                            112

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         QUESTIONS  2

                                       Multiple Choice

1.    The best vegetative  filters  are

     a.    legumes                b.   grasses
     c.    trees                  d.   periwinkle.

                                      answer(s)
2.   No construction should be  allowed within a buffer
     area

     a.   at all.
     b.   except for essential  loadway construction.
     c.   except for residentiaJ  construction.
     d.   except for normal roacway  construction.

                                      answer(s)
                                  True or False
          Leaving a buffer  at  the  base of a steep
          slope is an effective  means of trapping
          sediment.

          A buffer speeds the  flow of runoff coming
          off a steeper slope.

          The flatter and longer a buffer area, the
          more sediment it  will  retain.

          Adding vegetation to a buffer area increases
          its ability to trap  sediment.

          To prevent ponding,  i  positive grade of at
          least two percent should be provided.

          A natural vegetative buffer is one of the
          more effective and economical methods of re-
          moving sediment from overland flow.
                            113

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1.    Contour stripping is a method borrowed from

     a.    the farmer.              b.   the contractor.
     c.    nature.                  d.   the foreman.

                                       answer (s)
2.    The use of a vegetative buffer near the base of
     a highway slope serves tha same function as
     a.    the storm drain.
     b.    the top of cut.
     c.    the interceptor  dike.
     d.    the contour strips.
                                       answer(s)
3.   The sod inlet filter

     a.    should only be used to handle light concen-
          trations of sediment.
     b.    is made up of pads of  sod.
     c.    is best used after firal grading is complete,
     d.    all of the above.
     e .    none of the above.

                                       answer(s)
                           114

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          QUESTIONS  4
                                   Fill in the blanks
1.   S	 p_	 are employed on




    construction  sites to trap sediment.





2.   The	filter is used  at




    storm drains.






3.   The  gravel  inlet filter is h	 r	




    to erosion.






4.   The  configuration of the filter will depend upon




    the  t	 of i	 being protected.






5.   Using  an  i	 dike with a gravel inlet




    filter i	 trapping efficiency.
                            115

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                                  True or False
1. The sandbag sediment trap is a quick and



   economical method of temporarily disrup-



   ting  flow and trapping the coarser  sedi-



   ment  particles.





_2. Piping  is a major cause of failure  of many



   temporary sediment traps.






3. Straw bale sediment traps last indefinitely,
_4.  Close  inspection is not required of  a  straw



    bale perimeter barrier.






_5.  The function of an excavated  sediment  trap



    is to  temporarily detain  the  runoff.






 6.  The most  effective structures for  trapping



    sediment  are straw bale barriers.
                          116

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                                       Multiplr
1.    A dry sediment basin is
     a.    designed to only temporarily impound runoff
     b.    drained by a metal riser pipe.
     c.    requires a formal design.
     d.    all of the above.
     e.    only a and c.

                                       answer(s)
2.   The vertical distance between the top of the dam and
     the crest of the spillway is known as the

     a.   sediment valve.
     b.   freeboard.
     c.   safety factor.
     d.   ruler.

                                       answer(s)
3.   The odd looking device at the top of the riser pipe
     is called

     a.   a barrel.
     b.   an antivortex plate ind trash rack.
     c.   an emergency spillway.
     d.   none of the above.

                                       answer(s)
                            117

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 1.   Erosion  control  r	 the amount of runoff
     that  will  be  generated.


 2.   Sediment control is  the  s     	 line of defense.
 3.   The three factors  upon which the amount of sediment
     removed from the runoff is  dependent are:

     a.   S               that the water flows through the
     b.   L            of  time  the  water was  d
     c.   S	 and  w	 of  the sediment
         particles carried into  the  trap.
 4.  Leaving a v	 b	 at the base of
     a steep slope is an effective means  of trapping
 5.  P	 a natural  buffer is  one of the
     more effective and economical methods of removing
     sediment from overland flow.
 6.  The ability o<£ a graded buffer area to trap sediment
     is improved by adding v	
 7.  The Last vegetative filter is
 8.  Woodland areas should be used only to filter
     o                  flow.
 9.  C	 _       s	 is a method
     borrowed from the farmer.
10.  It is used to break the f	 of r
     on long hillsides.
                            118

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11.  The use of a v	 b	 near the
     base of a highway slope serves the same function
     as 	            strips.
12.  G	b	 are employed on
     construction sites to retain or trap sediment.
13.  The sod inlet filter should be used to handle
     1	   concentrations of sediment.
14.  The g	 i	 filter is highly
     resistant to erosion.
15.  The configuration of the filter will depend upon
     the t	 of i	 being protected,
16.  The interceptor dike is used on r_
     rights of way-
17.  Straw b	and s	 traps are
     quick and economical methods of temporarily dis-
     rupting flow.
18.  P	 is a major cause of the failure
     of many temporary sediment traps.
19.  Piping failure is reduced in temporary sediment
     t	 by placing either the s	
     traps or s     	    b	traps a minimum
     of              ' "inches  in  the' ground.
20.  A straw bale perimeter barrier is used to provide
     a s	 barrier along the downhill peri-
     meter of small graded sites, where area restric-
     tions or other factors prevent the use of other
     practices.
21.  An e                sediment trap c
     1              to construct.
                              119

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22.  S	 b	are the most effec-
     tive structures for trapping sediment.

23.
23.  A dry sediment basin is designed to only t	
     impound r	 during rainfalls.
24.   A dry sediment basin is drained by using a standard
     metal r	 p	 with p
     which allow the water to be released at a controlled
     rate.
25.   Both wet and dry sediment ponds must be

     a.    vegetatively stabilized.
     b.    emptied.
     c.    washed.
     d.    none of the above.

                                       answer(s)
                            120

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                 APPENDIX E




SAMPLE AUDIOVISUAL SUPERVISOR'S  MANUAL
                    121

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       CONTROL. OF SEDIMENT
              GENERATED  ON
        CONSTRUCTION  SITES
SUPERVISOR'S  MANUAL
               To be used in conjunction
             with the audio-visual program.
                           122

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                     ACKNOWLEDGEMENT
Acknowledgement is hereby made that this material was pre-
pared under the assistance of a jointly sponsored Grant program
by the U.S.  Environmental Protection Agency and the State of
Maryland.
                                123

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         CONTROL OF SEDIMENT GENERATED

            ON CONSTRUCTION SITES
PURPOSE
The purpose of the Instructor's Manual is to help you
make the best use of the Audiscan filmstrip and work-
book for the self-instructional audiovisual lesson on
Control of Sediment Generated on Construction Sites.
OBJECTIVE

The objective of this instructional package is to pro-
mote better understanding among erosion and sediment
control specialists as to:

     - the kinds of sediment control structures and
       their functions.

     - the importance of proper construction and reg-
       ular maintenance of sediment control structures,
PREPARATION FOR PRESENTATION

This instructional package is designed both for self-
study and for group presentation.  For an effective
smooth-running group presentation, plan well in ad-
vance.  Have the Audiscan projector, the screen and
seating set up.  Have the workbooks ready for distrib-
ution.

Before presenting the filmstrip, preview it and read
the workbook so that you can have their contents clear
in your mind and can answer questions.  Previewing the
filmstrip also assures you that the Audiscan projector
is working properly.

Finally, prepare the audience.  Explain the objectives
of the instructional package.  Describe the sequence
of events of the presentation.  Tell them that there
will be a short review at the end of the program to
help them discover how well they have understood the
filmstrip.
                            124

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PRESENTATION

The filmstrip can be viewed continuously.  However, be-
cause of the quantity and detail of the information pre-
sented, it is suggested that you view it in sections.
The Audiscan projector will automatically stop at review
points.  These automatic stops are built-in for question-
and-answer periods.  Always make:~sure everyone under-
stands each part of the filmstrip before going on to the
next part.  The Audiscan projector will have to be re-
started manually after- each stop.
PROJECTOR OPERATION

To operate the Audiscan audiovisual projector insert the
appropriate cartridge with the arrow up into the side of
the machine.  Turn the machine^on* using..the Volume On/
Off control.  To start the program, "press the Start
switch.  Focus as desired.  To restart the projector,
after it has stopped for review questions, push the
start portion of the Program Hold/Start switch.  Should
the audio and visual portions of the filmstrip become
unsynchronized for any reason, synchronization may be
re-established by holding the Lock switch to the left
and at the same time depressing either the Film Hold or
Film Advance switch as appropriate.
SEQUENCE OF EVENTS

Welcome the group and prep.are them as previously desr
cribed.  Tell them that a workbook will be distributed,
Add that it was prepared to expand the information in
the filmstrips.  Also, inform them of the built-in re-
view periods.

Show Part I of the program Control of Sediment Generat-
ed on Construction Sites.  Review the basic functions
of sediment traps.  Be sure the trainees are familiar
with the vegetative sediment control practices.

Show Part II.  Stress the importance of maintenance
for all sediment control structures.  Make sure the
trainees understand the important construction criter-
ia for sediment basins.
                            125

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           IDEAS  FOR  DISCUSSION
 1.   What do we  mean by "control  of sediment
     generated on construction sites"?

 2.   Why can we  only expect reasonable ero-
     sion control?

 3.   How do we keep sediment from damaging
     the environment?

 4.   Why must both defenses be used?

 5.   Why is good planning important in the
     preserving  of a buffer area?

 6.   How is the  ability of a buffer to trap
     sediment improved?

 7.   Explain the use of contour strips.

 8.   Why must care be exercised in utilizing
     woodland areas for trapping  sediment?

 9.   Discuss the use of grass and legumes as
     filters.

10.   Discuss the construction of  the sod in-
     let filter.

11.   Discuss the construction of  the gravel
     inlet filter.

12.   Why is maintenance so important?

13.   How is the  possibility of piping reduced
     on temporary sediment traps?

14.   How is a straw bale perimeter barrier
     used?

15.   How can the life of a straw bale sedi-
     ment trap be prolonged?

16.   How important is maintenance with tem-
     porary sediment traps?
                           126

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17.  Describe some ways sediment basins are
     cleaned.

18.  What is the importance of consulting
     local and state regulations before con-
     structing a sediment basin?

19.  What is a common cause of the failure
     of dry temporary sediment basins?

20.  Why is the maintenance of a sediment
     basin so important?
                          127

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       Control of Sediment Generated

          on Construction Sites


            WORKBOOK - ANSWERS
Questions 1

   1.  Erosion Control,
       reduces
   2.  Sediment Control
   3.  water
   4.  sediment
       Speed,  trap
       Length, detained
       Size, weight
                       Questions 4

                          1.  Structural practices
                          2.  gravel inlet
                          3.  highly resistent
                          4.  type, inlet
                          5.  interceptor, increases
Questions 2
                       Questions 5
   1.
   2.
   3.
   4.
   5.
b
b
a
d
d
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
True
True
False
False
True
False
Questions 3
   1.
   2.
   3.
   4.
   5.
   6.
True
False
True
True
True
True
                       Questions 6
1.
2.
3.
4.
d
b
b
d
                          128

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Questions 7
 1.  reduces

 2.  second

 3.
    a. Speed,  trap
    b. Length, detained
    c. Size, weight

 4.  vegetative  buffer,
    sediment

 5.  Preserving

 6.  vegetation

 7.  grass

 8.  overland

 9.  Contour stripping

10.  flow, runoff

11.  vegetated buffers,
    contour

12.  graded, buffers
         13.  light

         14.  gravel inlet

         15.  type, inlet

         16.  roadway
              rights of way

         17.  bale, sandbag

         18.  Piping

         19.  traps, sandbag,
              straw bale, six

         20.  sediment

         21.  excavated, cost
              little

         22.  Sediment basins

         23.  temporarily,
              runoff

         24.  riser pipe,
              perforations

         25.  a
          129

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        APPENDIX  F




PARTICIPANT PROFILE FORM
             130

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                                                No. _


                          PARTICIPANT PROFILE


1.    Where were you brought up (lived most of your life) before you were
     18?

     a.    On a farm or ranch  (~~)

     b.    In the country,  but not living on a farm or ranch

     c.    In a town (population under 10,000)

     d.    In a city
2.    How many years of schooling have you completed (please circle the
     highest level(s) you have finished)?:

     High School       Trade School or Military        College
                       _ Service School _

       1234                  1234                   1234

     If you attended trade  school,  what was your major subject?:
     If you attended college, what was your major subject?:
3.   Please list any other formal courses or classes you have attended
     which are related in any way to the general subject of erosion and
     sediment control:
4.   What is your occupation?:

     a.    Foreman

     b.    Inspector  ||

     How many years have you been engaged in activities related to con-
     struction and7or inspection?     _^	
                                   131

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5.    What is your age?:

     a.    20-29  D             d-    5°-59    D

     b.    30-39  D             e.    over 60  Q

     c.    40-49  Q

6.    What is your present yearly income from all sources?:

     a.    Less than 5, 000      Q

     b.    5, 000 to  9,999       [J

     c.    10, 000 to 14, 999

     d.    15, 000 to 19,999

     e.    Greater than 20, 000

7.    What are your  main interests and activities outside your job?:
     What clubs, groups, or civic organizations do you or have you
     belonged to ?:
                                   132

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     APPENDIX C




EVALUATION  QUESTIONS
          133

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EVALUATION  QUESTIONS
                     Based on






              EROSION AND SEDIMENTATION






                       and






            THE GOAL, OBJECTIVES AND PRINCIPLES




             OF EROSION AND SEDIMENT CONTROL
                           134

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lnAtiu.cti.oiu :    1.   Ttll In blank* whe.ie. lndtcate.d
                 1.   Ctftdle. e-4.the.ti tine,  on  faal.t>e. at
                     the. end ofi t>tate.me.nt&
                 3.   In  multiple, cno-cce  que.£ t-io nt>
                     place, the. latte.fi on. le.tte.ni> ^on.
                     the. casut&ct ant>we.n  on  the.  l-ine.
                     
-------
 6.   Slope steepness,  surface roughness,  and the amount and



     intensity of rainfall are factors that control  the



         a.   amount of rain in a watershed



         b.   speed at  which runoff flows  down a slope



         c.   speed at  which rills turn to sheet erosion
 7.   The destruction of natural v _ and the re-



     shaping of the ground s _ are contributing



     factors to erosion in urbanizing areas.





 8.   Stream gaging is a method of determining the amount of



     flow in a given waterway.
 9 .   The principle factors contributing to the acceleration



     of erosion in urbanizing areas are:



         a.  destruction of natural vegetation



         b.  reshaping of ground surface



         c.  exposure of subsoils



         d.  reduced runoff



         e.  placement of impervious features on the soil



             like paving and buildings..
10.  In controlling erosion and sedimentation the office



     planners are more important than the on-the-ground



     field personnel.
11.  Sediment pollution damages the quality of water and the



     habitat through which the water flows.




                               -,,,,
                               136

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12.  Slope steepness is often expressed as p_	 by



     engineers and planners.






13.  To establish a sediment control program we need:



         a.  Careful study and planning



         b.  Cooperation and involvement



         c.  To pave as much of the construction area as



             possible



         d.  Flexibility
14.  Natural or g_	 erosion is a relatively slow



     process, continually taking place.





15.  Erosion resulting from man's activities is termed



     a	 erosion.





16.  Practices used to control erosion are:



         a.  special grading, such as surface roughening



         b.  constructing long slopes



         c.  constructing diversion structures



         d.  clearing all trees off the area



         e.  using a straw mulch
17.  When working on a construction project both contractors



     and government officials must cooperate and have over-



     all flexibility in applying plans.



                                       T/iue
                               137

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18.  The presense of organic material in a soil has no effect




     on a soil's credibility.
19.  Generally,  erosion is more severe at the base of a short



     steep slope than at the base of a long steep slope.
20.  While being transported,  sediment is divided into two



     types:  s _ sediment and bedload sediment.






21.  The plans developed for a site must be adhered to re-



     gardless of problems which develop when work is started
22.  A slope which changes 10 feet vertically in 100 feet of



     horizontal distance is referred to as a _ percent



     slope .






23.  In a stream the b _ sediment is made up of



     larger  and heavier weight particles.






24.  A damaging aspect of wind erosion in urbanizing areas



     is the  collection of dust on structures such as build-



     ings and roadways.




                                       T/iae      FatA e



25.  Erosion due to agriculture is generally (molt/ l }



     severe  than erosion from urbanizing areas.
                               138

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26.   The removal of a fairly uniform layer of soil from the
     land surface is known as s _ erosion.

27.   Sediment is undesirable because:
         a.  it damages water resources
         b.  it increases the flow in streams
         c.  it fills the channels so ships can't use the rivers
         d.  it kills fish and other aquatic life
28.  When the depth of the grooves on a soil slope exceeds
     four inches the erosion is usually termed _
     erosion.

29.  Which of the following factors influence erosion:
         a.  amount of rainfall
         b.  intensity of rainfall
         c .  temperature
         d,  frequency of rainfall
30.  Overland erosion occurs on denuded slopes as a result
     of rainsplash and runoff.
31.  Wind erosion is usually the largest source of sediment
     during construction operations.
32,  The process by which soils or other surface materials
     are transported or deposited by the action of wind,
     water, ice or gravity is s _ .
                              139

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33.  To achieve effective and reasonable control over erosion



     and sediment caused by man's activities using the best



     practical combination of procedures, practices and peo-



     ple is the goal of erosion and sediment control.



                                         T-tue.     Fa£-4 e.



34.  Accelerated erosion in stream channels is brought on by



     increased r _ from developing areas and the



     removal or destruction of natural v _



     along stream banks.






35.  The best way to protect the land is to control erosion



     at its source.
36.  From a cextural standpoint,  soils having large amounts



     of silt and fine sand,  as well as those containing



     highly expansive clay minerals,  are most susceptible to



     erosion from rain splash and runoff.
37 .   A w _ is any natural  or artificial drainage-




     way in which waters flow in a definite direction or course



     either continuously or intermittently.






38.   A formula used to measure erosion is the Universal Soil



     _ Equation.
                                  140

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39.  Normal  tillage of the soil will  obliterate rill erosion.



                                         Tiue.     FatAn



40.  Normal  tillage of the soil will  obliterate gully erosion,



                                         Tiue.     Fa£-4e



41.  The longer rain falls on  a given area the more runoff
42.   Soil loss is expressed  as  tons  per _ per year.





43.   A good erosion control  practice is to break a long slope



     into a series of  short  slopes.
44.   Stream channel  erosion includes both stream-



     and  streambank  erosion.
                                  141

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45.  The five (5)  principles of erosion and sediment control



     are:



             a.   Apply sediment control practices as a peri-



                 meter protection to prevent off-site damage.



             b.   Expose the smallest practical area of land



                 for the shortest possible time.



             c.   Implement a thorough .maintenance and follow-



                 up operation.



             d.   Apply erosion control  practices as a peri-



                 meter protection.



             e.   Apply soil erosion control practices as a



                 first line of defense  against on-site damage.



             f.   Apply sediment control practices as a first



                 line of defense against on-site damage.



             g.   Plan the development to fit the particular



                 topography, soils, waterways and natural



                 vegetation at a site.



             h.   Expose the minimum area of land for the long-



                 est time.
                                  142

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46.   Which of the following are Objectives  of  Erosion and

     Sediment Control?

     a.   Establish and  maintain a sediment  control  program,

     b.   Protect vital  land resources  from  erosion.

     c.   Protect vital  water resources and  wildlife from
         sediment pollution.

     d.   Provide high quality water  for human  use.
47.  The development of  small  grooves  on a  soil  slope  is

     termed        ero s ion.
                                  143

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        APPENDIX H




EVALUATION OF PRESENTATION FORM

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               EVALUATION OF PRESENTATION
1-  You have experienced an illustrated  lecture and an



    audiovisual  presentation on some aspects  of erosion



    control  during  construction.   In the space below,



    please write what you liked about each style of



    presentation.   Also  we are  interested in  your feel-



    ing about the style  of presentation,  not  your feel-



    ing about the subject of the presentation.
1)
2)
3)
             LECTURE
          AUDIOVISUAL
1)
2)
3)
                           145

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       Now please tell us what you did not like



       about each style of presentation.
             LECTURE
                               AUDIOVISUAL
1)
2)
3)
1)
2)
3)
       Would you like to go through the same subject again



       in the audiovisual program?



                                      Ve.A      to



       Would you like to sit through exactly the same



       lecture again?




                                      ye.4      to



       Do you think that all points discussed in the



       audiovisual program were suitably illustrated?
   If you checked to  what additional illustrations would



   you like to  see?
                            146

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 5.   Could you clearly understand the narrator in the



     Audiovisual program?
                                             Mo



 6.   Could you clearly understand the lecturer?
                                             Wo



 7.   Which presentation do you think you learned the



     most from?
     Why?
 8.   If you were given a series of programs to study



     which of the following methods would you prefer:



         a.  Live lecture



         b.  Audiovisual in a group situation



         c.  Audiovisual -- take programs by yourself






 9.   Please explain why you selected the method you



     indicated.	










10.   Did you find the questions in the workbook with



     the audiovisual program were a help in learning?






                                             No
                           147

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11.  Did you have sufficient time to answer the questions




     in the workbook?
12.  What was your opinion of the illustrations  (cartoons)




     in the audiovisual program (you may check as many as




     you wish) :




         a.  An amusing break




         b.  Conveyed a real message




         c.  A frivolous distraction




         d.  I found it hard to understand the meaning




             of  some of the drawings




         e.  I would have liked more of them



         f.  Other






13.  Were the photographs in the audiovisual presentation



     clear and understandable?
14.   Please make any  additional  comments:
                            148

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                                   TECHNICAL REPORT DATA
                            (Please read Instructions on the reverse before completing)
1. REPORT NO.
EPA-660/2-74-071
                                                           3. RECIPIENT'S ACCESSION-NO.
4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE

Programmed Demonstration for Erosion and Sediment
Control  Specialists
                                                  5. REPORT DATE February  1974
                                                    (date of approval)
                                                  6. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION CODE
7. AUTHOR(S)
Thomas  R.  :-lills ;  Michael A. Uawrocki;  Gregg R.  Squire;
Homer T. Hopkins; .lichael L. Clar
                                                           8. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION REPORT NO.
9. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME AND ADDRESS
Itittman  Associates, Inc.
Environmental & Geosciences Department
9190 Red Branch Road
Columbia,  Maryland  21045
                                                  10. PROGRAM ELEMENT NO.
                                                      1B2042
                                                  11. CONTRACT/GRANT NO.
                                                      S800854
                                                      (15030 FHZ)
 12. SPONSORING AGENCY NAME AND ADDRESS
         Office of Research and Development
         U.S.  Environmental Protection Agency
         Washington, D.C.  20460
 and
                                                  13. TYPE OF RE PORT AND PERIOD COVERED
                                                      Final                    	
                                                  14. SPONSORING AGENCY CODE
Water Resources Administration, State of rlarylanc
Annapolis  Maryland   ?1Am	L
 15. SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES
 Prepared  in cooperation with:
                          Water Resources Administration
                          State of Maryland
                          Annapolis,  Maryland	
 16. ABSTRACT
 A  series  of  technical presentations and  a  certification plan for erosion and sediment
 control specialists are presented.  Fifteen  conventional presentations,  complete
 with visual  aids and student handouts, and six audiovisual programs  consisting of
 film strips,  taped narration, work books,  and  instructor's manuals are described.
 Samples of the presentation materials, designed to provide an effective  program for
 qualifying construction personnel and other  persons to pass the certification exam,
 are included  in appendices.  Presentations include such topics as: Goal,  Objectives
 and Principles of Erosion and Sediment Control; Erosion and Sedimentation;  Control
 of Sediment Generated on Construction Sites; Control of Runoff During Construction;
 Vegetative Soil Stabilization; and Foreman-Inspector Responsibilities.   Results of
 a  demonstration t;o evaluate the conventional presentation approach versus  the
 audiovisual approach are given.  Also described is the development of a  plan for
 the certification of on-site erosion and sediment  control specialists.
17.
                                KEY WORDS AND DOCUMENT ANALYSIS
                  DESCRIPTORS
                                              b.IDENTIFIERS/OPEN ENDED TERMS
                                                                c. COSATI Field/Group
    Erosion Control
    Education
                                       bediment Control
                                       Certification Plan
                                       Construction Related
                                         Erosion
                                       Technical Presentations
                                       Maryland
05 I
13 B
18. DISTRIBUTION STATEMENT

  Release Unlimited
                                              19. SECURITY CLASS (This Report)'
                                                                21. NO. OF PAGES
                                                                   153
                                              2O. SECURITY CLASS (This page)
                                                                         22. PRICE
EPA Form 2220-1 (9-73)

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