EPA/AA/CTAB/89-05
                        Technical Report
          Cold Starting A Neat Methanol (M100) Vehicle
                With Long Duration Spark Ignition
                               by
                       Robert I.  Bruetsch
                            June  1989
                             NOTICE

     Technical Reports  do not necessarily  represent  final  EPA
decisions or positions.   They are intended  to present technical
analysis  of  issues  using data which  are currently available.
The purpose in the release of such reports  is to facilitate the
exchange  of technical information and  to inform the  public of
technical developments which  may  form  the basis for a final EPA
decision, position or regulatory action.

             U.  S.  Environmental  Protection Agency
                   Office  of Air and Radiation
                    Office of Mobile Sources
              Emission Control Technology Division
           Control Technology and Applications Branch
                       2565 Plymouth Road
                   Ann Arbor,  Michigan   48105

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       UNITED STATES ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY

                    ANN ARBOR. MICHIGAN 48105
                                                        OFFICE OF
                                                     AIR AND RADIATION
 JUL 31  1989

MEMORANDUM


SUBJECT:   Exemption  From  Peer and Administrative  Review
FROM:
        Karl H.
        Control
Hellman, Chief
Technology and
                                  Applications  Branch
TO:
        Charles L. Gray, Jr., Director
        Emission Control Technology Division
     The   attached   report  entitled   "Cold  Starting  A   Neat
Methanol  (M100)  Vehicle  With  Long  Duration  Spark  Ignition,"
EPA/AA/CTAB/89-05,  describes  the  evaluation  of  a  novel  high
energy  ignition  strategy  originally  developed  for   gasoline
combustion  stability  applied to  the  challenge of cold  starting
neat methanol at low ambient temperatures.

     Since  this  report is concerned  only  with the  presentation
of data and  its  analysis and does not involve matters of  policy
or   regulations,   your   concurrence   is   requested  to   waive
administrative  review  according to the policy outlined in  your
directive of April 22, 1982.
                                               Date; 7-
Concurrence:/,
                 arles L. Gr,ay/ Jr., Dir., ECTD
Nonconcurrence:
                                            Date:
               Charles L. Gray, Jr., Dir., ECTD

cc:  E. Burger, ECTD

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                        Table of Contents

                                                          Page
                                                         Number
I.   Summary	    1
II.  Background	    1
III. System Description  	    2
IV.  Starting Procedure  	    5
V.   Test Results	    6
VI.  Discussion	    8
VII. Acknowledgments 	    9
VIII.References  	   10

APPENDIX A - LDSI System Schematic	   A-l
APPENDIX B - Pulse Characteristics and Circuitry ....   B-l
APPENDIX C - Vehicle Specifications and Modifications
             for M100	   C-l
APPENDIX D - Emission Test Results	   D-l

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 I.   Summary

     A  test program was devised at EPA's Motor Vehicle Emission
 Laboratory to  evaluate the Nissan long duration  spark ignition
 (LDSI)  system  on an MlOO test vehicle to determine whether cold
 starting  neat  methanol  at  low  ambient  temperatures  can  be
 improved.   Modifications  were  made  to  the  vehicle's ignition
 system   and   stock  cold   start  injectors   were   utilized.
 Successful cold starts were obtained down to 20F (-7C).

 II.  Background

     Nissan initially  developed this system  to investigate the
 relationship   between    spark-ignition    characteristics   and
 combustion  stability   in   a  gasoline-fueled   engine.    They
 examined  spark  current,  energy,   and duration parameters  and
 found   that   lengthening   the   spark  discharge   duration  is
 particularly effective in achieving stabilized combustion.[1]

     More  specifically,  a  longer  spark duration was  found to
 provide a  continued supply of electrical  energy  to the mixture
 around  the  spark plug  gap.   A longer  spark  duration promotes
 more  rapid flame  initiation and faster  flame  kernel  growth.
 The  length of  spark  duration  is  generally  regarded  as  the
 period  from ignition to the  onset of combustion  pressure rise.
 Since energy  is  continually  input  as the flame kernel  grows,
 the  occurrence  of  misfire cycles should  be  suppressed  in the
 vicinity of the  advance limit for ignition timing and  the  heat
 release delay time  should be shortened.   The result should be a
 reduction  in   combustion   fluctuations,   thereby  making  it
 possible to expand  the stable  combustion  zone and  fire  leaner
mixtures.   Combustion  stability  is  essential  for  reduced  NOx
 emissions and  improved fuel economy in a  lean burn engine.  It
 is also beneficial  for  good combustion  in cold weather  and for
better response  in  transient  operating  conditions.   Lengthening
 spark duration should also expand  the  stable E6R rate limit.[2]

     In 1987,  General  Motors Research  Labs  published a  paper
describing  a   development  program in  which  they  claimed  to
achieve unassisted  cold  starts  with  a  UPS  direct  injection
stratified charge (DISC)  engine at ambient temperatures  as low
as  -20F  with  MlOO  and  other  alcohol   fuels.    The  special
characteristics  optimized   for  this   engine   included   high
compression ratio,   a  multiple  discharge   spark   system,   in
cylinder air motion  and direct injection.[3]

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                               -2-


     The Nissan LDSI system  is  somewhat  different in design and
 operation  than  the  ignition  system used  in  the UPS  engine
 tested  by  GM,  but  is  similar  in  its   improved  spark  energy
 characteristics  for cold  starting alcohol  fuels.[4]   Improved
 cold start  performance of M100 was  the  main  objective of this
 test program,  so it was decided to  apply the Nissan  LDSI to a
 high compression MIOO-fueled  engine without  direct injection,
 stratified  charge,   or  optimized  air motion,  to  evaluate its
 component  contribution  to   the   improvement   of  low  ambient
 temperature neat methanol cold  start performance.

 III. System Description

     The Nissan  LDSI  system consists of  a power unit containing
 spark duration control circuitry  and a high voltage output,  an
 ignition relay,  and a  duration control  box which  allows spark
 duration  to be  varied  from  4  to   10  milliseconds.    Further
 lengthening  of  spark  duration is believed  by Nissan  to cause
 fuel economy to deteriorate because  of the  increase in electric
 power consumption.   Spark  plugs may  also wear out sooner due to
 electrode erosion. [2]  When power to the system is  cut  off, the
 test  vehicle  runs   on  the  stock  ignition  system with  spark
 duration on  the  order  of 1.5 milliseconds.   A  schematic  of the
 Nissan  LDSI hardware  is  shown  in  Appendix  A.    The control
 circuit in  the LDSI  power  unit was treated as  a  "black box" in
 the  evaluation,   but  is believed by EPA  to  include  a  DC-DC
 converter which enables the spark duration to be varied.[5]

     The LDSI power unit has  a four-pin connector  in  addition
 to  the  high voltage   output.   One  pin  is  connected to  the
 battery or  other +12V supply.   A  second pin is  connected  to
 ground.  A   third  pin  is  provided  to  receive input   from the
 vehicle  ignition pulse generator,   in  this  case  a   magnetic
 Hall-Effect  transistorized  crank position  sensor  system.   The
 fourth pin can be used as an output to a  tachometer if  required.

     An  additional  pulse  interface   circuit  was  developed  to
mate the  Nissan  LDSI  system  to  the test  vehicle's  ignition
 coil,  distributor and  pulse  generator.   The vehicle's  ignition
pulse was measured  and  recorded  at  850  rpm  (idle).  A typical
printout of  the  pulse characteristics and  the pulse  interface
 circuit are  shown in Appendix  B.  The pulse  printout  data are
displayed in graphic form  as  plots of voltage  (mV)  versus  time
 (ms).   These plots can be  used to determine.the pulse  width and
the pulse frequency  of  a given engine condition as  produced  by
the vehicle's ignition pulse generator.

     The pulse interface circuit  was  developed for use  with the
vehicle's ignition  timing to  regulate the  pulse  frequency  or
duty  cycle   of   the  LDSI,   i.e., no delay  circuit  or  other
rpin-dependent circuit was incorporated into the pulse  interface
circuit.

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                               -3-


     The Nissan LDSI  only  accepts a 5-volt square-wave ignition
pulse  nominally 4 to 5 milliseconds wide.   This is based on an
ignition  coil  primary  circuit   current  of  approximately  5
amperes  and  an  ignition  coil  secondary  circuit current  of
approximately  40  to 50  milliamperes.[6]   The test  vehicle's
ignition  pulse was  detected  (located  on the  distributor)  at
idle (roughly  850 rpm)  and at 1600 rpm  using a Norland Digital
Oscilloscope and  printer.   The pulse interface circuit was then
designed  to  transform  these pulse   characteristics  into  the
reguired 5V sguare-wave for the LDSI.

     The  pulse   interface  circuit  contains  three  integrated
circuits:   IC1,  IC2,  and  IC3.[7]   IC1  and  its  associated
components  (a  metal  oxide   varistor,   two  diodes,  and  two
capacitors) drop  the nominal  12 volts from the  battery  down to
5  volts to  power  the  rest  of  the  circuit.  The  metal  oxide
varistor is  a  transient suppressor  which protects  the  circuit
from damaging  voltage spikes.   The diodes protect the circuit
in  case of  accidental  polarity  reversal  and the  capacitors
filter the power  supply.

     IC2  and  its components  (two resistors and  a capacitor)
form a voltage comparator.   The two resistors make  up a voltage
divider  which  provides  IC2,  an  operational  amplifier, with a
reference voltage.

     Vr.f =       (5)(1000)    =1.79 volts
                  (1000+1800)

     When the  input voltage from the  distributor  pickup (pulse
generator)  exceeds  the reference,  the voltage at the  output  of
IC2 switches from 0 volts to 5 volts.

     The   output    of  IC2   is    connected   to  a  monostable
multivibrator (IC3).  A pull-down resistor ensures  a relatively
low resistance path to ground for IC3 when the output of IC2 is
at a low level.   When there is a  low-to-high transition  at the
"B" input  of IC3,  there is a positive-going pulse at  the "Q"
output  of  IC3.   The duration  of the  pulse  is determined  by
resistors R4 and R5 and capacitor C4:

     tpui,. =    In(2) x R x C = 4 msec

     The pulse  current is  amplified  by  two  transistors  before
being output to the Nissan LDSI system.

     A  schematic   of the  entire  vehicle  ignition  system  as
modified for this test program is shown in Figure 1.  A nominal
12 volts is sourced from the  vehicle  battery through  fuses  to
the ignition  switch  and  ignition relay.   The relay is  also
connected to the  other  (coil)  side  of  the  ignition  switch  in
order   to  trigger  the LDSI system and pulse  interface  circuit

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                             -4-
                          Figure 1
     Modified  Test Vehicle Ignition System  Schematic
          PULSE INTERFACE
             CIRCUIT
   LONG DURATION
  SPARK IGNITION
   (LDSI) SYSTEM
TACHOMETER

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                               -5-


with  12 volts  when the  vehicle's ignition  key is  turned on.
The rest  of the ignition system operates the  same  as the stock
breakerless  ignition  system,  except that the high voltage input
to the  distributor  is connected  to the Nissan  LDSI  power unit
rather  than the center post  of the vehicle ignition coil.  The
pulse generator  signal  is input to the  pulse  interface circuit
and  transformed  into  a  5-volt  square-wave  4 msec  wide  as
described above.  Then,  the pulse is input to  the  Nissan LDSI.
The high  voltage output  of the Nissan LDSI is then input to the
distributor  and  distributed  to  the  spark  plugs  using  the
vehicle's  stock  specification ignition  timing (3ATDC  at  850
rpm, 24 BTDC at 4500 rpm).[8]

     The  test   vehicle   used  for  this  program   is   a  1981
Volkswagen  Rabbit  modified for  use  of  neat  methanol (M100).
The  engine  displacement  is  1.61  liters  and  the  compression
ratio   is   12.5:1.    The  vehicle  was   not   equipped  with  a
catalyst.   The  equivalent test weight  of  the  vehicle  is 2500
Ibs. and  the actual dynamometer  horsepower is  7.7  HP.  A more
complete  description   of  the   neat   methanol  test   vehicle
specifications  and  modifications  made  to  accommodate  methanol
fuel are included in Appendix C.

     A   few  aspects  of  the   vehicle  fueling   system  are
noteworthy.   The  vehicle  is  equipped  with  two  cold  start
enrichment   valves   which   are   temperature   controlled   and
electrically  operated.    These  valves  enrich  the  air/fuel
mixture  at   coolant   temperatures  below  approximately  16C
(60F).   They operate for  a  maximum  of  8  seconds  depending on
outside  ambient  temperature.    The   cold  start   valves  are
controlled  by  the  thermo-time switch.    The  thermo-time  switch
supplies negative current  (ground)  to the cold start valves  so
that they will  inject  fuel  into the intake air distributor when
the starter is operated and the engine is cold.   If  the starter
is operated  for  longer than normal, the thermo-time switch cuts
off the cold start  valves in order to prevent  engine flooding.
All  tests  run  in  this  program  were  performed  at  coolant
temperatures  within  the  operable  range  of  the  thermo-time
switch  (below   35C).    The  vehicle's  oxygen  sensor   works
according to specification with an  idle mixture  (CO  content)  of
2.0 to 3.0 volume percent.[8,9]

IV.   Starting Procedure

     The vehicle  was  initially cranked  to start in increments
of 10 seconds, with the  exception of a  15-second crank  on  the
first attempt  at  each temperature.   If  the  vehicle  did  not
start,  a pause of 15  seconds was  taken to  allow the starter  to
cool.    This  cycle  of crank and  pause  was  repeated  until  55
seconds   of   cranking  time  (5  start  attempts)  had  elapsed.

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                               -6-
 This  procedure was originally  developed for the  protection of
 the  starter when using  a  24-volt  battery system.[10]  The test
 vehicle  was  returned  to   stock  configuration  for  this  test
 program  and  used a  12-volt battery.   Upon  repeated starting
 attempts  it was  found that  if  the vehicle didn't  start  on the
 first  attempt, the  12-volt battery was significantly discharged
 such  that  the  vehicle  would not  start  or  crank  as well  on
 subsequent  start  attempts.

     A  new  starting  procedure  was  adopted  which  involved
 cranking for 30 to 45 seconds with the  throttle  closed.   If the
 vehicle  failed to  start,   a 15-second pause was taken  and a
 second start  attempt  was made by  cranking  for  approximately 15
 seconds.  If  no  start occurred, the vehicle's battery (625 CCA)
 was connected to  a battery charger for  20  to  30  minutes and the
 procedure was  repeated.  If the vehicle started, the driver was
 instructed  to  throttle  the engine  in neutral, if  necessary,  to
 keep it going and avoid stalling during pre-test idling.[11]

 V.   Test Results

     Test results showed  that  increasing spark duration  up to
 10  milliseconds   increases  the  spark  energy to   over  280  mj
 (compared to 26  mJ  at  1.5  ms  spark duration),  and  enabled an
 M100  vehicle to  be  cold  started  at ambient,  coolant and oil
 temperatures  as  low as 20F  (-7C).  Table  1  shows the results
 of  cold  start   testing  around  the  temperatures  which  were
 identified  as  representing the  limits  of the Nissan  LDSI M100
 cold starting capabilities.

     The first test  listed was  merely  a baseline  test at room
 temperature to see  if the  system  was  operable  without  relying
 on  the stock  ignition  system.   This  test  confirmed that  the
 pulse  circuit  was designed  correctly and that the Nissan LDSI
 could  start the  vehicle just  as  well  as  the  stock  ignition
 system can  at 75F.   The   "Cranking?"  column in  Table 1  is a
 subjective  measure  developed to compare  the cranking speed  at
 low temperatures  to  those  at  room  temperature.   Cranking  rpm
was not measured  for  these determinations.  A rating  of  "fast"
 cranking speed is synonomous with  the starter cranking speed at
 room  temperature  with the  stock  ignition system  (roughly  300
 rpm).   All  other  cranking  speed ratings were ranked relative to
 this.   The  vehicle was  soaked overnight in MVEL's  outdoor cold
box such that  inlet  air, coolant,  and oil temperatures were all
within  1F   of each  other,  and  the  entire  vehicle was  at
 temperatures   below  the    lower   limit   of   the   Controlled
Environment  Test  Cell (CETC), i.e., below  20F  (-7C).  Several
 starting  attempts were  made in the  cold box prior  to putting
the vehicle  in the CETC for  an  attempted  Federal  Test Procedure

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                              -7-
                           Table  l

      Results of Cold Start Attempts With Long Duration
          Spark Ignition On An MIOO-Fueled VW Rabbit
Air/H,0/Oil
Temperature
 22
 20
 75     24



 30     -1
       -6
       -7
18     -8

16     -9
               Start?
              (Yes/No)

                Yes


                Yes
Yes
Yes
                 No

                 No
           Cranking?
          (Fast/Slow)

            Fast


            Fast
  Fast
Moderate




  Slow

Very slow
                                                Comments
Same performance as
stock ignition

Start after 28-second
crank; FTP aborted
in Bag 2 due to high
exhaust temperatures

Start after 15-second
crank; FTP aborted in
Bag 2 due to power
loss

Start after 15-second
crank; immediate stall;
failure to restart at
this temperature

Some firing

No firing; starter
failure on last attempt

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                               -8-
 (FTP).  The  vehicle did not  start  in the  teens,  but exhibited
 some  backfire and  near-starts indicating  that  the temperature
 was  probably near  (just below)  the lower  limitations  of  the
 LDSI  system.   A 22F (-6C) start was obtained  in the cold box
 after a 15-second cranking period with a 10 ms spark duration.

     At this point, it was decided to attempt  a  20F (-7C) FTP
 in . the  CETC.   The vehicle  started at  20F  <-7C)  after  15
 seconds of> cranking and  almost immediately stalled.  Subsequent
 cranking   attempts  were  unsuccessful as   the  battery  quickly
 discharged.   The battery was  recharged  and another  cold start
 was  attempted at 20F <-7C).   This attempt failed  as did the
 next three iterations.   Finally, with the  ambient, coolant, and
 oil  temperatures raised  slightly to 22F (-6C), the vehicle
 started after 15 seconds of cranking, idled roughly for about 1
 minute, and  an FTP test was  attempted.  Driveability was poor,
 but  the  vehicle  achieved enough power  to  match  the  driver's
 trace throughout Bag 1,   including  the  acceleration  to  57 MPH.
 Immediately after the  start of Bag  2,  the vehicle exhibited a
 power loss and  had  difficulty running at speeds over 5 MPH, let
 alone matching the  driver's trace.   Approximately one-third of
 the way  through Bag 2,  the CO alarm  in the test cell sounded
 and the test  was aborted.   Bag 1 of this  test was analyzed and
 found to be  very high in emissions with 469 grams of CO and 406
 grams of  methanol  emissions.   Complete test  results  for this
 and a  subsequent attempt to  perform an FTP  test are contained
 in Appendix  D.   Gasoline equivalent  fuel  economy  was  10.6 MPG
 for this one-bag test.

     Several  cold  starts  were  again attempted  at  lower than
 20F (-7C) temperatures to stretch the  limitations of  the LDSI
 as  an  M100  cold  start  system.    These   attempts  were  again
 unsuccessful.  It was decided to try another FTP  in the CETC at
 a higher  temperature,  30F, in  order  to complete  a  successful
 test which would still  represent a  significant   improvement  in
 M100 cold  startability.  On  this  test,  cranking  time was almost
 30 seconds,  and  driveability  was again  quite poor.   However,
 the vehicle exhibited no power loss  throughout the test and did
 not stall  during idle periods.   The exhaust temperatures rose
 sharply during  Bag 2,   and it  was  decided  to  stop  the test
 because the rubber  tailpipe  boot  which  connects  the  vehicle  to
 the  CVS   emission  analyzer  began to  melt.   Bag  1  was  again
 analyzed and  found  to be much cleaner  at  30F  (-1C)  than  at
 20F (-7C)  with about  one-half  the CO and methanol emissions
 of the colder test.   Gasoline  equivalent fuel economy  improved
 to 12.3 MPG in Bag 1 at 30F.

VI.   Discussion

     The  test  results  obtained  here represent   a  significant
 improvement  in  lowering the  minimum  ambient  temperature  at
which an  MIOO-fueled vehicle  can be  cold started compared  to
other methanol   cold  start programs  previously  and  currently
being performed by  EPA.  With  long  duration spark ignition used

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                               -9-


 as  the only  cold start  system,  M100 vehicle  cold starts were
 obtained  down to  20F <-7C)  where previously  these vehicles
 had  difficulty  being started  at  temperatures much  below the
 flashpoint  of methanol,   52F  (11C).   There did  not  appear to
 be   any   correlation  between  cranking   time   and  ambient
 temperature,  though  the  same  starting  procedure  was employed
 upon each low ambient temperature cold start attempt.

     The  cold start  emissions  measured  in Bag  1  of the FTP at
 20F  and 30F  were  quite  high,  particularly  CO  and methanol
 emissions.  The  vehicle obtained 10.6 MPG  at  20F and 12.3 MPG
 at 30F over  Bag 1 of the FTP on a gasoline-equivalent basis.

     More extensive  testing may be needed to  determine  why the
 vehicle  had  difficulty  completing  the  FTP  at   low  ambient
 temperatures.

     The primary objective of the test program was the evaluate
 cold startability  of the LDSI  system at  low  temperatures, and
 this  objective  was  accomplished.    Optimization  of  warm-up
 emissions performance was not an objective of this test program
 since neither the LDSI system or  any other  control strategy was
 employed  to  limit  exhaust  emissions  under  these  operating
 conditions.    The  warm-up  (Bag  1)  emissions are  discussed here
 because they  are an  important  indicator of  cold start and cold
 transient combustion, and  their  measurement  with M100  as the
 fuel is a result not previously accomplished by EPA.

     Future testing  could include evaluation of the LDSI system
 on  other vehicles,   emission  testing  in  conjunction  with  a
 catalyst  and/or  alternate  cold start fueling  strategies.   The
 ignition system could be  tested in combination with other neat
methanol  cold  start  systems  under  development  such  as  an
 ultrasonic  fuel  atomizer, direct injection,  or a  higher  speed
 starter.   Further  optimization  of  the  long  duration  spark
 ignition  strategy  itself,  including alternate  ignition timing
 strategy development, may help achieve reliable cold starts at
 ambient temperatures lower than previously accomplished.

VII.  Acknow1edgments

     The author wishes to acknowledge the assistance  of Hiroki
Kawajiri  of  Nissan  for  supplying  the  LDSI  system,  Michael
Murphy of SDSB for  the  development of the LDSI  pulse interface
circuit, James Garvey and Rodney Branham of  TEB for performing
the exhaust emission testing and  analysis,  and Jennifer  Criss
and Marilyn Alff  of CTAB for word  processing  support  and final
report preparation.

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                              -10-
VIII. References

      1.    "Stabilized  Combustion  in  a  Spark   Ignited  Engine
through  a   Long   Spark  Duration,"   Nakai,  Meroji,  Yashuhiko
Nakagawa,  Kyugo  Hamai, and  Masazumi  Sone,  Nissan  Motor Co.,
Ltd.,  SAE  Paper  850075,  International  Congress  & Exposition,
Detroit, MI, February 25 - March 1, 1985.

      2.    "A  Study of the Relationship between Spark Duration
and  Stability of  Engine  Combustion,"  Nissan Motor  Co.,  Ltd.,
Hamai, Kyugo,  Meroji  Nakai,  and Yasuhiko Nakegawa, JSAE Review,
Vol. 7, No.  1, April 1986.

      3.    "Unassisted  Cold  Starts  to  -29C and Steady-State
Tests  of  a Direct-Injection Stratified  Charge  (DISC)  Engine
Operated On Neat  Alcohols,"  SAE  Paper  872066,  Siewart,  R.  W.
and E. G.  Groff,  International Fuels and Lubricants Meeting and
Exposition, Toronto, Ontario, CANADA, November 2-5, 1987.

      4.    "EPICAn  Ignition System  for  Tomorrow's  Engines,"
SAE  Paper  840913, Clarke,  B.  C.  and T.  Canup, 31st  Annual
Milwaukee  Lecture Series,  Milwaukee, WI,  April  7, 14,  and 21,
1988.

      5.    "Combustion    Fluctuation     Mechanism    Involving
Cycle-To-Cycle Spark  Ignition Variation Due to  Gas Flow Motion
in  S.I.   Engines,"   Hamai,   Kyugo,   Hiroki  Kawajiri,  Takashi
Ishizuka,    and    Meroji     Nakai,    Twenty-First    Symposium
(International) on Combustion, The Combustion Institute, 1986.

      6.    "Nissan  Long Duration Spark Ignition  System  Wiring
Diagram," Kawajiri, H., Nissan Research  and  Development,  Inc.,
facsimile  to David Blair,  U.S. EPA,  Ann  Arbor,  MI,  April  6,
1988.

      7.    "Description of 4  millisecond Pulse  Circuit Used in
Methanol Cold  Start Project,"  Murphy,  Michael J., EPA/ECTD/SDSB
Memorandum to Robert I. Bruetsch,  U.S. EPA, Ann  Arbor,  MI, June
14, 1989.

      8.    "1981  Volkswagen   Rabbit   Service Manual,"  Robert
Bentley, Inc.,  Cambridge,  MA,  1982.

      9.    "Development of  a  Pure Methanol Fuel  Car,"  Menrad,
Holger,  Wenpo  Lee, and Winfried Bernhardt,  Volkswagenwerk AG,
SAE Paper 770790,  Passenger Car Meeting,  Detroit,  MI,  September
26-30,  1977.

     10.    "Effects of  Cranking Speed and  Finely Atomized Fuel
Delivery on Minimum Cold Starting Temperature of  a Methanol-
Fueled (M100) Vehicle," Blair,  David  M. , EPA/AA/CTAB-88-04, May
1988.

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                              -11-
VIII. References (cont'd)

     11.   "Test   Plan:    Echlin  Precision   Ignition  Control
(EPIC) Evaluation  on an M100  VW Rabbit," Bruetsch,  Robert I.,
EPA/ECTD/CTAB Memorandum to Charles  L.  Gray,  Jr., U.S. EPA, Ann
Arbor, MI, November 28, 1988.

-------
    13
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-------
                              APPENDIX B
PX     101.22      ns




OX  *   112.31      mS




POX    11.550      HS
        PY      ie0.i34     mV




        OY     -32.227     mV




        PQY    -102.37     nV
                          PN    10122




                          ON    11251




                          PQN     1155
                                                          33'23/39  99= OS -01
               '

        '2. zs
715
OY  * -30.752





PQY = -206.6d
                                            r?V
C f:  a    1 ' 7 C





CM     11225





PQN     1055
                                                          33-'23--S3  09'37-51
       Ji7 2*
n*     PY      147  55      nv




T.S     OY      ^.3*77      mV




n     POY    -141.60      nv/
                          ON    1572*



                          PQN     4*1

-------
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VO
5 ?
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                                                    R4
                        INPUT

-------
                         APPENDIX B
Parts List
C1:
C2:
C3:
C4:
C5:
D1.D2:
IC1:
IC2:
IC3:
01:
02:
R1.R3:
R2.R7:
R4:
R5:
R6:
R8:
R9:
0.33nF polyester capacitor
0.1 u.F ceramic capacitor
47pF ceramic capacitor
0.22}iF polyester capacitor
0.1 u.F polyester capacitor
1N4003 diode
LM340-T-5 voltage regulator
CA3130 op amp
SN74121 monostable multivibrator
2N3904 transistor
2N4239 transistor
1 .8kQ 1/4 w resistor
1.0 kQ 1/4 w resistor
10kQ trimmer
22kQ 1/4 w resistor
10kQ 1/4 w resistor
470 Q 1/4 w resistor
22 a 1/4 w resistor

-------
                           APPENDIX C

            METHANOL-POWERED VOLKSWAGEN TEST VEHICLE
     SPECIFICATIONS AND CHANGES TO ACCOMMODATE METHANOL FUEL
        Vehicle Item
Engine:

   Displacement

   Bore

   Stroke

   Compression ratio

   Valvetrain

   Basic engine
             ^T



Main Fuel System;

   General




   Pump life
   Accumulator-maximum
   holding pressure

   Fuel filter
   Fuel distributor




   Air sensor

   Fuel injectors



   Cold-start injectors
       Spec i f i c at i on/Change
1.61 liters

8.00 cm

8.00 cm

12.5:1

Overhead camshaft

GTI basic engine - European
high-performance engine to
withstand higher loads - U.S
cylinder head
Bosch K-jetronic CIS fuel
injection with Lambda feedback
control; calibrated for
methanol operation

1 year due to corrosiveness of
methanol; improved insulation
on wiring exposed to fuel

3.0 bar
One-way check valve deleted
because of fuel incompatibility

5.0-5.3 bar system pressure,
calibration optimized for
methanol, material changes for
fuel compatibility

Modified air flow characteristics

Material changes for fuel compat-
ibility; plastic screen replaced
by metal screen

2 injectors, valves pulse for 8
seconds beyond start mode below
16C (60F)

-------
                       APPENDIX C (CONT'D)
            METHANOL-POWERED VOLKSWAGEN TEST VEHICLE
     SPECIFICATIONS AND CHANGES TO ACCOMMODATE METHANOL FUEL
        Vehicle Item
   Fuel injection wiring

   Idle setting
PCV:
Ignition;
   Distributor
   Standard spark plugs
Transmission;
   General
   Torque converter ratio
   Stall speed
   Gear ratios;
     1
     2
     3
     Axle
Fuel Tank;
   Material
   Coating
   Seams and fittings
   Cap
   Fuel
       Spec i f i c at i on/Change
Modified to accommodate relays
and thermo-switch
Specific to methanol calibration
PCV valve with calibrated plunger
no orifice
Slightly reduced maximum
centrifugal advance and slightly
modified vacuum advance/retard
characteristics
Bosch W4CC
1981 production automatic 3-speed
2.44
2000-2200 rpm

2.55
1.45
1.00
3.57

Steel
Phosphated steel
Brazed
European neck and locking cap
Neat methanol (Ml00)

-------
 COMPOSITE TEST RESULTS FROM 2660S-MX13

TEST NUMBER  893480             METHANE  MEASURED ? NO       METHANOL MPG   5.28
M100.FUEL                       METHANOL MEASURED ? NO       GASOLINE MPG  10.62
 OTR TEST PROCEDURE                                             "FACTOR"   2.0105



 TEST  B          < CURRENT TEST RESULTS >    <  	    PROPOSED TEST CALCULATIONS (GRAMS/MILE)   	  >
NUMBER A  MILES   H C    CO    C02    NOX    CH4     NMHC    H C    CO    C02    NOX  OMHCE CH30H   HCHO
	G  	           	             	    	              	   	
       S


893480 1  3.162 47.178148.258  351.41  1.080  -9.999 -9.999   5.554148.264   351.53 1.08161.091-0.00017

TEST NUMBER  893621             METHANE  MEASURED ? NO       METHANOL MPG   6.13
Ml00.FUEL                       METHANOL MEASURED ? NO       GASOLINE MPG  12.32
 OTR TEST PROCEDURE                                             "FACTOR"   2.0105



 TEST  B          < CURRENT TEST RESULTS >    <  	    PROPOSED TEST CALCULATIONS (GRAMS/MILE)   	  >
NUMBER A  MILES   H C    CO    C02    NOX    CH4     NMHC    H C    CO    CO2    NOX  OMHCE CH30H   HCHO
	G  	   	    	    	    	    	     	    	    	    	    		   	
       S


893621 1  3.295 32.076 72.000  426.11  1.931  -9.999 -9.999   3.774 72.005   426.27 1.93141.51187.144-0.00018                            nj
                                                                                                                                     M

-------
 BAG BV BAG TEST RESULTS FROM 2660S-MX13

TEST NUMBER  893480
M100.FUEL               METHANE  MEASURED ? NO
 OTR TEST PROCEDURE     METHANOL MEASURED ? NO



 TEST  B          < CURRENT TEST RESULTS >   < -----   PROPOSED TEST CALCULATIONS (GRAMS/BAG)   ------ >
NUMBER A  MILES   H C    CO    C02    NOX   CH4     NMHC   H C    CO    C02    NOX  OMHCE  CH30H   HCHO
893480 1  3.162149.176468.792 1111.14 3.414 -9.999 -9.999 17.561468.810  1111.54 3. 419******405. 521-0. 00052


TEST NUMBER  893621
M100.FUEL               METHANE  MEASURED ? NO

 OTR TEST PROCEDURE     METHANOL MEASURED ? NO





 TEST  B          < CURRENT TEST RESULTS >   < -----   PROPOSED TEST CALCULATIONS (GRAMS/BAG)   ------ >

NUMBER A  MILES   H C    CO    C02    NOX   CH4     NMHC   H C    CO    C02    NOX  OMHCE  CH30H   HCHO
893621 1  3.295105.689237.241 1404.04 6.363 -9.999 -9.999 12.434237.257  1404.56 6. 363**287 . 140-0.00059                       ^)
                                                                                                                                 W
                                                                                                                                 25
                                                                                                                                 D
                                                                                                                                 H
                                                                                                                                 X

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-------
 BAG BV BAG TEST RESULTS FROM 2660S-MX13

TEST NUMBER  B93480
Ml 00. FUEL               METHANE  MEASURED ? NO
 OTR TEST PROCEDURE     METHANOL MEASURED 7 NO



 TEST  B          < CURRENT TEST RESULTS >   < -------- PROPOSED TEST CALCULATIONS  (GRAMS/MI)  ---------- >
NUMBER A  MILES   H C    CO    C02    NOX   CH4     NMHC   H C    CO     C02    NOX  OMHCE   CH30H   HCHO


893480 1  3.162 47.178148.258  351.41 1.080 -3.162 -3.162  5.554148.264  351.53  1.08161.091128.248-0.00017

TEST NUMBER  893621
Ml 00. FUEL               METHANE  MEASURED ? NO
 OTR TEST PROCEDURE     METHANOL MEASURED 7 NO



 TEST  B          < CURRENT TEST RESULTS >   < -------- PROPOSED TEST CALCULATIONS  (GRAMS/MI)  ---------- >
NUMBER A  MILES   H C    CO    C02    NOX   CH4     NMHC   H C    CO     C02    NOX  OMHCE   CH30H   HCHO


893621 1  3.295 32.076 72.000  426.11 1.931 -3.035 -3.035  3.774  72.005  426.27  1.93141.511 87.144-0.00018
                                                                                                                                     PI
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