REGION  X
JSlffl
WALLA WALLA RIVER BASIN
WASHINGTON AND OREGON
                                ENVIRONMENTAL
                                PROTECTION
                                AGENCY
                                SEATTLE WASHINGTON
                            nfO) n

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WATER QUALITY MANAGEMENT
          PLAN

   Walla Walla River
         Basin

 Washington and Oregon
   EPA-910-8-74-090
      May 3, 1974

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                           FIGURES AND TABLES
                                                                    CHAPTER
FIGURE 1

FIGURE 2a


FIGURE 2b
WALLA WALLA RIVER BASIN

WALLA WALLA RIVER LASIN-WASHINGTO:
(STATE HYDROLOGIC BASIN MAP)

WALLA WALLA RIVER BASIN-OREGON
(STATE HYDROLOGIC BASIN MAP)
TABLE  1


TABLE  2



TABLE  3



TABLE  4

TABLE  5

TABLE  6

TABLE  7

TABLE  8

TABLE  9

TABLE  10

TABLE  11

TABLE  12



TABLE  13


TABLE  14
WATER QUALITY MONITORING AND FLOW
 STATIONS

BRIEF EXPLANATION OF CLASSIFICATIONS,
STATE OF WASHINGTON WATER QUALITY
 STANDARDS

CLASSIFICATION OF MAJOR SURFACE WATERS
(WASHINGTON PORTION OF WALLA WALLA
 RIVER BASIN)

WATER QUALITY CRITERIA BY STREAM REACH

COMPARATIVE WATER QUALITY

WATER QUALITY STANDARDS VIOLATIONS

WATER QUALITY PROBLEM AREAS

SEGMENT DESIGNATIONS

POPULATION

POPULATION PROJECTIONS

LAND USE

AVERAGE AND LIMITING VALUES OF SELECTED PARA-
 METERS NECESSARY TO DESCRIBE IN-STREAM WATER
 QUALITY (WAI.LA WALLA RIVER AND TRIBUTARIES)

WASTE SOURCE INVENTORY AND RANKING
 (WALLA WALLA RIVER AND TRIBUTARIES)

ESTABLISHED OR TARGET EFFLUENT LIMITATIONS
 (WALLA WALLA RIVER AND TRIBUTARIES)
3

3

3

3

4

5

5

5

6



6


6

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                                 FIGURES AND TABLES  (cuutlnued;
                                                                   CHAPTER  NO,
TABLE 15





TABLE 16



TABLE 17



TABLE 18





TABLE 19



TABLE 20



TABLE 21





TABLE 22



TABLE 23



TABLE 24


TABLE 25


TABLE 26



TABLE 27


TABLE 28


TABLE 29


TABLE 30
AVERAGE A:;D LIMITING VALUES OF SELECTED               6
 PARAMETERS NECESSARY TO DESCRIBE INSTREAM
 WATER QUALITY  (TOUCHEl RIVER AND TRIBUTARIES)

WASTE SOURCE I NT ENTORY AND RANKING                    6
 (TOUCHET RIVER AND TRIBUTARIES)

ESTABLISHED OR TARGET EFFLUENT LIMITATIONS            6
 (TOUCHET RIVER AND TRIBUTARIES)

AVERAGE AND LIMITING VALUES OF SELECTED               6
 PARAMETERS NECESSARY TO DESCRIBE INSTREAM
 WATER QUALITY  (MILL CREEK AND TRIBUTARIES)

WASTE SOURCE INVENTORY AND RANKING                    6
 (MILL CREEK AND TRIBUTARIES)

ESTABLISHED OR TARGET EFFLUENT LIMITATIONS            6
 (MILL CREEK AND TRIBUTARIES)

AVERAGE AND LIMITING VALUES OF SELECTED               6
 PARAMETERS NECESSARY TO DESCRIBE INSTREAM
 WATER QUALITY  (WALLA WALLA RIVER, OREGON)
  (WALLA WALLA RIVER, OREGON)


ESTABLISHED OR TARGET EFFLUENT LIMITATIONS            6
  (WALLA WALLA RIVER, OREGON)


MUNICIPAL DISCHARGE INVENTORY-BASIN WIDE SUMMARY      7


MUNICIPAL NEEDS INVENTORY-BASIN WIDE SUMMARY          7


INDUSTRIAL DISCHARGE INVENTORY AND NEEDS-             1
 BASIN WIDE SUMMARY


"EXEMPT" INDUSTRIAL FACILITIES INVENTORY              7


RESIDUAL WASTES DISPOSAL                              7


ANIMAL FEEDLOT I NT. N TORY                              8


FACILITY PLANNING REQUIRD1ENTS                        9

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                          FIGURES AND TABLES (continued)
                                                                CHAPTER NO,
TABLE 31        ACTION PROGRAM                                      9

TABLE 32        COOPERATIVE MONITORING PROGRAM-COMPLIANCE          10

TABLE 33        COOPERATIVE MONITORING PROGRAM-TREND               10

TABLE 34        MONITORING AND SURVEILLANCE NEEDS-                 10
                SPECIAL STUDIES

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                  Chapter 1.  INTRODUCTION


     Section 303(e) of the Federal Water Pollution Control Act
Amendments of 1972 (PL 92-500) requires that each State main-
tain a continuing planning process which will result in the
preparation of water quality management plans for all waters
within the State.  These plans are then to serve as the basic
management guidance for the State's water pollution control
programs.

     The purpose of preparing basin plans is to provide the
information that the States of Washington and Oregon will need
to make centralized, coordinated water quality management deci-
sions; to provide the strategic guidance for developing the
State .water pollution control program under Section 106 of PL-
92-500; and to encourage establishment of water quality objectives
which take into account overall State policies and programs,
including those for land use and other related natural  resources.
The plans are to assist the States and the Environmental  Protec-
tion Agency (EPA) in directing resources, establishing  priorities,
scheduling and coordinating actions, and reporting progress
toward meeting objectives.

     The report contained herein is the proposed water  quality
management plan for the Walla Walla River Basin.  In view of the
inter-state nature of this Basin, it was deemed appropriate that
the basin plan be prepared by the Environmental Protect"-jn Agency,
with the concurrence of the States.  Following completion of this
plan, a hearing is to be held to obtain public input.  The plan
is to be modified as appropriate after consideration of the in-
formation gained in the hearing.  Another hearing on the revised
plan will  then be held if necessary.  The plan will then be
adopted by the Washington Department of Ecology (DOE) and the
Oregon Department of Environmental Quality (DEQ) as the official
State water quality plans for the Walla Walla River Basin.  The
implementation of the provisions of these plans will be achieved
through enforcement of State regulations adopted pursuant to re-
commendations set forth in the plans and through State and Federal
enforcement of stipulations and compliance schedules contained in
waste discharge permits scheduled to be issued to waste dischargers
in the basins.

     As presently envisioned, at least two generations  of plans
will be required in the planning process.  The first generation
plans, as typified by the Walla Walla plan presented herein, will
be used to assess water quality problems, develop recommendations
for programs for control of all sources of pollution (including
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non-point), and provide recommendations and priorities for issu-
ing waste discharge permits for roint sources and for awarding
municipal construction grants.  This first phase of activity will
conce' trate on permitting of significant waste dischargers,
using secondary treatment for municipal dischargers and best
practicable treatment (BPT) for all  other point sources as an
overall  effluent limit.  When water quality analyses of a receiv-
ing stream have been performed which indicate a higher degree of
treatment is needed to meet water quality standards, the higher
degree of treatment will be used to establish the effluent limita-
tions.  However, BPT, is a requirement for obtaining a Federal
grant for construction of waste treatment facilities after June
30, 1974.

     Best practicable treatment for industrial point sources is
the best practicable control technology currently available as
determined by the Administrator of EPA.  Guidelines defining this
level of treatment for most categories of industrial wastes are
now available from the EPA.  Secondary treatment for municipal
waste dischargers is defined by EPA regulations which were pub-
lished in the Federal Register on August 17, 1973.

     First generation 303(e) plans will recommend areas where
additional technical studies are required to develop waste load
allocations for various stream reaches.  Second generation plans
will then use waste load allocations in developing  permit stipula-
tions for dischargers whose permits have expired and for new
classes of sources for which permits were not issued initially.
Procedures for establishing land use controls as an aid to achiev-
ing stream quality goals were not developed in this initial plan.
It is anticipated that this area of activity will be addressed in
the second generation for this basin.  A first generation plan,
then, will remain in force until the second generation plan is
prepared, perhaps in the 1976-1977 period.  Any plan prepared in
this process, however, may be revised if necessary.  Public hear-
ings are required prior to any significant change in a plan.

     The following basic objectives are to be achieved through the
development of this planning effort:

     1.    An assessment of the present water quality problems in
the Walla Walla River Basin to serve as a base line against which
to measure the progress toward stream quality goals as pollution
control  programs are implemented.

     2.    An evaluation of where stream water quality goals will
and will not be met through achievement of best practicable treat-
ment at point sources of pollution.
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     3.   In some areas, recormendations for more stringent waste
load limitations which could reasonably be expected to result in
achievement of stream quality goals.

     4.   A determination of the technical and field studies neces-
sary to make additional waste load allocations and achieve controls
over non-point source pollution, and to provide an improved data
base for a second generation plan for the basin.

     5.   An assessment of planning needs, treatment requirements,
and investment costs for municipal waste treatment facilities.

     6.   The development o7 an action program to guide waste
discharge permitting and municipal construction grant activities.

     7.   The definition of areas where the DOE, DEQ, and EPA can
maintain coordinated and mutually complimentary pollution control
programs in the Walla Walla River Basin.


     A sewage drainage basin 3(c) study has been prepared for the
Washington portion of the Walla Walla River basin by a consultant
under contract to the Walla Walla Regional Planning Council.  In
view of the existence of this comprehensive planning document, and
to satisfy the immediate requirements for Section 303(e) plan pro-
duction, an agreement was reached between the Washington Department
of Ecology and the Environmental Protection Agency under which an
attempt would be made to meet 303(e) planning requirements by pre-
paring an addendum to the existing Sewage Drainage Basin Study.
This agreement outlined minimum contents of an acceptable 303(e)
plan and presented a procedure whereby completion of the 303(e)
planning program could be hastened by maximum utilization of exist-
ing planning reports.

     The addendum document referred to, as typified by this plan,
serves to bridge the gap between the 3(c) and 303(e) planning
requirements.  It takes the form of an administrative action program
that spotlights the short-term management needs to be undertaken by
the States.  In the case of the Walla Walla River Basin, the adden-
dum will also expand the existing 3(c) plan (which covered only
the Washington portion of the basin) to include the Oregon portion
as well.  Thus, this report incorporates the material presented in
the Sev/age Drainage Basin Study with emphasis on generating manage-
ment actions or commitments to provide input to formulation of
annual State strategies on a basin-wide scale.

     This basin plan addendum contains two components:  a basin-
wide program, and analyses of the individual segments identified
in the initial State continual planning processes.  The basin-wide
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component is concerned with development of a basin action program,
scheduling of water quality management recorrnendations  made in
the individual segment analyses, and guidance of waste  discharge
permitting and municipal  construction grant activities.   The seg-
ment analyses have as their objectives the following:

     1.    A presentation  of secy ent water quality and  identifica-
tion of problem areas and standards violations,

     2.    An inventory of point source waste generators,  including
identification and quantification of all  wastewater sources contri-
buting to the overall wattr pollution problem.

     3.    A discussion of the significance and  character  of non-
point source pollution in the segment.

     4.    Formulation of  effluent limitations for significant
dischargers, and scheduling of permit issuance,  completion of permit
conditions, and accomplishment of load limitations required.

     5.    A discussion of municipal facility needs.

     6.    A formulation of a segrnetv-oriented monitoring  and data
collection program to identify areas where it is expected that
water quality goals will  not be achieved even after implementation
of best practicable treatment and to provide input for  calculations
of total maximum daily pollutant load and waste  load allocations.

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               Chapter 2.  BASIN DESCRIPTION
                 Delineation of Study Area

     Figure 1  is a map of the Walla Walla River Basin.  The
Washington portion of the basin has been designated as Walla Walla
303(e) Consolidated Planning Area Number 13-08-15, which consists
of Water Resources Inventory Area 32; the Washington porti'on shall
be referred,to as Basin 15-32.  The Oregon portion of the basin
has been designated as Department of Environmental Quality Hydro-
logic Basin 28, and is included.by the Oregon State Water .Resources
Board as a subbasin of the Umatilla River Basin.  For the purposes  .
of this report, the Walla Walla River Basin will consist of the
total area drained by the Walla Walla River.

     Figures 2a and 2b are the individual State hydrclogic basin
maps for the Walla Walla Basin.  The Basin includes portions of
Walla Walla and Columbia Counties in Washington, and Umatilla and
Wallowa Counties in Oregon.

                   Basin Characteristics.

     The Walla Walla River Basin lies in northeastern Oregon and
southeastern Washington.  The Walla Walla River and its major tribu-
taries have their headwaters in the Blue Mountains, located, in the
eastern portion of the basin.  Elevations within the Basin range
from 3000 to 6000 feet above mean sea level, in the Blue Mountains,
to a low of 400 to 50.0 feet at Wallula, where the Walla Walla River
discharges into the Columbia River.  The Walla Walla River drainage
area covers 1881 square miles, of which  about 1395 square miles are
in Washington and the rest in Oregon.

     The Walla Walla River Basin is a triangular shaped structural
depression bordered by the Blue Mountains on the east, the Touchet
Highlands on the north and northwest, and an extension of the
Horse'Heaven Hills on the south and southwest.  The Walla Walla
Valley forms the central portion of the  basin.

     All of the Basin's perennial streams head in the Blue Mountains
and, together with intermittent streams  heading at lower levels,
flow in a northwesterly direction into the Columbia River.  Mainly
due  to prevailing semi-arid conditions,  all major, and most minor
streams, on reaching the valleys, are dry in some parts of their
channels during the lowest flow period of many years.

     The" Walla Walla River is formed by  the confluence of its north
and  south forks, at a point about four miles upstream from the
                           -5-

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town of Milton-Freev.'ater, Oregon.  At Milton-Freewater the river
forms two branches, one of which is joined by another branch in
Washington.  These three branches are, from west to east, the
West Little Walla Walla River, the East Little Walla Walla River,
and the Walla Walla River.

     The two major tributaries to the Walla Walla River are the
Touchet River and Mill Creek.  The Touchet River is separated
from the Walla Walla Valley by a series of low hills; its head-
waters are located in the Blue Mountains south and east of Dayton,
Washington, and its total drainage area is 490,770 acres.  Mill
Creek originates in the high central  part of the Blue Mountains
and drains an area of 51,990 acres, flowing southwesterly through
the City of Walla Walla to the Walla  Walla River.  Other tributar-
ies include Pine Creek and its main tributary, Dry Creek, which
rise south of the Walla Walla River headwaters and flow north-
westerly to join the river.  Russell, Yellowhawk, Cottonwood, and
Birch Creeks enter the area in its eastern boundary with their
waters joining the Walla Walla River  about midway between the
cities of Walla Walla and Milton-Freewater.  A second Dry Creek,
in Washington, rises in the Blue Mountains north of Mill Creek
and joins the Walla Walla River near  the town of Lowden.

     The Sewage Drainage Basin Study  which has been prepared for
the Washington portion of the Basin contains detailed information
on the geology, soils, and drainage characteristics applicable to
the basin as a whole.  For the purposes of this addendum, geologic
data is important in the consideration of the basin's groundwater
resources and will be discussed in that context.

     The basin's climate is characterized by moderate temperatures,
low rainfall, and a high incidence of sunshine during the summer
season.  Summers are relatively warm and dry and winters cold.
Average low temperatures in winter are below freezing around Walla
Walla City about three months of the  year, and maximum precipita-
tion occurs in mid-winter.

     Precipitation rates increase with elevation in an easterly
direction across the basin; the annual average is about 7 inches
near the community of Wallula, 10 inches near Lowden, 14 inches at
Milton-Freewater, 15 inches at Walla  Walla, and 25 to 45 inches
along the slopes of the Blue Mountains.  Precipitation increases
in the fall, reaches a peak in winter, gradually decreases in the
spring, increases slightly in May and June, and drops sharply in
July.

     Surface water hydrologic characteristics for the Walla Walla
River and its major tributaries will  be discussed in the individual
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segment analyses.  In general, the discharge pattern is character-
ized by peak discharges between January and May (a direct result
of precipitation and snowmelt) and minimum flows during the late
summer and fall.  The natural low flow conditions existing during
the summer season are intensified by surface water diversions and
withdrawals for agricultural and other uses.  The seriousness of
the low flow situation is seen in the fact that the minimum 7-day,
10-year recurrence interval flow in Mill  Creek is 0.9 cfs, and
for the Walla Walla River at Touchet, the same flow is less than
10 cfs.  Table 1 presents a list of water quality flow and moni-
toring stations maintained by various agencies in the Basin.

     The only flood regulation structure in the Basin is the Mill
Creek control project operated by the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers.
This project, located about 3 miles upstream from Walla Walla,
consists of a diversion dam, canal, and offstream reservoir with
6700 acre feet capacity.  The project diverts flood flows in Mill
Creek into the offstream reservoirs; once the crest has passed,
stored flows are either released back to Mill Creek or to Garrison
and Yellowhawk Creeks to satisfy downstream water rights in the
latter streams.  In a sense, these creeks can be said to have
their origins at the Mill Creek Reservoir, under the current status
of flow management in the Basin.

     Groundwater is found in two types of aquifers:  basaltic, and
unconsolidated sand and gravel deposits overlying the basa-lt.  The
availability of groundwater in the Walla Walla Basin is the subject
of a soon-to-be published report by the U.S. Geological Survey and
the State of Washington.  The Geological  Survey had made a compre-
hensive study of the groundwater resources of the Basin in 1948;
on the basis of this study, it was estimated that there existed
some 250,000 acre feet of groundwater in storage in the upper 100
feet of basalt and an additional 250,000 acre feet in the upper
100 feet of the gravel aquifer.

     The new USGS study is based on substantially more data than
was available in 1948,'and has resulted in new estimates of the
availibility of groundwater in the unconsolidated aquifer.  Well
logs have shown that the unconsolidated aquifer is roughly 20
miles long, 10 miles wide and in the order of 200 feet thick.
These materials contain approximately 5,000,000 acre feet of
groundwater.  The new study estimates that approximately 1,000,000
acre feet of this groundwater would be available for development.
At the present time, some 75,000 acre feet a year moves in and
out of the gravels.  The new USGS report also concludes that large
amounts of groundwater are still available for development from
the basalt aquifers outside the areas of concentrated withdrawals
in the Walla Walla-College Place area in Washington and the Milton-
Freewater area in Oregon.
                           7

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                             FIGURE  1     WALLA  WALLA  RIVER  BASIN
                         TEMPERATURE
                       DISSOLVED OXYGEN
                  INADEQUATE WATER MOVEMENT
                       COLIFORM BACTERIA
            VERY LOW SUMMERTIME FLOWS
                    TEMPERATURE
                 DISSOLVED OXYGEN
                     NUTRIENTS
                     AESTHETICS
   TEMPERATURE
 DISSOLVED OXYGEN
COLIFORM BACTERIA
   LOW FLOWS
   NUTRIENTS
NO SUMMERTIME FLOW
  DUE TO DIVERSION
                                      \V  A L L  O W  A
                                                                                                           I.N M
                                                                                                            [IJ-1O LOWtl COVUMklA Itv
                                                                                                         WAUA WAILA RlVi;

                                                                                                        " WATER QUAL
                                                                                                          PROBLEM  AEU
                                                                                                           1:150,000

                                                                                                          JUNE, 1974

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                   FIGURE 2a


           WALLA WALLA RIVER BASIN-WASHINGTON
            (STATE HYDROLOGIC BASIN MAP)
VJALLA  WALLA 303 (c)  Consolidated Planning  Area
NUMBER 13-OS-15
Includes River Basins:   (32)  Walla Walla



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                                      WALLA WALLA RIVER BASIN-OREGON


                                        (STATE  HYDROLOGIC BASIN
                                                                                                                            com ME
                                 Port Kcllcy

                                  "
                                                                 ... x- ."'       -//;"jl"-i:   j    "
                                                                  X*.    i 'iV. /:' il /crncJolo
                                                                           Sunnyside\  ^  Spofford
                                                                                   
                                                                                      Milton-Frcewater
McNary

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    u I  WATflrT^ALTTTBMONTTOUNCn[Nb FLOW STATIONS
         WALLA WALLA RIVER BASIN
Station Number
32 A070
32 A11Q
32 B070
32 B120
32 B100
32 C070
32 C110
402389
14 0136
Location

Walla Walla R.
near Touchet
Walla Walla R.
at State Boundary
Touchet R.
at Touchet

Touchet R.
near Dayton

Touchet R.
near Bolles

Mill Creek at
Mission St. Bridge

Mill Creek at
Tausick Way
Bridge
Walla Walla

Walla Walla R.
above Milton-
Freewater

Mill Creek
below Blue
Creek
 RM     Agency

        DOE
                                             DOE
        DOE
        DOE
        DOE
        DOE
        DOE
14.8
        DEQ
usas
              Notes

              All listed DOE stations  are  part of  a year-long  semi-
              monthly joint DOE-USGS  sampling  program that began in
              September 1973.
                      Parameters  sampled  (types):
                        Standard  Test
                        Minerals
                        Trace Metals
                        Nutrients (Kjeldal N,
Sampled Temperature and sediment October 1962 to June
1970.   Discontinued June 1970.

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TABU': 1  WA'mi QUALITY MONITORING AND FLOW STATIONS
         WALLA WALLA RIVKR BASIN (cont)
S tation Number
14 0170
14 0185
14 0175
14 0155.5
14 0130
14 0135
14 0144
14 0160
14 0160.5
14 0161
Location            RM       Agency

louchet R.          40.1     USCS
near Bolles

Walla Walla R.      15.7     USGS
near Touchct
Touchet R.           0,5     USGS
at Touchet
Walla Walla R.      29.0     USGS
near Lowden
Mill Creek near     21.2     USGS
Walla Walla

Blue Crook near              USGS
Walla Walla

Yellowhawk Creek             USGS
near College Place

Dry Creek near               USGS
Walla Walla

Dry Creek at
Lowden

Pine Creek near              USGS
Touchet
No tes

Measured discharge and water temperature November
1969 to May 1971; discharge measurements continue

Chemical analyses, water temperature, sediments
sampled July 1959 to June 1970.  Discontinued in
June 1970.

Joint USGS-DOE chemical and physical analyses
October 1971-September 1972.  Discontinued September
1972.

Sampled temperature, discharge, chemical analyses
December 1970-September 1971.  Discontinued September
1971.

Temperature, flow, suspended sediment, March 1962-
September 1964.

Temperature, flow, suspended sediment, March 1962-
Septembcr 1964.

Temperature, flow, suspended sediment, November 1962-
May 1964; Chemical analyses February-June 1968.

Temperature, flow, suspended sediment, November 1962-
Scptember 1964.

Temperature, flow, suspended sediment, October 1962 -
May 1964.

Temperature, flow, suspended sediment, October 1962
to May 1969.

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TABLE 1  WATHR QUALITY MONITORING AND FLOW STATIONS
         WALLA WALLA RIVER BASIN (cont)

Station Number     Location             RM         Agency      Notes

14 0108            North Fork           5.6        USGS        Discharge  Only
                   Walla Walla R.
                   near Milton-
                   Freewater
                   Oregon

14 0110            North Fork           1.2        USGS        Discharge  Only.  Discontinued October 1969
                   Walla Walla R.
                   near Milton
                   Oregon

14 0150            Mill Creek at       10.5        USGS        Discharge  only
                   Walla Walla


In addition to the above listed stations, USGS has measured  discharge  occasionally  at  a  number  of  sites
on minor tributaries to the Walla Walla River, Mill Creek,  and  the Touchet  River.   These partial-record
stations are not given here, but data at these locations is  available  from  USGS.

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           Chapter 3.  BASIN-WIDE WATER QUALITY
                       AND APPLICABLE STANDARDS
     Water quality goals represent the levels of water quality
required to fully support the maximum water uses.  In managing
the subregion's water, the primary purpose is to protect and
enhance the quality and value of the water resources; to estab-
lish programs for the prevention, control and abatement of
water pollution; and to allow maximum use of the resource for
all beneficial purposes.

     Section 303(a) of PL 92-500 required that the States of
Oregon and Washington, in conjunction with EPA, review and
revise their respective existing water quality standards.
Accordingly, the standards have been revised and were formally
adopted by the Oregon Department of Environmental Quality on
June 29, 1973, and the Washington Department of Ecology on
June 19, 1973 after which they were adopted by EPA.   These
standards now form the criteria against which the adequacy
of water quality in each State is measured.

     In establishing the water quality standards, the use of
each body of water was determined, and criteria were set to
protect these uses through quality levels which must be main-
tained.  In addition, the standards incorporate an anti-degrada-
tion provision by requiring that waters whose existing quality
is better than the established standards be maintained at the
existing higher quality level.  Specifically, the water quality
standards of the State of Washington require that "wherever
receiving waters of a classified area are of a higher quality
than the criteria assigned for said area, the existing water
quality shall constitute water quality criteria".  The State of
Oregon's anti-degradation provision is contained in Section
41-010 of its water quality standards as follows:

     "Notwithstanding the general and special water quality
standards contained in this subdivision, the highest and best
practicable treatment and/or control of wastes, activities
and flows shall in every case be provided so as to maintain
dissolved oxygen and overall water quality at the highest pos-
sible levels and water temperatures, coliform bacteria concen-
trations, dissolved chemical substances, toxic materials,
radioactivity, turbidities, color, odor and other deleterious
factors at the lowest possible levels."

     Water quality classifications for Washington are based on
water uses and are defined by specific criteria; minimum or
maximum values of certain parameters (total coliforms, dissolved
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oxygen, temperature, turbidity, toxic, radioactive or deleterious
materials, and aesthetic reaction to overall  water quality).
These criteria define acceptable conditions.   In Washington, each
water quality classification is denoted by a  letter (AA, A, B, C);
a brief explanation of classifications is presented in Table 2.
Table 3 gives the classification of the major surface waters of
the Washington portion of the Walla Walla Basin.

     The State of Oregon has not adopted a letter classification
system, but again the water quality standards are based on minimum
or maximum levels of specific parameters.  The State of Oregon
"Standards of Quality for Public Waters of Oregon and Disposal
Therein of Sewage and Industrial Wastes" contains specific water
quality standards for the public waters of the mainstem of the
Walla Walla River, which supplement the general  water quality
standards contained in the overall regulation.

     The comprehensive water quality standards for each State are
available from the regulatory agency of that  State.  For the pur-
poses of this report, those criteria which apply specifically to
the Walla Walla River Basin have been extracted and are presented
in Table 4.

        Discussion of Basin Water Quality Characteristics

     Assessment of water quality in the Walla Walla River Basin is
hampered by the lack of an adequate data base..  The most recent
compilation of water quality data and assessment is the Sewage
Drainage Basin Plan for the Washington portion of the Basin, which
source was utilized along with available water quality data for the
Oregon site in the preparation of this report.

     It is important to keep in mind that, in so far as water qual-
ity is concerned, the Walla Walla River Basin can be considered to
have only two seasons - a "wet" season, from  November through May,
and a "dry" season the remainder of the year.  As noted below, many
of the most obvious water quality characteristics of the Basin are
often related to the season in which they occur, since both climate
and topography are major determinants of basin streamflow and water
use, and thus of instream water quality.

     In general, the quality of water in the  Walla Walla River
Basin reflects the arid climate and the use of water for irrigation
In the upper reaches, the streams are usually low in dissolved
solids and contain relatively clear waters.  With the exception of
summer low-flow conditions, the streams flow  to the Columbia River
without serious water quality degradation.  Quality problems during
much of the year are restricted to excessive  turbidity during per-
iods of high runoff.  However, during the sunnier, as the streams
                           -16-

-------
flow through the arid parts of the Basin, stream diversions and
irrigation return flows significantly affect water quality.  In
the Walla Walla Basin as a whole, stream diversions have resulted
in flows too low to assimilate oxygen demanding wastes and in
some cases have reduced a stream to stagnant pools where biologi-
cal nuisance conditions occur.  Irrigation return flows contribute
to increases in suspended and dissolved solids, color, turbidity,
and temperatures.  Nutrient concentrations have reached levels
significantly above the threshold limit for algal stimulation
(0.3 mg/1 for nitrates and 0.025 rng/1 for phosphates).  Phosphate
concentrations have been reported at over 1.0 mg/1 in the Walla
Walla River.

     A brief comparative presentation of instream water quality
is contained in Table 5.  fJote that no current "dry" season water
quality data is available for Mill Creek below the City of Walla
Walla; a change in wastewater disposal practices at the City of
Walla Walla municipal treatment plant and at two food processing
operations in the city rendered all pre-1973 water quality data
inoperative.  This will be further discussed in the Mill Creek
segment analysis.

                 Water Quality Problem Areas

     The June 1973 Summary of the State of Washington "continuing
planning process" described the following for Basin 15-32 (Walla
Walla River Basin, Washington):

          Segment                       Standards Violations

Walla Walla River and Tributaries       Coliform, Temperature, DO
Touchet River and Tributaries           Coliform, Temperature, DO
Mill Creek and Tributaries              Temperature, DO

     The existing Sewage Drainage Basin Plan for the Washington
portion of the Basin has expanded this description of standards
violations to produce a "Summary of Water Quality Standards Viola-
tions", reproduced here as Table 6.  However, recognition of water
quality problem areas should be extended beyond merely noting
standards violations, to include observations made by field
personnel of problems existing in these mainstreams and their
tributaries.  Often such observations must be considered subjec-
tive due to the nonexistence of a data base adequate to quantify
the problems noted; however, identification of the full range of
water quality problems is essential to recognition of the overall
quality status of the Basin.  Table 7 presents brief descriptions
of the problem areas observed in the Walla Walla Basin.
                           -17-

-------
Table 2  BRIEF EXPLANATION OF CLASS'    ATIONS, STATE OF WASHINGTON
         WATER QUALITY STANDARDS
Classification of Washington Intrastate Waters is as follows:

1.  Lake Class  applies to lake waters in virtually their natural
conditions.  For example, dissolved oxygen, temperature, and pH
are to show no measurable change.  Water uses include fish repro-
duction and rearing, wildlife habitat, drinking water supply,
swimming and other recreational areas.

2.  Class AA (Extraordinary)  applies to quality associated with
the natural state in an undeveloped condition.  Uses are the
same as for Lake Class.

3.  Class A  waters are of excellent quality, but allow for some
slightly degrading effects due to land use and human activity.
Highest water uses, however are the same for Class AA.

4.  Class B (Good)  applies to waters slightly more polluted than
A, but still of good quality.  Uses differ from Class A in that
drinking water supply and fish reproduction and rearing are not
intended.

5.  Class C  waters are described as Fair in quality.  Quality
criteria for this class are the least stringent and are based
on a possible heavy use of a water's waste assimila-tion capacity.

-------
TABLE 3  CLASSIFICATION OF MAJOR SURFACE WATERS IN THE WASHINGTON PORTION OF THE
          WALLA WALLA RIVER BASIN
River

Walla Walla
River
Reach

Mouth to Lowden

Lowden to Oregon
Border
Water Quality
Classification

     B

     A
Special Conditions

Interstate waters

Interstate waters;
Temperature increase restriction
Mill Creek
louchet River
Confluence with
Walla Walla R.
to 13th St.
Bridge in Walla
Walla

13th St. Bridge to
City of Walla
Walla Waterworks
Dam

Dam to Headwaters

Confluence with
Walla Walla R.
to Dayton Water.
Intake

Dayton Water Intake
Headwaters
     AA

     A
                                                 AA
                           Dissolved oxygen content
                           5.0 mg/1 or 50% saturation,
                           whichever is greater
                                                                       No waste discharge permitted

-------
TABLE 4  WATER QUALITY CRITERIA BY
         STREAM REACH  WALLA VALLA RIVER BASIH
Water
Quality
Conform
Bacteria

ClosBlfl- no./lOOal
River Reach catlun
Valla Mouth to B
Walla Louden
River




Lowden to A
Oregon
Border







Main sten 
Oregon bor-
der to con-
fluence of
North and
South Fork*







Totnl
Average
<1000
with 90Z
Of U.HBP-
<2/.00


Average
<20 with
80! ul
fljitaplca
<1000





Average
< 1000
with
SOX of
samples
^2400







Fecal
None,
Total
muat
bo "assoc-
iated with
a fecal
source
None,
Total
BUSt
be "assoc-
iated with
a fecal
source"



Total must
be associa-
ted with
a fecal
source









Dissolved pH
Oxygen Da ta
>5.0 mg/1 6.5
or 70Z oatu- to
ration 8.5




>8.0 ng/1 6.5
to
8.5







Not to be 6.5
leas than to
75Z satu- 8.3
ration at
seasoned
low, or
95! satu-
ration dur-
ing spawn-
Ing, 1m tell-
ing and fry
stages of
aalnon flahcs


Turbidity
Hot to exceed
10 JTU over
natural condi-
tions



Not to exceed
5 JTU over
natural condi-
tions






Not to exceed
5 JTU over
natural condi-
tions









Toxic,
Radioactive and
Temp- Deleterious
erature Materials
not to ex- Below those levels
cecd 21. 2 C adversely affecting
public health or
characteristic usea



not to ex- Below those levels
cecd 20 C of public health
significance





*

not to ex- Below those levels
cecd 20C deleterious to fish
or other aquatic
life or affecting
the potability of
drinking water or
palatabllity of
fish or shell fish






Aesthetic
Values
Shall not be reduced
by dissolved, sus-
pended, floating
or submerged natter
not attributable
to natural causes

Shall not be Impaired bjr
the presence of materials
or tlu-lr effects, excluding
those of natural orvln, which
offend the senses of et;ht,
smell, though, or laatft




Shall not be Impaired by
objectionable discoloration,
turbidity, scum, oily sleek.
or floating solids











Dissolved







Arac-nic
Earl im
Boron
Calcium
Cijloride
Chroetiuai
Copper
Cyonide
Pluarlde
Iron
Lead
Manganese
Phcrols


Chrclcal Sj







0.01
1.0
0.5
0.01
25.0
0.05
o.cr>
0.01
l.rj
O.I
0.05
0.05
0.011
Total Dissolved Solii
Zinc
Heavy
eetals






0.1

0.5







-------
7 ABLE 4  WATER QUALITY CRITERIA BY
         STREAM REACH  WALUA WALLA  RIVER BASIN



v<-r Reach
.ilia Tribu-
..11* tArlea
within
Oregon
(11 Conflu-
^ ck face
with
VjUa
Valla
River to
Uth. ST.
In Walla
Walla
13ih St.
Bridge
to '^-ty
of Walla
Walla
Waterworks
Dan
Waterworks
Dan to
headwaters
Water Collfona
Quality Bacteria
Classlfi- nei./lOOnl
cation Total




B Avg.
^ 1000
with
9QZ of
samples
<;;oo



A Avg.
<; 240
w 1 th
801 of
samples
I 1000

AA Avg.
< 50
with
901 of
samples
y 230



Fecal




None.
Total to
bo associ-
ated with
a fecal
source .



None.
Total to
be usdocl-
oted with
a fecal
source

None.
Total to
be associ-
ated with
a fecal
source"


Dissolved
Oxygen
In excess
of 6 mg/1


5.0 mg/1
or 50Z sat-
uration
(which ever
is greater)




>8.0 mg/1






)9.5 mg/1


pll
Data
6.5
to
8.5

6.5
Co
Be
 3





6.5 -
Co
8.5


'~

6.5
to
8.5


Temp-
Turbidity cracure
Not to
exceed
17.8 C

Not Co ex- Not Co
ceed 10 JTU exceed
conditions





Noc to ex- Not to
ceed 5 JTU exccjd
over natural 18.4 C
conditions



Not to ex- Not to
.ceed 5 JTU exceed
15.6 C
Toxic.
Radioactive and
0- U-lerlous
Materials
Not to create conditions deleterious
to water used for a cited beneficial
purpose, or Co be injurious to public
health.
Below those levels adversely affect-
Ing public health or characteristic
uses.





Below chose levels of public health
significance





Below those levels which may affect
the public health, the natural
aquatic environment or the desira-
bility of the water for any usaga


Aesthetic
Valiu-H
Noc to be offensive
to the human senacs
of sight, tasco, uae.ll.
or Laste
Shnll not be reduced by
dissolve J, E.UI.IM r.oVd
floating or auLci-rgeJ
matter noc attributable
to naturjl causes




Shall not be impaired
by the prt-sence of aat-
ert.ils or tLcir Ll'ti-cts
excluding those of natural
or^in, which offend the
senses of sight, sacll, touch
^r taste

Dissolved
m.
-------
TABLE 4
         WATER QUALITY CRITERIA BY
         STREAM REACH  WALLA WALLA RIVER BASIN


River
Touchet
River
















Water
Quality
Classifi-
Reach cation
ConElu- A
ence
with
Walla
WAI la
River
to
Dayton
Water
Intake
Dayton AA
Water
Intake
to
Headwaters



Coliform
Bacteria
no. /100ml Dissolved
Total
Avg.'
^ 240
with
80Z of
fi.implcs
<1000




Avg.

with
902 of
samples
.(230


Fecal OxyRcn
None. )>8.0 mg/1
Total
to be
associ-
ated
with a
fecal
source


None. ^9.5 fflg/1
Total
to be
associ-
ated
\--lLh a
fecal
source
pH Temp-
Data Turbidity erature
6.5 Not to ex- Not to ex-
to ceed 5 JTU cccd 18.4C
8.$ over natural
conditions






6.5 Not to ex- Not to ex-
to ceed 5 JTU ceed 15.6C
8.5





Toxic ,
Radioactive and
Deleterious
Materials
Below those levels of
public health signi-
ficance







Below those levels
which may affect the
public hcolth,
the natural aquatic
environment or the
desirability of wa-
ter for any usage.

Dissolved
Aesthetic Chemical
Values Substances
Shall not be impaired
by the presence of
materials or their
effects excluding those
of natural ori;ln, which
offend the senses of
nToll, sight, touch or
taste


Shall not be impaired
by the presence of
^ntrrlals or thier
effects, excluding those
of natural origin, which
offend the senses of sight,
sraell," touch, or taste


-------
TABLE 5  COMPARATIVE WATER QUALITY WALLA WALLA RIVER BASIH
Stream

Walla Walla
River
Reach

Headwaters
(South Fork
Walla Walla R.)

Middle Area
(Lowden to
Oregon Border)
Parameter
Season
DO, turbidity   Wet
pH, nutrients
                Dry
                                 All
                Wet
                                 All
                                  Dry
Subjective Assessment

Quality is excellent

Inadequate data base

Flows increase three-fold from
headwaters.  Levels of DO, pH
and temperature remain about the
same.  Turbidity increases signi-
ficantly due to erosion.  Total
coliforms average 1800 to 3500
colonies/100 ml, but fecal coli-
form count is very low:  71/100ml

Mean dry season flows are 10% of
wet season flows.  Mean temperature
is doubled, averaging 17.1-20.7C.
DO is supersaturated during day by
2 mg/1.  Turbidity is low, pH higher
than wet season.  Total coliforms
increase four-fold.  Nutrients:
Nitrate is unchanged, phosphorus
decreased by 50%, of wet season levels
perhaps due to uptake by waterborne
plants.  Electoconductivity increases
due to irrigation returns.

-------
TABLE 5  COMPARATIVE WATER QUALITY WALLA WALLA RIVER BASIN
Stream

Walla Walla
River
Reach

Headwaters
(South Fork
Walla Walla R.)

Middle Area
(Lowden to
Oregon Border)
Parameter
Season
DO, turbidity   Wet
pH, nutrients
                Dry
                                 All
                Wet
                                 All
                                  Dry
Subjective Assessment

Quality is excellent

Inadequate data base

Flows increase three-fold from
headwaters.  Levels of DO, pH
and temperature remain about the
same.  Turbidity increases signi-
ficantly due to erosion.  Total
coliforms average 1800 to 3500
colonies/100 ml, but fecal coli-
form count is very low:  7I/100ml

Mean dry season flows are 10% of
wet season flows.  Mean temperature
is doubled, averaging 17.1-20.7C.
DO is supersaturated during day by
2 mg/1.  Turbidity is low, pH higher
than wet season.  Total coliforras
increase four-fold.  Nutrients:
Nitrate is unchanged, phosphorus
decreased by 50%, of wet season levels
perhaps due to uptake by waterborne
plants.  Electoconductivity increases
due to irrigation returns.

-------
TABLE 5  COMPARATIVE WATER QUALITY WALLA WALLA RIVER BASIN

Stream         Reach           Parameter        Season
Walla Walla    Lower (Mouth
River          to Lowden)
All
Wet
                               All
                 Dry
Touchet River  Upper Reach
               (Headwaters
               area)
All
Wet,
Dry
Subjective Assessment

Flow increases 2-3 times over
middle reach.  Temperature,
DO, pH unchanged over middle
area; turbidity is much increased
(up to.82 JTU).  Total coliform
(9000/100 ml) and Fecal Colifoums
(200/lOOml) both exceed Class B
criteria.  Nitrate levels increase
four-fold, perhaps indicating the
presence of animal wastes in the
river.

Mean flows are 6 to 12 percent of
wet season flows.  Temperature
is higher, DO is supersaturated
during the day time due to algal
production of oxygen.  Turbidity
is increased by 2-3 times the
upstream dry season level.  In-
creased total dissolved solids,
possibly from irrigation returns.

Quality is generally very high
during all seasons.  DO is con-
sistently above Class AA stand-
ards, turbidity is low.  No sig-
nificant coliform levels, no
excessive nitrogen.  Phosphorous
levels are unexplainably high.

-------
Table 5 COMPARATIVE WATER QUALITY WALLA WALLA RIVER BASIN

Stream         Reach         Parameter          Season
Touchet
River
Middle
               Lower
All
              All
Wet,
Dry

Wet
                                                Dry
Subjective Assessment

Inadequate data base
                                             Overall  quality  is  signi-
                                             ficantly degraded mean turbidity
                                             levels are  118 JTU-  very high
                                             level of suspended  solids.  Total
                                             coliform count averages 6700
                                             colonies/100 ml, constituting
                                             a violation of Class A Standards.
                                             High nutrient level and high coli-
                                             form counts indicate possible
                                             contamination by animal wastes

                                             Dry-season  flow  is  seriously
                                             depleted by withdrawals.  Average
                                             temperature is 20C.   Turbidity
                                             is very  low 2.5  JTU    Total coli-
                                             forms:   8000/100 ml.   Nitrogen
                                             concentrations are  lower than
                                             wet  season  levels.  Phosphorus
                                             levels are  also  lower,  possibly
                                             due  to uptake by aquatic plants.

-------
Table 5  COMPARATIVE WATER QUALITY
         WALLA WALLA RIVER BASIN
Stream
Mill Creek
Reach

Headwaters
Parameter
Temperature
                               Dissolved
                               oxygen

                               pH
                               Total
                               Coliform
                               Nutrients
                               Turbidity
                Middle (though All
                and immediate-
                ly below Walla
                Walla City)
Season

Wet
Dry
                                 Wet
                                 Dry

                                 Wet
                                 Dry
                                 Wet

                                 Dry

                                 Wet

                                 Dry

                                 Wet, Dry


                                 Dry
Subjective Assessment

Average 6C
Average 8.1-11.5C, due to natural
heating

At saturation (12 mg/1)
At saturation

Average 7.7 slightly alkaline
Average 8.3 again, slightly
alkaline

MPN very low no significant pollu-
tion.
Same as Wet season

Nitrate levels very low, phosphorus
quite high.
Nitrate low, phosphorous quite high

Low  (3.2-5.9 JTU) indicating very
little siltation

No current data available due to
changes in wastewater discharge
methods in 1973.

-------
TABLE 5  COMPARATIVE WATER QUALITY
         WALLA WALLA RIVER BASIN
Stream
Mill Creek
Reach

Lower
(near con-
fluence
with Walla
Walla River)
Parameter

Temperature



Dissolved
oxygen


Turbidity
                                    Total coliforms
                                    Nutrients
Season

Wet
Dry


Wet

Dry

Wet


Dry

Wet

Dry


Wet

Dry

Wet
 Subjective Assessment

 9-10 C
 Average 16.2 C, due to natural
 warming

'Average 9.7 mg/1 (87% of satu-
 ration.
 Inadequate data base.

 Increase of 3-5 times the value
 in the headwaters area

 Low values 5.5 JTU

 No significant change from
 headwaters.
 No significant change from head-
 waters

 No change from headwaters-no sig-
 nificant orgaaic pollution
 Inadequate data base below city.

 Nittafe^values increase to 30 time
 the headwaters values, phospho-
 rous levels increase fourfold
 due to wet season discharge of
 STP effluent at Walla Walla.
                                                        Dry
                                                            Inadequate data base.

-------
TABLE 6  WATER QUALITY STANDARDS VIOLATIONS
         WALLA WALLA RIVER BASIN
Stream
Mill Creek
Walla Walla
River
Touchet
River
                    Lower
  Upper
(in Oregon)

  Middle
                    Lower
  Upper
                    Middle
                    Lower
Season

Wet
Dry

Wet
Dry

Wet
Dry

Wet
Dry

Wet
Dry

Wet
Dry

Wet
Dry

Wet
Dry

r^J
QJ
r- 1 a
O 0)
03 M
CO ^
H R
0 O
A
A
A
A
I
A
X
A
X
A
A
I
I
A
0
QJ
VI
3
4J
M
0)
O-t
e
8
H
A
A
A
A
I
A
X
A
X
A
A
I
I
A
0

r^t
4J
H
TJ
rl
O
n
3
H
0
0
X
A
I
X
X
X
X
A
A
I
I
X
0


B
O
m
rl
H
O
O
A
A
0
A
I
X
X
X
X
A
A
I
I
X
X







j"T{
P.
A
A
A
A
I
A
I
A
I
A
A
I
I
A
A
ateriai
s
rH
3
4d
0
rl
cd
W
A
A
I
A
I
I
X
I
X
A
A
I
I
I
0
TO
O
H
4-1
0)
_r]
4-1
CO
0)

-------
TABLE 7  WATER QUALITY PROBLEM AREAS
         WALLA WALLA RIVER BASINS

Stream

Walla Walla River and Tributaries

     Walla Walla River State line
     to confluence with Mill Creek

     Walla Walla River Milton-Freewater
     to State Line
     Garrison Creek


     Yellowhawk Creek


     Russell Creek


     West Little Walla Walla River



     East Little Walla Walla River

     Walla Walla River-mouth to Lowden
     Minor tributaries:  Mud Creek, Blue Creek, Dry Creek
                         Pine Creek
PROBLEMS IDENTIFIED
Dry Season:  high temperatures,
color, odor, total coliform levels

Dry Season:  dry streambed due to
irrigation diversions.  Colifrom
levels high from land runoff.

Dry Season:  high coliform levels,
high temperature

Dry Season:  high coliform levels
high temperature

Dry Season:  high coliform levels
high temperature

High temperature, color, odor, tur-
bidity, high coliform levels, low
DO, excessive algae or plant growth
toxic materials
During wet season:Excessive turbidity
and suspended solids, colifonus
During dry season:  high temperatures
excessive algal and plant growth,
high coliform levels.

During dry season:  excessive temp-
eratures, high color, high turbidity,
excessive algae plants, high coli-
forms level.

-------
TABLE 7  WATER QUALITY PROBLEM AREAS
         WALLA WALLA RIVER BASIN

Stream

Touchet River and Tributaries

     Touchet River-Dayton to Mouth
Mill Creek and Tributaries

     Mill Creek above Walla Walla
      Water Intake

     Mill Creek below diversion works
     Cold Creek

     Doan Creek
Problems Identified
During wet seasons-high turbidity
During dry season- occasional high
temperatures, excessive algae and
plants, coliform counts, low DO
Excessive turbidity during wet season
Dry season:  high temperatures, color-
turbidity, low DO, excessive algal growth
inadequate water movement.

Possible irrigation returns; high algal
level and plant growth

-------
             Chapter 4.  Segment Classification


     The State Continuing Planning Process regulations (40 CFR 130.11)
provide that the process establish a segment classification system to
be employed for categorizing segments in the preparation of a basin
plan.  The segment classification systems of both Oregon and Wash-
ington were approved by EPA in the States' Continuing Planning
Process as required by Section 303(e) of the Act.

     In Washington, the ranking of segments is based on the state-
wide segment ranking system developed for Section 106, the Annual
State Program.  The ranking was based on a point system which con-
sidered severity of pollution problems, population affected, and
need for preservation of high quality waters.  As explained in the
Oregon's River Basin Planning Methodology, that State's general
assignment of classification is based either on:  1.  The actual
fact of existing water quality criteria violations not expected to
be fully abated by best practicable treatment at point sources; or
2.  a non-degradation framework (based on Oregon Water Quality
Standards) applied to waters where existing quality is higher than
water quality criteria.

     Table 8 lists the segments in the Walla Walla River Basin and
gives their classification.  The segments are ranked in order of
pollution abatement priority in the table and their classification
(Water Quality Limited or Effluent Limited) is indicated in keeping
with 40 CFR 130.11.  In general, the water quality segment classifi-
cations are the result of undefined non-point pollution sources.
For those segments, it was felt that the magnitude of the non-point
influences would prevent standards from being met even with best
practicable treatment at point sources.  Other smaller tributaries
are presently considered water quality limited due to insufficient
data.  However, there are no point source dischargers on these
minor streams, and it is expected that water quality will improve
as nonpoint and agricultural waste controls are achieved.
                           -31-

-------
         TABLE 8  SEGMENT DESIGNATION
                  WALLA WALLA RIVER BASIN
                  Segment Rank
Within Basin
   3


   4
Within State
                                 65
                                116
  117
   70
Segment Number

 15-32-02



 15-32-03


 15-32-04
Segment Name         Class

Walla Walla Rd,ver    WQ-NPS
& Tributaries
(Washington)

Touchet River        WQ-NPS
& Tributaries

Mill Creek and       WQ-NPS
Tributaries

Walla Walla River    WQL
(Oregon)
Violations

Coliform,
Temperature,
DO

Coliform, Temp-
erature

Temperature,
DO

Flow, Tempera-
tur e, Non-degr a-
dation
      The State of Washington has subdivided the basic "Water Quality Limited" segment designation in accordance
      with the following system:

      WQ-PS    Water Quality-Point Source
      WQ-PS-SWL  Water Quality-Point Source-Sulfite Waste Liquor
      WQ-PS-Gas  Water Quality-Point Source-Total Dissolved Gas
      WQ-NPS     Water Quality-Nbnpoint Source
      WQ-No Data Segments so noted are those where data is insufficient to subclassify and where water quality
                 violations are not caused by point source dischargers.
       I         Data type I segment.  Data are sufficient to execute load allocations without additional monitoring
       II        Data type II segment.  Additional data collection is needed to classify the segment with certainty
                 or to execute waste load allocations.

-------
           Chapter 5.  Basin Population, Land Use,
                and Economic Base Population
     The population of the Walla Walla River Basin is estimated to
have been 4,147 in 1970.  The overall basin population trend has
been towards stability in recent years, and in -fact several local
areas have experienced population declines during the 1960's.  Pop-
ulation of the Basin and its Oregon and Washington portions, and
its major.cities and towns is shown in Table 9.

     The major population center is the Walla Walla urban area,
which consists of Walla Walla City, College Place, and the adjacent
residential and commercial areas.  The next largest urban center is
Milton-Freewater, which includes the strip development along the
Walla Wai la-Milton-Freewater Highway as well as the urbanized por-
tions of Milton-Freewater itself.  Next in size is Dayton, in
Columbia County, Washington, with a 1970 population of 2596.

     As noted above, the historic basin population trend is toward
stability.  This lack of population growth is due primarily to the
dominance of agriculture and the interactions of the agricultural
industry and population dynamics.  Agriculture has experienced
declining employment over the past two decades as labor productivity
has increased; consequently, the basin's rural area population has
declined by 5.8 percent during the 1960's.  Counterbalancing this
rural population decline was a slight growth in the Basin's urban
population; incorporated cities and towns in the Basin grew 1.3
percent between 1900 and 1970, due primarily to growth at College
Place and Walla Walla East.

                   Population Projections

     Projections shown in Table 10 indicate a relatively steady
basin population over the next decade with a slight decline by the
year 2000.  These projections are extracted from available planning
documents and are based on interpolations of U.S. Bureau of the
Census enumeration district data for rural areas and population
data for cities and towns and industrial prospects for each sub-
basin.  In most instances, population projections have not been
formulated for individual cities but rather for minor subbasins
or planning areas.

     The main function of population projections in water quality
planning is to aid in determining future waste loads and treatment
facility needs by forecasting growth in population and employment.
In the Walla Walla River Basin as a whole, the population trends
                           -33-

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are clearly indicated by historical data:  a rural urban migration
pattern, slight growth in certain areas of the Basin's towns, but
an overall population growth of only a few percent per decade.
Exceptions to these patterns would include College Place, which has
experienced a 11.9 percent population growth in the period from 1960
to 1970, the community of Walla Walla East, which has grown 82.4
percent in the same period, and possible Milton-Freewater, where
certain planners have postulated a tripling of the area's population
by the year 2000.  On the basis of available data, the assumption
of steady state basin population over the next five years is accep-
table for the purposes of this plan, and the adequacy of existing
wastewater treatment facilities to handle anticipated increases in
volume will be reviewed from that standpoint.

                          Land Use

     The land use pattern of the -Walla Walla River Basin reflects the
areas dependence upon agriculture.  Much of the land area is utilized
for small grain and livestock production, with enclaves of irrigated
land along streams and in areas of available water supply.  Forest
lands further broaden the agricultural base, while food processing
and other agricultural industries lend stability to the basin's
economy.

     A major source of income is small grain production.  Small
grains and peas are grown on dryland farms in the eastern portion of
the area where precipitation rates permit successful yields.  This
dry cropland is a portion of a large dry-farmed grain belt running
in a curve through Lexington, Pendleton, and Milton-Freewater, in
northeastern Oregon, and is interspersed with irrigated lands lying
adjacent to streams.  The dry cropland is an area of good soils,
having between 10 and 20 inches of precipitation annually, and pro-
duces its greatest agricultural returns from grain crops.  Lands
in the drier western areas are generally limited to production of
native grasses.

     In areas where adequate irrigation water supplies are avail-
able, lands produce a wide variety of crops including field and
sweet corn, alfalfa for hay and seed, sugar beets, beans, peas,
asparagus,  spinach, tomatoes, onions, and melons.  An in-depth
inventory of irrigation areas and practices is recommended as an
action item by this plan, since very little information is currently
available to characterize this type of land use.  In Washington,
irrigated lands'are principally located south of the Walla Walla
River near its confluence with minor tributaries in the reach from
Touchet to Walla Walla; in Oregon, irrigated lands are located along
most perennial streams, as well as in the area west of Milton-Freewater
which is served by a number of irrigation canals and ditches.
                             -34-

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     Rangeland occurs in a higher elevation strip between cropland
and forest land, interspersed with dry cultivated land where soil
and rainfall conditions are favorable.  Forest lands cover approxi-
mately 11 percent of the basin, lying in a band covering the higher
elevations of the Blue Mountains, between 3000 and 5000 feet above
mean sea level.  In addition to lumber production, forest lands
have important values for grazing, recreation, and upper watershed
benefits (the City of Walla Walla Watershed encompasses a large
portion of the Upper Mill Creek area).  Particularly important is
the capacity of forested areas to delay winter snowmelt, leading
to more stable spring and early summer streamflow.  Commercial
forest lands amount to about 90 per cent of forest areas; the
remaining 10 per cent are composed of lands which are not capable
of producing commercial timber or pulpwood or are reserved from
timber harvest (as parks or watershed areas).  Approximately 50
percent of the forest land is under Federal ownership.

     Very little mining occurs in the Walla Walla Basin, due
primarily to the lack of mineralization in the Columbia River
basalt which overlies much of the area.  Several sand and gravel
operations are found in the Basin, one each located at Walla Walla
and Milton-Freewater.

     Generalized projections of Basin land use are to be found in
the Sewage Drainage Basin Study for the Washington portion.  No
significant changes in population, commerce, or industry are pro-
jected through the year 2000; therefore, it is expected that the
present land use pattern will continue.  Table 11 presents land use
by acreage in the Basin.

                        Basin Economy

     The history of economic development in the area has largely
been a pattern of agricultural development, determined to a great
extent by climate, physical features and soils.  Today, agriculture
and its related trades and industries continue to be the economic
base for this area of Washington and Oregon.  Production of a number
of important food crops has led to the development during the past
30 years of a large food processing complex in the valley.  Currently,
several canning and frozen food plants serve the needs of the area.
These plants process a variety of fruits and vegetables, including
up to one-third of the national output of green peas.  The communi-
ties of Walla Walla, Milton-Freewater, Weston, Dayton, and Waitsburg
are the primary processing locations.
                            -35-

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     Some growth in production by the Basin's food processing indus-
tries is anticipated.  However, the individual industries feel that
implementation of water-saving practices and possible technological
innovations will result in a reduction of wastewater generated.
Changes in agricultural output will depend primarily on expansion of
irrigated acreage, which in turn is dependent of market conditions
and the availability of water for irrigation.  Surface water storage
for irrigation has been a favorite subject for study (for example,
the U.S. Bureau of Reclamation's Touchet, Milton-Freewater, and
Marcus Whitman Divisions, and several Soil Conservation-Service pro-
ject proposals); the availability or suitability of groundwater for
irrigation is a topic worthy of deeper exploration.  Expansion of
irrigated acreage in the Basin is not expected to produce signifi-
cant land use changes within the time frame of this plan.

     The canning and frozen foods, livestock and meatpacking and
feedlot industries are expected to expand faster than other indus-
tries.  Growth indices formulated by consultants for specific
economic activities yielded the following:

     Activity                 1970      1985      2000

Food and Related Products      100       137       177
General Basin-Wide             100       122       149

     Yearly production increases in each of these activities would
then be:

     Food and Related Products:    2.5% per year
     General Basin-Wide            4.6% per year

Projection of waste loads over the five-year scope of this plan will
be based on these figures.  These yearly production increases are
not absolute indicators of increased waste loads, however, since
water-saving operations are expected to be implemented at nearly all
of the Basin's industries.

     In summary, the projected economic and population growth shows
a trend toward stability.  Increased loads to municipal facilities
will result from a continuing rural-to-urban migration and the
installation of sewerage services in presently unserviced areas,
but such increases will be well within the treatment capacities of
existing facilities in the affected areas.  Industrial waste loads
are expected to increase slightly, but since the major portion of
industrial waste receives treatment by land disposal, the implica-
tions for water pollution control are minor.  Increased acreage
                          -36-

-------
devoted to farm type activity may result in population growth - such
factors as the increased prices of agricultural products, importa-
tion of surface waters (Snake River to Touchet Basin), groundwater
availability and proposed reservoirs may result in expanded activity
in agricultural sectors of the economy.  This activity should be
closely monitored to determine its implications for water quality
control.
                          -37-

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TABLE 9  POPULATION WALLA WALLA RIVER BASIN
Area

Walla Walla River Basin

  Washington Portion

    Walla Walla
    College Place
    Prescott
    Waitsburg
    Walla Walla East
    Dayton

    Rural Areas

    Dixie
    Wallula
    Touchet-Gardena
    Burbank
    Lowden
    Other

  Oregon Portion

    Milton-Freewater
    Wes ton
    Umapire
    Rural Areas
1960

55,081

45,381

24,536
 4,031
   269
 1,010
 1,557
 2,913
 N/A
 N/A
 N/A
 N/A
 N/A
 N/A

 9,250

 4,110
   783
    85
 4,272
1970

54,147

45,081

23,619
 4,510
   242
   953
 2,840
 2,596
   183
   721
   794
   477
   339
 8,407

 9,066

 4,105
   660
    85
 4,216
Percent Change

   -1.5

   -1.6
   -3.7
   11.9
  -10.0
   -5.9
   82.4
  -10.9
   N/A
   N/A
   N/A
   N/A
   N/A
   N/A

  -2.2

    0
  -15.7
    0
  -1.3
Sources:  US Bureau of the Census
          Pacific Northwest Bell
          CH2M Hill, "Water Pollution Control and Abatement Plan,  WRIA 32  and  33",  1974; Tudor Engineering Co.,
          "A Report on a Water and Sewer Plan, Umatilla County,  Oregon", November 1968.

-------
TABLE 10  POPULATION PROJECTIONS

Area                           1970
Walla Walla River Basin

  Washington Portion
45,081
             1975
                                                              1980
                                             1985
                                                                           45,070
                                                                                        1990
  Oregon Portion

   Athena-Wes ton
   Vicinity

   Milton-Freewater
   &  East End
 2,300       2,250


 8,400       8,600
2,400


9,400

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TABLE 11  LAND USE BY ACREAGE (in thousands of acres)
          WALLA WALLA RIVER BASIN
Type                         Washington          Oregon            Total

Dryland Cropland             547.7               133.2             680.9

Irrigated Cropland            82.5               Included as Above
and Pasture

Forest Land                  102.7               88.2              190.9

National Forest                2.2               Included in Afoove

Rangeland                    190.3               86.3              276.6

Other                         25.7                3.3               29.0


                             951.1              311.0

-------
          Chapter 6.  Individual Segment Analyses


     This chapter contains in-depth point source analyses of each
of the four 303(e) segments in the Walla Walla River Basin.  Where
appropriate, water quality criteria and instream quality data have
been extracted from the foregoing chapters and included here; the
reader is referred to the previous treatments of these subjects for
further detail.

     Non-point sources of pollution will be covered on a basin-wide
basis in a later chapter.  It should be recognized that, while
control of point sources is necessary to meet the requirements of
PL 92-50Q and thus forms the major thrust of this first generation
planning effort, instream water quality may not be significantly
improved by the application of point source controls.  Deterioration
of quality will continue due to the influence of nonpoint and other
sources.  Unfortunately, the level of knowledge of nonpoint sources
of pollution and general land-use activities in the Basin is insuffi-
cient to allow quantification of the interrelationships between land
use and instream water quality.  Procedures for developing land use
controls as an aid to achieving stream quality goals have not been
developed in this initial plan.

     Similarly, the available water quality data base does not permit
calculations of total maximum daily loadings of all pollutants in
violation of stream criteria, nor does it allow development of waste
load allocations for point dischargers.  This first-generation 303(e)
plan will recommend permitted effluent limits based on best practicable
treatment or secondary treatment for all point sources, will examine
cases where a higher level of treatment may be required to aid in
meeting stream quality goasl, and will recommend the implementation
of such higher levels as necessary.  This approach is necessary since
the rapidly approaching deadline for the issuance of point source waste
discharge permits necessitates the drafting of permits on the basis of
available information, with recommendations of areas where additional
technical studies are required to develop waste load allocations for
the various reaches.  Second generation plans will then use the waste
load allocations in developing more stringent permit stipulations
necessary to meet the requirements of the "best available treatment"
definition.
                           -41-

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A.   Walla Walla River and Tributaries (Washington)

     This segment is presently classified as "Water Quality Limited--
Non-point Sources", with violations noted by the DOE in the standards
for temperature, dissolved oxygen and coliform bacteria.  In addition,
water quality problems related to low summertime flow include viola-
tions of aesthetics standards by the presence of odors, stagnant water,
and masses of floating and attached plant growth.  Data from water -
quality monitoring stations in this segment is^summarized in Table 12;
this data is arrayed to depict the differences in characteristics
between "wet" and "dry" seasons.  Monitoring stations are listed in
Table 1 and depicted in Figure 3.

     Point source dischargers in this segment are two domestic waste
treatment facilities:  the City of College Place municipal waste
treatment plant, and a small treatment plant operated by the Housing
Authority of Walla Walla County at a Farm Labor Camp located five miles
southwest iOf the City of Walla Walla.  Table 13 indicates the limited
amount of discharge data available for these two plants.

     The City of College Place operates an efficiently-run secondary
treatment plant performing within its design capacity, except during
rain, when infiltration and inflow may result in occasional  bypasses.
A recent Sewage Drainage Basin Study done for Walla Walla and Columbia
Counties concluded that treatment plant and collection system improve-
ments currently being undertaken by the City should result in adequate
plant capacity to the year 2000, even with the rapid rate of population
growth that this area is experiencing.

     Effluent from the College Place plant is dealt with in two
different manners, depending upon the season.  During the irrigation
months (April-July) most of the effluent is taken by a local irrigator
to fulfill his water rights; this irrigator has a pumphouse installed
over the effluent outfall line, and when he needs water he pumps
effluent out of the outfall into a small holding pond on his land.
Thus for most of this period, effluent from the plant does not actually
reach Garrison Creek.  During those times when the irrigator does not
need the water (for instance during times of harvesting alfalfa), the
effluent is discharged to Garrison Creek.

     The Walla Walla County Farm Labor Camp operates a waste treatment
plant that nominally provides secondary treatment.  However, the poor
condition of this facility and the lack of adequate disinfection is
creating a major problem due to passage of essentially raw sewage to
the Walla Walla' River.  This facility is considered the number one
abatement priority item in both the segment and the Basin.
                              -42-

-------
     Table 14 shows present NPDES permit status of these dischargers,
and tabulates the effluent limitations which will be required under
the conditions of the permits.  The Walla Walla River segment has been
classed as "WQ-NPS" by the State of Washington.  Under this classi-
fication, no wasteload allocation is needed for the issuance of
permits.  The permits have and will be written to reflect best prac-
tical treatment or secondary treatment as required.

     No effluent requirements more stringent than the secondary treat-
ment level are needed for these municipal dischargers, due to in-
fluences of nonpoint sources on water quality.  However, improved
controls over the summertime disposal of effluent of College Place
are recommended.

     The Sewage Drainage Basin Study for Walla Walla and Columbia
Counties considered regionalization of College Place with Walla Walla
in alternative future waste treatment proposals.  Specific alterna-
tives included combining the two cities' flows for treatment at the
existing Walla Walla Treatment Plant; construction of a new facility
to handle the combined flows at a different location; and several
regional alternatives to include treatment of wastes from College
Place, Walla and suburbs, Dayton, Waitsburg, and Touchet.  None of
these regionalization schemes proved economically feasible, due
primarily to the efficient operating conditions of the existing
Walla Walla and College Place treatment plants, the capability of
these plants to handle waste loads generated by future growth, and
the pumping and transmission costs associated'With regionalization
of towns widely separated in space.  The only municipal needs identi-
fiable at College Place are interceptor projects and possible sewer
system rehabilitation to reduce excessive infiltration and inflow
and thus reduce the hydraulic loading on the existing plant.

     The Farm Labor Camp facility will require extensive upgrading
to meet the requirements of secondary treatment; due to the deteriorated
condition of the plant, replacement by a package treatment plant or
nonoverflow lagoon may be more feasible.  The facility should be
designed to accomodate a peak seasonal population of 450, with recog-
nition of possible non-operation during the agricultural off season.
The Sewage Drainage Basin Study found that costs of a package treat-
ment plant to replace the existing one may range as high as $60,000.
The cost of a nonoverflow lagoon would be variable, dependent on
specific site considerations.  The lagoon concept has been considered
by the County in the past, and a preliminary engineering report
prepared at that time may provide a basis for current design needs.  In
view of the seasonal nature of this facility and the difficulties
associated with seasonal operation of biological treatment processes,
the nonoverflow lagoon concept should be explored in detail.
                              -43-

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     An additional municipal facility need in the segment has been
identified for the community of Touchet, locateid on the mains tern
Walla Walla River at RM 21.5.  The town has -a population of about
800, presently served by septic tanks and drairifields; at present,
the only waste treatment unit is a package secondary plant which
treats wastes from the Touchet School and which discharges to a
nonoverflow lagoon.  The Touchet Development:!Community has prepared
an engineering report which investigates the need for and feasibility
of water and wastewater facilities for the 'community.  The engineer-
ing report describes three treatment plant alternatives:  (.1) non-
over flowing lagoon;  (2) overflowing lagoon;  (3) package treatment
plant.  Capital costs of the latter alternative have been estimated
at $323,000.  Further design work will be needed on these alterna-
tives.

     Residual wastes (sludge) at College Place is,handled by sludge
digesters, with final disposal on sludge drying be'ds.  These beds
are being;enlarged to provide additional capacity.  No residual
wastes disposal Considerations have arisen at .the Farm Labor Camp,
but such disposal must be considered in any planning effort.

     In general, nonpoint sources far outweigh point sources as
factors in water quality deterioration in this segment.  The combina-
tion of depleted summertime flows, high temperatures, and a high
incidence of sunlight are responsible for some of the observed quality
changes, especially in the lower river (below Lowden).  Two known
feedlots adjacent to the, river, in the vicinity of Lowden, apparently
are sources of:coliform bacteria and nutrients; water quality data
indicate that instream levels of these pollutants increase dramatically
below the locations of the feedlots during times of the year when
climactic conditions would favor the runoff of animal wastes into
receiving:streams.  In addition, there are indications of animal
wastes entering the rivers from more diffuse sources, such as
smaller livestock concentrations and general range management acti-
vities.  No irrigation return flows have been identified as directly
entering the Walla Walla River, but further analysis will be needed
for the Little Walla Walla River, Gardena and Pine Creeks, and the
outlet of the Burlingame Ditch (all in the yicinity.;of Touchet) to
assess possible return flows from irrigation activities in areas
drained by these tributaries;

-------
TA-<_E 1?       V\'ERAC2 AND  M'lIIiwG \._.Ui:" OF  S:...CCTL.  rARANr.'CKRS
               NECESSARY TO DESCRIBt IN SI REAM  WA'l'bR QUALITY

               WALLA WALLA  RIVER BASIN
               SEGMENT.  WALLA WALLA RIVER ANB TRIBUTARIES (WASHINGTON)
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-------
TABLE 13  WASTE SOURCE INVENTORY AND RANKING
          WALLA WALLA RIVER BASIN,                                      Present Discharge Characteristics
          SEGMENT: Walla Walla River And Tributaries (Washington)
                                                 Flow      BOD        Suspended Solids       Coliform
                                         Map     cmd           kg/day          kg/day     Total       Fecal
Rank    Name          Receiving Water    Key     mgd    mg/1  (Ib/day)  ma/1 (Ib/day)     no/100ml    no/100ml        Other

 1      Walla Walla   Walla Walla                NK      NK    NK        NK     NK          NK         NK
        River         River

 2      College Place Garrison                  2649     30    170       30    170          NK         NK
        STP           Creek                     (0.7)         (374)           (374)

-------
TABLE 14     ESTABLISHED OR TARGET EFFLUENT LIMITATIONS
             WALLA WALLA RIVER BASIN
             SEGMENT: Walla Walla River and Tributaries (Washington)


Source
Walla Walla
Farm Labor
Camp
College
Place

NPDES
Permit
Status
Drafted


Issued


Flow,
Expir . cmd
Date (mgd)
204
(0.054)

7/1/78 5678 '
(1.5)

BOD
kg /day
mg/1 (Ib/day)
30 6
(14)

30 170
(374)

Suspended Solids
kg/day
mg/1 (Ib/day)
30 6
(14)

30 170
(374)




6.5
to
8.5
6.5
to
8.5

Temp
C &(F)


O
N/A


Coliform
Total
No/100 ml



200



Compliance
Date



In
Compliance


-------
B.   Touchet Rivers and Tributaries

     This segment is1 presently classified as "Water Quality Limited--
Nonpoint Sources", with violations noted by the DOE in the standards
for temperature, dissolved oxygen, and coliform bacteria.  Additional
water quality problems have been noted to include excessive plant
growth and obnoxious bottom conditions in the lower Touchet River
during the summer low flow season.  Data from water quality monitoring
stations in this segment is very limited; available data is summarized
in Table 15 for "wet" and "dry" seasons.  Monitoring stations are
listed in Table 1 and depicted in Figure 3.

     Point source dischargers in this segment include two municipal
wastewater treatment plants (Dayton and Waitsburg) and two industrial
dischargers (Green Giant vegetable canning plants at Dayton and
Waitsburg).* Table 16 presents discharge characteristics for these
plants.      r

     The Green Giant plants generate two types of wastewaters; vege-
table processing water and can cooling water.  Process water receives
land disposal by screening and spray irrigation (through a small per-
centage of the Dayton plant's process water is diverted to the City's
treatment plant).  The cooling water discharges to the Touchet River
consist primarily of can cooling water of relatively large volume
and high temperatures.  Minor components of these discharges include
brine room floor drainage, condenser cooling water, and boiler blow-
down.  Effluent limitations at these plants must include discharge
temperature restriction to prevent violations of the Class A tempera-
ture standard in the Touchet River.

     Dayton's municipal wastewater treatment facility is not meeting
EPA secondary standards for suspended solids and fecal coliform levels
during normal and bypass operations.  Studies by consultants have
recommended giving consideration to construction of a new treatment
plant; the Sewage Drainage Basin Study calculated a capital cost of
$730,000 for an activated sludge process secondary treatment plant to
serve a population equivalent of 4,000.  The Department of Ecology is
satisfied with the present level of treatment at Dayton but recognizes
that the age of the plant may pose future problems for water quality
control.

     The Waitsburg municipal facility does not satisfy secondary
treatment requirements.  The plant is a nominal secondary facility but
actually provides little more than primary treatment.  The effluent
does not receive adequate chlprination, resulting in high coliform
bacteria levels in the receiving water (Coppei Creek).  Substantial
                              -48-

-------
upgrading of the existing plant or construction of a new facility
will be required to provide full secondary treatment, correct exces-
sive infiltration/inflow i and insure adequate disinfection of the
effluent.  This discharger is considered the highest abatement
priority item in the segment.

     Table 15 shows the present NPDES permit status of these dis-
chargers, and tabulates the effluent limitations which will be
required under the conditions of the permits.  The Touchet River
segment has been classified as "WQ-NPS" by the State of Washington.
Under this classification, no waste load allocation is needed for
the issuance of permits; therefore, no waste load allocation is made
here.  Municipal permits have been written to reflect the require-
ments of secondary treatment.  Industrial permits have been written
to allow only discharge of uncontaminated can cooling water at a
maximum temperature of 65F.

     The Sewage Drainage Basin Study for Walla Walla and Columbia
Counties considered regionalization of Waitsburg and Dayton for
joint treatment of municipal wastes, and also considered inclusion
of the two .cities in a basin-wide wastewater treatment plant.  It
concluded that reconstruction of existing facilities or construction
of new plants at Dayton and Waitsburg was more cost-effective than
any of the regionalization plans studied.

     Residual waste disposal is accomplished at both Dayton and
Waitsburg by sludge digesters with ultimate disposal by means of
sludge drying beds adjacent to the treatment plants.

     It appears that nonpoint sources far outweigh point sources
as determinants of water quality in this segment.  A combination of
depleted summertime flows, high air temperatures, and a high incidence
of sunlight result in observed violations of the temperature and
dissolved oxygen standards.  Unfortunately, the nature of nonpoint
sources of pollutants is so diffuse in this segment that not much
can be said beyond noting that the water quality problems described
in Chapter 3 do exist and by their nature cannot be due to point
sources.  No large concentrations of livestock or point sources of
irrigation return flows are known.  Measurements ofa instream water
quality indicate the entrance of pollutants from sources such as
agricultural field runoff and animal wastes from scattered locations.
In the middle and lower Touchet River, irrigation activities adjacent
to the river may have an impact on instream quality, but the nature
of such impact cannot be stated in other than qualitative terms prior
to implementation of a land use survey of nonpoint sources in con-
junction with water quality monitoring efforts.
                             -49-

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, TABLE, 15  AVERAGE AND LIMITING VALUES OF SELECTED PARAMETERS
           NECESSARY TO DESCRIBE INSTREAM WATER QUALITY

           WALLA WALLA RIVER BASIN
           SEGMENT: . TOUCHET RIVER AND TRIBUTARIES
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Description
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-------
TABLE 16  WASTE SOURCE INVENTORY AND RANKING
          WALLA WALLA RIVES BASIN
          SEGMENT: Touchet River and Tributaries
Present Discharge Characteristics

Rank
I

2

3

4


Name
Waitsburg
STP
Green Giant
Waitsburg
Green Giant
Dayton
Dayton STP


Receiving Water
Coppei Creek

Touchet
River
Touchet
River
Touchet
River
Map cmd '
Key mgd
946
(0.25)
3406
(0.90)
3785
(1.00)
1893
(0.5)
kg/day
tns/l (Ib/day)
49 46
(101)
3.2 11
(24)
11 41
(91)
30 57
(125)
kg/day
mg/1 (lb dav)
45 42
(92)
19 65
(142)
52 196
(432)
30 57
(125)
                                                                                             Coliform
                                                                                          Total       Fecal
                                                                                          no/100ml    no/lOOml
                                                                                            NK
                                                                                            NK
                                                                                            NK
                                                                                                        NK
                                                                                                        NK
                                                                                                        NK
                                                                                            NK
                                                                                                        NK
                                                   Other
                                                   Temperature
                                                    27C (81F)
                                                   Total Solids
                                                    186 mg/1
                                                        kg/day
                                                   (14601bs/day)

                                                   Temperature
                                                   23C (73F)
                                                   Total Solids
                                                   884 mg/1
                                                       kg/day
                                                   (7340 Ib/day)

-------
    TABLE  17    ESTABLISHED OR TARGET EFFLUENT LIMITATIONS
                 U.LLA WALLA RiyER BASIN
                 SEGMENT: Touchet River and Tributaries
                NPDES                   Flow,          BOD
                Permit        Expir.    cmd               kg/day
Source          Status        Date      (mqd)       mg/1   (Ib/day)

Waitsburg       Issued        7/1/78   1325         30
                                      (0.35)

Green Giant     Drafted      12/31/76  3406
Waitsburg                             (3795)
                              40
                              (88)
                                       Suspended Solids
                                              kg/day
                                        mg/1 (Ib/day)
 30
  40
  (88)
                                   Coliform
                        Temp       Total
                        C &(F)   No/100 ml
 6.5
 to
 8.5
N/A
                                                               18.5C
                                                               (65F)
                                                                            200
Compliance
Date	

 7/1/76


12/31/73
Green Giant   Drafted
Dayton
12/31/76  3785
         (1.00)
                        18.5C
                       (65F)
                                              12/31/75
Dayton; STP      Issued
 7/1/78   1893
         (0.5)
                                                   30
                                                           57
                                                          (125)
30
  57
(125)
6.5
to
8.5
                        NA
                                     200
                                                    In
                                                    Compliance

-------
C.   Mill Creek and Tributaries

     This segment is presently classified as "Water Quality Limited--
Nonpoint Sources",'with violations noted by the DOE in the standards
for dissolved oxygen and temperature.  In addition, severe water
quality problems associated with low summertime flows and high tem-
perature have been noted in the form of large masses of attached
and floating aquatic growth.  Data from water quality monitoring
stations in' this segment is limited; no current dry-season data
exists for Mill Creek below the City of Walla Walla due to a change
in June, 1973 in the discharge practices of several industries
located in Walla Walla.  This change eliminated much of the summer-
time waste loadings to the creek and made all pre-1973 water quality
data inoperative.  Available data for other locations and seasons is
presented in Table 18,  Monitoring stations are listed in Table 1
and depicted in Figure 3.

     Only two point source dischargers are currently located in this
segment:  the City of Walla Walla municipal treatment facility, and
Jones-Scott Company's Sand and Gravel operation, both located on Mill
Creek just west of the City of Walla Walla.  Two significant waste
generators are located in the segment but are exempt from the require-
ments of the NPDES permit prpgram since they do not discharge to
surface waters.  Available information for this latter class of dis-
chargers is presented in Table 24, together with a description of
present waste disposal methods and reasons for concluding that these
sources are indeed exempt from the need for a Federal discharge permit.

     The City of Walla Walla municipal wastewater plant does not achieve
EPA standards consistently for suspended solids removal during winter.
Efficient fecal coliform removal is questionable due to chlorination
prior to final clarification.  A higher level of disinfection may be
necessary due to use of the secondary effluent for irrigation of crops
grown for human consumption*.  In the past, discharge conditions in
Mill Creek were such that the treatment plant's effluent, in combina-
tion with discharges from the food processors in Walla Walla and the
low summertime flows in Mill Creek, resulted in massive water quality
problemsthe infamous Mill Creek "sewer".  As of the summer of 1973,
this situation has changed:  the two major food processors no longer
discharge their process and cooling water to Mill Creek; instead the
bulk of the wastewater is spray-irrigated on the City Farm located
north of the City.  A small portion of the industrial waste is treated
with the sanitary waste at the municipal treatment plant.  During the
irrigation season, the resultant secondary effluent is discharged, not
to the creek, but to an irrigation outfall to satisfy water rights
held by two local irrigation districts.
                         -53-

-------
     The Walla Walla treatment plant discharges secondary effluent to
Mill Creek only during the "wet" season (November-May), when there is
generally sufficient flow in the creek to assimilate wastes.  However,
there may be a short overlap at each end of the irrigation season
during which effluent is discharged to the creek before sufficient
flows are actually present.

     Jones-Scott Company operates a sand and gravel washing operation
which discharges wash water to Mill Creek,  the washing and waste-
water disposal operation is as follows:  The washing plant operates
five days a week.  Discharge water from the washing operation, amount-
ing to as much as 170,000 gallons per day, is piped to a lagoon,
where it is allowed to settle.  The lagoon stores the wash water
accumulated from five days of operation; on the seventh day, the
stored wash water is discharged to Mill Creek.  Surface water dis-
charge from this operation thus consists of a once-weekly discharge
of up to 0.85 mgd.

     Jones-Scott's effluent is of concern due to its high concentra-
tion of total solids and total dissolved solids (Table 19) and the
effects that such discharge may have on the turbidity of Mill Creek.
In view of the low summertime flow in this stretch of Mill Creek,
and the overall low background turbidity level as indicated by
available water quality data, stringent effluent limitations will
be required to insure that Jones-Scott's discharge does not cause a
violation of water quality criteria.  A policy of non-discharge
would be the best guarantee against turbidity standards violations.

     Table 20 shows the present NPDES.permit status of these dis-
chargers, and tabulates the effluent limitations recommended under
the permit conditions.  The Mill Creek and Tributaries Segment has
been classed as "WQ-NPS" by the State of Washington under this
classification, no wasteload allocation is needed for the issuance
of permits.  The permits have and will be written to reflect best
practical treatment or secondary treatment as required.

     The Sewage Drainage Basin Study for Walla Walla and Columbia
Counties considered regionalization of Walla Walla with College Place
in alternative future waste treatment proposals specific alternative
included combining the two cities' flows for treatment at the exist-
ing Walla Walla Sewage Treatment plant; construction of a new
facility to handle the combined flows at a different location; and
several regional proposals to include treatment of wastes from
Walla Walla, Co-llege Place, Walla Walla, Dayton, Waitsburg, and
Touchet.  None of these regionalization schemes proved economically
feasible, due primarily to the efficient operating conditions of
the existing Walla Walla and College Place treatment plants, the
capability of these plants to handle waste loads generated by future
growth, and the pumping and transmission costs associated with
regionalization of towns widely separated in space.  The only muni-
cipal needs identifiable at Walla Walla are improved solids and


                            -54-

-------
sludge handling facilities, at an estimated cost of $275,000.

     Redisual waste at Walla Walla is handles by sludge digesters,
with final disposal on sludge drying beds.

     The lower portion of Mill Creek is severly impacted by with-
drawals and diversions for irrigation and other purposes.  The
resultant low flows, in combination with returns from irrigation
operations and the effects of general land use activities, have
caused water quality degradation of a very dispersed nature.
Special studies of this problem will be recommended in the basin wide
action program.
                          -55-

-------
TABLE 18     AVERAGE  AND LIMITING VALUES OF SELECTED PARAMETERS
              NECESSARY TO DESCRIBE INSTREAM WATER QUALITY
             WALLA WALLA RIVER BASIN
             SEGMENT:   MILL CREEK AND TRIBUTARIES
 CUtt
           Description
                                          D.O.
                                                   pH
                                                           Con4.
                                                          1 ZS*C
                                           (c)
 Turb.
(J.T.U.)
                                                                                          Collforti
 loUi      Fecil
(No/lOOml)   (Ho/lOtal)
 RO]

A?)
 Ml*.

II CiCOj
  AU.
  vn
II ClCOj
                                                                                                                                                        Other Pirwur*
        vja/U. W*.  R.
                                                                   11.1
        S~Jg. -U
                        ...
                         4o
                        8.S
                                                                                     
-------
                WALLA KiVEH
          SEGMENT: Mill Creek and Tributaries
Rank

1
Name

Jones-Scott
Company
Receiving Water

Mill Creek
                                         Map
                                                              PreTent DiscHarge Characteristics
Flow
cmd
mgd
643
(0.17)
(0.85)
mg/week
BOD
kg/day
mB/1 (lb/day)

Suspended Solids
kg /day
Bfj/1 (lb/day)
17<12
109
(240)
             Coliform
          Total
          no/100ml

             NK
Fecal
uo/lOOml

  NK
                                                                                                                     Other
                                                     Total
                                                     Solids
                                                  2024 mg/1
                                                   123 kg/day
                                                  (270 lb/day)
        Walla
        Walla
        STP
              Mill Creek
                          25,738
                          (6.8)
 232
(510)
                                                                         16
 412
(907)
                                                                                           200

-------
    TABLE 20     ESTABLISHED OR TARGET EFFLUENT LIMITATIONS
                 WALLA WALLA RiyER BASIN
                 SEGMENT: Mill Creek and Tributaries
Source
Jones-
Scott
Co.
Walla Walla
STP
NPDES
Permit
Status


Drafted
Expir.
Date.


2/28/75
To be
Drafted
643
(0.17)
(0.85 rag
weekly)
         37,850
         (10.0)
                                                      BOD
            mg/1
                                                          kg/day
                                                         (Ib/day)
Suspended Solids
       kg/day
 mg/1 (Ib/day) 
                                                                    1792
        109
       (240)
            6.5
            to
            8.5
                                                 (After February 28, 1975:  No discharge)
                     232
                    (510)
  16
 412
(907)
6.5
to
8,5
                            Coliform
                 Temp       Total
                 C &(Fl   No/100 ml
                                                                                 Compliance
                                                                                 Date
                                                                                                                Other
                       Total
                       Solids
                       2024 mg/1
                       123 kg/day
                       (270 Ib/day)
                                                                                   2/28/75

-------
D.   Walla Walla River and Tributaries (Oregon)

     This segment is presently classified by the Oregon Department
of Environmental Quality as "Water Quality Limited", with problems
noted by the DEQ in the areas of flow, temperature, and non-degra-
dation.

     The upper Walla Walla River, above Milton-Freewater, is
generally of excellent quality the year round.  Most of the water
quality problems described occur in the reach directly below
Milton-Freewater, where complete summertime diversion of the main-
stem river into its branches (Little Walla Walla River) results in
a dry streambed for a distance of seven or eight miles below the
town.  By that point,  sufficient groundwater inflow, surface
runoff and tributary input allow enough water in the streambed to
re-form the river.

     Wastewater generators in th'is segment are varied in nature,
and their disposal methods are equally varied.  Table 22 and 23
describe present and target discharge characteristics of point
sources in the segment.  Refer also to Table 27 for a description
of the disposal practices at the "exempt" industries.

     The City of Milton-Freewater sewage treatment facility is a
secondary wastewater treatment plant that obtains satisfactory
reduction of BOD and suspended solids and is an efficiently oper-
ated facility.  Effluent from the plant is not directly discharged
to a receiving stream but is mixed with industrial wastewater and
used for irrigation.  An issued NPDES permit for this plant permits
discharge to Dry Creek; such discharge does occur on an infrequent
basis but should be eliminated by appropriate effluent limitations
included in the plant's next discharge permit.

     Industrial wastewater disposal at Milton-Freewater is by means
of an irrigation outfall to an alfalfa raising area six miles west
of the City, where sprinkler irrigation of the wastewater occurs.
Components of the wastewater include cooling and process waters
from two vegetable processing plants (Western Farmers and Smith
Canning and Freezing); process water only from a third (Rogers
Walla Walla, Milton Freewater plant); and secondary effluent from
the City facility as described above.  The industrial input is
seasonal in nature, reaching a peak of 8 mgd during the height of
the processing season; while during the winter months, essentially
the only comporient of the wastewater is sanitary effluent.  Rogers
Walla Walla has an NPDES permit allowing the discharge of uncon-
taminated cooling water to the Walla Walla River.
                        -59-

-------
     Two other Industries for which little discharge data is
currently available are located in Milton Freewater.  Readymix
Sand and Gravel operates an asphalt plant, rock crushing, and
sand and gravel washing operation facility adjacent to the Walla
Walla River just south of town.  Their wastewater (primarily highly
turbid wash water) is essentially recycled in a closed system,
after flocculation and settling, but the settling pond has a high
water overflow leading to a surface stream.  A point discharge from
this pond could then occur, and an NPDES permit will be required,
based on the existing State permit.
                                                                      i
     No discharge data is available for the City of Mil ton-Freewater
Water Treatment Plant.  Should any discharge be made to a receiving
water an NPDES permit will be required.  No State permit is cur-
rently in effect for this plant.

     Municipal facilities needs for this portion of the Walla Walla
Basin are discussed in the "Report on a Water and Sewer Plan,
Umatilla County, Oregon", prepared by Tudor Engineering Company in
November, 1968.  This report noted that the existing sewage treat-
ment plant serving the City of Mil ton-Freewater is in good condition
but is 20 years old and was designed to handle 0.5 million gallons
per day for a design population of 5000.  The City has a consultant's
estimation that by 1988, the combined populatipn of the City and
developing areas north of the City will be 8,500 and the daily flow
will be 1.0 million gallons per day..  The consultant recommended
treatment plant additions costing $205,000.

     The City consultants also proposed an alternate plan to treat
sewage flow from the North side area at a separate plant, located in
the vicinity of Locust Road and the Freewater Highway, designed to
handle a predicted 1985 population of 2000.  This would not elimi-
nate the need for expansion of the existing sewage treatment plant.
The new facilities, including pump station, oxidation ditch and
gravity pressure outfall were estimated to cost $155,500.

     The Tudor report noted comments from certain quarters that
current population projections for the Mil ton-Freewater area are
extremely conservative and that a more rapid development of the
Northside area should be anticipated, resulting in a population of
20,000 in the Mil ton-Freewater area by 1990.  An alternative plan
submitted by the City consultant addresses this condition by abandoning
the existing sewage treatment plant after construction of a new
treatment plant-in the vicinity of Locust Road to serve the future
needs of the entire area.  The estimated cost of the new plant,
including pump station, high rate trickling filter plant and
interceptor sewer from the existing sewage treatment plant was
$657,000.  All costs are based on 1968 estimates.
                            -60-

-------
     No significant municipal facility needs have been identified
for the Town of Weston.  There is no indication that the area's
population will increase during the next twenty years; in fact, a
slight decline may occur.  The Tudor report recommended installa-
tion of a sewer system at the community of Umapine, located north-
west of Milton-Freewater.  The community has a present population
of 85, with no indication of a significant increase in the future.
Cost of a packaged sewage treatment plant was estimated at $13,800,
cost of the collection distribution system was estimated at $32,400.

     Residual waste is handled at both Milton-Freewater and Weston
by drying on sludge beds and final disposal by trucking and land
filling.  Present disposal methods are considered satisfactory.

     In the mainstern Walla Walla River, the major impact on water
quality is the diversion of streamflow at Milton-Freewater, with
the resultant dry streambed during the summer.  This problem is
not actually due to nonpoint source pollution but is related to
the dominant pattern of water use in the basin, that of the use of
surface water for agriculture.  The significance for water quality
is that the river must begin anew a few miles below Milton-Freewater;
during the summer, the effects of tributary water quality and
various return flows are more strongly reflected by mainstern water
quality.

     Serious problems have been noted in the East and West Little
Walla Walla Rivers (Table 7).  The sources of the problems are not
clear at this time, but may be due to the agricultural activities in
the area.  No point irrigation return flows are known to directly
enter either the mainstem or its major tributaries.  Animal holding
activities in the area include overwintering and cow-and-calf lots,
and a number of animal concentrations of a small number of head each.
In this segment, as in the others, it appears that the bulk of the
water quality problems noted due to a combination of dispersed
nonpoint source pollutants and topography and climate.  "
                          -61-

-------
TABLE 21     AVERAGE AND  LIMITING VALUES OF  SELECTED PARAMETERS

              NECESSARY TO DESCRIBE INSTREAM  WATER  QUALITY


              WALLA WALLA SIVER  BASIN

              SEGMENT:  WALLA WALLA RIVER {OREGON)
C1t
           Description
                 D.O.
                 foS/1)
                                                    pH
                                                            Com).
                                                            25'C
fc)
 Turb.
(J.T.U.)
                                                                                            Co) 1 fora
 Total      Fetal
(No/IOtal)   (llo/lCOml)
 HH]
 as H
(n.9/1)
                                                                                                                              Mi
                                                                  Hard.
                                                                  ry/1
                                                                 1 C>Co
                                                                                                                                               AH.
                                                                                                                                                             Othtr farawttrs
        WeJIo.
               72T
                                                 4,-S
                                                  *>
                                                 S-5
       6.o
                                                  s.s
                           Location
cuts
         tonltorlng Station
            Resignation
 RTver  T me
MllesU)
                                        Aye.
                                             Hln
                                                  H1n
                                                      Hax
                                                           Ave
                                                                    Aw
                                                                         Max
                                                                             Av<
                                                                                  H
                                                                                        Aye
                                                                                                 Exceeds
                                                                                                          Ave
                                                                                                               Kax
                                                                                           Ajre.
                                                                                                                        Hax
                                                                                                                             Av
                                                                 JSL.
                                                                 j-
                                                                                                                                                           Hax
                                                                                                                                                                *>t  V"
                                                              n_
                                                                                                                                                                             Bax
      ^LZ.

                                                 "l.O
                                                     T-S
                                           S.4
                            "3u- s-
                                        j^Ulfl
                                                      S.I
                                           li.&ll.O

-------
TABLE
Rank
1
2
3
4
5
22 WASTE SOURCE INVENTORY AND RANKING
WALLA WALLA RIVER BASIN. t Present Discharge Characteristics
SEGMENT: WALLA WALLA RIVER-OREGON '
Flow BOD Suspended Solids Coliform
Map and kg/day kg/dav Total Fecal
Name ^Receiving Water Key mgd mg/1 Ib(dav) mg/1 - (It/day) no/lOOml Mo/lOOml
Readymix Walla Walla NK NK NK NK NK NK
Sand and River
Gravel
r
City of Walla Walla NK NK NK NK NK NK
Milton- River
Freewater
water treat-
ment plant
City of Pine Creek 454 30 11 30 11 200
Weston (0.12) (25) (25)
City of Dry Creek 2366 30 70 30 70 200
Milton- (Land) (0.625) (155) (155)
Freewater
STP
Rogers Walla Walla 1136 NK NK NK NK NK
Walla Walla River ' (0.30)
Milton-
Freewater
Other
Temperature
35C (95F)

-------
     TABLE  23    ESTABLISHED OR TARGET EFFLUENT LIMITATIONS
                  WALLA WALLA RiyER BASIN
                  SEGMENT: Walla Walla River-Oregon
 Source
                 NPDES                   Flow,
                 Permit        Expir.    cmd
                 Status        Pate      (mgd)
                                                       BOD
                                                           kg/day
                                                    mg/1   (lb/day)
Suspended Solids
       kg/day
 mg/1 (lb/day)
                 Coliform
                 Total
                 No/100 ml
              Compliance
              Date	
Readjrmix
Sand &
Gravel

City of
Milton-
Freewater
Water
Treatment
Plant
                 To be
                 drafted
                 by 9/74

                 To be
                 drafted
                 by 9/74
City of   ;       Issued
Wes ton
City of Milton-  Issued
Freewater STP
Rogers Walla     Issued
Walla Milton-
Freewater
10/31/74    379
           (0.10)


10/31/74    2366
           (0.625)


12/31/75    1136
           (0.30)
                                                     30
                                                     30
                                                             11
                                                           (25)
                                                             70
                                                           (155)
30    11
      (25)


30    70
     (155)
6.0
to
9.0
200
                    200
                                                                                              35C
                                                                                              (95F)
              In
              Compliance
                                  In
                                  Compliance


                                  In
                                  Compliance

-------
       Chapter 7.  BASIN WIDE POINT SOURCE SUMMARY
     This chapter presents basin-wide summaries of municipal and
industrial discharge characteristics and municipal facilities
needs (Tables 24, 25 and 26).  Seasonal variations in waste load-
ings have not been described here; the "average" discharge
characteristics listed in the tables describe the pollutant
loadings to be expected on an average operating day during the
times of year when discharge to a receiving water occurs.

     Table 27 lists industries which are exempt from the require-
ments of the NPDES permit program since they currently practice
no surface water discharge.  Inclusion of these industries here
is intended as an aid in presenting a complete description of
waste disposal methods in the Basin and will prove useful should
any industry which is currently exempt decide to alter its dis-
posal practices.

     Very little growth in waste loads is projected over the next
twenty years due to the stable nature of the Basin's population
and economic base.  No treatment needs resulting from growth in
waste loads are evident in this period; the treatment needs listed
in Table 25 are related to required upgrading of existing facili-
ties or, in the case of the communities of Touchet and Umapine,
to a new plant to service an area currently dependent upon septic
tanks for waste disposal.

     Residual waste disposal is generally accomplished by drying
sewage sludge on sludge beds or in lagoons.  Ultimate disposal
is often by trucking to land filling operations or by utilization
of dried sludge by local farmers as soil stabilizer.  These
methods of sludge disposal are working satisfactorily, with no
problems noted except a need at College Place for increased capa-
city of the sludge drying beds (which is currently being accom-
plished) and an identified need at the Walla Walla plant-, for
improved solids and sludge handling facilities.

     The proportion of point source to nonpoint source water
quality problems is such that no significant improvements in
water quality may result even after implementation of point
source controls and achievement of best practicable treatment.
The most significant pollution loads in the future are expected
to be those related to nonpoint sources.

     No Federal" facilities that can be considered point source
discharges are located in the basin.
                         -65-

-------
     Examination of Table 25 shows that, basin-wide, land appli-
cation is a common method of waste disposal.  From the standpoint
of available land on which to practice disposal, suitable climate
and topography, and opportunities for reuse of wastewater for
agricultural purposes, the land disposal operations are an effi-
cient system of waste treatment.  No problems have manifested
themselves yet, although evidence of hydraulic overloading of
certain areas has caused concern that too much water may be
applied to a given amount of land.  No qualitative effects on
surface streams have been noted.  Opportunities for expansion
of this basin-wide land disposal practice are open, such as
the cooling water discharges at the Green Giant plants (Dayton
and Waitsburg) and Rogers Walla Walla in Milton-Freewater and
firming up the situation of water rights to sanitary effluent
at College Place and Walla Walla.  The suitability of the area
and possible benefits of land disposal should be kept in mind
in future facilities planning.
                          -66-

-------
N
                                                                                                                                                                                                      LOCATION MAP
                                                                                                                                                                                                SEWAGE  TREATMENT PLANTS
                                                                                                                                                                                                   o
 1. Wolia Walla
2. College'Place   -
3. Dayton
4. Wabsburg
5, Milton-Freewater
6. Wetlon
                                                                                                                                                                                                          INDUSTRIES
                                                                                                                                                                                                   SURFACE WATEB DISCHARGES

                                                                                                                                                                                                   a. Green Giant  Waitsburg
                                                                                                                                                                                                   b, Grn Giant  Dayton
                                                                                                                                                                                                   c. Jones-Scott Cwnpany
                                                                                                                                                                                                   d. City of Milton-Frwatf
                                                                                                                                                                                                      Water Trahnnt  Plant
                                                                                                                                                                                                   . Ready mix Sand and Gravel
                                                                                                                                                                                                      ENVUOMMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY
                                                                                                                                                                                                              REGION X
                                                                                                                                                                                                   1300 HXTH AVENUE  SEATTLE. WASHINGTON 91]Di
                                                                                                                                                                                                       OHO LOWER COLUMBIA I ASH)

                                                                                                                                                                                                  WALLA WALLA RIVER  BASIN
                                                                                                                                                                                                  POINT  DISCHARGES
                                                                                                                                                                                                     1:150,000
                                                                                                                                                                                                DATE COMPLETED
                                                                                                                                                                                                   JUNE, 1974

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TABLE 24  MUNICIPAL DISCHARGE INVENTORY BASIN WIDE SUMMARY
          WALLA WALLA RIVER BASIN
                                                                                                                             Permit Effluent Limitations


Municipality
Walla Walla
County Farm
Labor Camp
Haltsburg


Walla Walla

College
Place

Dayton

Veston


Mllton-
Freevater


Ranking Existing
In Segment In Basin Treatment
1 1 None


1 2 Primary '


2 3 Secondary

2 4 Secondary

4 5 Secondary

3 6 Secondary


4 7 Secondary


Flow
end
(mgd)
NK


946
(0.25)

25,738
(6.8)

5678
(1.5)

1893
(0.5)
454
(0.12)

2366
(0.625)

BOD
kg/day
mg/1 ._ (Ib/day)
NK NK


49 46
(101)

9 232
(510)

30 170
(374)

30 57
(125)
30 11
(25)

30 70
(155)
Suspended
Solids NPDES Flow
kg/day Permit cmd
ma/1 (Ib/day) Status (mgd)
NK NK Drafted  204
(0.054)

45 42 Issued * 1325
(92) (0.35)

16 412 To be 37,850
(907) Drafted (10.0)

30 170 Issued 5678
(374) (1.5)

30 57 Issued 1893
(125)
30 11 Issued 379
(25) (0.10)

30 70 Issued 2366
(155) (0.625)
Suspended
 BOD Solids
kg/ay kg/day
ng/1 (lb/day) ng/1 (lb/dav)
30 6 30 6
(14) (14)

30 40 30 40
(88) (88)

 232 16 412
(88) (907)

30 170 30 170
(374) (374)

30 57 .30 57
-. W25) (125)
30 11 30 11
(25) (25)

30 70 30 70
(155) (155)


jeS_
6.5
to

6.5
to
8.5
6.5
to
8.5
6.5
to
8.5
6.5
to
*-5
6.5
to
9.0



. Total
Collfora
No/ 100ml
200


200


200

200

200

200


200


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TABLE 25
          MUNICIPAL NEEDS INVENTORY BASIN WIDE SUMMARY
          WALLA WALLA RIVER BASIN
Municipality
Rank
in
Basin
Receiving
Water
Present
Situation
Required
Actions
Eat.
Cost
Date of     Facility
Grant (FY)  Operation FY
Walla Walla
Co. Farm
Labor Camp
Waitsburg
              Walla Walla
              River
              Coppei Creek
Walla Walla
 College Place     4
Dayton
                               Mill  Creek
                               or  land
              Garrison Creek
              louchet
              River
                    Nominal second-
                    ary treatment
                    actually pro-
                    vides inadequate
                    stabilization
                    of, chlorination
                    of wastes

                    Primary (partial
                    secondary) plant
                    achieving inade-
                    quate treatment
                    and disinfection.
                    Infiltration and
                    inflow believed
                    excessive.
                                  Secondary treat-
                                  ment
                    Secondary treat-
                    ment
                    Secondary treat-
                    ment
                    Upgrade to        $60,000    1-2-3        FY 75       FY 76
                    full secondary
                    level.  Insure
                    adequate dis-
                    infection
                    Install adequate             1-2-3        FY 75       FY 76
                    disinfection faci-
                    lities .  Determine
                    extent of. infiltra-
                    tion inflow and
                    correct as needed.
                    Upgrade facility
                    to full secondary
                    level.
                                        Improved solids ^
                                        and sludge hand-
                                        ling facilities
                                      $275,000
                    Analysis of infil-
                    tration/inflow from
                    several tributary
                    sewers.

                    Present plant is old,
                    may require upgrad-
                    ing or rebuilding in
                    near future.

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TABLE 25  MUNICIPAL NEEDS INVENTORY BASIN WIDE SUMMARY
          WALLA WALLA RIVER BASIN
Muni eipality

Weston

Milton-
Freewater
Rank
in
Basin

 6

 7
Receiving
Water

Pine Creek

Land
Present
Situation

Secondary
treatment
Secondary
treatment
Required         Est.
Actions          Cost

None

None needed
within near
future.  Pop-
ulation -expan-
sion In Northside
area may nec-
essitate region-
al facility by
1990.
Date of
Grant(FY)
Facility
Operations
(FY)
Touchet
                          To be
                          determined
                           Community
                           served by
                           septic tanks
                           and drain-
                           fields
                                 Installation of  $323,000
                                 central collec-
                                 tion system &
                                 packaged treat-
                                 ment plant or
                                 overflow or non-
                                 overflow lagoon
Umapine
          To be deter-
          mined
                 Community
                 served by
                 septic tanks
                 & drainfields
                Installation of
                sewer system &
                packaged treat-
                 $ 46,200

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TABLE 26  INDUSTRIAL DISCHARGE INVENTORY AND NEEDS
          BASIN WIDE SUMMARY
          WALLA WALLA RIVER BASIN
Source
                   Location
 Green Giant       Waitsburg
 Co.
 Green Giant
 Co.
Dayton
Ranking
Segment Basin
Receiving
Stream
Type
of
Waste
Present
Average
Effluent
Characteristic
NPDES
Permit
Status
Average
Effluent
Limitations
                                     Touchet R.
                                                        Touchet R.
Can
cooling
water
Can
cooling
water
Flow: Avg.3406cmd
   (0.90)mgd
Temp. avg.
    (81 F)
                                                                                             27C
Flow Avg.3785cmd
   (1.00 mgd)r
Temp. avg.
    (73F)
                                                                                             23C
Drafted      Flow:Avg.3406cmd
                (0.90 mgd)
             Temp. Avg. 18.5 C
              (65 F)
  O
Drafted      Flow: Avg. 3785ond
                 (1.00 mgd)
             Temp: Avg. 18.5C
                 (65 F)
 Jones-
 Scott Co.
Walla Walla
                                     Mill Creek      Sand &    Flow Avg. 643cmd
                                                     Gravel       (0.17 mgd)
                                                     Wash      Suspended Solids
                                                     Water     1792 mg/1
                                                               109 kg/day
                                                               (240 Ib/day)
                               Drafted
                                           No Discharge
 Rogers
 Walla Walla
Mllton-Freewater  5
                                     Walla Walla     Uncont-   Flow: Avg. 1136cmd
                                     River           aminated        (0.30mgd)
                                                     cooling   Temp: 359c
                                                     water
                               Issued      Flow: Avg. U36crad
                                                 (0.30-mgd)
                                           Temp:  35 C

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TABLE 27  "EXEMPT" INDUSTRIAL FACILITIES INVENTORY
           WALLA WALLA RIVER BASIN
                                                                  Present Characteristics  of  Discharge
Industry

Rogers
Walla-
Walla
Location
Walla Walla
                Mill Creek
                and Tribu-
                taries
General Foods
Birdseye Corp.
Walla Walla
Frank Curcio
Meats, Inc.
Shady Lawn
Creamery
Inc.
Walla Walla
Walla Walla
                Mill Creek
                & Tribu-
                taries
                Mill Creek
                and Tribu-
                taries
Wastewater
Types
 Flow,
 cmd
 (mgd)
Vegetable      6435
processing     (1.7)
and can        Average
cooling water
(seasonal)
Para-
meters

NK
Mill Creek
and Tribu-
taries
Vegetable
processing &
can cooling
water (sea-
sonal)
6813
(1.8)
Average
                                                           NK
Meatpacking
Dairy pro-
cessing
wastes
(butter only)
 19
(0.005)
               NK
NK
             NK
Treatment
Method

Collection by indust-
rial interceptor.  Bulk
receives land disposal
by sprinkler"irrigation
on City Farm.  Remainder
(5%) receives secondary
treatment at Walla Walla
STP.

Collection by industrial
interceptor.  Bulk re-
ceives land disposal by
sprinkler irrigation on
City Farm.  Remainder
(5%) receives secondary
treatment at Walla Walla
STP.
               Septic tank and drainfield
               Land disposal of settled
               solids.  No discharge to
               surface waters.

               Treatment at Walla Walla
               STP.  Discharge to Mill
               Creek or to irrigation
               district outfall.
Effective
Sfate
Permit?

   None Current
                                                                                                     None current
                            DOE No.4150
                                                        DOE No. 2713

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TABLE 27  "EXEMPT" INDUSTRIAL FACILITIES INVENTORY
           WALLA WALLA RIVER BASIN
                                                                   Present Characteristics  of Discharge
Industry
College Dairy
Location
College
Place
Segment
Walla Walla
River & Trib-
utaries
Wastewater
Types
Dairy pro-
cessing
wastes
Flow,
cmd
(mgd)
UK
Para-
meters
NK
Treatment
Method
Treatment
Place STP,
to Garrisi
                                                                                                                   Effective
                                                                                                                   State
                                                                                                                   Permit?

                                                                                                                   DOE No.  2911
                                                                                                     Discharge
Western
Farmers Uma-
tilla Canning
Co.
Milton-
Freewater
Walla Walla
River (Ore-
gon)
Vegetable
processing
& can cool-
ing water
(seasonal)
(2.75)
peak
Smith Freezing
and Canning
Co.
Milton-
Freewater
Walla Walla
River (Ore-
gon)
Vegetable
processing &
can cooling
water (sea-
 sonal)
(3.22)
peak
                                                                                NK       Combined wastewaters
                                                                                         from canneries,  plus
                                                                                         STP  effluent,  goes
                                                                                         to irrigation  outfall.
                                                                                         Land disposal  by spray
                                                                                         irrigation in  a  hay
                                                                                         raising area 6 miles
                                                                                         west of the City.  Tail
                                                                                         water is discharged to
                                                                                         an outfall which ends
                                                                                         in 3 small ponds.  No
                                                                                         discharge or overflow
                                                                                         from these ponds.
Lamb-Weston
Inc.
                  Weston
Walla Walla
River (Ore-
gon)
Vegetable
processing
& can cool-
ing water
NK
Screening and spray irri-
gation of about 200 acres
of land near plant.

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TABLE 28  RESIDUAL WASTES DISPOSAL
          WALLA WALLA RIVER BASIN
Municipality

Walla Walla Co.
Farm Labor Camp
College Place



Waitsburg


Dayton


Walla Walla


Milton-Freewater


Wes ton
Segment

Walla Walla River
& Tributaries
(Washington)

Walla Walla River
& Tributaries
(Washington)

Touchet River
& Tributaries

Touchet River
and Tributaries

Mill Creek and
Tributaries

Walla Walla River
(Oregon)

Walla Walla River
Treatment

 None



 Secondary



 Primary


 Secondary


 Secondary


 Secondary


 Secondary
Residual Wastes Disposal Method

None at present
Drying on sludge drying beds.  Capacity of
beds currently being increased.
Drying of sludge drying bed near plant
Drying of sludge drying bed. Ultimate dis-
posal by land filling.

Drying of sludge drying beds.  Ultimate
disposal by land filling.

Drying on sludge drying beds.

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               Chapter 8.  NONPOINT SOURCES

     The objective of this plan has been to present data on known
water quality standards violations and observed problems and to
document the extent of point source contribution to instream qual-
ity degradation.  It should be clear that, judging from the limited
number of point sources and the nature of their discharges, the
observed quality problems cannot be due to point sources alone.
This was recognized by both States when the individual segments
were classified as "Water Quality Limited"; the definition of this
segment designation indicates that present quality is below stand-
ards and specified criteria are not expected to be achieved with
the implementation of BPT for all controllable discharges.

     Unfortunately, after having concluded that the observed prob-
lems must be due to causes other than point sources, the lack of
understanding of the magnitude of nonpoint source pollutants
arising from land use activities within the Basin does not allow
a quantitative assessment of their impact on water quality.  The
present level of knowledge of agricultural, forestry and other
activities in the Basin which may generate nonpoint source pollu-
tants, and the interrelationships of these pollutants with climate,
topography, dominant water use patterns, and other factors, does
not allow the formulation of control methods for these types of
wastes.  This chapter will assess what is known of nonpoint pollu-
tion in the Basin; will describe in a general way nonpoint pollution
in the Basin; will describe the impacts of various land use acti-
vities on instream water quality; and will point out data gaps and
"needs to know" before the nonpoint situation can be fully evaluated

                           Septage

     Several smaller communities in the Basin rely on septic tanks
as a method of sanitary waste treatment.  These communities include
Touchet, Prescott, Dixie, Lowden, Eureka, and Kooskooskie, Wash-
ington; and Umapine, Oregon.  In addition, the remaining scattered
rural population relies on septic tanks.
                                                   Q
     The Basin's total population is divided between rural and urban
as described in Chapter VI.  The proportion of rural to urban popu-
lation is expected to decrease, reflecting a slight trend toward
urban migration, but no significant changes in rural waste disposal
practices are foreseen.  The Sewage Drainage Basin Study for the
Washington portion of the Basin contains projections of future pop-
ulation dependence on septic tanks.
                            -75-

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     In general, pollution problems related to septage and disposal
of rural domestic wastes are confined to failing septic tank sys-
tems and to local contamination of groundwatpr.  Soils limitations
for septic tank use are based on permeability, groundwater levels,
and slope.  The sand and silt loam type soil which covers most of
the area generally is of high turbidity, but slopes greater than
16 percent often make them unsuitable for septic tanks.  Within
the communities listed, conventional septic ank and drainfield
systems appear to be functioning properly, with good percolation
noted in the drainfields.  The only identifiable upgrading needs
are at Touchet and Umapine, where the development stage of the
community may require central collection and treatment of wastes.
For the remainder of the communities, their remote location and
the adequacy of the present method of treatment rule out any press-
ing need for local or regional collection and treatment.

     Scattered rural residences and summer homes are found through-
out the Basin, from the dryland farms of the lower Walla Walla
River to the foothills above Milton-Freewater.  The proximity of
many of these residences to streams raises questions concerning
the disposal of sanitary wastes.  No documentation of problem
areas in available, though localized groundwater contamination
problems are of concern in several areas adjacent to Milton-Free-
water, where the pollution is associated with individual sewage
disposal units situated in porous soil over shallow domestic well
supplies.  Walla Walla and Umatilla Counties have adopted sewage
ordinances to govern individual disposal of sanitary wastes.
Columbia County does not have regulations governing septic tanks.
Such a regulation should be adopted since a potential problem area
is developing along the Touchet River above Dayton, where summer
home developments are being built without guidelines for installa-
tion of septic tanks.

                   Agricultural Activities

     The dominant water use in the Basin is for agricultural pur-
poses.  These uses primarily include stock watering and irrigation
of crops and pasture!and.  The effects of these activities is
reflected in instream water quality in two ways:  by the effects
of reducing streamflow by diversion or appropriation, and by the
effects of return flows from these activities.

     The prevailing precipitation patterns result in natural low
flows over much-of the Basin during the dry season.  These flows
are further reduced by withdrawals for municipal, industrial, and
agricultural purposes.  The result is that in several stream
reaches summertime flow is essentially nonexistent; the streambeds
turn into series of ponds of standing water, with insufficient
                            -76-

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flow to provide waste assimilation.  Typical symptoms of stream
reaches suffering from this condition include, in addition to
standing water, high temperatures, a wide diurnal fluctuation in
dissolved oxygen, and excessive plant growth.  The most extreme
example of the effects of the reduction of streamflow on water
quality is the Walla Walla River immediately below Mil ton-Free-
water; summertime diversion of streamflow into the Walla Walla
River results in a dry streambed for a distance of seven or eight
miles below the diversion dam.

     The extent of irrigation activities in the Basin, and their
effect on water quality, is not well known.  Several irrigation
districts are identified in the area west of Walla Walla (Gose
Irrigation District and Blalock Irrigation District Number 3),
and irrigation is practiced along the Lower Touchet River, Mill
Creek, and Doan, Cold, Gardena, Dry, Pine, Yellowhawk, Garrison,
and Russell Creeks, and allegedly along the branches of the
Little Walla Walla River.  The total acreage irrigated at present
is not known with certainty, but the prevailing practice of irri-
gation along stream bottoms ("shoestring irrigation") indicates
the potential for significant irrigation return flows to the
streams.  Impacts of irrigation return flow on instream quality
can only be stated generally here, but increases in sediment,
total dissolved solids, and nitrate nitrogen are often observed
in areas of agricultural activity.

     Two streams in the Mill Creek segment, Doan Creek and Cold
Creek, especially need further investigation, since they may be
significant irrigation return routes, either pf return flow (Cold
and Doan Creeks) or unused irrigation water (Cold Creek, Blalock
Lake).  Blalock Lake receives tailwater from Blalock Irrigation
District's outfall; this tailwater is composed mostly of second-
ary effluent from the City of Walla Walla Sewage Treatment Plant.
Cold Creek then carries the overflow from Blalock Lake to Mill
Creek.  This overflow cannot be considered as merely irrigation
return water its characteristics and impact on Mill Creek need
further investigation.

     Certain point sources of irrigation return flow will require
NPDES discharge permits under P.L. 92-500.  No point source irri-
gation returns have been identified in the Walla Walla River
Basin of such size as to require permits, but final analysis of
permitting needs must depend on an inventory of irrigated acreage.

     Confined animal feeding operations are considered in P.L.
92-500 to be point sources of pollution, subject to waste discharge
permits and strict operational controls.  However, some feedlots
have no discreet discharge or handle such a small number of animals
                               -77-

-------
that a permit will not be required during initial permitting acti-
vities even though these feedlots may have a significant effect on
water quality.  Therefore, in this plan, feedlots are treated as
non-point sources.

     Three basic types of confined animal feeding operations
may contribute to significant water pollution at various times and
locations in the Walla Walla River Basin.  Included are beef cattle
feedlots, dairies, and livestock overwintering operations.  Over-
wintering operations includes calving and lambing in a concentrated
area.  These areas are not generally classified as feedlots but do
cause a certain amount of stream pollution and so should be con-
sidered in this discussion.  The greatest pollution impact pres-
ently comes from beef cattle feedlots.  Several lots are located
near or within surface water drainage systems (on banks of
streams, drains, canals, and in flood plains).  No accurate
count is available at this time of the number of feedlots in the
Walla Walla River Basin, their sizes, or the number of animals
confined in such lots.  The number of animals held changes from
season to season and the number of lots in operation changes from
year to year.

     A variety of water quality problems are associated with many
poorly operated animal feeding operations.  The most serious water
pollution problems occur during the spring runoff period.  During
this period, the surface layers of the lots begin to thaw while
the subsurface remains frozen, thus allowing the winter accumula-
tions of animal wastes to flow easily off the lot into adjacent
water courses as spring rains and upland drainage flush across
the lots.  The problem is especially severe when these loads are
carried into smaller receiving streams with limited capacity to
assimilate the waste.  The waste generated in this manner is high
in biochemical oxygen demand, ammonia and total nitrogen, phos-
phorus, potassium, and bacteria.

     Another water quality problem occurs when accumulated manure
is inadvertently or deliberately dumped into nearby watercourses.
This causes an increase in suspended solids in the receiving
streams, visual and odor problems in addition to BOD and nutrient
enrichment cited above.  A side effect of feedlot waste which
enters irrigation canals is that it often requires irrigation dis-
tricts to call for additional flushing flows to keep the canals
clear, thus contributing to excessive diversion rates in some areas

     Table 29 summarizes the available information of feedlots in
                              -78-

-------
the Walla Walla River Basin.  The small number of identified feed-
lots is somewhat misleading, since the total livestock population
of the Basin is quite large.  As with other agricultural activities,
animal concentrations are quite diffuse throughout the Basin; large
numbers of holdings of a few animals each are observed along the
North Fork Walla Walla River, The Lower Touchet River, and many of
their tributaries.

     A significant portion of the Basin's land is used for dryland
farming of small grains and hay.  One of the practices which con-
tributes most heavily to soil erosion, with resultant stream sedi-
ment and turbidity, is that of summer fallowing of fields.  With
this practice, soil is left vulnerable to spring runoff and high
intensity summer storms, which can cause severe erosion.  Wind
erosion is a serious problem in parts of the Basin.  Erosion has
increased noticeably during recent years with severe gully pat-
terns developing over much of the cropland.  The increasing use
of large, fast-moving farm machinery also contributes to erosion
and stream sedimentation.

     Approximately 18 percent of the Basin is useable as grazing
land.  Localized areas of range deterioration are evident, due to
overgrazing by livestock and big game.  The quantitative effects
of grazing land overuse on water quality have not been determined.

                          Forestry

     Forests cover 11 percent of the Basin, with approximately 50
percent of the forest in public ownership.  Ninety percent of the
forest stands are available for commercial use.  Logging and road
construction are the major activities which disturb the soil and
create erosion problems.  Excessive turbidity levels are often
noted in the wet season in runoff from the upper, forested por-
tions of the major streams draining the Blue Mountains.  Upper
Mill Creek and the Upper Dry Creek subbasin have especially been
noted for excessive turbidity from forested areas.  The soils,
slope characteristics, and climactic conditions of the area are
conducive to erosion if improper forest management^practices occur.

     To date, nonpoint pollution from forestry activities has not
been noted to play a major role in the overall water quality
problems of the Basin.  Excessive turbidity has been observed, but
the soil characteristics of much of the upper watershed indicates
that natural causes may be as much at fault as man-induced alter-
ations of the forest environment.  Management controls for forest
activities are being examined by EPA's Silviculture Project; when
suitable control methods applicable to the particular conditions
                           -79-

-------
of the Walla Walla River Basin are developed, they should be
implemented under the available legal framework of the States'
Forestry Practices Act.  Present control methods exist in U.S.
Forest Service timber sales contracts, which generally are ade-
quate in minimizing impacts from timber harvesting; the major
shortcoming is the lack of provisions for correcting resource
damages that occur after sales are completed.

                   Other Nonpoint Sources

     Urban stormwater runoff plays an undetermined part in Basin
water quality.  The major citiesWalla Walla, College Place, and
Milton-Freewater--use both combined and separated sewer systems,
with newly installed sewers being separated.  Dayton, Waitsburg,
and Weston have separated sewer systems.  The total amount of
stormwater runoff from urbanized areas is not known but can be
assumed to be dependent on frequency and intensity of storm
activity.  Parameters which would be expected to be impacted by
stormwater runoff include turbidity, BOD, coliform, and nutrients.

     Urbanizing areas are another potential source of nonpoint
pollutants.  The transition of rural land to urban use, and the
associated construction activity, often results in water quality
degradation from sedimentation and turbidity.  Even though the
total area involved in the Basin is small and individual occurrences
are usually of short duration, the yields per acre make this type
of land use one of the highest producers of sediment.  Titus Creek,
near Walla Walla, has been observed to be carrying excessive levels
of turbidity arising from construction of the new community college.

     Recreation wastes consist of wastes from Forest Service camp-
grounds, the National Park Service Marcus Whitman Massacre site,
and scattered recreational developments along the upper reaches of
Mill Creek and the Touchet River.  The quantity and characteristics
of campground wastes, and their method of disposal, are unknown.
The sanitary wastes at the Marcus Whitman site are handled by
septic tank and drainage field.
                                                   Q
     A major future source of recreational wastes would be the
proposed Skyline Basin Winter Sports Development, to be located on
Umatilla National Forest,land in the Blue Mountains of Columbia
County, Washington, about 22 miles south of Dayton.  Facilities
planned include a daylodge, maintenance and operations buildings,
ski lifts and runs, parking lots, and appurtenant structures.
Major environmental impacts would be related to construction and
operation, with potential sedimentation from erosion.  The local
                            -80-

-------
area is drained by a small tributary to the East Fork of the
Touchet River.  Sewage would be handled by trucking to Dayton;
raw or treated sewage would be discharged to groundwater or
receiving channel at the development site.  An Environmental
Impact Statement issued for this project recognizes the need for
careful planning and site preparation to avoid significant envi-
ronmental degradation.

                    Streamflow Management

     While not actually a nonpoint source problem, streamflow
management has a close relationship to water quality.  In the
Walla Walla River Basin, the dominant use of surface water for
agricultural and other purposes results in reduction of stream-
flow with often drastic effects on instream quality, the summer-
time situation in the Mainstem Walla Walla River below Milton-
Freewater being the extreme example.  In a more general vein,
diversions and withdrawals of natural low dry-season flows results
in substantial reductions in volume, often to the point that water
movement is impeded.  The streambed becomes choked with algae and
aquatic plants, water temperatures often exceed applicable criteria,
and certain beneficial uses of the stream are curtailed.

     A certain level of flow in surface streams is necessary to
create adequate water movement, to flush and cleanse streambeds
and to assimilate residual wastes from point sources and uncon-
trollable nonpoint sources.  The minimum flow requirements for
assimilation of wastes are related to a number of factors,
including the strength and characteristics of the wastes and the
temperature, recreation capacity, elevation, and minimum allowable
dissolved oxygen of the- stream.

     Overappropriation of surface waters is identified as an
important part of the water quality problems in the Basin.  A
discussion of the full impacts of water management on quality is
not possible here due to a lack of knowledge of the cause and
effect relationships between low streamflow and observed parameter
levels.  However, a number of pertinent subjects worthy of con-
sideration are recommended for study.  Specifically0, the State of
Oregon water laws (ORS 537.810) stipulate that no waters within
the State shall be diverted, impounded, or in any manner appropriated
for diversion outside the State without consent of the Legislative
Assembly.  In this regard, and specifically with reference to the
Walla Walla River, a 1936 United States Supreme Court ruling
confirms the rfight of Oregon to utilize flows of the Walla Walla
River arising in that State.  Further, with regard to the Walla
                            -81-

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Walla River, the State Water Resources Board of Oregon has
resolved that 40,000 acre-feet of unappropriated water in the
river be reserved exclusively for domestic, livestock, irrigation,
and municipal and industrial uses, within Oregon, and that there
be no out-of basin or out-of-State appropriations of water from
the Walla Walla River.

     Similar topics such as the 1929 Superior Court appropria-
tion of basin waters on the Washington site, and the legal
requirements placed on the City of Walla Walla regarding irri-
gation disposal of sanitary effluent to fulfill water rights, are
all components of this complex problem and should be viewed as
constraints on water quality management planning.
                       -82-

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TABLE 29  ANIMAL FEEDLOT INVENTORY
          WALLA WALLA RIVER BASIN
NAME OF LOT
Key Bros., Inc.
 LOCATION

 Near Milton-
 Freewater
(Umatilla
 Go.)
  SEGMENT

  Walla
  Walla
  River
(Oregon)
RECEIVING
STREAM
   TYPE OF
   ANIMAL
    LOT SIZE
ANIMALS  ACRES
COMMENTS AND
IDENTIFIED AND
POTENTIAL PROBLEMS
             Dairy Heifers  1,190    10
                Holstein
             Dairy Bulls       26
                Holstein
             Beef Feeders   2,000
MacGregor Land
and Livestock
Co. (Walla
Walla County
Project)
 Near Lowden
  Walla
  Walla
  River
(Washing ton)
Walla
Walla
River
Beef Cattle   40,000   580
Frazer Cattle
Company
 5 miles S.E.
 of Walla
 Walla
  Walla
  Walla
  River
(Washington)
             Beef Cattle    1,200
                        30

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      Chapter 9.  OTHER WATER QUALITY ORIENTED PLANNING

     Both the Oregon and Washington portions of the Basin have been
the subject of recent sewage drainage basin studies.  Under contract
to the Walla Walla Regional Planning Council, Cl^M/Hill produced a
report entitled Water Pollution Control and Abatement Plan for WRIA
32 and 33, Walla Walla and Columbia Counties.  This report has been
the source of much of the information utilized in this plan, and is
particularly valuable for its water quality analyses and coverage
of municipal facilities, inventories and needs.  A similar plan,
entitled Report on a Water and Sewer Plan, Umatilla County, Oregon
by Tudor Engineering (November 1968) covers' the municipal facility
needs of the Oregon portion of the Basin.  This latter plan does not
consider instream water quality conditions or water quality standards
criteria to more than a limited extent.  Various engineering reports
and past water quality summaries also served as input to the Walla
Walla River Basin plan.

     Section 201 of the FWPCA Amendments of 1972 provides for muni-
cipal waste treatment management on an areawide basis.  Regulations
pertaining to Section 201 supersede the basin and regional/metro-
politan water quality management planning process required by
40 CFR 35.835-2&S.  The 201 planning process provides that the State
will coordinate facilities planning efforts through its Continuing
Planning Process and through other mechanisms as necessary. Table
30 provides a list of those areas in the Walla Walla Basin where
facility planning will be required in the future.  Table 30 will
be updated each year as part of the State Continuing Planning
Process.

     Section 201 facility plans must conform to requirements
imposed by basin plans prepared pursuant to Section 303(e).  When
facility plans are completed and adopted, they are to be submitted
to the Washington State Department of Ecology or the Oregon Depart-
ment of Environmental Quality for review and certification.  When
approved by the State, the plans will be forwarded to EPA for
review and approval.  Approved facility plans are to serve as an
input to the State Continuing Planning Process and will be a pre-
requisite to approval of construction grants.

     Section 208 of the FWPCA Amendments of 1972 provides for com-
prehensive waste treatment management planning in metropolitan
areas with major urban/industrial concentrations and substantial
water quality control problems.  It appears that there will not be
any areas in the Walla Walla River Basin that will require a
Section 208 plan.  Therefore, all future areawide planning will
be performed under the guidelines of Section 201 facility plan.
                             -84-

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                Comprehensive Water Planning

     The Walla Walla River Basin was covered in the Pacific North-
west River Basin's Columbia-North Pacific Region Comprehensive
Study, which recommended a long-range program of construction of
water storage projects for augumentation of the Basin's irrigation
water supply and for other purposes.  The program included pumping
from the Columbia River and storage totaling about 125,000 acre-
feet in Washington and 136,000 acre-feet in Oregon.  Two major
reservoirs, Dayton (which has been authorized for construction) and
Blue Creek, would be located in Washington on the Touchet River
and Mill Creek, respectively.  In Oregon, one major reservoir,
Joe West, would be located on the Walla Walla^River upstream from
Milton-Freewater, and a small watershed project, Hudson Bay, would
be located in the Pine Creek-Dry Creek area.

     Irrigation water supplies, "to be provided primarily by Federal
reservoirs, would firm up supplies for inadequately served lands and
serve a moderate amount of new land along Touchet River and in other
areas of the Walla Walla Basin.  A total of 49,500 and 16,000 acres
of new lands would be irrigated in Washington and Oregon respectively

     Augmentation of existing summer and fall streamflows in Touchet
River, Mill Creek, and Walla Walla River would be supplied to improve
fish habitat and recreation values.  In addition to the fishery pro-
vided by the reservoirs, increased flows and improved water quality
would enhance stream fishing for both resident and anadromous fish.

     The U.S. Bureau of Reclamation has been interested in the
development possibilities of the Walla Walla River since prior to
1947.  The Bureau's first studies of the valley started in 1946,
and in 1947 a report on the results of the reconnaissance investiga-
tion study area was completed.  For the purposes of specific project
studies the study area was divided into three sections, the Touchet
in the Touchet River subbasin and the Marcus Whitman and Milton-
Freewater divisions occupying the remaining portion of the Basin.

     Planning efforts were concentrated on the Touchet division
and a feasible plan of development for this division was reported
on in 1964; authorizing legislation was approved by Congress in
1970.  The plan would provide irrigation water for 9,960 acres
within the Touchet  valley, a municipal and industrial water supply
for the City of Dayton, flood control, fish and wildlife enhancement,
and recreation'opportunities.
                              -85-

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     The two remaining divisions, Marcus Whitman (in Washington) and
Milton-Freewater (in Oregon) straddle the State line in a 46,000
acre area centered on the Walla Wai la-Mil ton-Freewater urban area.
The basis on the project proposal, as presented in a July, 1971
"Feasibility Report", was construction of the Joe West Dam and
Reservoir on the Walla Walla River, immediately downstream from the
confluence of the forks.  Major features of the Milton-Freewater
Division include Joe West Dam and Reservoir on the Walla Walla
River, Spofford tunnel to convey irrigation water under gravity
pressure from Joe West Reservoir to a project-constructed pipe
distribution system serving 9,600 acres rehabilitation and modi-
fication of existing irrigation distribution systems to serve
another 18,600 acres, drainage facilities, and fishery enhancement
and recreation features at Joe West Reservoir.

     Marcus Whitman Division features would include the Wallula
Pumping Plant on the Columbia River, the Wallula-Gardena pump canal
system including conveyance canals and relift pumping plants to
carry Columbia River water to division lands, .project constructed
pipe distribution systems to serve 8,900;acres, improvement of
existing distribution systems where necessary to deliver water to
19,100 acres, drainage facilities, and transmission and switchyard
facilities to deliver power to project pumping plants.

     In the two divisions, a total of 56,200 acres would be provided
irrigation water service; 29,800 acres would receive supplemental
service and 26,400 acres full service.  Supplemental service lands
and interspersed small blocks of full service lands, together totaling
about 37,700 acres, would receive water through existing distribution
systems.  Of the total project acreage, 28,200 acres including 13,700
acres of supplemental service and 14,500 acres of full service lands
would be within the Milton-Freewater Division.  Marcus Whitman Division
lands would total 28,000 acres of which 16,100 acres would be supple-
mental service and 11,900 acres full service.

     The project plan proposed a water exchange agreement to circum-
vent the restrictions imposed by the Oregon Legislature on out of
state uses of Walla Walla River water.  Under the proposed agreement,
 an area of approximately 5000 acres in Washington located adjacent
to the State line and east of the City of Walla Walla, known as the
Russell Creek Exchange area, would receive water stored at the
Joe West site in Oregon.  In return, the Umapine Exchange Area, of
comparable acreage and located west of Milton-Freewater, would
receive water pumped from the Columbia River at Wallula.
                              -86-

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     The Soil Conservation Service and Corps of Engineers are
engaged in water resource studies in the area.  At the request of
local sponsorship the Soil Conservation Service has completed a
preliminary investigation of improvement opportunities in the
Hudson Bay watershed in Oregon under Public Law 90-566 program.
A preliminary watershed improvement plan provides for storage on
Dry and Pine Creeks in Oregon, which are tributary to Walla Walla
River, and diversions of some Walla Walla River flows to meet
multiple purpose needs.                       i,

     The Corps of Engineers has been studying water resource
development opportunities in the Mill Creek basin; Mill Creek is
a major tributary to the Walla Walla River in Washington.  The
Corps had identified some storage potential at the Blue Creek site
on Mill Creek, and as initially formulated, Blue Creek Dam and
Reservoir storage was incorporated into the Bureau's multiple pur-
pose plan.  However, subsequent -to completion of the detailed
development plan, the Corps determined that storage at Blue Creek
lacked economic justification using 1970 criteria.

     The Hudson Bay District Improvement Company, the East Umatilla
Soil and Water Conservation District, and the city of Weston,
Oregon  are sponsoring a Hudson Bay Watershed investigation as a
part of the Public Law 90-566 program.  The area of investigation
encompasses a portion of the water and land resources within the
Bureau of Reclamation's Milton-Freewater Division.
                           -87-

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      TABLE 30  FACILITY PLANNING REQUIREMENTS
                WALLA WALLA RIVER BASIN
Planning
Area

Walla Walla
County Farm
Labor Camp

Waitsburg
Touchet
Responsible
Entity

Walla Walla
County
Municipa-
lity

Municipal
lity
Classification

Non-complex



Non-complex


Non-complex
Planning
Considerations
New facility-
No central
collection or
treatment at
present
Constraints
                   BPT
                   BPT
 BPT
             Schedule

Begin  Complete  Submit
Plan   Plan      to State
Submit
to EPA
Umapine
               Non-complex
                 New facility-
                 No central
                 collection or
                 treatment at
                 present
                   BPT

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           Chapter 10.  BASIN WIDE ACTION PROGRAM

     This chapter presents the proposed action program for water
quality management of the Walla Walla River Basin.

     Analysis of the technical information available for the Basin
makes it clear that achievement of point source controls will
probably not result in the achievement of the stream quality goals
of PL 92-500, due to the influence of nonpoint sources.  The intent
of the action program for this Basin will be to proceed as rapidly
as possible with the achievement of the effluent limitations re-
quired by law, while at the same time recommending special studies
to increase knowledge of the nature and extent of nonpoint sources
and to assess their control ability.

     The previous chapters of this plan have identified existing
water quality problems in each of the segments, have presented
available information on the point source dischargers, and have
assessed control strategies and abatement needs for these dis-
chargers.  This management chapter will accomplish the following
basin-wide:

          A.   Verification of basin and segment planning bound-
aries and implement changes as appropriate.

          B.   Verify segment water quality standards and schedule
required changes.

          C.   Verify segment classifications and recommend changes
as appropriate.

          D.   Develop a point source action program, including:

               NPDES permit drafting and issuance dates.
               Existing or target effluent limitations.
               Municipal facilities needs.
               Recommendations for treatment beyond BPT or
                 secondary treatment.

          E.   Develop a nonpoint source action program.

          F.   Recommend studies on other programs as identified.

          6.   Recommend 'monitoring and surveillance activities.

     The actioa items related to each major problem area are pre-
sented in the following sections.
                            -98-

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    Verification of Basin and Segment Planning Boundaries

     Management and solution of the water quality problems of the
Walla Walla River Basin will require basin wide action.  This will
require much closer coordination between the activities of the
States of Washington and Oregon than seems to have ocurred in the
past.  In many instances, the two State pollution control agencies
have demonstrated a lack of familiarity with the "other" portion of
the Basin - that portion outside their own State.

     The Walla Walla Basin must be considered a continuous unit.
Water quality problems recognize no political subdivisions such
as state"boundaries; many of the water quality problems observed
in the Washington portion of the Basin are influenced by water
uses or pollution causing activities in Oregon.  The basin-wide
nature of identified water quality problems requires a basin-wide
approach to their solution.  To be sure, certain legal constraints
exist on water quality management planning; these constraints in-
clude the U.S. Supreme Court decision regarding Oregon's rights to
all waters of the Walla Walla River which arise within the State,
and the implications of the subsequent actions,taken by the Oregon
legislature and the State Water Resources Board with regard to
out-of-state diversions of Walla Walla River water.  Similarly,
the deeply rooted pattern of water rights and dominant uses, which
results in over-appropriation of surface streams, is a constraint
on planning.

     But,many aspects of water quality management could benefit
from closer coordination between the States.  Facilities planning
at Waitsburg and other locations in Washington could benefit from
examining the year around land disposal system at Milton-Freewater
and assessing the potential for such a system in other areas of
the Basin.  Land disposal of process waters from vegetable process-
ing plants, animal holding areas, and locations of irrigated lands
are all subjects which should be assessed basin wide to determine
their impacts on water quality.

     In summary, the Walla,Walla River Basin should be viewed as
a unit.  Segment boundaries are acceptable as presently formulated;
the distinction between the Walla Walla River segments in Oregon
and in Washington is necessary and proper, since different sets of
water quality criteria cover the two divisions.  But water quality
management planning should not be bound solely by the political
divisions imposed on the Basin.

      Verification of Segment Water Quality Standards
                          i
     The existing segment standards are consistent with present and
projected water uses.  No changes or modifications to the standards
                            -99-

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should be contemplated prior to implementation of controls at all
point sources, assessment of the improvement in water quality re-
sulting from such controls, and evaluation of the remaining instream
pollutants.

           Verification of Segment Classification

     All of the Basin's segments are currently classified under the
general headings "Water Quality-Nonpoint Sources" (Walla Walla River
and Tributaries, Touchet River and Tributaries, Mill Creek and
Tributaries) or "Water Quality Limited" (Walla Walla River, Oregon
portion).  These designations are appropriate and no needs for
classification changes are seen at the present time.

                Point Source Action Program

     The individual segment analyses have presented narrative dis-
cussions and tables of effluent characteristics, NPDES permit status,
and effluent limitations for all-municipal and industrial point
sources.  Tables 24 and 26 have summarized this information on a
basin-wide basis.

     Control of point sources will continue to rely on discharge
permit and construction grants activities.  NPDES permits are to
be issued by December 31, 1974.  Based on review of municipal
facilities needs, only two projects, Waitsburg and Walla Walla
County Farm Labor Camp are' of an urgent nature; the remaining
facilities needs identified deal with central collection and
treatment systems for towns not presently served by such systems,
or with relatively minor treatment plant improvements.  Table 25
presents municipal facilities needs for the Basin.

     Treatment levels beyond the defined level of secondary
treatment will not be required, at least within the five year
scope of this plan.  After upgrading of the Farm Labor Camp and
Waitsburg facilities and minor improvements at Dayton and Walla
Walla, all municipal sources in the Basin will be meeting sec-
ondary treatment requirements.  Nutrient removals from secondary
effluent is not considered a concern at present; however, pending
study of the effects of discharge of unused irrigation water from
Blalock Lake, the impacts on Mill Creek may dictate the need for
nutrient removal at Walla Walla's facility.

     Industrial discharges predominantly are cooling water from
vegetable processing plants.  Limitations on discharge temperature
are necessary to prevent violations of instream temperature stand-
ards.  Two sand and gravel operations in the Basin may be required
to curtail discharge; experience has found that reuse of wash water
is possible.at operations of this type.
                          -loo-

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     Needs for a basin-wide assessment of land disposal of waste-
waters will be recommended in the section on monitoring and surveil-
lance.  Action items to be undertaken related to land disposal
include the need to firm up the water disppsal situation at College
Place.  At present, a local irrigator has water rights to the
secondary effluent from the College Place treatment plant.  A small
pump station is located over the plant's outfall; when the irriga-
tor exercises his water rights, the pump removes effluent from the
outfall to a small holding sump, from which it is applied to land
by irrigation.  When the water rights holder chooses to not exercise
his rights, effluent passes to Garrison Creek.  This is not a
satisfactory arrangement during times of low flow in Garrison Creek.
A legally binding agreement to require continuous withdrawal of
effluent during the dry season would be a recommended control method

     Similarly, controls over land disposal at Milton-Freewater
should be made legally binding on the part of the irrigator to take
the total combined effluent.  The current NPDES permit for the
Milton-Freewater municipal facility allows occasional discharge
to Dry Creek.  After expiration of this permit, the effluent limita-
tion should be changed to allow no discharge to surface water.

                  Nonpoint Source Program.

     The level of knowledge of nonpoint sources in the Basin does
not allow formulation of control strategies.  The major action item
will be to increase the data base.  A land use survey or inventory
would be one method; under each type of nonpoint source activity,
a certain number of "needs to know" can be identified as being
helpful in relating land uses to an observed instream water quality.
Much of the needed information on subjects such as irrigation
practices, animal population and distribution, areas of erodible
soils, failing septic tanks, and forest land activities may be
available from other agencies.  The first step in assessing
non-point problems would be to enter into meaningful working
relationships with agencies such as the U.S. Forest Service,
Soil Conservation Service, County Agricultural Extension Service,
and Bureau of Land Management.

     The second major task would be to conduct watear quality
monitoring to assess the pollutant loading remaining in the streams
after implementation of point source controls.  This is discussed
below in the section on monitoring.

     Continuing control measures which could be undertaken to
reduce nonpoint pollution include enforcement of the States'
Forest Practices Act, permitting of feedlots and irrigation
tracts as appropriate, and State directed financial assistance
programs aimed at erosion and sediment control, under the
auspices of the Rural Development .Act.
                          -101-

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           Recommended Studies of Other Programs

     Assuming that over-appropriation of surface waters iss recog-
nized as a contributor to water quality degradation, and specific
steps are to be taken to correct this problem, there is a need
for methods to specify flow requirements for we11-defined levels.
These flow requirements could be considered minimum flows for
the corresponding level of use, such as a minimum stream flow
determination for water quality or for recreation.  In addition,
there must be a study to formulate legal methods of insuring
that such flows remain in the streams, that is, once the minimum
flow for a certain level of use is determined, that minimum flow
must be protected from diversion.  If one of the alternatives to
be seriously considered is stream-flow management for water
quality improvement, planners will need additional background
flow and water quality data to assess minimum flow needs for
water quality maintenance and to provide .adequate velocities
to sweep away algae and waterborne weeds.

     Management of the groundwater resource should be considered.
The soon-to-be published report by the U.S. Geological Survey
and the State of Washington, entitled "Appraisal of Groundwater
Availability and Management Projections, Walla Walla River Basin,
Washington and Oregon", by Robert MacNish et al., estimates that
approximately 1,000,000 acre feet of the unconsolidated aquifer
would be available for development.  The inference is that
groundwater supply, by substitution for surface water rights,
may be a factor in alleviating the continuous over-appropriation
of surface waters in the basin.  The implications of this sub-
stantial groundwater resource to water quality management are
tremendous.  For example, legal procedures to substitute ground-
water for surface water to fulfill water rights, and protection
from withdrawal of the water which would remain in the surface
stream, would increase the desirability of the Basin's waters
for recreation and aquatic life habitat, both of which are
stated goals in the program for enhancement of the nations
waters.

                         Monitoring

     This management plan's approach has of necessity been point-
source oriented.  It should be clear that nonpoint source problems
are of greater significance than point source ones, and since it
is here that data gaps occur, a need exists to increase the level
of knowledge about cause-and-effect relationships between water
quality and such activities as irrigation (diversion and return
flows), flow management, urban runoff, and agricultural activities
Until these cause/effect relationships are better understood,
water quality problems in the basin will not be significantly
corrected.
                           -102-

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     To document these cause/effect relationships, a nonpoint
source pollution assessment will be necessary.  The first two
elements in such an assessment will need to be:

          1.   Establish water quality monitoring programs to
fill data gaps, establish a working base for further water quality
assessments, and attempt to localize the origins of diffuse non-
point pollutants.

          2.   Inventories of agricultural practices, land use
activities, feedlot and livestock locations and other factors
to assessing effects of basin activities on water quality.

     The first element, establishment of a water quality monitor-
ing program, will be the focus of this plan.  The approach to
monitoring and surveillance needs in this, Basin has been based on:

          1.   Presentation of applicable water quality standards
for each segment.

          2.   Presentation of average and maximum/minimum parameter
values necessary to describe instream water quality.

          3.   Identification of standards violations by reference
to the violations noted in the States' Continuing Planning Processes

          4.   Identification of additional problem areas noted in
the Basin, including tributaries, based on engineering judgement
and knowledge of the basin.

This approach has served to identify data gaps and areas where
further investigation is needed.  The next step will be to describe
the relationships between specific waste generating activities,
whether point or nonpoint source, and instream water quality in
a way that will permit control of the activity in question.  Data
necessary to allow the determination of maximum instream daily
loads and waste load allocations for dischargers must be "collected.
Another facet of additional water quality monitoring needs would
be the opportunity to assess improvements in quality due to control
measures such as upgrading or reconstruction of treatment plants
and permitting activities.  After a suitable period of time, when
all known point sources have been controlled and the resultant
improvements to water quality have been observed, the monitoring
program could concentrate on nonpoint sources using the expanded
data base to help assess nonpoint source pollution problems in
localized areas-*
                          -103-

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     Three types of monitoring activities'^'11 be needed to cover
the scope of data collection needs identified for the Basin.  These
types of activities are:

          1.   Compliance monitoring to define and monitor signi-
ficant point dischargers in the Basin.

          2.   Special Studies to qualify and quantify major non-
point dischargers as well as quality and quantify in more detail
significant point dischargers.

          3.   Trend monitoring to monitor long range water quality
trends.  This will permit an evaluation of whether the water quality
trends in the basin are consistent with the States' nondegradation
policies.

     Compliance monitoring activities in the Walla Walla Basin will
be of limited scope since no major dischargers are located within
the Basin.  This type of monitoring will be aimed at the existing
point sources on a cyclic basis as time and funds allow, to determine
compliance with effluent limitations.  Occasional compliance moni-
toring of the designated "exempt" industries may be advisable to
insure that no discharges to surface water occurs from these opera-
tions.  Trend monitoring.stations will be maintained by the
Department of Ecology at the seven stations at which monitoring is
presently being undertaken.  These stations, and a list of point
sources requiring compliance monitoring, are presented in Tables
32 and 33.

     The nonpoint sources of pollution are apparently so diffuse
that monitoring solely of mainstem water quality will be of little
help in localizing the input of pollution from agricultural and
related activities.  Since a number of tributaries have been
identified as experiencing water quality problems (Table 7),
an essential part of an in-depth nonpoint assessment should
include monitoring of the water quality of these streams to
determine their impact on the quality of mainstem rivers and
to aid in controlling pollutants from diffuse sources by identi-
fying local areas of concern.
                                                   3
     Two tributaries to Mill Creek, Cold and Doan Creeks, espe-
cially need further investigation, since they may be significant
irrigation return routes, either of return flow (Cold and Doan
Creeks) or unused irrigation water (Cold Creek, Blalock Lake).
Blalock Lake receives tailwater from Blalock Irrigation District's
outfall.  This-tailwater is probably comprised mostly of secondary
effluent from the City of Walla Walla Sewage Treatment Plant which
was not used in the irrigation system.   Cold Creek then carries
                          -104-

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overflow from Blalock Lake to Mill Creek.  This overflow cannot be
considered as merely irrigation return water; its characteristics
and impact on Mill Creek need further investigation.

     As an additional item, land disposal of treated effluent is
a basin wide practice meriting further study to determine effi-
ciency of present land disposal methods.  Topics of interest
would include water application rates and methods, soil types,
crops grown, seasonal practices, availability of land to accomo-
date growth in wasteloads, observed runoff or water effects,
and the possibility of year-round land disposal (as is currently
practiced at Milton-Freewater, Oregon).
                       -105-

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TABLE 31  ACTION PROGRAM
          WALLA WALLA RIVER BASIN
Point Source
Municipal
Location

Walla Walla County
Farm Labor Camp
                    Waitsburg
Situation

Present facility provides
inadequate treatment.  No
disinfection of wastes.
NPDES permit will require
initial treatment at pri-
mary level, full upgrad-
ing to nonoverflow lagoon
                         Primary treatment.  In-
                         adequate disinfection.
                         NPDES permit requires
                         secondary treatment by
Action Items

Prepare 201 Facilities
Plan

Process and award con-
struction grant (Steps
1,2^3) FY 75
Walla Walla County
Consultant

DOE, EPA
                                                                              Upgrade present facility   Walla Walla  County
                                                                              tp primary treatment level
                                 Issue NPDES Permit

                                 Construction of  non-
                                 overflow lagoon

                                 Update preliminary
                                 engineering report

                                 Upgrade disinfection

                                 Prepare 201 Facilities
                                 Plan

                                 Conduct SSE Study

                                 Process and award con-
                                 struction grant  (Steps
                                 l,fl,3) FY 75

                                 Upgrade to secondary
                                 treatment
                          DOE

                          Walla Walla County


                          Municipality


                          Municipality

                          Municipality


                          Municipality

                          DOE, EPA



                          Municipality

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TABLE 31  ACTION PROGRAM
          WALLA WALLA RIVER BASIN
                    Location
                    Walla Walla
Situation

Secondary treatment
In compliance NPDES
permit to be drafted
Action Items

Draft NPDES Permit

Public Notice and
issuance of NPDES
permit

Sludge drying and
solids handling
fadilities

Tauslck Way Inter-
ceptor constnuction
grant

Assess amount of
additional inflow to
STP provided by Tau-
sick Way Interceptor
and determine effects
on the amount of in-
dustrial water needed
t
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TABLE 31  ACTION PROGRAM
          WALLA WALLA RIVER BASIN
Point Source-
Municipal
Location

College
Place
Situation

Secondary treatment.
In compliance NPDES
Permit issued
Action Items

Determine possible
excessive I/I

Assess arrangements
for disposal of
effluent via irri-
gation. Firm up the
agreement by College
Place to provide wa-
ter to irrigator.
Legally binding re-
quirement on irri-
gator to take all
water (effluent) so
that none gets direc-
tly to Garrison Creek
By Whom

Municipality


Municipality, DOE
                     Dayton
                     Milton-Freewater
                          Secondary treatment.
                          In compliance.  Old
                          plant, rapidly appro-
                          aching its life span.
                          NPDES permit issued.

                          Secondary. treatment.
                          In compliance. NPDES per-
                          mit issued
                                Determine need to
                                modernize, upgrade &
                                increase reliability
                                of existing plant
                        Municipality, DOE
                                                                               After expiration of     DEQ
                                                                               present NPDES permit,
                                                                               draft next permit to
                                                                               allow no discharge to Dry
                                                                               Creek, i.e.,  allow dis-
                                                                               charge to land only
                                                                               Evaluate population
                                                                               projections,  assess
                                                                               municipal facilities
                                                                               needs-increased waste
                                                                               loads from growing
                                                                               population
                                                                                  City of Milton-Freewater

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TABLE 31  ACTION PROGRAM
          WALLA WALLA RIVER BASIN
Point Source
Municipal
                Location
                Weston
                Touchet,
                Umapine
                         Situation

                         Secondary treatment
                         In compliance NPDES
                         Permit issued
                         Communities presently
                         not served by collection
                         or treatment systems
                             Action Items

                             Determine needs for treat-
                             ment beyond 30/30 in keep-
                             ing with State of Oregon's
                             non-degradation policy.

                             Assess effectiveness of  pre-
                             sent methods of waste dis-
                             posal

                             Prepare 201 Facilities Plans
                             as necessary

                             Construction Grant application

                             Priority Rating
                                  By Whom

                                  DEQ




                                  DOE, DEQ
                                                                                                        Municipalities,  Con-
                                                                                                        sultants

                                                                                                        EPA, States

                                                                                                        State
Point Sourc
Indus trial
Green Giant Co.
Dayton & Waits-
burg
Discharge of cooling
water to Touchet River
Issued NPDES Permits              DOE

Impose stringent temperature      DOE
limits on discharge to protect
Touchet River

Require land disposal of all      DOE
wastewaters except uncontami-
nated cooling water.  This would
include process waters, brine
room floor drainage, condenser
cooling water and boiler blow-
down

At Dayton plant, require pro-     DOE
cess water to no longer go to
City plant

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TABLE 31  ACTION PROGRAM
          WALLA WALLA RIVER BASIN
Point Source
Industrial
Location

Jones-Scott,
Walla Walla
Situation

Discharge of highly turbid
sand and gravel washwater
to Mill Creek
                                                                           Action Items                By Whom
Issue NPDES Permit          DOE
allowing interim
discharge of effluent
of present quality &
quantity

Require no discharge        DOE
after
                Rogers Walla Walla
                Milton-Freewater
                         Issued NPDES permit allows
                         discharge of uncontaminated
                         cooling water to Walla Walla
                         River
                                  Draft next NPDES permit
                                  to require land disposal
                                  of all process and cool-
                                  ing waters
                            DEQ
                Industrial discharges
                at Milton-Freewater
                         Present irrigation outfall
                         carries effluent from three
                         canneries, plus STP effluent
                Mi 1 ton-'Fr eewa ter
                Water Treatment
                Plant; Readymix
                Sand & Gravel,
                Milton-Freewater
                         Lack of knowledge of dis-
                         charge characteristics
                                  Assess legal aspects of     DEQ
                                  the land disposal method
                                  Take steps to make the
                                  present agreement legally
                                  binding on the part of
                                  the irrigator to take all
                                  flow carried by the irri-
                                  gation outfall

                                  SPDES permits to be '       DH)
                                  drafted by December
                                  1974
                                  Require no discharge        DEQ
                                  from Readymix Sand &
                                  Gravel

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TABLE 31  ACTION PROGRAM
          WALLA WALLA RIVER BASIN
"Exempt"
Industries
 Location

 Basin-wide
(See Table 27)
Situation

Industries which
practice land dis-
posal exclusively
and thus not sub-
ject to NPDES
Action Items

Review "exempt" status
periodic review of water
uses, waste sources and
disposal practices
Nonpoint Sources-
Agricultural
Wastes
 Basin wide
                              Irrigation practi-
                              ces
                       Obtain data on basin         DOE, DEQ
                       irrigation practices:
                       -Location of irrigated lands
                       -Irrigation methods
                       -Runoff from irrigated lands
                         (quantity, quality,  location)
                       -Surface streams affected
                       -Inventory land uses,  soil
                          types, crop -types
                                                                          Establish water quality
                                                                          monitoring stations to
                                                                          determine influence of
                                                                          nonpoint sources .(see Table
                                                                          33)

                                                                          Identification of  control
                                                                           methods

                                                                          Development of general irri-
                                                                          gation practices guidelines

                                                                          NPDES Permit requirements
                                                                          - determine irrigation dis-
                                                                            tricts which will require
                                                                            .permits
                                                                                 DOE, DEQ
                                                                                 DOE, DEQ
                                                                                 EPA Agricultural- Project
                                                                                 EPA Agriouitural Project
                                                                          - draft permits

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TABLE 31  ACTION PROGRAM
          WALLA WALLA RIVER BASIN
Nonpoint
Sources
Agricult-
ural Wastes
Location

Cold & Doan
Creeks
Situation

Irrigation Practice
(cent)
              Basin-wide
                                  Animal Waste
                                  Practices
              Basin-wide survey;
              Specific feedlots:

              McGregor, Lowden;
              Key Brothers, Milton-
              Preewater; Fraser
              Cattle Company,
              Walla Walla
Action Items

Determine characteristics of
return flow from these two streams

Determine whether unused second-
ary effluent from Walla Walla STP
is returning to Hill Creek via
Blalock Lake

Obtain data on basin animal waste
disposal practices
- livestock populations
- locations and distributions of
   livestock
- quantity and characteristics of
   wastes
- runoff to surface streams
- waste handling methods at feedlots
- surface streams affected

Establish water quality monitoring
stations to determine influence of
nonpoint sources (See Table 33)

Identification of control'methods

Implement EPA animal waste disposal
guidelines

HPDES Permits requirements
- determine permit needs
- effluent guidelines
- draft permits
                                                                                    DOE
                                                                                    DOE, DEQ
                                                                                                 DOE,  DEQ
                                                                                   EPA Agricultural Project;
                                                                                   DOE, DEQ

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TABLE 31
          ACTION PROGRAM
          WALLA WALLA RIVER BASIN
Nonpoint
Sources-
General,
Grazing,
Forestry,
Recreation,
Urban Storm-
water Run-
off
                 Location
Basin-wide
Situation

Diffuse nonpoint sources
contribute to water qua-
lity degradation
Action Items

Obtain data on activities
-survey o basin land uses
-logging activities
-soil inventories; identify
 areas of fragile soil
-erosion -prone activities
-construction activities and
 methods            "
-grazing and dry land farm-
 ing activities
-urban stormwater runoff
 characteristics

Determine effects on receiv-
ing waters

Determine control methods
                                                                                                   DUE, DEQ


                                                                                                   DOE, DEQ
Other Plan-
ing
                 Walla Walla and
                 Columbia Counties
                 Washington
                 Umatilla "County
                  Oregon
                       USER Water Resource
                       Developments: louchet
                       Division, Marcus Whit-
                       man-Mil ton-Freewater
                       Division
                       Recently completed
                       Water Pollution Control
                       and Abatement Study,
                       CH2M/Hill


                       Report on a Water and
                       sewer i'ian, 'luaor cngi
                           Participate in planning for
                           dam and reservoir projects

                           .Determine -significance for
                           water -quality; -increased
                           water -use-'f or; irrigation

                           Assess environmental Impacts

                           Implement recommendations of
                           this study with regard to
                           municipal facilities needs,
                           nonpoint sources and stream-
                           flow management

                           Review recommendations of this
                           plan; update and revise muni-
                           cipal facilities needs as nec-
                           essary
                                DOE, DEQ
                                Walla Walla Regional
                                Planning Council
                                DEQ

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TABLE 31  ACTION PROGRAM
          WALLA WALLA RIVER BASIN
Topic
Other
Programs
Location
Basin-wide
Situation

Flow depletion
by withdrawal
                                         Groundwater
                                         management
Action Items

Determine impacts of withdrawals
and diversions on water quality

Determine locations and magnitudes
of withdrawals

Undertake studies of possibility of 0
utilization of groundwater to sub-
stitute for surface water (develop-
ment of groundwater for agricultural
and other uses)

Study legislation needed to retain
surface flow in streams for recog-
nized beneficial purposes
                                                                                                      DOE, DEQ
                                                                                     States
                                                                                                      States

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TABLE 32   COOPERATIVE MONITORING PROGRAM
           WALLA WALLA RIVER.  BASIN
                                            Source
                                                 Parameters
                                          <5
Monitoring
Effort

Compliance
 Segment

 Walla
 Walla R.
 & tribu-
 taries
(Washing-
 ton)

 Touchet
 River &
 tribu-
 taries
             Mill Creek
             &  tribu-
             taries

             Walla
             Walla
             River
            npJregon)
Point Source
Locations

College Place
STP Walla
Walla County
Farm Labor
Camp
Dayton STP
Waitsburg STP
Green Giant Co
   (Dayton)
Green Giant Co.
   (Waitsburg)

Walla Walla
STP Jones-Scott
Co.

Milton-Freewater
   STP
Weston STP
City of Milton-
Freewater water
treatment plant

Rogers Walla
Walla
Readymix Sand
and Gravel
  (3 0) 0 -rl
  1-1 a 
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Monitoring
Effort       S-egment

Trend        Walla Walla
             River &
             tributaries
            (Washington)
             Touchet
             River  &
             Tribu-
             taries
Monitoring
Station
Locations


32A070-
Walla Walla
River near
Touchet

32A110
Walla Walla
River at
State
Boundary

32B070
Touchet River
at Touchet
                            32B1DO
                            Touchet River
                            at Bolles

                            32B120
                            Touchet River
                            near Dayton
  4-1
  C
  r-i C
4-i 0 -r-i
C ft 4-1
H P, P
O O O
                                                     U ^
                                                   Cl C -r-i
                           a
                           -H
                                                   X
X
                       X
                                                            0 ther
                           hstimatea
                           Field  Resource
                           man-years
                           or
                           man-months
                                                 Agency

                                                 DOE
Monitoring
Frequency
                                             DOE
                                                 DOE
                                                                     DOE
                                             DOE
              Mill Creek
              & Tribu-
              taries
32C070
Mill Creek at
Mission  St.
Bridge

 32C110
Mill Creek
 at Tausick
Way Bridge
X
                                                 DOE
                                                                                               DOE

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1
Monitoring
Effort
Trend





JALLA WALLA E
S&amanc
Walla
Walla
River &
Tribu-
taries
(Oregon)


LIVER BASIN
Monitoring
Station
Locations
Pine Creek
above Weston

North Fork
Walla Walla
River
South Fork
Walla Walla
River
o- ci Intimated
4-1 J-J T1 .
[.< .M -] .- Fit ''' 'ecoiTce
H a uj c Ours1"
--) o -r-i -H -ri rr.an-years
.,-: c" p 4J ^ or Monitoring
p^ p: pi a CM man-months Agency Frequency
X DEQ

X DEQ

X DEQ

Little Walla
Walla River
at Milton-
Freewater

Little Walla
Walla River
at Slate
line
DEQ
DEQ

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    :] 34  ::''?:;!I'?RlMQ  AVjJ  SJRVEILLA!
          SPECIAL  sfUDiss
          WALLA V?ALLA RIVER BASIN
 Segment 

Walla Walla
River &
Tributaries
 (Washington)
 Segr;,Gnt Violations
 arid
 Probleas  Areas	

1. High Temperature
               2. Low Dissolved
               Oxygen.
               3. Excessive Coliform
 Objectives

1. Determine causes of high
water temperature.  Determine
effects of low streamflow on
water temperature.
                                    2. Determine low DO causes
                                    Determine input of low DO
                                    water from tributaries. Deter-
                                    mine effects of waterborne plant
                                    on instrearn DO

                                    3.  Determine sources of exces-
                                    sive coliform organisms.'" Deter-
                                    mine input from animal feedlots
                                    agricultural activities, point
                                    source discharges, and storm=
                                    water runoff.
Locations of Study Needs

1.  Mainstern Walla Walla River,
    Garrison Creek, Yellowhawk
    Creek, Russell Creek, East
   aand West Little Walla Walla
    Rivers, minor tributaries.

2.  Mains tern Walla Walla River
    below confluence with Mill
    Creek, East and West Little
    Walla Walla Rivers, minor
    tributaries.

    Mainstern Walla Walla River,
    Garrison Creek, Yellowhawk
    Creek, Russell Creek, East
    and West Little Walla Walla
    Rivers, minor tributaries
               4.  Turbidity
               5.  Nutrients
                                    4.  Determine causes of
                                    observed high wintertime
                                    turbidity, determine effects
                                    of land use activities on
                                    summer turbidity.

                                    5.  Determine nutrient
                                    contributions from non-
                                    point sources.  Determine
                                    seasonal fluctuations in
                                    instream nutrient levels
                                 4.   Mains tern Walla Walla River
                                     East and West Little Walla
                                     Walla  Rivers, Mud  Creek,
                                     Dry  Creek,  Pine Creek


                                 5.   Mainstem Walla Walla River
                                     below confluence with Mill
                                     Creek, East and West Little
                                     Walls Walla River, Gsrdena
                                     Cr

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TABLE 34  MONITORING AND SURVEILLANCE NEEDS
          SPECIAL STUDIES
          WALLA WALLA RIVER BASIN
Segment

Walla Walla
River & Tribu-
taries
 (Washington)
Segment Violations
and
Problems Areas	

6.  Total Dissolved Solids
                   7.  Low summertime streamflow
Objectives

6.  Determine effects of irri-
gation return flows on water
quality.
                                  7.  Determine causes and
                                  effects of low seasonal flow
                                  as it relates to observed
                                  temperature and DO problems
Location of Study Needs

6.  Mainstern Walla Walla
River, East and West Little
Walla Walla River, Garrison
Creek, Yellowhawk Creek,
Russell Creek, Dry Creek,
Pine Creek, Mud Creek, Gar-
dena Creek.

7i   Basin-wide

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           ,cr:::T;.r:::vG ALLO SIJIITEILI.AMCE
           SPECIAL STUDIES
           vALLA WALLA RIVER BASIN
Segment
               3egrL-.e-.at Violations
               Problems Areas
                                    Objectives
Locations of Study Needs
louchet
River and
Tributar-
ies
1.  High Temperature
 1.. Touchet River-Dayton to mouth
               2.  Low Dissolved  Oxygen
               3.  Excessive  coliform
               4.  Turbidity
               5.  Nutrients
               6.  Low summertime flow
                                                                     2. Touchet River-Dayton  to mouth
1.  Determine causes of
high water temperature.
Determine effects of low
streamflow on water temp-
erature
        <
2.  Determine low DO causes
Determine effects of water-
borne plants on instream
DO

3.  Determine sources of ex-
cessive coliform organisms.
Determine input from animal
wastes, agricultural activities.
point source discharges, and
storm water runoff
                                    4.  Determine causes of ob*servedn4. Touchet River-Dayton to mouth
                                    high wintertime turbidity. De-
                                    termine effects of land use act-
                                    ivities on summertime turbidity
                                                                     3. Touchet River Dayton  to mouth;
                                                                        Coppei Creek
                                    5.  Determine nutrient contri-
                                    butions from Bonpoint source

                                    6.  Determine causes and ef-
                                    fects of low seasonal flow as
                                    related to observed tempera-
                                    ture and DO problems
 5. Touchet River-Dayton to mouth
 6.  Touchet River-Dayton to mouth

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TALLE 34  ::.C:V":T^;:1VC A^TJ  i^UYEILLAI^
          SOCIAL  STUDIES
                :L:..    lR
Walla Walla
River (Ore-
gon)
Scgvaent Violations
and
Prcblsr^s  Areas

1. Temperature
               2. Excessive colifbrm
               3. Low summertime flow
               4. Non-degradation
 ff'jc Drives

1. Determine causes of
observed high tempera-
tures .

2. Determine sources of
excessive coliform
3. Determine causes and
effects of low seasonal
streamflow

4. Determine compliance
with State Non-degradation
policy
Locations of Study Needs

1.  Walla Walla River
2.  Walla Walla River, East
and West Little Walla Walla
rivers.

3.  Walla Walla River below
diversion structure at Milton
Freewater.

4.  Walla Walla River

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TABLE 34  MONITORING ANT SURVEILLANCE NEEDS
          SPECIAL STUDIES
          WALLA WALLA RIVER BASIN
 Segment

Mill Creek
& Tribu-
taries
Segment Violations
and
Problems Areas	

1. High Temperature
               2. Low Dissolved Oxygen
               3. Turbidity
               4. Nutrients
               5. Total Dissolved Solids
                6. Low  summertime streamflow
Objectives

1.  Determine causes of
high water temperature.
Determine effects of
low stream flow on water
temperature

2.  Determine low DO causes
Determine input of low DO
from minor tributaries.
Determine effects of water-
borne plants on instrearn
DO.

3.  Determine causes of ex-
eessive wet-season turbi-
dity.

4.  Determine nutrient contri-
butions from nonpoint sources.

5.  Determine possible return
flows from irrigation acti-
vities
Locations of Study Needs

l.Mill Creek below Walla Walla
                                                                    2.  Mill Creek below Walla Walla;
                                                                        Cold Creek; Doan Creek
                                                                    3.  Mill Creek afeove Walla Walla
                                                                        water intake.
                                                                    4.  Mill Creek below Walla Walla,
                                                                        Cold Creek, Doan Creek
                                                                                  i
                                                                    5.  Cold Creek, Doan Creek
                                    6. Determine causes and effects 6,
                                    of low seasonal streamflow as
                                    it relates to observed tempera-
                                    ture and DO problems.
                                    Mill Creek "below Corps of
                                    Engineers diversion works

-------