GUIDELINES
      Developing   or  Revising
     Water  Quality  Standards
Under the Federal  Water  Pollution Control  Act
           Amendments  of 1972   
                        Environmental Protection Agency
                            Water Planning Division
                         Planning and Standards Branch
                            Washington, D.C. 20640
                                  January 1973

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/ ** \
\^|^/    UNITED STATES ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY
 %   <&
  "two*0                   WASHINGTON, D.C.  20460
                          Jan, 5, 1973              Office of the
                                                  Administrator
   All Water Quality Officials:

        The enactment of the Federal Water Pollution Control
   Act Amendments of 1972 imposes several legislative mandates
   with respect to the development and revision of water quality
   standards.  In fulfilling its obligation to review and approve
   water quality standards adopted by the States, the Environmental
   Protection Agency will apply the policies and guidelines in-
   cluded in this document.

        These policies and guidelines reflect both the knowledge
   gained from our initial effort to develop standards and additional
   requirements necessary to fulfill the goals and objectives of
   the 1972 Amendments.

        Within the limits of our resources, the EPA will assist
   States in developing or revising their standards.  I am sure
   that the spirit of cooperation experienced in our first stan-
   dards effort and in subsequent water quality improvement programs
   will continue.
                                    William D. Ruckelshaus
                                        Administrator

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                    CONTENTS
A.  WATERS COVERED BY THE ACT 	 1

B.  OBJECTIVE, GOALS AND POLICIES
    Objective 	 2
    Goals	 2
    Policies 	 2

C.  POLICY GUIDELINES
    Stream IJse Classification Policy	 4
      The Policy
      Exceptions
    Implementation Plan Policy	 5
    Water Quality Criteria Policy 	 6
    Antidegradation Policy	 7
    General Policies	 8
      Minimum Acceptable Standards
      Interstate Consistency
      Revisions
      Clarification
      Format
      Other Factors

D.  LEGISLATIVE REQUIREMENTS
    Interstate Standards	 10
    Existing Iritrastate^Standards	 10
    New Int?astate Standards	 11
       Promulgation Procedure
    Three Year Review Process	 12
       Promulgation Procedure
    Submission Procedures 	 14

E.  EXAMPLE WATER QUALITY STANDARD 	 16

F.  OPERATING PROCEDURES 	 32

G.  APPENDIX	 37
                         11

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                      A.  WATERS COVERED BY THE ACT





     Water quality standards are to be established fpr and made applicable



to all interstate and intrastate waters under the provisions of the Water



Pollution Control Act Amendments of 1972 (FWPCAA).  The Act contains different time



schedules for establishment and approval of intrastate standards depending



upon whether or not a State now has such standards (see page  10).. After



adoption by the State and approval by EPA, standards will apply to all navigable



waters; the terms interstate and intrastate will have no significance.

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                   B.  OBJECTIVE, GOALS AND POLICIES






Objective



     The objective of the Federal Water Pollution Control



Act Amendments of 1972 is to restore and maintain the chemical,



physical, and biological integrity of the Nation's waters.



[Sec. 101(a)].



Goals



     National goals established to achieve the stated objective



include: (1) that the discharge of pollutants into the navigable



waters be eliminated by 1985, [Sec. 101(a)(l)I, (2) that wherever



attainable, an interim goal of water quality which provides for



the protection and propagation of fish, shellfish, and wildlife



and provides for recreation in and on the water be achieved by



July 1, 1983, {Sec. 101(a)(2)] and (3) that the water quality



standards established shall be such as to protect the public



health or welfare, enhance the quality of water and serve the



purposes of this Act, [Sec. 303(a)(b)(c)] .



Policies



     The applicable policies are as follows:



     (1)  The discharge of toxic pollutants in toxic amounts



     be prohibited. jSec. 101(a)(3)].



     (2)  Areawide waste treatment management planning processes



     be developed and implemented to assure adequate control of



     sources of pollutants in each State,[Sec. 101(a)(5)].



     (3)  To recognize, preserve, and protect the primary



     responsibilities and rights of States to prevent, reduce,

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and eliminate pollution,  to plan  the development  and use  (including



restoration, preservation, and  enhancement) of  land and water  resources,



and to consult with  the Administrator  in  the  exercise of  this  authority



under this Act.    [Sec. 101(b)]



(4)  That the President,  acting through the Secretary of  State and  such



national and international organizations  as he  determines appropriate,



shall take such action as may be  necessary to insure that to the fullest



extent possible all  foreign countries  shall take meaningful action  for



the prevention, reduction and elimination of  pollution in their water



and in international waters and for the achievement of goals regarding



the elimination of discharge of pollutants and  the improvement of water



quality to at least  the same extent as the United States  does  under its



laws.  [Sec. 101(c)]



(5)  Public participation in the  development, revision, and enforcement



of any regulation, standard, effluent  limitation, plan, or program



established by the Administrator  or any State under this Act shall be



provided for, encouraged, and assisted by the Administrator and the



States.   [Sec. 101(e)]



(6)  A continuing  planning process be established in each State which



would provide a management plan for ensuring  that effluent reduction



actions taken within the  States are adequate  for meeting water quality



standards and that these  actions  are achieved in a timely and  consistent



manner.  [Sec. 303(e)]

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                          C.  POLICY GUIDELINES





Stream Use Classification Policy



The Policy:



     It is the policy of the Environmental Protection Agency that all



waters should be protected for recreational uses in and/or on the water



and for the preservation and propagation of desirable species of aquatic



biota as part of the national water quality standards program.  Use and



value of water for public water supplies, agricultural, industrial, and



other purposes, as well as navigation, shall also be considered in setting



standards, but in no case, except as provided below, shall the criteria



supporting these uses be permitted to interfere with recreational uses and



the preservation of desirable species of aquatic biota.



     Recreational uses must be specified as either "primary contact" or



"secondary contact."  Desirable species of aquatic biota must be specified



as "fresh warm water,"  "fresh cold water," or "marine waters."  All future



designations of stream uses and their associated criteria must, at a



minimum, adhere to these classifications except as provided below.





Exceptions:



     Some waters, becaase of naturally occuring poor quality, man-made



pollution or technological limitations may qualify for an excepted classi-



fication.  This determination, however, must be made on a case by case



basis following an analysis of each such area.  The analysis should be



based on presently available information and must contain sufficient



data to support the request for exception based on natural condition of



the water or on technological limitations prohibiting improvement of



water quality to the degree necessary.  Applicable basin and/or area-



wide plans, or portions thereof may satisfy the requirements of this

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analysis.  In any case where the exception is based on technological
limitations, the exception will be temporary, i.e. the exception will be
reviewed at least every three years as required by Section 303(c).
Application:
     In applying this policy, the terms "recreational uses" and "desirable
species of aquatic biota" must be given common sense application.  The
existence of man-made pollution should be viewed as a problem to be
solved, not as an impediment against assigning this use classification.
     "Desirable species of aquatic biota" refers to the range of aquatic
biota indigenous to an area.  For example, waters appropriate for certain
species of cold water biota should be protected for such biota rather
than being warmed, even though the waters would, if warmed, support other,
different species.  In most cases, water for support of desirable aquatic
biota and secondary contact recreation can be covered in one use
classification.
     The standards must provide that the most stringent criteria specified
for each parameter shall be applicable where waters are classified for
multiple uses.

Implementation Plan Policy
     Due to the shortness of the deadlines in which revisions to
implementation schedules must be made and the resources required to make
these revisions, it will not be agency policy to encourage extensive
implementation revisions.  In those cases where the States and/or the
Regional Administrator elect to revise implementation plans, the
revisions will be as complete as possible.

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     After the initial 180-day review period, (3 months for EPA review



plus 90 days for any necessary State action), where implementation plan



schedules are not valid or do not exist, or where they have not been



recently revised for interstate as well as intrastate standards, the



following process will be followed:



     (1)  A detailed listing of point source dischargers, waste treatment



and control requirements and schedules of compliance will be included as



part of each State's continuing planning process under Section 303(fe)



of the new act.



     (2)  The specific compliance schedules for each discharger will be



determined as a condition ef a permit issued under Section 402.  The



mechanism for including the permit conditions in the continuing planning



process will be included in the 303 regulations which are now being



drafted.



     The dates established via this process will become the enforceable



schedule even if the date is less stringent than the date in the water



quality standards implementation plan.  Where the dates of a water



quality standard implementation plan are current and valid, the State



will be encouraged to continue using the date in their 303 plans.



Water Quality Criteria Policy



     Water quality criteria establish national water quality goals.



They must reflect levels of water quality which will protect and enhance



the quality of the waters to which they apply for all designated uses



of such water.



     Minum criteria for specified water use classifications are the



minimum recommended levels set by the National Technical Advisory

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Committee in its report to the Secretary of the Interior on Water

Quality Criteria, April 1, 1968, and other information provided from

time to time by EPA.  The Example Water Quality Standard (page  16)

contains an interpretation of the NTAC requirements for water quality

criteria as applied to specified stream uses and illustrates the

minimum acceptable levels.  No criteria less restrictive than these

minimum criteria will be approved unless it is affirmatively demonstrated

to the Regional Administrator that the natural condition of the water

does not exceed such lower quality.

     The following should be stressed:

     A.  Numerical values must be stated wherever possible.
     B.  Biological or bioassay parameters shall be employed where
         numerical values are not practicable, (e.g., fish survival
         in zone of passage).
     C.  Narrative descriptions may be employed where other values
         cannot be established.  Such criteria shall include detail
         sufficient to show clearly the quality of water intended.

     The measure of time period and limiting values which will govern

for purposes of the criteria must be defined, e.g., annual arithmetic

mean concentration.  Where appropriate, the specified recurrence and

duration of the accepted design stream flow should be defined, e.g.,

7-day 10-year frequency return flow.  Water quality criteria should be

applied to the stream or other receiving water or portions thereof.


Antidegradation Policy

     The antidegradation statements previously adopted by the States

and approved by the Federal government, will remain in effect as part

of the water quality standards for all navigable waters.  Its

application will be consistent with the goals, objectives and require-

ments of the various provisions of the Federal Water Pollution Control

Act Amendments of 1972.

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General Policies



Minimum Acceptable Standards:



     Water quality standards should be designed to "enhance the quality



of water."  If it is not possible to provide for prompt improvement in water



quality at the time initial standards are set, the standards should be



designed to prevent any increase in pollution.  In no case will standards



providing for less than existing water quality be acceptable except those



satisfying the approved antidegradation provision.



Interstate Consistency:



     State standards will be reviewed in terms of their consistency and



comparability with those for affected waters of downstream or adjacent



States.  Coordination is encouraged among States to assure such consistency.



Water quality standards should be in conformity with any comprehensive



water pollution control program developed pursuant to the Federal Water



Pollution Control Act Amendments of 1972, and should be revised to reflect



any recommendations resulting as such programs and actions develop.



Revisions:



     Water quality uses and criteria may be revised from time to time in



accordance with various provisions of the Federal Water Pollution Control



Act Amendments of 1972.



Clarification:



     All "understandings" or "interpretations" attached to approved standards



as conditions to their approval, prior to October 18, 1972,  (the date of



passage of the 1972 Amendments), should be incorporated into the standards



during the revision period provided by the 1972 Amendments.

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Format:



     To the degree possible, the format of State water quality standards



should adhere to that indicated by the Example Water Quality Standard,



page 16.



Other Factors;



     Guidelines for those factors which apply to water quality criteria



such as mixing zones, zones of passage, analytical testing procedures,



stream flow, units of measurement, etc., are described in the Example



Water Quality Standard, page 16.

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                         D, LEGISLATIVE REQUIREMENTS


Interstate Standards

     1.  The interstate water quality standards for each State, at the

         time of passage of the FWPCAA of 1972 will remain in effect.

         Section 303(a)(1).

     2.  If the Administrator determines that the water quality standards

         are not consistent with applicable requirements of this Act as

         in effect immediately prior to the date of enactment of the 1972

         Amendments, he shall have 3 months to notify the State and specify

         the changes needed to meet such requirements. V  Section 303(a)(1).

     3.  The State receiving notification from the Administrator that

         standards are not acceptable has 90 days to make changes in

         standards.  The Administrator shall promulgate such changes if

         the State fails to act. Section 303(a)(1).

Existing Intrastate Standards

     4.  Each State already having intrastate standards must submit water

         quality standards applicable to intrastate waters within 30 days

         after enactment of the FWPCAA of 1972.  Each State standard will

         remain in effect unless the Administrator determines that such

         standard is inconsistent with the applicable requirements of this

         Act as in effect immediately prior to the enactment of the FWPCAA

         of 1972.  Section 303(a)(2).

     5.  The Administrator has up to 120 days to notify the State after  submission

         of such standards and specify the changes needed to meet such

         requirements.  Section 303(a)(2).
I/ The EPA Administrator has delegated the authority to review and approve
   water quality standards to each EPA Regional Administrator.

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     6.  The State must adopt such changes within ninety days after such
         notification.  The Administrator shall promulgate such
         changes and publish proposed regulations if such changes are not
         adopted by the State.  Section 303(a)(2).
New Intrastate Standards
     7.  Any State which prior to the date of enactment of the FWPCAA of
         1972 has not adopted standards applicable to intrastate waters
         shall have 180 days after the date of enactment of the FWPCAA of
         1972 to adopt and submit such standards to the  Administrator.
         Section 303(a)(3)(A) .
     8.  If the intrastate water quality standards are consistent with the
         applicable requirements of this Act the Administrator
         shall approve such standards.  Section 303(a)(3)(B).
     9.  If the Administrator determines that the intrastate
         standards are not consistent with the applicable requirements of
         this Act as in effect immediately prior to the date of enactment
         he shall have ninety (90) days after the submission of such standards
         to notify the State and specify the changes to meet such require-
         ments.  If such changes are not adopted by the State within ninety
         (90) davc; after the date of notification, the  Administrator
         shall promulgate such standards.  Section 303(a)(3)(C).
Promulgation Procedure (Sec. 303(b)):
     The Administrator fehall promptly prepare and publish proposed
regulations setting forth water quality standards for a State in accordance
with the applicable requirements of this Act as in effect immediately prior
                                   11

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to the date of enactment of the Federal Water Pollution Control Act Amend-



ments of 1972 if, (a) the State fails to submit water quality standards



within the time prescribed in Section 303(a) (paragraphs 1-9) or,(b) a



water quality standard submitted by such State under Section 303(a) is




determined by the Administrator not to be consistent with the



applicable requirements of Section 303(a).



     The Administrator shall promulgate any water quality standard published



in..a proposed regulation not later than 190 days after the date he publishes



any such proposed standard, unless prior to such promulgation such State has



adopted a water quality standard which the Administrator determines to be in




accordance with Section 303(a).



Three Year Review Process



     10.  The Governor of a State or the State water pollution control



          agency of such State shall from time to time (but at least once



          each three year period beginning with the date of enactment of



          the FWPCAA of 1972) hold public hearings for the purpose of



          reviewing applicable water quality standards and, as appropriate,



          modifying and adopting standards.  Results of such review shall



          be made available to the Administrator, Section 303(c)(l).



     11.  Whenever the State revises or adopts a new standard, such revised



          or new standards shall be submitted to the Administrator.



          Such revised or new water quality standard shall consist of the



          designated uses of the navigable waters involved and the water



          quality criteria for such waters based upon such uses.  Such stan-



          dards shall be such as to protect the public health or welfare,



          enhance the quality of water and serve the purposes of this Act.




                                     12

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          Such standards shall be established taking into consideration



          their use and value for public water supplies, propagation of



          fish and wildlife, recreational purposes, and agricultural,



          industrial, and other legitimate uses, and also taking into



          consideration their use and value for navigation. (Consistent



          with stream use classification policy on page 4 of these guide-



          lines) .  Section 303(c)(2).



     12.  The Administrator must act within sixty  (60) days after



          the date of submission of the revised or new standard to determine



          whether such standard meets the requirements of this Act. Section



          303(c)(3).



     .13.  Approval by the Administrator shall thereafter be the



          water quality standard for the applicable waters of that State.



          Section 303(c)(3).



     14.  If the Administrator determines that any such revised



          or new standard is not consistent with the applicable requirements



          of this Act he shall have ninety (90) days from the date of sub-



          mission of such standard to notify the State and specify the changes



          to meet such requirements.  Section 303(c)(3).



     15.  If such changes are not adopted by the State within ninety days



          after the date of notification, the Administrator shall



          promulgate such standard.



Promulgation Procedure  (Sec. 303(c)(4):



     The Administrator shall promptly prepare and publish proposed



regulations setting forth a revised or new water quality standard for the
                                    13

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navigable waters involved



     (A)  if a revised or new water quality standard submitted by such



          State under paragraph (3) of subsection (C) of Section 303 is



          determined by the Administrator not to be consistent with the



          applicable requirements of this Act, or



     (B)  in any case where the Administrator determines that a revised



          or new standard is necessary to meet the requirements of this



          Act.



     The Administrator shall promulgate any revised or new standard not



 later than ninety days after he publishes such proposed standards, unless



 prior to such promulgation, such State has adopted a revised or new water



 quality standard which the Administrator determines to be in accordance



 with this Act.



 Submission Procedures



     Water quality standards or revisions thereto, must meet certain re-



 quirements of Federal law and administrative procedures.  They also must



 comply  with applicable State laws and administrative procedural requirements



 which vary from State to State.  Public hearings are required to be held by



 the States in establishing or revising water quality standards.  Transcripts



 or summaries of each hearing plus any supporting data used in formulating a



 State's proposed water quality standard should be available to the EPA upon



 request.




      After adoption by  the State,  the proposed  standards  or  revisions must



 be  submitted  to the Regional Administrator accompanied by  (1)  a  letter from



 a duly  authorized State  official to the Regional Administrator requesting



 approval of the standards and  (2) a statement by the State Attorney  General



 that the proposed standards or revisions were duly adopted and will  be en-



 forceable by the State.  Submission to the Regional Administrator shall be



                                   14

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 accomplished by delivering three copies of the standards or revisions to

 the appropriate Regional Office,.



               ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY - REGIONAL OFFICES
REGION I
John F. Kennedy Bldg.
Boston, Mass.  02203

REGION II
26 Federal Plaza
New York, N.Y.  10007

REGION III
6th and Walnut Street
Curtis Bldg.
Philadelphia, Pa.  19106

REGION TV
1421 Peachtree Street, N.E.
Atlanta, Georgia  30309
REGION V
1 North Wacker Drive
Chicago, 111  60606

REGION VI
1600 Patterson Street
Dallas, Texas  75201

REGION VII
1735 Baltimore Ave.
Kansas City, Mo.  64108

REGION VIII
1860 Lincoln Street
Denver, Colo.  80203

REGION IX
100 California Street
San Francisco, Calif. 94111
REGION X
1200 Sixth Avenue
Seattle, Washington
                    Maine
                    New Hampshire
                    Connecticut

                    New York
                    Puerto Rico
                    Pennsylvania
                    Maryland
                    West Virginia
                    Kentucky
                    North Carolina
                    South Carolina
                    Mississippi

                    Minnesota
                    Michigan
                    Indiana

                    New Mexico
                    Arkansas
                    Texas

                    Nebraska
                    Kansas
                    Montana
                    Wyoming
                    Utah

                    California
                    Arizona
                    Guam
                    American Samoa

                    Alaska
                    Idaho
Massachusetts
Rhode Island
Vermont

New Jersey
Virgin Islands
Delaware
Virginia
Dist. of Columbia
Tennessee
Alabama
Florida
Georgia

Wisconsin
Illinois
Ohio

Oklahoma
Louisiana
Iowa
Missouri
North Dakota
South Dakota
Colorado

Hawaii
Nevada
Trust Territory
of the Pacific Islands

Oregon
Washington
98101
                                     15

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     E.   EXAMPLE WATER QUALITY STANDARD
            WATER QUALITY  STANDARD

                      FOR


                   (State)  	
           Adopted  by the  Environmental

           Commission 	



           Public Law 72-101  Section 12
ThiA exampLe, c.ontaA.nA numeA^caf. vatueA  fati  wateA quality
ctlteAMi OA contained -in the. WTAC nvpotvt and Au.bAnque.nt
tie.poitA and. AuggeAtA a ^ofmat wkidk cieaAJLy poitxayA
the. eAAe.ntLal. c.ompone.ntA o{> AtandaJidA.   It  -LA  not nd
Ln the. vatu.ouA Ae.ctA.onA o& thiA example..  It iA  exp.
                           16

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SECTION  I






INTRODUCTION



     It is the purpose of these rules and regulations to



designate the uses for which the various waters of the State



shall be maintained and protected; to prescribe the water



quality standards required to sustain the designated uses;




and to prescribe regulations necessary  for implementing,



achieving and maintaining the prescribed water quality,



These regulations were  developed in  close cooperation with



the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency in order that,




consistent with  (State  statute  reference) they  also  may  serve



the purposes  of  the FWPCA as amended.



     Pursuant to  the  authority  contained in  (State statute



reference) which  authorized the issuance of regulations  to



restore, maintain, and  enhance  the quality of the waters  of



the State in  order to protect health, welfare, property,  and



to assure that no contaminants  are discharged into the waters



without  being given the  degree  of treatment or control necessary



to prevent pollution, and to adopt water quality standards




the  (State Agency) adopts the  following rules and regulations.
                             17

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SECTION II.  EXAMPLE  LETTERS

   EXAMPLE FORMAT  OF  STANDARDS APPROVAL REQUEST LETTER


Mr. William T. Jackson
Regional Administrator
Environmental Protection  Agency
St. Louis, Pennsylvania

Dear Mr. Jackson:

     In accordance with the  provisions of Section 303 of
the Federal Water  Pollution  Control Act Amendments of 1972,
I am requesting  formal approval of proposed revisions to
   (state)  's water  quality standards, three copies of which
are enclosed.

     The revisions, if approved,  will change our standards
as follows: 	(oft, a* e.x.p_laine.d In a
t>e.panate. enco-6uie; on, witt e.ntine.ty Au.pe.tiAe.de. the- e.x.iAting
c.nite.nia and/on  u.Ae. de.A-ictnationA  and/on impe.me.ntation pan).
Following your approval," the water quality standards of
   (state)  will consist  of  the following: 	
                                                              

     The State adopted these revisions on   (date)   .  An
opinion is enclosed from  our Attorney General certifying
that the revisions were duly adopted, following public hearings
and that, if approved, they  will  be effective as of   (date)
and will be enforceable by the State.

     I am happy  to report that our new standards incorporate
all the suggestions which your agency has provided (on, oan
nzw AtandandA inc.onponate.d yoan age.nc.y'A Au.gge.AtionA ne.ganding
    (Ape.c.i6y fe.de.nal  Augge.AtionA  adopte.d}\     Your suggestions
regarding  (Ape.ciy_ any Au.gge.AtionA not adopted]  nave been
reviewed, and  (Apzcifiy antic.pa.te.d Ac.ke.du.le. fion adoption, on
ne.aAonA {oft. ie.je.c.tion] .   ut  course, 1 appreciate the need lor
an ongoing review  and upgrading of the standards, consistent
with developing  knowledge and understanding of the factors
which affect water quality.

     I look forward to learning of your'approval of the re-
vised standards  in the near  future, so that we may proceed
with the important work of implementing our mutual goal of
clean water for  (state)

                                Sincerely yours,
                                Governor or other duly
                                authorized official
                            18

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 EXAMPLE FORMAT OF ATTORNEY GENERAL'S DECISION LETTER
Governor John Smith
Middleville, (State)            (STATEMENT MAY BE ADDRESSED TO
                                DEPARTMENT HEAD, GOVERNOR OR
                                EPA REGIONAL ADMINISTRATOR.)

Dear Governor Smith:

     I have reviewed the proposed Amendments to the Rules
and Regulations Establishing Surface Water Criteria for the
State of 	, as adopted by the  (State Agency)
on     (date)         , following a public hearing held
by the Department on    (date)      The amended rules and
regulations were duly adopted pursuant to the authority con-
tained in the (State Environmental Enhancement Act of 1969,
as revised, 71 Stat. 432).  The hearing was held in accordance
with the provisions of the  (State Administrative Procedure
Act, O.S.A. 52: 14B et seq.)

     The proposed regulations amend the use classifications
and certain criteria assigned to protect those classifications
previously approved by the Environmental Protection Agency on
   (date)	.  These proposed regulations apply to all
navigable waters in   (state)	.

     On the basis of the above, I have concluded that the
Rules and Regulations Establishing Surface Water Criteria for
the State of 	 have been promulgated in accordance
with State law and that they will be legally enforceable in
the State.
                               Signature
                            19

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SECTION  III.




ANTIDEGRADATION  STATEMENT




     Waters whose  existing quality is better  than  the  established




standards  as  of  the  date on which set standards become effective




will be  maintained at  their existing high quality.   These and other




waters of  the  state  will not be lowered in quality unless it has been




affirmatively  demonstrated to the state water pollution control agency




that such  a change is  justified as a result of necessary economic or




social development,  and will not interfere with or become injurious




to any assigned  uses made of or presently possible in  such waters.




This will  require  that any industrial, public or private project,




or development which would constitute a new source of  pollution or




an increased  source  of pollution to high quality waters, will be re-




quired as  part of  the  initial project design to provide the highest




and best degree  of waste treatment available under existing technology.



Since these are  also Federal standards, the waste treatment re-




quirements will  be developed cooperatively.






SECTION IV.




WSE DEFINITION




    Multiple use  classifications  incorporating such uses  as public




water supply, agricultural, industrial, and navigation are acceptable,




as long as the waters  are protected  for primary contact recreation (Class




A, p. 21 ) or for desirable species of aquatic  biota or secondary




contact recreation (Class B, p. 2l), unless an excepted lower classification




is justified as specified on page  4  of these Guidelines.

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Class A:' Water Contact Recreation and Other Uses.  A surface raw water
source intended for uses where the human body may come in direct contact with
the raw water to the point of complete body submergence.  The raw water may
be ingested accidentally and certain sensitive body organs such as eyes, ears,
nose, and so forth may be exposed to the water.  Although the water may be
ingested accidentally it is not intended to be used as a potable supply unless
acceptable treatment is applied.  Water may be used for swimming, water
skiiing, skin diving, other similar activities, or as a raw water source
for public water supply, I/ support and propagation of aquatic fish and
wildlife, agricultural, industrial and navigational uses.
Class B:  Fish, Wildlife and Other Aquatic and Semi-Aquatic Life and Other
Uses.
A surface raw water source, suitable for the growth and propagation of fish,
other aquatic and semi-aquatic life both marine and freshwater; waterfowl;
fur bearers; and wildlife.  This water may be used for trout habitat, warm
water fish habitat, wildlife habitat, and other similar uses.  This water is
also suitable for secondary water contact recreation such as fishing, wading,
boating or activities where ingestion of the water is not probable
or as a raw water source public water supply, agricultural, industrial
and navigational uses.
]_/ Criteria for Classes A and B are equal to or more stringent than those
   applicable for public water supply use as stated in the reoort of t.hp
   National Technical Advisory Committee to the Secretary of the Interior
   on Water Quality Criteria.
                                    21

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                    USE CLASSIFICATION
USE:
   A - Water Contact Recreation and Other Uses
   B   Fish, Wildlife and Other Aquatic and Semi-Aquatic Life
       Secondary Contact-Recreation and Other Uses


STREAM                                                 USE

Red River Basin
     Red River		A
     Red Run  	 B
     Black River 	A
     Joseph River 	 A
          Turtle Creek	 B
          Sandy Creek	A
          Penn's Run 	 B
          Clarion Creek 	 B

Muskingum River Basin
     Muskingum River 	 A
          Denison River 	 B
          Muskie Creek 	 B
          Montgomery Lake 	 B
          Lake Lutheran 	A
     Mace River 	A
          Stag Run 	 B
          Wooster River (Rt. 197 Bridge to mouth) 	 A
          Wooster River (Douglas Bridge to Rt.197 Bridge)B
          Wooster River (State Line to Douglas Bridge)  A
     Cambridge River 	 A
          The Point 	A
          Unnamed Tributary to Cambridge River
           at Hebron	 B
     Coshocton Creek 	 B
     Buckeye Lake 	A
     Universal Reservoir 	 B

Penn River Basin
     Penn River 	A
          Verona Creek 	 A
          E tna Run 	 B
     Oakmont River 	 B
     Alcoma River (State Line to Lale Unity)  	 B
     Alcoma River (Lake Unite to Rodj Bridge) 	 A
     Alcoma River (Rodi Bridge to mouth) 	 A
     Lake Unity 	A
                             22

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SECTION V.

GENERAL WATER QUALITY CRITERIA

     All surface waters shall meet the generally accepted

aesthetic qualifications and shall be capable of supporting

desirable diversified aquatig life, and these waters shall be:

     (1)  Free from substances attributable to municipal,
          industrial or other discharges or agricultural
          practices that will settle to form objectionable
          sludge deposits.

     (2)  Free from floating debris, scum and other floating
          materials attributable to municipal, industrial or
          other discharges or agricultural practices in
          amounts sufficient to be unsightly or deleterious.

     (3)  Free from materials attributable to municipal,
          industrial or other discharges or agricultural
          practices producing color, odor or other con-
          ditions in such degree as to create a nuisance.

     (4)  Free from substances attributable to municipal,
          industrial or other discharges or agricultural
          practices in concentrations or combinations which
          are toxic or harmful to human, animal, plant or
          aquatic life.
   NOTE:   Some States have designated certain streams or portions
          thereof where no discharge is permitted.   These
          designations may continue to be applied using whatever
          description the State desires.
                               23

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                                                * EXAMPLE WATER QUALITY CRITERIA SUMMARY BY USE CLASSIFICATION

Use Class.
Class A
Primary
Contact
Recreation
(Swimming ,
water
skiing 5
etc . )
:iass B
Desirable
species of
Aquatic Life
5 Secondary
Contact Rec.
(boating ,
fishing,
and etc.)





Micro-
biological
Shall not
exceed a
geometric
mean of
200 fecal
colif orm
per 100 ml.

Shall not
exceed a
geometric
mean of
10,000
total coli-
form of :
2,000 per
100 ml.
(Fecal coli-
form counts
are pre-
ferred.)

Dissolved
Oxveen
Not less
than 5 mg/1.
Class B levels
also apply.




Not less
than 5 mg/1
(except for
4 mg/1 for
short periods
of time with-
in a 24
hour period.)
Not less than
6 mg/1 in
trout waters.
Not less than
5 mg/1 in
marine waters.

Temp.
90F. Max.
Class B
levels
also
apply.



Cold Water
(Trout) 5"F
rise. Max.
of 68F.

Warm Water
(Bass etc.)
SF rise in
streams. 3F.
degree in
impoundments .
Max. 90F.
Marine Water
1 l/fc"F. rise

Hydroeen Ion
Hydrogen Ion
concentrations
expressed as
)H shall be main-
lined between
6.5 S 8.3.


iydrogen Ion
concentrations
expressed as
SH shall be
naintained
>etween 6.0
\ 9.0.








**Dissolved Solids
Shall not exceed
500 mg/1.
or one third
above that
characteristic of
natural condition
(whichevecris less)

Shall not exceed
one-third above
that characteristic
of natural
conditions .









Taste  Odor
Producing Sub.
None in amoutits
that will inter-
fere with water
contact use.




Shall contain no
substances which
wi_ll render any
undesirable tastes
to fish flesh
or in any other
way make fish
inedible.






Jissolved
Gas
Class B
levels
apply.





:old
(ater
'otal
lissolved
>as
pressure
lot to
;Kceed BD
jercent
3f exist-
ing atmos
Jheric
jressure.

Color  Turbidity
Producing Substances
Secchi disc Visible
at min. depth of
1 meter.





Cold waters 10 JU
Warm Waters 50 JU
Marine Waters
Secchi disc visible
a minimum depth of
1 meter.








* The water quality criteria for Classes A and B are compatible with uses for PWS, agricultural, industrial and navigation.

*" Not applicable to Marine Water.   The criteria  for this  parameter cannot  be uniformly applied to  all  surface waters.
   Criteria commensurate with natural regional differences should be applied regionally.
                                                                    24

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Radioactivity
   Gross Beta                            1,000 picocuries per liter
   Radium-226                                3 picocuries per liter
   Strontium-90                             10 picocuries per liter

Phosphorus:  Phosphorus as P  shall not exceed 100 ug/1 in any
             stream nor exceed  50 ug/1 in any reservoir or lake,
             or  in any stream at the point where it enters any
             reservoir or lake.
Suspended Colloidal or Settleable Solids:  None from waste water
                                           source which will permit
                                           objectionable deposition
                                           or be deleterious for the
                                           designated uses.
 Oil  and Floating Substances:   No residue attributable  to waste
                               water  nor  visible fnm  oil or _globules
                               of grease.

MIXING ZONES
     The total area and/or volume of a receiving stream assigned
to mixing zones be limited to that which will:  (1) not interfere
with biological communities or populations of important species
to a degree which is damaging to the ecosystem; (2) not diminish
other beneficial uses disproportionately.
                             25

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ZONES OF PASSAGE
     In river systems, reservoirs, lakes, estuaries and coaital
waters, zones of passage are continuous water routes of the volume,
area and quality necessary to allow passage of free-swimming and
drifting organisms with no significant effects produced on their
populations.  These zones must be provided wherever mixing zones
are allowed.
     Because of varying local physical and chemical conditions
and biological phenomena no single value can be given on the per-
centage of river width necessary to allow passage of critical
free-swimming and drifting organisms so that negligible or no
effects are produced on their populations.  As a guideline, mixing
zones should be limited to no more than 1/4 of fross-sectional area
and/or volume of flow of stream or estuary, leaving at least 3/4
free as a zone of passage.
ANALYTICAL TESTING
     All methods of sample collection, preservation, and analysis
used in applying any of the rules and regulations in these standards
shall be in accord with those prescribed in "Standard Methods for
the Examination of Water  and Waste Water," Thirteenth Edition, or
any subsequent edition with other generally accepted procedures.

STREAM PLOWS
     The water quality standards shall apply it all times
except  during periods  when flows are less than the average
minimum seven-day low  flow which occurs  once in ten years.
                             26

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DEFINITION OF COMMON TERMS:
           TERM

Biochemical Oxygen Demand  (BOD)
Coliform Group Organisms
(Total Coliform Organisms)
Colloidal Substances



Combined Sewer


Desirable Species

Dilution Ratio
Disinfection
Dissolved Oxygen (DO)


Effluent
       MEANING

The measure of the amount of
oxygen necessary to satisfy
the biochemical oxidation
requirements of pollutants at the
time the sample is collected;
unless otherwise specified, this
term will mean the 5 day BOD
incubated at 20C.

All of the aerobic and faculta-
tive anaerobic gram-negative,
non-spore-forming rod shaped
bacteria that ferment lactose
broth with gas formation with-
in 48 hours at 35C.

Minute clay or other substances
which do not settle out without
the use of a flocculant.

A sewer receiving both waste-
water and land run-off.

Species indigenous to the area.

The ratio of the seven-day once
in ten years low flow of the
receiving stream to the average
dry weather flow of the treat-
ment works for the design year.

A method of reducing the patho-
genic or objectionable micro-
organisms by means of chemicals
ot other acceptable means.

A measure of the amount of free
oxygen in the water.

Any point source wastewater
discharged, directly or  indirectly
to the waters of the State
or to any storm sewer,  and the
runoff from land used  for the
disposition of wastewater
or sludges.
                              27

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          TERM
      MEANING
Fecal Coliform
Industrial Wastes
Interstate Waters
Intrastate Waters
Membrane Filter
Milligrams per Liter (mg/1)



Navigable Waters


Pollutant
The portion of the coliform
group which is present in the
gut or the feces of warm-blooded
animals.  It generally includes
organisms which are capable of
producing gas from lactose broth
in a suitable culture medium
within 24 hours at 44.5 +_ 0.5C.

Any solid, liquid, or gaseous
wastes resulting from any process,
or from excess energy, of in-
dustry, manufacturing, trade, or
business or from the development,
processing, or recovery, except
for agricultural crop raising,
of any natural resources.

All waters which cross or form a
part of the border between States.

All waters of the State which are
not interstate waters.

A technique of bacteriological
analysis.  This technique in-
volves the running of a certain
volume of water through a
cellulose ester wafer which is
then impregnated with growth
media for bacteria.

Milligrams of solute per liter
of solution-equivalent to parts
per million-assuming unit density.

The waters of the United States,
including the territorial seas.

Dredged spoil, solid waste,
incinerator residue, sewage,
garbage, sewage sludge, munitions,
chemical, waste, biological
materials, radioactive materials,
heat, wrecked or discarded
equipment, rock, sand, celler
dirt and industrial, municipal,
and agricultural waste discharged
into water.
                              28.

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      TERM

Pollution
Primary Contact
Public and Food Processing
 Water Supply
Schedule of Compliance
Secondary Contact
Sewage
Stream Flow
      MEANING

The man-made or man-induced
alteration of the chemical,
physical, biological, and
radiological integrity of water.

Any recreational or other water
use in which there is prolonged
and intimate contact with the
water involving considerable
risk of ingesting water in
quantities sufficient to pose
a significant health hazard,
such as swimming and water skiing.

Any water use in which water is
withdrawn from surface waters of
the State for human consumption
or for processing of food pro-
ducts intended for human con-
sumption.

A schedule of remedial measures
including an enforceable sequence
of actions or operations leading
to compliance with an effluent
limitation, other limitation,
prohibition, or standard.

Any recreational or other water
use in which contact with the
water is either incidental or
accidental and in which the
probability of ingesting apprecia-
ble quantities of water is minimal,,
such as fishing, commercial and
recreational boating and any
limited contact incident to shore
line activity.

Water-carried human and related
wastes from any source together
with associated land runoff.

The non-tidal water movement
that occurs in a natural channel.
                                29

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     TERM


Temperature
       MEANING

A measure of the heat content
of water.  While stream tempera-
ture is affected naturally, man
significantly affects it through
construction and operation of dams
and the discharge of cooling
waters from industrial processes,
particularly power generation.
Toxic Materials
Treatment Works
Wastewater
Wastewater Source
Waters
Materials which are harmful to
human, plant, animal, and aquatic
life.  These may include hundreds
of compounds present in various
waters, such as industrial waste
discharges or runoff from where
pesticides have been applied.

Those constructions or devices,
individually or collectively,
except sewers, used for collecting,
pumping, treatment, or disposing
of wastewaters or for the recovery
of by-products from such waste-
water .

Sewage, industrial waste, or
other waste, or any combination
of these, whether treated or
untreated, plus any admixed land
runoff.

Any equipment, facility, or
other point source of any type
whatsoever which discharges
wastewater  directly or indirectly
(except through a sewer tributary
to a treatment works), to the
waters of the State.

All accumulations of water, sur-
face and underground, natural,
and artificial, public and private
or parts thereof, which are wholly
ar partially within, flow through,
or border upon the State, except
that sewers and treatment works
are not included.
                              30

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     TERM

Water Quality Standards
(Current, until initial
revision period under
FWPCAA of 1972 has ended)
Water Quality Standards
(Subsequent to intital
revision period under
Section 303(a) of FWPCAA
of 1972)
        MEANING

The designated stream uses or
classifications, criteria to
protect those uses, implementation
and enforcement plans, and the
antidegradation statement.

The designated uses of the
navigable waters involved, the
water quality criteria for such
waters based upon such uses, arid
the antidegradation statement.
                                 31

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                       F.   OPERATING PROCEDURES






STEP I



     States having intrastate standards were requested to submit them



by November 18, 1972, to the appropriate EPA Regional Office for review



and approval.  States not now having intrastate standards must adopt




and submit them to EPA by April 18, 1973.



     Submission accomplished by:



          (1)  Letter from responsible State official



               that intrastate standards are contained



               in same documents as interstate standards



               now on file with EPA, or,



          (2)  Submittal of a complete standards package



               to the Regional Administrator.










STEP 2



     The EPA Regional Administrator immediately begins to



review existing interstate and intrastate water quality standards.



He conducts the review in the following manner working closely with



the State:



     USES



     --Review each individual stream use designation for conformity with



       national policy requirements (see page 4 of these Guidelines).



       If stream designations med requirements, no further action is



       needed.  If streams are not in conformity with the requirements,



       advise State in the manner specified in Step 3 below.
                                 32

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     CRITERIA



     --Review water quality criteria for adherence to NTAC recommended



       minimums (see pages 23-26 of these Guidelines) for interpretation



       of NTAC report.  If water quality criteria are consistent with



       national policy requirements, no further action is needed.  If



       water quality criteria need to be upgraded, advise the State in



       the manner specified in Step 3 below.



     OTHER FACTORS



     --many previously approved standards contain supplemental understandings,



       agreements, or interpretations.  These should all be reviewed, ~



       and if still applicable, made an integral part of the water



       quality standards.



     --clarity of the standards, uniformity of format, interstate and



       interregional consistency must be considered during the review



       process.



STEP 3



     After the above cooperative review, each Regional Administrator



shall, by letter, not later than January 18, 1973, officially notify States



of the revisions that are required in interstate water quality standards



which the Regional Administrator expects the State to adopt within ninety



(90) days.  The letter should be sent to the Governor of the affected



State.  If no letter is sent by January 18, 1973, the standards previously



submitted will remain in effect.



STEP 4



     The States have 90 days from notification to adopt the EPA-



recommended revisions.





                                    33

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     Water quality standards or revisions thereto, must meet certain



requirements of Federal law and administrative procedures (see page



14 of these Guidelines).   They also must comply with applicable State



laws and administrative procedural requirements which vary from State



to State.  After adoption by the State, the proposed standards or revisions



must be submitted to the Regional Administrator accompanied by (1)



a letter from an authorized official to the Regional Administrator



requesting approval of the standards, and (2) a statement by the



State Attorney General that the proposed standards or revisions were



duly adopted and will be enforceable by the State.  Submission to the



Regional Administrator shall be accomplished by delivering three



copies of the standards or revisions to the appropriate Regional Office.



(Sample letters are included, on pages 18 and 19.)



STEP 5



     The Regional Office must review each submittal to determine



compliance with national policies and goals.  A checklist to aid



in this review is included on page 500-9 of the Water Quality



Standards Regional Guide issued in September 1972.



     Regional review and approval procedures are as follows:



          A.  If the proposal conforms with national policies,



              the region should:



                   1.  Obtain the official proposal, including



                       the official request for approval and



                       State Attorney General's letter.

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                 2.  Prepare an approval letter.  (Sample



                     enclosed on page 500-19 of the Water Quality



                     Standards Guide issued in September 1972.)



                 3.  Transmit to Headquarters:



                          a.  For the national public files,



                              1*  An official copy of the standards



                                  to be approved,



                              ii. An official copy of the State



                                  submittal documentation.



                          b.  A draft Federal Register notice.



                              (Sample enclosed on page 500-21 of the



                              Water Quality Standards Regional Guide



                              issued in September 1972 and EPA



                              order 1390.)





STEP 6



     If the State adopted water quality standards do not meet the



requirements specified in the policy section of these Guidelines



and the suggested revisions offered by the Regional Administrator,



the EPA must promptly publish proposed water quality standards for



that State in the Federal Register.  The law does not define "promptly".



We shall consider it to mean within 30 days.



     --each Regional Office will prepare the draft Federal Register



       statement and forward same to the Branch of Planning and



       Standards for processing.
                                     3S

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EPA must promulgate  standards  190 days  after  initial



publication unless the  State has adopted  approvable standards



in the  interim,,
                             36

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                        G,  APPENDIX

              ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY
                        WASHINGTON, D.C. 20460


                                                                  OFFICE OF THE
                                                                  ADMINISTRATOR
                                             November 8,  1972
Memorandum

To        :  All Regional Administrators

Subject   :  Water Quality Standards Review and Revision
     The enactment of the Federal Water Pollution Control Act
Amendments of 1972 imposes several legislative mandates with
respect to the review and revision of Water Quality Standards.
These requirements include (1) the inclusion of intrastate
standards in the standards program under provisions of the prior
Federal Water Pollution Control Act, and (2) review and revision
of the interstate water quality standards as they were developed
and approved under the prior Act for adherence to the provisions
of the prior Act0

     Because of their importance in issuing municipal and industrial
permits, review and revision of the standards will be a priority
task in implementing the provisions of the 1972 Amendments0  Water
Quality Standards uses and criteria and implementation plan sections
of the standards are to be revised by EPA in conjunction with the
States in accordance with the following policy:

         (1) In reviewing and providing guidance to the States with
respect to revision of the "uses" and "criteria" EPA will require
that the goals and policies in effect prior to the 1972 Amendments
continue to applye  Under these goals and policies, State waters
should be classified for uses that will permit "recreation in or on
the water" and "the support and propagation of desirable species of
aquatic wildlife,"

         (2) The water quality criteria to support these uses are
those contained in the National Technical Advisory Committee's
Green Book Report, and should be uniformly applied to both interstate
and intrastate waters.

         (3) Use designations and criteria established by States
bordering interstate waters should be revised if necessary to make
them consistent.

         (4) Exceptions to classifications lower than that for
recreation and fish and wildlife should be justified.  If, based
upon natural conditions or upon defensible socio-economic analyses,
                                   37

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the desired uses are not possible, exceptions can be made.  In these
cases, the exceptions should be on specific criteria basis,  If, for
example, the State adequately demonstrates that natural conditions
or man-made conditions that cannot be realistically controlled preclude
reaching the desired water quality criterion for turbidity, then only
this criterion should be excepted for the body of water in question,

         (5) Note it is not Agency policy to upgrade now use designa-
tions for all waters to meet the 1983 level.

         (6) All State standards now contain an antidegradation
statement.  Antidegradation is compatible with the goals of the Act,
therefore, no actions should be taken to revise such statements.
The existing statement should be included in the revised standards.

     Under the prior FWPCA, implementation plans were an integral part
of the standards and are therefore subject to review and revision.
Because other programs under the 1972 Amendments affect the schedules
as now contained in many implementation plans, we will not require an
extensive general revision of implementation plans.   We are now
canvassing the Regions to determine the desired extent of these
revisions.  (. . . see page 5 of these Guidelines)

     The schedule for completing the initial revisions of
water quality standards under Sections 303(a), (b) is:

	Time	         	Requirements	

November 18, 1972          States submit existing intrastate standards.

January 18, 1973           EPA reviews existing interstate standards;
                           notifies States of necessary revisions.

March 18, 1973             EPA reviews existing intrastate standards;
                           notified States of necessary revisions.

April 18, 1973             States adopt revisions to interstate
                           standards or EPA initiates promulgation
                           action.

                           States submit new intrastate standards.

June 18, 1973              States adopt revisions to intrastate standards
                           or EPA initiates promulgation action.

July 18, 1973              EPA reviews new intrastate standards;
                           notifies States of necessary revisions.

October 18, 1973           States adopt revisions to new interstate
                           standards or EPA initiates promulgation
                           action,.
                                 38

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     Your water  quality standards Coordinators on November 9
will be reviewing  and commenting on guidance to carry out the
above policies.  Once completed, copies of the Guidelines
will be forwarded  to  you

                         (ORIGINAL  MEMO SIGNED BY)

                                Robert W. Fri
                            Deputy Administrator
 * U. S. GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE :] 973514-1 51 (146)
                                  39

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