75-15   AB
   Chrysler Baseline Gas Turbine
           Vehicle Tests
    (January 74 - October 74)
           January 1975
Emission Control Technology Division
 Office of Air and Waste Programs
   Environmental Protection Agency

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                          TABLE OF CONTENTS

                                                                       Page
BACKGROUND	      1

VEHICLE DESCRIPTION  	      1

TEST VEHICLE DESCRIPTION   	      2

Figure 1 Sixth Generation Chrysler Gas Turbine 	      3

Figure 2 Baseline Turbine Powered Vehicle  	      4

TEST PROCEDURES	      5
                                            I
     Emissions Procedures  	      5
     Figure 3 Room CVS Sampling System	      6
     Humidity and Temperature Procedure  	      7
     Fuel Economy Procedure  	  .      8
     Sulfate and Particulate Test Procedure  	      8
     Figure 4 Exhaust Sampling Systems 	      9
     Ambient HC, CO, and NOx Effects Procedures	     10
     Odor Measurement Procedures 	  	     11
     Noise Test Procedure	     11
     Gradeability Procedure	' .     11
     Driveability Procedure  	  	     12

TEST RESULTS	,	     12

     Emission Results	     12
     Humidity and Temperature Results  	     13
     Fuel Economy Results	     13
     Sulfate and Particulate Results	     14
     Ambient HC, CO, and NOx Results	     15
     Odor Results  .	     15
     Noise Results	     16
     Gradeability Results	     16
     Driveability Results	     16

CONCLUSIONS	     16

Appendix

     Table I  Gasoline Specifications  	     17
     Table II  Mass Emissions	     18
     Table III  Mass Emissions	     20
     Table IV  Fuel Economy Tests	     21
     Table V  Sulfur Dioxide Levels	     22

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               TABLE OF CONTENTS - Continued
Table VI  Ambient Effects 	
Table VII  Odor Test Conditions and Results
Table VIII  Sound Levels  	
Table IX  Vehicle Gradeability  	
Flow Calculation  ...... 	
Definition of Driveability Terms	

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BACKGROUND

     The Alternate Automotive Power Systems Division  (AAPSD) of the
Environmental Protection Agency  (EPA) is sponsoring efforts to develop
automotive gas turbine engines as alternatives to the spark ignition
Otto Cycle engine.  The goal is a practical power plant with emission
controls and fuel economy superior to the Otto Cycle.

     Chrysler Corporation has conducted a Baseline Engine Program under
Contract 68-01-0459.  Recent component improvements are to be evaluated
in this program.  The improvements best able to meet program goals will
be incorporated in an Upgraded Engine design which will be built and
then demonstrated in a vehicle.

     The Emission Control Technology Division (ECTD) of the Office of
Mobile Source Air Pollution Control was requested by AAPSD to devise
a method for measuring gas turbine vehicle exhaust emissions and test
the vehicle.  The test program was conducted by the Technology Assess-
ment and Evaluation Branch of ECTD.

VEHICLE DESCRIPTION

     The vehicles tested were Plymouth Satellites, Cars 667 and 671,
equipped with the Chrysler sixth generation gas turbine engine coupled
to an automatic transmission.  The cars are described in detail in the
Vehicle Description Table on the following page.  The same burner assembly
was used in both cars.

     The engine is a low pressure ratio regenerative engine with variable
power turbine nozzles.  The regenerators are used to improve engine efficiency
by extracting waste heat from the turbine exhaust and using it to heat the
compressed inlet air.   Engine components are driven by the compressor
turbine and vehicle accessories are driven by the power turbine (see
Figure 1).  Neutral was deleted from the transmission to protect the
power turbine from overspeed.  Auxiliary accessories are provided  for
power brakes, power steering, air conditioning with reheat capability,
and the hot water passenger compartment heating system.

     The body and chassis were modified to accept the gas turbine engine.
This required new front suspension crossmembers, a modified front end
body structure, relocation of the torsion bar suspension, and an additional
flexible joint in the relocated steering gear.  The engine air inlets
are located on the sides of the front fenders immediately ahead of the
wheels.  Engine exhaust is through two large ducts terminating ahead of
the rear axle (see Figure 2).

     To the vehicle operator, the car is the same as the standard
Plymouth Satellite.  Externally the only difference is the engine
air inlets.  On the instrument panel, a gauge was added to indicate

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                    Test Vehicle Description
   Chassis Model Year/Make - 1973 Plymouth Satellite 4 Dr. Sedan
Engine (Design Specifications)

Type


Maximum power @ rpm
Compressor - single stage
  inlet temperature
  inlet pressure
  pressure ratio maximum

  maximum fuel consumption
  maximum airflow

Power Turbine
  maximum speed
  reduction gear ratio
  variable power turbine inlet nozzles

Regenerator
  type
  inlet temperature (max conditions)
  outlet temperature (max conditions)

Fuel injection

Fuel requirement
Drive Train
Transmission type
Chassis

Type

Tire size
Curb weight
Inertia weight
Passenger capacity
Brayton cycle, sixth generation
(A-128-1) Chrysler gas turbine.

150 hp @ 3500 rpm (reduction gear
output rpm)
85F
29.92 in. hg
4.1 to 1 (compressor outlet pres-
sure * compressor inlet pressure)
81.5 Ibs./hr.
2.29 Ibs./sec.
45,500 rpm
9.6875 to 1
Metallic
1350F
595F

Air atomizing nozzle

Diesel no. 1, Diesel no. 2,
gasoline (Table 1)
Standard Chrysler 3-speed auto-
matic (no neutral) with torque
converter
Unitized with isolated front
suspensions
G 78 x 14
4350 lbs./1973 kg
4500 lbs./2041 kg
6

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                                                     F/2  PUHP-
             COMPRESSOR
               TURBINE
REGENERATOR
    HIGH
 PRESSURE
            REGENERATOR
               L
             PRESSURE
Figure 1 -  Sixth Generation Chrysler Gas Turbine

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Burner 	
Compressor
              Air Inlet Ducts
                Air Inlet
                                     Figure  2 - Baseline Turbine Powered Vehicle

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exit gas temperature  (T8) at the regenerator inlet.  The automatic engine
start sequence is initiated by momentarily moving the key to start with
the transmission in park.  The car was ready to be driven as soon as
the oil pressure light went out, usually 5 to 10 seconds after initiating
the start sequence.  Use of different fuels requires no vehicle adjustment.

     Emission control is incorporated into the design of the engine
combustion chamber.  This requires a complete burning of the fuel to
maintain low levels of Hydrocarbons (HC) and Carbon Monoxide (CO) and
simultaneously avoiding the high temperatures which cause the formation
of .Nitrogen Oxides (NOx).

TEST PROCEDURES

     Tests were conducted for gaseous exhaust emissions, fuel economy,
sulfate emissions, particulate emissions, ambient temperature effects,
ambient background pollutant effects, odor, noise, gradeability, and
driveability.  Two similar vehicles were used during this series of-
tests, but the same burner assembly was retained.  The engines required
some service and adjustment.

Emission Procedure

     Since the vehicle exhaust flow rate exceeds the capacity of present
EPA test equipment, a new procedure was developed to permit evaluation
of the Baseline Engine.  This procedure uses the dynamometer test room
as a constant volume sampler (CVS) and is analogous to the Federal Test
Procedure (FTP).  This method is an extension of EPA efforts to improve
the method for measuring vehicle evaporative running losses.

     To use the room as a CVS, continuous samples are taken of the
ambient air flowing into and out of the room (see Figure 3).  The emissions
are equal to the product of room airflow rate (Q), time (t), net pollutant
concentration (C), and a pollutant constant (K).

                        Mass of Pollutant   M = QCtK

                        K = 16.33 gm/cu. ft. for HC
                        K.= 32.97 gm/cu. ft. for CO
                        K = 51.81 gm/cu. ft. for C02

                        K = 54.16 gm/cu. ft. for NOx
                        C = C (sample) - C (background)

The room flow rate is calculated either by using a propane bomb to inject
a known mass of propane into the room or by using a critical flow orifice
(CFO) to inject either propane or carbon dioxide at a known rate:

     n         *         o  
     ^ ~ Ctk for bomb  r  ^ ~ Ck for CFO

     K = 51.9 gm/cu. ft. for propane.

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Inlet
                      Fan
                                                      Dyno
                                                                             24'
                                                                                      Exhaust
    4800 CFM
                    Background
               \
                                      Flowmeter
                                        Pumps
                                         40'
Sample Bag
 Sample
                    Multihole
                    Probe
                                                                           10'
                       Figure  3 - Room^^S Sampling System

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     To test a vehicle the dynamometer room air flow rate is first calculated
with no vehicle in the room.  Then the test vehicle is placed in the room
and emissions are measured using a technique similar to the standard
Federal Test Procedure.  For transient test cycles, Sampling is continued
5 minutes after vehicle shutdown to ensure collection of all pollutants
from the room air.  Room conditions are continuously monitored during
testing and the room flow rate is rechecked after the vehicle leaves
the room.

     The turbine engine raw exhaust is considerably diluted by the
excess (secondary) air the turbine engine uses.  The exhaust is further
diluted by the room air handling system.  Thus for a clean engine
pollutant concentrations are very low when this procedure is used and
the samples must be analyzed using instruments capable of accurately
measuring at these very low levels (HC < 10 ppm propane, CO < 50 ppm,
CO  < 1%, NOx < 25 ppm).

     The validity of the procedure depends upon constant room air flow
and proper sampling.  The earlier work to determine vehicle running
losses had shown the air flow usually to be 8000 standard cubic feet per
minute (scfm).   This procedure was then tried for measuring steady
state vehicle emissions and crosschecked using a standard CVS system.
The standard CVS was exhausted into the room and thus sampled by the
room CVS system.  By careful attention to test parameters, results
could be agreeable within 10 percent.

     Due to the considerable exhaust dilution, the background bag
pollutant levels were a significant fraction of the sample bag pollutant
level.  Therefore the room air handling was restricted to its minimum
flow rate, about 4800 scfm.  This raised the sample bag concentration
levels and made room airflow check and emissions results more consistent.

     Evaporative emissions tests were not performed when the vehicle was
tested with gasoline, and evaporative emissions tests are not required
for diesel-fueled vehicles.

     Except as modified above, exhaust emissions tests were conducted
according to the 1975 FTP (75 FTP) described in the Federal Register
of November 15, 1972.  Additional tests included the EPA Highway Cycle
and steady state tests.  All tests were conducted using an inertia
weight of 4500 pounds (2041 kg) with a road load setting of 13.9
horsepower (10.37 kW) at 50 miles per hour (80.5 kni/hr).  These tests
were done using all three vehicle fuels.                          ^

Humidity and Temperature Procedure

     The effects of humidity and ambient temperature on vehicle emissions
were measured with a series of steady state tests.  The test procedure was

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 similar to the emissions procedure.   The vehicle was  operated  at a
 constant speed,  the test room conditions were  allowed to  stabilize,  and
 emissions were then sampled for 5 minutes at each  test condition.
 Mass Emissions were calculated as before.  For these  tests humidity
 was varied between 50 and 90 percent,  temperature  was varied between
 50F and 110F,  and vehicle speeds were varied between 15 and  60 mph
 (24.1 and 96.6 km/hr).

 Fuel Economy  Test  Procedures

       Vehicle fuel economy was tested by two different methods.  Fuel
 economy results were calculated from the emissions test performed using
 the CVS procedure  while an inline fuel meter was used to  measure fuel
 consumption for all non-CVS tests.

       The CVS tests included the most parameters.   The car was tested
'both at constant speeds and in transient driving cycles using  three
 fuels and at  several temperature and humidity  conditions.

       The vehicle  fuel system was modified to  eliminate t.he fuel bypass
 for all tests using the inline fuel  meter. This was  done to make fuel
 flow measurements  easier.  Tests using this inline fuel meter  were
 conducted on  a large roll electric dynamometer.

 Sulfate and Particulate Test Procedures

       Sulfates and particulates testing were conducted using an electric
 dynamometer with samples collected from inside the vehicle exhaust
 duct using a  sampling system parallel to the flow.  A thermocouple
 was installed at the sample inlet to monitor the exhaust  gas temperature.
 Samples were  collected using a dual  parallel system consisting of two
 straight lengths of stainless steel  tubing, each with a water  jacket
 to  cool the flow to 100F.  Filters  were placed at the ends of each  to
 trap the samples,  and thermocouples  were used  to monitor  temperature
 at  each filter.  Flow rate through  the filters was measured by
 flowmeters upstream of sample pumps  and controlled with metering valves.
 The leading edges  of the sample probes were ground to knife edges to
 facilitate isokinetic sampling of particulates.  A glass  fiber filter
 was used to trap particulates and a  polytetrafluoroethylene  (1.0 um)
 filter was used to trap sulfates.  (See Figure 4).

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Exhaust
Exhaust
   Exhaust
                 t           1
            Flowmeters
    Filters
 -iD
 HE
                                              $
Pumps
                                                              Sample temperature
                                                                  Exhaust temperature
                          Sulfate and Particulate Sampling System
                  T Cooling     f
                              IL
   Filters       Silica gel
    co2

    Analyzer

[ 







/
\






trap



QfW
Analyzer

                    I
 i  SOx Sampling System
lu
                                     Filter
                      Silica gel

                            I	
                                                                     HC, CO, NOx
                                                                     Analyzer
                                 Ambient Sampling System
                     Figure 4  - Exhaust Sampling Systems

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                                  10
     All testing was done at steady state conditions with sample flow rates
adjusted so that the vehicle exhaust gas velocity at the sampling position
equalled the sample velocity.  The necessary adjustments were determined
from the fuel flow rate, exhaust duct area, sample probe area, sample
temperature, and carbon dioxide concentrations.  (See Appendix).  Samples
were taken at 60 mph for one to three hours.

     Additional steady state tests were made for emissions of sulfur
products using a TECO Model 40 SO- (sulfur dioxide) analyzer, a
device which uses the principle of pulsed ultraviolet fluorescence to
detect S0_.   The sampling system consisted of water cooled stainless
steel tubing, a filter, a cooled water trap, and the analyzer.  Samples
were taken in the vehicle exhaust duct.  (See Figure 4).

Ambient HC,  CO, and NOx Effects Procedures

     The effects of ambient HC, CO, and NOx levels on vehicle emissions
was investigated using procedures and equipment similar to those used
for sulfates and sulfur dioxide.  The sampling system consisted of the
water cooled tubing, inlet and outlet sample temperature thermocouples,
a filter, silica gel for water removal, and an analyzer for HC, CO,
and NOx.  (See Figure 4).

     Ambient levels were simulated by flowing gases of known con-
centrations of HC, CO, or NOx into the vehicle air inlet through an
accurate flow measuring device.  From this the inlet HC, CO, or NOx
mass flow rate was determined.  Exhaust mass air flow rate was
determined from the fuel flow rate and carbon dioxide concentration.

     Since the volume flow rate in moles equals the mass flow rate of
the flowing gas divided by the molecular weight of the flowing gas,
the additional emission concentration is expressed thus:


Concentration, ppm = 10   x ^i      i    f * (% C0?)

                            Mi      ^        Mf

     where m. = mass flow rate of flowing gas
           M. = molecular weight of flowing gas
           f  = fuel flow rate
           Mf = molecular weight of fuel

     HC, CO, and NOx gas flow rates and gas concentrations were chosen
to give inlet air emission levels that would span the ranges seen under
the most severe background levels.  Tests were conducted at steady state
conditions using vehicle road load (Table IX).

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                                 11
Odor Measurement Procedures

     At the conclusion of tests at the EPA laboratory the vehicle was
shipped to Southwest Research Institute (SwRI) for odor tests. SWRI has
done extensive research and development work in odor testing and has
recently tested diesel vehicles in a research study for EPA.  Highly
trained panelists were used to rate the odor in terms of a reference
standard.

     No standard procedure currently exists for automotive odor evaluation.
However, the procedure used by SwRI for the turbine vehicle is one that
has been used for 8 years in the evaluation of odor control techniques
for diesel powered vehicles.  The odor reference was the EPA Diesel
Odor Quality - Intensity Rating System kit.  The kit consists of squeeze
bottles each partially filled with chemical mixes yielding a different
intensity or odor.  The kit includes an overall "D" diesel odor in
twelve steps of increasing concentration.   Each concentration is double
the preceeding in order to parallel the non-linear human response to odor.
The "D" odor is made up of four sub-odors or qualities.  These comprise
burnt smoke  "B", oily "0", aromatic "A",  and pungent "P" qualities
each in an intensity of 1 through 4, with 4 being the strongest.

     The vehicle exhaust was diluted 100:1 and the diluted sample
was then immediately piped to the odor panel for evaluation.

     The vehicle was operated using Diesel No. 1 fuel and 75 F inlet
air.  An inertia weight of 4000 pounds was used for transient tests
and variable loading was used in the steady state tests.  Simultaneous
exhaust emission measurements were made by sampling the undiluted
exhaust during the periods when odor ratings were made.  Each panelist
rated the odor for D, B, 0, A, and P levels and the average was then
taken.

Noise Test Procedure

     The vehicle was tested for noise using SAE procedure J986a.  This
test requires sound level measurements from the side of the vehicle while
the vehicle is accelerated from 30 mph (48.3 km/hr) at wide open
throttle.  Testing was done on a straight section of test track.

Gradeability Procedure

     The gradeability of the vehicle was tested by determining the excess
horsepower available at the rear wheels.  A large (4 ft. diameter)
roll electric chassis dynamometer was used for this testing.  The road load

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                                    12
   horsepower requirement versus speed was determined from the vehicle
   manufacturer's data.  Estimated rear wheel and drive train losses were
   subtracted to give a net chassis dynamometer horsepower.  These values,
   Table IX, are close to a typical dynamometer road load curve.  From these
   and the measured values the gradeability of the vehicle was calculated

                HP = HP      +        Weight x .01 Percent x Speed
                         Road Load                3000

             .    (HP - HPOT) x 375
   Percent Grade = _	RL	
                       45 x Speed

        Testing was done at an inertia weight of 4500 pounds.

   Driveability

        The vehicle was test driven for driveability ratings by trained
   technicians on local roads and highways.  Evaluation was based in the
   driveability definitions found in the Appendix.

   TEST RESULTS

   Emission Results

        Exhaust emissions data are listed in Table II (75 FTP) and Table
   III (Steady State).  Results are summarized below for the three fuels.
                       '75 FTP Composite Mass Emissions
                               grams per mile
                            (grams per kilometre)
Diesel No. 1 - avg. of 3 tests


Diesel No. 2 - avg. of 2 tests


Gasoline - avg of 2 tests*
  HC

  .68
 (.42)
                                          CO
                Fuel Economy
        NOx   (Fuel Consumption)
 3.51   2.72   6.5  miles/gal
(2.18)  (1.69)(36.0 litres/100 Km)
  .68    3.77    2.86  7.2  miles/gal
 (.42)   (2.34)  (1.77)(32.0 litres/100 Km)

 2.84    2.28    3.14  6.2  miles/gal
(1.77)   (1.43)  (1.95)(38.0 litres/100 Km)
* The fuel tank evaporative emissions  are vented  to  the atmosphere on
  this vehicle and are  thus collected  with  the  exhaust sample when the
  room CVS procedure  is used.  This  gave an unknown  hydrocarbon con-
  tribution  to the exhaust sample.

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                                    13
 For  the EPA Highway  Cycle  the  results were:

                    EPA Highway Cycle Mass Emissions
                             grams per mile
                           (grams per kilometre)
                                 HC
         CO
Diesel No.. 1 - avg. of 3 tests   .23    .87
                                (.15)  (.54)
NOx

1.34
(.82)
Diesel No. 2 - avg. of 2 tests   .23    .74    1.69
                                (.15)  (.46)  (1.05)
Gasoline - avg. of 2 tests*
 1.77    .83
(1.10)   (.51)
1.55
(.96)
    Fuel Economy
(Fuel Consumption)

 12.9 miles/gal
(18.3 litres/100 Km)

 12.3 miles/gal
(19.1 litres/100 Km)

 12. 7
(18.6 litres/100 Km)
Humidity and Temperature Results
     Humidity and temperature were varied during steady state emissions
tests to determine their effect on emissions.  However, the tests in
which" these conditions were varied the most (tests 4617 through 4629)
experienced a room CVS calibration problem.  The room flow check at the
end of tests 4625 and 4629 showed a marked rise in flow.  A correction
factor was developed for those tests to compensate for the flow increase.

     Analysis of the data yielded no readily discernible trend in
emission rates. Further work is needed.

Fuel Economy Results

     Data from the fuel economy tests are listed in Tables III and IV.
For the room CVS method the results are summarized below:
Diesel No. 1
Diesel No. 2
Gasoline
(24.1 Km/hr)
15 mph
8.3
(28.3)


(48.3 Km/hr)
30 mph
12.6
(18.7)
12.3
(19.1)
12.8
(18.4)
(72.4 Km/hr) (96.5 Km/hr)
45 mph 60 mph
14.4 15.3 miles/gal
(16.3) (15.4) (litres/
100 Km)
14.2 miles/gal
(16.6) (litres/
100 Km)
15.9 miles/gal
(14.8) (litres/
100 Km)
* See note on page 12

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                                  14
     These results show a slight increase in economy from Diesel No. 2
to Diesel No. 1 to gasoline.  This is the opposite expected since the
fuel energy available per gallon should be decreasing.

     For the inline fuel sampling system the averages from Table IV
are:

                           Fuel Economy              (Fuel Consumption)
mph (Km/hr)                miles per gal.               litres/100 Km

15  (24.1)                      10.4                       (22.6)
30  (48.3)                      15.5                       (15.2)
45  (72.4)                      15.1                       (15.6)
60  (96.5)                      13.6                       (17.3)
75 (120.7)                      12.0                       (19.6)

These data are for Diesel No. 1 fuel and the results are close to
the expected values.  Also the fuel economy is constant over a wide
range, with a maximum between 30 and 45 mph which agrees well with
manufacturer's test data.

Sulfate and Particulate Results

    The results of the sulfate and particulate tests were inconclusive
due to sampling problems.  Minute pieces of the glass filter were
found to adhere to the filter holder and even when these were
scraped off and added to the filter, net results sometimes showed a
negative weight change.  Thus no conclusion can be based on the
observed tests.
      Sulfate  samples  showed  a  net  gain of  a few ten  thousandths  of  a
 gram.   However,  there was  considerable variation in  the  results, with
 identical  tests  showing  as much as a three-to-one variation  in net
 weights  For  these  tests sulfates  were 24% of  the total  particulate
 sample  and the sulfates  varied between .0015 and .0002 grams per mile.
 This  level is as low  as  is measured on conventional  1975 prototype
 vehicles  (some with catalysts) tested with low sulfur content (0.03
 wto percent sulfur) when operated  on transient cycles.

      Due to the  considerable variations in results and the low levels
 observed,  additional  tests were made for sulfur products in  the  vehicle
 exhaust.   The data, listed in  Table V, show that most of the sulfur is
 exhausted  as  sulfur dioxide.   The  calculated S02 concentration at the
 test  conditions  is  1004  ppm.   The  average  for  the seven  samples  is
 9.91  ppm,  or  95% of the  fuel sulfur  Using the accuracy limits  of  the
 fuel  sulfur content,  sulfur  dioxide accounts for 90  to 100%  of the
 fuel  sulfur.

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                                15
     Since S02 accounts for most of the sulfur, and since small amounts
of sulfate were measured, the turbine car does not appear to have a sulfate
problem.  The measured sulfate levels on the turbine car using Diesel No. 1
fuel with 0.2 percent sulfur were no higher than those measured on con-
ventional 1975 model year certification vehicles (some with catalysts)
tested with Indolene gasoline with 0.03 percent sulfur.  These results
are not conclusive, however, since due to the large exhaust flow rates,
the turbine car was not tested for sulates under transient conditions
as the conventional cars have been.  Further testing in this area is
needed.

Ambient HC, CO and NOx Results

     Although the vehicle-conditions were constant at each speed, there
was considerable variation in the emission levels observed.  Therefore
the results are presented in the sequence observed for each pollutant.
The data (Table VI) show that higher concentrations of pollutants in engine
inlet air generally cause higher concentrations of pollutants in vehicle
exhaust.  In two tests a negative increase was measure and in three tests
there was no change.  The increases in exhaust concentrations generally
ranged from about 10% to about 80% of the increase in the inlet air con-
centration (and about 5% to 20% of the exhaust concentration), although in
two cases the exhaust pollutant concentration increase was greater than
the increase in inlet air pollutant concentration.  The effects of the ambient
HC and CO levels normally encountered in a laboratory are expected to
be minimal.

Odor Results

     The test conditions and results are given in Table VII.  The over-
all Diesel rating ranged from .8 to 1.5 except for the cold start which
was 3.7.  The B, 0, A and P ratings ranged from 0 to .7 except for the
cold start which was 1.1.  The quality summation (B + 0 + A + P) was
about 10 percent higher than the corresponding Diesel "D" rating.  For
piston engine cars the quality summation usually is about 20 percent
higher than the Diesel rating.

     SwRI emissions data (Table VII) were in close agreement with
Chrysler test data for this engine.  Thus the results can be taken as
representative of the engine's performance.

     Overall, the turbine car when diluted 100:1 had very good ratings
and low odor numbers compared to both Diesel and gasoline vehicles pre-
viously evaluated at the same condition.  Only the cold start odor had
any significance.

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                                16

Noise Results

     Discrete frequencies were taken and the required A-weighting applied
to arrive at the results in Table Villa.  Thus the noise level for the
car is 73 decibels, the highest average value recorded.

     The data in Table Vlllbwere taken to obtain additional information
on the vehicle.  Turbine whine was noticeable but not objectionable
inside the car between 35 and 55 mph (56.3 and 88.5 km/hr).

Gradeability

     The results are given in Table IX.  The vehicle would have been capable
of better performance but at the time of the test, the manufacturer
did not wish to exceed 90 percent of rated power (90 percent of 44,600 rpm
adjusted for 85F standard day).  At zero mph the dynamometer was unable
to keep the vehicle stopped when the gas turbine reached 32,000 RPM.  At
this point the vehicle generated 2700 ft. Ibs. of torque at the rear
wheels.  The vehicle easily met the gradeability goals of the Baseline Engine
contract.

Driveability

     The vehicle behaved well with no problems other than trace-to-
moderate hesitation associated with a lag in turbine response.  A
driver can partially compensate for this lag by rapidly depressing
the accelerator pedal to speed up the turbine and then releasing the
pedal slightly to maintain the desired acceleration rate.


CONCLUSIONS

     The procedure developed for emission testing the  Chrysler Baseline
Gas Turbine vehicle, that is using the test cell as a  constant volume
sampler, appears to be a workable approach.  Room air  flow calibrations
were easily determined and remained relatively stable.  During the one
hour period required for conducting the  "75 FTP and other tests, room air
flow remained within 1 10% of the initial value if room temperature
variation was less than 20F and barometric pressure remained constant.
These conditions were met except during  the high temperature steady
state tests.

     The effects of the hot exhaust products in the test room being
recirculated by the engine was minimal.  The test cell airflow was
from the front to rear of the vehicle.  Air entering the engine inlets
was no more than 5 to 10F warmer than the air entering the room.,
This temperature rise is typical of standard tests and is most likely
due to the room and engine heating the air entering the engine
compartment.

     The gas analyzers in use at the Ann Arbor Laboratory were found
to be capable of accurate determination of gaseous pollutant concentra-
tions at the low levels encountered in turbine vehicles.  The major
improvement will be the use of a recently-acquired critical flow venturi
CVS system having a flow rate of 3000 scfm.

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           APPENDIX
Tables, Flow Calculations, and




  Driveability Definitions

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                                                              18
                                                       TABLE II
                                                     MASS EMISSIONS
                                                     GRAMS PER MILE
TEST NO.
15-4581
   4603
   4650
   4698
TYPE

Bag 1 75 FTP
Bag 2
Bag 3
Weighted
HWY

    1 75 FTP
    2
    3
Weighted
HWY

Bag 1 75 FTP
Bag 2
Bag 3
Weighted
HWY

Bag 1 75 FTP
Bag 2
Bag 3
Weighted
HWY
FUEL ECONOMY
HC
.45
.71
.43
.58
.22
.51
.76
.51
.64
.17
.52
.96
.78
.82
.31
.74
.87
.60
.77
.29
CO
2.99
3.97
2.36
3.33
.73
3.02
4.31
2.95
3.67
.84
2.48
4.07
3.27
3.52
1.04
2.88
4.37
2.78
3.63
.70
CO
z
1336
1670
1084
1441
699
1307
1662
1393
1515
752
1233
1673
1325
1488
813
1173
1529
1337
1403
784
NOx-
3.16
2.59
2.04
2.56
1.25
3.20
2.78
2.50
2.79
1.40
3.41
2.75
2.52
2.82
1.37
3.13
2.66
2.75
2.78
1.53
MPG
7.2
5.8
8.9
6.7
13.8
7.4
5.8
6.9
6.4
12.9
7.8
5.8
7.3
6.5
11.9
8.6
6.6
7.6
7.3
13.0
FUEL TYPE
DF 1
DF 1
DF 1
DF 1
DF 1
DF 1
DF 1
DF 1
DF 1
DF 1
DF 1
DF 1
DF 1
DF 1
DF 1
DF 2
DF 2
DF 2
DF 2
DF 2
CAR
INLET
67F
63F
65F

68F
67F
66F
69F

71F
82F
70F
67F

69F
69F
68F
71F

72F
GRAINS
H00/LB. AIR
fL
64
58
62

64
62
62
59

61
80
66
66

64
72
67.5
66

69
AIRFLOW OF
ROOM CFM
4976
4852*
4728*

4604
4131*
4173*
4215

4258
4448
4565*
4863*

4800
4304
4435*
4566

4504

-------
                                         17
                                       Table I
                                Gasoline Specifications
Item
Distillation range
  IBT, F
  10 percent point,  F
  50 percent point,  F
  90 percent point,  F  ;
  EP, F (max)
Sulfur wt. percent max

Phosphorous, theory
  RVP, Ib.

Hydrocarbon composition
  Olefins, percent max
  Aromatics,'percent max
  Saturates, percent max

Octane, research, min

Pb (organic),  gm/U.S. gal.

Washed gum (max) mgm/gal

Corrosion (not lower than)

Oxidation stability  (not
less than)

Nitrogen, wt.  percent max
  (chemically bound  &
   additive introduced
ASTM
Designation
D86
D1266
D323
D1319
D2699
D526
D381
D130
D525
Kjeldahl
method
Indolene
Specifications
75-95
120-135
200-230
300-325
415
.10
0.0
8.7-9.2(1)
10
35
remainder
as specified by
manufacturer




Alternative Power
Plant Specifications
100-115
140-150
240-250
330-340
425
.10
0.0
5.5-7.5
30
40
remainder
91-93
<.02
4.0
IB
240+
.005
(1)  For testing which is unrelated to fuel evaporative emission control,
     the specified range is 8.0-9.2.

-------
                                                           19
                                                   TABLE II - Continued
FUEL ECONOMY
TEST NO.
4724




4772**




4834**




TYPE
Bag 1
Bag 2
Bag 3
Weighted
HWY
Bag 1
Bag 2
Bag 3
Weighted
HWY
Bag 1
Bag 2
Bag 3
Weighted
HWY
HC
.48
.71
.41
.58
.18
.89
4.10
2.88
3.10
2.08
.77
3.62
1.97
2.58
1.45
CO
3.12
4.55
3.28
3.91
.7b
1.67
2.24
1.09
1.80
.93
1.78
3.55
1.94
2.75
.72
CO-
L.
1262
1611
1279
1449
878
1230
1735
1307
1512
757
1206
1513
1140
1348
641
NOx
3.10
3.06
2.56
2.93
1.85
3.82
3.66
2.78
3.45
1.37
2.97
3.04
2.29
2.82
1 . 73
MPG
8.0
6.3
7.9
7.0
11.6
7.2
5.1
6.7
5.9
11.6
7.3
5.8
7.7
6.5
13.7
FUEL TYPE
DF 2
DF 2
DF 2
DF 2
DF 2
Gasoline
Gasoline
Gasoline
Gasoline
Gasoline
Gasoline
Gasoline
Gasoline
Gasoline
Gasoline
CAR
INLET
68F
68F
68F

70F
80F
79F
76F

73F
70F
79F
70F

74F
GRAINS
H00/LB. AIR
z
67.5
64
64

66
91
84
87.5

74
74
73
74

76
AIRFLOW OF
ROOM CFM
4610
4760*
4910*

5060*
4313
4464*
4615*

4766
4187
4143*
4099*

4055*
*  Estimated Air Flow

** The fuel tank evaporative emissions are vented to the atmosphere on this vehicle
   and are thus collected with the exhaust sample when the room CVS procedure is
   used.  This gave an unknown contribution to the exhaust sample.

-------
                                                           20
                                                      TABLE III

                                                    MASS EMISSIONS
                                                    GRAMS PER MILE
TEST NO.
4617
4618
4619
4620
4622
4623
4624
4625
4626
4627
4628
4629
4663
4664
4665
4666
4667
4668
4669
4670
4699
4700
4701
4702
4725
4726
4773
4774
4832
4833
TYPE
15 mph
30 mph
45 mph
60 mph
15 mph
30 mph
45 mph
60 mph
15 mph
30 mph
45 mph
60 mph
15 mph
30 mph
45 mph
60 mph
15 mph
30 mph
45 mph
60 mph
30 mph
60 mph
30 mph
60 mph
30 mph
60 mph
30 mph
60 mph
30 mph
60 mph
HC
.23
.09
.12
.10
.16
.10
.15
.13
.46
.28
.30
.31
.44
.13
.21
.22
.25
.10
.12
.14
.15
.15
.19
.14
1.35
1.53
1.02
1.11
.72
.66
CO
3.12
1.96
1.09
.58
4.35
1.70
1.00
.50
1.27
.71
.51
.44
2.88
.87
.55
.36
2.22
1.08
.63
.34
1.52
.31
1.35
.40
1.74
.79
1.31
.57
1.31
.51
CO
L
1151
954
828
775
980
954
808
763
1508
808
735
661
1139
759
670
641
1194
784
668
627
747
656
844
719
901
766
680
557
696
550
NOx
1.16
1.01
1.08
1.39
.79
.97
1.07
1.38
2.16
1.31
1.43
1.71
1.25
.85
.98
1.23
1.17
.78
.81
1.09
.84
1.20
1.04
1.43
1.00
1.53
.75
1.12
.84
1.03
FUEL ECONOMY CORRECTION CAR
MPG FUEL FACTOR INLET
- 8.4
10.1
11.7
12.5
9.8
10.1
12.0
12.1
6.4
10.9
13.2
14.6
8.5
12.8
14.4
15.1
8.1
12.3
14.5
15.4
13.6
15.5
12.0
14.1
11.2
13.2
12.9
15.8
12.7
16.0
DF 1
DF 1
DF 1
DF 1
DF 1
DF 1
DF 1
DF 1
DF 1
DF 1
DF 1
DF 1
DF 1
DF 1
DF 1
DF 1
DF 1
DF 1
DF 1
DF 1
DF 2
DF 2
DF 2
DF 2
DF 2
DF 2
Gasoline
Gasoline
Gasoline
Gasoline

1.06
1.12
1.18
1.24
1.30
1.36
1.42

1.23
1.46
1.69


















58F
64F
68.5F
74F
59F
65F
71F
79F
107F
111F
114F
118F
85F
82.5F
85F
85F
66F
67F
69F
f\
74F
67.5F
*-*
73F
71F
76oF
70.5 F
73oF
70.5 F
rj
77 F
f\
71F
o
74F
GRAINS
H00/#AIR
/
52
55
60
69
56.5
61.5
66
78.5
113
118
129
129.5
82
81.5
79.5
84
57
66
68
72.5
63
69.5
69.5
74
64
69.5
72.5
80.5
71
77
AIRFLOW ROOM
CFM
4870
5163*
5456*
5749*-
6042*
6335*
6628*
6922*
4155
5106*
6056*
7008
4395
4413*
4430*
4448
5142
5011*
4880*
4748
4505
4692*
4879*
5065
5300*
5393
4002*
3922
4042*
3962*
*  Estimated Air Flow.

-------
                                          21
                                        TABLE IV
                                   FUEL ECONOMY TESTS
SPEED             .      COMPRESSOR  COMPRESSOR INLET   REGENERATOR INLET    FUEL ECONOMY
  MPH     HORSEPOWER       RPM      TEMPERATURE F     TEMPERATURE T8 F     MPG

  15           .9         21,000          72                1055             10.4

  30          3.1         22,500          69                1218             16.3
              3.0         22,500          69                1218             16.3
              2.9         22,500          69                1218             16.3
              3.1         22,500          70                1218             15.7
              3.5         22,500          72                1225             15.7
              3.2         24,000          72                1233             14.0
              3.3         23,500          72                1233             15.1
              3.4         24,000          74                1235             14.4

  45         10.4         27,700          66                1205             14.4
             10.2         26,750          71                1250             16.1
             10.2         26,750          70                1275             16.0
             10.0         27,750          73                1227             14.9
              9.8         28,000          73                1227             14.3
             10.0         27,800          73                1225             15.1
             10.0         27,750          73                1225             15.1

  60         23.1         31,500          75                1315             13.2
             22.4         31,500          75                1315             13.2
             22.3         32,000          69                1275    '         13.1
             22.3         32,000          69                1275             13.2
             23.9         32,000          69                1275             13.3
             21.5  .       31,500          74                1290    .         13.2
             21.4         31,500          74                1285             13.8
             21.4         31,500          74                1285             13.8
             21.4         31,500          74                1287             13.8
             22.0         30,750          68                1225             14.8
             22.5         30,750          70                1225             14.6

  75         37.5         34,250          74                1368             12.0
             37.6         34,250          74                1367             12.0
             37.6         34,250          75                1372             12.0

-------
                                  22
                                TABLE V
                         SULFUR DIOXIDE LEVELS

                            Fuel Consumption
Sample Number               	gal/hr.             Measured SO-, ppm


      1                           3.78                     11.2
      2                           3.88                     10.6
      3                           4.45                     10.1
      4                           4.63                      9.8
      5                           4.68                      9.5
      6                           5.04                      9.2
      7                           5.29                      9.0

Test Conditions

      60 mph
      270 ft. Ibs. torque at rear wheels (21.6 horsepower)
      Fuel - Diesel No. 1, 6.79 Ibs./gallon
                           .2% Sulfur +  .01% by weight

                           C02   1.20% measured  in  tailpipe
                      Estimated Sulfur in Exhaust

ft Sulfur = % S x M Fuel = .002 x Mf   Ms mass flow rate

ft Carbon =%CxMf=.86xMf
                                   vi_ __ |f
Moles Sulfur = Ms  	  x K =    *         K = constant
               Atomic Wt. S

S_          .002 x Mf x K,  .86 x Mf x K   = _1	
C  Rati "       32     '       12          1153

% Carbon in exhaust = % CO^ in exhaust

Sulfur concentration = % C02 ^ 1153 =  1.2%  *  1153  =  10.4  ppm as S,  SO^  S03>  etc,

-------
                                       23
                                    TABLE VI
                            AMBIENT HYDROCARBON EFFECTS
            Inlet Air HC
Speed,
mph

30





45
60






Speed,
mph
60






Level Above Background
ppm C~
J
12
Standard
Standard
9.5
.4
Standard
Standard
Standard
3.6
6.8
9.8
Sample

Inlet Air NOx
Level Above Background
PPm
1.5
Standard
.4
Standard
.8
Standard
.4
Exhaust
Sample, ppm C,,
J
5.2
4.2
2.2
4.2
2.5
1.3
.5
.3
.3
.3
.7
Taken From Vehicle
AMBIENT NOx EFFECTS

Exhaust
Sample, ppm
33.3
29.3
29.5
29.6
31.1
19.7
19.9
Net Change,
ppm C
j
1.0


2.0
1.2



.0
.0
.4
Exhaust


Net Change,
ppm
4.0

.0

.5

.2

Test Date

7/13/74














Test Date
7/13/74






                         Sample Taken From Vehicle Exhaust
Note:  Variation in exhaust emission levels with time during the test is
       accounted for in calculating Net Change.

-------
Speed,
 mph

 30
                                        24
                               TABLE VI - Continued
                    AMBIENT CO EFFECTS
     Inlet Air CO
Levels Above Background,      Exhaust
	ppm	    Sample, ppm
 45
 60
       Standard
          6.6
          3.6
          1.2
       Standard
       Standard

       Standard
       Standard
          1.8
       Standard
          1.2
       Standard
          5.4
       Standard
          3.6

       Standard
          6.5
          9.9
          2.5
          2.9
       Standard

       Standard
          3.0
       Standard
          2.5
       Standard
          9.9
       Standard
          6.5
       Standard
43.
48.6
44.9
                                           40.
                                           44.
39.5

81.0
89.2
78.9
81.3
81.8
81.0
83.9
81.1
82.5

17.0
19.7
21.0
17.3
17.2
15.4

37.0
                                           36.7
                                           36.2
                                           36.9
                                           35.4
                                           41.7
                                           35.9
                                           39.0
                                           36.9
             Net Change,  ppm   Test Date
 5.6
  .9
-4.2
                                                             -1.4

                                                               .6

                                                              2.8

                                                              1.4
                                                              2.7
                                                              4.0
                                                              1.9
                                                              1.8
                    .1

                   1.1

                   6.0

                   2.6
             6/29/74
             7/13/74
             6/29/74
                                                                          7/13/74
                         Samples Taken From Vehicle Exhaust
 Note:  Variation in exhaust emission levels with time during the test is
        accounted for in calculating Net Change.

-------
                                                                25
                                                           Table VII
                                               Odor Test  Conditions and  Results

Tor T Condition

Cold Start1
Hot itort1
Idle
In cor^edi ate
Speod
I n c . r r."c d i o t e
Intended i ate
Speed
High Speed
High Speed
High Speed
Idle - Accel .ll
Accel.111
IV
Deceleration
Rel ightV
MPH Load

0
0
0
16 .Nil
33 2xRL
30.5 4xRL
59 Nil
58 2xRL
56 4xRL
0-20 4000
25-55 4000
50-35 4000
50-30 4CGO
Obs.
Wh 1 .
Gear HP

P
P
P
0-1
D-3 8.5
D-3 1^-5
D-3
D-3 33
D-3 66
0-1
0-3
D-3
D-3
Fuel T/C
Flow Innut
///Hr RPM
-
-
10.5 633
10.7 IMS
17.1 1272
21.6 1272
16.3 2120
32.5 2120
55 2120
-
-
-
-

No.
of

7
9
.q
9
9
9
9
9
9
9
9
9
9
Odor Rati
0 B

3.7 1.1
1-3 0.7
1.5 0.7
1.3 0.8
1.1 0.7
1.1 0.7
1.0 0.6
1.0 o.7
1.2 0.7
0.8 0.5
0.8 0.5
0.9 0.6
0.8 0.5
ngs
0 A

0.9 0.6
0.3 0.3
0.4 0.4
0.4 0.3
0.3 0.3
0.4 0.2
0.2 0.2
0.2 . 0.1
0.4 0.3
0.2 0.2
0.2 0.2
0.2 0.2
0.2 0.1

-

0.9
0.1
0.2
0.1
0. !
0.1
0.1
0.1
0.1
0.1
0.1
0.1
0

No.
of
Samples

1
6
6;
5
5
5
6
5
6

-
-
-
Gaseous Em1
HC CO
PPMC PPM
376 93
33 60
37 62
27 46
15 42
15 22
. 19 28
21 12
49 11




ssions
NOx
. PPM
10
, 6.5
7-5
10.2
12.6
17.8
\k.k
36.7
63.1


_


CO
%
2.07
0.70
0.70
0.77
1.00
1 .12
1.05
1.42
1.68




  I  Sniff ot end of automatic start  cycle.
 II  WOT -- Sni ff at  15  MPH.
Ill  WOT - Sniff at  iiO  MPH.
 IV  Closed  th'-ottle  -  Sniff at 42 MPH, before relight.
  V  Ciosed  throttle  -  Sniff at relight
to
c
i
a
NJ

-------
                                 26


                             TABLE Villa
                            SOUND LEVELS


                       SAE J986a Drive-By Test

                   Vehicle's Left Side          Vehicle's Right Side
                   	Decibels	          	Decibels	

Run 1                     74                            71
Run 2                     72                            71
Average                   73                            71

            SAE J986a Drive-By Test, Discrete Frequencies

Frequency (Hertz)

125 HZ                    78                            76
                          80                            75
250 Hz                    71                            72
                          71                            71
500 Hz                    72                            71
                          73                            71
1000 Hz                   74                            70
                          72                            68
2000 Hz                   64                            62
                          61                            61


                             TABLE VIlib


            SAE J986a Drive-By Test, Discrete Frequencies*

125                       82                            76
                          76                            77
                          78
250                       73                            74
                          75   ,                         74
500                       72                            72
                          73                            72
1000                      68                            68
                          68                            67
2000                      60                            60
                          62                            60
   Procedure modified:  Vehicle accelerated wide open throttle from
   stop instead of wide open throttle from 30 mph.

-------
                                       27
60
6%
                                   TABLE IX
                             VEHICLE GRADEABILITY


MPH
0
5
30



%GRADE

30%
14.6%
14.6%


HORSEPOWER

18
56
56


COMPRESSOR
RPM*
32,000

39,000
39,000
COMPRESSOR
INLET
TEMPERATURE
T8 F
Exceeded

65
65
REGENERATOR
INLET
TEMPERATURE
F
Dyno Capacity

1305
1305


MPG


3.4
3.5
65
39,000
75
1330
6.9
*  Test restricted to 39,000 RPM
                          ESTIMATED VEHICLE ROAD LOAD
                                AT REAR WHEELS
                          MPH

                           10

                           20

                           30

                           40

                           50

                           60

                           75
                                 HORSEPOWER*

                                     .07

                                     1.0

                                     3.3

                                     7.3

                                    13.2

                                    23.4

                                    37.5
*  From Manufacturers engine data.
   Transmission and rear wheel losses estimated.

-------
                                    28
                        FLOW CALCULATION
For exhaust ducts
         i    _    Fuel wt. (ems)
       mles C2 = 13.97
            %C02 = mleS C2
                   moles exhaust

              .      .     ,.     fuel wt. (gm/hr.)
            moles exhaust/hr = -, 0 -, , - 7*;  ?*-
                               13.97 (gm/mole) x    _

             ,       ,     ,,      moles exhaust     volume
            Volume exhaust/hr. = - - r -     - ; 
                                      hr.            mole


       = fuel wt. (gm/hr)            22.4 liters  x 460 + FTP
       13.97 (gm/mole) x %C02     X      mole       460 + 32


       = exhaust velocity x duct area          T  = Tailpipe temperature


therefore for exhaust ducts:

       velocity = volume  (cubic ft/hr)
                  area     square ft
for sample pump
       cubic feet/hr. = velocity x pipe area

       standard cubic ft./hr. = cubic ft./hr.  530
                                               460 + F
                                                      P

sample pump flow rates are adjusted so that sample flow equals duct
flow.  This is required for isokinetic sampling.

-------
                                                                     Attachment  1

                                            29
                        Definitions of Drivcnbility Terns


 1.  Rond Load  -- A fixed throttle position which maintains a constant  vehicle speed
                 on a level road.

 2.  Wide Open  Throttle (UOT) Acceleration -- An acceleration made entirely  at wide
                 open throttle (from any speed).

 3.  Part Throttle (FT) Acco.lornti.on -- An acceleration made at any throttle
                 position less than WOT.

 A.  Tip-In --  A maneuver to evaluate vehicle response (up to two seconds  in duration)
                 to the initial opening of the throttle.

 5.  Crowd*-- An acceleration made at a constant intake vacuum (continually  increasing
                 throttle opening).

 6.  Idle Quality -- An evaluation of vehicle smoothness with the engine idling, as
                 judged from the driver's seat.

 7.  Backfire -- An explosion in the induction or exhaust system.

 8.  Hesitation -- A temporary lack of initial response in acceleration rate.

 9.  Stumble -- A short, sharp reduction in acceleration rate.

 10.  Stretchiness -- A lack of anticipated response to throttle movement.  This may
                 occur on slight throttle movement from road load or during light
                 to moderate accelerations.

 11.  Surge*-- A continued condition of short, sharp fluctuations in power.  These
                 may be cyclic or random and can occur at any speed and/or  load.
                 Surge is usually caused by over-lean carburetor mixtures.

12.   Trace  Rating of  a malfunction  that  is just discernible to
                      a test driver.

13.   Moderate  Rating  of a malfunction that is Judged  to  be
                         probably noticeable to  the average driver.

14,   Heavy  Rating of  a malfunction  that  is pronounced and Judged
                      to be obvious to any  driver.

       * Not applicable to gas turbine engine

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