WATER POLLUTION CONTROL RESEARCH SERIES
12010 DTQ 02/72
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                                      oo
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      COMBINED STEEL MILL

         AND MUNICIPAL

    WASTEWATERS TREATMENT
      w
U.S. ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY

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          WATER POLLUTION CONTROL RESEARCH SERIES
The Water Pollution Control Research Series describes the
results and progress in the control and abatement of pollution
in our Nation's waters.  They provide a central source of
information on the research, development and demonstration
activities in the Environmental Protection Agency,  through
inhouse research and grants and contracts with Federal,  State,
and local agencies, research institutions, and industrial
organizations.

Inquiries pertaining to Water Pollution Control Research
Reports should be directed to the Chief, Publications Branch
(Water), Research Information Division, R&M, Environmental
Protection Agency, Washington, D.C. 20^60.

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          COMBINED STEEL MILL
                   AND
   MUNICIPAL WASTEWATERS TREATMENT
                   BY
         WEIRTON STEEL DIVISION
      NATIONAL STEEL CORPORATION
     WEIRTON,  WEST VIRGINIA 26062
                  for the


  Office  of Research and Monitoring

   ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY
          PROJECT NO.  12010 DTQ
               FEBRUARY.  1972
For sale by the Superintendent of Documents, U.S. Government Printing Office
            Washington, D.C., 20402 - Price $1.50

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                     EPA Review Notice
This report has been reviewed by the Environmental Protec-
tion Agency and approved for publication.  Approval does
not signify that the contents necessarily reflect the
views and policies of the Environmental Protection Agency,
nor does mention of trade names or commercial products
constitute endorsement or recommendation for use.
                             11

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                         Abstract
A systems evaluation was made to determine the feasibility
and economics of treating selected steel mill and sanitary
wastewaters in a municipal sewage treatment plant.  The
project was Phase I of a three phase program to demonstrate
that industries and municipalities through cooperative action
can combine their wastewaters and attain their individual
treatment goals in an efficient and economical manner.

Detailed field work was carried out at the steel plant and
the total sewage plant treatment system.  Selected steel
plant wastes were combined with municipal wastes and eval-
uated in both batch and continuous treatability bench scale
studies.

The investigation revealed that it is technically and econ-
omically feasible to co-treat selected steel plant wastes
with municipal wastewaters.  A demonstration plant would
further develop the specific operating procedures such as
sludge concentration control, pH control, and rates of waste
additions so that the process scheme could be routinely
implemented in similar situations.

This report was submitted in fulfillment of Project Number
12010 DTQ under the partial sponsorship of the Industrial
Pollution Control Section of the Environmental Protection
Agency.
                            111

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                          Contents
   I.  Conclusions                                       1
  II.  Recommendations                                   3
 III.  Introduction                                      7
  IV.  Sewer System A

       Coke Plant                                       19
       Temper Mill                                      27
       Tin Mill Cleaning Lines                          28
       Blast Furnace - Sinter Plant                     29
       Power House - Boiler House                       40
       Blooming Mill - Structural Mill                  43

   V.  Sewer System B

       Continuous Anneal Lines                          51
       Weirlite Mills                                   53
       Electroplating Lines                             54
       Demineralization Plant                           57

  VI.  Sewer System C

       Tandem Mills                                     59
       Palm Oil Recovery                                60
       Hot Strip Mill                                   61
       Pickling Lines                                   67
       Galvanizing Dept. (Sheet Mill)                   68
       Diesel and Car Shop                              73
       Structural Mill                                  74

 VII.  Sewer System E

       Basic Oxygen Furnace                             78
       Vacuum Degassing                                 78
       Continuous Casting                               78
       Coal Washer                                      87
       Detinning Plant                                  89

VIII.  Sewage Treatment Plant                           93
  IX.  Sanitary Sewer System Evaluation                111
   X.  Laboratory Treatability Studies                 115
  XI.  River Water Quality Assessment                  145
 XII.  Demonstration Plant                             149
XIII.  Acknowledgements                                155
 XIV-  References                                      157
                           v

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                          Figures


                                                         Page
 1.   GENERAL STEEL PLANT ARRANGEMENT                       8
 2.   SEWER SYSTEM A                                       11
 3.   SEWER SYSTEM B                                       12
 4.   SEWER SYSTEM C                                       13
 5.   SEWER SYSTEM E                                       14
 6.   PRESENT BLAST FURNACE WATER SYSTEM                   38
 7.   PROPOSED BLAST FURNACE WATER SYSTEM                  39
 8.   BLOOMING - STRUCTURAL MILL WASTE FLOW                47
 9.   BLOOMING - STRUCTURAL MILL WATER TREATMENT           49
10.   PRESENT HOT STRIP WATER SYSTEM                       65
11.   PROPOSED HOT STRIP WATER SYSTEM                      66
12.   BOP WASTE TREATMENT SYSTEM                           86
13.   COAL WASHER TREATMENT SYSTEM                         88
14.   WEIRTON SEWAGE TREATMENT PLANT                       94
15.   PROPOSED LAYOUT FOR EXPANSION OF PRESENT
     PRIMARY SEWAGE TREATMENT PLANT                      109
16.   BATCH FED - FILL AND DRAW PILOT PLANT               116
17.   BATCH TEST - BENZOL COOLING TOWER BLEED             120
18.   BATCH TEST - BENZOL SUMP                            121
19-   BATCH TEST - FINAL COOLER BLEED                     122
20.   BATCH TEST - AMMONIA STILL WASTE                    123
21.   BATCH TEST - ABSORBER BAROMETRIC CONDENSER          124
22.   BATCH TEST - ELLIOTT STRAINER                       125
23.   BATCH TEST - BENZOATE BLANK                         126
24.   BATCH TEST - RAW AMMONIA LIQUOR                     127
25.   CONTINUOUS PILOT ACTIVATED SLUDGE
     TREATMENT PLANT                                     129
26.   CONTINUOUS BENCH PLANT - SYSTEM I                   140
27.   CONTINUOUS BENCH SCALE PLANT - SYSTEM II            141
28.   CONTINUOUS BENCH SCALE PLANT - SYSTEM III           142
                             VI

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                        General  Tables
 1.
 2.
 3.

 4.
 5.

 6.
 7.
 8.

 9.

10.
11.

12.
13.
14.
15.

16.

17.

18.

19.

20.

21.

22.
BLAST FURNACE POLYMER STUDIES
BOP POLYMER STUDIES
FACILITIES SIZE AT MUNICIPAL SEWAGE
TREATMENT PLANT
DAILY FLOWS AT SEWAGE PLANT
SETTLEABLE SOLIDS ANALYSES - SEWAGE
TREATMENT PLANT
SUSPENDED SOLIDS ANALYSES
BOD ANALYSES - SEWAGE TREATMENT PLANT
MUNICIPAL SEWAGE TREATMENT PLANT -
PARAMETERS OF EFFICIENCY
MUNICIPAL SEWAGE TREATMENT PLANT -
COMPARISON OF UNIT CAPACITY
SECONDARY TREATMENT COSTS
INTERCEPTOR SEWER DESIGN
MATERIALS OF CONSTRUCTION
INTERCEPTOR SEWER DESIGN DATA
BATCH PILOT UNIT - WASTE COMPOSITION
CONTINUOUS PILOT UNIT
CONTINUOUS PILOT UNIT
COMPUTED BLENDS
CONTINUOUS PILOT UNIT
PLANT PERFORMANCE
CONTINUOUS PILOT UNIT
COMPUTED BLENDS
CONTINUOUS PILOT UNIT
PLANT PERFORMANCE
CONTINUOUS PILOT UNIT
COMPUTED BLENDS
CONTINUOUS PILOT UNIT
PLANT PERFORMANCE
CONTINUOUS PILOT UNIT
COMPUTED BLENDS
CONTINUOUS PILOT UNIT
PLANT PERFORMANCE
- FEED RATE
- SYSTEM I -

- SYSTEM I -

- SYSTEM II -

- SYSTEM II -

- SYSTEM III -

- SYSTEM III -

- SYSTEM IV -

- SYSTEM IV -
 36
 84

 95
 96

 98
 99
100

102

103
108

113
114
118
130

132

133

134

135

136

137

138

139
                           VI1

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                   Tables - Analytical Data






                                                       Page






A    BENZOL  COOLING TOWER BLEED OFF                     23




A    ENGINE  ROOM BAROMETRIC CONDENSER                   23




A    ABSORBER BAROMETRIC CONDENSER                      23




A    WASH  OIL COOLERS                                    24




A    ELLIOTT STRAINER  BACKWASH                          24




A    AMMONIA STILL WASTE                                24




A    MAIN  COKE PLANT SEWER                              25




A    AMMONIA LIQUOR COOLER OVERFLOW                     25




A    BENZOL  SUMP                                        26




      FINAL COOLER BLEED OFF                             26




      TEMPER  MILL SEWER                                  28




      TIN MILL CLEANING LINES - MAIN SEWER               29




      BLAST FURNACE GAS WASHERS                          32




      BLAST FURNACE PRECIPITATORS                        33




      BLAST FURNACE THICKENER INFLUENT                   33




      BLAST FURNACE THICKENER EFFLUENT                   33




      SINTER  PLANT SEWER TO THICKENER                    34




      COOLING WATER FROM NO.  2 BLAST FURNACE             34




      DISCHARGE FROM ASH COLLECTOR                       41




      FILTER  BACKWASH AND ASH CONVEYOR WATER             41




      POWER HOUSE DRAINS                                 42




      BOILER  WATER REACTOR TANK                          42
                           Vlli

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ASH PIT INFLUENT

NO. 8 MANHOLE BEFORE BOILER HOUSE

BLOOMING MILL TO MAIN SEWER

SCALE PIT AT SCARFING MILL

STRUCTURAL MILL AND BLOOMING MILL CROPPER

BEGINNING OF MAIN SEWER - A SYSTEM

NO. 1 CONTINUOUS ANNEAL LINE SCRUBBER

NO. 2 CONTINUOUS ANNEAL LINE SCRUBBER

WEIRLITE MILLS - TREATMENT EFFLUENT

COMMON DISCHARGE NO. 1 AND 2 ELECTROPLATING
LINES

NO. 4 TIN LINE MAIN SEWER

NO. 5 TIN LINE MAIN SEWER

NO. 6 TIN LINE MAIN SEWER

DEMINERALIZER PLANT FINAL DISCHARGE

PALM OIL RECOVERY PLANT EFFLUENT

REHEAT FURNACE AND TWO ROUGHING STANDS

LAST THREE ROUGHING STANDS

TOTAL FINISH STAND EFFLUENT

HOT STRIP SCALE PIT EFFLUENT

NO. 4 PICKLE LINE SCRUBBER DISCHARGE

NO. 4 PICKLE LINE TANK OVERFLOW

NO. 1 CLEANING LINE FINAL RINSE

NO. 1 CLEANING LINE SCRUBBER DISCHARGE

NO. 1 CLEANING LINE TANK OVERFLOW

NO. 2 GALVANIZING LINE SCRUBBER OVERFLOW
42

43

45

45

46

46

52

52

53


55

55

56

56

58

61

62

63

63

63

67

68

70

70

71

71
                      IX

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     NO.  3  GALVANIZING LINE SCRUBBER OVERFLOW           72


     NO.  3  ORTHOSIL TANK OVERFLOW                       72


     TOTAL  GALVANIZING DEPARTMENT DISCHARGE             73


     DIESEL AND CAR SHOP EFFLUENT                       74


     STRUCTURAL MILL EFFLUENT                           75


     BOP  DUST  SYSTEM;  THICKENER CLEARWELL               81


     BOP  BOILER FEED WATER TREATMENT
     PLANT  EFFLUENT                                     81


     BOP  COOLING TOWER SUMP                             82


     BOP  PUMP  SEALS,  VACUUM SEALS AND
     FLOOR  DRAINS                                       82


?7\   COAL WASHER EFFLUENT                               87

/\
?8\   DETINNING PLANT NO.  1 MANHOLE                      90

\
>9\   DETINNING PLANT NO.  2 MANHOLE                      90

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                          Section I

                         Conclusions
The investigation conducted on the combined treatment of
steel mill wastes and municipal wastewater has developed
the following conclusions:

1.  A totally integrated steel plant generates immense
volumes of wastewaters in the varied processes that ulti-
mately lead to the production of steel.  Economics and
logistic factors concluded that approximately 3.3 mgd wastes
from the steel mill could be handled at the Weirton Sewage
Treatment Plant.  These considerations limit the application
of treatment schemes which otherwise would require additional
sewer construction or would necessitate hauling of steel
plant wastes.  A more detailed economic study on in-plant
sewer construction, holding tank capacity, equalization
basins, and metering of wastes to the main sewer would be
most beneficial for a total overall project evaluation.
Excessive costs would most certainly curtail more severely
the volume of wastes that could be handled from an older
existing steel plant.

2.  Laboratory bench-scale tests showed that combined coke
plant wastes and a limited volume of other steel mill wastes
could be treated with municipal sewage provided that
additional organic matter was added and that pH control was
maintained.  The effluent from the Palm Oil Recovery Treat-
ment Plant was shown to be an adequate source of additional
organic matter.  Fume scrubber wastes were utilized to
provide adequate pH control.  The treatment studies indi-
cated a decrease in BOD removal in the laboratory bench scale
continuous units with time which was attributable to loss of
absorptive capacity of the sludge and/or toxicity factors.
This condition would necessitate either increased rate of
sludge blowdown or separate reaeration of sludge in the
treatment process.  The need for phosphorus in the treatment
scheme can be obtained from tin mill alkaline cleaning
wastes .

3.  The following waste streams can be treated in the sewage
plant within the hydraulic limitations of the existing sewer
system:

a.  Ammonia still waste
b.  Final cooling tower bleedoff
c.  Benzol sump

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d.  Benzol cooling tower bleedoff
e.  Absorber barometric condenser waters
f.  Pickle line fume scrubber waste
g.  Palm oil recovery effluent
h.  Effluent from chrome reduction at tin mill and gal-
    vanizing lines
i.  Tank overflows from the cleaning section of the gal-
    vanizing lines
j.  Tin mill cleaning lines alkaline solutions
k.  Weirlite mill effluent

4.  Recirculation and reuse schemes have been determined to
be feasible for the following processes with a net reduction
in effluent volume.

a.  Blast furnace
b.  Hot strip
c.  Blooming - structural mills
d.  Basic oxygen plant
e.  Weirlite mills

On the basis of daily water use of 225 mgd and ingot capa-
city of 3.6 million tons per year, the water use is 22,800
gallons per ingot ton which is considerably less than the
widely reported industry average of 40,000 gallons per
ingot ton.  With the adoption of the forementioned minimum
water reuse schemes, the plant water use would be reduced
to 16,800 gallons per ingot ton, which is a 26% reduction
over the present water use values.

5.  With the reuse and treatment systems proposed herein,
the proposed lagoon at "C" sewer system, and the proposed
co-treatment at the municipal plant, adequate waste treatment
will be provided.

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                         Section II

                       Recommendations


The recommendations made here are on the basis that pending
a successful economic evaluation a full scale demonstration
plant be implemented at the earliest possible time and that
any expenditures made should result in realizable overall
waste treatment improvements.

1.  It is recommended that providing a justification of in-
plant economics a 4.5 mgd activated sludge unit with reaera-
tion of sludge be installed at the Weirton Sewage Treatment
Plant.  Although approximately 3.3 mgd of steel plant wastes
can be handled in the city sewers and at the sewage treat-
ment plant, costs for in-plant sewers and related facilities
should be evaluated independently by the steel plant.  In
addition to internal piping changes, a similar evaluation
should be conducted on the merits of providing increased
holding capacity through the use of basins or tanks.  Whereas
a modular type demonstration plant would be the best
approach technically, in the interest of time tables facing
the city of Weirton, there is substantial merit in the pre-
sent study after a consideration of the economics to proceed
with a full scale demonstration plant.  The following waste
streams are recommended for the combined treatment plant:

a.  Ammonia still waste
b.  Benzol sump overflow
c.  Final cooler bleedoff
d.  Absorber barometric condenser waters
e.  Benzol cooling tower bleedoff
f.  Tin mill cleaning lines alkaline wastes
g.  Weirlite mill wastes
h.  Concentrated tin mill chromic wastes after pretreatment
i.  Palm oil recovery plant effluent
j.  Pickling lines fume scrubber waste
k.  Tank overflows from the cleaning section of the gal-
    vanizing lines

It is readily apparent that the greatest volume of wastes
considered for co-treatment emanate from the coke plant.
However, in utilizing these main waste streams, the major
coke plant pollution potential would be greatly minimized.
If one or several of these waste streams were not included
for the treatment scheme, then a pollution potential would
still exist at the coke plant.  Although the flow from the
absorber barometric condenser constitutes the major portion

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of the waste volume, it has been included due to the waste
load it contributes in the overall coke plant total.  The
bleed from the benzol cooling tower has been included as a
safety precaution.  The waste load contains no phenol or
cyanides, but in the event that a tube should rupture, the
waste stream would contain a significant pollution load
which would already be tied into the treatment plant.

2.  It is further recommended that the following schemes
be implemented to further reduce waste volumes:

a.  Polyelectrolytes were shown to produce an improved
    efficiency at the blast furnace.  Therefore, the use of
    polyelectrolytes should be considered in an emergency
    situation or when the thickener effluent needs improve-
    ment to meet more stringent water quality standards.

b.  Reuse of water at the blast furnace.

c.  Study of water uses at the boiler and power house in
    an effort to reduce waste volume.

d.  Diversion of the structural mill wastewaters through
    the present splitter box and then discharge of a
    significant portion of the flow through the present hot
    strip mill scale pit.  An oil skimmer should also be
    installed at this scale pit.  Studies should also be
    continued toward the use of more sophisticated filtration
    equipment.

e.  An in depth study of water conservation and reuse should
    be undertaken in the tin mill.   There appears to be an
    excessive amount of costly demineralized water that is
    wasted to the sewer.

f.  Installation of a water reuse system at the hot strip
    with a minimum of at least the  finish stand wastewaters
    to be diverted for flume flushing on the roughing stands.

g.  Further investigate methods for the disposal of waste
    pickle liquors to reduce present neutralization costs.

h.  Further the investigation of the economics of poly-
    electrolytes versus magnetic flocculation, or combination
    of both for optimization of operating costs at B.C.P.
    thickener.

i.  Waters from the gas cleaning system platform at the
    B.O.P. should be sent back to the dust system thickeners.

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j.  A study  should be made on the chemical treatment costs
    at the coal washer waste treatment facilities.

3.  The proposed plant should have built-in flexibility to
readily make modifications to basic system components to
encompass the  latitude of wastes that can be treated.  The
plant should be operated to study various ratios of combined
steel plant  and municipal wastes.  The secondary unit should
be designed  for greater flexibility in retention times and
air rates to provide an evaluation of synergistic effects
in primary plant and biological improvements in secondary
plant.

4.  The combined treatment plant should be designed to
provide greater than a 90% removal of BOD and suspended
solids.  Although design of the demonstration plant is not
included in  this phase of the project, based on the treat-
ability evaluation and standard sewage plant design, some
preliminary  design criteria may be established as follows:

a.  Primary  tanks - surface settling rate  <600 GPD/ft2

b.  Aeration tanks - BOD applied loading - 35 Lbs/1000 ft3
    Detention  time - 6 hours
    Tank depths - 10 to 15 feet
    Air requirements - 2 ppm dissolved oxygen
    1500 cubic feet air/Lb. BOD

c.  Sludge pump capacity - 50% of design flow to optimize
    mixed liquor suspended solids

d.  Final settling tanks - surface settling rate  <800
    GPD/ft2

5.  Holding  tanks should be installed at or near the point
of origin for  the retention of required industrial wastes.
Where discharge is intermittent metering pumps should be
provided for the addition of certain industrial wastes at
uniform rates  over 24 hour periods.  Control of pH should be
maintained in  the sewer system as close as possible to the
plant to enable proper changes to be made rapidly.

6.  Adequate provisions should be made for test equipment
at the sewage  plant to control and evaluate process changes.
This program in itself would be of great benefit in
evaluating test equipment and assisting in the selection
of proper instrumentation in future plants of this type.

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                        Section III

                        Introduction


The primary objective of Project No. 12010 DTQ is to conduct
a study to develop and demonstrate the treatability of water
borne wastes from an integrated steel mill with municipal
wastes.  In addition to producing a satisfactory effluent
in accordance with established water quality criteria, the
cost of the joint treatment process must be evaluated by
the city and the steel company.  The following considerations
were important in the decision to undertake the study of a
joint municipal - industrial treatment system.

1.  Lower overall construction, maintenance
    and operating costs.

2.  Better overall effective treatment and control
    of wastewater.

3.  One centralized plant to provide optimum land use.

4.  Centralized and more effective supervision.


Weirton Steel Division, National Steel Corporation, where
the study was conducted, is located on the east bank of the
Ohio River at the confluence of Harmon Creek in the town of
Weirton, West Virginia, approximately 62 miles down the Ohio
River from Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania.

The plant is located on a 350 acre site running generally
from north to south in an arc-shaped valley, intersecting
the river at the northern end.  Located here are the river
docks, coal storage, ore storage, coke oven batteries, and
the tin mill facilities.  The continuous casting and basic
oxygen facilities are situated at the center of the crescent,
separated from the iron making complex by a highway.  The
lower extent of the arc contains the hot strip mill, cold
mills, finishing and shipping facilities.   (See Figure 1)

Over the years Weirton has devoted much time and effort to
water conservation and wastewater treatment.  Most of
Weirton's wastes are now being treated in-plant.  The company
is presently looking at additional methods for treating
their wastes.  The treatment of wastewaters in a combined
treatment plant would be an effective means of meeting the
more stringent stream quality criteria now being proposed.

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            31 32
  I. COAL  STORAGE
 2. COKE  BATTERIES
 3. ORE STORAGE
 4. SINTER  PLANTS I AND 2
 5. NO. I  BLAST FURNACE
 6. NO. 2  BLAST FURNACE
 7. NO. 3  BLAST FURNACE
 8. NO. 4  BLAST FURNACE
 9. POWER HOUSE - BOILER
    HOUSE
 10. INGOT STRIPPER
 I I. 40 IN. BLOOMING MILL
 12. SLAB  YARD
 13. STRUCTURAL MILL
 14. BOF SHOP
 15. CONCAST
 16. SCRAP BUILDING
 17. SCRAP STORAGE
 18. SLAB  YARD
 19. HOT STRIP MILL
20. COLD  STRIP MILL
21. STRIP  ANNEALING
22. STRIP  FINISHING
23. PICKLING LINE
24. TANDEM  MILL
25. FINISHING a SHIPPING
26. DETINNING  PLANT
27. COAL  WASHER
28. COLD  MILL  ANNEALING
29. GALVANIZING  LINE
30. SHIPPING
31. TIN PLATE ANNEALING
32. COLD  MILL
33. TINNING  LINE
34. TIN  PLATE SHEARING
35. WEIRLITE MILL
36. PALM  OIL RECOVERY
37. SEWAGE  PLANT
                            14
SEWER  SYSTEMS
  A
  B

  C2
                 25
                GENERAL  ARRANGEMENT
                OF THE WEIRTON PLANT

                       FIGURE T
                             HARMON
                             CREEK

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This plant is a completely integrated steel mill producing
the following line of products:  coke, pig iron, steel
ingots, blooms, slabs, billets, heavy structural shapes,
steel piling, tin mill products  (black plate, tin plate-
electrolytic, chrome plate electrolytic), sheet and strip
(hot-rolled, cold-rolled, hot dipped galvanized, electro-
lytic galvanized) and coal chemicals produced in their by-
product coke ovens.

The plant facilities discharge wastewaters into four (4)
major sewer systems lettered alphabetically A, B, C, and E.

Systems A and B discharge to the Ohio River, whereas C and
E drain into Harmon Creek and then to the Ohio River.

The city of Weirton operates a sewage treatment plant under
the direction of the sanitary board with the mayor as chair-
man.  The plant employs a superintendent and fourteen (14)
full-time employees.

The primary sewage treatment plant is designed for a flow of
four million gallons per day.  The average flow rate through
the plant is 1.25 million gallons per day.  The plant con-
sists of the following major facilities:

1.  Grit chamber
2.  Comminutor
3.  Raw sewage wet well
4.  Raw sewage pumps
5.  Preaeration tanks
6.  Primary sedimentation tanks
7.  Chlorine contact tank
8.  Digestors
9.  Vacuum filter
10. Control building - office & laboratory

The plant discharges a chlorinated effluent with a 50%
reduction in suspended solids and a 40% reduction in BOD.
The initial cost of the total plant and sewer system was
$5,500,000.  The sanitary board has received orders to
provide secondary treatment by December, 1975.

The study phase of the project was divided into five (5)
distinct tasks, namely:

1.  Mill Field Work
2.  Sewage Plant Field Work
3.  Sanitary Sewer System Field Work
4.  Laboratory Studies

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5.  Evaluation
Task I - Mill field work

This task was devoted to obtaining the basic plant waste-
water data and other pertinent information in respect  to the
overall plant operations.  For better efficiency in organ-
ization of the mill data the plant was subdivided into four
(4) main sewer systems:

1.  Sewer system A  (See Figure 2)

    a.  Coke plant
    b.  Temper mill
    c.  Tin mill cleaning lines
    d.  Blast furnace sinter plant
    e.  Blooming mill - Structural mill

2.  Sewer system B  (See Figure 3)

    a.  Continuous anneal lines
    b.  Weirlite mills
    c.  Electroplating lines
    d.  Demineralizer plant

3.  Sewer system C  (See Figure 4)

    a.  Tandem mills
    b.  Palm oil recovery
    c.  Hot strip mill
    d.  Pickling lines
    e.  Galvanizing dept.  (Sheet mill)
    f.  Diesel and car repair shop
    g.  Structural mill

4.  Sewer system E  (See Figure 5)

    a.  Basic oxygen plant
    b.  Continuous caster
    c.  Detinning plant
    d.  Coal washer
    e.  Galvanizing operations  (Sheet mill)

Subtasks in the mill field work included:

a.  Sampling and analytical work at key points  in
    the respective process area.
                           10

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BENZOL COOLING TOWER BLEED
8,000 G.RD. (EST.) *-!-*•
ENGINE ROOM BAROMETRIC CONDENSER A
3,300,000 G.P.D. (EST.) *-=-*
ABSORBER BAROMETRIC CONDENSER A
1,600,000 G.RD. (EST.) ^ — *
WASH OIL COOLERS A
4,700,000 G.P.D. (EST.) *-^
ELLIOTT STRAINER BACKWASH A
411,000 G.RD. (EST.) t-=-i
AMMONIA STILL WASTE A
175,500 G.P.D. (EST.) ^ — *
OVERFLOW AT Nos. 588 BATTERIES /Q\
9,200,000 G.P.D. (EST.) *— -*~~
SEWER AT TEMPER MILL (TIN MILL) A
\7I,538,500(EST.) /

uiloH
*ui O m
OOT in W
OH*^T
zz  Q
^o'S
A


2,880,000 G.P.D. (EST.) £-i^
TIN MILL CLEANING LINES A
720,000 G.P.D (EST.) *-**•*
DISCHARGE FROM ASH COLLECTOR /^
1,400,000 G.P.D. (EST.) 	 *
BOILER HOUSE REACTOR TANK A
36,000 G.RD. (EST.) "===* J
BLOOMING MILL TO EGG SHAPED SEWER A /Z
10,000,000 G.PD. (EST.) "=->
SCALE PIT AT SCARFING MILL /\
FLOW NOT AVAILABLE "^
STRUCTURE MILL AND BLOOMING MILL CROPPER A
FLOW NOT AVAILABLE "^



»,, A BENZOL SUMP

xir i-=-
o w A
z* /V
^^ — ^
0
-1 86,000 G.P.D. (EST)
[v FINAL COOLER BLEED-OFF
-1 78,000 G.P.D. (EST.)
A No. 2 BLAST FURNACE / No2 1
A COOLING WATER . 1 BI AST J

17
G.
^^ 9,072,000 G.RD. (EST) V^URNACE/ 1
A X =^ A
,100,000 x . "• ^ -/15V
^D.(EST.) ^fe^.
M, 31-/
\S>_OQ-/

r
A B.F GAS WASHERS
^•^ 14,400,000 G.PD. (EST.)
A B.F PRECIPATATORS
^^ 11,520,000 G.RD. (EST)
A, SINTER PLANT
1-L-* 288,000 G.P.D. (EST.)
A FILTER BACKWASH AND ASH CONVEYOR WATER
£=^ 72,000 G.P.D. (EST)
/\ POWEB HOUSE DRAINS
"^ 144,000 G.P.D. (EST.)
/Av ASH PIT INFLUENT
^-^^ 720,000 G.RD. (ESTO
A, SURFACE RUNOFF
                         SEWER  SYSTEM   A
                                FIGURE 2

-------
        B  OUTFALL

      15,000,000 G.RD.

          (EST.)
7


DEMORALIZATION .
PLANT ^
144,000 G.P.D. (EST.) "^
No. 1 8 No. 2 ELECTRO-
PLATING LINES ^
3,917,000 G.RD. (EST.) '~^

V





/•

/•
J*
Xi
—k

CONTINUOUS
N ANNEALING LINES
FLOW NOT AVAILABLE
A No. 6 ELECTROPLATING LINES
3,773,000 G.RD.(EST. )
^_ No. 1 a No. 2 WEIRLITE MILLS
~~" 288,000 G.RD. (EST)
^ No. 4 ELECTROPLATING LINE
~~^ FLOW NOT AVAILABLE
^ No. 5 ELECTROPLATING LINE
                      FLOW NOT AVAILABLE
                       A
           - SAMPLE POINTS

       (EST)-ESTIMATED FLOW
SEWER  SYSTEM  B
         FIGURE 3
          12

-------
        v     C OUTFALL       .
         \75.000.00Q G.RD.(EST.)X
Q&I u r>n
rHLM UIL
RECOVERY A
1,000,000
G.PD. (EST.)
















A
&/ \
/^ii_ X—
£ ct \
f x

^^ SCALE PIT
28,000,000
G.PD. (EST)
PICKLING LINE(No.4)
FLOW NOT
AVAILABLE



GALVANIZING DEPT.
.A (SHEET MILL)
— FLOW NOT
AVAILABLE




PICKLING LINES (Nos. .1,2 83)
2,600,000 G.RD. (EST)
TANDEM MILLS (COOLING WATER)
5,000,000 G.RD. (EST)
jj\ HOT STRIP MILL FINISHING STANDS
*-^ 13,000,000 G.RD. (EST.)
/V HOT MILL REHEAT FURNACE
1 — * 10,000,000 G.PD. (EST.)
/\ HOT MILL ROUGHING STANDS
18,000,000 G.PD. (EST.)
A, TANK OVERFLOW
^^ 22,000 G.PD. (EST.)
A FUME SCRUBBER
1 	 * 235,000 G.RD. (EST.)
/\ No. 1 CLEANING LINE FINAL RINSE
22,000 G.PD. (EST)
/\ No.l CLEANING LINE SCRUBBER DISCHARGE
^^ 15,000 G.RD. (EST.)
A No. 1 CLEANING LINE ORTHOSILTANK OVERFLOW
1,500 G.PD. (EST.)
A No. 2 GALVANIZING LINE SCRUBBER
^^ 15,000 G.RD. (EST.)
A No. 3 GALVANIZING LINE SCRUBBER
t-L- ' 22,000 G.RD. (EST.)
y\ No. 3 GALVANIZING LINE ORTHOSIL TANK
— * 1,500 G.P.D. (ESTJ
Nos. 485 GALVANIZING LINES
FLOW NOT AVAILABLE
/\ DIESEL AND CAR SHOP
"^^ 3POO G.PD. (EST)
A STRUCTURAL MILL
	 /52* 	 	 	 : 	 	
                                  9,500,000  G.RD. (EST.)
(EST.)-ESTIMATE
/\ — SAMPLE POINT
                  SEWER  SYSTEM   C
                             FIGURE 4
                            13

-------
 DETINNING PLANT
                   A
COOLING TOWER SYSTEM

105,000 G.RD. (D)
648,000 G.P.D. (D)
                              \ 7,000,000 G.PD. (EST)/
                        No. I  MANHOLE
                        72,000 G.RD. (EST.)
                        No. 2  MANHOLE
                        36,000 G.RD. (EST.)
COAL WASHER
                        72,000 G.RD.  (EST)
CONTINUOUS CASTING
CLOSEDT SYSTEM
46,000 G.RD. (D)
CONTINUOUS CASTING
OPEN SYSTEM
348,000 G.RD. (D)
STRAINER BACKWASH
125,000 G.RD. (D)
BOILER SLOWDOWN
COOLING TOWER
SUMP

                               1,272,000
                                G.RD.  (D)
            B.O. R WATER TREATMENT PLANT
            FLOW  NOT AVAILABLE
            SURFACE  RUNOFF
            FLOW  NOT  AVAILABLE
                                           GALVANIZING  OPERATIONS
                                           (SHEET MILL OVERFLOW)
                                            FLOW  NOT  AVAILABLE
                    SURFACE  RUNOFF
                                            FLOW NOT  AVAILABLE


                                            B.O.R DUST SYSTEM
                                            THICKNER CLEARWELL
                                            641,000 G.P.D. (D)
                                            aO.P  PUMP SEALS, FILTER PUMP
                                            VACUUM SEAL 8 FLOOR DRAINS
                                             FLOW NOT AVAILABLE
                       A
     - SAMPLE  POINTS

 (D)  - DESIGN FLOW

(EST.)- ESTIMATED FLOW
                      SEWER  SYSTEM   E
                                 FIGURE 5
                                14

-------
b.  Study of the plant sewers

c.  Acquisition of process operating data

d.  Evaluation of present waste treatment facilities

e.  Investigation of water conservation

f.  Appraisal of wastes to be included in combined
    treatment scheme.


Task II - Sewage plant field work

The objective of this task was to evaluate the present
municipal sewage plant and review the various processes that
could be utilized to upgrade the existing plant to meet the
future secondary treatment requirements of the state.

Subtasks in the sewage plant field work included:

a.  Evaluate the respective units of the present plant as
    to their overall treatment capabilities and efficiencies

b.  Review alternatives for secondary treatment

c.  Determine volume of steel plant wastes that could be
    handled at municipal plant

d.  Appraise effect on river if combined wastes are treated
    at sewage plant


Task III - Sewer system field work

a.  Determination of the hydraulic adequacy of the portion
    of the city of Weirton sewer system which relates to the
    transport of steel plant wastewaters.

b.  Consideration of alternatives in transporting and treat-
ing the municipal and industrial wastewaters.


Task IV - Laboratory and bench scale studies

This task was concerned with the various laboratory studies
run on individual waste streams as well as with the alter-
natives for a combined treatment process.
                         15

-------
Subtasks included in the laboratory studies were:

a.  Operation of batch and continuous bench scale plants

b.  Investigation of waste treatment schemes for individual
    process wastes.
Task V - Evaluation

The purpose of this task was to compile the data from the
other four (4) tasks and assess the overall feasibility of
a combined industrial and municipal waste treatment system.

Subtasks in the evaluation included:

a.  Evaluation of Tasks I - IV

b.  Recommendations for implementing conclusions
    developed in plant survey

c.  Recommendations for upgrading municipal sewage plant

d.  Recommendations for modular - pilot plant
    demonstration studies

e.  Preparation of a final report

The mill survey was conducted on the four main sewer systems:

"A", "B", "C", and "E"f  Each of these sewer systems is
described schematically in Figures 2 through 5 which show
the various mill operations associated with the respective
systems.  Figure 1 shows the general arrangement of the mill
in respect to the city of Weirton sewage treatment plant.

Both grab and continuous sampling techniques were used
throughout the project.  The continuous samplers were of
two types; 1) single composite and 2) sequential.  Flows
were measured using standard techniques, namely; 1)
bucket and stop watch, 2) weirs, 3) salt concentration,
4) depth and velocity of flow in sewers and 5) flow from
open end pipe.  Due to the inaccessibility of most sewers,
the majority of the flows were obtained by the salt con-
centration technique.  A brief description of this method
follows:

A known strength of salt solution was added at a constant
measured rate of flow to the sewer.  Chlorides were then
                         16

-------
determined at a lower point in the sewer after the salt
had been well mixed in the flow of the sewer.  A blank
determination was made first.  This was done by taking 5 or
6 samples at five minute intervals before any salt solution
was added and measuring the chlorides present.  When salt
is added to the waste flow at a known continuous rate in
pounds and the resulting salt concentration is measured, the
flow can be determined by the formula:

Ibs per hour of salt added x 2000           n.          . ,,.Q
 (ppm NaCl measured - ppm NaCl in blank) = gallons per minute
                            17

-------
                         Section IV

                       Sewer System A


Wastewaters that discharge to sewer system "A" originate
from the following areas:

Coke plant
Temper mill
Tin mill cleaning lines
Blast furnace - Sinter plant
Power house and boiler house
Blooming mill - Structural mill

A schematic of sewer system "A" is shown in Figure 2.
Sampling points and flow rates for the various wastewater
streams are indicated on the schematic.

Coke Plant

In a totally integrated steel plant the steelmaking process
indirectly begins at the coke plant.  Here coal is delivered
to the plant site and converted to coke.  This is the first
in the many and varied processes that contribute to the ulti-
mate production of the steel product.

At this point batteries of coke ovens are grouped in two
strings of three batteries each.  All ovens are of the low
differential underjet type.  Four batteries are heated
with blast furnace and coke oven gases, the other two use
coke oven gas only.

The coal is concerted to coke in narrow rectangular silica
brick ovens arranged side by side in batteries.  Heat is
applied by burning gas in flues located between the walls
of adjacent ovens.  Modern ovens are about 40 feet long,
8 to 15 feet high and 14 to 24 inches wide, with a capacity
of 15 to 20 tons of coal per charge.  The ovens are heated
by burning either coke oven or blast furnace gas.  For ease
in removing the coke, ovens are tapered 2 to 4 inches from
the pusher side to the coking side.

Coal is charged through openings in the top of the ovens by
means of hopper bottom cars that travel on tracks located
on top of each battery.  The ovens are then sealed and the
coking process beings.  The coal is heated in the absence of
air to a temperature above which the volatile matter is
driven off, leaving a residue, or coke, which is principally
                           19

-------
carbon.  The coking time depends on the oven  temperature  and
width, but the general average is about one hour per  inch of
oven width.  Average coking time is about 17  hours.

Upon completion of the coking cycle, the coke is pushed from
the oven into a "hot" car.  The pushing operation requires
about a minute, and the car is now run to the quench  tower,
where the incandescent coke is sprayed with a large flow  of
water approximating 4,000 gpm.  The coke is drained for a
few seconds and then dumped onto a wharf for  hose quenching
of local hot spots.  The coke is then transferred to  a screen-
ing operation and then depending on its size  either delivered
by belt conveyor the blast furnace, used in the sinter plant,
boiler house, or sold for stoker fuel.

Raw coke oven gas is cooled by spray type coolers, cleaned
by tar electrostatic precipitators, and scrubbed with sul-
furic acid to strip the ammonia from the gas.

In the by-produce section tar, oil, ammonia,  and phenol are
recovered through systems which include various type coolers,
exhausters, gas scrubbers, vacuum type ammonia scrubbers,
and centrifugal extraction.

Coke plant wastewaters generally have received more than
their share of publicity because of concern about taste and
odor problems in municipal water supplies.   There are several
processes in the coking operation that are potential sources
of pollution.  Included are the quenching station, effluent
from the ammonia still, final cooler bleed,  barometric con-
denser discharges, wash oil coolers, and bleed off from the
benzol cooling tower.   Coke plant waste streams generally
contain phenol, cyanide, ammonia, oil, sulfides, sulfates,
and chlorides.

The chief use of water in coke making is to quench the hot
coke after it is pushed from the ovens.  In addition, con-
siderable amounts of water are used in the recovery of coal
chemicals, steam generation for heating stills, cooling in
heat exchangers and condensers, and washing of crystalline
products.

Field work was conducted on the following waste streams in
the coke plant process:

^    Benzol cooling tower bleed

The benzol cooling tower constitutes an indirect cooling
operation.   Wastes are in the nature of coil  leaks and water
that is bled off to control the total hardness.
                           20

-------
      Engine room barometric condenser

This stream constitutes the large volume of water that is
used to condense the steam from the coke oven gas booster
turbines.

      Absorbed barometric condenser

The absorber barometric condenser is one of the integral
components in the process for the recovery of ammonia.  In
the process the gas is passed through a spray type absorber
over which is circulated a sulfuric acid solution nearly
saturated with ammonium sulfate.  The solution then leaves
the absorber and is delivered to the solution circulating
system of a crystallizer.  The barometric condenser, through
vacuum evaporation in a combined cooling and concentrating
effect, produces the crystallization which takes place.

 ^   Wash oil coolers

Wash oil is cooled by the application of water over cooling
coils; however, the water is not in direct contact with the
wash oil.

      Elliott Strainer backwash

The Elliott Strainer is a basket type strainer that filters
incoming raw river water to the coke plant.  Wastewater is
that which is used to backwash water screens.

      Raw ammonia liquor - Still waste

Initial cooling of the gases takes place in the collecting
main where they are in contact with sprays of flushing
liquor, which has previously been condensed from the gases.
This liquor is composed of moisture in the coal and the
water produced by decomposition of the coal.  From the col-
lecting main the gases then pass through primary coolers.
The flushing liquor and the primary cooler condensate drain
to decanters for separation of tar and liquid.  This liquor
condensed from the gases is referred to as ammonia liquor.
The raw ammonia liquor is then discharged to the phenol
recovery plant.  After the phenol-extraction process the
ammonia liquor passes to the ammonia still.  The liquor
resulting from steam stripping ammonia from the raw ammonia
liquor is called still waste.  The composition of ammonia
still wastes is related directly to the volatility of the
coal, coking temperature, and to unit design.
                          21

-------
A    Coke plant main sewer

This waste stream is a combination of the previous six
waste streams ( 1 through 6 ).

      Overflow at 5 and 8 battery

This waste stream constitutes the water that is used for
cooling at the ammonia liquor coolers.  This is non contact
water that passes through a shell and tube type heat ex-
changes .

      Benzol sump

Condensed steam from the stripping operations and cooling
water constitutes the bulk of liquid discharged to the sump.
At this plant these wastes are used for quenching.

       Final cooler bleedoff

The first step in the recovery of light oil by adsorption in
a liquid medium is that of cooling the gas leaving the
saturators by direct contact with water in a tower scrubber
called a final cooler.  The name is derived from the fact
that the gas here is given its final cooling in the coal-
chemical processing.  This is necessary to remove naphth-
alene from the gas and also cool the gas prior to its admis-
sion to the wash oil scrubbers.  The cooling water comes in
direct contact with the gas from the ovens.  This water is
recirculated but the overflow constitutes a pollutional
waste.  This water is also utilized for coke quenching.

Analyses run on the coke plant waste streams included:

1.  pH                       7.  Oil
2.  Phenol                   8.  Chlorides
3.  Cyanide                  9.  Suspended solids
4.  5 day BOD               10.  Ammonia
5.  COD                     11.  Sulfates
6.  TOC

Approximately 600 samples were analyzed from the various
sampling locations at the coke^plant.  Analytical data are
given in Tables  &  through
                         22

-------
                       TABLE  /1\
                 BENZOL  COOLING TOWER
                 FLOW  8,000 GPD

PH
Phenol
Cyanide
Oil
Sulfates
Chlorides
B.O.D.
C.O.D.
T.O.C.
High
7.90
0.45
0.11
21.50
324.00
325.00
11.00
93.30
27.30
LOW
ppm
7.30
, 0.02
0.03
4.80
132.00
235.00
8.00
84.60
20.50
Average
7.50
0.17
0.08
10.20
244.00
276.00
9.60
89.00
24.00
Lbs/Ton

.00001
.000007
.0009
.0211
.0239
.0008
.0077
.0021
pH
Phenol
Cyanide
Oil
B.O.D.
C.O.D.
T.O.C.
                        TABLE  -A.
           ENGINE  ROOM BAROMETRIC CONDENSER
           FLOW  3,300,000  GPD
High
8.30
0.03
0.09
3.50
6.00
100.00
69.00
Low
ppm
6.90
0.01
0.01
1.00
2.00
13.00
22.00
Average
7.30
0.02
0.06
1.90
4.50
55.00
47.00
Lbs/Ton

.00007
.0002
.0069
.0162
.1986
.1698
PH
Phenol
Cyanide
Oil
B.O.D.
C.O.D.
T.O.C.
                        TABLE  Z3A
             ABSORBER BAROMETRIC  CONDENSER
             FLOW  1,600,000 GPD
High
6.8
36.5
33.2
2.0
41.0
121.0
69.0
Low
ppm
4.7
26.5
14.8
1.2
36.0
6.0
8.7
Average
6.0
30.8
25.8
1.5
38.0
59.0
43.0
Lbs/Ton

.0767
.0642
.0037
.0946
.1469
.1072
                          23

-------
                       TABLE /4\
                   WASH  OIL  COOLERS
                   FLOW  4,700,000 GPD

pH
Phenol
Cyanide
Oil
Sulfates
Chlorides
B.O.D.
C.O.D.
T.O.C.
High
7.60
0.91
0.11
8.00
120.00
25.50
5.00
16.00
11.40
Low
ppm
6.90
0.12
0.07
1.71
60.00
22.00
5.00
11.00
8.60
Average
7.20
0.42
0.09
4.00
93.30
23.30
5.00
14.00
10.00
Lbs/Ton

.0024
.0005
.0234
.5459
.1363
.0292
.0819
.0585
                        TABLE
               ELLIOTT  STRAINER BACKWASH
               FLOW  411,000  GPD
                 High
Low
Average
Lbs/Ton
pH
Sulfates
Chlorides
Suspended
Solids
Dissolved
Solids
7.2
144.0
25.5

140.0

340.0
6.6
132.0
23.5

4.0

280.0
6.9
138.0
24.5

78.0

316.0

.0704
.0125

.0398

.1613
PH
Phenol
Cyanide
Ammonia
B.O.D.
C.O.D.
T.O.C.
                       TABLE  /6\
                  AMMONIA  STILL  WASTE
                  FLOW 175,500 GPD
High
8.2
461.0
280.0
4.3
-
—
—
Low
ppm
5.4
84.0
101.0
3.9
-
-
-
Average
6.2
230.0
212.0
4.1
1057.0
2380.0
1192.0
Lbs/Ton

.0428
.0395
.0008
.1972
.4440
.2224
                           24

-------


(This Waste



pH
Phenol
Cyanide
Oil
Ammonia
Sulfates
Chlorides
B.O.D.
C.O.D.
T.O.C.

MAIN
Stream is
FLOW
High

7.2
4.2
7.5
8.8
73.6
240.0
135.0
8.0
44.0
31.0
TABLE /7\
COKE PLANT SEWER
a Combination of
10,194,500 GPD
Low
ppm
5.3
1.8
2.2
3.6
28.5
228.0
80.0
7.0
41.0
27.0


Streams /K

Average

6.2
3.5
5.1
5.5
55.0
234.0
106.5
7.5
42.5
29.0

A
- A)

Lbs/Ton


.0522
.0761
.0821
.8210
3.4920
1.5890
.1119
.6343
.4328
                        TABLE /8\
                OVERFLOW AT 5 & 8  BATTERY
            (AMMONIA LIQUOR COOLER OVERFLOW)
                FLOW 9,200,000 GPD
pH
Phenol
Cyanide
Oil
Ammonia
Chlorides
High
7.50
35.00
0.08
6.90
1.95
25.00
Low
ppm
6.40
0.06
0.03
1.70
0.97
22.00
Average
6.90
0.16
0.05
4.70
1.57
24.00
Lbs/Ton

.0019
.0006
.0556
.0186
.2838
                          25

-------
       TABLE  /9\
      BENZOL  SUMP
      FLOW 86,000 GPD

PH
Phenol
Cyanide
Oil
Ammonia
Chlorides
B.O.D.
C.O.D.
T.O.C.
High
7.6
316.0
33.8
95.9
32.5
90.0
567.0
1026.0
477.0
Low
ppm
7.4
300.0
24.4
34.0
32.5
80.0
470.0
962.0
414.0
Average
7.5
308.0
28.0
55.7
32.5
85.0
514.0
996.0
438.0
Lbs/Ton

.0331
.0030
.0060
.0035
.0091
.0552
.1070
.0471
       TABLE
FINAL COOLER BLEED-OFF
FLOW 78,000 GPD

PH
Phenol
Cyanide
Oil
Ammonia
Chlorides
B.O.D.
C.O.D.
T.O.C.
High
8.2
1384.0
146.9
36.0
553.2
340.0
2650.0
4952.0
1058.0
Low
ppm
7.8
1089.0
55.0
3.3
322.2
270.0
2490.0
4602.0
1016.0
Average
8.0
1261.0
109.3
16.5
431.6
300.0
2563.0
4750.0
1041.0
Lbs/Ton

.1223
.0106
.0016
.0419
.0291
.0286
.4608
.1010
         26

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Recommendations

Because of the fact that coke plant wastes are considered
as major steel plant pollutants and since the wastes are
amenable to biological treatment, a major portion of the
treatability studies were coke plant oriented.  The labor-
atory study section of the report outlines the waste streams
investigated and significant results obtained in combina-
tions with municipal sewage.

It is recommended that the following waste streams from the
coke plant be included as part of the flow for the proposed
municipal - industrial biological treatment system.

1.  Benzol cooling tower bleedoff /IS.

2.  Absorber barometric condenser waste /3\

3.  Ammonia still waste /6\

4.  Benzol sump waste stream

5.  Final cooler bleedoff

Temper Mill

The main purpose of the temper mill is to develop the proper
stiffness or temper by cold working the steel in controlled
amounts.  In addition, temper rolling tends to improve the
flatness of annealed strip to develop desired mechanical
properties and to impart the desired surface finish to the
finished product.

At the temper mill lubricating oils are discharged to a
holding tank and hauled away by an outside contractor.
Water used for indirect cooling is discharged to the "A"
system.  Analytical data for this waste stream is shown in

Table
                          27

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                         TABLE
                 SEWER AT TEMPER MILL AREA
                 FLOW 2,880,000 GPD
                   High
Low
Average
9.4
140.0
200.0
0.1
0.2
40.0
57.6
8.6
6.0
32.0
0
0.1
25.0
13.9
9.10
69.90
95.60
0.03
0.10
33.00
30.80
  PH
  Pht.
   Alkalinity
  M.O.
   Alkalinity
  Hexavalent
   Chrome
  Total Chrome
  Suspended
   Solids
  Oils
 Tin Mill  Cleaning Lines

 The primary  function of the tin mill cleaning  lines  is  to
 prepare the  strip for tinning.  Here the  lubricant is
 removed to produce a bright clean strip.  At this department
 cleaning  is  performed using alkaline detergent solutions.

 The department has two cleaning lines which contain  the
 same units to remove all oil and dirt from coils.  The  steel
 moves at  a rate of up to 1,800 FPM through a dip tank of
 sodium orthosilicate solution; a scrubber with water sprays
 and revolving brushes; an electrolytic tank of sodium ortho-
 silicate  solution; another scrubber; a hot water rinse  tank
 with final wringer roller; and a hot air dryer.  After  dry-
 ing,  the  strip moves through a free loop, a drag tension
 unit,  and to the winding reel.

 At  the cleaning lines, water use is primarily  for solution
 makeup, spray scrubber water, and rinsing operations.
 Sampling  at each individual operation was not  feasible;
 therefore, the combined flow of the two lines  was sampled
 and  considered representative of the cleaning  line waste
 effluent.

   ilytical data for this waste stream are shown in Table
 	.  The product mix is variable and hence  sampling  can-
not be tied to specific production figures.  Therefore, the
waste load is not calculated in pounds per ton
                          28

-------
                         TABLE   _
            TIN MILL CLEANING LINES  - MAIN SEWER
            FLOW 720,000 GPD

                   High        Low        Average
                   	ppifl	

  PH               12.1        11.4          11.8
  Pht.
   Alkalinity    1140.0       260.0         769.7
  M.O.
   Alkalinity    1340.0       500.0         873.3
  Hexavalent
   Chrome          34.0         0.9          30.7
  Total Chrome     70.0        20.0          46.6
  Suspended
   Solids        1652.0       420.0        1026.0
  Silicon         353.0        96.3         183.1

Recommendations

Tin mill alkaline cleaning  solutions were utilized in the
laboratory  treatability  studies  as an excellent source of
phosphorus  and also for  pH  control.  Therefore, it is
recommended that this waste be considered at the combined
treatment plant as needed for a  source of alkalinity and
phosphorus.

Blast Furnace - Sinter Plant

The molten  iron for the  steelmaking operations is normally
produced in a blast furnace.  The blast furnace process
consists of charging coke,  iron  ore, and limestone into the
top of the  furnace, and  blowing  heated air or oxygen into
the bottom.  Approximately  one and one half tons of ore,
one,half ton of limestone,  and one ton of coke produce one
ton of iron, one-half ton of slag, and five tons of blast
furnace gas.  The molten iron is drained from the bottom
of the furnace by drilling  a hole in a clay plug near the
bottom and  allowing the  liquid iron and slag to flow out.
The slag being lighter in weight floats on top of the iron
and is diverted to slag  ladles.

As with most of the steel mill operations, the blast furnace
has several  supplementary components that are vital to the
total operation.  These  include  (1) the stoves in which the
air (blast)  is preheated, (2) dry dust catchers in which the
bulk of the  flue dust is recovered,  (3) primary wet cleaners
                         29

-------
in which most of the remaining flue dust is removed by
water washing and (4) seocndary cleaners such as electro-
static precipitators and disintegrators for more efficient
gas cleaning.

Four blast furnaces and two sinter plants comprise the iron
production facilities at Weirton.  All basic iron is used
at the EOF shop.

Blast furnaces use large volumes of water principally for
cooling the various parts of the furnace and its auxiliaries.
In addition to the water used for cooling, the blast furnace
uses a considerable amount of water for cleaning flue gas,
both from the standpoint of washing exit gases and also for
providing a cleaner gas for reuse.  The principal contami-
nants in blast furnace gas washer water are suspended solids
but the water may contain significant amounts of cyanide,
phenol, and ammonia.

There are essentially three basic sources of water for the
blast furnace.  They include  (1) recirculated water from the
thickener which amounts to about 6,300 gpm which is used for
cooling in No. 2 blast furnace,  (2) water from the power
house hot well which amounts to approximately 30,000 gpm
which is used for cooling the other three blast furnaces in
addition to gas washing and electrostatic gas cleaning on
all four furnaces, and  (3) approximately 200 gpm of river
water used at the sinter plant which is used for cleaning
air exhaust of sinter plant fines on Rotoclones.

The gas cleaning operation is the major source of water
pollutants in the blast furnace area.  Since the blast fur-
nace dust is handled more easily and economically in the
dry state, the gas passes through a dry dust catcher to
remove a large portion of the flue dust blown over from the
furnace.  The exit gas then enters a venturi washer which
contains two sets of water sprays in which the gas is fur-
ther cleaned to a dust content of 0.05 grains per cubic
foot.  The gas then passes to a cooling tower where its
temperature is lowered by passing through water sprays.  The
cooled gas then enters secondary cleaners called disintegra-
tors that consist of a casing in which is mounted a rotating
squirrel cage.  Vanes mounted on the cage head reduce the
pressure drop through the machine and force the incoming gas
through the rotating bars, upon which water is sprayed, to
the center of the cage.  The gas then passes to electrostatic
gas cleaners in which an electrostatic field is maintained.
The unit collecting electrode is a vertical tube in which a
                          30

-------
thin film of water flows over the inside edge of each tube
washing it free of the dust that is deposited thereon.

All these dirty gas cleaning waters are conducted to the
Dorr Thickener.  The typical thickener consists of a
circular, reinforced concrete tank which contains several
compartments in which one or several arms revolve.  Water
enters at the center of the thickener and exits over a con-
tinuous weir which follows the circumference of the compart-
ment.  The thickener solids are delivered to a filter
located at the nearby sinter plant.  The filtrate returns
to the thickener and the cake is used at the sinter plant.
The primary function is to agglomerate the flue dust and
filter cake into a product more acceptable for recharge
into the furnace.  Its secondary function is to beneficiate
some of the finely divided ore.

Before the finer particles of ore and flue dust can be used
beneficially they must be converted to a 'lump form.  Sinter-
ing is the most commonly used method today to accomplish
this end.  There are several reasons why this must be done:
(1) finer sizes compact in the furnace and do not permit
proper gas passage,  (2) minute particles more readily become
airborne in the furnace and will pass out of the furnace
as flue dust in the exit gases creating bad furnace oper-
ation and excessive dust loss and  (3) agglomerating improves
the ore both physically and chemically.

In making sinter, ore fines are mixed with fine coke breeze
for fuel and fine limestone.  The material is then processed
so that the mass will not be too compact, and discharged on
to traveling grates and ignited.  Air is drawn through thin
layers forming a clinker.  After the burning cycle the
clinker passes to an operation that breaks the sinter into
pieces.  The larger pieces are transferred by belt conveyor
to the blast furnace, and the smaller fines remain at the
sinter plant and are returned to the original mix for
resintering.

Uses of water in a sinter plant are as additions for con-
trolling the moisture content of the mix, for dust control,
and for cooling sinter.

Field work was performed at the following locations in the
blast furnace - sinter plant area:
                         31

-------
      Four gas washers

      Eight precipitators

      Thickener  influent

      Thickener  effluent

      Sinter plant  sewer to  thickener

      Cooling water from No.  2 blast furnace

 Approximately 600 samples were taken on  these  waste streams
 and  analyzed for the following:   (See Figure 2).
 1.   pH
 2.   Suspended  Solids
 3.   Phenol
 4.   Cyanide
 5.   Chlorides
                     6.  Total  Iron
                     7.  Phosphates
                     8.  Alkalinity
                     9.  Dissolved Solids
                 High
PH
Temperature
Suspended
 Solids
Phenol
Cyanide
Chlorides
                       TABLE
                      GAS WASHERS
                      FLOW 14,400,000 GPD
   7.6
 120°F

1247.0
   0.93
 16.0
  51.5
              Low
  6.6
 98°F

104.0
  0.01
  3.35
 40.00
            Average
  7.1
109°F

316.0
  0.41
  2.60
 45.60
           Lbs/Ton
5.15
0.0067
0.042
0.2229
                         32

-------
                       TABLE
                     PRECIPITATORS
                     FLOW 11,520,000 GPD
PH
Temperature
Suspended
 Solids
Phenol
Cyanide
High
• 8.0
106°F
371.0
0.07
22.0
LOW
ppm
6.2
88°F
6.0
0.01
1.20
Average
6.9
96°F
81.0
0.038
9.9
Lbs/Ton

1.050
0.005
0.129
pH
Suspended
 Solids
Phenol
Cyanide
Chlorides
                        TABLE
                   THICKENER INFLUENT
                   FLOW 26,210,000  GPD
                  High
             Low
           Average
          Lbs/Ton
7.4
1510.00
1.16
12.63
60.00
7.3
482.50
0.47
7.38
52.50
7.3
1239.50
0.66
10.66
56.25

. 40.400
0.022
0.348
1.800
pH
Suspended
 Solids
Phenol
Cyanide
                          TABLE
               THICKENER EFFLUENT  TO  "A"  SEWER
               FLOW 17,100,000 GPD
                  High
  7.8

125.00
  0.04
  9.20
             Low
             ppm
 7.1

34.00
 0.02
 3.20
           Average
 7.5

52.00
 0.03
 5.50
          Lbs/Ton
1.2
0.0006
0.1254
                          33

-------
                        TABLE A7\
          24"  LINE - SINTER PLANT TO THICKENER
          FLOW 288,000 GPD
 pH
 Alkalinity
 Suspended
  Solids
 Total Iron
High
8.8
40.0
1107.0
241.0
Low
ppm
8.5
34.0
265.0
105.0
Average
8.7
37.0
435.0
135.0
Lbs/Ton
0.023
0.268
% 0.083
                       TABLE
               COOLING WATER FROM NO. 2
            BLAST FURNACE AT NO.  4 MANHOLE
            FLOW 9,072,000 GPD
High
8.0
78.0
158.0
287.0
44.5
3.4
Low
ppm
7.90
76.00
50.00
205.00
23.50
0.98
Average
7.95
77.00
104.00
246.00
39.00
2.20
Lbs/Ton
0.753
1.035
2.404
0.300
0.021
PH
Alkalinity
Suspended
 Solids
Dissolved
 Solids
Chlorides
Phosphates

Recommendations

A significant volume of water is used in washing the blast
furnace flue gas free of dust particles.  This water is dis-
charged to two thickeners.   The principal waste character-
istic of this water is its  high suspended solids content,
averaging about 1,200 ppm.   The thickener efficiency is
better than average with the effluent containing approxi-
mately 50 ppm suspended solids.  At present only 6,300 gpm
of an available 20,000 gpm is recirculated from the thicken-
ers to No. 2 blast furnace  as cooling water.

The solids removal can be further improved through the use
of polyelectrolytes.

Table 1 shows the results of using three different brand
name polyelectrolytes.  The wastewater responded best to a
                          34

-------
high molecular weight, anionic polyelectrolyte of low charge.
No pH adjustments were made.  Measurements of zeta potential
were only made prior to each jar test.  This was done to get
an idea of how the colloids in each system were charged.

The value found correlates well with the way anionic poly-
electrolytes react in negative colloid systems.  For example,
the blast furnace water had a zeta potential of -15 MV which
suggests a low charge anionic material.

The blast furnace operation presents a potential for reduc-
ing water use and effluent volume significantly because of
the large volumes of water involved and because reuse has
been demonstrated successfully.  The present operation is
shown schematically in Figure 6.

The scheme presently used results in a total effluent volume
from the operation of 38,000 gpm.  Total water intake is
40,000 gpm and total water use is 51,000 gpm.  The proposed
system is shown in Figure 7.

The scheme of Figure 7 would entail a total water intake of
17,000 gpm and would result in an effluent volume for 9,980
gpm.  The water intake would be cut in half and the effluent
volume reduced by a factor of about 2.5.  This represents
the maximum practicable water reuse in the blast furnace
department, short of the use of cooling towers.

Because of the high volume of the blast furnace waste
streams, consideration was not given to cotreatment in this
area.
                           35

-------
U)
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                                            TABLE  1

                                BLAST FURNACE THICKENER INFLUENT
POLYMER STUDIES
Polymer
Polymer
Jar Cone.
No. (ppm)
1 0
2 0.05
3 0.1
4 0.5
5 1.0
6 2.0
7 5.0
A

Bl
B2
Residual % S.S. Residual % S.S. Residual
S.S. (mg) Removal S.S.(mg) Removal S.S.(mg)
58.0
25.0
24.4
15.5
14.6
13.3
12.8
0
56.8
57.8
73.3
74.8
77.1
77.9
58.0
6.9
7.0
8.9
7.2
10.5
11.8
0 58.0
88.1 29.9
87.9 28.6
84.6 18.4
87.6 14.2
81.9 15.0
79.6 15.8
% S.S.
Removal
0
48.4
50.6
68.3
75.6
74.2
72.7
Raw Sample Analysis

TSS
345 mg/1
Alkalinity 116mg/l

Hardness
217mg/l as

as CaCO-q
CaCOn
pH 7.4
Zeta Potential

-15

       A   -  Low charge high molecular weight acrylamide base polymer

       Bl  -  Sulfonated polystyrene (non marketed)  - high molecular weight

       B2  -  Sulfonated polystyrene - high molecular weight

-------
                                       TABLE 1   (Continued)




                                BLAST FURNACE THICKENER INFLUENT
u>
Jar
No.
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
B3 -
B4 -
C -
Polymer
Polymer B3 B4 C
Cone. Residual % S.S. Residual % S.S. Residual
(ppm) S.S.(mg) Removal S.S.(mg) Removal S.S.(mg)
0 58.0 0 58.0 0 58.0
0.05 24.4 57.9 51.4 11.4 26.9
0.1 24.1 58.5 53.1 8.5 23.1
0.5 23.9 58.7 32.7 43.6 14.9
**" *\
1.0 18.2 68.5 29.3 49.4 14.1
2.0 17.4 69.9 25.3 56.4 11.8
" *£- -
5.0 15.1 74.0 21.5 63.0 29.6
Raw Sample Analysis
TSS 345 mg/1 pH 7.4
Alkalinity 116mg/l as CaCO^ Zeta Potential -15
Hardness 217 mg/1 as CaCO3
Sulfonated polystyrene - medium molecular weight
Sulfonated polystyrene - below medium molecular weight
Sulfonated polystyrene - medium molecular weight


% S.S.
Removal
0
53.7
60.2
74.3
75.6
65.3
49.0




-------
                       TO SEWER SYSTEM A-
                                  TO SEWER
                                  SYSTEM 'A'
                           TO SEWER
                           SYSTEM 'A1
PRESENT BLAST  FURNACE WATER SYSTEM
                  FIGURE 6
                  38

-------
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-------
Boiler House and Power House

A large block of power required to operate the steel facil-
ity is plant generated.  Therefore, this requires a great
volume of water which is used nonconsumptively for cooling
in the condensers of the steam turbines at the power house.
However, this use does not alter the chemical composition of
the water.  Generally raw water will serve for cooling pur-
poses in power generation.

For certain industrial uses, water must pass a high degree
of purity.  Boiler water for steam generation must be of
high purity to minimize scale deposits on heat transfer sur-
faces, and to control corrosion in boilers, condensers, and
associated piping.  The steam is used to drive turbines for
electric power generation or to drive turboblowers, in both
of which uses, a great deal of water must be circulated
through the condensers serving the turbines.

In order to produce the water of controlled purity, boiler
feedwater is treated in a three step process:  hot softening,
filtering, and deaeration.  Raw river water enters the plant,
is softened by the addition of lime and soda ash.  It is
here the calcium and magnesium are complexed and a slight
suspension is formed.  The water then proceeds through an-
thracite filters to remove suspended material.  Next step
is deaeration for removal of oxygen and the addition of
sodium sulfite to drive remaining oxidizing gases.  The
water then proceeds to the boiler for internal chemical
treatment, primarily a phosphate compound.

Another source of water at the boilers is for the ash
removal system.  Coal is delivered to the boiler house from
the coal washing plant.  The ash is wet down and then con-
veyed to a holding tank.  Water enters a flume and is con-
veyed to the "A" sewer.  Overflow water from the holding
tank also enters the "A" sewer.

The following locations were sampled at the boiler house and
power house area:

      Discharge from ash collector

      Filter backwash and ash conveyor water

      Power house drains

      Boiler water reactor tank
                          40

-------
        Ash pit influent

        No. 8 manhole before boiler house

  Analyses run on samples from the above locations include;
  1.   pH
  2.   Alkalinity
  3.   Suspended Solids
        4.  Dissolved Solids
        5.  Chlorides
        6.  Phosphates
  The analytical data are given in Tables
                 through
 PH
 Alkalinity
 Suspended
  Solids
 Dissolved
  Solids
 Chlorides
 Phosphates
                        TABLE 	
              DISCHARGE FROM ASH COLLECTOR -
                      NO.  7 MANHOLE
              FLOW 1,400,000 GPD
High
8.1
36.0
165.0
314.0
29.5
1.9
Low
ppm
7.0
32.0
47.0
304.0
26.0
1.2
Average
7.60
34.00
106.00
309.00
27.70
1.55
                       TABLE
           FILTER BACKWASH  & ASH CONVEYOR WATER
                  NEAR NO.  6 MANHOLE
                  FLOW 72,000 GPD
PH
Alkalinity
Suspended
 Solids
Dissolved
 Solids
Chlorides
Phosphates
                 High
Low
Average
              4.1
              8.0

             61.0

            304.0
             25.0
              1.5
                           41

-------
PH
Alkalinity
Suspended
 Solids
Dissolved
 Solids
Chlorides
Phosphates
                       TABLE
                    POWER HOUSE DRAINS
                    FLOW 144,000 GPD
                 High
   6.8
 110.0

 175.0

 410.0
  44.6
   3.4
              Low
              PPm
  6.7
 88.0

 29.0

223-0
 33.5
  3.3
            Average
  6.75
 99.00

102.00

316.50
 39.00
  3.35
PH
Alkalinity
Suspended
 Solids
Dissolved
 Solids
Chlorides
Phosphates
  High
                       TABLE
                     REACTOR TANK
                     FLOW 36,000 GPD

                             Low
  10.8
 252.0

 912.0

 429.0
  29.0
   8.9
  9.1
 52.0
300.0
  24.0
   8.6
            Average
 10.0
152.0

913.0

364.5
 26.5
  8.8
PH
Alkalinity
Suspended
 Solids
Dissolved
 Solids
Chlorides
Phosphates
                       TABLE
                   ASH PIT INFLUENT
                   FLOW 720,000 GPD
                 High
   9.6
  40.0

1425.0

 300.0
  29.5
   3.4
              Low
              PPm
  8.2
 40.0

140.0

277 .0
 25.5
  2.9
            Average
  8.9
 40.0

783.0

288.0
 27.5
  3.2
                           42

-------
                       TABLE
                    NO. 8 MANHOLE -
                  BEFORE BOILER HOUSE
                  FLOW 14,400,000 GPD

                 High        Low        Average
                     .	PP"i	

pH                8.2         7.1          7.7
Alkalinity       40.0        34.0        ,37.0
Suspended
 Solids         140.0        48.0         94.0
Dissolved
 Solids         335.0       277.0        306.0
Chlorides        29.5        25.0         27.5
Phosphates        6.6         2.9          4.8

Recommendations

Wastewaters  from this  area  were not  considered for co-treat-
ment.  Consideration  should be given to reuse schemes for
the huge volumes of water that are now being discharged to
the sewer.

Blooming Mill  - Structural  Mill

With continuous casting in  its infancy, most steel plants
still  utilize  both primary  and secondary rolling mills.  In
general, the primary mill reduces the ingot to a slab or
billet, and  the secondary mill further reduces the slab or
billet to  a  plate, shape, or strip.

The basic  operation in a primary mill is the gradual com-
pression of  the steel  ingot between  the surfaces of two
rotating rolls, and the passing of the ingot through the
space  between  the rolls.  Normally a number of passes in
sequence are necessary to achieve the proper deformation of
the steel.   As the ingot enters the  rolls, high pressure
water  sprays remove surface scale.

Descaling  sprays are  located on the  top roll carrier on the
delivery side  of the mill.  Descaling pumps with a capacity
of 10,000  gpm  operate  at a  pressure  of 750 psi.  Mill scale
is washed  into a scale pit  and removed by grab bucket on an
overhead crane.

Upon achieving the desired  shape and shearing of the end,
this semifinished produce is now ready for subsequent rolling
                           43

-------
operations, or in some instances may pass to an operation
that removes surface defects.

At one time surface defects were removed by hand chipping,
machine chipping, or grinding.  Today one of several types
of scarfing is generally used.  Scarfing is a process of
supplying streams of oxygen as jets to the surface of a
steel product under treatment, while maintaining high sur-
face temperatures that result in rapid oxidation and local-
ized melting of a thin layer of metal.  The process may be
done manually but in recent years the oxygen lanced hot
scarfing machine is used more frequently-  The hot scarfer
is generally located along side of the mill, and as the red
hot bloom or billet moves down the line through the mill, a
thin layer of metal is removed from all four sides.

The structural mill is the most common of several type mills
in which special shapes can be rolled from blooms.  These
shapes would include I-beams, channels, angles, sheet piling,
and rails to mention only a few.

Water Uses

The principal water uses in this operation are for cooling
and flume flushing.  During operation of a blooming mill, a
liberal supply of cooling water should be distributed uni-
formly over the rolls.  The water is generally off when the
mill is not rolling.  If water is kept flowing, the rolls
are kept turning to avoid uneven cooling which is one of the
most common sources of cracks in rolls.

High pressure spray water is used under the mill to convey
the scale to settling pits.  These pits are dredged con-
tinually and the water phase is discharged to the "A" system.

Only furnace cooling water from the structural mill flows to
the "A" system.  The major portion of the structural mill
water flows to the "C" sys'tem.  Therefore, discussion of
this mill is included under that section.

At the hot scarfer water is used to convey the scale that
has been removed by the oxygen jets to a scale pit.  This
pit is periodically cleaned and the water is discharged to
the "A" system.
                          44

-------
Four sampling locations were selected in the blooming mill
area:
 25   Blooming mill to main sewer

 26   Scale pit at scarfing mill

 27   Structural mill and blooming mill cropper

 28   Beginning of main sewer

The following analyses were run on approximately 200 samples;

1.  Temperature
2.  pH
3.  Suspended Solids
4.  Oil
Analytical data is summarized  in Tables
                            through
 Temperature
 PH
 Suspended
  Solids
 Oil
                        TABLE
               BLOOMING MILL TO MAIN SEWER
               FLOW 10,000,000  GPD
High
104°F
8.0
137.0
7.7
LOW
ppm
94°F
7.2
19.0
6.2
Average
100°F
7.7
76.0
7.0
Lbs/Ton
Rolled

0.857
0.079
Temperature
PH
Suspended
  Solids
Oil
                        TABLE  	
              SCALE PIT AT  SCARFING  MILL
              FLOW NOT  AVAILABLE
                 High
103°F
  7.4
            LOW
90°F
 7.2
           Average
98°F
 7.3

73.0
24.3'
                          45

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                       TABLE  .._
       STRUCTURE MILL AND BLOOMING MILL CROPPER
       FLOW NOT AVAILABLE
                 High
            Low
            PP™
           Average
Temperature
PH
Suspended
 Solids
Oil
                         140°F
                           7.3

                          81.0
                           9.0
                       TABLE
             BEGINNING OF EGG-SHAPED SEWER
             FLOW 1,440,000 GPD
                 High
            Low
            PP™
           Average
Temperature
PH
Suspended
 Solids
Oil

Recommendations
104°F
  7.5

190.0
  4.7
99°F
 7.2

12.0
 3.7
101°F
  7.3

 84.0
  4.2
          Lbs/Ton
          Rolled
0.1350
0.0067
Wastewater treatment in the blooming and structural mill
area is minimal.  There are several small pits that are
removing primarily large pieces of solid materials but
are generally inadequate for scale removal.  There is a
definite need for better designed scale pits and installa-
tion of oil removal equipment to improve the quality of
wastewater discharged from these areas.  Another alternative
is the use of the splitter box discussed below which would
reduce the discharge volume and provide water for reuse.

Presently wastewater from the structural mills flows through
the "C2" system and wastewater from the blooming mill flows
through "A" system as shown in Figure  8.  Since the prin-
cipal pollutant in both of these processes is suspended
solids, they may be treated within a similar system.  A
splitter box located alongside the blooming mill would
divert scale-bearing water from the blooming mill into the
"C2" system and shortly thereafter would pickup wastewater
from the structural mills.
                         46

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                             TO SEWER-
                             SYSTEM 'C'
     BLOOMING
       MILL
    SPLITTER BOX
   -TO SEWER
   SYSTEM 'A'
                       STRUCTURAL
                         MILLS
BLOOM ING-STRUCTURAL  MILL
        WASTE  FLOW
             FIGURE 8
              47

-------
As the "£-2" system flows alongside of the scale pit for the
hot strip mill, a significant amount of wastewater from the
structural and blooming mill can be diverted through the
scale pit as shown in Figure 9.  An oil collection skimmer
should also be installed at this scale pit.  The remaining
water can be discharged to the lagoon at "C" system which
includes provisions for settling and oil skimming facilities,
                         48

-------
         TO SEWER-
         SYSTEM'C'
FROM STRUCTURAL
AND BLOOMING
MILL
                 -HOT STRIP MILL EFFLUENT
                     WEIR
                     BAFFLE
                              ROUGHING  STANDS
                              ,— REHEAT FURNACES
                                AND ROUGHING
                                STANDS
       BLOOMING-STRUCTURAL  MILL
             WASTE  TREATMENT
                   FIGURE 9
                    49

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                          Section V

                       Sewer System B


Wastewaters that discharge  to sewer system B originate from
the following  areas:

Continuous anneal  lines
Weirlite mills
Electroplating  lines
Demineralization plant

A schematic of  sewer  system B is shown in Figure 3.  Sampling
points and flow rates for the various wastewater streams
are indicated  on the  schematic.  Approximately 1200 samples
taken at eight  sampling points were analyzed for the follow-
ing:

1.  pH                       8.  Total chrome
2.  Alkalinity               9.  Hexavalent chrome
3.  Acidity                 10.  Fluorides
4.  Sulfates                11.  Oil
5.  Suspended  Solids        12.  Chlorides
6.  Total iron              13.  Cyanide
7.  Tin                     14.  Temperature

Continuous Anneal  Lines

The purpose of  the continuous anneal lines is to clean and
properly recrystallize the  steel structure, ready to be
temper rolled or reduced on the Weirlite mill immediately.
after annealing.   These lines replace the functions of
separate cleaning  lines and batch anneal furnaces and pro-
vide a more uniform product.  The lines contain an entry
section, an annealing section, and a delivery section.  All
the components  in  the delivery section are primarily
mechanical and  include no wastewater functions.  In addition
to the mechanical  operations, the entry section contains a
cleaning tank,  and the annealing section contains a water
quench and a fast  cool zone.

The solution used  in  the cleaning section is a nonsilicated
cleaning compound  containing additional wetting agents.

The fast cool section contains water jackets through which
water is passed to cool the atmosphere in this section.

The function of the quench  tank is to provide a reduction in
the strip temperature.
                           51

-------
There are presently two continuous anneal lines in operation
and a third is under construction.

Wastewaters emanating from the continuous anneal lines  con-
sist of solution overflow from the cleaning tank made up of
high alkaline substances also containing significant amounts
of phosphorus and silicon.  Substantial amounts of oil  are
also removed in the cleaning and scrubbing sections.
Analytical data are given in Tables
                           and
          NO.
          TABLE
1 CONTINUOUS ANNEAL LINE SCRUBBER
 PH
 Pht.
  Alkalinity
 M.O.
  Alkalinity
 Suspended
  Solids
 Total Iron
 Oil
 Phosphorus
 Silicon
High
12.0
800.0
1270.0
1087.00
196.00
805.30
54.40
8.88
Low
ppm
10.4
70.0
200.0
128.00
90.50
55.10
8. 80
2.34
Average
11.4
417.6
649.0
490.4
114.2
254.1
29.9
5.2
          NO.
          TABLE
2 CONTINUOUS ANNEAL LINES SCRUBBER
 pH
 Pht.
  Alkalinity
 M.O.
  Alkalinity
 Suspended
  Solids
 Oil
 Phosphorus
 Silicon
High
12.0
900.0
210.0
370.0
169.5
21.9
7.4
Low
ppm
9.2
184.0
90.0
341.0
100.7
19.2
1.9
Average
10.6
542.0
150.0
355.5
134.1
20.5
4.7
                           52

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Weirlite Mills

Following the cleaning, annealing and tempering, the strip
passes to the Weirlite reduction mill which further reduces
the coil thickness  approximately 35% for the electroplating,
This mill must also produce  a good surface and shape.  Roll-
ing oil concentration from 5 to 10% is applied to the strip
by jet sprays and water is applied by sprays to cool and
strip where necessary.

Wastewaters from the Weirlite mill consist of emulsified
oils, surface oils, scale and dirt.  The mill consists of
two lines generating significantly different volumes of
wastewater.  On one line the rolling solution is constantly
being reused, generating wastewater as the solution becomes
ineffective.  The other line operates without the benefit
of a reuse program  and generates wastewater on a continuous
basis.  The discharges are being treated in a process which
consists of chemical treatment, air flotation, oil separa-
tion and skimming.

Analytical data are given in Table  /3IV  .  The variable
product mix throughout the tin mill operation prohibits
the use of production figures.  Therefore, waste loads in
pounds per ton are  not included in the "B" sewer system.
                        TABLE
          WEIRLITE  MILLS  - TREATMENT  EFFLUENT
          FLOW  288,000 GPD
PH
M.O.
 Alkalinity
Chlorides
Sulfates
Suspended
 Solids
Total  Iron
Total  Chrome
Tin
Oil
                  High
   6.5

  26.0
  27.0
 120.0

  57.0
   1.0
4050.0
              Low
              ppm
  6.0

 24.0
 25.0
 46.0
            Average
  6.2

 25.0
 26.0
108.0
 18.0          37.5
  0.8           0.9
    Not Detectable
    Not Detectable
265.9        1636.5
                           53

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Re c ornme nd at i on s

Wastes from the Weirlite mills are treated by chemical
additions, air flotation, oil separation, and skimming.
During the field work several abnormal oil concentrations
were obtained in the effluent.  These discharges were
subjected to the treatability studies and were found to be
an excellent source of food for the plant lab studies.
Therefore, the Weirlite mill effluent could be put into the
combined treatment plant.

Electro Plating Lines

After the strip has been temper rolled or double reduced it
then passes to one of the electrolytic lines.  The electro-
lytic process utilizes tin anodes and the steel strip is
the cathode.  The processes vary in their use of the
electrolyte and include stannous sulfate - phenolsulphuric
acid, alkaline stannate, and acid-halogen solutions.  In the
acid lines, the process sections consist of electrolytic
alkaline cleaning, rinsing, pickling, plating, quenching,
chemical treating, rinsing, drying and oiling.  In the alk-
aline lines the alkaline cleaner is omitted since the alk-
aline plating bath itself does sufficient cleaning.  Each of
these operations requires considerable amounts of high
quality water.

The electrolytic plating operations result in an effluent
containing various metals including tin, chromium and zinc
in addition to cyanides, alkali, and acids.   The effluent
is mainly in the form of rinses, sprays, and overflows from
the plating process.  Concentrated wastes including the
heavy metal wastes and acid solutions are presently disposed
of by contract hauling and treated outside the plant.

Analytical data are shown in Tables /3A through
                          54

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                       TABLE  	
                COMMON DISCHARGE NO. 1
            AND NO. 2 ELECTROPLATING LINES
            FLOW  3,916,800 GPD
PH
M.O.
 Alkalinity
Chlorides
Sulfates
Suspended
 Solids
Total Iron
Total Chrome
Hexavalent
 Chrome
Cyanide
                 High
7.1
           Low
           ppm
6.2
37.5
170.0
194.0
778.0
59.0
91.5
10.7
0.33
20.0
52.0
67.2
127.0
1.7
6.5
0.2
0.0
          Average
  6.70

 28.70
111.00
130.50

457.50
 30.60
 49.00

  5.50
  0.15
                       TABLE
               NO. 4 TIN LINE MAIN SEWER
               FLOW NOT AVAILABLE
PH
Mineral
 Acidity
M.O.
 Alkalinity
Chlorides
Sulfates
Suspended
 Solids
Total Iron
Total Chrome
Hexavalent
 Chrome
Tin
Cyanide
Fluorides
High
7.4
38.0
42.0
97.0
206.8
145.0
9.20
31.9
29.0
108.2
1.0
61.0
Low
ppm
3.50
10.00
4.00
28.00
78.00
27.00
0.13
0.53
0.50
4.80
0.32
12.00
Average
6.40
24.00
23.50
39.10
104.60
80.20
4.40
20.20
10.40
48.90
0.74
27.00
                           55

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                        TABLE  	
               NO.  5  TIN  LINE MAIN SEWER
               FLOW NOT AVAILABLE
PH
Mineral
 Acidity
M.O.
 Alkalinity
Chlorides
Sulfates
Suspended
 Solids
Total  Iron
Total  Chrome
Hexavalent
 Chrome
Tin
Cyanide
Fluoride
High
6.30
154.00
450.00
239.20
229.00
37.70
26.40
0.73
196.00
2.28
63.00
Low
ppm
3.70
6.00
20.00
96 .00
62.00
2.90
10 .10
0.15
7.30
0.25
1.90
Average
4.60
63.10
10.00
207.00
152.00
129.10
21.60
15.50
0 .34
122. 90
1.06
30.48
PH
M.O.
 Alkalinity
Chlorides
Sulfates
Suspended
 Solids
Total Iron
Total Chrome
Hexavalent
 Chrome
Tin
Cyanide
Fluorides
                       TABLE
               NO.  6 TIN  LINE MAIN  SEWER
               FLOW 3,773,000  GPD
                 High
Low
Average
4.9
10.0
65.0
390.0
308.0
55.1
3.8
0.0
14.7
3.6
26.0
2.8
2.0
20.0
84.0
31.0
14.4
0.8
0.0
3.1
0.4
1.1
3.9
4.0
45.5
250.7
146.0
29 .0
2.1
0.0
12.4
1.04
8.6
                          56

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Re commendat ions

The_greater portion  of the wastes  are dilute rinses and
their volume  is too  great to be discharged into the san-
itary sewer system.  Therefore, any considerations given
toward waste  treatment must begin  with separation of the
concentrated  wastes  from those produced by quenching and
rinsing.

Wastes from the plating lines were introduced into the
treatability  studies and found to  be compatible and amenable
to biological treatment.  Therefore, it is recommended that
pretreatment  be performed at the steel plant on concentrated
chromium wastes and  this discharge be sent to the sanitary
sewage plant.  Pretreatment would  consist essentially of
reduction of  hexavalent chrome to  the trivalent form.  A
survey of concentrated dumps place a conservative figure of
200,000 gallons per  year to be treated.  Use should be made
of concentrated wastes to fulfill  pretreatment chemical
requirements.  Those available include:

1.  Pickling  solution  (sulfuric acid)
2.  Cleaning  solutions  (alkaline)
3.  Demineralization waste  (sulfuric acid)
4.  Demineralization waste  (sodium hydroxide)

Treatment of  dilute  wastes would entail an in-depth study to
ascertain areas for  water conservation and reuse schemes to
reduce the volumes of wastes to be treated.  In addition,
consideration should be given to a centralized treatment
system for the tin mill plating lines in conjunction with
the nearby galvanizing lines.  Once again, use should be
made of the concentrated wastes as treatment chemicals in
order to reduce the  cost of treatment.
Demineralization Plant

The Tin Mill has its own water demineralization plant.  This
facility consists of an ion exchange operation that provides
water for use in the final rinse tank on the electroplating
lines.

Wastes from the demineralization plant consist of basically
acid and alkaline regenerants.  The volume of regenerants
is a function of the volume of demineralized water processed,

Analytical data for the demineralizer plant effluent are

shown in Table  /36\ .
                           57

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                        TABLE
           DEMINERALIZER PLANT FINAL DISCHARGE
           FLOW  144,000 GPD
High
11.9
800.0
1100.0
7400.0
Low
ppm
1.2
256.0
728.0
34.0
Average
3.93
528.00
914.00
1521.00
Lbs/Gal.
DM Water

.001
.002
.0037
 PH
 Pht.
  Alkalinity
 M.O.
  Alkalinity
 Mineral
  Acidity
 Total
  Dissolved
  Solids        5675.0       238.0       1340.00       .0033
Recommendations

Efforts should be made for efficient and conservative use
of demineralized water.
                          58

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                         Section VI

                       Sewer System C


Wastewaters that discharge to sewer system C originate from
the following areas:

Tandem Mills
Palm Oil Recovery
Hot Strip Mill
Pickling Lines
Galvanizing Dept.  (Sheet Mill)
Diesel and Car Shop
Structural Mill

A schematic of sewer system C is shown in Figure 4.  Sampl-
ing points and flow rates for the various wastewater streams
are also indicated on the schematic.  Approximately 1500
samples taken at various discharge points were analyzed for
the following:

1.  pH                        9.  Silicon
2.  Alkalinity               10.  Acidity
3.  Suspended Solids         11.  Chlorides
4.  Total Iron               12.  Total Dissolved Solids
5.  Oil                      13.  Ferrous Iron
6.  Total Chrome             14.  Sulfates
7.  Hexavalent Chrome        15.  Temperature
8.  Phosphates

Tandem Mill

The primary function of the tandem mill is cold reducing.
Cold reduction is a special form of cold rolling in which
the thickness of the starting material can be reduced in a
series of passes through a tandem cold mill.  The use of
rolling oil is necessary in the process to minimize friction
between the strip and the rolls.  The department has four
tandem cold mills; two five stand and two four stand.  Two
of the units utilize recirculating solution rolling systems.
The other two are once-through systems.  Two of the mills
discharge on a continuous basis and the mills on recir-
culation dump on a batch basis.  Principal wastes include
oils and suspended solids.  Average reductions at high speeds
generate  a heat load on the product as well as the rolls.
This heat gradient is controlled by a system of flood
lubrication in which palm oil or water soluble oils are
directed in small streams or jets against the roll bodies
                           59

-------
and the steel surface.  In other instances palm oil may
be used on the steel and high pressure water on the rolls.
The combined cold roll and reduction mills reduce the pro-
duct thickness and then provide a smooth, lustrous finish.
There are three (3) types of wastes discharged from the
tandem mills:

1.  Raw water and oil applied on the mill at the Nos. 5 and
8 Tandem Mills which goes to palm oil recovery plant.  This
is a once-through system.

2.  Nos. 6 and 7 Tandem Mills solutions are on a recirculat-
ing system.  After being used the solution drains to the
oil cellar, is filtered, undergoes temperature control and
is pumped back to the mill.  When contaminated, it too is
pumped to the palm oil recovery plant.  This combined total
amounts to about 1,000,000 gpd.

3.  Cooling water on the Morgoil Lube System heat exchangers
and the heat exchangers from the solution systems on Nos. 6
and 7 Tandems which goes directly to the river.

The oil waste streams (Nos. 1 and 2)  from the Tandem Mills
are treated at the palm oil recovery plant.  The heat
exchanger cooling water (No. 3) is used for indirect cooling
and does not change appreciably as it passes through the
system.  For these reasons, samples were not taken at these
locations.

Palm Oil Recovery, Inc.

Wastes from the tandem mill flow to the palm oil recovery
plant.  Here the wastes are subjected to treatment including
chemical additions, air flotation, sedimentation, and skim-
ming.

The palm oil recovery plant treats over 1,000,000 gpd of
waste oils.  Most of this oil is pumped from the tandem
mills.  Treatment consists primarily of settling, chemical
additions,  application of heat, air flotation, additional
settling, and finally skimming.  After treatment the oil is
returned to large storage tanks at the pickler building.
The oil is  then applied to the hot mill bands after pickling.
The underflow is discharged to the river and amounts to
about 1,000,000 gpd.
Analytical data are given in Table
A.
                          60

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                       TABLE 	
             PALM OIL RECOVERY PLANT EFFLUENT
             FLOW 1,000,000 GPD

                  High     Low      Average     #/Ton Steel
                  	ppm	Cold Reduced

                   7.2      2.2        4.6
 Total Acidity   835.0      2.0      183.8         0.229
 Mineral Acidity   -         -       700.0         0.874
 Total Iron      181.0     34.0      111.3         0.014
 Oils            1534.0     80.0      376.0         0.470
Recommendations

The effluent  from the primary portion of the treatment
process exhibited excellent potential for biological food
in the combined treatment plant.  It is recommended that
this effluent be discharged directly to the sanitary sewer
system and combined with the municipal wastes in conjunction
with the proposed co-treatment system.

Hot Strip

The function  of the hot strip mill is to reduce a slab of
steel to a relatively light sheet of semifinished steel.
The first step is to determine the proper grade of steel and
the size and  surface quality of the slab necessary to make
thei order.  Next is the operation of heating the slabs to
rolling temperature.  The slabs must be heated uniformly
throughout and also must have a uniform scale coating that
will clean readily in rolling.  The third step is to rough
down the slab to a predetermined thickness.  The first rol-
ling pass on  the slab is done on a scale breaker which is
followed immediately with a high pressure hydraulic spray to
facilitate removal of the furnace scale.  In addition, there
are usually one or, two more descaling sprays following the
second and third roughing stands to remove further scale
that may be loosened during rolling.  Next, the finishing
stand must be carefully regulated to obtain a finished hot
rolled product of prime quality.  A considerable amount of
water must be used here in descaling sprays as spray pat-
terns and time on the holding table all affect the finishing
temperature.  The final step in hot rolling is the deposition
                          61

-------
of the product.  The greater portion of  the  product is
handled by the hot coiling method.

Water is used quite extensively in the rolling  mills on
reheating furnaces to cool furnace doors and skid  pipes.
Water from high pressure jets is used to remove
scale from the hot steel before rolling  and  to  keep the
surface clean between certain passes.  The hot  strip mill
also uses cooling sprays over the runout table  to  cool the
strip to the proper temperature for coiling.

The scale removed from hot steel by the high  pressure jets
falls into a flume or sluice beneath the mill,  where a
running stream of water carries the scale to  a  scale pit.

Seven (7) locations were sampled and should provide a good
representation of discharges from the mill.   Samples were
taken at the following locations:

/38\  Reheat furnace and first two roughing stands  -
9,700,000 GPD.

      Last three roughing stands - 18,800,000 GPD

      Total effluent - Finish stands - 8,700,000 GPD

/41\   Scale pit effluent - 28,500,000 GPD

Analytical data are shown in Tables /38\  to
                        TABLE
                HOT STRIP REHEAT FURNACE
             AND FIRST TWO ROUGHING STANDS
             FLOW  10,000,000 GPD
 pH
 Suspended
  Solids
 Oil
 Chlorides
 Total Iron
High
7.2
Low
ppm
6.7
Average
7.0
Lbs/Ton

355.5
 15.1
 17.0
101.5
 13.0
 14.5
228.5
 14.0
 15.8
120.6
1.3760
0.0843
0.0951
0.7263
                          62

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 PH
 Suspended
  Solids
 Oil
 Chlorides
 Total Iron
                        TABLE
                HOT STRIP ROUGHING STANDS
                FLOW  18,000,000 GPD
                  High
   6.7

 430.8
  19.4
  17.5
             LOW
  6.5

123.0
  8.6
 15.5
            Average
  6.6

276.5
 14.0
 16.5
150.8
           Lbs/Ton
5.4000
0.2754
0.3246
2.9000
                        TABLE  A (
       HOT  STRIP  FINISH STANDS -  TOTAL EFFLUENT
       FLOW  13,000,000 GPD
PH
Suspended
 Solids
Oil
Chlorides
                  High
  7.1

256.0
 90.6
 18.5
             LOW
             PP™
  6.6

112.5
 12.9
 17.0
            Average
  6.9

201.0
 35.6
 17.8
           Lbs/Ton
1.8160
0.3216
0.1608
pH
Suspended
 Solids
Oil
Chlorides
Total Iron
                        TABLE
                HOT  STRIP  SCALE PIT EFFLUENT
                FLOW  28,000,000 GPD
                  High
  6.8

126.5
 14.3
 17.0
             Low
             PPm
  6.6

 47.0
  5.5
 16.0
            Average
  6.7

 86.8
  8.9
 16.5
175.9
           Lbs/Ton
2.6000
0.2646
0.4906
5.2000
                          63

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Recommendations

Under the present operation the wastewater from the finish
stands is discharged directly to the "C" sewer system.  This
could be diverted for flume flushing on the roughing stands
sluice way and then discharged to the scale pit.  The scale
pit should also be equipped with a more efficient system for
oil and solids removal.  As an intermediate step the scale
pit performance should be evaluated with polyelectrolytes
to determine the improved efficiency with the use of various
flocculating aids.  The present performance of the scale pit
is less than adequate, but on several occasions after
dredging the pit, the suspended solids discharge was less
than 50 ppm.  This indicates that more frequent pit clean-
ing would improve overall scale pit performance.

The hot strip, similar to the blast furnace, presents the
potential for water reuse and reduction of total discharge
volume.  The present system is shown in Figure 10.

The proposed scheme is shown in Figure 11 in which it is
assumed that the 10 MGD stream to the scale pit is 50%
furnace cooling water, and that 75% of the water require-
ment on the mills is for flume flushing.  With the complete
proposed management, the total effluent would be reduced
by more than 50% and the total effluent solids would be
reduced by reduction of the flow through the scale pit and
the retention of the finishing stand wastewater.  In ad-
dition, the problems associated with heat build up should
be investigated, and the potential for a cooling tower
installation should be evaluated.
                          64

-------
Ul
                              10 M.G.D.
            REHEAT
           FURNACES
                               18 M.G.O.
           FIRST ROUGHING
              STANDS
                                        SCALE PIT
SECONDARY ROUGHING
     STANDS
                                                              TO SEWER SYSTEM 'C1
                                                                   28 M.G.D.
                                                             TO SEWER SYSTEM
FINISHING
STANDS
13 M.G.D.
                    PRESENT  HOT  STRIP  WATER SYSTEM
                                       FIGURE 10

-------
(Tl
CT\
           5.0 M.G.D.
            REHEAT
           FURNACES
                5.0 M.G.D
                                      4.0 M.G.D.
                           ROUGHING
                            STANDS
               ROLL COOLING
                 SLUICEWAY
                            10 M.G.D.
ROLL COOLING
 SLUICEWAY;
               q
               in
                                                                SCALE PIT
                                                                              18  M.G.D.^  I2.3M.GJ>
                                                                             TO  SEWER -
                                                                             SYSTEM 'C'
                          Q
                          o
                          2
                          CO
                                        3-3 M.G.D
                             FINISHING
                              STANDS
ROLL  COOLING
y,.SLUICEWAY^
yy  	////
                                                                     i
                       o
                       o
                       5
                       N-
                       IO
                                                                                      I3M
                                                                             I8.7M.G.D.
                       PROPOSED   HOT  STRIP   WATER  SYSTEM
                                              FIGURE II

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Pickling Lines

The function of the pickling  lines is the removal of the
scale formed in the rolling process.  In the production of
the cold reduced steel, it is necessary that all scale be
removed to prevent lack of uniformity and eliminate surface
irregularities.

This mill has  four continuous picklers utilizing hydro-
chloric acid.  Untreated but  strained river water is used
in the entire  operation.

In addition to the usual handling equipment, the pickling
line consists  of several individual acid-proof tanks
located in a series.  Following the acid tanks are rinsing
tanks.  The cold water rinses the acid carryover from the
steel.  The hot water rinse warms the steel and produces
flash drying prior to recoiling.  Concentration of the acid
bath will vary with the type  and grade of steel being
processed.

Wastewaters from the continuous picklers originate as tank
overflow, rinse sprays, scrubber flow, and looping pit
discharges.  Several safety hazards prohibited a detailed
survey of all  the pickling facilities, and hence the bulk
of the field work was conducted at the No. 4 pickler.  Each
of the three picklers discharge approximately 800,000 GPD of
dilute wastes  and the fourth discharges approximately
1,000,000 GPD.

Analytical data are shown in Tables Az\ through
                       TABLE  /42\
                   NO. 4 PICKLE  LINE
                  SCRUBBER DISCHARGE
                  FLOW 235,000 GPD
pH
Mineral
 Acidity
Total
 Acidity
Chlorides
Total Iron
High
3.1
2060.0
5720.0
4350.0
3266.0
Low
ppm
1.6
80.0
140.0
200.0
32.6
Average
2.2
945.0
2220.0
1600.0
760.0
#/Ton Steel
Pickled

1.26
2.96
2.13
1.01
                           67

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                       TABLE    _
                     NO. 4 PICKLER
                     TANK OVERFLOW
                     FLOW 22,000 GPD

                 High     Low      Average     ft/Ton Steel
                 	ppm	Pickled

Mineral
 Acidity         12759     r7192      8778          1.07
Chlorides       218000   170000    193666         23.63
Total Solids    406554   283580    349835         42.68
Suspended
 Solids            598       65       315          0.038
Total Iron      155775   110510    137154         16.73
Together four (4)  continuous strip picklers contribute up
to 100,000 gallons of waste hydrochloric acid pickle liquor
per day.  Presently the waste pickle liquor is disposed of
by contract hauling to a waste site outside the city where
it is neutralized with lime and settled out in a lagoon.
Periodically the lagoons are dredged and the settled pre-
cipitate is used as fill.  The plant presently has under
study several methods other than hauling and off-site
neutralization for disposal of waste HCl pickling solutions.
These include:

1.  Deep well disposal
2.  On-site neutralization
3.  Hydrochloric acid recovery methods

Scrubber rinse waters from the No. 4 pickler were utilized
in the laboratory studies for pH control.  However, the
volume that can be taken to the plant will vary with the pH
of the wastes utilized in the demonstration plant.

Galvanizing Department (Sheet Mill)

The Galvanizing Department consists of four (4) galvanizing
lines, a cleaning line, box annealing facilities, a flying
shear cutting line, and batch pickling facilities.  Poten-
tial waste sources include pickle rinses, orthosilicate
tank overflows, scrubber waters, and rinse tank discharges.
                          68

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Pickling for sheet galvanizing is conducted as a batch
operation.  Very light pickling requiring only a short time
exposure to the pickling solution is generally suitable
for products such as roofing and siding.  Deep etching is
necessary when forming requirements are severe.

The four  (4) lines employ basically the same process.  The
material arrives at the lines from the Cold Reduction Mills.
The material is normally not cleaned, annealed, or skin
rolled prior to line processing.  Entry and equipment con-
sists of uncoilers, shears, and a welder.  The material
is cleaned in the line, annealed, coated, and cooled.

In the cleaning line the strip is passed through an aqueous
solution of orthosilicate and alternating grids to facil-
itate electrolytic cleaning.  The line is further composed
of such conventional equipment as a pay off reel, welder,
scrubber, wringer rolls, hot air drying, loop pit, tension
unit, and winding reel.

The annealing equipment is of a conventional style of three
or four stack box annealing.  The anneal cycle varies accord-
ing to the material being annealed and the physical proper-
ties desired.

Wastewaters from the galvanizing operation consist primarily
of orthosil tank carryover, scrubber waters, and rinses.
Total discharge from the department to the "C" system ap-
proximates 4,000,000 GPD.  In addition to sampling at the
main discharge sump, samples were also taken at various
discharge points on the cleaning and galvanizing lines as
indicated:

No. 1 Cleaning Line

 /44\  Final rinse - Flow 22,000 GPD

      Scrubber discharge - Flow 15,000 GPD

      Orthosil tank overflow - Flow 1,500 GPD

Galvanizing Lines

      Scrubber - Flow  15,000 GPD

      Scrubber - Flow  22,000 GPD

      Orthosil Tank -  Flow 1,500 GPD

      Total Galvanizing Plant Discharge
                            69

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Analytical data are given in Tables
through
 pH
 Pht.
  Alkalinity
 M.O.
  Alkalinity
 Suspended
  Solids
 Oil
 Phosphorus
 Silicon
                        TABLE
                   NO. 1 CLEANING LINE
                FINAL RINSE TANK OVERFLOW
                FLOW 22,000 GPD
High
11.7
750.0
836.0
5642.0
400.0
12.0
590.0
Low
ppm
10.8
60.0
140.0
79.5
6.6
2.9
6.1
Average
11.2
334.0
347.0
2960.0
129.5
7.6
205.8
Lbs/Ton
Cleaned

0.202
0.203
1.780
0.078
0.005
0.124
 PH
 Pht.
  Alkalinity
 M.O.
  Alkalinity
 Suspended
  Solids
 Oil
 Phosphorus
 Silicon
                        TABLE
                   NO. 1 CLEANING LINE
                    SCRUBBER OVERFLOW
                   FLOW 15,000 GPD
High
11.6
380.0
487.0
604.0
53.8
8.9 °
Low
ppm
11.1
26.4
288.0
132.0
40.3
4.8
Average
11.3
221.6
380.0
311.0
47.0
6.6
83.6
Ibs/Ton
Cleaned

0.091
0.157
0.129
0.019
0.003
0.034
                          70

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                       TABLE
                  NO. 1 CLEANING LINE
                ORTHOSIL TANK OVERFLOW
                FLOW 1,500 GPD

                          Average
pH
Pht. Alkalinity
M.O. Alkalinity
Suspended Solids
Oil
Phosphorus
Silicon
             13.0
            136.0
            496.0
           1571.0
            701.0
              4.8
           2080.0
                                Lbs/Ton
                                Cleaned
                       0.006
                       0.020
                       0.064
                       0.029
                       0.001
                       0.086
                        TABLE
       NO.  2  GALVANIZING LINE  SCRUBBER OVERFLOW
       FLOW 15,000  GPD
                 High
pH
Pht.
 Alkalinity
M.O.
 Alkalinity
Suspended
 Solids
Oil
Phosphorus
Silicon
  12.1

1100.0

1180.0

 434.0
 157.0
   4.6
 202.4
           LOW
 11.65

440.00

535.00

301.00
100.00
  2.40
 70.10
          Average
 11.9

867.0

942.0

359.0
123.0
  3.8
153.4
          Lbs/Ton
          Galvanized
0.067

0.073

0.028
0.001
0.0003
0.012
                          71

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                TABLE  	
NO. 3 GALVANIZING LINE SCRUBBER OVERFLOW
FLOW 15,000 GPD
          High
Low
Average
Lbs/Ton
Galvanized
pH
Pht.
Alkalinity
M.O.
Alkalinity
Suspended
Solids
Oil
Phosphorus
Silicon


9.8

56.0

76.0

36.0
-
8.0


NO. 3
9.0

10.0

46.0

26.5
-
0.8

TABLE M\
GALVANIZING
9.4

33.0

61.0

31.2
14.2
4.4
5.9

LINE


0.003

0.006

0.003
0.0011
0.0003
0.00046


ORTHOSIL TANK OVERFLOW



pH
Pht.
Alkalinity
M.O.
Alkalinity
Suspended
Solids
Oil
Phosphorus
Silicon
FLOW 1
High

13.0

9200.0

10300.0

523.0
23.2
-
-
,500 GPD
Low
ppm
11.8

6800.0

7600.0

395.0
12.0
-
-

Average

12.4

8000.0

8950.0

441.3
17.6
591.7
1182.0

Lbs/Ton
Galvanized


0.063

0.070

0.00034
0.00013
0.0046
0.0090
                  72

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                         tTABLE _„
          TOTAL GALVANIZING DEPARTMENT DISCHARGE
          FLOW 4,320,000 GPD

                   High     Low      Average     Lbs/Ton
                   	ppm	Galvanized

 PH                10.2      2.90       8.9
 Pht.
  Alkalinity      62.0     10.00      27.6         0.62
 M.O.
  Alkalinity     104.0     42.00      65.8         1.48
 Mineral
  Acidity           -        -       118.0         2.65
 Total  Iron       25.5      4.80      17.1         0.38
 Chlorides         48.0     20.00      32.5         0.73
 Suspended
  Solids          218.0     99.00     198.5         4.47
 Phosphate          6.4      1.20       4.3         0.097
 Silicon           20.9     13.80      17.9         0.38
 Zinc               1.1      0.31       0.6         0.014
 Total  Chrome      3.3      0.56       1.5         0.030
 Hexavalent
  Chrome            2.9      0.42       1.0         0.023
Recommendations

The greater volume of wastewaters from the department are
rinse and cooling waters.  However, there are overflows from
the scrubber, final rinse, and orthosil tanks that contain
significant amounts of oil, phosphorus, and suspended solids.
These wastes were introduced into the laboratory studies
and found amenable to treatment.  Therefore, these wastes
should be included for co-treatment in the combined treatment
plant.  Total volume of these wastes is about 25,000 GPD
per line or 125,000 GPD from the five lines.

Diesel And Car Shops

The Diesel and Car Shops perform strictly maintenance type
services.  Waste oils are collected in drums and not dis-
charged to sewers.  Flow from this area is about 1 to 2 gpm
and contains primarily slight traces of oil.
                           73

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Excess wash waters constitute the small discharge  from the
Diesel and Car Wash Shop.  A maximum of 3,000 GPD  is
discharged to the "C" system.

Analytical data are shown in Table
                        TABLE
               DIESEL AND  CAR SHOP  EFFLUENT
               FLOW  3,000  GPD

                               Average
 pH                                9.6
 Pht.  Alkalinity                  44.0
 M.O.  Alkalinity                 164.0
 Chlorides                        28.0
 Dissolved  Solids                463.0
 Suspended  Solids                284.0
 Phosphates                      23.2
 Oil                              10.6
Structural Mill

The first step in rolling a structural section is to design
the finish size, then to develop a method most suitable to
produce these dimensions.  All structural sections are pre-
shaped on a two high Morgan mill.  The structural mill is
very flexible in that two mills fit on the same bed plate,
one being a 23 inch mill and the other a 28 inch mill.
Channels, angles and beams are rolled on the 23 inch mill.
All wide flange beams, piling, and 2 center sills are rolled
on the 28 inch mill.  In the rolling of any section, the
roll must be adjusted to perform the passes as designed.
Untreated river water is used as process water at the
structural mill.  This water is used in the sluice way for
scale removal, as mill hydraulic water for operating side
guards, roll balancing, and high pressure sprays, coolant
water for skid pipes in the reheat furnace, and as hot
bed cooling water for structural shapes.  Total discharges
from this mill to the "C" system amount  to about 9,500,000
GPD.  Principal wastes in these waters include suspended
solids and oils.
                          74

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Analytical data are shown in Table
                        TABLE
                STRUCTURAL MILL EFFLUENT
                FLOW 9,500,000 GPD

                  High     Low      Average     Lbs/Ton
                  	ppm	Rolled

 pH                7.5      7.0        7.2
 Oil             125.0     80.0       93.0       29.83
 Suspended
  Solids         480.0     38.0      154.0       49.40
                           75

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                        SECTION VII

                      SEWER SYSTEM E
Sewer System E
Wastewaters that discharge to sewer system E originate from
the following areas:

Basic oxygen steel making
Vacuum degassing
Continuous casting
Coal washer
Detinning plant

Basic oxygen steel making, vacuum degassing and continuous
casting are integrated into one series of high tonnage oper-
ations with interconnected water recirculating systems.  For
this reason, these operations are discussed as one complex
rather than as three individual operations.

Most of the wastewater from the galvanizing operations
(sheet mill) is discharged to sewer system C, but a splitter
box in the main sewer diverts a percentage of this waste-
water to sewer system E.  This percentage is dependent on
the quantity of surface runoff water reaching the sewer.
The galvanizing operations including the effects on sewer
system E are discussed in System C.

A schematic of sewer system E is shown in Figure 5.  Samp-
ling points and flow rates for the various wastewater streams
are indicated on the schematic.  Approximately 400 samples
taken at seven sampling points were analyzed selectively for
the following:

1.  pH                             6.  Chlorides
2.  Alkalinity                     7.  Sulfate
3.  Dissolved Solids               8.  Phosphates
4.  Suspended Solids               9.  Zinc
5.  Total Iron                    10.  Hexavalent Chrome

Basic Oxygen Steel Making, Vacuum Degassing and Continuous
Casting

This facility integrates basic oxygen steel making, vacuum
degassing and continuous casting into one connected series
of high tonnage operations.  A brief description of each
operation follows below.
                          77

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Basic Oxygen Steel Making - This operation is commonly known
as the basix oxygen process (B.O.P-) or basic oxygen furnace
(B.O.F.).  Molten iron from blast furnaces, scrap, lime
and fluxes are charged into a large furnace and oxygen is
injected at high velocities to burn out the impurities in
the iron to produce molten steel.  The oxygen reacts with
the unwanted elements (carbon, silicon, phosphorus, and
manganese) to form oxides which either leave the bath as
gases, or combine with the lime to form a slag.  The hot
gases leaving the bath represent a sizeable amount of heat
and to conserve this energy and to maintain a more favor-
able heat balance in the system, a boiler has been installed
in the furnace stack.  Furnace capacity is approximately 300
tons and the charge-to-tap time is approximately forty
minutes.  Upon completion of this forty minute cycle, the
steel is tapped into a ladle after which it is either con-
tinuously cast into slabs, or teemed into ingots.

Vacuum Degassing - The purpose of the vacuum degassing oper-
ation is to remove dissolved gases  (oxygen, nitrogen, and
hydrogen) from the steel to improve its structure, thus
making it more adaptable to slab casting.  This is accom-
plished by exposing the molten steel to high vacuum.  All
heats which are continuously cast are vacuum degassed either
completely or partially.

Continuous Casting - In this operation, molten steel is
formed directly into slabs in one continuous process.  The
degassed molten steel is poured into a combination cooling
chamber-mold and is withdrawn from the bottom of the mold
as one continuous slab.   The slab is pulled through the mold
into a secondary cooling zone where it completely solidifies.
A torch cuts the slab into desired lengths.

In summary, the basic oxygen furnace, vacuum degassing, and
the continuous casting complex will convert blast furnace
iron and scrap metal into steel, extract gases from the
steel, and either continuously cast the steel into solid
slab forms or teem the steel into ingots.  The capacity of
this facility is 3,600,000 tons of steel annually.

Process water to these operations is strained and distributed
to five water systems within the complex:  (1) B.O.P. dust
system, (2) boiler feed water treatment, (3)  cooling tower
system, degassing and B.O.P.,  (4) continuous casting closed
system, and (5)  continuous casting open system.
                          78

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B.O.P. Dust System

This water is used for scrubbing dust from the basic oxygen
furnace exhaust gases.  It is a recirculating system and the
only makeup water required is for evaporation losses and
blowdown.  After the water leaves the scrubber system, large
solids are separated from it in a classifier.  The water is
then further clarified in two thickeners and recirculated
back to the scrubber.  The underflow from the thickener is
filtered.  The filter cake and solids from the classifier
(180 tons/day) are stored for future use.  Blowdown of clar-
ified water from the clearwell in this system amounts to
445 gallons per minute maximum.

Boiler Feed Water Treatment

River water is softened and used for boiler feed water.
This process consists of four treatments:   (1) hot soften-
ing,  (2) filtering,  (3) zeolite treatment, and  (4) deaera-
tion.  The suspended and dissolved solids removed from the
river water supply are filtered and disposed of as land fill.
The amount of wastewater reaching the sewer from this system
cannot be estimated because of intermittent regeneration,
backwashing and rinsing of water softening equipment.

Cooling Tower System - Degassing and B.O.P.

The cooling tower water system is a recirculating installa-
tion in which the water is used for indirect cooling in the
degassing and B.O.P- operations.  The water after a cooling
pass is returned to a cooling tower, cooled, and reused.
The only make-up water required is for evaporation losses
and for blowdown.  Blowdown from this system is approximately
73 gallons per minute.

Continuous Casting Closed System

The continuous casting closed system is an indirect cooling
system in which treated water is recirculated as the coolant
in the continuous casting molds and associated equipment.
The only make-up water needed is for evaporation losses and
for blowdown.  Blowdown from this system is 32 gallons per
minute.
                          79

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Continuous Casting Open System

The water in this system is used primarily for direct  slab
cooling on the continuous casting machine.  Scale contamina-
tion in the water is removed by filters.  The collected
scale filter cake is processes and recharged into the  steel
making process.  The filtrate water is cooled in cooling
towers and reused.  Blowdown water from this system is pre-
filtered and discharged at a rate of 242 gallons per minute.

The only other wastewater streams reaching the sewer in the
basic oxygen furnace - vacuum degassing - continuous casting
complex are (1) strainer backwash from the incoming raw water
system (156 gpm), (2) vacuum pump seal water from the rotary
drum filter (40 gpm), (3) miscellaneous pump seal water (flow
not available) and  (4) boiler water blowdown (450 gpm) .

In summary, nine wastewater streams reach the sewer from
this complex.   It was impractical to sample all nine of
these streams individually since some of them combine before
reaching an accessible sampling point.  Samples were taken
at the following areas:

      B.O.P- dust system thickener clearwell

      Boiler feed water treatment plant

      Cooling tower sump - the wastewater in this sump is
      a combination of five streams:  (1) cooling tower
      system - vacuum degassing and B.O.P. (2)  continuous
      casting closed system (3) continuous casting open
      system  (4) strainer backwash from the incoming raw
      water and (5)  boiler blowdown

      B.O.P- pump seals, filter pump vacuum seal and
      floor drains

Analytical data are given in Tables /53\ through
                          80

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                      TABLE  	
       B.C.P. DUST SYSTEM - THICKENER CLEARWELL
       FLOW 641,000 GPD
PH
Pht.
 Alkalinity
M.O.
 Alkalinity
Suspended
 Solids
Total
 Dissolved
 Solids
Total Iron
pH
Pht.
 Alkalinity
M.O.
 Alkalinity
Chlorides
Sulfates
Dissolved
 Solids
Suspended
 Solids
Phosphates
High
11.6
54.0
106.0
361.0
990.0
261.0
LOW
ppm
6.3
4.0
22.0
36.0
728.0
5.5
TABLE /B/K
BOILER FEED WATER TREATMENT
FLOW - INTERMITTENT
High
11.5
136.0
200.0
63.0
480.. 0
950.0
117.0
14.4
Low
ppm
11.3
72.0
146.0
32.0
312.0
644.0
33.0
5.6
Average
11.4
39.0
67.5
122.0
856.0
65.0
PLANT
Average
11.4
102.5
173.3
48.9
410.0
845.5
66.8
8.4
Lbs/Ton
Steel.

0.021
0.036
0.065
0.458
0.035






                         81

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 PH
 M.O.
  Alkalinity
 Chlorides
 Sulfates
 Dissolved
  Solids
 Suspended
  Solids
 Total Iron
 Hexavalent
  Chrome
 Phosphates
 Zinc
                        TABLE
                   COOLING TOWER SUMP
                   FLOW 1,862,000 GPD
High
7.60
25.00
19.00
105.50
261.00
50.00
6.12
1.00
12.00
0.58
Low
ppm
6.60
22.00
18.00
91.20
238.00
8.00
0.42
0
2.40
0.16
Average
7.10
24.50
18.40
103.00
242.50
31.00
2.90
0.25
4.90
0.42
Lbs/Ton
Steel

0.038
0.029
0.160
0.376
0.048
0.004
0.0004
0.0076
0.0006
                       TABLE

         B.O.P. PUMP SEALS, FILTER PUMP VACUUM
         SEAL AND FLOOR DRAINS
FLOW NOT AVAILABLE

        High        Low
PH
M.O.
 Alkalinity
Chlorides
Sulfates
Dissolved
 Solids
Suspended
 Solids
Total Iron
Zinc
                                        Average
8,1
22.0
48.0
139.0
276.0
192.0
150.0
6.6
6.4
6.0
16.0
101.0
101.0
76.0
61.5
1.2
7.2
15.3
29.3
120.0
107.0
136,3
92,0
4.6
                           82

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Recommendations

The wastewaters from the-basic oxygen furnace - vacuum
degassing - continuous casting complex are not amenable to
biological treatment and were not considered in the labora-
tory treatability studies.  However, the following recom-
mendations which could lead to improvement of present
operations, are submitted for consideration and further
study.

1.  Recent investigations have shown that the present sep-
    aration efficiency in the B.C.P. dust system thickeners
    may be increased by a factor of two through the use of
    magnetic flocculation.  The economics of installing
    such a system should be investigated.

2.  As an alternate to recommendation No. 1, laboratory
    studies with polymers indicate imrpovement in separa-
    tion efficiency with the use of a highly charged high
    molecular weight synthetic organic polyelectrolyte.
    The zeta potential was run prior to testing and the
    -21 MV reading suggested a high charge anionic material
    which was related to jar testing results.  Table 2
    shows the results of the B.O.P- polymer studies.

3.  In order to reduce the occurrence of suspended solids,
    a catch basin was installed below the gas cleaning
    system platform to collect the wastewaters resulting
    from pump seals, floor drains, etc.  Presently, this
    water is discharged to the sewer.  It is recommended
    that the water from this basin be pumped back to the
    thickener as indicated in Figure 12.
                          83

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00
                                            TABLE 2




                                    BOP THICKENER INFLUENT
Polymer
Polymer
Jar Cone.
No. (ppm)
1 0
2 0.05
3 0.1
4 0.5
5 1.0
6 2.0
7 5.0

Residual
S.S.
72.
27.
10.
4.
6.
5.
9.
TSS
(mg)
8
7
5
4
2
2
02
3
A
% S.S.
Removal
0
61.9
85.6
94.0
91.5
92.8
87.6
Raw
500 mg/1
Alkalinity 26mg/l as
Harndess
169mg/l as

C
Residual
S.S.
72.
21.
17.
2.
1.
2.
8.
Sample

CaCCh
CaC07
(mg)
8
0
0
2
3
3
0
Analysis
PH
Zeta
Bl
% S.S
Residual
Removal S.S.(mg)
0
71.
76.
96.
98.
96.
89.
6.

0
6
9
2
8
0
6
Potential


72.8
13.4
15.1
18.7
17.8
20.8
15.2

-21

% S.S.
Removal
0
81.6
79.2
74.3
75.5
71.4
79.0


       A  - High charged, high molecular weight




       C  - Medium charged, medium molecular weight



       Bl - Medium charged, sulfonated polystyrene

-------
00
                                      TABLE 2  (Continued)
                                            Polymer
Polymer
Jar Cone .
No. (ppm)
1 0
2 0.05
3 0.1
4 0.5
5 1.0
6 2.0
7 5.0

B2
Residual % S.S.
S.S. (mg) Removal
72.8
24.1
14.2
6.5
8.0
10.9
17.3
TSS
0
66.9
80.4
91.0
89.0
85.0
76.2
Raw
3500 mg/1
Alkalinity 26mg/l as

Harndess
169mg/l as
B3
Residual
S.S. (mg)
72.8
64.8
48.1
20.1
6.6
6.4
5.8
Sample Analysis
PH
CaCO3 Zeta
CaCO^

% S.S.
Removal
0
11.0
34.0
64.2
90.9
91.2
92.0
6.6
Potential

Residual
S.S. (mg)
72.8
66.9
67.6
24.4
9.4
9.4
9.8

-21

B4
% S.S.
Removal
0
8.1
7.2
66.5
87.2
87.2
86.5

       B2 - Medium charged  sulfonated polystyrene - high molecular weight



       B3 - Medium charged  sulfonated polystryene - medium molecular weight



       B4 - Medium charged  sulfonated polystyrene - below medium molecular weight

-------
oo
(Ti
                              *-

                 MAGNETIC
                FLOCCULATOR
             THICKENER-
               CLEAR WELL
         BLEED OFF TO SEWER
        PRESENT-SOLID LINE

        PROPOSED-BROKEN  LINE
           GAS CLEANING AREA
CLEAR WELL  EFFLUENT
                                       FOR REUSE
             PLATFORM
              DRAINS
                                   JSISE

                                   |l|


                                   ^ la:
                                                                         TO SEWER
                                                                                **•
                      BOP  WASTE  TREATMENT   SYSTEM
                                       FIGURE 12

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Coal Washer

Coal for the production of  steam at the boiler house is
washed prior to its use to  remove  foreign matter and reduce
sulfur and ash content.  Wastewater treatment and water
reuse are practiced at the  coal washer as shown in Figure
3.  After the water is used to wash coal, it is pumped to
a clarifier where  it  is chemically treated.  The overflow
from the clarifier is returned to  the system for reuse while
the clarifier for  reprocessing, and the separated solids
are hauled by truck to a landfill  site for disposal.  The
only make-up water required in this system compensates for
blowdown which amounts to approximately 50 gallons per
minute.  Approximately 1,800 tons  of coal are washed daily
in this operation.

Only one wastewater stream  reaches the sewer in this oper-
ation as shown in  Figure 13. Analytical data for this
waste are given in Table
PH
M.O.
 Alkalinity
Chlorides
Sulfates
Dissolved
 Solids
Suspended
 Solids
Total Iron
Aluminum
                       TABLE
                 COAL WASHER EFFLUENT
                 FLOW  72,000 GPD
                 High
   9.2

 412.0
  50.0
 413.0

1626.0

 439.0
 126.0
   4.1
           Low
           PPm
  7.8

100.0
 26.0
 96.0

710.0

101.0
 25.0
  1.5
          Average
   8.5

 286.5
  40.0
 157.0

1205.0

 331.0
  51.5
   2.3
            #/Ton  Coal
              Cleaned
0.086
0.012
0.047

0.360

0.099
0.015
0.0007
                          87

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CO
CO
        COAL TRUCK UNLOADER
            COAL WASHER
                                               •*H CLARIFIER
                                                         SLUDGE
                                                         WITHDRAWAL
                                                    FILTERS
                             MAJORITY  OF CLARIFIED WATER RECYCLED
                                 	.^K	_^	I
                                   PARTIAL OVERFLOW
                                   TO SEWER
                                                                      •SLUDGE
                                                                       HAULED
                                                                       AWAY
                                 COAL LOADING  INTO RAILROAD  CARS
       TO  "E"
      SYSTEM'
                SAMPLE  POINT
COAL  WASHER
   FIGURE 13

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Recommendations

The wastewater from the coal washer is not amenable to
biological treatment and was not considered in the labora-
tory treatability studies.  The waste treatment facilities
at the coal washer are operating satisfactorily, but it
appears that the chemical dosage demand is quite high.  It
is recommended that a study be made on the chemical treat-
ment system to determine the potential for reduced treat-
ment costs.

Detinning Plant

The main function of the detinning plant is to reclaim tin
from tinplate scrap and electrolytic sodium fluorostannate
acid sludge.

Tin is reclaimed from tinplate scrap by placing it in a
drum containing sodium nitrate caustic soda.  The solution
reacts with the tin to form sodium stannate.  The excess
sodium stannate precipitates out of solution and collects
on the bottom of the tank.  The drum is drained and rinsed,
and the scrap steel is reused in the basic oxygen furnace.
Sodium stannate precipitate accumulates in the tank and is
recovered.  The stannate is subjected to a sulphuric acid
treatment which converts it to stannic hydroxide.  This
product is filtered, dried, mixed with anthrcite coal, and
reduced to metallic tin.

1)  Na2Sn03 + H2S04 + H20	>Sn(OH)4 + Na2S04

2)  Sn(OH)4	>Sn02 + 2H20

3)  Sn02 • 2H20 + C 	>Sn + C02 + H20

Tin is reclaimed from the electrolytic sodium flurostannate
sludge by reacting with sodium carbonate to form stannic
hydroxide.  The stannic hydroxide is then reduced to metal-
lic tin as previously stated.

   Na2SnF6 + 2Na2C03 + 4H20	>Sn(OH)4 + 6NaF + 2H2C03

Wastewaters in the detinning process originate from the
filtering and washing operations and exit from the plant
in two streams as shown in Figure 5.  Analytical data for

these waste streams are given in Tables  ^58^ and
                         89

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                       TABLE
             DETINNING PLANT; NO. 1 MANHOLE

             FLOW - 72,000 G.P.D.
PH
Pht.
 Alkalinity
M.O.
 Alkalinity
Chlorides
Sulfates
Suspended
 Solids
Total Iron
Cyanide
Tin
Total Chrome
High
9.30
352.00
1072.00
422.00
6996.00
2397.00
14.20
0.96
1440.00
0.15
Low
ppm
7.80
4.00
64.00
24.00
110.40
64.50
3.70
0.46
9.70
0
Average
9.00
108,50
540.60
128.10
1490.50
390,80
6.90
0.73
191.50
0,06
                       TABLE
             DETINNING PLANT; NO. 2 MANHOLE

             FLOW 36,000 G.P.D.
PH
M.O.
 Alkalinity
Chlorides
Sulfates
Suspended
 Solids
Total Iron
Total Chrome
Fluorides
Tin
Cyanide
High
10.9
3850.0
275.0
14400.0
1287.0
36.6
6.4
920.0
540.0
6.5
Low
ppm
7,1
76.0
50.0
1080.0
98.0
2.0
0
430.0
24.8
0.13
Average
8,6
1932.0
135.8
5580.0
633.0
13.3
1.8
571.2
137.8
3.3
                           90

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Recommendations

The detinning operation is in essence a waste treatment
process and it appeared to be closely controlled.  Effluent
volume from the operations amounted to about 75 gpm.  These
wastes were introduced in the treatability studies and were
found to be amenable to biological treatment.
                          91

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                        Section VIII

                   Sewage Treatment Plant

                 Data Acquisition Evaluation


The city of Weirton operates sewage treatment facilities
under the direction of the Weirton Sanitary Board.  The
facilities were designed in 1957 by Alden E. Stilson &
Associates, Limited, of Columbus, Ohio, to provide primary
degree removal with chlorination for a design population
of 38,700 in the year 1980.  The average daily design flow
through the plant was 4,000,000 gallons per day.  The
sewage treatment facilities consist of grit removal, screen-
ing and grinding, raw sewage pumping, preaeration, primary
settling, chlorination, separate sludge digestion, and
disposal of the sludge by vacuum filtration with the dried
sludge trucked to waste.  A schematic flow sheet of the
Weirton sewage treatment plant is shown on Figure 14.  The
dimensions and capacities or volumes of the major components
of the treatment plant are listed in Table 3.

Undoubtedly the flows and population increase anticipated
by the design engineers have not developed, as the average
daily flow through the sewage plant is on the order of 1.25
mgd.  As a result, only one-half of the treatment facilities
are in use.

To determine the volume of industrial water that can be
discharged to the sewage plant, daily flow rates for the
past three years have been studied.  These were compiled
on a monthly basis and the ranges and average daily flows
for each month are shown on Table 4 for a three year period
beginning November 1, 1967, and ending October 31, 1969.
The mean daily flow for each of these respective calendar
years (November to October) was 1.062,  1.330, and 1.278 mgd.
The three year mean daily flow was 1.223 mgd.  Daily flows
during this period ranged from a low of 0.180 mgd to a high
of 2.524 mgd.  Only the volume of sewage flowing through
the plant is recorded, and on those days when the volume is
very low, such volumes are indicative that sewage is being
bypassed to the Ohio River.

Laboratory Control

Laboratory control of the plant's operation consists of
daily analyses of the raw and treated sewage for pH, dis-
solved oxygen, total, suspended and settleable solids,
                           93

-------
                                      OHIO RIVER
UD
TRASH RACK

   ARMINUTORS

       GRIT CHAMBER

               AW SEWAGE PUMPS

                  VENTURI FLOW METER

                      PRE-AERATION
         f— STORM WATER
            BY-PASS
              TO DISPOSAL
                                              PRIMARY
                                              SETTLING
                                             TANK NO. I
                                              PRIMARY
                                              SETTLING
                                             TANK NO. 2
  CHLORINE
CONTACT TANKS
   CHLORINATION
    EQUIPMENT
                        VACUUM FILTER
        SCHEMATIC FLOWSHEET PRIMARY SEWAGE  TREATMENT  PLANT
                                        FIGURE 14

-------
                                             TABLE  3

                                PHYSICAL SIZE OF MAJOR FACILITIES
                                WEIRTON SEWAGE TREATMENT PLANT
10
m
     Unit               No.


Coitunirvutor               2

Grit Chamber             I

Raw Sewage Wet Well

Raw Sewage Pumps         3



Preaeration Tanks        2

Primary Sedimentation    2
Tanks

Chlorine Contact Tank    1

Digestors                2
                                           Dimensions




                                      16'-6"  x 12'-0" x 10'-2" SWD

                                      33'-0"  x 20'-0" x 8'-0" SWD
                                      35'-0"  x 16'-0" x 9'-7" SWD

                                      96'-6"  x 33'-0" x 9'-5" SWD
Capacity or Volume


6.5 mgd

15,250 gallons

23,900 gallons

No.  1-2000 gpm
No.  2 - 3500 gpm
No.  3 - 2000 gpm

41,200 gals, each tank

214,380 gals,  each tank
                                      28'-0" x 18'-0" x 15'-0" SWD   56,540 gallons

                                      55'-0" dia x 23'-0"

-------
                                             TABLE  4
Ch
                  COMPILATION OF  DAILY  RECORD FLOWS OF WEIRTON SEWAGE PLANT
                 THREE-YEAR PERIOD NOVEMBER 1,  1967 THROUGH OCTOBER 31, 1969

                          1967                       1968                      1969
               Monthly Flow  Avg. Daily  Monthly  Flow  Avg. Daily  Monthly Flow  Avg. Daily
                Range, mgd   Flow, mgd     Range,  mgd   Flow, mgd    Range, mgd   Flow, mgd
Nov.
Dec.
Jan .
Feb.
March
April
May
June
July
August
Sept.
Oct.
0.645-1.214
0.775-1.608
0.772-1.439
0.770-1.400
0.453-1.615
0.485-1.350
0.590-1.245
0.900-1.170
0.250-1.130
0.973-1.633
0.328-1.420
1.100-1.578
       Ye ar Me an :

       Yearly
       Range   0.250-1.633
1,
1.
0.
1.
0,
0.
1.
1.
0.
1.
1.
001
135
970
066
957
904
045
034
904
329
151
                               1.253
1.062
0.395-
0.746-
0.505-
0.378-
1.320-
0.388-
0.859-
0.690-
0.230-
0.870-
0.420-
1.140-
-1.414
-2.050
•1.873
•1.651
-2.340
-2.524
•1.772
-1.276
-1.623
-1.572
-1.350
-1.610
0.959
1.571
1.431
1.330
1.815
1.766
1.283
0.872
1.129
  280
 ,193
                                                          1.
                                                          1,
                          1.329
                        1.330
                                                                    1.107-1,
                                                                          -1,
1,
1
1,
  056
 ,046
  090
0.897
0.344
0.902
0.851
0.911
0.180
1.210
1.030
600
813
                                                                         -1.679
                                                                          -1
                                                                          -1
640
589
     -1.753
     -1.565
     -1.248
      1.310
      1.470
     -1.659
     -1.579
1.308
1.455
1.444
1.357
1.375
1.262
1.176
0.025
1.095
0.991
1.436
1.410

1.278
          0.230-2.524
                                   0.180-1.813
       3  Year Mean:  1.223 mgd

-------
5-day biochemical oxygen demand  (BOD), and temperature.
The total daily sewage flow, effluent chlorine residual and
volume of sludge pumped to the digesters are also recorded.
Daily settleable and suspended solids and BOD records have
been compiled on a monthly basis for  the period November,
1966, through October, 1969, and are  listed on Tables 5, 6
and 7, respectively.  The plant's efficiency based upon these
three parameters can be summarized in the following Tables:
                           97

-------
                                              TABLE  5
vo
00
                      COMPILATION OF DAILY RECORDED SETTLEABLE SOLIDS ANALYSES
                    THREE YEAR PERIOD NOVEMBER 1, 1967 THROUGH OCTOBER 31, 1969
                           SEWAGE TREATMENT PLANT, WEIRTON, WEST VIRGINIA
                                    SETTLEABLE SOLIDS, IN ml/1
                  1967  Monthly Average
                 Raw    Final  Reduction
Nov.
Dec.
Jan.
Feb.
March
April
May
June
July
August
Sept.
Oct.
Yearly
Mean:
4.2
3.8
4.5
4.1
2.5
2.7
3.7
5.0
5.3
5.8
5.3
5.3

4.4
0.7
0.7
0.3
0.6
0.2
0.3
0.4
0.8
0.8
0.5
0.4
0.7

0.5
83.3%
81.6%
93.3%
85.4%
92.0%
88.9%
89.2%
84.0%
84.9%
91.4%
92.5%
86.8%

87.7%
 1968 Monthly Average
Raw   Final  Reduction
4.9
4.3
4.6
4.0
3.4
3.6
3.3
4.4
5.2
5.4
7.0
6.6
0.4
0.8
0.7
0.9
0.6
0.7
0.6
0.6
1.0
0.4
0.5
0.4
91.8%
81.4%
84.8%
77.5%
82.4%
80.6%
81.8%
86.4%
80.8%
92.6%
92.9%
93.9%
            1969 Monthly Average
           Raw   Final  Reduction
5.8
4.3
4.6
5.4
5.4
4.6
5.1
5.6
5.1
4.2
6.4
5.3
0.6
0.7
0.8
0.5
0.8
0.8
0.6
0.4
0.7
0.3
0.8
0..9
89.7%
83.7%
82.6%
90.7%
85.2%
82.6%
88.2%
92.9%
86.3%
92.9%
87.5%
83.0%
                                           4.7
       0.6
86.6%
5.2
0.7
87.2%

-------
                                             TABLE  6
                     COMPILATION OF DAILY RECORDED SUSPENDED SOLIDS ANALYSES
                  THREE  YEAR PERIOD NOVEMBER 1, 1967 THROUGH OCTOBER 31, 1969
                         SEWAGE TREATMENT PLANT, WEIRTON, WEST VIRGINIA
                                    SUSPENDED SOLIDS, IN mg/1
                 1967  Monthly Average
                Raw   Final  Reduction
 1968 Monthly Average
Raw   Final  Reduction
VO
Nov.
Dec.
Jan.
Feb.
March
April
May
June
July
August
Sept.
Oct.
Yearly
Mean :
114
-
138
116
90
84
80
109
138
150
161
158

122
42
—
58
58
43
42
32
61
75
66
67
62

55
63%
-
58%
50%
52%
50%
60%
44%
46%
56%
58%
61%

55%
            1969 Monthly Average
           Raw   Final  Reduction
126
115
126
100
101
97
108
115
146
199
136
148
59
61
51
62
66
54
77
44
59
72
37
49
53%
47%
60%
38%
35%
44%
29%
62%
60%
71%
73%
67%
141
116
100
139
123
93
112
123
93
152
119
64
59
46
55
62
54
49
55
42
65
66
55%
49%
54% f
60%
50%
42%
56%
55%
55%
57%
45%
                                          126
       58
54%
119
56
53%

-------
                                            TABLE
                        COMPILATION OF DAILY RECORDED B.O.D.* ANALYSES
                  THREE YEAR PERIOD NOVEMBER 1,  1967 THROUGH OCTOBER 31,  1969
                        SEWAGE TREATMENT PLANT,  WEIRTON, WEST VIRGINIA

                          BIOCHEMICAL OXYGEN DEMAND  (B.O.D.), IN  mg/1
                1967 Monthly Average
               Raw   Final  Reduction
 1968 Monthly Average
Raw   Final  Reduction
                    1969 Monthly Average
                   Raw   Final  Reduction
o
o
Nov.
Dec.
Jan.
Feb.
March
April
May
June
July
August
Sept.
Oct.
Yearly
Mean :
215
196
205
194
102
134
133
194
162
216
213
225

182
141
120
138
108
65
87
71
125
94
164
140
142

116
34%
39%
33%
44%
36%
35%
47%
36%
42%
24%
34%
37%

36%
224
197
211
166
216
213
182
207
218
229
218
196
118
119
138
117
157
129
115
102
121
129
111
115
47%
40%
35%
30%
27%
39%
37%
51%
44%
44%
49%
41%
198
169
179
196
215
179
156
184
149
175
199
212
116
104
107
119
139
114
 96
109
 95
122
130
132
41%
38%
40%
39%
35%
36%
38%
41%
36%
30%
35%
38%
                                         206

       *B.O.D. = Biochemical Oxygen Demand
       123
        41%
           184
       115
        37%

-------
Over a three year period, these parameters of efficiency
show the operation and performance of the sewage treatment
plant to be faily consistent.  The performance of this
plant is typical of other primary plants, even though the
one primary settling tank in use is operating at 65% of its
design flow of 2.0 mgd.   (Table 8).

The existing primary treatment plant was designed for an
average daily flow of 4.0 mgd.  The State of West Virginia's
Department of Health follows the recommended design practice
of the Ten States Standards1.  These design criteria change
somewhat when using the primary treatment facilities in a
secondary treatment process.  The capacities of the existing
facilities are compared to the design parameters for both
primary and secondary treatment in Table 9 to show the
limiting capacity (flow) for expansion.  Based upon this
evaluation, the limiting unit would be the chlorine contact
tank at a flow of 5.0 mgd.  Additional chlorine contact
capacity could be provided by enlarging the existing unit
or adding another tank during plant expansion.  Since the
preaeration tanks are not necessary for expansion to second-
ary treatment, the next limiting facilities are the sedimen-
tation tanks at a flow of 6.4 mgd.

Secondary Treatment Processes

There are two basic, biological treatment processes to be
considered for expansion of the existing Weirton sewage
treatment facilities to provide secondary treatment; i.e.,
activated sludge or trickling filters.  A third, physical
treatment process similar to the "Chemical/Physical Waste-
water Treatment Process" recently patented by the Calgon
Corporation should also be considered because of the nature
of the industrial wastes that are being considered for dis-
charge to the sewage facilities for treatment.

Activated Sludge Process2

There are many variations of the activated sludge process


1.  "Standards for Sewage Works," Upper Mississippi River
    Board of Public Health Engineers and Great Lakes Board
    of Public Health Engineers, revised July, 1954.

2.  "Sewage Treatment Plant Design", Manual of Practice No.
    8, Water Pollution Control Federation and the American
    Society of Civil Engineers, 1959.
                         101

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                        TABLE 8


            WEIRTON SEWAGE TREATMENT PLANT
       SUMMARY OF PLANT PARAMETERS OF EFFICIENCY


          YEARLY MEAN PERCENTAGE OF REDUCTION
                                              Biochemical
        Settleable Solids  Suspended Solids  Oxygen Demand
           % Reduction       % Reduction      % Reduction
1967          87.7%               55%               36%

1968          86.6%               54%               41%

1969          87.2%               53%               37%


3 Year Mean   87.2%               54%               38%
                          102

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                                     TABLE  9
       COMPARISON OF UNIT CAPACITY DURING PRIMARY AND SECONDARY TREATMENT
                         WEIRTON SEWAGE TREATMENT PLANT

                                       Primary Treatments       Secondary Treatment
Unit
Comminutor
Grit Chamber
Preaeration
Required or
Design Parameter Recommended
None
Velocity
Detention
Detention
Aeration Rate
—
0.75-1.25 fps
1.1 minutes
20-30 minutes
0.0-0.2 ft3/gal
Provided at Required or Limiting
4.0 mgd Flow Recommended Flow
6.5 mgdx:each
0.04 fps
5.49 minutes
29.7 minutes^
0.2 ftVgal
-
Same
Same
Same
Same
6.5 mgd
75.0 mgd
20.0 mgd
5 . 9 mgd
8 . 0 mgd
Sedimentation  Surface Settling  600-800 gpd/ft2  628 gpd/ft2   1000 gpd/ft2 6.4 mgd
Tanks          Rate
Chlorine
Contact
Chamber
Peak Hourly
Flow, or peak
Pumping Rate
15 minutes
20 minutes
at 2000 gpm
Same
5.0 mgd

-------
for biological waste treatment.  Although varying  in  detail,
they essentially consist of aeration tanks with their
aerating and agitating facilities; the final settling tanks
with their sludge withdrawal facilities; and pumps  for
returning the activated sludge from the settling tanks to
the aeration tanks.  Preliminary treatment to remove  grit
and coarse solids ahead of the aeration tanks is usually
accomplished with primary sedimentation tanks.  The acti-
vated sludge is agitated and aerated.  The activated  sludge
is subsequently separated from the treated sewage  (mixed
liquor) by sedimentation, and wasted or returned to the
process as needed.  The treated sewage overflows the  weir
of the settling tank in which separation of the sludge takes
place.  The "activated" sludge is a floe that is produced
by the growth of bacteria and other organisms in raw  or
settled sewage in the presence of dissolved oxygen  (aeration
tanks).  The floe is permitted to accumulate or concentrate
by continually collecting it in settling units and returning
it to the aeration tank.

The conventional activated sludge process has long been used
in treating domestic wastes and to some extent in treating
industrial wastes.  This process is capable of producing
a somewhat higher degree of treatment, 90 to 95% BOD
reduction, and a clearer effluent than most other biological
oxidation processes.

Completely mixed activated sludge processes have found
increasing popularity for use on industrial wastes.   In
general, industrial wastes are more highly contaminated
than domestic wastes and, more importantly, are often
subject to sudden, sharp increases in contamination.   It is
frequently claimed that the conventional activated sludge
process is easily upset by industrial wastes and is incap-
able of handling shock loads.  This reputation may be due
largely to inadequate design and/or faulty operation.
Well-designed and operated activated sludge plants have
effectively handled high proportions of various industrial
wastes.  For those systems where shock loadings of indus-
trial wastes can be expected, the use of combined mechanical
and diffused aeration devices is preferred over straight
diffused aeration in order to completely mix the incoming
raw waste with the contents of the aeration tank as
thoroughly as possible.
                         104

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Trickling Filter Processes

A trickling filter or biofilter  is  a  fixed bed of rocks,
slag, or plastic media over which the wastewater flows and
is contacted with a microbial  slime which has formed into
a thin layer or film covering  the bed media.  Aerobic
conditions are maintained by natural  draft air currents
flowing through the bed.

In actuality, the wastes are not filtered, but are absorbed
by the microbial slime.  Air is  diffused into the slime
layer to furnish oxygen for biochemical synthesis, and
auto-oxidation or endogenous respiration takes place, re-
leasing carbon dioxide water,  and other oxidized end pro-
ducts.  The net new growth of  microbial sludge causes the
slime layer to thicken.  As the  layer becomes thicker the
outer portion will eventually  slough  off.

There are many variations of the basic trickling filter
process.  When the system is used for treating domestic
wastes or combinations of domestic  and industrial wastes,
primary sedimentation is employed.  In the conventional
process, the primary settled effluent is passed through
the trickling filter and into  a  final or secondary settling
tank which removes the settleable solids sloughed from the
filter.  Without any recirculation  of the clarified plant,
the process is termed low rate or standard rate.

Most trickling filter systems  constructed today employ the
high rate design.  The difference between low rate and
high rate filters is in the hydraulic loading.  Most high
rate filters utilize recirculation, which is recycling of
filter effluent through the filter.   Variations in the
basic process begin with varying recirculation ratios;
whether the recycled filter effluent  is returned to the
primary settling tank influent or to  the filter influent;
variations as to the recycle methods  to two filters in
series, use of intermediate settling  tanks, etc.

Trickling filters are applicable for  secondary treatment of
domestic sewage and mixtures of  domestic and industrial
wastes which are susceptible to  aerobic biologic processes.
They are capable of providing  adequate treatment of such
wastes where the production of a plant effluent of 20 to
30 mg/1 of BOD is acceptable,  assuming normal loadings.
Trickling filters are the most versatile of the biologic
treatment processes, and very  dependable in performance.
                          105

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Activated Carbon Wastewater Treatment Process

The use of granular activated carbon to remove dissolved
organic matter from wastewater has been successfully applied
to many industrial wastes.  Demonstration of this process
by the U. S. Environmental Protection Agency at Pomona,
California, and Lake Tahoe, Nevada, have shown its appli-
cation for tertiary treatment of domestic wastes.  The
use of activated carbon system to provide BOD removals
equal to secondary biological treatment was recently
demonstrated by the Calgon Corporation at the Cuyahoga
County Waste Treatment Plant in Rocky River, Ohio.

The process is of interest in the Weirton situation because
of the possible variations of dissolved organic materials
under consideration for combined domestic and industrial
waste treatment in the city sewage plant.  The patented
Calgon process consists of primary sedimentation with the
addition of chemical coagulants to increase suspended solids
removal.  The clarified wastewater is then passed through
"contactors" which are vertical columns containing beds of
granular, activated carbon.  The carbon adsorbs dissolved
matter and also serves to filter suspended solids.  Since
this is a physical process rather than a biological one,
the system will be unaffected by sudden changes in influent
wastewater quality or by toxic substances.  Such a system
can be expected to provide consistent BOD removals of
90 to 95%.

Design Parameters for Demonstration Plant

Design of the Demonstration Plant is to be included in
Phase II of the original three phase project.  However,
based on the treatability evaluation and the present sewage
plant facilities, some basic preliminary design criteria
may be established.  If the existing primary settling tanks
are utilized as primary tanks, the design of the surface
settling rate would be  <600 gpd/ft2.  If these tanks are to
be used as intermediate tanks, the surface settling rate
would be  <1000 gpd/ft2.

Design criteria for the aeration tanks is based on an
applied loading of 35 pounds BOD/1000 ft^.  Detention time
is in the order of six  (6) hours with tank depths approx-
imating ten (10)  to fifteen (15) feet.  If more than two
(2) aeration tanks are required, the existing preaeration
tanks may be put into service.  Air requirements to supply
the necessary two (2)  ppm of dissolved oxygen are approx-
imately 1500 cu.  ft. air/lb. BOD.
                         106

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Return sludge pump capacity would be in the magnitude of
50% of the design flow to optimize the mixed liquor sus-
pended solids.  The final settling tanks would be designed
to achieve a surface settling rate of  <800 gpd/ft2.  The
design parameters of the treatment process would be such
so as to provide greater than a 90% removal of BOD and
suspended solids.

Cost Estimates for Expansion to Secondary Treatment

Construction costs have been estimated for expansion of
the existing Weirton Sewage Treatment Plant to provide
secondary treatment.  Cost estimates are given only for
the activated sludge process.  Construction cost estimates
for expansion to trickling filtration will be about the
same as activated sludge; however, costs for the activated
carbon process can be expected to be 10% to 20% lower.
Operating costs for the activated sludge process at Weirton
are estimated to increase the present operating costs by
50%.  Operating costs for the trickling filtration and
activated carbon processes are estimated to increase present
operating costs by 40% and 60% respectively.

Table 10 shows the construction cost estimates for expan-
sion facilities for combined sewage and industrial wastes at
a  flow of 4.5 mgd.  Figure 15 shows the proposed layout for
expansion of the present primary treatment plant.
                          107

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                       TABLE 10

           WEIRTON SEWAGE TREATMENT PLANT
            SECONDARY TREATMENT EXPANSION
             CONSTRUCTION COST ESTIMATE
                                        DESIGN  FLOW RATE
UNIT                                         4.5 MGD
Conventional Activated Sludge
Aeration Tanks                              $275,000

Final Clarifiers with Return
Sludge Pumping Facilities                   150,000

Interunit Piping                            175,000

Electrical, Plumbing and Heating              75,000

Contingency at 20%                          135,000

Engineering and Project Supervision           80,000


TOTAL ESTIMATED CONSTRUCTION COST           $890,000
                         108

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                                    OHIO RIVER
  ^-STORM WATER
      BY-PASS
               TRASH RACK

                   ARMINUTORS

                       GRIT CHAMBER

                               RAW SEWAGE PUMPS

                                     VENTURI FLOW METER
                                CHLORINE
                              CONTACT TANKS
PRE-AERATION
                                                                CHLORINATION
                                                                 EQUIPMENT
                                              PRIMARY
                                             SETTLING
                                            TANK NO. I
                                              PRIMARY
                                             SETTLING
                                            TANK NO. 2
RAW SLUDGE
                  DIGESTORSrZ

        TO DISPOSAL
                   VACUUM FILTER


PRESENT PRIMARY PLANT WITH
PROPOSED SECONDARY  TREATMENT
           FIGURE 15
             PROPOSED SECONDARY TREATMENT-

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                         SECTION IX

              SEWER SYSTEM DATA AND EVALUATION


The city of Weirton tied together the existing sanitary
sewer system with an interceptor system when the sewage
treatment facilities were constructed.  Several areas in
the Weirton Steel Division are under consideration for dis-
posal of wastewaters to the city sewage treatment facilities.
These include the coke plant area, palm oil recovery, sheet
mill, tin mill, and the hot strip mill.

The coke plant is in an area where the city interceptor
begins.  Sanitary wastes from both the coke plant and the
steel works areas presently flow by gravity to the city's
Fifth Street lift station.  The King's Creek, Kings's Bowl,
and Weircrest areas of the city also drain to this station.

Since most of the wastes considered for co-treatment emanate
from the coke plant, an in-plant economic evaluation should
be made for construction of internal sewers and related
facilities.  Consideration should also be given to costs for
an equalization basin or similar type holding capacity.  It
would appear that holding capacity of eight  (8) to twelve
(12) hours would be required, which would entail the instal-
lation of a 500,000 to 1,000,000 gallon tank or basin.

The lift station is equipped with two, 1,000 gpm pumps.
Observation of the operation of these pumps indicates an
average daylight pumping rate of 500 to 750 gpm.  Much of
the time both pumps are operating, presumably at a total
pumping rate of 2,000 gpm.  As a first estimate, the lift
station has the capacity of an increase in flow of 1,250 gpm
(1.8 mgd).  Since the 14 inch cast iron force main from the
lift station can handle larger flows than 2,000 gpm, the
installation of larger pumps is a possibility; however, the
capacity of the gravity interceptor must first be determined.

The force main discharges into a 21 inch reinforced inter-
ceptor installed on a slope of 0.5 ft/100 ft.  Using a
roughness coefficient of 0.013 in the Manning formula, this
segment of the interceptor has a capacity to convey 7.5 mgd
when flowing full.  Standard sanitary engineering design is
to provide 250% of design flow for peak flow and infiltration
in interceptors.  Therefore, this segment of the interceptor
has a capacity for 3.0 mgd, or approximately the capacity of
the lift station.
                          Ill

-------
The 21 inch portion of the interceptor enlarges to 24 inches
on a slope of 0.4 ft/100 ft.  This segment has a capacity for
9.0 mgd when full or 3.9 mgd at standard design flow.  Below
this, the interceptor enlarges to 30 inches, 36 inches, and
48 inches.  The relevant data for this interceptor from the
lift station to the sewage plant is summarized in Tables 11
and 12.

Presently, the limiting capacity in the interceptor sewer is
approximately 1.0 to 1.5 mgd into the Fifth Street lift
station.  The force main discharges into a 21 inch segment
of the interceptor.  Although standard design practice would
place the capacity of this sewer at 3.0 mgd, the determina-
tion of the actual peak flows in this sewer may show that it
has a higher "safe" reserve capacity than the present esti-
mate of 1.6 mgd.  Similar determinations may also be neces-
sary in the larger downstream portions of the interceptor.

The 21 inch and 24 inch portions of the interceptor are
constructed of vitrified clay pipe, and the larger diameter
portions of reinforced concrete pipe.  Vitrified clay is very
resistant to acids, alkalis and other corrosive chemicals.
Concrete pipe on the other hand can be corroded by acids and
sulfide gas.  The industrial wastes under consideration for
discharge into the Weirton sanitary system basically consist
of acid scrubber rinses, tin mill finishing rinses, and oil
waters from the palm oil treatment plant and Weirlite lines.
Analyses of these wastewaters during this study found them
to be in the neutral pH range and not to contain sulfides.

Other wastes under consideration are those from the coke
plant.  These waters do contain sulfides, but it is believed
that they will react with soluble iron from the acid rinses
to form insoluble ferrous sulfate and not create any corro-
sion problems.  As a protective measure, it is recommended
that either the wastewaters or the interceptor be contin-
uously monitored for pH to prevent against an unnoticed
acid condition occurring.

The investigation of the sewer system indicated that selected
steel plant wastes could be handled in the main city sewer
system, but that an individual plant study should be made on
internal sewer costs.
                         112

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                        TABLE 11

             INTERCEPTOR SEWER DESIGN DATA

                 WEIRTON, WEST VIRGINIA
Interception            Material of
  Segment               Construction            Diameter

Fifth Street          Cast Iron                    14"
Lift Station

No. 3-A               Extra Strength               21"
                      V.C.P.

                      Extra Strength               24"
                      V.C.P-

No. 1                 R.C.P., R.C.C.P.             30"
                      2 Extra Strength
                      R.C.C.P.

                      R.C.P.                       36"

                      R.C.P. , R.C.C.P.,            48"
                      2 Extra Strength
                      R.C.C.P.
R.C.P. - Reinforced Concrete Pipe

R.C.C.P. - Reinforced Concrete Culvert Pipe

V.C.P. - Vitrified Clay Pipe
                          113

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                                      TABLE  12

                           INTERCEPTOR SEWER DESIGN DATA
                               WEIRTON, WEST VIRGINIA
INTERCEPTION
SEGMENT
Fifth Street
Lift Station
No. 3 -A

No. 1


SLOPE
FT/100FT
0.
0.
0.
0.
0.
5
4
4
2
6
CAPACITY
WHEN FULL*
>-2
7
9
17
20
70
.9
.5
.0
.5
.0
.0
ragd
mgd
mgd
mgd
mgd
mgd
ALLOWABLE
CAPACITY

3.
3.
7.
8.
28.
-
0
8
0
0
0

mgd
mgd
mgd
mgd
mgd
PROBABLE
RESERVE
1.5
1.6
2.3
5.0
-
-
SAFE
CAPACITY
mgd
mgd
mgd
mgd


                                                                       NEARBY OR
                                                                       ADJACENT WEIRTON
                                                                       STEEL FACILITIES

                                                                       Coke Plant Area
                                                                       and Tin Mill

                                                                       Cold Mill and
                                                                       Finishing and
                                                                       Sheet Mill

                                                                       Detinning Mill
                                                                       and Palm Oil
                                                                       Recovery
*At n = 0.015 in Manning's Formula

-------
                          Section X

                Laboratory Treatability Studies


 Laboratory treatability studies were undertaken to evaluate
 the biological treatability of various combinations of the
 subject industrial wastes admixed with varying amounts of
 municipal sewage.  The two prime considerations in the lab-
 oratory studies were:

 1.   The ability of microorganisms to acclimate and subse-
     quently degrade waste constituents.

 2.   Possible deleterious effects of the various steel mill
     wastes on the biological system.

 Two basic laboratory methods were evaluated for studying  the
 treatability of industrial wastes by biological processes.
 There were continuous units such as those proposed by
 Ludzack, Busch and Renn, and fill-and-draw units such as
 proposed by Symons, et.al.

 Phase I

 For the initial phase of the study the method of Symons,
 et.al., appeared to be the best choice.  The simplicity of
 these units allowed several to be operated simultaneously.
 This consideration was of prime importance since many dif-
 ferent waste streams were candidates for cotreatment in
 many different combinations.  Two, five compartment units
 of the type proposed by Symons et.al., (Figure 16) provided
 for ten simultaneous runs for the determination of treat-
 ability.

 The following waste streams were used in the laboratory
 studies:

 1.   Raw ammonia liquor
 2.   Ammonia still waste
 3.   Absorber barometric condenser effluent
 4.   Benzol cooling tower bleed
 5.   Benzol sump
 6.   Final cooler bleed
 7.   Elliott strainer backwash
 8.   Tin mill electroplating line discharge
 9.   Pickle line scrubber rinses
10.   Galvanizing mill wastes
11.   Detinning plant wastes
                          115

-------
1000 ml
500 ml
      AIR
     BATCH-FED PILOT  PLANT
              FIGURE 16
              116

-------
12.   Weirlite mill effluent
13.   Palm oil recovery effluent
14.   Municipal sewage

 The first tests conducted by fill-and-draw techniques were
 designed to provide information on the acclimation times and
 degrees of toxicity or degradability of specific wastes.  In
 this test, the bacteriological cultures were first acclim-
 atized over a period of 2 weeks to feed upon sodium benzoate,
 phenol, cyanide and a phenol/cyanide mixture.  A particular
 waste material was then added to each of the above four sys-
 tems in increasing concentrations accompanied by a corres-
 ponding decrease in base feed  (phenol, cyanide, sodium
 benzoate) to maintain an initial constant COD loading.  The
 net result is a system that eventually consists of all waste
 food.  The ability of the bacteria to survive and/or metab-
 olize the waste and the rate at which they will acclimatize
 to the waste are the desired results of the test.

 The necessity of providing sufficient nourishment for the
 desired bio culture density on a 24 hour test cycle restricted
 the initial tests  (Symons, et.al.) to an evaluation of plant
 wastes capable of supplying this minimal value  (approximate-
 ly 1,000 mg/day COD).  These test restrictions limited the ini-
 tial waste evaluations to the ammonium based materials  (raw
 ammonia liquor and ammonia still waste),  In the evaluation,
 a mixture of these two wastes was utilized with the blend
 ratio corresponding to possible plant effluent ratios.

 The results of these tests indicated the following:

 1.  The by-product waste mixture was 70% reduced in chemical
     oxygen demand  (COD).  The removal mechanism was probably
     a combination of biological assimilation and mechanical
     air stripping.

 2.  The palm oil waste evaluated was completely metabolized
      (100% reduction) indicating excellent compatability with
     the biological culture(s).

 Phase II

 The purpose of this phase of the study was solely to  estab-
 lish compatability.  For wastes containing less than  the
 minimum 1,000 mg/day COD value required to support the bio
 culture, system modifications were required.  These modi-
 fications made use of a  supplemental food source of a known
 degradation rate added to the waste being investigated  to
 provide the required minimum nutrient  level.  The
                          117

-------
                           TABLE 13

               BATCH PILOT UNIT - WASTE COMPOSITION

                                        Sodium Benzoate Base  (1)
       Waste                            And Added Waste Volume
                                        (in ml/day)


 1.   Benzol CT Bleed                                 8

 2.   Benzol CT Sump                                100

 3.   Final Cooler Bleed                             60

 4.   Ammonia Still Waste                           120

 5.   Raw Ammonia Liquor                            120

 6.   Absorber Baro. Cond.                          1000

 7.   Elliott Strainer Backwash                     336

 8.   Blank

*9.   Blank

10.   Raw Ammonia Liquor                            500
     4 x Normal Cone.
 (1)   Sodium benzoate added to each system in terms of 1000 mg
      COD/day or 362 mg TOC/day-

   *   In system (9)  Sodium benzoate added as 2000 mg COD/day or
      724 mg TOC/day.
                             118

-------
food source selected was sodium benzoate.  The test condi-
tions employed in this phase utilized calculated additions
of a specific waste which corresponded in most cases to a
rate equal to twice the waste volume that would be encounter-
ed in actual plant operations.  The wastes tested included
raw ammonia liquor, ammonia still waste, barometric conden-
ser effluent, benzol cooling tower bleed, final cooler bleed,
benzol sump, and Elliott strainer backwash.  These wastes
were always supplemented with a fixed amount of sodium
benzoate.  Fresh sewage was utilized as a dilutant to obtain
the desired system volume and as a source of trace nutrients.
Since the total system BOD value was always greater than its
base feed by some amount, two blanks were carried throughout
the tests.  The first blank or reference was restricted to
a 1,000 ppm base rate.  The second reference was carried at a
considerably higher value to indicate the degree to which the
biological system could accomodate the higher BOD values
contributed by the wastes in the other test systems.

The objective of this series of tests was designed to show
the effect of the various plant wastes on the degradation
rate of the sodium benzoate through comparative analyses of
the waste system and the sodium benzoate reference system.
The analytical results utilized were based on the soluble
TOG values taken at the termination of each 24 hour test
period.

Correlation of the various system analyses with the sodium
benzoate standard over an extended  (11 day) period of time,
as shown in Figures 17, 18, 19, 20, 21,  22, 23 and 24
would indicate the following conditions  or trends.

1.  Acclimatization

    This condition would be indicated by the convergence of
    the waste versus reference test results with time.
    This condition is best illustrated by Figure 20-21.

2.  Toxicity

    This condition would be indicated by a divergence of
    the test result values with time.  This condition was
    not indicated in any of the systems  evaluated.

3.  Inhibitory or slowly degradable/refractory waste materials

    This condition would be indicated by the presence of
    parallel data of different magnitude.  Observation of
    the terminal sludge densities indicated that the high
                         119

-------
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                    23456789   10  II
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                                        567
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                          567
                          TIME - DAYS
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*SEE TABLE 13 FOR            TIME - DAYS
WASTE COMPOSITION
                                      10   II
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            RAW  AMMONIA  LIQUOR
                        FIGURE 24
                      127

-------
    BOD levels was not conducive to accelerated biological
    growth rates to accomodate the available food.  The
    minimum reduction in bio-oxidation incurred with a
    major  (50%) reduction in the sludge blanket density
    would tend to confirm this condition.  This condition
    is best indicated by Figure 24.  Significant results
    of this test series were as follows:

    1.  Ammonia liquor wastes substantially inhibited bio-
        logical assimilation.

    2.  All remaining wastes tested showed comparable as-
        similation rates with the blank.

Phase III

The final phase of  the study was conducted using a continuous
flow system.  The apparatus in these tests utilized four (4)
pilot continuous flow biological reactors in conjunction
with two fully adjustable peristaltic pumps.  The general
configuration is as shown in the accompanying drawing
(Figure 25).

These pilot plants were run at capacities reflecting proper
scale down from an actual operating faciliy.  Table 14
shows a typical feed rate and concentration to one of these
pilot plants.

The peristaltic pumps utilized were employed as multiple
head pumps, each pump being used to supply either waste or
sewage to the operating bench scale plants.  Under these
conditions, any variation in pumping rate was reflected in
the feed rate to all of the plants.  Interplant feed rate
variations were effected through the changing of the indi-
vidual pump tubes contained in the particular pump.

Raw wastes were contained and fed from a multiple of five
(5) gallon bottles.  The sewage bottle was both aerated and
refrigerated to retard biological decomposition and to keep
it in an aerobic condition.

In the operation of these plants, the regulation of the air
flow and baffle positioning was otpimized to provide a rel-
atively fast rolling action in the aeration chamber.  Excess
air flow was utilized to insure adequate aeration.  Sampling
was performed at 24-hour intervals.
                          128

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to
                ALL  MATERIAL  IS  1/4" CLEAR
                PLEXIGLASS  - EXCEPT  INFLUENT
                AND  EFFLUENT  PIPES
SETTLING ZONE
        AERATION ZONE
                            PILOT  ACTIVATED SLUDGE TREATMENT PLANT
                                      CONTINUOUS FLOW MODEL
                                              FIGURE 25

-------
                         TABLE 14






                    BENCH SCALE PLANT




                   CONTINUOUS FLOW MODEL








Total Capacity  2,000 ml/plant




Loading  815-1630 Kg/1/1000 m3/24 hours




Feed Concentration  180-220 mg/1 BOD








Loading of plant for this study based on 1200 Kg/1000 m3








2.4 gms BOD/24 hours




at 200 mg/1 BOD value = 8.35 ml/min.




4 hours retention time
                         130

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A series of three  (3) system tests were conducted in the
continuous bench scale plants utilizing, in various ratios,
all the plant wastes with the exception of the raw ammonia
liquor and ammonia still wastes  fraction from the coke
plant waste stream.  A fourth plant was put on-line uti-
lizing the raw ammonia liquor and ammonia still waste.
The computed blends for systems  I through IV are shown
in Tables 15, 17,  19, and 21, respectively.  Tables 16, 18,
20, 22, and Figures 26, 27  and 28 reflect the results of these
tests.

Specifically, the  results of these studies show the follow-
ing:

1.  Input TOC loadings varied widely, but removal ef-
    fiencies remained relatively constant.

2.  On a continuous basis,  TOC removal ranged between 50%
    and 70% based  on an approximate detention time of 3.7
    hours.

3.  Slime bacteria were noted to exist in all four  (4) of
    the continuous pilot units tested and was predominant
    in System II,  which consisted primarily of benzol final
    cooler bleed and absorber barometric condenser wastes.

4.  No apparent acute toxicity problems were encountered
    in any of the  systems tested.
                          131

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             TABLE 15

             SYSTEM I

         COMPUTED BLENDS*
                              ml
Benzol Cooling
Tower Bleed

Benzol Cooling
Tower Sump

Final Cooler
Bleed

Absorber Baro-
metric Cond.

Elliott Strainer
Backwash

Palm Oil

Weirlite

Detinning

Tin Mill

Galvanizing Mill

N&S Scrubber

  Batch Total Volume
  35


 600


 365


 825


2000

5000

 350

 350

 350

  70

_(**)

9945
 * Blends derived from proposed alternate
   piping arrangements.

** Scrubber volume varied daily to effect
   proper pH control.
              132

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OJ
3 ay
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.
13.
14.
15.
*See
Raw
Sewage
TOC
42
42
57
25
109
88
47
66
51
91
50
77
62
81
64
Table 26
Raw*
Waste
TOC
114
114
40
52
99
81
120
111
125
345
177
128
145
119
240
Combined
Influent
TOC
83
83
48
38
104
79
76
93
95
230
125
110
112
107
168
for composition of r<
     TABLE  16

   SYSTEM NO. 1

PLANT PERFORMANCE

       Effluent
         TOG


          48

          52

          31

          19

          19

          25

          17

          23

          50

          62

          36

          24

          34

          27

          70
% Reduction


     40

     37

     35

     50

     81

     69

     59

     75

     47

     73

     71

     78

     69

     75

     58
                                                                       Retention
                                                                       Time Hours   pH
 9.8       7.7

 9.8       7.6

16.6       7.7

16.6

16.6       7.7

 3.6

 3.6       7.0

 3.6       7.1

 3.6       8.2

 3.8       7.3

 3.8       6.7

 3.8       6.7

 3.8

 3.8       6.4

 3.8       8.0

-------
             TABLE 17

             SYSTEM II

         COMPUTED BLENDS*
                              ml
Benzol Cooling
Tower Bleed

Benzol Cooling
Tower Sump

Final Cooler
Bleed

Absorber Baro-
metric Condenser

Elliott Strainer
Backwash

N&S Scrubber
                  TOTAL
   31


  530


  360


 7400


 1800

 (**)

10121
 * Blends derived from proposed alternate
   piping arrangements.


** Scrubber volume varied daily to effect
   proper pH control.
               134

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Ul
TABLE 18
SYSTEM II

Day
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.
13.
14.
15.

Raw
Sewage
TOG
42
42
57
25
109
88
47
66
51
91
50
77
62
81
64

Raw*
Waste
TOC
82
82
86
98
82
77
129
112
125
160
172
178
141
169
152
PLANT
Combined
Influent
TOC
62
62
77
61
95
81
79
94
88
128
123
138
110
135
117
PERFORMANCE
Effluent
TOC
33
42
30
18
30
33
109
74
83
49
50
118
48
35
40

% Reduction
47
32
61
70
69
60
(-30)
21
6
61
59
14
56
74
66

Retention
Time Hours
9.8
9.8
8.3
8.3
8.3
8.3
3.6
3.6
3.6
3.8
3.8
3.8
3.8
3.8
3.8

£H
7.5
7.5
7.5
-
7.5
-
7.0
6.9
6.9
7.0
6.7
6.9
-
6.9
6.8
       *See Table 29 for composition of raw waste

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             TABLE 19

            SYSTEM III

         COMPUTED BLENDS*
                              ml
Benzol Cooling
Tower Bleed                   41

Benzol Cooling
Tower Sump                   700

Final Cooler
Bleed                         43

Absorber Barometric
Condenser                    970

Elliott Strainer
Backwash                    2380

Palm Oil                    5580

N&S Scrubber                (**)


                  TOTAL    10094
 * Blends derived from proposed alternate
   piping arrangements.
** Scrubber volume varied daily to effect
   proper pH control.
               136

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w
Day
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.
13.
14.
15.
Raw
Sewage
TOC
42
42
57
25
109
88
47
66
51
91
50
77
62
81
64
Raw*
Waste
TOC
135
135
75
88
158
81
124
132
167
465
257
223
222
209
174
Combined
Influent
TOC
95
95
66
56
133
85
77
105
120
295
172
164
156
159
130
                                            TABLE 20

                                         SYSTEM NO. Ill

                                      PLANT PERFORMANCE


                                              Effluent
                                                TOG      % Reduction
 33

 47

 34

 29

 21

 16

 36

 27

 70

129

 30

 96

 62

 45

 51
65

50

49

48

84

81

41

74

42

56

82

41

60

72

61
                       Retention
                       Time Hours
 9.8

 9.8

16.6

16.6

16.6

16.6

 3.6

 3.6

 3.6

 3.8

 3.8

 3.8

 3.8

 3.8

 3.8
7.3

7.3

7.3



7.5



6.9

6.8

6.9

6.7

6.7

7.0



6.9

6.8
        *See Table 32  for composition  of  raw waste

-------
             TABLE  21

              SYSTEM IV

          COMPUTED  BLENDS*
                               ml
 Raw Ammonia
 Liquor

 Ammonia Still
 Waste

 Benzol  Cooling
 Tower Bleed

 Benzol  Cooling
 Tower Sump

 Final Cooler
 Bleed

 Absorber Baro-
 metric  Condenser

 Palm Oil

 Weirlite Line

 Detinning

 Tin Mill

 Sheet Mill

 N&S Scrubber
 784


 784


  37


 635


 370


 875

5300

 370

 370

 370

  74

(**)
                Total
9964
 *  Blends derived from proposed alternate
    piping arrangements.

**  Scrubber volume varied daily to effect
    proper pH control.
                 138

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                     TABLE 22


                      SYSTEM IV


                  PLANT PERFORMANCE
1st Day
Sewage
Waste Feed*
Combined
2nd Day
Sewage
Waste Feed*
Combined
3rd Day
Sewage
Waste Feed*
Combined
4th Day
Sewage
Waste Feed*
Combined
5th Day
Sewage
Waste Feed*
Combined
TOC TOC
Influent Effluent
90
360
232 165
50
190
126 102
78
294
193 112
64
209
151 74
56
189
127 38
% Reduction


33


20


40


51


71
* See Table 35 for composition of raw waste.
                           139

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   %TOC REDUCTION
   % OF RATED PLANT
     CAPACITY
                                             RETENTION TIME
                                              ^ SEE TABLE 15 FOR
                                              WASTE COMPOSITION
BENCH  SCALE  PLANT  -  SYSTEM  I
                   FIGURE 26

-------
200
                                %TOC REDUCTION
                             --% OF RATED PLANT
                                 CAPACITY
ENDOGENOUS
RESPIRATION

                                                 RETENTION  TIME
                                                     TABLE 17 FOR
                                                  WASTE COMPOSITION
                                         13  14  15
   BENCH  SCALE  PLANT  - SYSTEM
                      FIGURE 27

-------
9.8 HRS
. L , '
*!>*•* — —
280 ' ~> a. '
260 ;;EEEE(:|EEE|
240 I;|::|:fp:
220 :::::il|||
200 ;;__%•


-------
                   GENERAL CONCLUSIONS

                    PHASES I, II & III
1.  All waste combinations were found to be amenable to
    biological acclimation.

2.  In the concentrations used in the test work, the raw
    ammonia liquor and the ammonia still wastes fraction
    of the coke plant wastes displayed the most inhibition
    on biological activity.  Extended reaction times were
    indicated for those wastes to effect more complete
    removals.

3.  The other waste combinations tested showed relatively
    good biological activity and resultant degradation
    (50% - 70% TOC reduction).

4.  The potential conversion of the biological cultures to
    the slime variety as encountered in these studies may
    cause problems in the design of an activated sludge
    plant.

5.  "Healthy" operation of the various pilot plants
    required a high rate of sludge wasting thus indicating
    possible adsorption of toxic materials on the bacteria.

6.  A high concentration of readily degradable food (palm
    oil) was required for stable operation of the pilot
    plants.

7.  Considerably more work is indicated with a much larger
    demonstration plant to provide data for the optimization
    of the wastes encountered in this situation.  Due to the
    nature of these wastes, the work should be performed at
    the actual site to provide the quantities of fresh wastes
    required.  The work to be performed would be aimed at the
    optimization of waste blending, pH, temperature, nutrient
    requirements, etc., in an attempt to achieve healthy,
    stable operations and acceptable removal efficiencies.
                        143

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                          SECTION XI

                RIVER WATER QUALITY ASSESSMENT
The project has included a study of the State water quality
criteria stated below for maintaining water quality criteria
in the  main stem of the Ohio River.  This criteria is a part
of the  West Virginia administrative regulations on water
quality criteria on inter and intra state streams as developed
under the guidance of the Division of Water Resources:
    Parameter

1.   Dissolved
    oxygen

2.   pH

3.   Temperature
4.  Threshold
5.  Toxic
    substances
6.  Bacteria
Ohio River

Not less than 5 mg/1
at any time

5.5 - 9.0

Not to exceed 87°F
May to November - not
to exceed 73°F Dec. to
April

Not to exceed 24 at
60°F as a daily average

Not to exceed 1/10
of the 48 hr. medium
tolerance limit
Coliform group is not
to exceed 1,000 per 100
ml as a monthly average
not to exceed 2,000 per
100 ml for 5% of the
samples
Tributaries

   Same


6.0 - 8.5

   Same
Not to exceed
8 at 60°C

Not to exceed
1/10 of the
96 hr. medium
tolerance limit

   Same
                           145

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7.  Heavy Metals:  Not to exceed the following:

    Constituent          Ohio River          Tributaries

    Arsenic              0.01 mg/1              Same
    Barium               0.50 mg/1              Same
    Cadmium              0.01 mg/1              Same
    Chromium             0.05 mg/1              Same
     (hexavalent)
    Lead                 0.05 mg/1              Same
    Silver               0.05 mg/1              Same


8.  Constituent          Ohio River          Tributaries

    Nitrates             45.0 mg/1              Same
    Phenol               0.001 mg/1
    Cyanides             0.025 mg/1
    Fluorides            1.00 mg/1
    Selenium             0.01 mg/1
    Chlorides               None                100 mg/1
    Sulfates                None                200 mg/1

An  evaluation was made of a limited  quantity of Ohio River
analytical  data  over  the past five  (5)  years at points above
and below Weirton.  Prime consideration was given to param-
eters  that  are a source of potential discharges in the
stretch  of  the river  between Weirton and  Wheeling.  These
included zinc, aluminum, phenols, sulfates, copper, color,
chlorides,  chromium,  manganese,  iron alkalinity, hardness
and lead.   The following table  indicates  the average com-
posite of various parameters in this section of the river.

       Parameter                           Average,  ppm

       Zinc, Dissolved                        0.027
       Aluminum,  Dissolved                     0.193
       Phenols                                 0.004
       Sulfates                              208.000
       Color,  Units                            8.400
       Chlorides                              25.400
       Total Hardness, ppm  CaCC-3            181.500
       Manganese                               0.127
       pH                                     6.600
       Total Iron                             0.428
       Total Alkalinity,  ppm CaC03           13.000
       Lead, Dissolved                        0.025
       D. 0.                                  8.300
                           146

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With this sparse data and the extreme flow rate of the
stream it is impossible to accurately predict the changes
that would occur as a result of the construction of a joint
municipal industrial sewage treatment plant.
                          147

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                        Section XII

       Demonstration Plant Feasibility Determination

Considering the need of the City of Weirton for secondary
sewage treatment in the near future, the logistics and
capacities of the present sewers and treatment plant, the
nature and volumes of wastewater streams from the mill, and
the treatability of combined mill wastes and sanitary
sewage, it is concluded that a demonstration plant is
feasible and would be economically justified.

The laboratory studies indicate that the required additional
facilities of the sewage treatment would not be substan-
tially different with or without the addition of the mill
wastes, although additional instrumentation and controls
would be necessary.  The unused capacity of the sewage
treatment plant presently constitutes a non-productive
investment, as does the unused capacity of the sewer system.
These factors alone probably justify the use of joint
treatment.

Various alternatives were evaluated in arriving at a feas-
ible cotreatment scheme.  At the sewage treatment, consider-
ation was given to the following:  1) the use of present
primary plant in its present state with the effluent being
discharged to a secondary plant at the steel mill, 2)
construction of a secondary plant at the site of the present
primary sewage plant.  At the steel plant the following
points were considered:  1) volume and type of wastes to be
treated,  2) location of the treatment plant and 3) methods
of transporting the wastes to the treatment plant.

A study of these alternatives produced the following general
conclusions:

1.  Based on a representative number of steel plants in the
United States, the ratio of the magnitude of the overall
waste volume of an integrated steel plant to the volume of
municipal wastes would be in the order of about 50 to 1.

2.  Pretreatment of these same steel plant wastes and/or
including only concentrated waste streams would reduce the
forementioned ratio to a factor of approximately 10 to 1.

3.  Sanitary design practice recommends a 250% safety factor
for sanitary sewer design.  Therefore, this limits the volume
of wastes that can be transported in existing sewers.  The
                          149

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construction of additional sewer lines has several drawbacks
which include:  a) excessive costs, b) legal and political
red tape involved in securing permission for the right of ways,
etc., c) safety hazards and general inconvenience to the
steel plant and the local populace before and during construc-
tion.  A new installation might have similar shortcomings
although the intangible ramifications may not be as severe.
However, the sewer line costs would be appreciably higher for
the considerably larger sewer size.  Handling and installation
costs rise appreciably with increase in size.

4.  The other principal method for waste transport would be
hauling.  Here again the costs for hauling would be excessive.
Generally hauling of this type is on a cost per gallon basis
and truck capacity is about 5,000 gallons.  Therefore, this
would require many trucks on an around the clock basis to
handle any appreciable volume.

5.  The alternative separate treatment of mill wastes within
the plant would necessitate the installation of all of the
equipment required under the recommended joint treatment
scheme, plus an activated sludge or trickling filter unit
at the coke plant which would be at least as expensive as
the proposed secondary unit at the sewage treatment plant.
Space limitations at the coke plant would make such an
installation difficult, while adequate space is easily
available at the sewage treatment plant.

With a review of these conclusions the study was conducted
on the basis that only a limited volume of wastes could be
treated in the average cotreatment venture with steel plant
and municipal wastes.

The treatability studies have indicated that joint treatment
is feasible, but does require more close control than would
a conventional sewage treatment plant.  The available mill
wastes provide the required additional biological food sup-
ply  (palm oil recovery plant) and the acid needed for pH
control (pickling line scrubbers).  The treatability studies
have also shown that difficult-to-treat coke plant wastes
and a limited volume of chemical wastes i.e., tin mill,
galvanizing mill, and alkaline cleaning wastes can also be
disposed of in such a system.

Treatability studies alone cannot answer the question of
feasibility-  The relative volumes of the wastewater streams
and the logistics of the overall situation impose the limit-
ing conditions, once treatability has been established.  The
present study has shown that these three factors can be
                          150

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satisfactorily integrated in an overall treatment scheme.
It must be remembered that the really unique feature of the
proposed scheme is that the municipal waste volume is only
about one-fourth that of the total wastes treated.  Similar
wastes have previously been co-treated in municipal plants
where these wastes are only a small percentage of the total.

The proposed demonstration plant is justified because,
although the basic technology has been defined, specific
operating procedures must be developed.  The needs for
sludge concentration control, pH control, and control of
the relative rates of waste additions require that initial
design and operation be much more flexible than would
normally be required in a wastewater treatment plant.  Such
a situation is, by definition, one which calls for a
demonstration project, i.e., technical feasibility has been
shown, but design and operating details remain to be
elucidated before the process scheme can be routinely
implemented in similar situations.

Treatment costs

The mill wastes which would go to the municipal plant for
treatment under the proposed joint treatment system are as
follows:

1.  Coke plant wastewaters

    a.  Absorber barometric condenser waters
    b.  Benzol sump overflow
    c.  Ammonia  still waste
    d.  Final cooler bleedoff
    e.  Benzol cooling tower bleed                 2.0 mgd

2.  Palm oil recovery effluent                     1.0 mgd

3.  Alkaline cleaning  solutions,  scrubber
    rinses, chromic reduction wastes,
    weirlite mill  effluent, galvanizing
    line overflows                                 °-3 m9d


Based upon  an assumed  steelmaking capacity of  3.5 million
ingot tons  per year and  a unit  cost  of  20* per annual  ingot
ton,  the construction  costs  for in-plant biological  treat-
ment  of coke plant wastes are  estimated  at $700,000  on the
average.  These  estimates compare favorably with construct-
ion costs referenced  by the water quality office of  EPA and
the U.  S. Department  of  Health,  Education and  Welfare
                          151

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Assuming that these costs in an older mill which is crowded
and required relocation of equipment are 135% of the average,
the costs involved at Weirton Steel could increase to
$945,000.  The construction costs for in-plant treatment of
the chemical-type wastes are estimated at $500,000.

Capital expenditures and operating costs for in-plant treat-
ment of the same waste volume that are candidates for the
combined treatment plant would be as follows:

                                     Capital     Annual oper.
                                   expenditures     costs	

Coke plant wastewaters              $  850,000*    $100,000
Secondary palm oil treatment            —**        100,000
Weirlite mill secondary treatment       —**         25,000
Tin plating wastes                     150,000       50,000

 * Average between estimated new construction costs
   and costs for older mill
** Already installed
                                     Capital     Annual oper,
                                   expenditures     costs
Galvanizing line overflows          $  100,000     $ 35,000
Tin mill cleaning lines                 50,000       10,000
Scrubber rinses                        250,000       75,000

                         Total      $1,400,000     $395,000

The joint treatment system proposed would require in-plant
piping changes, facilities for holding tanks, metering
pumps, and instrumentation.  The costs of such facilities
should be investigated and their merits evaluated by the
steel plant.  In-plant operating and maintenance costs would
be nominal, probably about IOC per 1,000 gallons, or about
$330 per day.  The joint treatment system proposed would
thus reduce the total investment required by about one million
dollars and save about $275,000 per year in operating and
maintenance costs.  Additional economics would be realized
in that the wastewater treatment operations would be largely
outside of the plant, resulting in minimum interference with
production operations in both space and manpower requirements.

Insofar as the sewage treatment plant is concerned, the
costs involved in the joint treatment system would not be
significantly greater than for the addition of secondary
treatment.  It is probable that joint treatment would result
                          152

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in better overall performance than would be realized from
secondary treatment of the municipal wastes alone so long as
adequate precautions are taken to guard against slug dis-
charges of the industrial wastes.  The treatability studies
indicate that the anticipated synergistic effects of the
industrial wastes are, in fact, realized, although quanti-
tative results were inconsistent.  Further operating advant-
ages can probably be realized due to the fact that the
organic loading on the secondary unit would be higher and
more consistent under the joint treatment system than would
be the case with municipal wastes alone.

Recommendations have been made for conservation and reuse
measures at the blast furnaces and the hot strip mill which
would reduce these wastewater volumes and would increase
the degree of treatment attained.  The improved treatment
efficiency is attainable by virtue of the reduced hydraulic
loadings and on account of the agglomeration tendencies
normally experienced in recirculating systems.  It has also
been suggested that magnetic agglomeration or polyelectro-
lytes be used on the B.O.P. and blast furnace thickener
influents to improve sedimentation efficiency and thus
reduce the suspended solids content of the blowdown stream
from these recirculation systems.  The other wastewater
treatment methods suggested primarily concern operating
practices and would involve minimal installation costs.  In
total, the costs of these suggested measures would probably
not exceed 30* per ingot ton, or about one million dollars.
It is thus suggested that an investment of the amount which
would be required for the in-plant treatment of only the
coke plant and chemical wastewaters could, utilizing the
proposed joint treatment system, accomplish a satisfactory
reduction of all significant wastes from the mill.

The economics of the proposed system would also seem to
justify the demonstration plant which has otherwise been
shown to be technically feasible.
                          153

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                       Section XIII

                     Acknowledgements


The support of the project by the Environmental Protection
Agency and the excellent guidance provided by Edward Dulaney
and William West, the Grant Project Officer, is acknowledged
with grateful appreciation.

The excellent cooperation of Paul Gubarev, Superintendent
and Sanitary Board Member of the Weirton Sewage Treatment
Plant, and the other members of the Sanitary Board is
gratefully appreciated.

The assistance of Dr. Henry C. Bramer, Vice President,
Datagraphics, Inc., is acknowledged with sincere thanks.

Mr. William M. Smith, Houston R. Wood, Gene Current and
Goff Ramsey of National Steel Corporation, who with their
project associates J. C. Troy, T. J. Centi, E. Di Escher and
R. C. Rice of Cyrus Wm. Rice Division, NUS Corporation directed
and guided Phase I of this project.
                             155

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                         Section  XIV

                         References


1.   The Cost of Clean Water,  U. S. Department  of  the  Interior,
    Federal Water Quality Administration

2.   The Making, Shaping, and  Treating  of  Steel, United  States
    Steel Corporation

3.   State of West Virginia Administrative Regulations,  Water
    Quality Criteria on  Inter and Intra State  Streams,
    Division of Water Resources,  Charleston, West Virginia

4.   "Standards for Sewage Works",  Upper Mississippi River
    Board of Public Health Engineers and  Great Lakes  Board
    of Public Health Engineers, revised July,  1954

5.   "Sewage Treatment Plant Design", Manual  of Practice
    No. 8, Water Pollution Control Federation  and the Ameri-
    can Society of Civil Engineers,  1959

6.   A Procedure for Determination of the  Biological Treata-
    bility of Industrial Wastes,  James M.  Symons, Ross  E.
    McKinney, and Herbert H.  Hassis, Journal Water Pollution
    Control Federation,  August, 1960

7.   Destruction of Linear Alkylate Sulfonates  in  Biological
    Waste Treatment by Field  Test, Charles E.  Renn, William
    A. Kline, and Gerald Oregel,  Journal  Water Pollution
    Control Federation,  July, 1964

8.   Steelmaking at Weirton, Iron  and Steel Engineer,  October,
    1969
     *U.S. GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE: 1972-494-484/174 1-3
                           157

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