WATER POLLUTION CONTROL RESEARCH SERIES
12050 EKT 03/71
 Fluid Bed Incineration
  of Petroleum  Refinery Wastes
JVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY  WATER QUALITY OFFICE

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        WATER POLLUTION CONTROL RESEARCH SERIES
The Water Pollution Control Research Series describes
the results and progress in the control and abatement
of pollution in our Nation's waters.  They provide a
central source of information on the research, develop-
ment, and demonstration activities in the Water Quality
Office, Environmental Protection Agency, through inhouse
research and grants and contracts with Federal, State,
and local agencies, research institutions and industrial
organizations.

Inquiries pertaining to Water Pollution Control Research
Reports should be directed to the Head, Project Reports
System, Office of Research and Development, Water Quality
Office, Environmental Protection Agency, Room 1108,
Washington, D.C.  20242.

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FLUID  BED INCINERATION OF  PETROLEUM REFINERY  WASTES
                           by
                American Oil  Company
                   Mandan Refinery
                       Box  549
             Mandan, North Dakota 58554
                       for the

                WATER QUALITY OFFICE

           ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY
                  Project #12050 EKT
               Grant #WPRD  215-01-68
                   March 1971
    For sale by the Superintendent of Documents, U.S. Government Printing Office
                 Washington, D.C. 20402 - Price $1.50
                     Stock Number 5501-0052

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                   EPA Review Notice
This report has been reviewed by the Water Quality
Office, EPA, and approved for publication.  Approval
does not signify that the contents necessarily
reflect the views and policies of the Environmental
Protection Agency, nor does mention of trade names
or commercial products constitute endorsement or
recommendation for use.

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                            ABSTRACT
       The applicability of the fluid bed incineration process for the
disposal of petroleum refinery generated spent caustic and oily sludge
in a commercial scale unit has been demonstrated.

       Operating problems have been studied.  Design and operating
procedural changes are suggested.

       The major process limitation stems from the loss of bed fluidity
due to high particle size growth rate.  Particle size growth rate is
directly proportional to the particle diameter and rate of dissolved
solid material charged and inversely proportional to the mass of
material in the bed.  The average particle diameter can be controlled
by (1) collecting and continuously returning fine material to the bed,
(2) utilizing an effective attriting system, and (3) limiting superficial
space velocity to avoid elutriation of fines.

       This report was submitted in fulfillment of Project #12050 EKT
under the partial sponsorship of the Water Quality Office, Environmental
Protection Agency.
                               111

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                           CONTENTS
                                                             Page
Abstract [[[
Contents [[[     v
List of Figures ............................................   vii
List of Tables .............................................    ix
Conclusions ................................................    xi
Recommendations ............................................  xiii
Introduction ...............................................     1
Design and Construction ....................................     3
Start Up and Initial Operations ............................     8
Design Changes Based on Operating Experience ...............     9
Process Limitations ........................................    14
Unit Performance ...........................................    33
Operating and Maintenance Costs ............................    35
Acknowl edgments ............................................    37
References .................................................    38
Publications ...............................................    39
Glossary [[[    40
Appendix A - Operational Procedures and Instructional
               Material ....................................    41
Appendix B - Chronological Log of Incinerator Operations...    81

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                       CONTENTS (cont'd)
                                                             Page
Appendix E - Fluid Bed Density, Depth, and Mass	    97
Appendix F - Apparent Bulk Density of Uniform Spheres	    99
Appendix G - Material  Balance	   101
Appendix H - Equilibrium Bed  Particle Size	   107
Abstract Card Sheet	   Ill
                            VI

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                           FIGURES

Number                                                     Page
   1      Process Flow (as designed)                         4
   2      Fluid Bed Incinerator Photograph                   7
   3      Particle Size Distribution                        15
   4      Chronological Plot of Bed Sieve Analysis          16
   5      Chronological Plot of Bed Sieve Analysis          17
   6      Chronological Plot of Bed Sieve Analysis          13
   7      Operating Data                                    24
   8      ABD and Fluid Bed Density vs. Mean Particle
            Size                                            28
   9      Piping and Instrumentation Drawing 1               77
  10      Piping and Instrumentation Drawing 2              79
  11      Equilibrium Bed Particle Size Curve
                             VI1

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                            TABLES
Table No.                                                    Page
    I     Calculated ABD of Mixtures of Spheres 0.064 in.
            and 0.0265 in. diameter With Particle Density
            of 150 Ib/ft3                                     26
   II     Estimated Fluid Bed Density for Various Mean
            Particle Sizes                                    27
  III     Performance Data (Feed)                             28
   IV     Performance Data (Bed Material)                     29
    V     Performance Data (Scrubber)                         30
   VI     Performance Data (Operating Conditions)             31
  VII     Performance Data (Miscellaneous)                    32
 VIII     Heat and Material Balance                           34
   IX     Expenditure Pattern                                 36
                              IX

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                           CONCLUSIONS
1.  The fluid bed incineration process has been demonstrated to be
    practical and effective for the disposal  of petroleum refinery
    generated spent caustic and oily sludge.

2.  The process creates no atmospheric pollution problems, emitting
    only carbon dioxide nitrogen and water vapor.   The odor of the
    off gas has been described by various observers as being slight
    to non-existent.

3.  The ash produced contains sodium carbonate, sodium sulfate, other
    soluble inorganic salts and inert material  such as sand, clay,
    rust, etc.

4.  Operations are frequently prematurely terminated by the loss of
    bed fluidity caused by excessive bed particle size.  The particle
    size growth rate can be controlled by including salient design
    features and by exercising proper operating techniques.
                                XI

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                        RECOMMENDATIONS
       The Mandan Refinery fluid bed incinerator is functional.   Run
lengths are limited by the loss of bed fluidity resulting from excessive
average particle size and poor particle size distribution in the bed.
The design of future units should include the following considerations:

       a.  Superficial Space Velocity

           1.  Avoid excessive elutriation.

           2.  Provide sufficient air capacity for fluidization  of
               bed when starting up cold.

       b.  Dust Recovery

           1.  An efficient dust recovery system that continuously
               returns fines to the bed is necessary to provide  small
               nucleii on which to deposit the chemicals thus avoiding
               an excessive particle growth rate.

           2.  Bed material lost through the dust recovery system is
               scrubbed out of the off gasses with water.  The waste
               water from the scrubber is contaminated with suspended
               and dissolved solids from the unrecovered fines.

       c.  Attrition or Fines Recirculation System

               An efficient easily controlled attrition or fines
           recirculation system must be provided so that an un-
           controlled particle growth rate can be avoided.

       d.  Instrumentation

               Continuous recording pressure differential instruments
           should be provided across the total fluid bed and across
           part of the fluid bed so that operators can control bed
           depth and observe bed density.

       e.  Operation

               Timely knowledge of the relative fluidity (fluid  bed
           density/apparent bulk density) is essential if appropriate
           action is to be taken to avoid the complete loss of
           fluidity.
                                Kill

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f.   Feed Storage and Insertion

        Spent caustic and oily sludge should  be stored
    separately and independently fed with rate controls
    system provided so that the unit heat balance and
    particle size growth rate may be kept under control,
                        xiv

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                            INTRODUCTION
       Among the many waste disposal  problems incident to petroleum
refinery operations, the American Oil Refinery at Mandan, North Dakota,
found the problem of disposing of oily sludge and spent caustic most
perplexing.

       Oily sludge is characterized by the presence of oil, solids,
and water.  Its consistency varies from that of a fluid slurry to a
greasy semi-solid.  It is encountered when cleaning oil storage vessels,
removed from the waste water oil-water separator and it is collected as
a residue from oil-water emulsion breaking operations.

       The most common disposition of this material had been to dump it
into open earthen sludge pits.  In order to conserve land, the volume of
sludge was reduced by burning the hydrocarbon that eventually migrated
to the surface of the pit.  Burning produced a billowing black cloud of
smoke.  This method of disposing of sludge was most unsatisfactory; it
degraded the land and created an obvious source of atmospheric pollution.

       Spent caustic results from the use of solutions of caustic soda
to treat petroleum products for the removal of acidic impurities such as
naphthenic acid, cresols, mercaptans, and hydrogen sulfide.  These com-
pounds emit intense disagreeable odors.  When an attempt was made to
dispose of spent caustic by neutralization and by trickling the neutralized
waste into the waste water treating system, it was found that the odor
released during neutralization was intolerable and the resulting neutralized
waste overtaxed the bio-oxidation pond, thus degrading the quality of the
waste water effluent from the refinery.

       When the spent caustic was dumped into an earthen pit similar to
those used for the disposal of oily sludge, the caustic waste leached
through the earth and created a potential source of contamination of the
natural ground water.  When the pit was lined with plastic sheets to
prevent this migration,  it rapidly became full.  The volume of spent
caustic was increased by rainfall.  The only reduction of the waste
occurred from evaporation which also produced an undesirable odor in
the  atmosphere.

       In  the long term effort  to find a solution to these two waste
disposal problems, various incineration systems were considered.  The
oxidation  of spent caustic alone would require an economically pro-
hibitive quantity of supplemental fuel and it would be difficult to
prevent atmospheric pollution.  The  incineration of oily sludge appeared
more feasible.  However, when oily sludge is subjected to high tempera-
tures, the oil evaporates.  Should the resulting hydrocarbon vapors
fail to ignite, they could create an extremely hazardous explosive
mixture with combustion  air.

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       Conditions offered by the fluidized bed incinerator:  extremely
high heat transfer efficiency, excellent mixing, and stable combustion
conditions made the system most promising.  Furthermore, a bed of inert
fluidized solids acting as a heat sink reduced the hazard created by a
mixture of unburned hydrocarbon vapor and air.

       A fluidized bed incineration process had been successfully
applied to the disposal of paper mill sulfite liquors.  The process
based on research conducted at the Battelle Memorial Institute in
Columbus, Ohio, and developed by the Copeland Process Corporation of
Oak Brook, Illinois, appeared to be adaptable to the disposal of pet-
roleum refinery generated spent caustic and oily sludge.

       The American Oil Company made application to the Environmental
Protection Agency, Water Quality Office (EPA), for a Research and
Development Grant for this work as provided in the Clean Water Restora-
tion Act of 1966.

       The American Oil Company on June 5, 1968, accepted an EPA
Research and Development Grant, WPRD 215-01-68, of $170,265 to assist
the estimated $354,530 project.  Project objectives were to demonstrate
the use of a fluid bed incinerator for the disposal of a wide variety
of petroleum refinery sludges and spent caustic solutions while mini-
mizing water and air pollution, to establish operating limitations
and to determine what changes may be necessary to assure satisfactory
operations.

       The Mandan Refinery fluid bed incinerator was a project of the
Manufacturing Department of the American Oil Company.  As in the case
of all new units, responsibility for the project was divided into two
phases.  Phase I -- engineering, construction and preparation for oper-
ation was the responsibility of the Planning and Engineering Department
at Whiting, Indiana.  Phase II -- operation, maintenance, post construc-
tion studies and reports were the responsibility of Mandan Refinery
personnel .

       This report was prepared to make the findings of the fluid bed
incinerator study available in a form requested by the Water Quality
Office, EPA.

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                    DESIGN AND CONSTRUCTION
A.  DESIGN

       Under contract with the American Oil Company, the Cope!and
Process Corporation designed and constructed the fluid bed incinerator.

       The unit was designed to satisfy two feed conditions:

1.  During 9 months per year 10 Bbl/day oil-water separator sludge
                             10 Bbl/day emulsion treating sludge
                             10 Bbl/day spent caustic

2.  During 3 months per year 10 Bbl/day oil-water separator sludge
                             10 Bbl/day emulsion treating sludge
                             10 Bbl/day spent caustic
                             10 Bbl/day tank cleaning bottoms

       Copeland proposed that the incinerator would operate for 6 hours
a day during 9 months of the year disposing of the normal production of
sludge and spent caustic.  During the 3-month period in which tanks
are cleaned, they proposed to keep the incinerator in operation 24 hours
a day.

       Samples of typical sludges and spent caustic were sent to the
Copeland Process Corporation and to Battelle Memorial Institute,
Columbus, Ohio.  The incinerator design was based on findings from
examination of these samples.  The Battelle Memorial Institute charged
the Mandan Refinery waste material to their 22-inch diameter fluidized
bed incinerator pilot plant.  By these pilot plant operations, they
confirmed that the spent caustic and oily sludge from the Mandan
Refinery was amenable to fluidized bed incineration.  However, the
pilot plant exhaust gas line plugged during the test.  The plugging
was believed to be caused by the presence of iron sulfate.  Evidently
the iron was present in the sludge as rust from tank bottoms.  Based
on this data, Copeland designed the system to operate with a controlled
reactor exhaust gas temperature to prevent scale in the exhaust duct.
It was recommended that the incinerator be operated at a bed temperature
of 1300 to 1500QF.

       Salient design features incorporated in this unit which differ
from the typical  application of fluidized bed incineration to paper
mill waste sulfite liquors were as follows:

       1.   Waste feed injection -- The feed to the waste sulfite
           liquor incinerator is sprayed into the vessel from the
           top.  The spray cools the effluent flue gases as it evapo-
           rates.   The dried solids fall to the fluidized bed where

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  FIG  I
             FLUIDIZED   BED   INCINERATOR
                                                         WATER
               WATER
           (TEMP. CONTROL)
                               GASES I
 SPENT
CAUSTIC
                                     CYCLONE
LIGUID  OILY
  SLUDGE
                   INCINERATOR
                                                 SCRUBBER
SOLID  OILY
   SLUDGE
                                    DUST
                                  RETURN
TORCH  OIL

         PREHEATER
                                                   WATER
                                                 TO  SEWER
 AIR
                              SCREW.
                              CONVEYOR [ ' /DUMPSTER

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           they are oxidized.  The oily sludge-spent caustic
           incinerator was designed to inject the mixed feed
           through a special Copeland burner nozzle just above
           the fluidized bed of solids.  The flue gas temperature
           was to be controlled by injecting a cooling water
           spray through the top of the incinerator vessel.

       2.  Supplemental fuel for start-up  --  The Sulfite
           Liquor incinerators are brought up to operating temper-
           ature by preheating combustion air with a natural gas
           burner.  Because of the possibility of creating an
           explosive mixture of hydrocarbon vapor from the sludge
           and combustion air, the sludge-caustic incinerator
           design includes an additional  system for injecting
           Torch Oil (heavy fuel oil) into the bed of fluidized
           solids a few inches above the bed supporting grid.
           When the fluid bed becomes hot enough for ignition,
           via the natural gas combustion air preheater, the
           Torch Oil is injected.  It is thus possible to maintain
           a steady high temperature in the bed affording assurance
           of ideal oxidizing conditions when the sludge is introduced.

       3.  The inventory of material comprising the fluidized bed in
           the unit is normally determined by measuring the differ-
           ential pressure between a point just above the grid and
           a point in the free board space above the bed.   The Mandan
           incinerator design included an additional  pressure tap so
           that by measuring the differential pressure across a portion
           of bed, its density could be determined.  With knowledge of
           the bed density, the height of the fluid bed level above
           the grid can be determined from the differential pressure
           across the entire bed.

       4.  In order to cope with semi-solid sludges from tank cleaning,
           a steam heated 80 bbl. sump was included in the design.
           Facilities were included to stir the contents of the sump,
           mix it with fluid sludge from the feed tank, and to deliver
           the mixture to the feed tank.

       Figure 1 reflects the Mandan fluid bed incinerator process flow
as it was designed.
CONSTRUCTION

       The Copeland Process Corporation arranged for Horton Process
Division of Chicago Bridge and Iron Company to handle construction
engineering (foundations, piping, and electrical), subcontractors,
and field supervision.

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       Construction of the unit started September 3, 1968, when the
Scan Construction Company, a subcontractor, began excavation for'
vessel foundations.

       Construction was scheduled for completion February 1, 1969.
However, the project was repeatedly delayed by various occurrences
beyond the control of Cope!and, namely:

       1.  A strike at Gould's Pump Company delayed the delivery
           of several pumps.

       2.  Severely cold winter season, including a 19-inch snowfall

       3.  An American Oil Company Refinery turnaround.  Turnaround
           contractors hired craftsmen away from the incinerator
           project.

       4.  The construction phase of the incinerator project was
           essentially completed in early June, 1969.

       A photograph of the completed unit is reproduced in Figure 2.

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FIG  2   AMERICAN   OIL   COMPANY  FLUID  BED
             INCINERATOR  AT   MANDAN

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           START UP AND INITIAL OPERATIONS
       Prior to starting up the fluid bed incinerator, operating
instructions and operator training materials were prepared by the
American Oil Company based on information furnished by Copeland.
All supervisors and operators to be assigned to the unit were given
10 hours of classroom training.  The Operating procedures and in-
structional material are attached as Appendix A.

       To put the unit into operation, the air compressor is started.
The air preheater is fired, and as the system is warmed, sand is
introduced, forming a bed of fluidized solids.  When sufficient sand
has been introduced and the fluid bed is in the range of 900 to 1000F,
torch oil is admitted.  The burning of torch oil causes a rapid rise
in bed temperature.  When the bed temperature is in the range of 1200
to 1300F, liquid oily sludge is introduced.  Provided the oily sludge
contains a sufficient quantity of combustible materials, air heating
and torch oil injection can be terminated.  The temperature of the
bed is then controlled by balancing feed rate and temperature-control
water.  When the operation on oily sludge has been stabilized, spent
caustic is introduced.

       In order for the operation to be self-sustaining, the oily
sludge must contain a sufficient quantity of combustible material.
About 29,000 BTU are required per gallon of total  feed.  The burning
of sludge with a low heating value results in a lower spent caustic
to sludge ratio.

       As the sludge is burned, the solids remain in the bed, while
the gaseous products of combustion and water vapor discharge through
the gas-cleaning system.  Water in the caustic solution is vaporized
and the combustible material is oxidized; the solids accumulate in the
fluid bed.  The sodium oxide formed reacts with the products of com-
bustion to form sodium carbonate and sodium sulfate, both of which
remain in the fluid bed.  The proper bed level is maintained by with-
drawing ash as it accumulates from the deposition of solids.  Ultim-
ately, the original sand bed is completely displaced by the incoming
solids and chemicals.  The overhead gases pass through a cyclone
separator from which recovered fines can be either returned to the
bed or discharged along with the excess bed material.  From the cyclone
separator, the gases are passed through a water scrubber before being
admitted to the atmosphere.

       A chronological log of operations covering the period of June 20,
1969,  to January 30, 1970, is attached as Appendix B.

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      DESIGN CHANGES BASED ON OPERATING EXPERIENCE

Wind Box Insulation

       The unit was designed to conduct the hot air from the air
preheater through a chamber (wind box) and air distribution grid
before reaching the bottom of the fluid bed.  The start-up procedure
calls for heating the fluid bed to 900F via the air preheater before
injecting torch oil.  During the initial attempt to start up, excessive
heat loss from the wind box was observed.  When the wind box tempera-
ture reached 840F the fluid bed temperature was only 540F.  The
unit was shut down and additional insulation was applied to the
interior of the wind box.  In subsequent start-up operations,
satisfactory conditions were observed.


Air Distributor Grid Gussets

       The air distributor grid was held in place by welding it to
the shell of the vessel completely around its circumference.  Addi-
tional support was provided by 12 equally spaced 1'-1-1/2" x 1'-1-1/2"
gussets made of one-half inch steel plate.  These gussets were greater
in number and size than was necessary to hold the grid in place.  Fur-
thermore, they transmitted excessive heat from the grid to the shell
of the incinerator vessel.  When the air preheater was in operation,
the exterior skin temperature of the wind box reached 850F ultimately
causing stress cracks in the vessel shell.  Copeland redesigned the
gussets reducing their number and size.  After these revisions were
completed, the maximum wind box exterior shell temperature observed
while the air preheater was in operation was 240F.
Feed Preparation

       Feed handling facilities as built included a 1,000-bbl. feed
mix tank, a 405-bbl. spent caustic storage tank, and an 80-bbl. tank
bottoms receiving sump.  It was proposed that daily pumping of sludge
from emulsion breaking and from the waste water-oil separator would
be received directly into the 1,000-bbl. feed mix tank.  Spent caustic
was to be transferred to the feed tank in batches based on the esti-
mated oil content of the final mix.

       During early operations, only oily sludge was fed to the
incinerator.  It was immediately apparent that the oil content
(heating value) of  the feed was critical.  Furthermore, the oil
content of sludges was observed to vary widely.

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       Before attempting to charge spent caustic, temporary piping
was installed to permit its introduction as a separate stream.  The
caustic was moved by the spent caustic transfer pump and the flow
rate was determined by tank gauge difference.  The charge of caustic
was adjusted by a hand operated valve to balance the heat released
by sludge burning.  With this system, it was difficult to adjust and
measure the spent caustic charge but it was possible to dispose of
spent caustic in this manner.

       An attempt was made to operate as originally planned, by
mixing caustic with sludge in the feed tank and charging a single
stream to the incinerator.  In order to dispose of caustic at a
maximum rate, it was necessary to blend to the minimum oil content
of total feed.  A subsequent pumping of separator sludge that was
low in oil content caused the mixed feed to fall  below the minimum
heating value necessary to sustain combustion in the incinerator.
Feed to the unit was discontinued and the feed tank mixer was turned
off.  Some "free water" settled to the bottom of the feed tank and
was drained to the sewer thus increasing the concentration of oil in
the feed mix.  While the move alleviated the problem created by having
a low oil contant feed, spent caustic drained to the sewer along with
the "free water".

       From this experience it was concluded that spent caustic
should be fed to the incinerator as a separate stream so that the
caustic feed rate could be adjusted to compensate for the varying
oil content of the sludge.

       The Mandan incinerator is currently operating with the tem-
porary caustic feed system.  Future caustic and sludge incinerator
designs should provide systems to feed caustic and sludge separately.
Oily Sludge  Injection

       Based on fluid bed incinerator operating experience in the
paper industry, Copeland designed the unit so that sludge feed would
be injected just above the fluid bed.  When oily sludge was fed to
the unit at this location, the oil in the sludge immediately evapo-
rated and burned in the space above the fluid bed, thus creating a
condition similar to after burning.  Heat transfer to the fluid bed
was poor.  Furthermore, because of the high effluent gas temperature
the cooling spray water flow was automatically increased, further
cooling the fluid bed.  While charging sludge above the fluid bed
level, it was necessary to provide supplemental heat with the air
preheater or by torch oil injection to maintain the proper fluid
bed temperature.
                                10

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       When the sludge feed piping was rerouted to permit the
injection of sludge through the torch oil nozzles (into the fluid
bed a few inches above the grid), the bed temperature rose, cooling
spray water was reduced and it was possible to maintain the proper
fluid bed temperature without supplemental heat.
Spent Caustic Injection

       In an effort to find the optimum point relative to the fluid
bed for injecting spent caustic, four conditions were examined,
namely:

       1.  All spent caustic was injected above the fluid bed.

       2.  All spent caustic was injected into the fluid bed
           as a separate stream.

       3.  Spent caustic was mixed with sludge feed for
           injection into the bed.

       4.  Spent caustic feed was split injecting part above
           the bed and part into the bed.

       The rate at which spent caustic can be charged to the unit is
limited by the heat content of the sludge.  From the standpoint of
maximizing the spent caustic disposal rate, there appeared to be an
advantage to  injecting the caustic above the fluid bed.  Spent
caustic was charged at a rate producing 0.042 gal. of total  feed
per 1,000 BTU when injected above the bed.  A rate of only 0.039 gal.
of total feed per 1,000 BTU was attainable while injecting caustic
into the bed.

       However, when caustic was injected above the bed at a rate
in excess of  1 bbl per hr., bed particles adhered to the interior of
the flue gas  exit duct and the cyclone causing a high pressure drop
across the cyclone.  Successful operations were sustained by inject-
ing up to 1 bbl per hr. above the bed and the remainder of the
caustic feed  into the bed.

       Subsequent investigation revealed that the average chemical
oxygen demand of the effluent water from the flue gas scrubber dropped
by about 100  ppm when the spent caustic injection was moved from the
over-bed nozzle to the in-bed nozzle.  This amounts to a reduction
of approximately 84 Ibs. of chemical oxygen demand per day in scrubber
water going to the refinery waste water treating facilities.
                               11

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       There appeared to be no difference in unit performance between
operation with a single mixed feed of oily sludge and spent caustic
injection into the bed vs. separate caustic and sludge feed streams
into the fluid bed.  Problems associated with mixing the caustic and
sludge were previously discussed.

       From these observations, it is concluded that the separate
injection of spent caustic into the fluid bed produces the preferred
performance of the unit.
Cooling Water Spray

       The temperature of gases above the fluid bed is automatically
controlled by spraying water into the top of the incinerator.  The
spray nozzles are purchased from Spraying Systems Company, 3201
Randolph Street, Bellwood, Illinois.  Initially the unit was equipped
with a one-inch 61590 nozzle that produced a spray angle of 15 at
15 psi.  This spray nozzle permitted unevaporated water to reach the
top of the bed.  The fluid bed was thus cooled necessitating the
burning of supplemental fuel  to maintain proper combustion temperature
in the bed.

       The spray nozzle was changed to one which produced a 91
spray angle.  With this nozzle, the bed temperature was not adversely
affected by spray water and it was possible to operate without supple-
mental fuel.  However, when the unit was shut down, it was found that
the spray nozzle was causing impingement of unevaporated water against
the vessel wall.  The bed particles which became wetted agglomerated
and adhered to the vessel wall in large deposits.

       The 91 spray angle nozzle was replaced by a 30 spray nozzle.
While this spray nozzle presented an acceptable compromise (the
effluent gases were effectively cooled without necessitating the use
of supplemental fuel).  The ratio of caustic to sludge feed possible
without supplemental fuel was lower than it had been with the 91'
spray angle nozzle.
                                                                
       By reducing the nozzle size from one-half inch to three-eighths
inch and increasing the angle to 120, the most satisfactory results were
obtained.  The smaller nozzle produced a fog type spray, thus preventing
the impingement of unevaporated water against the vessel wall and
preventing droplets of water from reaching the fluid bed.

       It is possible that the problems associated with the injection
of spent caustic solution above the bed might have been solved by
injecting the caustic at the proper location through a fogging spray
nozzle.  Some incentive exists for investigating this matter further.
                                12

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       It is noteworthy that Copeland recommended setting the free
board temperature controller at 900F while permitting the fluid
bed to approach 1500F.  In practice it was found that free board
cooling by the spray water has a tendency to cool the fluid bed
even under the best cooling spray conditions.  The Mandan incinerator
is operated with the free board temperature controller set to hold
a temperature approximately the same as the fluid bed temperature.


Feed Distribution

       In the Copeland design, sludge and caustic were to be injected
through a single nozzle above the fluid bed and torch oil was to be
injected through a header with four equally spaced nozzles into the
bed.  Early experience demonstrated that a single torch oil  nozzle
was all that was necessary or desired.  However, when sludge was fed
through the torch oil system into the bed, the charge rate was limited
by apparent afterburning when using a single nozzle.  The operation
was considerably improved by using two of the torch oil nozzles for
sludge injection.  When using two injection nozzles off of a single
header, as one nozzle begins to become plugged the flow simply
increased through the other nozzle.  It is obvious to operators
when one of the nozzles becomes plugged because when this happens
there is an immediate rise in free board temperature, an automatic
increase in cooling spray water rate, and a decrease in bed temperature.

       The distribution of sludge feed into the bed through several
injection nozzles is obviously necessary.  It would be highly desirable
to arrange the feed system to insure the equal distribution of charge
through each of the feed nozzles.
Scrubber Hater

       In the original design of the unit, water from the refinery
circulating cooling water system was utilized in the venturi-type
gas scrubber.  Subsequently a piping change was made permitting the
substitution of raw (untreated) Missouri River water for cooling
water to the scrubber.  This change reduced the incinerator operating
cost by eliminating the water treating chemicals which were lost via
the scrubber effluent.  Furthermore the chemical oxygen demand (COD)
and dissolved solids  (DS) content are greater in circulating cooling
water than in raw water thus an equivalent reduction in COD and DS
was made in the scrubber effluent water.

       The scrubber effluent water contributes dissolved and sus-
pended solids to the  refinery waste water treating facilities.  The
amount of these materials depends on operating conditions and cyclone
efficiency.  In the event that these materials overtax waste water
treating facilities,  it is suggested that they can be greatly reduced
by circulating the scrubber water.
                               13

-------
                      PROCESS LIMITATIONS

Fusion Temperature of the Fluid Bed Material


       The incinerator bed material primarily consists of participate
matter from the sludge plus carbonate and sulfate salts formed by
chemical reactions of the spent caustic and combustion gases.  In the
event the bed temperature is permitted to exceed the fusion tempera-
ture of the bed material the particles become sticky.  They adhere
to the wall of the incinerator vessel and form large agglomerated
masses in the bed.  Ultimately the bed loses fluidity and it becomes
necessary to shut the unit down to remove the large chunks of agglomer-
ated bed material.

       The bed material  fusion temperature is periodically determined
in the laboratory.  The test (see Appendix C) determines the tempera-
ture at which unaerated particles of bed material adhere to each other
to such an extent that they will no longer flow.

       The fusion temperatures as determined by this test range from
1000F to 1700F.  It has been found that the incinerator bed tempera-
ture can be held as much as 200F higher than the laboratory deter-
mined fusion temperature without adversely affecting the operation.


Fluid Bed Performance

       The unit was designed based on a superficial  space velocity
through the bed of 3 ft/sec with a bed particle size distribution
similar to that represented by curve A, Figure 3.  It was anticipated
that the particle size would tend to increase as the dissolved solids
from the spent caustic were deposited on the particles in the bed.
Provided a sufficient amount of fine material was introduced with the
sludge to serve as new nuclei  for the deposition of these chemicals
as excessive bed material  was  withdrawn, the bed particle size
distribution would remain satisfactory.

       However, when it was found necessary to inject caustic and
sludge into the bed instead of above the bed, the superficial  space
velocity increased considerably, to as high as 5 ft/sec thus making
it impossible to retain the small  particles contributed by the sludge
long enough for them to serve  as nuclei for the deposition of chemicals,
As a result the bed particles  become large and relatively uniform in
size.  A typical size distribution is represented by curve B,  Figure 3.

       In spite of the large mean size and poor size distribution of
the bed particles,  operations  have been sustained for as long as  23
days.  Chronological  plots of  sieve analyses may be found in Figures
4, 5, and 6.

       The relatively large mean particle size and poor distribution
in the Mandan incinerator fluid bed has produced adverse effects  on
operations as follows:


                                 14

-------
FIG  3   BED  PARTICLE  SIZE  DISTRIBUTION

-------
CONDITIONS:

        (I)  STRONG  CAUSTIC   1.7 BBL/HR

        (2)  API  SEP  SLUDGE, (100 BBL TURBINE  OIL),
   lOOi


    9O
AND  SOME  TANK  BTM'S.  18  BBL/HR
LEGEND:
     0= 20 MESH
     x= 40 MESH
     A=60 MESH
     0=80 MESH
     8= PAN
  8-25-
     FIG  4    CHRONOLOGICAL   PLOT   OF  BED   SIEVE   ANALYSIS

-------
        CONDITIONS.

                (I)  STRONG  CAUSTIC  - 1.9 BBL/HR
                12)  API  SEP SLUDGE, 1.7 BBL/HR
IOO
LEGEND'-
     0:20 MESH
     * 40 MESH
     A = 6OMESH
S      = 80 MESH
       PAN
       FIG  3    CHRONOLOGICAL   PLOT   OF   BCD  SIEVE   ANALYSIS

-------
00
         CONDITIONS.

                (I) STRONG  CAUSTIC-   0.9  BBl/H*

                (2) AH. P SLU04C  3.0  B8L/HR
LEGEND
     0 2O MESH
     Jr. 40 MESH
     A6OMESH
     oitesH
     *^AN
      IOO
            FIG 6    CHRONOLOGICAL   PLOT  OF   BED   SIEVE   ANALYSIS

-------
Thumping

       The Mandan incinerator vessel emits a violent thumping sound.
Shock waves are transmitted to the unit foundations.  The vibrations
are obvious to anyone standing near the vessel.  The violence of the
thumping increases as the pressure drop across the fluid bed increases.
It is speculated that the bed is slugging in contrast to a relatively
steady fluidized state.


Initial Fluidization of the Bed During Startup

       During a startup after the fluid bed had been permitted to
slump and cool, it was not possible to bring the bed to a fluidized
state with combustion air.  At the time it was suggested that the bed
had become moist causing the particles to adhere to each other.  The
bed was partially removed and replaced with sand and the startup
continued.

       Bed material with a size distribution represented by Curve B,
Figure 3, a particle density of 176 lb/ft, and an apparent bulk
density of 88 lb/ft3 produced satisfactory operation of the unit with
a  superficial space velocity of 4.74 ft/sec.  The fluidized bed density
was 64.4  Ib/ft3.  Utilizing the smoothed correlation of particulate
fluidization curves of Zenz, it was determined that the incipient
fluidization velocity for this material would have been 2.03 ft/sec.
Combustion air at 100F would have produced a superficial space veloc-
ity of only 1.12 ft/sec.  It would have been necessary to bring the
combustion air to 5650F before the incipient fluidization velocity
would  have been reached.  While the presence of moisture has not been
eliminated as a factor contributing to the startup difficulties des-
cribed above, it is highly probable that the bed simply required a
higher velocity for fluidization than was possible with cool combustion
air.
 Torch Oil  Ignition

        The bed temperature  at  which  torch  oil  ignites  has  been
 unpredictable.   Early considerations led to  prescribing  a  minimum  bed
 temperature of 900F  to  be  reached before  injecting  torch  oil.  With
 the initial  sand fill, this temperature proved to  be adequate.  How-
 ever during subsequent startups  when the unit  contained  a  chemical
 bed from the previous run,  torch oil  would not ignite  at 900F.  With
 a  900F fluid bed temperature  and over 10  percent  oxygen in  the flue
 gas, the injection  of torch oil  would produce  a billowing  yellow cloud
 of smoke from the stack  with no  effect on  bed  temperature.   It was
 necessary to raise  the bed  temperature to  1050F before  the  torch  oil
 would ignite.
                                19

-------
       This problem has been attributed to poor fluidization of the
bed as a result of a large particle size with inadequate space
velocity for proper fluidization.  Apparently large bubble-like^
slugs of air and vaporized torch oil pass through the bed.  Ignition
is inhibited by poor heat transfer from the bed particles.

       When the average particle size is reduced by making up part
of the startup bed with fine sand, the torch oil ignites without
difficulty at 900F.
Bed Particle Size Growth

       When spent caustic is injected into the incinerator, the water
evaporates, combustible materials are oxidized, the alkaline materials
react with the acidic gases from combustion, and the solids thus pro-
duced are deposited on the surface of the fluid bed particles causing
them to increase in size.  Bed particle size growth may be offset by
the introduction of smaller particles along with the sludge and by
natural attrition occurring in the bed.  However, in spite of these
offsetting actions, often the bed particle size has been observed
to increase quite rapidly ultimately causing a complete loss of bed
fluidity.  Attempts to reduce the particle size by jetting steam into
the bed has met with limited success.

       Particle growth rate is related to the mass of the bed, the
rate of mass addition, and the particle diameter as follows:

                 R = W D  (See Appendix D for proof)
                     3M

       R = rate of increase in particle diameter, in/hr
       W = rate of mass addition to the bed, Ib/hr
       M = mass of bed material, Ib
       D = diameter of bed particles, in

       Since the rate of particle growth is directly proportional to
the diameter of the particles in the bed, the average particle size
must be controlled to keep the growth rate at or below the rate of
particle size reduction by attrition and fines additions.

       When attempts are made to reduce the average particle size
by injecting steam into the bed, there is an apparent improvement.
However, because of the loss of fines through an inefficient cyclone
with an inadequate system for returning fines and a less-than adequate
method of steam attrition, the average particle size in the bed cannot
be reduced enough to halt the spiral ing effect of particle diameter
on growth rate and fluidity is ultimately lost.
                               20

-------
Loss of Fluidizatlon

       The interruption of operations is most frequently caused by
the loss of bed fluidity.  At the outset, it was recognized that the
introduction of spent caustic would cause some particle size growth
and some changes in the bed characteristics.  However, it was believed
that particles introduced with the sludge would serve as new nuclei
for the deposition of chemicals and as excessive bed material was
withdrawn a tolerable equilibrium would be reached.

       Instrumentation for following bed conditions included a
temperature recorder on six thermocouples located around the bed
at various depths and a bed differential pressure indicator.  In
addition a piping arrangement was provided to permit switching the
upper pressure differential tap to a lower point so that periodically
the differential pressure across 30 inches of fluid bed could be
measured.

       At 3 a.m., November 21, 1969, the incinerator lost fluidity
and it was necessary to shut the unit down.  Fluid bed data from
the unit log for 42 hours preceding the shutdown are plotted against
time in Figure 7.  Observing only the total bed differential pressure
and temperature spread, an obvious indication of trouble was displayed
by the temperature spread among the thermocouples in the bed.  One
can ordinarily expect bed temperature variations of not more than +_
10F.  At about noon on November 19, 1969, a temperature difference
between the hottest and coldest thermocouple was recorded at 67F.
Fluidizing air was increased from 1,290 SCFM to 1,600 SCFM and the
bed temperature spread returned to normal.  The temperature spread
jumped again at 6 p.m.  Spent caustic was discontinued for about 45
minutes with no immediate apparent effect.  Steam was jetted into the
bed at about 7:45 a.m. and again the temperature spread in the bed
returned to normal.  The attrition steam was shut off at 3 a.m. on
November 20, 1970.  The temperature spread in the bed increased but
the temperature differences were not alarmingly high.  However, the
bed temperature spread continued to increase and steam was reintroduced
at 11 a.m. on November 20, 1969.  This time attrition steam had little
apparent effect.  Finally, at about 3 a.m. on November 21, 1969, the
bed temperature spread jumped to 1000F.  The pressure drop across
the bed fell.  The unit was shut down.

       Fortunately, throughout this period regular recordings were
made of the pressure differential across 30 inches of the bed.  The
partial  bed differential (Ap) is related to fluidized bed density Qb
in lb/ft3 as follows:  (see Appendix E)

                     6b = 2.079  Ap
                               21

-------
NOTE>
    SUCCESSIVE  OBSERVATIONS   ARE  CONNECTED  BY   STRAIGHT
    LINES  FOR  CONVENIENCE  AND  00 NOT  IMPLY   KNOWLEDGE
    OF  INTERMEDATE  VALUES.
                                                           LEGEND:
X*8ED  DEPTH
A: BED TEMP. SPREAD
+TOTAL  BED  DIFF.
O= BED DENSITY
FIG  7  OPERATING   DATA   ON   FLUID   BED    11/19/69   TO  N/21/69

-------
       It will be noted that as the pressure drops across the fluid
bed the superficial  space velocity increases and expands the bed.
Therefore one might expect the bed to be denser at the bottom.  Some
error is introduced when Qb is used to represent the average density
of the entire bed.

       The total depth of the bed (H) in feet may be determined from
the total bed differential pressure (Ap) and the partial bed differ-
ential (Ap) as follows:   (see Appendix E)

           H = 2.5_AP_+ 0.5  NOTE:  The lower differential
                   AP               pressure tap is 0.5 ft.  above
                                    the grid.

       Inventory of bed material (M) Ib. above the lower differential
tap may be determined from the total bed differential.

           M = 123.55  AP (see Appendix E)

       This equation is valid so long as the entire bed is  contained
in the lower cylindrical portion of the bed.  When the bed  extends
up into the frustum of the expanded section of the vessel,  an obvious
error is introduced due to the shape change.

       Bed density and bed level data are also included in  Figure 7.
A relatively wide variation in bed density is observed.  Bed density
is reduced by an increase in superficial space velocity (increased
air) but without changes  in space velocity the fluidized bed density
displayed an overall tendency to increase.  The bed depth is certainly
not predictable from the  total bed differential alone but its inverse
relationship to bed density is apparent.  Note that on two  occasions
during this period, the bed level reached a height of over  10 feet.
The top of the cylindrical section of the incinerator vessel is at
5.5 feet.  When the bed level is over 5.5 feet, the top of  the bed
extends into the inverted frustum of the expansion section  of the
vessel.  The thumping previously described, in addition to  being
related to the bed particle size, bed height, and diameter,  is probably
influenced by the superficial space velocity change that occurs in
the frustum.

       The additional knowledge gained by observing the fluid bed
density is essential to the determination of the depth of the fluid
bed.  However, the relative state of bed fluidity is not apparent
from any combination of the data in Figure 7.  Note that the first
indication of poor fluidity shown by an increased bed temperature
spread occurred at about 12 noon on November 19, 1969, at a  time
when the bed density was 52 lb/ft3.   The bed density reached a maximum
at 73 lb/ft3 between 6 and 9 p.m. on November 20, 1969, and  was appar-
ently declining when the fluidity was lost.
                                23

-------
       When a bed of finely divided solids is in a fluid state, the
fluid bed density decreases as the superficial  space velocity is
increased and conversely as the superficial  space velocity is de-
creased, the fluid bed density increases.   The  maximum bed density
that can be reached by reducing velocity is represented by the den-
sity of the mass of particles at rest.   This is called the apparent
bulk density (ABD).  Since fluidization causes  an expansion of the
mass of particles, the ratio of fluid density to apparent bulk density
serves as a measure of relative fluidity.   Since fluidity was nearly
lost according to the data in Figure 7, at various fluid densities
it follows that the apparent bulk density of the bed must have been
changing.

       Apparent bulk density is a function of the particle packing
configuration and in a system containing uniformly sized particles,
it is independent of particle size.  In a  system containing variously
sized particles, the apparent bulk density decreases as uniformity
increases the limiting value being the same whether the uniformity
approaches the large or the smaller of the sizes in the distribution.
For example, a mass of uniformly sized spheres  of diameter D arranged
so that each sphere is in contact with six other spheres would have
an ABD expressed by:

           ABD = 0.5236 Qp (see Appendix F)

           Where Gp is the particle density

If the spheres are arranged so that each sphere is in contact with
12 other spheres:

           ABD = 0.700  ep

Note that in neither case is the ABD related to the size of the
spheres.

       When the packing configuration is such that each sphere is
in contact with six other spheres, small spheres whose diameter is
0.4142 D can be added to the mass without increasing the volume
until the void space is filled.  As the smaller diameter spheres
are added, the ABD of the mixture will  increase from 0.5236 6p to
a maximum then decrease to 0.5236 6p.  The calculated ABD of mixtures
of spheres with diameters 0.064 and 0.0265 and  having a particle
density of 150 lb/ft3 are recorded in Table I.
                               24

-------
tn
     tr>
      m
      to
      z
      UJ
      Q
                 20
  30       40       50       60


MEAN   PARTICLE  SIZE  INCHES  X  I03
70
           FIG  8       AVERAGE  PARTICLE  SIZE   VS

                      ABD   AND   FLUID   BED   DENSITY

-------
                            TABLE I

CALCULATED ABD OF MIXTURES OF SPHERES 0.064 IN. & 0.0265 IN. DIAMETER
WITH PARTICLE DENSITY OF 150 LB/FT3	

                       Calculated      Calculated       Observed
% 0.064 D  % 0.0265 D  ABD 1b/ft3  Weight Mean D, in.  ABD lb/ft3

   100          0          78             0.064            70
    81         19          96             0.056
    68         32         115 max.         0.052
    63         37         112             0.050
    58         42         108             0.048
    47         53         100             0.044            74
    18         82          85             0.033
     5         95          80             0.031            85
     0        100          78             0.026            84

       When a mass of finely divided particles are poured into a
container, it would be highly unlikely for them to come to rest in a
definite configuration such as was  assumed to  find the calculated
density.  These calculations serve  only to provide an understanding
of vaMm'ons observed in ABD with  various mean particle sizes.
Several observations are included in Table I.

       The density of a fluidized bed is related to the superficial
space velocity, the mean particle size, the particle density and the
fluidizing medium density and viscosity.  Fluidized bed densities have
been estimated for various average  particle  sizes utilizing the
smoothed correlation of particulate fluidization curves.   Variables
arbitrarily held constant were as follows:

            Fluidizing media density     Q  =  0.0212 lb/ft3

            Particle density            Q  =  150 lb/ft3

            Viscosity of media          -Qf =  2.82 x 10"5 Ib/ft-sec

            Space velocity               V-]  =4.21  ft/sec

Estimated fluid bed densities are tabulated  in Table II.
                               26

-------
                            TABLE II

                 Estimated Fluid Bed Densities
                For Various Mean Particle Sizes

      Particle Diameter, in.        Fluid Bed Density
                Dn                       Ib/ft3
             0,029                        46.9
             0.032                        50.7
             0.036                        56.6
             0.040                        60.0
             0.044                        61.6
             0.048                        64.9
             0.052                        66.7
             0.056                        70.2

       Observed ABD from Table I and fluid bed density from Figure 2
are plotted vs. mean particle size in Figure 8.  When the average
particle size increases as the result of the loss of fine material
the ABD decreases and the fluid bed density increases.  When the fluid
bed density equals the ABD the bed ceases to be fluid.  For an opera-
tion in which the particle size is increasing due to the deposits of
solids, fine material is being lost and new fines material is being
added to the system, it is impossible to predict the ABD.

       It is proposed that untimely termination of operations can be
avoided by appropriate action if instrumentation is provided to furnish
a continuous record of fluid bed density and the relative fluidity is
determined periodically by comparing fluid bed density with ABD.  (ABD
can be simply measured by weighing a known volume of bed material and
converting the volume weight relationship to lb/ft3.)

       The ability to control the ratio of the rate of fine material
additions to the rate of dissolved solids additions is essential.  See
Appendix H.
                                27

-------
                                               TABLE  III
                                      MANDAN FLUID BED  INCINERATOR
                                            PERFORMANCE DATA
ro
PP
          FEED
            Sludge
            Oil, wt  %
            Water, wt  %
            Sediment,  wt  '
            Sulfur,  wt %
            Sed. Ignition
            Sed. Ash,  wt  '
            Sp. Gr.  Oil
            Heating  Valve
Loss, wt %
Sludge, BTU/gal
           Spent Caustic
           Water, wt %
                     )Hydroxide  NaOH, wt
           Alkal inity)Carbonate  ^063 wt
                     )B. Carbonate  NaHC03
           Total Sodium, wt %
           Total Sulfur, wt %
           COD, Mg/1
TEST
DATE









%
: %
., wt 5



I
10/29/69
34.0
61.1
4.9
0.67
50.0
50.0
0.8723
47,191
68.8
8.9
7.7
I 0
5.8
2.7
110,000
II
11/19/69
36.6
50.8
12.6
0.57
46.5
53.5
0.8763
56,108
81.0
8.8
7.6
0
1.5
2.6
73,600
III
3/12/70
29.3
56.7
14.0
0.78
21.3
78.7
0.8850
42,054
65.5
8.4
10.3
0
8.6
2.4
76,400
IV
3/17/70
31.6
56.4
12.0
1.25
13.8
86.2
0.8840
42,553
62.4
8.2
10.2
0
7.8
3.4
146,000
V
3/23/70
22.1
62.0
15.9
1.98
7.8
92.2
0.8880
43,671
72.2
7.4
9.5
0
7.1
2.9
124,000
VI
5/25/70
22.2
30.8
47.0
0.56
24.2
75.8
0.9290
60,848
71.6
6.1
7.7
0
1.3
2.9
197,500

-------
ro
BED MATERIAL
  Bed
       (20, wt %
U.S.   (40, wt %
Sieve. (60, wt %
% Ret. (80, wt %
        Pan, wt %

           Water Soluble, wt %
           Water Insoluble, wt %
           Sulfate S04-, wt %
           Sodium Na+, wt %
           (Hydroxide NaOH, wt %
Alkalinity(Carbonate Na2C03, wt %
           (B. Carbonate NaHC03 wt

  Cyclone Fines
       (20, wt %
U.S.   (40, wt %
Sieve. (60, wt %
% Ret. (80, wt %
        Pan, wt %

           Water Soluble, wt %
           Water Insoluble, wt
           Sulfate S04-, wt %
           Sodium Na+, wt %
Alkalinity(Hydroxide NaOH, wt %
           (Carbonate NaoCO^, wt %
           (Bicarbonate NaHC03, wt %
                                                TABLE IV
                                     MANDAN FLUID BED INCINERATOR
                                           PERFORMANCE DATA
                                      TEST
                                      DATE
I
10/2Q/69
25.4
73.2
1.4
T
T
49.2
50.8
37.1
15.4
0.8
; 2.0
; % 0
24.2
43.5
5.3
3.6
23.4
28.0
72.0
23.1
7.4
0
; 0.8
; % 0.3
II
11/19/69
82.2
11.8
0
0
0
75.3
27.4
41.1
23.2
0
10.2
T
7.4
17.8
3.1
3.1
68.6
77.3
22.7
32.6
7.2
0.9
12.2
0
III
3/13/70
16.0
77.3
6.0
0.7
0
65.0
35.0
41.2
14.7
0.2
2.5
0
50.4
18.8
3.6
2.4
24.8
49.8
50.2
32.0
-
0
2.3
0.8
IV
3/17/70
38.2
60.5
1.3
0
0
76.6
23.4
41.2
22.0
1.0
4.9
0
37.0
30.8
5.2
3.6
23.4
63.3
36.7
38.9
16.4
0.6
3.2
0
V
3/23/70
5.1
80.3
14.6
0
0
77.3
22.7
46.6
21.6
0.3
2.4
0
7.6
34.8
8.1
5.1
44.4
72.8
27.2
39.3
20.4
1.0
2.7
0
VI
5/25/70
57.0
42.5
0.5
0
0
64.4
35.6
39.3
20.0
1.4
4.0
0
55.8
12.3
4.9
3.6
23.4
_
-
_
-
-
_
_

-------
CO
o
                                                TABLE  V
                                       MANDAN FLUID  BED  INCINERATOR
                                             PERFORMANCE DATA
                                      TEST
                                      DATE
SCRUBBER
  Off Gas

          CO Vol %
ORSAT     C02Vol %
          02 Vol %
Hydrocarbon, PPM Vol
S02, PPM Vol
Participates Grams/SCF (Dry)

  Influent Water
pH
Suspended Solids
Dissolved Solids
COD
                                        I
                                     10/20/69
                                                  2.2
                                                 10.8
                                                  5.0
   II
11/19/69
  III
3/13/70
  IV
3/17/70
  V
3/23/70
  VI
5/25/70
0
4.4
8.0
_
-
-
0
5.4
n.o
0
0
0.058
0
6.2
10.0
0
T
0.040
0
4.4
15.4
0
T
0.046
0
7.0
11.0
0
T
0.098
6.9
24.0
764.0
72.0
6.9
30.0
938.0
64.0
7.0
36.0
1108.0
56.0
6.7
18.0
1054.0
168.0
6.4
26.0
934.0
52.0
7.8
58.0
1148.0
124.0
            Effluent Water
          PH
          Suspended Solids
          Dissolved Solids
          COD
6.0
722.0
1169.0
144.0
6.0
530.0
1628.0
160.0
6.9
321.0
2092.0
28.0
6.6
207.0
1394.0
60.0
6.5
283.0
1564.0
36.0
7.5
2406.0
1792.0
312.0

-------
                                 TABLE VI
                        MANDAN FLUID BED INCINERATOR
                              PERFORMANCE DATA
TEST
.DATE
OPERATING CONDITIONS
Average Bed Temp, F
Temperature Deviation +_ F
Average Freeboard Temp, F
Average Freeboard Pressure, in ^0
Average Bed Differential, in h^O
Average Density 30" Bed, in ^0
Average Fluid Air, SCFM
Sludge Rate, bbl/hr
Caustic Rate, bbl/hr
I
10/20/69
1302
5
1296
13
60
18
1342
I 2.9
A 0.6
II
11/19/69
1308
16
1353
24
56
20
1356
I 2.5
A 1.4
III
3/13/70
1274
6
1381
21
71
-
1416
I 1.9
A 1.3
IV
3/17/70
1286
8
1381
18
66
-
1372
I 1.9
I 1.1
V
3/23/70
*
1271
8
1374
20
66
-
1357
I 1.8)
)2.5
I 0.7)
VI
5/25/70
1318
2
1346
15
73
31
1463
I 2.1
I 2.0
A = Above Bed
I = In Bed

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ro
                                               TABLE VII
                                      MANDAN  FLUID BED  INCINERATOR
                                        MISCELLANEOUS INFORMATION
BTU/Gal Total Feed
Sludge Ib/gal
Spent Caustic Ib/gal
Barometric Pressure "Hg
Space Velocity, ft/sec Air at grid
                       Feed I "
                       Top of
                       Free bo.
Fluidized Bed Density, lb/ft3
Bed Depths, ft
TEST
DATE




grid
ijec.
Bed
ird


I
10/20/69
39,101
8.28
9.88
29.98
2.73
3.46
2.15
1.49
37.4
8.3
II
11/19/69
35,966
8.94
9.86
30.25
2.69
3.37
2.00
1.45
41.5
8.1
III
3/13/70
24,969
9.21
10.08
30.35
2.68
3.22
1.44
-
_
IV
3/17/70
26,952
8.89
10.05
29.91
2.69
3.20
1.43
-
_
V
3/23/70
31,443
9.48
9.91
29.74
2.64
3.18
1.45
-
_
VI
5/25/70
31,165
15.52
9.07
29.99
2.89
3.73
3.82
1.55
64.5
5.9

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                       UNIT PERFORMANCE

Test Data

       In order to evaluate the performance of the fluid bed incin-
erator, six sets of test data were observed during operations.  These
data are recorded in Tables III through VII.  Sludge feed rates were
observed between 1.8 and 2.9 bbl/hr and caustic rates varied between
0.7 and 2.0 bbl/hr.  Heat requirements per gallon of total feed ranged
from 25,000 to 39,000.

       The ash produced (bed material) is relatively inert.  The
maximum hydrate alkalinity observed was 1.4 wt %.  Solubility ranges
between 50 and 80 wt %  (in hot  212F water).  The possibilities of
utilizing this material or reclaiming chemicals from it exist but
have not been investigated.

       Stack gases contain water vapor, carbon dioxide, oxygen, and
nitrogen.  Only traces of sulfur dioxide (less than 0.1 ppm) were
found.  On one occasion, 2.2 volume % carbon monoxide was detected
when the oxygen content was 5 percent.  CO was not evident when the
02 content was over 8 percent.

       The scrubber effluent water contains suspended solids, dissolved
solids, and chemical oxygen demand.  These waste water contaminants
would  be greatly reduced by improving the cyclone separator efficiency
and recirculating  scrubber water.
Heat and Material  Balance

        Heat and material balance around the incinerator vessel were
calculated for Tests  IV and VI.  These data are summarized in Table
VIII.   Note that  in Test IV the heat released per gallon of sludge
charged (44,272 BTU/gal) by heat balance is in the same order of mag-
nitude  as the estimated heating value of the sludge (42,509 BTU/gal)
but the (42,509 BTU/gal) heat  release by heat balance in Test VI does
not agree with that estimated  from the sludge composition (60,848 BTU/gal),

        In estimating  the heating value of sludge, the percent oil is
determined and its heating value is estimated from the quality of oil
recovered.  The sediment is ignited and the volatile matter from the
sediment is assumed to  be oil.  The sediment in the sludge for
Test  IV was only  12 wt  % with  12.8 percent ignition loss while that
in Test VI was 47 wt  %  with 24.2 ignition loss.  The assumption that
the material lost from  the sediment by ignition has the same  heating
value as the oil  was  obviously not valid for Test VI.  A more accurate
value of sludge heating value  could be established by use of  a bomb
calorimeter.
                                33

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         TABLE VIII
MANDAN FLUID BED INCINERATOR
 HEAT AND MATERIAL BALANCE

T, UF
Lb/Hr t -60F
Sludge Oil 235.92 60
120UF Water 400.12 60
Ash 73.38 60
Caustic Water 289.73 30
90F NaOH 38.07 30
Na2C03 47.36 30
DS 89.15 30
Air 02 1,785.60 120
TT80F) N2 5,920.89 120
Spray Water 600.00 15
(760F) 9,480.19
Off Gas CO? 683.32 1321
(13810F IV) 02 801.60 1321
(1346F VI) N2 5,878.04 1321
H20 1,829.11 1321
Ash 73.38 1226
TT2&60F IV) DS 89.15 1226
(13180F VI) N32S04 109.55 1226
Na2C03 16.04 1226
TEST IV
Cp BTU/ H
Lb/F BTU/Lb
0.420
59.82
0.224
) 29.93
)
0.256
0.2
0.223
0.249
14.97
0.2802
0.253
0.274
568.1
0.224
0.200
0.202
0.256
9,480.19
Heat Release by Difference
BTU/Gal Sludge from Heat Balance
BTU/Gal Estimated from Sludge Composition
TEST VI
BTU
5,945
23,935
986
8,672
1,139
365
535
47,782
174,674
8,982
273,014
252,927
267,904
2,127,580
1,039,117
20,152
21,859
27,130
5,034
3,761,703
3,488,689
44,272
42,553
Lb/Hr
459.58
421.61
487.67
545.52
46.47
58.66
111.23
1,888.00
6,259.55
334.90
10,613.19
833.36
952.64
6,214.60
1,859.94
487.67
111.23
132.22
21.53
10,613.19
T, UF
t -60F
60
60
60
30
30
30
30
120
120
15
1286
1286
1286
1286
1258
1258
1258
1258
Cp BTU/
Lb/F
0.420
0.224
0.256
0.2
0.223
0.249
0.280
0.253
0.274
0.224
0.200
0.202
0.256
H
BTU/Lb BTU
11,581
59.82 25,221
6,554
) 29.93 16,327
) 1,390
451
667
50,522
187,035
14.97 5,013
304,761
300,076
309,949
2,188,391
564.4 1,049,750
137,421
27,985
33,599
6,933
4,054,104
3,749,343
42,509
60,848

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                  OPERATING AND MAINTENANCE COSTS


        Automatic controls are provided to allow the unit to operate
 with minimum  attendance by an operator, and to shut down the unit in
 the event of  a  hazardous malfunction.  Under normal operations,
 approximately 25% of an operator's time is required for this unit.
 When tank bottoms are  being transported to the unit, the number of
 man hours required may increase appreciably.

        Utilities required for the unit appear reasonable.  The
 connected electric Toad is approximately 48.2 horsepower per ton of
 sludge feed,  most of which is required for the air blower.  Natural
 gas and  torch oil are  required for startup only.  Compressed air
 (100 psig) at 13,000 SCFH, steam (140 psig) at 900#/Hr, and raw water
 usage at approximately 35,000 #/Hr are the only other utilities required.

        Installation of piping to facilitate using raw water in place
 of treated cooling water has reduced water costs approximately 70%.

        Maintenance costs will average approximately 1.7 per cent per
 year of  installed cost per year.  The two major contributors to main-
 tenance  cost  are feed  nozzle plugging and pump wear caused by the
 abrasiveness  of the sludge.

        The following is a breakdown of projected operating costs
 based on a yearly operating factor of 33.2%:  The expenditure pattern
 in Table IX provides additional cost information.

      Operating         Maintenance        Utilities         Total

       $4,813            $5,854*           $6,653**        $17,320

        A yearly operating cost of $17,320, processing 8,712 Bbl/Year
 of waste caustic and sludge, results in a unit cost of 4.7
-------
                            TABLE IX
                      MANDAN INCINERATOR
                     EXPENDITURE PATTERN
A.  Construction
1968
May-June
July-Sept.
Oct. -Dec. v
Total 1968
1969
Jan. -March
April -June
July-Sept.
Oct. -Dec.
Total 1969
1970
Jan. -March
April -June
Total
Grand Total
(a)
B. Operation
Months
1969
April -June
July-Sept.
Oct. -Dec.
Total
1970
Jan. -March
April -June
Total
Grand Total
Quarter
(Included o
3
4
1
2
3
4
1
2
Correction for
charge for 4th
Opera ti
Construction
Engineering
(Copeland + American)
n 3rd Quarter Expenditures)
$ 61,123 $ 8,428
96,829 15,341
$157,952
$ 87,950
30,510
29,491
2,466
$150,417
$ 660
182
$ 842
$309,211
inadvertent additional
quarter of 1968.
on & Postconstruction
Quarter Maintenance Studies & Reports
2 $ 731
3 4,824
4 7,683
$13,238
1 $ 4,317
2 7,647
$11,964
$25,202
$ -
3,257
3,848
$ 7,105
$ 5,180
5,180
$10,360
$17,465
$23,769
$(-2,045)a
1,943
1,305
1,126
$ 2,329
$ 0
0
$ 0
$26,098
engineering
Utilities
$ -
1,795
2,345
$ 4,140
$ 3,015
4,113
$ 7,128
$11,268
Total
$ 69,551
112,170
$181,721
$ 85,905
32,453
30,796
3,592
$152,746
$ 660
182
$ 842
$335,309
Total
$ 731
9,876
13,326
$23,933
$11,292
16,203
$27,495
$53,935
                                36

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                         ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS
Dr. Roy N. Giles, former Manager of the American Oil Refinery
at Mandan, retired, insisted that a system for disposal of
refinery generated oil sludges and spent caustic must be found.

K. C. Lowe. Project Manager, American Oil General Engineering,
was responsible for administration of all aspects of engineering
and construction.

W. E. Meihack, Engineer, American Oil Mandan Refinery Engineering
and Technical Division was responsible for site preparation and
design of outside battery limits facilities.  He provided liaison
between the American Oil Company and construction contractors.

C. H. Ruzicka, General Foreman American Oil Refinery at Mandan,
represented the refinery Operating Division during the planning
and construction stages and supervised start up operation.

H. P. Jasper, Operating Foreman American Oil Refinery at Mandan
prepared the operators training material and initial operating
procedures.

J. H. W. Haig and T. R. Green, Operating Foremen American Oil
Refinery at Mandan supervised the initial operations of the
fluid bed incinerator.  Their reported observation provided the
basis for much of this report.

Olev Kraav, Chief Chemist, American Oil Refinery Engineering and
Technical Division developed analytical procedures and supervised
laboratory work associated with the fluid bed incinerator.

Cecil M. Wheeler, Vice President Copeland Systems Incorporated
provided constructive comments on portions of this report during
its preparation.

R. F. Reiche, Engineer and Representative of Walker Process
Equipment, a Division of Chicago Bridge and Iron Company,
arranged for permission to reproduce copies of the original
process flow and instrumentation drawing.
                              37

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                            REFERENCES
1.   Marshall,  "Atomization  and Spray  Drying"
     Chemical Eng.  Progress  Monograph   Ser.,  50,  1954
2.   Zenz and Othmer,  "Fluidization  and  Fluid  Particle  Systems"
     Reinhold, New York,  1960
                              38

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                          PUBLICATIONS
Incinerate Sludge and Caustic. R. C. Mallatt and J.  F.  Grutsch,
Standard Oil CCK (Indiana) and H. E. Simons, American Oil  Co.,
Mandan, N. D.   Hydrocarbon Processing  May, 1970,  pg.  121.
Smokeless Fluid-Bed Incinerator, Robert C.  Ewings,  The Oil  and
Gas JournalDecember 15, 1969,  pg. 68, 69.


Refinery Wastes Burn Smokeless. Odorless. Chemical  Processing
March, 1970.


Fluid Bed Incineration, Robert T. Baldwin,  Ketchum, Macleod &
Grove, Inc.  90 Park Avenue, New York, New York
Plant Operating Management.
                               39

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                            GLOSSARY
API SEPARATOR:  An oil-water separator for removing oil from waste
       water the design of which has been approved by the American
       Petroleum Institute.

APPARENT BULK DENSITY (ABD):  The weight per unit volume relation-
       ship of a mass of finely divided solids at rest.

ATTRITION:  The breaking up of bed particles to form smaller
       particles (occurs by thermal shock and/or impingement).

ELUTRIATION:  The flushing of the smaller particle from the bed by
       the flushing medium.

FLUID  BED:  A mass of finely divided solids suspended in a rising
       stream of fluid.

FLUID  BED DENSITY (6b):  The weight per unit volume relationship
       of a mass of finely divided solids in a fluidized bed.

FUSION TEMPERATURE:  The minimum temperature at which finely
       divided solids begin to stick together (fuse) on contact
       with each other.

INCIPIENT FLUIDIZATION VELOCITY:  The minimum superficial space
       velocity necessary to change a mass of finely divided
       solids from a slumped condition to a fluidized condition.

PARTICLE DENSITY (Qp):  The weight per unit volume relationship
       of an  individual particle.

SLUMP:  The at rest condition of a fluid bed having an insufficient
       quantity of fluid rising through it to suspend the solid
       particles.
                                                distance
SUPERFICIAL SPACE VELOCITY:  A calculated rate (  time  ) deter-
       mined from the volume of fluid passing through a cross-
       sectional area of bed in a unit of time neglecting the
       space occupied by the finely divided solids.

TORCH  OIL:  Any heavy petroleum hydrocarbon mixture suitable for
       burning in a fluidized bed for temperature control.
                              40

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                           APPENDIX A

                      OPERATING PROCEDURES
                    AND INSTRUCTIONAL MATERIAL

                        TABLE OF CONTENTS
                                                                  Page
  I.   Process Description                                          l-l

      A.   General                                                  1-1
      B.   Application to Mandan Refinery                           1-2
      C.   Incinerator Theory                                       1-2

 II.   Control System -- Instrumentation                         MI-1

      A.   Storage Tanks                                           II-l
      B.   Sludge Feed Pump                                        II-l
      C.   Incinerator                                             II-l

III.   Equipment Operating Instructions                          III-l

      A.   Spent Caustic Storage Tank 902-1                      III-l
      B.   Feed Tank 902-2                                       III-l
      C.   Tank Bottoms Sump 902-3                               III-l
      D.   Torch Oil Storage Tank 902-4                          111-2
      E.   Spent Caustic Transfer Pump 901-1                     III-2
      F.   Sludge Feed Pump 901-2                                II1-2
      G.   Bottoms Transfer Pump 901-3                           III-3
      H.   Torch Oil Circulation Pump 901-4                      III-3
      I.   Feed Tank Mixer 905-1                                 111-4
      J.   Tank Bottoms Sump Mixer 905-2                         III-4
      K.   Air Compressor 304-1                                  111-4
      L.   Scrubber 501-1                                        III-5
      M.   Cyclone 303-1  Ejector 301-4                        III-6
      N.   Air Preheater 302-1                                   III-7
      0.   Screw Unloading Conveyor 307-1                        111-10
      P.   Sand Loading  Ejector 301-3                         111-10

 IV.   Feed Preparation                                           IV-1

  V-   Startup of Incinerator                                      V-l

      A.   Preliminary Steps                                       V-l
      B.   Startup -- No Bed in Incinerator                        V-l
      C.   Startup -- Slumped Bed in Incinerator                   V-5
                              41

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                           APPENDIX A

                      TABLE OF CONTENTS (cont'd)
                                                                  Page

 VI.  Shutdown of Incinerator                                    VI-1

      A.  Normal Shutdown                                        VI-1
      B.  Emergency Shutdown -- Air compressor or Power Failure  VI-1
      C.  Emergency Shutdown -- Steam Failure                    VI-2

VII.  Normal Operation                                          VII-1
  Attachments:

      Drawing 1  -- Piping and Instrument Diagram                  76
      Drawing 2 -- Piping and Instrument Diagram                  77
                               42

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                                                            1-1
                    FLUIDIZED BED INCINERATOR
I.   PROCESS DESCRIPTION

    A.   General

        The technique of fluidized bed processing has been used in
        refinery cat crackers for many years.   Its application to
        the waste disposal  of paper mill  effluents was developed
        by the Copeland Process Corporation,  and they have applied
        the same principle  to the disposal  of oil  refinery waste
        sludges.  The refinery oily sludges have enough heating
        value to sustain combustion without the addition of sup-
        plementary fuel; as a matter of fact,  provisions have been
        made to  add water to the system to  control  operating
        temperatures.

        The fluidized bed media is a mixture  of properly graded
        granuals of a variety of materials  including  sand and/or
        chemicals.   If the  waste to be burned  contains no inorganic
        chemicals the bed may be sand.   However,  if chemicals are
        present, they will  be collected and agglomerated, and
        actually become the bed material  after some period of
        operation.   A buildup of chemical bed  material  will  require
        periodic removal to maintain level  of  fluidity.

        The operating temperature of the  bed will  be  dependent upon
        the fusion  characteristics of the bed  material,  consistent
        with complete combustion.   If the bed  material  were  to
        remain sand,  the temperature may  be over  1750F.; however,
        low fusion  chemical  beds may require  temperatures around
        1300F.  to  prevent  defluidization due  to  fusion.

    B.   Application to Mandan Refinery

        The incinerator for the Mandan Refinery will  dispose of
        wastes from four sources:

                 API Separator Box Sludge
                 Emulsion  Sludge from Separator  Slop Tanks
                 Spent Caustic
                 Tank Cleaning Bottoms

        These  streams will  contribute a mixture of oil,  water,
        solids,  and dissolved chemicals  in  various  proportions.
                              43

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FLUIDIZED BED INCINERATOR                                    1-2

I.  PROCESS DESCRIPTION (Cont'd)

    B.  Application to Mandan Refinery (Cont'd)

        In order to provide a feed stream of relatively constant
        thermal  value, the wastes need to be blended and kept
        mixed in the feed tank.  The spent caustic is stored in
        a separate tank at the incinerator site and will be pumped
        into the feed tank as required for blending and disposal.
        The tank cleaning bottoms will be hauled to the incinerator
        site by truck and dumped into a sump box where they will
        be heated and slurried to a pumpable mixture and then
        pumped into the feed tank as required for blending.  The
        sludges from the separator area will be periodically pumped
        directly into the feed tank and will be blended off with the
        proper amounts of caustic and bottoms sludge.  The rate of
        sludge feed to the incinerator vessel will depend upon the
        oil content of the feed - the higher the oil content, the
        slower the feed rate.  During periods of extensive tank
        cleaning programs, the incinerator will operate for extended
        periods of time because of the high oil content of the tank
        bottoms material.   During the remainder of the year the
        incinerator will operate until the feed tank is emptied and
        will  stay shut down until the feed tank becomes full again.
        It will  require approximately 5 days to consume a "batch"
        of feed.  The laboratory will analyze the contents of the
        feed tank for oil  content to help obtain the desired blend
        of feed for the incinerator.

    C.  Incinerator

        The sludge is pumped into the incinerator and enters
        immediately above the expanded fluidized bed.  At this
        point the oils in the feed are vaporized and ignited by the
        burning material in the bed, and solids in the feed enter
        the bed and are burned there.  Steam and "over-bed" combus-
        tion air are introduced concentrically around the feed
        nozzle and serve to atomize the feed for better combustion.
        The oil  content of the feed is purposely blended to provide
        sufficient heat to sustain combustion.  Water sprays in the
        top of the vessel  will  cool  effluent gases to a point where
        entrained solids will not be soft and sticky.  These sprays
        are automatically  adjusted by a temperature-recorder
        controller.

        Air for combustion enters the vessel in two locations.  A
        fairly constant supply of air is admitted below the


                               44

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FLUIDIZED BED INCINERATOR                                   I'3

I.  PROCESS DESCRIPTION  (Cont'd)

    C.   Incinerator  (Cont'd)

         distribution grid and is required to keep the bed "fluidized."
         Sufficient sludge feed must be maintained into the incinera-
         tor to  consume this "fluidizing air".  A second supply of
         air is  admitted  above the bed concentrically with the feed
         nozzle.  This air can be varied as required to provide
         proper  combustion for increased feed rates or higher oil
         content feeds.   Both of these air streams are supplied by
         electrically driven centrifugal air blower and each stream
         is adjusted  by a flow-indicator controller.  The air require-
         ments are monitored by an oxygen analyzer sampling the
         effluent gases.

         During  start-up  of the incinerator a gas fired air preheater
         is used in the fluidizing air stream to heat the bed to  900F.
         At this point a  torch oil  (decanted oil) is injected into the
         fluidized bed to increase the bed temperature to an operating
         temperature  of approximately 1350F.  When the operating tem-
         perature is  reached sludge feed can be started and the torch
         oil and gas  preheater shut off.

         The effluent gases carrying entrained solids pass from the
         incinerator  into a cyclone where almost 100% of the
         entrained particles over  20 microns in diameter will be
         removed. These  particles  removed by the cyclone can be
         either  hauled from the unit as  solid waste or returned to
         the  incinerator  bed to aid  in particle size control.

         The  effluent gases from  the cyclone are water washed in  a
         scrubber which will remove  93%  of all particles from zero
         to  20 microns  in diameter.  The cyclone and scrubber are
         both  fabricated  from  18-8 stainless steel.

         Initially  the incinerator will  use  sand as the  bed material.
         It  is expected  that  a  static  bed of four feet will expand
         to  approximately six  feet when  fluidized.  The  "orifice
         plate"  or  "grid" contains 117-1/4"  sch. 40 stainless steel
         pipes 16"  long  with  a  4"  long  1/2"  diameter "tee" welded
         at  the  top  of each.   These "tees"  provide for  the distribu-
         tion  of the  fluidizing  air and  prevent  the bed  material  from
         dropping through the  grid when  not  fluidized.   After the
         introduction of spent caustic  in  the  feed  the  sand will
         gradually  be displaced  by oxidized  sodium  salts  of  sodium
                               45

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FLUIDIZED BED INCINERATOR                                   1-4

I.  PROCESS DESCRIPTION (Cont'd.)

    C.  Incinerator (Cont'd.)

        carbonate and/or sodium sulfate.  The formation of sodium
        sulfate will depend upon the amount of sulfur present in
        the sludge feed.  The  bed will  continue to grow in depth
        as sludge containing caustic is burned and will have to be
        removed periodically via the water cooled screw conveyor.

        As the bed is converted to chemicals its physical character-
        istics will change, which will  affect its fusion point and
        fluidizing properties.  The fusion point of various mixtures
        of sodium compounds is between  1300 - 1350F.  Some of the
        iron salts known to be present  in the sludge feed will fur-
        ther alter the fusion  temperature.  Periodic laboratory
        tests of the bed material will  establish the fusion tempera-
        ture and help to determine the  operating temperature of the
        incinerator bed.  Fusion of the bed will cause defluidiza-
        tion and subsequent shutdown for clean out.  The approach of
        defluidization is indicated by  a loss in differential
        pressure across the bed.

        Proper fluidization is also dependent upon a proper
        distribution of particle sizes  in the bed media.  Most of the
        particles should range from 50  to 20 mesh (which is .012" to
        .033" in diameter, about the size of particles found in coarse
        sand).  A sand bed maintains its particle distribution
        quite well and requires only monthly additions of sand to
        maintain level.  However, when  chemicals are present in the
        feed, the small sand particles  tend to grow as they become
        coated with the chemical salt until all particles achieve
        the same size.  At this point fluidization becomes unstable
        and the bed may collapse.  To help maintain a better dis-
        tribution of the fine particles and also to provide a
        nucleus for agglomeration of these salts on a continual
        basis, provision has been made  to educt the fine particles
        separated in the cyclone back into the incinerator bed.   It
        may also be necessary to dump a portion of the bed via the
        unloading screw conveyor and add batches of sand at some
        undetermined frequency to maintain proper particle size
        distribution.
                               46

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FLUIDIZED BED INCINERATOR

II.   INSTRUMENT CONTROL SYSTEMS

     A.  Storage Tanks
         The "spent caustic" storage tank and the "feed" tank
         conventional gauge boards for level indicators.  Both tanks
         have steam heating coils in them with automatic tempera-^
         ture controls to maintain the contents at 100F.  The 405
         bbl. caustic tank is insulated.  The 1000 bbl .  feed tank is
         equipped with a side entry 20 HP mixer.

         The "tank bottoms" sump is an 80 bbl. steel box 10 feet
         square and four feet deep.  The cover is hinged on one
         side to permit dumping material into it from a dump truck.
         The contents are to be maintained at 160F. by manually
         controlling steam to the steam grid beneath the floor.
         The level is indicated by means of a bubbler-type level
         indicator.  The sump is equipped with a heavy-duty top
         entering mixer to mix the contents into a pumpable slurry.

     B.  Sludge Feed Pump

         The sludge feed pump is a Moyno pump equipped with a
         variable speed drive.  This is a positive displacement
         pump.  The pumping rate is controlled from the Ultraformer
         control room by means of an air manual loading station
         (HIC -40) controlling the variable speed drive.  The feed
         pump motor is shut down automatically by a temperature
         switch  (TE-50M and TS-50H) if  the  incinerator freeboard
         temperature exceeds 1400 or drops below 1000F.   (The
         upper portion above the bed is the "freeboard" area.)
         The motor trips out on loss of fluidizing air pressure.

     C.  Incinerator
         The  sludge  feed  is  blended  to be slightly rich  in oil
         content  to  sustain  combustion without  the need  for
         supplementary  fuel.   Water  must be  added to control  the
         temperature of the  effluent gases so that entrained
         solids will  not  be  soft  or  sticky to cause plugging  of
         the  cyclone.   Temperature loop 49  (TE-49, I/P-49, TRC-49
         and  TCV-49) will  automatically control  the freeboard
         temperature at approximately 1100F. by spraying  cooling
         water  into  the upper area of the incinerator.
                               47

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FLUIDIZED BED INCINERATOR                                  H-2

II.  INSTRUMENT CONTROL SYSTEMS (Cont'd)

     C.  Incinerator (Cont'd)

         In case of excessive  bed temperature,  emergency water will
         be injected into the  sludge feed line.   This control  loop
         (TE-90, TS-90, and SOV-90)  will  be automatically activated
         if the bed temperature reaches  1450F.

         Both high and low temperature alarms in the freeboard zone
         (TE-50M, TS-50L, TA-50L, TA-50H) will  warn of impending
         feed pump shutdowns by alarming  at 1350F and 1050F
         respectively, which is 50F before TS-50 shuts down the
         feed pump.

         A 12 point temperature recorder  will monitor temperatures
         in the incinerator and associated equipment.

         The air preheater is  designed to heat the incoming
         fluidized air to 1100F so  that  the bed material can  be
         heated to this temperature  during starting up.  Fuel  for
         the air preheater is  natural  gas.  Interlocks in the  pre-
         heater control system will  stop  or prevent the injection
         of natural gas if any of the following occur:

                   Low fluidizing air pressure;   PS-75; 	3   psi
                   Low natural gas pressure;     PS-73;    7   psi
                   High natural gas  pressure;    PS-74;   20   psi
                   Loss of burner flame;          Flame sensing device

         Alarms and panel indications activate on loss of preheater
         flame, or the functioning of any of the pressure inter-
         locks.  The outlet temperature  of the preheater is manually
         controlled by varying the gas so that the incinerator can
         be heated gradually on startup  at approximately 100F
         per hours.

         Four torch oil injection nozzles are provided 90 apart
         and one foot above the grid.   Decanted oil can be injected
         into the bed after the bed  reaches 900F to bring the bed
         up to 1350F, at which temperature the sludge feed can be
         started to the unit.   The operation of the torch oil  injec-
         tion is manually controlled except for the provision  that
         the pump motor trips  out on loss of fluidizing air pressure.
         A restriction orifice, RO-86, provides for circulation of
         oil in the torch oil  lines  by bypassing oil to the tank.
                              48

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FLUIDIZED BED INCINERATOR                                  11-3

II.  INSTRUMENT CONTROL SYSTEMS (Cont'd)

     C.  Incinerator (Cont'd)

         The torch oil  tank is steam traced and insulated and
         should manually be controlled at from 150 - 200F.

         The pressures  in the incinerator are measured (1) below
         the grid, (2)  one foot above the grid, (3) top of the
         incinerator, and (4) outlet of the cyclone.  The following
         pressures are  transmitted to the panel in the control room:

         1)  Differential across the grid, DPI-77
         2)  Differential across the bed, DPI-78
         3)  Differential across the cyclone, DP 1-79
         4)  Pressure below the grid, PI-47
         5)  Freeboard  pressure, PI-48
         DPI-77 differential pressure will indicate if the tubes in
         the grid are plugging.  DPI-78 differential pressure will
         give an indication of bed depth plus a measure of fluidity.
         DPI-79 differential pressure will indicate if the cyclone
         is plugging.  An increase in PI-48, freeboard pressure,
         without a change in DPI-79, differential across the cyclone,
         will indicate  an increased pressure drop across the scrubber.

         Air for combustion is controlled by two flow indicator con-
         trollers, FIC-41, and FIC-42, which are panel mounted in
         the control  room.  Air through FIC-42 enters the incinerator
         below the grid via the air preheater and acts as fluidizing
         air for the bed media in addition to providing air for
         combustion.   This air will be maintained at approximately
         1255 SCFM under normal operating conditions.  The over-bed
         air, controlled by FIC-41, enters the incinerator con-
         centric with the sludge feed nozzle just above the bed
         level.  This air will be varied to suit the feed rate and
         will be determined by the oxygen content in the flue gas
         as monitored by the oxygen analyzer 021-61.  The overbed
         air should be  adjusted to give 4 to 6% oxygen in the flue
         gas.  An oxygen alarm is set to annunciate if the oxygen
         drops to 3%.

         Additional controls are furnished on the compressor to aid
         in starting, protect against periods of low flow, and to
         prevent overloading.  The compressor is electric motor
         driven and therefore must be unloaded while the compressor
         is started.   This is accomplished by a time delay relay,
                              49

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FLUIDIZED BED INCINERATOR                                  II-4

II.  INSTRUMENT CONTROL SYSTEMS (Cont'd)

     C.  Incinerator (Cont'd)

         TDR-80, which keeps  the control  valve SOV-80 in the
         compressor suction line closed for 15 seconds until  the
         motor reaches its  operating speed  of 3600 RPM.   The dis-
         charge pressure is controlled  by PIC-80 which throttles
         control valve PCV-80  in the compressor suction.  If the
         compressor is operated at too  low  a flow, it will  surge
         and put undue stress  on the bearings and internals.   To
         prevent surging, control  loop  60 (FE-60, FIC-60,  and FCV-60)
         will automatically vent the compressor to atmosphere if
         the flow drops to  the set minimum  flow.
                             50

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FLUIDIZED BED INCINERATOR                                  III-l

III.   EQUIPMENT OPERATING INSTRUCTIONS

      A.  Spent Caustic Storage Tank 902-1

          1.  Operating temperature 100F.
          2.  Maximum operating gage 375 bbls.
          3.  Minimum operating gage 60 bbls (to keep heater covered).
          4.  Keep tank block valve No. 20  closed except when filling.
          5.  Keep suction block valve No.  15 closed except when
              transferring.
          6.  Test condensate from heating  coils each Saturday on the
              8-4 shift with pH paper to check for leak in heating
              coils.
          7.  OSBL caustic line to tank 902-1 shall  be blown with
              steam into tank 902-1 after each transfer into tank
              902-1.

      B.  Feed Mix Tank 902-2

          1.  Operating temperature 100F.
          2.  Maximum operating gage 900 bbls.
          3.  Minimum operating gage 230 bbls.  to cover mixer prop.
          4.  Keep block valve No. 26 on sludge fill  line closed
              except when pumping from API  Separator.
          5.  Keep tank block valve No. 24  on spent  caustic transfer
              line open.  Block line in at  spent caustic pump dis-
              charge valve,  No. 18.
          6.  Keep tank block valve No. 41, from bottoms transfer
              pump closed except when transferring from tank bottoms
              sump.
          7.  Keep block valve No. 40 to suction of  bottoms transfer
              pump closed except when transferring to tank bottoms
              sump.
          8.  Keep tank mixer No. 905-1 turned on at all times.
          9.  Keep suction block valve No.  25 closed except when
              sludge feed pump is in operation.
         10.  Do not pump Separator Slop Tank sludge into feed tank
              while  incinerator is operating.

      C.  Tank Bottoms Sump  902-3

          1.  Operating temperature 100 to  160F, depending upon
              material in sump.
          2.  Maximum gage --- 4 ft.
          3.  Minimum gage --- 1-1/2 ft., upper suction nozzle.
          4.  Control  operating temperature by throttling steam
                             51

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FLUIDIZED BED INCINERATOR                                  III-2

III.  EQUIPMENT OPERATING INSTRUCTIONS (Cont'd)

      C.  Tank Bottoms Sump 902-3 (Cont'd)

              coil inlet valve No.  47 (globe valve).
          5.  Use upper suction valve No.  49, as normal  suction line.
          6.  Keep both suction valves closed except when transferring
              from sump.
          7.  Operate mixer 905-2 whenever preparing a slurry mix or
              transferring from the sump.
          8.  Keep cover closed except while unloading into the sump.
          9.  Do not unload into sump while transferring from sump.

      D.  Torch Oil  Storage Tank 902-4

          1.  Tank will be filled with Decanted Oil  via  truck,
              barrels and hand pump.
          2.  Operating temperature 170  to 200F.
          3.  Maximum operating gage 265  gallons.
          4.  Minimum operating gage -- refill  at 100 gallons.
          5.  Control operating temperature by throttling steam
              coil inlet valve No.  149.  Steam coil  is on outside
              of tank.

      E.  Spent Caustic Transfer Pump 901-1

          1.  Keep pump suction and discharge valves  closed when
              pump is not in service.  Valves No.  15  and 18.
          2.  Pump is equipped with a mechanical seal.
          3.  Maintain level in oiler using 5W-20 oil.
          4.  This is a centrifugal  pump.   Start pump with suction
              valve wide open and discharge valve cracked open.
              Open discharge valve  to establish flow.

      F.  Sludge Feed Pump 901-2

          1.  This is a positive displacement pump.   Both suction
              and discharge valves  and block valve at incinerator
              must be wide open before starting pump  motor.  Valves
              No. 25, 23, and 114.
          2.  A variable speed drive is used to vary  the speed of
              the pump.  Flow is proportional to pump speed.   Pressure
              is independent of pump speed.
          3.  The pump speed can be varied from 61  RPM to 615 RPM
              which  will vary the flow from 1/2 gpm to 5 gpm.  The
              pump speed can be varied over its full  range with Manual
                              52

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FLUIDIZED BED INCINERATOR                                  III-3

III.  EQUIPMENT OPERATING INSTRUCTIONS (Cont'd)

      F.  Sludge Feed Pump 901-2 (Cont'd)

              Loading Station HIC-40.  (See figure 4 for speed vs.
              capacity vs. air loading.)
          4.  Liquid will not flow backwards through this pump.
          5.  The pump must not be run dry.  Liquid pumped is
              necessary as a lubricant and coolant.
          6.  Shaft packing should be only tight enough to
              prevent leakage.
          7.  The gear case lube level should be maintained with
              American Industrial Oil No. 21.
          8.  The pump motor will be shut down automatically by
              temperature switch TS-50, if the incinerator free-
              board temperature exceeds 1400 or drops below 1000F.
          9.  The pump motor will be shut down automatically by
              pressure switch PS-88 if fluidizing the air pressure
              drops below 3 psig.
         10.  Do not operate speed changer when pump is not running.
         11.  Pump motor switch must be in "auto" position during
              incinerator operation.

      G.  Bottoms Transfer Pump 901-3

          1.  This is a positive displacement pump.  All suction and
              discharge valves must be lined up for flow before start-
              ing pump motor.
          2.  Liquid will not flow backward through pump.
          3.  A variable speed drive is used to vary the speed of the
              pump.  Flow is proportional to pump speed.  Pressure is
              independent of pump speed.
          4.  The pump speed can be varied from 58 RPM to 350 RPM to
              obtain a flow of from 3 to 19 gpm.
          5.  The pump must not be run dry.  Liquid pumped is necessary
              as a lubricant and coolant.
          6.  Shaft packing should only be tight enough to prevent
              leakage.
          7.  The gear case lube level should be maintained with
              American Industrial Oil No. 31.
          8.  Do not operate speed changer when pump is not running.

      H.  Torch Oil Circulation Pump 901-4

          1.  This is a positive displacement gear pump.  Suction and
              discharge valves No. 151 and 193 must be open before
                             53

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FLUIDIZED BED INCINERATOR                                 III-4

III.  EQUIPMENT OPERATING INSTRUCTIONS (Cont'd)

      H.  Torch Oil Circulation Pump 901-4 (Cont'd)

              starting pump.  Valves No.  133, 134, 135 and 136 to
              torch oil nozzles should be closed.
          2.  Torch oil will circulate back to tank through
              restriction orifice RO-86.
          3.  The pump motor will be shut down automatically by
              pressure switch PS-88 if fluidizing air pressure
              drops below 3 psig.
          4.  Pump bearings are grease cup lubricated with Stanobar
              Grease S.
          5.  A relief valve is built into the pump end-plate.
          6.  Decanted oil is used for torch oil.
          7.  Pump motor switch must be in "auto" position when
              torch oil is being used.

      I.  Feed Tank Mixer 905-1
          1 .  Mixer should be in operation at all times.
          2.  Incinerator must be shut down if mixer fails during
              incinerator operation.
          3.  Operator shall check on the operation of the mixer
              every 3 hours when the incinerator is in operation.
          4.  Keep weight loaded stuffing box lubricator filled
              with Amobar Grease S through grease fitting.

      J.  Tank Bottoms Sump Mixer 9Q5-2

          1  .  Operate mixer whenever preparing a slurry mix or
              transferring from the sump.
          2.  Mixer impeller elevation approximately level with
              upper suction nozzle.

      K.  Air Compressor 304-1
                                                                *

          1.  Maintain compressor bearing oil level with 5W-20.
          2.  To start compressor:
              a.  Close overbad air flow control valve FCV-41 with
                  FIC-41 on manual.
              b.  Fully open fluidizing air flow control valve FCV-42
                  with FIC-42 on manual.
              c.  Check to see that control valve PCV-80 on compressor
                  suction is closed.  TDR-80 should cause the valve to
                  close when the motor is not running.
                              54

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FLUIDIZED BED INCINERATOR                                  HI-5

III.  EQUIPMENT OPERATING INSTRUCTIONS (Cont'd)

      K.  Air Compressor 304-1 (Cont'd)

              d.  Set PIC-80 for 9 psi and in the "automatic"
                  position.
              e.  Set FIC-60 at 1100 scfm and place in "automatic"
                  position.  If total air flow drops below this point
                  vent control valve FCV-60 will vent air to the
                  atmosphere to prevent compressor from surging.
                  Vent will be open during startup of compressor and
                  close automatically at 1100 scfm.
              f.  Start compressor.  Check to see that after 15 seconds
                  suction valve PCV-80 opens and PIC-80 controls dis-
                  charge pressure at 9 psig.  Vent valve FCV-60 should
                  close off automatically if a flow is established
                  through the bed.
              g.  Set FIC-42 to desired flow but not below 1100 scfm
                  which is necessary to fluidize a hot bed.  Maximum
                  flow will be necessary to fluidize a cold bed on
                  startup.
              h.  When additional air is required for combustion,
                  place overbed air FIC-41 into operation.

          3.  To Stop Compressor

              a.  Perform preliminary steps of cooling incinerator
                  to a bed temperature of 700F.
              b.  Check overbed air control valve FCV-41 closed.
              c.  Check that FIC-60 is set at 1100 scfm and in the
                  "automatic" position.
              d.  Slowly shut off fluidizing air flow with FIC-42.
                  This should cause FIC-60 to open the vent valve to
                  the atmosphere.
              e.  Shut off the compressor.  PCV-80 control valve  in
                  the suction line should go closed when the motor
                  is tripped and the vent valve FCV-60 should open.
              f.  If in step "c1" above the compressor should surge
                  while shutting off fluidizing air, trip of the
                  compressor immediately and then close fluidizing
                  air control valve  FCV-42.  Check for a malfunction
                  or improper setting of FIC-60.

      L.  Scrubber 501-1
          1.  Scrubber must  be  in operation  before heat  is added  to
              the  incinerator vessel.
                               55

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FLUIDIZED BED INCINERATOR                                  III-6

III.  EQUIPMENT OPERATING INSTRUCTIONS (Cont'd)

      L.  Scrubber 501-1  (Cont'd)

          2.  Close sample valves No.  95 and 98 and collection tank
              drain valve No.  180.
          3.  Open valve  No.  96 to fill  collection tank to over-
              flowing, then close valve  No.  96.
          4.  Open scrubber drain valve  No.  190.
          5.  Open valve  No.  72 to activate  pressure gage PI-62.
          6.  Op^en valves No.  73, 74,  and 75 to admit water to the
              venturi throat weir and  sprays.   Adjust valve No.  75
              to hold 52  psi  on sprays.
          7.  An increase in pressure  on PI-62 indicates plugging of
              sprays.
          8.  Do not take scrubber out of service until air blower has
              been shut down.
          9.  To shut down scrubber close water valves 73, 74 and 75
              to venturi  throat and open valve No. 180 to drain
              collection  tank.

      M.  Cyclone 303-1 -- Ejector 301-4

          1.  Close valves No.  123 and 124 in  dust line to incinerator.
          2.  Close valve No.  81  air to  ejector 301-4.
          3.  Close 8" valve No.  127 at  base of dipleg and close
              rod out valve No. 128.
          4.  Open 8" valve No. 125 at top of  dipleg.
          5.  Open aeration air valves No. 197, 198 and 199.
          6.  To dump cyclone dipleg:
              a.  Close 8" valve  No. 125 at  top of dipleg.
              b.  Open 8" valve No. 127  at base of dipleg to empty
                  contents of dipleg into Dempster Dumpster box.
              c.  Activate vibrator on dipleg  by opening air valves
                  No. 196 and 83.  Adjusting pressure regulator  valve
                  No. 195 will  vary frequency  of vibrator.
              d.  If necessary  lower portion of dipleg can be rodded
                  out through valve No.  128.
          7.  To return dust to incinerator  bed:
              a.  Open valve No.  123 in  line from ejector to
                  incinerator.
              b.  With valve No.  124 still closed, slowly open air
                  valve No. 81  to ejector 301-4 to establish that
                  line is open  into incinerator.
              c.  Close 8" valve  No. 125 at  top of dipleg.
              d.  Open 3" valve No. 124  at base of cyclone to admit
                  dust to ejector 301-4.
                              56

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FLUIDIZED BED INCINERATOR                                  III-7

III.  EQUIPMENT OPERATING INSTRUCTIONS (Cont'd)

      M.  Cyclone 303-1  Ejector 301-4 (Cont'd)

              e.  This ejector air will  serve as air from combustion
                  and may necessitate a change in the setting of
                  overbed combustion air FIC-41.
          8.  Cyclone dipleg will require dumping on a routine basis
              of once every 8 hours when the dust return system is not
              in service.
          9.  If pressure drop across cyclone increases as indicated
              by DP I-79 the cyclone may be plugging.  Operate cyclone
              vibrator by opening air valves No. 82 and 196 to
              alleviate plugging.

      N.  Air Preheater 302-1
              The fluidizing air as controlled by FIC-42 enters the
              incinerator via the preheater.  The preheater must be
              operated during startups to heat the fluidizing air
              and thus bring the bed temperature up to a minimum of
              900F before admitting torch oil.
              The maximum permissible outlet temperature of the
              preheater is 1100F, to protect the alloy grid.
              The preheater must not be operated until a flow of air
              has been established up through the incinerator bed"
              The preheater is fired with natural gas and has the
              following lockouts which will shut off or prevent the
              flow of gas:
              a.  Low fluidizing air pressure -- 3 psi  PS-75.
              b.  High natural gas pressure to burner -- 20 psi --
                  PS-74.
              c.  Low natural gas pressure to burner -- 7 psi --
                  PS-73.
              d.  Loss of flame  flame sensing device.
              Block in natural gas at battery limits when preheater
              is not in service to avoid popping safety valve PSV-89.
              Pressure control valve PCV-68 should control the
              natural gas pressure at 25 psig as observed on pressure
              gage PI-68.
              The gas pressure to the main burner is further dropped
              to 6" water pressure above windbox pressure by pressure
              control valve PCV-69 as observed on pressure gage PI-71.
              The gas pressure to the pilot is dropped to 6" water
              pressure above windbox pressure by pressure control
              valve PCV-70 as observed on pressure gage PI-72.
                              57

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FLUIDIZED BED INCINERATOR                                  III-8

III.   EQUIPMENT OPERATING INSTRUCTIONS  (Cont'd)

      N.   Air Preheater 302-1  (Cont'd)

          9.   The pressure indicated  in  6,  7,  and  8  above,  must be
              observed with gas  flowing  such  as  when the  preheater
              is in operation  or out  a vent valve.
         10.   To start the preheater:
              a.  Check block  valves  No.  165,  162, and  156  open to
                  pressure switches PS-73,  PS-74,  and PS-75.
              b.  Pilot needle valve  No.  157  is  preset.   Do not
                  change setting.
              c.  Check main gas control  valve No. 160  closed  (1-1/4"
                  Maxon Series Q control  valve).
              d.  Check bleed  valves  No.  163,  164  and bleeds on PI-71
                  and PI-72 closed.
              e.  Establish a  stable  flow of  at  least 1100  scfm on
                  FIC-42,  fluidizing  air.
              f.  Open 1-1/2"  gas  cock No.  167 in  supply  line  down-
                  stream of pressure  control  valve PCV-68.
              g.  Open 1-1/2"  gas  cock No.  161 in main  burner  supply
                  line upstream  of Maxon  Q  control valve.
              h.  Open natural gas block  valve at  battery limits.
              i.  Pilot is now ready  to  light:   Open  gas  cock  No.
                  158 in pilot supply line.
                  aa.   Turn "Power" switch  to  "On" position.
                       1.   The "Power On" lamp lights.
                       2.   The "Flame Out"  lamp  lights.
                       3.   The alarm will sound.
                       4.   Press "Alarm  Stop"  button  to silence  alarm.
                  bb.   Electric  operated  valve SOV-83 is  still  closed.
                       Gas will  not flow  yet.
                  cc.   Depress "Start" button  and hold  depressed for
                       15  seconds  or  until  "Flame On" lamp  lights.
                       1.   Spark ignitor will  be  energized.
                       2.   Electric operated valve SOV-83 in pilot
                           line  will open.
                  dd.   When the  pilot flame is sensed:
                       1.   "Flame  On" lamp  lights.
                       2.   "Flame  Out" lamp goes out.
                       3.   Alarm circuit  is reset.
                       4.   Electric valves  in  main burner supply line
                           are energized  so that they may be opened
                           when  ready.
                  ee.   If  the  pilot flame is not established and
                       sensed  within 15  seconds  a timer will close
                              58

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FLUIDIZED BED INCINERATOR                                  III-9

III.  EQUIPMENT OPERATING INSTRUCTIONS (Cont'd)

      N.  Air Preheater 302.1 (Cont'd)

                       the electric operated valve SOV-83 in the
                       pilot supply line.
                  ff.  If the pilot does not light, or lights and
                       goes out, the "Stop"  button must be depressed
                       to reset the timer before trying for another
                       ignition.
                  gg.  If the pilot does not light close gas cock
                       No. 158 in pilot supply line and check to see
                       that the fluidizing air pressure and gas
                       pressures are within  their specified limits
                       for pressure switches PS-73, and PS-75, and  try
                       step "i"  again.
              j.   To light main burner after pilot is lit:
                  aa.  Check main gas control  valve No. 160 closed
                       (1-1/4" Maxon Series  Q control valve).
                  bb.  Open Maxon Trip Release Shut-off valve SOV-81
                       by turning lever clockwise to engage latch
                       then counter-clockwise to open valve.   Leave
                       in counter-clockwise  position.
                  cc.  Electric valve SOV-82 will automatically  open
                       after opening SOV-81.
                  dd.  Maxon Series Q Control  Valve, No.  160,  can now
                       be slowly opened to its lowest setting.
                       Observe burner flame  through preheater sight-
                       port.
                  ee.  If main burner does not light press "Stop"
                       button and close battery limits gas block.
         11.   Proceed to preheat incinerator as per incinerator
              operating instructions.
         12.   To  shut down preheater fire:
              a.   Turn the Maxon Series Q  Control Valve No.  160, to
                  off position.
              b.   If it is desired to shut off the pilot:
                  aa-.  Press the "Stop" button on the Flame Control
                       Panel and hold until  alarm sounds.   Press
                       "Alarm Stop" button to silence alarm.
                  bb.  Close the pilot cock  valve No. 158, main
                       burner cock valve No. 161, and main line
                       cock No.  167.
                  cc.  Close the battery limits gas block.
                  dd.  Turn "Power" switch to "Off"  position.
                               59

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FLUIDIZED BED INCINERATOR                                  111-10

III.  EQUIPMENT OPERATING INSTRUCTIONS  (Cont'd)

      0.  Screw Unloading Conveyor 307-1

          1.   Check incinerator unloading  valve  No.  117  closed
          2.   Start screw conveyor on slow speed.
          3.   Open cooling water drain  valve  No.  118.
          4.   Open cooling water inlet  valves No.  70 and 71.
          5.   Slowly open incinerator unloading  valve No.  117,
              allowing bed material  to  flow into  and fill  _
              conveyor.
          6.   Open unloading  valve No.  117 wide  open and control
              rate of discharge by varying speed  of  conveyor.
              Do not exceed 250F outlet temperature.
          7.   When the desired bed level is reached  in the
              incinerator, close unloading valve  No.  117 and
              continue to run conveyor  until  bed  material  is
              cleared from conveyor.
          8.   Stop screw conveyor.
          9.   Close water inlet valves  No.  70 and 71.
         10.   In freezing weather drain water jacket and hollow
              flight screw.

      P.  Sand Loading -- Ejector 301-3

          1.   Check hopper outlet valve No. 115  closed.
          2.   Fill  hopper with sand  using  Lull or other  lifting
              device.   Hopper holds  about  32  cubic feet  or
              approximately two tons  of sand.  Incinerator requires
              approximately 95 cu.  ft., 11,000 Ibs,  for  a complete
              charge.
          3.   Open incinerator inlet  valve No. 77 and ejector  air
              valves No.  206  and 76  and determine if incinerator
              loading  nozzle  is free  of obstruction.
          4.   Open hopper outlet valve  No.  115 to permit sand  to
              enter ejector 301-3.   Throttle  hopper  outlet valve
              as necessary to control rate of sand addition.
          5.   The rate of sand addition will  be  determined by  the
              ability  of the  bed to  maintain  its  temperature.
          6.   If sand  is  being added  to an empty  incinerator,  be
              sure aeration has been  turned on to torch  oil nozzles,
              free-board  sprays, and  pressure taps.
          7.   When shutting down sand loading, close hopper outlet
              valve No.  115,  vessel  inlet  valve  No.  77 and ejector
              air valve  No.  76 in the order listed.
          8.   If the incinerator is  in  operation  this loading  air
              will  act as combustion  air and  may  necessitate an
              adjustment  of overbed  air FIC-41.

                              60

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FLUIDIZED BED INCINERATOR                                  IV-1

IV.  FEED PREPARATION

     1.  When the feed mix tank 902-2 contains 900 bbls of blended
         incinerator feed the incinerator will be started up and
         kept in operation until the Feed Tank is at minimum gage.
         This will be a "batch" of about 650 bbls and at a feed
        .rate of 4 gpm with 20% oil in feed, would take about 5
         days to run off.
     2.  Sludge from the  API separator slop tanks should not be
         pumped into the Feed Mix Tank 902-2 while the incinerator
         is running unless permission is obtained from the Ultra-
         former Operating Foreman.
     3.  Sludge from the API Separator Box Bottoms will be pumped
         each morning while the Utilities operator is skimming the
         API Separator Box.  This stream can be pumped into the
         Feed Mix Tank 902-2 while the incinerator is running since
         it contains about 15% oil and will not significantly
         change the feed composition.
     4.  The approximate oil content of the feed components is as
         follows:  (by volume)
                API Separator Box Bottoms           10 - 20%
                API Separator Slop Tank "Sludge        50%
                Spent Caustic                    0% (no heating value)
                Tank Cleaning Bottoms                80%

     5.  When a "batch" of feed is blended use the following formula
         to determine the approximate percent oil in the blended feed:


            [(A)  (z)M(B-A) (0.5)]+ [(C-D) (y)]    = % oil in feed
                     A+(B-A) + (C-U) + E

            A = Feed tank gage before pumping API Slop Tank
                Sludge,  (bbls)
            B = Feed tank gage after pumping API Slop Tank
                Sludge,  (bbls)
            C = Tank Bottoms gage before transferring to Feed
                Tank,  (bbls)
            D = Tank Bottoms gage after transferring to Feed
                Tank,  (bbls)
            E = Bbls of spent caustic to be blended.
            z = % oil in Feed Tank before blending batch.
            y = % oil in Tank Bottoms Sump before transferring
                to Feed Tank.
         The actual percent oil in the feed is to be determined by
         sending a sample to the Lab.
                              61

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FLUIDIZED BED INCINERATOR                                  IV^2

IV.  FEED PREPARATION (Cont'd)

     6.  The denominator, (sum of quantities below the line), of the
         formula in paragraph 5 must not exceed the maximum gage for
         the Feed Tank,  900 bbls.
     7.  After determining the percent oil  in the new feed batch,
         refer to Fig. 1  to determine the sludge feed rate range.
     8.  The optimum percent oil in the sludge feed is 25 to 30%
         however, the resulting percent oil  will depend upon the
         ratios of spent caustic and oily sludges accumulated.  If
         there is not enough spent caustic available to dilute the
         oily sludge, water can be pumped into the feed tank by the
         API Marlow pump.
                               62

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FLUIDIZED BED INCINERATOR                                  V-l

V.  STARTUP OF INCINERATOR

    A.  Preliminary Steps

       1.  Prepare a usable  blend in the feed mix tank 902-2.
       2.  Turn on feed mix tank mixer 905-1.   THIS MIXER MUST  BE  IN
           OPERATION WHENEVER THE INCINERATOR  IS RUNNING.   If the
           mixer fails, the incinerator operation MUST be shut  down.
       3.  Establish that the cyclone dust line into the incinerator
           is open by opening block valve No.  123, checking cyclone
           outlet valve No. 124 closed, and opening air valve No.  81
           to ejector 301-4.   When flow is established, close block
           valve No. 123 and  air valve No. 81.
       4.  Establish that sand loading line into incinerator is open
           by opening block valve No. 77, checking hopper outlet
           valve No. 115 closed, and opening air valve No.  76 to
           ejector 301-3.  When flow is established, close  block
           valve No. 77 and air valve No. 76.
       5.  Establish air purge flow to instrument pressure  taps:
           above the grid FI-77, freeboard space FI-48, and down-
           stream of cyclone  FI-79, and density tap.
       6.  Check that cyclone dip!eg is empty.  Operate vibrators
           momentarily.
       7.  Check that Torch Oil tank 902-4 is  full  and torch oil is
           up to temperature  170 - 200F.
       8.  Check that Sand Hopper is full of sand.
       9.  Open water block valves No. 169 & 170 so that emergency
           water valve to sludge feed line SOV-90 is lined  up for
           operation.  Check  SOV-90 closed.
      10.  Check block valve  No. 117 closed on 6" unloading line to
           screw conveyor.

    B. Startup -- No Bed in Incinerator

       After performing the "Preliminary Steps"  in Part A,  Section V.,
       the following steps should be done in sequence when  placing
       the incinerator into operation.  Refer  to Piping & Instrumen-
       tation drawings No. 3  & 4 for valve,  instrumentation, and
       equipment designations.  Refer to Section III of these instruc-
       tions for instructions and procedures to operate specific
       pieces of equipment.
       1.  Set fluidizing air flow FIC-42 in "automatic"  position
           at 2000 scfm.
       2.  Set overbed air flow FIC-41 at 0 scfm.
       3.  Put Scrubber into  operation (See Section III,  paragraph L.)
       4.  Line up cyclone to drop dust into dipleg.  (See  Section
           III,  paragraph M)
                              63

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FLUIDIZED BED INCINERATOR                                  V-2

V.  STARTUP OF INCINERATOR (Cont'd)

    B.  Startup -- No Bed in Incinerator (Cont'd)

        5.  Start air compressor.   (See Section  III,  paragraph K.)
        6.  Partially open and establish a  steam flow through  each
            torch oil nozzle,  valves  No. 141,  142,  143 & 144.
            Leave these steam  valves  cracked open.  Torch oil  valves
            No. 133, 134, 135  and  136 must  be  closed.
        7.  Establish a steam  flow through  both  freeboard spray
            nozzles by opening steam  valves No.  177 and 178.   After
            determining that each  spray is  open,  adjust steam
            throttle valve No.  78  to  have 10 psi  on pressure gage
            No. PI-59.
        8.  Establish that sludge  feed line and  nozzle is open by
            opening feed block valve  No. 114 at  incinerator, check-
            ing discharge block valve No. 23 at  feed  pump closed, and
            opening steam valve No. 8, located just downstream of
            discharge block valve  on  feed pump.   Leave steam valve
            No. 8 cracked open until  sludge feed  is started.
        9.  Establish that atomizing  steam  nozzle, concentric  with
            feed nozzle, is open by opening steam bypass  valve No.
            105 around PSV-51  control  valve.   Leave bypass  valve
            cracked open until  PIC-51  is placed  in service.
       10.  Open water block valves No.  66, 67,  175,  and  176 so that
            TRC-49, freeboard  sprays,  are lined  up for operation.
            Close bypass valve  No. 68 around PCV-49.   Check PCV-49
            control valve closed.
       11.  Start air preheater and bring windbox temperature  to
            300F.   (See Section III,  paragraph  N.)   Hold at this
            temperature until  all  incinerator  thermocouples read
            approximately 300F.   Control preheater outlet  tempera-
            ture by adjusting  Maxon Series  Q Control  Valve  No.  160.
       12.  Gradually increase  windbox temperature TR-1  to  1100F at
            a rate  of approximately 100 per hour.  Do not  exceed
            1100F  in windbox.
       13.  When windbox has reached  700F, system is  ready for sand
            loading.   (See Section  III,  paragraph P.)   Rate of sand
            loading will  depend upon  how fast  sand can be heated.
            Throttle hopper valve  No.  115 to hold bed  temperature
            between 700F and  1000F  in  windbox.  It will  take approx-
            imately 95 cu.  ft.  of  sand (11,000 Ibs) to charge  an
            empty incinerator.
       14.  When required amount of sand has been loaded  and bed
            temperature is 950  to 1100FS  observe system pressure
            readings:
                              64

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FLUIDIZED BED INCINERATOR                                 V-3

V.  STARTUP OF INCINERATOR (Cont'd)

    B.  Startup -- No Bed in Incinerator (Cont'd)

        14.  (Cont'd)
                                              Normal Actual
             Windbox pressure PI-47           	
             Grid pressure drop DPI-77        	
             Bed pressure drop DP 1-78	
             Cyclone pressure drop DPI-79     	
             Freeboard pressure PI-48         	
             Bed density                      	

        15.  Place 02 Analyzer 61 into operation.  Check a sample
             with an Orsat.
        16.  Set freeboard sprays TRC-49 to control at 1000F on
             "automatic."
        17.  At this point before injecting torch oil record the
             following temperatures:
TR 1
TR 2
TR 3
TR 4
TR 5
TR 6
TR 7
TR 8
TRC 49
TR 9
Wi ndbox
Bottom Bed
Bottom Bed
Bottom Bed
Top Bed
Middle Bed
Top Bed
Freeboard
Gas Outlet
Freeboard
         18.   When  bed  temperature  is 950 to 1100F and bed
              pressure  drop  DP 1-78  is approximately 72 inches H20,
              the torch oil  can  be  started to bring bed up to an
              operating temperature  of  1350F.   (See Section III,
              paragraph H  for  operation of torch oil pump.)  Use
              the west  torch oil  nozzle first because this is nearest
              a  thermocouple in  the  bed.
              a.  Start torch  oil system  circulating.
              b.  Open  steam atomizing  valve No. 141 and adjust to
                 15  psi.
              c.  Open  torch oil  valve  No. 133 wide open for 15
                 seconds, then  close again.
              Watch bed termocouples for  an increase in temperature.
              Watch oxygen analyzer 02I-61 for a decrease  in oxygen,
              to indicate  combustion of torch oil.
                              65

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FLUIDIZED BED INCINERATOR                                 V-4

V.  STARTUP OF INCINERATOR (Cont'd)

    B.  Startup -- No Bed in Incinerator (Cont'd)

             If a definite temperature increase is not noted
             within two minutes,  increase the bed temperature
             another 50 and try  again.   Decrease the atomizing
             steam flow to 10 psi for the second try.
             d.  If a temperature rise is noted, reopen torch oil
                 valve 2 turns open  and  wait 15 minutes for temp-
                 eratures to stabilize.   Then place the other
                 three torch oil  nozzles into service for even
                 heating.
             e.  Increase bed temperature to 1350F by opening all
                 torch oil injection points equally.   Slowly go
                 from 1100 to 1350F.
             f.  As bed temperatures increase, decrease fluidizing
                 air FIC-42 to maintain  3 ft/sec superficial space
                 velocity as indicated in Fig. 2.  However, do not
                 permit oxygen analyzer  021-61 to drop below 7%.
        19.  System is now ready  for introduction of  sludge feed:
             a.  Place feed atomizing steam controller PIC-51 into
                 operation by opening block valves No. 103 and 104.
                 Close bypass valve  No.  105.  Open block valve 131
                 to pressure switch  PS-51 to activate solenoid valve
                 SOV-51 in impulse line  to PIC-51.  Set PIC-51 to
                 hold 20 psi on steam nozzle and in the "automatic"
                 position.
             b.  Manually open overbed air flow control valve FCV-41
                 making sure that fluidizing air flow FIC-42 remains
                 constant to maintain 3  ft/sec.  Set  overbed air
                 FIC-41 for 700 SCFM and in "automatic" position.
             All future combustion air adjustments must be made with
             overbed air FIC-41.   Fluidizing air flow FIC-42 must
             remain constant at approximately 1225 SCFM to maintain
             3 ft/sec, velocity thru the bed.
             c.  Start sludge feed pump  901-2 and set pump speed
                 control HIC-40 to the lowest setting.  (See Section
                 III, paragraph F=)

             As sludge is introduced the bed temperature should
             increase and the 02I-61 show a decrease  in oxygen
             indicating that sludge  is burning.
             d.  Increase sludge  pump speed and simultaneously
                 decrease first torch oil, then preheater to main-
                 tain oxygen analysis 021-61 at 5% or more, and bed
                 temperature at 1350F.
                              66

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FLUIDIZED BED INCINERATOR                                 V-5

V.  STARTUP OF INCINERATOR (Cont'd)

    B.  Startup  No Bed in Incinerator (Cont'd)

        19.  (Cont'd)

             e.  As sludge feed is increased and torch oil  and gas
                 are cut off, the bed temperature will gradually
                 decrease.  When bed temperatures stabilize,  adjust
                 feed to maintain a bed temperature of 1350F and
                 adjust overbed air FIC-41  to maintain oxygen 02I-61
                 at 5%.
                                   s
    C.  Startup -- Slumped Bed in Incinerator

        This startup procedure assumes a normal, controlled shutdown
        after the previous run.

        After performing the "Preliminary Steps" in paragraph A,
        Section V, the following steps should be done in sequence
        when placing the incinerator into operation.   Refer to Pip-
        ing & Instrumentation drawings No.  3 and 4 for valve,
        instrument, and equipment designations.   Refer to Section III
        of these instructions for instructions and procedures to
        operate specific pieces of equipment.
        1.  Set fluidizing air flow FIC-42 in "manual" position and
            adjust for maximum flow.
        2.  Set overbed air flow FIC-41 closed at 0 SCFM.
        3.  Put scrubber into operation (See Section III, paragraph
            M.)
        4.  Line up cyclone to drop dust into dipleg.  (See Section
            III, paragraph M.)
        5.  Start air compressor.  (See Section III, paragraph K)
        6.  If the fluidizing air flow FIC-42 is 1900 SCFM or more,
            the bed is sufficiently fluidized to proceed.  If 1900
            SCFM cannot be attained through FIC-42, consult the
            Operating Foreman.
        7.  Partially open and establish a steam flow through each
            torch oil nozzle, valves No. 141, 142, 143 and 144.
            Leave these steam valves cracked open.  Torch oil
            valves No. 133, 134, 135 and 136 must be closed.
        8.  Establish a steam flow through both freeboard spray
            nozzles by opening steam valves No. 177 and 178.   After
            determining that each spray is open, adjust steam
            throttle valve No. 78 to have 10 psi on pressure gage
            No. PI-59.
                            67

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FLUIDIZED BED INCINERATOR                                 V-6

V.  STARTUP OF INCINERATOR (Cont'd)

    C.  Startup -- Slumped Bed in Incinerator

        9.  Establish that sludge feed line and nozzle is open by
            opening feed block valve No.  114 at incinerator,
            checking discharge block valve No.  23 at feed pump
            closed, and opening steam valve No. 8, located just
            downstream of discharge block valve on feed pump.
            Leave steam valve No. 8 cracked open until sludge
            feed is started.
       10.  Establish that atomizing steam nozzle, concentric with
            feed nozzle, is open by opening steam bypass valve No.
            105 around PSV-51 control valve.   Leave bypass valve
            cracked open until PIC-51 is  placed in service.
       11.  Open water block  valves No. 66, 67, 175 and 176  so that
            TRC-49, freeboard sprays, are lined up for operation.
            Close bypass valve No.  68 around PCV-49.   Check  PCV-49
            control valve closed.
       12.  Start air preheater and increase bed temperature 100
            per hour until bed reaches 950F to 1100F.   Do  not
            exceed 1100F in  windbox.  Control  preheater outlet
            temperature by adjusting Maxon Series Q control  valve
            No. 160.  Record  temperatures as  follows:
TR 1
TR 2
TR 3
TR 4
TR 5
TR 6
TR 7
TR 8
TR 9
TRC 49
Windbox
Bottom Bed
Bottom Bed
Bottom Bed
Top Bed
Middle Bed
Top Bed
Freeboard
Gas Outlet
Freeboard
       13.   As  bed temperature  increases,  decrease  fluidizing  air
            flow FIC-42  to  maintain  3  ft/sec  superficial  space
            velocity  in  bed area.  See Fig. 2.
       14.   When bed  temperature  is  950  to 1100F,  observe  system
            pressure  readings:
                                              Normal  Actual
               Windbox pressure PI-47          	
               Grid pressure drop  DPI-77       ZZZZ HHH
               Bed pressure drop  DP 1-78
               Cyclone pressure drop DPI-79           _
               Freeboard pressure  PI-48              '_
               Bed density
                             68

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FLUIDIZED BED INCINERATOR                                 V-7

V.  STARTUP OF INCINERATOR (Cont'd)

    C.  Startup -- Slumped Bed in Incinerator (Cont'd)

        15.  If bed pressure drop DPI-78 and density indicate less
             than 6 ft. of fluidized bed, add sand to bring bed up
             to 6'ft. in fluidized state.  (See Section III,
             paragraph P;)
        16.  Place 02 Analyzer 61 into operation.  Check a sample
             with an Orsat.
        17.  Set freeboard sprays TRC-49 to control at 1000F on
             "automatic".                              I    (
        18.  At this point, before injecting torch oil, record
             the following temperatures:
TR 1
TR 2
TR 3
TR 4
TR 5
TR 6
TR 7
TR 8
TR 9
TRC 49
Windbox
Bottom Bed
Bottom Bed
Bottom Bed
Top Bed
Middle Bed
Top Bed
Freeboard
Gas Outlet
Freeboard
         19.  When bed temperature is 950F to 1100F and bed
             pressure drop DPI-78 is approximately 72 inches H20,
             the torch oil can be started to bring bed up to an
             operating temperature of 1350F.  (See Section III,
             paragraph H for Operation of torch oil pump.)  Use
             the west torch oil nozzle first because this is
             nearest a thermocouple in the bed.
             a.  Start torch oil system circulating.
             b.  Open steam atomizing valve No. 141 and adjust to
                 15 psi.
             c.  Open torch oil valve No. 133 wide open for 15
                 seconds, then close again.
             Watch bed thermocouples for an increase in temperature.
             Watch oxygen analyzer 02I-61 for a decrease in oxygen,
             to indicate combustion of torch oil.

             If a definite temperature increase is not noted within
             two minutes, increase the bed temperature another 50
             and try again.  Decrease the atomizing steam flow
             10 psi for the second try.
                             69

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FLUIDIZED BED INCINERATOR                                 V-8

V.  STARTUP OF INCINERATOR (Cont'd)

    C.  Startup  Slumped^ Bed in Incinerator (Cont'd)

             d.  If a temperature rise is noted, reopen torch oil
                 valve 2 turns open and wait 15 minutes for tempera-
                 tures to stabilize.  Then place the other three
                 torch oil nozzles into service for even heating.
             e.  Increase bed temperature to 1350F by opening all
                 torch oil injection points equally.  Slowly go
                 from 1100 to 1350F.
             f.  As bed temperatures increase, decrease fluidizing
                 air FIC-42 to maintain 3 ft/sec superficial space
                 velocity as indicated in Fig. 2.  However, do not
                 permit oxygen analyzer 021-61 to drop below 7%.
        20.  System is now ready for introduction of sludge feed:
             a.  Place feed atomizing steam controller PIC-51 into
                 operation by opening block valves No. 103 and 104.
                 Close bypass valve No. 105.  Open block valve 131
                 to pressure switch PS-51 to activate solenoid valve
                 SOV-51 in impulse line to PIC-51.  Set PIC-51 to
                 hold 20 psi on steam nozzle and in the "automatic"
                 position.
             b.  Manually open overbed air flow control valve FCV-41
                 making sure that fluidizing air flow FIC-42 remains
                 constant to maintain 3 ft/sec.  Set overbed air
                 FIC-41 for 700 SCFM and in "automatic" position.

             All future combustion air adjustments must be made with
             overbed air FIC-41.  Fluidizing air flow FIC-42 must
             remain constant^at approximately 1225 SCFM to maintain
             3 ft/sec, velocity thru the bed.
             
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FLUIDIZED BED INCINERATOR                                 V-9

V.  STARTUP OF INCINERATOR  (Cont'd)

    C.  Startup -- SIuriiped  Bed in  Incinerator  (Cont'd)

                 feed to maintain  a bed temperature of 1350F
                 and adjust overbad air FIC-41 to maintain oxygen
                 02I-61 at  5%.
                              71

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FLUIDIZED BED INCINERATOR                                VI-1

VI.  SHUTDOWN OF INCINERATOR

     A.  Normal  Shutdown

         1.  Shutdown sludge feed pump 901-2 by shutting off motor.
         2,  Close sludge block valve No.  23 at pump discharge.
         3.  Increase overbed air flow FIC-41  to maximum.
         4.  Crack open steam block valve  No.  8 at pump discharge
              ,and slowly blow sludge feed line into incinerator.
         5.  After sludge line is steam purged, decrease overbed
               air FIC-41 to one-half line.   Do not drop below
               5 percent oxygen.
         6.  Close steam purge valve No. 8 and close sludge feed
               block valve No. 114 at feed nozzle.
         7.  Reduce atomizing steam to feed nozzle, PIC-51, to a
               minimum for purge flow only.
         8.  Gradually increase fluidizing air flow FIC-42  as  bed
               cools down to maintain a space velocity of 3 ft/sec
               in bed.  Refer to Fig. 2.
         9.  If bed level has increased to above 72 inches  during
               this run, unload to proper  bed level.  (See  Section III,
               paragraph 0.)
        10.  Dump cyclone leg.  (See Section III, paragraph M.)
        11.  Discontinue cyclone dust to incinerator if in  operation.
               (See Section III, paragraph M.)
        12.  Continue fluidizing air flow  until bed temperature
               cools to 700F, then shut down air compressor.
               (See Section III, paragraph K.)
        13.  Shut down scrubber.  (See Section III, paragraph  L.)
        14.  Shut off steam purges to torch oil nozzles; feed  nozzle,
               spray nozzles when scrubber is shut down.  Leave  air
               purges to level instruments in operation.

             Sensible heat will dissipate  in 2 or 3 days.

     B.  Emergency Shutdown -- Air Compressor or Power Failure

         Failure of the air compressor or  a total electrical failure
         will cause an emergency shutdown  of the incinerator.

         The feed pump and torch oil pump  will shut off automatically.

         The air preheater gas solenoid valves will close and the pre-
         heater will shut down automatically.

         The feed atomizing steam will continue to flow and tend to
         purge the incinerator vessel.
                            72

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                                                                VI-2
FLUIDIZED BED INCINERATOR

VI.  SHUTDOWN OF INCINERATOR (cont'd)

     B.  Emergency Shutdown -- Air Compressor or Power Failure (cont'd)

         Perform the following steps when time permits:

         1.  Block in feed line at the nozzle,  bo not blow out with
               steam.
         2.  Sand loading ejector air valve No. 76 and cyclone dust
               return ejector air valve No. 81 must be closed if
               either system were in service.     .,  ,  <
         3.  Close all torch oil nozzle valves if any were in, service.
         4.  Block in natural gas battery limits block valve.
         5.  Leave all nozzle purges, both air and steam, in opera-
               tion until bed has cooled to 400F.

             Bed will defluidize  and slump at operating temperature
             and any chemicals present may cause the bed to fuse.
             This "fused" bed may have to be removed manually before
             incinerator can be restarted.
         6.  Shutdown scrubber when flue gas temperature has dropped
               to 600F.  (See Section III, paragraph L.)

     C.  Emergency Shutdown -- Steam Failure

         Steam failure will cause loss of feed atomizing steam and
         will necessitate an immediate near normal shutdown of the
         incinerator.

         1.  Reduce feed to a minimum with HIC-40.

         Perform the following steps when time permits.

         2.  Stop sludge feed pump.
         3.  Close sludge feed block valve No. 114 at feed nozzle.
         4.  Close steam block valve No. 104 at atomizing steam
               control valve PIC-51.
         5.  Close steam throttle valves No. 141, 142, 143, and
               144 at torch oil nozzles.
         6.  Close steam block valves No. 177 and 178 at freeboard
               water sprays.
         7.  Decrease overbed air FIC-41 to one-half line.  Do not
               drop below 5 percent oxygen.
         8.  If bed level has increased to above 72  inches during
               this run, unload to  proper bed level.   (See Section
               III, paragraph 0.)
         9.  Dump cyclone leg.  (See Section  III, paragraph M.)
         10.  Discontinue cyclone dust to incinerator if  in operation.
               (See Section  III, paragraph M.)


                             73

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FLUIDIZED BED INCINERATOR                                      VI-3

VI.  SHUTDOWN OF INCINERATOR (cont'd)

     C.  Emergency Shutdown -- Steam Failure (cont'd)

        11.  Continue fluidizing air flow until  bed temperature cools
               to 700F, then shut down air compressor.  (See Section
               III, paragraph K.)
        12.  Shut down scrubber.  (See Section III, paragraph L.)
VII.  NORMAL OPERATION                                       VII-1

      After startup of the system as described in Section V, the
      operation should continue until  the feed tank has been pulled
      down to its minimum gage.

      1.  Operate at maximum feed rate consistent with the fusion
            properties of the bed and the air available for combustion.
      2.  If the bed level builds more than 12" after some extended
            period of operation, operate the screw conveyor to remove
            sufficient material to establish the proper level.  (See
            Section III, paragraph 0.)  Whenever bed material  is
            removed, send a 1 quart sample to the lab for analysis.
      3.  If the cyclone fines are not being returned to the incinera-
            tor, the cyclone dipleg must be emptied once per 8-hour
            shift.  (See Section III,  paragraph M.)
      4.  If the bed level falls more than 12", add sand to the
            incinerator to restore the operating level of the bed.
            (See Section III, paragraph P.)
      5.  If sampling indicates poor particle size distribution of
            bed material, unload some bed material and add some fresh
            sand to restore particle size distribution and improve
            fluidization performance.   A desirable distribution of
            particle size is as follows:

                         U.S. Sieve Size       K't. %

                                    + 9          2
                          - 9       +20        10-35
                          -20       +35        15-35
                          -35       +48        15-35
                          -48       +60         8-20
                          -60                   2-10
                            74

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FLUIDIZED BED INCINERATOR                                      VII-2

VII.  NORMAL OPERATION (cont'd)

      6.  If sampling indicates a need for fines, the cyclone dust
            return system should be placed in operation.  (See
            Section III, paragraph M.)
      7.  As the bed material becomes coated with chemicals and the
            small particles agglomerate, the fluidization properties
            of the bed will deteriorate and show up as a loss or
            fluctuation in differential bed pressure DPI-78.   This
            may be remedied by returning cyclone fines to the incin-
            erator or replacing a portion of the bed with new sand.
      8.  If a chemical bed is operated at too high a bed temperature
            melting occurs, quickly followed by de-fluidization and
            fusing of the bed.
      9.  If the freeboard temperature, with a chemical  bed,  is oper-
            ated at too high a temperature, the dust particles will
            be sticky and cause plugging of the cyclone  and ducts.
     10.  If the mixer on the Feed Mix Tank fails,  the incinerator
            must be shut down.
                            75

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            APPENDIX A
              Dwg. 1
Permission to reproduce this drawing
for inclusion in Final Report to
FVQA on Project #12050 EKT granted
by the Copeland Process Corporation

-------


Permission to reproduce this drawing
for inclusion in Final Report to FWQA
on Project #12050 EKT granted by the
Copeland  Process Corporation.
           PROCESS  "-
                    C^,,

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                            APPENDIX B
                       CHRONOLOGICAL LOG OF
                      INCINERATOR OPERATIONS
                 JUNE 20, 1969 - JANUARY 30. 1970
TRAINING

Prior to startup operations, ten operators and three first line
supervisors received 10 hours of classroom and field training
(conducted by American Oil Co. personnel).  Following this train-
ing, American Oil Co. operators assisted Copeland with startup
attempts.

OPERATIONS

June 20. 1969

Checked operation of equipment including air compressor and air
preheater.  Fired air preheater June 18.  Held wind box temperature
at 750F. thru June 20 to cure incinerator refractory lining.  Shut
unit down to make minor refractory repairs.

June 23, 1969

Startup operations began 9 a.m.  30 bags of sand loaded to provide
a bed delta pressure of 62 in water.  Wind box temperature raised
to 840F. by firing the air preheater.  Bed temperature reached
only 540F.  As  a result of excessive heat loss from the wind box,
it was not possible to get bed temperature high enough to intro-
duce torch oil.  Unit was shut down at 8 p.m. June 23.  Additional
interior insulation was applied in the wind box and a spring was
changed in the fuel gas regulator for better preheater firing
control.

June 28. 1969

Startup operations began at 11:45 a.m. June 26.  By 8 a.m. June  27,
sand was reloaded and the wind box temperature was up to  1050F.
The outside wind box skin temperature reached 640F. as indicated
by contact pyrometer readings.  With wind  box temperature 1100F,
the bed temp reached 825F.   The wind box  temperature was raised
                             81

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                           APPENDIX B                      2.
to 1200F., and when the bed temperature reached 880F. torch oil
was introduced.  Sludge feed was introduced about 6 p.m. Saturday
June 28.  The feed pump speed changer was found to be stuck in the
slow position.  Because of inability to control feed, the unit was
shut down.  The combustion air was shut down as soon as the bed
temp fell to 1100F., thus conserving heat for the next startup.

June 30. 1969

The air compressor and preheater were started up at 9:25 a.m.
June 29.  By 10 a.m. the bed temperature was high enough to permit
the introduction of torch oil.  Sludge feed was admitted at 1 p.m.
and the torch oil was shut off at 3 p.m.  When the sludge was
admitted, the free board temperature (above the bed) reached
1500F. with the water quench valve about 1/2 open, however it was
necessary to continue firing the air preheater maintaining a wind
box temperature of 930F. to prevent the bed temperature from fall-
ing below combustion temperature.  Atomizing steam to the sludge
burning nozzle was shut off and the bed temperature rose 100
degrees from 1100 to 1200F.  At 6 a.m. on June 30 the dust return
line between the cyclone and the incinerator broke necessitating
a shutdown to repair the line.

General Comments

While sludge feed is in the unit, it has thus far been impossible
to maintain the bed temperature with the air preheater shut down.
Since the sludge is introduced above the bed it is believed that
rapid vaporization and combustion occurs above the bed, thus per-
mitting the bed temperature to fall while the free board tempera-
ture rises.  It is planned to lower the sludge feed location and
to increase the bed depth.

July 2, 1969

Dust return line between the cyclone and the incinerator repaired.
Air preheater fired 8:20 a.m.  Torch oil to unit at 2:30 p.m.
Sludge feed charged shortly thereafter.  Electrical failure
occurred 9:30 p.m. when unit lights were turned on.  Unit was shut
down.
                               82

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                           APPENDIX B                      3.
July 9. 1969
Electrical repair work completed July 7, 1969.  Combustion air
blower started 9:30 a.m. July 8.  Air preheater fired 10 a.m.
Skin temperature on wind box shell reached 850F. with sand bed at
860F.  Torch oil was injected and sludge introduced between 10:30
and 11:00 p.m.  Air preheater off at 11:30 p.m.  Bed temperature
could not be maintained with sludge feed.  Torch oil used inter-
mittently.  60 Gal. torch oil charged between midnight and 8:00 a.m.
July 9.

Shell of wind box discovered cracked in three places.  Thermal
stress from high shell temperature from firing air heater apparently
caused cracks.   Incinerator was shut down for grid support design
change.

August 18, 1969

Grid support design change work completed.  Drying out refractory
lining in preparation for startup.

August 21. 1969

Copeland fluidized bed incinerator has been in operation three days
this week after  refractory dryout the first two days of the week.
Several operating problems remain:

1)  Cannot maintain sufficiently high bed temperature to sustain
    combustion without torch oil.
2)  Gas preheater kicks off unexplainedly but has not prevented
    startup.
3)  Shutdown circuit  interlock has to be bypassed until burned off
    thermocouples are replaced and rerouted.

The grid changes appear to have solved the shell overheating.  A
windbox temperature of 1150F. results in a maximum  shell tempera-
ture of 270F.   Minor problems continue  in piping and valve erosion
of the sand eductor and cyclone return systems.

Operations are planned Monday through Friday  next week.

August 26, 1969

Copeland fluidized  bed  incinerator has not  been  operational  since
Friday a.m. 8-22-69 when  it was shut down due to a  hole which
                               83

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                          APPENDIX B                      4.


August 26, 1969  (Cont'd)

eroded thru the  body of a 3" valve in the dust return line.

While the valve  was being repaired, the following was done:

1)  The feed tank mixer was shut off to permit any free water to
    settle out.  About 250 Bbls. of water was drained to the sewer.
    It is hoped  that this enriched sludge feed will sustain bed
    temperature  without torch oil.
2)  The conduit  carrying the high freeboard temperature shutdown
    circuit was  rerouted and made operational.
3)  The low gas  pressure shutdown switch on the preheater was
    rewired.

It is planned to start up late today, Tuesday 8-26-69 and operate
thru Friday 8-29-69 on oil sludge.  No caustic has been charged
to the incinerator as yet.

August 29, 1969

Copeland fluidized bed incinerator has operated satisfactorily
without supplemental fuel since Tuesday 8-26-69.  The sludge feed
contains 50% oil and no spent caustic.

Plans are to shut down today, 8-29-69, and install temporary
piping to inject spent caustic into the incinerator just above
the bed.  The unit will be started up the middle of next week
and tried with some caustic injection.

September 4, 1969

Temporary piping and facilities to inject spent caustic into the
original feed nozzle just above the bed have been installed.
Incinerator was  started up on Tuesday p.m. September 2, 1969 with
a sludge feed containing 45% oil.  First attempts to inject spent
caustic caused drastic bed temperature changes, but subsequent
close control of caustic flow has resulted in satisfactory oper-
ation with a bed temperature of 1250F. to 1300F.  The ratio of
sludge feed to spent caustic is about four to one.  Some trouble
is being experienced with plugging of the sludge feed pump suction
screen and also  the spent caustic injection nozzle.
                              84

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                          APPENDIX B                      5.
September 4, 1969 (Cont'd)

Continued operation at the present feed rates is planned to
observe the effects of the spent caustic injection.

September 8, 1969

Copeland fluidized bed incinerator was shut down late on 9-15-69
due to plugging of the caustic injection nozzle and line.   The
north and west feed nozzles were also plugged.   In addition, the
vessel nozzle through which the caustic injection nozzle is
mounted was found plugged at the inside and with a hard deposit,
presumably from the caustic.

Cleaning of plugged equipment and revision of the caustic  injection
nozzle to extend about 2-1/2 inches beyond the edge of the fire
brick has been completed.  Plans are to start up the incinerator
today and re-establish operation with sludge containing 45% oil,
with maximum injection of spent caustic.

September 12, 1969

The Copeland incinerator has operated without major difficulty
since startup late Tuesday, 9-9-69, using sludge feed containing
42% oil.  Sludge feed rate has been limited by air availability.
Spent caustic injection just above the bed has been maximized as
limited by bed temperature.  Since startup this week, sludge feed
rate has averaged about 2.8 barrels per hour, with 0.56 barrels
per hour average caustic injection.  Continued operation at
maximum sludge and caustic rates is planned for the next several
days.

Overbed water spray nozzles are being replaced today with wider
angle nozzles in an attempt to reduce the effect of overbed spray
water on bed temperatures.

September 16, 1969

Copeland incinerator operations continued without major problems.
On 9-15-69 an estimated 550 Bbl. of sludge was transferred  to
feed tank while charging sludge and spent caustic to incinerator.
Operations remained smooth during the transfer.  Resulting  feed
mix contains 36% oil.
                               85

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                           APPENDIX B                      6.
September 16, 1969 (Cont'd)

Installation of wider angle spray nozzles in freeboard (overbad)
water sprays delayed until 9-15.  Wider angle sprays markedly
improved operations.  Bed temperature rose from 1200 to 1380F.
permitting higher caustic feed rate.

Currently operating at a maximum spent caustic rate of about 3 BPH
as limited by caustic pump capacity.  Bed temperature has been
reduced to 1200F. by reducing sludge feed rate.

Bed is rapidly becoming chemical.  Bed level increased about 40%
in 24 hours from 9 a.m. 9-15 to 9 a.m. 9-16.  Sample of bed taken
this morning fused at 1750F. in laboratory.  This is a distinct
change in bed characteristic from prior sample on caustic
operation.

September 19, 1969

Copeland incinerator was shut down at 11 p.m. 9-18.  Prior to
shutdown sludge/spent caustic ratio was increased from 1/1 to about
2/1.  Bed particle size distributary showed marked increase in
coarser particles.  Fraction retained on 20 mesh sieve increased
from 1% on 9/11  (after 2 days operation at low caustic rates) to
60% on 9-17.  Fraction passing 40 mesh decreased from 28% to 1% for
above dates.  Sample of bed taken 9-18 was 74% water soluble.  Last
night lower bed  temperatures dropped rapidly to about 300F,  Lower
bed pressure drop was only other anomaly observed initially.  Bed
pressure drop continued to decrease.  Two hours later the tempera-
ture at the top  of the bed started to drop.  Orderly shutdown
followed.

Plans are to dump bed and inspect interior of incinerator early
next week.  Startup is planned for mid-week.

September 23, 1969

On opening the Copeland incinerator, a large amount of agglomerated
bed material was found.  The agglomerates ranged in size from one-
half inch to one foot in diameter.  There was an extremely heavy
buildup of material on the upper section of the incinerator walls.
These stalactites and the bed are being removed.   Startup planned
for later in the week.
                               86

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                           APPENDIX B                      7.
September 26, 1969
Copeland incinerator startup delayed by finding of extensive damage
to the grid plate distributor pipe tees.  Apparent cause of damage
was the falling of the 4-section reactor manway refractory plug into
the bed during the last run, with subsequent bumping of the plug
sections on top of the pipe tees in the fluidized bed.  Startup now
scheduled for early next week.  Facilities being revised to permit
caustic injection at two points above the bed, instead of one, and
to permit steam attrition of the bed near the top of the bed.

September 30, 1969

Copeland incinerator repairs expected to be completed late today.
These include a more positive means of holding the manway refractory
plug in place and straightening of the aeration tees damaged when
this plug became dislodged during the last run.

Startup scheduled for tomorrow.

October 7.  1969

Startup of  the Copeland incinerator began on October 1. Operations
appeared satisfactory although first attempts to use air in the
overhead sprays to improve atomization of the spray water was not
successful.  The spray water was partially backed out by the air.

The unit was shut down on Oct. 4 due to plugging of both overhead
sprays, malfunctioning of the oxygen analyzer, and the apparent
buildup of  solids in the cyclone cone section.

Repairs to  the incinerator are expected to be completed late
today or early tomorrow, with the unit startup to follow shortly
thereafter.

October 14,  1969

Copeland incinerator operations appear reasonably satisfactory,
but having  difficulty with plugging of the bed dump line, the fines
return line, and sundry small problems.

Copeland incinerator shut down on 10-13-69.  Apparently localized
overheating in or near the bed unloading nozzle caused some  fusion
                               87

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                           APPENDIX B                      8.

October 14, 1969  (Cont'd)

and prevented bed withdrawal.  The fines return line was plugged
near the bottom of the dust cyclone by compaction of damp fines.
The operation of the overhead sprays appears to be very sensitive
with control of after burning and relationship between bed and
freeboard temperatures difficult to control.

Startup planned for tonight.

October 20, 1969

Incinerator operations appear satisfactory with the sludge to
caustic ratio about 3 to 1.  The sludge rate is being kept at about
3 Bbls. per hour to keep the superficial space velocity reasonably
low.  We are having trouble with the bed unloading screw conveyor.
There may be a leak from the cooling jacket causing the conveyor
to clog with sticky discard bed.

October 22, 1969

Incinerator operations continue to be satisfactory except having
difficulty keeping the sludge to caustic ratio consistently as
low as 3 to 1.  It is hoped that different overhead water spray
nozzles now on order will improve this condition.  The bed unload-
ing screw conveyor has been taken out of service to test for leaks
in the cooling water jacket and to make repairs to the upper bear-
ing retainer which was broken when the conveyor plugged.  Bed
level is being controlled by dumping directly to barrels without
preceding.

October 24, 1969

Copeland incinerator was shut down for inspection on Wednesday,
October 22, preparatory to the dedication scheduled for Friday,
October 31.  The upper walls of the reactor were essentially clean.
There was a localized heavy buildup in the area of the south
caustic injection point, although the nozzle was still open.
There was a small line of agglomerated bed material under each of
the sludge feed nozzles.  The bed particle size was increasing but
still under control at the time of shutdown.  It appears it will
be necessary to attrit the bed on a routine basis if larger ratios
of caustic to sludge are to be handled.

Startup planned for Monday night and Tuesday.
                               88

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                           APPENDIX B                      9.

October 28, 1969

Copeland incinerator started up today.  Operations appear satis-
factory.  Messrs. Wright and Horn from Shell  at Houston were
here today to observe the startup operations.

November 10. 1969

The incinerator "operations continue to be relatively smooth with
occasional upsets caused by such things as plugged sludge feed
nozzles.  The formal dedication was held today with a goodly
representation of state and local officials and other interested
personnel present.

November 14, 1969

The incinerator was shut down last week to accumulate sludge feed
for performance testing.  This feed was composed of old additives
sent to us for disposal and skimmings from an old waste sludge pit.
The unit was started up Wednesday, but operations have been erratic
because of miscellaneous problems.  It appears that the injection
of air at the sludge feed nozzles for feed atomization greatly
improves efficiency by reducing afterburning, thereby backing out
spray water and improving the caustic to sludge ratio.

A performance test on the equipment is now planned for next week.

November 21. 1969

The incinerator was shut down on Sunday due to high cyclone
pressure drop caused by buildup in the reactor outlet and in the
duct to the cyclone.  This plugging occurred while incinerating
about two barrels per hour of caustic.  The cyclone pressure drop
has remained in control since starting up on Tuesday, but the
caustic rate has been curtailed.  A performance test was made on
Wednesday and the results are still being evaluated by Technical
Service.

Bed particle size continued to  increase during the week  in  spite of
adding  attrition steam  near the  top of the bed.   The  bed started to
slump last  night so both sludge  and caustic  feed  were  cut out.   We
are now attempting  to reduce  particle  size while  preheating the  bed
and injecting steam near the  bottom.
                                89

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                           APPENDIX B                     10.

November 26, 1969

The incinerator bed was successfully attrited to a normal particle
size last Friday by injecting steam through the sludge feed nozzles
for five hours.

High pressure drop across the cyclone was again experienced with a
buildup of deposits at the reactor outlet and in the duct to the
cyclone when incinerating one and one half barrels of caustic per
hour.  The unit was shut down Sunday and the deposits cleaned out
on Monday.  We are now injecting most of the caustic at a sludge
feed nozzle which is low in the bed to better desiccate the caustic
and hopefully prevent the stickiness which has apparently been
causing the fouling near the cyclone inlet.

Since  Friday is a refinery holiday, there will be no wire then.

December 5, 1969

The incinerator was shut down on Tuesday due to a low sludge feed
invenl .iry.  We are now accumulating a sludge feed similar to summer
production for use in further performance testing.  This sludge is
being  hauled to the incinerator from one of the API separator
bottoms pits.  The last run on the incinerator was apparently the
most successful to date with no cyclone plugging observed.   Inject-
ing attrition steam through one bottom feed nozzle while the
incinerator is on stream, caused the bed particle size to remain
in the operational range.  This will help promote more continuous
operation although it does cost caustic burning capacity.  Plan
to start up next week after accumulating an adequate supply of
feed.

December 15, 1969

We were unable to synthesize a design summer sludge feed for the
incinerator because of the low oil content of the accessible sludge
pit.   While combustion of the resulting feed containing 17% oil,
27%  sediment and 56% water was demonstrated, the last run was
terminated  after one day because of recurring problems with plug-
ging of the feed pump suction.  Sediment content of the feed was
diluted and the oil content was increased by the addition of
separator emulsion and the unit started up again on Friday.
Operations  have been erratic since then due to the low capacity
of  the feed purnp.
                               90

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                           APPENDIX B                      11.
December 22, 1969
The incinerator has been down since Monday while waiting for a
stator assembly for the sludge feed pump.  Rubber liner of the
original stator was somewhat eroded and this restricted pump capac-
ity, so that operations could not be sustained without torch oil.
The replacement stator is being installed today with startup
scheduled for later in the day.

December 26, 1969

Incinerator startup operation on 12-19-69 was unsuccessful due to
uneven bed temperatures, restricted flow of fluidizing air with
high pressure differential on the distributor place, and glowing-
red hot spots on two locations on the west side of the shell.
Unit down all week for repairs.  Large clinker found in the bed
across the west side, covering the west feed nozzle.  Startup
planned for early next week.

January 5, 1970

We  have been unsuccessful in efforts to start up the incinerator
using  retained chemical bed.  About one-half the bed was filled
through the manway to speed up loading.  When the blower was
started the next day, the bed had caked to the point where only a
small  amount of fluidizing air could be pushed through the grid.
We  are presently repeating efforts to use this retained bed by
agitating it with preheated fluidizing air, immediately after
loading.  Because of the  hygroscopic nature of this retained
chemical bed,  it may be necessary to use fresh sand for startup
bed material.

January 9.  1970

After  encountering many minor  problems which have been magnified
by  the inclement weather, the  incinerator was started up  on
Wednesday.  Operations  appear  to  be  lining  out helping to establish
that operation under adverse winter  conditions  is feasible.   We
plan to maintain operations  as  long  as adequate  sludge feed  is
available  to  help  slow up excess  spent caustic  inventory.
                               91

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                           APPENDIX B                      12.
January 19. 1970

Operation of the incinerator has continued to be smooth.  The bed
unloading screw conveyor is down for repairs so it has been
necessary to unload the hot bed directly into a skip box.  Feed to
the incinerator has been kept at less than maximum to reduce the
amount of bed to be dumped in this manner.

January 30. 1970

The incinerator was shut down on Thursday after a record uninter-
rupted run of over three weeks.  Some surging had been noted in the
reactor, leading to the conclusion that bed agglomeration was
occurring.  On inspecting the reactor internals today, it was found
that there was only a relatively small buildup of bed material on
the transition section of the walls and no agglomeration in the bed.
The surging was evidently caused by changing fluidization character-
istics of the bed, even though particle size distribution appeared
good, and this led to incipient defluidization.  Additional experi-
mentation will be required to determine the best way to  improve
fluidization.  Minor repairs are being made to the sludge feed
pumps and startup is planned for early next week.
                               92

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                           APPENDIX C
                                Mandan Refinery - November 21, 1969
               Determination of Fusion Temperature
                  of Chemical Bed  (Incinerator)
General
       A sample submitted to the laboratory should be at a temperature
which would not cause  injury or damage.  Before commencing week on
the sample, check for  hazardous temperature.  Wear asbestos gloves
when handling samples  at test temperature.
Procedure
       2.

       3.
Completely fill six coors 30 L crucibles with chemical
bed.

Place the crucibles in the large muffle furnace.

Set the temperature control to 1100F. and turn on the
heat.

With long tongs remove one crucible from the furnace
when the set temperature has been reached.  Let the
crucible cool for two minutes, then pour the contents
into a small tin can.  If the contents pour out,  set
the temperature 100F. higher and repeat step 3.
                                                  i
Report the set temperature when the chemical bed fails
to flow out of the crucible.  If chemical bed still flows
at set temperature of 1700F., discontinue the test and
report the result as fusion point 1700F+.
OKr/zgr
                                       0.  Kraav
                               93

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                                                   APPENDIX D
                     PARTICLE GROWTH RATE

       R = rate  of  increase  in particle diameter, in/hr
       t = thickness  of deposit, in/hr
       A = total  area of particles, in2
       a = area  of  a  single  particle, in2
       M = total  mass of particles, Ib
       m = mass  of  a  single  particle, Ib
       P = density  of material, lb/in2
       D = diameter of particles, in
       n = number of  particles
       W = mass  rate  of material deposited, Ib/hr
       V = volume of  material deposited, in^/hr

For a single particle, the ratio of surface area to mass is

       a  = HP2                                     (1)
       m    pJL D3
              6
For the entire fluid bed  of   n  particles

       A  =  6 n IIP2
       M     n P IID^                                (2)
       A  =  6 M n IIP2
                 n P H D3                             (3)
       A  =  6 M .                                    (4)
             P D

The Volume rate of material  deposited  is

       V  = _W_                                      (5)
             P

The thickness rate of deposit is
       t  =  V
            T"               r       1^1            (6)
The diameter of each sphere increases  by   2  t

             R  =  2 t
                                                      (7)
                                 ^C^
                           95

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                                                         APPENDIX D
                                                         (continued)
                     PARTICLE GROWTH RATE

Substitute the value of  t  from equation (6)

       R  =  2 V                                  (8)
Substitute the value of  V  from equation (5)

       R  -  2 W/P                                (9)
              ~~
       R  =  2 W/PA

Substitute the value of  A  from equation (4)

       R  =  2 W
             P (6M/PD)

       R  =  2WPD/6PM

       R  =  UP
             3M
                               96

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                          APPENDIX E
              FLUID BED  DENSITY, DEPTH, AND MASS

                             eb  =  Fluid bed density Lb/Ft3
                               H  =  Fluid bed depth  Ft.
                               h  =  Distance between partial bed
                                    differential taps  ft.
                             AP  =  Partial bed differential, in
                             AP  =  Total bed differential, in H20
                                                                   2
                               A  =  Cross sectional area of Bed  Ft
                               M  =  Pounds of Bed
BED DENSITY
                                      =  Pb, Lb/Ft3
       (27.7, in H20\ /       \
       V      	S") (  hi  ft J
       \     Lb/in2/ \       /

        When  h  =  2.5 ft    (30  in)

                     AP  (144)     .
                     (27.7)  (2.5)   ~

                     >b  =  2.08  Ap
                             97

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                                                       APPENDIX E
                                                      (continued)
              FLUID  BED DENSITY, DEPTH, AND MASS


BED DEPTH

        A P  n   =    H
        Ap  

       When  h  =   2.5  ft   (30 in)

             H  =   2.5   AP/  Ap                    Depth  to  lower
                                                   differential
                                                   pressure  tap.
BED MASS
       AH  Qb  =  M

       When A = 23.76 ft2

       (23.76)(2.5 AP/  Ap)  (2.08Ap)  =  M

             M  =  123.55   AP
                             98

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                            APPENDIX F

              APPARENT BULK DENSITY OF UNIFORM SPHERES
                   ABD  =

                   V
                   L
                   W
                   H
                   D
                           Apparent bulk density
                           Particle density
                           Volume
                           Length
                           Width
                           Height
                           Diameter of Spheres
       Loose Packing
V = Volume occupies by one
    repetitive configuration

V = L W H

L = W = H = D


V = D3
V contains 8, 1/8 spheres or
  1 sphere
                                            Close Packing
                                      V  =  Volume occupied by one
                                          repetitive configuration

                                      V  =  L  H  H

                                      L  =  D    Sin = 60 Sin^ = 0.866
                                              H/D = 0.866
                                              H   = 0.866 D
                                      V  =  (D)(0.866D)(0.866D) = 0.748D3

                                      V  contains 2, j^y  spheres

                                                6, i-   spheres
M = (ep)(.nj?r)
ABD

ABD
M/V

 Gp
                                            TOTAL

                                      M- (6p)(
                                      ABD =  M/V
                                               -EL
                                      ABD =  ep   6
                                               0.748
                                                        1  sphere
ABD = 0.5236
                                      ABD = 0.700
                             99

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                                                       APPENDIX F
                                                       (continued)
           APPARENT BULK DENSITY OF UNIFORM SPHERES
Maximum size small spheres that will fit into spaces among large
spheres.
Tan o< = D = 1
         U

 *< = 45

Sin 45 = 0.7071 =   D
                   D +

0.7071D + 0.7071d = D

0.7071d = D - 7071D

d = 0(1-0.7071)
       0.7071

d = 0.7929 D
      0.7071

d = 0.4142 D
                                        D = Diameter large sphere

                                        d = Diameter small sphere
                              100

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   APPENDIX G



MATERIAL BALANCE
1.
Operation
Feed
SI udge
42 gal/bbl
Sludge '
Composition

Sediment to Ash
Water From
Combustion
C/H = r
H + C = Oil
C = hr
H + hr = Oil
H (1 + r) = Oil
H = Oil
(Hr)
H2 = 2 11.11%
0 = 16 88.89%
18 100.00%
Water From
Sludge

Test IV
1.9 bbl/hr @ 8.89 Ib/gal
(1.98)(42)(8.89)
709.42 Ib/hr
Wt % Ib/hr
Oil 31.6 224.17
Water 56.4 400:12
Sediment 12.0 85.13
100.0 709.42
(85.13 lb/hr)(86.2%/100)
73.38 Ib/hr
C/H in Oil 6.88
Free Oil
in Sludge 224.17
Oil in Sed
85.13-73.38 = 11.75
235.92
Ib/hr
C/H = 6.88
6.88 + 1 = 7.88
235.92 = 29.93 Ib H2
7.88 hr
29.93 = 269.37 l_b H20
0.111 hr Prod.
Free Water 400.12
Combustion Water 269.37
Total 669.49
Ib/hr
Test VI
2.1 bbl/hr @ 15.52 Ib/gal
(2.1)(42)(15.2) =
1368.86 Ib/hr
Wt % Ib/hr
Oil 22.2 303.89
Water 30.8 421.61
Sediment 47.0 643.36
100.0 1368.86
(643.36 lb/hr)(75.8%/100)=
487.67 Ib/hr .
C/H in Oil 8.20
Free Oil
in Sludge 303.89
Oil in Sed
643.36-487.67 155.69
459.58
Ib/hr
C/H = 8.20
8.20 + 1 = 9.20
459.58 = 49.95 Ib H2
9.20 hr
49.95 = 449.55 Ib H20
0.111 hr Prod.
Free Water 421.61
Combustion Water 449.55
Total 871.16
Ib/hr
        101

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APPENDIX G
2.
Operation
Spent Caustic
42 Gal/Bbl
Caustic
Composition
D.S.=Dissolved Solids
Water From NaOH
Dehydration
2 NaOH-^NaeO + H20
Na=23 H2= 2
0 =16 0 =16
H = 1 T8"
m
X2 XI
80 T8
Total Water From
Feed to Combustion
Gasses
Test IV
1.1 Bbl/Hr @ 10.05 Ib/Gal
(1.1)(42)(10.05) = 464.31
Wt % Lb/Hr
Water 62.4 289.73
NaOH 8.2 38.07
N02C03 10.2 47.36
Other DS 19.2 89.15
100.0 464.31
(38,07)(18)=8.56 Lb Water
(80) Hr
Lb/Hr
Free Water 289.73
Dehydration water 8.56
298.29
From Sludge 669.49
From Spt Caustic 298.29
967.78
Test VI
2.0 Bbl/Hr @ 9.07 Lb/Gal
(2.0)(42)(9.07) = 761.88
Wt % Lb/Hr
Water 71.6 545.52
NaOH 6.1 46.47
N02COs 7.7 58.66
Other DS 14.6 111.23
100.0 761.88
(46.47)(18)=10.46 Lb Water
T07 Hr
Lb/Hr
Free Water 545.52
Dehydration water 10.46
555.98
From Sludge 871.16
From Spt Caustic 555.98
1427.14
    102

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                             APPENDIX G
                                                             3.
      Operation
                                Test IV
                                                       Test VI
Sulfate Produced
 S
04
        Wt %
     46 32.4
     32 22.5
     64 45.1
    142 100.

     Required
    = 46
    = 16
      62" / 142 =
          0.4366
 Na2C03~*Na20  +  C02
Na20
Na2C03

CO;
              Sludge   709.42 Lb/Hr
                @      API.25 Wt % S
                         8.87 Lb/Hr S

              Caustic  464.31 Lb/Hr
                @      A 03.4 Wt % S
                        15.78 Lb/Hr S

                   Total S  =  24.65 Lb/Hr

              24.65=109.55 Lb/Hr Na2S04
              0.225
                      (109.55)(0.4366) =
                               47.83 Lb/Hr Na20
               38.07 Lb/Hr NaOH in Spent
                                  Caustic
               -8.56 Lb/Hr H20 in NaOH
               29.51 Lb/Hr Na20 from NaOH

               47.83
              -29.51
               18.32 Lb/Hr Na20 from
                       18.32  =  31.32  Lb/Hr
                       .5849          Na2C03  Used
           62
          106  =  0.584
= 0.4151
                       (31.32)(0.4151)  =  13.00
                              Lb/Hr C02 Released

                        47.36
                       -31.32
                        TO4~ Lb/Hr Na2C03 to Ash
Sludge   1368.86 Lb/Hr
  @      A 00.56 Wt % S
            77BT Lb/Hr S

Caustic   761.88 Lb/Hr
  @       A 02.9 Wt % S
           22.09 Lb/Hr S

    Total S = 29.75 Lb/Hr

29.75=132.22 Lb/Hr Na2S04
     ~
                                            (132.22)(0.4366) =
                                                     57.73 Lb/Hr Na20
                                                   46.47 Lb/Hr NaOH in Spent
                                                                      Caustic
                                                   -10.46 Lb/Hr H20 in NaOH
                                                    36.01 Lb/Hr Na20 from NaOH

                                                    57.73
                                                   -36.01
                                                    71772" Lb/Hr Na20 from
                                                                       Na2C03
                                                    21.72 = 37.13 Lb/Hr
                                                    0758T9        Na2C03 Used
                                                    (37.13H0.4151) = 15.45
                                                          Lb/Hr C02 Released

                                                     58.66
                                                    -37.13
                                                     2T75T Lb/Hr Na2C03 to Ash
                                  103

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                             APPENDIX G
                                                       4.
      Operation
                          Test IV
                                         Test VI
Ash From Feed
Air To Incinerator



359 Ft3/Lb MOL

60  Min/Hr

29  Lb/MOL



Orsat Dry Gas
C2
02
12
32
44
                Ash From Sludge
                Other DS From
                         Caustic
                Na2S04
                Na2C03
                      Total Ash
                   Lb/Hr
                   73.38
                   89.15

                  109.55
                   16.04
                  288.12
                Combustion Air  1372 SCFM
                Atomizing Air    218 SCFM
                                1590 SCFM

                (1590)(60) = 265.74 MOL/Hr
                13591

                (265.74)(29) = 7706.46
                                Lb/Hr Air
          MOL/Hr
C02 = 6.2  15.53X44= 683.32
02  =10.0  25.05X32= 801.60
N2  =83.8 209.93X28=5878.04
     100.     EDG = 7462.96

(265.74 MOL/Hr Air) (0.79)  =
         209.93 MOL/Hr N2
                             .-250.51 "2k Dry Gas
Ash From Sludge
Other DS From
         Caustic
Na2S04
Na2C03
      Total  Ash
 Lb/Hr
487.67
111.23

132.22
 21.53
752.65
                              Combustion Air   1463 SCFM
                              Atomizing Air     218 SCFM
                                               1681  SCFM

                             (1680)(60) = 280.95 MOL/Hr
                             T359)

                             (280.95)(29) = 8147.55
                                             Lb/Hr Air
           MOL/Hr
C02 =  7.0  18.94X44=  833.36
02  = 11.0  29.77X32=  952.64
N2  = 82.0 221.95X28= 6214.60
      TOOT            8000.60
                                                   (280.95 MOL/Hr Air)  (0.79)
                                                            221.95 MOL/Hr N2
                                                     .82
                                                     =  270.67
                                                  Dry Gas
                                 104

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                             APPENDIX 6
                                       5.
Operation
Input
t
Output
Difference
Test IV
Sludge
Spent Caustic
Air
Total
Dry Gas
H20
Ash
Total
Pounds
709.42
464.31
7706.46
8880.19
7462.96
967.78
288.12
8718.86
161.33
Test VI
Sludge
Spent Caustic
Air
Total
Dry Gas
H20
Ash
Total
Pounds
1368.86
761.88
8147.55
10278.29
8000.60
- 1427.14
752.65
10180.39
97.90
Increase H20
  For Balance
Dry Gas
H20
Ash
  Total
7462.96
1129.11
 288.12
8880.19
                      Decrease C/H Estimate
                      From 6.88 to 3.93
Dry Gas                8000.60
H20                    1525.04
Ash                     752.65
  Total               10278.29
                              Decrease C/H Estimate
                              From 8.20 to 6.56
                                105

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                          APPENDIX H
                                                          1.
          EFFECT OF ADDITIONS OF  FINE MATERIAL TO THE
                          FLUIDIZED BED
 The weight mean  particle  diameter of the bed is increased by the
 loss of fine  material  and reduced by the introduction of fine material
 with the sludge.   When excessive material is lost through the cyclone
 the effect of the  introduction of fine material with the sludge is
 nullified.  However,  fine material  from some external source can be
 added to the  bed so  that  there is a net effective addition of AM..-
 with a weight mean particle  size D1-.

 The weight mean  particle  size in the bed after an addition of AM,-
 with a size D-j would  be
                 MD  +
                 M +  AM

                                                       (1)
The change in weight mean particle size in the bed would be

                            ipi - D                   (2)
                AD  = MD
                       M +
With small  incremental  changes

                 dD  = MD + dMjDj  .

                        M
                                                      (3)
But the  rate of  change  in  particle  size  due  to particle size
growth from the  deposition of  dissolved  solids is
                R =

                         (from Appendix  D)
(4)
which can be represented  by

                 dD  =  dMs  D
                                                      (5)
And when the  two  rate  of  diameter  changes  are equal 'and opposite,
an equilibrium  bed  particle  size is  reached
                                                       (6)


                                                       (7)
dMsD
D =

"MD + dM-jDi
M + dMi
-3DiM dM-j
= 0
r- - \ ; -
                                   s
                                     -  3M
                              107

-------
                          APPENDIX H
Let F =
Then dMs =
                                                      (8)






                                                      C9)
And D =  -SD
                                                       (10)
DM di
           (dMj)2  - 3DMdMi =  -3Di M ,Mi


             F
   D d-l  (M + dMn.)





      D  M(M +  M
      3M
      D(M + dM-j) _
       M
Since d i is very small, it may be omitted,



      DM       = p

      3M(U-Di)




      F =_D
         3(D-D.j)
Substitute
                 for F
      dMi  =     D
      dMs     3(D-D1)
(11)







(12)






(13)






(14)








(15)
                                                      (16)






                                                      (17)
                                                      (18)
                            108

-------
                         APPENDIX H                             3.
Equation (18) reveals that there is a real  value of ^ which will
                                                    dMs
produce an equilibrium bed particle size D so long as Di is less than
D and greater than 0.

The curve in Figure 11 represents the relationship between real  values
of ^_ and ^:   When designing a system, a practical mean bed particle
   dMs     D.
diameter (D) may be estimated based on dissolved solids in the feed,
cyclone losses, insoluble particulate matter in the sludge, and caustic
and reasonable fines additions.  The design superficial space velocity
is then fixed to that velocity necessary to fluidize a bed with the
estimated mean particle size (D).

When operating the unit, space velocity changes with conditions of
feed and it is not entirely under the control of the operator.  For
example, with a system designed to operate with a bed temperature of
1400F, it might be found that (due to the fusion temperature of the
bed material) the temperature must be reduced to 1200F.  This space
velocity would be less than design.  The inability of the operator to
adjust space velocity at will necessitates his being provided with a
means by which the mean particle size can be adjusted to produce a
properly fluidized bed.  This adjustment may be provided by a system
for introducing supplemental fine material to the bed or by controlled
attrition.
                              109

-------
0  Q.\ O2 O3 04
      FIG  II
vs
d Mi
dMt
             110-

-------
BIBLIOGRAPHIC:
  American Oil Company, "Fluid-Bed
Incineration of Petroleum Refinery
Wastes", Final Report FWQA Grant No.
WPRD 215-01-68, May 23, 1968 (Project
No. 120-50-EKT)

ABSTRACT
  The applicability of the Fluid-Bed
Incineration process for the disposal
of petroleum refinery generated spent
caustic and oily sludge in a commercial
scale unit has been demonstrated.

  Operating problems have been studied.
Design and operating procedural changes
are suggested.
ACCESSION  NO.

  KEY WORDS:

Incineration

Fluid-Bed

Spent Caustic

Oily Sludge

Fluidization
  of Solids

Apparent Bulk
  Density
BIBLIOGRAPHIC:
  American Oil Company, "Fluid-Bed
Incineration of Petroleum Refinery
Wastes", Final Report FWGH Grant No.
WPRD 215-01-68, May 23, 1968 (Project
No. 120-50-EKT)

ABSTRACT
  The applicability of the Fluid-Bed
Incineration process for the disposal
of petroleum refinery generated spent
caustic and oily sludge in a commercial
scale unit has been demonstrated.

  Operating problems have been studied.
Design and operating procedural changes
are suggested.
ACCESSION NO.

 KEY WORDS:

Incineration

Fluid-Bed

Spent Caustic

Oily Sludge

Fluidization
  of Solids

Apparent Bulk
  Density
BIBLIOGRAPHIC:
  American Oil Company, "Fluid-Bed
Incineration of Petroleum Refinery
Wastes", Final Report FWGH Grant No.
WPRD 215-01-68, May 23, 1968 (Project
No. 120-50-EKT)

ABSTRACT
  The applicability of the Fluid-Bed
Incineration process for the disposal
of petroleum refinery generates spent
caustic and oily sludge in a commercial
scale unit has been demonstrated.

  Operating problems have been studied.
Design and operating procedural changes
are suggested.
ACCESSION NO.

 KEY WORDS:

Incineration

Fluid-Bed

Spent Caustic

Oily Sludge

Fluidization
  of Solids

Apparent Bulk
  Density
                             111

-------
1 Accession Number
5
Organization
2

Subject
Field & Group
American Oil Comoan
SELECTED WATER RESOURCES ABSTRACTS
Input Transaction Form
V
       Title
              Fluid Bed Incineration of Petroleum Refinery Wastes
10

22
Author (s)
Herbert E. Simons
11

16

Date
11-20-70
12

Pages
107
Project Number
12050 EKT
21


.Contract Number
WPRD 215-01-68
Note
Citation
  23
       Descriptors(Starred First)
 25
       Identifiers(Starred First)
 27
Abstract

The applicability of the fluid bed incineration process for the
disposal of petroleum refinery generated spent caustic and oily
sludge in a commercial scale unit has been demonstrated.
      Operating  problems  have  been  studied.
      procedural  changes  are suggested.
                                       Design and operating
      The major  process  limitation  stems  from  the loss  of bed  fluidity
      due to  high  particle  size  growth  rate.   Particle  size  growth  rate
      is directly  proportional to the particle diameter and  rate  of dis-
      solved  solid material  charged and inversely proportional  to the
      mass of material in the  bed.   The average particle diameter can be
      controlled by  (1)  collecting  and  continuously  returning  fine  material
      to the  bed (2)  utilizing an effective  attriting system and  (3) limit-
      ing superficial  space  velocity to avoid  elutriation of fines.  This
      report  was submitted  in  fulfillment of Project #12050  EKT under the
      partial sponsorship of the Federa
      Water Quality Administration.
                                         fltMIMlMI
                                                   American Oil Company
WR:162  (Rev. Oct. 1966)
WRSIC
                                       Send To:  Water Resources Scientific
                                                 Information Center, U. S.
                                                 Department of the Interior
                                       	Washington, D.C. 20242
                                 113
                                            *U.S. GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE: 1971-423-754/1164

-------