WASHINGTON, D.C.


      This  digest was compiled  in order to provide general information to the
 public as  well  as  to Federal,  State,  and local  officials.   It  contains excerpts
 from the individual  Federal-State water quality standards  establishing disinfec-
 tion criteria for interstate waters.   The water  quality standards program is
 directed by the Environmental  Protection Agency, an independent  regulatory agency
 which has  responsibility for approving State-adopted standards for  interstate
 waters,evaluating  adherence  to the  standards, and overseeing enforcement of stan-
 dards compliance.

      Standards,  the  first nationwide  strategy for water quality  management, contain
 four major elements:  the use  (recreation, drinking water,  fish  and wildlife
 propagation,  industrial,  or  agricultural)  to be  made of the interstate water;
 criteria to protect  those uses;  implementation plans (for needed industrial-
 municipal  waste  treatment improvements,  among others) and enforcement  plans; and
 an antidegradation statement to  protect  existing high quality waters.

      Minimum water quality criteria,  or  numerical specificationsof physical,
 chemical,  temperature, and biological  levels, are stated in the  National Technical
Advisory Committee report to the Secretary of the Interior, Water Quality Criteria,
 dated April 1, 1968, and published by  the Government  Printing Office, Washington,
 D.C..  Unavailability of the  NTAC report  before June  30, 1967--the date set by the
 Water Quality Act of 1965 for formal adoption of State standards--resulted in
 significant variations between the state-adopted and  the NTAC minimum criteria.
 Some  standards were  adopted  and approved before  the NTAC report became available.
Also, the Water Quality Criteria report  is subject to updating in light of new
 scientific and technical  information„

     Although natural waters contain dissolved solids consisting mainly of
 carbonates, biocarbonates, chlorides,  sulfates, phosphates, and possibly nitrates
with  traces of metallic elements, • increases in these  substances above normal are
undesirable and sometimes detrimental.  Concentrations or effects of these sub-
stances can be raised or synergistically altered by,  for example, the addition of
chemical wastes, dissolved salts, acids, alkalis, gas and oil-well brines, or
irrigation drainage.  Adverse effects may be unpalatable drinking water, fish kills,
crop damage, or corrosion damage in water systems.

      fhe Water Quality Criteria report recommends  that dissolved solids con-
centrations not exceed 500 mg/1 for drinking water supplies; and for the protection
of freshwater fish, concentrations should not exceed  50 milliosmoles (the equivalent
oŁ 1500 mg/1 NaCl).

      Disinfection is employed to protect public  water supplies, primary-and
 secondary-body-contact recreational  waters, shellfisheries  (because oysters,
 clams, and mussels can accumulate microorganisms, including  bacteria and          ^
 viruses, and transmit them to consumers), and agricultural waters for
 domestic animals.  Disinfection reduces the water-borne coliforms--organisms
 existing in feces, and other sources,  used as indicators of  pathogen content
 of the disease-producing potential of water.  Inadequately disinfected  sewage
 can  contaminate receiving waters with Salmonella, Shigella,  Escherichia coli,
 Leptospira, and Mycobacterium.   Enteric viruses  such as polio and hepatitis
 can  also be present.

      Since water quality  standards experience revisions and upgrading from time
 to time, following procedures set forth  in the Federal Water Pollution Control Act,
 individual entries in this digest may  be superseded.  As these revisions are
 accomplished, this digest will be updated and reissued.  Because this publication
 is not intended for  use other than as  a  general  information resource, for the
 latest information,  and for  special purposes and applications, refer to the existing
 approved water quality standards which can be obtained from the State water pollution
 control agencies or EPA Washington, D.C.  or regional  Offices.

      Individual State-adopted criteria follow.

USPHS                                            U.S. Public Health Service

mg/1                                             milligrams per liter

MPN                                              mean probable number

ppm                                              parts per million

BOD                                              biochemical oxygen demand









All sewage discharged to waters of the state used
as sources of public water supply, used for the
harvesting of oysters or customarily used by the
public for swimming and other whole body water-
contact activities shall receive a minimum of secondary
treatment and, if necessary, disinfection.

Disinfection required where necessary.

Chlorination is required when wastes contain pathogenic

The State Water Pollution Control Commission has the
authority to require whatever treatment is necessary
including disinfection of effluents.

North Coastal streams only - Treated wastes which may
indirectly enter a North Coastal stream must be dis-
infected so as to contain not more than a median MPN
of  50/100 ml total coliform.

All wastes capable of treatment or control prior
to discharge into any waters of the State, shall
receive secondary treatment with disinfection or its
industrial waste equivalent, as determined by the
State Water Pollution Control Commission.

All sewage treatment plant effluents shall receive
disinfection before discharge to the watercourse.  The
degree of treatment and disinfection shall be as re-
quired by the State.

All wastes (exclusive of storm water bypass) containing
human excreta or disease producing organisms shall be

Treatment requirements may be accomplished by the
following processes . . . arlHitinn of chemicals. .  .

Secondary treatment or the equivalent with disinfection
is a basic requirement for all wastes discharged to
Georgia waters.

No requirement found in standards.

Communities and industries . . . having primary treat-
ment and no current waste treatment needs will be required
to provide secondary treatment or its equivalent .   . .
Secondary treatment with disinfection or the equivalent
will be required for all new domestic waste discharges.

No requirement, except as specified for combined sewer
overflows and treatment plant bybasses, found in stan-
dards .

The general standards set in-stream maximum fecal
coliform levels, i.e.:  Based on a minijmim of five
samples taken over not more than a030-day period, fecal
coliforms shall not exceed a geometric mean of 200 per
ml, nor shall more than 101 of the samples during any
30-day period, exceed 400 per 100 ml.

Waters classified for "Restricted Use" must meet the
following standards:  Based on a minimum of five samples
taken over not more than a 30-day period, fecal coliforms
shall not exceed a geometric mean of 1,000 per 100 ml,
nor shall more than 101 of the samples during any 30-day
period exceed 2,000 per 100 ml.

Effluent standards prescribe bacteria limits:  No
effluent shall exceed 400 fecal coliforms per 100 ml
after July 31, 1972,  or such concentrations as may
have  been prescribed for earlier dates by SWB-7 through

Continuous disinfection is to be provided throughout
the year for all municipal wastewater treatment plant
effluent in the Lake Michigan Basin.   The Indiana
implementation plan shows disinfection specified for most
sewage effluents.

Continuous disinfection shall be provided for all
municipal waste treatment effluents and for all other
wastes which may be sources of bacterial pollution throug-
out the year where such wastes are discharged into waters
designated for public water supplies and throughout the
recreational season (April to October 31) where such wastes
are discharged into waters used or classified for
recreational use and at all other times as necessary to
prevent bacterial pollution which may endanger the public
health or welfare.

Continuous disinfection of treated wastes shall be
provided for those municipalities and industries which
contribute bacterial loadings to a river or stream used
as a downstream public water supply and which supplies
are within the zone of bacterial influence.   Seasonal
disinfection (April 1 - October 31)  of treated wastes
shall be provided for those municipalities or industries
which contribute bacterial loadings to rivers or streams
which are tributary to waters used for body contact
recreation and such waters are within the zone of bacterial





Specific treatment requirements are not included in
Kentucky Standards.*

No requirement found in standards.

Effluent disinfection will be required on a year-round
basis for all effluent from sewage treatment plants as
well as any other waste treatment plant effluent con-
taining fecal material or other substances which without
adequate disinfection would be inimical to the public
health.  Such disinfection will be required for all
classes of water.

No requirement found in standards.

Freshwater -  All wastes shall receive appropriate
waste treatment which is defined as secondary treat-
ment with disinfection or its industrial waste treat-
ment equivalent except when a higher degree of treat-
ment is required to meet the objectives of the water
quality standards, all as determined by the Division
of Water Pollution Control.  Disinfection from October
1 to May 1 may be discontinued at the discretion of the
Division of Water Pollution Control.

Coastal or Marine Waters -  Appropriate treatment is
defined as the degree of treatment with disinfection
required for the receiving waters to meet their assigned
State or interstate classification and to meet the
objectives of the water quality standards.  Disinfection
from October 1 to May 1 may be discontinued at the dis-
cretion of the Division of Water Pollution Control.

Freshwater and Coastal or Marine Waters -  The amount
of disinfection required shall be equivalent to a free
and combined chlorine residual of at least 1.0 mg/1
after 15 minutes contact time during peak hourly flow or
maximum rate of pumpage.

Year around disinfection of all final effluents from
sewage treatment plants is required.

No treated sewage, or industrial waste or other wastes
containing viable pathogenic organisms, shall be dis-
charged into interstate waters of the State without
effective disinfection.  Effective disinfection of any
discharges, including combined flows of sewage and storm
water, will be required where necessary to protect the
specified uses of the interstate waters.
*The State Water Pollution Control Commission has the authority to require
 whatever treatment is necessary including disinfection of effluents.





Effective waste treatment includes chlorination.

No requirement found in standards.

Disinfection required for public drinking water supplies.

No requirement found in standards.

No requirement found in standards.
New Hampshire
New Jersey
New Mexico

New York

North Carolina

North Dakota
 Insofar as practicable, the initial objective of the
control program will be to obtain the installation of
primary treatment (with adequate disinfection where
sewage discharges are involved") for all discharges of
sewage and industrial wastes.

Year-round effective disinfection is an accepted method
of treatment required in New Jersey for most domestic
wastes and other wastewaters.   Effective disinfection
is hereby defined as:

(a)  One (1) mg/1 combined chlorine residual after a
     thirty (30) minute contact period based on design
     flow or a twenty (20) minute contact period during
     peak hourly flow or maximum rate of pumping.

(b)  Coliform organisms not to exceed an MPN of 240
     per 100 milliliters.

(No requirement found in standards.)

Continuous year-round disinfection of sewage treatment
plant effluents.

Disinfection required for public drinking water supplies.

Effective disinfection of any treated discharges, whether
sewage, industrial wastes, or other wastes, or overflow
discharges from combined storm water and sanitary dis-
charge, if such discharges constitute a potential or
actual interference with the intended usage of the waters
of the Red River of the North, the Boise de Sioux, and
parts of the Sheyenne and Pembina Rivers may be required
by the State Health Department.  Disinfection was not
mentioned in standards for other interstate waters, however,
all public water supply treatment is required to meet
USPHS standards.

All effluents will be satisfactorily disinfected to meet
the criteria for downstream water uses, and the facilities
to provide such disinfection will be installed without

All interstate rivers and tributaries of same have the
following requirement: "... Waste discharges into
waters used or capable of being used for domestic water
supplies or body contact aquatic sports including skiing
and swimming, shall receive disinfection or equivalent
treatment as necessary . . ."

All sewage shall receive a minimum of secondary treat-
ment or equivalent (equal to at least 85$ removal of
5-day biochemical oxygen demand and suspended solids)
and shall be effectively disinfected before being dis-
charged into any public waters of the State.

Effective disinfection to control disease producing
organisms shall be the production of an effluent which
will contain . . .  included as part of.definition of
secondary treatment.
 Rhode Island

 South Carolina

 South Dakota

 All sewage treatment plant effluents shall receive
 disinfection before discharge into a watercourse.

 No requirement found in standards.

 Effective disinfection of any wastewater discharges,
 including sewage,  industrial wastes, other wastes  and
 overflow from combined storm and sanitary sewer systems,
 if these discharges constitute an actual or potential
 interference with  the intended beneficial uses of  these
 waters,  may be required by the (South Dakota)   Committee
 (on Water Pollution).

 No requirement found "in.Standards.

 It is the policy of the State of Texas,  acting through
 the Texas Water Quality Board, to require primary  and
 secondary treatment and disinfection (except for oxidation
 pond effluents) at all facilities serving the general
 public and which treat,.domestic sanitary wastes.

 While the standards described apply generally to
 receiving stream flow, they can and must become effluent
 standards as required by lack of dilution water.   Further-
 more, because of the public health ramifications of the
 standard for coliform bacteria, it is presently an
 effluent standard  by reason of the requirements stated
 in Section 1-9 b,  Exhibit 5, which limits coliform to
 5,000/100 ml. in any discharges not isolated from  the
 public.   This requirement is given additional force by
 Section III-82 b,  Exhibit 5, which recognizes the  limited
 ability of chemical disinfectants, especially chlorine,
 to kill  bacteria which are protected by  layers of  organic
 substance, through a requirement for certain biological
 oxidation treatment prior to final disinfection.    Part
 III-82 of the Utah State Department of Health Code of
 Waste Disposal Regulations explain their chlorination
 requirements which are:

                          (a)   Treatment works  effluents  shall  be  chlorinated for
                               reduction of bacteria and  viruses as  required by
                               final  conditions of disposal  and as stipulated by
                               the  Boards.

                          (b)   In general,  chlorination will be considered  fully
                               effective for  the purposes of these regulations when
                               applied to oxidized effluents retaining not  more than
                               25 percent of  the raw wastewater BOD  and  containing
                               not  more than   50 mg/1 of  BOD and not more than 50 mg/11
                               of suspended solids.

                          (e)   ...  For disinfection,  the capacity  should  be
                               adequate to  produce a residual of 1.0 mg/1 in the
                               final  effluent.  . .
 Appropriate treatment shall be defined as secondary
treatment with disinfection or its industrial waste
equivalent as determined by the signatory State regulatory
agency.  Lesser degrees of treatment or control will
be permitted only where it can be demonstrated that
attainment of the specified water use class criteria of
quality can be effectuated.

Minute 59 states:   Chlorination facilities are to be
operated continuously during the entire year and a
chlorine residual of at least 2.0 ppm shall be maintained
at all times ... at sewage treatment facilities that
discharge effluent to Williams and Upper Machodoc Creeks,
King George County.

The Board requires that all treated discharges to the
Nansemond River (Suffolk area and Shingle Creek) and the
Chickahominy River Basin  . . . containing bacteria shall
be chlorinated sufficiently and continuously (100% of the
time) to maintain a residual which will insure substantially)
complete removal of coliform organisms.  This action is to
be instituted immediately by all concerned owners.

Although disinfection is not specifically required for
all State interstate waters, the Board has the necessary
authority to require it in specific instances as they
deem necessary.

Existing and new domestic waste discharges shall provide
adequate secondary sewage treatment, disinfection and
outfall facilities.  Where existing and new commercial,
industrial or domestic wastes discharge to salt water,
secondary treatment shall be required unless, after a
review of existing" data or an engineering study, it can
be demonstrated that a lesser degree of treatment will
provide for protection of present and future water uses
and the preservation or enhancement of existing water
quality.  In no case, however, will less than primary
treatment with disinfection and adequate outfall be

West Virginia


District of Columbia
Virgin Islands


Puerto Rico
 Chlorination will be required for all installations and
will be employed for twelve months of the year."

Disinfection of sewage effluents is necessary for a
fuller use of our surface waters and in the protection of
public health.  Disinfection is to be used during the
May 1  through October 31 period annually where recreational
use is involved.  The department will require year around
disinfection where public water supplies are involved.

Required at sites determined by studies.

Although disinfection is not specifically mentioned
as a requirement in the adopted water quality standards
as submitted and approved by the Secretary of the
Interior, later enforcement conferences have required
it as a policy.

Primary treatment with chlorination of effluent before
discharge through outfalls equipped with diffusers to
give a minimum of 300 to 1 dilution will be required to
protect water quality for marine life recreation.

No specific requirement found in standards.

 Chlorination of treatment plant effluent will be
required in those cases in which it is necessary to
maintain the receiving body of water within the specified
quality for its use.