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   WATER QUALITY STANDARDS DIGEST

A COMPILATION OF FEDERAL/ STATE STANDARDS ON


  SECONDARY TREATMENT


        REQUIREMENTS
   ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY


          WASHINGTON, D.C.
                    AUGUST 1972

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                                INTRODUCTION
     This digest was compiled in order to provide general information to the
public as well as to Federal, State, and local officials.  It contains excerpts
from the individual Federal-State water quality standards relating to t-he level
of treatment required for municipal and industrial waste discharges to inter-
state waters.  The water quality standards program is directed by the Environ-
mental Protection Agency, an independent regulatory agency which has responsi-
bility for approving State-adopted standards for interstate waters, evaluating
adherence to the standards, and overseeing enforcement of standards compliance,,

     Standards, the first nationwide strategy for water quality management, con-
tain four major elements:  the use (recreation, drinking water, fish and wild-
life propagation, industrial, or agricultural) to be made for the interstate
water; criteria to protect those uses; implementation plans (for needed indus-
trial-municipal waste treatment improvements, among others) and enforcement plans;
and an antidegradation statement to protect existing high quality waters.

     Minimum water quality criteria, or numerical specifications of pnysical,
chemical, temperature, and biological levels, are stated in the National Tech-
nical Advisory Committee report to the Secretary of the Interior, Water Quality
Criteria, dated April 1, 1968, and published by the Government Printing Office,
Washington, D.C.  Unavailability of the NTAC report before June 30, 1967--the
date set by the Water Quality Act of 1965 for formal adoption of State standards--
resulted in significant variations between the state-adopted and the NTAC min-
imum criteria.  Some standards were adopted and approved before the NTAC report
became available.  Also, the Water Quality Criteria report is subject to up-
dating in light of new scientific and technical information.

     Most states require secondary treatment for municipal wastes or its indus-
trial equivalent.  This is generally defined as 8570 reduction in the 5-day bio--
chemical oxygen demand.  Many times the applicable state definition is found in
state administrative documents, laws, regulations, etc. other than the water
quality standards.  Most states also have an approved antidegradation statement
which generally requires the application of the highest and best degree of waste
treatment available under existing technology.

     Since water quality standards are^rcvised from time to time, following pro-
cedures set forth in the Federal Water Pollution Control Act, individual entries
in this digest may be superseded.  As these revisions are accomplished, this
digest will be updated and reissued.  Because this publication is not intended
for use other than as a general information resource, for the latest information,
and for special purposes and applications, refer to the existing approved water
quality standards which can be obtained from the State water pollution control
agencies or EPA Washington, D.C. or regional offices.

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                              ALABAMA
Domestic Requirement

   SEWAGE:

   1.  All sewage discharged to waters of the state used as sources of
       public water supply, used for the harvesting of oysters or customarily
       used by the public for swimming and other whole body water-contact
       activities shall receive a minimum of secondary treatment and, if
       necessary, disinfection.

   2.  All sewage discharged to waters of the state used for purposes
       other then as sources of public water supply, swimming and other
       whole body water-contact activities shall receive a minimum of
       secondary treatment except those discharges of sewage which, on
       the effective date of these criteria, are receiving less than
       secondary treatment under a valid permit from the Commission and
       which discharge does not contravene water quality standards
       adopted and promulgated by the Commission.  Such discharges of
       sewage as excluded herein shall receive a minimum of secondary
       treatment at such time as plants existing at the time of exclusion
       must be enlarged or become inadequate for any reason.

   DEFINITION;

       . . .  "secondary treatment" of sewage means a process . . . capable
       of removing virtually all floating and settleable solids, from 75 to
       95 per cent of the 5-day biochemical oxygen demand and in excess of
       75 per cent of suspended solid contained in untreated sewage.

Industrial Requirements

   INDUSTRIAL WASTES;

   1.  All industrial wastes likely to contain bacteria harmful to humans
       shall receive a minimum of secondar" treatment or the equivalent
       thereof aad,  if necessary, disinfection before being discharged to
       waters of the state used as sources of public water supply, used
       for the harvesting of oysters or customarily used by the public
       for swimming and other whole body water-contact sports.

   2.  All industrial wastes discharged to any waters of the state shall
       receive a minimum of secondary treatment or the equivalent thereof
       except those discharges of industrial waste which, on the effective
       date of these criteria, are receiving less than secondary treatment
       or the equivalent thereof under a valid permit fsrom the Commission
       and which discharges do not contravene water quality standards
       adopted and promulgated by the Commission.  Such discharges of
       industrial wastes herein excluded shall receive a minimum of
       secondary treatment or the equivalent thereof at such time as
       plants existing at the time of exclusion must be enlarged or
       become inadequate for any reason.

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DEFINITION;

...  "Secondary treatment" of industrial waste means a process .
capable of removing virtually all floating and settleable solids
and reduction of 5-day biochemical oxygen  and suspended solids to
the maximum extent possible within limits of praticability and
technology but not less than 75 per cent.

For industrial waste in which biochemical oxygen demand and suspended
solids are not involved, objectionable constituents shall be
controlled, removed or reduced to the maximum degree attainable
within the limits of practicability and technology.

. . .  "equivalent of secondary treatment" means control and
restriction, generally through in-plant measures or storage and
regulation of discharge, of waste constituents ... to a degree
comparable to ... applicable secondary treatment processes.

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                                 ALASKA_

Requirement

      Secondary treatment is required for all industrial and municipal
      waste unless engineering studies approved by the Department of
      Environmental Conservation, and where interstate waters are affec-
      ted, concurred in by the Environmental Protection Agency, show that
      the water quality standards can be met with primary treatment.
      Primary treatment is the minimum acceptable treatment.  Disinfection
      will be required where necessary.

Definition;

      The removal of dissolved and colloidal materials that in their
      unaltered state, are not amenable to separation through the
      application of mechanical means and/or gravitational forces.
      Secondary treatment is generally accomplished through unit pro-
      cesses such as bio-absorption, biological oxidation, wet combustion,
      other chemical reactions, and absorption on surfaceactive media,
      change of phase, or other processes ... of removal of colloidal and
      dissolved solids .... Disinfection will be required where necessary,

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                                ARIZONA

Requirement

       .  .  .  policy requires  the maximum practical  degree of  treatment
       for all waste sources  under the  jurisdiction of  the Board.  For
       domestic wastes this shall be  secondary  treatment, its equivalent
       or better,  and effluent  chlorination  or  disinfection where these
       wastes contain pathogenic organisms  ....  Industrial  wastes
       containing  dissolved or  suspended organic material must receive
       treatment resulting in an effluent comparable to domestic wastes
       for discharge at that  point.

       -For industrial wastes  containing inorganic suspended solids, primary
       treatment,  its equivalent or better,  will be required.  Other
       methods and  degree of treatment will be required, as  appropriate,
       to remove toxicants, nutrients,  oily  constituent and other polluting
       materials from wastes  before discharge.

DEFINITION:
       No specific definition incorporated into the standards.

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                             ARKANSAS

REQUIREMENT

       .  .  .  treatment or control must  be consistent with the state of the
       art and best practicable industry standards, the minimum requirement
       being  secondary treatment or equivalent,  giving due regard to the
       quality and flow of the receiving waters; the present,  future and
       potential uses of such waters; economic feasibility; and other
       relevant factors.

DEFINITION;

       The removal of practically all suspended solids and the reduction
       of the biochemical oxygen demand by at least eighty-five (85)
       per cent, and may include the in-plant control of industrial
       wastes as prescribed by the Arkansas Pollution Control  Commission.

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                            CALIFORNIA

REQUIREMENT;

       Statewide policy does not specifically require "secondary treatment."

       Establishment and enforcement of waste discharge requirements which
       will result in the best practicable treatment or control of the
       discharge necessary to assure that (a) a pollution or nuisance will
       not occur and (b) the highest water quality consistent with maximum
       benefit to the people of the state is  maintained.

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                             COLORADO

REQUIREMENT;

       All wastes capable  of treatment or control prior to discharge into
       any waters of the state, shall receive secondary treatment with dis-
       infection or its industrial waste equivalent, as determined by the
       State Water Pollution Control Commission.  Lesser degrees of treat-
       ment or control may be permitted only where it can be demonstrated
       that the standards applicable to the classified use of the water
       can be attained.   Greater degrees of treatment or control will
       be required where it can be demonstrated that it is necessary to
       comply with the standards applicable to the classified use of the
       water.

DEFINITION;

       A method of treatment in which a minimum of 8070 of the biochemical-
       oxygen consuming material is removed.

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                            CONNECTICUT

REQUIREMENT

       The actions of the Connecticut Water Resources  Commission under
       this Public Act (57 of the 1967 Session) will be aimed at eliminating
       all sources of pollution through the installation of secondary
       treatment of the activated sludge type  or  its equivalent except in
       cases where a higher degree of treatment will be required to main-
       tain the water quality standards adopted.

DEFINITION:
       No  specific definition incorporated into the  standards.

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                             DELAWARE

REQUIREMENT & DEFINITION;

       All new waste discharges shall receive a minimum of secondary treat-
       ment (at least 85 per cent removal of 5-day biochemical oxygen
       demand) or equivalent.  All existing waste discharges which do
       not receive secondary treatment or equivalent shall be upgraded
       with some exceptions.  These exceptions are recognized only when
       all reasonable water uses and all the water quality criteria are
       satisfied with less than secondary treatment.

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                               FLORIDA

REQUIREMENTS & DEFINITION:

       Any industrial  wastes or other wastes shall  be effectively treated
       by the latest modern technological  advances  as approved by the
       regulatory agency.

       All discharges from municipal  and privately  owned domestic waste plants
       will comply with the Water Quality Standards of the State of Florida
       with 90% treatment or better as expeditiously as possible, but not
       later than January 1, 1973.

       The degree of treatment for industrial  waste has been further defined
       as follows:  That which provides an effluent equivalent to that produced
       by the highest quality municipal waste treatment, but in no case shall
       the efficiency be less than 10% organic removal.  In some cases, due to
       waste characteristics, it will be necessary  that the efficiency exceed  90%.
       In the case of inorganic wastes, waste treatment shall  have similar
       efficiencies.  The 90% organic and inorganic removal factor shall  be
       applied against the total untreated waste produced by a given plant.
       All discharges from industrial waste treatment plants shall attain
       such treatment efficiency as expeditiously as possible, but not later
       than January 1, 1973.

       Sanitary sewage disposal treatment plants which discharge effluent
       through ocean outfalls or disposal  wells on  the effective date of this
       act.shall provide for secondary waste treatment aad in addition
       -hereto, advanced waste treatment as deemed  necessary and ordered by the
       department of air and water pollution control by January 3, 1974.

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                              GEORGIA

REQUIREMENT;

       The basic requirement of all wastes under the rules of the State
       Water Quality Control Board is secondary (biological) treat-
       ment with disinfection where necessary for domestic sewage and
       equivalent treatment for industrial waste.  It will apply also to
       all other discharges of inadequately treated wastes.

DEFINITION;

       .  . .  secondary treatment refers to biological stabilization of
       sewage to obtain 85 to 95 per cent BOD reduction.   Industrial wastes
       not amenable to conventional biological treatment methods must
       receive treatment or control necessary to produce an effluent equal
       or superior to that produced from a well-operated biological
       (secondary) sewage treatment plant.
                                   11

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                              HAWAII

REQUIREMENT;

       All municipal and industrial waste sewage discharges will  be
       upgraded to the best practicable level as rapidly as funds can
       be found and capabilities of engineering and construction  permit.

       It will be a firm requirement on the discharge of all wastes into
       receiving waters of the State that said wastes receive the best
       practicable treatment or control unless it can be demonstrated
       that a lesser degree of treatment or control will provide  for
       water  quality enhancement commensurate with the present and future
       uses for which the waters have been classified.   This policy will
       make maximum the equitable uses which can be made of a water.

       The following change was made in the table titled "Estimate of
       Discharge - Water" ....

            (1) All items . .  . requiring treatment have been changed
                to "Secondary Treatment."
                                 12

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                                IDAHO

REQUIREMENTS;

       Secondary treatment with disinfection  or  the equivalent will be
       required for all  new domestic waste discharges.  Secondary treatment
       or the equivalent will  be required of  all new  industrial waste discharges,

       It shall be the policy of the State Board of Health that, notwith-
       standing the water quality standards contained  herein, where a higher
       standards can be achieved, the  highest and  best practicable treatment
       and/or control  of wastes, activities and  flows  shall be provided so as
       to maintain dissolved oxygen at the highest desirable levels and overall
       water quality as good as possible, and water temperatures, coliform
       bacteria concentrations, dissolved chemical substances, toxic materials,
       radioactivity,  turbidities, color, odor and other deleterious factors at
       the lowest desirable levels, Such policy to apply not only to existing
       waste sources but to future waste sources as they may develop and for
       such other interstate streams not listed  herein.

DEFINITION:
        (Not  legally approved for interstate waters, but  generally
       applicable.)

        ...85% removal  of BOD with disinfection...
                                  13

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                              ILLINOIS

REQUIREMENTS:

       All  municipal  or industrial  facilities for treatment of deoxygenating
       waste shall  provide at least secondary biological  treatment, or advanced
       waste treatment, adequate to reduce the organic pollution load of the
       treatment works effluent at  the final  treatment structure in
       accordance with effluent guidelines in paragraph 11. ...   (Implementation
       and  Enforcement Plan #10).

DEFINITIONS;

       Secondary treatment provides for the removal  of dissolved and
       colloidal materials that in  their unaltered state, as found in waste
       water,  are not amenable to separation through the application of mechanical
       means and/or gravitational forces.   This is generally a biological  process
       and  will reduce the five-day BOD at least 85% and suspended solids at
       least 80%. . . .
                                  14

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                              INDIANA

REQUIREMENT;

       Municipalities with population over 2,000 with only primary
       wastewater treatment plants (not now on notice for addition of
       secondary) will be required to provide secondary treatment facil-
       ities when additions or alterations are made to existing primary
       plants or not later than the end of 1973, whichever occurs first.
       Municipalities under 2,000 population required to install secondary
       treatment facilities when existing primary facilities are altered
       or added to, but not later than 1975.

       All industries will be required to provide a degree of treatment
       or control that is equivalent to that required of municipalities
       on the same stretch of the stream.  Except in rare instances this.:
       will be the equivalent, at least, of secondary treatment.
       Exceptions must be justified to the satisfaction of the Indiana
       Stream Pollution Control Board and the Federal Water Pollution
       Control Administration.

DEFINITION;

       All those municipalities which have or will be required to have,
       secondary sewage treatment facilities must provide the following
       removal of organic material in terms of BOD:  trickling filter
       plant - at least 80%, activated sludge plant - at least 90%
                                15

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                               IOWA

REQUIREMENT AND DEFINITION;

       Treatment less than secondary will not be accepted on low flow streams
       unless it can be shown that legitimate uses can be protected with
       a lesser degree of treatment.

       All industries will be required to provide the same degree of
       treatment or control that is required of municipalities on the same
       reach of the stream.  This degree of treatment will generally be
       the equivalent of secondary treatment. *

       Secondary treatment of all biodegradable wastes and an equivalent
       high degree of treatment for all other wastes is required as the
       minimum for all interstate waters. . . .

       All municipal wastes discharged into the interstate waters of the
       Mississippi River and the Missouri River shall receive a minimum
       of secondary treatment to achieve a ninety per cent (90%) reduction
       of BOD prior to discharge no later than December 31, 1973.  All
       industrial wastes discharged into such interstate waters shall
       receive equivalent treatment prior to discharge no later than
       December 31, 1973.

       All municipalities on interior streams will generally need
       secondary treatment . . .
      * Table  11 also  presents  the  best  estimate of  treatment needs.  All
      municipalities on  interior  streams will  generally need secondary
      treatment ....
                                16

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                              KANSAS

REQUIREMENT;

       All municipal wastes discharged within the Neosho River Basin shall
       receive a minimum of secondary treatment to achieve a minimum
       of 85 per cent reduction of the five-day biochemical oxygen demand
       by December 31, 1975.  All industrial wastes discharged within the
       Neosho River Basin will receive an equivalent treatment by December
       31, 1975.

       The same requirement applies to the following river basin:
       Verdigris . .  . Little Arkansas . . . Lower Arkansas . . . Upper
       Arkansas . . . Walnut . . . Cimarron . . . Smoky Hill . . . Upper
       Republican . . . Solomon . . . Lower Republican . . . Big Blue . . ,
       Missouri ... Kansas . . . Marais des Cynges ... Saline River
       Basin (s).

DEFINITION;

       That treatment necessary to achieve a minimum of 85 per cent
       reduction of the five-day biochemical oxygen demand ....
                                 17

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                              KENTUCKY

REQUIREMENT;

        All municipalities will provide secondary waste treatment at the
        earliest possible date and no later than December 31, 1975.

        Any industry which produces waste having a predominate BOD charac-
        teristic will provide treatment sufficient to reduce the BOD by
        at least 85 per cent on a consistent year round basis.  Higher levels
        of treatment will be dictated in those instances necessary to
        achieve the Water Quality Standards Stream Use Classification.

        The facilities will be constructed as soon as practical, but in
        no case later than December 31, 1975, and an Implementation Schedule
        will be prepared as part of the Water Quality Standards. (Adopted
        10/9/70 by Water Pollution Control Commission.)

DEFINITION:

        Secondary waste treatment should be considered a minimum of 85
        per cent removal of BOD on a year-round basis.  In any determination
        of "Secondary Treatment" cognizance will be given to regulation
        of the Department of Interior issued on June 10, 1970.
                                     18

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                             LOUISIANA.

REQUIREMENT;

Domestic Waste;

       secondary treatment  will  be  the minimum degree of treatment accepted.

Industrial Wastes;

       The Louisiana Stream Control Commission prescribes that all such
       wastes will receive  the best practicable treatment, secondary
       or its equivalent, at all times, not later than end of the calendar
       year 1972.

DEFINITION;

       Ho specific definition  incorporated into the standards.
                                 19

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                               MAINE

REQUIREMENT:

       . .  t well require secondary treatment or its equivalent as
       minimum treatment for all fresh waters.   In general,  this policy
       will also be applied to coastal waters except those cases where
       it can be demonstrated that a lesser degree of treatment or control
       will provide for water quality enhancement commensurate with pro-
       posed present and future uses.

DEFINITION:

       Secondary treatment shall mean such treatment that a  minimum of
       75 per cent removal of 5-day 20 C,  BOD is obtained.  In order to
       obtain this percentage removal as an operational  fact,  treatment
       facilities shall be designed to obtain a minimum  of 85  per cent
       BOD removal (5-day, 20C).
                                  20

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                             MARYLAND

REQUIREMENT & DEFINITION;

       Maryland will require as minimum treatment that municipal sewage
       receive secondary treatment, meaning a reduction of biochemical
       oxygen demand (5-day, 20C) of 85% minimum, and equivalent treat-
       ment for industrial waste.
                                21

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                              MASSACHUSETTS

REQUIREMENT & DEFINITION;

        All waste sources on fresh waters will be required to be treated
        to the secondary level regardless of the stream classification
        assigned (except when a higher degree of treatment is required to
        meet the WQS).  Secondary treatment will generally refer to biological
        treatment as applicable and/or its industrial waste treatment equiv-
        alent, all as determined by the Division of Water Pollution Control.
        Secondary treatment efficiencies shall range from 80% to 95% BOD
        removal with correspondingly similar removals on other waste par-
        ameters.  On coastal and marine waters the degree of treatment
        required will be that which will attain the particular classification
        set on the area waters.
                                    22

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                             MICHIGAN

REQUIREMENT;

       Secondary treatment will be required  as  a  minimum at  all municipal
       wastewater treatment plants to meet  the  adopted water quality
       standards unless it can be demonstrated  that  a lesser degree of
       treatment or control will provide  for water quality enhancement
       commensurate with proposed present and future water use.

       .  .  .  industrial waste effluent will  be  required to meet the
       .same effluent standards as municipal  waste effluents.

       Exception to the requirement for at  least  secondary treatment must
       be justified to the satisfaction of  the  Michigan Water Resources
       Commission and the Federal Water Pollution Control Administration.

DEFINITION:


       No specific definition incorporated into the standards.
                                 23

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                             MINNESOTA

REQUIREMENT;

       It is herin established that the Minnesota Pollution Control
       Agency will require secondary treatment or the equivalent as a
       minimum for all municipal sewage and biodegradable industrial
       or other wastes to meet the adopted water quality standards.

DEFINITION;

       Secondary treatment facilities are defined as works which will
       provide effective sedimentation, biochemical oxidation, and dis-
       infection, or the equivalent, including effluents conforming  to
       the following:

       Substance or Characteristic          Limiting Concentration or Range

       5-day biochemical oxygen demand      25 milligrams per liter
       Total coliform group organisms       1,000 MRN/100 ml
       Total suspended solids               30 milligrams per liter
       Oil                                  Trace
       Turbidity                            25
       pH range                             6.5 - 8.5
                                 24

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                            MISSISSIPPI

REQUIREMENT;

       Municipal wastes, industrial wastes, or other wastes shall receive
       effective treatment or control (secondary or equivalent) in
       accordance with the latest practical technological advances and
       shall be approved by the Commission.  A degree of treatment greater
       than secondary will be required when necessary to protect legiti-
       mate water uses.

DEFINITION;

       85% reduction of BO& and suspended
                                  25

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                            MISSOURI

REQUIREMENT;

       .  .  .  the Missouri Water Pollution Board will  require secondary
       treatment of all municipal wastes and the equivalent of  secondary
       treatment of all industrial waste.
DEFINITION;

       No specific definition incorporated into the standards.
                               26

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                              MONTANA

REQUIREMENT t

Domestic:

       the minimum treatment required for domestic sewage shall be
       secondary treatment or its equivalent with the understanding that
       properly designed and operated sewage lagoons will meet this
       requirement.

Industrial;

       the minimum treatment required for industrial wastes shall be
       secondary treatment or its equivalent.

DEFINITION:

       (It) may be defined as that process or group of processes capable
       of removing virtually all floating and settleable solids, generally
       from 80 to 95 per cent of the five-day biochemical oxygen demand,
       and a similar level of removal of suspended solids in untreated waste.
       The equivalent treatment (is) . . . maximum practicable removal of
       solids, oils, grease, acids, alkalis, toxic materials, bacteria,
       taste and odor-causing materials, color and any other objectionable
       constituents ... of industrial waste.  (Properly designed and
       operated sewage lagoons are acceptable secondary treatment facilities
       for domestic wastes.)
                                 27

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                             NEBRASKA

REQUIREMENT;

       All municipal wastes shall receive at least secondary treatment
       plus such additional treatment as is required to maintain Water
       Quality Criteria, as set forth in these standards.  All other
       wastes shall receive an equivalent degree of treatment or control
       consistent with waste characteristics,  uses and quality of receiving
       water s.

DEFINITION;

       Secondary treatment ...  a method of waste treatment beyond pri-
       mary treatment where pollutants in solution or the colloidal state
       are biologically or chemically removed.  The minimum treatment re-
       quired under this method is removal of at least 85% of the BOD
       and suspended solids.
                                 28

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                             NEVADA

 REQUIREMENT;

       "A minimum of secondary  treatment or its industrial  equivalent is
       required for all municipal  and industrial wastes."

DEFINITION;

        No specific definition  incorporated into  the standards
                                29

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                           NEW HAMPSHIRE

REQUIREMENT;

       ... all communities in this State are required by law to install
       secondary sewage treatment.  This is a firm commitment by the New
       Hampshire legislature.

       Insofar as practicable, the initial objective of the control
       program will be to obtain the installation of primary treatment
       (with adequate disinfection where sewage discharges are involved)
       for all  discharges of sewage and industrial wastes.

       The second objective will be to require the installation of secondary
       treatment whenever such additional treatment is necessary to
       protect the use assigned to the particular stream classification.

DEFINITION;

       (Secondary treatment defined as 80-85% removal of BOD.)
                                 30

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                            NEW JERSEY

REQUIREMENT t

       The minimum degree of wastewater treatment now being permitted in
       the State of New Jersey is that commonly identified as secondary
       treatment.

DEFINITION;

       In New Jersey this means treatment necessary to provide as an
       absolute minimum 8070 reduction of biochemical oxygen demand and a
       maximum permissible biochemical oxygen demand concentration of
       50 parts per million.  In most areas in New Jersey, this standard
       is raised to require biochemical oxygen demand reduction of 85%
       and 90% with appropriate maximum permissible biochemical oxygen
       demand concentrations.
                                 31

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                            NEW MEXICO

REQUIREMENT;

       All municipal treatment plants have secondary treatment in New
       Mexico.  All industrial wastes are to receive the equivalent of
       secondary treatment or control by 1972.

DEFINITION;

       Commonly defined as that process or group of processes capable
       of removing vertually all floating and setteable solids, generally
       from 80-95% of the 5-day biochemical oxygen demand, and a similar
       level of removal of suspended solids.
                                32

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                             NEW YORK

REQUIREMENT;

       Outlets to water classified "A" shall be preceded by secondary treat-
       ment and continuous chlorination.

       Outlets into water classified "B" shall be preceded by secondary
       treatment and seasonal chlorination from May 1 through October 1 of
       each year.

       Outlets to waters classified "C" shall be preceded by secondary
       treatment.

DEFINITION;

       (Secondary Treatment) . . . shall mean a process or group of pro-
       cesses removing or capable of removing virtually all (i.e. , greater
       than 957o) floatable and settleable solids in a raw waste and accomplish
       removals of Biochemical Oxygen Demand (5 day, 20C.) and Suspended
       Solids in the range of 75%-9570.
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                          NORTH CAROLINA

REQUIREMENT!

      In the interest of maintaining and enhancing water  quality,
      secondary treatment or equally effective  treatment  and control
      shall be considered the minimum acceptable  abatement  action  for
      all significant sources of sewage, industrial waste or other
      waste regardless of the assigned classification  and applicable
      water quality standards, unless it can be demonstrated that  the
      quality of the receiving waters will  be maintained  and enhanced
      by a lesser degree of treatment or control.   Advanced waste
      treatment processes shall be required insofar as  practicable
      in instances where a higher degree of treatment  is  required  to
      maintain the assigned water quality standards.

DEFINITION:
      No  specific definition incorporated into  the standards.
                                34

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                           NORTH DAKOTA

REQUIREMENT!

      Secondary treatment or equivalent will be required for all
      municipal and industrial wastes discharging directly to,  or
      which will adversely affect,  all interstate streams.   It  is
      noted that the listing of treatment needs on the  enforcement
      plan portion of the Standards lists "new plant",  "expansion"
      etc.  It is the intention that these required facilities  be
      secondary treatment or equivalent.  The dates of  compliance
      are as listed.  If the water  quality monitoring program data
      provide evidence that any municipal or industrial treatment
      plant presently not included  under "treatment needs" nor  is
      discharging directly to interstate waters, is adversely
      affecting the quality of interstate waters, such  plant will
      be required to provide secondary treatment or equivalent
      treatment of its wastes by July 1, 1972.

DEFINITION;

      Standard waste stabilization  lagoons, properly designed and
      operated, are considered by this Department to be equivalent
      to secondary treatment.

      No specific  definition  incorporated into the  standards.
                                35

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                                 OHIO

REQUIREMENT:* DEFINITION:

       (Different statements for different interstate waters are found in
        the standards:)

       (For) Ohio-Pennsylvania interstate waters of the Mahoning River, Pymatuning
       and Yankee Creeks, and Little Beaver Creek:  All sewage and organic
       industrial wastes will be treated to reduce the oxygen-demanding
       materials in the untreated waste waters by not less than seventy-five
       per cent (75%) . . .

       (For) Great Miami, Whitewater, and Wabash River Basins, Maumec,
       Tiffin, St. Joseph, and St. Marys River Basins:  All  sewage will
       be given secondary treatment (biochemical oxidation)  .  . .

       All organic industrial wastes will be given secondary treatment and other
       constituents will be adequately treated to meet the water quality
       conditions and criteria . . .

       (For) Interstate waters of the Ohio River between Ohio-West Virginia, and
       Ohio-Kentucky and Aschtabula River, Conneaut Creek, and Turkey Creek,
       including interstate waters of Ohio-Pennsylvania:  All  sewage and
       organic industrial wastes will be given secondary treatment (biochemical
       oxidation) . . .

       (For) Lake Erie:  All sewage will be given secondary treatment
       (biochemical oxidation) . . .
                                    36

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                             OKLAHOMA

REQUIREMENT:

      The following policy was adopted by  the Oklahoma  State Board
      of Health:

      . . .  That  all wastes discharged to  the waters of the State
      receive the equivalent of secondary  treatment prior to being
      discharged, and that action be  taken by the  State Department
      of Health to secure the orderly achievement  of this objective
      for all wastes under its jurisdiction.  The  minimum degree of
      treatment or control for industrial  waste  is defined as the
      equivalent  to municipal secondary treatment.

DEFINITION;


     No specific definition incorporated into the standards.
                                 37

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                           OREGON

REQUIREMENT & DEFINITION:

        All sewage shall receive a minimum of secondary treatment
        or equivalent (equal to at least 85% removal of 5-day
        biochemical oxygen demand and suspended solids) and shall
        be effectively disinfected before being discharged into any
        public waters of the state.
                              38

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                        PENNSYLVANIA

REQUIREMENT:

        As a matter of common decency, all  biodegradable wastes shall
        be given a minimum of secondary treatment or its equivalent
        for industrial wastes except as hereinafter specified.

        An equivalent of secondary treatment is required for non-
        biodegradable wastes.

DEFINITION:

        Secondary treatment is that treatment that will  reduce  the
        organic waste load as measured by the biochemical oxygen
        demand test by at least 85% during the period May 1  to  October 31
        and by at least 75% during the remainder of the  year based on
        a five consecutive day average of values; will  remove practically
        all of the suspended solids; willl  provide satisfactory disposal
        of sludge; and will reduce the quantities of oil, greases, acids,
        alkalis, toxic, taste, and odor producing substances, color,
        and other substances inimical to the public interest to levels
        that will not pollute the receiving stream.
                               39

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                            RHODE ISLAND

REQUIREMENT:

        Appropriate waste treatment shall  be secondary treatment with
        disinfection or the equivalent.   Lesser degrees of treatment
        will be permitted only where it  can be demonstrated that
        attainment of the specified water use class standards of quality
        can be effectuated.

DEFINITION:

        Secondary treatment includes biological treatment employing either
        some form of the activated sludge process, trickling filters,
        or other means providing a removal of about ninety per cefct
        of the BOD and suspended solids.
                                  40

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                           SOUTH CAROLINA

REQUIREMENT:

        No wastes amenable to treatment or control  shall  be discharged
        into any State waters without treatment or  control.  All  bio-
        degradable waste, prior to discharge into any State waters,  shall
        receive a minimum of secondary treatment and all  other wastes
        an equivalent degree of treatment unless it can be demonstrated
        that a lesser degree of treatment or control will  provide for water
        quality improvement consistent with  present and  anticipated future
        water uses.

DEFINITION:

        (Secondary treatment means) 85% BOD removal.

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                            SOUTH DAKOTA

REQUIREMENT;

        Adequate waste treatment of municipal and industrial wastes discharged
        to interstate waters is secondary treatment or better.

DEFINITION:

        "The effluent quality requirement to be used for design purposes
        for all communities and industries, unless a higher degree of treat-
        ment will be required to meet the criteria adopted by the Committee,
        is as follows:

             a.  The five-day biochemical oxygen demand (BOD) shall not
                 exceed 30 mg/1 on a daily average and the biochemical
                 oxygen demand shall not exceed 60 mg/1 at any one time

             b.  Suspended solids concentrations shall not exceed 30 mg/1
                 based on a daily average and the suspended solids concentrations
                 shall not exceed 60 mg/1 at any one time."
                                  42

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                              TENNESSEE

REQUIREMENT:

        The criteria and standards provide that all discharges of
        sewage, industrial waste, and other wastes will receive the best
        practicable treatment (secondary or the equivalent) or control
        according to the policy and procedure of the Tennessee Stream
        Pollution Control Board.  A degree of treatment greater than
        secondary when necessary to protect the water uses will be required
        for selected sewage and waste discharges.

DEFINITION:

        Secondary treatment will provide from 75 to 90 percent 5-day
        BOD removal and from 80 to 90 per cent suspended solids removal.
                                  43

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                                TEXAS

REQUIREMENT:

        It is the policy of the State  of  Texas, acting  through the
        Texas Water Quality Board,  to  require  primary and  secondary
        treatment and disinfection  (except  for oxidation pond effluents)
        at all  facilities serving the  general  public and which treat
        domestic sanitary wastes.   Treatment or control of industrial
        wastes  is equally as important as the  treatment or control of
        municipal (domestic) wastes.   It  is the policy  of  the Texas
        Water Quality Board to  require a  comparably high standard of
        treatment or control of industrial  wastes  being discharged to
        the waters in the State.  Therefore, anyone making a waste discharge
        from any industrial, public or private project  or  development which
        would constitute a new  source  of  pollution to any  of the waters
        in the  State will be required, as part of  the initial project
        desing, to provide the  highest and  best degree  of  waste treatment
        available under existing technology consistent  with the best
        practice in the particular  field  affected  under the conditions
        applicable to the project or development.

DEFINITION:

        No specific definition incorporated into the standards.
                                  44

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                           UTAH
REQUIREMENT:
     The following standards of quality shall be applied to waste
     discharge ... except that no waste of any kind shall be discharged
     from controlled areas until subjected to at least secondary
     treatment.
DEFINITION:
     No specific definition incorporated into the standords,
                               45

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                             VERMONT

REQUIREMENT;

      Appropriate treatment  shall be defined as secondary treatment
      with disinfection or  its  industrial waste equivalent as
      determined by the signatory state regulatory agency (Vermont
      Department of Water Resources).  Lesser  degrees of treatment or
      control will be  permitted only where  it  can be demonstrated
      that attainment  of the specified water use class criteria of
      quality can be effectuated.

DEFINITION;

      No specific definition  incorporated into  the standards.
                                46

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                               VIRGINIA

REQUIREMENT:

        The State Water Control  Board will require that, prior to discharge
        to interstate waters,  all  bio-degradable wastes will receive a
        minimum- of secondary treatment; and other wastes will receive an
        equivalent high degree of  treatment unless it can be demonstrated
        that a lesser degree of treatment or control will provide for
        water quality enhancement  commensurate with proposed present and
        future water uses.

DEFINITION:

        No specific definition incorporated into  the standards.
                                   47

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                               WASHINGTON

REQUIREMENT;

        Existing and new domestic waste dischargers shall provide adequate
        secondary sewage treatment, disinfection and outfall facilities.
        Existing and new commercial and industrial operations discharging
        an organic waste shall connect to a municipal system when at all
        possible.  If connection is not feasible, adequate secondary treat-
        ment and outfall shall be provided.

        Existing and new commercial and industrial operations discharging
        an inorganic waste shall connect to a municipal system if at all
        possible.  If connection is not feasible, coagulation and sedimentation,
        chemical treatment, or other necessary treatment and adequate outfall
        shall be provided.

        Miere existing and new commercial, industrial or domestic wastes
        discharge to salt water, secondary treatment shall be required
        unless, after a review of existing data or an engineering study,
        it can be demonstrated that a lesser degree of treatment will provide
        for protection of present and future water uses and the preservation
        or enhancement of existing water quality.  In no case, however, will
        less than primary treatment together with disinfp"*-nn and adequate
        outfall be accepted.

DEFINITION;

        (not officially adopted for interstate waters, but in general use)
        . . . the removal of settleable and floatable solids from the waste
        flow and the application of additional waste treatment processes to
        attain 85% removal of the BOD and 90% removal of suspended solids
        with adequate disenfection of the effluent.
                                      48

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                             WEST VIRGINIA

 DEFINITION:

        In adopting and  promulgating  Section 3.02  (Non-degradation statement)
        and the other sections  of these  Regulations, it was and continues
        to be the intent of this Board  (State Water Resources Board) to devise
        and promulgate criteria that, in order to  be met, would require the
        highest and best practicable means of waste treatment.  This require-
        ment is interpreted by  the  Board to necessitate as an absolute
        minimum, secondary treatment  of  municipal  wastes and the equivalent
        of secondary treatment  of all industrial wastes.

DEFINITION:

        No specific definition incorporated into the standards.

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                              WISCONSIN

REQUIREMENT:

        "Adequate  treatment"  in the Wisconsin Water Quality Standards
        and the Implementation and Enforcement Plans report means
        accomplishing  secondary treatment for treatable biodegradable
        water and  an equivalent high degree of treatment of all  other
        wastes or  better.

DEFINITION:

        No specific definition incorporated into  the standards.

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                                WYOMING

REQUIREMENT:

        It is the policy of the Board that wastes amenable to treatment or
        control will receive, prior to discharge into any interstate waters,
        the best practical treatment or control  unless it can be demonstrated
        that a lesser degree of treatment or control  will provide for water
        quality commensurate with present and future water uses.

DEFINITION:

        None.
                                   51

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                       DISTRICT OF COLUMBIA

REQUIREMENT & DEFINITION:

      ... it is the policy of the District of Columbia to improve
      the quality of all its waters as reflected in the standards.
      All industrial, public, and private sources of pollution will
      be required to provide the degree of waste treatment necessary
      to meet the water quality standards.
                                 52

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                                 GUAM

 REQUIREMENT:

        All  sewage and all  wastes prior to discharge will  receive the
        best practicable treatment or control  unless it can be demonstrated
        that a lesser degree of treatment or control will  provide water quality
        commensurate with the uses of the waters of the territory .  . .

DEFINITION:

        Best practicable treatment is defined herein as not less than that
        degree of treatment for municipal or industrial wastes commonly
        recognized in sanitary engineering practice as "secondary treatment"
        or its industrial waste treatment equivalent or whatever other degree
        of treatment or control is found necessary to provide the water
        quality required to protect the classified uses of the receiving
        water.
                                   53

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                              PUERTO RICO

REQUIREMENT:

        It is hereby prohibited to any person, to directly or  Indirectly
        throw, discharge, pour, or dump and/or.cause or allow to be thrown,
        discharged, poured or dumped into the coastal  waters of Puerto
        Rico any kind of domestic or industrial wastes with less than
        conventional secondary treatment or control  or its equivalent, or
        any other substances capable of polluting or creating a potential
        threat of pollution in such a way that coastal waters be rendered
        below the minimum standards of purity established in these Rules
        and Regulations.

 DEFINITION:

        Nona.
                                   54

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                           VIRGIN ISLANDS

REQUIEMENT:

       (No secondary treatment requirement listed in the standards.)

       None of the sewered cities with harbors in tbe Virgin Islands
       now provide sewage treatment.  Primayy treatment with chlorination
       of effluent before discharge through outfalls equipped with diffusers
       to give a minimum of 300 to 1 dillution will  be requirred to
       protect water quality for marine life and recreational uses.
                                  55

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