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WATER QUALITY STANDARDS CRITERIA DIGEST

 A COMPILATION OF FEDERAL/STATE CRITERIA ON


        -TEMPERATURE-
   ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY

           WASHINGTON, D.C.

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                               INTRODUCTION


     This digest was compiled in order to provide general information to the
public as well as to Federal, State, and local officials.  It contains excerpts
from the individual Federal -State water quality standards establishing temperature
criteria for interstate waters.  The water quality standards program is directed
by the Environmental Protection Agency an independent regulatory agency which
has responsibility for approving State-adopted standards for interstate waters,
evaluating adherence to the standards, and overseeing enforcement of standatds
compliance.
,
     Standards, the first nationwide strategy for water quality management
contain four major elements:  the use (recreation, drinking water, fish and wild-
life propagation, industrial, or agricultural) to be made of the interstate water;
criteria to protect those uses; implementation plans (for needed industrial-
municipal waste treatment improvements, among others) and enforcement plans; and
an antidegradation statement to protect existing high quality waters.

     Minimum water quality criteria, or numerical specifications of physical,
chemical, temperature, and biological levels, are stated in the National Technical
Advisory Committee report to the Secretary of the Interior, Water Quality Criteria 
dated April 1, 1968, and published by the Government Printing Office, Washington,
B.C.  Unavailability of the NTAC report before June 30, 1967--the date set by the
Water Quality Act of 1965 for formal adoption of State standards --resulted in
significant variations between the state-adopted and the NTAC minimum criteria.
Some standards were adopted and approved before the NTAC report became available.
Also, the Water Quality Criteria report is subject to updating in light of new
scientific and technical information .

     Temperature standards are set to control thermal pollution, or the amount
of heated wastes discharged into the water.  Thermal pollution creates adverse
conditions for aquatic life; accelerates biological processes in the streams, re-
ducing the dissolved oxygen content of the water; increases the growth of aquatic
plants, contributing to taste and odor problems; or otherwise makes the water less
suitable for fish and wildlife, domestic, industrial and recreational uses.

     Water Quality Criteria, used by EPA in evaluating State standards, recommends
a maximum water temperature of 90F with a maximum permissible rise above the
naturally existing temperatures of 5F in streams and 3F in lakes.  It recommends
that trout and salmon waters not be warmed in order to protect these resources.
Because of the lesser temperature fluctuations in the marine and estu&sine environ-
ment, the NTAC report recommends that monthly maximum daily temperatures recorded
at any site, before the addition of artificial heat, not be raised by more than
4F from September through May and by more than 1.5F from June through August.

     Since water quality standards experience revisions and upgrading from time
to time, following procedures set forth in the Federal Water Pollution Control Act,
individual entries in this digest may be superseded.  As these revisions are
accomplished, this digest will be updated and reissued.  Because this publication
is not intended for use other than as a general information resource, for the latest
information, and for special purposes and applications, refer to the existing approved
water quality standards which can be obtained from the State water pollution control
agencies or EPA Washington, B.C. or regional offices.

     Individual State-adopted criteria follow.

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 KEY:
Alabama:
Alaska:
                   WATER QUALITY STANDARDS SUMMARY

                         TEMPERATURE CRITERIA
Max.
Min.
PWS
Rec.
                       Agric.
                       Ind.

                       Nav.
                       Shell.
                       *
                       RM
Maximum
Minimum
Public Water Supply
Recreation
Fish and Wildlife propagation
Agricultural water supply
Industrial (also may include power
and cooling) water supply
Navigation
Shellfishing
Not approved.
River Mile
PWS  -  With respect to cooling water discharges
only, the ambient temperature of receiving waters
shall not be  increased more than 10F. by the
discharge of  such cooling waters, after reasonable
mixing; nor shall the discharge of such cooling
waters, after reasonable mixing, cause the tempera-
ture of the receiving waters to exceed 93F.

Rec. - Same as PWS.

Agri  Ind. - Same as PWS.

Shell. - Same as PWS*

FPL - Same as PWS*

PWS  - Below 60F.; waste flows above 60F. adjusted
to ambient receiving water temperature.

Rec. - Numerical value not applicable.

FWL - May not exceed temperature of natural
conditions by more than 51 for salt water or 10%
for  fresh water.  No change permitted for tempera-
tures over 60F.  Maximum rate of change - 0.5F./hr.

Shell. - Less than 68F.

Stock and Irrigation - Between 60F. and 70F. for
optimum growth to prevent physiological shock to
plants.
                       Ind. - Less than 70F.

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Arizona:
93F. max; not more than 5F. change.
Arkansas:
California:
Cold water fish. - November-March-55F. max.) not nore
                   ADril-Oct.--70F. max.   ) than 2F.
                                              change.
20 C. - max. in trout streams.
30C. - max. in smallmouth bass streams.
35C. - max. in other streams.

The standards establish a complex set of thermal
requirements.For many categories of receiving waters,
requirements differ between "thermal waste"
(herein "TW," defined as water used for transporting
waste heat) and "elevated temperature waste"
(herein "ETW;" defined as any discharge, including
thermal waste but excluding irrigation return
water, which exceeds the natural temperature of
the receiving water.

1.  Cold interstate waters.  ETW's are prohibited.

2.  Warm interstate waters.

    A.  TW's with temperature greater than 5F.  above
        receiving water temperature are prohibited.

    B.  ETW's shall not raise receiving water
        temperature by more than 5

    C.  Colorado River.  Maximum rise 5F.  in river,
        3"F.in Lake Havasu.  Maximum temperatures:
                       3.
                           Jan
                           Feb
                           Mar
                           Apr
                           May
                           June
            60
            65
            70
            75
            82
            86
Jul
Aug
Sept
Oct
Nov
Dec
90
90
90
82
72
65
    D.  Lost River.  Maximum rise 2 up to 62
        maximum temperature.

    Coastal waters.

    A.  Existing discharges.

        (1) ETW's must comply with limitations
            necessary to protect beneficial uses.

    B.  New discharges.

        (1) ETW's must be to open ocean away from
            the shoreline,dispersion through the

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            vertical water column.

       (2)  ETW's away from areas of special
            biological significance.

       (3)  TW's must have a maximum temperature
            not exceeding water temperature by
            more than 20.

       (4)  ETW's must not increase water temperature
            more than 4 at (a) shoreline, (b)
            surface of ocean substrate or (c) ocean
            surface beyond 1000 feet from the dis-
            charge system.  Surface limits must be
            maintained at least 50% of the tidal
            cycle.  Alternate objectives may be
            specified if they assure full protection
            of the aquatic environment.  (May be
            specified only with State Board and EPA
            concurrence.)

       (5)  Additional limitations may be imposed
            when necessary to protect the aquatic
            environment.

4.   Enclosed bays.

    A.  Existing discharges.

       (1)  ETW's must comply with limitations
            necessary to protect beneficial uses.

    B.  New discharges.

       (1)  ETW's must comply with limitations
            necessary to protect beneficial uses.
            Maximum discharge temperature must not
            exceed receiving water temperature by
            more than 20.

       (2)  TW's with temperature greater than 4
            above receiving water temperature are
            prohibited.

5.   Estuaries.

    A. Existing discharges.

       (1)  ETW's [a.] Temperature shall not exceed
            receiving water temperature by more than
            20. [b.] Must not, individually or combinedj
            create zone (receiving water temperatures
            more than 1 above natural) which exceeds
            251 of cross-sectional area of main channel;

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            tc.l   No discharge shall cause a surface
            water temperature rise greater than 4F
            above the natural temperature of the
            receiving waters  at any time or place.

            Id.]   Additional limits necessary
            to protect beneficial uses.

       (2)  TW's must comply with 5A(1) and their
            maximum temperature must not exceed 86.

    B.  New discharges.

       (1) ETW's must comply with 5A(1).

       (2)  TW's with temperature greater than 4
            above receiving water temperature are
            prohibited.

       (3)  Additional limits necessary to protect
            beneficial uses.

General Provisions.  Standards also contain general
provisions which include the following:

     1.  Authorization for additional individual
         limitations to confine heat dispersion to
         a 1 1/2 isotherm in a minimal, defined
         area;

     2.  Prohibition of cumulative heat effects in
         excess of the standards;

     3.  A requirement that the State Board designate
         biologically significant areas for special
         protection.

     4.  Authorization to make exceptions if:

         A.  The heat discharge will be beneficial;

         B.  Intermittent heat is the least harmful
             method to control fouling organisms in
             intake and discharge structures;

         C.  Compliance would cause a greater en-
             vironmental impact than modification of
             the standards, or

         D.  Compliance by existing discharges would
             not be commensurate with the benefit
             to the aquatic environment.

         NOTE:   Exceptions  will be made only with
                EPA concurrence.

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Colorado:
Connecticut:
Delaware:
Class BI  (cold water fish) - 70F. max. No
controllable temperature change will be per-
mitted which will interfere with the spawning
and other aspects of fish life.  Abrupt changes
in temperature must be avoided and the normal
pattern of diurnal  and seasonal fluctuations
must be preserved.  The maximum allowable rise
in temperature resulting from waste discharges
in streams and the epilimnion of lakes shall be
2F.  No warming discharge permitted in the
hypolimnion of lakes.

Class BZ  (warm water fish) - 90F. max. No
controllable temperature change will be per-
mitted which will interfere with spawning and
other aspects of fish life.  Abrupt changes in
temperature must be avoided and the normal
pattern of diurnal and seasonal fluctuations must
be preserved.  The maximum allowable temperature
increase due to waste discharge in streams will
be 5F., and the maximum increase allowable from
waste discharges to the epilimnion of lakes is
3F.  No warming discharges to the hypolimnion
of lakes.

Class BI and B2 - In temperature measurement,
allowance shall be made for a mixing zone.  Pro-
visions shall be made for adequate mixing and no ther-
mal barrier to migration and free movement of aquatic
biota shall be permitted in any waters of the state.

Class C - (Industrial) - The temperature shall not
exceed 93F.

Class D - (irrigation) - No temperature criteria
assigned.

Class A (PWS) - No increase other than natural origin.
Class B (Rec.)
Class C (F$WL)
Class D (Nav.  Ind.)
Class SA (Shell.)
Class SB (Restricted Shell.,)) exceed 4F. over natural
Class SC (Shell, Habitat)    ) with a max. of 85F.
Class SD (Nav.)              )
                                                    ) No increase to exceed
                                                    ) recommended limits on
                                                    ) most sensitive water
                                                    ) use, and in no case to
Criteria are assigned by basin and are as follows:

5 rise - Red Clay Creek, White Clay Creek, Christina
River, Choptank River, Buntings Branch Creek,
Assawoman Bay.

5 rise, 85 maximum - Braridywine River, Chesapeake and
Delaware Canal, Nanticoke River, Delaware River and
Delaware Bay.

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District of
 Columbia:
Florida:
Georgia:
Guam:
Hawaii:
Idaho:
Illinois:
5 rise, 87 maximum - Rehoboth Bay, Indian River
and Bay.

5 rise, 75 maximum - Atlantic Ocean.

Not to exceed 90F., 5F. change limit; no sudden
or localized temperature changes which may ad-
versely affect aquatic life.

All waters - temperature shall not be increased
so as to cause any damage or harm to the aquatic
life or vegetation of the receiving waters or
interfere with any beneficial use assigned to such
waters.

(EPA has requested changes in criteria")

PWS   ) Not to exceed 93.2F. at any time and not
Rec.  ) to be increased more than 10F. above in-
FWL  ) take temperature.  In streams designated by
Shell.) the State Fish and Game as trout waters,
        there shall be no elevation or depression
        of natural stream temperature.
(NOTE: Administrator has requested changes in criteria.)
Ind.-Not to exceed 93.2F. at any time and not to
be increased more than 10F. above intake temperature.
PWS - 85F. max.
change limit.

Rec. - 85F.
5F.  change limit, 1.5F. hourly
FWL - 1.5F. change limit from natural conditions.

Classes AA, A, B (all uses of coastal and tidal
waters) - Temperature of receiving waters shall not
change more than 1.5F. from natural conditions.

No measurable temperature increase when stream
temperature is 68F. or above, or more than 2F.
increase when river temperature is 66F. or less
(Except 70F. and 68F., respectively, for Snake
River -  River Mile 407 to 247.)

Geneeal Standards.
Temperature.
     (1) There shall be no abnormal temperature
     changes that may adversely affect aquatic life
     unless caused by natural conditions.

     (2) The normal daily and seasonal temperature
     fluctuations that existed before the addition
     of heat due to other than natural causes shall

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                                      be maintained.

                                      (3) The maximum temperature rise above natural
                                      temperatures shall not exceed 5* F.

                                      (4) In addition, the water temperature at
                                      representative locations in the main river shall
                                      not exceed the maximum limits in the following
                                      table during more than one percent of the hours
                                      in the 12-minth period ending with any month.
                                      More-over, at no time shall the water temperature
                                      at such locations exceed the maximum limits in
                                      the following table by more than 3 F.
             JAN.   FED.   MAR.   APR.   MAY  JUN .   JLIL.   AUG.   SEPT.   OCT .   NOV.   DEC.
Mississippi
River (Wise.
Border to    45
Iowa Border)
45
                         57   68   78  85   86   86   85
                                                                   75   65   52
Mississippi
River  (Iowa
Border to    45'
Alton Lock
and Dam) (F)

Mississippi
River  (So.
of Alton     50'
Lock & Dam)
45
                         57   68   78   86   88   88   86
                   50   60   70   80  87   89   89   87
                                                                   75   65   52'
                                                                   78   70   57
Ohio River   50   50   60   70   80  87   89   89   87    78   70   57
Wabash River
& Its inter- 50
state Tribu-
taries (F)
                   50   60    70   80  90   90   90   90    78   70   57
Other Waters 60   60"   60   90"   90  90   90"   90   90
                                                                   90   90   60
                               Main river temperatures are temperature of those
                               portions of the river essentially similar to arid
                               following the same thermal regime as the temperatures
                               of the main flow 6f the river.

                                    (5) The owner or operator of a source of heated
                                    effluent which discharges 0.5 billion British
                                    thermal units per hour or more shall demonstrate
                                    in a hearing before this Board not less than 5

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                                   8

                              lor more than 6 years after the effective date
                             of these regulations or, in the case of new sources,
                             after the commencement of operation, that discharges
                             from that source have not caused and cannot be
                             reasonably expected to cause significant ecological
                             damage to the receiving waters.  If such proof is
                             not made to the satisfaction of the Board appropriate
                             corrective measures shall be ordered to be taken
                             within a reasonable time as determined by the Board.

                              (6) Permits for heated effluent discharges, whether
                             issued by the Board or the Environmental Protection
                             Agency, shall be subject to revision in the event
                             that reasonable future development creates a need for
                             reallocation of the assimilative capacity of the
                             receiving stream as defined in the regulation
                             above.

                              (7) The owner or operator of a source of heated
                             effluent shall maintain such records and conduct
                             such studies of the effluents from such source
                             and of their effects as may be required by the
                             Environmental Protection Agency or in any permit
                             granted under the Environmental Protection Act.

                              (8) Appropriate corrective measures will be required
                             if, upon complaint filed in accordance with Board
                             rules, it is found at any time that any eated
                             effluent causes significant ecological damage
                             to the receiving stream.

Lake Michigan:        Temperature
                              Cl) (A) All sources of heated effluents in existence
                                     as of January 1, 1971 shall meet the
                                     following restrictions outside of a mixing
                                     zone which shall be no greater than a circle
                                     with a radius of 1000 feet or an equal
                                     fixed area of simple form.

                                     (i) There shall be no abnormal temperature
                                         fluctuations that existed before the
                                         addition of heat shall be maintained.

                                     (ii)The normal daily and seasonal temperature
                                         fluctuations that existed before the addi-
                                         tion of heat shall be maintained.

                                    (iii)The maximum temperature rise at any time
                                         above natural temperatures shall not
                                         exceed 3F.  In addition, the water
                                         temperature shall not exceed the maximum
                                         limits (F) indicated in the following
                                         table:

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JAN.  FEB.  MAR.  APR.  MAY  JUN.  JUT.  AUG.  SEPT.  OCT.  NOV.  DEC.

45    45    45    55    60   70    80    80    80     65    60    50

                                 (B) The owner or operator of a source of
                                    heated effluent which discharges 0.5
                                    billion British Thermal Units per hour
                                    (BTU/HR.) or more shall demonstrate in a
                                    hearing before this Board not less than
                                    5 nor more than six years after the adoption
                                    of this regulation, that discharges from
                                    that source have not caused and cannot
                                    be reasonably expected in future to cause
                                    significant ecological damage to the Lake.
                                    If such proof is not made to the satisfaction
                                    of the Board, backfitting of alternative
                                    cooling devices shall be accomplished
                                    within a reasonable time as determined by the
                                    Board.

                                 (C) The owner or operator of a source of heated
                                    effluent shall maintain such records and conduct
                                    such studies of the effluents from such source
                                    and of their effects as may be required by the
                                    Environmental Protection Agency or in any
                                    permit granted under the Environmental
                                    Protection Act.

                                 (D) Backfitting of alternative cooling facilities
                                    will be required if, upon complaint filed in
                                    accordance with Board rules, it is found at
                                    any time that any heated effluent causes s
                                    significant ecological damage to the Lake.

                            (2)  Any effluent source under construction as of
                                January 1, 1971, but not in operation, shall meet
                                all the requirements of Section 1 of this regulation
                                and in addition shall meet the following
                                restrictions.

                                 (A) Neither the bottom, the shore, the hypolimnion,
                                nor the thermocline shall be affected by any
                                heated effluent.

                                 (B) No heated effluent shall affect spawning grounds
                                or fish migration routes.

                                 (C) Discharge structures shall be so designed as to
                                maximize short-term mixing and thus to reduce the
                                area significantly raised in temperature.

                                 (D) No discharge shall exceed ambient temperatures
                                by more than 20F.

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       10

    (E)  Heated effluents from more than one source
        shall not interact.

    (F)  All reasonable steps fchall be taken to reduce
        the number of organisms dr^wn into or against
        the intakes.

    (G)  Cleaning of condensers  shall be accomplished
        by mechanical devices.   If chemicals must be
        used to supplement mechanical devices, the
        concentration at the point of discharge shall
        not exceed the 96-hour  Tim for fresh water
        organisms.

(3)  (A)  No source of  heated  effluent which was not in
        operation or  under construction as of Jan>"-
        uary 1, 1971  shall discharge more than a daily
        average of 0.1 billion  BTU/Hr.

    (B)  Sources of heated effluents which discharge
        less than a daily average of 0.1 billion
        BTU/Hr. not in operation or under constructionj
        as of Janaary 1, 1971 shall meet all requires
        ments of sections 1  and 2 of this regulation.

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Indiana:
                                11
Industrial classification - Temperature shall not
exceed 95F. at any time.

Aquatic Life

1.  Warm water species.
                       no
    a.  There shall be/abnormal temperature changes
        that affect aquatic life unless caused by
        natural conditions.

    b.  The normal daily and seasonal temperature
        fluctuations that existed before the addition
        of heat due to other than natural causes shall
        be maintained.

    C.  The maximum temperature rise at any time or
        place above natural temperature shall not
        exceed 5F.  In addition, the water temperature
        shall not exceed the maximum limits indicated
        in the following table:
January
February
March
April
May
June
July
August
September
October
November
December
Ohio River
Main Stem

    50
    50
    60
    70
    80
    87
    89
    89
    87
    78
    70
    57
St. Joseph River
  Tributary to
  Lake Michigan

       50
       50
       55
       65
       75
       85
       85
       85
       85
       70
       60
       50
Other Indiana
  Streams

     50
     50
     60
     70
     80
     90
     90
     90
     90
     78
     70
     57
                       2.  Cold Water Species
                           a.  In trout and salmon streams where natural
                               reproduction is to be protected, no heat
                               shall be added.
Iowa:
    b.  In put-and-take streams, temperature shall
        not exceed 65F. or a 5F. rise above
        natural, whichever is less.

Warm water fish - 90 maximum; 5 increase in streams
and 3 increase in lakes.

Cold water fish - 68 maximum, 2/hour maximum rate
of change; 5 maximum rise.

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                                12
Kansas:
Kentucky:
Louisiana:
Maine:
Maximum temperature 90F.
Allowable rise for streams and rivers is 5F.
Allowable rise for the epilimnion of lakes and
reservoirs is 3F.  Temperature measurement is
at the outfall and with the maximum temperature
allowed at the outfall reflecting a reasonable
mixing zone in the receiving waters so that the
5F. or 3F. rise specified is not violated in
the contiguous receiving waters.  Any barrier to
migration and the free movement of the aquatic biota
is prohibited.

89F. maximum.  No abnormal temperature changes
that may affect aquatic life unless caused by
natural conditions.  Normal daily and seasonal
fluctuations.  Temperature rise not to exceed
5F. in streams or 3F. in epilimnion of public
water impoundments if stratification exists.  Also,
streams must not exceed:
                       Jan
                       Feb
                       Mar
                       Apr
                       May
                       June
        50
        50
        60
        70
        80
        87
July
Aug
Sept
Oct
Nov
Dec
89
89
87
78
70
57
Put-and-take trout streams - no artificial tempera-
ture increase.

Not to be raised more than 3C. above normal ambient
water temperature, nor to exceed a max. of 36C.

A few rivers - 2C. rise, 35C. max.

Freshwater (rivers, streams, and lakes) - 84F.
max. for warm water fish and 68F. max. for trout
and salmon waters.  Rise of 5F. from heated effluent
of artificial origin allowed to rivers and streams,
and a 3F. rise due to heated effluent for the
epilimnion of lakes.

Narrative Statement:  No heated effluent allowed
to be discharged in the vicinity of, or so as to
affect, waters designated as fish spawning beds by
the State.

Tidal Waters:  No discharge of heated effluent that
will raise the monthly mean of the maximum daily
temperature outside mixing zones of more than 4F.
or, where the necessity therefor in any specific
location is shown to exist, more than 1.5 F. during
the months of July, August, and September.

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                                 13
Maryland:
Massachusetts:
Michigan:
Minnesota:
Mississippi:
Nontidal Waters:  Trout waters - not to exceed
729F. at any time.  All other waters - not to
exceed 93F., elevation of temperature not to
exceed 20F. or 10F. depending whether the
natural water temperature is below or above 50F.,
respectively,with a maximum of 60F. and 93F.,
respectively.

Tidal Waters:  90F. max.; same temperature change
limit as above with absolute max. temperature of
60F. and 90F.

For all waters not classified for FWL, no adverse
temperature change and max. of 100F.

Class A (excellent) - no increase other than natural
origin.
                       Class B (Rec. F5WL)

                       Class C (F$WL) -
                      No increase except where
                      temperature will, not exceed
                      the recommended limit on the
                      most sensitive receiving water
                      use and in no case exceed 83F.
                      in warm water fish, and 68F. in
                      cold water fish, or in any case
                      raise the normal temperature
                      more than 4F.
Class D (Ind.) - no increase to exceed limits on most
sensitive use and in no case exceed 90F.

All coastal and marine waters - no increase to exceed
limits on most sensitive water use.

PWS - 10F. allowable rise above natural temperatures.

Ind. - Same as PWS.

Rec. - 90F. max.

F6iWL - Cold water fish - 70F. max., 10F. change
limit*

Nav. - Same as PWS.

FWL  Rec. - 2A - no material increase
              2B - 86F. max.
              2C - 90F. max.

Ind. - 3A - 75F. max.
       3B - 86F. max.
       3C - 90F. max.

Shall not be increased more than 10F.  above the
natural prevailing background temperatures, not to
exceed a max. of 93F. after reasonable mixing.

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                                14
Missouri:
Montana:
Nebraska:
Nevada:
(Temperature change not approved for F$WL)

Effluent shall not elevate or depress the average
cross-sectional temperature of the stream more
than 5F.  The stream temperature shall not exceed
90F. due to effluents (for most streams--some to
93F.).

Trout waters - Effluents shall not elevate or depress
the average cross-sectional temperature of the
stream more than 2F.

Lakes and reservoirs - no temperature increase due
to toy discharge which may be a source of heat.

PWS - no allowable change to naturally occurring
water temperature.

Salmonid fish - increases - 32F. to 67F. - 2F. max.;
(Classes Dl and D2) - above 67F. - 0.5F. max.
                      decreases - over 55F. - 2F.
                      max./hr ; 55F. to 32F. - 2F.
                      max., provided that water tempera-
                      ture must be below 40F. in the
                      winter season and above 44F. in the
                      summer season.

Non-salmonid fish -
(Class D3) - increase - 32F. to 85F. - 4F. max.;
             85F. - 0.5 F. max.
             decreases - same as Salmonid fish.

Ind. - no allowable temperature change in sufficient
       quantities to adversely affect the use indicated.

PWS - 5?F. change limit, May-Oct.; 10F. change limit,
Nov.-April; limit of 2F./hr.

Rec. - same as PWS.

Trout Streams - 65F. max., 5F. change limit.

Warm water streams - 90F. max. change limits same
as PWS.

Missouri River (Gavins Point Dam to Sioux City, lowa)-
85F. max.; 4F. change limit.

Max. summer values - 30C. to 20C. (varies with
stream). Max.  winter values - 14C.

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                                 15
New Hampshire
New Jersey
New Mexico
Temperature criteria applicable to New Hampshire
waters are those set forth in Section 3, page 28
through 110, of the National Technical Advisory
Committee Report "Water Quality Criteria," and in
the official standards of the New England Inter-
state Water Pollution Control Commission.

FW-1.  Preserve natural conditions.
FW-2.  (PWS) - Trout production - No change except
1  rise where treated effluents are discharged.

Trout maintenance streams - 68F. maximum, 2 rise.

Trout maintenance lakes - No change unless shown
beneficial.

Non-trout - 86F. maximum. (82F. max. in yellow
perch areas.)  Max. change 5 in streams, 3 in lakes.

FW-3.  (F$WL, rec.)  Same as FW-2.

TW-1.  (Tidal: PWS, shellfish, rec.) Trout maintenance
streams - Same as FW-2.

Non-trout waters - 85F. max. (82 max. in yellow
perch areas); max. rise (measured against monthly
mean of daily max. temp.) 4 Sept-May, 1.5 June-Aug.

TW-2.  (Secondary rec., fish maintenance.) - 85F.
max.; max.rise same as TW-1.

TW-3.  (Nav.,fish survival  passage) - Same as TW-2.

CW-1.  (Ocean near shore: primary rec., FjWL) - No
direct heat additions.  80  max. as a result of
additions elsewhere.  Max. rise same as TW-1.

CW-2.  (Ocean beyond CW-1) - 80 max.; max. rise same
aTTW-1.

Warm water fish. - 93F. max., 5F. change limit.
Cold water fish. - 70F. max., 2F. change limit.
Allowable rise of 9F. for the lower reach of the
Pecos River.
New York
Trout waters - No thermal discharge which will cause
adverse effects on trout.

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                                  16
New York:
North Carolina:
North Dakota:
Ohio:
Oklahoma:
Non-trout waters  - 90F. max., within mixing
zone;  86F. max., and 5F. change limit outside
mixing zone, plus a 2F. max. change limit/hr.,
and/or 9F. max. change limit for a 24 hr. period.
(fresh waters).

86F. max. and 5F. change limit outside mixing
zone, plus a 1F. max. change limit/hr. and/or
7F. max. change limit for a 24 hr. period (tidal
waters).
Class A-II
Class B
Class C
                        Class D
(PWS)   5  change limit,  maximum of 84F.
       for the mountains and upper piedmont,
       maximum of 90F.  for lower pied-
       mont and coastal  plain.

       Natural trout waters shall not
       exceed 68  and  shall not be
       significantly increased  as a result
       of  the discharge  of heated liquids.
       Put-and-take  trout waters shall not
       exceed 70F.  and  may be  increased  3.

       Not to exceed 5F.  above natural,
       maximum of 84  in mountains and
       upper piedmont, and maximum of 90F.
       in  lower piedmont and coastal plain.
Class SA (Shell.) Allowable rise of 1.5F. during
                  June, July and August, 4.0F.
                  remaining months.

                  Not to exceed 90F. due to the
                  discharge of heated effluents.

90F. maximum, allowable rise 5F. above natural,
all waters except Missouri and Yellowstone Rivers,
85F. max., 4F. rise.

Aquatic Life A - not to exceed 93F., May-Nov.; not
to exceed 73F., Dec-April*

Aquatic Life B - not to exceed 95F.

Ind. - not to exceed 95F.

5F. change limit, provided the max. man-made
temperature does not exceed 70F. in trout streams,
75F. in smallmouth bass streams, or 93F. in warm
water streams.

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Oregon:
Pennsylvania:
Puerto Rico:
Rhode Island
         17

General statement that no measurable increase
in temperature allowed when the receiving water
temperature is 64F. or above, or more than 2F.
increase when the receiving water temperature is
62F. or less.  The exceptions follow:

Multnomah Channel and main stem Willamette River,
from mouth to Newburg (RM 50): 70F. and 68F.,
respectively.

Main stem Willamette River from Newberg to
confluence of Coastal and Middle Forks (R.M. 187):
64F. and 62F. respectively.

Main stem Columbia River, main stem Grande Ronde River,
Walla Walla River: 68F. and 66F., respectively.

Goose Lake:  70F. or the daily mean ambient air
temperature, whichever is greater.

Klamath River:  72F. and 70F., respectively.

Marine waters:  No significant increase above natural
background temperature or water temperatures to be
altered to a degree which creates or can reasonably
be expected to create an adverse effect on fish or
other aquatic life.

Trout waters 58F. max., 5F. change limit.
Warm water fish  - 5F. change limit above natural
or 87F. max., whichever is less; 2F. change limit
per hour.

Delaware River Estuary - same as warm water fish)
but with 86F. max.

Mahoning River 93F. max.; 2F. change limit per hour.
SA - No change
SB-(Shell.)
SC-(Rec.)
SD-(FWL)
SE-(Ind.)
                                          )  93F. max., 4F. change limit.
                                          )
Class A (Excellent) - no increase from other than
natural origin.

Class B (Rec.)   )  68F. and 83F. max. for cold
Class C (F^WL)   )  and warm water fish,  respectively;
                    4F. change limit.

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                                 18
Class D (Nav.
South Carolina:
South Dakota:
Tennessee:
                                        Ind.)  - 90F.  max.,  no increase
                                                to exceed limits on most
                                                sensitive use.
                        Class SA (Shell.)         )
                        Class SB (Bathing)        )
                        Class SC (Shell, habitat))
                        Class SD (Nav.)           )
                            No increase over the
                            recommended limits for
                            the most sensitive use.
Upper Piedmont waters - 84F. max., 5F. rise.
All other fresh waters - 90F max., 5F. rise.
Tidal waters - 4 rise during fall, winter and
spring, 1.5F. rise during summer.  All fresh water
lakes limited to same maximum temperatures and.3F.
rise.
Cold water permanent fish
limit.
Warm water permanent fish
limit.
Warm water semi-permanent
limit.
 -  68F.  max.,  4F.  change

 -  85F.  max.,  4F.  change

- 90F.  max., 5F.  change
PWS)  The maximum water temperature change shall not
Ind.) exceed 3C relative to an upstream control point.
Rec.) The temperature of the water shall not exceed
      30.5C and the maximum rate of change shall not
      exceed 2C per hour.  The temperature of  impound-
      ments where stratification occurs will be measured
      at a depth of 5 feet or mid-depth whichever is
      less, and the temperature in flowing streams shall
      be measured at mid-depth.

Fish  Aquatic Life - Same as above with:  The  temp.
      of recognized front waters shall not exceed 20C.
      There shall be no abnormal temp, changes  that may
      affect aquatic life unless caused by natural con-
      ditions .

Irrigation:  The tempi of the water shall not be raised
      or lowered to such an extent as to interfere with
      its use for irrigation purposes.

Livestock Watering and Wildlife and Nvigation - The
      temp, of water shall not be raised or lowened
      to such an extent as to interfere with its use for
      "livestock watering and wildlife." (Same  with
      "navigation" substituted.
 Texas:
 Canadian River Basin - 93F.  max., 5F. change limit.

 Tidal waters - fall, winter,  and spring - not to exceed
 a 4F. rise; summer - not to exceed a 1.5F. rise.

 All other waters - 96F.  max.,  5F.  change limit (until
 adequate stream study is  made).

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 Utah:                   Cold water fish - 68F. max., 2F. change limit.
                         Warm water fish - 80F. max., 4F. change limit.

 Vermont:                Class A - (PWS) - No change.

                         Classes B and C (levels of rec. and FWL) - temperature
                         by "water type."

                         Type I (natural trout) - 1F. max. rise.

                         Type II (trout) - 1F. max. rise.

                         Type III (warmwater fish):

                         Max. River Temp.                    Max. Rise
                         Above 66F.                            1
                               63-66 F.                         2
                               59-62 F.                         3
                               55-58 F.                         4
                             Below 55 F.                        5
                          Type IV (trout lakes) - 1 max. rise.  No with-
                          drawal from or discharge to hypolimnion except
                          withdrawals for PWS or water quality enhancement.

                          Type V (other lakes)

                          Max. Lake Temp.                  Max. Rise

                            Above 60F.                        1
                              60-50                           2
                            Below 50F.                        3

                          Provision for hypolimnion as Type IV.

Virginia:                 I (Open Ocean): 4.0 rise above natural,Sept-May
                                          1.5 rise above natural, June-Aug.

                          II (Estuarine):  Same as I.

                          Ill (Free flowing streams, coastal zone): 5 rise
                          above natural, maximum 90.

                          IV (Mountainous zone):  5 rise above natural, 87
                          maximum.

                          V (Put and take trout):  No rise; 70 maximum.

                          VI (Natural trout):  No rise; 70 maximum.

                          b.  (Special standard.)  Lakes and reservoirs:
                              epilimnion shall not be raised more than 3,
                              based on monthly average of maximum daily
                              temperature.  Unless a special study shows
                              that discharge of heated effluent into the
                              hypolimnion (or pumping water from hypolimnion
                              for discharging to same) will be desirable,
                              such practice shall not be approved.

                          C.  (Special standard.)  Where applicable, maximum
                              temperature shall be 81, with 5 rise over
                              natural limit.

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Virgin Islands
Washington:
         20

Class A (preservation of natural phenomena) - no change.
Class B (Rec.  F$WL) - 90F. max., fall, winter,
spring - 4F. allowable rise; summer 1.5F. allowable
rise.

Class AA (extraordinary waters) - No measurable in-
creases in temperature permitted within the waters
designated which result in water temperature exceeding
60F. (Fresh water) or 55F. (Marine water) nor
shall the cumulative total of all such increases arising
from nonnatural causes be permitted in excess of t=75/
(T-22) (Fresh water) or t=24/(T-39) (Marine water);
for purposes hereof "t" represents the  permissible in-
crease and "T" represents the resulting water
temperature.
                        Class A  (excellent waters) - 65F. and 61F. max.
                        for fresh and marine waters, respectively. t=90/
                        (T-19) and t=40/(T-35) for fresh and marine waters,
                        respectively.

                        Class B  (good waters) - 70F. and 66F. max. for
                        fresh and marine waters, respectively. t=110/(T-15)
                        and t=52/(T-32) for fresh and marine waters, respectively.

                        Class C  (fair waters) - 75F. and 72F max. for fresh
                        and marine waters, respectively.  t=125/(T-12) and
                        t=64/(T-29) for fresh and marine waters, respectively.
                        NOTE< This formula works as follows:

                        If contemplating a 2 temperature increase above
                        natural ambient stream temperature,

                            I.  Divide 75 by the natural ambient temperature,
                                plus 2, minus 22.

                            II. If the answer is 2 or more, the increase is
                                permitted.

                            III.If the answer is less than 2, the increase
                                is prohibited.

                        EXAMPLE:

                             A.  Is a 4 rise permissible in 40 water?

                                 t = 75       =  75   = 3.41
                                   (WT)-22    ~2T~

                                 3.41 is less than 4 therefore 4 is not
                                 permitted.

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                                    21
Wisconsin
West Virginia
FWL - in waters where this is of primary
importance-84F. max., 5F. change limit, 2F.
change limit per hour.  Where fishing is an
additional use - 89F. max., 5F. change limit.
In addition, authorization is required for
proposed installations where thermal discharges
may increase natural temperature by 3F.

Trout streams - no temperature change that will
adversely affect trout.

Temperature criteria are established for each
major river basin, as follows:

(1)  87 max. May-Nov.; 73 max., Dec-Apr., 5
     max. rise: Potomac River and branches,
     Kanawha (zone 1), Big Sandy River, Tug
     Fork, Ohio River  (future), Ohio River
     tributaries, Monogahela River, West Fork
     River, Tygart Valley River, Cheat River,
     Youghiogheny River.
                                (2)
                                (5)
                       Oct-Apr
                       Sept  May
                        transition
                        period
                       June-Aug
     81 max. May-Nov.; 73 max. Dec-Apr., 5
     max. rise:  Bluestone River, East River,
     New River, Bluestone Reservoir, Gauley
     River.
                                (3)  93 max., 10 rise - Kanawha River (zone 2),
                                     Ohio.
                                (4)  93 max., May-Nov., 73 max., Dec-Apr.,
                                     Ohio River (present).
     Trout streams.  Trout streams, headwaters of
     streams, trout lakes and reservoirs and the
     hypolimnion of lakes and reservoirs should
     not be warmed.  No heated effluents should
     be discharged in the vicinity of spawning
     areas.  Heat should not be added which will
     raise water temperature more than 5F. (monthly
     low flow) nor raise the epilimnion of lakes
     more than 3F.  Normal daily and seasonal
     fluctuations.  Maxijnum temperatures:
     Daily Mean F.

          50
          58
          66
Hourly Max. F.

      55
      62
      70

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                                        22
                                    Present uses and criteria are those that now
                                    exist or will exist for a maximum of 5 years.
                                    Future uses and criteria are those which will
                                    exist after abatement is effected.

Wyoming                             For streams where natural temperatures do not
                                    exceed 70F, wastes of other than natural origin
                                    shall not be discharged in amounts which will
                                    result in an increase of more than 2F over
                                    existing temperatures.

                                    For streams where natural temperatures exceed
                                    70F, wastes of other than natural origin shall
                                    not be discharged in amounts which will result
                                    in an increase of more than 4F over existing
                                    temperatures.

                                    Maximum allowable temperatures will be established
                                    for individual streams as data becomes available.
                                    As an interim policy, the maximum allowable stream
                                    temperatures will be the maximum daily stream
                                    temperatures plus the allowable rise; provided
                                    that this temperature is not lethal to existing
                                    fish life, which is considered to be 78F in the
                                    case of cold water fish.

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