EPA-450/3-76-014
May 1976

                           CAPITAL
         AND OPERATING COSTS
 OF SELECTED AIR POLLUTION
               CONTROL SYSTEMS
   U.S. ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY
        Office of Air and Waste Management
     Office of Air Quality Planning and Standards
    Research Triangle Park, North Carolina 27711

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                                 EPA-450/3-76-014
                CAPITAL
     AND OPERATING COSTS
OF SELECTED AIR POLLUTION
        CONTROL SYSTEMS
                      by

              M.L. Kinkley and R.B. Ncveril

                   CARD, Inc.
               7449 North Natche/, A\enue
                 Nilcs, Illinois 60648

                Contract No. 68-02-2072


             EPA Project Officer: Frank Bunyard


                   Prepared for

          ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY
             Office of Air and ^'aste Management
          Office of Air Quality Planning and Standard;-
          Research Triangle Park, North Carolina 27711

                    Mav 1976

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This report is issued by the Environmental Protection Agency to report
technical data of interest to a limited number of readers.  Copies  are
available free of charge to Federal employees, current contractors and
grantees, and nonprofit organizations - as supplies permit - from the
Air Pollution Technical Information Center,  Environmental Protection
Agency, Research Triangle Park, North Carolina 27711; or, for a fee,
from the National Technical Information Service, 5285 Port Royal  Road,
Springfield, Virginia 22161.
This report was furnished to the Environmental Protection Agency by
Card, Inc. Niles, Illinois  60648, in fulfillment of Contract No. 68-02-2072
The contents of this report are reproduced herein as received from
Card, Inc.  The opinions, findings, and conclusions expressed are
those of the author  and not necessarily those of the Environmental Protection
Agency. Mention of company or product names is not to be considered
as an endorsement  by  the Environmental Protection Agency.
                    Publication No. EPA-450/3-76-014
                                   11

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                          TABLE OF CONTENTS

Section                                                               Page

           LIST OF TABLES                                              v

           LIST OF FIGURES                                             vi

   1       INTRODUCTION                                                1-1
           1.1   Purpose of Manual                                     1-1
           1.2   Organization of Manual                                1-2

   2       DESCRIPTION OF CONTROL SYSTEMS                              2-1
           2.1   High Voltage Electrostatic Precipitator               2-1
                   Systems
                 2.1.1   General Description                           2-1
                 2.1.2   Cost Factors                                  2-4
                 2.1.3   Auxiliary Equipment                           2-5
           2.2   Venturi Scrubber Systems                              2-11
                 2.2.1   General Description                           2-11
                 2.2.2   Cost Factors                                  2-13
                 2.2.3   Auxiliary Equipment                           2-13
           2.3   Fabric Filter Systems                                 2-16
                 2.3.1   General Description                           2-16
                 2.3.2   Cost Factors                                  2-21
                 2.3.3   Auxiliary Equipment                           2-21
           2.4   Thermal and Catalytic Incinerator System              2-23
                 2.4.1   General Description                           2-23
                 2.4.2   Cost Factors                                  2-25
                 2.4.3   Auxiliary Equipment                           2-26
           2.5   Adsorption Systems                                    2-26
                 2.5.1   General Description                           2-26
                 2.5.2   Cost Factors                                  2-27
                 2.5.3   Auxiliary Equipment                           2-28
           2.6   Application to Industry                               2-28
           2.7   Factors Affecting Retrofit Costs                      2-37

   3       PROCEDURE FOR ESTIMATING COSTS                              3-1
           3.1   General                                               3-1
           3.2   Cost Comparison Methodologies                         3-3
           3.3   Example Case Study                                    3-6

   4       CONTROL EQUIPMENT COSTS AND SELECTED DESIGN DATA            4-1
           4.1   Electrostatic Precipitators                           4-1
           4.2   Venturi Scrubbers                                     4-3
           4.3   Fabric Filters                                        4-9
         I  4.4   Thermal and Catalytic Incinerators                    4-16
           4.5   Adsorbers                                             4-20
           4.6   Ductwork                                              4-24
                 4.6.1   Capture Hoods                                 4-24
                 4.6.2   Straight Duct                                 4-30
                                     TM

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                     TABLE OF CONTENTS (continued)
Section
                  4.6.3   Elbow Duct, Tees, and Transitions
                  4.6.4   Expansion Joints
                  4.6.5   Refractory Materials
             4.7   Dampers
             4.8   Heat Exchangers
                  4.8.1   Spray Chambers & Quenchers
                  4.8.2   Radiant Coolers
                  4.8.3   Dilution Air Ports
             4.9   Mechanical Collectors
             4.10  Fans, Motors, and Starters
                  4.10.1  Backwardly Curved Fans
                  4.10.2  Radial Tip Fans
             4.11  Stacks
             4.12  Cooling Towers
             4.13  Pumps
             4.14  Dust Removal Equipment
             4.15  Operation, Maintenance and Installation Costs
4-34
4-37
4-39
4-41
4-44
4-44
4-47
4-47
4-50
4-58
4-58
4-59
4-70
4-74
4-78
4-83
4-85
   5        UPDATING COSTS TO FUTURE TIME PERIODS
            5.1   General
            5.2   Equipment Cost Updating Procedures

   APPENDIX   A   COMPOUND INTEREST FACTORS

              B   EQUIPMENT COST INDEXES

              C   GUIDE TO REFERENCES FOR THE  27  INDUSTRIES

              D   GUIDE TO ASSOCIATIONS FOR THE 27  INDUSTRIES

              E   CONVERSION FACTORS TO SI EQUIVALENTS
 5-1
 5-1
 5-5

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                            LIST OF TABLES


TABLE                                                                  PAGE

NUMBER                         TITLE                                  NUMBER

 2-1       INDUSTRY POLLUTANT SOURCES AND TYPICAL
             CONTROL DEVICES                                           2-29

 2-2       DESIGN PARAMETERS FOR RESPECTIVE INDUSTRIES
             FOR HIGH EFFICIENCY PERFORMANCE                           2-35

 2-3       EFFICIENCY OF CARBON ADSORPTION AND LEL'S
             FOR COMMON POLLUTANTS                                     2-36


 4-1       BAG PRICES ($/SQ.FT.)                                       4-15

 4-2       APPROXIMATE GUIDE TO ESTIMATE GROSS
             CLOTH AREA                                                4-15

 4-3       REFRACTORY ESTIMATING COSTS                                 4-40


 4-4       PRICING FACTORS FOR OTHER MOTOR TYPES                       4-62

 4-5       MOTOR AND STARTER PRICE EQUATIONS                           4-62

 4-6       MOTOR TYPE SELECTION                                        4-62

 4-7       MOTOR RPM SELECTION GUIDE                                   4-62

 4-8       FAN SIZING FACTORS: AIR DENSITY RATIOS                      4-63

 4-9       PRICE ADJUSTMENT FACTORS   FOR
             APPROACH AT                                               4-77

 4-10      PRICE ADJUSTMENT FACTORS   FOR WET
             BULB TEMPERATURES                                         4.77

 4-li      DEFINITIONS FOR COOLING TOWER                               4-77

 4-12      MAINTENANCE AND INSTALLATION COST FACTORS
             AND EQUIPMENT LIFE GUIDELINES                             4-89

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                           LIST OF FIGURES

FIGURE                                                                PAGE

NUMBER                           TITLE                               NUMBER

 2-1       CONTROL SYSTEM FLOW CIRCUIT                                 2-2

 2-2       ELECTROSTATIC PRECIPITATOR CONTROL SYSTEMS                  2-6

 2-3       VENTURI SCRUBBER CONTROL SYSTEMS                            2-14

 2-4       FABRIC FILTER CONTROL SYSTEMS                               2-22

 3-1       FABRIC FILTER SYSTEM DESIGN                                 3-11

 3-2       ELECTROSTATIC PRECIPITATOR SYSTEM DESIGN                    3-15

 3-3       VENTURI SCRUBBER SYSTEM DESIGN                              3-18

 4-1       DRY TYPE ELECTROSTATIC PRECIPITATOR
             PRICES VS. PLATE AREA                                     4-2

 4-2       1/8" THICK CARBONSTEEL FABRICATED
             SCRUBBER PRICE VS. ACFM                                   4-4

 4-3       METAL THICKNESS REQUIRED VS. ACFM AND
             DESIGN PRESSURE                                           4-5

 4-4       PRICE ADJUSTMENT FACTORS VS. PLATE
             THICKNESS AND ACFM                                        4-6

 4-5       SCRUBBER INTERNAL SURFACE AREA AND SEPARATOR
             DIAMETER AND HEIGHT VS. WASTE INLET GAS                   4-7
             VOLUME

 4-6       INTERNAL GAS COOLER BUBBLE TRAY COST VS.
             SEPARATOR DIAMETER                                        4-8

 4-7       INTERMITTANT, PRESSURE, MECHANICAL SHAKER
             BAGHOUSE PRICES VS. NET CLOTH AREA                        4-10

 4-8       CONTINUOUS, SUCTION OR PRESSURE, PULSE JET
             BAGHOUSE PRICES VS. NET CLOTH AREA                        4-11

 4-9       CONTINUOUS, PRESSURE, MECHANICAL SHAKER
             BAGHOUSE PRICES VS. NET CLOTH AREA                        4-12

 4-10      CONTINUOUS, PRESSURE, REVERSE AIR BAGHOUSE
             PRICES VS. NET CLOTH AREA                                 4-13

 4-11      CUSTOM BAGHOUSE PRICES VS. NET CLOTH AREA                   4-14

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                            LIST OF FIGURES

FIGURE                                                                PAGE

NUMBERS                          TITLE                               NUMBER
 4-12       PRICES FOR THERMAL INCINERATORS WITHOUT
              HEAT EXCHANGERS                                          4-17

 4-13       PRICES FOR THERMAL INCINERATORS WITH HEAT
              EXCHANGERS                                               4-18

 4-14       CATALYTIC INCINERATOR PRICES                               4-19

 4-15       PRICES FOR PACKAGED STATIONARY BED CARBON
              ADSORPTION UNITS W/STEAM REGENERATION                    4-22

 4-16       PRICES FOR CUSTOM CARBON ADSORPBTION UNITS                 4-23


 4-17       RECTANGULAR CAPTURE HOODS PLATE AREA
              REQUIREMENTS VS. HOOD LENGTH AND  L/W                     4-26

 4-18       CIRCULAR  HOODS PLATE REQUIREMENTS VS
              HOOD DIAMETER AND H/D                                    4-27

 4-19       LABOR COST FOR FABRICATED 10  GA. CARBON
              STEEL RECTANGULAR CAPTURE HOODS                          4-28

 4-20       LABOR COST FOR FABRICATED 10  GA. CARBON
              STEEL CIRCULAR  CAPTURE HOODS                             4-29

 4-21       CARBON STEEL STRAIGHT DUCT FABRICATION
              PRICE PER LINEAR FOOT VS. DUCT DIAMETER
              AND PLATE THICKNESS                                      4-31

 4-22       STAINLESS STEEL STRAIGHT DUCT FABRICATION
              PRICE PER LINEAR FOOT VS. DUCT DIAMETER
              AND PLATE THICKNESS                                      4-32

 4-23       WATER COOLED CARBON STEEL STRAIGHT  DUCT
              FABRICATION PRICE PER FOOT  VS. DUCT
              DIAMETER                                                 4-33

 4-24       CARBON STEEL ELBOW DUCT PRICE VS. DUCT
              DIAMETER AND PLATE THICKNESS                             4-35

 4-25       STAINLESS STEEL ELBOW DUCT PRICE VS. DUCT
              DIAMETER AND PLATE THICKNESS                             4-36

 4-26       EXPANSION JOINTS  COSTS, VS. DUCT DIAMETER                  4-38
                                      Vll

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                           LIST OF FIGURES

FIGURE                                                                  PAGE

NUMBERS                         TITLE                                  NUMBER
 4-27      CARBON STEEL RECTANGULAR DAMPER PRICES VS. AREA            4-42

 4-28      CARBON STEEL CIRCULAR  DAMPER PRICES VS.
             DIAMETER                                                 4.43

 4-29      SPRAY CHAMBER COSTS VS. INLET GAS VOLUME                   4.45

 4-30      QUENCKER  COSTS VS. INLET GAS VOLUME                        4-46

 4-31      FABRICATED  40 FOOT HIGH 'U' TUBE HEAT
             EXCHANGER PRICES WITH HOPPERS AND
             MANIFOLDS                                               4-48

 4-32      PRICES FOR  FABRICATED  CARBON STEEL DILUTION
             AIR  PORT VS. DIAMETER AND PLATE THICKNESS               4-49

 4-33      CAPACITY  ESTIMATES FOR MECHANICAL
             COLLECTORS                                               4-51

 4-34      CRITICAL  PARTICAL  SIZE ESTIMATES FOR
             MECHANICAL COLLECTORS                                    4-52

 4-35      MECHANICAL COLLECTOR  PRICES FOR CARBON
             STEEL CONSTRUCTION  VS.  INLET  AREA                        4-53

 4-36      MECHANICAL COLLECTOR  PRICES FOR STAIN-
             LESS STEEL CONSTRUCTION  VS.  INLET AREA                   4-54

 4-37      MECHANICAL COLLECTOR  SUPPORT PRICES VS.
             COLLECTOR INLET  AREA                                     4-55

 4-38      MECHANICAL COLLECTOR  DUST  HOPPER PRICES
             FOR CARBON AND STAINLESS STEEL CONSTR-
             UCTION  VS. COLLECTOR INLET AREA                           4-56

 4-39      MECHANICAL COLLECTOR  SCROLL OUTLET  PRICES
             FOR CARBON AND STAINLESS STEEL CONSTRUC-
             TION VS. COLLECTOR  INLET AREA                            4-57

 4-40      BACKWARDLY CURVED  FAN  PRICES VS. CLASS,  CFM,
             AND AP  FOR ARRANGEMENT  NO. 1                              4-60

 4-41      BHP, FAN  RPM AND MOTOR AND STARTER  PRICES  VS.
             AP AND  CFM                                               4- 61
 4-42      RADIAL FAN PRICES  VS.  CFM, AND  AP  FOR
             ARRANGEMENT NO.  1                                         4-64
                                     vm

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                           LIST OF FIGURES

FIGURE                                                                PAGE

NUMBERS                          TITLE                               NUMBER


 4-43      FAN RPM AND MOTOR BMP FOR RADIAL FAN                       4-65

 4-44      FAN INLET AND OUTLET DAMPER PRICES AS A
             FUNCTION OF CFM AND AP                                   4-66

 4-45      V-BELT DRIVE PRICES                                        4-67

 4-46      RADIAL TIP FAN PRICES.                                      4-68

 4-47      STARTER AND MOTOR PRICES FOR VENTURI
             SCRUBBER APPLICATIONS (HIGH PRESSURE,
             HIGH BHP)                                                4-69

 4-48      FABRICATED CARBON STEEL STACK PRICE VS.
             STACK HEIGHT AND DIAMETER FOR 1/4 INCH
             PLATE                                                    4-71


 4-49      FABRICATED CARBON STEEL STACK PRICE VS.
             STACK HEIGHT AND DIAMETER FOR 5/16
             AND 3/8 INCH PLATE                                       4-72

 4-50      PRICES FOR TALL STEEL STACKS, INSULATED
             AND LINED                                                4-73

 4-51      PRICES FOR INSTALLED COOLING TOWERS FOR
             UNITS OF CAPACITY 1 1000 TONS                            4-75

 4-52      PRICES FOR INSTALLED COOLING TOWER BASED
             ON WET BULT TEMPERATURE = 82F AND
             APPROACH = 10F                                          4-76

 4-53      CAST IRON, BRONZE FITTED, VERTICAL TURBINE
             WET SUMP PUMP PRICES FOR 3550 RPM                        4-79

 4-54      CAST IRON, BRONZE FITTED, VERTICAL TURBINE
             WET SUMP PUMP PRICES FOR 1750 RPM                        4-80

 4-55      CAST IRON, BRONZE FITTED, VERTICAL TURBINE
             WET SUMP PUMP PRICES FOR 1170 RPM                        4-81

 4-56      PUMP MOTOR HP VS. CAPACITY AND HEAD FOR
             VERTICAL TURBINE PUMPS                                   4-82

 4-57      PRICES FOR SCREW CONVEYORS VS. LENGTH
             AND DIAMETER                                             4-84
                                     IX

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                            LIST OF FIGURES

FIGURE                                                                 PAGE

NUMBERS                            TITLE                              NUMBER


 4-58      ELECTROSTATIC PRECIPITATOR OPERATING COSTS
             VS. ACFM AND POWER CONSUMPTION                            4-86

 4-59      VENTURI SCRUBBER OPERATING COSTS VS. ACFM
           AND AP                                                      4-87

 4-60      FABRIC FILTER OPERATING COSTS VS. ACFM AND AP               4-88

 4-61      THERMAL INCINERATOR OPERATING AND MAINTENANCE
             COST VS. ACFM AND HYDROCARBON CONCENTRATION               4-90

 4-62      CATALYTIC INCINERATOR OPERATING AND MAINTENANCE
             COST VS. ACFM AND HYDROCARBON CONCENTRATION               4-91

 4-63      CARBON ADSORPTION UNIT OPERATING AND MAINTENANCE
             COST VS. ACFM AND HYDROCARBON CONCENTRATION               4-92

 5-1       CHEMICAL ENGINEERING PLANT COST INDEX                       5-3

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                                  Section 1
                                INTRODUCTION
1.1  PURPOSE OF MANUAL
     One of the aims of the U.  S.  Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) is to
provide guidelines and technical  assistance to state and local regulatory
agencies in the abatement of air pollution.  The purpose of this manual is to
assist those agencies in estimating the cost of air pollution control
systems for the various manufacturers and processors who must comply with the
existing and future standards and codes.   At present, literature is available
which gives generalized cost data for control  systems based on industry averages;
however, this cost data has a wide range  of magnitude due to the variety of
installations.   In some cases,  the cost of the control  device itself may only
represent 25 percent of the total  capital costs while in other cases, it may be
as high as 90 percent.  These differences in costs can  be attributed to the
cost of auxiliary equipment, method of controlling the  source (direct exhaust
or canopy hood, etc.), physical  location  of control  equipment with respect to
the source, local  code requirements, characteristics of gas stream, plant
location, and many other influencing factors.   In preparing this manual, the
main objective was to "break out"  the individual  component costs so that
realistic system cost estimates  can be determined for any specific application
based on the peculiarities of the system.
     In addition to capital costs, methods for estimating the operating and
maintenance costs are provided  for each type of control system.   A cost com-
parison methodology is also discussed whereby these recurring costs, together
with the capital or first costs,  can be evaluated to determine the long term
advantages of one system over another.
                                   1-1

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1.2  OafiANIZATION OF MANUAL
     The cost estimating procedures and cost curves in this manual are provided
for those systems utilizing the following control devices:
     1)   High voltage electrostatic precipitators
     2)   Venturi scrubbers
     3)   Fabric filters
     4)   Thermal and catalytic incinerators
     5)   Adsorbers.
     A description of the operation of these devices and the auxiliary equipment
required in a completely integrated pollution control system is contained in
Section 2.   This description outlines the various design options available to
the engineer and the influence these options have on the total system cost.
A list of the design parameters for the various control devices is also cross-
referenced to the applicable industries and pollutant sources that use these
systems.
     Section 3 describes the procedures used in estimating the costs of a
control system with an example of a typical application which can be controlled
by any one of three possible control devices.  The selection of the most
economical  system is determined by a life-cycle cost analysis of the three
possible systems.  The methods and procedures, demonstrated in the example,
are applicable to all industries where the control of emissions is provided  by
these five control systems.
                                     1-2

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     The basic cost curves for the control  devices and auxiliary equipment
are contained in Section 4.   These costs represent equipment,  installation,
operating, and maintenance costs based  on a reference date of  December,  1975
and are estimated to be accurate to  20 percent,  on  a component basis,  except
where noted.  A method of extrapolating the costs  to  a future  date  is  dis-
cussed in Section 5.
                               1-3

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                              Section 2
                    DESCRIPTION OF CONTROL SYSTEMS
     The methods of gas cleaning used in industry today can be categorized by
the technique in which the gas or particulate is removed.   These techniques
include: (1) electrostatic precipitation, (2) fabric filtration, (3) wet
scrubbing, (4) incineration,  and (5)  adsorption.  The properties and character-
istics of the particular gas  stream will generally dictate which technique of
gas cleaning is appropriate;  however, in some cases, several  techniques may be
suitable and the selection of one type in lieu of the others  may be based on
efficiency and/or costs (both capital, maintenance, and operating).
     Whichever technique is selected  for a particular application,  a certain
amount of auxiliary equipment must be utilized with the control  device for
the efficient operation of the gas cleaning system.  The arrangement of these
components with respect to the control device is shown in  Figure 2-1.   The
types of auxiliary equipment  required will depend on the application;  i.e.,
hot processes may require pre-coolers before the control  device; the addition
of moisture may be required for proper operation of the control  device, etc.
The following description of  the five control  systems is  designed to provide
the user with the basic concept of the operation of the control  device, the
parameters required to size and cost  the control device,  and  the required
auxiliary equipment, with costs, necessary for proper operation  of  the gas
cleaning system.
2.1  HIGH VOLTAGE ELECTROSTATIC PRECIPITATOR SYSTEMS
2.1.1  General Description
     Gas cleaning by electrostatic precipitation is particularly suited for
gas streams which can be easily ionized and which contain  either liquid or
solid particulate matter.   The method of removal consists  of  passing the

                                     2-1

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        CAPTURE
        DEVICE
     DUCTING
                                                               ANCILLARY
                                                               EQUIPMENT
                                                                   I
                                                           Pumps,  Cooling  Towers,
                                                           Dampers And  Controls
    GAS
CONDITIONING
CONTROL
DEVICE
ro
i
     Canopy Hoods,
     Semi-Closed
       Hoods,
     Direct Ex-
       haust
 Water-Cooled
 Refractory,
 Carbon Steel,
Stainless Steel
 U-Tube Cooler,
 Quenchers,
 Spray Chamber,
 Mechanical
  Collectors
FANS
STACK
                    Backward Curved,
                    Radial

                   In some applications the
                   fan may be ahead of the
                   control device.
                                                              DUST REMOVAL
                                                                   &
                                                               TREATMENT
                                                          Thickners & Clarifiers,
                                                          Vacuum Filters,
                                                          Bins And Elevators,
                                                          Screw Conveyors
                                     Figure 2-1  CONTROL SYSTEM FLOW CIRCUIT

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particle-laden gas through an electrostatic field produced by a high-voltage
electrode and a grounded collection surface.   The gas  is ionized by the high
voltage discharge and the particulate matter is charged by the interaction
of the gas ions.   The particles migrate to the collecting surface which has
an opposite polarity and are neutralized.   The adhesive properties of the
particles and the action of the electrical field keep  the particles on the
collecting surface and inhibit re-entrainment.  The particles are removed by
rappers or by other mechanical devices that vibrate the collector surface and
dislodge the particulate, which drops by gravity to hoppers.   Usually this is
accomplished during normal operation, however, in cases where severe re-
entrainment is a problem, sections of the precipitator may be isolated during
rapping.  The particulate matter is removed from the hoppers  periodically by
either pneumatic or mechanical screw conveyors.
     Electrostatic precipitators are used extensively  on large volume applica-
tions where the fine dust and particulate is less than 10-20 microns in size
with a predominant portion in the sub-micron range. The precipitators can
achieve high efficiencies (in excess of 99%) depending on the resistivity of
the particulate matter and the characteristics of the  gas stream.  Wet or dry
particulate can be collected including highly corrosive materials if the units
are suitably constructed.  Precipitators can be used at high temperatures (up
to 1000F) but are normally operated at temperatures below 700F.  The static
pressure drop through the units is low, usually up to  one-half inch W.G., for
units operating at normal gas velocities (2-8 feet per second).  The initial
capital cost of electrostatic precipitators is high; however, operating
(utility) and maintenance costs are reasonably low. Safety precautions are
always required since the operating voltages are as high as 100,000 volts.
The overall size of electrostatic precipitators is comparable to fabric fil-
                                     2-3

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ters (baghouses) and space requirements are an important factor in the layout
and design of the facilities.
2.1.2  Cost Factors
     The cost of the basic electrostatic precipitator is  a  function  of  the
plate area which, in turn, is a function of the required  efficiency.  The re-
lationship of the plate area  to efficiency can be shown by  the  Deutsch  equation:
           E.I-[-"&]
     where E = collection efficiency
           w = drift velocity, fps
                             2
           A = plate area, ft
           Q = flow  rate, cfm
     The electrical  characteristics of the dust,  quantified by  the drift
velocity, as shown in the Deutsch equation, have a large  effect on the  collect-
ion efficiency and plate area, and consequently,  on the cost of the  precip-
itator.  The resistivity of the dust varies with the temperature and moisture
content of the gas,  therefore, in some applications, auxiliary  equipment may
be required to precondition the gas stream prior to entering the precipitator.
The addition of moisture in the gas stream together with  low operating  temp-
eratures will necessitate insulating the precipitator to  prevent condensation
and subsequent corrosion problems.  The cost  of the basic  precipitator is
therefore separated  into insulated and non-insulated units.   Special cost
factors can be incurred in the type of power supply such  as automatic voltage
control, number of individual sections energized, type of rectifier, etc.,
and also, in special materials of construction and special  plate design.
These factors are additive costs to the basic collector price and represent
custom features either required by the process or by the  buyer's specifica-
tions.   For most applications, the cost curves presented  in this manual are
sufficient.
                                     2-4

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2.1.3  Auxiliary Equipment
     Figure 2-2 illustrates schematically the types of auxiliary equipment that
would be used in a gas cleaning system incorporating electrostatic precipitators.
These include the capture device, ductwork, mechanical collectors, coolers,
spray chambers, fans, dust removal, and stacks.   The use of all  or only some
of this auxiliary equipment will  depend on the particular application and
pollutant source.  In general, all  systems will  require a capture device, duct-
work, and a fan.  The capture device can be either a round or rectangular hood
located near the pollutant source or it can be directly connected to the source
as, for instance, a kiln or furnace.  These devices are usually  refractory
lined, water-cooled, or simply fabricated from carbon steel  depending on the
gas stream temperatures.  Refractory or water-cooled capture devices are used
where wall temperatures exceed 800F; carbon steel is used for lower tempera-
tures.
     Ducting has several effects  on the sizing and costing of a  control  system.
In addition to conveying the dust-laden stream to the control device, the duct-
work can act as a heat exchange means for cooling of hot gases.   Also,  it
always adds flow resistance or pressure losses that result in added  horsepower
for the fan.
     The four basic types of ducting can be classified as carbon steel,  stain-
less steel, water cooled, and refractory.  The differentiation between  types
is not necessarily based on construction alone but rather on the capability
of each to transport gases at different temperatures.   Water-cooled  and  refrac-
tory ducts can convey gases at any  temperature,  but are economically used at
gas temperatures above 1500F. Stainless steel  ducts are generally  used with
gas temperatures between 1150F and 1500F or where the corresponding wall
temperature is below 1200F.  Carbon steel ducts are used at gas temperatures
                                       2-5

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1N3
I
CTl
        DIRECT  EXHAUST
                             DUCTWORK
                                                _fj \J \J V lf_
                                                 RADIANT COOLER
                                                 SPRAY COOLER
        STACK
                                                                                     PRECIPITATOR
\
                                                                                             SCREW CONVEYOR
                                             MECHANICAL COLLECTOR
                                  CONTROL DEVICE AND TYPICAL AUXILIARY EQUIPMENT
                              Figure 2-2  ELECTROSTATIC PRECIPITATOR CONTROL SYSTEMS

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below 1150F or where the wall temperature is less than 800F.  In the event
of corrosive gases, stainless steel ducts can be used at lower temperatures.
     For cold processes, carbon steel ducts are used exclusively for non-
corrosive gases.  In designing ducts, a savings in the size of the ducts
(increasing velocity) will eventually be compensated for in fan horsepower,
therefore, the design velocity of the gas stream is maintained at a suitable
conveying velocity for the type of dust.  Typical  velocities for industrial
dusts can be listed as follows:
               DUST TYPE                             DUCT VELOCITY, fpm
   1)  Light Density - gases, smokes, zinc and              2000
       aluminum oxide fumes,  flour, and lint.
   2)  Medium/Light Density - grain, sawdust,                3000
       plastic and rubber dusts.
   3)  Medium/Heavy Density - iron and steel                 4000
       furnace dusts, cement  dusts, sandblast
       and grinding dusts, and most heavy
       industry dusts.
   4)  Heavy Density - metal  turnings, lead                 5000
       and foundry shakeout dusts.
Since the type and configuration  of the capture devices and ductwork are so
varied, the cost of these items must be estimated  according to size, type and
materials of construction, and plate thicknesses.   For ducting,  the costs are
developed on a per lineal foot basis and for  hoods the costs are based  on the
surface area in square feet.
     Mechanical collectors, such  as cyclones,  are  used in some cases as pre-
cleaners to remove the bulk of the heavier dust particles.   These devices
operate by separating the dust particles from the  gas stream through the use
of centrifugal force.  Construction is such that centrifugal force is exerted
on the gas stream through the use of a tangential  inlet,  producing a downward
vortex.  The particles impinge on the sides of the cyclone and are removed
                                      2-7

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from the bottom.   The gas stream changes direction at the base of the cyclone
and exits in an upward vortex through an axial outlet at the top of the cyclone,
Cyclones are available as combinations of large single-cyclones or as units
having multiple tubes for higher efficiencies.  For the purpose of precleaning,
cyclones can remove the majority of dust particles above 20 microns in size
to reduce the loading and wear on the control device.  The size of a cyclone
is usually based on an inlet velocity of approximately 3600 fpm, and therefore
the cost of the cyclone is based on inlet area size.  Other cost factors
include materials of construction, plate thickness, supports, and hoppers.
     Dust removal from collectors (baghouses, precipitators, cyclones) can be
accomplished intermittently by manual means or continuously by screw conveyors.
For applications having light dust concentrations, the collected dust is stored
in the hoppers of the control device and periodically emptied through a valve
for disposal by truck or local transport.  For heavy dust loading, screw
conveyors are generally used to continuously remove the dust as it is collected.
The cost of continuous removal equipment is based on the diameter of the screw
conveyor and its overall length.
     Coolers and spray chambers are used with electrostatic precipitators for
systems handling hot gases to reduce the gas volume to the collector; or, in
the case of spray chambers, to add moisture to the gas stream to reduce the
resistivity and enhance the electrical characteristics of the dust.  Dry-type
coolers used expressly for cooling the gas stream without adding water generally
consist of radiant "U-tubes" of 30 to 60 feet in height and between 12 and
36 inches in diameter.  These tubes are manifolded together both in parallel
and in series to provide sufficient heat transfer surface to reduce the gas
temperature to a value compatible with efficient precipitator operation.  The
number of required "U-tubes" in series depends on the inlet gas temperature
                                     2-8

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and the required outlet gas temperature.  The number of "U-tubes" in parallel
depends on the volume of gas being handled and the desired gas velocity per
tube.  The cost of a cooler, therefore, can be estimated from the number of
modular U-tubes of a given diameter and height based on the desired tempera-
ture drop and flow rate for the particular application.
     Wet-type coolers or spray chambers cool  and humidify the'gas by the
addition of water sprays in the gas stream.  For effective evaporation, a
cylindrical chamber is usually provided to reduce the gas stream velocity at
the point at which the water is injected and  where evaporation occurs.   The
diameter and length of the chamber is dependent on the maximum droplet size
of the sprays, and the relative temperature and velocity of the gas stream and
water droplets.  Generally, gas stream velocities are maintained at approx-
imately 10 feet per second with inlet spray water pressures of approximately
100 psig.  Increasing the water pressure results in reduced water droplet
size, faster evaporation, and consequently, smaller chambers.   The cost of
spray coolers is based on the size and volume of the chamber,  materials of
construction and the water flow rate.
     Centrifugal fans, having either backward curved or radial  tip blades,
are used almost exclusively to transport the  dust-laden gases  through the
system.  The backward curved fan provides the highest efficiency, but because
of its inherent design, must be used downstream of the control  device where
the gas stream is relatively dust-free.  These fans are categorized into
Classes I through IV according to maximum impeller speeds and  pressures.   The
cost of the fan is based on its construction, class, volume,  and pressure
delivered at standard conditions.  The radial tip fan, sometimes referred to
as the industrial fan, operates at a lower efficiency, but is  capable of hand-
ling dusty gas streams and can be used upstream of the control  device.   The
                                    2-9

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impeller of this fan consists of flat radial paddles which can be modified to
include wear plates for abrasive dust applications.  These fans can also be
operated at high temperatures.  The cost of this type of fan is based on
materials of construction, total Volume, and pressure delivered at standard
conditions.
     The cost of the motor and motor starter for centrifugal  fans is related
to the fan speed, total system pressure, gas volume flow rate,  and selected
motor housing.   Fan speeds are chosen from a continuum, with aid of the fan
laws, to provide a desired head at a prescribed flow.  Motor speeds are chosen
from a set of perhaps only five discrete choices (Table 4-7).  Since belts
and pulleys are routinely used, fan speed and motor speed should be selected
as close to each other as possible.  The motor housings should  be chosen for
the particular environment in which it will be operating.  Drip-proof motors
should be used in areas which are weather protected and relatively clean.
Totally enclosed motors should be used in dusty areas or areas  exposed to
weather and severe splashing.  Explosion-proof motors must be used in hazardous
atmospheres where explosive fumes are present.
     Stacks are provided downstream of the fans for dispersion  of the exhaust
gases above the immediate ground level and surrounding buildings.   Minimum
stack exit velocities should be at least 1.5 times the expected wind velocity;
or for instance, in the case of 30 mph winds, the minimum exit  velocity should
be 4000 fpm.  Small stacks are usually fabricated of steel,  which may be re-
fractory lined, and are normally limited to exit velocities  of  approximately
9000 fpm.  Tall stacks, over 200 feet, can be designed with  liners of steel  or
masonry.  The cost of stacks is based on diameter, material  thickness and
type, height, and whether a liner is provided.
                                     2-10

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2.2  VENTURI SCRUBBER SYSTEMS
2.2.1  General Description
     Venturi type scrubbers are capable of providing high efficiency collec-
tion of sub-micron dusts which are not easily collected by other types of
scrubbers.  Basically, the scrubber is constructed with a converging section
of the venturi to accelerate the gas stream to a maximum velocity at the throat
section where impaction with the scrubbing fluid or liquor occurs.   Fine drop-
lets of the scrubbing liquor are atomized as a result of this interaction and
the relative velocities between the dust particles and droplets cause collision
and agglomeration as they proceed through the throat section.  Further agglor-
meration occurs as the gas stream is decelerated in the diverging section of
the venturi, thus producing droplets with the entrapped dust of a size easily
removable by mechanical  means.
     The pressure drop through the venturi is a function of gas stream throat
velocity and scrubbing liquor flow rate, which in turn have been chosen for a
desired collection efficiency on a given dust.  The smaller the dust particle
size, the higher the pressure drop required.   As the pressure drop  is increased,
finer droplets are atomized to interact with the dust particles through impinge-
ment and agglomeration,  with the consequent increase in collection  efficiency.
Increasing the pressure drop can be accomplished by either increasing the gas
stream throat velocity,  increasing the scrubbing liquor flow rate or both.
Fundamentally, the relationship between pressure drop and collection efficiency
is the same for all types of venturi scrubbers irrespective of the  size, shape
or general configuration of the scrubber.  Venturi scrubbers are normally
operated at pressure drops of between 6 and 80 inches W.G. depending on the
characteristics of the dust, and at liquor flow rates of 3 to 20 gpm per 1000
ACFM.  The collection efficiencies range from 99+% for one micron or larger
sized particles to 90 to 99% for particles below one micron size.

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     A separator for removal of the agglomerates from the gas stream is pro-
vided downstream of the scrubber.  These separators are usually of the cyclone
type where the gas stream and agglomerates are given a cyclonic motion which
forces the liquid  and  particles to impinge on the walls  of the separator by
centrifugal  force.   The separator normally consists of a cylindrical  tank with
a tangential  inlet located at the lower side of the tank and an exhaust outlet
located at the top of  the tank on the center!ine axis.   A cone bottom with out-
let is provided to collect the liquid slurry.  The collected particles settle
to the bottom of the cone and are removed to the water treatment facility while
the cleaner liquid above the sediment is removed and recycled to the scrubber.
     For hot processes, a considerable amount of water is vaporized in the
scrubber and upstream equipment (e.g., quencher), which must be handled by the
fan.  Although the gas volume is reduced, a large portion remains as water
vapor which results in higher horsepower requirements and in higher operating
costs.  To alleviate this condition, a gas cooler can be incorporated into
the separator to cool  and dehumidify the gas stream.  Several types of gas
coolers are used for this purpose; one type employs spray banks of cooling
water followed by impingement baffles while a second type utilizes flooded
plates or trays with either perforated holes or bubble caps to permit passage
6f the gas stream through the bath of cooling water.  Several plates or trays
can be used in sequential stages to provide the necessary cooling and contact
time.
     In addition to its ability to remove sub-micron dusts, the venturi scrubber
with separator and gas cooler/contactor can also be used as a gas absorber.
These units have been used successfully in the removal of acid mists in the
chemical industry and the removal of S0~ and SO., in municipal power plant flue
                                              0
gases.
                                      2-12

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 2.2.2  Cost  Factors
     The cost of the scrubber and separator are based on the volumetric flow
 rate, operating pressure, and materials of construction.  The sizes of the
scrubber,  separator,  and elbow (vertically oriented)  are determined from
the actual  inlet gas  volume in acfm  and priced accordingly  for  a basic plate
thickness  of 1/8 inch.   Additional cost factors are provided for different
metal thicknesses,  fiberglass or rubber liners, manual  or automatic venturi
throat,  and stainless steel  construction.   The plate thickness  for the scrubber
and separator is a  function of the maximum operating  design pressure and  shell
diameter;  therefore,  as the volume flow rate  and/or pressure drop increase,
the metal  wall  thicknesses must also be increased  to  prevent buckling.   In
addition,  some allowances for corrosion or erosion are  usually  added to  the
design conditions.  Typical  design parameters for  a scrubber and separator
are based  on a scrubber inlet gas velocity of 3500 fpm  and  a separator super-
ficial  inlet velocity of 600 fpm. For a given flow rate, the internal  surface
area for the scrubber,  elbow and separator can be  determined to  establish  the
additive cost of a  rubber or fiberglass liner.   Likewise, the diameter and
height of  the separator will determine the volume  available for  an internal
gas cooler.
2.2.3  Auxiliary Equipment
     The auxiliary  equipment normally associated with venturi scrubber systems
is shown schematically in Figure 2-3.  These  include  a  capture  device  and  duct-
work, a quencher,  dust removal  and treatment,  fan, and  a stack.   The capture
device,  ductwork,  and stack are the  same components used for electrostatic
precipitator systems  and are discussed in Section  2.1.3. The quencher,  used
for hot processes,  is fundamentally  the same  as a  spray chamber; however,  it
is much simpler in  operation, requires minimum controls, and usually has  no
                                      2-13

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              HOOD
            DIRECT  EXHAUST
ro
i
                                             DUCTWORK
                                    QUENCHER
        FAN
SEPARATOR/
  COOLER
SCRUBBER
                                                                                               STACK
                                                                                   TO TREATMENT
                                 CONTROL DEVICE AND TYPICAL AUXILIARY EQUIPMENT
                                  Figure  2-3  VENTURI SCRUBBER CONTROL SYSTEMS

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 sprays to plug.  The objective of using a quencher is to reduce the gas  stream
 temperature  to the  saturation temperature and this is accomplished by flooding
 the  gas  stream with cooling water.  Since the quencher is operated with  more
water than required to reach saturation temperature,  outlet gas temperature
controllers are not necessary,  nor are the banks of spray nozzles  which are
normally operated by these controllers.  Quenchers are usually fabricated from
corrosion resistant materials,  or are  refractory lined,  and can be either hor-
izontally or vertically oriented.  Costs are based on inlet gas volume and
materials of construction.  Quenchers  also act as a precleaner for larger sized
dust particles with the collected slurries being returned to the waste treat-
ment facility.
     Waste removal  and treatment  facilities  for  both  the  scrubber  and  quencher
(if used) generally consist of  a  thickener and vacuum filter or centrifuge.
The overflow from the thickener is recycled  to the scrubber and quencher  while
the heavier solids  are removed  for dewatering by the  filter or centrifuge. The
costs of thickeners, vacuum filters, and centrifuges  are  completely covered in
the following reports, also listed in  Appendix C as source  Nos.  119 and 128.
     "Capital and Operating Costs of Pollution Control  Equipment Modules",
     Vol. I and Vol. II, EPA-R5-73-023 a and b,  July, 1973.   NTIS  PB 224-535
     & PB 224-536.
     "Estimating Costs and Manpower Requirements for  Conventional  Wastewater
     Treatment Facilities", EPA 17090  DAN 10/71.  NTIS  PB 211-132.
     Radial  tip fans are used almost exclusively in venturi  scrubber control
systems because of  their ability  to operate  at high pressures and  temperatures
with abrasive gas streams.  With  scrubber systems, a  certain amount of  carry-
over of dust-laden  water droplets can  be expected which would be destructive
to other types of fans operating  at the impeller tip  velocities necessary
for 20-80 inches W.G.  pressures.   The  radial  tip fan  can  also be protected
                                     2-15

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 with wear plates and water sprays (for cleaning blades) for dirty or highly
 abrasive gas streams.  The cost of radial blade fans is a function of the
 actual volume in cfm and the total pressure delivered based on incremental
 pressure ranges of 20,40 and 60 inches W.G..  Construction can be either carbon
 steel  for general purposes or stainless  steel  for  corrosive gases.  Special
 linings  are  also available for  unique conditions.
 2.3   FABRIC  FILTER  SYSTEMS
 2.3.1 General Description
      Gas cleaning by  fabric  filtration is suited for applications where  dry
 particulates are handled  or  where  water  in the process gases  is  in  the vapor
 stage.   The  basic filter  collector or "baghouse" is capable of operating in
 excess of  99% efficiency,  although satisfactory operation  of  the  system  is
 contingent upon  the characteristics  of the gas stream and  the particulate matter
 being removed.   Basically,  the  unit  consists  of compartments  containing  rows
 of filter  bags or tubes.   The particle-laden  gas is ducted to each  compartment
 where the  gas passes  through the bags while the particles  are retained on the
 surface  of the bags.   The pressure drop  across the filter  medium  increases as
 the particulate  collects  on  the fabric until  a preset time limit  is reached,
 at which time a  section is  isolated  and  the entrapped material is dislodged
..and collected in  hoppers  located below the filtering area.  Baghouses are
 characterized by the  methods used  to clean the bags as well as the frequency
 of bag cleaning.  These methods are  generally referred to  as:  1) shaker type,
 2) reverse air,  and 3)  pulse jet.
      The shaker  type  method  of  cleaning  consists of hanging the  bags  on  an
 oscillating  framework driven by a  motor with  a timer. The baghouse is
 separated  into several  compartments  so that at periodic  intervals,  the gas
 flow to  a  compartment is  interrupted and the  motors and  connected frames in
                                       2-16

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the compartment are activated with the subsequent shaking of the bags to re-
move the particulate.  The shaker type mechanisms produce a violent action on
the bags and, in general, produce more wear on the bags than other types of
cleaning mechanisms.  For this reason, shaker type cleaning is used in
conjunction with heavier and more durable fabric materials.
     The reverse air method of cleaning the bags is accomplished by passing
air countercurrent to the direction of the gas flow in normal  filtration when
the compartment is isolated for cleaning.  The reverse air is  supplied by a
separate fan or in some cases, the pressure differential  across the bags can
be used to collapse the bags without the aid of a fan.  This type of cleaning
is used with fragile bags (such as fiberglass) or lightweight  bags and usually
results in longer life for the bag material.
     Bag cleaning by pulse jet is accomplished by the use of compressed air
jets located at the top of the bags.   Periodically, a blast  of compressed air
is issued down the bag, rapidly expanding the bag to dislodge  the particulate.
In some cases, this method of cleaning does not require the  isolation of the
bags to be cleaned from the filtering process so that extra  compartments
required for cleaning with the shaker and reverse air type baghouses are not
needed.  In addition, the pulse jet baghouses can sustain higher filtering
velocities through the filter medium (higher air-to-cloth ratios)  and  there-
fore the overall size of the baghouse is reduced.
     Baghouses are also categorized as to the type of service  and frequency
of bag cleaning and are generally referred to as either intermittent or
continuous duty.  Intermittent baghouses are cleaned after filtering is
completed; i.e.-, after the process stream is secured or shut down, usually
at the end of each day.  These baghouses operate with low dust loadings since
they cannot be cleaned while on stream.  Continuous baghouses  operate indef-
                                      2-17

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initely and cleaning of a portion of the filter occurs at periodic intervals
while the process gases are being filtered by the remaining filter area.
Continuous duty baghouses are more expensive than the intermittent type due
to the accessories required in the cleaning process and the additional filter
area required for continuous cleaning.
     The location of the baghouse with respect to the fan in the gas stream is
also a factor in the capital costs.  Suction type baghouses, located on the
suction side of the fan, must withstand high negative pressures and therefore
are more heavily constructed and reinforced than baghouses located downstream
of the fan (pressure baghouse).  The negative pressure in the baghouse can
result in the infiltration of outside air which can result in condensation,
corrosion or even explosions if combustible gases are being handled.  In
the case of toxic gases, this inward leakage can have an advantage over the
pressure type haghouse, where leakage is outward.  The main advantage of the
suction baghouse is that the fan handling the process stream is located at
the clean gas side of the baghouse.  This reduces the wear and abrasion on
the fan and permits the.use of more efficient fans (backwardly curved blade
design).  However, since the exhaust gases from each compartment are combined
in the outlet manifold to the fan the location of compartments with leaking
bags is difficult to determine and adds to the cost of maintenance.  The
outlet manifold from the baghouse is connected to the fans which are usually
located at ground level; therefore, a stack is normally required to vent the
gas from the fan.
     Pressure-type baghouses are generally less expensive since the housing
must only withstand the differential pressure across -the baghouse.  Maintenance
is also reduced since the compartments can be entered and leaking bags can be
observed with reasonable comfort while the compartment is in-service.  With a
                                       2-18

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pressure baghouse, the housing acts as the stack to contain the fumes with the
subsequent discharge at the roof of the structure.  The main disadvantage of
the pressure-type baghouse is that the fan is exposed to the dirty gases where
abrasion and wear may become a problem.
     The design and construction of baghouses are separated into two groups:
standard and custom.   Standard baghouses are pre-designed and built as modules
which can be operated singly or combined to form units for larger capacity
applications.  The custom or structural baghouse is designed specifically for
an application and is usually built to the specifications prescribed by the
customer.  The cost of the custom baghouse is much higher than the standard
and is used almost exclusively in large capacity (large volume)  applications.
The advantages of the custom baghouse are many and are usually directed to-
wards ease of maintenance, accessibility, and other customer preferences.   In
standard baghouses, a complete set of bags are usually replaced  in a compart-
ment at one time because of the difficulty in locating and replacing single
leaking bags, whereas, in custom baghouses, single bags are accessible and
can be replaced one at a time as the bags wear out.
     The type of filter material  used in baghouses is  dependent  on the
specific application  in terms of chemical composition  of the gas,  operating
temperature, dust loading, and the physical and chemical  characteristics of
the particulate.  A variety of fabrics, either felted  or woven,  are available
and the selection of  a specific material, weave, finish,  or weight is based
primarily on past experience.   The type of cloth will  generally  dictate the
type of cleaning mechanism to be used in the baghouse.  Usually,  felted fabrics
are used with pulse jet cleaning whereas woven fabrics are used  with mechan-
ical shaker or reverse air cleaning.   The type of yarn (filament,  spun, or
staple), the yarn denier, and twist are also factors in the selection of
                                       2-19

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suitable fabrics for a specific application.  Because of the violent agita-
tion of mechanical shakers, spun or staple yarn fabrics of heavy weight are
usually used with this type of cleaning while filament yarn fabrics of
lighter weight are employed with reverse air cleaning.  The type of material
will dictate the maximum operating gas temperature for the baghouse.   Nominal
operating temperatures for various fabrics are listed below:
               COTTON:             180F
               POLYPROPYLENE:       180F
               NYLON:              200F
               ACRYLIC:            275F
               POLYESTER:          275F
               NOMEX:              425F
               TEFLON:             500F
               FIBERGLASS:         550F
       The superficial face velocity of gas passing through the cloth affects
pressure drop and bag life.  The fundamental filtering parameters  are
based on this velocity which is equal to the total actual  volumetric  flow rate
in cubic feet per minute divided by the net cloth area in square feet.   This
ratio is referred to as the air-to-cloth ratio and is the basis for sizing and
costing baghouses.  High air-to-cloth ratios will reduce the size of  the bag-
house (and subsequent cost) while low air-to-cloth ratios will  require larger
units.  The air-to-cloth ratio will also determine the type of cleaning
mechanism to be used in the baghouse.  Shaker type and reverse air cleaning
can be used with air-to-cloth ratios of up to 4 to 1 while pulse jet  cleaning
can be utilized with air-to-cloth ratios of up to 10 to 1 or higher in
special cases.  The type of material selected as the cleaning fabric  will  also
dictate the range of air-to-cloth ratios to be used in a particular applica-
                                      2-20

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tion; for Instance, polyester fabrics are normally used with ratios of up to
3 to 1, while fiberglass is usually limited to 2 to 1.  These limiting ratios
are the normal "rule of thumb"; however, with light dust loading, these air-
to-cloth ratios can be exceeded in some cases.
2.3.2  Cost Factors
     The cost reference for baghouses is based on the net cloth area.   Net
cloth area is defined as the total  filter area available for on-stream fil-
tration exclusive of the filter area in compartments which are isolated for
cleaning (in the case of intermittent filters, the net cloth area is actually
the gross cloth area).   The net cloth area is determined by the air-to-cloth
ratio recommended for a particular application,  which is principally based on
the type of fabric, type of dust,  carrier gas composition, and the dust con-
centration.   The cost options of the fabric filter are therefore based on the
following parameters as determined by the type of application.
     1)  Type of fabric and air-to-cloth ratio.
     2)  Intermittent or continuous duty.
     3)  Pressure or suction type  construction.
     4)  Standard or custom design.
     5)  Type of cleaning mechanism.
     6)  Materials of construction.
2.3.3  Auxiliary Equipment
     The typical auxiliary equipment associated with fabric filter systems is
shown schematically in Figure 2-4.   This equipment includes the capture device,
ductwork, radiant coolers, spray chambers, dilution air ports, mechanical
collectors, dust removal equipment, fans, and stack.  This equipment has been
discussed in Section 2.1.3 with the exception of dilution air ports.
     Dilution air ports are provided to protect downstream components from
                                      2-21

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                                           r\ r\
  HOOD
rv>
ro
DIRECT EXHAUST
                                             U
                                         RADIANT COOLER
                                                                                             STACK
                                                                                       DUST REMOVAL
                                     MECHANICAL COLLECTOR

                         CONTROL DEVICE AND TYPICAL AUXILIARY  EQUIPMENT
                          Figure 2-4   FABRIC  FILTER  CONTROL  SYSTEMS

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"over-temperature" by diluting the hot gas stream with cooler ambient air.
Dilution air cooling requires the least amount of equipment compared to other
types of cooling; however, the downstream equipment such as the baghouse,. fans,
and ductwork are substantially increased in size (and cost) to compensate for
the additional  air.   The components for dilution cooling generally consist of
a duct tee, damper,  and temperature controller.   The damper is continually
modulated, inspiring ambient air to maintain the downstream gas temperature
at a pre-set level.   The cost of the equipment for dilution cooling is based
on the duct diameter and represents the cost of ductwork, damper,  sensor and
controller.
2.4  THERMAL AND CATALYTIC INCINERATOR SYSTEMS
2.4.1  General  Description
     Gas cleaning by thermal  or catalytic incineration is readily  adapted to
processes that emit  combustible gases, vapors, aerosols,  and particulates.
These systems are used extensively in removing odors and in reducing the opacity
of visible plumes from ovens, driers, stills, cookers and refuse incinerators.
The principle of operation consists of ducting the exhaust process gases to a
combustion chamber which employs either a catalyst bed or direct-fired burners
to combust the contaminant gases to carbon dioxide and water vapor.   Direct-
fired gas burners are most commonly found because of their simplicity and
reliability; however, catalytic units do produce combustion at lower temper-
atures which can result in lower fuel costs.   In direct-fired thermal  inciner-
ators (afterburners), the contaminated gas stream is delivered to  the refract-
                                                         (
ory lined burner area by either the process exhaust system or by a self contained
blower.  The introduction of the gas stream at the burners insures turbulence
and complete mixing  with the combustion products at the highest temperatures
possible.  The gas stream and combustion products then enter the retention
                                      2-23

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chamber at lower velocities to increase residence time and ensure complete
oxidation of the combustibles.  To reduce fuel costs, recuperative heat ex-
changers can be provided downstream of the retention chamber to recover some
of heat from the exhaust gases by preheating the inlet contaminated gas
stream.  A second method of recovering heat from the afterburner exhaust is
to recycle a portion of this gas to the inlet gas stream.  The efficiency of
direct-fired afterburners depends on the type and concentration of contam-
inants in the inlet gases, the operating temperature, turbulence, the mixing
of gases in the afterburner, and the residence time.  Heat exchangers, when
added, increase the thermal efficiency and reduce fuel costs at the expense of
higher initial costs.
     Direct-fired thermal incinerators can be provided as packaged units for
small volume applications which include the basic chamber, fan, and controls.
Larger units are usually custom designed or are modifications of standard com-
ponents integrated into a complete unit.  The amount of controls and instru-
mentation required for these systems will depend on the characteristics of
the process gas stream.  Steady state processes require the least amount of
controls whereas, fluctuating gas streams would require modulating controllers
for the burners, recycle gas, etc..  Most units however, require a minimum
amount of controls such as safety pilots and flame failure shut-offs, high
temperature shut-offs (fan failure), and temperature monitors and recorders.
The fans used for these units usually are of the axial flow or low pressure
centrifugal type since pressure drops for the incinerator alone are low.
     An alternative to the direct-fired thermal incinerator is the catalytic
incinerator which utilizes a catalyst bed to oxidize the contaminants to
carbon dioxide and water vapor.  This reaction takes place at reduced temp-
eratures (650-1200F) as compared to the direct-fired incinerator (850-1800 F)

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and, therefore, the fuel costs can be reduced.  One of the limitations of the
catalytic incinerator, however, is its susceptibility to fouling and degrada-
tion by particulates or metal  poisons such as zinc, lead, tin, etc.  For this
reason, the gas streams containing organic vapors or solvents are better
suited for catalytic combustion while those containing fumes and smokes should
be controlled by the direct-fired incinerator.
     The catalytic incinerator consists of the catalyst bed, preheat burners,
ductwork, fan, and controls.  The preheat burners are required to raise the
temperature of the inlet gas stream to a level compatible with the oxidation
reaction temperature of the catalyst.  To conserve on fuel costs, the preheat
burners can be regulated by controllers monitoring the exit gas temperature
of the catalyst bed.  As the bed temperature increases from heat transferred
by the exothermic reaction, the amount of heat supplied by the preheat burners
can be reduced accordingly.  This can result in a savings of approximately
40-60 percent in fuel costs as compared to the direct-fired incinerator.   The
catalytic incinerator, however, has a higher maintenance cost than the direct-
fired incinerator due to the necessity of periodically cleaning the catalyst
bed and the eventual replacement of the bed.  Catalytic incinerators are
available in packaged units for small volume applications and custom units
for larger applications.  Heat exchangers are also available which will  pro-
vide up to 50 percent heat recovery.
2.4.2  Cost Factors
     The cost of thermal and catalytic incinerators is based on the actual
volume flow rate, and such design factors as whether the unit is a package
or custom design-, and whether a heat exchanger is used for heat recovery.
The basic cost of the incinerators includes the incinerator and base, fan,
motor, starter, integral ductwork, controls, instrumentation, and heat ex-
                                      2-25

-------
 changer  (where applicable).   For thermal  incinerators,  the cost of the units
 also varies  with  the  designed residence time.   Longer residence times will
 necessitate  higher  cost  equipment due  to  the longer and larger retention
 chambers.
2.4.3  Auxiliary Equipment
     A minimum of auxiliary equipment is required for thermal and catalytic
incinerators since the units are normally self-contained.  Usually some duct-
work, a fan,  and a capture device are required to transport the process gas
stream from the source to the control device if the distance is appreciable.
A separate fan however is supplied with the incinerator to ensure proper
distribution and mixing of the gases in the incinerator.  An exhaust stack is
also required to disperse the exhaust gases above the level of the surround-
ing buildings.  The cost of these components is covered in Section 2.1.3.
2.5  ADSORPTION SYSTEMS
2.5.1  General Description
     Gas cleaning by adsorption is used primarily in the removal of organic
liquids and vapors from process streams.  The principles of adsorption and
the affinity of certain adsorbents for specific compounds are quite complex;
however,  the process can be considered as the mechanical and  chemical bonding
of a substance on the surface of an adsorbent.  The control system using
this principle usually consists of at least two adsorbent beds with
one bed on stream adsorbing while the second bed is regenerating.  Regenera-
tion is usually accomplished by heating the adsorbent to a high temperature to
drive off the adsorbed compounds.  Continuous adsorbers have also been devised
where adsorption and regeneration take place in different positions of the
same bed, which is progressively displaced through the vessel.  Some problems
that exist in adsorption systems are the result of solids in the process gas
                                      2-26

-------
stream.  Participate matter in the gas stream can be detrimental to adsorber
beds by blinding the adsorbent; therefore, efficient filters must be provided
at the inlet to the beds.   Corrosion is also a factor in the maintenance of
the beds and equipment,  and is usually related to the method of bed regenera-
tion.   Activated carbon  is  the most widely used adsorbent in industry,
however, other adsorbents  such as silica gel, bauxite, and alumina
are used for some specific processes.   The regeneration of activated carbon
adsorption beds is normally accomplished by passing steam through the bed in
the opposite direction of  the normal gas flow during adsorption.  The flow rate,
temperature, and pressure  of the steam required for regeneration is dependent
on the type and characteristics of the adsorbate and the quantity adsorbed.
After regeneration, the  beds are normally cooled by passing clean air through
the carbon before being  placed on stream.  Fixed bed adsorbers usually consist
of at least two beds; one  adsorbing while the other is regenerating.   If the
time for regenerating and  cooling is longer than the adsorption time, three
beds may be used; one adsorbing, one regenerating, and one cooling.  The
operations involved with switching beds from the adsorption stage to the
regeneration stage can be  either manual or automatic.  Automatic systems cost
more due to the mechanisms and controls required.  Carbon adsorbers are
supplied as either packaged units for small volume applications or custom
designed units for larger  applications.  The units, as supplied, consist of
the adsorber beds, activated carbon, fans or blowers, controls, and the steam
regenerator (excluding steam source).
2.5.2  Cost Factors
     The cost of carbon  adsorbers is based on the weight of activated carbon
required.  The carbon requirements are determined by the gas flow rate, the
type and concentration of  the pollutant, the carbon adsorption efficiency for
                                      2-27

-------
that particular pollutant,  and the specific time of adsorption/regneration.
Packaged units are priced according to the mode of operation; i.e., automatic
or manual while custom designed units for large volume applications are all
automatic.
2.5.3  Auxiliary Equipment
     Since the adsorbers  are  usually supplied as self-contained units, the only
auxiliary equipment needed  would  be hoods and ductwork which are discussed in
Section 2.1.3.
2.6  APPLICATION TO INDUSTRY
     Not all  of the five  control  systems can be applied universally throughout
the various industries.   For  instance, adsorbers are only effective with gas-
eous pollutants while thermal  and catalytic incinerators require combustible
particulates  and vapors for proper operation.  Particulate-laden gas streams
which are not combustible must be controlled by precipitators, scrubbers,  or
baghouses.  Precipitators and baghouses are used solely for particulate coll-
ection while  scrubbers may  be used for both particulates and gases (when
used as a contactor/absorber).  The selection of a control system for a par-
ticular process, therefore, may be limited to only one or two types of control
devices.  Tables 2-1 and  2-2  lists 27 industries with typical sources of pollu-
tants and itemizes the types  of control devices with their design parameters that
are used to control these sources.  Table 2-3 lists the types of solvents
and their lower explosive limit that might be expected in the exhaust gases
from such sources as spray  booths, printing presses, etc..  These solvents
are usually recovered through the use of an activated carbon adsorber and,
therefore, the carbon adsorption efficiency for each solvent is also provided.
     Appendix C provides  a  cross-reference of literature information applic-
able to each  industry. Appendix D provides a list of associations related to
                                     2-28

-------
                                          Table 2-1   INDUSTRY POLLUTANT SOURCES AND TYPICAL CONTROL DEVICES
rv>
i
INDUSTRY
1) Brick
Manufacturing
2) Castable
Refractories
3) Clay Refrac-
tories
4) Coal -fired
Boilers
5) Conical
Incinerators
6) Cotton Ginning
7) Deti'i-'ic'iit
M.inu I uc luri iii|
SOURCE
1) Tunnel kiln
2) Crusher, mill
3) Dryer
4) Periodic kiln
1 ) Electric arc
2) Crusher, mill
3) Dryer
4) Mold and shakeout
1) Shuttle kiln
2) Calciner
3) Dryer
4) Crusher, mi 1 1
1 ) Steam generator
1 ) Incinerator
1 ) Incinerator
1 ) S|n\iy Dryer
COflTROL SYSTEM
1) Scrubber, baghouse
precipi tator
2) Baghouse, scrubber
3) Same as 1
4) Same as 1
1 ) Baghouse, scrubber
2) Same as 1
3) Same as 1
4) Same as 1
1) Baghouse, precipi-
tator, scrubber
2) Same as 1
3) Same as 1
4) Baghouse, precipi-
tator
1 ) Precipi tator,
Scrubber
1 ) Scrubber
1 ) Scrubber
1 ) Scrubbc>r, baghouse
CAPTURE DEVICE
1 ) Direct tap
2) Canopy hood
3) Same as 1
4) Same as 1
1 ) Direct tap
2) Canopy hood
3) Direct tap
4) Canopy hood
1 ) Direct tap
2) Same as 1
3) Same as 1
4) Canopy hood
1 ) Direct tap
1 ) Direct tap
1 ) Direct tap
' Direct tap
TYPICAL GAS FLO.,
DESIGN RATE
1 ) Combustion air-
fan capacity
2) 250 fpm hood face
3) Sank: as 1
4) Same as 1
1 ) Infilt. air
2) 250 fpm hood face
3) Fan capacity
4) Same as 2
1 ) Fan capacity
2) Same as 1
3) Same as 1
4) 250 fpm hood face
1 ) Induced draft fan
capacity
1 ) Combustion air
rate
1 ) Combustion ait-
rate
1 ) Fan capacity
TYPICAL GAS
TEMPERATURE
1) 200-600F
2) 70F mill
3) 250F
4) Same as 1
1) 3000-4000F
2) 70F
3) 300F
4) 150F
1) 150-800F kiln
2) Same as 1
3) 250F
4) 70F
1) 300F
1) 400-700F
1) 500-700F
1) 180-250F

-------
                                      Table 2-1   INDUSTRY POLLUTANT SOURCES AND TYPICAL CONTROL DEVICES (cont'd)
ro

oo
o

INDUSTRY
8) Feed Mills


9) Ferroalloy
Plants
a) HC Fe Mn
b) 50';. Fe Si
c) HC Fe Cr

10) Glass
Manufacturing

11 ) Grey Iron
Foundries











SOURCE
1 ) Storage bins
2) Mills/grinders
3) Flash dryer
4) Conveyors

1 ) Submerged arc
furnace (open)
2) Submerged arc
furnace (closed)
3) Tap fume

1 ) Regenerative tank
furnace
2) Weight hoppers and
mixers
1 ) Cupola





2) Electric arc
furnace

3) Core oven
4) stakeout


CONTROL SYSTEM
1) Baghouse, scrubber
2) Same as 1
3) Same as 1
4) Same as 1

1) Scrubber, baghouse,
precipitator
2) Scrubber
3) Same col lector or
baghouse
1 ) Baghouse, scrubber
precipitator
2) Same as 1

1 ) Af terburner-
baghouse for
closed cap,
Afterburner-
precipitator for
closed cap,
scrubber
2) Baghouse, scrubber
precipitator

3) Afterburner
1) Bacjhousc


CAPTURE DEVICE
1 ) Direct tap
2) Canopy hood
3) Direct tap
4) Canopy hood

1 ) Ful 1 or canopy
hood
2) Direct tap
3) Canopy

1) Direct tap
2) Canopy

1 ) Direct tap





2) Direct tap,
full/side draft
hood
3) Direct tap
4) Full/side draft
hood
TYPICAL GAS FLOW
DESIGN RATE
1 ) 250 fpm canopy
hood face velocit
2) Same as 1
3) Air heater flow
rate (dryer)
4) Same as 1
1) 2500-5500 scfm/
mw wi ch scrubber
2) a) 220^
b) 180 y scfm/mw
c) 190 j
3) 200 fpm/ ft2

1 ) Fan capacity
2) 200 fpm/ ft2

1 ) Tuyere air
+ infi 1 . door air
+ afterburner
second air



2) 2000 fpm/ft2
hood

3) Fan capacity
4) 200-500 cfm/ft2
hood
TYPICAL GAS
TEMPERATURE
1) 70F
<2) 70F
3) 170-250F
4) 70F

1) 400-500F
open arc
2) 1 000-1 200F
closed arc
3) 150F hood

1) 600-850F
furnace
2) 100F mixers \

1) 1200-2200F





2) ~2500F direct
tap
~400F hood
3) 150F
) ~150F


-------
                                      Table 2-1   INDUSTRY  POLLUTANT  SOURCES  AND TYPICAL CONTROL DEVICES (cont'd)
'INDUSTRY
12) Iron & Steel
(Sintering)
13) Kraft Recovery
Furnaces
14) Lime Kilns
15) Municipal
Incinerator
16) Petroleum
Cat.ily tic
Cracking
SOURCE
1 ) Sinter machine
a) Sinter bed
b) Ignition fee.
c) Wind boxes
2) a) Sinter crusher
b) Conveyors
c) Feeders
1 ) Recovery furnace
and direct contact
evaporator
1) Vertical kilns
2) Rotary sludge
kiln
1 ) Incinerator
1 ) Catalyst
regenerator
CONTROL SYSTEM
1) Precipi tator,
baghouse, scrubber
2) Baghouse, scrubber
1 ) Precipitator,
scrubber
1) Baghouse, scrubber,
precipi tator
2) Scrubber, precipi-
tate r
1 ) Scrubber, precipi-
tator, baghouse,
afterburner
1 ) Precipi tator,
(boi ler )-precipi-
tator, scrubber
CAPTURE DEVICE
1 ) Down draft hood
2) Canopy hood
1 ) Direct tap
1) Direct tap
2) Direct tap
1 ) Direct tap
1 ) Direct tap
a) High pressure
b) Low pressure
TYPICAL GAS FLOW
DESIGN RATE
1 ) Based on bed size
2) 250 fpm hood face
1 ) Primary and seconc
ary air supply
capacity
1 ) Combustion air
rate
2) Combustion air
rate
1 ) Combustion air far
capacity where
appl i cable
1 ) Regeneration air
rate + boiler
combustion air
TYPICAL GAS
TEMPERATURE
1) 150-400F
sinter machine
2) 70F conveyors
- 1) 350F
1) 200-1200F
2).200-1200F
1) 500-700F
1) HOOF regener-
ator,
500F from
boiler
r\>
i
co

-------
                                       Table 2-1  INDUSTRY POLLUTANT  SOURCES  AND  TYPICAL  CONTROL DEVICES (cont'd)
CO
ro
INDUSTRY
17) Phosphate
Rock Crush-
ing



18) Polyvinyl
Chloride
Production
19) Pulp and
Paper
SOURCE
1 ) Crusher & screens
2) Conveyor
3) Elevators
4) Fluidized bed
calciner
1 ) Process equipment
vents
1 ) Fluidized bed
t'cac t or
CONTROL SYSTEM
1) Baghouse, scrubber,
pred pita tor
2) Same as 1
3) Same as 1
4) Same as 1
1 ) Adsorbers,
afterburners,
precipitators
1 ) Scrubber
CAPTURE DEVICE
1 ) Canopy hood
2) Same as 1
3) Same as 1
4) Same as 1
1 ) Direct tap
1 ) Direct tap
TYPICAL GAS FLOW
DESIGN RATE
1) 350 cfm/ft belt
width at speeds
~'200 fpm
500 cfm/ft belt
width at speeds
-x/200 fpm
2) 100 cfm/ft of
casing cross-
section (elevator
50 cfm/ft of
screen area
3) Combustion air rai
4) Blower race
1 ) Process gas
stream rate
1 ) Combustion air
rate
TYPICAL GAS
TEMPERATURE
1) 70F hoods
2) Same as 1
e 3) Same as 1
4) 600-1 500F
calciner
1) -15 to 130F
1) 600-1500F
nil

-------
                                       Table 2-1  INDUSTRY POLLUTANT SOURCES AND TYPICAL CONTROL DEVICES (cont'd)
 i
CO
co
INDUSTRY
20) Secondary
Aluminum
21 ) Secondary
Copper
Smelters
22) Sewage Sludge
Incinerators
23) Surface Coat-
ings- Spray
Booths
SOURCE
1 ) Reverbatory
furnace
2) El. induction
furnace
3) Crucible furnace
4) Chlorinating
station
5) Dross processing
6) Sweating furnace
1) Reverbatory
furnace
2) Crucible furnace
3) Cupola & blast
furnaces
4) Converters
5) El. induction
furnaces
1 ) Multiple hearth
incinerator
2) Fluidi.'ed bed
incinerator
1 ) Spray booth
CONTROL SYSTEM
1 ) Scrubber (low
energy) + baghouse.
precipi tator
2) Same as 1
3) Same as 1
4) Same as 1
5) Same as 1
6) Same as 1
1 ) Baghouse, scrubber
precipi tator
2) Same as 1
3) Same as 1
4) Same as 1
5) Same as 1
1 ) Scrubber
2) Same as 1
1 ) Adsorber
CAPTURE DEVICE
1 ) Canopy hood
(hearths), direct
tap
2) Same as 1
3) Same as 1
4) Same as 1
5) Same as 1
6) Same as 1
1) Direct tap, canopy
hood, full hood
2) Same as 1
3) Same as 1
4) Same as 1
5) Same as 1
1 ) Direct tap
2) Same as 1
1 ) Canopy hood
TYPICAL GAS FLOW
DESIGN RATE
1 ) Max. plume vol .
+ 20',: (hearths)
2) Infiltrated air
3) Same as 2
4) Same as 2
5) Same as 2
6) Same as 2
1) 200 fpm/ft2
canopy hood
2) Max. plume vol.
+ 2 OX
3) 1800 fpm infil-
trated air (full
hood)
4) Based on type
capture
5) Same as 4
1 ) Combustion air
blower capacity
2) Same as 1
i
1) 150 fpm/ft2 hood,
100 fpm booth
face velocity
TYPICAL GAS
TEMPERATURE
1) 1600F fluxing,
600F holding
hearth
2) Based on type
capture
3) Same as 2
4) Same as 2
5) Same as 2
6) Same as 2
1) 2500F direct
tap
2) Based on type
capture
3) Same as 2
4) Same as 2
5) Same as 2
1) 600 to 1500F
2) Same as 1
1) 70F

-------
                                      Table 2-1  INDUSTRY POLLUTANT SOURCES AND TYPICAL CONTROL  DEVICES  (cont'd)

INDUSTRY
24) Portland
Cement





25) Basic Oxygen
Furnaces



26) Electric Arc
Furnaces




27) Phosphate
Fertil izer



SOURCE
1 ) Rotary kiln
a) Wet
b) Dry
2) Crushers and
conveyors
3) 'Dryers

1 ) Basic oxygen
furnace


2) Charging hood
1 ) Arc furnace



2) Charging and
tapping
1 ) Digester vent air

2) Filters
3) Sumps

CONTROL SYSTEM
1) Precipitators,
baghouses

2) Baghouses

3) Precipitators,
baghouses
1 ) Precipitator,
scrubber, baghouse


2) Same as 1
1 ) Baghouse, scrubber,
precipitator


2) Same as 1

1 ) Scrubber, baghouse

2) Same as 1
3) Same as 1

CAPTURE DEVICE
1 ) Direct tap


2) Canopy hoods

3) Direct tap

1 ) Full -canopy hood



2) Canopy hood
1) Direct tap, full/
side draft hood


2) Canopy hood

1) Hood

2) Same as 1
3) Same as 1
TYPICAL GAS FLOW
DESIGN RATE
1 ) Combustion air
rate where
appl icable
2) 250 fpm hood face
"
3) Same as 1

1 ) Function of lance
rate and hood
design - up to
1 ,000,000 acfm
2) 300 fpm hood face
1 ) Function of lance
rate and hood
design - up to
200,000 acfm
2) 250 fpm hood face

1) Process stream
rate
2) Same as 1
3) Sank.1 as 1
TYPICAL GAS
TEMPERATURE
1) 150-850F kilns


2) 70F crushers
& conveyors
3) 200F dryers

1) 3500-4000F



2) 150-400F
1) 3500F Mirpct
tap)


2) 150F
(canopy)
1) 150F

2) Same as 1
3) Same as 1
 I
 GO
Is?

-------
          Table  2-2.   DESIGN  PARAMETERS  FOR  RESPECTIVE
                      INDUSTRIES  FOR HIGH EFFICIENCY PERFORMANCE
Industry
Basic oxygen furnaces
Brick manufacturing
Castable refractories
Clay refractories
Coal fired boilers
Conical incinerators
Cotton ginning
Detergent manufacturing
Electric arc furnaces
Feed mills
Ferroalloy plants
Glass manufacturing
Grey iron foundries
Iron and steel (sintering)
Kraft recovery furnaces
Lime kilns
Municipal incinerators
Petroleum catalytic cracking
Phosphate fertilizer
Phosphate rock crushing
Polyvinyl chloride production
Portland cement
Pulp and paper (fluidized bed reactor)
Secondary aluminum smelters
Secondary copper smelters
Sewage sludge incinerators
Surface coatings - spray booth
Fabric Filter
Air-to-Cloth Ratio
Reverse
Air
1.5-2.0
1.5-2.0
1.5-2.0
1.5-2.0



1.2-1.5
1.5-2.0

2.0
1.5
1.5-2.0
1.5-2.0

1.5-2.0


1.8-2.0


1.2-1.5





Pulse
Jet
6-8
9-10
8-10
8-10



5-6
6-8
10-15
9

7-8
7-8

8-9


8-9
5-10
7
7-10

6-8
6-8


Mechanical
Shaker
2.5-3.0
2.5-3.2
2.5-3.0
2.5-3.2



2.0-2.5
2.5-3.0
3.5-5.0
2.0

2.5-3.0
2.5-3.0

2.5-3.0


3.0-3.5
3.0-3.5

2.0-3.0

2.0



Venturi
Scrubber
In. of
Water
40-60
35

11
15


10-40


40-60-80
65
25-60

15-30
12-40

40
15-30
10-20



30



Precip-
itator
Drift Vel
Ft/ sec
.15-. 25



.22-. 35



.12-. 16


.14
.1-.12
.2-. 35
.2-. 3
.175-.25
.2-. 33
.125-. 175

.35

.2-. 3


.12-. 14


High Efficiency - A sufficiently low grain  loading  to  expect  a  clear  stack.
                                 2-35

-------
   Table 2-3  EFFICIENCY OF CARBON ADSORPTION AND LEL'S

                    FOR COMMON POLLUTANTS
Pollutant Lower explosive
limit
(percent by volume
in air)
Acetone
Benzene
n-Butyl acetate
n-Butyl alcohol
Carbon tetrachloride
Chloroform
Cyclohexane
Ethyl acetate
Ethyl alcohol
Heptane
Hexane
Isobutyl alcohol
Isopropyl acetate
Isopropyl alcohol
Methyl acetate
Methyl alcohol
Methyl ene chloride
Methyl ethyl ketone
Methyl isobutyl ketone
Perchlorethylene
Toluene
Trichlorethylene
Trichloro trifluoroethane
V M & P Naptha
Xylene
2.15
1.4
1.7
1.7
n
n
1.31
2.2
3.3
1
1.3
1.68
2.18
2.5
4.1
6.0
n
1.81
1.4
n
1.27
n
n
0.81
1.0
Carbon
adsorption
efficiency
(percent)
8
6
8
8
10
10
6
8
8
6
6
8
8
8
7
7
10
8
7
20
7
15
8
7
10
Efficiencies are based on 200 cfm of 100F solvent-laden air, with no other
impurities per hundred pounds of carbon per hour.  Solvent recovery is
90-95%.  Concentrations of solvent will alter efficiencies somewhat, but
for estimating purposes those figures are satisfactory for 25 ppm and
greater.  See Section 4.5 for the use of this table.   Source: Hoyt Manufac-
turing.
                                   2-36

-------
the 27 industries.  Additional information on these industries may be ob-
tained from these sources.
2.7  FACTORS AFFECTING RETROFIT COSTS
     The cost of retrofitting an existing facility to include a pollution
control system will  usually cost more than the installation in a new facility.
The increases in costs can be as high as 10 times the normal  installation costs
depending on the degree of plant modifications.   It is difficult to accurately
assess the increased costs for retrofitting without the plans and specifica-
tions of the particular plant and process being  retrofitted.   Some of the
factors that attribute to the additional costs,  however, are  discussed as
follows:
     Plant age - Installation may require structural  modifications to plant
                 and process alterations.
     Available
      space    - May require extensive steel  support  construction and site
                 preparation.  Existing equipment may require removal and
                 relocation.  New equipment may  require custom design to meet
                 space allocations.
     Utilities - Electrical, water supply, and waste  removal  and disposal
                 facilities may require expansion.
     Production
      Shut-down- Loss of Production  during retrofit must be included  in
                 overall costs.
     Labor     - If  retrofitting is  accomplished during normal  plant
                 operations, installation time and  labor hours will  be
                 increased.  If installation occurs during  off-hours,
                 overtime wages may  be necessary.
     Engineering-Increased engineering costs to  integrate control  system
                 into existing process.
                                     2-37

-------
                               SECTION  3
                     PROCEDURE  FOR  ESTIMATING  COSTS
 3.1   GENERAL
      The  cost  curves presented in  Section  4 represent  the  equipment  costs  for
 the  various control  devices  and auxiliary  equipment, together with the  esti-
 mated installation and  annual  operating and maintenance  costs for systems
 using these components.   Installation  costs for  the equipment will depend
 on such factors  as:  physical location  of the  equipment within the plant,
 degree of assembly,  availability of  local  erectors, wage rate and overtime
 requirements,  availability of  utilities, equipment transportation and diff-
 iculty of loading/unloading, and complexity of instrumentation and control.
 Turnkey cost estimates  by most suppliers also include  engineering and con-
 tingency  costs.   Engineering is generally  estimated at 10  percent of the total
 equipment and  installation cost.   This includes  start-up and performance
 testing besides  the  normal system  design engineering.  Contingencies are also
 included  in the  cost estimates.  These contingencies cover unexpected costs
 due  to inflation, union  slow-downs and strikes,  delays in receipt of materials,
 start-up  and guarantee  testing problems, subcontractor price adjustments,
 and  other unforeseen problems.   Contingency costs are  generally estimated  at
 10 percent of  the total  costs.   The  capital costs for  a  control system  are
 therefore itemized as follows.
      1)  Equipment costs (control  device + auxiliaries)  = $	
      2)  Tax and freight &7% of 1) *                    = $
      3}   Installation costs  (Table 4-12)                = $
*
   Taxes range from 3-6%.   Freight ranges from 1-5%.   The 7% figure assumes
   42 and 3% respectively.
                                    3-1

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     4)  Subtotal (1 + 2 + 3)                           = $
     5)  Engineering @ 10% of 4)                        = $
     6)  Subtotal  (4+5)                               = $
                                    **
     7)  Contingencies @ 10% of 6)                      = $
     8)  Total capital costs  (6 + 7)                    = $	
     For certain  items, such  as cooling towers, tall stacks, and refractory,
 installed prices  are given  in Section 4.  The cost of such equipment, then,
 is not  included in  Line   1  above, rather these costs are added to Line 8 to
 arrive  at the total capital cost for the system.
     Operating and  maintenance curves in Section 4 are based on the average
 costs for complete  systems.   Some costs may be higher or lower depending on
 the  type of maintenance,  system efficiency, labor and material rates, the
 number  of hours operated  per  year, utility rates, and geographical location.
 Some plants within  the same geographical location will pay lower power or
 utility rates than  others due to the plant's total rate of consumption.
     The use of the tables  and curves in Section 4 to determine the capital,
 operating, and maintenance  costs of the five control systems is discussed in
 Section 3.3 with  a  typical  example of the procedures to be followed.  Section
 3.2  illustrates the use of  life-cycle cost analysis.  Appendix E provides
 factors for converting English units of measurement to the International
 System  of Units  (SI).
*
   Engineering may range from 5-10%.
   Contingencies may exceed 20% for retrofits, repairs, or alterations
                                     3-2

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3.2  COST COMPARISON METHODOLOGIES
     To adequately compare the costs of alternative air pollution control
systems, one needs a procedure for combining the aggregate effects of first
cost, operating cost, maintenance cost, and other costs or economic benefits
that may arise from owning and operating the system.  The procedure to be
presented here is known as life-cycle cost analysis.
     Life-cycle costing may involve either of two techniques: the Present
Worth method and the Uniform Annual Equivalent method.  The Present Worth
(PW) technique provides a means of calculating a single lump sum that at the
present time would be equivalent to all present and future cash flows.  If
the PW's for all alternatives are calculated, then the one alternative having
the lowest PW would be the most desirable from an owning and operating cost
standpoint.  The Uniform Annual Equivalent (UAE) technique provides a means
of calculating an annual payment that would be equivalent to all present
and future cash flows.  The alternative having the lowest UAE would be the
most desirable from an owning and operating cost standpoint.  Both methods
are valid approaches to life-cycle costing; the use of the one or the other
depends on the user's individual preferences, and both will  be described here.
     The PW and UAE techniques incorporate the time value of money to cal-
culate the equivalent value at present time of some future cash flow.  Money
has time value because a dollar now can be invested to yield more than a
dollar at some future date - just as a bank pays interest on a personal
savings account.  The  general  formula for  the PW of a future cash outlay, F,
taking place n  periods  from the present, given a discount rate,  i, is:
Eq(3-l)        '      PW  =   E	.
                                     3-3
                                                                             QMS.

-------
     The PW of a uniform annual payment, A, is:
c /0 ox            m,     *-*    -        Cn is the number of periods
Eqv3-2;            PW = A                          ...
                                  n
                                        over which the annual payment
                                        takes effect)
     The UAE of a PW is:
Eq(3-3)
              UAE = PW
Hence, for example:
              $1,627.50 = $10,000
                                               .1)
                                                  10 -i
     These formulas are provided for the reader's reference.   However,  in
general practice one makes use of tables, which are given in  Appendix A,
Compound Interest Factors.  The use of these tables is now described.  In
Equation 3-1 above, the compound interest factor is known as  the single pay-
ment present worth factor and is typically denoted by (P/F, n) which reads
"present worth from future amount".  The F symbolizes a single payment  at
some future date, n periods from the present.  In Equation 3-2, the compound
interest factor is known as the uniform series present worth  factor and is
typically denoted by  (P/A, n), which reads "present worth from an annuity".
The A  symbolizes a uniform series of annual payments commencing at the  end
of year one and stopping at the end of year n.  In Equation 3-3, the compound
interest factor is known as the capital recovery factor, and  is typically
denoted as (A/P, n),  which reads "the annuity from the present amount",
which  extends for n periods.  Using the capital recovery factor, one can
compute the UAE from  the PW.  In the tables just mentioned, these factors
are provided.  As an  example of their use, consider the calculation of  PW for
an initial payment of $3000, an annual payment of $1000 for 10 years, and a
lump sum payment of $1379 at the end of year 5:
      PW= $3000 + 1000 (P/A, 10) + $1379 (P/F, 5)

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     To clarify, the $3000 has no factor since it is already in the present;
the $1000 occurs each year for ten years (an annuity); in the fifth year
there is an additional single payment expense of $1379.  Refering to Table
A-9, the factors are found to be* for a 10% discount rate:
       PW= $3000 + $1000 (6.144) + $1379 (0.6209)
         = $10,000.
Additionally, one can compute that the
       UAE= PW (A/P,10)
          = $10,000 (0.16275)
          = $1627.5
     There is yet one final  topic that needs to be discussed and that is the
selection of the discount rate.   In its most limited sense,  interest is the
money paid for the use of borrowed capital.   But in  life-cycle  cost  analysis,
a broader view is required;  interest is the cost of  employing capital  for air
pollution control.  If in fact the capital  needed for owning and operating
air pollution control equipment comes from  direct loans,  then the discount
rate used in the PW and UAE  calculations is equal to the  interest rate of the
loans.  A similar statement  can be made for bond issues.   The discount rate
for government investments is the interest  rate the  treasury must pay to borrow
money.  A more complicated situation arises however  when  the firm does not
borrow, but instead uses equity funds.  In  this case, the discount rate is the
cost of employing equity, which is the expected rate of return  on investments
that the firm can make.  Higher discount rates tend  to favour lower  first costs,
since the high rate of discounting considerably reduces the  present  worth of
future cash outlays.  The selection of the  discount  rate  should be given
serious thought, because the ranking of investment alternatives can  vary
according to the level of the discount rate.
                                     3-5

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     Example of the use of  life-cycle  costing  is given  in Section 3.3. More
extended discussion of cost analysis may  be found  in the book, Principles of
Engineering Economy by Grant  and  Ireson,  the Ronald Press Company, New York,
New York,  1970.  The  reader is  encouraged to study this text, as there are
many important topics and caveats that could not be covered in this brief
space.  Some special  concerns include:  proper  handling  of depreciation and
tax effects, equipment replacement, lease or buy decision, unequal equipment
lives, determining the discount rate,  calculating  utility costs, etc.  How-
ever these subjects are'principally the internal concern of the purchaser of
abatement  equipment.
3.3  EXAMPLE CASE STUDY
     For purposes of  illustration of the  use of the manual, a case study on
rotary lime kiln air  pollution  control  is presented here.  Since this manual
provides very little  guidance regarding the design of air pollution control
systems, it is essential that the user have prepared in advance an engineering
design for control of the pollutant source.  Care  should be taken in perfor-
ming the design because a poor  design  is  likely to result in unrealistic
costs.  There may be  many system  configurations that will satisfy the techni-
cal requirements, but only  one  or two  will cost the least.  In the example
presented  here, the engineering design is intended to demonstrate the use of
the manual and is simplified  in the interest of clarity and brevity.  Hence
the design may not be optimal-  The reader should  however, concentrate on
understanding how the manual  is used.   Engineering design techniques may be
found in EPA Pub. AP-40, Air  Pollution Engineering Manual,  (see Appendix C,
.No. 88)
                                     3-6

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     Lime (CaO or CaO'MgO) is the product of the calcination of limestone
(CaCOs or CaCOs-MgCOa).  Lime manufacturing involves several sources of
pollutants.   The sources include:
     a)  Quarrying - stripping, drilling, blasting, loading, and hauling.
     b)  Stone processing - crushing, pulverizing, screening, and conveying.
     c)  Limestone calcining (kilns).
     d)  Lime hydration, drying, and bagging.
     e)  Fugitive dust-roads, stockpiles, transportation, etc.
     This section is concerned solely with rotary lime kiln operations.  Kilns
are basically of two types: vertical and rotary.  Rotary kilns  are used by
the majority (80-90%) of lime plants and they represent the largest single
source of pollutants in the lime industry.  The pollutants are  predominately
particulate matter.  Broadly speaking, about 30% of the dust from rotary
kilns is less than lOy and the mean size is 30y.  The exhaust temperature
from rotary kilns depends on the length of the kiln and other process variables.
Lime kiln exhaust gas is usually cleaned with venturi scrubbers or fabric
filters, although electrostatic precipitators may also be used.  This case
study will show cost estimation for all three methods.  The following condi-
tions are assumed:
       A typical 250 TPD rotary kiln to be controlled at 1000  ft elevation.
       Required control efficiency of 99+%.
     0  Exhaust gas from kiln: 30,000 SCFM or 88,300 ACFM @ 1100F.
       Control device to be located 200' from source.
       Direct tap of exhaust from kiln.
       Duct-velocity = 4000 fpm to prevent fallout
     t  Surrounding terrain does not impose unusual constraints on system
        design and stack height (501).
                                                                            !13V JlNi'S,

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                  OUTLINE OF ENGINEERING CALCULATIONS
Case A - fabric filter
     Establish overall engineering design as follows:
          a.  Use polyester (275F) or glass bags  (550F).
          b.  A/C ratio = 2 for glass bags.
                        = 3 for polyester bags.
          c.  Suction baghouse:
                        - reverse air, insulated for glass bags
                        - mechanical shaker, insulated for polyester bags
          d.  Radiant coolers  next to source.
          e.  Mechanical cyclone just prior to baghouse.
          f.  Dilution air port provided for temperature modulation.
          g.  By-pass damper omitted.
     Figure 3-L.shows the system layout for a fabric filter operation.  The
following discussion outlines how the design parameters are obtained for each
stage along the system.
Stage 1:    Direct exhaust from kiln, determine carbon steel  elbow duct size:
                       88300 ACFM = 22.1 Ft2
                        4000 fpm
            Hence, 64" duct (22.3 ft2) may be used, giving:
                       88300 ACFM  =   3950 fpm
                        22.3 ft2
Stage 2.   a.  Assume no temperature drop from kiln outlet to inlet of
               radiant cooler.  Estimate that about 600 F temperature is
               required out of the cooler.  Try initial 5000 fpm through two
               18" U tubes in  series.  Thus need
                        88300 ACFM
             1.767  ft2/tube X 5000  fpm
= 10 pairs of tubes in parallel

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                                                                               Screw  conveyor
DESIGN PARAMETERS
SCFM
TEMPERATURE
ACFM
DUCT DIAMETER
STATIC PRES. (" WG)
1
30,000
1100 F
88,300
64"
Kiln
Draft
2
30,000
600 F
60,000
50"
-2.1"
3
30,000
530 F
56,000
50"
-2.7"
4
30,000
500 F
54,300
50"
-8.7"
5
38,600b
100 Fb
40,800b
50"
-
6
30,000*
68,600b
500 Fj
275 FD
54,300?
95,100b
Neglect
-
7
30,000j
68,600b
500 F<>
275 Fb
54,300*
95,100b
Neglect
-14.7"
co
i
           a  -  glass  bag
           b  -  polyester  bag
                                    Figure  3-1   FABRIC FILTER SYSTEM DESIGN

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               From engineering calculations*for 40'  high tubes,  the temper
               ature drop for two tubes in series is  500F.   Thus  exit temp-
               erature is GOOF and gas volume is 60000 ACFM.  Pressure drop
               is 2.1" W.G.  Estimated length of cooler is 30 feet.
           b.  Determine carbon steel duct diameter
                       60000 ACFM     1K f.2
                       -  -  ID Tt
                        4000 fpm
                                   p
            Hence 50" duct (13.6 ft ) may be used, giving:
                                   .  4400 fpm
                        13.6 ft*
Stage 3.    Cooling of gas will take place over 200-30 = 170 ft.  of duct.
            Using engineering calculations, it is found that 600F gas
            through 170' of duct drops to about 530F-  Therefore, the new
            ACFM is:

                       60000 ACFM X 990_R   =  5600Q ACFM
                                    1060 R
                    Check duct velocity:
                       56000 AC  = 4100 fpm
                        13.6 ft*
            Hence duct size remains at 50" throughout.   Two expansion joints
            will be required, one 50", the other 64".  Pressure drop through
            duct is about 1/3" per 100 ft or .6" W.G.
    Heat  transfer  calculation methods may be found in the EPA publication AP-40,
    See Appendix C,  reference 88.

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Stage 4.  Select two mechanical collectors in parallel to handle 28000 ACFM
                                                                2
          each.  For  6" pressure loss, the inlet area is 8.5 ft  and the
          critical partical size is 24 microns.  Temperature drop will be
          about 30F, thus new gas volume is:
                       56000 ACFM X  960_R = 54j30Q ^
                                     990 R
Stage 5.  Dilution air port is provided for baghouse for modulation of gas
          temperature.  For glass bags, no dilution air will generally be
          required.  For polyester bags, dilution air is estimated as follows
          (neglecting the difference in heat capacities):
          (30,000 SCFM)(500F) + D (100F)=(30000+D)(275F)
                                      D = 38,600 SCFM
Stage 6.  Hence total gas volume is 68,600 SCFM or 95100 ACFM @ 275F for
          polyester bags, and is 54300 ACFM @ 500F for glass bags.
          The baghouse is sized as follows:
              a.  For glass bags:
                                          ft2 net cloth area.
                         2.0 A/C
              b.  For polyester bags:
                                  = 31700 ft2 net cloth area
                         3.0 A/C
          Baghouses are nominally sized  for  6"  W.G.  Neglect  temperature drop
          through the baghouse.
Stage 7.   Total  pressure drop across  system  is:
              Radiant cooler -            2.1"  W.G.
              Ductwork                     .6"
              Mechanical collector        6.0"
              Baghouse                    6.0"
                                         14.7"  W.G.
                                      3-11

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          Size fans for 54,300 ACFM and 95,100 ACFM for glass and polyester
          bags respectively.  Select 50' high stacks of 50" and 66" respect-
          ively.  Fifty feet of 9" diameter screw conveyor will be required.
Case B - Electrostatic Precipitator
          Establish overall engineering design as follows:
              a.  Drift velocity = .25 fps.
              b.  Insulated precipitator
              c.  Inlet gas temperature of 700F for good resistivity
              d.  Spray chamber next to source
          Figure 3-2 shows  the system layout for an electrostatic precipitator
          operation.  The following discussion outlines how the design para-
          meters are obtained for each stage along the system.
Stage 1.  Same  as for Case  A, Fabric Filter.
Stage 2.  Estimate spray chamber outlet temperature of 800F.  Water required
          is  about 15 gpm.  Chamber length is about 35 feet.  New gas volume
          will  be:
                       88,300 ACFM X  1260_R = 713QO Acm
                                      1560 R
              Calculate duct diameter:
                       71,300 ACFM   = 17 8 ft2
                         4000 fpm
                                 2
          Hence 55" duct (16.5 ft ) may be used,  giving:
                       71.300 ACFM  = 4300 fpm
                        16.5 fr
Stage 3.  a. Cooling through duct will be about 110F (for 206-35=165 ft).
          Hence final temperature is 690F and new gas volume is:
                       71300 ACFM  X  1150 R    = 6500Q ACFM
                                      1260 R
                                     010

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CO

(
CO
                                                    '2
V
Spray
chamber
N/
/ \_

A. ,
                                                                           /> a * a it a
                                                                                       Screw conveyer
DESIGN PARAMETER
SCFM
TEMPERATURE
ACFM
DUCT DIAMETER
STATIC PRES. (" WG)
/
1
30,000
1100 F
88,300
64"
Kiln
Draft
2
30,000
800 F
71,300
55"

3
30,000
690 F
65,000
55"
-1.0"
4
30,000
690 F
65,000
Neglect
-1.5"
                             Figure  3-2   ELECTROSTATIC PRECIPITATOR SYSTEM DESIGN

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              Check duct velocity:
                       65'00
                                    =  3940fpm(OK).
                        16.5 ft
          Two expansion joints will be needed as for baghouses.
          b.  Size precipitator  as follows:
              A = -65,000 ACFM  ln(l-.993)/(0.25 fps X 60 s/min)
              A =  21500 ft2
Stage 4.  Total pressure drop across system is:
              Spray chamber and duct - 1.0" W.G.
              Precipitator -            .5" W.G.
                              Total    1.5" W.G.
          Size fan for 65,000 ACFM.  Select a 50' high stack 55" diameter.
          Fifty feet of screw conveyor 9" in diameter will be required.
          Calculate KW of system for operating cost:
          15 gpnr pump has ^5 HP motor =          3.7 KW
          Screw conveyor has %5 HP motor =       3.7 KW
          Fan has -^10 HP motor =                 7.5 KW
          Precipitator requires                 78.3 KW
                                 Total          93.2 KW
                                     or          1.43 KW per 1000 ACFM
Case C  - Venturi Scrubber
          Establish overall engineering design as follows:
              a.  Venturi scrubber pressure drop estimated at 15" W.G.
              b.  Carbon steel, unlined construction
              c.  Quencher next to source.
          Figure 3-3 shows the system layout for a venturi scrubber operation,
          The following discussion outlines how the design parameters are
          obtained for each stage along the system.
Stage 1.  Same as for Case A, Fabric Filter.
                                     3-14

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                             Quencher  \/
                                                                          Water treatment
CO

>
en
DESIGN PARAMETER
SCFM
TEMPERATURE
CFM
DUCT DIAMETER
STATIC PRES. (" WG)
1
30,000
1100 F
88,300
64"
Kiln
Draft
2
40,200
220 F
52,000
48"

3
40,200
190 F
49,700
48"
-1"
4
30,000
100 F
48,200
Neglect
-16"
                                  Figure 3-3  VENTURI SCRUBBER SYSTEM DESIGN

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Stage 2.  a.-Qaeneher is sized at about 60 gpm and 30' 'long to coolrgas  from
          HOOF to 220F.  New gas volume is:
              gas:   88,300 ACFM  X  680_R  =  ^W ACRM
                                    1560 R
              water vapor:   60 gpm X 8.33 Ib/gal X 680 R  X 21.1 cu ft/lb
                                                    530 R
                                                            = 13500 ACFM
              total:  38,500 + 13500  =  52,000 ACFM
          b.  Required duct size is:
                       .5^000 AC  =  13.0 ft2
                         4,000 fpm
          Hence  a 48"  (12.57 ft  ) duct may be used giving:
                       52'000 AC   =  4140 fpm
                       12.57 ft
 Stage  3.  Through 170  ft of duct the gas temperature drops to about 190F,
          hence  the  new gas volume is:
                       52,000 ACFM X  650_R  = ^gJQQ
                                      680 R
               Check  duct velocity:
                       49'-700 AC  =  3950 fpm  (OK).
                        12.57 ftr
Stage 4.  Scrubber is sized for 49,700 ACFM; and will  be constructed  of 3/16"
          steel to allow for erosion.  Estimated gas exit temperature is
          170F-  Fan is sized for:
                       49,700 ACFM  X  630_R  = 48j200 ACFM
                                       650 R
          Select a 48" stack.
                                      3-16

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              ESTIMATING PURCHASE PRICE OF CONTROL SYSTEMS
Case A - Fabric Filter
          a.  (1) 64" carbon steel elbow, V Thick (Figure 4-24) -    $  1,800
          b.  (20) branches of 18" carbon steel radiant cooler 40'
              high (Figure 4-31) -                                      62,000
          c.  (170) feet of 50" carbon steel duct 3/16" thick
              (Figure 4-21)  -                                           9,700
          d.  (2) carbon steel, 10 Ga., mechanical collectors with
              inlet area = 8.5 ft* -                                    18,200
                       Collector (Figure 4-35)  -       $4100
                       Support (Figure 4-37) -           2600
                       3/16" Hopper (Figure 4-38)-       800
                       Scroll  (Figure 4-39) -           1600
                                       Total Each      $9100
          e.  (1) 3/16" transition to mechanical collector
              (Figure 4-24) -                                               600
              (2) expansion joints, one 50", one 64"  (Figure 4-28)-      6.000
                                                 Sub-Total             $  98,300
Glass Bags
          f.  (1) 50" carbon steel  dilution air port,  3/16"  thick
              (Figure 4-32)                                              5,000
                           2
          g.  (1) 27,150 ft  net cloth area, continuous,  reverse      140,400
              air,  insulated   baghouse (Figure 4-10)  -
          h.  Suction add-on (Figure 4-10)  -                             9,100
          i.  (1 set) 27,150 X 1.17 = 31,765 sq ft gross  area
              glass bags (Table 4-1) -                                  12,700
          j.  (1) 54,300 ACFM  backwardly curved Class  IV  fan at
              14.7MWG actual (29"  standard) (Figure 4-40)  -               5,600
          k.  (1) 1,800 RPM, 180 HP drip proof  motor
              (Figure 4-41) -                                          $   2,400
          1.  (1) Magnetic starter with circuit breaker
              (Figure 4-41) -                                             1,400
          m. -(1) 50" diameter, 50' high stack, 1/4"
              thick (Figure 4-48)  -                                      4,400
          n.  (50) feet of 9"  screw conveyor (Figure  4-57)                3,400
                                                 Sub-Total             $.184,400
                                      3-17

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Polyester Bags
          f.  (1)  66"  carbon  steel dilution  air  port,  1/4"
              thick  (Figure 4-32)  -                                   $   6,800
                           2
          g.  (1)  31,700  ft   net cloth  area,  continuous,
              mechanical  shaker baghouse  (Figure 4-9)  -                100,900
          h.  Suction  add-on  (Figure  4-9)  -                               8,900
          i.  Insulation  add-on  (Figure 4-9)  -                          49,500
          j.   (1)  set  31,700  X 1.17 = 37,089 sq  ft  gross
              area Dacron bags  (Table 4-1) -                           11,100
           k.   (1)  95,100  ACFM backwardly  curved  Class  IV  fan
              at 14.7" WG actual  (29" standard)  (Figure 4-40)-            9,000
           1.   (1)  1,800 RPM,  300  HP,  drip-proof  motor  (Figure 4-41)       4,400
          m.   (1)  magnetic starter with circuit  breaker
               (Figure  4-41)  -                                            3,000
           n.   (1)  66"  diameter,  50'  high  stack,  1/4" thick
               (Figure  4-48)  -                                            5,200
           o.   (50) feet of 9" screw  conveyor (Figure 4-57)-               3,400
                                                  Sub-Total            $202,200
      Total  capital and operating  cost for the fabric filter  system  is summar-
 ized below, see Table 4-12 for installation and  maintenance  cost and Figure
4-60 for operating costs:
                                     Glass Bag             Polyester Bag
           Equipment               $282,700               $300,500
           Installation (75%)         212,000                 225,400
           Maintenance (2%}           4700/yr                 6000/yr
           Operating (8000 hrs)       14,400/yr               25,600/yr
           Bags  (life:  1.5; 2.0 yr)   8,500/yr               5,600/yr
                                      3-18

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Case B - Electrostatic Precipitator
          a.  (1) 64" carbon steel elbow, 1/4" thick
              (Figure 4-24) -                                        $   18QO
          b.  (1) spray chamber @ 88,300 ACFM (Figure 4-29)-            55.00U
          c.  (165) feet of 55" carbon steel duct 3/16" thick
              (Figure 4-21) -                                           10,400
          d.  (2) expansion joints, one 55" and one 64"
              (Figure 4-26) -                                            6,600
          e.  (1) 21,500 ft2 precipitator, insulated
              (Figure 4-1) -                                           206,700
          f.  (1) 65,000 ACFM backwardly curved Class I fan
              at 1.5" WG actual (3.4" standard) (Figure 4-40)-           7,500
          g.  (1) 600 RPM.45 BMP drip-proof motor (Figure 4-41)-         2,100
          h.  (1) magnetic starter with circuit breaker
              (Figure 4-41)-                                               300
          i.  (1) 55" diameter, 50' high stack, 1/4" thick
              (Figure 4-48) -                                            4,700
          j.  (50) feet of 9" screw conveyor (Figure 4-57)-              3,400
                                        Total  Equipment               $29*8,500
                                        Installation (75%)              223,900
                                        Maintenance (2%)                  4,400/yr
                                        Operation (8000 Hrs)            14,400/yr
                                          (See Figure 4-58)
Case C - Venturi Scrubber
          a.  (1) 64" carbon steel elbow, 1/4" thick
              (Figure 4-24) -                                        $   1,800
          b.  (1) quencher @ 88,300 ACFM (Figure 4-30) -                 25,000
          c.  (1) quencher pump for 60 gpm (Figure 4-53)  -                  700
          d.  (170) feet of 48" carbon steel duct, 3/16"  thick
              (Figure 4-21) -                                            9,300
          e.  (2) expansion joints, one 48" and one 64"
              (Figure 4-26) -                                            6,000
          f.  (1) 49,700 ACFM scrubber, 3/16"  thick (Figure 4-2)-       22,000
                                     3-19

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          g.  (1) 48,EDO ACFM radial-tip fan at 16" WG actual
              (20" standard) (Figure 4-42) -                        $    8,000
          h.  (1) 900 RPM, 225 HP drip-proof motor (Figure 4-41)-        6,000
          i.  (1) magnetic starter with circuit breaker
              (Figure 4-41) -                                            2j000
          j.  (1) 48" diameter, 50' high stack, 1/4" thick
              (Figure 4-48) -                                            4,400
                                        Total Equipment             $   85,200
                                        Installation (140%)            119,300
                                        Maintenance (13%)               ll,10Q/yr
                                        Operation (8000 Hrs)            36,000/yr
                                           (See Figure 4-59)
                           COST COMPARISON
     Initial capital investments for the three alternative systems will be:
          Equipment
          Tax & Freight @ 7%
          Installation
                Sub Total
          Engineering @ 10%
                Sub Total
          Contingencies @ 10%
                Sub Total         $622,500        $657,400      $254,700
     The calculation of Present Worth (PW) for a 10% discount rate is  given
below.  The effect of income taxes on PW is not considered,  although in
practice one should consider tax effects, depending on tax advantages  avail-
able to the firm.
Case A - Fabric Filter
     Estimate equipment life of 20 years and glass bag life  of 1.5 years.
The calculation of Present Worth (PW) for a 10% discount factor is shown
                                     3-20
Fabric
Filter
$282,700
19,800
212,000
$514,500
51,400
$565,900
56,600
Electrostatic
Preci pita tor
$298,500
20,900
"223,900
$543,300
54,300
$597,600
59,800
Venturi
Scrubber
$85,200
6,000
119,300
$210,500
21,000
$231,500
23,200

-------
below.  Annual bag cost is figured at $12,700/1.5 = $8500
          PW = $622,500 + $4,700 (P/A,20) + $14,400 (P/A,20) + $8500 (P/A,20)
             = $622,500 + $27,600 X 8.514
             = $857,500  $171,000-.
Case B - Electrostatic Precipitator
     Estimate equipment life of 20 years.
          PW = $657,400 + $4400 (P/A,20) + $14,400 (P/A,20)
             = $657,400 + $18,800 (8.514)
             = $817,500  $163,000.
Case C - Venturi Scrubber
     Estimate equipment life of 10 years.
          PW = $254,700 + $11,000 (P/A,  20)  + $36,000 (P/A, 20)  + $254,700 (P/F.10)
             = $254,700 + $47,000 (8.514) + $254,700 (0.3855)
             = $753,000  $151,000.
     Because the equipment costs are accurate to 20%,  the overall  installed
equipment cost is also subject to the same accuracy.   Hence the  cost of the
scrubber system could range from $602,000 to $904,000,  but a nominal  estimate
would be $753,000.  The range for the precipitator system is $654,000 to
$980,000 and the range for the fabric filter system is  $686,000  to  $1,028,000.
The user of this manual should not determine what is the most  economical
system from these figures-rather the conclusion  to be drawn is that a control
system would cost something between the  ranges indicated above.   However,  the
designs presented here are not necessarily optimal, so  this analysis should
not be viewed as realistic from a design and cost standpoint,  rather the
reader should 'concentrate on understanding the use of the manual.
                                     3-21

-------
                              SECTION 4
           CONTROL EQUIPMENT COSTS AND SELECTED DESIGN DATA
4.1  ELECTROSTATIC PRECIPITATORS
     Prices for dry type (mechanical rapper or vibrator) precipitators are
contained in Figure 4-1.  These prices may also be used for rapper type, wet
bottom precipitators.   Prices are a function of net plate area, which can be
calculated using the Deutsch equation:
(1)      n - 1 -   e t-wA/C
    or
(2)      A = -Q In (l-n)/w
   where n is efficiency
         w is drift velocity, f/s
                                2
         A is net plate area, ft
         Q is flow rate, cfs
       exp is e, the Naperian log base
     For example, for gray iron foundries the drift velocity,  w,  is  typically
0.12 f/s.  If 99% cleaning efficiency is required on a flow rate  of  10,000
cfm into the precipitator, the net plate area is calculated as follows:
               A = (-10000 cfm*  In (K99))/(0.12 f/s*  60 s/m)
                 = 6396 ft2
     For the required plate area read the price for either the insulated or
uninsulated precipitators, depending on design requirements.
                                      4-1

-------
          DATA VALID FOR DECEMBER 1975
oe
o
UJ
CfL
a.
                              A, NET PLATE AREA, SO.FT.
     Figure 4-1  DRY TYPE ELECTROSTATIC PRECIPITATOR PURCHASE PRICES VS. PLATE AREA



                                      4-2

-------
4.2  VD1TURI SCRUBBERS

     Prices for venturi scrubbers are contained in Figures 4-2 through 4-6.

To price a scrubber using these curves, use the following steps.

A.  Determine the gas volume entering the venturi  section and read the price
    for a 1/8" thick carbon steel scrubber from Figure 4-2.  For example, at
    100,000 ACFM the price is approximately $34,000.

B.  Determine the pressure drop across the scrubber required to obtain the
    desired efficiency (see Table 2-2) and find the required metal thickness
    for the design inlet volume from Figure 4-3.   For 100,000 ACFM and 30",
    the required metal thickness is V plate (always  round up to the next
    standard plate thickness).

C.  From Figure 4-4, find the price adjustment factor for the design inlet
    volume and the material thickness found in Step B.  For 100,000 ACFM and
    V plate, the factor is approximately 1.6.  Thus, the carbon steel
    scrubber price is now $34,000 X 1.6 = $54,400.

D.  If stainless steel construction, rubber or fiberglas lining, or variable
    venturi section is to be included, refer to Figure 4-2 and adjust price
    accordingly.  For 304 stainless steel construction, the adjusted price
    would be $54,400 X 1.8 = $97,920.  If rubber linings are required, refer
    to Figure 4-5 to determine total square footage.

E.  If an internal gas cooler is to be used, determine the number of trays
    that can be fit into the separator (from separator height, Figure 4-5),
    and determine the diameter of each tray (from  separator diameter, Figure
    4-5).  Read price for one tray from Figure 4-6.  For 100,000 ACFM the
    separator diameter is approximately 13.5 ft.   Thus the price for one tray
    is about $13,000.

    NOTE:  Radial  tip fans are commonly used with  scrubbers.
                                     4-3

-------
   DATA VALID FOR DECEMBER 1975

55,000i	
50,000
40,000
30JDOO-
20,000
 10,000
 5,000
               NOTE:
1. Prices are for 1/8" Carbon Steel  Scrubbers
2. Includes: Venturi, Elbow,  Separator,  Pumps
   and controls, Flange-to-Flange
3. Do not use price equation  for  above
   200,000 ACFM
                                     Price Adjustments
                                                 G.
                                   Item

                              Other metal thickness
                              316  Stainless Steel
                              304  Stainless Steel
                              3/16" Rubber Liner
                              Manual Variable
                              Venturi
                              Automatic Variable
                              Venturi
                              Fiberglas Lined
                                                                             Factor

                                                                           See Figure 4-4
                                                                           x 2.5
                                                                           x 1.8
           L   1    I    I
                                      $3000

                                      $5500

                                      Add  15% of price
                                      for  1/8" Carbon
                                      Steel Scrubber
                                      to total price
                                                                              I
              20      40
        60
80
100
120
140
160
180    200
                        V, WASTE INLET GAS VOLUME,  1000 ACFM
               Figure 4-2  1/8" THICK CARBON  STEEL  FABRICATED SCRUBBER PRICE VS.  VOLUME
                                          4-4

-------
     1,000
o
 CM
X
LU
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OL
a.
o
II
10
UJ
Q
100
       10
          NOTE:  1.  Safety  Factor  =  2

                2.  No  Corrosion/Erosion
                   Allowance
                1	I
                               10
                                                                             100
200
                              V, WASTE INLET GAS, 1000 ACFM
             Figure 4-3  METAL THICKNESS REQUIRED VS.  VOLUME AND DESIGN PRESSURE
                                               4-5

-------
      DATA VALID FOR DECEMBER 1975
o
o
I/)
=>
~3i
O
et

LU
CJ
l(
oc
o.
                                  V, WASTE  INLET GAS,  1000 ACFM
                   Figure  4-4  PRICE ADJUSTMENT FACTORS VS. PLATE THICKNESS AND VOLUME
                                             4-6

-------
          4,000
          3,000
cr
o

-------
   DATA VALID FOR DECEMBER 1975

 soyooo
        -
 40,000
 30,000
 20,000
Q
LU
Q_

LU
O
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0_


Q.
  10,000
                               10
                                                 15
20
25
                     D, SEPARATOR DIAMETER, FT,
Figure 4-6  INTERNAL GAS COOLER BUBBLE TRAY COST VS.  SEPARATOR DIAMETER

                           4-8

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4.3  FABRIC FILTERS
     Prices for mechanical shaker, pulse-jet, reverse-air, and custom fabric
filters (baghouses) are contained in Figures 4-7 through 4-11.  Prices are
based on net cloth area, which is calculated by dividing the gas volume
entering the baghouse by the required air-to-cloth (A/C) ratio (see Table 2-1),
For example, to handle 100,000 ACFM at an A/C =2.0 requires 50,000 ft  net
                                                                             2
cloth area.  The price for a reverse-air, pressure-type baghouse at 50,000 ft
is $152,000.  For stainless steel construction, insulation, and suction-type
design, the total price without bags would be:
               Baghouse            $152,000
               SS                    78,000
               Insulation            80,000
               Suction               16,000
               Total               $326,000
     The prices^.for bags may be determined from Tables 4-1 and 4-2.  From
Table 4-2 obtain factor to calculate gross cloth area (at 50,000 ft2 the
factor  is 1.11) and from Table 4-1 obtain the price per square foot for the
appropriate cloth and baghouse type.  The price of glass bags for the example
is thus:
               50,000 ft2 X 1.11  X  $.40/ft2 = $22,200

     Baohouse prices are flange-to-flahge, including basic baghouse without
bags, 10 foot support clearance, and inlet and exhaust manifolds.  Pressure
baghouses are designed for 12" W.G. and suction baghouses are designed for
20" W.G.  Custom baghouse prices are more a function of specific requirements,
than of pressure or suction construction.  Hence prices for custom units do
not differentiate between pressure or suction.  All baghouses are assumed to
be factory assembled.
                                      4-9

-------
                     DATA VALID FOR DECEMBER 1975
              35
  I
  1>
  o
JP>

1

P
         o
         o
         o
         IX
              10
                        678     9    10    11    12    13    14    15    16   17   18   19  - 20

                            NET CLOTH AREA,  1000 SQ. FT.


Figure 4-7   INTERMITTENT, PRESSURE, MECHANICAL SHAKER BAGHOUSE PRICES VS. NET  CLOTH AREA

-------
           DATA VALID FOR DECEMBER 1975
-faO-

o
o
o
o
IH
GC.
O.
     40
     30
     20
     10
       0    1
                  5    6    7  .  .8      9    10    11    12   13   14    15    16    17    18   _]9   20

                            NET CLOTH AREA,  1000 SQ. FT.


Figure 4-8   CONTINUOUS, SUCTION OR PRESSURE,  PULSE JET BAGHOUSE PRICES  VS.  NET CLOTH AREA

-------
                     DATA VALID FOR DECEMBER 1975
                         10   15   20   25
65   70
Ifil
                    30    35    40    45    50    55    60
                       NET CLOTH AREA,  1000 SQ.FT.
Figure 4.9   CONTINUOUS, PRESSURE,  MECHANICAL SHAKER BAGHOUSE PRICES VS. NET CLOTH AREA

-------
                  DATA VALID FOR DECEMBER 1975
GO
                       10
20
70
                                                                                              80
                   30        40         50         60



                      NET CLOTH AREA,  1000 SQ.  FT.



Figure 4-10   CONTINUOUS, PRESSURE, REVERSE AIR BAGHOUSE PRICES  VS.  NET CLOTH AREA

-------
  I
 1

 -p>
I
5j
Jp)
            1400
                     DATA VALID FOR DECEMBER 1975
                         50
100
350
400
                 150       200        250        300


                       NET FABRIC AREA,  1000 SQ.FT.


Figure 4-11   CUSTOM  PRESSURE OR SUCTION BAGHOUSE  PRICES VS. NET CLOTH AREA
450
500

-------
DATA VALID FOR DECEMBER 1975 1WU1C " " "~
CLASS
Standard
^lif;;
Custom
TYPE
Mechanical shaker, < 20000ft
Mechanical shaker, >20000ft
Pulse jet*
Reverse air
,. * "
Mechanical shaker
Reverse air
DACRON
.35
.30
.55
.30

.20
.20
ORLON
.60
.55
.90
.55

.30
.30
NYLON
.70
.65

.65

.40
.40
NOMEX
1.10
1.00
1.25
1.00

.60
.60

GLASS
.45
.40

.40

.25
.25
POLYPROPYLENE
.60
.50
.65
.50
\ ;
.30
.30
COTTON
.40
.35
v^.i^Jty
.35
, \*s
,' *s
\ -.  'ftAX-si
.35
.35
   * For heavy felt,  multiply  price  by  1.5
                                     Table 4-2
APPROXIMATE GUIDE TO ESTIMATE
GROSS CLOTH AREA
en
NET CLOTH AREA
(Sq.ft.)
1 -
4001 -
12001 -
24001 - -
36001 -
48001 -
60001 -
72001 -
84001 -
96001 -
108001 -
132001 -
180001 ON
4000
12000
24000
36000
48000
60000
72000
84000
96000
1 08000
132000
180000
UP
GROSS CLOTH AREA
(Sq.ft..)
Multiply by 2
1.5
1.25
1.17
1.125
1.11
1.10
1 . 09
1.08
1 . 07
1.06
1 . 05
1 . 04

-------
4.4  THERMAL AND CATALYTIC  INCINERATORS
     Prices for thermal  incinerators  including  refractory linings,  are contained
in Figures 4-12 and 4-13.   Catalytic  incinerator prices are found in Figure
4-14.  Residence times for  thermal  incinerators are determined from application
requirements for efficiency.   The price of a thermal incinerator without heat
exchanger for a gas volume  of 30,000  ACFM and 0.3 second residence time is
$34,000.  With a heat exchanger, the  price is not as sensitive to residence
times, and the price would  be $80,000.  The price of a custom catalytic unit
with heat exchange would be $88,000 at 30,000 ACFM.  Gas volumes are measured
at operating temperature in the firing chamber.
                                      4-16

-------
                       .DATA VALID FOR DECEMBER  1975  	
   I
   I1
   ^J
                                                                   INCINERATOR CAPACITY, 1000 ACFM

                                             Figure  4-12    PRICES FOR THERMAL INCINERATORS WITHOUT HEAT EXCHANGERS
J>

-------
                            DATA VALID FOR  DECEMBER  1975
  oo
                                                                                                                                   180
                                                                                                  200
Jf1'
                     INCINERATOR CAPACITY, 1000 ACFM



Figure 4-13   PRICES FOR THERMAL INCINERATORS WITH HEAT EXCHANGERS

-------
f,
lis)
                      140   DATA  VALID  FOR DECEMBER 1975
 130




 120




 110




 100




 90
o
o
o

^  80

LU
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  70

o:
o


S  60
LU
Z
t


S  50


Q-


   40





   30





   20





   10





    0

                                                                          --K i-
                                                                  PA( KAGE I

                                                                  P 4  12
                                                                             	\	
                                       NITS :

                                       0.90 /(
                          0
10
                                         I

                                       30
                                                                                              CUSTOM
                                                                                             ;P= 28
                                                                UNITJ
                                                                 2.0/
                                                                                                       P1
                                                                                     WITH
                                                                                                          TfiM
                                                                      't
                                                     40
50
60
70
80
90
                                                                                                                                                   TOO
                                  A, INCINERATOR CAPACITY,  1000 ACFM

                             Figure 4-14 CATALYTIC INCINERATOR PRICES

-------
4.5  Adsorbers
     Prices for carbon adsorbers are presented in Figures 4-15 and 4-16, as a
function of the total  number of pounds of carbon in the unit.  The total (gross)
number of pounds is determined by the adsorption rate and the regeneration rate
of the carbon for the emission being controlled.  To calculate the net pounds of
carbon required for adsorption, first refer to Table 2-3 for a listing of carbon
adsorption efficiencies for various solvents.  These efficiencies represent the
ratio of pounds of solvent collected per 100 pounds of carbon, per hour, under
conditions of 100F and 200 cfm.  Select the efficiency for the solvent to be
controlled (for mixtures of solvents, see the reference noted below).  Next de-
termine the-rate of solvent emission in pounds per hour.  For example, suppose a
source produces 35 Ib/hr of toluene; since the efficiency for toluene is 7%,
then 100 Ib of carbon can adsorb 7 Ib of toluene per hour.  Therefore a total
of
            35 Ib  x  17i|j>b  = 500 Ib of carbon
are required per hour-  The air flow rate is figured at 200 cfm per 100 Ib of
carbon for efficient treatment, so a total of 1000 cfm is required in this case.
                                               *
     Next determine the steam regeneration rate  for the solvent being collected,
and calculate the number of beds and gross pounds of carbon required.  If the
regeneration rate (including cooling) equals the collection rate, two beds will
be required, thus the gross weight of carbon must be twice the net weight.  If
the regeneration rate is one-half the collection rate, three beds will be needed,
thus the gross weight of carbon must be 3.0 times the net weight.
   See Appendix C, Source No. 88, EPA AP-40
   Air Pollution Engineering Manual, p 189 - 198
                                      4-20

-------
     For tte example above,  saturated steam at 15 psig and 250F is sufficient to
regenerate the carbon.   Since the flow rate of steam through the carbon is  typically
1/5 to 1/10 the gas velocity, one can figure 20-40 cfm of steam through a 100-lb
bed.  Under the conditions stated, a cubic foot of steam weighs 0.07235 Ib, hence a
total of 1.5 - 3.0 Ib of steam would pass through each minute.   From Figure 124,
page 193, of reference 88, the pounds of steam required to recover a pound  of toluene
is plotted over time.  The point on the curve that satisfies the following  identity
gives the time required for  regeneration of 100 Ib of carbon:
     (# of Ib of steam/lb of toluene)x(7 Ib toluene)   =  (2 Ib  steam/min)x(# of min)
     For this application, an approximate rate of steam usage of 13 Ib  steam/lb
toluene gives a regeneration time of about 45 minutes.   Cooling of the  bed  may be
accomplished in various ways, but for this example,  assume 200  cfm of 100F  outside
air per 100 Ib of carbon.  The bed is at 250F (steam temperature)  and is to be cooled
to 115F, the equilibrium temperature of the working  bed.   With  these conditions, a
rough estimate of cooling time would be 30 minutes.   Therefore, the total regeneration
and cooling time is 75 minutes, for 7 Ib of toluene  in 100 Ib of carbon.
     One can then figure that two beds will be required,  each having a  total  cycle
time of 150 minutes.   Each bed will contain:
     (75 min regeneration/60 min adsorption)x(35 Ib  adsorbed/hr)x(100 Ib-hr
             irbon/7 Ib adsorbed)  =  625 Ib carbon.
     The total system thus requires 1250 Ib of carbon,  and from Figure  4-15,  the
price of an automatic unit is found to be $12,000 +_ 20%.
     In Figure 4-15,  typical commercial  applications include dry cleaning plants
and metal cleaning operations, whereas industrial  applications  include  lithography
and petrochemical applications.  Industrial requirements  include heavier materials
for high steam or vacuum pressure designs, and more  elaborate controls  to assure
safety against explosions and to prevent hydrocarbon breakthrough.

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      DATA VALID FOR DECEMBER 1975
70r-r
            1000
         Figure 4-15
 2000
3000
4000
5000
                                                                       6000
7000
                                                                        8000
                                                                        9000
10,000
                       C,  POUNDS  OF  CARBON,  LB



PRICES FOR PACKAGED STATIONARY  BED CARBON  ADSORPTION UNITS W/STEAM REGENERATION

-------
                             DATA VALID FOR DECEMBER 1975
*

ro
to
                       O1
                                    20
40
         60          80         100         120



              C, POUNDS OF CARBON, 1000 LB



Figure 4-16  PRICES FOR CUSTOM CARBON ADSORBTION UNITS
160
180
200

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4.6  DUCTWORK
4.6.1  Capture Hoods
     Figures 4-17 through 4-20 contain data for estimating capture hood costs.
     Figure 4-17 gives plate area requirements for rectangular capture hoods
and Figure 4-19 gives the corresponding labor costs for 10 Ga. carbon steel
construction.  Determine the length-to-width ratio (L/W) and the length for
a given application, and read the plate area required and the labor cost.
For example, if the hood is 20 ft long by 5 ft wide, the L/W = 4, the fabri-
                                                            o
cation labor cost is $4000, and the plate required is 250 ft .
     Figure 4-18 gives plate area requirements for circular capture hoods  and
Figure 4-20 gives the labor costs for 10 Ga. carbon steel construction.
Determine the angle of slope, e,  of the hood cone (or the height-to-diameter
ratio) and the diameter of the hood, and read the plate area required and  the
labor cost.  For example, if the hood is 20 ft in diameter and 9 = 50, the
H/D = .6, the fabrication labor cost is $1900, and the plate required is
550 ft2.
     To determine the total fabricated price, the plate weight must be cal-
culated, including 20% additional for structural supports.  The density of
10 Ga. carbon steel is 5.625 lb/ft2.  The density of %" plate is about
10.30 lb/ft2.
     Since 10 Ga. (.1382") is usually sufficient for hoods, the total mass
of the hoods and structurals in the two examples is:
               250 ft2 X 5.625 lb/ft2 X 1.2 = ~ 1690 Ib
               550 ft2 X 5.625 lb/ft2 X 1.2 = - 3700 Ib
   To determine angle of slope, see Appendix C, ref. 129, Fan Engineering,
   especially figure 57, p 114.
                                    4 ~

-------
     The material cost, cut to size, is estimate as follows:
                    CIRCULAR HOODS
                                      ^ 3/16"
AF + $.108/1b
               ^ 1/4"
AF + $.194/1b
CARBON      	
STEEL    RECTANGULAR HOODS   LG + $.208/lb| LG + $.194/1b
      where A is total  plate area, not including structurals,
            L is length of hood,
            F is a pricing factor, and
            G is a pricing factor.
             F FACTOR
             G FACTOR
DIAMETER
5
10
15
20
30
40
50
70
F
$.90/ft2
.60
.50
.45
.40
.40
.35
.35
L/W
1
2
4
8
G
$12/ft
8
4
2
     Using these formulas,  the material  cost is calculated  to  be:
             550 ft2 X $.45/ft^ + $.208/1 b X 3700 Ib =  $1000
              20 ft X $4/ft + $.208/1b X 1690 Ib = $430
     Hence the total price  for the two examples is:
             35 Rectangular Hood, 20'  X 5':  $400 + $430 = $830
             50 Circular Hood, 20'  diam:   $1900 + $1000 =  $2900
     If skirts or booth walls are needed,  figure material cost at  $.208/1b.
The weight of the wall will be the plate area times  the material density,
plus 20% additional for structurals.   For labor cost, figure cost  at $.30/lb.
     If refractory linings  are desired,  refer to Section 4.6.5.
                                    4-25

-------
  30JOOO,
   10,000
    1,000
cr
CO
 .
UJ
cr:
=c

Q-

Q
LU
     100
      10
           Slope of Hood =35
           L = Length
           W = Width
           Curves Include 10% Scrap
           Skirt Not Included
           For Water Cooled Hoods
            Use Double The Plate Area
                                                                    CURVE  EQUATIONS
                                                                  A =  -.5  +  0.306  L'
        0
10    15    20
30
40
50
60
                                 L,  LENGTH  DIMENSION,  FT.
                   Figure  4-17   RECTANGULAR  CAPTURE  KOODS  PLATE AREA REQUIREMENTS
                                VS.  HOOD  LENGTH AND  L/W
                                             4-26

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TiOOOOO
         DATA VALID FOR DECEMBER 1975
                        15
20
45
                25     30     35    40
               HOOD  DIAMETER, D, FT.
Figure 4-18  CIRCULAR HOODS PLATE REQUIREMENTS
50
55
60
65
70
                                               4-27

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  10000    DATA VALID FOR DECEMBER 1975
CO
o
ce.
o
ca
o
o
o
a:


a.
<
o

cc:
O
CO
o;
     10
         0
10
20
                                                                           80
                                                                   90
                            30      40       50       60      70


                               L, HOOD LENGTH DIMENSION, FT.


Figure 4-19  LABOR COST FOR FABRICATED 10 GA. CARBON STEEL RECTANGULAR CAPTURE HOODS
                                                4-28

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100000
             DATA  VALID  FOR DECEMBER 1975
      0
20
70
80
                             JO      40       50      60
                               D, HOOD DIAMETER, FT.
figure 4-20 LABOR  COST  FOR FABRICATED 10 GA. CARBON STEEL CIRCULAR CAPTURE  HOODS
90     100
                                           4-29

-------
4.6.2  Straight Duct
     Figure 4-21 gives the price for fabricated carbon steel duct in $ per
foot as a function of duct diameter and material thickness.  A 48" duct,
V thick costs $73/ft.  Hence 100 ft costs $7300.  Figure 4-22 gives prices
for stainless steel construction and Figure 4-23 gives prices for water
cooled carbon steel duct.
     For refractory lined duct, refer to Section 4.6.5.
                                      "

-------
                            DATA VALID  FOR  DECEMBER  1975
                     700       ,             , -
   I
  CO
                                                             include  flanges  ev|ery  40
)'    ll)     20     3b    40    50    60    76    80
0   120  ' 130   HO " 150	T60"  "
                                                                                                                              170   180   190   200
                                                                           D, DUCT DIAMETER, INCHES

                           Figure 4-21     CARBON STEEL STRAIGHT DUCT FABRICATION PRICE PER LINEAR FOOT VS. DUCT DIAMETER AND PLATE THICKNESS
Jf"

-------
                            DATA VALID FOR DECEMBER  1975
 i
 CO
 fSJ
                                                  nclude flamies every 40
                         0    10    20    30    40    50    60    70    80    90   100   110     120    130    140    150   160   170   180   190   200
A"
                                                                          D,  DUCT  DIAMETER,  INCHES
                            Figure 4-22STAINLESS STEEL STRAIGHT DUCT  FABRICATION PRICE  PER LINEAR FOOT VS. DUCT DIAMETER AND PLATE THICKNESS

-------
o
o
             DATA VALID FOR DECEMBER 1975
tuu
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C_J
                                                                                  60
70
                                          30         40           50



                                        D, DUCT DIAMETER,  INCHES



Figure 4-23   WATER COOLED CARBON STEEL STRAIGHT DUCT FABRICATION PRICE PER FOOT VS,  DUCT DIAMETER
80

-------
4.6.3  1bow Duct, Tees, and Transitions
     Figures 4-24 and 4-25 contain prices for carbon steel and stainless steel
elbow duct, respectively.  Prices are a function of duct diameter and material
thickness.
     For tees, the price will be 1/3 the corresponding price of an elbow hav-
ing the same diameter and thickness.  For transitions, the price will be ^
the corresponding elbow price  (use large diameter for sizing).
     For refractory lined elbows refer to Section 4.6.5.
                                     4-34
                                                                              Ofrsil

-------
1 QOOOfl   DRTA VALID  FOR  DECEMBER  1975
 1000Q.
cc
Q.
o
CO
o
CO

s
   1009.
     100
                                       D,  DUCT  DIAMETER,  INCHES

          Figure 4-24   CARBON STEEL  ELBOW DUCT PRICE  VS.  DUCT DIAMETER AND PLATE THICKNESS
                                              4-35

-------
 10000th
       9.
          DATA VALID FOR DECEMBER  1975
   10000
CSL
CL.
O

Q
o
CO
LU
UJ
           0
20
40
                                    60
80
                                          120     140     160     180
                                                                                              200
                                    D, DUCT DIAMETER, INCHES
    Figure 4-25 STAINLESS STEEL ELBOW DUCT PRICE VS. DUCT DIAMETER AND PLATE THICKNESS
                                                4-36

-------
4.6.4  Expansion Joints
     Figure 4-26 contains prices for expansion  joints  as  a  function  of duct
diameter.
                                    4-37

-------
 i
CO
00
                    7000
                    6000
                    5000
                 I/O
                 o
                 o
                 o
                 II

                 OO
                    4000
              	j	j...	^___.
                 <  3000
Q-

X
                    2000
                    1000
                                                                                                4
                                                                                                                     	i._.
                                                                                                                                  -t--
                                                                                                                       t
                                    10
                                                                                     50
                                                                                60
70
80
90
                                                                      DUCT  DIAMETER,  INCHES

                                                          -26 CARBON STEEL EXPANSION JOINT COSTS VERSUS DUCT DIAMETER
                                                                                                                                         --i-.-J
100

-------
4.6.5  Refractory Materials
     Table 4-3 contains pricing data for refractory materials.  Refractory
may be applied to capture hoods, straight duct, elbows, tees, transitions,
spray chambers, thermal and catalytic incinerators (for replacement), and
stacks.  To estimate the cost, determine the surface area to be lined, the
thickness of the lining, and the type of refractory to be used.  Compute the
cubic feet of refractory required and multiply by the price.
                                    4-39

-------
                                                             Table 4-3


                                     REFRACTORY ESTIMATING COSTS, DATA VALID  FOR  DECEMBER  1975
TYPE
Insulating Firebrick, 2300 F
High Duty Firebrick, 3100 F
Super Duty Firebrick, 3200 F
Insulating Castable, 2000 F

General Purpose Castable, 2200 F
Dense Castable, 3000 F
Plastic, 3000 F

Ceramic Fibre Matt, 2300 F
Ceramic Fibre Board, 1800 F
High Alumina, 3500 F
APPLICATION/FORM
Brick
Brick
Brick
Cast in Forms,
Trowelled, or Gunned
M
ii
Rammed w/Pneumatic
Hammer
Like Mineral Wool
Rigid Board
Brick
DENSITY
(Lb/cu. ft.)
50
135
145
50

120
140
140

N/A
N/A
180
PURCHASE PRICE
 ($/cu. ft.)
N/A
N/A
$6
$5

N/A
$20
$11

N/A
N/A
N/A
INSTALLED COST
($/cu. ft.)
N/A
N/A
$75
$25

N/A
$65
N/A

$20
N/A
N/A
 -p
 I
          N/A = Not Available
          Ref:  Appendix C, Source No. 37,"Afterburner Systems Study"

                Chapter 7, pp 100-110.
 ,
10)

-------
4.7  DAMPERS
     Prices for rectangular and circular dampers,  with and without automatic
temperature regulated controls, are contained in Figures 4-27 and 4-28,
respectively.  Rectangular dampers are priced as a function of cross-sectional
area for a length-to-width ratio of 1.3.  Circular dampers are priced as a
function of damper diameter.   These prices are for dampers only - the type
that may be used inside a duct or at inlets and outlets of control  equipment
components.
                                    4-41

-------
ro
                      14





                      13






                      12






                      11






                      10

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                    LU

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                    <_j
                    LU
                    o;


                        4
                              DATA VALID FOR  DECEMBER 1975
          Mffr
         " lTX3 TC
1.


2.
                3,
Dqmpcjrs


Fdr staiiftklss

mijltiply
   Price  with

   temperature
                             price
4l^xv  |l f^i ttij^v ^\<-i -^x/rifl
tJTtC*  T| UUVCr CO t-JrUc



        cofjstructjlon
ste(el

 taj 3..0
            contrcls  is

             regulated
            a nominal estimate)

           dafflflersj.
                              for
                                                      I  -
                                           34567



                                                 DAMPER CROSS-SECTIONAL AREA, 1000  SQ.IN.



                             Figure 4-27 CARBON STEEL RECTANGULAR  DAMPER PRICES VS.  AREA FOR L/W-1.3
                                                                                                                                                       10

-------
    DATA VALID  FOR  DECEMBER 1975

0     10   20     30    40    50    60    70    80    90    100    110   120   130   140
                            DAMPER DIAMETER,  INCHES
       Figure 4-28 CARBON STEEL CIRCULAR DAMPER PRICES VS.  DIAMETER
                                       4-43

-------
4.8  HEAT EXCHANGERS
4.8.1  Spray Chambers and Quenchers
     Figure 4-29 contains prices for spray chambers and Figure 4-30 gives
prices for quenchers, both versus inlet gas volume.
                                    4-44

-------
                      90
-p.
en
                o
                o
                o
                1/5
                O
                o
UJ

CO
                i
                0_
                      80
                      70
                      60
50
                      40
                      301-
                                                                                                                           dder, j gfgiti ijigst~

                                                                                                                           cofttriVs
                      20
                                               50                       100                      150

                                                                         INLET GAS VOLUME - ACFM


                                                         Figure  4-29 SPRAY CHAMBER COSTS VERSUS INLET GAS  VOLUME
                                                                                                        200
                                                                                                                           250

-------
-p>
 I
                 o
                 o
                 o
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OL
UJ
^n.
o
                      20
                      10
                                                50
                                                                             INLET VOLUME - 1000'S ACFM


                                                                 Figure 4-30 QUENCHER COSTS VERSUS INLET  GAS  VOLUME

-------
4.8.2  Kadiant Coolers
     Figure 4-31 contains prices for 'U'  tube radiant coolers as a function of
the number of branches ('U1  tubes), the diameter of the tube, and the height
of the tube.  Refer to Appendix C,  Source No.  88, for design of 'U1  tubes.
4.8.3  Dilution Air Ports
     Figure 4-32 contains prices for dilution air ports as a function of port
diameter and plate thickness.
                                     4-47

-------
 DOTA VALID FOR DECEMBER 1975
                                                for  st^inlesp stee! construction
                                                         tot^l price by p.3
0     2
 FIGURE
10    12    14    16

  NUMBER OF BRANCHES
                                                     18
                                                   20
22
24    26
28
4-31 FABRICATED 40 FOOT HIGH 'U1  TUBE HEAT  EXCHANGER  PRICES WITH HOPPERS
     AND MANIFOLDS

-------
          DATA VALID FOR DECEMBER 1975
o
o
o
o
II


D-
O
O.
OC
t (

-------
4.9  MECHANICAL COLLECTORS
     Figure 4-33 provides a means of estimating the volume capacity of mech-
anical collectors as a function of inlet cross-sectional area.  Figure 4-34
provides a means of estimating the critical particle size for collectors vs.
inlet area.  Critical particle size is defined as the largest sized particle
not separated from the gas stream.
     Figures 4-35 through 4-39 contain pricing data for mechanical collectors
and components as a function of inlet area.
     For example, suppose 50,000 cfm is to be passed through a mechanical
collector prior to entering a baghouse.  A pair of 25,000 cfm capacity collec-
tors with a pressure drop of 4" AP and an inlet area of 9% sq. ft. would be
satisfactory for the purpose.  The critical particle size is found to be
28 microns.  For 10 Ga. carbon steel construction, the price of the collector
would be about $4500.  The cost of additional components would be:
               support:  $2700
               hopper:     780
               scroll:    1400
                         $4880
     The total price is thus $4880 + $4500 = $9380.  In general, price of
collectors varies directly with inlet area since the mass of the unit in-
creases with increasing area.  However, these curves give prices for only
single-unit collectors, not multiple units.
                                                                              05>;

-------
                                      _:__:__     1
                                                          i
    3456789    10



             A, COLLECTOR INLET AREA, SQ. FT.



Figure 4-33  CAPACITY ESTIMATES FOR MECHANICAL COLLECTORS
11    12    13    14
                           /I..C1

-------
                                                	:	j	j
0     1
 2     3     4     5     6     7     8     9    10    11    12    13



                 A, COLLECTOR INLET AREA, SQ. FT.



Figure 4-34  CRITICAL PARTIAL SIZE ESTIMATES FOR MECHANICAL COLLECTORS
                                                                                  14

-------
            MEA VALID FOR DECEMBER 1975
      8,000
o:
Q_


CtL

O
UJ
o
o
                                                  8
10   II   12   13   14
                            A, COLLECTOR INLET AREA., FT'
      Figure 4-35  MECHANICAL COLLECTOR PRICES FOR CARBON STEEL CONSTRUCTION VS. INLET AREA
                                          4-53

-------
             DATA VALID FOR DECEMBER 1975
    23,000,
    20,000
     15,000
CC
0.
o
o
O
O
    10,000
     5,000
        0
                            _L
               I
12   13    14   15
                   23456789

                              A, COLLECTOR INLET AREA, FT.'

Figure 4-36  MECHANICAL COLLECTOR PRICES FOR  STAINLESS STEEL  CONSTRUCTION  VS.  INLET  AREA
10   II

2

-------
               DATA VALID FOR DECEMBER 1975
       3,000
LU
o
Q_
0.
13
OO
2,000
        1,000
         400
                                                                 EQUATIONS
                                                  Segment

                                                     1

                                                     2

                                                     3
     Equation

P = 500 + 130 A

P = 900 + 125 A

P = 1700 + 105 A
                                                   8
                                                     10   II   12   13   14
                             A, COLLECTOR INLET AREA, FT'
           Figure 4-37  MECHANICAL COLLECTOR SUPPORT PRICES VS.  COLLECTOR INLET AREA
                                         4-55

-------
               DATA VALID FOR DECEMBER 1975
         4,000
LlJ
o
Q.

OC
LU
Q.
O.
O
                        23456789


                              A, COLLECTOR INLET AREA, FT2
10   II   12   13   14
Figure 4-38  MECHANICAL COLLECTUK DUST HOPPER PRICES FuK CAKbON AND  STAINLESS  STEEL

                              CONSTRUCTION VS.  COLLECTOR INLET  AREA
                                          4-56

-------
            DATA VALID FOR DECEMBER 1975
   LU
   o
   o:
   a.
   o

   in

   Q.
         6,000
                         Curve Equations
                                       P   450+542A-11.4A2
                                       P = 406+379A-10.6A2
                                       P   309+270A-8.0A2
                                       P   272+188A-3.6A2
                                       P   255+145A-2.7A2
Stainless
Stainless
Stainless
Carbon
Carbon
Carbon
3/16"
10 Ga
14 Ga
3/16"
10 Ga
                                           236+126A-2.0A2
                                                              10   II    12   13   14
                                A,  COLLECTOR INLET  AREA,  FT


Figure 4-39  MECHANICAL COLLECTOR SCROLL  OUTLET  PRICES  FOR CARBON  AND  STAINLESS  STEEL

             CONSTRUCTION  VS.  COLLECTOR INLET AREA
                                               4*57

-------
4.10  FANS, MOTORS, AND STARTERS
4.10.1  Backwardly Curved Fans
     Backwardly curved fans are priced as a function of the actual  air flow
rate, pressure drop at standard conditions, and class, as given in  Figure 4-40.
If, for example, a Class HI fan is to operate at sea level with gas temperature
of 70 F and is to handle a gas volume of 20,000 CFM at 10" of water, the price
would be $3400.
     However, in many cases a fan would not be operated at standard conditions,
and adjustments must be made through the use of Table 4-8 to properly cost
the fan.  For example, if actual conditions are:
               a.  gas temperature = 300F
               b.  altitude = 1000 ft.
               c.  actual cfm = 50000
               d.  actual AP = 10" static pressure
     then the fan is priced as follows:
       1.  obtain fan sizing factor from Table 4-8 for 300F at 1000 ft = .672
       2.  actual 10" static pressure/.672 = 15" at standard conditions
       3.  enter Figure 4-40 with 50,000 cfm and 15", read price of $6800
           for Class IV fan.  Since this is a high heat application, the
           estimated price is $6400 X 1.03 = $7000.
     The prices for the motor and the starter are obtained from Figure 4-41.
Enter the chart on the right with the gas flow rate and the static  pressure
at standard conditions.  For 10" S.P- and 20,000 cfm, find the point with
those coordinates and draw lines parallel to the "FAN RPM" guidelines and
the "BHP" guidelines.  Read the fan rpm on the scale to the right,  read the
bhp on the scale to the left.  Then read the price for the type of  starter
needed and for the drip-proof motor at the selected rpm.   A guide to
determining motor rpm is given in Table 4-7.  For the example, the  fan rpm
is found to be about 1600 and the motor bhp is 44.  According to Table 4-7,
the motor rpm should be 1800, hence the corresponding price is about $600.
                                     4-58

-------
 If a magnetic starter is selected,  the price is about $350.   Prices for motor
types other than drip-proof may be estimated using Table 4-4.   A totally en-
closed motor for this example would  cost $600 X 1.5 = $900.   The selection of
a motor type may be made from Table  4-6.
     For conditions other than standard, the following steps  must be taken
to establish the motor and starter price.   Again consider the 300F application
from before.
       1.  Find the bhp from Figure  4-41 using 50000 cfm and  15" S.P-  =  180 bhp
       2.  Correct the bhp by multiplying  by the fan sizing factor:
           180 bhp X 0.672 = 121 bhp,  actual.
       3.  Find motor and starter prices at 121 bhp.  The fan rpm does not
           require adjustment.
     An inlet or outlet damper is usually required on fans, and prices for
such are presented in Figure 4-44.  Note that the static pressure is measured
for standard conditions, as in Figures 4-40 and 4-41.
     V-belt drives may be selected for some applications.  Figure 4-45
concains prices for V-belt drives as a function of motor bhp  and fan rpm.
For direct drives, estimate price at 5% of the motor price.
4.10.2  Radial Tip Fans
     The method of estimating prices for radial tip fans is the same as  for
backwardly curved fans.  Prices for  raHial tip fans operating under 20"
S.P. are given in Figure 4-42.  Figure 4-43 provides the data for determining
the fan rpm and motor bhp for radial tip fans.  Refer to Figure 4-41 and
Table 4-4 to obtain the motor and starter prices once the bhp has been
determined.
     For radial tip fan applications involving greater that 20" S.P.,  Figures
4-46 and 4-47 should be used to estimate the fan and motor prices respectively.
The static pressure must be converted to standard conditions  as before,  using
Table 4-8.
                                     4-59

-------
                       DATA VALID FOR DECEMBER 1975
i
cr>
o
                                                                                                                   1100000
               1000000
                100000
                 10000
                     S
                     6
                     7
                     6
                     5
                  1000
                                 3  4  5678910
"20
                            AP, in H20

                       (AT STANDARD CONDITIONS)
Fan
Class
I
" II
III
IV



*Performance Range
(inches of water)
Performance Range*
Single Width
5" @ 2300 fpm to 2-1/2" @ 3200 fpm
8-1/2" I? 3000 fom to 4-1/4" G> 4175 fom
13-1/2" P 3780 fpm to 6-3/4" 0 5260 fpm
Above Class III specifications
designations are indicated by static pressure
at fan outlet velocity(feet per minute).
For high temperature
environment add 3%
( >250F. <600F)
For stainless steel
construction multiply
price by 2.5 .
                                                         Figure 4-40  BACKWARDLY CURVED FAN PRICES VERSUS CLASS, CFM, AND AP

                                                                     FOR ARRANGEMENT NO. 1

-------
I
(ft
IS
I
TO I

1"


ft''
                       DATA VALID FOR DECEMBER 1975

                  2,000| i i  i i  ii	r	1	rr
                   1,000 :
               CL.
               O
                       10
                                        DRIP-PROOF MOTOR OR STARTER PRICE, $
                             NOTE:   Prices are for drip-proof motors only, for
                                    other types of motors, see Tables 4-4 and 4-6.
                                    Motors are purchased in standard sizes, but
                                    for  estimating purposes,  curve prices are OK.
                            10
    2   3  4 56 8 10    20

AP, H20 (AT STANDARD CONDITIONS)
                                     Figure  4-41  BHP,  FAN  RPM  AND MOTOR AND STARTER PRICES VS.  AP AND CFM.

-------
                         Table  4-4

            PRICING  FACTORS  FOR OTHER  MOTOR  TYPES  *
                                              Table  4-5

                                  MOTOR AND STARTER PRICE EQUATIONS
HORSEPOWER
I20
> 20
TOTALLY ENCLOSED
FAN COOLED
1.3
1.5
EXPLOSION PROOF
1.6
1.7
RPM




Mag.

Exp.
3600\
1800/
1200
900
600
Starter

Prf. Str.
EQUATION
P =
P =
P =
P =
P =

P =
60+11.9 BHP + 0.00845BHP2
68+18.0 BHP
100+35.0 BHP-0.07 BHP2
204+52.6 BHP-0.083 BHP2
150+2.5 BHP+.04 BHP2 -
.00005 BHP3
270+8.5 BHP+.008 BHP2
  I
 (Ti
 ro
                      Table  4-6

                 MOTOR TYPE SELECTION
Drip-proof:

In non-hazardous, reasonably clean
surroundings free of any abrasive
or conducting dust and chemical
fumes.  Moderate amounts of moisture
or dust and falling particles or
liquids can be tolerated.

Totally Enclosed Non-Ventilated or
Fan Cool id":

In non-hazardous atmospheres con-
taining abrasive or conducting dusts,
high concentrations of chemical or
oil vapors and/or where hosing down
or severe splashing is encountered.
Totally Enclosed Explosion Proof:
Use in hazardous atmospheres containing:

Class I, Group D, acetone, acrylonitrile,
alcohol, ammonia, benzine, benzol, butane
ethylene dichloride, gasoline, hexane,
lacquer solvent vapors, naptha, natural
gas, propane, propylene, styrene, vinyl
acetate, vinyl chloride or xylenes;

Class II, Group G, flour, starch or
grain dust;

Class II, Group F, carbon black, coal
or coke dust;

Class II, Group E, metal dust including
magnesium and aluminum or their com-
mercial alloys.
                                                             Table 4-7

                                                   MOTOR RPM SELECTION 'GUIDE
MOTOR RPM
3600
1800
1200
900
600
FAN RPM RANGE
2400 - 4000
1400 - 2400
1000 - 1400
700 - 1000
< 700

-------
                 Table 4-8 FAN iu^ING FACTORS:  AIR DENSITY RATIOS


                Unity Basis = Standard A1r Density of .075 lb/ft3

At sea level (29.92 1n. Hg barometric pressure) this 1s  equivalent to  dry  air  at  70F,
Air
Temp.
F
70
100
150
200
250
300
350
400
450
500
550
600
650
700
Altitude in Feet Above Sea Level
0
1000
2000
3000
4000
5000
6000
7000
8000
9000
10000
15000
20000
Barometric Pressure in Inches of Mercury
29.92
1.000
.946
.869
.803
.747
.697
.654
.616
.582
.552
.525
.500
.,477
.457
28.86
.964
.912
.838
.774
.720
.672
.631
.594
.561
.532
.506
.482
.460
.441
27.82
.930
.880
.808
.747
.694
.648
.608
.573
.542
.513
.488
.465
.444
.425
26.82
.896
.848
.770
.720
.669
.624
.586
.552
.522
.495
.470
.448
.427
.410
25.84
.864
.818
.751
.694
.645
.604
.565
.532
.503
.477
.454
.432
.412
.395
24.90
.832
.787
.723
.668
.622
.580
.544
.513
.484
.459
.437
.416
.397
.380
23.98
.801
.758
.696
.643
.598
.558
.524
.493
.466
.442
.421
.400
.382
.366
23.09
.772
.730
.671
.620
.576
.538
.505
.476
.449
.426
.405
.386
.368
.353
22.22
.743
.703
.646
.596
.555
.518
.486
.458
.433
.410
.390
.372
.354
.340
21.39
.714
.676
.620
.573
.533
.498
.467
.440
.416
.394
.375
.352
.341
.326
20.58
.688
.651
.598
.552
.514
.480
.450
.424
.401
.380
.361
.344
.328
.315
16.89
.564
.534
.490
.453
.421
.393
.369
.347
.328
.311
.296
.282
.269
.258
13.75
.460
.435
.400
.369
.344
.321
.301
.283
.268
.254
.242
.230
.219
.210
SOURCE:  AMCA STANDARD #402-66
         AIR MOVING AND CONDITIONING ASSOCIATION,  INC.
         205 West Touhy Avenue
         Park Ridge, Illinois   60068

-------
o:
         DATA VALID FOR DECEMBER 1975
1OOOOJ
     10000
         250F, <600F )
                                                         For Stainless  Steel
                                                         Construction multiply
                                                         Price  by 2.5  .
                                                                                              U4

                                                                                              t-H

                                                                                              Q-

                                                                                              Z
                                                                                              <
                                Figure 4-42  RADIAL  FAN  PRICES  VERSUS SCFM,  AND AP FOR ARRANGEMENT NO.  1

-------
MOTOR
 BHP
         IOOOi
          500-
                                                        100
                                                          200
                                 :__L_1 i_._J.	.	100
                          234   6  8 10    20

                             AP,  IN  H20

         Figure 4-43  FAN RPM AND MOTOR BHP FOR RADIAL FANS
                                       4-65

-------
lOOQOOoq
                                                                                                                     7691
                                                                                           10000
  iooooq -
    100Q
             AP,  IN  H20
         (AT  STANDARD
          CONDITIONS)
10     20

 Figure 4-44 FAN INLET AND OUTLET DAMPER PRICES AS A FUNCTION OF CFM AND
                                                                                                                               oc
                                                                                                                               D-
                                                                                                                               o:
                                                                                                                               LU
                                                                                                                               a.

-------
I
en
                           DATA VALID FOR DECEMBER 1975
                     1500



                    1400
                  Q
                  Od
                  <

                  3  1300,
                    1200
                  CO
                  o
                  Q
                  ID
                     1100
                     1000
                  OL
                  Q.
cr:
Q
LL)
CO
 I
                                                                                                      NOT: 1. Select V-Bel!t closest td
                                                                                                               fan RPM
                                                                                                                                                1
                                                                                                            2.. Qo not "Ix.trflpol.alte" prlices.  _      j
                                                                                                               for belts abiove 15|0 HP. lapplicatiord
                                     20
                                40
60
80         100          120
  MOTOR HORSEPOWER, HP
140
160
180
200
                                                                     Figure 4-45   V-BELT  DRIVE PRICES

-------
(=<

O
o
O
LU
o
II
Cti
CL.
    70
        DATA '-VALID FOR DECEMBER 1975
    60
    50
    40
     30
     20
     10
                   1.


                   2.
    TP=  Fan Pressure measured
         at standard conditions

    For  stainless steel con-
    struction and rubber lined
    housing, multiply price by
    2.5.
       30
50
100
150
                                  AIR FLOW RATE, 1,000 CFM
                            Figure 4-46  RADIAL TIP FAN PRICES
                                         4-68

-------
o
o
o
<_)
1I

Q.
75 -

   !

70 :


65 ,
   i

60 '


55


50 '


45


40 :


35 .


30


25 :


20
        DATA VALID FOR DECEMBER 1975
               NOfE:  1.  Accuracy of this curve is   50K.  Prices will
                        vary as   function of:
                          a) Motor RPM
                          b) Frame size
                          c) Voltage
                          d) Motor enclosure
                          e) Type of starter
                     2.  FTP = Fan Total  pressure at Standard  Cond1[tion5
   10


    5
                 20
                                      60
140
160
                                     80          100         120

                                     AIR FLOW RATE, 1000 CFM

Figure 4-47  STARTER AND MOTOR PRICES FOR VENTURI SCRUBBER APPLICATIONS  (HIGH PRESSURE, HIGH BHP)
                                                                                                             180
200

-------
4.11 STACKS
     Prices for stacks are given in Figures 4-48, 4-49 and 4-50.   Figures
4-48 and 4-49 are for carbon steel, unlined, uninstalled stacks under 100'
Figure 4-50 contains installed prices for tall stacks over 200' with and
without liners and insulation.
                                      4-70

-------
              DATA VALID  FOR  DECEMBER  1975
CQ
         7,000
         6,000 
         5,000 
         4,000 
NOTE: 1. Plate Thickness:  1/4 Inch
      2. Includes:  Flange, Stack,
         Cables, Clamps, &. Surface
         Coating
      3. Cables are Stainless Steel
         Qty:  4
                                                               Weight of  1/4" Stack

                                                             Diameter         Weight  (Ibs)
         3,000 
         2,000-
         1,000 
                                   H,  STACK HEIGHT,  FT
      Figure 4-48  FABRICATED CARBON STEEL STACK PRICE VS.  STACK HEIGHT AND

                   DIAMETER FOR 1/4 INCH PLATE

                                           4-71

-------
          DATA VALID FOR DECEMBER 1975
          9,000
          8,000
         7,000
         6,000
LLJ!
O
Q'
LUi
a:\
         5,000
          4,000 
         3,000
         2,000
                   NOTE:  1.  Includes: Flange, Stack, Cables,
                             Clamps & Surface Coating
                          2.  Cables are Stainless Steel, Qty: 4
                                             Weight of Stack
                                    Diameter    Thickness    Weight
                                      42
                                      48
                                      54
                                      54
                                      60
                                      60
                                         5/16
                                         5/16
                                         5/16
                                         3/8
                                         5/16
                                         3/8
                                         400
                                         475
                                         550
                                         670
                                         600
                                         700
                                      142H
                                      162H
                                      182H
                                      218H
                                      202H
                                      242H
              10
20
30
40
50
60
70
80
90
                                   H, STACK HEIGHT, FT
           Figure 4-49  FABRICATED CARBON STEEL STACK PRICE VS. STACK HEIGHT'AND

                        DIAMETER FOR 5/16 AND 3/8 INCH PLATE

                                              4-72

-------
   DATA VALID FOR DECEMBER 1975
                         300         400



                           HEIGHT,  FT



Figure 4-50 PRICES FOR TALL STEEL STACKS,  INSULATED AND LINED
                                        4-73

-------
4.12  CODLING TOWERS
     Two figures are given for pricing installed cooling towers.  Figure 4-51
applies for capacities less than 1000 tons.  Figure 4-52 applies for capacities
over 1000 tons (1 ton = 12000 BTU/HR).  The use of Figure 4-52 requires expl-
anation.
     Figure 4-52 provides prices for installed cooling towers as a function
of the range and the water flow rate at a wet bulb (W.B.) temperature of 82F
and an approach of 10F.  See Table 4-11 for definitions of terminology.  If
the W.B. is other than 82F, Table 4-10 provides factors for adjusting the
price.  If the approach is other than 10F, Table 4-9 provides similar factors.
     For example, suppose a cooling tower is to operate under conditions of
72F W.B. and a 20F approach (leaving water temperature = 92F).  If the flow
rate is 50,000 gpm and the range is 60F, then the price before adjustments is
$540,000.  The adjustment factor for 72F W.B. is 1.38 and the factor for a
20F approach is .5.  The installed cooling tower price is thus:
          (540,000 - 30,000) (0.5) (1.38) + 30,000 = $381,900
     The fan motor horsepower is estimated as follows:
                P
          HP = 1t..- >   where P is the price of the tower.
               J. OUvJ
     The pump motor horsepower is estimated as follows:
          HP = gpm X 0.12.
     The basin area is estimated as follows:
                         P     9
          Basin Area =  ___  ft  .
                        150
     Basin costs have not been provided since they are so highly dependant on
the individual application.  The basin may be used in conjunction with other
processes, which involves a proration of costs, and the basin may be constructed
in many types of soils and terrain, which can dramatically alter the first cost.
Basin costs should be estimated on an application basis through a basin con-
tractor.
                                    4-74

-------
.

cn
  140


  130


  120.


  110


  100 !
8  90
o  80 ;
*4
OL
Q.

S5  70 .
o
i

  60 !
8    i
0  50 i
O    '
<  40 I

Z     !
t-H     t

   30 !
      I


   20 i



   10 



    0 '
     0
                  DATA VALID FOR DECEMBER 1975
                                   N^TE; 1- RICk.lfla
                                            PUMPB, MOT
                                         2. PRICE DOESi NOT I
KH.IN6I TOHERJ. -FANS
  INSTALLATION.
      i BASINl COST.
                                                            i
	  i	
                                                                                          Hooo $i= 0.9! + o.ojhi'T
                                                                                                        	;	.	\	|	
                                                                                         _ I	

                                                                                          700
                                   100         200         300         400         500         600         700         800

                                                                 T, COOLING TOWER CAPACITY, TONS

                                       Figure 4-51 PRICES FOR INSTALLED COOLING TOWERS FOR UNITS OF CAPACITY - 1000 TONS
                                                                       900
                      1000

-------
    700
            DATA  VALID  FOR  DECEMBER  1975
     600
o
o
o
cc.
UJ

I


C3
O
O
O
     200
     TOO
                    10
20
30
70
                                           40          50           60


                                     G,  INLET  FLOW RATE,  1000 GPM



Figure 4-52  PRICES FOR INSTALLED COOLING TOWER BASED  ON  WET-BULB  TEMPERATURE  =  82F  AND APPROACH =  10F

-------
       Table 4-9
      Table 4-10
PRICE ADJUSTMENT FACTORS *
     FOR APPROACH AT
PRICE ADJUSTMENT FACTORS *
 FOR WET BULB TEMPERATURES
APPROACH, AF
6
8
10
12
16
20
24
FACTOR, F!
1.60
1.20
1.00
.85
.65
.50
.40
WET BULB,F

68
70
72
74
76
78
80
82
FACTOR, F?

1.54
1.46
1.38
1.30
1.22
1.15
1.07
1.00
                         NEW PRICE  =  (P-30000)  F^+SOOOO

                         WHERE P  IS THE  PRICE FROM  Figure 4-52
                                   Table 4-11

                         DEFINITIONS  FOR COOLING TOWER
              Approach:  The difference between  the  average  temp-
            erature of the circulating water  leaving  the  device,
            and the average wet-bulb temperature  of the entering
            air.
              Range (cooling  range):  The difference  between  the
            average temperature of the water  entering  the  device,
            and the average temperature of  the water leaving it.
             Jemperature,  dewpoint:  the temperature  at  which  the
            condensation of water vapor  in  a  space begins  for  a
            given state of  humidity and  pressure as the  tempera-
            ture of the vapor is  reduced.   The temperature corr-
            esponding to saturation (100 percent relative  humid-
            ity) for a given absolute humidity at constant
            pressure.
              Temperature,  dry-bulb:  the temperature of  a  gas  or
            mixture of gases indicated  by an accurate thermometer
            after correction for radiation.
              Temperature,  wet-bulb:  thermodynamic wet-bulb
            temperature is  the temperature at which liquid or
            solid water, by evaporating  into  air,  can  bring  the
            air to saturation adiabatically at the same temper-
            ature.  Wet-bulb temperature (without  qualification)
            is the temperature indicated by a wet-bulb psychro-
            meter constructed and used according to specifications.
                                      4-77

-------
4.13  PUMPS
     Figures 4-53, 4-54 and 4-55 contain prices for 3550 RPM, 1750 RPM, and
1170 RPM cast iron, bronze fitted, vertical turbine wet sump pumps.  These
pumps can be used for scrubbers, cooling towers, water cooled duct, water sup
ply, and the like.  Prices are a function of pump head in feet and pump cap-
acity in gpm.  Figure 4-56 provides a means of estimating pump motor horse-
power for a given pump head and capacity.  Motor prices may then be estimated
using Figure 4-41.
                                      4-78

-------
   1200
                 DATA VALID FOR DECEMBER 1975
              T
   1100  -	
   1000
GO
LU
O
CL.

Q_
O

o:
O
IT)
Lf>
ro
    900
    600
    500
                    I
                                                                                  1. CURVES JASED pN HATER
                                                                                              "
                                                                                  7.
                                                                                  3. PUMPS AtPLICAfeLE FOfe
                                                                                     SCRUBBEPS, CODLING frOWERSi,
                         j	i

                                                                                                                                I
       50
            100   150   200   250   300   350   400   450   500   550   600   650   700   750   800   850   900   950  1000  1050

                                                       PUMP CAPACITY, GPM

                Figure  4-53   CAST IRON,  BRONZE FITTED,  VERTICAL TURBINE WET SUMP PUMP PRICES FOR 3550 RPM

-------
                      4000
                  DATA  VALID FOR DECEMBER 1975
                           	r     ;	- 
oo
o
*&

 s

oo
LU


II
a:



o_
s:

CL.
                  co
                  OL
                  (_5
                  ti


                  Qi
                  O
                  IT)
                      3500 
                      3000|
                      2500
                       2000
                       15001
                       1000:
                        500
                           0     300   600   900  1200  1500  1800  2100  2400  2700  3000   3300 3600   3900   4200  4500  4800  5100  5400  5700  6000


                                                                               PUMP  CAPACITY,  GPM

                                   Figure 4-b4   CAST IRON, BRONZE FITTED, VERTICAL  TURBINE WET SUMP PUMP PRICES FOR 1750 RPM

-------
 I
CO
                    8000
                    7000
                    eooo;
                O.

                CL_
                    5000
                    40001
                    30001
                a.
                a:
                    20001
                    1000
                        0
                               DATA VALID FOR DECEMBER 1975
                                    NOTE:  1.  CURVES BA$ED ONjWATER
                                          t.  MOT^R WOT
1000
                                          3. PUMPS APPlilCABU
2000
                                         Figure 4-55
                           : FOR $CRUBB|RS,
                           WATERiSUPPL
                            E-Te-..
3000
4000
6000
7000
8000
9000
10000
                                          PUMP CAPACITY, GPM

                       CAST  IRON,  BRONZE  FITTED,  VERTICAL TURBINE WET SUMP PUMP PRICES FOR 11/0 RPM

-------
1000ft
         0
30
60
90
240     270
                                 120     150      170     210
                                 PUMP HEAD, FT
Figure 4-56 PUMP  MOTOR  HP VS. CAPACITY AND HEAD FOR VERTICAL  TURBINE  PUMPS
300
                                                4-82

-------
4.14  DUST REMOVAL EQUIPMENT
     Figure 4-57 contains prices for screw conveyors as a function of conveyor
length and diameter.
                                    4-83

-------
 i
Co
                     7000 - -
                             DATA VALID FOR DECEMBER 1975
                     6000
                     5000!
                  LU
                  o
                  cc
                  (X
                  cc:
                  o
                  O
                  o
                     3000
                     2000
                     1000
NOTE: 1.  Prices include trough, screw, drive,
         fltttngs, and motor.

      2.  HeaVy duty construction.
                                    10
            20
30
70
                     40         ' 50          60

                      LENGHT  OF  CONVEYOR,  FT.

Figure 4-57 PRICES FOR SCREW  CONVEYORS  VS.  LENGTH  AND  DIAMETER

-------
4.15  OPERATION, MAINTENANCE, AND INSTALLATION COSTS
     Figure 4-58 contains operating costs for electrostatic precipitator
systems (from capture hood to stack exhaust) as a function of inlet gas vol-
ume to the precipitator and system power level in kilowatts per 1000 ACFM
(1 HP = .746 KW).  To estimate system power level, total  the following:
            KW of fans
          t  KW of pumps
            KW of precipitator
     Figure 4-59 gives operating costs for venturi scrubber systems (from
capture hood to stack exhaust) as a function of inlet gas volume to the
scrubber and actual  static pressure at the fan.
     Figure 4-60 provides operating costs for fabric filter systems (from
capture hood to stack exhaust) as a function of inlet gas volume to the bag-
house and actual static pressure at the fan.  These prices do not include bag
replacement, which must be estimated separately.
     Table 4-12 gives installation costs for the  five types of control  systems,
and maintenance costs for precipitators, scrubbers, and baghouses,  expressed
as a percent of purchased equipment cost.  Equipment lives are also given.
     Fig:,  e 4-61 contains operating and maintenance costs for thermal
incinerators with and without heat exchangers versus hydrocarbon concentra-
tion and inlet gas volume.  The gas volume is measured before entering  the
heat exchanger for those units employing them.  Figure 4-62 contains operat-
ing and maintenance costs for catalytic incinerators with and without heat
exchangers versus inlet gas volume and hydrocarbon concentration.
     Figure 4-63 gives operating and maintenance  costs for carbon adsorbers
versus inlet gas volume and hydrocarbon concentration.


-------
           DATA VALID FOR DECEMBER  1975
can.

o


a:
ui
OL.
O
O
CD
a.
o

o::
O"
CL.
i<
o
a:
a.
CO
o
a:
C_>	:- -pi-
                                       SYSTEM CAPACITY,  ACFM

           Figure 4-58  ELECTROSTATIC PRECIPITATOR  OPERATING COSTS VS. VOLUME

                                      AND POWER CONSUMPTION

-------
loop,
         DATA VALID FOR DECEMBER  1975
                                     SCRUBBER CAPACITY, ACFM
            Figure 4-59  VENTURI SCRUBBER OPERATING COSTS VS.  VOLUME AND PRESSURE DROP
                                            4-87

-------
            VALID FOR DECEMBER 1

                                   fg^
               r~,
                   i
                                  FT
                     d:
                                              L
                                                              -j-
            tit
                                                                        -i-t
                                  II
                                          H4(
                                                       H-;
                &
                         **
            cfiSr
ill
                        iltm
                                     Eii
                                          Jkiki
                       n at
                      tj^isiE
                        Fan
                                  i: ji "faMr* "vf"'
                                  j_  |jf |cy~'' fc^^i
            ^ -
s

Of
LLJ
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                                                                             -~7^
   10
                                                                                     15"

                                                                            ^11
            I."

                                      d^
                                            /
      -|-
                                      z
                                        ^y^\
                                 -.f
                                                                                        H-
                                                                                          i  i	
                                           Z
                                          ...J:
                                     rf- hzi-h-tr "~r'i"
                                     2--J--4-I	|+-h-l-:
!._L..L.^.-.|...4_U^_
                                                 ir-

                                                                              I.
                                                        i         I

                                                        4iH-
                                                                          r
                                                       -4-MH-

                                                        L '  i  J
                                                       -|	hl-

                                                        !  i  !
                                                       -!--!-

                                                        !  H-
                        J   5     ' 3 9 1C
     10'
                    10^                           10J



                        SYSTEM CAPACITY,  ACFM


Figure 4-60  FABRIC FILTER OPERATING COSTS VS. VOLUME AND PRESSURE DROP



                               4-88
                                                                                               10'

-------
    Table 4-12.  MAINTENANCE AND INSTALLATION  COST  FACTORS,

                    AND EQUIPMENT LIFE  GUIDELINES

NOTE:  Estimate maintenance and installation costs  as  percent  of  total  equip-
       ment purchase price.   Also note  that a  low installation percentage
       does not imply low maintenance or a short equipment life.  These guide-
       lines are estimates of the range of values that have been  experienced
       in the industry.  The choice of  one over another depends on the  appli-
       cation.
Table 4-12a
Maintenance
Electrostatic preci pita tors
Venturi scrubbers
Fabric filters

Table 4-12b
Bag life
;X;^;:;Xx:;:;:::::;::X;X;Xv:v:::::::;:x:v::::Xv:;X:X:::::::::::::::::x::;::
Table 4-12c
Installation
Electrostatic preci pita tors
Venturi scrubbers
Fabric filters
Incinerators (wo/HE)
Incinerators (w/HE)
Adsorbers
Table 4-12d
Equipment Life
Electrostatic precipitators
Venturi scrubbers
Fabric filters
Thermal incinerators
Catalytic incinerators
Adsorbers
Low

1%
8%
1%

Low
4 mos.

Low

50%
70%
40%
30%
25%
30%
Short
5 yr.
5 yr.
5 yr.
5 yr.
5 yr.
5 yr.
Average

2%
13%
2%

Average
1.5 yrs.

Average

75%
140%
75%
50%
45%
50%
Average
20 yr.
10 yr.
20 yr.
10 yr.
10 yr.
10 yr.
High

4%
18%
5%

High
5 yrs.

High

120%
220%
120%
70%
65%
70%
Long
40 yr.
20 yr.
40 yr.
20 yr.
20 yr.
20 yr.
Very high

10%
40%
7%

Very high
10 yrs.

Very high

200%
350%
170%
90%
90%
90%





-------
          DATA VALID FOR DECEMBER 1975
    100 
                                                                          PPM
                                                                       W/HE
LU
Q.
to
o
     10
LU
Q_
o
LU
sr
>i
o
                                                   2.


                                                   3,
 Curves- based on PPM
 concentration of hydrocarbon
 such as toluene, ketone,
"and napthas.
 Cost include all labor and
 utility costs from collection
 point to stack exhaust.
 Costs with md-without heat
           'Included.
      .1
                                        10'
                      INCINERATOR INLET VOLUME, ACFM

 Figure  4-61   THERMAL INCINERATOR OPERATING AND MAINTENANCE COST
              VS.  VOLUME AND HYDROCARBON CONCENTRATION
                                   4-90

-------
  100
         DATA VALID FOR DECEMBER  1975
OL
ZD
o
  10
CL.
CO
O
CS
D-
O
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          1,
         i<

         O
         II
         I




         <_>
                        1. ^urves-baiscd on
                                                           idO ppm
                                                           WO/HE

                                                           1500^ ppm
                                                           WO/HE
                                                           100 ppm
                                                           W/HE
                                                           150O ppm
                                                           W/ttE
                           of hydrocarbons such *2tS""
                           lcetonesr> ttnci naptlrasv   " ~T
                           vOS uS  1 fiG tliQw * cr*r i  rwQOr . Aii|Q
                              1 ity j:qsts frpin cd 1 lectifoir^
                        3.
                        4.
                                    po^nt toistack exhaus
                                                  catet;1ys1
                                    Co$t& with and withoi
                                    excha"ng!e^s Included.
t.
 rep1jacment.
t heat
                                       10
                                                                3x10
Figure 4-62
            INCINERATOR INLET VOLUME,  ACFM
     CATALYTIC INCINERATOR OPERATING  AND MAINTENANCE  COST
     VS.  VOLUME AND HYDROCARBON  CONCENTRATION
                         4-91

-------
        DATA VALID FOR DECEMBER 1975
DC
Z3
O
a.
o
CO
Qi
O
                            1. Curves;based on concentration
                              oif jtoluene  in  PPM.
                            2. Costs  include  all  labor  and
                              utility costs  from collection
                              point:  to stack exhaust.
                            3. Costs  include  adsorber
                              replacement.
               Figure  4-63
                                    10
                                     icr
       ADSORBER INLET VOLUME, ACFM

CARBON ADSORPTION UNIT OPERATING AND MAINTENANCE
COST VS. VOLUME AND HYDROCARBON CONCENTRATION
                                               4-92

-------
                              SECTION 5
                 UPDATING COSTS TO FUTURE TIME PERIODS
5.1  GENERAL
     The methods for updating the costs given in this manual  are contained in
this section.  A separate procedure is described for each equipment type or
cost item-these procedures have been used to adjust old  cost  data to December
1975 levels, when necessary, and these procedures are recommended for updating
the costs for future time periods.   They have been kept  as simple as possible.
No attempt is made to predict future costs,  since this is beyond the scope of
this manual.  In general, the methods involve use of the Chemical  Engineering
(CE) plant cost indexes and U.S. Department  of Labor,  Bureau  of  Labor
Statistics (BLS) wholesale price indexes.  Selected index accounts are con-
tained in Appendix B.
       These two sets of indexes were selected for applicability,  consistency,
specificity, and availability.   The CE index includes  such process industries
as (among others):
          a.  chemicals and petrochemicals
          b.  fertilizers and agricultural chemicals
          c.  lime and cement
          d.  man-made fibers
          e.  paints, varnishes, pigments, and allied  products
          f.  petroleum refining
          g.  soap glycerin and related products
          h.  wood, pulp, paper, and board
          i.  plastics
     These industries are representative of  the industries under the attention
of this manual.  The CE indexes are based on 1957-1959 = 100  and are adjusted

-------
for labor productivity changes-not found in other cost indexes.  There is

complete back-up information available regarding the make-up of the indexes,

hence it is possible to modify the indexes to suit particular needs (see

Arnold, T. H. and Chilton, C. H., New Index Shows Plant Cost Trends, Chemical

Engineering, Feb. 18, 1963, pp. 143-149. Also refer to Appendix C, Source Nos.
130 & 131).

     Table B-l gives the CE  indexes as far back as 1957-  Figure 5-1 shows

how the overall  CE plant index has changed since its inception.  The following

are descriptions of the indexes regularly published by Chemical Engineering.

     A.   ENGINEERING & SUPERVISION

          Engineering and  Supervision is 10% of the total plant index.
          It  includes the  following:
                  33% Engineers
                  47% Draftsmen
                  20% Clerical

     B.   BUILDINGS

          Buildings  is 7%  of the  total plant index and is based on a
          special BLS construction index in which the ratio of materials
          to  labor is 53:47.

     C.   ERECTION &  INSTALLATION  LABOR

          Erection and Installation Labor is 22% of the total plant
          index. This is  the average hourly earning as determined by
          the BLS for the  contract construction industry.

     D.   EQUIPMENT, MACHINERY, SUPPORTS

          Equipment, Machinery and Supports consists of 61% of the total
          plant  index.  This index consists of:

          1.   Fabricated  Equipment-37%
               Such as:  a.   boilers, furnaces, and heaters
                        b.   columns and towers
                        c.   heat  exchangers
                        d.   condensers and reboilers
                        e.   process drums
                        f.   reactors
                        g.   pressure vessels and tanks
                        h.   storage tanks and spheres
                        i.   evaporators
                                     5-2

-------
en
 i
Co
   2001
   195|
   190!
   185j
   180!
   175i
   170|
   165;
   160|
2  155'
o     i
S  150|
  145
S  140J
|  135!
^  130!
   125;
   120,
   115!
   110
   105
   100
    95
    90'
     57
                             58    59    60    61    62    63     64     65      66    67    68   69    70    71    72    73    74    75    76   77
                                                                           YEAR
                                                    Figure 5-1   CHEMICAL  ENGINEERING PLANT COST INDEX

-------
          2.   Process Machinery-14%
               "Off the shelf" items such as:
                        a.   centrifuges
                        b.   filters
                        c.   mixing and agitating equipment
                        d.   rotary kilns and dryers
                        e.   conveyors and bucket elevators
                        f.   high-pressure vacuum or refrigeration
                            producing equipment
                        g.   extruders
                        h.   crushing and grinding equipment
                        i.   thickeners and settlers
                        j.   fans and blowers

          3.   Pipe, Valves, and Fittings-20%

          4.   Process Instruments and Controls-7%

          5.   Pumps and Compressors-7%

          6.   Electrical Equipment and Materials-5%
               Such as: a.   electric motors
                        b.   transformers
                        c.   switch gear
                        d.   wire and cable

          7.   Structurals,  Supports, Insulation, and Paint-10%
               Such as: a.   structural, steel
                        b.   foundation materials
                        c.   insulation
                        d.   lumber
                        e.   paint

     Cost elements not included in the CE indexes include:

          a.   site clearing and preparation
          b.   insurance and taxes during construction
          c.   company overhead allocated to the project
          d.   contractor's  overhead

     For purposes of this manual, the CE indexes have been used whenever  there

is no specifically applicable BLS wholesale price index.   The BLS indexes used

are given in  Tables B-2 thru B-20; the specific commodities and associated

BLS code number and year of reference are listed below:

     Code No.     Base Year=100              Commodity              Table No.

       0312          1967            Cotton Broadwoven Goods          B-2

       0334          1967            Manmade Fiber Broadwoven Goods    B-3

       05310101      1967            Natural Gas                      B-21

       0543        Dec/1970          Industrial Power                 B-22

-------
Code No.
Base Year=100
                                             Commodity              Table No.
                                     Rubber and Plastic Products      B-4
                                     A-36, Carbon Steel Plates        B-5
                                     Stainless Steel  Plate            B-6
                                     Carbon Steel Sheet               B-7
                                     Stainless Steel  Sheet            B-8
                                     Pumps, Compressors,  and          B-9
                                     Equipment
                                     V-Belt Sheaves                   B-10
                                     Fans and Blowers,  Except         B-ll
                                     Portable
                                     10 HP, AC Motors                 B-12
                                     250 HP, AC Motors                 B-13
                                     50 HP, AC Motors                 B-14
                                     75 HP, 440 volt, AC  Starters      B-15
                                     Refractories                     B-16
                                     Fire Clay Brick, Super  Duty      B-17
                                     High Alumina Brick,  70  Pet.       B-18
                                     Castable Refractories             B-19
                                     Insulation Materials              B-20
5.2  EQUIPMENT COST UPDATING  PROCEDURES
     Using these indexes,  the procedures for updating the  purchase  costs  of
each equipment type will  now  be discussed.
Electrostatic Precipitators
     Use CE Fabricated Equipment index.   For precipitators with  insulation,
     use the following composite index  on the additional  cost only:
          h (BLS #1392 factor)  -t- % (CE  Fabricated Equipment  factor).
Venturi Scrubbers
     Use CE Fabricated Equipment index.   For rubber liners use BLS  #07  on
     the liner cost only.
07
10130246
10130247
10130262
10130264
1141
11450133
1147
11730112
11730113
11730119
11750781
135
13520111
13520131
13520151
1392
1967
1967
1967
1967
1967
1967
1967
1967
1967
1967
1967
1967
1967
1967
1967
Dec/1974
1967
                               5-5

-------
Fabric Filters
     Use CE Fabricated Equipment index.   For filters  with insulation, use same
     procedure as for precipitators with insulation.   For stainless  steel con-
     struction, use BLS #10130264 on the additional cost.   For  filter media
     use BLS #0312 or #0334.
Thermal and Catalytic Incinerators
     Use CE Fabricated Equipment index for custom units.   Use CE  Process
     Equipment index for package units.
Adsorbers
     Same as for thermal and catalytic incinerators.
Ductwork
     Use CE Fabricated Equipment index.   For refractories, however,  use the
     appropriate BLS index; the base index is #135.
Dampers
     Use CE Fabricated Equipment index.   For automatic dampers, use  CE
     Process Instruments and Controls on that portion of  price  attributable
     to automatic control.
Heat Exchangers
     Use CE Fabricated Equipment index.
Mechanical Collectors
     Use CE Process Machinery index.
Fans, Motors, and Starters
     For fans use BLS #1147.  For motors use the appropriate BLS  index; the
     base index is #1173.  For starters use BLS #11750781.  For V-belts use
     BLS #11450133.
Stacks
     Use CE Fabricated Equipment index.
Cooling Tower
     Use CE Fabricated Equipment index.
Pumps
     Use BLS #1141 index.
                                     5-6

-------
Dust Removal Equipment

     for screw conveyors,  use the CE Fabricated  Equipment index.   For water
     treatment equipment,  use the appropriate  CE or  BIS  index,  depending  on
     the equipment component.

Operating Cost

     For precipitators,  scrubbers and baghouses  use  the  following  composite
     factor:

          .1 (Table B-23,  Labor Cost) +  .9  (BLS  #0543, Industrial  Power)

     For incinerators and  adsorbers  use  the following composite factor:

          .1 (Table B-23,  Labor Cost) +  .1  (CE Equipment,  Machinery,  Supports)
                + .8 (BLS  #05310101,  Natural Gas)
                                     5-7

-------
       APPENDIX A




COMPOUND INTEREST FACTORS

-------
      Table A-l  1% COMPOUND INTEREST FACTORS
 1
 2
 3
 4
 5

 6
 7
 8
 9
10

11
12
13
14
15

16
17
18
19
20

21
22
23
24
25

26
27
28
29
30

31
32
33
34
35
40
45
50
Single Payment

         Present
           Worth
           Factor
           P/F

         0.9901
         0.9803
         0.9706
         0.9610
         0.9515

         0.9420
         0.9327
         0.9235
         0.9143
         0.9053

         0.8963
         0.8874
         0.8787
         0.8700
         0.8613

         0.8528
         0.8444
         0.8360
         0.8277
         0.8195

         0.8114
         0.8034
         0.7954
         0.7876
         0.7798

         0.7720
         0.7644
         0.7568
         0.7493
         0.7419

         0.7346
         0.7273
         0.7201
         0.7130
         0.7059

         0.6717
         0.6391
         0.6080
                                               Uniform Series
Capital
Recovery
Factor
A/P
1.01000
0.50751
0.34002
0.25628
0.20604
0.17255
0.14863
0.13069
0.11674
0.10558
0.09645
0.08885
0.08241
0.07690
0.07212
0.06794
0.06426
0.06098
0.05805
0.05542
0.05303
0.05086
0.04889
0.04707
0.04541
0.04387
0.04245
0.04112
0.03990
0.03875
0.03768
0.03667
0.03573
0.03484
0.03400
0.03046
0.02771
0.02551
Present
Worth
Factor
P/A
0.990
1.970
2.941
3.902
4.853
5.795
6.728
7.652
8.566
9.471
10.368
11.255
12.134
13.004
13.865
14.718
15.562
16.398
17.226
18.046
18.857
19.660
20.456
21.243
22.023
22.795
23.560
24.316
25.066
25.808
26.542
27.270
27.990
28.703
29.409
32.835
36.095
39.196
                            A-l

-------
              Table A-2  2% COMPOUND INTEREST FACTORS
        Single Payment
                             Uniform Series
 1
 2
 3
 4
 5
 6
 7
 8
 9
10

11
12
13
14
15

16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25

26
27
28
29
30
31
32
33
34
35

40
45
50
Present
  Worth
  Factor
  P/F

0.9804
0.9612
0.9423
0.9238
0.9057

0.8880
0-.8706
0.8535
0.8368
0.8203

0.8043
0.7885
0.7730
0.7579
0.7430
0.7284
0.7142
0.7002
0.6864
0.6730
0.6598
0.6468
0.6342
0.6217
0.6095
0.5976
0.5859
0.5744
0.5631
0.5521
0.5412
0.5306
0.5202
0.5100
0.5000

0.4529
0.4102
0.3715
Capital
Recovery
Factor
A/P
1.02000
0.51505
0.34675
0.26262
0.21216
0.17853
0.15451
0.13651
0.12252
0.11133
0.10218
0.09456
0.08812
0.08260
0.07783
0.07365
0.06997
0.06670
0.06378
0.06116
0.05878
0.05663
0.05467
0.05287
0.05122
0.04970
0.04829
0.04699
0.04578
0.04465
0.04360
0.04261
0.04169
0.04082
0.04000
0.03656
0.03391
0.03182
Present
Worth
Factor
P/A
0.980
1.942
2.884
3.808
4.713
5.601
6.472
7.325
8.162
8.983
9.787
10.575
11.348
12.106
12.849
13.578
14.292
14.992
15.678
16.351
17.011
17.658
18.292
18.914
19.523
20.121
20.707
21.281
21.844
22.396
22.938
23.468
23.989
24.499
24.999
27.355
29.490
31.424
                                     A-2

-------
              Table A-3  3% COMPOUND INTEREST FACTORS
        Single Payment

                 Present
                   Worth
                   Factor
 n                 P/F

 1               0.9709
 2               0.9426
 3               0.9151
 4               0.8885
 5               0.8626

 6               0.8375
 7               0.8131
 8               0.7894
 9               0.7664
10               0.7441

11               0.7224
12               0.7014
13               0.6810
14               0.6611
15               0.6419

16               0.6232
17               0.6050
!8               0.5874
19               0.5703
20               0.5537

21               0.5375
22               0.5219
23               0.5067
24               0.4919
25               0.4776

26               0.4637
27               0.4502
28               0.4371
29               0.4243
30               0.4120

31               0.4000
32               0.3883
33               0.3770
34               0.3660
35               0.3554

40               0.3066
45               0.2644
50               0.2281
Uniform Series
Capital
Recovery
Factor
A/P
1.03000
0.52261
0.35353
0.26903
0.21835
0.18460
0.16051
0.14246
0.12843
0.11723
0.10808
0.10046
0.09403
0.08853
0.08377
0.07961
0.07595
0.07271
0.06981
0.06722
0.06487
0.06275
0.06081
0.05905
0.05743
0.05594
0.05456
0.05329
0.05211
0.05102
0.05000
0.04905
0.04816
0.04732
0.04654
0.04326
0.04079
0.03887
Present
Worth
Factor
P/A
0.971
1 . 913
2.829
3.717
4.580
5.417
6.230
7.020
7.786
8.530
9.253
9.954
10.635
11.296
11.938
12.561
13.166
13.754
14.324
14.877
15.415
15.937
16.444
16.936
17.413
17.877
18.327
18.764
19.188
19.600
20.000
20.389
20.766
21.132
21.487
23.115
24.519
25.730
                                     A-3

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 1
 2
 3
 4
 5

 6
 7
 8
 9
10

11
12
13
14
15

16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25

26
27
28
29
30
31
32
33
34
35

40
45
50
              Table A-4  4% COMPOUND INTEREST FACTORS

        Single Payment                        Uniform Series
Present
  Worth
  Factor
  P/F

0.9615
0.9246
0.8890
0.8548
0.8219
0.7903
0.7599
0.7307
0.7026
0.6756
0.6496
0.6246
0.6006
0.5775
0.5553
0.5339
0.5134
0.4936
0.4746
0.4564

0.4388
0.4220
0.4057
0.3901
0.3751
0.3607
0.3468
0.3335
0.3207
0.3083
0.2965
0.2851
0.2741
0.2636
0.2534
0.2083
0.1712
0.1407
Capital
Recovery
Factor
A/P
1.04000
0.53020
0.36035
0.27549
0.22463
0.19076
0.16661
0.14853
0.13449
0.12329
0.11415
0.10655
0.10014
0.09467
0.08994
0.08582
0.08220
0.07899
0.07614
0.07358
0.07128
0.06920
0.06731
0.06559
0.06401
0.06257
0.06124
0.06001
0.05888
0.05783
0.05686
0.05595
0.05510
0.05431
0.05358
0.05052
0.04826
0.04655
Present
Worth
Factor
P/A
0.962
1.886
2.775
3.630
4.452
5.242
6.002
6.733
7.435
8.111
8.760
9.385
9.986
10.563
11.118
11.652
12.166
12.659
13.134
13.590
14.029
14.451
14.857
15.247
15.622
15.983
16.330
16.663
16.984
17.292
17.588
17.874
18.148
18.411
18.665
19.793
20.720
21.482
                                    A-4

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 1
 2
 3
 4
 5

 6
 7
 8
 9
10
11
12
13
14
15

16
17
18
19
20

21
22
23
24
25

26
27
28
29
30

31
32
33
34
35

40
45
50
              Table A-5  5% COMPOUND INTEREST FACTORS

        Single Payment                        Uniform Series
Present
  Worth
  Factor
  P/F

0.9524
0.9070
0.8638
0.8227
0.7835

0.7462
0.7107
0.6768
0.6446
0.6139
0.5847
0.5568
0.5303
0.5051
0.4810
0.4581
0.4363
0.4155
0.3957
0.3769

0.3589
0.3418
0.3256
0.3101
0.2953

0.2812
0.2678
0.2551
0.2429
0.2314

0.2204
0.2099
0.1999
0.1904
0.1813

0.1420
0.1113
0.0872
Capital
Recovery
Factor
A/P
1.05000
0.53780
0.36721
0.28201
0.23097
0.19702
0.17282
0.15472
0.14069
0.12950
0.12039
0.11283
0.10646
0.10102
0.09634
0.09227
0.08870
0.08555
0.08275
0.08024
0.07800
0.07597
0.07414
0.07247
0.07095
0.06956
0.06829
0.06712
0.06605
0.06505
0.06413
0.06328
0.06249
0.06176
0.06107
0.05828
0.05626
0.05478
Present
Worth
Factor
P/A
0.952
1.859
2.723
3.546
4.329
5.076
5.786
6.463
7.108
7.722
8.306
8.863
9.394
9.899
10.380
10.838
11.274
11.690
12.085
12.462
12.821
13.163
13.489
13.799
14.094
14.375
14.643
14.898
15.141
15.372
15.593
15.803
16.003
16.193
16.374
17.159
17.774
18.256
                                    A-5

-------
              Table A-6  6% COMPOUND INTEREST FACTORS
        Single Payment
                             Uniform Series
 1
 2
 3
 4
 5
 6
 7
 8
 9
10

11
12
13
14
15

16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
27
28
29
30
31
32
33
34
35

40
45
50
Present
  Worth
  Factor
  P/F

0.9434
0.8900
0.8396
0.7921
0.7473
0.7050
0.6651
0.6274
0.5919
0.5584
0.5268
0.4970
0.4688
0.4423
0.4173

0.3936
0.3714
0.3503
0.3305
0.3118
0.2942
0.2775
0.2618
0.2470
0.2330
0.2198
0.2074
0.1956
0.1846
0.1741

0.1643
0.1550
0.1462
0.1379
0.1301
0.0972
0.0727
0.0543
Capital
Recovery
Factor
A/P
1.06000
0.54544
0.37411
0.28859
0.23740
0.20336
0.17914
0.16104
0.14702
0.13587
0.12679
0.11928
0.11296
0.10758
0.10296
0.09895
0.09544
0.09236
0.08962
0.08718
0.08500
0.08305
0.08128
0.07968
0.07823
0.07690
0.07570
0.07459
0.07358
0.07265
0.0717?
0.07100
0.07027
0.06960
0.06897
0.06646
0.06470
0.06344
Present
Worth
Factor
P/A
0.943
1.833
2.673
3.465
4.212
4.917
5.582
6.210
6.802
7.360
7.887
8.384
8.853
9.295
9.712
10.106
10.477
10.828
11.158
11.470
11.764
12.042
12.303
12.550
12.783
13.003
13.211
13.406
13.591
13.765
13.929
14.084
14.230
14.368
14.498
15.046
15.456
15.762
                                    A-6


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 1
 2
 3
 4
 5

 6
 7
 3
 9
10

11
12
13
14
15

16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25

26
27
28
29
30

31
32
33
34
35

40
45
50
              Table A-7  7% COMPOUND INTEREST FACTORS

        Single Payment                        Uniform Series
Present
  Worth
  Factor
  P/F

0.9346
0.8734
0.8163
0.7629
0.7130

0.6663
0.6227
0.5820
0.5439
0.5083

0.4751
0.4440
0.4150
0.3878
0.3624

0.3387
0.3166
0.2959
0.2765
0.2584
0.2415
0.2257
0.2109
0.1971
0..1842

0.1722
0.1609
0.1504
0.1406
0.1314

0.1228
0.1147
0.1072
0.1002
0.0937
0.0668
0.0476
0.0339
Capital
Recovery
Factor
A/P
1.07000
0.55309
0.38105
0.29523
0.24389
0.20980
0.18555
0.16747
0.15349
0.14238
0.13336
0.12590
0.11965
0.11434
0.10979
0.10586
0.10243
0.09941
0.09675
0.09439
0.09229
0.09041
0.08871
0.08719
0 08581
0.08456
0.08343
0.08239
0.08145
0.08059
0.07980
0.07907
0.07841
0.07780
0.07723
0.07501
0.07350
0.07246
Present
Worth
Factor
P/A
0.935
1.808
2.624
3.387
4.100
4.767
5.389
5.971
6.515
7.024
7.499
7.943
8.358
8.745
9.108
9.447
9.763
10.059
10.336
10.594
10.836
11.061
11.272
11.469
11.654
11.826
11.987
12.137
12.278
12.409
12.532
12.647
12.754
12.854
12.948
13.332
13.606
13.801
                                     A-7

-------
 1
 2
 3
 4
 5
 6
 7
 8
 9
10

11
12
13
14
15

16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25

26
27
28
29
30
31
32
33
34
35

40
45
50
              Table A-8  8% COMPOUND INTEREST FACTORS

        Single Payment                        Uniform Series
Present
  Worth
  Factor
  P/F

0.9259
0.8573
0.7938
0.7350
0.6806
0.6302
0.5835
0.5403
0.5002
0.4632

0.4289
0.3971
0.3677
0.3405
0.3152

0.2919
0.2703
0.2502
0.2317
0.2145
0.1987
0.1839
0.1703
0.1577
0.1460
0.1352
0.1252
0.1159
0.1073
0.0994
0.0920
0.0852
0.0789
0.0730
0.0676
0.0460
0.0313
0.0213
Capital
Recovery
Factor
A/P
1.08000
0.56077
0.38803
0.30192
0.25046
0.21632
0.19207
0.17401
0.16008
0.14903
0.14008
0.13270
0.12652
0.12130
0.11683
0.11298
0.10963
0.10670
0.10413
0.10185
0.09983
0.09803
0.09642
0.09498
0.09368
0.09251
0.09145
0.09049
0.08962
0.08883
0.08811
0.08745
0.08685
0.08630
0.08580
0.08386
0.08259
0.08174
Present
Worth
Factor
P/A
0.926
1.783
2.577
3.312
3.993
4.623
5.206
5.747
6.247
6.710
7.139
7.536
7.904
8.244
8.559
8.851
9.122
9.372
9.604
9.818
10.017
10.201
10.371
10.529
10.675
10.810
10.935
11.051
11.158
11.258
11.350
11.435
11.514
11. .587
11.655
11.925
12.108
12.233
                                    A-8

-------
 1
 2
 3
 4
 5

 6
 7
 8
 9
10

11
12
13
14
15

16
17
18
13
20

21
22
23
24
25

26
27
28
29
30

31
32
33
34
35

40
45
50
              Table A-9  10% COMPOUND INTEREST FACTORS

        Single Payment                        Uniform Series
Present
  Worth
  Factor
  P/F

0.9091
0.8264
0.7513
0.6830
0.6209
0.5645
0.5132
0.4665
0.4241
0.3855

0.3505
0.3186
0.2897
0.2633
0.2394

0.2176
0.1978
0.1799
0.1635
0.1486
0.1351
0.1228
0.1117
0.1015
0.0923

0.0839
0.0763
0.0693
0.0630
0.0573

0.0521
0.0474
0.0431
0.0391
0.0356

0.0221
0.0137
0.0085
Capital
Recovery
Factor
A/P
1.10000
0.57619
0.40211
0.31547
0.26380
0.22961
0.20541
0.18744
0.17364
0.16275
0.15396
0.14676
0.14078
0.13575
0.13147
0.12782
0.12466
0.12193
0.11955
0.11746
0.11562
0.11401
0.11257
0.11130
0.11017
U. 10916
0.10826
0.10745
0.10673
0.10608
0.10550
0.10497
0.10450
0.10407
0.10369
0.10226
0.10139
0.10086
Present
Worth
Factor
P/A
0.909
1.736
2.487
3.170
3.791
4.355
4.868
5.355
5.759
6.144
6.495
6.814
7.103
7.367
7.606
7.824
8.022
8.201
8.365
8.514
8.649
8.772
8.883
8.985
9.077
9.161
9.237
9.307
9.370
9.427
9.479
9.526
9.569
9.609
9.644
9.779
9.863
9.915
                                    A-9


-------
 1
 2
 3
 4
 5
 6
 7
 8
 9
10

11
12
13
14
15

16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
27
28
29
30

31
32
33
34
35

40
45
50
             Table A-10   12%  COMPOUND  INTEREST  FACTORS

        Single  Payment                        Uniform  Series
Present
  Worth
  Factor
  P/F


0.8929
0.7972
0.7118
0.6355
0.5674
0.5066
0.4523
0.4039
0.3606
0.3220
0.2875
0.2567
0.2292
0.2046
0.1827

0.1631
0.1456
0.1300
0.1161
0.1037

0.0926
0.0826
0.0738
0.0659
0.0588

0.0525
0.0469
0.0419
0.0374
0.0334
0.0298
0.0266
0.0238
0.0212
0.0189
0.0107
0.0061
0.0035
Capital
Recovery
Factor
A/P
1.12000
0.59170
0.41635
0.32923
0.27741
0.24323
0.21912
0.20130
0.18768
0.17698
0.16842
0.16144
0.15568
0.15087
0.14682
0.14339
0.14046
0.13794
0.13576
0.13388
0.13224
0.13081
0.12956
0.12846
0.12750
0.12665
0.12590
0.12524
0.12466
0.12414
0.12369
0.12328
0.12292
0.12260
0.12232
0.12130
0.12074
0.12042
Present
Worth
Factor
P/A
0.893
1.690
2.402
3.037
3.605
4.111
4.564
4.968
5.328
5.650
5.938
6.194
6.424
6.628
6.811
6.974
7.120
7.250
7.366
7.469
7.562
7.645
7.718
7.784
7.843
7.896
7.943
7.984
8.022
8.055
8.085
8.112
8.135
8.157
8.176
8.244
8.283
8.305
                                    A-10

-------
              Table A-ll  15% COMPOUND INTEREST FACTORS
        Single Payment
                 Present
                   Worth
                   Factor
                   P/F
                             Uniform Series
                      Capital
                        Recovery
                        Factor
                        A/P
                    Present
                      Worth
                      Factor
                      P/A
 1
 2
 3
 4
 5

 6
 7
 8
 9
10

11
12
13
14
15

16
\7
18
19
20

21
22
23
24
25

26
27
28
29
30

31
32
33
34
35

40
45
50
0.8696
0.7561
0.6575
0.5718
0.4972

0.4323
0.3759
0.3269
0.2843
0.2472

0.2149
0.1869
0.1625
0.1413
0.1229

0.1069
0.0929
0.0808
0.0703
0.0611

0.0531
0.0462
0.0402
0.0349
0.0304

0.0264
0.0230
0.0200
0.0174
0.0151

0.0131
0.0114
0.0099
0.0086
0.0075

0.0037
0.0019
0.0009
1.15000
0.61512
0.43798
0.35027
0.29832

0.26424
0.24036
0.22285
0.20957
0.19925

0.19107
0.18448
0.17911
0.17469
0.17102

0.16795
0.16537
0.16319
0.16134
0.15976

0.15842
0.15727
0.15628
0.15543
0.15470

0.15407
0.15353
0.15306
0.15265
0.15230

0.15200
0.15173
0.15150
0.15131
0.15113

0.15056
0.15028
0.15014
0.870
1.626
2.283
2.855
3.352

3.784
4.160
4.487
4.772
5.019

5.234
5.421
5,
5,
5,
6.
6.
  583
  724
  847
5.954
6.047
6.128
6.198
6.259

6.312
6.359
6.399
6.434
6.464

6.491
6.514
6.534
6.551
6.566
6.579
6.591
  600
  609
6.617

6.642
6.654
6.661
                                    A-ll

-------
             Table A-12  20% COMPOUND  INTEREST  FACTORS
        Single Payment
                             Uniform Series
 1
 2
 3
 4
 5

 6
 7
 8
 9
10

11
12
13
14
15

16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25

26
27
28
29
30
31
32
33
34
35

40
45
50
Present
  Worth
  Factor
  P/F


0.8333
0.6944
0.5787
0.4823
0.4019

0.3349
0.2791
0.2326
0.1938
0.1615

0.1346
0.1122
0.0935
0.0779
0.0649
0.0541
0.0451
0.0376
0.0313
0.0261
0.0217
0.0181
0.0151
0.0126
0.0105
0.0087
0.0073
0.0061
0.0051
0.0042

0.0035
0.0029
0.0024
0.0020
0.0017
0.0007
0.0003
0.0001
Capital
Recovery
Factor
A/P
1.20000
0.65455
0.47473
0.38629
0.33438
0.30071
0.27742
0.26061
0.24808
0.23852
0.23110
0.22526
0.22062
0.21689
0.21388
0.21144
0.20944
0.20781
0.20646
0.20536
0.20444
0.20369
0.20307
0.20255
0.20212
0.20176
0.20147
0.20122
0.20102
0.20085
0.20070
0.20059
0.20049
0.20041
0.20034
0.20014
0.20005
0.20002
Present
Worth
Factor
P/A
0.833
1.528
2.106
2.589
2.991
3.326
3.605
3.837
4.031
4.192
4.327
4.439
4.533
4.611
4.675
4.730
4.775
4.812
4.844
4.870
4.891
4.909
4.925
4.937
4.948
4.956
4.964
4.970
4.975
4.979
4.982
4.985
4.988
4.990
4.992
4.997
4.999
4.999
                                    A-12

-------
      APPENDIX B





EQUIPMENT COST INDEXES

-------
                                 Table B-l   CHEMICAL ENGINEERING PLANT COST INDEXES
INDEX
CE Plant Index
Engineering &
Supervision
Building
Construction Labor
Equipment, Machinery
Supports
Fabricated Equipment
Process Machinery
Pipe, Valves &
Fittings
Process Instruments &
Controls
Pumps & Compressors
Electrical Equipment
& Materials
Structural Supports
Insulation & Paint
1975
ANNUAL
182.3
141.8
176.9
168.4
194.7
192.2
184.7
217.0
181.4
208.3
143.0
198.6
JAN FEB MAR
i/9.4 179.5 180.7
139.6 139.8 140.2
173.1 173.6 174.7
166.7 164.2 167.4
191.6 192.3 192.9
190.7 190.6 191.6
179.1 179.9 181.4
209.8 212.9 212.8
17/.6 177.8 177.7
208.7 208.7 208.7
141.5 141.7 142.4
198.6 198.2 198.4
APR MAY JUN
180.7 180.8 181.8
140.7 141.1 141.6
175.5 175.8 176.3
166.6 165.5 167.3
193.0 193.3 194.3
191.6 191.1 191.5
182.5 182.8 184.7
213.5 217.2 217.8
178.8 178.9 180.4
206.2 206.2 208.3
141.4 141.8 142.0
198.0 195.5 196.4
JUL AUG SEP
182.1 181.9 183.7
142.0 142.4 142.9
177.1 177.5 178.8
168.4 168.7 171.9
194.2 193.7 195.2
190.0 190.0 191.4
185.5 185.1 186.3
216.0 216.7 219.9
180.2 181.2 183.3
209.1 207.6 209.4
151.5 141.6 141.8
198.5 198.5 197.9
OCT NOV DEC
185.6 185.5 186.2
143.3 143.7 144.2
180.2 179.4 181.1
172.0 171.2 171.1
198.1 198.2 199.1
195.8 195.2 196.4
188.8 189.6 190.9
221.6 222.6 223.3
186.3 186.6 187.8
209.1 209.1 209.0
143.1 143.7 143.3
200.7 200.7 201.2
CO
I
           SOURCE: Chemical Engineering, Economic Indicators

-------
                     Table B-l  CHEMICAL ENGINEERING PLANT COST INDEXES (cont'd)
INDEX
CE Plant Index
Engineering &
Supervision
Building
Construction Labor
Equipment, Machinery
Supports
Fabricated Equipment
Process Machinery
Pipe, Valves &
Fittings
Process Instruments &
Controls
Pumps & Compressors
Electrical Equipment
& Materials
Structural Supports
Insulation. & Paint
1974
ANNUAL
165.4
134.4
165.5
163.4
171.2
170.1
160.3
192.2
164.7
175.7
126.4
172.4
JAN FEB MAR
150.0 150.7 153.8
131.6 131.9 132.2
156.7 156.4 158.8
162.7 162.4 162.3
147.7 149.0 153.7
147.3 148.7 152.7
143.1 143.7 146.8
162.6 163.2 169.9
152.0 153.4 158.2
144.0 145.8 150.6
109.7 110.3 112.3
145.0 147.5 155.0
APR MAY JUN
156.7 161.4 164.7
132.5 132.8 132.8
162.3 164.3 165.4
162.7 160.0 159.4
157.8 166.2 171.8
155.1 165.1 169.3
149.4 154.8 159.2
179.6 189.6 197.1
157.2 159.7 162.7
157.9 168.2 175.6
114.0 121.5 127.1
158.5 165.1 173.4
JUL AUG SEP
168.8 172.2 174.8
134.0 134.3 134.5
167.1 170.6 172.7
159.5 164.1 166.6
178.0 181.6 184.7
179.0 181.4 184.0
163.5 167.9 170.3
203.0 206.7 209.4
165.8 168.2 173.2
182.7 186.8 187.3
131.5 133.5 136.3
173.5 180.8 188.1
OCT NOV DEC
176.0 177.4 177.8
138.2 138.7 139.1
170.5 172.1 172.5
165.8 166.9 166.6
186.5 188.1 188.8
186.0 186.1 186.8
172.9 175.7 177.2
209.7 208.3 208.7
174.1 175.2 176.9
195.8 206.9 206.9
138.2 141.4 141.4
187.4 191.9 192.4
SOURCE: Chemical  Engineering,  Economic Indicators

-------
                                 Table B-l  CHEMICAL ENGINEERING PLANT COST INDEXES (cont'd)
                  INDEX
                          1973
                         ANNUAL
         JAN
        FEB    MAR
 APR    MAY    JUN
 JUL
AUG    SEP
OCT    NOV    DEC
        CE Plant  Index
        Engineering &
          Supervision
        Building
                         144.1
                         122.84

                         150.6
        140.8  140.4  141.5
        112.0  112.0  122.3

        146.5  146.9  148.3
                     141.8  142.4   144.5
                     122.4  112.5   129.8

                     150.3  151.1   150.4
                     144.6  145.0  146.4
                     130.1  130.1  130.1

                     149.8  150.4  153.0
                     146.7   147.5   148.2
                     130.7   130.8   131.3

                     150.9   154.7   155.0
        Construction Labor
        Equipment, Machinery
          Supports
        Fabricated Equipment
                         157.9
                         141.9

                         142.5
        158.9  155.8  154.8
        138.3  138.8  140.7

        140.0  140.0  140.9
                     155.0  155.4   155.6
                     140.9  141.7   142.2

                     141.7  142.6   143.0
                     156.3  156.3   161.8
                     142.1  142.0   142.6

                     143.0  143.0   143.4
                     161.7   161.6   162.0
                     143.5   144.3   145.2

                     143.7   144.1   144.8
CD
I
CO
Process Machinery
Pipe, Valves &
  Fittings
Process Instruments &
  Controls     	
137.6
151.3

147.1
134.3  134.5  135.1
146.1  146.1  149.2

145.0  144.9  145.8
137.1  137.6  137.9
150.1  151.1  151.7

146.1  146.9  146.9
137.9  138.5  139.1
151.8  151.8  151.8

147.0  147.4  147.9
             139.6  140.3  142.0
             153.9  156.6  157.8

             148.1  148.8  150.4
         Pumps & Compressors
         Electrical  Equipment
          & Materials
         Structural  Supports
          Insulation & Paint
                         139.5
                         104.2

                         140.9
        137.0  137.0  138.4
        100.6  100.6  102.1

        137.2  137.2  140.0
                     138.4  138.4  141.3
                     103.9  104.5  105.2

                     141.2  142.0  141.8
                     140.9  140.9  140.9
                     105.1  105.1  105.1

                     141.2  141.2  141.2
                     140.8  141.4  142.4
                     105.3  106.0  107.2

                     141.5  143.5  142.8
            SOURCE:   Chemical  Engineering,  Economic  Indicators

-------
                                  Table B-l  CHEMICAL ENGINEERING PLANT COST INDEXES  (cont'd)
INDEX
CE Plant Index
Engineering &
Supervision
Building
Construction Labor
Equipment, Machinery
Supports
Fabricated Equipment
Process Machinery
Pipe, Valves &
Fittings
Process Instruments &
Controls
Pumps & Compressors
Electrical Equipment
& Materials
Structural Supports
Insulation & Paint
1972
ANNUAL
137.2
111.9
142.0
152.2
135.4
136.3
132.1
142.9
143.8
135.9
99.1
133.6
JAN FEB MAR
136.0 136.0 137.0
111.8 111.9 111.7
139.8 140.0 140.7
151.9 151.6 150.8
133.8 133.9 135.8
135.1 136.1 137.8
130.5 129.6 131.8
141.4 141.9 143.1
141.9 142.7 143.6
132.4 134.4 135.7
98.2 98.3 98.2
131.2 131.9 132.1
APR MAY JUN
137.1 137.1 136.5
111.6 111.9 111.9
141.4 141.6 140.3
151.3 151.7 149.7
135.3 135.5 135.4
136.2 135.9 135.7
132.2 132.2 132.2
143.1 143.2 143.3
143.9 144.1 144.0
135.7 135.7 136.3
98.6 99.1 99.4
132.7 134.9 134.1
JUL AUG SEP
136.5 137.0 137.8
112.0 112.1 112.1
141.4 141.9 143.0
149.7 150.6 153.1
135.2 135.6 135.9
135.6 136.3 135.7
132.2 132.3 132.9
142.9 142.9 143.0
144.0 144.3 144.2
136.6 136.7 136.7
99.3 99.5 99.4
133.8 134.2 134.4
OCT NOV DEC
138.2 138.4 139.1
112.0 112.1 112.1
144.1 144.5 145.0
154.5 154.7 156.7
135.9 136.0 136.5
136.8 136.6 137.5
132.9 133.1 133.6
143.3 143.6 143.6
144.1 144.2 144.7
137.7 137.0 137.0
99.3 100.0 100.1
134.5 134.5 134.6
DO
I
             SOURCE:   Chemical  Engineering,  Economic  Indicators

-------
                                  Table  B-l   CHEMICAL  ENGINEERING  PLANT  COST  INDEXES  (cont'd)
INDEX
CE Plant Index
Engineering &
Supervision
Building
Construction Labor
Equipment, Machinery
Supports
Fabricated Equipment
Process Machinery
Pipe, Valves &
Fittings
Process Instruments &
Controls
Pumps & Compressors
Electrical Equipment
& Materials
Structural Supports
Insulation & Paint
1971
ANNUAL
132.3
111.4
135.5
146.2
130.4
130.3
127.1
137.3
139.9
133.2
98.7
126.6
JAN FEB MAR
11Q.2 129.1 129.9
111.1 111.2 111.2
130.0 131.5 132.9
142.5 143.3 142.8
125.7 126.7 128.0
125.5 125.6 127.9
125.4 125.7 126.3
131.0 132.0 132.7
134.0 138.6 139.3
129.1 135.8 135.8
101.1 100.2 99.2
120.1 120.6 123.6
APR MAY JUN
130.2 131.6 131.4
111.3 111.4 111.3
132.9 134.3 133.6
142.5 144.2 144.0
128.6 130.0 130.0
128.8 129.6 129.3
126.5 127.1 127.6
133.9 137.7 137.7
139.6 140.0 140.2
132.5 133.1 133.1
98.8 98.5 98.1
124.5 126.6 126.7
JUL AUG SEP
132.3 134.4 135.0
111.4 111.4 111.5
136.2 138.2 139.0
146.1 147.4 149.9
130.3 133.1 133.1
129.4 133.4 133.5
128.4 129.4 129.5
138.0 141.2 141.1
140.7 141.5 141.2
133.1 133.7 133.7
97.9 98.6 98.3
127.5 132.2 131.9
OCT NOV DEC
135.1 134.9 135.3
111.6 111.6 111.7
138.9 138.8 139,2
150.4 150.1 150.6
133.0 132.7 133.2
133.5 133.4 134.1
129.4 129.4 130.4
140.9 140.2 140.7
141.2 141.1 141.5
133.7 132.4 132.4
98.3 97.7 97.7
131.9 131.9 132.0
CD
I
en
            SOURCE:  Chemical Engineering, Economic Indicators

-------
                                   Table B-l  CHEMICAL ENGINEERING PLANT COST INDEXES   (cont'd)
INDEX
CE Plant Index
Engineering &
Supervision
Building
Construction Labor
Equipment, Machinery
Supports
Fabricated Equipment
Process Machinery
Pipe, Valves &
Fittings
Process Instruments &
Controls
Pumps & Compressors
Electrical Equipment
& Materials
Structural Supports
Insulation & Paint
1970
ANNUAL
125.7
110.6
127.2
137.4
123.8
122.7
122.9
132.0
132.1
125.6
99.8
117.9
\
JAN FEB MAR
123.1 123.0 123.7
110.3 110.4 110.5
125.0 124.6 124.7
134.6 134.1 134.6
120.8 120.9 122.2
118.5 118.8 121.1
120.1 119.1 121.4
130.3 130.4 130.0
130.6 130.8 130.9
123.1 123.1 123.7
96.8 97.6 98.3
114.7 114.9 116.7
APR MAY JUN
124.5 125.0 125.4
110.6 110.5 110.6
125.5 126.2 126.1
134.7 134.7 134.8
123.0 123.7 124.4
122.2 122.5 124.0
121.8 122.2 122.7
130.5 132.9 133.0
131.2 131.5 132.0
124.8 124.1 124.1
98.3 98.7 98.9
117.7 118.1 118.5
JUL AUG SEP
126.2 127.0 127.6
110.7 110.8 110.8
127.4 128.6 130.1
136.6 139.0 141.4
124.9 125.1 125.1
124.1 124.2 123.8
123.3 123.5 124.8
133.8 133.9 132.4
132.0 132.6 133.6
125.6 125.6 129.1
100.8 101.5 102.1
118.9 118.9 119.4
OCT NOV DEC
127.6 128.0 127.7
110.8 110.9 110.0
130.1 129.7 129.5
141.4 141.7 141.4
125.1 125.6 125.3
123.8 124.0 124.8
124.3 127.2 124.9
132.4 133.0 131.6
133.6 133.7 133.7
129.1 129.2 129.1
102.1 101.8 101.1
119.4 118.9 119.0
CD
I
cr>
             SOURCE:   Chemical  Engineering,  Economic Indicators

-------
                                    Table B-l  CHEMICAL ENGINEERING PLANT COST INDEXES (cont'd)
INDEX
CE Plant Index
Engineering &
Supervision
Building
Construction Labor
Equipment, Machinery
Supports
Fabricated Equipment
Process Machinery
Pipe, Valves &
Fittings
Process Instruments 8
Controls
Pumps & Compressors
Electrical Equipment
& Materials
Structural Supports
Insulation & Paint
1969 1968 1967
ANNUAL ANNUnL. ANNUAL
119.0 113.6 109.7
110.9 108.6 107.9
122.5 115.7 110.3
128.3 120.9 115.8
116.6 111.5 107.7
115.1 109.9 106.2
116.8 112.1 108.7
123.1 117.4 113.0
126.1 120.9 115.2
119.6 115.2 111.3
92.8 91.4 90.1
112.6 105.7 102.1
1966 1965 1964
ANNUAL ANNUAL ANNUAL
107.2 104.2 103.3
106.9 105.6 104.2
107.9 104.5 103.3
112.5 109.5 108.5
105.3 102.1 101.2
104.8 103.4 102.7
106.1 103.6 102.5
109.6 103.0 101.6
110.0 106.5 105.8
107.7 103.4 101.0
86.4 84.1 85.5
101.0 98.8 98.3
1963 1962 1961 1960
ANNUAL ANNUAL ANNUAL ANNUAL
102.4 102.0 101.5 102.0
103.4 102.6 101.7 101.3
102.1 101.4 100.8 101.5
107.2 105.6 105.1 103.7
100.5 100.6 100.2 101.7
101.7 101.0 100.1 101.2
102.0 101.9 101.1 101.8
100.7 100.6 101.1 104.1
105.7 105.9 105.9 105.4
100.1 101.1 100.8 101.7
87.6 89.4 92.3 95.7
97.3 99.2 99.8 101.9
1959 1958 1957
ANNUAL ANNUAL ANNUAL
101.8 99.7 98.5
102.5 99.3 98.2
101.4 99.5 99.1
101.4 100.0 98.6
101.9 99.6 98-5
100.9 99.6 99-5
101.8 100.1 91
103.3 98.8 9;
102.9 100.4 9i
102.5 100.0 9;
101.0 100.6 9(
101.6 100.4 9!
3.1
7.9
5.7
'.5
J.4
J.O
CO
             SOURCE:  Chemical  Engineering,  Economic  Indicators

-------
 MONTH
ANNUAL
                 Table B-2
                WHOLESALE PRICE INDEXES
                FOR COTTON BROADWOVEN GOODS,
                BLS # 0312, 1967=100
1971
1972
1973
110.6    122.3
         144.3
                                       1974
         177.8
 1975
JAN
FEB
MAR
APR
MAY
JUN
JUL
AU6
SEP
OCT
NOV
DEC
108.0
108.2
108.5
109.0
109.8
111.0
112.1
112.2
111.6
111.6
112.1
113.1
116.9
118.0
119.6
120.5
121.5
122.9
123.3
123.1
124.4
' 125.2
125.7
126.4
127.7
130.3
132.0
135.8
137.8
141.8
146.2
147.7
152.0
154.4
160.6
165.5
170.6
172.4
173.0
174.8
174.7
184.4
188.5
185.4
184.6
178.3
176.0
171.1
167.3
163.3
161.3
163.9
168.6
170.6
173.7
175.7
176.6
189.2


 MONTH
ANNUAL
                 Table B-3  WHOLESALE PRICE INDEXES
                            FOR MANMADE FIBER BROADWOVEN
                            GOODS, BLS #0334, 1967=100
1971
1972
1973
            101.5
         116.9
         144.5
                                       1974
         161.7
1975
JAN
FEB
MAR
APR
MAY
JUN
JUL
AUG
SEP
OCT
NOV
DEC
94.1
94.0
94.6
96.8
99.2
102.4
103.6
106.0
106.1
105.1
106.7
109.3
111.5
112.5
112.7
114.9
116.6
118.0
118.6
118.4
118.2
118.3
120.3
122.4
124.. 7
125.8
133.0
139.4
145.3
147.7
147.1
147.8
152.8
154.9
156.6
158.4
159.7
161.5
161.7
162.7
168.3
173.4
169.2
165.3
160.7
154.6
153.4
149.9
146.7
144.7
128.4
128.3
131.6
134.5
139.9
143.1
143.1
147.1


                                     B-8

-------
                 Table B-4  WHOLESALE PRICE INDEXES FOR
                            RUBBER AND PLASTIC PRODUCTS
                            BLS # 07, 1967=100

 MONTH      1971     1972     1973     1974    1975

  JAN
  FEB
  MAR
  APR
  MAY
  JUN
  JUL
  AUG
  SEP
  OCT
  NOV
  DEC

ANNUAL      109.2    109.3    112.4    136.2
108.4
109.1
109.1
109.0
108.7
108.7
109.7
109.8
109.7
109.5
109.5
109.4
109.5
109.2
108.9
108.7
108.8
108.9
109.2
109.5
109.5
109.5
109.8
109.8
110.0
110.1
110.3
110.6
111.5
112.6
112.9
113.1
112.8
114.0
114.8
116.5
117.7
119.8
123.8
129.4
133.7
135.6
139.5
143.4
145.6
147.5
148.5
149.4
149.6
150.0
149.7
149.4
148.9
148.6
150.1
150.0
150.8
151.5


                 Table B-5  WHOLESALE  PRICE  INDEXES  FOR
                            CARBON  STEEL  PLATES, A36
                            BLS  # 10130246,  1967=100

 MONTH      1971     1972     1973      1974     1975
JAN
FEB
MAR
APR
MAY
JUN
JUL
AUG
SEP
OCT
NOV
DEC
119.0
119.0
128.8
128.8
128.8
128.8
128.8
141.0
141.0
141.0
141.0
141.0
141.0
141.0
141.0
141.0
141.0
141.0
141.0
141.0
141.0
141.0
141.0
141.0
146.7
146.7
146.7
146.7
146.7
146.7
146.7
146.7
146.7
146.7
146.7
146.7
152.1
152.1
161.3
161.3
173.3
173.4
199.7
199.7
201.7
201.7
201.7
201.7
212.9
212.9
212.9
212.9
212.9
212.9
208.9
207.8
207.8
218.8


ANNUAL      132.3    141.0    146.7     181.6
                                    B-9

-------
                 Table B-6  WHOLESALE PRICE INDEXES  FOR
                            STAINLESS STEEL PLATE
                            BLS # 10130247, 1967=100

 MONTH      1971     1972     1973     1974    1975
JAN
FEB
MAR
APR
MAY
JUN
JUL
AUG
SEP
OCT
NOV
DEC
140.2
140.2
140.2
140.2
140.2
148.1
148.1
148.1
148.1
148.1
148.1
146.1
146.1
146.1
121.3
121.3
121.3
121.3
121.3
127.6
127.6
127.6
127.6
127.6
132.8
132.8
132.8
132.8
132.8
132.8
132.8
132.8
132.8
132.8
132.8
132.8
134.2
134.3
139.2
145.5
157.7
166.0
169.2
187.8
190.4
193.0
193.0
193.0
197.1
195.7
195.7
195.7
195.7
195.7
195.7
195.7
195.7
195.7
206.3

ANNUAL      144.6    128.1    132.8    166.9
                 Table B-7  WHOLESALE PRICE INDEXES FOR
                            CARBON STEEL SHEET,
                            BLS #10130262, 1967=100

 YONTH       1971     1972    1973     1974    1975
JAN
FEB
MAR
APR
MAY
JUN
JUL
AUG
SEP
OCT
NOV
:EC
119.5
119.5
119.5
119.5
119.5
119.5
127.5
127.5
127.5
127.5
127.5
127.5
124.1
134.5
134.5
134.5
134.5
134.5
134.5
134.5
134.5
134.5
134.5
134.5
134.5
134.5
134.5
134.5
134.5
134.5
134.5
134.5
134.5
137.5
137.5
137.5
137.5
137.5
142.0
146.6
155.8
165.4
182.3
188.5
188.5
188.5
188.5
190.0
189.1
189.1
189.1
189.1
185.0
185.0
184.8
184.8
184.8
197.0


 ANUAL       123.5    133.6   135.3    167.6
                                    B-10

-------
                  Table B-8
 MONTH

  JAN
  FEB
  MAR
  APR
  MAY
  JUN
  JUL
  AUG
  SEP
  OCT
  NOV
  DEC

ANNUAL
1971
               WHOLESALE PRICE INDEXES FOR
               STAINLESS STEEL SHEET
               BLS # 10130264, 1967=100
1972
1973
1974
1975
130.8
130.8
130.8
130.8
130.8
138.1
138.1
138.1
138.1
138.1
138.1
137.1
137.1
137.1
138.1
138.1
138.1
120.4
120.4
117.5
117.5
117.5
117.5
117.5
117.5
117.5
117.5
117.5
123.4
124.5
124.5
124.5
124.5
124.5
124.6
124.6
126.8
128.6
134.9
140.1
153.6
159.6
163.9
173.1
174.9
174.9
175.8
178.9
178.9
169.6
169.3
169.3
169.3
162.6
162.9
162.9
162.9
162.4


135.0    126.4   122.1
                 157.1
 MONTH

  JAN
  FEB
  MAR
  APR
  MAY
  JUN
  JUL
  AUG
  SEP
  OCT
  NOV
  DEC

ANNUAL
                  Table B-9  WHOLESALE PRICE INDEXES  FOR
                             PUMPS,  COMPRESSORS,  AND  EQUIPMENT
                             BLS # 1141,  1967=100
1971
1972    1973
         1974    1975
119.3
120.0
120.5
121.6
121.9
121.9
121.9
122.3
122.3.
122.6
122.2
122.2
122.4
123.2
123.5
123.5
123.0
124.2
124.9
124.6
124.6
124.7
124.8
124.8
125.0
125.1
125.2
125.9
126.2
127.7
127.5
127.7
127.6
128.6
131.4
131.7
132.1
133.4
135.5
138.7
142.5
147.7
154.0
162.7
163.8
168.8
176.8
179.5
180.5
184.3
184.4
186.2
187.3
187.3
187.9
188.8
189.2
189.9


121.6    124.0   127.5
                 153.0
                                     B-ll

-------
                  Table B-10  WHOLESALE PRICE  INDEXES  FOR
                              V-BELT SHEAVES
                              BLS # 11450133,  1976=100

 MONTH        1971      1972    1973     1974     1975

  JAN
  FEB
  MAR
  APR
  MAY
  JUN
  JUL
  AUG
  SEP
  OCT
  NOV
  DEC

ANNUAL        117.6     123.6   126.8    150.2
117.6
117.6
117.6
117.6
117.6
117.6
117.6
117.6
117.6
117.6 
117.6
117.6
117.6
117.6
117.6
122.4
124.4
126.3
126.3
126.3
126.3
126.3
126.3
126.3
126.3
126.3
126.3
126.3
126.3
126.3
126.3
126.3
126.3
126.3
128.2
130.4
130.4
133.3
133.3
133.3
137.7
139.9
150.9
162.6
162.6
171.6
171.6
175.4
175.4
175.4
175.4
175.4
174.1
174.1
174.1
172.8
172.8
172.8


                  Table B-ll  WHOLESALE PRICE INDEXES FOR
                              FANS AND BLOWERS, EXCEPT PORTABLE
                              BLS # 1147, 1967=100

 MONTH        1971      1972    1973     1974    1975

  JAN
  FEB
  MAR
  APR
  MAY
  JUN
  JUL
  AUG
  SEP
  OCT
  NOV
  DEC

ANNUAL        123.8     129.0   135.2    168.3
120.8
121.0
123.1
122.2
122.2
124.6
124.9
124.9
125.3
125.3
125.3
125.5
125.6
127.3
128.6
128.8
128.8
128.8
128.8
128.8
129.9
130.0
130.0
122.4
132.4
132.6
133.1
134.4
134.4
135.0
135.0
135.2
137.5
137.7
137.6
137.6
138.2
138.5
145.5
146.4
158.6
171.8
178.6
183.2
185.3
188.6
192.3
192.6
197.9
198.2
198.6
198.8
201.3
202.4
205.4
205.4
205.8
206.4


                                     B-12

-------
                  Table B-12
 MONTH

  JAN
  FEB
  MAR
  APR
  MAY
  JUN
  JUL
  AUG
  SEP
  OCT
  NOV
  DEC

ANNUAL
1971
                WHOLESALE PRICE INDEXES FOR
                MOTORS, INTEGRAL HORSEPOWER,  A.C.,  10 HP
                BLS # 11730112, 1967=100
1972    1972
1974
1975
122.1
113.6
109.1
104.0
104.0
104.0
102.2
101.6
101.6
101.6
101.6
101.6
99.6
99.6
99.6
101.1
105.6
105.6
105.6
105.6
105.6
105.6
111.5
111.5
112.1
112.1
115.2
118.2
119.7
120.9
120.9
120.9
119.7
119.7
121.8
124.2
125.8
125.8
127.9
130.9
134.9
155.1
160.0
161.7
167.6
172.4
175.9
179.8
184.0
186.1
186.1
186.1
186.1
N/A
N/A
186.1
186.1
186.1


105.6
104.7   118.8
151.5
    N/A = Not Available
 MONTH
                  Table B-13   WHOLESALE  PRICE  INDEXES FOR
                              MOTORS,  INTEGRAL HORSEPOWER, A.C., 250 HP
                              BLS  #  11730113,  1967=100
1971
1972    1973
JAN
FEB
MAR
APR
MAY
JUN
JUL
AUG
SEP
OCT
NOV
DEC
ANNUAL
N/A =
123.9
123.9
123.9
125.6
129.0
129.0
130.7
130.7
130.7
130.7
130.7
130.7
128.3
Not Available
125.1
125.1
125.1
127.8
127.8
127.8
127.8
129.5
129.5
129.5
129.5
129.5
127.8

129.5
129.5
131.9
136.3
136.3
136.3
139.3
139.3
139.3
139.3
139.3
139.3
136.3

1974    1975

142.0
143.9
143.9
141.3
 N/A
 N/A
 N/A
 N/A
 N/A
 N/A
 N/A
 N/A

142.8
                                     B-13

-------
                  Table B-14  WHOLESALE  PRICE  INDEXES  FOR
                              MOTORS,  INTEGRAL HORSEPOWER, A.C., 50 HP
                              BLS # 11730119,  1967=100

 MONTH        1971      1972    1973     1974     1975

  JAN         115.1      99.6   111.5     123.5   178.0
  FEB
  MAR
  APR
  MAY
  JUN
  JUL
  AUG
  SEP
  OCT
  NOV
  DEC

ANNUAL         98.3     104.7   117.6     149.9
98.9
98.9
98.2
98.2
98.2
95.9
95.2
95.2
95.2'
95.2
95.2
99.6
99.6
101.5
105.6
105.6
105.6
105.6
105.6
105.6
111.5
111.5
111.5
113.4
117.1
119.0
120.5
120.5
120.5
119.0
119.0
119.0
120.1
123.5
126.1
126.1
140.7
152.4
160.9
163.1
164.3
172.8
172.8
172.8
180.6
184.9
184.9
184.9
184.9
184.9
184.9
184.9
184.9


                  Table B-15  WHOLESALE PRICE INDEXES  FOR
                              A.C. STARTERS, 75 HP,  440 VOLTS
                              BLS #11750781, 1967=100

 MONTH        1971      1972    1973     1974    1975

  JAN
  FEB
  MAR
  APR
  MAY
  JUN
  JUL
  AUG
  SEP
  OCT
  NOV
  DEC

ANNUAL        108.5     112.4   112.4    128.5
106.8
105.5
105.5
105.5
105.5
105.5
105.7
112.4
112.4
112.4
112.4
112.4
112.4
112.4
112.4
112.4
112.4
112.4
112.4
112.4
112.4
112.4
112.4
112.4
112.4
112.4
112.4
112.4
112.4
112.4
112.4
112.4
112.4
112.4
112.4
112.4
115.4
116.1
116.1
116.1
123.4
130.0
132.0
132.0
133.0
141.0
143.7
143.7
143.7
143.7
143.7
143.7
143.7
143.7
143.7
143.7
147.0
N/A


                                     B-14

-------
 MONTH

  JAN
  FEB
  MAR
  APR
  MAY
  JUN
  JUL
  AUG
  SEP
  OCT
  NOV
  DEC

ANNUAL
                  Table B-16  WHOLESALE PRICE INDEXES FOR
                              REFRACTORTFS
                              BLS # 135, 1967=100; for 1975,  Dec '74=100
1971
1972    1973
         1974    1975
126.7
126.7
126.7
126.7
126.7
126.9
126.9
126.9
126.9
127.1
127.1
127.1
127.1
127.1
127.1
127.1
127.1
127.1
127.1
129.6
132.1
132.1
132.1
132.1
136.3
136.3
136.3
136.3
136.3
136.3
136.3
136.3
136.3
136.3
136.3
136.3
136.3
136.3
136.3
136.3
136.3
136.3
137.8
137.8
153.4
157.0
157.8
160.5
100.4
103.2
103.5
103.7
103.9
103.9
103.8
104.1
104.6
104.7


126.9
129.0   136.3    143.5
                  Table B-17
 MONTH

  JAN
  FEB
  MAR
  APR
  MAY
  JUN
  JUL
  AUG
  SEP
  OCT
  NOV
  DEC

ANNUAL
1971
129.0
                WHOLESALE PRICE  INDEXES  FOR
                FIRE CLAY BRICK,  SUPER DUTY
                BLS  # 13520111,  1967=100
1972
1973
130.5   134.5
    N/A = Not Available
1974    1975
129.0
129.0
129.0
129.0
129.0
129.0
129.0
129.0
129.0
129.0
129.0
129.0
129.0
129.0
129.0
N/A
N/A
N/A
129.0
131.0
132.3
N/A
132.3
132.3
134.5
134.5
134.5
134.5
N/A
134.5
N/A
N/A
134.5
134.5
134.5
N/A
134.5
134.5
134.5
134.5
134.5
134.5
135.3
N/A
156.0
164.2
164.2
167.1
167.1
170.3
170.3
170.3
170.3
170.3
170.3
170.3
170.3
170.3


         144.9
                                     B-15

-------
MONTH
                 Table B-18
1971      1972
                WHOLESALE PRICE INDEXES FOR
                HIGH ALUMINA BRICK,  70 PCT.
                BLS # 13520131, 1967=100
              1973
JAN
FEB
MAR
APR
MAY
JUN
JUL
AUG
SEP
OCT
NOV
DEC
ANNUAL
N/A =
119.8
119.8
119.8
119.8
119.8
121.5
121.5
121.5
121.5
122.7
122.7'
122.7
121.1
Not Available
122.7
122.7
122.7
N/A
N/A
N/A
122.7
130.4
134.5
N/A
134.5
134.5
128.1

146.9
146.9
146.9
146.9
N/A
146.9
N/A
N/A
146.9
146.9
146.9
N/A
146.9

1974    1974
                                            ,9
                                            ,9
                           146.9
                           146.9
                           146.9
                           146.9
                           146.
                           146.
                           154.6
                            N/A
                           170.4
                           178.7
                           178.7
                           181.2

                           158.6
                                                183.4
                                                189.0
                                                189.0
                               190.
                               190.
                               190.1
                               190.1
                               192.4
                               192.4
                               192.4
                  Table B-19
MONTH

 JAN
 FEB
 MAR
 APR
 MAY
 JUN
 JUL
 AUG
 SEP
 OCT
 NOV
 DEC
 1975

 100.8
 100.8
 100.8
 101.9
 101.9
 101.9
 101.9
 102.
 102,
,7
,7
 102.7
                WHOLESALE PRICE  INDEXES FOR
                CASTABLE REFRACTORIES
                BLS #  13520151,  DEC 1974=100
                                      B-16

-------
                   Table 20  WHOLESALE PRICE INDEXES FOR
                             INSULATION MATERIALS
                             BLS #1392, 19b/=100

 MONTH         1971      1972    1973     1974    1975

  JAN
  FEB
  MAR
  APR
  MAY
  JUN
  JUL
  AUG
  SEP
  OCT
  NOV
  DEC

ANNUAL         131.7     136.9   137.4    150.5
126.2
126.2
126.2
126.2
134.5
134.5
134.5
134.5
134.5
134.5
134.5
134.5
134.5
134.5
134.5
134.5
142.7
138.8
136.8
136.8
137.5
137.5
137.5
137.5
137.5
137.5
138.4
138.4
138.4
138.4
138.4
138.4
135.0
135.0
135.0
137.9
139.2
139.2
139.2
139.9
146.9
149.8
152.0
156.0
169.6
169.6
187.2
189.2
189.7
189.7
189.7
189.7
189.7
194.1
203.0
203.0
201.4
201.4


                   Table  B-21   WHOLESALE  PRICE  INDEXES FOR
                               NATURAL  GAS
                               BLS  #  05310101,  1967 = 100

  MONTH        1971      1972     1973     1974     1975

   JAN
   FEB
   MAR
   APR
   MAY
   JUN
   JUL
   AUG
   SEP
   OCT
   NOV
   DEC

 ANNUAL        112.2     121.0    131.3    155.1    215.3
109.5
107.9
109.7
110.8
112.2
113.0
113.2
112.6
114.2
114.7
114.7
113.5
116.3
116.6
117.6
119.6
120.3
120.2
120.6
122.1
122.8
123.9
125.9
126.2
125.1
125.4
125.8
127.4
129.1
130.1
131.1
133.3
135.8
135.9
135.4
141.5
140.9
145.0
147.8
148.4
149.8
151.7
152.6
154.3
159.8
162.1
173.1
175.3
180.5
190.5
190.0
205.8
222.0
219.7
228.3
223.1
229.4
229.5
225.7
239.5
                                      B-17

-------
                  TaMe B-22
 MONTH

  JAN
  FEE
  MAR
  APR
  MAY
  JUN
  JUL
  AUG
  SEP
  OCT
  NOV
  DEC

ANNUAL
1971
               WHOLESALE PRICE  INDEXES  FOR
               INDUSTRIAL'POWER,  500 KWD
               BtS # 0543,  Dec  19/0 = 1=90
1972
1973
1974
1975
111.2
111.8
112.5
114.2
114.6
115.2
115.4
117.0
118.5
118. 4
118.3
118.5
121.2
122.7
122.5
123.0
123.9
124.0
124.3
124.4
124.9
125.4
125.4
125.6
126.9
129.0
130.1
131.0
131.5
131.2
131.8
132.0
134.0
135.6
137.3
140.3
142.3
147.0
154.3
158.8
166.8
174.1
178.1
182.2
185.2
191.0
193.2
195.1
198.3
202.7
208.0
212.5
208.7
206.0
207.5
210.5
213.7
215.8
217.2
215.2
115.5
123.9   132.6    172.3   209.7
                  Table B-23
 MONTH

  JAN
  FEB
  MAR
  APR
  MAY
  JUN
  JUL
  AUG
  SEP
  OCT
  NOV
  DEC

ANNUAL
1971
               INDEXES OF AVERAGE  HOURLY  EARNINGS:
               MANUFACTURING
               1967 = 100
1972
1973
1974
1975









129.3
129.0
131.3
132.1
132.7
133.2
133.6
134.5
135.0
135.5
136.1
136.8
137.5
138.0
138.8
139.5
139.7
140.4
141.1
141.8
142.7
143.7
144.5
145.4
146.5
147.0
147.9
148.7
149.6
150.6
151.7
153.5
155.5
156.6
158.0
159.6
161.3
162.5
163.7
164.8
166.1
167.7
168.6
169.7
171.0
172.2
173.3
174.5
176.0
177.0
177.4
127.5    135.4   143.6    156.0   171.5
   SOURCE:  U.S. Dept. of Commerce, Survey of Current Business
                                     B-18

-------
            APPENDIX C





GUIDE TO REFERENCES TO THE 27 INDUSTRIES

-------
             LIST OF REFERENCES CROSS-INDEXED TO INDUSTRY SOURCE
INDUSTRY (or source of pollution)
Basic Oxygen Furnaces
Brick Manufacturing
Castable Refractories
Clay Refractories
Coal Fired Boilers

Conical  Incinerators
Cotton Ginning
Detergent Manufacturing
Electric Arc Furnaces

Feed Mills
Ferroalloy Plants
Glass Manufacturing
Grey Iron Foundries

Iron & Steel (Sintering)

Kraft Recovery Furnaces

Lime Kilns
Municipal Incinerators

Petroleum Catalytic Cracking
Phosphate Fertilizer
Phosphate Rock Crushing
Polyvinyl Chloride Production
Portland Cement
Pulp and Paper (Fluidized  Bed
    Reactor)
Secondary Aluminum Smelters
Secondary Copper Smelters
Sewage Sludge Incinerators
Surface Coatings - Spray Booths
List rvf References
5, 10, 11, 15, 24, 26, 34, 35, 36, 117
5, 24, 26, 35, 36, 82, 96, 97
5, 10, 26, 96, 97
5, 6, 24, 26, 36, 52, 96, 97
5, 6, 15, 24, 26, 34, 35, 36, 52, 61, 71,
76, 77, 83, 115, 123
5, 15, 26, 113, 116,'117
10, 26
5, 10, 24
5, 10, 11, 15, 16, 17, 24, 26, 28, 34, 35,
36, 67, 103, 104, 117
5, 10, 24, 26, 35, 78, 80, 117,  118
5, 10, 11, 15, 24, 26, 67, 82, 89, 99, 117
24, 36, 117
5, 6, 10, 15, 16, 17, 24, 26, 28, 32, 35,
37, 55, 78, 93, 101, 110, 117
5, 6, 10, 11, 15, 24, 26, 34, 35, 36, 37,
56, 82, 102, 103, 104, 105, 110,  117
1, 2, 3, 5, 10, 26, 27, 30, 31,  34, 35,  63,
64, 72, 82, 90, 112, 117
4, 6, 15, 19, 26, 35, 78
6, 15, 25, 26, 34, 58, 92, 94, 106, 107,  114,
115,  116, 117
5, 6, 15, 26, 34, 35, 37, 42, 82, 109, 117
5, 6, 10, 24, 26, 34, 35, 37, 78, 117
5, 24, 26, 34, 36, 117
5, 10, 24,.36, 37, 43
5, 6, 12, 15, 24, 26, 34, 35, 36, 74, 98, 117
1, 2, 3, 5, 10, 15, 27, 30, 31,  34, 63,  64,
90, 101, 112, 117
5, 13, 15, 19, 26, 34, 35, 36, 69, 95, 117
5, 15, 19, 26, 34, 35, 36, 69, 95, 100,  117
5, 15, 26, 59, 114, 116, 117
24, 35, 37, 40, 42, 45, 57, 115
Multi-Industry General  Articles
7, 8, 9, 14, 20-23,  24,  30,  33,  34,  37,  38,
39, 40, 41, 44,  46-51,  53,  54,  60,  61,  62,
65, 66, 68, 70,  71,  73,  75,  78,  79,  81,  82,
84, 85, 86, 87,  88,  91,  111, 115,  119-122,
124-127, 128, 129,  130,  131
                                  C-l

-------
                             LIST OF REFERENCES
Source
  No.
Title
          With the Alcoa 398 Process for Fluoride
          Recovery", Alcoa, Journal of the Air pollu-
          tion Control Assoc.. 21(8):479-483, Aug.  1971.
APT 1C
 No.
   1      Anon., "Control of Atmospheric Emissions in       21385
          the Wood Pulping Industry", Vol.  1, Mar. 15,.
          1970.  Contract No. CPA 22-69-18, NAPCA.

   2      Ibid Item #1, Vol. 3.                             21724

   3      Ibid Item #1, Vol. 2.                             21728

   4      Minnick, L. J., "Control of Particulate           27434
          Emissions-From Lime Plants", June 14, 1970.
          63rd Annual Meeting APCA Paper 70-73.

   5      Billings, C. E. and Wilder, J. E., "Engineering   28580
          Analysis of the Field Performance of Fabric
          Filter Systems", June 14, 1970.  63rd Annual
          Meeting APCA Paper 70-129 (performed under
          NAPCA Contract CPA 22-69-38).

   6      Anon., "Efficiency Versus Particle Size and       28821
          Approximate Cost Information of Mechanical
          Collectors", IGCI Pub. Ml, Jan. 1968.

   7      Heneghan, W. F., "Activated Carbon - A Final      29088
          Filter", Pollution Engineering, Jan/Feb, 1970,
          pp. 18-20.

   8      Ashman, R., "A Practical Guide to Industrial      29089
          Dust Control", JIHVE, Mar. 1971,  Vol. 38,
          pp. 273-282.

   9      Anderson, L. W., "Odor Control in Rendering       29261
          by Wet Scrubbing - A Case History", 1970,
          Carolina By-Products Company, Greensboro, N.C.
10
11
12
13
Anon., "Pollution Control Update, 1970" , McGraw-
Hill, Modern Manufacturing, July 1970, 6 pp.
Vaiga, J., et al., "A Systems Analysis of the
Iron & Steel Industry", Battelle, May, 1969.
Walling, I. C. , "Cement Plant Dust Collectors",
Pit & Quarry, July, 1971, 64(1 ):143-148.
Cook, C. C. , et al., "Operating Experience
30462
30698
31538
31567
NTIS
 No.
                                                                      184577
                                      C-2

-------
Source
  No.
Title
APTIC
 No,
NTIS
 No.
  14      Wright T.  J., et al.,  "A Model  for Estimating
          Air Pollution Control  Costs",  TRW, 64th Annual
          Meeting APCA, June 27, 1971,  Paper 71-144.
          Work performed under Contract PH 22-68-60 (EPA).

  15      Anon., "An Electrostatic Precipitator Systems
          Study", SRI,  Oct.  1970,  NAPCA Contract CPA  22-
          69-73.

  16      Anon., "Systems Analysis of Emissions and
          Emissions  Control  in the Iron Foundry Industry",
          Vol.  II, Feb. 1971,  EPA  Contract CPA 22-69-106,
          A.  T.  Kearney & Co., Inc.

  17      Ibid Item  16, Vol.  I.

  18      Ibid Item  16, Vol.  III.

  19      Anon., "Study of Technical  and  Cost Information
          for Gas Cleaning Equipment  in  the Lime and
          Secondary  Non-Ferrous  Metallurgical Industries",
          IGCI,  NAPCA Contract CPA 70-150, Dec., 1970.

  20      Anon., "Fabric Filter  Systems  Study", Vol.  II,
          GCA Corp., Dec.  1970,  NAPCA Contract CPA 22-69-
          38.

  21      Ibid Item  20, Vol.  I.

  22      Ibid Item  20, Vol.  IV.

  23      Ibid Item  20, Vol.  III.

  24      Anon., "Air Pollution  Control:  A Practical  Guide
          'o  Information Sources for  Business, Industry,
          and Municipalities", Purdue University Libraries
          Industrial and Technical  Information Service, Apr.,
          1974.   Bibliography listing of sources.

  25      Stear, J.  R., "Municipal  Incineration:  A Review of
          the Literature", EPA,  June, 1971, Office of Air
          Programs,  RTP.

  26      Anon., "Particulate  Pollutant  Systems Study",
          Vol.  Ill,  Handbook of  Emission  Properties,  EPA
          Contract CPA  22-69-104,  May,  1971, MRI.

  27      Weiner, J. and Roth, L.,  "Air  Pollution in  the
          Pulp & Paper  Industry",  The Institute of Paper
          Chemistry, Bibliographic Series No.  237, Sup-
          plement I, 1970.
                                31747
                                32021    198150
                                32247    198349
                                32251     198348

                                32252     198350

                                32248     198137
                                34691     200649
                                34698

                                34799

                                34799

                                34894
         200648

         200651

         200650
                                34955    200514
                                35574    203522
                                35581
                                         C-3

-------
Source
  No.
Title
APTIC
 No.
NTIS
 No.
  28      Greenberg, J.  H., "Systems Analysis of Emissions:       35925
          The Iron Foundry Industry", Chem Tech 1(12):  728-
          736, Dec. 1971.

  29      Victor, I., "Control of Gases and Vapor Emissions       37254
          From Industrial and Dry Cleaning Processes Com-
          paring Efficiency and Operating Cost of Incineration,
          Absorption, Condensation and Absorption Methods",
          Dec., 1971, Conference paper preprint, U.  S.  Dept.
          of Commerce and WPCF.

  30      Mueller, J. H., "Fume and Odor Control Systems         38195
          Compared and Analyzed", Wood & Wood Products,
          76(3): 48-50, Mar., 1971.

  31      Anon., "Harmonizing Pulp and Paper Industry vnth       59245
          Environment", Proc. of XV EUCEPA Conference,  Rome,
          May 7, 1973.

  32      Anon., "Economic Impact of Air Pollution Controls                196500
          on Gray Iron Foundry Industry", NAPCA Pub. AP 74,
          Nov., 1970.

  33      Oglesby, Sabert, et al., "A Manual of Electrostatic             196380
          Precipitator Technology, Part I - Fundamentals",
          SRI, PHS CPA 22-69-73, Aug. 25, 1973.

  34      Ibid Item 33, Part  II, Application Areas.                        196381

  35      Anderson, H. S., et al., "User's Manual, Automated               198779
          Procedures for  Estimating Control Costs and Emission
          Reductions,  Etc.", RTI, PHS CPA 70-60, 1970.

  36      Anon., "Engineering and Cost Effectiveness Study of             207506
          Fluoride Emissions Control", Jan. 1972, Vol.  I, EPA
          Contract EHSD 71-14.

  37      Rolke, R. W., et al., "Afterburner Systems Study",               21^560
          EPA EHSD 71-3,  Aug. 1972.

  33      Calvert, J., et al., "Wet Scrubber System Study",                213016
          Vol. I, Scrubber Handbook, APT, Inc.,EPA R2 72 118A, CPA
          70-95, July, 1972.

  39      Ibid Item 38, Vol.  II, Final Report and Bibliography.            213017

  40*     Juhola, A. J.,  "Package Sorption Device System Study",          221138
          MSA Res. Corp., EPA R2 73 202, EHSD 71-2,  Apr. 1973.
                                      C-4

-------
Source
  No.
                     Title
APTIC
 No.
NT IS
 No.
  41      Anon., "Proceedings of a Symposium on Control of                235829
          Fine-Particulate Emissions, Etc.", 1974, U.S.-U.S.S.R.
          Working Group Stationary Source Air Pol. Control Technology.

  42      Anon., "Systems and Costs to Control Hydrocarbon                236921
          Emissions from Stationary Sources.

  43      Carpenter, B. H.,  "Vinyl Chloride; An Assessment                237343
          of Emissions Control Techniques and Costs", RTP,'
          EPA/650/2.  74097  EPA 68-02-1325, Sept., 1974.

  44      Anon., "Proceedings, Symposium on the Use of Fabric             237629
          Filters for the Control  of Sub-Micron Particulates",
          EPA 650-2-74-043,  EPA 68-02-1316, Meeting, 1974.

  45      Dowd,  E.  J., "Air  Pollution Control Engineering and             238058
          Cost Study of the  Paint and Varnish Industry",
          ARI, EPA 450-3-74-031, EPA 68-02-0259, June, 1974.

  46      Anon., "Air Pollution: Control Techniques for                   240578
          Nitrogen Oxide", NATO Comm. on the Challenge of
          Modern Society, NATO CCMS 20, Oct., 1973.

  47      Ibid Item 46, Hydrocarbon and Organic Sol vent,CCMS  19.          240577

  48      Ibid Item 46, Carbon Monoxide, CCMS 18.                          240576

  49      Ibid Item 46, Particulates, CCMS 13,                            240573

  50      Ibid Item 46, Sulfur Oxide, CCMS 12.                            240572

  51      "Control  Techniques For Particulate Air Pollutants",            190253
          USN6W, 1969, AP-51.

  52      "Sulfur Codes Pose Dilemma for Coal", Envir.  Sci.      37826
          Tech., 4(12):1104-1106,  Dec., 1970.

  53      Diamant,.R.  M.  E., "The Prevention of Pollution,       38620
          Part XII", Heating and Ventilating Eng.,
          4-S(535): 398-406, Feb., 1972.

  54      "Low Cost Electrostatic Precipitation",  Filtration      38088
          Separation,  9(1):  52-59 Jan/Feb, 1972.

  55      Anon., "Ford's  Michigan Casting Center,  Environmental   37498
          Control", Foundry, 100(3): F8-F11, Mar., 1972.

  56
Anon., "When It Comes to Pollution Control,  Steel
Isn't Dawdling- It's Acting",  33 Mag.  10(1): 23-29,
Jan., 1972.
3623C
                                      C-5

-------
Source
  No.

 57
 58
 59
 60
 61
 62
 63
 64
 65


 66


 67



 68



 69
                    Title

Hayes, C. T., "Cut Industrial Pollution by
Eliminating  Gaseous Waste", Automation,
Cleveland 18(3):64-65, Mar., 1971.
APTTC
 No.


36516
NTIS
 No.
Fife, J. A.,  "Design of the Northwest Incinera-   28261
tor for the City of Chicago", Proc. of Nat'l.
Incinerator Conf., Cincinnati, Ohio, 1970, pp. 149-160.

Sebastian, F. P. and Isheim, NL C., "Advances     28262
in Incineration and Resource Reclamation",
Proc. of Nat'l. Incinerator Conf., Cincinnati,
Ohio, 1970, pp. 71-78.

Mueller, J. H., "Cost Comparison for Burning      34716
Fumes and Odors", Pollution Eng. 3(6):18-30,
Nov/Dec, 1971.

Jaeger, W. and  Keilpart, T., "Pollution Control   31915
Can Pay Its Way - Even When Retrofit", Elec.
Light Power,  48(6):73-75, June, 1970.  	

Ottaviano, V. B. and Lazan, S., "Air Pollution    31805
Abatement Market for the Sheet Metal Industry",
Heating Air Conditioning Contractors, Vol.
bZ:Zb-3\, Aug., 1971.

Burgess, T. L., et al., "Incineration of  Malodor-  63161
ous Gases in  Kraft Pulp Mills", Pulp Paper
Mag. Can., 75(5):92-96, May, 19747"^

Roberson, J.  E., et al., "The NAPCA Study of the   28095
Control of Atmospheric Emissions in the Wood
Pulping Industry", TAPPI, 54(2): 239-244, Feb.,
1971.

Jones, A.  H., "The Basics of Dust Collection",    27279
Plant Eng., 25(4):71-73, Feb. 18, 1971

Ellison, W. ,  "Wet Scrubbers Popular for Air       27282
Cleaning", Power, 115(2):62-63, Feb., 1971.

Person, R. A., "Control of Emissions from         29325
Ferroalloy Furnace Processing", J. Metals,
23(4):17-29,  Apr., 1971.

Mueller, J. H., "What It Costs to Control         29299
Process Odors", Food Eng., 43(4):62-65, Apr.,
1971.

Swan, D.,  "Study of Costs for Complying with      29376
Standards  for Control of Sulfur Oxide Emissions
from Smelters",  Mining Congr.  J.,  57(4):76-85,
Apr., 1971.
                                   C-6

-------
Source
  No.
                  Title
APTIC
 No.
NTIS
 No.
  70



  71


  72



  73


  74



  75


  76
  77
  78
  79
  30
 Calvert,  Seymour,  "Source  Control  by  Liquid  Scrub-      30868
 bing",  In: Air  Pollution,  Arthur C. Stern  (Ed.),
 Vol.  3, 2nd  Ed., N.Y., Academic Press,  1968.

 Olds, F.  C.,  "S09  Control:  Focusing on  New Targets",    31673
 Power Eng.,  75(8J:24-29, Aug., 1971.

 Lardieri, N.  T., "Present  Treatment Practices  in <      35660
 Kraft Mills  of  Air-borne Effluents",  Paper Trade
 J..,  142(15):28-33,  14 April,  1958.

 Taylor, D. H.,  "Recommendations for Dust Collection     35087
 Systems", Metal Progr. 98(6):63, Dec.,  1970.

 Van  DeWouwer, R.,  "Clinker Cooler  Dust  Collector        35990
 Recovers  60  TPD at Inland's Winnepeg  Plant", Pit
 Quarry, 64(7):104-105, Jan.,  1972.

 Alonso, J. R.F., "Estimating  the Costs  of  Gas           35532
 Cleaning  Plants",  Chem. Eng., 78(28):86-96.

 Benson, J. R. and  Corn. M., "Costs of Air  Cleaning      61840
 with  Electrostatic Precipitators at TVA Steam  Plants",
 J. Air  Pollution Control Assoc., 24(4):340-348, Apr.,
 1974, 7 Refs.

 Selzler,  David  R.  and Watson, W. D.,  "Hot  Versus        58903
 Enlarged  Electrostatic Precipitation  of Fly  Ash:
 A  Cost-Effectiveness Study".  J. Air Poll.  Control
 Assoc.. 24(2):115-121, Feb.,  1974, 25 Refs.

 Hardison, L.C., "Air Pollution Control  Technology       62087
 and  Costs in  Seven  Selected Industries  (Final  Report)",
 Industrial Gas  Cleaning Institute, Stamford, Conn.
 Office  of Air and  Water Programs,  Contract 68-02-
 0289, Rept.  EPA-450/3-73-010, IGCI Rept. 47-173,
 724  p., Dec.  1973,  82 Refs.
 Nichols,  Richard A.,  "Hydrocarbon-Vapor Recovery"
 Chem.  Eng.. 80(6):85-92, 5 Mar., 1973.  Presented
 at  the  Petroleum Mech. Engrg.Conf., New Orleans, La.,
 Sept.  17-21,  1972.

 Shannon,  Larry J.; Gerstle, Richard W.; Gorman,
 P.  G.;  Epp, P.G.; Devitt, T. W.; Amick, R.,
"Emissions Control in  the Grain and Feed  Industry.
 Vol.  I-  Engineering and Cost Study", Midwest Res.
 Inst.,  Kansas City, Mo., Office of Air Quality
 Planning  and  Standards, Contract 68-02-0213, Rept.
 EPA 450/3-73-003a, 583 pp., Dec., 1973, 128 Refs.
60808
59566
                                   C-7

-------
Source                                                      APTIC     NTIS
  No-                     Title                              No.       .No.

  81      Larson, Dennis M., "Control of Organic Solvent    56967
          Emissions by Activated Carbon", Metal Finishing,
          71(12):62-65, 70, Dec., 1973, 4 Refs.

  82      Hardison, L.C. and Greathouse, Carroll A., "Air   57616
          Pollution Control Technology and Costs in Nine
          Selected Areas (Final Report)", Industrial
          Gas Cleaning Inst., Stamford, Conn., EPA Contract
          68-02-0301,APTD-1555, 616 pp., Sept.30, 1972,
          74 Refs.

  83      Schultz, E, A.; Miller, W.E.; Barnard, R. E.;     60847
          and Horlacher, W. R., "The Cat-Ox Project at
          Illinois Power", Proc. Am. Power Conf., Vol.  34:
          484-490, April, 1972.

  84      Stout, Bruce G., "Selection of Air Pollution      62011
          Control Equipment", Army Logistics Management
          Center, Texarkana, Tex., Product/Production
          Engineering Program.  Training Center Rept.
          USAMC-ITC-2-71-12, 82 pp., July, 1971, 13 Refs.

  85      Bagwell, F. A., Cox, L. F. and Pirsh, E.  A.,       58729
          "Flue-Gas Filtering Proves Practical on Oil-
          Fired Unit", Elec. World, 171(10):26-27,  Mar. 10,
          1969.

  86      Cosby, W. T. and Punch, G., "Cost and Perform-    57907
          ance of Filtration and Separation Equipment,
          Dust Filters and Collectors", Filtration
          Separation (Purley), 5(3):252-255, May/June,
          1968, 1 Ref.

  87      Squires, B. J., "New Developments in the  Use of   57370
          Fabric Filter Dust Collectors", Filtration Separa-
          tion (Purley), 6(2):161-170, Mar/Apr, 1969, 5 Refs.
          Presented at the Filtration Society, London,
          10 Sept., 1968.

  83      Danielson, J. A., "Air Pollution Engineering
          Manual", Air Pollution Control  District County of
          Los Angeles, U. S. Environmental Protection Agency,
          Pub.  No. AP-40, May, 1973.

  89      Dealy, J. 0. and Kill in, A.  M., "Engineering  and
          Cost Study of the Ferroalloy Industry",  U.  S.
          EPA,  EPA 450/2-74-008, May,  1974.

  90      Hendrickson, E.  R.,  etal.,  "Control of Atmos-
          pheric Emission in the Wood Pulping Industry",
          Environmental Engineers, Inc.  and J. E.  Sirrine Co.,
          Contract No. CPA 22-69-18, March, 1970,  Report PB
          190-351.


                                    r-ft

-------
Source                                                           APTIC
  No.                        Title                                 No.


  91      Cadman, T.  W.,  "Elements of Pollution Control
          Economics", ICARUS Corp., Dec., 1973.

  92      "Interim Guide  of Good Practice for Incineration at
          Federal Facilities", U. S. Dept. of Health, Education,
          and Welfare, Nov., 1969.

  93      Cowen, P. S.,  "Cupola Emission Control", Gray and
          Ductile Iron Founder's Society, Cleveland, Ohio,
          1967.

  94      Fernandes, J.  H., "Incineration Air Pollution Control",
          Proceedings ofT968 National Incinerator Conference,
          New York, N. Y., American Society of Mechanical Engi-
          neers, pp. 101-115.

  95      Anon., "Economic Impact of Proposed Water Pollution
          Controls on the Nonferrous Metals Manufacturing
          Industry"- Phase II, Environmental Protection Agency,
          EPA-230/1-75-041, March, 1975.

  96      Anon., "Development Document for Effluent Limitations
          Guidelines and Standards of Performance", Versar, Inc.,
          April, 1975, The Clay, Gypsum, Refractory, and
          Ceramic Products Industries, Office of Water and
          Hazardous Materials, EPA, Contract No. 68-01-2633.

  97      Ibid  Item 96, Volume III, December 1974.

  98      Kreichelt, T.  E., et al., "Atmospheric Emissions from
          the Manufacture of Portland Cement", U. S. Dept. of
          Health, Education, and Welfare, 1967.                            PB190236

  99      Anon., "Development Document for Interim Final
          Effluent Limitations Guidelines and Proposed New
          Source Performance Standards for the Calcium Carbide
          Segment of the Ferroalloy Manufacturing Point Source
          Category',1 U. S. Environmental Protection Agency,
          February 1975,  EPA 440/1-75/038, Group I, Phase II.

 100      Anon., /'Development Document for Proposed Effluent
          Limitations Guidelines and New Source Performance
          Standards for the Secondary Copper Subcategory of the
          Copper Segment of the Nonferrous Metals Manufacturing
          Point Source Category, U. S. Environmental Protection
          Agency, November 1974, EPA 440/1-75/032-c, Group I,
          Phase  II.
                                       C-9

-------
Source                                                      APTIC      NT1S
  No.                           Title                        No.         No.

 101      Coughlin, R.W., et al., "Air Pollution and Its
          Control", American Institute of Chemical  Engi-
          neers, Symposium Series 1972, Volume 68,  No.  126.

 102      Anon., "Development Document for Proposed Effluent
          Limitations Guidelines and New Source Performance
          Standards for the Steel Making Segment of the Iron
          & Steel Manufacturing Point Source Category,  U.  S.
          Environmental Protection Agency, January, 1974,
          EPA 440/1-73/024.

 103      Anon., "Background Information for Standards  of               PB  237840
          Performance: Electric Arc Furnaces in the Steel
          Industry", Volume 1 - Proposed Standards, October,
          1974.

 104      Ibid Item 103, Volume 2 - Test Data Summary,                  PB  237841
          Report No. EPA-450/2-74-017b.

 105      Anon., "Economic Analysis of the Proposed Effluent
          Guidelines for the Integrated Iron and Steel  Industry1',
          February, 1974, Environmental Protection  Agency,
          Report No. EPA-230/1-73-027, A.  J. Kearny, Contract
          No. 68-01-1545.

 106      Anon., Municipal Refuse Disposal, Institute for  Solid
          Wastes of American Public Works Association,  1970,
          Public Administration Service, Chicago, Illinois.

 107      Anon., 1968 National  Incinerator Conference,  New York,
          N.  Y., Sponsored by ASME Incinerator Division.

 108      Breaux, James C., Control of Particulate  Matter  in
          Asphalt Plants.  Preprint, Louisiana Tech. Univ.,
          Continuing Engineering Education Div., pp. 80-91,
          1970 (Presented at the Institute on Aspects of Air
          Pollution Control, Ruston, LA, Oct. 8-9,  1970)      57401

 109      American Petroleum Inst., Wash.  D. C., Committee
          on Refinery Environmental Control, Hydrocarbon
          Emissions From Refineries.  # Pub-928, 64 p.,
          July,  1973.                                         59178

 110      Remmers, K., Dust Extraction From Cupolas by
          Means of Venturi Tube Scrubbers,  Giesserei
          (Duesseldorf), 52(7): 191-193, April 1, 1965,
          Translated from German, 11 p.                       61061

 111      Cheremisinoff, Paul N., "Wet Scrubbers -  A Special
          Report", Pollution Engineering,  May, 1974,
          pp.  33-43.
                                       r_in

-------
                                                                                NTTS
Source                                                                '"-     ' '
  No.                               Title                              No.        No.


  112       Bunyard, F.  L.,  "Pollution Control  for the Kraft Pulping
            Industry:  Cost and Impact", Annual  Meeting of the Air
            Pollution Control Association,  June 14-19, 1970,
            APCA #70-74.

  113       Vickerson, George L., "Fly Ash  Control Equipment for
            Industrial Incinerators", Proc. 1966 ASME Incinerator Conf.
                                                            ^
  114       Guccione, Eugene, "Incineration Slashes Costs of Sewage
            Disposal", Chemical Engineering, Apr. 11, 1966, pp.144-146.

  115       "New Developments in Air Pollution Control", Proc. MECAR
            Symposium, New York, N.Y., Oct. 23, 1967-

  116       Corey, Richard, Principles and Practices of Incineration,
            Wiley-Interscience, New York, N.Y., 1969.

  117       Stern, Arthur C., Air Pollution, 2nd Ed., Vol. II & III,
            Academic Press, New York, 1968.

  118       Smith, Kenneth D., "Particulate Emissions from Alfalfa
            Dehydrating Plants -- Control Costs and Effectiveness",
            EPA-650/2-74-007, Jan., 1974.

  119       "Capital and Operating Costs of Pollution Control Equip-            224-535
            inent Modules", Vol. I & II, EPA-R5-73-023a & b, July,               224-536
            1973.

  120       Liptak, B. G., Environmental Engineers Handbook, Radnor,
            Chilton Book, 1974, 1340 p.

  121       Fraser, M. D. and Foley, G. J., Cost Models for Fabric
            Filter Systems.   In: The 67th Annual Meeting of the Air
            Pollution Control Association,  Denver, June, 1974, APCA
            > 74-96.

  122       Reigel, S. A., Bundy, R. P. and Doyle, C. D.  Baghouses -
            What to Know Before You Buy.  Pollution Engineering.
            1:32-34, May, 1973.

  123       Walker, A. B.  Experience with  Hot Electrostatic Precipi-
            tators for Fly Ash Collection in Electric Utilities.
            In: American Power Conference,  Chicago, Research-
            Cottrell, Inc., April 29-May 1, 1974.

  124       Alfonso, J.  R.  F. Estimating the Costs of Gas Cleaning
            Plants.  Chemical Engineering,  December 13, 1971, pp. 86-96.

  125       Schneider, G. G., Horzella, T.  I., Cooper, J. and
            P. J. Striegl.   Selecting and Specifying Electrostatic
            Precipitators.   Chemical Engineering.  82 11:94-108, May,
            1975.                                  ~~


                                         C-ll

-------
Source                                                        APTIC     NTIS
  No.                              Title                       No.        No.

  126       Anon. Survey of Electrostatic Precipitator
            Operating and Maintenance Costs.  Water and Sewage
            Works, Reference Number - 1971, Aug. 31, 1971,
            pp. R236-R237.

  127       Rymarz, J. M. and Klipstein, D. H.  Removing Particulates
            From Gases.  Chemical Engineering.  82_ (21): 113-120,
            October, 1975.

  128       "Estimating Costs and Manpower Requirements for Con-
            ventional Wastewater Treatment Facilities",
            EPA 17090 DAN 10/71.                                      PB 211132

  129       Jorgensen, Robert,  Editor,  "Fan Engineering", 6th Ed.,
            Buffalo Forge Company, New  York,  1961.

  130       Arnold, T. H. and Chi 1 ton,  C. H., New Index Shows
            Plant Cost Trends,  Chemical  Engineering,
            Feb. 18,  1963,  pp.  143-149.

  131       Economic  Indicators, Chemical Engineering,  Every Issue.
                                         C-12

-------
                  APPENDIX D





GUIDE TO ASSOCIATIONS FOR THE 27 INDUSTRIES

-------
                             ASSOCIATIONS
1.   Air Pollution Control  Association
     4400 Fifth Avenue
     Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania 15213
Lewis H. Rogers
Executive Vice President
412/621-1100
2.   Brick Institute of America
     1750 Old Meadow Road
     McLean, Virginia 22101
R. U. Otterson
Executive Vice President
703/893-4010
3.   Refractories Institute  (Brick)
     1102 One Oliver Plaza
     Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania 15222
Bradford S. Tucker
Executive Secretary
412/281-6787
4.   Refractories and Reactive Metals
         Association
     P. 0. Box 2054
     Princeton, New Jersey 08540
Kempton H. Roll
Executive Director
609/799-3300
5.   American Boiler Manufactures Association
     Suite 317, AM Building
     1500 Wilson Boulevard
     Arlington, Virginia 22209
W. B. Marx
Executive Director
703/522-7298
6.   National Grain and Feed Association
     501 Folger Building
     Washington, D. C. 20005
Alvin E. Oliver
Executive Vice President
202/783-2024
7.   Grain Elevator and Processing Society
     2144 Board of Trade Building
     Chicago, Illinois 60604
Dean M. Clark
Secretary-Treasurer
312/922-3111
8.   American Feed Manufactures Association
     1701 N. Fort Myer Drive
     Arlington, Virginia 22209
Oakley M. Ray
President
703/524-0810
9.   Midwest Feed Manufacturers Association
     521 E. 63rd Street
     Kansas City, Missouri 64110
Rex Parsons
Executive Vice President
816/444-6240
10.  American Glassware Association
     c/o Organized Service Corp. Managers
     One Stone Place
     Bronxville, New York 10708
Donald V. Reed
Managing Director
914/779-9602
                                     D-l

-------
11.  Associated Glass and Pottery Manufacturers
     c/o Harold L. Hayes
     Brush Pottery Company
     P. 0. Box 2576
     Zanesville, Ohio 43701
Harold L. Hayes
Secretary
614/454-1216
12.  National Association of Manufacturers of
        Pressed and Blown Glassware
     c/o John H. Morris
     707 Winmar Place
     Westerville, Ohio 43081
13.  Sealed Insulating Glass Manufactures
        Association-
     202 S. Cook Street
     Barrington, Illinois 60010
Warren W. Findling
Executive Vice President
312/381-8989
14.  Gray and Ductile Iron Founders' Society
     Cast Metals Federation Building
     20611 Center Ridge Road
     Rocky River, Ohio 44116
Donald H. Workman
Executive Vice President
216/333-9600
15.  Malleable Founder's Society
     20611 Center Ridge Road
     Cast Metals Building
     Rocky River, Ohio 44116
Lowell D. Ryan
Executive Vice President
16.  Non-Ferrous Founder's Society
     21010 Center Ridge Road
     Cleveland, Ohio 44116
Benjamin J. Imburgia
Executive Secretary
216/333-2072
17.  Steel Founder's Society of America
     20611 Center Ridge Road
     Cast Metals Federation Building
     Rocky River, Ohio 44116
Jack McNaughton
Executive Vice President
216/333-9600
18.  Foundry Equipment Manufacturers
         Association
     1000 Vermont Avenue
     Washington, D. C. 20005
Charles E. Perry
Executive Secretary
202/628-4634
19.  American Iron and Steel Institute
     150 East 42nd Street
     New York, New York 10017
John P. Roche
President
212/697-5900
                                      D-2

-------
20.  Ductile Iron Society
     P. 0. Box 22058
     Cleveland, Ohio 44122
James H. Lansing
Executive Director
216/752-0521
21.  Roll Manufacturers Institute
     1808 Investment Building
     Fourth Avenue
     Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania 15222
A. G. Karp
Executive Secretary-
   Treasurer
412/281-0908
22.  National  Council  of the Paper Industry
         for Air and Stream Improvement
     260 Madison Avenue
     New York, New York 10016

23.  American Paper Institute
     260 Madison Avenue
     New York, New York  10016

24.  Paper Industry Management Association
     2570 Devon Avenue
     Des Plaines, Illinois  60018

25.  Technical Association of the Pulp
         and Paper Industry
     One Dunwoody Park
     Atlanta, Georgia  30341

26.  National  Lime Association
     5010 Wisconsin Avenue, N.W.,
     Washington, D.C.   20016

27.  National  Crushed Stone Association
     1415 Elliot Place, N.W.
     Washington, D.C.   20007

28.  P^tland Cement Association
     Old Orchard Road
     Skokie, Illinois  60076

29.  Fertilizer Industry Round Table
     Glenn Arm, Maryland  21057
30.  The Fertilizer Institute
     1015 18th St.  N.W.
     Washington, D.C.   20036
Ernest J. Bolduc, Jr,
Executive Director
Albert S. Thomas
Secretary-Streasurer
212/889-6200

H. Mac Gregor Tuttle
Executive Director
312/774-6797

Phillip E. Nethercut
Executive Secretary-
   Treasurer
404/457-6352

Robert S. Boynton
Executive Director
202/966-3418

W. L. Carter
President
202/333-1536

Robert D. MacLean
President
312/966-6200

Paul J. Prosser
Secretary-Treasurer
301/592-6271

Edwin M. Wheeler
President
202/466-2700
                                     D-3

-------
31.  fastern States Blast Furnace and
         Coke Oven Association
     c/o Paul F. Ross
     Bethlehem Steel Corporation
     Johnstown, Pa.  15907

32.  National Coal Association
     1130 17th St. N.W.
     Washington, D.C.  20036

33.  Soap and Detergent Association
     475 Park Avenue South
     New York, New York   10016

34.  Manufacturing Chemists Association
     1825 Connecticut Avenue, N.W.
     Washington, D.C.  20009

35.  American Petroleum Institute
     1801 K Street, N.W.
     Washington, D.C.  20006

36.  Coordinating Research Council
     30 Rockefeller Plaza
     New York, New York  10020

37.  Independent Refiners Association
         of America
     1801 K Street, N.W., Suite 1101
     Washington, D.C.  20006

38.  National Petroleum Refiners
         Association
     1725 De Sales Street, N.W.
     Suite 802
     Washington, D.C.  20036

39.  Western Oil and Gas Association
     602 S. Grand Avenue
     Los Angeles, California  90017

40.  Copper Development Association
     405 Lexington Avenue 57th Floor
     New York, New York   10017

41.  Copper Institute
     50 Broadway
     New York, New York  10004
                 Carl  E.  Bagge
                 President
                 202/628-4322

                 Theodore E. Brenner
                 President
                 212/725-1262

                 William  T.  Driver
                 President
                 202/483-6126

                 Frank N.  Ikard
                 President
                 202/833-5600

                 M.  K.  McLeod,
                 Manager
                 212/757-1295

                 Edwin Jason Dryer
                 General  Counsel
                 202/466-2340
                 Donald  C.  O'Hara
                 Executive  Vice  President
                 202/638-3722
                 Harry Morrison
                 Vice President
                 213/624-6386

                 George M.  Hartley
                 President
                 212/867-6500

                 H.  Fasting
                 Secretary
                 212/944-1870
D-4

-------
42.  Aluminum Association
     750 Third Avenue
     New York, New York  10017

-:.  Incinerator Institute of America
     2425 Wilson Blvd.
     Arlington, Virginia  22201

.  American Public Works Association
     1313 East 60th Street
     Chicago, Illinois  60637

45.  National Sol id-Wastes Management
         Association
     1730 Rhode Island Avenue, N.W.
     Suite 800
     Washington, D.C.  20036

46.  Conference of State Sanitary
         Engineers
     Statehouse
     Charleston, West Virginia  25305

47.  American Society of Sanitary
         Engineering
     960 Illuminating Building
     Cleveland, Ohio  44113

48.  National Cotton Ginner's Association
     Box 120
     Maypearl, Texas  76064

49.  The Cotton Foundation
     1918 North Parkway
     Memphis, Tennessee   38112

50.  Cotton Incorporated
     1370 Avenue of the America's
     New York, New York  10019

51.  National Cotton Council of America
     1918 North Parkway
     Memphis, Tennessee  38112
S. L. Goldsmith, Jr.
Executive Vice President
212/972-1800

Charles N. Sumwalt, Jr.
Executive Director
703/528-0663

Robert D. Bugher
Executive Director
312/324-3400
304/348-2970
Sanford Schwartz
Secretary
216/696-3228
Peary Wilemon
Secretary-Treasurer
214-435-2741

George S. Buck, Jr.
Executive Vice President
J. Dukes Wooters, Jr.
President
212/586-1070

Albert B. Russell
Executive Vice President
  and Secretary
901/276-2783
                                    D-5

-------
             APPENDIX E
CONVERSION FACTORS TO SI MEASUREMENTS

-------
                                  APPENDIX E
                     CONVERSION FACTORS TO SI MEASUREMENTS
         For a complete description of conversion factors to the International
    System of Units (SI), the reader is referred to the "Metric Practice Guide,"
    American Society for Testing and Materials,  pub.  #E 380-72, approved by the
    American National  Standards Institute, Std.  #Z210.1-1973.   The following are
    selected conversion factors that will  accomodate all  units found in this
    document, as well  as other pertinent units.   They are arranged alphabetically.
          To convert from
    atmosphere (normal=760 torr)
    British thermal  unit  (Btu)
    Btu/ft2
    Btu/hour
    Btu/pound-mass

    Btu/lbm-deg F (heat capacity)

    Btu/s-ft2-deg F
    calorie (International  Table)
    day
    degree Celsius (C)
    degree Fahrenheit (F)
    degree Fahrenheit (F)
    foot (ft)
    foot2 (ft2)
    foot3 (ft3)
    foot/hour  (fph)
The Btu quantity used herein is  that
                         Multiply by
                                   5
                       1.01325 * 10*
  to
pascal (Pa)
joule (J)            1.05506 * 103
joule/metre2 (J/m2)  1.13565 * 104
  watt (W)
  joule/kilogram-
    (0/kg)
  joule/kilogram-
    kelvin (J/kg-K)
            2
  watt/metre -kelvin
    (W/m2-K)
  joule (J)
  second (s)
  kelvin (k)
  degree Celsius
  kelvin (k)
  metre (m)
       2   2
  metre  (m  )
  metre  (m  )
                     0.29307

                     2.326 * 103

                     4.18680 * 103

                     2.04418 * 104
                     4.18680
                     8.64000 * 104
                     tk=tc + 273.15
                     tc =(tf-32)/1.8
                     V (
                     0.30480
                     9.29030 * 10
                     2.83168 * 10
                                 "2

  metre/second (m/s)    8.46667 * 10
based on the International  Table.
                                   -5
                                         E-l

-------
    To convert from
to
Multiply by
foot/minute (fpm)
foot/second (fps)
    3
foot /minute (cfm)
    o
foot /second (cfs)
gallon (U.S. liquid) (gal)
gallon (U.S. liquid)/day (gpd)

gallon (U.S. liquid)/minute (gpm)

grain (gr)
horsepower (hp)
hour (hr)
inch (in)
inch2 (in2)
inch of water (60F)
kilowatt-hour (kwh)
minute (min)
parts per million (ppm)

pound-force (Ibf avoirdupois)
                2
pound-force/inch  (psi)
pound-mass (Ibm avoirdupois)
               3        3
pound-mass/foot  (Ibm/ft )

pound-mass/minute (Ibm/min)

pound-mass/second (Ibm/sec)
  ton (cooling capacity)
  ton (short,  2000 Ibm)
metre/second (m/s)
metre/second (m/s)
     3          3
metre /second (m/s)
     3          3
metre /second (m /s)
metre  (m )
metre /second
   (m3/s)
metre /second
   (m3/s)
kilogram(kg)
watt (w)
second(s)
metre (m)
     2   2
metre  (m )
pascal (Pa)
joule (J)
second (s)
milligram/metre
   (mg/m3)
newton (N)
pascal (Pa)
kilogram (kg)
kilogram/metre
   (kg/m3)
kilogram/second
   (kg/s)
kilogram/second
   (kg/s)
Btu/hr
kilogram (kg)
5.08000 * 10
0.30480
4.71947 * 10
2.83168 * 10
3.78541 * 10

4.38126 * 10*

6.30902 * 10
6.47989 * 10
7.46000 * 102
3.60000 * 10
2.54000 * 10
6.45160 * 10
2.4884 * 102
                                 -3
            -4
            -2
            -3
            -5
            -5
            -2
            -4
3.60000 * 10
60.000
(molecular weight)/24.5

4.44822
6.89476 * 103
0.453592
1.60185 * 10
            1
7.55987 * 10
            -3
            -1
4.53592 * 10
1.2000 * 104
9.07185 * 102
                                     E-2

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                                   TECHNICAL REPORT DATA
                            (Please read laM/iictions an the reverse before completing
1. REPORT NO.
                             2.
                                                          3. RECIPIENT'S ACCESSION-NO.
4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE
  Capital and Operating  Costs of Selected Air Pollution
  Control Systems
             5. REPORT DATE
               May  1976
             6. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION CODE
7. AUTHOR(S)

  M.  L. Kinkley and  R.  B.  Neveril
                                                          8. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION REPORT NO.
9. PERFORMING ORGANiZ-TlON NAME AND ADDRESS
  GARD, Inc.
  7449 North Natchez  Avenue
  Niles, Illinois   60648
                                                           10. PROGRAM ELEMENT NO.
             11. CONTRACT/GRANT NO.

              EPA  68-02-2072
12. SPONSORING AGE\CV NAME AND ADDRESS
  Environmental Protection Agency
  Office of Air and  Waste Management
  Office of Air Quality  Planning and Standards
  Research Triangle  Park, North Carolina 27711
             13. TYPE OF REPORT AND PERIOD COVERED
              Final
             14. SPONSORING AGENCY CODE
15. SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES
16. ABSTRACT
       The purpose  of this manual is to provide  capital,  operating, and maintenance
  costs for air pollution control systems.  Capital  costs are provided for component
  equipments, such  as ductwork, dampers, heat exchangers, mechanical collectors,  fans,
  motors, stacks, cooling towers, pumps, and dust  removal equipment.  Five types  of
  control devices are included:  (1) high voltage  electrostatic precipitators,  (2)
  venturi scrubbers,  (3)  fabric filters, (4) thermal  and  catalytic incinerators,  (5)
  adsorbers.  Operating and maintenance costs are  provided for complete systems.  A
  discussion of the control devices and factors  affecting costs is included,  along
  with design parameters  for 27 industries.  The life cycle cost analysis technique
  is briefly described and an example of the cost  estimating methodology is given.
  Ir preparing this manual, the main objective was to "break-out" the individual
  component costs so  that realistic system cost  estimates can be determined for the
  design peculiarities of any specific application.   Accuracy of the cost data  pre-
  sented is generally +_ 20%.
17.
                               KEY WORDS AND DOCUMENT ANALYSIS
                  DESCRIPTORS
b.IDENTIFIERS/OPEN ENDED TERMS  C. COSATI Field/Group
  Industrial  Emission Sources
  Costs
  Manual
  Fabric  Filters
  Scrubbers
  Electrostatic Precipitators
  Adsorbers,  Incinerators
 Cost Estimation
 Techniques
 Capital  Costs
 Annualized  Costs
 Air Pollution  Control
 Systems
13. DISTRIBUTION STATEMENT
  Unlimited
                                              19. SECURITY CLASS (This Report)
                                               Unclassified
                           21. NO. OF PAGES
                              208
                                              20. SECURITY CLASS (This page)
                                               Unclassified
                           22. PRICE
EFA Form 2220-1 (9-73)

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     To be published in, Supersedes, Supplements, etc.

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     (a) DESCRIPTORS - Select from the Thesaurus of Engineering and Scientific Terms the proper authorized terms that identify the major
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    EPA Form 2220-1 (9-73) (Reverse)

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