EPA-450/3-77-043
November 1977
                 A PRIMER ON
AUTO EMISSIONS SYSTEMS
    FOR HOME MECHANICS
                      U.S. ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY
                          Office of Air and Waste Management
                       Office of Air Quality Planning and Standards
                       Research Triangle Park, North Carolina 27711

-------
                                       EPA-450/3-77-043
            A  PRIMER ON
AUTO  EMISSIONS SYSTEMS
   FOR  HOME MECHANICS
                       by
              B.D. Hayes, Project Director
           M.T. Maness, Associate Project Director
            R.A. Ragazzi, Principal Investigator

            Department of Industrial Sciences
               Colorado State University
              Fort Collins, Colorado 80523
              EPA Grant No. T900621-01-0

            EPA Project Officer: Bruce Hogarth
                    Prepared for


       U.S. ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY
            Office of Air and Waste Management
         Office of Air Quality Planning and Standards
          Control Programs Development .Division
         Research Triangle Park, North Carolina 27711

                   November 1977

-------
Copies of this publication are available free of charge to Federal employees,
current contractors and grantees, and nonprofit organizations   as supplies
permit - from the Library Services Office (MD-35) , Environmental Protection
Agency, Research Triangle Park, North Carolina 27711; or, for a fee, from
the National Technical Information Service, 5285 Port Royal Road, Springfield,
Virginia 22161.
This report was furnished to the Environmental Protection Agency by the
Department of Industrial Sciences, Colorado State University, Fort Collins,
Colorado, 80523, through Grant No.  T900621-01-0.  The contents of this report
are reproduced herein as received from Colorado State University. The opinions,
findings, and conclusions expressed are those of the authors and not necessarily
those of the Environmental Protection Agency.  Mention of company or product
names is not to be considered as an endorsement  by the Environmental Protection
Agency.
                         Publication No. EPA-450/3-77-043
                                   11

-------
  YOUR. CAR
 NEEDS
        UUY SMOULD  NO)
        BE INTERESTED IN
        TUIS BOOKLET?

         BECAUSE...  ,TMA*
         BSEM DgSlfrNeDTO MEtP YOU
         IM  UMOeRSTAWDIMfr TME
         5MI66IOW COWTTROL SYSTEM*
         AMD HARDWARE FOUND 0KJ
         YOU*
                      rui
                      LR
                    D
TUIS )KJFORHAT\OM
             -rue FOU.OLOWJ
                      IM
                                        YOU
                          to*/* .-
    AIR
          IT WILL AID YOU |M PERFORMING  BASIC VISUAL.
          CWECKS OM YOUR. CAR.'S EHISSIOM CONTROL,
          MAIkJTEMAWCe YOU PERFOP-h TO COR.R.6CT PROBLEMS
          LOILL 6E &eueFICIAL- lk REDUCIUS AIR POLLUTION, (AUD
          LESS Alf^ POLLUTIOW IS DESIRABLE FOR. EVERYONE'S
          UEALTU.)
          TUE BASIC MAINTENANCE AUD  CUECK.S D6SCR.lBeD IU
          TUIS BOOklLET  COULD AID IM SAVINS YOU HOMEY
          IN TLOO
          3. YOU COULD ELECT TO COfcfcECT PROBLEMS YOU
            FIUD YOURSELF.
MOUEY SAVED
b. YOU COULD ELECT  TO HAVE YOUR MECHANIC FIX
  TUE SPECIFIC. PROBLEMS YOU WAVE. FOUUD.
          iii

-------
                   ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS
The Motor Vehicle Emissions Control Staff at the Department



of Industrial Sciences would like to acknowledge the efforts



extended by the Environmental Protection Agency, Research



Triangle Park, and the Motor Vehicle Manufacturers Associa-



tions for their contributions to the development of this



booklet.
                     DISCLAIMER
The opinions, procedures and conclusions are those of the



authors and not necessarily those of the Environmental Pro-



tection Agency.  Every attempt has been made to represent



the material in a factual, concise manner.  Any mention of



products or organizations does not constitute endorsement



by the Environmental Protection Agency.
                           IV

-------
                    SAFETY NOTICE
This booklet contains numerous NOTES, CAUTIONS, and WARNINGS



It is the responsibility of the person using this booklet



to carefully read these important notices to minimize the



chance of personal injury and/or damage to their car.








The NOTES, CAUTIONS, and WARNINGS are NOT all inclusive.








It is the sole responsibility of any person (s)  using this



material to exercise their own good judgment in regard to



personal and vehicle safety and consult other reference



material if any doubts are present as to the safety of any



act they may perform when using this booklet.

-------
                       PREFACE
This booklet has been designed to acquaint the average home

mechanic with the basic emissions control systems and compo-

nents installed on today's cars.  Emissions control equip-

ment has been installed to reduce the amount of pollution

discharged to our atmosphere.  The primary reason for re-

ducing automobile emissions is to protect your health as

well as your children's and your neighbors' health.



Emissions control equipment, like any mechanical equipment,

needs periodic inspection and preventive maintenance.  This

is where YOU the average home mechanic can play an important

role in maintaining the equipment and aiding in the total

effort for '-"^ner air.
This booklet will show you the basic emissions control systems,

It will also point out other components used in conjunction
                                          
with emissions control systems to lower emissions.



There are basic step by step procedures you can follow, to

check out various components related to emissions control.

The purpose of these checks can be considered to be two-fold.
                          vi

-------
First - the checks enable YOU to find malfunctioning parts



and parts that need replacement.  If you are handy with tools,



you can make the necessary corrections in many cases and save



yourself some money.








Second - if you choose to have your mechanic make the repairs,



you are now in a position to explain what checks you have



made and which parts you feel are in need of repair.








A little ghost called "VEC" (VEHICLE EMISSION CONTROL) will



lead you through each system and the checks you can make on



each system.  VEC will also explain why you should not dis-



connect the emissions control systems or make them inopera-



tive and how this can hurt your car's performance and gas



mileage and possibly shorten the engine's life expectency.



VEC will do his best to show you how keeping these systems



properly maintained can aid in keeping your car running right



and reduce air pollution.








THIS BOOKLET IS NOT INTENDED TO BE A SUBSTITUTE FOR, OR RE-



PLACE A GOOD EMISSIONS CONTROL SERVICE MANUAL OR THE MANUFAC-



TURERS SHOP SERVICE MANUAL.  IT IS ONLY INTENDED TO PROVIDE



A BASIC KNOWLEDGE AND UNDERSTANDING OF EMISSIONS CONTROL



SYSTEMS.
                         Vil

-------
This booklet does not cover basic tuneup procedures.  However,



performing a good basic tuneup, such as replacing worn spark



plugs, points and condenser, replacing bad spark plug wires,



and setting basic ignition timing is extremely important for



keeping auto emissions low and fuel economy at its best.



Listed in back of this booklet (Reference Material Section)



are other books that can provide you with this information.



We strongly suggest that you refer to these to enforce your



knowledge of proper tuneup procedures.








Since 1968 nearly every car made in the United States has a



VEHICLE EMISSIONS CONTROL INFORMATION label somewhere in the



engine compartment.  The VEHICLE EMISSIONS CONTROL INFORMA-



TION label shown below is used by General Motors Corporation.
DM
250 CU IN
1 881 CARB
CM 12FI3
MAKE ALL ADJUS
OPEN. AIR CLEAN)
SET PARKING
1 DISCONNECT A
1 DISCONNECT
SPECIFED RPN
3 DISCONNECT Ai
NEUTRAL. BENT,
STEP Of CAM
VACUUM HOSI
4 ADJUST CURB
AIRCOND OPI
5 UNPLUG AND
rrnno uu
VEHICLE EMISSION CONTROL INFORMATION
GENERAL MOTORS CORPORATION fjg]
TMENTS WITH ENGINE AT NORMAL Off RAWG TEMPERATURE CHOICE FULL
R INSTALLED. AND AIR CONDTDONMC OFF EXCEPT WHERE NOTED
BRAKE AND BLOCK DRIVE WHEELS
NO PI IX CARBURETOR AND PCV HOSES AT VAPOR CANISTER
AND PLUG VACUUM HOSE AT DISTRIBUTOR SET IGNITION TIMING AT
(
NO PlUG EGR VACUUM UNE AT EGR VALVE WITH TRANSMISSION W PARK OR
) FAST XE CAM FOLLOWER TO OBTAM SPECIFTEO FAST IDLE SPEED ON HIGH
UNPLUG AND RECONNECT EGR VACUUM LINE UNPLUG AND RECONNECT
AT DISTRIBUTOR
IDLE SPEED BY TURNING CARBURETOR SOLENOID TO SPECIFIED RPM WITH
RATING ON AUTO TRANS MODELS. IF SO EQUIPPED
ifCONNECT CARBURETOR AND PCV HOSES AT VAPOR CANISTER
EGR-EFE-OC EXHAUST
EMISSION CONTROL
TIMMG CBTC  RPM)
SPARK PLUG GAP (IN )
SOUNCHO ADJ. (RPM)
FAST OLE SPEED (RPM)
TRANSMISSION
AUTOMATK
IO-@5SO
0.060
S50(OR)
ieoo(N)
MANUAL
iir@9oo
0060
WO(N)
IBOCXN)
1 Moit I on Miitun scnvn *u mui win ctmo AT FACTOOT - oo MOT mu
1 ' CAM  UJJUSTMBrt OUIWC IUW UP H NOt HCOWWNMO
KM MAJOB ana ADJUSTING MIXTUH SITTMC IT OTK THAN APPOVID ui
VKI MANUil nOCIDUDI MAT VKXATI flOHAl ANIVOt CAIIFODIU 0> OTKI
sitn LAWS
U! i!VKI MANUAt lot ADOIOIA1 HOMATION
1KB VMCU COMS TO U 1 1 '  AND WKH imiCUU CAHWM4 ttGUUTCXS APfllCAHI !0 IH HAOOII YtM MT MOtOI VtWCUS PT NO 357682
Chrysler Corporation, Ford Motor Company, American Motors



Corporation and the imported cars use a similar label with
                        viii

-------
similar procedures and settings spelled out.



          REFER TO THIS LABEL WHEN TUNING UP YOUR CAR.



          It can save you time, money and frustration.
                          ix

-------
                      CONTENTS







Introduction 	   1



     Hydrocarbons  	   3



     Oxides of Nitrogen  	   4



     Photochemical Smog  	   5



     Carbon Monoxide 	   5





Positive Crankcase Ventilation Systems 	   7



     Purpose 	   9



     Open PCV System	10



     Closed PCV System	12



     System Inspection and Maintenance 	  13



     Caution	17





Thermostatic Air Cleaner Systems 	  19



     Identification  	  21



     Purpose	22



     System Components and Function  	  24



     System Inspection and Maintenance 	  25



     Caution	31





Air Injection Reaction Systems 	  33



     Trade Names	35



     Purpose	35



     System Components and Function  . 	  36



     System Inspection and Maintenance 	  38



     Summary	43

-------
Fuel Evaporative Control Systems 	 45

     Purpose	47

     System Components and Function  	 48

     System Inspection and Maintenance 	 53

     Summary	55


Exhaust Gas Recirculation Systems  	 57

     Purpose	59

     System Components and Function  	 60

     Caution - (Differences In Systems)	 63

     System Inspection and Maintenance 	 64

          EGR Valve	64

          CTO Switch	67

          Vacuum Amplifier EGR System  	 69

          Exhaust Back Pressure Sensor 	 71

     Caution	73


Catalytic Converter  . . . .  ,	75

     Purpose	77

     Component Identification  	 78

     Catalytic Converter Construction and
       Operation	79

     Notice	81


Other Emissions Systems  	 83

     Spark Timing Controls	85

     OSAC Valve	87

     Vacuum Advance Shutoff  	 89
                          xi

-------
     Dual Diaphragm Vacuum Advance Unit 	   90

     CTO Switch	92

     Summary	94


Appendix	95
     Addresses For Manufacturers Service
       Manuals	97

-------
INTRODUCTION




TO EMISSIONS

-------
                       MY KJAME IS VEC AUD I
                       U)OULD UfcE TO  5MOU) AMD
                       TELL YOU ABOUT TUB EMIS-
                       SION CONTROL SYSTEMS
                            OU TODAY'S  CARS.
VEC VH/CL
H/S S /OH
BEFORE U>E&T INTO
SYSTEMS, | WILL TAKE
A MIMUTE TO EXPLAIN
SO ME TERMS LIKE
                            AMD
      THESE TERMS ARC FOlMD IM ALL MATERIALS
        TO EMI 6610 M COMTROL SYSTEMS. A BASIC tOIOUX
LEDGE OF TMSSE TERMS lu>ILL MA ICC TME SYSTEMS EA*>
TO  UNDERSTAND.
          /miLLLLlJ
              UC=
     OR  PUEL
     (GASOLINE)
    crrr rrrrrrf f n ((((f
                       HC
                             IS A TERN I U)ILL
                             OFTEM UC tS A SUO9
                       U)AY OF SAYIN6

                       UYDROCARBONS.
                       UYDROCARSOUS AM TME
                       GOODICS TMtfT HAKE UP
                       TME aAftOLtue UXI PUT IN
                       CARS.

-------
MOT ALL OF THE UYDBOCAfcJSOWS OR
GASOC/UE Aee* BUEJUED iu TUE eru-
    . THE DUES TUAT AR.E AJOT
        COME OUT THE TAIL.PIPE.
          CALLED
         UNBURNED
      HYDROCARBONS
        ILIK.E TOTMIIUK OF THI5 DlCTY
        EMI5&IOU AS 6^SOL-I*JE  THAT
        DIDM'T BUELI.
    !S FORMED UWEIU
HOTTE/2. THE Aie AJUD FUC
  AUD
   THE
        NO
        is AM
VIATIOM Foe
-TERM O*tD6 OF KJITRO*
G&M, KJO* IS TUB UOLD
ItOICL U66  TO IDCMTIFY
TMI6 MA^TY FOB.TIOU
OF OUft  CARS'  5XWAU6T
  BUJ2L/ IM THE EW6/U6. THE

-------
                                    MC AKJD NJOX EMISSIONS
                                    THE  AUTOMOBILE  MUST BE"
                                    CONTROLLED BECAUSE
                                    TUEY AJZ.E  COMSIDEI^eD  A
                                    TO OUR. HEALTN AMD TME
                                              REST iu POULUTIOM
                                           PUOTOCMEMICAL
MC AUD  MOX FORM  PUQTOCMH*AL SHO6 IU TME  PR-ESEMCE  OF
auM LIGHT  T^l^  PMOTOCMEHICAL, 6MO6  MAS A LOT Ot="  UA6TY STUFF
IM IT THAT MAfceS  OUE. ^f^^ L>ATl2. AMD  MAfcES BE6ATWIM6.  WABD
FOfc PEOPLE CJITM      ^1^ R6>R|ltATOEV  DISEASES  IT ALSO  KOT5
RUBBEE AWD  PAHAGES PLAKTTS.
^HWWhV*T!h!HViiV^T^^
AMOTMCR. TCR.H U6
Use 15  QQ  CO  IS A
SMOfcTEK  'u>6Y
AVIMO CAR.BOKJ
MOMOXIDE.

-------
                                                        0)1 g<
TOO  MUCH  FUEL
MOT EKIOU6M
  AIR.
CO RESULTS  LOWEW  MOT .WOUO>H  AIR 15 MIXED LOITM THE  &A&O
LIME (x)E  BUEM  IM  OUJ2. EMGlUee>.   TMIS CO l>  D/SCWAeAEA6E.
  CO, IM SMALLee.  AMOUUT5>, IOILL
  GJVE  YOU  A  MEADACWE,  O(S COULD
        vou  eicic TO
                       VEMTIL-ATED
       HOUOXIDC
  woXiOxioce>  or
        K4ITRO66M
           THAT YOU UUDEeSTAMD ~TUE
               IOILL &E USJW
               ow SPEC/P/C
      USED TO  COUTRLOL  MG., (UO/, AUD 6O.

-------
 POSITIVE CRANKCASE




VENTILATION SYSTEMS

-------
     PCV
  POSITIVE
  CRAKJKCASE
  VENTILATION
             U
           TWE FIR5T SYSTEM  I
           UJILL  SMOLO YOU \S TUE
           PCV.  SVSTEM, TME LET
           TEES  PC.V STAUD  F>fc
           POSmVE  CRAUK-
           C^SE VENTILATION.
                  PC A/. SYSTEMS UIAVE- BEE/U USED OU AHERICAM
                  CARS SlklCE THE l^fcO'>.  IT IS OME OF THE
                  OLDEST SYSTE-MS  AMO OME. d>F TUE
                  NEGLECTED! (TWE U.S. AR.KY USED TUIS
                    SYSTEM BA^tC /U TWE
TUIS  SYSTEM DRAU)5 BLOU>-BY
SASES OUT OF TUE EU6IKJE  CRAUIC-
CASE, AMD BACK. IMTO TU4E- EMGIUE
   BE BUS.WED. IT ALSO DRAU>6
     AIK ILTTC> TUB  CRAMVCCA5E.
THIS  IS U)HAT IOE REAM BY
 CRANJKCASE  VENTILATIOKJ
  COMPRESS IOM
  RDU3ER.
STROICJE
                 >VeMTLATlOM , OR CNAM6-
                 IM6 THE AIR-, OCCURS
                 LOUEWEVER. THE EWGIWE IS
                 RUklUIMG.
BLOW-BY IS MADE UP OF
GASES THAT SMEAK
PAST TUIE PISTOU
RIM6S AS  TME PISTON
SQUEEZES  EVER-YTHIU6
IMTO A SHALL. SPACE..
EVEN MOR.G BL-OIO-BY
OCCURS  tOWEM TUE
SPAKJC PLUG FJR.65 AUO
THE AIR -FUEL MIXTUEE
J3E&IILIS TO  BU&M IM THE
COHBUSTIOU CHAMBER..

-------
CUECK TO SEE IF YOU
HAVE  AM OP6U  PCV
SYSTEM BY LOOK.JMG FOR
TUE FOLLOIOIU6, PARTS:
A PCV  VALVE.
THIS  CAM  BE FOUkID
PLU66ED IUTO TUE  LEFT
OR  RlfoWT  VALVE COVER,
OR  UlDDEU BEMIWO  OR
UkJDEfc TME IIUTAVCE
MAUIFOLD.  IT  IS A SHAUL
ROUMD HETAL.
AMO  UOIU-  BE  AT
EWD OF A RUBBee
ABOUT TUl> Bib.
A GOC?P  SERVIde
MAMUAL,  LftlLU HELP VOU
LOdATE  THE PC.V VAUVE.
                        COKJTAIU
                                        tOAT^e  AUO
                                       IF ruet>e
                        AR6 LEFT  IMTM6
                        TUEYFORH  ^L-UD^  AMD
                        H666  UP T-M  OIL.  TMIS
                        HCAM6  TMEV  CAM  ALSO
                        MC6*  UP
                           IF YOUR CAR U)AS  MADE |KJ TWE
                           EARLY,  OR.  MID meO'S. IT PfcOB-
                           AfcLY  WAS  LOWAT  IS KMOU>N AS
                           TME OP6U  PCV  SYSTEM
                           TUE OPEM  SYSTEM  RECYCLES
                           MOST  OF TUE BLOLJ-BY SASES
                           BAC.K  TO TWE  EWGIklE TO  BE
                           BURKJED-
                                              PC.V
                        10

-------
TUE  OTHER END OF THE  HOSE
LJILL  BE  ATTACHED TO THE
INTAKE MAWIFOU.D,  CTUE  Bl(3 METAL
PART THE CARBURETOR SITS  OW.)
LOOK FOR  TUAT  COMklECTlOkJ
AR.OUMD THE .BOTTOM OF THE.
CARBURETOR-.  IT  MAY ALSO
BE  ATTACUED TO A FITTIM6
SCRELOED  INTO  TME  IN/TAKE
MANIFOLD.
                                                  OPCM PCV
                                                     Y3T6
                                roe.
                          (POU'T
                          LOOK. OfJ
        AKJOTUIER.  ITEM  TO
        CUEC.K  IS THE CAP
        DUE.p.6  VOU PUT IM TUE
        OIL.  TUR.W THIS  OVER.
        AMP  LOOK.  AT IT  IF IT
        HAS  A  LOT OF I4OCES
        IM IT, LOITU STUFF  BE-
        HIND  THE WOL-ES THAT
        LOO*CS SOHEIOU^T L.IVCE A
        5G.oueiMe> PAD YOU
        WAVE  AU OP6M   PCV
OIL PJL.LCR CAP

-------
                            IF YOU FOUkID  TU1E HOSE  LOlTU TUE PCV
                            VALVE, BUT  THE  OIL. FlL-LEfc. CAP V4A> MO
                            HOLES IM  IT, YOU PROBABLY UAVE. A
               A/0 J-/OLGS!
                            TUB
                            OU MOST CAK5  TODAY. TUE
                            SYSTEM  PREVEUTS  TUAT
                                                            IS  ROUUD
                                  - BY
                                                          OUT  IU.TC>
                              TO see IF IT is A
                              LOOK.  POR AkJOTUEe UOi>
                              FROM A VALVE  COVSK. OR. TUE"  OIL
                              FILLER.  CAP  TO TUE AlE.
UJITW  TWE
SYSTEM THE EXTRA
            DOES  UOT"
          IT \5 PULLED
           THE  UOSS
TUAT  RUU FROM
VALVE  covee.  oe.
OIL f=ILLEE.
TO T'-IE
            IT
         THE
                                AIK.

                                 SEALED OIL.
                                 rjt-L.ee.
AkID l> PULLED
BACK. 1UTO TUE
E.M6.1UE TO
BUR.MBO.
                                                5OH6
                                                                       DO
                                                DO LIOT  UAVE  A PC-V
                                               VALVE. IF YOU ouou  cue
                                              AMD  GAU PIUD OWLV OKJE
                                             UO6E. TUAT UO6E* U)I(JL
                                           PeOBABLY RUkl FfcOM TUE
      At/S
                                        VALVE  COVER.  TO TUE
                                    CLEAMER*,, IM5IDE TWAT HOSE
                                  LJILL BE A 5HALL  KESTe.lO.Tf OKI  TUAT
                                  LIMITS  THE  AHOUIUT OF
                                  THAT  GETS TO  TWE  AIR..
                                  IF IM DOUBT;  DO  AS  i DO,-
                                          THE  MAUUFAC.TUe.efc'6
                                           HAW UAL  Oe. A 
-------
                      VOU
        I'LL,  suoto vou
POLO TO
QP U
       OF
       ]  Fie-STOFF, [
                D
CI-IECK. THE  MOSE TUAT  TLJE  PCV  VAL.VE.
IS  PLUGGED  IIUTO. IS IT VGRV UJARJ> AMD
BRITTLE.?  15 IT C.RAOCGD LOUE.R.E  IT BUD6 ?
DOES IT FIT ovee THE HA.MIFOL.D  ufcje: scdcs
OM A R/DOsrreE.?  kio Looese oe.  SLOPPY FITS
ALL.OU06.O!  MO KIMK-S EITHER.,
  CRACKS?

-------
IF VOUR CAR.  MAS  TUB  CLOSED
SYSTEM,  CMECt TME MOSE  TUAT
RUMS FROM  TUE VALVE COVETE.
COR. OIL FJLLEfc CAR) TO TME
CLHAWe/e..  ^.erpLAoe IT IF IT
AMY OP TUG: ABOVE.
                   D
REMOVE. TUE
PCV VALVE .
MOL.D  IT IJU
YOUR.  MAUD AUD
       IT CAM YOU
                                      6>O
                      RATTLIkKb
                      VOU  CAKJ'T  HEAK- A RATTLE
                      BUY A MGLO  PC.V XALVG.  EVGM  IP IT
                      RATTLE vou SWOULD REPLACE  IT  IF IT
                      MAS seeju oveia.  12., ceo  MiLe-s  OF
                      A PCV VALVE "TUAT VS MOT OPSGATlUCb
                              CAU
TJ-/AT
GOG 5 /AJT1O
                  IF YOU DO R.epLAe:  THE
                  VALVE,  MAK-E 5UEH YOU
                  EM6IME. TWE
                  VALVE COULD MAK.E  ^
                  Jessie" couu,
                  BUCJC, AMD SUAKE.  (COGLL, AT
                  LEAST HAKE  IT IOUE-
MOST  CLOSep PCV SYSTEMS) tOILL  UAV A
FILTER. OM TUE UME TUAT RUMS  FEOH
TUG VALVE  covets TO  TUE AIR. CLEAMeE.
IF TUAT LIME  COHet> FROH THE Ol<- FlU-EE
CAP, Tuenze is peoBABLV A Mesu -TYPE-
        IMSIDG  THE  OIL FlU-EK. OAR
                                 14

-------
      FILTEE. IU5IDG  TUE AIR. CLEAUeR. 1
SHOULD  136 KePLACED  VERY  6-l2.pOO
THE  GUYS TWAT  HADE  YOUE  CAe ,5LKS>C>eST /U
            THE  FICTeR. 110 THE  OIL.
                                                         AkJD
                                                        LOUAT
GLEAMED  ILI A  SUITABLE  SOL.VEMT  AMD
LET  IT "D&IP DRY*  IF VU DOKJ'T  MAVe AMV
AIR.  TUIS  /S
                                               B>LOLOJ OCX, OR
                  SOLVEUTS ARE
                   FLAMMABLE
                        LET '5 CUECVC. OUT  TWAT PCV  SYS-
                        TEM AKJD SEE  IF IT'S "VEMT1LAT-
                        IKJG"  TUB CRAM VC CASE.  (jJAftKJ \K) 6 *
                        F>esT OF ALL - MAKJE suiae TUE ABSA vcu
                             6L>oe.ki.iU6> lu is
   NEXT - SET TWE PAB.\<.IM6. BEAVCE  AMD TUEM START TUE
   EU6.IUE.  LET TME EUfclue OJARH UP TO MOR.NAL
IF YOU UAVE A CLOSED  PCV  SVSTEM
R.EMOVE TUE LIME TUAT RUUS
FROM TWE VALVE  COVER. TO TWE
AIR,  CLEAJUER,.
IF YOU MAVE. TUE OIL- FILLGS2.
TYPE :
REMOVE  TUE OIL FILLER.
IF IT'S AM OPeU  PC.V
REMOVE THE OIL FILLER.  CAP.
TWAT IOASU'T  WAR.I?  COAS IT?
                            15

-------
IF THE  PAPER IS klOT BEIMk
MELD DOIOKJ,  PULL  TUIE  PV
VALVE OUT.  VOU SUOULD UEAR.
A UlSSIUe.  SOUMD AUD FEEL A
sreou^  sucTiou  UOUEN YOU
PUT YOUR. FitJ>ei2.  oveie. TUE
VALVE .  \P- MOT.  PULL. THE
VALVE OUT OP TUE UO6>E AUD
sere IF vou PEEL. A STEOKJC*
SUCTIOU AT TUE EUD OF TUe
MOS6. IF WOT, S^METWIUG |5
PLU66eD  - EJTUee.  TUE
Oe THE HAUIF-OLD
iojj. FIWD OUT  ooueee AKJD
CLEAU 'eE OUT!
                                    LOITU TUE e:NJC2>IJue
                                    IDLIUG, PLACE A Piece OF
                                    FAIRLV  5TIFP PAPEe ,  L_|KjE
                                    A P&&T CAe.Dy  OVER. TUB
                                    OPEMIkl6>  IM THE VALVE.
                                    AFTee A suoeT peeoo
                                    TIME TWAT Piece OF
                                    SHOULD BE  MEL.D DOOOU
                                    LY TI6>WT.  (JTWAT 15  IF
                                    TMIM6? IS tOORt.lkl^
                                    IF IT ie  MEL.D  DOOOIU,
                                    PEC? pee PLAOS. AXJD  TAVC.E
                                    BRGAIC. VOUe. P^V
                                    IS  O. kL.

                                    IF  TUE PC.V VALVE
                                    OUT o- n.,  AUD  TME: P^pee. \s
                                    STILL.  klOT UELD DOIOU TO
                                    TWE VALVE.  COVEE.,  TAPLT
                                    LOOVUkJfe FOR. LEAVCY  ^A>^E],
                                    LOOSE.  VALVE 
-------

\^
I II. 11

II J
/

                            TMEC.E AR.E COMMetZCIAL-
                            TESTER.S AVAILABLE FOR, TEST1
                            IMG PCV SYSTEMS  IF VOU
                            FEEL VOU M16UT LIKE OIUE,
                            CWECIC (jL>lTU VOUR- LOCAL
                            STOR.E. UE  LOILL BE. ABLE TO
                                VOU OMB.
OKJE  LJOR.D  OF
       EVER  PUU G
F3CV  SYSTEM, TUIS LJIU.
CAUSe A BUILDUP Op
SUR.E iM THE:
TUI5  PAftSSUMC  Foec6 OK.
AMD BLOUBV  <3A^5 OUT
OP C5ASk.CTED AR6AS AMD
OIL SEALS AKJD HAK.&6 A TEE-
ACIDS AKJD SLUDG> TWAT
DILL RESULT U>ILU 5WOBT-
HM voue. EM^iMe'6 LIFE.
                                 M AJUF"ACTUR.e R1 S
                         17

-------
       THERMOSTATIC




AIR CLEANER SYSTEMS

-------
LETS LOOK. AT  AKJOTUER
5YST6 H TMAT d^HB OUT
TOU>AOD6TUe 6KJD OF
rgc 60s.  TUIS Okie
STAVJDS
TTJERhOSTATIC
'((muamuffx
     CD
                                                 TUERMOSTATIC
                                                     AIR.
                                                  O-EAMER.
                               IF YOUR. CAR. IS A 1967 OR.
                               MODEL, TAkCE A LOALK. OUT AMD
                               OPEIJ TUB HOOD. FIMP TME  A1E.
                               CLEAUEC  ASSEMBLY.  IT 15 USUALLY
                               ROUUD.  BLA6kL OC. BLUE, AUD SIT6
                                    I               m
                               PIEECTLY OVEE  TM CAeBUEE-TC3f2.
                               IT tOILL. PfcOBABL-Y B WELD IU
                               PLACE  BY OUE  OE. TUX) LJIM6  MUT5.
CWECK AMD
SEE |F THAT
AIR, CLEAUEE. HAS A"V%SMOUT" OE.
^SMoe-iceu'TuBEi" OM IT IF IT
poes, TAice  A LOOVC lusioe THAT
TUBE.. IF vou CAW see A
1M TME&e. YOU HAVE A
STATIC - TYPE. Alt CLEAfJES. TWlS
3YSTEH /"S OFTEM CALLEP A
         AIR IMDUCTIOM
            DOU'T BE CONFUSED.
THJ5 15 JU5T AMOTMEJ2 tOAY OP SAY-
IM6- THE SAME TU/U6..
                              21

-------
                   STILL NOT SURE, UUU?
                                                   SEE I
                                       OE. FLEXIBLE  TUBE
TO GUE-CkL A LI
THER-E 16 A  HE"TAL
RUULHIUG* FI2.0H THE BOTTOM OF" TWE"
SUOl2.kl.eL. TUBE  DOLOkJ TO  TU
MAM I FOLD.
TJ-llS PAST
 DUCT:
                                          ie> THE UGATETD
     SAV VOU UAVE OME f BUT
     I'LL- BET VOU ARE  IOOM-
        LOUY  THAT 6AD<&eT
LOAS PUT ^>M VOUE. CAE.. HAX.
                               VOU
                               klOUi
                               READ OM, AMD PLL
                               THE. PuePoee OF TUIS
                               TeAPTIOU.
   THE  PURPOSE
OF TMIS AIR. GLEALJe:(2.
LY IS TO MAVE UEATE-D AlE.
EUTEE. TNG CAE-BUeETOg. U>HEM
     STA/2.T A
      HEATED  BY
ovee. TUE  ex^AUST KAKJJF-OLD
I'M PC>IMTI)J6  OUT
                             22

-------
                                  TME U>ARM AIR. BElklG.
                                  IMTC> TUE
                                  TO REDUCE  WC  AMD CO
                                        IOMILE
                                            UP
                                           U;UICM  CA/U Be A FUS-
                                                           i-e>  vie.-
                                  TUAU-V  eUHIUATGD E>V
                                  LOAI2.H  AIK.
                                             ADVAUTAG^ TO A
                                                 AlE CCjSAUeE. IS
                                  THAT  IT H/x.e& "o(-D oe^sie" A
                                  UOT eAsiee. TO  DBIVE
                                  TUE toeATwee -rueius
                        HEATED Ale R.EAUUY HELPS  COL.D
                        TO ieuU BETT6E.  BUT1. -AS TWE
                        U>AeMt> UP  IT MEEDS  C&OUE&. AlE..  THIS
                                 Ale  MEUI5& IU 6>IVlWi> US
                               Pee cbAO-ow AMD A UTTL-S
                        Z.JR
IIOOULD LIKE TO  &MOIO
WOLO  LOE CWAMG>  FROM
         Aie TO  cooceis.
     TWE  e>AHe  Tine  vou
CAM C.neck.  TO  SEE  IF
VOUe UEATED Aie
IS
                                23

-------
       THE MAHe OF TWe. <3AH 13 ^MOT AiE. LOUEM COCD, AKJD
Aie  LOUGXJ  MOT;" THE EASIEST  LOAY TO DO THIS  is LOITH A
BY MOVJM6* -THIS PCOE  UP >E. POLOJU LOE  CAM  WAVE-  USATeD  AM2.
                         CT'f>  cSUe.k^  IT OUT  AUD  See  ir |T  (S
                   LO^V  IT  IS ^UPPO&eD  TCi
       O.K. BACki  uuoee THE
             A LOOJC AT TUE
                 TUBE.  COBS  IT
       HAVE A >KAU-  KOUUD  CAU
       OU IT  tOlTM A UO&e  AT-
       TACWeO TO  IT?  IP  IT  DOGS
       ucct:  jMSioe  THE suoe.^jEL-
       bOITW TWe eM<=>/UE  SHUT
             TUG CCOE
                         I'M
                        A
                        IT BUTT
    ODD TMER.E ISM'
        ROUJUD AU
      UAVE  A TUBE
IBLE  PIPE RUMMIMG>  F^M
TUE SMOeVCEC. DOLOU TO    A/O
THE EXMAUST HA Ml
VOU P.OBABUy OLOU A
RlGMTf LOOK. IU TUG
OF TWE
DCOE  6>WOULD
                                 MOk)
                                                      ENJ6>IME
                                                      MOVC
                                             A  COCU, -
                                 IF VOU  WAVE TUE SMOELGL  bOITW THE
                                 CAM OU IT,  TUE DOOE SHOULD BE
                                 CU36GD LOITH THE  .M&IIJE
                                               WGAT^D AIE. 15
                                         IUTO  Twe cA&BueeT^e. .  THG
                                       IS TeUE FOE THE SYSTEM
                                 OUT  Tue SHALL CAM ou TME
                                   24

-------
TO
TME  PIPE
             CAE.EFUL-I.V  TOUCH
             UWMIkJ(?  FR.OM T14E
             THE ^*JOE.t.e:C TD
     erxuAUST MAJUIFOL.D,  IT
         Be  60AEH/M(3 UP
FAT.
SHOULD
-7-0
                            r
                             MOLD BE PATIENT AUD U>ATCW THE
                             POOR AS TT4E EM6JME LOARHS UP.
                             IF  EVeBYTWlUfc IS LOOei6JUO> PBOP-
                             EJEL.V  rue cxx>e  e>wouu> BE&/U TO
                             OPEM AUD A.LCOLO  CLQL.P AlE TO
                                     AUD  MIX U>\TM
                             MEATED
                             TUE DOOa SWOUL.D  COUT/kJUG
                             OPM  AS TUG EkKbl
                             FA6T IS, IT SMOUL.D
                             BLOCkl OFF THE  ME AT CD
                                                            TO
                                                             UR
                                 cceAuee.  is  soMeu>M6ee
                             TUiEEU  IOO - I5C^ P.
                             THAT IS TUE LOAV VOUK. SYSTEM
                             SMOUCD  OPEEATE.  LET HG
                             vou A UTTCE  FAETuee. MOUO  AUP
                             TEt-L. VOU UOUAT* TO  CWe^kL IF
                             |T IS  MOT
               D D DO
LOOkC AT THE PARTf> THAT
     COMMOW TO BOTM
               Fiasr  THESE
PARTS  AE.E : TUG (A) PEATED
AIR. IMLET DUCT, AUD TUB
(S) DOOR.  IKJ TWE
TUBE.
                               25

-------
cwecic TME  MEATED
                          IUJLET DUCT
TO
    see  IF*  IT FiTe>  TI^WTUV
      aouuecTioki  OM TME
STOV61.  Ci'H POlMTIkJ6 TO TMAT
     . ) cuecic Tue COUKJECT/OM
      .E  IT  ATTACUeS TO "TUE: AH2.
   TUese Ae.e
AklD IKJ POSITIOM,
        AUD
          COCD
    DE.A(X)J  IKJ AT Tuese
        (lT'5 Cite LOEAB-
IM& A  COAT BUT  MOT
BUTTOUIUfe IT)
                                         TUIS DEL.AVS rue
                                         OPeR-ATIOM OF
                                         TME DOOe AMD
                                         MAkCES TM LJWOL
                                         svsren
                      ME:*T PAET ioe s WOULD LOot,AT
                      DOOE.. no oe.Dee. TO OPEW AMD
                     pee.LV, rue DOOX* MUST MOT
                  JAMMED AG>AIU=>T THE
KJOU), TAVCe A LOOK- AT
THE DOOe AUD  IkJSlDE
Tue skioexec AUD CMSX
ROE. K.U6 HAtZJCe  OR-
         BIKJDI u
-------
LET'S LOOkl AT THE
HEATED Alfc.  e>V5TeM
THAT DOESM'T HAVE"
-rue  "CAM" ou -rue
SUOK.L.  TUE
CM TUIS oue is
oRee.ATep BV  A
TMQe.MOSTAT  THET-
IS  seusiTive*
IF vou
TUIS TVPG
AMD IT  D065-
M'T LOORJC
THAT THE
oooe. i^.u
BIKJDIM(=>.
        J  IF=^ rue  oooe.
        \  ISU'T
         \ I
          Wue TOOO
          ACAP sceeios
          X-1
           TUBE
                   NEXT-
                     FIMD A
      rue:
~rwe
TMaSHOSTAT  1 6
                       TO WOU?
                       -rue
                                   OPEM- IF
                     F/LL  IT
                   ABOUT
                                  A5SEHBC

-------
   LET'5  LOOkL  AT TUE  UEATED
   AlE. SVSTEM  TLIAT  MAS  TWE.
   '"CAM"  OKJ  -THE SMOQ-fcjETL  TUBE..
   TUE "VCAM" IS  ACTUAULV  A
   VACUUM   MOTOR.  THAT
            AkID CLOSED  TME
                                            VACUUM MOTO&
                                  TAKLG OFF TUE AIE. OLEAUEE.
                                  ASSEHSLY. MOlO  F-OL-L-OtO Tl-ie
                                  UO>E  FK.OM TME VACUUM HOTOE.
                                  TO THE BOTTOM OF THE AIE.
                                  cceAueR..  UOT/CE TUAT  IT SLIPS,
                                  OVQ2. A SHAU- METAL- TUB^.
                                  RIG?MT? MET^T TO TMAT  SMALL
                                  TUB& SMOULP &E. AlUOTUee  UC6E.
                                  ~TUIS M0f>e SI4OULD BE
                                  ED TO THE BOTTOM  OF
THE  G>ADGET  TM
        COklUeCT TO  /S
          A "TEMPCBLATUR,e
               IT SIMPLY  FEELS
MOLO  WOT OE. COLX> THE AIE-
is IKJSIDE: TUE A2. CL.EAJUE/S..
   U>MEW TME
                TUE TEMPEEA-
   VACUUM  TO  PULL T~Ue DO3E
   UP.  IHJ TUIS  POeiTIOkJ  OMLY
   MEATEO Ale. CAfJ EUTET2.
   TUG
                                   28

-------
LJHEKJ THE TEHPEEATU. IS
MOT THE TEMPEEATuee:
sE/usoe.  DOES WOT ALUXO
MUCH  VACUUM TO TUE  VACUUM
HtfToe. A LID  TWE: ocoe.
TU16 euxuis OPP THE.
                                                   Bi,t>/ut, Ate
      THAT VOU  KWOU3 LOMAT

               TO RUPDIUT
 LOUICU OUE MAV BE
 YOU
                                TMG CXDOB. COMES UP
                                vou STAE.T -voue
                                BUT MEVER. COMES BACK
                                DOOM MO MATTEL WOU) MOT
                                IT6ETT5,  UUTIL-VOU SUUT
                                TUE
         SOLUTION
  THIS  OUE IS EASV, R.lt,MT ?
  TUE FACT TUAT IT STAV>
  UP LOMETU TWE e-Ut>lME IS RUU-
  Ulklb TEULS U5 TUE TE.H-
  PERATUeE SeUtsOR. IS IJOT
  DOIW6  ITS  JOB. BETTEe
        IT
THE DOOR. PO6S IJOT MOVE
LOWEU VOU START THE E/U-
GIME EVEM IP IT lf> VER.V COLD.
IT JUST- SITS Tueee.
|LUJ&T|2.ATIOU*>
                            29

-------
                                   I LOOULD  R.E.G.OMMEUD VOU
                                   TAK.e TME
                                   STEPS:
                                                       o
                                                       O
  CUECK. TME VACUUM UIUE
D COJUMECTiOMe. (^UO
  oe BEjC>kce.u
  ED. NJO IClMK/b  OE.
  FITS, errueei) IP TME
  is D. ic .....
  U)ITU
  f^UklMlkl^,  R.en^ve TWE
  MO5E  THAT OGS FR.OM
  TWE o^R-Buee-ToR. TO THE
  TGHPEeATTLiee seiusoe..
  Re Move  IT" ATT -rue
  e^ATuee seuusoe..  A
  UOISE  IJUDICATTES
  VACUUM.
  PUT
  TMG E"MD OF^ TUE
  IT  SWOUL-D TR^f TO
  TO VOUE. FIKJfoEfS. IP "VOU
  WAVE VACUUH AVAICABUH.
  IF" MOT  SETTEE. PIMP OUT
  LOMAT
                  TO THE:
  IF VOU UAVE VACUUM AT
 bTWE. WO5E,  MeXT R.EHOVE
  TME MOSe OFF THE  VACUUM
  HOTOE..
                             30

-------
PL.UG TME HOSE  FROM THE
cAtz.e>ueeT<2R_  IMTO  TME
VACUUM H0TOR.. UJATCM
TUB DOOB,; IF IT
CL.OSES, AMD  TMEM OPETUS
LJMEM YOU  RE Move TME
VACUUM  MOSE, TWEC VAC.
UUH  no-roe,  is o. n.
MEED A MELO
IF TME DOOR. CXDESU*!" CLO66
lOWEU VOU MOOkL TUE
VACUUM  MOSe  TO IT) VOU
PtS-OBABL-V MEED A, MELO
VACUUM HOTOK.. CUBCfc-
A6.AIM FOP- BlKJDIU^*.  IF
klOTUiM6> APPeAeS TO BE
JAMHeDf VOU
       ~TMG1 MEUO
                          JF DOOR. DOES*-/
                          CL.OS& AMD AJO
 A  COUPLE  OF  WORDS  OF  CAUTION
            TUR.M OVER. YOUR.
DQKJ*
TOP L.ID OkJ TWE AAfc.
F="ie.ST OF AL.L.  TUlf>
                          UOT
       vou F\N/E:
  PEE. <2> ACCOM.
                              MOTMIMG S TO BE GAIklED
                       31

-------
       SECOUDL-Y, TUIS> UJHUL. MO~T Ae. TO
                  STAU_, AMD JU^
                    HlSEEABL-e' "TO
       LoUEIU  IT'5 COLD.
"TAK.E  TIME AMD  TW/WK.  BACH ABOUT TME
POV  SVSTE1M. Re:HE.HBei2.  TME
                                              TO
TUG:
CAHC  DUT OH  LOHTM  TUE CID
OVEK  TWAT
esc.Ape  ~ro
3AHG  ATHOSPUEeGT
                             -TMAT  is "rue
                              ALL 6OT TO
                                HAUY CAK5 MAVE  OTHEI2-
                                TEHPEEATURE
                                ow T-WE AE-
                                WOUf>lKi6>.  FUPPIkl6 TUAT
                                UD ovEie.  Messes THESE
                                UP, "TOO/  "THIS CAM
                                TUALL.V COST VO
                                Hi-eA6?e^  kjoiro
                                TIOM -rwe e>c.TEA
                                SIOU6  VOUE. <^Ae LOIU-
                                BE PUTTi/iKo ounr
                                32

-------
    AIR INJECTION




REACTION SYSTEMS

-------
                               TUE kJBXT SVSTEM
                               I  LUOULD  LIKE TO TBJL
                               YOU ABOUT IS TUE
                               A I, R, SYSTEM,  "TUE
                               LETTEBS, A. |. R. STAKJD
                                     AIR  IMJECT-
                               IOW REACTIOkl.
THE A.l.R. SYSTEM MAS BEE1U USED
   TUE AUTO INDUSTRY SIKJCE. TUEL
    lPeO'S. IT MAS KJQT BEEM
USED  OM ALL CAeS. SO ' VOue
CAR. MAV OC HA/ MOT M/VE AU
A.l.R SYSTEM. 0)6. (x>lLL CMECkC TUXT
OUT 110 A FE.IO MlklUTES.
    TRADE WAME5
TUE A.I.E-. SYSTEM IS CALLED BY
DIFFER-EUT MAHE5. AHGRlCAkJ  HO1DR5
(AMC) CALLS IT Aie SUAC.D.
            _s IT All*. IK4JIECT-
                          IOM. FOR.D USES TMERMACTOR
                          AJD GEKJEEAL HOTDGS (GH) CAI. I S
                          IT A.l.R. POkJ'T BE. COUPUSED
                          B/ THE MAMES!  TUE SVSTEM
                          DOES TUE SAME JOB IUO HATTER.
                               rr ie CALLED.
                                            ^
              TECHNICAL  INFORMATION AHEAD
                           TUE A.l.e. SYSTEM'5 JC6 IS TO
                           REDUCE THE UC AKJD CO
                           FROM TUE EM&lkJE. |T DOES TMl A 2TTR.EAH OF"
                           AIE. |kJT^> TUE e^UAUST
                           ueAV|MG> EACM CYL.IWOQ2-.
                          35

-------
                    TWl5*EXTC.A" AIR. WELP5 TO Keep TUG
                    FIR.E BUftfJJWC?. TUJ5 BUJUS UP TU
                    ULIBU2AJED MYDeOCAR.EOU6 (UC) AUD
                    cAeBou MOUOXJDE Ceo.)  UOUAT ioe
                    GET COMl/UG OUT THE TAILPIPE  TUEU
                    IS PLAIM COATED VAPOe (fw^O) AUP
                              ioe
                    TUAT LOASU'T AS COMPLICATED AS VOU
                               IT ?
now...
TWAT LJE KMOLO U>L1AT
TJ-JE SVSTGM DOES, LETS
WEAD OUT AMD SEE IP1
LOG  CAU  FIMD  e>OHE OF
-rue Aie SVSTEIH
Okl ^OUe CAE. TUAT
  TUE RieST P5AR.T COE U^A/UT TO
       FOE. 15 TI4E A.I.R. PUMP
      AT TUE  F&OMT OF VOUSL
        Loueee ALL. TME  BELTS
  AIZE. TUE A.I.E. PUMP coiu_Be peiwew
  BV A BELT  TMEEe LOlU- AL-SO BE
  OIUE Oe. TLLO  MC?e>E>  COM/*J<  OFF
  TWE BAct OF TUG RUHR

  I'LL ASSUME >TOU FOUMQ l"T I
  DIPM*T; voue, CAe  PE.OBABLV
  DOGSJJ^T HAVE AU A-\. E- SVSTEK
                 /s AGOL/T -rue.
                      ZJUAT
                      AJO /U/Xf<",
EK   <
 l	I
                         /s
                         36

-------
 THE WEXT PART  TO F/IJD IS -AU_ED
 A DIVCfcTEfc VALVE. TUIS CAJU
 BE ATTACHED RI^WT OU  TUB BACK.
 OF TUE PUMP LIK.E___TUE OklE  X'H
 POIUT1U6. TO UEEE.
IT MAY BE FueTUEe DOUJU TUE
MOSE  COHl/U6> FC>H TUE-A-l. R..
PUMP  UIICE TME  OUE  I'M 5I4OUO-
    VC>U
TWE PUR.P^>>E  OR TUE DlVEETEE.
VALVE  is TO p&EveuT A
FIE.E. inTAices TME AIE.
THE PUMP AMD MOMEUTARIL-Y
OUMP6 IT /WTO  TUE
      VOU TAK-E
     TWE 6>A>.  MOR.HALJ-.V TUE
AlE. FROM TUE PUMP <3OE<=> lklT2>
     EXUAUST HAM i FOLD.
                 Bfif
     FOLL.OLO TME uose OE.
MOSES  OU DOUOU FEOM TME
Diveeren^ VAUVE. vou SMOUL-D
COME TO A CUCCK VALVE
TUAT LOOK.& Llk.E TUI6	
           ree.        ^\
 -*.>U)&
  "^H
OML.Y /*-/     _J	\^
                   W^
                              37

-------
    SOME  V-8'S
TUER.E U)ILL BE A
GUeCK. VAL-VE FOC.
EACH SIDE OF THE
EMG>IUE. ou  OTHER.
V-8'S TUEC.E
BE OklLY OKJE
VALVE . OM -4 AlUD
OMLY OUE
VALVE  is
U5ED.
MOU> EITWEE.
             is
SC> IMTO TME
OR.  IT lf>
TC> A D/STE.I&UT/OU
HAWIFOLD LII^E TH/S-.
IF  IT is
ITSELF  THAT
~rwe
             IUT&
             AMD
                                            OF AUT10kl:  IF
                                      PAe.Tf>  TUAU
                                TALKED  ABOUT  TAklE TUE
         A MAKJUFACTUR.EIi'S  SERVICE
                 FOe  YOUe. CAR. AMD FIMD OUT  LJWAT
  TUE "EXTRA" PAE.T5  AK.E  p-OE..  THIS 15
  TE,UE IF YOU OtOU A R7
  EQUIPPED  LOITU A CATALYTIC COMVeeTEE-. TUIS IS
             TO  PREVEUUT
             MAV FOUfJD AUl- TWE
  lUfc? TUE SYSTEM Fo& PEOPeE. OPeE.ATlOfJ
                              38

-------
                OF ALL., CHECK. TJ-IE
          BELT  Foe -THE AH2. PUMP. TU/U
          IT OV6C.  AKJD  C^ecfc. FOE (
          (E)  PIECE6 HlS/U<*. Q  FKAYS,
          IF VOU  PIUD AIUY  OF THESE
          COUDI~TIOIUS,  RePcAce  TME  BEL.T.

          NEXT CUECX AUD  SEE IF TUB
          BELT  IS Tlt>WT.  IF IT 15  OBVIOUS-
          LY  U006E, TlfeWTEW  |TT  TUG
          BELT  SUOUUD MOT  BE SO
          TUAT IT	TLOAU6>i>" Ulk-E A
                STR.IMG.
 MQT - DOM'T  PK.V OKJ TUE A.l.g. PUMP
 MQUSIMG.  Pl^Y OU  DUE. &MD OJ2- THE
 OTUEIS.  BUT  UOT  THE HlDOce".  A'-E-
 PUMPS
 IL|
       MAICE  5UE.E
A LOELL  VEWTILATED
                              ARE
                                           ^-4
          START THE EMG/UE AMD LET  IT
          CJAeH TO IT' UOC.MAL.  OPE'EATING
          TEHPERATUI2.. USHUCa TUE PCOPE12.
          TOOU, LOOSEW ~TME CLAMP  THAT
          HOLDS THE Liose  TO Tue CMELK.
          VALVE.  CAUTIOM: ICEEP HAWD6 dlFAE.
          OF BELTS, FAW BIADS, AMD  OTWEE.
          HOVIW6.
                                  TUEBE SUOULD  BE  Aie pL,otoiut> our
                                  OF THE  MOSE.

                                  klOLO,  SPEED UP THE  EM&IME.  ~TME.
                                  AIE.  FLOIO SHOULD
                                LET'S CUECK  OUT
                                DIVE.RTER. VALVE
                                                           THE
                                              c(
                                    39

-------
         AGAIM IMGR-EASE
         SPEED AUD  THEM LET
         TJ-JE  TUR)TTLE SIUAP
         SUUT  LOWEki rue THROTTLE
CLOSES, AIE. FLOIO FB.OH  THE HO6E.
YOU AeE  NOLDIU6  SHOULD DEC-CEASS
oe. STOP FOE.  1-3 sedomos.  IF  IT
Doesu'T   5oMETHiiii>   is  ueojuk.  LOG
LJILL TALK. ABOUT THIS  IM A UTTLE
BIT
                                      UE  SAID TUE DIVER-TER
                                      VALVE DUMPED TME Aie
                                      FK.OH TUE PUMP  LJUEIU YOU
                                      LIFT YOUC. ROOT OFF  THE
                                      0AS  PEPAL, (2l6>UT ?  LOELL ,
                                      LET'S  FIUD OUT IF |T5
                                         TAKE A LOOK AT THE cwet*c
                                   VALVE YOU J-IAVE PULLED TUE
                                   wose OFF OF  MOLD -Youe
                                   wAjjp ovee IT CCAC.CFUU.V)
                                   AJJP see  IR vou  CAU  FEHL_ HOT
                                   E.XMAU5T  GAS  ESCAPIklfc>. |t=- VOU
                                   CAW, TWE  CWEK- VALVE SHOULD
                                       &EPLA<1ED. IF VOU UAVE, TtOO
                                          VALVES VOU H16>WT LJAMT
                                   TO CUe
-------
                                TLJE PROBLEM MAY BE TUE  DiVER-TEE
                                VALVE.  Ikl OTHER. UJOJ2.DS, IT  15
                                DUHPlUG  PUMP  AIR. ALL TUE TlHE.
//= A//S /5 COM/JU& our
L/OL.E5 ALL TLIE TIMS, YOU
A M.io  Divre.e. VALVE.
                                TO CMECK. - TAkLE  A CLOSE" UOOV-
                                AT  voue  DiveeTee..  H06T  u>/u-
                                ux>n  Liide  oue OF ~rwe TOX> I'M
                                PDIMTIM6> TO MR.e.  MOTIVE  TME
                                UOLES.   TUIS IS  U*46E  TUE  Al(^  IS
                                DUMPED  OUT  OF  TUE PlVEETEe.
                                VALVE.
 CAUTIOM  -  UATM/KJ^ OUT

 FOR.  MOVIM6  BLADES,
B8TLTS  AUD   PUL.L6VS,  PUT
YOUR.  FIWGEKS  DOUJM BY TWOSE
MOLES.  IF" V>U CAM FEEL- Alfc-
E5CAPIM6> ALL THE TIME, TWE  D\VEKT-
E VALVE KJEED5 REPLACIKJ6,.
                               IF Aie IS MOT ESCAPING OUT OF IT WE
                               DIVEeTEE.  VALVE, AMD  THE FLOU> OUT-
                               OP THE LJOSE IS VEEY LOUJ, YOU
                               PEOBABLY WEED A  MEUO AIE.
     DJn^/r^  > /^r^^ ^O)D

    ERTER. VALVE  DOES  JUOT PUMP
    Aie UWEM YOU TAKLE YOUE
    FCOT OFF  THE &AS. LOMEIU  YOU
    C.UC.\cD  THE DIVE^TEE.  VALV
    OPEKAT/DM,  TWE  FLoLO  OF  Aie.
    OUT  OF  TPE  woee DID UOT
    Dce.eA&e  AT ALL..
                                                      FLOW ALL
                                                       bjueu
                                                   THKOTTL /S
                                  41

-------
FIR.ST  TWIKJG I'D  K-GCOMMEklD VOU DO
IS CUECK TUE VACUUM  SEMSIU6>  LIU.
THIS IS TUE  SHALL RUBBEfc I4O5G
TUAT  Rukl6  FROM TUE DIVEETER. .
VALVE  UP  TO  eoHE  PLACS" OM TU"
IMTAKE MAUIFOLD.  TU15 UUE SEIUSeS
INTAKE  MAMIFOL.D VACUUM. CUAM6E5
IM  IWTAK.6  HAMIFC?LP
TT4E DlVEI2TEe VALVE.
       IT? CUECK  TUIS  uose poe
SPLIT5.  CRACKS. KIMK.5. OK  BREAK.t>
AKJO  LOOSE COM MgCTLQ Mt>. REPLA.de
IF  KJECeSSAR.V.
NEXT - R.EHOVE  THE  MOSE  AT TWE
           VALVE. CUE^kl AkJD SEE
      UAve  VACUUM.  IF YOUE
         ~TO TME EMD OF TUE WO5G,
VOURJE ALL. SETT  IF MOnr   BE
                                    E.
 COee.E A^AlMST
 coeeecT" AMD eepcAce  AS>
                                   42

-------
TUB A.I.R., SYSTEM IS
IVC IU RDUOM< MC  AUD CO 6M/66JOU6.
IT TAKES VCfcV LITTLE RPUefi (A
LOT cess TWAM v^ue CAes Aie
              -r^ pe/ve  THS A.I.R
      IT ALSO "nilt5  VKV UTTL6
                 KfiEP THIS  SYSTEM
OPWATIUfr, AUD BY  ICP||J^ (T
               YOU

-------
FUEL EVAPORATIVE




CONTROL SYSTEMS

-------
                             SJOLO
                             TO  L.COJC
                             TMAT  lt>
                             F.E, C  THE
                                         => TAVLE  TIME
                                         AT A SVST&M
                            FUEL.  EVAPORATION
                            COk/TROL.
BACH CAR. HAlCee UAS
OlOM SPExC-IAL MAM& FOe. THIS
SYSTEM. TUG F>0|UT Jt> ~TMAT
IUO  HATTEE LOUAT IT IS
IT'5 JOB  \<=>
TO PR.EVgMT FUEL
FUEL TAUkC OK- TME
AMD  PC?L-LU~T|IU 6?
           VAPO&G
         ov= MC oe
         AJUP HU5T BE
                        6.ASOUIU&)
                         OUT

                                 I'LL BET" VOU'eE
                                 ILI6,  IF Y(9UE. CAR WAS TU1S
                                 SYSTEM, R/
-------
                                              L-OOkl AT SOME
                                        OF THE PAR.TS TUAT
                                        AR  COMHOU ~TO ALL
                                        FE.C. SYSTEMS.
                                        MAMV OF TUESE:
                                        HAV MOT  B
                                        TO FIUD,  I'LL EXPLAIN
                                        LOUV  Lonew toe
                                        TO THEM.
                                         EL
                               /JU DAV5  OF OLD, RU&L
                                     VETKJT"EP TO ATM OS -
                                      THE: CAP ALLOLOED
                                            ?  SOMETIMES
                                      IT ALtO AL-LOLOED AIR
                               TO BE  DeALDU IkJ, AS TWEL
                               LEVB(_ IM THE FUEL-
                                TWE RUEL.
                                VAPDC. LD>6 TO TUET ATHD6-
                                       TMe FlULCe CAP
     FILLED CAP Lx)lU-
A IE.  I WTO TMe: TAJUK., OklCf
IF  A PROBLEM DEVELOPS
           IJUTWE
                            48

-------
YOU WAVE  PKOJ3A&L.Y
Ticeo  OJMEIU vou  FIL.L Youe.
GAS TANK THAT YOU  JLfeT
CAM MOT X%TOP 'EH OFF"
Liice iki TWE OH_D PAYS. FUEL
TAMK.*>  AE DESIGNED  0
THEY CAUMOT BE
LY  F"IL-L-EP.
TO  peeveUT UGUJID
FIS^H  esCAP/KJG>,  TH  MEU)
GAS TAUC.6 ALWAYS MAV6
AM  Aie- spAce  evew LOMEJU
FULL. THIS Cx^Y, OU A  UOT
DAY,  (OMEM TUe 6A*> |KJ
TAUId ey.PAKJD3, IT DOES
UOT euM  OUT Twe
KJeC.t..  IT SIMPLY
IIUTO THE AE. SPACE.
WHERE  DO  THE  VAPORS  GO  ???
  I TMOUSWT  THAT
  UOOULD BE  YOLJE.
  LET5
  TWEeE VARIES AS
  THEY LGAVE THE
  GAS TAklkl AJUD
  SEE LOMAT MAPP6XJS
  TO  THEM
  AS THE VAPORS  LEAVE TWE FUEL
   TAJUH THE  FIK.5T D&
          is A vAPoe
          THIS  PAE.T  IS VE-EY

IU  THE  FUEL. TAMKL, ABOVE  rrt OE. OFF
AUHO5T AUY  pLAC (jOHES-E TMER-G
    FOE. IT.
                                                 TO

-------
                                   TWE VAPOte.  SpAeAT>e  IS A
                                                   - F72.ee
                                               TO PASS
                                   IT  AfJV C.JO^U/D FUSL IS
                                                -THE
TJD
                                          THE
                                            PASS
                                             RR.O/UT
                                   TO A
"TME.
         A BLAC.K:  PLASTIC.
          A  ET?UUD
CAU. IT  LOIU-  HAVE
~rueee  ^>ie.  pouig.  noses
ATTACU6X?  TO ITT
                                   TUE CHAe-COAL. IUJSIDE  TME
                                   ISTEE. IS USED  TO STOee THE
                                            FI2.0H THE  FUEL. TAUVC.
                                       SOME, CAfcS  |~r STOE.es THE
                                   VAFC3&S FEOM THE
                                      uoeuu. LOHEU THE:
                                   IS  STARTED
                                      PeAUJKJ  J/UTO THE
          AEE THE  PAETS THAT
 AE COHMOW  TO HO6T  ^ASS
 LJITH  F..d.  CET'5 TA1CG A
 LOALU  OUT AMD OPSM THE MCOD
 AJUD see IF ooe  OLAU FIUD  ^OMG
 PAETS. MAYBE toe CAM eve/u
        SOME OF-  Twe HVSTG&V
      OF AU.. TWose woses  FOUAJD
 UWDSE  THE HCOOV
                                 50

-------
                K.6EP  IM HHLID-* GA^OUtUe  VAPOfc^
                      \
UUDCE TMS  MODD
    TUE: FuesT Tuiwfo
    FIJJD IS TV-4E YSTM6.
                 OML.V
        ATTACweD TO -rwe
         TME  MO^e klOT GOlUb TD
T14G  FUEL  TAUfc.  IT UDILL LEAD TO
     a. T]-ie  Alfc

     b. T(-l BOTTOM OF THE
TMlt? UO6e 16? Foe TAHILI6> TUG VA-
POES OUT OF THE CAJUI6TGE.  A/UP
PUTTIMG  TMEH  BAC1C IUTO THE
Eiu&uue  TO  e>e  euiejue-p.  TW/S wose
'id CALLED A>XPUR6C" LlUE.
Tweee COICL Be A pu6e  c/iue  OJLJ
ALi-  FG. C.

-------
IF THEJ2E
       .OH/IUO FeOH  THE
      :  1st - FIJJD THE oue  THAT
COME5 F-E.OM TWE FUEL. TALIK. .
CTI-US MO3E  IS GOMMoU ~TO
              H066 UP TO TM
              UK.e  I'M
     Meee. TUI^ nose AU
~THE VAPORS F'EdDH  THE.
Bueerojs. ~TD  BE VEJUTED IUTD
TT4E O4AECOAU CAAJ fbTee . -THE:
3rd  UO5E  IS FOe REMOVAL.  OF*
~TME VAFOe^ IU ~TME
            THE SNPue
-------
    IP YOU TRACE TW16 LIIUE  YOU
    IOILL see TWAT JT Ties /JUT&
    THE PCV  Liue. THIS lt> THE
           LIME. THE, OULY
          WITH -THIS OMG is
    IT is ATTACHED. TUIS SETUP
            A SMALL AHOUUT OF
            TO e>& TAneu <3UT
             cAMieTee. AMY T/HE
    THE eiU&IMe  16
            THIS uue  UP TO
                   TWi5 uue i
    ACTUALLY A VACUUM
    LIU6.  IT  TOLL'S A
    THE  A^u/5Tee ooweju YOU STEP
    OM TME
            AEG
         uucEHASe eM6/ue
   I HOPE TMAT TAW.E5
   SOME OF THE.
   OUT >F  THE F.E.C.
   SYSTEM  AJJD
   woeee.
        MOto  PD une TO
              YOU aOHE
                YOU CAM
                  THE
        SVSTEH.
FIR.5T TMJJU6? TO LOOK AT IS
ALL  THE MOSES  IOC  UAVE
BEEkl TALHIM6 ABOUT CMBCkl
THESE FOe THE FOLC.OU5IJU(
COUDlTJOUf> :
    I. - SLOPPY  FITS>
    2.- CEACLfc.5
    3. - HAI2.D AWO BE-/TTL6:
    4. - RUB HAekl5
       THEY HAY
       coe.eeCT  ALIV OF
Tnee>e COUDITIOUS TMAT
YOU FIMD. OUE OF THE B16-
                                    > EMI6SIOU dOUTROL SYSTEMS
                                    15 BAD MOSS dOMUeCTIOILfe.
                                53

-------
                             IF VOUR.  CAP. MAS  TWET BLACK. PL.ASTJC
                             CAU ISTER. TME^e  IS PROBABLY A
                             FILTER.  OM  THE BOTTOM OF IT
                             R.ETACM ULJDec  AMD SEE IF VOU CAM
                             FEEL- A FIBEESCASS  FILTEE.
                             SWOUL.D e  Kepi-Aceo  ABOUT
                             IS, OOO  HICStj.  TMIS FICTEK.
                             TWe A lie.  TMAT  IS  U5GD TO
                             TUG FUEL ^APoe&  FEOH TW6
                             AKJD IT is
IF
THE EG 15 UO
             ABOUT:
                                                       METAL.,
      OTMEI2.  ITEH  VOU
LOALIT  TO  We-CkL  IS  TME"
                           ONVe TV4E
                       LOOK. AT
                          TMAT
                 A TI^UT SEAL
         THE  CAP  AMD THE
                       IF T IS
          OE A  GWUMkC.  OF
GA5JCET l>  Hlf>SlU6,  R.E PLACE TUE
CAP.
                                    HAK.6
IF YOU RAieic voue
FACfJU6r UPU/CL AUD  VOU
see  6>Ae  EuuMiU6  o^inr;
A&A//U, eerpLAce  TUG CAR.
                                           THE
                                                 voue.
                               54

-------
IF
     BMIS6IOKJ
CAM OUL-V HELP
DOkTT D!6COMNeCT I
AUL  TMOe6 VAPDR
UJtU- JU6T H656 UP
SHOULD JUST-  ce*ve THS
coMMecTCD. iceep IT
MAtMTAIWCO, AMD U6C TMOt*
To  w6up BUK; voue
 DO,
  AP
. VOU

-------
         EXHAUST GAS




RECIRCULATION SYSTEMS

-------
              E6R=
      EXHAUST
     RECIRCUUTIOM
                           IT IS TIME TO LOOK./T
                           TME SfSTtM TWAT IS
                           ABBREVIATED E.S.R.
EXWAUST GAS
RECRCULATIOM
                           LJAY BACVC IkJ THE FeOUT OF
                                sooc i HeuT/oiuec? A
                                 P^D(-LJJTA(UT CAL.UED
NJOX \S TME STUFF THAT RESULTS LOMEU Aie AMD FUCL- BUEJJ-
           T"we AIE.  PUEL. Mixnruee  Bueu-b7 nrne HOBE
is
TME PU6.P^>se OF TWE
EOe. SYSTEM IS TO LQU>gg.
TWE
TWE
THE AHOUUT OF
FOK.MEP, LOWICW |JU TUSkl
G>ive*> us CLGAiuee.
TO
                     ABOUT 3OOO ~4OOO*F
         ABOUT
                        59

-------
            R.EDUCE5
    AMOUWT  OF IUOX PRODUC-
    P BV HIX|M<3 A SHALL. A-
  MOUUT OF  BUEkJGD EXUAUST"
  GAS  tOITM  TWE
           IU THE
  FOLD. JLfoT GUOU6H
       lt> ADDGD TO
  TO
        -rue
                               IM
E.&.e.
IM
BEGJU UOeO OM
TUE.  UUI~TED
ou HOOT  Foe.
STATt>. ^30 IF"
             THAJd
   U5ED  ou
      BVG.I2.
ME1AELY
     cAet>
                                                          CAE.  MADB
                                                            ALOO
                                                          jiu -rue
N-IOCc)  THAT LOE KUOLO 6OWAT
TMe  ET,(2.  SYSTEM  DOEIf).
UET3     Fe^^M  TMG  TOP Cf
                                      IT7
                                    60

-------
     TOP
                           THIS  E.G. K.. VAL.VE  COILL
                           UV BE LOCATED O\J TH&
                           MAUIF'OLD.  IT  MAV  Be  OU TUE"
                                  oe_ je.iG?nT OF
                                  oe. BEHIUD r
                             IF VOUe OAR- WAS  A  6
                             EMGILie  ~TWe  BG12.  VAL.V  -Sf/CULP
                             BE LOCATED  FA'CL-Y  CCjOfee  TO
 CMECK Tuee>e  LOCA-
 TlOUt?  FOe TME
 VAUVE ou /^ v-a
VACUUH
                                               D L_eT  HE.
                             vou  LOU^T  TUAT^ VALVE
                             is CL.oe>eD  AS swotou, IT
                                                 (SASH'S  FEOH
                             EUTEEIUC* THE  IJOTAKE
                             AMD HDtlUG, lO~ru THG
                                 VACUUM  IS APPLIED , TUG.
                             VAL-VE  5>TAE.T^)  TO  OPGM .
                             AL-L-C>LL>^  -rne  e>ue.M6^ EXHAUST
                                  TO  MIX UOITM TUG AlE- FUeL.
                                       IM THE  IUTAVCH HAMIFOCD.
MOIO THAT LOG.  KUOtO LOMAT
IT LOOK.S L/K.E  OAJ  TUG /HISIDS,
LET6  60  A LITTLE
AMD 656  IF LOE  CAJU
SOME  6SJU66 OUT OF  SOME
OTM632.  I~T~EK FOU*JD
SVST EMS.                        J
                                        VALV.
                                61

-------
KJOLO FOULOUJ THE  VACUUM
FEO H  TME e&E- VALVE TO THE
OTW&E. eiuD. Okl 5OME CAS IT LOIUL.
SIMPL.Y GO TO THE  BOTTOM OF TWE
cAe.8uE.eTOR. eJK-  PM
     Hose  peon TM  e^e
MAY ATTACH  TO A DEVIC  Llk^ THIS.
THIS Device  i-s  CALCGD A  C, T7 O.
                                              VAC.UUH
 C.T O.  STAMPS FOe.
                                  NJOLO TKACe TW LOUOELE. VACUUM
                                  HO&e  ou TME oi~rrc.w.
                                  TMIS  WO5E 6l-IOU(_O  6O TO A
                                  co/UMecrnofj oiu TWG: e>Ase^ oe.
                                  eoiTON, OF TUG.
  C~ro
                                    MAY 60 T<9 A DEVICE:  UIC.E TW/>.
                                  CUUM  AMPLlFiee,"  IF YOU
                                             OF  TUE>e OkJ YOUfS.
                                  CAR. TAHE  A SECOUD AIUD TT2ACS
                                  TW OTWe VACUUM UO&EZz  COH-
                                   fo FE(9M TWE- VACUUM
                                  ^M6  VACUUM HOt
                                  20 FeOM  THE AMPLIFIED  TO TVl
                 SHOULD
ED TCT^~ - -~Z/U IUTAtl
TAP OU THG lUTAtie
62
                                                             O3UW6CT-

-------
 LET'S  LOOK- AT OME
     sve>TEM  TWAT ie> FAte.-
    C.OHHOU.
[F VOU  HAVE A SVSTHH
THIS OU VOUE. CAE.
co ILL  R.eco6>Miz.e  sone OF
rue PAE.TS  LOG MAVE
(2HADY TALKED A&OUT
MAHE.L-V TH G6.& VAU S/e
AMD  THG CTO  5001 "7XM.
VALVE
Piece  ie>  CACCCD AU
EXMAUST  BACK.
               A  LOOR.D OF CAUTIOM
TUER.E AR.E HAMV DIFFEE.EUCES
ltd GGF2. eVSTEHS. IR TWE  OklG.
ON VOU-  CAE.  MAt>  MOE.e
PASTS,  oe PAR.TS  TUAT
THE: OM/e>  rve
VOU,
A
HAM UAL.
ROE.
PAE.TICULAK.
                             63

-------
.   SVSTEM,
TME
           THE HAIIU  PAET5> OF
              e?   SEE  A&OLJT
    FO^ST-
                           VACUUH
     I. -  LOOSE  FIT5 OK. 5 LOPPY
    2.  HO5Et> TWATT  AEE MARO AJUD
                 (=>E.T  SACt. -TO
    3. -  MDe>e^> -TMAT Aee SPUT
         OE. C&ACkLGD.
    4. -  W0t>ee> -THAT  ARH  K.IUK.GD.
RG PLACE. ALL HOe>ES "TWAT AT2JE |M
BAD

MOUO,
-rue

LET HE  STAeT  BY e>AYIMb>  TWAT
{OM6.U  THE eUfelMe  |S IDLIM^, TWE
.6>R.  VALVE  5MOULD 66 CLO6ED.
FIEST,  ^MEC.t-  T"Wlt>  BV L-COt//U^ AT
AMD MAe.t//Ufc> TME P^>S>|-TIOU OF
THE e. . e.. VALVE:  STEM  UOITH
        e>HUT OFF.
                  ;  HA.K.G e>URj
                         Ikl IS
      WAVE: A FE-ieuD STAerr voue-
e/Ut>J(ue AMD UE"T  IT IDCe. COATCN
THAT VAL.VE, STEM. I"T SHOULD Be
)U THE 6AME  PO&IT/OM TMAT  IT
     IU LOMEM  TUG
        : KEEP HAUDS CLEAE
    BLADe-S, AUD  oTwee Hov/iu6
IF TMEE.E IS OULY  A SHOE.T PIECE.
OF  VACUUM MOfaE P_UMUIUt> F/2.OM
TMG E. 6. E..  VALVE  TO TWE BOTTOM
OF TMC. CAE.BUK.ETOR- - TAklEL THE

-------
                     n
                     a KEEP AW  EYE  OU  "THAT EeZ. VALVE STEM.
                     i
                     3D SL.OLOIY - START IUCeeA>IU(* THE SPEED
                       OF TWE EU&IUE. THE VAUVE- >TM SHOULD
                       START TO MCrve UP AS EW6>IUE 6PE.EP
                                   IF IT poes, TWE
                       DOM'T  OV&e-SPEED  TME EM&lUE. IF
                       VOU WAVE A TACWOHETeK. AVAJLABUE"
                       LJ6E |-77 YOU SHOULDU'T  WAVE TO
                                 2.500 R..R H.
 IF IT DOEf>U'T  OREU
 LOWEM  YOU  IM-
 SPEED, CMECfc. TO
 see  IF vou  WAVE
 VACUUM TO
1]
a Dlf>COIUME,CT -- THE,
30 LOITM  THE
  ABL.E  TO
                        lDLJUt>
                     AMY VACUUM AT THE OP- TME
    SL_OU>LY  STAK-T
    EFO.    NE eU6E  eC.we*> 2SOO R.P. H. VC?U SHOUC-D FEEL-
  A VACUU M AT TWE EKJD OF TWE  WOt>E.  IF klQT - CHECK-
                            A
      PL-ufi>e>eD PAseAe?e  OE. A e>L-oaceD  uose.
                 F VACUUM \t>  AVAILABLE , AMD THE VALVE !> klOT
                   E6.J2- VAUVe  LOIU- HAVE. TO BT  CLHAUEC?  O(2_
    R.EPL-ACED.  WOtOEVSK.,  ISEAD OU BEFORjS. VOU E-CPLACe  IT/
                               65

-------
                      AWOTMER. O_UlCkC CUECIC IS TO
                      APPL.V Auo-rneR. sou&ce OF
                      VACUUM  TO  TM e6>.(Z. VAUVE.
                      IR vou  HAVE: A VACUUM  OPER-
                      ATED TUt2-Hoe>TxVTlC A112- CLE2U-
                      E"E.  "VOU  MAve A HAUD^V SOURCE
                      OF  VACUUM.  eeMeHBeE.  THE
                      SYSTEM  ?  C^-evieio  TA.C.
                                >F  |U


^ Lr
/*
f
/-
^1
=^\
^^Oj
\ V
\
\
**
*-
                                                 TO
                                       /r
CALIT/OM: BE
                       IUSTALLED.
THE DUE  TIAAT
TO MAE.H-
                       AUP  MAICE  >ue. ALL VACUUM
                                         a TAK.G THE
                             UOS& AMD COUMECT IT
                             TO THE  El. 6-E.  VALVe
                             VACUUM LI we
                             TIOM LIIC 'M
                             vou NE:ee:.
                                                ODD
                   66

-------
 IF xxoce oese>ie" ee&iMt* TO
 fiATTLE, COU6H>  AMD HAVBG Dl6
 OU VOU, VOU KIJOCJ TMG G. 6. R.
 VALVE it>
 MOST E,G,, VALVfcS
 CAM  be CM60CCD IkJ
      16 AL>O  A (SOC?D  IWD) -
CATIOM OR LOMV TWe E- G. E..
          it>  NOT
TO opeeArre AT IDUE.
u
                             THE
                             TO
                                            -THE: CTO
                                         COS  TAL-kieP ABOUT?
                                                OP* TMG:
                                                 it> :

                                                VACUUM
                                VALVE  LOWEIU  nrwe  eiu-
                                cyue.  it>  COLD. -rWEse
                                L.JTTUE  c=oop>ie^ AEJS PUT
                                IIUTO sveTewt?  T-O
                                          Twe  UOAV OLE;
                                COLD.
          C. TO.  &LOITC.H I
                  IT  AUD
                              A/U OU - OFF
                                  IF-  IT it>
D STAR.T  LOITH A COL-t>
                             67

-------
      DI5COMWECT THE: VACUUM
      FE.OM  -THE  e,c.ie..  VALVE:.
             WAVE  A FE-teklD
              voufc. eu,uue  Foe.
      vou.
      MOTE: -. MAt-E  euce
      IS
  SLOIOLV  IUCE.EA6E
D HkKbiue  ePEHD  TO ABOUT
  eooo - as^oo  is. R M.

  VOU  51-lOULDU'T FEEL
D AMV  VACUUM AT THE
  EJUD  OF" TME M0>e  VOU
  REMOV6LD  R&OM TMG G.6.E.
  VALVE.
                                             AT
                                    C.T.O.
       IF" VOU  DO  FEEL. VACUUM. AMD TW  EfUGIJ  15
       (SO0 -GO0 F)  BBTTee.  TM/ukl A&OUT R.ePAClMt>
       cro  5toiTlWe LOA.Mt> UP  VOU
         LOOIU'T"  BE  ABLG TO FEEl-
MOLO LET THE
       THE  EMGIJUE Je.ACWE^>  OP-
SLOUX.Y
SPE^D TO  2000 -aeroo
LJOCO  VOU ^>WOULD  BG  ABLE TO
      SOME. VACUUM ow THAT
                               68
                                                  TO THE.

-------
IF MO VACUUM  It? FETL-T,
CJITH A UE.LO OKJ6, ALJp
        DUCe AlE.
       . TWAT
TOO
n
                                  ~%s  see  MOLO u>e
                              CAN cwecic OUT THE
                              VACUUM AMPUF-|eE_
                            vm(U ((U if ((( ((iTTTTT
  STAE.T  VOUK. eu^iue:
D LET IT LOAE.H  UP TO
  AT/M6*
      U3ATCU TME E.^.e. VAL.VG
    n STEM  LOHIL.E vou
      A60U~T  2.5OO E..RM.
                        IT/
      IF- TME  e.e. e.. VALVE
    D Moves,
  TAK TME
D QAV OFF.
                       OF
                                   AU50 - TeV  I7 2.,
                                   LOITW  THE
                                         IF THE
                                   VA uve  o peLe^kTee , RJE-
                                          THE C.TO. SIOITCR
                                          .f.  SYSTEM
                                           JUOT
                                   LOITW A CO(_D
                                       THE.
                               69

-------
IF THE e:6E. VALVE  erreH
Move, -TAK.e THE. FOUL-OLOIUC^  STEPS
          R.eHove TME VACUUM
          FEOH  THE e.d,.
          COITM THE
          RJJU A UOSe FEOH A
          HAUIFOL.D  VACUUM
          Cute LOG DID
          TO  "rue e:. 6>.i2-.  VAL.VE:.
          IF TME: eu^iue
          DOLOU 0(2.  STALLS TWE
           IF MOT,  &ewove  AJUD
IF T"H
                      O.K..,
      -rue  C..TOL
           RE: Move TWE  uouoee. VACUUM
                 OJU "THE
           ~TO 2.OO& - 2.&OO R..RH.
           IF  VOU FeeL. A VAUUH
           Meee,  TWAT MGAM^
           toe WAVE:  VACUUM TO
           C-TO. etOITCH, BUT  MO
           VAdUUM OUT OF IT -
           KKbWT? TW E. G.KL. VALV
           STEM DIDM'T MOVE  /KJ
           oue F/ee>T nrev.  TH/S
           TeLLA  US  THE
           SLOITCH
IF kio VACUUM i> Feur lu  3Tep 2.^  THE VACUUM AHP^IFIEK.
pjeoBABLV  C5eFec-rive. aeFoeg vou BUV  Ajueuo oiue
voue MECHAUIC
        MAUUAL- FOE.
                                            TM6
                           CAK. A/UD  FOCL^LO ~TWS
                              70

-------
                             A<3AJM, LET  HE  SAV  TUIAT  TWEBE
                             AKH  A L.OT  OF VAJ2.1ATIOUS  iM
                             E.G.E.. svsTETMt?.  l CAM
                             G>\ve  vou
                             CHECK. A s>eevice.  HAUUAL.
LET>5 LOOK. AT THE E. G
SYSTEM TMAT  UA6 TM
EXHAUST &ACIC
S&U5OE- OM  ITT

FOJ2-  TV-US CH6LCk
MEED  TME  HELP OF A
          5TAR.T  6OITH A C-OUD
                       A6.AIU
                                    TEMP
START  THE ETU^IUE.
UOT : HAKJE. SUZJE.  AEEA
16
WAVE  VOUE.  FE.IEUD WOLD
MI6 FOOT OK. A tC^DDED -
UP  R.A OVeiS.  THE TAIL-
PIPE  TO (-E^>Te.lCT - MOT
S>TOP^ - TUG  GXMAU5T
FL.OCO.  YOU  OOATCM TNG
E.G>.E..  VA4-VE  STEM.
CAUTIOU : U6E A CLHAU
CATCH
                           71

-------
     AS VOUR.
     TUG EXHAUST OU
       SPECD TO
     VALVE
     Move LOITM  "rwe
     OOCO.  IF IT DOES,
     TH G.T-O. iSLOlTCR
                    OF
                     MOT
U)(TW EM&IME COL-D,
AKJD e^MAusr  R.e-
5T-EicTep, e.G.e.
VAL.V6  SHOULD
MOT hove.
     c
                                          nrrr
D
      MOLO  L-ETT THE
     AGAIU, COATCH  TME
                        IOAE.M (JR
                                   5"TEM.
     HAVE voue.
               I  serree
            HAUD6J "THAT
              : use  A
             I2A66 ^AU e>e A
          E. G>. 12.. VAL.V
     STEM 6MOULD HOVG
     UP.
                                 Twe  &XMAUST FLOCO
                           TMGM  MOT  TO suexi
                                        TO Be  MOT
                                         oe.
                           ABOUT  S.QOO -
                                      IF IT
                                         PEIOSABL.V
                                               O. 1C
     IF IT
              Move
          vou
TH
STGR6
                      72
                                                o
                                                O

-------
CWECKL OUT THE 6.
VALVE. DO TWI6 BV
i*jfc> A ^ouece. OF
MAkllFOL-D VACUUM,
         vou
                                              C..JZ. VAL.VG &Y
                                            : >/=" //t/7-.
                                        VACUUM TO /7T
       so AMSAD T-O  >~rep
       IF MOT;  coE.eec-r
                E>V  CUSAUIU6>
                 THE eui.e- VALVG.
       REMOVE THE VACUUM MO6G
             THe.  BAGk^ pee55uee
               Lite rn e>wotonJ6 weee
                               ~rr>
       2.CCO  2.5CO e.. RM.
       IF vou DO MOT pee-
       VACUUH  AT THE SUD OF
           MOf?e , THE CL.-TTO
               15 UOT
       AUD
       IF vou PO HAVE:
                        IU  THE
              THE HAJU U F=ACTU K.-
                     HAKJUAL- IP
                            lx ^
                  	       . *^CtJtJM
vou ACE douacs TO AT- (^gag
       TEMPT  TO FIX IT
             IP MCTT; AT
            vou CAW -rei_L. ^oui^  HECIHAUIC LOHAT  is LOR.oiu6>
       AMD  L_E:T HJM F^IX
  CAUTIOM
           UVTE MODEL CAJ2f>
           AE.E DG-SI^IUED
           TD OPEEATE U3ITH
        IT
TO
                     CAU6E
                    DGTO-
THE
S4ATE.
Eiut>iue DAMAGE/ Keep THE
TEH OPE-RATIKJ6> PBOPSEL-X THIS
LOILL peevEJJT  Fo*>si&(-e
DAHA6> AUP neep oue: AIC.
                                73

-------
          CATALYTIC




CONVERTER  SYSTEMS

-------
  TUEPURPOSE OF TME
  CATALYTIC CONVERTER IS TO
  REDUCE TUE AMOUkJT OF" UC. AMP
  CO EMISSIONS. I  UMLL ALSO ADD
  TUAT CATALYTIC COUVHRTER5 ARE
       eFFic.ieuT iw REDUCIUC. TWESE
                                              A LOOK AT
                                              AMOTUER
                                              5IOM COKJTRA.
                                              DEVICE. TWtS
                                              DEVICE, TWE
                                              CATALYTIC
                                              COMVERTER,
                                              IM W75.
            //U
                            CO
CATALYTIC COMVEeTERS  REDUCE
CO BY BU RAJ IMG TUE^E EMIS5l^U
                HKMT WAVE
AUOTUER. -reen
USED  IS OXIDIZIU& CATALYTIC.
EfcS. DCXU'T BE COMFUSED BY TU
iuo(2D  OXIDIZIKIG.1 IT is OJJLY
AUOTUEE. lOAY OP S^YIM6.
OE- COHBU6TIOU.
                              11

-------
   MG -I- CO AR.6.
   OXIDIZED  AVID
   CU^kUGCD  TO
  WATER.
                                                ua AMD c-o
                                                VAPOB-
IF VOU OLOM A 1975 OR
uetoee.  cA*t,  LE^T^ <=>o o\sr
AUD  HTAICE. A LO&*. AT TUE.
CATAi_v~ric-
U3EAK. VCHJR
CLDTUE6
VOU'RE 6>OJiJ6> TO
UAVE TO  LOO\C. UUD632.
             BE SUKC
TO
LOOK  UUDE:^ voue CAR. AUD
FOL.UOUO  TUE eXUAUST  PIPE
DOLOM peon rue eu
         find  it?
      i r \ i
TUE  MUFFLED OMVOUe. CAE.
        L.OCATGD F-UBTUEE.
      TME EXHAUST  SYSTEM
THAU  TWE  CATAL-YTIC
VER.TE12..
                               78

-------
-rue CATAL.VTIC  couveeTee. \t>
OFTeM  CALLED  TUE  CATALYTIC.
MUFFLEK.. TUIS 15 AM
THE  aOUVeETE. IS JJOT
sieueD  TO  GkjJier  EXMAUST
MOISE.  IT  IS OWLY  U5ED TO
UP UC  AIJD
     CATAUYTIC
                                            nan  YOU  SUOUL.D PULL
                           UP  A  CUAICZ.  AMD  I  COILU EXPUAM A
                           LITTLE HOR.E  ABOUT l4Olx> THE  ATA -
                           L-VTIC  COklVE(2.TE.R.  OPejSATES, AJUD
                           LOUAT YOU  CAM DO TO HAK-G  5UJ2J5  IT
  FIR.ST, LET ME  SUOlO YOU
  LOUAT MAK.ES UP A CAT-
  ALYTIC.
MOMOLITU  COUVEETEe
  TYPC*>  OF c^>MVQi.Tae6. owe
  IS CALLED  A HOMOHTM CQU-
  VEg.Tge. .
       Piece r) TUE OTWGE.
  TYRE IS  TUE PELLET
  TUE IMPO1Z.TAUT
       COATIM<:> OM TUE
       OK. TME HOJJOLITW
             TUI6 ODATIU6>
  15 PLAT/UUI^ OB A HIXTU05
  OF  PLAT (MUM AMD PALLA-
  DIUM. TLJESE AeE TUE CAT-
  ALYST MATeeiAL-e* TUAT AID
  IN REDUCIM& UC- AMD CO
  EHIS6IOM6.
 PELLET-STYLE
             COATED co/rtJ
             PAU.AD/UM.
                                   79

-------
TUAT  UASNTT BAD,  LJAS  IT?
TO TWE  IMPORTANT  PARTI
                    NOOJ
  OME
  ITEM  THESE
  MEED FOR. PROPER. OPER-
  ATIONJ  is OXVGENJ.
  OXY6EU IS ESSEMTIAL FOR.
  ANJY  BURMIH6  OR. OXIDA-
  TlOkJ.
   IF NO  A.I.R.
   SVSTEM,  TV4EN
   ADJUSTMENT \S
   EXTR.EMEUV
                              IF VOUJ2- C^E. 15 A iq75 OR.
                              ER. MODEL-  AKJD WAf> AKJ A-I.R.
                              SYSTEM ,  TJJIS IS  IOUER.E
                              THE EVTR-A AIR. AMD OXY6>Ekl
                              COME  FR.OH FOE. TUE  PROPER
                              OPER.ATIOM OF THE couveer-
                              IF YOUJZ. CAR. DOeSM'T  WAVE
                              AM A.I. R. SYSTEM, CQR.R.6CT
                              CAg.6UR.gTOR. ADJUSTHEMT 15
                                              IMPOR.TAKJT
AkJOTUER. ITE.H  YOU MI&UT
CUECI6: MAKE SURE ALL
SPAR,iC PLLKiS  AMD SPAR.VL PLUG
U)IRE5 A12.E O-fc.  A SPAR.VC PLUG
THAT  IS MOT Fie.lU6 OJILL MOT
OKJLY CAU5E YOUK- ^AR- TO RUU
R.OU644, BUT LJILL LOASTE
AlJD 6AU  RUIM YOUR.
                             80

-------
   A
SAD SPAEkl
  PLU6S
COASTED
SAS
                   POOR.
                            RUIM6D; j  J
                          ALL  TV-MS
                        RESULTS IU
    n  LOSS  OF  MOMCV
       LOTS  OF  A1B-
    D  FDLLUTIOU
    n
                  DOM'T  REMOVE THE
                  LYTIC  <^OUVE.R.TE^ AMD
                  EXPECT TO CSAIW PeJ2.R3RM-
                  AMC6"  oe.  6>A5  MILAGE. SIUC
                  THE ^OIUVejBTEE. 13 PAE.T OF
                  TUE EXHAUST  SYSTEM  AIUD
                  WOT PART  OF TWE EM6.IU6, IT
                  WAS MO EFFECT OU Ekl^lUE
                                     RESTRICTED.)
ALSO,  REMEMBER. -TWE CATALYTIC OOUVEe.TE:j2.  OUE.NJS UP MC
AWD CO IM TWE EVUAUST SYSTEM.  |T DOES  UOT ETpFECT  EM6IKJE
peepoeHAMCE.  MOUEVER.,  EMGIKJE PEe.F"oe>HAkJC  ooes EFFECT
UOIO  lOei_L TUE CATAL-YTlC. COMVe^TEE- OPERATES.
  Twe  coeE.6cvr
  ETOC. ADJUSTHEWT IS
  CRITICAL OUALJL UEtO
  CAE.5 R>e. PJ2OPQS  PEE-
              AJUD MIUI-
                                         AMduur OF
                                  A/J& co /u youe.
                                 81

-------
   "TO PER.FOR.H A PROPER
   CARBUR.ETOIZ. XkDOUSTMEMT^
   Akl  HC/CO  EXHAUST  AUA-
   Lvz.ee.  MU>T  BE
   THIS  EXPENSIVE
   OF* eeu-HPMEiuT
   BY  YOUfc  H EC MALI 1C
                                                         UA5
                                          CATALYT 1C
                                                            MUf>T
                                             user? TO MAKE  TUG
                                                    dAj2.Bue.eroR.
                                                               TWIS
                                                          TUG
                                              ^012.  ox-Ycseu^)
                                              ROE. PR.OP1E1^ FUMC-
                                                 6> OF TME cCATA-
                                          L.YTIC
                                      IF YOUR.  MeCMAMIC
                                      THIS CORRECTLY, TUG CATA-
                                      LYTIC- COWVER.TEB.  IOIL.L
                                      UJOeJL PeOPETRLY AMD VEEY
                                      LITTLE UG AMD  C.O
                                      COME OUT  OF  YOUCt
                                      EXUAUST PIPE  - i.e.
                                      AIR.
P5ST - IMPROPERLY  ADJUSTED
CATALYTIC-  COMVEETe^> CAkJ
CAUSE TUAT  WASTY ^ROTTEkJ
EGG"  SHELL. TO COME OUT TU6
TAIL PIPE, AL-OM6> tOITW  A
OF  W G-  AUD  CO.
                             LOT
IF YOue CAR.  PA Akl A.I.R.. SYSTEM
LOITW  PA&VS oOe DIDU'T TALK. ABOUT/
( LOOUL.D 5UC>e>es>T TWC  POL^otout>
IMPORTANT  STEP:

HAVE TUIf> 5VSTG.M CUEcL^eD SV AU
AUTUORIZED DEALER. OR. MECUAUIC.
MAMY  A.I.R-. 5VSTeH> HAVE DEVICE^  BUILT IUTO THEM TO
PC.OTECT  TME  ^ATALYTI^ COMveeTE
COMPLICATED  FOE. Me TO TALH. A6OUT
TWE DeALEE.  CUECk^ TUEH OUT  AWD KEEP TUSH  OPERATING
LY
                                                                 TOO
                                                                LET
                                  82

-------
           OTHER




EMISSION  SYSTEMS

-------
                       OTUEfc.
                        DEVICES  VOU
                                 FIMD
                              Okl  YOUR. CAR.
UJHAT U3E tO ILL. L.OOK. AT
    SOME OF TUG
EHISSIOU COkJTt2.OL- AUP/OI2.
3O HAMV DIF=-F*eeEUT
          USED HTHAT IT 1S>
          ~ro covee AU- OF
          . CJG ooicu DISC
OUL.V  SOME: OF THE noee
                    I LOIUL. SAV A6AIU, TWAT FO&. A
                    VAK. AIU^ HODSL. GAR, , A CbOCP
                    eiou goMTeoL. MAUUAC^ oe. MAKJU
                    FAc~rue.ge>e? see.vice HAM UAL.
                    OMUY AU>uoEe- TO
                    ~rioue> AMD SPGCIF/C
              FlfcftT ITCH6  I (OOULD
        -TSCLVOU ABOUT CAM Be
        SPARK TIMING  CONTROLS
                         85

-------
ABOUT TUIE OfJS
DELAY  -rue
ADVANCE. UUI"T7  OE.LAVJU6>
SPAR-tC ADVAUC
           we.
i M  PO!
HAXJV  s
       VACUUM  "TO
TUG
MAUY
                     COLOE5
VOU CA^J  CWECX  F
PLUGGED
1
AUD  LET IT
                            TO
       R.eHOV TUE VACUUM MOSE
       FK.OM  TWE VACUUM AD-
    (^ VAJJCE UKJ1T AMD  HOLD
              F"JU6&E. ovee.
            01=" TWE MOSS.
                                                o
                                                           %>
                                                             o

-------
4
         IMCR.EASE
SPE.ED TO AC-OUMD 2.OOO 
2500 R..P. H.


IM A FELO SECOMD5 (3-J5
SEC.) TWE  WOSE  SHOULD
STICK TO VOUK.  FIU<2EC..
CTWie> MEA/U6 "THAT TWE
VALVE,
       IF VOU FEEL A
       VACUUM  IMHEDJATL-V OM
       lUCe.EASlM6>  EMGIMe SPEED,
       THE  SPAekl  DELAY  VALVG.
       SHOULD  BE  Rjp AFD.
      IF,  AFTee so secoiaDs HAVE
      PASSED  kJD  VACUUM > FELT/
      "YOU PROBABLY  UED A MetO
      SPAC-kL GOMTfZOL VAUVe.  MEA-D
      FOE. VOUR- F-{2.ieMOL>f  LOOAL
      PE-ALGIZ. AMD Be S>UJ2e -TO
                IT toiT-w <3ue OF -rue
                                            /VO  VAC-'.^o'/*/ Af'TTEK  3O
R.EPLAGIL(6 A  PLUGGED
Me to  OME LOIL.L PKO&ABLV RESULT
GALLOU.
                                                  VAL-VST  lOiT,J  A
                                                Moee  Hit5  pee
                                                     CLEANER
                                                         AIR
LET'6 LOOk. AT AMOTME1S. TYPE OF
5PAE.IC DEL.AV VALVfc. TUlS  ~TVPE
is  FOUUD ou  HAKJV
Pec?DUCTE> AUD IS
OSAO, OSAC STAWDb FOE
                                 87

-------
THE  PURPOSE OF TWE OS>AC  VAUVE.
15 THE SAME AS  TMG  SPAR.K.  DGLAV
\4U_VE. THAT  PUERDSE lf> T>  pE-LAY
VACUUM TO THE  VACUUM  ADVAklCE
UJUJT OM  THE  D/STJ2.lBUTOe.
                                     VACUU/i
          CAIU CME.CIC T"ME
   vAi_ve  OUST t-nce  toe
             TMIKJ(=>5  TO
   BERQg.  ^OU C^-ieCKL OUT -- TWC
    1]
TUE OSAC VALVE SHOULD
BE  ovee.  eoF (MOT
COLD.)
          DOIU'T  IDLE  TW
          FOE- A  L.0U6> TIME
                    THE O>A<1 VALV6:
              DOM'~T OVQBMEAT THE
          EIUG/ME.
          O.K. AFTE/_ VOU
          EIU6> VACUUM
          Okl
                                          DOU'T
                                                                 S*J&/AJ
                                   88

-------
               YOU F6L VACUUM
               PEOBASLY  WEED A,
                    os AC  VALVE:
               so sercoMD^  HAVE
               PA5SED  AMD  YXI DO
               MOT F"EL VACUUM,
               YC>U DO ueeo A
                                            FAULTY
                                                VALVE
                                      a. tjweu  VACUUM is
                                         IMMEDIATE
                                      b. uwe/u  TWEEE: ie>  uo
                                         VACUUM
                                         30
                                                           i (
             THE
  YOU DO  RepLAce  -THE: VALVE BE
      YOU
Foe >OU
PA&T  KJUMBEI26 Old "TUG
PA&T AKJD THE  OLJ> PAETTT)  IR
THEY ARE  DIFFeEEMT, A>K. TWE
PACTS DEAUET^  CUWY.
                                                Oi-D
          AMOTNER CsADGET  YOU
          MAY FIUD  JM TUE VACUUM
          uue BE~rLoee.M  -rue
          VACUUM ADVAMCe  UU\T*
          AMD THE
          is AM ELECTRICALLY
          EE.AT&D VALVE.
    MO
VACUUM
ADVAMC6
I. JM FJEST GEAR.

3. UWTJL A CEfc-
  TA1U SPEED |f
             I.  IW MI6H 6EAR.
             2.  IOWEM A dEE.-
               TA/W -SPEED  6
               R6ACMED
                                     TME              OF TMIS
                                     VALVE  lt> ~TO  pAJY
                                     ADVAMCE  UMTIL
                                     GET5 IMTO MI6>W
                                             A CejemAlKJ  SPEED.
                               89

-------
C -i e: i K. ^ -o  o- "I" "
DEVice (> &E
voue. p-
                TO
IkJ
           TWAT
            AJJD
     ^i PME.UT AF2  RJE
        CH6OC IT
DUAL
       ^^' >5 TO
                           MAMV
                       V/A^UUM
                                          A
                                       UMIT
                     WC EHISStDU'b AT IDQg.
                                       TWE.
                TO Flg  CATS U3MEM
  /
   /
   ,-H
  u
      y
        i
                                 LOW HC
                                 EMISSIONS
                                 AT IDLE
LET'S  LOOK CLOSER AT
DUAL  DIAPHRAGM UNIT
                     90

-------
NOTICE TMAT TMEE6
VACUUM  I4OS63  ATTA^UGD TO
TW UU|77  IF VOU MAVG
OlOM TfHlM6> LI6WT AMD 5T
            -rueee Aee A
        OF TVllMt>e YOU
Be  AUDAEE: OF.
              YOU SET YOUR.

      30TM WO5E5  FCOH TW
      VACUUM ADVAMCG UUl~T
  CAUTIOU:  IC55P
  ASOAV FIZLOM
             AMD PULL6V6.
  PLUG BOTH L.iue.e> -
  Tee^ looet- supee.
D TMIS. DOUT use
  OK. BOl-T>. THE-S^ MAVUE:
      A  HE>6 OUT OF THE IM -
      SIDE OF "THE. VACUUM
             -rme> CAM CAUSE
             COUUECTiOMt> AUD
    n
           GO AHEAD AMD  SET
      YOUE- TIMIU(.
      YOU
      CAME OFF CJWICH COU-
      UeCTIOM, FOL-LOIO
      STEPS 
                                     u
                                                         !
                                                         ; i I
                                                          i i
                                               PI^Z.
                                                njf>".S 77'-
                                                         r.~"^
                                        '-/ ,. i 
                                        ' -"
                                           . i.....
                                     PACT'.-I...- .-"-t
                                91

-------
1]
U)|TM THE EMGlklE STILL  iPLIUfc
REMOVE- A 60L-F -TEE  Ff^OM OUE
Moee. PUT >roue. FiMc^ee c?vee
"rwe e^JD OP -rue  nose. IF vou
F=EEL.  MO VACUUM OR. \.g.Y CITTTJ5
VAC.UUH. RUT THfe
TUG
FEOM  THE,
                        r//
             vou PULL TME: GOLF TEE.
      OUT OF THE
      SUC>ULD FEEL
      VACUUM.
      TH6
      TME  DISTK-lSUToe. T"WAT
      tOASM'T" TOO DIFFICULT;
      tTf
         THE MEXT ITEM IS Okie  LOG
         ALe-GTADV TAi k,FP  ABOUT. THAT
         ITEM IS THE  C"TO  SCOITCW
         TMAT IjOE  Die>CU56>ED  IU THE  E6S.
         6>VSTE.H.  CTO ^LOITCMEe  OE-
         COOL.AUT TEHPEKATUeg QVgg.e.lD&
         510ITCHES  WAVE A COUPLE  OF
            1.
            2.
        OC. TMEgHAL VACUUM
SLOITCI4
       oe PORT&D VACUUM
 CTO  SOOITCMES AR.E.  U6ED  IU
 THE  E:E.  SYSTEM.  I'M TELL/KJ^ "vou Tm
-------
                        U>E OMLY  LOOKED AT TCOO-
                                    iu TWG
                             UP
                        ou
                              HAM^V  T-|Me AR.6  U6EO
p-oe  Hoee  peeci-be  cou-
TEOL- OF "THE OPeELATlOM
OF SOME  SV5"reH?; AL_L.OU)-
IUC>
            CHAM6E-e> IU THHP-
         , CTC>  SLOITCHES
CAU  REC*ULATe THE VACUUM
TO HAMY DEVICES  oe eveu
SIOIT-CH  TMEH  TO
OM
      H.
oe, iu
           AMD
                                      CTO
                                      UCLP  TME
                                      DB. \VCABILITY OF
                                      VOUB CAB
                             93

-------
                                                I'l'l'
     ,  THAT'S IT FOE.  UOU).
i  MOPG:  iv suceeoeD  iiu e^4PLAiw/u6> SOME  OF THE.
T5T>  AKJO  dUGCliS YOU  dAU  HAfcjE OM
^vsTEM-b.  AL_O  i MOPE  rvE Poi)uTeD OUT
AMD UOMGM  VOU SHDUC-D dOUTAcT
            is eygg-vou e 't?  Re:spou5/e>/t-/-rY  AIUD vou
                       IM TH/6  EFFOe~T
                           94

-------
APPENDIX

-------
                 MANUFACTURERS SERVICE MANUALS


Availability and costs of manufacturers service manuals can be

obtained by written request to the following addresses.  For cars

not listed, check with your local  dealer.   He can provide the

address for obtaining manuals.
1. American Motors Corporation
                     Write to:
2. Chrysler Corporation
                     Write to:
3. Datsun
                     Write to:
4. Ford Motor Company
                     Write to:
5. General Motors Corporation
                     Write to:
6. Honda
                     Write to:
American Motors Corporation
14250 Plymouth Road
Detroit, Michigan    48232
Chrysler Corporation
Service Department
P.O. Box 40
Detroit, Michigan
Parker Industries, Inc.
609 Deep Valley Dr.
Rolling Hill Estates, California
90274
Helm Incorporated
P.O. Box 07150
Detroit, Michigan
                                                    48207
GMC Truck & Coach
Division Printing, Inc.
Dept. GMC
1179 Sylvertis Road
Pontiac, Michigan  48054
American Honda Motor Company
  Incorporated
Automobile Customer Service Dept.
100 West Alondra Blvd.
Gardena, California  90247
213-327-8280
                             97

-------
7. Toyota

                      Write to:  Toyota Motor Sales USA, Inc.
                                 2055 West 190th Street
                                 Torrance, California  90504
                                 213-532-5010 - Customer Relations

8. Volkswagen
                      Write to:  Robert Bently Incorporated
                                 872 Massachusetts Avenue
                                 Cambridge, Massachusetts  02139
                             98

-------
TECHNICAL REPORT DATA
(Please read Instructions on tin- re\ ersc he lore corn;
1. REPORT NO. 2.
EPA-450/3-77-043
4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE
A Primer on Auto Emissions Systems for Home
Mechanics
7. AUTHOR(S)
B.D. Hayes R.A. Ragazzi
M.T. Maness
9. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME AND ADDRESS
Department of Industrial Sciences
Colorado State University
Fort Collins, Colorado 80523
12. SPONSORING AGENCY NAME AND ADDRESS
Control Programs Development Division
Office of Air Quality Planning and Standards
Office of Air and Waste Management
U.S. Environmental Protection Agency
is. SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES Research Triangle Park
, N.'C. 27711
leting)
3. RECIPIENT'S ACCESSI ON- NO.
5. REPORT DATE
November 1977
6. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION CODE
8. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION REPORT
NO.
10. PROGRAM ELEMENT NO.
11. CONTRACT/GRANT NO.
T900621-01-0
13. TYPE OF REPORT AND PERIOD COVERED
Final Report
14. SPONSORING AGENCY CODE
EPA 200/04


16. ABSTRACT
This booklet has been designed to acquaint the average home mechanic with the basic
emissions control systems and components installed on today's cars. It stresses
the fact that emissions control equipment has been installed to peduce the amount
of pollution discharged to the atmosphere from automobiles and thus protect the
health of people.
The booklet is only intended to provide a basic knowlege and understanding of
emissions control systems.
17. KEY WORDS AND DOCUMENT ANALYSIS
a. DESCRIPTORS
Pollution
Atmosphere
Hydrocarbons
Oxides of Nitrogen
Photochemical Smog
Carbon Monoxide
Positive Crankcase Ventilation Systems
19. DISTRIBUTION STATEMENT
Release Unlimited
b. IDENTIFIERS/OPEN ENDED TERMS C. COSATI Field/Group

19. SECURITY CLASS (This Report) 21. NO. OF PAGES
Unclassified 109
20. SECURITY CLASS (This page 1 22. PRICE
Unclassified
EPA Form .2220-1 (9-73)
                          *U.S. GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE: 1 9 7 8 - 7 'i 5 - ?. 2 ty

-------