``` &EPA United States Environmental Protection Agency Office of Air Quality Planning and Standards Research Triangle Park NC 27711 EPA-450/3-78-035 Augu-,t 1978 Air Carbon Monoxide Hot Spot Guidelines Volume III: Workbook ``````------- Errata for EPA-450/3-78-035 Carbon Monoxide Hot Spot Guidelines Volume III: Workbook 1. Page 34-35. The absicca is in "hundreds" of vehicles. 2. Page 50-51. All references to Figure "1-B" should be "1-D." 3. Page 103-105. Replace all of Table 8 with the attached Table 8. 4. Page 126. Step 16 should be Step 17, Step 17 should be Step 18, Step 18 should be Step 19, and Step 19 should be Step 16. 5. Page 126-127- Correct th.e following steps in the worksheet to reflect corrected numerical values: Step 13 Step 14a Step 14b Step 15 Step 16 Step 17 Step 20 Step 21 Step 22 Step 23 Step 24 Step 25 Step 26 1.15 1.15 1.15 3.6 0.7 4.3 0.82 0.82 0.82 0.0159 6.4 1.9 Q\6 9.2 13.5 9.5 2.9 12.4 10.8 1.15 0.82 0.3 6. Page 129. Line 6, change 2.85 to 1.41. The equation aiven for C should read: Ef CEf = CO.781(0.83) + (0.111(1.41) + (0.06)(5.23) + (0.05)(0.6) = 1.15 In the numerical solution for Xf> main and Xf^ crQss the emission correction factor should be changed from 1.33 to 1.15, thus yielding concentration 3 3 estimates of 3.6 mg/m and 0.7 mg/m respectively. The total concentration then, Xf, should be 3.6 + 0.7 = 4.3 mg/m . ``````------- 1• Page 130. First paragraph, the excess emissions correction factor should be 0.82. The numerical solution for 0 should be: (0.02297)(0.82) - (0.00251)(1.15) = 0.0159 8. Page 131. All concentrations given are incorrect and corrections are here given by line number. 3 Line 1 9.2 mg/m 3 Line 3 4.3 + 9.2 = 13.5 mg/m 3 Line 4 13.5 mg/m 3 3 Line 6 9.5 mg/m ,9.5 mg/m 3 Line 9 12.4 mg/m 3 Line 10 12.4 mg/m , 10.8 ppm 3 Line 15 12.4 mg/m , 10.8 ppm 9. Page 114, point (iv), line 3, change "Table 9" to "Table 5." 10. Page 119, point (b), line 2, change "Table 9" to "Table 5." ``````------- 1 T^vor-T[r-i cM£Tn(js fnu per. IT-; t «•• AI Timor ta # * LTV ?n « 20 20 2'1 20 20 L -> T 20 20 2C1 2n 20 ?n M- 20 20 20 20 2" 20 *J ^4 LOV 20 20 ln 20 2" 2n Lnt 2" 2n 21 2n 20 20 *- 2n 20 20- 2f 7n 2" hf* 'i Y r A s ! ions 5P A- '. t- ') 7n .47 40 .41 2n . q s 40 . A9 2" 1.72 U .•' , 0 A 2" -97 U n q ^ 7? 1 .5S 41 1 .7A 7-i •>. 1 3 4- I .A3 ?n .15 40 .13 2n . 7.S 4r . 20 2T . 3A 4 O . 2 A .,. ,,,5 F ** : o An .40 in . 1n . 1 A 1- .13 A •-' . 1 «J T"1 . 1 '« i . =• 7 1 OQS 1 40S | 9 «H 1 9H 7 .57 -57 . *, ? .3n .47 .51 .54 ..15 .97 1.04 |.ll .71 .75 . "4 .00 .5" 1.11 l ,5r' 1.65 1-03 l.OI 1.IA 1.27 . A '» t . 1 ^ 1.77 1.14 . 7A 1 .nA | . | u l . | 7 .73 .SI .57 . A 1 .17 1 o q S l o 3 S I 9 o c i<^n7 IS 10 4S 0 .4-1 . . ; A . n n .17 . ' I . " r, .17 . 7 ' . 3" . •» 7 .09 T.17 u.A/ ri.*' 1.52 1 9q 7 . MO . 17 . 77 .AM [ .04 .HH .99 . «9 | . A4 1.33 7. 37 I . 7 A . 1 * • 15 .32 -24. . 46 '. 31 19*7 15 . V . 3 3 .5 3 . '»*> . / 1 • A3 .83 . «o 1-12 . o" 1.40 1 ' ' '* • \ 4 • 1 3 . 19 . I 5 . 7'< . 1 / i.2< in .44 .40 . « l .67 I.I'' .9S 1 ."7 . 9A 1 .«« |.47 7 .A" [.9V . 1 ^ . 1 6 • J ^ . 7A .52 • .1 ' 1 "H7 3" . 17 . 1A .5v .5 3 . »P . 7 1 .«-» . "5 |.2.3 1 .09 I . S.H 1 . 3 * . 1 4 . 1 < . ?'l . 1 A . 77 . I '' 1.9! 1 90 7 45 . 4 A .42 .flfl . 7 1 1.10 1 .P4 1.13 i .OH 2.03 1.59 7 . "4 2. 1 7 . 1 « . 1 A . 3« .28 . C7 .4 [ I 9P 7 45 .39 . 17 .A3 . 5 7 . « fl . 77 ."3 • " H 1.37 1.16 1 .77 1 -4S . 1 4 . 1 1 .2 1 . 1 A . 7 °0 .13 . 3 1 . A'» .55 . 9'» . 7? ."3 .74 1 - 4 A 1.14 2.00 1.54 . 1 3 . 1 1 .25 . 1 9 . 17 .77 1 g<»n 3n .79 .20 . 40 . 4S . A-> . A 7 .Al. . AS . ^r. . a« 1.21 I.Oo . 1 0 .00 . t 4 . 1 1 . 1 T . 1 1 1.71 ! O VH •1C . 37 .A" . 60 | . la .37- .17 • * ' | .53 1.7? 7 . 7------- ;• 4 I S S I O «' ••"••!?(-.•• r t -,.; r < <- T ^ O ~ PI -5 W P i- [ T • ; I -> .1 «. | T [ T T)L u *» 1 J- l_rs v 2 n 10 7" I" 2o 35 20 35 ?o AM 20 AO (. -r 20 [0 ?n , ,_, 20 3S 70 33 21 A!" '" 60 Mf *r 10 20 l o 2n 35 <;" 3S 2 0 6 0 2n 60 Y r S" ,. LJ /•. ' " C. \ J ; i o 7 U |O/a I r " : >' i i r-> 70 i.27 l.io M" 1 . I 7 1 . 1 -* 2 "l 1 . 9 u ? . 1 / « " 1 . =• 7 1 . 7 .4 7 ° 7 . A *•- 1 . n 1 •*o 7.03 7.10 ? ' i . r- a i . - i 4 n ...47 1 . - A 7" 7 . <4n 7 . ^ A « 0 •> . n i 7.|| 7 n 1.71 1 . ri 3 H n ->.'; c, 7 . 7 A 70 . M -r . q | •tO . 4 ? . ,' T 70 .70 1 . 1 A •40 . A 2 1 . 0 « 7n i . '19 1.91 '4 n .PI i . '4 2 A 9 I ['578 197" EFO: o i* 1 o 7 i i o ; n V« MR 1 . 3 ; 1 . "2 1.71 | . 7 A 2 . V 7 . = 1 1-70 7.n 3 1 . 't -> 1.7-4 7 - -5 / 7 . a | 1 . A 7 \ ,T\ 1 . c 3 1 . <•„ 9 2 • * f 3 . "5 2.31 ? . -4 a 1.97 '».•,* 1 . n o i . i n - 9 ? l.n? . " * .'2 1 .SS 1.71 1.23 I . 3 "3 7..17 7 . M n 1 . 62 1.79 [ q /a l 9 7q 30 «c 1 T P i ' loan | o o n i 9 A n | a n 7 1907 19°"' \n n i r jn MC. M |^ 10 9 3 l.iO 1.1| 1.17 1.77 --K4 .=>•> .M17 .ci ,T-> i . n .i i . "m .A/ .7<^ .ro *a2 l.A^ I . « 0 7.09 7.2S I.2S I.-41 | . r' "» 1«72 1.1 I I. ur> l.A^ |.7r' I. on |.|1 1 . .'^ I'1'5 '.?" 7.AA l.nn 1.?9 1.7-3 7.01 7.';0 ?-=l1 1.72 1 . •' n 7,?T 7.MTi i . •» 3 1.^7 l.;l I-37 l.«3 I.Sn |.C9 |.«,7 1.7S l.H? 1 . r-> 7 l.AO 1.37 1.17 '. - ^ " I . ? I 1 . 1 S 1 , 7 f» 1 . 1 A 1 - '•* 2 V.l? 7-^A 7.73 7.9^1.97 7.->P 7.Ar- 2-°/ 1.03 7. on 7.70 2.37 l.Al 1 . •» n 7.1" 7.7A 7.9S 1.'»7 U"A M.7-< 2. A'' 3. IS l.ro 4.15 2.13 ?.A1 7.9 A 1.21 -J.o^ 7. SI 7. M-, T.m ,19 ,A7 .77 . 7 •" . •« U . S •* . * 7 ,AU . .1 -4 .ST .AU . A fl ,77 .<4fl . «« r .S7 .A3 1.17 1.31 I.HI .SI .9« | . '? 0 1.17 . <-, '] ,?| 1.01 1 . 1 n . ', fl . 7 S . .M 7 . A 9 ,09 l.A'S 1 . o n 7.no ,72 | . « 1 l.A" 1.7-3 .AA I.2T 1.19 ! . r, ? .S3 1.07 | . 1 & 1.76 I9QO 19«O )9an |-JBn [992 |9q? |9M? (Ifl? 0 tq 10 ^S n |5 3O «S (.TV 7.0 |T AO 1-oq I. JO 1 . I •» I.IA ,«S .^7 . ° A .9-) .^1 ,?n ,7u .76 20 10 qo i.01 i .n s i.np 1.10 .«t ."a .9] .91 .AO .A/ .7" .72 70 3=, AO I . T« I. ''A l.SV |.A9 1.11 1.214 I.^S I.1*'1 . fl 6 .95 I.OS 1.1^ 20 35 "0 I. I 9 |.2« 1.3" l."A ."fl 1.0" l.lfl I.2S .7S .fl1* .9? .^d 70 AO AO I. A3 1.13 7-04 2.7] 1.17 I . S 6 l.7c I.9'1 '.1? 1.7I I . 3 A t . «* H 20 60 «n i.37 l.s,2 I.Afl 1.P2 l.lS I.30 l.'»S |.S7 ,9U l.n? I.IM I.?4 L^r 20 I o An j.un I . 1 / J .4J I.Mfl l.?5 1.2° 1.3" l.^n l.n« 1,19 ].7A I. II 7" 10 °o ,.m i.ii I.IA t.'m 1.71 1.71 1.7° 1.31 I . 0 * I . I * 1.7n | . ? -4 2 <•• 3S A r 1.75 l . a M l . 9 A 7..i,o i.cfl 1.7" i . p A 1.99 1.19 l.AO 1.75 l , P H 2r 3S =>o I.QA 1.^9 i . / 7 i . >» 3 | . - 7 t . S n i . A 3 1 . 7 « 1 . 7 H 1 . « 1 I.CH I.A* ?n 6n *.-. 7.10 7.7't 2.Sn 2 , T 2 • \ . " \ 7. '7 7.17 7.5« I. A 9 2.OO 7.2H 7 . -t «4 2n 60 a" t.77 1.R7 7,na 7.7A 1 . A 2 1 . 7 a l . 9 P 7 - IS 1 . <* H 1 . A fl I . « 7 7.03 «r 20 20 2"1 20 2" 2- | n A "* 1 n 3 n 3C. .An 3 =, a -i AH fi A n .-. f . 19 . 3 7 . sn y 7 . A | . •* 7 . A 7 .A 3 . " 7 . 7 1 1 . - 7 . J 7 . 77 . 77 . y v . « i 1.7? . ~> 1 . C 4 .79 I.I" .9 1 1.3=, l.°1 . 1 1 . 7° . <4H . 33 . "49 . 1 6 .5* .«« .So . e, 1 .77 .79 . S a, .A."! .90 i .n i . <. A . T M .6 1 . ^ A .» A . AP l.io . an . 2* . 73 . i t . ?s . 19 . 74 ."3 . "40 .S« . '1 A . 7M . r, l . •* « . M6 . " 0 .Ml . A 1 , A H . *n . ? 7 .-7 .°fl .^9 .A3 : . 7 7 '-, . A'' =,.=.1 A.TA i . 7 1 ^.SM ri.A7 A.5A 1.71 ^.71 &.^7 A.°' ."1 .A''' .AM . A 7 - " 1 . -- n . t, 7 . c, 7 .03 . A P . r- <; . -. .1 .DV-iignt duty vehicles, LDT-light duty trucks, MC-motorcycies, HDG-heavy duty gas trucks JCD-~a3vy duty diesel. '-j'^'-i i Frrission correction factors for region, calendar year, speed, percent cold starts (C), percent hot starts (H), and temperature (T)'by vehicle type (M}. 27 ------- t S S I " y f \ ••» ; • r ( ~» r A r i 7 a | o 7 o • n | e; "7 S p nr> ' • 7 q 1 9 7 fl t°°7. lo LOT 20 2fJ 20 20 20 20 20 20 20 20 20 20 1 0 10 35 35 60 60 10 in' 35 35 60 60 ?0 40 20 4O 71 "0 20 un 20 40 70 '10 1.09 1 .07 t . 6't I.HI 7.19 1 .79 1 .62 1.51 7.53 7.15 1.43 7.79 1 .07 1 .00 1.71 1 . '»5 7.15 1.91 1 .53 I .47 7.46 2 • o fl 1.39 7.75 1 1 1 1 7 7 1 1 2 7. 3 3 . 1 i .02 . q 7 .5« . 6'» • I " .55 .43 • A ' .24 .79 .05 1.1" 1.04 2.P I 1.63 2."7 2.32 1 . = 6 1 .'«? 2.PH 2.36 4. 1 2 3.11 . 7U . A9 1 . 1 f J .96 1 .47 1 .72 1 .41 1 . 12 7.21 1 .02 3.05 2.«.2 1 1 t 1 1 1 7 I 3 7 . * 1 . 7 A • ' r . 1 4 .84 .5? .35 . ?o 1 .57 1 .31 7.7A 1 .ft* 1.39 1 .2" 2.5A 2. 1 A 1.77 1.04 'I 4 > H 1 ,66 .74 l.|A .60 .5A .-^9 1.12 70 1 1.13 1 .06 1 ,63 2. I" 1.17 1 .09 2.05 1.77 7,'M 7 . HS .65 .6 I 1.71 1 .P4 1 .76 1 .47 I.I' 1.1" 2. 1* I ..a* .1.1' nr 20 20 20 1 20 20 20 10 70 10 4n 35 20 35 HO 60 70 60 40 .66 .60 1.10 ,«7 1 -5H 1.15 .q 3 .75 1 . 19 1 . I 0 1 .94 1 .45 1 I 2 1 .95 . ^5 .5" .26 .27 .66 1 .1*4 .94 1 .75 1 .39 2. HA I .33 .56 .50 .99 .77 1 .47 1 .04 .69 .61 1.71 .94 1 .73 1 .7A . 7A .67 1 . 36 1.05 I .°7 1 . '*. .1 1 I •) \ .»! .71 .40 . 1 4 . 1 7 .57 . Hfl .42 .87 .67 1 .26 .91 .56 .49 1 .07 .78 1 .4* 1 .07 .A 1 .53 1.14 ."7 1 .67 1 .71 .A4 • 55 1.24 . 94 t ,A4 t .3^ YT 4 i i • "j i . 17 I.'TJ 1.-3H i •««* \ * ft r i,j< i . j / i. 20 60 AO 2.32 7.29 2.57 7..72 2.13 7.11 2.3A 7.55 l.«5 I.fl9 2. 20 AO «(1 1.93 1.9H 2.14 2.?9 I.P5 l.*5 7..OH 2.19 I.AH I.A/ 1. 20 10 60 .55 ,A9 .79 ,«A .'»5 .55 .60 .6'4 .18 .45 , 1 n 7.77 >?«; 2.00 .49 nnr, HOP **i r 20 20 20 20 20 IV-li 10 10 35 60 35 30 6' a AO 60 *" inhf riutx .51 .71 .59 .97 .67 i.H'l 1 .0 3 / v/phir! .65 .fl9 .74 1.10 .04 S.HI . A 1 es LD' .74 1 .07 .A5 1 .25 .9A 5.77 .57 T-liaht .PI 1.12 . 93 I . 3fl t . OA 7,04 .C3 dutv tr .47 .61 .49 . 76 .56 1.33 .0 1 •ucks. IV .51 .74 . AO .91 .6A 5.17 .6 1 1C-mo .55 ."2 . AA l . 05 • 7A 5.90 .54 torcvci .59 . K9 .71 1.15 .01 7.29 .54 es. HD( .35 .52 • ^ 1 .66 .47 1 .25 .03 3-heavvi .41 .61 -Hfl .77 .55 4.*9 . AO ' dutv .VI .67 .5.1 . *7 .6? 6.r?i .5 i aas rni . 4b .72 .56 .9H . A7 7.52 .52 r.k* HDD-heavy duty diesel. Table 8. (Continued) 30 ------- ; Oo nf r T 1 vV r * f T<7 " S fpr? T^ | 0 *> ! C A I r>9n M* * LDV L-^T "C "* LTV Lnr MC HO C, H ^ 0 yr 4 » ; I SPEEn; 20 10 20 20 10 4 n 20 35 70 2 U 35 4 r 20 60 20 20 60 40 20 10 20 20 10 M n 20 35 20 | 2" 35 4p i 20 60 7n 1 2n 60 4n i 2n 10 20 20 10 4Q 20 35 7? 20 35 HO 20 60 2o 20 60 4Q YE&*: : SPEE": 20 10 AO 20 10 30 20 35 AO 20 35 30, 20 60 60 20 60 30 20 10 60 20 10 30 20 35 60 20 35 y 0 20 60 60 20 60 90 20 10 60 20 10 30 20 35 60 20 35 30 20 60 60 20 60 30 0 . 1 3 . 1 7 .73 .74 . 3P .32 .3 1 . 77 . 1? . 1 6 .37. . 56 .76 .23 . 4 7 . 36 .69 .50, 1085 0 . 1 A . 1 5 .72 .20 .28 .25 . 74 .72 1 .05 .98 1 .37 1 .74 .2 1 . 1 9 .23 . ?3 . 16 . 76 1.19 - o 3 1 93?. . HO . -jn . 7 1 . A't 1.06 .9 1 .35 .30 1 .47 I .25 7.00 1.71 .29 .25 .52 .40 . 75 •55 I9fl5 15 . 36 .35 .58 .53 .79 .72 . 76 . 74 1.13 I .04 1 .50 1 .35 .21 . 7 ! . 3 1 . 25 , 4<-i .79 1.77 .AO 1 <) oc, . '4 '4 . 4 1 . 3? . 77 1.71 1 .0.1 .3H .33 1 -57 1 . 3/ 2.7S 1.91 . 3 1 .27 . 58 . 44 .85 .62 I 935 30 . V .37 .64 .59 .90 .3 1 .79 . 76 1 .73 l.M 1 . 67 I .50 . 74 .7? . 34 . 77 . 44 .32 4.31 -52 45 . 46 .41 .73 1 ..17 1.1? .90 . P4 1 .68 I . 46 2- "5 7. .OS .32 .78 .6.1 . 4(4 .9-4 .67 1 985 45 .40 . 39 .69 .63 . 93 .PR .79 .7A 1 . 30 1.19 1.81 1 .A? .25 .72 .36 . 73 . 43 . 14 6,04 .5 I ! 9 a 7 0 . 1 1 . 1 0 . 1 7 . 15 . 24 .20 .64 .60 1 .04 .93 1 - '»5 1 .75 . I 7 . 15 .32 .74 .46 . 13 1937 0 . 1 0 .09 . 1 4 . 1 3 . 1 « . 1 6 .53 .56 .84 .78 1.11 1 .00 . I a . 1 3 . 1 9 . 1 5 . 24 . 1 7 1 .25 .03 I va / I 5 . 15 .32 • A *^ .<-, 7 .95 . 8 1 . 7M . 66 1 • 2'J 1 . OA 1 . 7fl 1.46 .!« . 1 6 . 34 . 26 . 49 05 1987 1 5 . 3 1 . 30 .51 .47 . 77. .65 .6.1 .A I . 76 . 3V 1.73 1.16 . 15 . 1 3 • 20 . 1 A .25 . 1 3 3-09 .5" 1 93 7 VI • 1 ' . .15 . 7 1 .64 I . flfl .92 • / * .6V 1 .37 1.16 1.91 (.61 . 70 . I / . 17 .2* .55 .40 J947 in . 33 . 3? . 5 / .53 .8 1 .73 .66 .63 1 .05 .97 I .44 I .30 . 15 . 1 4 .22 . 1 / .2V .70 4 . C"J .57 1 9Q 7 45 . ''-! . 17 . 79 . A9 1.19 1 . 01 .75 .70 1.4? 1 .74 7.03 U 73 .20 . 1 7 . 40 .30 . AO .43 19P7 4C .35 . .14 .62 .57 .39 . 30 .67 . A4 1.1? 1 .02 I .56 1.41 . 15 . 1 4 .73 . 1 9 . 3 1 .?? s .r i .=0 t 990 0 .06 . 06 . t I . 1 0 . 1 6 . 13 .45 ."3 .77 .A9 1 .T-7 .94 . 1 2 . 1 1 .23 . I 7 .33 .24 1 99Q 0 .06 .05 .09 .08 . 1 7 . 1 I .41 .40 .63 . =.8 .84 . 77 . 1 0 .09 . 1 3 . 10 . 1 7 . 1 2 1.38 .0 3 1 5 . 1 1 . 79 .59 .57 . w 7 .75 .« . 5? .97 .36 1 ..3" 1 . 70 . 1 1 . I 1 .24 . I 3 ,34 .25 1 09O 15 .27 .26 . 47 . 43 . 66 . 60 .50 . 4fl . 73 . 71 1 .07 .97 .1" .09 . 1 4 . 1 1 . I 3 . 1 1 7 - 4C, .59 | f»<7 U 1 /4 . -' . 37 .67 .53 .99 .«s .59 .55 t .08 .<"j 1 .53 1 . 16 . I 1 . 17 .76 .20 .39 .28 1 990 30 .30 .29 .52 .43 .75 .63 .53 . 5 | .86 .80 t .20 1 .09 . 10 .09 . 1 5 . 1 2 .20 . 1 4 1. 27 ,<=.? i ' . 16 . 3 1 . 71 .61 1 .09 .91 .M .57 I .17 1 .07 1 .77 1 .43 . \t . 1 7 .2* .21 • H3 .30 1 99" 4C .31 .30 .57 .52 . fl? .74 .54 .5? .91 .3^ 1.31 1.19 . in .09 . 1 A . 1 ? .71 . 1 5 a.l! .5'! **LDV-iighT duty vehicles, LDT-light duty trucks, MC-motorcycles, HDG-heavy duty gas trucks, HDD-neavy duty diesel. Table 8. (Continued) 29 ------- eno YFA3; | 77q 1 97fl | s p e <\ n •: n [5 ^ T " *"* [973 I 7 7 fl 1 9SO I ""! 3'' "5 0 1 1 10 45 U 15 JO "5 20 in ?0 I . n H 1.71 2 . l 1 .'.44 .fits, l . •* A 1.76 1.93 -AS 1,07 1 . 2 A I . «f> 20 10 40 .'3 1.C6 I-"3 7.72 .76 1.30 |.5« 1.73 ,53 • 9 6 1.13 1.76 ZH 35 2T 1.34 ?.9H J.Hfl 1.71 1.53 7.5A 7.79 3 . 3.1 I.I? 1.37 2.17 7."*0 20 35 in | . 4 ft 7.3" 2.79 3 . | 4 t . 7 I ? . f) n 2 . .3 =. 2.A? ,74 1.47 1.71 1 , « 0 20 60 20 7.65 4 . | A '4 . ? 1 "5,18 2.?? 3 . A 5 '4.2? H.Afl l . 7 3 2.67 1 . n 7 3 • •» 0 20 60 40 7.02 3.11 3.65 '4. n 7 t.A6 2.67 3.11 3 . 7. 20 2.oi 3.64 7.93 5.03 3.94 1 .09 . 9q I .3" I .45 2.59 1 -93 1-73 15 1 .41 I .37 1 . 9A 1.71 7.47 7.04 1 .33 1 .79 7.57 7.2 I 3.16 7.63 .90 .3-4 1.17 .97 1 .41 ! . I '} 3 .A I 1 .0 1 7 2 4 3 5 '4 t 1 2 1 3 2 t I 1 2 2 2 7 2 ? 1 7 3 3 1 1 1 1 1 1 * .77 .55 .35 .59 . «2 .62 . 37 .26 . 7 I .77 .C1J .27 979 3U ." t . 73 . 35 .OA . 3" . 40 .H| . in .07 . 71 . 71 . 1 1 . 1 7 . n -HI .71 . /7. .37 . 1^ . 97 3.21 2.77 H.91 4.07 6.61 5.17 1 .A3 I .50 2.^7 2.03 3 . 4fJ 2. 56 1973 41 7.03 1.99 7.66 7.34 3.73 2.6" 7.81 2.69 1.50 3.10 4.19 1.51 I ..19 i .:? 1.67 1 .« I 1 . "5 1 .11 cj a a ' m ^ ** 1 . 0 0 1.71 1.56 ? .9 3 ?. 39 H . 1 5 -1.71 .38 .77 t . 66 1.73 7.44 1 .79 I7fl0 0 ,70 .66 I .01 .33 1.31 1 .0* 1 .41 1.33 7.02 I .76 3.53 7. 1 5 .69 .63 i .on .30 t.31 ."7 7.79 ,n« 2.0? 1.33 3.. 39 2.71 4.76 .3.61 .38 .70 1 .53 1.71 7.77 I .65 I 930 iq 1.21 1.14 I .65 1,44 7. in 1.71 1 ,7| I .Al 2. 10 2.07 2.90 2. Hi . 70 .65 . '5 .7A I .20 ,3fl 0 . 1 t ."q 2 7 4 3 5 4 1 1 I 1 2 1 I 1 I 1 I 7 7 7 2 7 2 } 2 1 1 I 3 .50 .2" .02 .?A .51 .24 . 1 7 ,0 1 .99 .47 .61 . 94 7PO .10 .46 .39 . 99 .71 .44 .07 • 15 .Oq .77 . HI .40 .34 .97 .3A . I 7 . 9* . H 3 .05 .79 • ^ 2 2.87 7.63 H . 5? 3 .63 6.17 4.71 1 .37 1.17 2- 14 1 .69 7.76 7,13 1 930 HI 1 .65 1 .58 7.13 1.9) 2.71 7.25 7.48 2.37 3.14 7. 73 1.30 3.1" 1 .09 1.01 1 .35 1.11 1.61 1 . 20 9 . 7n .97 1 . 44 1 . 30 i . 4H 2.00 3,51 7.6Y .58 .5(J 1.12 . 3S 1 .66 1 .20 I9fl2 0 .5H .51 .79 » 69 1 . OH .38 1.71 1.16 ' . 6^ 1 , M« 7.16 1,31 .15 .41 . 66 .52 .37 .62 7.14 .07 1 .37 1 .68 3.21 7.53 H . 55 3,T» .70 .67 i . ?n .99 1 . 39 1 . 16 1 9fl2 15 .39 . 35 1 .73 1 . 03 1 . 5 / 1 . 32 1 .16 1 .48 ?. 1 1 1 ,35 7.A7 7.77 .11 .10 .76 .60 , 7H .70 7.61 .77 7 7 3 7 5 1 I 1 7 1 1 1 I 1 2 7 3 2 1 q .26 . OH . 76 .99 .77 .«M .90 . 30 ,S?5 .20 .2! .60 9«? 30 • P5 .on .44 . 77 .37 - * 1 .-»o . "7 .M . 7 1 . 1 1 .59 .71 . A7 .9H .76 . 1 6 .34 ."6 • ^ ^ 7.56 ?. 1 1 4.20 3..T» 5.35 4. 3 7 1 .05 .94 1 ,76 1.37 2-47 1 .79 190? 45 1.17 1.12 I »19 I . 40 2.0 I I . 6' 2. I 6 2.07 2.3 I 2.4H 3 . 4A ? ,fl9 . 36 .30 I .08 .38 t .31 •"* . 0 . 1 5 . « 7 **LDV-light duty vehicles, LDT-light duty trucks, MC-motorcycles, HDG-heavy duty gas trucks, HDD-heavy duty diesel. Table 8. (Continued) ------- AI u*-* w I ^ v 2 ^ 20 2o 20 20 20 LOT 20 20 20 2^ 20 20 •«c ?ri 20 20 20 20 20 M H 1.1 V 20 20 20 20 20 20 LIT 20 20 20 20 20 20 nr 20 2" 2-0 2" 2n 20 S.3< r 10 1 o 3S 35 60 60 10 10 35 35 AT 60 1 '3 I o 35 35 60 60 YF «5B r ^ 10 10 35 35 60 60 10 10 35 35 60 60 10 10 35 35 60 60 \=? : " £ i ; 7n 40 7"! '4r> 2" 4n 20 '4 0 2T •to 7n '40 20 4 n 20 <40 20 40 »» : ££0 : 60 90 6T >»n 60 80 60 30 60 HO 60 an 60 an 60 an 60 an ,9,5 ."5 . U0 « 3M . 6 A i .22 -?6 I .06 .96 1 . n i 1 .46 7.57 1 .96 .26 .73 .50 .3.3 .75 . 54 1 935 0 .33 .36 .59 .52 .30 .69 .39 . 35 1 .24 1 . 1 0 1 .53 1 . 34 .20 . 1 3 . 10 .7 3 • * ' . 23 1.33 1 "05 . 6'» . 53 1.13 . 9 1 1.6? 1.75 1 . '46 1 . 1° 7 . '49 I .96 •>.53 2.6? . 14 «1O .A3 .43 .97 .67 1 935 15 .54 .5 t . 7R . 70 1.07 .33 •1.7! 1.16 1 . 6^ I . '4 5 2.03 ! .75 .27 . 75 . 3 7 . 30 . 4 R « 3 u 5.G7 '""in l°ll ,71 , ° O> .66 .77 [•2* 1.42 1 .04 1.15 1.36 2.0i; 1.43 1 .«,7 1.73 1 .9? 1 . "j 5 1.73 7.90 1.71 2.29 2.5H '4.07 4 . r, 0 1.03 3.35 . 4-* .£? .1° . 4 6 .76 .36 .59 .67 i.o a 1,20 .78 .«3 19H5 1 93S 30 45 .62 .67 .59 .6<4 .3<* ,9g .30 .a* 1.17 1.79 I . 0 1 1.11 I.<«S 1.A7 1.1" 1.55 1.91 7.14 1 . 7 I 1.90 7 . 4.?•* .16 .t? .33 .39 . 4 *, . 5 .1 .37 . u 3 .5 / . A4 . •' 1 . « 7 6.51 7. -71 1 907 . 37 . 3H . 71 . 59 1 .04 .35 .31 . 7 'I 1 .19 1.17 1 .96 I .50 . 1 4 . I 7 .27 .21 . H 1 .29 1 907 0 .37 . 30 .52 .47 .7? .6-4 .69 .66 .95 .35 1 .22 1 ."H . 1 I . 1 o . 1 6 . 1 2 . 7 ! . 1 5 1.69 1 5 . 46 . 4 7 . 3 3 .69 1 . 2" . 96 1.17 1 .05 1 . ?9 1 . r, / 2« a i 2 . "9 . 70 . 1 H .37 .23 .55 • 39 1 9*7 15 . 40 . 13 .6" . 5M . 3 1 .7 1 . 7 / .9.1 1.32 1.17 1.66 1.41 . 1 6 . 1 * .72 . i 7 . 7 « . 70 4.77 1 9 M 7 .52 . 4H .9=, . 7-7 1 . 3H 1 . 1 H 1.37 1 .21 2,30 1.3? 3.73 7. -41 .7* .23 .H5 . 35 .64 .46 1 937 3d .45 . 43 . 63 .6? .97 .3 I 1.15 1.10 1.53 t . 16 1 .''7 1 . 6.7 . 2 I . 1 •» .77 . 7.2 . 3-4 • X *"* 5 . 1 1 1 9JJ7 u 15 . r- 7 .5 1 I . n<4 . 3 6 1 .52 1.71 1 .57 1 . 36 2.54 2 .n I 3.57 7.66 . 30 . 27 .51 .39 .71 .52 1 9fl7 H5 .«S . H6 .75 . *fl 1.01 .39 1 .77 1 .22 t . 70 1.5) 2.12 1 .3(1 .75 .7 3 . 31 . 75 . 31 . 78 A. 75 I a o n IOTP 0 1 5 .31 .37 ,?9 .in .At .60 .52 .57 . 4 7 p 1 3 _ n C i-. in ,7 i2 12 '4 i? >3 Si 1 o I A I T. 1 \ \ \$ ^— "• ~ 1 '. . 7 '4 . 7 H . A A . A 'LDV-light duty vehicles, LDT-light duty trucks, MC-motorcycles, HDG-heavy duty gas trucks, HDD-heavy duty diesel. Table 8. (Continued) ------- EPA-450/3-78-035 Carbon Monoxide Hot Spot Guidelines Volume III: Workbook by Theodore P. Midurski GCA Corporation GCA/Technology Division Burlington Road Bedford, Massachusetts 01730 Contract No. 68-02-2539 EPA Project Officer: George J. Schewe Prepared for U.S. ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY Office of Air, Noise, and Radiation Office of Air Quality Planning and Standards Research Triangle Park, North Carolina 27711 August 1978 ------- This report is issued by the Environmental Protection Agency to report technical data of interest to a limited number of readers. Copies are available free of charge to Federal employees, current contractors and grantees, and nonprofit organizations - in limited quantities - from the Library Services Office (MD-35), U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle Park, North Carolina 27711; or, for a fee, from the National Technical Information Service, 5285 Port Royal Road, Springfield, Virginia 22161. This report was furnished to the Environmental Protection Agency by CCA Corporation, CCA/Technology Division, Burlington Road, Bedford, Massachusetts 01730, in fulfillment of Contract No. 68-02-2539. The contents of this report are reproduced herein as received from-CCA Corporation. The opinions, findings, and conclusions expressed are those of the author and not necessarily those of the Environmental Protection Agency. Mention of company or product names is not to be considered as an endorsement by the Environmental Protection Agency. Publication No. EPA-450/3-78-035 ------- ABSTRACT This report presents a summary of the guidelines for the identification and evaluation of localized violations of carbon monoxide air quality standards in the vicinity of streets and highways. The guidelines are provided to facilitate the rapid and efficient review of CO conditions along existing roadway networks, without the need for extensive air qual- ity monitoring, and are based upon the use of limited traffic data. Two stages of review are provided for. Preliminary screening, performed with simple nomographs included herein, simply identifies those locations with the potential to violate CO standards; no quantitative estimate of CO con- centrations results from preliminary screening. Verification screening, using procedures and forms provided herein, allows for consideration of additional site-specific conditions and provides quantitative estimates of maximum CO concentrations. Both screening procedures are performed manually and are based upon the EPA Indirect Source Review Guidelines. Data collection procedures, computation techniques, and forms are re- commended, and examples are provided. A more comprehensive explanation of the guidelines in terms of their development, technical basis, capa- bilities and limitations is provided in Volume I. iii ------- IV ------- PREFACE This document is the third in a series comprising the Carbon Monoxide Hot Spot Guidelines. The purpose of this series is to provide state and local agencies with a relatively simple yet accurate procedure for assessing carbon monoxide hot spot potential on urban street networks-. Included in the Hot Spot Guideline series are: Volume I: Techniques 2 Volume Us Rationale Volume III: Summary Workbook Volume IV: Documentation of Computer Programs to Generate Volume I Curves and Tables Volume V: Intersection-Midblock Model User's Manual Volume VI: Modified ISMAP User's Manual Volume VII: Example Applications at Waltham/Providence/Washington, D.C. Hot spots are defined as locations where ambient carbon monoxide concen- trations exceed the national ambient air quality standards (NAAQS). For both the 1-hour and 8-hour averaging times the assumption is made through- out these guidelines that a CO hot spot is primarily affected by local vehicle emissions, rather than areawide emissions. Studies have shown that for the 1-hour CO concentration, local sources are the dominant factor. Accordingly, representative urban worst-case meteorological, traffic, and background concentration conditions are selected as those corresponding to the period of maximum local emissions — usually the period of peak traffic. For 8-hour concentrations evidence indicates that neither the local nor the areawide contributions can be assumed to be dominant in every case. However, for the purpose of analysis discussed in these guidelines, local source domination of CO hot spots is assumed ------- for 8-hour averages. This allows some consistency between assumptions relating the 1-hour and 8-hour CO estimates. VI ------- CONTENTS Page Abstract 111 Preface v List of Figures viii List of Tables xii Sections I Introduction 1 II Hot Spot Screening 2 A. Overview of the Screening Procedure 2 B. Detailed Instructions for Hot Spot Screening 11 C. Worksheets and Nomographs 18 D. Methods of Estimating Roadway Capacity 46 E. Example 49 III Hot Spot Verification 52 A. Overview of Hot Spot Verification 52 B. Worksheets and Instructions for Hot Spot Verification 59 C. Special Instructions 113 D. Example 124 IV References 132 vii ------- FIGURES No. 1 Analysis at Signalized Intersections of a 2-lane, 2-way 24 Street and Various Cross Street Configurations in a Congested Area 2 Analysis at Signalized Intersections of a 2-lane, 2-way 25 Street and Various Cross Street Configurations in a Noncongested Area 3 Analysis at Signalized Intersections of a 3-lane, 2-way 26 Street and Various Cross Street Configurations in a Congested Area 4 Analysis at Signalized Intersections of a 3-lane, 2-way 27 Street and Various Cross Street Configurations in a Noncongested Area 5 Analysis at Signalized Intersections of a 4-lane, 2-way 28 Street and Various Cross Street Configurations in a Congested Area 6 Analysis at Signalized Intersections of a 4-lane, 2-way 29 Street and Various Cross Street Configurations in a Noncongested Area 7 Analysis at Signalized Intersections of a 3-lane, 1-way 30 Street and Various Cross Street Configurations 8 Analysis at Signalized Intersections of a 3-lane, 1-way 31 Street and Various Cross Street Configurations for Noncongested Areas 9 Analysis of Signalized Intersections of a 2-lane, 1-way 32 Street and Various Cross Street Configurations 10 Analysis at Signalized Intersections for a 2-lane, 1-way 33 Street and Various Cross Street Configurations in Noncongested Areas Vlll ------- FIGURES (continued) No. Page 11 Analysis for Uninterrupted Flow Conditions of Controlled 34 Access Facilities (Expressways) for Various Lane Configurations 12 Analysis for Uninterrupted Flow Conditions of Uncontrolled 35 Access Facilities (Arterials) for Various Lane Configurations 13 Analysis at Nonsignalized Intersections of a 2-lane, 2-way 36 Controlled Street Intersecting a 2-lane, 2-way or 2-lane, 1-way Major Street in a Congested Area 14 Analysis at Nonsignalized Intersections of a 2-lane, 2-way 37 Controlled Street Intersecting a 2-lane, 2-way or 2-lane, 1-way Major Street in a Noncongested Area 15 Analysis at Nonsignalized Intersections of a. 2-lane, 2-way 38 Controlled Street Intersecting a 4-lane, 2-way Major Street in a Congested Area 16 Analysis at Nonsignalized Intersections of a 2-lane, 2-way 39 Controlled Street Intersecting a 4-lane, 2-way Major Street in a Noncongested Area 17 Analysis at Nonsignalized Intersections of a 4-lane, 2-way 40 Controlled Street Intersecting a 4-lane, 2-way Major Street in a Congested Area 18 Analysis at Nonsignalized Intersections of a 4-lane, 2-way 41 Controlled Street Intersecting a 4-lane, 2-way Major Street in a Noncongested Area 19 Analysis at Nonsignalized Intersections of a 2-lane, 1-way 42 Controlled Street Intersecting a 2-lane, 2-way or 2-lane, 1-way Major Street 20 Analysis at Nonsignalized Intersections of a 2-lane, 1-way 43 Controlled Street Intersecting a 2-lane, 2-way or 2-lane 1-way Major Street in a Noncongested Area ix ------- FIGURES (continued) No. 21 Analysis at Nonsignalized Intersections of a 2-lane, 1-way 44 Controlled Street Intersecting a 4-lane, 2-way Major Street 22 Analysis at Nonsignalized Intersections of a 2-lane, 1-way 45 Controlled Street Intersecting a 4-lane, 2^way Major Street in a Noncongested Area 23 Example Screening 50 24 Schematic of Cross^-Street Circulation Between Buildings 57 25 Normalized CO Concentration Contribution from Excess Emis- 106 sions on Approach 1 as a Function of Queue Length on Approach 1 for Intersections 26 Normalized CO Concentration Contributions from Excess Emis- 107 sions on Approaches 2, 3, and 4 as a Function of Queue Length on Approach 1 for Intersections 27 Normalized CO Concentration Contribution at each Traffic 108 Stream at Locations of Uninterrupted .Flow 28 Normalized CO Concentration Contributions from Free-Flow 109 Emissions on each Lane of Roadways at Intersections 29 Normalized CO Concentration in Street-Canyons Assuming 110 Vortex has Formed 30 Distance Correction Factor for Excess Emission Contributions 111 at Intersections 31 Distance Correction Factor for Free-Flow Emission Contri- 112 butions at Intersection Locations 32 CO Concentration Contribution from Excess Emissions on 115 Approach 1 as a Function of Number of Lanes and Queue Length ------- FIGURES (continued) No.. 33 Typical Relationships Between Average Lane Volume and Aver- 121 age Speed in One Direction of Travel on Controlled Access Expressways Under Uninterrupted Flow Conditions 34 Typical Relationships Between Average Lane Volume and Aver- 122 age Speed in One Direction of Travel on Multilane Rural Highways Under Uninterrupted Flow Conditions 35 Example Hot Spot Verification 125 36 Approach Orientation and Receptor (R) Location 128 XI ------- TABLES No. Page 1 Summary of Data Requirements for Hot Spot Screening 3 2 Combined Effect of Lane Width and Restricted Lateral 47 Clearance on Capacity and Service Volumes of Divided Freeways and Expressways and Two-Lane Highways with Uninterrupted Flow 3 Average Generalized Adjustment Factors for Trucks on 48 Freeways and Expressways, and 2-lane Highways over Extended Section Lengths 4 Summary of Data Requirements for Hot Spot Verification 53 5 Total Queue Emissions, (Qqx)» Cruise Component Emission, 74 (Qoc)« and Queue Length as a Function of Major and Cross- Street Volumes and Cruise Speed - Signalized Intersections 6 Free Flow Emission Rate Qf, in Grams per Meter-Second as a 88 Function of Lane Volume and Vehicle Speed on Roadways 7 Total Queue Emissions, (Qqx), Cruise Component Emission, 89 (QQC) > anc* Queue Length as a Function of Major and Cross- Street Volumes and Cruise Speed - Unsignalized Intersections 8 Emission Correction Factors for Region, Calendar Year, 103 Speed, Percent Cold Starts (C) Percent Hot Starts (H) and Temperature (T) by Vehicle Type (M) 9 Criteria for Selection of Cruise Speed Values for Urban 123 Roadways and Intersections Xll ------- SECTION I INTRODUCTION This volume provides a summary of the analytical procedures described in the Carbon Monoxide Hot Spot Guidelines, Volume I1 document. The purpose of this volume is to provide only the material that is required to per- form the hot spot analysis in a convenient format. Omitted is most of the explanatory discussion dealing with topics such as the fundamentals of air quality analysis, and the development of the procedures. The screening procedures are discussed in Section II. Included are (1) an overview of the procedure, (2) step-by-step instructions for con- ducting the screening, (3) worksheets and nomographs, and (4) an example showing the screening procedure applied in the analysis of hot spot potential at a signalized intersection. The verification procedure is described in Section III. Included are: (1) an overview of the procedure, (2) description of the data require- ments, (3) worksheets and instructions for conducting the analysis, and (4) an example application of the procedure. Again, it is stressed that this document provide only the minimum instruc- tions and other material necessary to conduct a hot spot analysis. It would be very helpful for the user to become familiar with Volume I, which provides detailed discussions of the entire scope of hot spot; analysis. ------- SECTION II HOT SPOT SCREENING A. OVERVIEW OF THE SCREENING PROCEDURE A description of the screening procedure must include discussion of three critical elements, viz: (1) the data required, (2) the nomographs that relate the roadway and traffic operating characteristics to air quality, and (3) a set of standard worksheets on which the input data and the results of the analysis are recorded. Each of these elements is described below. 1. Data Requirements The entire screening procedure may be possible to complete for many com- munities with only a minimal field data collection effort. Data required include areawide traffic volume data and a street inventory of sufficient detail to indicate the lane composition (use and number of lanes), traffic control utilized (mainly, the locations of signalized intersections are of primary importance), and whether various streets operate one-way or two-way, and whether or not congested conditions normally prevail. Also, additional backup data are required to estimate the lane capacity of arterial streets and expressways, as will be mentioned later. The data required for hot spot screening for signalized intersections, nonsignalized intersections, and arterials and expressways are summarized in Table 1. a. Traffic Volume Data - Traffic volume data should be summarized in the form of a traffic flow map indicating the highest monthly average daily traffic (ADT) volumes for the winter season, reflecting the 1982-1983 period. Volumes can be adjusted by the application of annual growth factors. Volume ------- Table 1. SUMMARY OF DATA REQUIREMENTS FOR HOT SPOT SCREENING Signalized Intersections • Location of signalized intersections. • Street inventory to determine lane use and number and directional operation of intersection approaches. • Volume data (ADT) for all intersection approaches. Nonsignalized Intersections • Location of signed control intersections. • Street inventory to determine lane use and number and directional operation of intersection approaches. • Volume data (ADT) for all intersection approaches. • Lane capacity on major through street Uninterrupted Flow • Location and number of lanes of expressway and ar- , terials of uninterrupted flow. * Volume data (ADT) for the facility e Roadway lane capacity ------- data need not be developed for every street on the network; of primary interest should be: (1) those streets and highways on the Federal Aid Sys- tem, (2) those not on the Federal Aid System but that are controlled by traffic signals; and (3) those not on the Federal Aid System but that are considered by local officials to be "important" or high volume facilities. Traffic volume is perhaps the most readily available data element con- cerning a highway network. The intent here is that existing data be used wherever possible, implying that existing volume data should be available in most instances to develop a suitable traffic flow map. In many com- munities where traffic studies or transportation plans have been developed, flow maps may already be available requiring only minimal updating. Development of flow maps, however, should be carefully guided by cognizant highway and transportation planning officials. b. Highway Inventory Data - Highway inventories are normally available from state transportation planning or highway departments. These inven- tories should be made available for each community where hot spots are being investigated. The required data that can be obtained from these inventories include descriptions of operational characteristics of the roadways (e.g., one-way or two-way operation); information regarding the number of lanes, use of medians, functional classification, etc., and occasionally, volume data. Also, data must be obtained regarding inter- sectional traffic control, particularly the locations where traffic signals are utilized. It is helpful if the locations of all signalized intersections are plotted on a base map. c. General Backup Data - Other data elements are required that may not be available from previous studies or from existing inventories. Included is information required to estimate the lane capacity of streets on the network, mainly, estimates of truck factors, knowledge of conditions such as restricted lateral clearances, severe terrain features, etc. This information can be obtained through local planning or engineering per- sonnel and by field reconnaissance. For a comprehensive discussion of ------- roadway lane capacity, the reader is referred to the Highway Research Board's Special Report No. 87, the 1965 Highway Capacity Manual. A methodology for calculating capacities based on this document is pre- sented in Section II.D of these guidelines. 2. Definitions Several terms used in the screening procedure are defined below. a. Complex Intersection - This term refers to a signalized intersection that, because of volume demand, turning movements, geoinetry, number of approaches, etc., requires three or more signal phases. Also, an intersection characterized by very heavy pedestrian activity as well as high volumes on all approaches may be considered a complex intersection. Complex intersections cannot be appropriately analyzed using the screen- ing procedure. b. Special Case - A special case refers to either a signalized or non- signalized intersection where conditions are such that, again, the screen- ing procedure is not appropriate for evaluating hot spot potential. Exam- ples of special cases include locations (1) where signals are used only for certain events such as during peak-hour only, or during work-shift changes if the location is in the vicinity of a major industrial or office complex; (2) where signals are manually operated or preempted in favor of traffic direction by police personnel; (3) where signals are utilized for pedestrian crossing protection only; and (4) where police control is utilized at nonsignalized intersections. c. Congested/'Noncongested Areas - These terms are utilized in the screen- ing procedure to indicate whether or not significant interference to traf- fic departing from an intersection can be expected. For congested areas, downstream cruise speeds will be fairly low (less than about 20 miles per hour) with some interruptions occurring. In noncongested areas, however, few if any interruptions to departing traffic will occur, and downstream cruise speeds will be somewhat higher (at least 25 miles per hour). 5 ------- 3. Nomographs for Hot Spot Screening The nomographs for screening provide the basic tool for relating various traffic and roadway characteristics to hot spot potential. In particular, these nomographs relate a roadway's average daily volume demand and capac- ity characteristics to potential for exceeding the National Ambient Air Quality Standard for 8-hour average concentrations of carbon monoxide (10.0 mg/m3 (9.0 ppm)). Hot spot potential is indicated when the respec- tive ADT's for any particular street under analysis and cross street are plotted on the nomograph and the point plotted falls on.or above the curve. The use of the nomographs is explained in detail in the following paragraphs. Separate sets of nomographs are presented for three distinct types of street locations including signalized intersections, nonsignalized intersections, and for conditions where uninterrupted flow prevails. Each of these is discussed below. a. Signalized Intersections - Ten separate nomographs are presented. Each of the nomographs was developed for screening intersection approaches of a particular configuration. Included are nomographs developed for screening: • 2-lane, 2-way (congested area) • 2-lane, 2-way (noncongested area) • 3-lane, 2-way (congested area) • 3-lane, 2-way (noncongested area) • 4-lane, 2-way (congested area) • 4-lane, 2-way (noncongested area) • 3-lane, 1-way (congested area) • 3-lane, 1-way (noncongested area) • 2-lane, 1-way (congested area) • 2-lane, 1-way (noncongested area) A series of five curves appears on each nomograph. Each of these curves represents a particular configuration of the cross street (with respect to the approach being screened). Curves representing the following cross street configurations are plotted on each nomograph: ------- • 2-lane, 1-way • 2-lane, 2-way • 3-lane, 1-way • 3-lane, 2-way • 4-lane, 2-way Each of the curves is a plot of the ADT on the intersection approach under analysis (abscissa) versus the ADT on the cross street (ordinate). Each point on any of the curves, then, represents that combination of traffic volumes (on the street under analysis and the cross street) which, under certain assumed conditions, would result in ambient carbon monoxide concentrations at or very close to the 10.0 mg/m3 permitted by the National Ambient Air Quality Standard for 8-hour average concentrations. These assumed conditions include a maximum distribution of the available green time between the street under analysis and the cross street,* which accounts for the finite limits of the plotted curves on the nomographs. Also assumed is that there is a background concentration present, which comprises 2.9 mg/m3 of the implied 10.0 mg/m3 concentration. If the respective ADT's for any particular configuration of street (under analysis) and cross street are plotted on the nomograph and the point plotted falls on or above the (cross street) curvet the implication is that resulting carbon monoxide concentrations are potentially in the vicinity of 10.0 mg/m^ or more3 indicating that the approach has hot spot potential. Plotting the ADT's (for winter 1982-1983) in this manner and noting where the plot lies with respect to the cross street curve, is essentially the entire procedure involved for using the nomographs. The appropriate nomograph is selected based on the configuration of the approach being analyzed while selection of the appropriate curve on the nomograph is based on the cross street configuration. -------- b. Uninterrupted Flow - Two types of locations are considered where con- ditions of uninterrupted flow prevail - these include expressways (con- trolled access) and arterial streets. One nomograph is presented for each of these two facility-types. On the nomograph for expressways, three separate curves are plotted representing 4-lane, 6-lane, and 8-lane expressways. These curves are plotted as lane capacity (abscissa) versus ADT (ordinate). Each point on the curve represents that combination of lane capacity and 24-hour volume that, under certain assumed conditions, would result in nearby ambient carbon monoxide concentrations of approximately 10.0 mg/m3. The implication, again, is that for a particular roadway configuration with a certain lane capacity, an ADT equal to or In excess of the "critical" ADT (shown by the curve on the nomograph) indicates that the location may be a potential hot spot. A similar nomograph is presented for arterial streets showing the critical ADT for various lane configurations. Again., if the actual ADT (estimated for winter 1982 to 1983) exceeds the "critical" ADT3 hot spot potential is indicated. The procedure, then, for using either of the nomographs is to plot the estimated lane capacity versus its ADT and observe where this plot lies with respect to the curve corresponding to the facility's configuration - if the plot falls on or above the curve, hot spot potential is indicated. c. Nonsignalized Intersections - Ten separate nomographs have been devel- oped for the screening of nonsignalized intersections. These nomographs are utilized to screen intersection approaches controlled by STOP-signs only; the through street approaches of a STOP-sign controlled intersection are screened utilizing the nomographs presented, for uninterrupted flow. One curve is plotted on each nomograph, which has ADT for the controlled street and the through street plotted on the x and y axis, respectively. Each nomograph contains a curve representing the combination of ADT's on the street under analysis and the through-street that would result In ------- ambient carbon monoxide concentrations of approximately 10.0 mg/m3 (assuming certain other conditions prevail as described previously). Therefore, in order to use these nomographs, two elements of data other than the config- uration of each street approach must be determined, including (1) the ADT (winter 1982 to 1983) on the street under analysis, and (2) the ADT (winter 1982 to 1983) on the major through street. If, then, the ADT's are plotted and the point lies on or above the curve, hot spot potential is indicated. Selection of the nomograph is based on the configuration of both the STOP- sign controlled street being analyzed and the major through street. Nomo- graphs were developed for the screening of the following STOP-sign con- trolled street configurations: • 2-lane, 2-way minor; 2-lane major (congested area) • 2-lane, 2-way minor; 2-lane major (noncongested area) • 2-lane, 2-way minor; 4-lane major (congested area) • 2-lane, 2-way minor; 4-lane major (noncongested area) • 4-lane, 2-way minor; 4-lane major (congested area) • 4-lane, 2-way minor; 4-lane major (noncongested area) • 2-lane, 1-way minor; 2-lane major (congested) • 2-lane, 1-way minor; 2-lane major (noncongested) • 2-lane, 1-way minor; 4-lane major (congested) • 2-lane, 1-way minor; 4-lane major (noncongested) 4. Hot Spot Screening Worksheets Presented in the following pages are standard worksheets to be used for performing and reporting the screening of a street network. Included are: ------- • Hot Spot Screening Summary Sheet - Worksheet 1 • Screening Worksheet - Signalized - Worksheet 2 Intersections • Screening Worksheet - Nonsignalized - Worksheet 3 Intersections • Screening Worksheet - Uninterrupted - Worksheet 4 Flow a. Screening Summary Sheet (Worksheet 1) - This form, as its name implies, is intended to be used for summarizing the hot spot screening effort for a community. The information to be entered on the sheet includes: 1. A description of each location analyzed - Broadway at Park Street, or Vasser Street between Parson's Road and Kennelworth Drive, for example. 2. The type of location analyzed - either signalized intersection, nonsignalized intersection, freely flowing arterial section, or expressway. 3. Whether or not hot spot potential is indicated by the analysis. The locations listed are then numbered sequentially. b. Screening Worksheet - Signalized Intersections (worksheet 2) - This worksheet provides space for the analysis of two separate intersections. To complete this form enter the intersecting street's names in Part I, and indicate whether or not the intersection is located in a congested area in Part II. (A congested area implies cruise speeds of less than 20 mph), In Part III, it is indicated whether or not the location should be con- sidered a complex intersection (unusual geometery) or a special case. For locations that are not considered complex intersections or special cases, the actual screening is performed in Part IV. In Part IV each approach to the intersection is analyzed separately. Under the main column heading "Approach Under Analysis," the approach 10 ------- designation (name and orientation such as Amity Road, south approach), the adjusted average daily traffic volumes, and the roadway configuration (for example, 4-lane, 2-way) are entered. Under the other main column heading of "Cross-Street Data," the appro- priate data elements for the cross street approach having the highest traffic volume are recorded. Then, utilizing the appropriate nomograph and curve, a determination of hot spot potential is made and recorded. If the configuration of the other approach of the cross street is different from the approach previously used in the analysis, the procedure is re- peated using the data for the second cross-street approach and the appro- priate nomograph and curve. Note that columns f and j provide space to record the figure number and curve designation for the nomograph used to perform the screening. c. Screening Worksheet - Nonsignalized Intersections (Worksheet 3) - This worksheet allows for the analysis of four nonsignalized intersections. In the first major column, the through street is analyzed in the same fashion as for uninterrupted flow conditions. Each approach of the con- trolled cross street is then analyzed in the two columns under the heading of "Cross-Street Data." d. Screening Worksheet - Uninterrupted Flow (Worksheet 4) - Up to 30 locations where conditions of uninterrupted flow prevail can be analyzed on each of these worksheets. The data required include the facility name; a description of its location; its volume, configuration, and capac- ity; and finally, whether or not hot spot potential is indicated. B. DETAILED INSTRUCTIONS FOR HOT SPOT SCREENING The following presents detailed instructions for performing hot spot screening based on utilizing the data, nomographs, worksheets, and general procedure discussed in the previous portion of this section. Included are step-by-step instructions for the three subtasks (analysis of signalized 11 ------- intersections, uninterrupted flow, and nonsignalized intersections) involved in the screening process. 1. Screening Signalized Intersections a. Step 1 - Prepare a townwide traffic flow map depicting the highest monthly projected ADT's on the street network for the winter months (November through March) of 1982-1983. This should be presented on a suitable base map (or maps) at a scale of between 1 inch = 1,000 feet and 1 inch = 3,000 feet; insets at a larger scale should be used, as appropriate, for congested areas. Volumes should be included for all principal streets including, as a minimum, all streets and highways on the Federal Aid System and on all street sections controlled by traffic signals. b. Step 2 - Determine the locations where traffic signals are utilized to control traffic. c. Step 3 - Determine the configuration (i.e., the number of approach and departure lanes) of each approach for all signalized intersections. Also, a determination should be made as to whether each intersection is located in a congested or noncongested area, and whether any of the loca- tions should be classified as complex intersections or special cases (unusual geometry or unusual signal control such as by a police officer). d. Step 4 - Enter appropriate data for each signalized intersection on the Screening Worksheet - Signalized Intersections, as follows: 1. Part I: a. Enter the location (e.g., Main Street at Naussam Road). 2. Part II: a. Record whether or not the location is generally within a congested area. 12 ------- 3. Part III; a. Record whether or not the location should be considered a complex intersection or special case. If it is either a complex intersection or a special casej enter the location on the Hot Spot Screening Summary Sheet and proceed to the next intersection. b. If the location is neither complex nor a special case, proceed to Part IV. 4. Part IV: Each approach of the intersection is analyzed as follows: a. Enter the approach designation (e.g., Main Street, south approach) in column a. It is important to identify the particular approach being considered (e.g., Main Street, south approach). b. Enter the adjusted ADT (winter 1982-1983) in column b. c. Enter the configuration (e.g., 2-lane, 1-way) of the approach in column c. d. Enter the name and orientation (e.g., Main Street, east approach) of each cross street approach on the line above columns d through k. e. For the first approach of the cross street: 1. Enter the adjusted ADT (winter 1982-1983) in column d. 2. Enter its configuration (e.g., 2-lane, 1-way) in column e. 3. Enter the figure number and curve to be used for screening in column f (see Section II.A.3 for instructions on the selection of figures and curves). 4. Using the figure and curve noted in column f, deter- mine whether or not hot spot potential exists; record this determination in column g. f. For the other approach of the cross street: 1. Enter the adjusted ADT (winter 1982-1983) in column b. 2. Enter its configuration (e.g., 2-lane, 2-way) in column i. 13 ------- 3. Enter the figure number and curve to be used for screening in column j (see Section II.A.3 for instructions on the selection of figures and curves). 4. Using the figure and curve noted in column j, deter- mine whether or not hot spot potential exists; record this determination in column k. g. Repeat the previous steps in Part 17 for eadh approach. 5. After all approaches have been analyzed, enter the location on the Hot Spot Screening Summary Sheet (Worksheet No. 1); in- clude the following data: a. Location (street names). b. Type (in this case, signalized intersection) c. Whether or not a hot spot is indicated - a hot spot is indi- cated if any entry in aolwms g or k is affirmative. e. Step 5 - Repeat Step 4 for all signalized intersections on the street network. 2. Screening Locations Where Conditions of Uninterrupted Flow Prevail a. Step 1 - Identify sections of expressway (controlled access) where the following conditions prevail: Highway configuration ADT 4-lane highway >^ 40,000 6-lane highway > 50,000 8-lane highway > 65,000 These ADT's are slightly below those that would generally have hot spot potential. b> Step 2 - For each section identified in Step 1 as meeting the above criteria, enter the highway name or route number in column (a) of the Screening Worksheet - Uninterrupted Flow (Worksheet No. 4). Also on this worksheet, enter the following data for each location: 14 ------- 1. Description of the location (e.g., north of the Brook's High- way Interchange) 'in column b. 2. The adjusted ADT (winter 1982 to 1983) in column c. 3. Highway configuration (e.g., 4-lane expressway) in column d. 4. Estimated lane capacity in column e (see page 46). 5. Using the appropriate curve in the nomograph for expressways, determine whether or not the facility is a potential hot spot (for instructions on selecting the appropriate curve and use of the figure, see Section II.A.3); record this determination in column f. c. Step 3 - Upon completion of Step 2, record the locations on the Hot Spot Screening Summary Sheet; include: 1. Facility name and location (from columns a and b of the worksheet. 2. Type of facility (in this case, expressway-uninterrupted flow). 3. Whether or not hot spot potential is indicated (from column f of the work sheet. d- Step 4 - Identify arterial street sections on the highway network that meet the following criteria: 1. Volumes: Highway configuration ADT 2-lane arterial >_ 15,000 4-lane arterial >_ 25,000 6-lane arterial > 35,000 2. Proximity to Signalized Intersections: The section should ~be at least 1 mile from a signalized intersection. e. Step 5 - For each arterial section identified in Step 4 as meeting the above criteria, enter the street name (or other identifier) in 15 ------- column a of the Screening Worksheet - Uninterrupted Flow (see Section II.A.4). Also on this worksheet, enter the following data for each location: 1. Description of the location (e.g., between Marginal Way and Ober Road) in column b. 2. The adjusted ADT (winter 1982 to 1983) in column c. 3. Street configuration (e.g., 4-lane arterial) in column d. 4. Estimated lane capacity in column e (see page 46). 5. Using the appropriate curve in the nomograph for arterials, determine whether or not the facility is a potential hot spot (for instructions on selecting the appropriate curve and use of the figure, see Section II.A.3); record this determination in column f. f. Step 6 - Upon completion of Step 5, record the locations on the Hot Spot Screening Summary Sheet; include: 1. Facility name and location (from columns a and b of the worksheet). 2. Type of facility (in this case, arterial-uninterrupted flow). 3. Whether or not hot spot potential is indicated (from column f of the worksheet. 3. Screening Nonsignalized Intersections a. Step 1 - Identify all nonsignalized intersections where either the major street or controlled street volumes exceed the critical ADT's shown below (for various street configurations): Street configurations Major street 2-lanes 4-lanes 4-lanes a Controlled street 2-lanes 2-lanes 4-lanes Critical ADT's Major street 10,000 20,000 20,000 rt Controlled street 2,500 2,500 8,000 Under control of STOP sign. 16 ------- b. Step 2 - For each intersection identified in Step 1 as meeting the above volume criteria, enter the location in Part I of the Screening Worksheet - Nonsignalized Intersections. c. Step 3 - For Part II of the worksheet enter the following: 1. For the major through street enter: a. Adjusted ADT (winter 1982 to 1983) in column a. b. Configuration (e.g., 2-lane arterial) in column b. c. Using the appropriate curve in the nomograph for arterial streets, determine whether or not hot spot potential exists on the through street; record this determination in column c. 2. For the first controlled street approach enter: a. Street name and its orientation (e.g., Trask Lane, east approach). b. Adjusted ADT (winter 1982 to 1983) in column d. c. Configuration (e.g., 2-lane, 2-way) in column e. d. The figure number to be used for screening in column f. e. Using the figure designated in column f, determine whether or not hot spot potential exists; record this determination in column g. 3. For the second controlled street approach enter: a. Street name and its orientation (e.g., Trask Lane, west approach). b. Adjusted ADT (winter 1982 to 1983) in column h. c. Configuration (e.g., 2-lane, 1-way) in column i. d. The figure number to be used for screening in column j. e. Using the figure and curve designated in column j, determine whether or not hot spot potential exists; record this determination in column k. 17 ------- d. Step 4 - Upon completion of Step 3, record the locations on the Hot Spot Screening Summary Sheet; include: 1. Location (street names). 2. Type (in this case, nonsignalized intersection). 3. Whether or not a hot spot is indicated - a hot-spot is indicated if any entry in columns cs g, or k is affirmative. 4. Other Locations Other locations may be identified during the initial screening that should be analyzed for possible hot spot potential. These locations may not be obvious solely from analysis of traffic data; however, interviews with local planning or engineering personnel may result in the identification of such locations. These special cases may include access roads to major industrial facilities or office complexes, shopping centers, or public parking areas. Should locations such as this be identified, they should be entered on the Hot Spot Screening Summary Sheet. 5. Screening Locations Map The final step in the hot spot screening process is to assign an identifi- cation number to each location listed on the Hot Spot Screening Summary Sheet, and then to plot the locations, with their respective identification numbers, on a base map. In preparing this map, separate symbols should be utilized to distinguish signalized intersections, nonsignalized inter- sections, and locations where uninterrupted flow prevails. C. WORKSHEETS AND NOMOGRAPHS The following pages bring together most of the information that is needed to perform hot spot screening, assuming the user has become famil- iar with the instructions described above. The worksheets may be repro- duced for use in the analysis, or similar worksheets can be developed 18 ------- by the user. Again, since the purpose of this document is to provide only the portions of the Guidelines that are required to conduct an analysis, the user may wish to consult the Hot Spot Guidelines, Volume I document to develop a more thorough understanding of the procedure, its applications and its limitations. Presented here, then, are Worksheets 1 through 4, followed by the nomographs (designated as Figures 1 through 22) Immediately following these pages is a discussion on determining roadway capacity, which, in turn, is followed by an example problem illustrating the use of the worksheets and nomographs. 19 ------- WORKSHEET NO. 1 Hot Spot Screening Summary Sheet page of City/Towri: State: Analysis By: . Date: (MM) (tUl.) Approved By: Date: (title) Hot Spot Indicated or Location Type Detailed Analysis Requirec YesFNo 20 ------- City/Town: Analysis By: Approved By: WORKSHEET NO. 2 Screening Worksheet - Signalized Intersections (BUM) page of State: (eteu) Date: Date: (tltl.) Part I Location:. Part II Congested Area? Yea: -No Part III Complex Intersection or Special Case? Yea; No; If yes, enter location on Initial Screening Summary Sheet and proceed to next Intersection; If no, proceed with Part IV. Part IV Analyze each approach separately on the form below. A|i|irn,icli until* r .inn lysis a Designation ^^r>~rn;trh under Jinjilynln a Designation ~~^^=~~===^^ b Adjusted ADT X c Configur- ation ^x^ Crons-Gtrcet data Srrort! Approach: d_ Adliistvll ACT <* Onfluur- l in l_ Figure/ g. Hoe spoc Street i Approach: Street : Approach: h A------- City/Town: WORKSHEET NO. 3 Screening Worksheet - Nonsignalized Intersections Pa8e —° State: Analysis By: Approved By: (MM) Date: Date: Farl 1 loeitlom Part II Analyze each cross street approach on the form below: Through etrect data ^ Ad juiced ADI _b Configur- ation £ Hot Spot Indicated? Minor croaa atreet data Street! Approach: d Adjusted AOT e Configur- ation f Figure/ ctirvl ueed £ Hot Spot indicated? Street: Approach: h Adjueted AR i Conf Igur- itton i Figure/ curve ueed k Hot Spot Indicated! »art I tneatlani Part II Analyze each cross street approach on the form below: _e_ Adjutted AR £ Configur- ation £ Hot Spot indicated? Street) Approach: d Adjueted AR e Configur- ation £ Figure/ curve ueed & Hot Spot Indicated! Street! Approach: h Adjueted AR i Configur- ation i Figure/ curve uaed k Hot Spot Indicated? Vert I Lecatloni. Part II Analyze each cross street approach on the form below: a AdJuiUd APT J> Configur- ation £ Hot Spot indicated? Minor croil street data Street! Approach: d Adjuiced AR e Conf iRUr- atlon £ Figure/ curve uiod fi Hot Spot Indlceted? Screed Approach: h Adjueted AR i Confljur- etlon i Figure/ curve uied k Hot Spot Indicated! fart I Location!. Part II Analyze each cross street approach on the form below: Adjuittd ACT Through it Conf 1 gur* atlon reet data Hot Spot indicated? Minor croae meet dace Street! Approach: Adjusted AUT Confljur- etlon E Mgure/ curve uetd £ Mot Spot IndUltedT Street i Approach: h Adjuited ACT — T Conflgur- etlon i Figure/ curve uitd k Hot Spot 22 ------- City/Town: Analysis By: Approved By: WORKSHEET NO. 4 Screening Worksheet - Uninterrupted Flow . , State: (HUM) (till.) (DAM) (tttl.) page of Date: Date: Facility Location Adjuited ADT Configur- ation tit. line capacity Hot Spot Indicated? 23 ------- to J» o > "o c o 3 o UJ Ul (T >- CO V) CO o a: o 30- 25- pr\— l •m \ s s \ s MBB \ s s N s, MCBi ( HOT SPOT POTENTIAL IS INDICATED IP THE POINT PALLS ON OR AtOVC THE APPROPRIATE CURVE. V X c ^ v; \ s N s Si S V N N "S V S, s V ^x k, < A 4 lane — 2way B 3 lane —2 way C 3 lane — (way D 2 lane — 2 way E 2 lane — 1 way s. -^ X *x *•> •v S. s. ^.^ ^mmm ^ X, ^N k*S •B^ V > < *> •*v «^M |l X ^H "** ^^ •^M D V. ^^^ ^ *^X ^^ ••• •§• ^••H 1 ^•H ADT OM STREET UNDER ANALYSIS = 2 lane - 2 way, CONGESTED AREA thousands of vehicles Figure 1. Analysis at signalized intersections of a 2-lane, 2-way street and various cross street configurations in a congested area 24 ------- 9 O T» C O DC W CO o or o o < HOT SPOT POTENTIAL IS INDICATED IF THE POINT PALLS ON OR ABOVE THE APPROPRIATE CURVE. A 4 lane —2way B 3 lone —2 way C 3 lone —I way D 2 lane —2way E 2 lane — I way 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 ADT ON STREET UNDER ANALYSIS'2 !on«-2way, NONCONGESTED AREA thousands of vehicles Figure 2. Analysis at signalized intersections of a 2-lane, 2-way street and various cross street configurations in a noncongested area 25 ------- HOT SPOT POTENTIAL IS INDICATED IP THE POINT PALLS ON OR ABOVE THE APPROPRIATE CURVE A 4 lane — 2way B 3 lone —2 way 3 lone — I way D 2 lane —2way E 2 lane —I way 10 12 ADT ON STREET UNDER ANALYSIS1 3 lane-2 way, CONGESTED AREA thousands of vehicles Figure 3. Analysis at signalized intersections of a 3-lane, 2 way street and various cross street configurations in a congested area 26 ------- 1 e i Ul Ui cc v> ------- c o UJ UJ K CO tO o o: u »- o < HOT SPOT POTENTIAL IS INDICATED IF THE POINT FALLS ON OR ABOVE THE APPROPRIATE CURVE. A 4 lane —2way B 3 lane —2 way C 3 lane —I way D 2 lane —2way E 2 lane — I way ADT ON STREET UNDER ANALYSIS-4 lone -2way, CONGESTED AREA thousands of vthicles Figure 5. Analysis at signalized intersections of a 4-lane, 2-way street and various cross street configurations in a congested area 28 ------- 0> o M Ul UJ oc (O O OC O O HOT SPOT POTENTIAL IS INDICATED IF THE POINT FALLS ON OR ABOVE THE APPROPRIATE CURVE. A 4 lane —2 way B 3 lane —2 way 3 lane —I way 0 2 lone —2way E 2 lane — I way 0 ADT ON STREET UNDER ANALYSIS'4 lane-2 way, NONCON6ESTED AREA thousands of vehicles Figure 6. Analysis at signalized intersections of a 4-lane, 2-way street and various cross street configurations in a noncongested area 29 ------- o o w 3 O Ul UJ (£. t- to in v> o a: o o < ADT ON STREET UNDER ANALYSIS =3 Sons -1 way, CONGESTED AREA thousands of vehicle* Figure 7. Analysis at signalized intersections of a 3-lane, 1-way street and various cross street configurations 30 ------- JOJ o > *o 3 O t- UJ Ul (£ t-T V) V) ------- M J» ^O ic « »- o •o c o w a o «• K" LJ UJ (E h- co V) to o h- Q ADT ON STREET UNDER ANALYSIS'-2 lone -1 way, CONGESTED AREA thousands of vehicles Figure 9. Analysis of signalized intersections of a 2-lane, 1-way street and various cross street configurations 32 ------- HOT SPOT POTENTIAL IS INDICATED, IF THE POINT FALLS ON OR ASOVC THE APPROPRIATE CURVE. c o 3 o UJ Ul cc ------- 80- 7O 60- a» •o o O < 40- 30- 20- 10 -8-LANE EXPRESSWAY 6-LANE EXPRESSWAY 4-LANE EXPRESSWAY. HOT SPOT POTENTIAL IS INDICATED IP THE POINT PALLS ON OR ABOVE THE APPROPRIATE CURVE. 12 14 I 16 18 20 LANE CAPACITY, vph 11 Analysis for uninterrupted flow conditions of controlled ' access facilities (expressways) for various lane configurations 34 ------- o I I £ 20- 15- 10- 10 12 ^ 6-LANE'ARTERIAL 4-LANE !-LANE ARTERIAL HOT SPOT POTENTIAL IS INDICATED IF THE POINT FALLS ON OR ABOVE THE APPROPRIATE CURVE. 14 16 is 20 LANE CAPACITY, vph Figure 12. Analysis for uninterrupted flow conditions of uncontrolled access facilities (arterials) for various lane configurations 35 ------- 50 JO CM O it * .2 CM •£ 40 30 5 o to CM Ul oc CO I I 20 z o o < 10 -i—i—i—i—i—i—i—i—i—i—i—i i HOT SPOT POTENTIAL IS INDICATED. IP THE POINT PAULS ON OR ABOVE THE APPROPRIATE CURVE. 7.5 10 12.5 0 2.5 5 ADT ON CONTROLLED STREET «2 lone - 2 way , CONGESTED AREA in thousands of vehicles Figure 13. Analysis at nonsignalized intersections of a 2-lane, 2-way controlled street intersecting a 2-lane, 2-way or 2-lane, 1-way major street in a congested area 36 ------- 50 o 7 o CM 6_ o o , \ V > t s \ i s HOT SPOT POTENTIAL IS INOICATEI f THE POINT FALLS ON OR ABOVE THE APPROPRIATE CURVE. s V > 1 k \ ) 2.5 7.5 10 12.5 ADT ON CONTROLLED STREET'2 lone - 2 way , NONCONGESTED AREA in thousands of vehicles Figure 14. Analysis at nonsignalized intersections of a 2-lane, 2-way controlled street intersecting a 2-lane, 2-way or 2-lane, 1-way major street in a noncongested area 37 ------- O ------- 50 MAJOR STREET '4 lone -2 way in housands of vehicles * O W O th l» O AOT ON — O * HOT SPOT POTENTIAL IS INDICATED. IP THE POINT PALLS ON OR ABOVE THE APPROPRIATE CURVE. 0 2.5 5 7.5 10 12.5 ADT ON CONTROLLED STREET' 2 lone - 2 way, NONCONGESTED in thousands of vehicles Figure 16. Analysis at nonsignalized intersections of a 2-lane, 2-way controlled street intersecting a 4-lane, 2-way major street in a noncongested area 39 ------- o CM I i 1 UJ Ul cc (T O o w •o I e 50 40 30 20 10 HOT SPOT POTENTIAL IS INDICATED. IF THE POINT FALLS ON OR ABOVE THE APPROPRIATE CURVE. 2.5 7.5 10 12.5 ADT ON CONTROLLED STREET'4 lanes - 2 way, CONGESTED AREA in thousand* of vehicles Figure 17. Analysis at nonsignalized intersections of a 4-lane, 2-way controlled street intersecting a 4-lane, 2-way major street in a congested area 40 ------- 1 I I t I CM if OT s o i HOT SPOT POTENTIAL 13 INDICATED. THE POINT PALLS ON Oft ABOVE THE APPROPRIATE CURVE. 10 12.3 ACT ON CONTROLLED STREET »4 lane - 2 way , NONCONGESTED AREA in thousands of vehicles Figure 18. Analysis at nonsignalized intersections of a 4-lane, 2-way controlled street intersecting a 4-lane, 2-way major street in a noncongested area 41 ------- 5O o I 40 e o CM s s >; .s c! 5 30 \ 1 s k s ^ ^ V \ v > HOT SPOT POTENTIAL IS INDICATED.. k \ IF THE POINT FALLS ON OR AIOVE THE APPROPRIATE CURVE. ~ k \ k S \ > \ s 0 2.5 5 7.5 10 12.5 AOT ON CONTROLLED STREET = 2 lane -1 way , CONGESTED AREA in thousands of vehicles Figure 19. Analysis at nonsignalized intersections of a 2-lane, 1-way controlled street intersecting a 2-lane, 2-way or 2-lane, 1-way major street 42 ------- 50 o I « JB (SI 5 (M 40 2 .C I o M ui 3 UJ 30 w *" O 20 10 1- 0 ^ S ' ' HOT SPOT POTENTIAL IS INDICATED. IP THE POINT PALLS ON OR ABOVE THE APPROPRIATE CURVE. 0 2.5 5 7.5 10 12.5 ADT ON CONTROLLED STREET -2 lane -Iway, NONCON6ESTED AREA in thousands of vehicles Figure 20. Analysis at nonsignalized intersections of a 2-lane, 1-way controlled street intersecting a 2-lane, 2-way or 2-lane 1-way major street in a noncongested area 43 ------- ADT ON MAJOR STREET = 4 lone - 2 way in thousands of vehicles — ro c* * a 3 O O O O O V \ V \ \ \ V \ \ > v \ HOT SPOT POTENTIAL IS 1 ^ \ P THE POINT PALLS ON 01 THE APPROPRIATE CURVE ^ \ 1 v \ ^ > k s ii NOICATEI ft ABOVE > 2.5 7.5 10 12.5 ADT ON CONTROLLED STREET -2 lane -I way , CONGESTED AREA in thousands of vehicles Figure 21. Analysis at nonsignalized intersections of a 2-lane, 1-way controlled street intersecting a 4-lane, 2-way major street ------- o CM o: -o * 20 o < HOT SPOT POTENTIAL IS INDICATED. IF THE POINT FALLS ON OR ABOVE THE APPROPRIATE CURVE. '0 2.5 5 7.5 10 12.5 ADT ON CONTROLLED STREET -2 lone -I way, NONCONGESTED AREA in thousands of vehicles Figure 22. Analysis at nonsignalized intersections of a 2-lane, 1-way controlled street intersecting a 4-lane, 2-way major street in a noncongested area 45 ------- D. METHODS OF ESTIMATING ROADWAY CAPACITY This section provides a methodology for calculating roadway or lane capac- ities, based on the Highway Capacity Manual, for use in the hot spot screening procedures. The methodology developed here is conservative in that it tends to under- estimate capacity. The Highway Capacity Manual (1965) gives the following maximum uninterrupted flow capacities under ideal conditions for various types of roadways: Highway type Capacity (vph) Multilane 2,000 per lane Two-lane, two-way* 2,000 total (both directions) Three-lane, two-way 4,000 total (both directions) The capacity, C, of a multilarie roadway is computed using the following equation: C =* 2000 M Wf T; (4) the capacity for one direction of a two-lane roadway is computed using the equation: C = 1000 Wf T (5) where M = number of lanes moving in one direction Wf = adjustment factor for lane width from Table 2 T = truck factor from Table 3. This applies primarily to rural locations where speed ranges are quite high; for most urban applications, capacity can be assumed to be about 2000 vehicles per hour for each direction. 46 ------- Table 2. COMBINED EFFECT OF LANE WIDTH AND RESTRICTED LATERAL CLEARANCE ON CAPACITY AND SERVICE VOLUMES OF DIVIDED FREEWAYS AND EX- PRESSWAYS AND TWO-LANE HIGHWAYS WITH UNINTERRUPTED FLOW Distance from traffic lane edge to obstruction Adjustment factor, Wf , for lane width and lateral clearance Obstruction of one side of one-direction roadway 12-ft lanes 11-ft lanes 10-ft lanes 9-ft lanes Obstructions on both sides of one-direction roadway 12-ft lanes 11-ft lanes 10-ft lanes 9-ft lanes Four-lane divided freeway, one direction of travel 6 4 2 0 1.00 0.99 0.97 0.90 0.97 0.96 0.94 0.87 0.91 0.90 0.88 0.82 0.81 0.80 0.79 0.73 1.00 0.98 0.94 0.81 0.97 0.95 0.91 0.79 0.91 0.89 0.86 0.74 0.81 0.79 0.76 0.66 Six- and eight-lane divided freeways, one direction of travel 6 4 2 0 1.00 0.99 0.97 0.94 0.96 0.95 0.93 0.91 0.89 0.88 0.87 0.85 0.78 0.77 0.76 0.74 1.00 0.98 0.96 0.91 0.96 0.94 0.92 0.87 0.89 0.87 0.85 0.81 0.78 0.77 0.75 0.70 Two-lane highway, one direction of travel 6 4 2 0 1.00 0.97 0.93 0.88 0.88 0.85 0.81 0.77 0.81 0.79 0.75 0.71 0.76 0.74 .0.70 0.66 1.00 0.94 0.85 0.76 0.88 0.83 0.75 0.67 0.81 0.76 0.69 0.62 0.76 0.71 0.65 0.58 47 ------- Table 3. AVERAGE GENERALIZED ADJUSTMENT FACTORS FOR TRUCKS ON FREEWAYS AND EXPRESSWAYS, AND 2-LANE HIGHWAYS OVER EXTENDED SECTION LENGTHS Pt, percentage of trucks, % 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 14 16 18 20 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 12 14 16 18 20 Factor, T, for all levels of service Level terrain Rolling terrain Mountainous terrain Freeways and expressways 0.99 0.98 0.97 0.96 0.95 0.94 0.93 0.93 0.92 0.91 0.89 0.88 0.86 0.85 0.83 0.97 0.94 0.92 0.89 0.87 0.85 0.83 0.81 0.79 0.77 0.74 0.70 0.68 0.65 0.63 0.93 0.88 0.83 0.78 0.74 0.70 0.67 0.64 0.61 0.59 0.54 0.51 0.47 0.44 0.42 Two-lane highways 0.99 0.98 0.97 0.96 0.95 0.94 0.93 0.93 0.92 0.91 0.89 0.88 0.86 0.85 0.83 0.96 0.93 0.89 0.86 0.83 0.81 0.78 0.76 0.74 0.71 0.68 0.64 0.61 0.58 0.56 0.90 0.82 0.75 0.69 0.65 0.60 0.57 0.53 0.50 0.48 0.43 0.39 0.36 0.34 0.31 48 ------- E. EXAMPLE An example is provided here of the screening of a signalized intersection - School Street at Lexington Street in Waltham, Massachusetts. The data required includes traffic volume and a description of the street; layout. The volume data in the form of average daily traffic (ADT) were obtained from local sources, while the layout of the streets was determined from field reconnaissance. The volumes ------- Part I Location:. c_.r Part II Congested Area? X. Yea: No Part III Complex Intersection or Special Case? Yet; X MO: 11 yet, enter location on Initial Screening Summary Sheet and proceed to nut interaction; JS no, procenit wtKh ?«ct IV, Part IV Analyze each approach separately on Che form below. Leg under Analysis a De»l Kial Ion L.EX5M J'VVJ j NORTH LCXIMGTOM, SCVJT* 33^==— ==rTII^ i .- "Ooi. , '-. A.-..T •? o :•; - .• _ .•;<..•-• t Ad |u;.tGd ADr 14000 10000 X T..''. 0 3cc: ConUkuc- at ion 2 L/'?v/ ''! /?>/ X ?! '' ? V'/ •P' ''.-',, C fj Approach! fy HOCC' '.:c:: :',,'-"V -.'-/?W l^& I-D \' r- v. v t •: Strott: SCHOOL. lr.: W A.ir 300C 30OO 1 1 1 on ZL/ZW ?.L/:V/ j. F ijttfft/ ctirvg used /"<0 /-/3 Hot tf.01 YtS Y£i Street:LE.XUMC>TrU Approach! _§_ :CCOO looo: -1 1 ' ^ • •• ?: /zw /-/? /-^ V€5 YES Figure 23. Example screening 50 ------- The next step is to determine which screening curve is appropriate for the specified conditions. Figure 1 provides curves for the analysis of a 2-lane 2-way street (in this case, Lexington Street) in a congested area for signalized intersections. Because School Street is a 2-lane 2-way street, curve Q in Figure 1 is selected and this is recorded in columns f and j. To determine the hot spot potential for the Lexington Street north approach, the point corresponding to 14,000 on the abscissa and 8,000 on the ordinate is plotted in Figure 1. Since this point is above .and to the right of curve D, hot spot potential is indicated for the Lexington Street, north approach. 51 ------- SECTION III HOT SPOT VERIFICATION A. OVERVIEW OF HOT SPOT VERIFICATION The verification process is a followup to the screening of an area. Con- ceptually, the technique involved is identical to that used for the screen- ing. It assumes an explicit relationship between air quality, traffic operating characteristics, and physical characteristics of an intersection, for particular meteorological conditions. Therefore, if both traffic and physical characteristics are determined, and a particular set of meteoro- logical conditions assumed, estimates of the resulting air quality can be made. Again, these estimates are made using a series of curves that relate various traffic and roadway characteristics to resulting air quality. In discussing the verification process it is necessary to consider the three basic elements of the procedure - these include the data required, the curves to be used, and a set of standard worksheets to be used for performing and recording the verification of potential hot spots. 1. Data Requirements While in the screening process it was emphasized that maximum use should be made of existing general traffic data, the verification process requires current data specific to each site analyzed. However, existing data may be used if they are determined to be representative of current traffic conditions and of sufficient detail. The required data are outlined below, and summarized in Table 4. In all oases observed data should supersede 52 ------- suggested estimates herein when these data apply to the locations being modeled. Specific guidance for estimates is given in the worksheet instructions. Table 4 .' SUMMARY OF DATA REQUIREMENTS FOR HOT SPOT VERIFICATION Data element Remark Location sketch Traffic volume Vehicle speed Receptor separation Vehicle classification Traffic signal operation Vehicle mode operation Temperature The sketch should dimension the traffic engin- eering features, identify the geometry of the location and identify traffic operational constraints. Peak hour volume projected to the analysis year for the busiest winter season month.* Estimate of operating cruise speed. The distance between the receptor site and the centerline of the traffic stream. Distribution of traffic by vehicle type: LDV, LOT, HDV-G, HDV-D. Signal timing and phasing at signalized intersections. Distribution of vehicles by operating mode: cold-start, hot-start, stabilized. Ambient temperature representative of winter days. a. Location Sketch - A sketch should be prepared of each location requiring verification. This sketch should show: e the approximate geometry of the location 9 the number of approach and departure lanes on each roadway if the site is an intersection, or just the number of lanes if the site is an expressway or mid- block location « the width of each lane, shoulder, median, and channelizing island *The reader should refer to the discussion on page 34 of Volume I regard- ing critical season. 53 ------- • the locations within each site where curb parking is per- mitted, where bus stops and taxistands are located, and the width of such parking lanes • the location of the worst-case receptor site (see part d below) • pertinent notes regarding observations as to the operation of the facility. b. Traffic Volume - Peak hour volume data (or projected data) averaged per lane are required for all streets and highways analyzed. These vol- umes should be representative of the busiest month from November through March. This implies that a statistical data base must also be available from which projections are made. The directional split of peak hour traf- fic is also required since computations of carbon monoxide concentrations are performed on a traffic stream basis. c. Vehicle Cruise Speed - Estimates of the cruise speed of freely flowing vehicles and vehicles departing from signalized intersections must be made. These can be based on actual field studies or through estimates based on observed operating characteristics and surrounding land use. Several figures and tables, which appear later in this section, have been pro- vided to aid in making these estimates. d- Roadway/Receptor Separation Distance - The separation distance, x, between the receptor site and traffic streams in both directions (for both uninterrupted flow locations and intersections) is required. This is the minimum perpendicular distance in meters from the centerline of the traf- fic stream to a line parallel to the roadway drawn through the receptor site; that is, the offset distance from the centerline of the traffic stream (all lanes in one direction of travel) to the centerline of an adjacent sidewalk or edge of right-of-way. For intersections, the receptor is a point defined by the offset distance from the centerline of the traffic stream, and a specified back distance from the intersection. The distance back from the intersection is a function 54 ------- of the queue length that develops. The user is not required to compute the distance nor is he required to compute queue length; rather, empirical relationships between volume demand and queue length are used implicitly so that volume and traffic signal parameters (as will be explained later) are the only inputs required. e- Vehicle Classification Data - Another data requirement is the distribu- tion of traffic by vehicle type. This is usually developed for specific highway classifications such as expressways, major arterials, minor arte- rials, etc. The vehicle classifications that should be identified include: • light-duty vehicles (passenger cars) - LDV • light-duty trucks (panel and pickup trucks, light delivery trucks - usually all 2-axle, 4-wheel trucks) - LDT « heavy duty, gasoline-powered trucks - HDV-G 9 diesel-powered trucks - HDV-D. \$ motorcycles - MC These data may be available for a community where recent comprehensive transportation planning programs have been accomplished. f. Traffic Signal Djjt_a - A necessary element in the verification of hot spot potential at signalized intersections is the ratio of the green time allocated to each approach, to the total cycle length (G/Cy). This ratio can be determined from records or design plans if the installation is of the fixed-time type but if actuated control is utilized, the ratio must be computed based on the actual peak hour volumes. Where actuated pedestrian signals are used, estimates should be made of the number of times during the peak hour that the actuated pedestrian phase is called. Also, where turning lanes are provided and these lanes are subject to interference from stopped through traffic, estimates of 55 ------- this interference should be made. The green time allocated to the approaches affected by these occurrences then must be adjusted. (Refer to worksheet for worksheets for guidance in estimating G/Cy.) g. Percentage of Cold-Start Vehicles - Estimates of the proportion of cold-operating vehicles in the traffic stream during the peak hour are required. This is a difficult statistic to determine for specific loca- tions; therefore it is recommended that a very general approach be taken involving the use of the results of a recently completed study9 that focused on determining the proportion of cold-operating vehicles in numerous traffic streams in two U.S. cities. This study concluded that the distribu- tion of cold-operating vehicles is a function of the time of day and the type of location. For instance, it was determined that the fraction of vehicles operating in the cold mode during the morning in the CBD was sub- stantially different from the fraction operating at the CBD during the evening; also, the fraction of cold-operating vehicles at locations in the CBD differed significantly from the fraction in say, residential areas for the same time-period. In the absence of data specific to a location under- going hot spot analysis, it is recommended that the fraction of vehicles operating in the cold mode be estimated using the information in the worksheet instructions. h. Percentage of Hot-Start Vehicles - The proportion of vehicles operating in the hot-start mode must also be estimated. This parameter, like the cold- mode fraction, is not easily determined. The actual impact of hot-start vehicles is not nearly as significant as the cold-start fraction, however. Again, guidance is provided in estimating this parameter in the worksheets. i. Temperature - Ambient temperature has a significant effect on the emis- sions from cold-operating vehicles and the time necessary to achieve normal operating temperature. Colder temperatures produce higher emission rates. Since a worst-case analysis is being performed, a temperature typical of that during the peak traffic hour on cold winter days (or critical season) should be used. 56 ------- j- Street Canyons - At seme midblock locations and intersections in urban areas, a vortex motion may develop in the wind circulation between tall buildings. This occurs in areas referred to as "street canyons." A sche- matic of this windf low pattern is depicted in Figure 24 . A vortex will form when two conditions exist; first, the roadway/wind angle, 6, must be at least 30°, and second, the penetration depth, ------- Again, in these Guidelines, the criterion for roadway/wind angle can be assumed to be met so that the user must only check the building height and penetration depths. When the vortex forms, dispersion of CO along roadways is different com- pared with dispersion along open areas. To reflect these different dis- persion characteristics, a separate technique is introduced into this anal- ysis that better describes street canyon dispersion. This is accomplished by introducing the street canyon criterion for penetration depth in the worksheets (again, the roadway/wind angle criterion is assumed to be met), and special procedures are defined throughout if a street canyon situation is indicated. When applying the street canyon calculations to an intersection, only the main link (determined beforehand) is considered.w Since the CO concen- tration computed using the street canyon procedure may be lower than if the nonstreet canyon procedure is used, it may be useful in many instances to use both techniques so that hot spot potential can be assessed more completely. k. Miscellaneous Data - This category includes information relative to planned projects that will directly impac4: traffic or travel within the study area in the near future. These could involve alteration to the street network, (e.g., adding or deleting major arterials or expressways, revising circulation patterns, changing signal systems, etc.), or the development of programs to create mode shifts, (e.g., improving bus ser- vice for commuters). The expected effect on traffic volumes must be considered where these possibilities exist. It is noted that the affects of other nearby links in terms of concentra- tions at receptors located in a street canyon have not been investigated thoroughly, and thus are assumed at this time to have minimal impact at the receptor. 58 ------- Another area of consideration is the effect of programs that will have an impact on automotive emissions, such as mandatory inspection and mainten- ance programs. Where such programs are in effect or are anticipated, their impacts should be estimated. B. WORKSHEETS AND INSTRUCTIONS FOR HOT SPOT VERIFICATION The following pages present detailed instructions for performing hot spot verification. Included are separate worksheets and instructions for analyzing signalized intersections, STOP-sign controlled intersections, free-flowing sections of arterial streets, and expressways. It is suggested that all signalized intersections be analyzed first, followed by analyses of free-flowing arterials and expressway sections, and finally, STOP-sign controlled intersections. The first step in the process is to assemble the data required regarding volume, vehicle type distribution, percent of vehicles operating in the cold mode, etc. , and a site sketch showing street geometry and dimensions as well as the assumed receptor location. Worksheets No. 5 and 6 are then used to compute the likely maximum concentration based on the various data elements and the relationships presented in Tables 5 through 8, and the graphs shown in Figures 25 through 31. Worksheets No. 5 and 6 are each followed by detailed instructions for completing each line based on the various elements of traffic data, Figures 25 through 31, and Tables 5 through 8. 59 ------- WORKSHEET NO. 5 CALCULATION OF CO CONCENTRATIONS AT INTERSECTIONS 1 of 3 Location: Date: Analysis by: Assumptions: Checked by: • Analysis Year: • Location: (a) altitude; (c) California; (b) 49-State, low • Ambient temperature: 49-State, high altitude. F. • Percent of vehicles operating in: (a) cold-start mode (b) hot-start mode . • Vehicle-type distribution: LDV %; LOT %; HDV-G_ HDV-D %; MC %. 1. Site identification 2. a. i - intersection approach identification b. Is approach located in a street canyon? 3. n.,, - Number of traffic lanes in approach i 4. x - Roadway/receptor separation (m) 5. V, - Peak-hour lane volume in each approach (veh/hr) 6. S,^ - Cruise speed (mph) on each approach 7. a. Type of intersection (signalized or unsignalized) b. For signalized intersections: i) (G/Cy)i - Green time/signal cycle ratio for approach 1 ii) Vcross - Effective crossroad volume (veh/hr) 8. Le - Queue length on approach 1 (m) Main road Crossroad 60 ------- Main road Crossroad 9. Qf - Free-flow emission rate (g/m-sec) YU ~ Normalized concentration con- tribution from free-flow emis- sions on main roadway (10~3 m"1) 11. Tr f o^oo ~ Normalized concentration \J I • C JTCJ o S . - contribution from free-flow emission on crossroad (10-3 m-1) 12. Cdf. - Distance correction factor, free- flow emissions 13. C ,. - Emissions correction factor, free- flow emissions. 14. a. -y. . - Concentration contribution Af,main _ , ,.1 . from free-flow emissions on main road (mg/m3) b. Y,. - Concentration contribution f C1TOSS ' from free-flow emissions on crossroad (mg/m3) 15. Xf ~ Total concentration from free-flow emissions (mg/m ) 16. C - Emissions correction factor, excess emissions 17. 0 - Excess emission rate (g/m-sec) e 18. xu_ ~ Normalized concentration contri- Q e,i bution from excess emissions on approach i (10~3m~1) 19. Cde. - Distance correction factor, excess emissions 20. x • ~ Concentration contribution from ex- e>1 cess emissions on approach i (mg/m ) 21. x ~ Total contribution from excess emis- sions (mg/m3) 22. XF ~ 1-hour average concentration ' r resulting from vehicle emissions (mg/m3) 61 ------- 23. XE 8-hr ~ ^-hour average CO concen- ' tration (mg/m3) 24. XB g_hr - 8-hour average background con- ' centration (mg/m3) 25 • XT o . - Total CO concentration, 8-hour T,o—hr / / ^\ ' average (mg/m^) 2^' XT o v_ - Total CO concentration, 8-hour l,o-hr . . ' average (ppm) 62 ------- WORKSHEET NO. 5 INSTRUCTIONS FOR COMPLETING EACH LINE I. HEADING DATA Location; Enter intersection street name Date; Enter date of analysis. Analysis by; Enter name of person performing analysis. Checked by; Enter name of person checking the completed Worksheet. Assumptions: Analysis year - enter calendar year reflected by the analysis. Location - place an X on the appropriate line indicating the type of location being considered (low altitude is < 3500 ft) . Ambient Temperature - enter the Assumed average winter temperature for the area being con- sidered (either 20°F or 40°F). Percent of Vehicles - enter the proportion of vehicles operat- ing in the cold-start mode and the pro- portion in the hot-start mode (see Section IV-.C.3). Vehicle-type distribution - enter the percentages of light- duty vehicles, light-duty trucks, heavy-duty gasoline-powered trucks, heavy-duty diesel-powered trucks, and motorcycles that use the streets being analyzed (use one set of percentages). II. COMPUTATIONS 1. Enter the main street and cross-street names (.refer to site sketch). The main street will always be the street adjacent to the receptor. In this connection, the assumed receptor location should be at the point where the maximum projected concentration is likely to occur. Guidance for identifying this point is provided in the Special In- structions found in Section IV.C beginning on page 113. 2. a. Intersection approach identification numbers should be added to the site sketch for reference. The designations should be made according to the sketch as shown. b. Enter "yes" or "no" for each approach. Guidance in identifying street canyons is provided in Section III beginning on page 57- If approach 1 is in a street canyon, then use the street canyon options indicated throughout the instructions that follow. 63 ------- "Assigned approach identification n urn bar Receptor t Note that approach (T) is-adjacent to the receptor, ©is on the leg opposite approach(l} (5) intersects @ before it intersects^ and (?) intersectsQ) before it intersects (5) Again, refer to page 113. 3. Enter the number of lanes (omitting parking lanes) for each approach (from site sketch). 4. Enter the roadway/receptor separation distance, x^, for approaches 1 and 2. This is the minimum perpendicular distance in meters from the centerline of the traffic stream approaching the intersection to a line parallel to the roadway drawn through the receptor site (see site sketch). 5. Enter the peak-hour lane volume, V. (vehicles/hour), for each inter- section approach. This is the total traffic stream volume divided by the number of approach lanes recorded on line 3. This should represent the busiest winter month* average weekday volume for the year of interest (based on traffic volume data). 6. Enter the estimated roadway cruise speed, S^ (mph), for each approach (see Section IV.C.2 on page 120 for guidance). 7. a. Enter type of intersection (signalized, unsignalized). b. For signalized intersections (for nonsignalized intersections proceed to next step): (i) Enter the ratio of green time to total signal cycle length (G/Cy)i allocated to approach 1. Include time allocated for any pedestrian walk phases with no traf- fic movement in the total cycle length. For fixed time signals, this data will be available from design speci- fications or from permits and records maintained by the agency having jurisdiction over the signal. For actuated This assumes that winter is the critical season for CO. If it is determined that some other season is in fact the critical season, then the corresponding traffic volumes and ambient temperature should be used. 64 ------- signals, the G/Cy for approach i can be estimated from the equation: 0.9 Vmaxi = ~ Zn V max 1-1 where G/Cy± is the G/Cy for approach i; and Vmax is the highest hourly lane volume that occurs on all approaches where traffic moves during phase i. (ii) Determine the effective crossroad volume, V , for approach cross 1 using the following equation and the volume from line 5 if the signal is fixed time: v _ line 51 - s cross line 7.b.i -I- 0.05 ~ l for actuated signals, V = the highest volume in line 5q and cross ° 8. Determine the queue length, Le (m), that develops on approach 1 as follows: For signalized intersections enter the appropriate section of Table 5 based on cruise speed Sj (line 6). Enter the table using V . = Vi (line-5) and V = line 7 b-ii. main cross For imsignalized intersections use the appropriate section of Table 7 based on cruise speed Si. Enter the table using Vma:£n = YI (line 5) and Vcross = Vs or V^ (line 5), whichever is greater. 9. Enter the free-flow emission rate, Qf_. (g/m-sec) , for each traffic stream using Table 6. Enter the table using line 6i (cruise speed) and line 5 (average lane volume) for each approach. If the street is within a street canyon, enter only the Qf. for approaches 1 and 2. 10. Enter Figure 28 at the appropriate queue length, Le (line 8), and record the (xu/Q)f main value using the curve designated MAIN ROAD. If the lo- cation is within a street canyon, use Figure 29> using line 4i and 4£. 11. Similarly, determine the normalized concentration contribution from free-flow emissions on the crossroad, (xu/Q)f cro • Use the CROSSROAD curve of Figure 28. Enter the graph at the same queue length as in step 10. Omit this step for street canyons. 12. Enter the distance correction factors, Cdfi} for free-flow emis- sions from the main roadway. Obtain these values from Figure 31. a. Cdfi is the correction factor at x = xi (line 4). b. Cdf2 is the correction factor for the departure lanes on leg 1, evaluated at x = the roadway/receptor separation distance for the departure stream; This value is X2 (line 4)2. Note: For street canyons, assume a value~of 1.0. 65 ------- 13. Compute the free-flow emissions correction factor, CFf, reflecting the assumed calendar year, cruise speed, percentage or vehicles operating in the cold-start and hot-start modes, ambient temperature, and vehicle-type distribution. This is derived from the following equation: CEf = PLDV CLDV + PLDT CLDT + PMC °MC + PRDG CRDG + ?HDD CHDD where PTTW = fraction of light-duty vehicles (from heading data); = fraction of light-duty trucks (from heading data); P „ = fraction of motorcycles (from heading data); P = fraction of heavy-duty, gasoline-powered trucks (from heading data); fracti°n °f heavy-duty, diesel-powered trucks (from heading data); C = correction factor reflecting the assumed calendar year, cruise speed, percentage of vehicles operating in the cold start mode, percentage of vehicles operating in -the hot-start mode, and ambient temperature for light- duty vehicles (obtained from Table 8); C „ = correction factor reflecting the assured calendar year, cruise speed, percentage of vehicles operating in the cold-start mode, percentage of vehicles operating in the hot-start mode, and ambient temperature for light-duty trucks (obtained from Table 8); C = correction factor reflecting the assumed calendar year, cruise speed, percentage, of vehicles operating in the cold-start mode, percentage of vehicles operating in the hot-start mode, and ambient temperature for motorcycles (obtained from Table 8); = correction factor reflecting the assumed calendar year and cruise speed for heavy-duty, gasoline-powered trucks (obtained from Table 8); C = correction factor reflecting the assumed calendar year and cruise speed for heavy-duty, diesel-powered trucks (obtained from Table 8); 14. Compute the concentration contribution from free-flow emissions, xf> from each roadway a. xf - = (line 10)(line 13) (line 3)l(line 9)i(line 12) l + i, rriciin I J [_ (line 3) 2 (line 9)2 (line 12) 2 66 ------- b. xf " [(line ll)(line 13)1 [(line 3)3(line 9)3 + cross J (line S)^ (line 9)i+ 1 Note: for street canyons, Xr > need not be computed. i,cross r 15. Sum line 14a and 14b entries to obtain total contribution from free-flow emissions, xf- 16. Compute the excess emissions correction factor, CE , reflecting the assumed calendar year, idle (speed 0), percentage of vehicles operat- ing in the cold- or hot-start mode, ambient temperature, and vehicle type distribution. This is derived from the following equation: CEe = PLDV CLDV-0 + ?LDT CLDT-0 + PMC CMC-0 + PHDG °HDG-0 + PHDD CHDD-0 where PLDV, PLDT> PMC> PHDG and PHDD are as defined in item 13, above; and CLDV-0' CLDT-0' CMC-0' CHDG-0' and CHDD-0 are the correction factors from Table 12 reflecting the assumed calendar year, speed of 0, percentages of cold- and hot-start operation, and ambient temperature for each vehicle type. 17. Compute the excess emission rate, Q (g/m-sec), from: Qe = (QQT) (CEe) - V "W where Q T = the total queue emission rate found in Table 5 for signalized ^ intersections or Table 7 for nonsignalized intersection; Q = the cruise component of the queue emissions, also found in Table 5 for signalized intersections and Table 7 for non- signalized intersections; C = the excess emissions correction factor found in item 16, above; Ee , and C = the free-flow emissions correction factor found in item 13, above. Ef To use Tables 5 or 7, the highest main road lane volume from line 5 and the effective crossroad volume, VCROSS> from line "? •&'*•! are used. Interpolation should be performed as required in using the tables. 18. Determine the normalized concentration contribution from excess emissions, (xu/Q) . for each approach as follows: e, i 67 ------- a. The contribution from approach 1: Enter Figure 25 at the appropriate queue length, Le (line 8), to obtain (xu/Q) .. Multiply this value by the number of e> i traffic lanes in approach 1 (line 3), and record result. For street canyons, the procedure is the same except use Figure 29 instead of 25. b. The contribution from approach: Enter Figure 26, curve 2, at the same Le, used in part (a), (line 8), to obtain (xu/Q)e 2- Multiply this value by the 9 number of traffic lanes in approach 2 (line 3), and record result. For street canyons, assume (xu/Q)e 2=0- c. The contribution from approach 3: Signalized intersections - Enter Figure 26, Curve 3 at Le (line 8) to obtain (xu/Q)e 3- Multiply by the number of traffic lanes in approach 3 (line 3), and record result. For street canyons and unsignalized intersections, (xu/Q)e,3 = 0. d. The contribution from approach 4: Signalized intersections - Enter Figure 26. Curve 4 at Le (line 8 ) to obtain (xu/Q)e 4. Multiply by the number of traffic lanes in approach 4 (line 3) and record result. For street canyons and unsignalized intersections, (xu/Q)e 4=0. 19. Determine the distance correction factors for the excess emissions contributions, Cde.^: a. Approach 1: obtain Cde^ from Figure 30 at the appropriate roadway/receptor separation distance x^ (line 4). Note: For street canyons, Cde^ = 1.0. b. Approach 2: compute Cde2 by dividing the value obtained from Figure 30 at the appropriate distance x_2 (line 4) by 0.79: Cde (at x2) Cd62 = —(T79 c. Approach 3^:Cde3.^= 1 for signalized intersections and Cde3..p 0 for nonsignalized intersections. 20. Compute the concentration contribution from excess emissions, xe> for each approach i, using the following equation: where Q = the excess emission rate from line 17; Lj normalized concentration contribution from excess ei emissions from line 18; and (Cdej . = the distance correction from line 19. 68 ------- 21. Sum all line 20 entries to obtain the total concentration, x » resulting from excess emissions at the intersection. 22. Compute the 1-hour average concentration resulting from vehicle emissions, X^ i v , by summing line 21 and line 15. AE, 1-hour' J 6 23. Multiply line 22 by 0.7 to obtain the highest expected 8-hour average concentration resulting from vehicle emissions. 24. Enter 8-hour average background CO concentration in mg/m3- Use 2.9 mg/m3 if specific local background estimates are not avail- able and see Section V.B. of Volume I. 25. Sum lines 23 and 24 to obtain maximum expected 8-hour average con- centration in the vicinity of the intersection (mg/m3). 26. Multiply line 25 by 0.87 to convert the CO concentration from mg/m to ppm. 69 ------- WORKSHEET NO. 6 CALCULATION OF CO CONCENTRATIONS ALONG ROADWAYS WHERE UNINTERRUPTED FLOW PREVAILS Location: Date: Analysis by: Checked by: Assumptions: • Analysis Year: • Location: (a) altitude; (c) California; (b) 49-State, low 49-State, high altitude. • Ambient temperature: F. • Percent of vehicles operating in: (a) cold-start mode (b) hot-start mode %. • Vehicle-type distribution: LDV %, LDT %; HDV-G_ HDV-D ; MC %. No. • Street Canyon: 1. Site identification Yes; 2. Traffic stream identification 3. V - Peak-hour lane volume for each traffic stream (veh/hr) 4. x - Roadway/receptor separation (m) 5. n. - Number of lanes per traffic stream 6. S - Cruise speed (mph) for each traffic stream 7- Qf1 - Free-flow emission rate (g/m-sec) 8. 9. CEf - - Normalized concentration contri- bution from each traffic stream (ID-3 m'1) Emission correction factor 10. x( ~ Concentration contribution from each traffic stream (mg/m3) I 70 ------- Worksheet No. 6 (continued). 11* XE 1-hr ~ 1~hour average CO concentration resulting ' from vehicle emissions (mg/m3) 12. Xg R-hr ~ 8-hour average CO concentration (mg/m3) Xg 8-hr ~ ^-hour average background concentration ' (mg/m3) 14. x^, 8-hr ~ ^otal CO concentration, 8-hour average ' ~ (mg/m3) 15. XT 8-hr ~ ^otal CO concentration, 8-hour average 71 ------- WORKSHEET NO. 6 INSTRUCTIONS FOR COMPLETING EACH LINE I. II. HEADING DATA Location: Date; Analysis by; Checked by; Assumptions; Enter facility name and general location (e.g., Mystic Parkway between exits 60 and 61). Enter date of analysis. Enter name of person performing analysis. Enter name of person checking the completed Worksheet Analysis year - enter calendar year reflected by the analysis. Location - place an X on the appropriate line indicating the type of location being considered (low altitude is < 3500 ft). Ambient Temperature - enter the assumed average winter temperature for the area being con- sidered (either 20°F or 40°F). Percent of Vehicles - enter the proportion of vehicles operating in the cold-start mode and the proportion in the hot-start mode. Vehicle-type distribution - enter the percentages of light- duty vehicles, light-duty trucks heavy-duty gasoline-powered trucks, heavy-duty diesel-powered trucks, and motorcycles that use the streets being analyzed (use one set of percentages). place an X on the appropriate line (see the previous section for guidance in identifying street canyons). Street Canyon: COMPUTATIONS 1. Enter the facility name. 2. Enter the direction of flow for each traffic stream (e.g., north- bound, eastbound, etc.). Again, approach 1 shall be adjacent to the assumed receptor. 3. Enter the peak-hour traffic volume, V , for each traffic stream (winter, busiest month, estimates or observed). 4. Enter the traffic stream/receptor separation distance, x . This is the perpendicular distance in meters from the centerline of each traffic stream to the receptor location. Minimum distance = 10 meters. 72 ------- 5. Enter the number of lanes, n , per traffic stream (see site sketch). 6. Enter the average cruise speed, S. (mph), for each traffic stream (for guidance, see Section IV.C.). 7. Determine the free-flow emission rate, Qf. (g/m-tsec) , for each traffic stream from Table 3. Enter the table using line 6, cruise speed and (line 3) T (line 5), average lane volumes. 8. Determine the normalized concentration contribution (xu/Q)f, i from each traffic stream using Figure 27. Enter the graph at the appro- priate roadway/receptor separation distance x. (line 4). If the facility is located within a street canyon, use Figure 29. 9. Compute the free-flow emissions correction factor, C_,., reflecting the assumed calendar year, cruise speed, percentage of vehicles operating in the cold-start mode, percentage of vehicles operating in the hot-start start mode, ambient temperature, and vehicle-type distribution; CEf is derived using the equation shown in Item 13 of the instruction sheet explaining Worksheet No. 5. 10. Compute the concentration contribution, x^» from each stream as follows: XjL = (line 7)± (line 8) ± (line 9) 11. Compute the 1-hour average CO concentration resulting from vehicle emissions by summing the line 10 concentrations. 12. Multiply line 11 by 0.7 to obtain the highest expected 8-hour average concentration resulting from vehicle emissions (mg/m3). 13, Enter the 8-hour average background CO concentration in mg/m3. Use the 2.9 mg/m3 if specific local background estimates are not available. 14. Sum line 15 and line 16 to obtain the maximum expected 8-hour average concentration in the vicinity of the roadway (mg/m3). 15. Multiply line 17 by 0.87 to convert total CO concentration to ppm. 73 ------- Table 5 TOTAL. QUEUE EMISSIONS, (QQT), CRUISE COMPONENT EMISSION, (QOC), AND QUEUE LENGTH AS A FUNCTION OF MAJOR AND CROSS-STREET VOLUMES AND CRUISE SPEED - SIGNALIZED INTERSECTIONS Cross-street effective lane volume (veh/hr) 1400 1300 1200 1100 1000 900 800 Elenent V V Queue V V Queue V V Queue V V Queue V V Queue V QQC Queue V V Queue Major street voluae - (assumed cruise speed is 15 ni/hr) 100 - - - - - - - 200 0.05141 0.00004 1901.4 0.04837 0.00019 367.9 0.04542 0.00039 173.2 0.04262 0.00065 103.9 0.04005 0.00096 70.2 0.03775 0.00130 51.0 - . 300 0.04181 0.00013 796.5 0.04023 0.00030 347.2 0.03873 0.00050 205.7 0.3732 0.00073 139.0 0.03601 0.00099 101.2 0.03481 0.00127 77.3 0.03373 0.00158 60.9 400 0.01912 0.03504 0.00020 670.4 0.03415 0.00043 314.7 0.03331 0.00068 197.4 0.03253 0.00094 139.4 0.03181 0.00123 105.0 0.03114 0.00153 82.3 500 - 0.01828 0.03081 0.00024 698.6 0.03029 0.00050 333.4 0.02980 0.00077 211.9 0.02933 0.00106 151.1 0.02888 O.OO136 114.5 600 - - 0.01609 0.02765 0.00027 757.5 0.02736 0.00055 362.9 0.02706 0.00083 231.0 0.02676 0.00113 164.5 700 - - - 0.01531 0.02504 0.00028 826.6 0.02488 0.00058 395.2 0.02470 0.00087 250.5 800 - - - - 0.01306 0.02274 0.00030 899.1 0.02268 0.00060 427.4 900 - - - - - - 0.02065 0.00030 971.8 1000 - - - - - - 0.01003 1100 - - - - - - - 1200 - - - - - - - 1300 - - - - - - - 1400 - - - - - - - ------- TableS (continued). TOTAL QUEUE EMISSIONS, (QQT), CRUISE COMPONENT EMISSION, (QQC), AND QUEUE LENGTH AS A FUNCTION OF MAJOR AND CROSS-STREET VOLUMES AND CRUISE SPEED - SIGNALIZED INTERSECTIONS in Crosa~street effective lane volune (veh/hr) 700 600 500 400 300 200 100 Element V V Queue V V Queue V V Queoe V V Queue V V Queue V V Queue V V Queue Major street volume - (assiaaed cruiae speed is 15 ad/hr) 100 - 0.04534 0.00051 66.8 0.02441 0.00084 40.0 0.01302 0.00082 40.0 0.00851 0.00078 40.0 0.00601 0.00071 40.0 0.00384 0.00056 40.0 200 0.03470 0.00163 40.0 0.02602 0.00159 40.0 0.02006 0.00154 40.0 0.01568 0.00146 40.0 0.01216 0.00134 40.0 0.00893 0.00117 40.0 0.00544 0.00086 40.0 300 0.03278 0.00191 49.1 0.03192 0.00226 40.1 0.02561 0.00216 40.0 0.02038 0.00202 40.0 0.01579 0.00182 40.0 0.01142 0.00153 40.0 0.00686 0.00109 40.0 400 0.03051 0.00184 66.0 0.02988 0.00217 53.8 0.02921 O.O0250 44.0 0.02540 0.00253 40.0 0.01948 0.00225 40.0 0.01392 0.00186 40.0 0.00838 0.00130 40.0 500 0.02842 C. 00166 89.8 0.02793 0.00198 71.9 0.02736 0.00230 58.0 0.02665 0.00261 46.5 0.02351 0.00267 40.0 0.01666 0.00218 40.0 0.01012 0.00151 40.0 600 0.02643 0.00143 124.2 0.02605 0.00174 96.6 0.02559 0.00205 76.3 0.02499 0.00236 60.2 0.02418 0.00265 46.6 0.01984 0.00250 40.0 0.01217 0.00172 40.0 700 0.02449 0.00118 177.2 0.02423 0.00148 132.4 0.02388 0.00179 101.4 0.02341 0.00209 78.2 0.02276 0.00238 59.4 0.02187 0.00262 43.3 0.01464 0.00195 40.0 800 0.02258 0.00090 268.6 0.02243 0.00121 187.8 0.02220 0.00151 137.9 0.02186 0.00181 103.1 0.02139 0.00210 76.5 0.02077 0.00234 54.7 0.01768 0.00219 40.0 900 0.02066 0.00061 457.6 0.02062 0.00092 283.9 0.02051 0. 00123 195.0 0.02033 0.00153 139.5 0.02004 0.00181 100.4 0.01968 0.00206 70.0 0.01937 0.00221 44.4 1000 0.01870 0.00031 1042.1 0.01878 0.00062 484.0 0.01880 0.00093 294.7 0.01876 0.00124 197.1 0.01867 0.00153 135.6 0.01857 0.00178 91.5 0.01870 0.00194 56.6 1100 O.OO852 0.01686 0.00032 1107.7 0.01701 0.00363 5O4.4 0.01712 O.OO094 298.8 0.01722 0.00124 191.8 0.01739 0.00150 123.5 0.01795 0.00168 73.7 12OO - 0.00789 0.01512 0-OOO32 1164.9 0.0153* 0.0006* 515.5 0.01566 0.0009* 292.6 0.016O8 0.00122 175.3 0.017O8 0.00141 99.2 1300 - - O.O0694 0.013*7 0.00032 1208.3 0.01393 0.00064 '511.1 0.0146O 0.00093 269.6 0.01601 0.00113 140.7 1400 - - - 0.00492 0.01196 0.00032 1226.4 0.01284 0.00063 479.5 0.01465 0.00088 217.3 ------- Table 5 (continued). TOTAL QUEUE EMISSIONS, (Qqx), CRUISE COMPONENT EMISSION, (Qqc), AND QUEUE LENGTH AS A FUNCTION OF MAJOR AND CROSS-STREET VOLUMES AND CRUISE SPEED - SIGNALIZED INTERSECTIONS CroaB-street effective lane volume (veh/hr) 1400 1300 1200 1100 1000 900 800 Element V V Queue V V Queue V Queue V V Queue V V Queue V V Queue V V Queue Major street volusje - (assumed cruise speed is 20 mi/hr) 100 - 200 - - 1 0.05146 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 0.00004 1901.1 0.04863 0.00023 367.9 0.04598 0.00049 173.2 0.04354 0.00081 103.9 0.04139 0.00118 70.2 0.03959 0.00161 51.0 300 0.04199 0.00016 796.5 0.4065 0.00036 347.2 0.03943 0.00061 205.7 0.03634 0.00089 139.0 0.03739 0.00121 101.2 400 0.01912 - - 0.03532 0.00025 670.4 0.03475 0.00053 314.7 0.03426 0.00083 197.4 0.03386 0.00116 139.4 0.03660 i 0.03354 0.00157 77.3 0.03596 0.00195 60.9 0.00151 105.0 0.03329 0.00188 82.3 500 - - - 0.1812 - 600 - - - - i 0.03116 i 0.01609 0.00030 i 698.6 0.03100 0.00062 333.4 0.03089 0.00095 - 0.02803 0.00033 757.5 0.02812 0.00067 211.9 J362.9 0.03082 0.00130 151.1 0.03078 0.00167 114.5 0.02823 0.00103 231.0 0.02834 0.00139 164.5 700 - - - - - - - - 0.01531 - - 0.02544 0.00035 826.6 0.02569 0.00071 395.2 0.02593 0.00108 250.5 800 - - - - - - - - - - - ~ 0.01306 - - 0.02316 0.00036 899.1 0.02352 O.O0073 427.4 900 - - - - ~ - - - - - ~ - - - - - - 0.02108 0.00038 971.8 1000 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 0.01003 - - 1100 - 1200 - _ _ - - - - - - - - - - - - - - I - - - - - - - - - - - - - 1 - - - 1300 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 1400 - ~ ~ - ~ - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - ------- Table 5 (continued). TOTAL QUEUE EMISSIONS, (QQT>, CRUISE COMPONENT EMISSION, (QgC), AND QUEUE LENGTH AS A FUNCTION OF MAJOR AND CROSS-STREET VOLUMES AND CRUISE SPEED - SIGNALIZED INTERSECTIONS Cross-street efective lane voluae (veh/hr) 700 600 500 400 300 200 100 Elenent V V Queue V QQC Queue V V Queue V V Queue V V Queue V V Queue V V Queue 100 - - - 0.04606 0.00063 66.8 0.02559 0.00103 40.0 0.01416 0.00100 40.4 0.00960 0.00096 40.0 0.00701 0.00087 40.0 0.00463 0.00069 40.0 Major street voluae - (sssusted cruise speed is 20 mi/hr) 200 0.03699 0.00201 40.0 0.02826 0.00196 40.0 0.02222 0.00189 40.0 0.01773 0.00180 40.0 0.01404 0.00166 40.0 0.01036 0.001*3 40.0 0.00664 0.00105 40.0 300 0.03547 0.00236 49.1 0.03510 0.00279 40.1 0.02864 0.00266 40.0 0.02322 0.00248 40.0 0.01835 0.00224 40.0 0.01357 0.00189 40.0 0.00839 0.00134 40.0 400 0.03309 0.00227 66.0 0.03292 0.00267 53.8 0.03272 0.00308 44.0 0.02896 0.00312 40.0 0.02264 0.00277 40.0 0.01653 0.00229 40.0 0.01021 0.00160 40.0 500 0.03075 0.00205 89.8 0.03070 0.00243 71.9 0.03056 0.00283 58.0 0.03032 0.00321 46.5 0.02726 0.00328 40.0 0.01972 0.00268 40.0 0.01224 0.00186 40.0 600 0.02844 0.00177 124.2 0. 02850 0.00215 96.6 0.02847 0.00253 76.3 0.02830 0.00290 60.2 0.02790 0.00326 46.6 0.02335 0.00308 40.0 0.01459 0.00212 40.0 700 0.02615 0.00145 177.2 0.02631 0.00183 132.4 0.02639 0.00220 101.4 0.02634 0.00257 78.2 0.02609 0.00292 59.4 0.02555 0.00323 43.3 0.01738 0.00240 40.0 eoo 0.02385 0.00111 268.6 0.02412 0.00149 187.8 0.02432 0.00186 137.0 0.02441 0.00223 103.1 0.02434 0.00238 76.5 0.02405 0.00288 54.7 0.02075 0.00269 40.0 900 0.021S2 0.00075 457.6 0.02191 0.00113 283.9 0.02224 0.00151 195.0 0.02247 0.00188 139.5 0.02259 0.00223 100.4 0.02258 0.00254 70.0 0.02247 0.00271 44. 4 1000 0.01914 0.00038 1042.1 0.01965 0.00077 484.0 0.02011 0.00115 294.7 0.02050 0.00152 197.1 0.02081 0.00188 135.6 0.02107 0.00219 91.5 0.02143 0.00239 56.6 1100 0.00852 - - 0.01730 0.00039 1107.7 0.01790 0.00078 504.4 0.01844 0.00116 298.8 0.01896 0.00152 191.8 0.01949 0.00184 123.5 0.02031 0.00206 73.7 1200 - - - 0.00789 - - 0.10557 0.00039 1164.9 0.01627 0.00078 515.5 0.01698 0.00116 292.6 0.01779 0.00150 175.3 0.01906 0.00174 99.2 1300 - - - - - - 0.00694 - - 0.01393 0.00040 1208.3 0.01483 0.00078 511.1 0.01590 0.00114 269.6 0.01762 0.00142 140.7 1400 - - - - - - - - - 0.0492 - - 0.01242 0.00040 1226.4 0.01373 0.00078 479.5 0.01589 0.00109 217.3 ------- Table 5 (continued). TOTAL QUEUE EMISSIONS, (QqT), CRUISE COMPONENT EMISSION, (QQC), AND QUEUE LENGTH AS A FUNCTION OF MAJOR AND CROSS-STREET VOLUMES AND CRUISE SPEED - SIGNALIZED INTERSECTIONS CD Cross-street effective Isne rol.— e (/hr> 1100 1300 1200 1100 1000 900 800 Element V V Queue V V Qoe=e V V Queue V V Queue V V Queue V V Queue V V Qoeoe 100 - - - - - - ; 200 - 0.05152 0.00005 1901.4 0.04894 O.OOO27 3*7.9 0.04662 O.OO058 173.2 0.04460 O.OOO96 103.9 0.0429* O.OOUO 70.2 0.04170 0.00191 51.0 300 0.04220 0.00019 796.5 0.04112 O.OOO43 347.2 0.04O23 O.OO072 205.7 O.O39S1 0.001O6 139.0 0.03899 0.00144 101.2 0.03866 0.00186 77.3 0.03852 0.00232 60.9 Major street volisse - (sssuoed cruise speed is 25 sii/hr) 400 0.01912 0.03565 O. 00030 670.4 0.03545 0.00063 314.7 0.03536 O.OO099 197.4 0.03539 0.00138 139.4 0.03S52 0.00180 105.0 0.03576 0.00224 82.3 500 - 0.01828 0.03155 0.00036 698.6 0.03181 0.00073 333.4 0.03214 0.00113 211.9 0.03254 0.00155 151.1 0.03298 0.00198 114.5 600 - - 0.01609 0.02846 0.00039 757.5 0.02901 O.OO080 362.9 0.02958 0.00122 231.0 0.03017 0.00165 164.5 700 - - - 0.01531 0.02590 O.OO042 826.6 0.02662 0.00084 395.2 0.02734 0.00128 250.5 800 - - - - 0.01306 0.02364 O.OOO43 899.1 0.02448 O.OOO87 427.4 900 - - - - - - 0.02X57 O.OOO45 971.8 1000 - - - - - - 0.01003 1100 - - - - -. - ; 1200 - - - '- - - ; 1300 - - - - - - ; 1400 - - - - - - - ------- Table5 (continued). TOTAL QUEUE EMISSIONS, (QQT), CRUISE COMPONENT EMISSION, (Qg(0 > AND QUEUE LENGTH AS A FUNCTION OF MAJOR AND CROSS-STREET VOLUMES AND CRUISE SPEED - SIGNALIZED INTERSECTIONS Cross-street effective lane volume (veh/hr) 700 600 500 400 300 200 100 Eleaent V V Queue V V Queue V V Queue V V Queue V V Queue V V Queue V V Queue Major street volune - (assumed cruise speed is 25 ai/br) 100 - 0.04688 0.00075 66.8 0.02694 0.00123 40.0 0.01548 0.00119 40.0 0.01085 0.00114 40.0 0.00815 0.00103 40.0 0.00553 0.00082 40.0 200 0.03963 0.00239 40.0 0.03084 0.00233 40.0 0.02471 0.00225 40.0 0.02009 0.00214 40.0 0.01622 0.00197 40.0 0.01245 0.00170 40.0 0.00803 0.00125 40.0 300 0.03856 0.00280 49.1 0.03876 0.00331 40.1 0.03214 0.00316 40.0 0.02648 0.00295 40.0 0.02129 0.00266 40.0 0.01604 0.00224 40.0 0.01015 0.00159 40.0 400 0.03607 0.00269 66.0 0.03642 0.00317 53.8 0.03676 0.00366 44.0 0.03305 0.00371 40.0 0.02628 0.00329 40.0 0.01954 0.00272 40.0 0.01231 0.00191 40.0 500 0.03344 0.00243 89.8 0.03390 0.00289 71.9 0.03429 0.00336 58.0 0.03454 0.00382 46.5 0.03157 0.00390 40.0 0.02324 0.00319 40.0 0.01468 0.00221 40. fr 600 0.03076 0.00210 124.2 0.03132 0.00255 96.6 0.03179 0.00300 76.3 0.03212 0.00345 60.2 0.03218 0.00388 46.6 0.02739 0.00365 40.0 0.01738 0.00252 40.0 700 0.02805 0.00172 177.2 0.02871 0.00217 132.4 0.02928 0.00262 101.4 0.02972 0.00306 78.2 0.02993 0.00347 59.4 0.02978 0.00383 43.3 0.02052 0.00285 40.0 800 0.02530 0.00132 268.6 0.02608 0.00177 187.8 0.02677 0.00221 137.9 0.02734 0.00265 103.1 0.02773 0.00307 76.5 0.02783 0.00342 54.7 0.02428 0.00320 40.0 900 0.02251 0.00090 457.6 0.02340 0.00135 283.9 0.02422 0.00180 195.0 0.02494 0.00223 139.5 0.02552 0.00265 100.4 0.02590 0.00301 70.0 0.02604 0.00323 44.4 1000 0.01964 0.00046 1042.1 0.02066 0.00091 484.0 0.02162 0.00137 294.7 0.02250 0.00181 197.1 0.02328 0.00223 135.6 0.02395 0.00260 91.5 0.02456 0.00284 56.6 1100 0.00852 0.01782 0.00046 1107.7 0.01892 0.00092 504.4 0.01996 0.00138 298.8 0.02095 0.00181 191.8 0.02192 0.00219 123.5 0.02302 0.00245 73.7 1200 - 0.00789 0.01609 0.00047 1164.9 0.01730 0.00093 515.5 0.01850 0.00137 292.6 0.01975 0.00178 175.3 0.02135 0.00207 99.2 1300 - - 0.00694 0.01445 0.00047 1208.3 0.01585 0.00093 511.1 0.01740 0.00136 269.6 0.01948 0.00168 140.7 1400 - - - 0.00492 0.01294 0.00048 1226.4 0.01475 0.00092 479.5 0.01731 0.00129 217.3 vO ------- Table 5 (continued). TOTAL QUEUE EMISSIONS, (QgT), CRUISE COMPONENT EMISSION, (Qgc), AND QUEUE LENGTH AS A FUNCTION OF MAJOR AND CROSS-STREET VOLUMES AND CRUISE SPEED - SIGNALIZED INTERSECTIONS 00 o Cross-street volume (veh/br) 1400 1300 1200 1100 1000 900 800 El«nt V V Queue V V Queue V V Queue V V Queue V V Queue V V Queue V V Queue 100 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 200 0.05159 0.0000« 1901.4 0.04929 0.00032 367.9 0.04737 0.00068 173.2 0.04585 0.00113 103.9 0.0447 0.00166 70.2 0.04418 0.00225 51.0 300 0.04244 0.00022 796.5 0.04168 0.00051 347.2 0.04117 0.00086 205.7 0.04090 0.00125 139.0 0.04086 0.00170 101.2 0.04108 0.00220 77.3 0.04153 6.00273 60.9 400 0.01912 - - 0.03604 0.00035 670.4 0.03626 0.00074 314.7 0.0366S 0.00117 197.4 0.03718 0.00163 139.4 0.03786 0.00212 105.0 0.03867 0.0026* 82.3 Ma 500 - - - 0.01828 - - 0.02101 0.00042 698.6 0.03277 0.00087 333.4 0.03362 0.00134 211.9 0.03455 0.00183 151.1 0.03556 0.00234 114.5 600 - - - - - - 0.01609 - - 0.02897 0.00046 757.5 0.03004 0.00094 362.9 0.03117 0.00144 231.0 0.03232 0.00195 164. 5 700 - - - - - - - - - 0.01531 - - 0.02644 0.00049 826.6 0.02772 0.00099 395.2 0.02901 0.00151 250.5 800 - - - - - - - - - - - - 0.01306 - - 0.02420 0.00051 899.1 0.02562 0.00103 427.4 900 - - - - - - - _ - - - - - - - - - 0.02215 0.00053 971.8 ni/hr) 1000 - - - - - - - _ - - - - - - - - - 0.01003 - ~ 1100 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - ~ 1200 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 1300 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - "- - - 1400 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - ------- Table 5 (continued). TOTAL QUEUE EMISSIONS, (QQT), CRUISE COMPONENT EMISSION, (Qqc), AND QUEUE LENGTH AS A FUNCTION OF MAJOR AND CROSS-STREET VOLUMES AND CRUISE.SPEED - SIGNALIZED INTERSECTIONS oo Cross-street effective lane volume (veh/hr) 700 600 500 400 300 200 100 Element V OQC Queue V V Queue V V Queue V V Queue V V Queue "V V Queue V V Queue Major street voluae - (assuacd cruise speed is 30 ad/hr) 100 - - - 0.04785 0.00088 66.8 0.02854 0.00145 40.0 0.01703 0.00141 40.0 200 0.04273 0.00282 40.0 0.03387 0.00275 40.0 0.02763 0.00266 40.0 0.02287 0.00252 40.0 0.01233 | 0.01878 0.00134 j 0.00232 300 0.04221 0.00331 49.1 0.04307 0.00391 40.1 0.03625 0.00373 40.0 li 03032 a. 00349 40.0 C. 02475 0.00314 40.0 40.0 I 40.0 1 0.00949 i 0.01466 0.00122 40.0 0.00660 0.00097 40.0 0.00201 40.0 0.00965 0.00148 40.0 0.01896 0.00265 40.0 0.01222 0.00188 40.0 400 0.03958 0.00318 66.0 0.04055 0.000374 53.8 0.04152 0.00432 44.0 0.03787 0.00438 40.0 0.03056 0.00389 40.0 0.02308 0.00321 40.0 0.01479 0.00225 40.0 500 0.03661 0.00287 89.8 0.03766 0.00342 71.9 0.03866 0.00396 58.0 0.03951 0.00451 46.5 0.03664 0.00461 40.0 0.02738 0.00376 40.0 0.01756 0.00261 40.0 600 0.03349 0.00248 124.2 0.03463 0.00301 96.6 0.03569 0.00355 76.3 0.03660 0.00407 60.2 0.03722 0.00453 46.6 0.03214 0.00431 40.0 0.02066 0.00298 40.0 700 0.03029 0.00203 177.2 0.03153 0.00256 132.4 0.03269 0.00309 101.5 0.03370 0.00361 78.2 0.03445 0.00410 59.4 0.03477 0.00453 43.3 0.02423 0.00336 40.0 800 0.02702 0.00156 268.6 0.02837 0.00209 187.8 0.03976 0.00261 137.9 0.03079 0.00313 103.1 0.03171 0.00362 76.5 0.03229 0.00404 54.7 0.02844 0.00378 40.0 900 0.02367 0.00106 457.6 0.02515 0.00159 283.9 0.02656 0.00212 195.0 0.02785 0.00264 139.5 0.02897 0.00313 100.4 0.02982 0.00356 70.0 0.03023 0.00381 44.4 1000 0.02023 0.00054 1042.1 0.02185 0.00108 484.0 0.02339 0.00161 294.7 0.02485 0.00214 197.1 0.02618 0.00264 135.6 0.02733 0.00307 91.5 0.02825 0.00335 56.6 1100 0.00852 - - 0.01842 0.00055 1107.7 0.02012 0.00109 504.4 0.02175 0.00162 298.8 0.02330 0.00213 191.8 0.02477 0.00259 123.5 0.02621 0.00290 73.7 1200 : - - 0.00789 - - 0.01670 0.00055 1164.9 0.01851 0.00110 515.5 0.01019 0.00162 292.6 0.02207 0.00210 175.3 0.02404 0.00244 99.2 1300 - - - - - - 0.00694 - - 0.01507 0.00045 1108.2 0.01707 0.00110 511.1 0.01916 0.00160 269.6 0.02167 O.O0199 140.7 1400 - - - - - - - - - 0.00492 - - 0.01356 0.00056 1226.4 0.01595 O.O0109 479.5 0.01899 0.00132 217.3 ------- Table 5 (continued). TOTAL QUEUE EMISSIONS, (QgT), CRUISE COMPONENT EMISSION, (Qqc>, AND QUEUE LENGTH AS A FUNCTION OF MAJOR AND CROSS-STREET VOLUMES AND CRUISE SPEED - SIGNALIZED INTERSECTIONS effective lane volume (veh/hr) 1400 1300 1200 1100 1000 900 8OO Element V V Queue V n QC Queue V V Queue V Queue V Queue V V Queue V V Queue Major street voluae - (sssuaed cruise speed is 35 u/hr) 100 - - ~ - - - - - - - 200 - - 0.05167 0.00007 1901.4 0.04971 0.00038 367.9 0.04826 0.00081 173.2 0.04733 0.00134 103.9 0.04694 0.00197 70.2 0.04713 0.00268 51.0 300 0.04273 0.00027 796.5 0.04235 0.00061 347.2 0.04229 0.00102 205.7 0.04254 0.00149 139.0 0.04310 0.00203 101.2 0.04396 0.00262 77.3 0.04511 0.00325 60.9 400 0.01912 - 0.03650 0.00042 670.4 0.03724 0.00088 314.7 0.03818 0.00139 197.4 0.03932 0.00194 139.4 0.04064 0.00252 105.0 0.04212 0.00314 82.3 500 - : 0.01828 0.03256 0.00050 698.6 0.03390 0.00103 333.4 0.03537 0.00159 211.9 0.03695 0.00218 151.1 0.03863 0.00279 114.5 600 - - - 0.01609 0.02958 0.00055 757.5 0.03128 0.00112 362.9 0.03306 0.00171 231.0 0.03488 0.00232 164.5 700 - : - - 0.01531 - 0.027080 0.00058 826.6 0.02902 0.00118 395.2 0.03098 0.00180 250.5 800 - : - - - - 0.01306 - 0.02487 0.00061 899.1 0.02697 0.00123 427.4 900 - - - - : - ; - - 0.02284 0.00063 971.8 1000 - : - - : - - - - 0.01003 1100 - : - - - - - - - ; 1200 - : - - - - - - - ; 1300 - : - - - - - - - - 1400 - - - - - - - - ': - co to ------- Table 5 (continued). TOTAL QUEUE EMISSIONS, (QQT), CRUISE COMPONENT EMISSION, (QQC>, AND QUEUE LENGTH AS A FUNCTION OF MAJOR AND CROSS-STREET VOLUMES AND CRUISE SPEED - SIGNALIZED INTERSECTIONS CO to Cyo«» •!*««•. effective l«e *ol_* (vek/hr) 700 600 500 400 300 200 100 Cloett V V Ojme V V One V V 0— V V Oj-eoe V V q—e V V Ojuoe V V Oj—e Major «enet voliaM - (umaed cmue «peed is 35 m/hr) 100 - _ - 0.0*901 0.00105 66.8 0.030*4 0.00172 40.0 0.01888 0.0016* 40.0 0.0140* O.OD160 40.0 0.0110* 0.00145 40.0 0.00717 0.00115 40.0 200 0.0*4*3 0.00336 40.0. 0.03747 0.00327 40.0 0.09111 0.00316 4O.O 0.02617 O.OO300 40.0 0.021*2 0.00276 40.O O.O1730 0.0023* 40.0 0.01159 O.OO176 40.0 100 O.04654 0.0039* 49.1 0.0*819 0.00*65 40.1 0.04114 0.00444 40.0 0.034*8 0.00415 40.0 0.028*7 0.00374 40.0 0.02242 0.00315 40.0 O.O1469 400 0.04374 0.00379 66.0 0.045*5 0.00*46 \ 500 0.04037 0.00342 89.8 0.04214 0.00406 53.* 71.» j 0.0471* 0.00514 44.0 0.0*361 0.00521 40.0 0.03565 0.00463 4O.O O.02729 0.0*385 0.00472 58.0 0.04542 0.00537 46.5 0.04267 0.00548 40.0 0.03231 0.00382 0.00*48 40.0 | 40.0 , 1 0.01774 0.00224 j O.OO26* 4O.O j 40. 0 0.02098 0.00311 40.0 600 0.03674 0.00295 124.2 0.03857 0.00358 96.6 0.04034 0.00422 76.3 0.04194 0.00*85 60.2 0.0*322 0.00545 46.6 0.0377* 0.00513 40.0 0.02*56 0.0035* 40.0 700 0.03295 0.00242 177.2 0.03489 0.00305 132.4 0.0367* 0.00368 101.4 0.038*3 0.00*30 78.2 0.03983 0.004*8 59.4 0.04070 0.00539 43.3 0.02863 0.00*00 4O.O 800 0.02906 0.00185 268.6 0.03111 0.00248 187.8 0.03307 0.00311 137.9 0.03489 0.00373 103.1 0.036*5 0.00431 76.5 0.03758 0.00*81 5*. 7 0.03339 0.00449 40.0 900 0.02506 - 0.00126 457.6 0.02724 0.00189 283.9 0.02933 0.00252 1»5.0 0.03130 0.0031* 139.5 0.03307 0.00372 100.4 0.03448 0.00*23 70.0 0.03522 0.00*53 44.4 1000 0.0209* 0.0006* 10*2.1 0.02326 0.00128 484.0 0.02551 0.00192 294.7 0.02765 0.00254 197.1 0.02963 0.00314 135.6 0.03136 0.00366 91.5 0.0326* 0.00399 56.6 1100 0.00852 - - 0.0191* 0.00065 1107.7 0.02155 0.00130 504.4 0.023*8 0.00193 298.8 0.02610 0.00254 191.8 0.02816 0.00308 123.5 0.03000 0.0034] 73.7 1200 - - - 0.00789 - - 0.01742 0.00066 1164.9 0.01995 0.00131 515.5 0.02241 0.00193 292.6 0.02482 0.00250 175.3 0.02724 0.00291 99.2 1300 • - - - - - _ 0.00694 - - 0.01580 0.00066 1208.3 0.01851 0.0013 511.1 0.02126 0.00190 269.6 0.02*28 0.00236 140.7 1400 - - - - - - - - - 0.00*92 - - 0.01*30 0.00067 1226.4 0.0173* 0.00130 479.5 0.02099 0.00181 217.3 ------- Table 5 (continued). TOTAL QUEUE EMISSIONS, (QQT), CRUISE COMPONENT EMISSION, (QQC), AND QUEUE LENGTH AS A FUNCTION OF MAJOR AND CROSS-STREET VOLUMES AND CRUISE SPEED - SIGNALIZED INTERSECTIONS oo Cro»s-»treet effective lane volume (vehfhr) 1400 1300 1200 1100 100O 900 800 Element V V Queue V V Queue V V Queue V V Queue V V Queue V V Queue V V Queue Msjor street voluae - (assuswd cruise speed is 40 u/hr) 100 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 200 - - - 0.05177 0.00009 1901.4 0.05022 0.00046 367.9 0.04932 0.00098 173.2 0.04909 0.00162 103.9 0.04933 0.00238 70.2 0.05065 0.00323 51.0 300 0.04308 0.00032 796.5 0.04315 0.000073 347.2 0.04362 0.00123 205.7 0.04450 0.00180 139.0 0.04576 0.00245 101.2 0.04739 0.00316 77.3 0.04938 0.00393 60.9 400 0.01912 - - 0.03705 0.00051 670.4 0.03840 0.00107 314.7 0.04001 0.00168 197.4 0.04186 0.00234 139.4 0.04395 0.00304 105.0 0.04625 0.00379 82.3 500 - - - 0.01828 - - 0.03322 0.00060 698.6 0.03525 0.00124 333.4 0.03746 0.00192 211.9 0.03981 0.00263 151.1 0.04229 0.00336 114.5 600 - - - - - - 0.01609 - - 0.03030 0.00066 757.5 0.03275 0.00135 362.9 0.03530 0.00207 231.0 0.03793 0.00280 164.5 700 - - - - - - - - - 0.01531 - - 0.02785 0.00070 826.6 0.03057 0.00143 395.2 0.03334 0.00217 250.5 800 - - - - - - - - - - - - 0.01306 - - 0.02567 0.00073 899.1 0.02858 0.00148 427.4 900 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 0.02366 0.00076 971.8 1000 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 0.01003 - - 1100 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 1200 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 1300 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 1400 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - ------- Table 5 (continued). TOTAL QUEUE EMISSIONS, (QQT), CRUISE COMPONENT EMISSION, (QgC), AND QUEUE LENGTH AS A FUNCTION OF MAJOR AND CROSS-STREET VOLUMES AND CRUISE SPEED - SIGNALIZED INTERSECTIONS oo Crocs-atreet effective l«ae voluae (veh/br) 700 600 500 400 300 200 100 Element V V Queue V V Queue V V Queue V V Queue V V Queue V V Queue V V Queue Major fttreet volume - (•••med cruue apeed im 40 100 - - - 0.05039 0.00127 66.8 0.03270 0.00208 40.0 0.02107 0.00202 40.0 0.01618 0.00192 40.0 0.01300 0.00175 40.0 0.00939 0.00139 40.0 200 0.05083 0.00405 40.0 0.04177 0.00395 40.0 0.03526 0.00381 40.0 0.03011 0.00362 40.0 0.02544 0.00333 40.0 0.02044 0.00289 40.0 0.01390 0.00212 40.0 300 0.05170 0.00475 49.1 0.05430 0.00561 40.1 0.04697 0.00536 40.0 0.04032 0.00500 40.0 0.03377 0.00451 40.0 0.02655 0.00380 40.0 0.01762 0.00270 40.0 400 0.04871 0.00457 66.0 0.05130 0.00537 53.8 0.05392 0.00620 44.0 0.05049 0.00628 40.0 0.04172 0.00558 40.0 0.03231 0.00461 40.0 0.02125 0.00323 40.0 500 0.0448*6 0.00412 89.8 0.04747 0.00490 71.9 0.05004 0.00569 58.0 0.05246 0.00647 46.5 0.04986 0.00661 40.0 0.03819 0.00540 40.0 0.02506 0.00375 40.0 600 0.04060 0.00356 124.2 0.04327 0.00432 96.6 0.04587 0.00509 76.3 0.04830 0.00585 60.2 0.05037 0.00657 46.6 0.04453 0.00619 40.0 0.02921 0.00427 40.0 700 0.03613 0.00292 177.2 0.03889 0.00368 132.4 0.04156 0.00444 101.4 0.04406 0.00518 78.2 0.04623 0.00589 59.4 0.04776 0.00650 43.3 0.03388 0.00483 40.0 800 0.03149 0.00223 268.6 0.03436 0.00299 187.8 0.03715 0.00375 137.9 0.03977 0.00449 103.1 0.04211 0.00519 76.5 0.04389 0.00580 54.7 0.03928 0.00542 40.0 900 0.02671 0.00152 457.6 0.02972 0.00228 283.9 0.03264 0.00304 195.0 0.03542 0.00379 139.5 0.03796 0.00449 100.4 0.04004 0.00411 70.0 0.04117 0.00547 44.4 •i/hr) 1000 0.02178 0.00077 1042.1 0.02494 0.00155 484.0 0.02802 0.00231 294.7 0.03098 0.00307 197.1 0.03375 0.00378 135.6 0.03616 0.00441 91.5 0.03788 0.00481 S6.6 1100 O.O0852 - - 0.01999 0.00079 1107.7 0.02325 0.00157 504.4 0.02641 0.00233 298.8 0.02943 0.00306 191.8 0.03220 0.00372 123.5 0.03453 0.00416 73.7 1200 - - - 0.00789 - - 0.01829 0.00079 1164.9 0.02166 0.00158 515.5 0.02494 0.00233 292.6 0.02809 0.00301 175.3 0.03106 0.00351 99.2 1300 - - - - - - 0.00694 ' - 0.01667 0.00080 1208.3 0.02023 0.00158 511.1 0.02375 0.00230 269.6 0.02738 0.00285 140.7 1400 - - - - - - - - - 0.00492 - - 0.01517 0.00081 1226.4 0.01908 0.00156 479.5 0.02337 0.00219 217.3 ------- Table 5 (continued), TOTAL QUEUE EMISSIONS, (QQT), CRUISE COMPONENT EMISSION, (Qgc), AND QUEUE LENGTH AS A FUNCTION OF MAJOR AND CROSS-STREET VOLUMES AND CRUISE SPEED - SIGNALIZED INTERSECTIONS oo Cro*«-»treet effective lane vol.— « (veh/hr) 1400 1300 1200 1100 1000 900 800 Elemt V V Queue V V Queue V V Queue V V Queue V V Queue V V Queue V V Queue Majur afreet voluvje - («••!•! il cruise speed is 45 •i/hr) 100 - - - - - - - 200 - 0.05189 0.00011 1901.4 0.05081 0.00057 367.9 0.05059 0.00120 173.2 0.05119 0.00198 103.9 0.05260 0.00291 70.2 0.05483 0.00395 51.0 300 0.04350 0.00039 796.5 O.O4410 O.OO089 347.2 0.04521 0.00150 205.7 0.04683 O.OO22O 139.0 0.04892 0.00299 101.2 0.05147 0.00386 77.3 0.05446 0.00480 60.9 400 0.01912 0.03771 0.00062 670.4 0.03978 0.00130 314.7 O.O4218 O.O0205 197.4 0.04489 0.00286 139.4 0.04789 0.00372 105.0 0.05114 O.OO463 82.3 500 - 0.01828 0.03400 0.00074 698.6 0.03686 0.00152 333.4 0.03994 0.00235 211.9 0.04321 0.00321 151.1 0.04664 O.OO*11 114.5 600 - - 0.016O9 0.03116 O.OO081 757.5 0.03450 0.00165 362.9 0.03798 0.00253 231.0 0.04156 0.00343 164.5 700 - - - 0.01531 0.02876 0.00086 826.6 0.03242 0.00174 395.2 0.03614 0.00265 250.5 800 - - - - - 0.013O6 0.02662 O.OO090 899.1 0.03O49 O.O0181 427.4 9OO - - - - - - 0.02464 O.OO092 971.8 1000 - - - - - - 0.01003 1100 - - - - - - - 1200 - - - - - - - 1300 - - - - - - - 1400 - - - - - - - ------- Table 5 (continued). TOTAL QUEUE EMISSIONS, (QoT), CRUISE COMPONENT EMISSION, (QQC), AND QUEUE LENGTH AS A FUNCTION OF MAJOR AND CROSS-STREET VOLUMES AND CRUISE SPEED - SIGNALIZED INTERSECTIONS f f volune (veh/hr) 700 600 500 400 300 200 100 Ele»»t V V Queue V V Queue V V Queue V V Queue V V Queue V V Queue V V Queue 100 - - - 0.05203 0.00155 66.8 0.03539 0.00254 40.0 0.02369 0.00247 40.0 0.01866 0.00235 40.0 0.01526 0.00214 40.0 0.01119 0.00170 40.0 200 0.05607 0.00495 40.0 0.04687 0.00483 40.0 0.04019 O.OO466 40.0 0.03479 0.00442 40.0 0.02975 0.00407 40.0 0.02417 0.00353 40.0 0.01664 0.00259 40.0 300 0.05784 0.00580 49.1 0.06155 0.00686 40.1 0.05390 0.00655 40.0 0.04679 0.00611 40.0 0.03960 0.00551 40.0 0.03146 0.00464 40.0 0.02111 0.00330 40.0 400 0.05462 0.00558 66.0 0.05825 0.00657 53.8 0.06194 0.00758 44.0 0.05857 0.00768 40.0 0.04893 0.00682 40.0 0.03827 0.00564 40.0 0.02543 0.00395 40.0 MainT najox 500 0.05019 0.00504 89.8 0.05380 0.00599 71.9 0.05740 0.00695 58.0 0.06083 0.00791 46.5 0.05841 0.00808 40.0 0.04516 0.00660 40.0 0.02990 0.00458 40.0 600 0.04520 0.00434 124.2 0.04886 0.00528 96.6 0.05245 0.00622 76.3 0.05586 0.00714 60.2 0.05886 0.00803 46.6 0.05254 0.00757 40.0 0.03474 0.00522 40.0 mt - (aaiuw 700 0.03990 0.00357 117.2 0.04364 0.00449 132.4 0.04730 0.00542 101.4 0.05076 0.00633 78.2 0.05384 0.00719 59.4 0.05616 0.00794 43.3 0.04012 0.00590 40.0 800 0.03438 0.00273 268.6 0.03824 0.00366 187.8 0.04200 0.00458 137.9 0.04558 0.00549 103.1 0.04882 0.00635 76.5 0.05139 0.00709 54.7 0.04629 0.00662 40.0 *ed is 45 u 900 0.02867 0.00185 457.6 0.03267 0.00279 283.9 0.03658 0.00372 195.0 0.04032 0.00463 139.5 0.04376 0.00549 100.4 0.04664 0.00624 70.0 0.04824 0.00666 44.4 far) 1000 0.02278 0.00094 1042.1 0.02694 0.00189 484. 0 0.03101 0.00283 294.7 0.03495 0.00375 197.1 0.03864 0.00462 135.6 0.04187 0.00539 91.5 0.04409 0.00588 56.6 1100 0.00852 - - 0.02101 0.00096 1107.7 0.02527 0.00191 504.4 0.02943 0.00285 298.8 0.03339 0.00374 191.8 0.03700 0.00454 123.5 0.03990 0.00508 73.7 1200 - - - 0.00789 - - 0.01931 0.00097 1164.9 0.02370 0.00193 515.5 0.02796 0.00285 292.6 0.03199 0.00368 175.3 0.03559 0.00428 99.2 1300 - - - - - - 0.00694 - - 0.01771 O.OOO9B 1206.3 0.02227 0.00193 511.1 0.02673 0.0028 269.6 0.03107 0.00348 140.7 1400 - - - - - - - - 0.00492 - - 0.01622 0.00098 1226.4 0.02110 0.00191 479.5 0.02620 0.00267 217.3 oo ------- Table 6. FREE FLOW EMISSION RATE Qf, IN GRAMS PER METER-SECOND FUNCTION OF LANE VOLUME AND VEHICLE SPEED ON ROADWAYS AS A Cruise speed (mi/hr) 15 20 25 30 35 40 45 Traffic volume for lane (vehicles per hour) 100 0.00086 0.00059 0.00045 0.00037 0.00032 0.00030 0.00029 200 0.00171 0.00119 0.00090 0.00074 0.00065 0.00060 0.00058 300 0.00257 0.00178 0.00135 0.00111 0.00097 0.00090 0.00086 400 0.00342 0.00237 0.00180 0.00148 0.00129 0.00119 0.00115 500 0.00428 0.00296 0.00225 0.00185 0.00162 0.00149 0.00144 600 0.00514 0.00356 0.00270 0.00222 0.00194 0.00179 0.00173 700 0.00599 0.00415 0.00315 0.00259 0.00226 0.00209 0.00202 800 0.00685 0.00474 0.00361 0.00296 0.00258 0.00239 0.00230 900 0.00770 0.00533 0.00406 0.00333 0.00291 0.00269 0.00259 1000 0.00856 0.00593 0.00451 0.00370 0.00323 0.00298 0.00288 1100 0.00942 0.00652 0.00496 0.00406 0.00355 0.00328 0.00317 1200 0.01027 0.00711 0.00541 0.00443 0.00388 0.00358 0.00346 1300 0.01113 0.00770 0.00586- 0.00480 0.00420 0.00388 0.00374 1400 0.01198 0.00830 0.00631 0.00517 0.00452 0.00418 0.00403 00 oo ------- Table 7. TOTAL QUEUE EMISSIONS, (QqT), CRUISE COMPONENT EMISSION, (Qqc), AND QUEUE LENGTH AS A FUNCTION OF MAJOR AND CROSS-STREET VOLUMES AND CRUISE SPEED - UNSIGNALIZED INTERSECTIONS oo VO Cross-street •Effective l«ne voluse (veh/hr) 1400 1300 1200 1100 1000 900 800 Elemt V V Queue V V Queue V V Queue V Queue V V Queue V V Queue V V Qoeae Major *treet voluue (vehicles/hour) cruise speed is 15 m/hr 100 0.02945 0.00086 40.0 0.01604 O.OO086 40.0 0.01056 • O.OO086 40.0 0.00777 0.00086 40.0 0.00619 0.00086 40.0 0.00522 0.00086 40.0 O.OO46O 0.00086 40.0 2OO 0.0 0.00172 40.0 0.0 0.00172 40.0 0.0 O.O0172 4O.O 0.05160 0.00039 176.9 0.04640 0.00172 40.0 0.02456 O.O0172 40.0 0.01662 0.00172 40.0 300 0.0 0.00258 40.0 0.0 0.00258 40.0 0.0 0.00258 40.0 0.0 0.00258 40.0 0.0 0.00258 40.0 0.0 0.00258 40.0 0.05237 0.00109 94.4 400 0.0 0.00344 40.0 0.0 0.00344 40.0 0.0 0.00344 40.0 0.0 0.00344 40.0 0.0 0.00344 40.0 0.0 0.00344 40.0 0.0 0.00344 40.0 500 O.Q O.OO430 40.0 0.0 0.00430 40.0 0.0 O.OO430 40.0 0.0 0.00430 40.0 0.0 0.00430 40.0 0.0 0.00430 40.0 0.0 0.00430 40.0 600 0.0 0.00517 40.0 0.0 0.00517 40.0 0.0 0.00517 40.0 0.0 0.00517 40.0 0.0 0.00517 40.0 0.0 0.00517 40.0 0.0 0.00517 40.0 700 0.0 O.OO603 40.0 0.0 O.O0603 40.0 0.0 0.00603 40.0 0.0 0.00603 40.0 0.0 0.00603 40.0 0.0 0.00603 40.0 0.0 0.00603 40.0 800. 0.0 0.00689 40.0 0.0 0.00689 40.0 0.0 0.00689 40.0 O.O 0.00689 40.0 0.0 0.00689 40.0 0.0 0.00689 40.0 0.0 0.00689 40. O 900 0.0 0.00775 40.0 0.0 0.00775 40.0 0.0 0.00775 40.0 0.0 0.00775 40.0 0.0 0.00775 40.0 0.0 0.00775 40.0 O.O O.00775 40.0 1000 0.0 0.00861 40.0 0.0 0.00861 40.0 0.0 0.00861 40.0 0.0 0.00861 40.0 0.0 O.OOS61 40.0 0.0 O.OOB61 40.0 0.0 0.00861 40.0 1100 0.0 0.00947 40.0 0.0 0.00947 40.0 0.0 O.OO947 40.0 0.0 0.00947 40.0 0.0 O.O0947 40.0 0.0 0.00947 40.0 0.0 0.00947 4O.O 1200 0.0 0.01033 40.0 0.0 0.01033 40.0 0.0 0.01033 40.0 0.0 0.01033 40.0 0.0 0.01033 40.0 0.0 0.01033 40.0 0.0 0.1033 40.0 1300 0.0 0.01119 40.0 0.0 0.01119 40.0 0.0 0.01119 40.0 0.0 0.01119 40.0 O.O 0.01119 40.0 0.0 0.01119 40.0 0.0 0.01119 40.0 1400 0.0 0.01205 40.0 0.0 0.01205 40.0 0.0 0.01205 40.0 0.0 0.01205 40.0 O.O 0.01205 40.0 0.0 0.01205 40.0 0.0 0.01205 40.0 ------- Table 7 (continued). TOTAL QUEUE EMISSIONS, (QqT), CRUISE COMPONENT EMISSION, (Qoc), AND QUEUE LENGTH AS A FUNCTION OF MAJOR AND CROSS-STREET VOLUMES AND CRUISE SPEED - UNSIGNALIZED INTERSECTIONS Cross-street effect ive l«ne volume (veh/lir) 700 600 500 400 300 200 100 Element V V Queue V V Queue V V Queue V V Queue V V Queue V V Queue V ^QC Queue 100 0.00419 0.00086 40.0 0.00391 0.00086 40.0 0.00372 0.00086 40.0 0.00358 0.00086 40.0 0.00348 0.00086 40.0 0.00341 0.00086 40.0 0.00336 O.OO086 40.0 200 0.01276 0.00172 40.0 0.01059 0.00172 40.0 0.00928 0.00172 40.0 0.00844 0.00172 40.0 0.00787 0.00172 40.0 0.00748 0.00172 40.0 0.00720 0.00172 40.0 300 O.O4331 0.00258 40.0 0.02647 0.00258 40.0 0.01959 0.00258 40.0 0.01605 0.00258 40.0 0.01399 0.00258 40.0 0.01269 0.00258 40.0 0.01184 0.00258 40.0 400 0.0 0.00344 40.0 0.05351 0.00127 108.3 0.05036 0.00344 40.0 0.03164 0.00344 40.0 0.02405 0.00344 40.0 0.02014 0.00344 40.0 0.01785 0.00344 40.0 ' '5 500 0.0 0.00430 40.0 0.0 0.00430 40.0 0.0 0.00430 40.0 0.05622 0.00252 68.4 0.04697 0 . 00430 40.0 0.03293 0.00430 40.0 0.02659 0.00430 40.0 600 0.0 0.00517 40.0 0.0 0.00517 40.0 0.0 0.00517 40.0 0.0 0.00517 40.0 0.05494 0.00142 145.1 0.06221 0.00494 41.8 0.04208 0.00517 40.0 700 0.0 0.00603 40.0 0.0 0.00603 40.0 0.0 0.00603 40.0 0.0 0.00603 40.0 0.0 0.00603 40.0 0.05369 0.00064 379.3 0.06211 0.00446 54-0 BOO 1 900 0.0 0.00689 40.0 0.0 0.00689 40.0 0.0 0.00689 40.0 0.0 0.00689 40.0 0.0 0.00689 40.0 0.0 0.00689 40.0 0.05278 0.00016 1729.4 0.0 0.00775 40.0 0.0 0.00775 40.0 0.0 0.00775 40.0 0.0 0.00775 40.0 0.0 0.00775 40.0 0.0 0.00775 40.0 0.0 0.00775 40.0 •i/hr 1000 0.0 0.00861 40.0 0.0 0.00861 40.0 0.0 0.00861 40.0 0.0 0.00861 40.0 0.0 O.OO861 40.0 0.0 0.00861 40.0 0.0 O.OO861 40.0 1100 0.0 0.00947 40.0 0.0 0.00947 40.0 0.0 0.00947 40.0 0.0 0.00947 40.0 0.0 0.00947 40.0 0.0 0.00947 40.0 0.0 0.00947 40.0 1200 0.0 0.01033 40.0 0.0 0.01033 40.0 0.0 0.01033 40.0 0.0 0.01033 40.0 0.0 0.01033 40.0 0.0 0.01033 40.0 0.0 0.01033 40.0 1300 0.0 0.01119 40.0 0.0 0.01119 40.0 0.0 0.01119 40.0 0.0 0.01119 40.0 0.0 0.01119 40.0 0.0 0.01119 40.0 0.0 0.01119 40.0 1400 0.0 0.01205 40.0 0.0 0.01205 40.0 0.0 0.01205 40.0 0.0 0.012O5 40.0 0.0 0.01205 40.0 0.0 0.01205 40.0 0.0 0.01205 40.0 ------- Table 7 (continued). VO TOTAL QUEUE EMISSIONS, (Qqx), CRUISE COMPONENT EMISSION, (Qqc), AND QUEUE LENGTH AS A FUNCTION OF MAJOR AND CROSS-STREET VOLUMES AND CRUISE SPEED - UNSIGNALIZED INTERSECTIONS CroM-etnet effective l«u« 1400 1300 1200 1100 1000 900 800 EUuent V V Queue V V Qaeue V V Qaeue V V V V Queue V V Queue V Queue Major street volnB* (vehiclei/hoar) cmue 100 0.03066 0.00106 40.0 0.01725 0.00106 40.0 0.01177 0.00106 40.0 0.00898 0.00106 40.0 0.00739 0.00106 40.0 O.OO643 0.00106 40.0 0.005S1 O.O0106 40.0 200 0.0 0.00212 40.0 0.0 0.00212 40.0 0.0 0.00212 40.0 0.05215 0.00048 176.9 O.O4882 0.00212 40.0 0.02698 0.00212 40.0 0.01904 O.O0212 40.0 300 0.0 0.00318 40.0 0.0 0.00318 40.0 0.0 0.00318 40.0 0.0 0.00318 40.0 0.0 0.00318 40.0 0.0 0.00318 40.0 0.05391 0.00135 94.4 400 0.0 0.00424 40.0 0.0 0.00424 40.0 0.0 0.00424 40.0 0.0 0.00424 40.0 0.0 0.00424 40.0 0.0 0.00424 40.0 O.O 0.00424 40.0 500 0.0 0.00530 40.0 0.0 0.00530 40.0 0.0 0.00530 40.0 0.0 0.00530 40.0 0.0 0.00530 40.0 0.0 0.00530 40.0 0.0 0.00530 40.0 600 0.0 0.00636 40.0 0.0 0.00636 40.0 0.0 0.00636 40.0 0.0 0.00636 40.0 0.0 0.00636 40.0 0.0 0.00636 40.0 0.0 0.00636 40.0 700 " 0.0 0.00742 40.0 0.0 0.00742 40.0 0.0 0.00742 40.0 0.0 0.00742 40.0 0.0 0.00742 40.0 0.0 0.00742 40.0 0.0 0.00742 40.0 800 0.0 0.00848 40.0 0.0 0.00848 40.0 0.0 0.00848 40.0 0.0 0.00848 40.0 0.0 0.00848 40.0 0.0 O.OO848 40.0 0.0 0.00848 40.0 •peed i, 20 mi/hi 900 0.0 0.00954 40.0 0.0 0.00954 40.0 0.0 0.00954 40.0 0.0 0.00954 40.0 0.0 0.00954 40.0 0.0 0.00954 40.0 0.0 0.00954 40.0 1000 0.0 0.01060 40.0 0.0 0.01060 40.0 0.0 0.01060 40.0 0.0 0.0106O 40.0 0.0 0.0106O 40.0 0.0 0.0106O 40.0 0.0 0.01060 40.0 1100 0.0 0.01166 40.0 0.0 0.01166 40.0 0.0 0.01166 40.0 0.0 0.01166 40.0 0.0 0.01166 40.0 0.0 0.01166 40.0 O.O 0.01166 40.0 1200 0.0 0.01272 40.0 0.0 0.01272 40.0 0.0 0.01272 40.0 0.0 O.O1272 40.0 0.0 0.01272 40.0 0.0 0.01272 40.0 D.O O.OU72 40.0 1300 0.0 0.01377 40.0 0.0 0.01377 40.0 0.0 O.O1377 40.0 0.0 0.01377 40.0 0.0 0.01377 40.0 0.0 0.01377 40.0 0.0 0.01377 40.0 1400 0.0 0.01413 40.0 0.0 0.01483 40.0 0.0 0.01483 40.0 0.0 0.01483 40.0 0.0 0.01483 40.0 0.0 0.01483 40.0 0.0 0.01483 40.0 ------- Table 7 (continued). TOTAL QUEUE EMISSIONS, (QnT), CRUISE COMPONENT EMISSION, (Qoc), AND QUEUE LENGTH AS A FUNCTION OF MAJOR AND CROSS-STREET VOLUMES AND CRUISE SPEED - UNSIGNALIZED INTERSECTIONS effective lane volume (v«h/br) 700 600 500 400 300 200 100 -. V V Queue V V Queue V V Queue V V Queue V V Queue V V Queue V "QC QOTJ* Major *tr«ct Tola** (v«hiclea/hoar) cruiie ip«ed i« 20 ai/hr 100 0.00540 0.00106 40.0 0.00512 0.00106 40.0 0.00493 0.00106 40.0 0.00479 0.00106 40.0 0.00469 0.00106 40.0 0.00462 0.00106 40.0 O.OO456 0.00106 40.0 200 0.01517 0.00212 40.0 0.01301 0.00212 40.0 0.01170 0.00212 40.0 0.01083 0.00212 40.0 0.01029 0.00212 40.0 0.00990 0.00212 40.0 0.00962 0.00212 40.0 300 0.04693 0.00318 40.0 0.03010 0.00318 40.0 0.02322 0.00318 40.0 0.01968 0.00318 40.0 0.01761 0.00318 40.0 0.01632 0.00318 40.0 0.01547 0.00318 40.0 400 0.0 0.00424 40.0 0.05530 0.00157 108.3 0.05520 0.00424 40.0 0.03647 0.00424 40.0 0.02889 0.00424 40.0 0.02497 0.00424 40.0 0.02269 0.00424 40.0 500 0.0 0.00530 40.0 0.0 0.00530 40.0 0.0 0.00530 40.0 0.05975 0.00310 68.4 0.05301 0.00530 40.0 0.03898 0.00530 40.0 0.03264 0.00530 40.0 600 0.0 0.00636 40.0 0.0 0.00636 40.0 0.0 0.00636 40.0 0.0 0.00636 40.0 0.05694 0.00175 145.1 0.06915 0.00608 41.8 0.04934 0.00636 41.8 700 0.0 0.00742 40.0 0.0 0.00742 40.0 0.0 0.00742 40.0 0.0 0.00742 40.0 0.0 0.00742 40.0 0.05459 0.00078 379.3 0.06838 0.005*9 BOO 0.0 0.00848 40.0 0.0 0.00848 40.0 0.0 0.00848 40.0 0.0 0.00848 40.0 0.0 0.00848 40.0 0.0 0.00848 40.0 0.05301 0.00020 1729.4 900 0.0 0.00954 40.0 0.0 0.00954 40.0 0.0 0.00954 40.0 0.0 0.00954 40.0 0.0 0.00954 40.0 0.0 0.00954 40.0 0.0 0.00954 40.0 1000 0.0 0.01060 40.0 0.0 0.01060 40.0 0.0 0.01060 40.0 0.0 0.01060 40.0 0.0 0.01060 40.0 0.0 0.01060 40.0 0.0 0.01060 40.0 1100 0.0 0.01166 40.0 0.0 0.01166 40.0 0.0 0.01166 40.0 0.0 0.01166 40.0 0.0 0.01166 40.0 0.0 0.01166 40.0 0.0 0.0116* 40.0 1200 1300 1400 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.01272 '0.01377 0.01413 40.0 40.0 40.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.01272 0.01377 0.01413 40.0 40.0 40.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.01272 0.01377 0.01413 40.0 40.0 40.0 0.0 . 0.0 0.0 0.01272 0.01377 0.01413 40.0 40.0 40.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.01272 0.01377 0.014(3 40.0 40.0 40.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.01272 0.01377 0.014(3 40.0 40.0 40.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.01272 0.01177 0.01483 40.0 40.0 40.0 vO NJ ------- Table 7 (continued). TOTAL QUEUE EMISSIONS, (QqT), CRUISE COMPONENT EMISSION, (Qqc), ANI> QUEUE LENGTH AS A FUNCTION OF MAJOR AND CROSS-STREET VOLUMES AND CRUISE SPEED - UNSIGNALIZED INTERSECTIONS U> Cross-street effective l«ne volume (veh/hr) 1400 1300 1200 1100 1000 900 800 Element V V Queue V V Queue V V Queue 0 V Queue V V Queue V V Queue V V Queue Mejor street volume (vehicles/hour) cruise speed is 25 ni/hr 1OO 0.03205 0.00126 40.0 0.01864 0.00126 40.0 0.01316 0.00126 40.0 0.01037 O.OO126 40.0 0.00879 0.00126 40.0 0.00782 O.O0126 40.0 0.00720 0.00126 40.0 200 0.0 0.00252 40.0 0.0 0.00252 40.0 0.0 0.00252 40.0 0.05278 0.00057 176.9 0.05160 0.00252 40.0 0.02976 0.00252 40.0 0.02182 0.00252 40.0 300 0.0 0.00378 40.0 0.0 0.00378 40.0 0.0 0.00378 40.0 0.0 0.00378 40.0 0.0 0.00378 40.0 0.0 0.00378 40.0 0.05568 0.00160 94.4 400 0.0 0.00504 40.0 0.0 0.00504 40.0 0.0 0.00504 40.0 0.0 0.00504 40.0 0.0 0.00504 40.0 0.0 0.00504 40.0 0.0 0.00504 40.0 500 0.0 0.00630 40.0 0.0 0.00630 40.0 0.0 0.00630 40.0 0.0 0.00630 40.0 0.0 0.00630 40.0 0.0 0.00630 40.0 0.0 0.00630 40.0 600 0.0 0.00756 40.0 0.0 0.00756 40.0 0.0 0.00756 40.0 0.0 0.00756 40.0 0.0 0.00756 40.0 0.0 0.00756 40.0 0.0 0.00756 40.0 700 0.0 0.00881 40.0 0.0 0.00881 40.0 0.0 0.00881 40.0 0.0 0.00881 40.0 0.0 0.00881 40.0 0.0 0.00881 40.0 0.0 0.00881 40.0 800 0.0 0.01007 40.0 0.0 0.01007 40.0 o.o' 0.01007 40.0 0.0 0.01007 40.0 0.0 0.01007 40.0 0.0 0.01007 40.0 0.0 0.01007 40.0 900 0.0 0.01133 40.0 0.0 O.D1133 40.0 0.0 0.01133 40.0 0.0 0.01133 40.0 0.0 0.01133 40.0 0.0 0.01133 40.0 0.0 0.01133 40.0 1000 0.0 0.01259 40.0 0.0 0.01259 40.0 0.0 0.01259 40.0 0.0 0.01259 40.0 0.0 0.01259 40.0 0.0 0.01259 40.0 0.0 0.01259 .40.0 1100 0.0 0.01385 40.0 0.0 0.01385 40.0 0.0 0.0138S 40.0 0.0 0.01385 40.0 0.0 0.01385 40.0 0.0 0.01385 40.0 0.0 0.01385 40.0 1200 0.0 0.01511 40.0 0.0 0.01511 40.0 0.0 0.01511 40.0 0.0 0.01511 40.0, 0.0 0.01511 40.0 0.0 0.0511 40.0 0.0 0.01511 40,0 1300 0.0 0.01637 40.0 0.0 0.01637 40.0 0.0 0.01637 40.0 0.0 0.01637 40.0 0.0 0.01637 40.0 0.0 0.01637 40.0 0.0 0.01637 40.0 1400 0.0 0.01763 40.0 0.0 0.01763 40.0 0.0 0.01763 40.0 0.0 0.01763 40.0 0.0 0.01763 40.0 0.0 0.01763 40.0 0.0 0.01763 40.0 ------- Table 7 (continued). TOTAL QUEUE EMISSIONS, (Qpr), CRUISE COMPONENT EMISSION, (Qgc>> AND QUEUE LENGTH AS A FUNCTION OF MAJOR AND CROSS-STREET VOLUMES AND CRUISE SPEED - UNSIGNALIZED INTERSECTIONS VD effcrxne laae no tarn 50* *«• « MO » a t V V qx-e V One V V V V V V ------- Table 7 (continued). TOTAL QUEUE EMISSIONS, (QQT>, CRUISE COMPONENT EMISSION, (QgC), AND QUEUE LENGTH AS A FUNCTION OF MAJOR AND CROSS-STREET VOLUMES AND CRUISE SPEED - UNSIGNALIZED INTERSECTIONS Oi Cross-street effective l««e volne (veh/hr) 1400 Element V "oc | Qoere 13OO 12OO V V V i O^. 1100 <*ne V V : Qoeoe 1 ' ^OT 900 800 £L V V Qoeoe V V Ones* Msjor street volisse (vehicles/hour) cruise speed is 30 ni/hr) 100 0.03369 0.00149 40.0 0.02028 0.00149 40.0 0.01480 O.O0149 40.0 0.01201 O.O0149 40.0 0.01O42 0.00149 40.0 O.OO9*6 O.O0149 40.0 O.OO8B4 0.00149 40.0 200 0.0 0.00297 40.0 0.0 0.00297 40.0 0.0 O.OO297 40.0 0.05352 0.00067 176.9 0.05488 0.00297 40.0 0.03304 0.00297 40.0 0.02510 0.00297 40.0 300 0.0 0.00446 40.0 0.0 0.00446 40.0 0.0 0.00446 40.0 0.0 O.O0446 40.0 0.0 0.00446 40.0 0.0 O.OO446 4O.O 0.05776 0.00189 40.0 400 0.0 0.00595 40.0 0.0 0.00595 40.0 0.0 0.00595 40.0 0.0 0.00595 40.0 0.0 0.00595 40.0 0.0 0.00595 40.0 0.0 0.00595 40.0 500 0.0 0.00743 40.0 0.0 0.00743 40.0 0.0 O.OO743 40.0 0.0 0.00743 40.0 0.0 0.00743 40.0 0.0 O.OO743 40.0 0.0 0.00743 40.0 600 0.0 0.00892 40.0 0.0 0.00892 40.0 0.0 0.00892 40.0 0.0 0.00892 40.0 0.0 O.OO892 40.0 0.0 O.OO892 40.0 0.0 O.OO892 40.0 700 0.0 0.01041 40.0 0.0 0.01041 40.0 0.0 0.01O41 40.0 0.0 0.01041 40.0 0.0 0.01041 40.0 0.0 0.01O41 40.0 0.0 0.01O41 40.0 800 0.0 0.01189 40.0 0.0 0.01189 40.0 0.0 0.01189 40.0 0.0 0.01189 40.0 0.0 0.01189 40.0 0.0 0.01189 40.0 0.0 0.01189 40.0 900 0.0 0.01338 40.0 0.0 0.01338 40.0 0.0 0.01338 40.0 0.0 0.01338 40.0 0.0 0.01338 40.0 0.0 0.01338 40.0 0.0 0.01338 40.0 1000 0.0 0.01487 40.0 0.0 0.01487 40.0 0.0 0.01487 40.0 0.0 0.01487 40.0 0.0 0.01487 40.0 0.0 0.01487 40.0 0.0 0.01487 40.0 1100 0.0 0.01635 40.0 0.0 0.01635 40.0 0.0 0.01635 40.0 0.0 0.01635 40.0 0.0 0.01635 40.0 0.0 0.01635 40.0 0.0 0.01635 40.0 1200 0.0 0.01784 40.0 0.0 0.01784 40.0 0.0 0.01784 4O.O 0.0 0.01784 40.0 0.0 0.01784 40.0 0.0 0.01784 40.0 0.0 0.01784 40.0 1300 0.0 0.01933 40.0 0.0 0.01933 40.0 0.0 0.01933 40.0 0.0 0.01933 40.0 0.0 0.01933 40.0 0.0 0.01933 40.0 0.0 0.01933 40.0 1400 0.0 0.02082 40.0 0.0 0.02082 40.0 0.0 0.02082 40.0 0.0 . 0.02082 40.0 0.0 0.02082 40.0 0.0 0.0282 40.0 0.0 0.02OB2 40.0 ------- Table 7 (continued). TOTAL QUEUE EMISSIONS, (Qoj), CRUISE COMPONENT EMISSION, (QQC), AND QUEUE LENGTH AS A FUNCTION OF MAJOR AND CROSS-STREET VOLUMES CRUISE SPEED - UNSIGNALIZED INTERSECTIONS AND VO Cro«B-»lre*t effective lone voluM (veh/hr) 700 Elemt V V Queue 600 : QqT V Queue 500 V V 100 0.00843 0.00149 40.0 C. 00815 0.00149 40.0 0.00796 0.00149 Queue 4O.O 1 400 ^ V Queue 3OO 200 100 V V Queue V V Queue V V Queue 0.00782 0.00149 40.0 0.00772 0.00149 40.0 0.00765 0.00149 40.0 0.00759 0.00149 40.0 200 0.02123 0.00297 40.0 0.01907 0.00297 40.0 0.01776 0.00297 40.0 0.01691 0.00297 40.0 0.01635 0.00297 40.0 0.01596 0.00297 40.0 0.01568 0.00297 40.0 Major street volwe (vehicles/hour) cruise speed is 30 ai/hr 300 0.05602 0.00446 40.0 0.03919 0.00496 40.0 0.03231 0.00446 40.0 0.02876 O.OO446 40.0 0.02670 O.OO446 40.0 0.02541 0.00446 40.0 0.02456 O.OO446 40.0 400 0.0 0.00595 40.0 0.05977 0.00220 108.3 0.06732 0.00595 40.0 0.04859 0.00595 40.0 0.04101 0.00595 500 0.0 0.00743 40.0 0.0 0.00743 40.0 0.0 0.00743 40.0 0.06861 0.00435 68.4 0.06816 0.00743 40.0 | 40.0 1 0.03709 0.00595 40.0 0.03481 0.00595 40.0 0.05412 0.00743 40.0 0.04778 0.00743 40.0 600 0.0 0.00892 40.0 0.0 O.OO892 40.0 0.0 0.00892 40.0 0.0 O.OO892 40.0 0.06195 0.00246 145.1 0.08653 0.00853 41.8 0.06751 0.00892 40.0 700 0.0 0.01041 40.0 0.0 800 0.0 0.01189 40.0 0.0 0.01041 0.01189 40.0 | 40.0 0.0 0.01O41 40.0 O.O 0.01041 40.0 0.0 0.01041 40.0 O.OS682 0.00110 379.3 0.08408 0.00771 54.0 0.0 0.01189 40.0 0.0 0.01189 40.0 0.0 0.01189 40.0 0.0 0.01189 40.0 0.05357 0.00028 1729.4 900 0.0 0.01338 40.0 0.0 0.01338 40.0 0.0 0.01338 40.0 0.0 0.01338 40.0 0.0 0.01338 40.0 0.0 0.01338 40.0 0.0 0.01338 40.0 1000 0.0 0.01487 40.0 0.0 0.01487 40.0 0.0 0.01487 40.0 0.0 0.01487 40.0 0.0 0.01487 40.0 0.0 0.01487 40.0 0.0 0.01487 40.0 1100 0.0 0.01635 40.0 0.0 0.01635 40.0 0.0 0.01635 40.0 0.0 0.01635 40.0 0.0 0.01635 40.0 0.0 0.01635 40.0 0.0 0.01635 40.0 1200 0.0 0.01784 40.0 0.0 0.01784 40.0 0.0 0.01784 40.0 0.0 0.01784 40.0 0.0 0.01784 40.0 0.0 0.01784 40.0 0.0 0.01784 40.0 1300 0.0 0.01933 40.0 0.0 0.01933 40.0 0.0 0.01933 40.0 0.0 0.01933 40.0 0.0 0.01933 40.0 0.0 0.01933 40.0 0.0 0.01933 40.0 1400 0.0 0.02082 40.0 0.0 0.02082 40.0 0.0 0.02082 40.0 0.0 0.02082 40.0 0.0 0.02082 40.0 0.0 0.02082 40.0 0.0 0.02081 40.0 ------- Table 7 (continued). TOTAL QUEUE EMISSIONS, (QqT), CRUISE COMPONENT EMISSION, (QQC), AND QUEUE LENGTH AS A FUNCTION OF MAJOR AND CROSS-STREET VOLUMES AND CRUISE SPEED - UNSlGNALIZED INTERSECTIONS VO Cro»-street effective Ine volume (veh/hr) 1400 1300 1200 1100 1000 MO 800 Elent V V Queue V V Queue V Queue V V Queue V V Queue V V Queue V V Queue Major (treet voluuH 100 0.03564 0.00177 40.0 0.02223 0.00177 40.0 0.01674 0.00177 40.0 0.01396 0.00177 40.0 0.01127 0.00177 40.0 0.01140 0.00177 40.0 0.01079 0.00177 40.0 200 0.0 0.00354 40.0 0.0 O.O0354 40.0 0.0 0.00354 40.0 0.0544O 0.00080 176.9 0.05877 O.O0354 40.0 0.03693 O.O0354 40.0 0.02899 0.00354 40.0 300 0.0 0.00531 40.0 0.0 0.00531 40.0 0.0 0.00531 40.0 0.0 0.00531 40.0 0.0 0.00531 40.0 0.0 0.00531 40.0 0.06023 0.00225 94.4 400 0.0 0.00708 40.0 0.0 0.00708 40.0 0.0 0.00708 40.0 0.0 0.00708 40.0 0.0 0.007O8 40.0 0.0 0.00708 40.0 0.0 0.00708 40.0 500 0.0 0.00885 40.0 0.0 0.00885 40.0 0.0 0.00885 40.0 0.0 0.00885 40.0 0.0 0.00885 40.0 0.0 0.00885 40.0 0.0 0.00885 40.0 600 0.0 0.01062 40.0 0.0 0.01062 40.0 0.0 0.01062 40.0 0.0 0.01062 40.0 0.0 0.01062 40.0 0.0 0.01062 40.0 0.0 0.01O62 40.0 (vehiclev/hour) czuixe 700 0.0 0.01239 40.0 0.0 0.01239 40.0 0.0 0.01239 40.0 0.0 0.01239 40.0 0.0 0.01239 40.0 ' 0.0 0.01239 40.0 0.0 0.01239 40.0 8OO 0.0 0.01415 40.0 0.0 0.01415 40.0 0.0 0.01415 40.0 0.0 0.01415 40.0 0.0 0.01415 40.0 0.0 0.01415 40.0 0.0 0.01415 40.0 •peed it 35 ui/hr 900 0.0 O.G1592 40.0 0.0 0.01592 40.0 0.0 0.01592 40.0 0.0 0.01592 40.0 0.0 0.01592 40.0 0.0 0.01592 40.0 0.0 0.01592 40.0 1000 0.0 0.01769 40.0 0.0 0.01769 40.0 0.0 0.01769 40.0 0.0 0.01769 40.0 0.0 0.01769 40.0 0.0 0.01769 40.0 0.0 0.01769 40.0 1100 0.0 0.01946 40.0 0.0 0.01946 40.0 0.0 0.01946 40.0 0.0 0.01946 40.0 0.0 0.01946 40.0 0.0 0.01946 40.0 0.0 0.01946 40.0 1200 0.0 0.02123 40.0 0.0 0.02123 40.0 O.O 0.02123 40.0 0.0 0.02123 40.0 0.0 0.02123 40.0 0.0 0.02123 40.0 0.0 0.02123 40.0 1300 0.0 0.02300 40.0 0.0 0.02300 40.0 0.0 0.02300 40.0 0.0 0.02300 40.0 0.0 0.02300 40.0 0.0 0.02300 40.0 0.0 0.02300 40.0 1400 0.0 0.02477 40.0 Q.O 0.02477 40.0 0.0 0.02677 40.0 . 0.0 0.02477 40.0 0.0 0.02477 40.0 0.0 0.02477 40.0 0.0 0.02477 40.0 ------- Table 7 (continued). TOTAL QUEUE EMISSIONS, (QqT), CRUISE COMPONENT EMISSION, (QqC), AND QUEUE LENGTH AS A FUNCTION OF MAJOR AND CROSS-STREET VOLUMES AND CRUISE SPEED - UNSIGNALIZED INTERSECTIONS 00 effective Imaf 700 600 500 4OO 300 200 100 Major street volwe (vehicles/hour) cruUe speed im 35 ni/hr 100 Q^. 0.01038 Oj. 0.00177 Queue 40.0 V V Qoeue V V Qrae V «QC Queue V V Qoeiie V V Q<«ue V V Queue 0.01010 O.O0177 40.0 0.00990 0.00177 40.0 0.00977 0.00177 40.0 O.O0967 0.00177 40.0 0.00959 0.00177 40.0 0.00954 O.O0177 40.0 200 0.02513 0.00354 40.0 0.02297 0.00354 40.0 0.02165 0.00354 40.0 0.02081 0.00354 40.0 300 0.06187 0.00531 40.0 0.04503 0.00531 40.0 0.03815 0.00531 40.0 0.03461 0.00531 40.0 0.02024 i 0.03254 0.00354 1 0.00531 40.0 • 40.0 0.01985 0.03125 0.00354 0.00531 40.0 40.0 0.01958 0.00354 40.0 0.03040 0.00531 40.0 400 0.0 0.00708 40.0 0.06265 0.00261 108.3 0.07511 0.00708 40.0 0.05638 0.00708 40.0 0.04880 0.00708 40.0 0.4488 0.00708 40.0 0.04260 0.00708 40.0 500 0.0 0.00885 40.0 0.0 0.00885 40.0 0.0 O.OO885 40.0 0.07431 0.00517 68.4 0.07790 0.00885 40.0 0.6386 0.00885 40.0 0.05752 0.00885 40.0 600 0.0 0.01062 40.0 0.0 0.01062 40.0 0.0 0.01062 40.0 0.0 0.01062 40.0 0.06518 0.00293 145.1 0.09771 0.01015 40.0 0.007920 0.01062 40.0 700 0.0 0.01239 40.0 0.0 0.01239 40.0 0.0 0.01239 40.0 0.0 0.01239 40.0 0.0 0.01239 40.0 0.05826 0.00131 379.3 0.09418 0.00917 54.0 BOO 0.0 0.01415 40.0 0.0 0.01415 40.0 0.0 0.01415 40.0 0.0 0.01415 40.0 0.0 0.01415 40.0 0.0 0.01415 40.0 0.05393 0.00033 1729.4 900 0.0 0.01592 40.0 0.0 0.01592 40.0 0.0 0.01592 40.0 0.0 0.01592 40.0 0.0 0.01592 40.0 0.0 0.01592 40.0 0.0 0.01592 40.0 1000 0.0 0.01769 40.0 0.0 0.01769 40.0 0.0 0.01769 40.0 0.0 0.01769 40.0 0.0 0.01769 40.0 0.0 0.01769 40.0 0.0 0.01769 40.0 1100 0.0 0.01946 40.0 0.0 0.01946 40.0 0.0 0.01946 40.0 0.0 0.01946 40.0 0.0 0.01946 40.0 0.0 0.01946 40.0 0.0 0.01946 40.0 1200 O.O 0.02123 40.0 0.0 0.02123 40.0 0.0 0.02123 40.0 0.0 0.02123 40.0 0.0 0.02123 40.0 0.0 0.02123 40.0 0.0 0.02123 40.0 13OO 0.0 0.02300 40.0 0.0 0.02300 40.0 0.0 0.02300 40.0 0.0 0.02300 40.0 0.0 0.02300 40.0 0.0 0.02300 40.0 0.0 0.02300 40.0 1400 0.0 0.02477 40.0 0.0 0.02477 40. 0 0.0 0.02477 40.0 0.0 0.02477 40.0 0.0 0.02477 40.0 0.0 0.02477 40.0 0.0 0.02477 40.0 ------- Table 7 (continued). TOTAL QUEUE EMISSIONS, (QQT), CRUISE COMPONENT EMISSION, (Qpc), AND QUEUE LENGTH AS A FUNCTION OF MAJOR AND CROSS-STREET VOLUMES AND CRUISE SPEED - UNSIGNALIZED INTERSECTIONS C^-^K-C •nta- <«»Ar> 14*0 "» IK* ™" - _ n i V V Z OJ»Be V toe *f V V V «fc v" V ------- Table 7 (continued). TOTAL QUEUE EMISSIONS, (QQT), CRUISE COMPONENT EMISSION, (Qqc), AND QUEUE LENGTH AS A FUNCTION OF MAJOR AND CROSS-STREET VOLUMES AND CRUISE SPEED - UNSIGNALIZED INTERSECTIONS o o Crois-street effcccive lane volua* (veh/hr> ••oo Element V 100 0.01270 QJJJ. i 0.00213 Queue 600 500 400 300 200 100 V V Queue V V Queue V V Queue V V Queue V V Queue V V Queue 200 0.02977 0.00427 40.0 ' 40.0 0.01242 ' 0.02761 300 0.06883 0 . 00640 40.0 0.05200 0.00213 i 0.00427 ' 0.00640 40.0 0.01222 0.00213 40.0 0.01209 0.00213 40.0 0.01199 0.00213 40.0 0.01192 0.00213 40.0 0.01186 0.00213 40.0 40.0 40.0 0.02630 0.00427 40.0 0.02545 0.00427 40.0 0.02489 0.00427 40.0 0.02450 0.00427 40.0 0.02422 0.00427 40.0 0.04512 0.00640 40.0 0.04157 0.00640 40.0 0.03951 0 . 00640 40.0 0.03951 0.00640 40.0 0.03736 0.00640 40.0 Major tercet volune (vehiclea/hour) cruiie speed i» 40 ai/hr 400 0.0 0.00854 40.0 0.06608 0.00315 500 0.0 0.01067 600 0.0 0.01280 40.0 ! 40.0 0.0 j 0.0 0.01067 0.01280 108.3 40.0 40.0 ! 0.08439 0.00854 40.0 0.06567 0.00854 40.0 0.05808 0.00854 700 0.0 0.01494 40.0 0.0 0.01494 40.0 0.0 0.0 I 0.0 0.01067 40.0 0.08110 0.00624 68.4 0.08951 0.01067 40.0 40.0 0.05417 0.07547 0.00854 40.0 0.05188 0.00854 40.0 0.01280 | 0.01494 40.0 0.0 0.01280 40.0 0.0 0.01494 40.0 1 40.0 0.06902 0.00353 145.1 0.11103 0.01067 1 0.01225 40.0 ! 40.0 0.06913 0.01067 40.0 0.09313 0.01280 40.0 0.0 0.01494 40.0 0.05998 0.00158 379.3 0.10622 0.01106 54.0 800 0.0 0.01707 40.0 0.0 0.01707 900 0.0 0.01921 40.0 0.0 0.01921 looe 0.0 0.02134 40.0 0.0 0.02134 40.0 40.0 j 40.0 0.0 0.01707 40.0 0.0 0.01707 40.0 Q-0 0.01707 40.0 0.0 0.01707 40.0 0.05436 0.0039 1729.4 0.0 0.01921 40.0 0.0 0.01921 40.0 0.0 0.01921 40.0 0.0 0.01921 40.0 0.0 0.01921 0.0 0.02134 40.0 0.0 0.02134 40.0 0.0 0.02134 40.0 0.0 0.02134 40.0 0.0 0.02134 40.0 '40.0 1100 0.0 0.0.2347 40.0 0.0 0.02347 40.0 0.0 0.02347 40.0 0.0 0.02347 40.0 0.0 0.02347 40.0 0.0 0.02347 40.0 0.0 0.02347 40.0 1200 0.0 1300 0.0 0.02561 0.02774 40.0 40.0 0.0 : 0.0 0.02561 0.02774 40.0 ! 40.0 0.0 0.02561 40.0 0.0 0.0 0.02774 40.0 0.0 0.02561 0.02774 40 . 0 . 40 . 0 0.0 ; 0.0 0.02561 0.02774 40.0 40.0 0.0 | 0.0 0.02561 ' 0.01773 40.0 | 40.0 0.0 0.02561 40.0 0.0 0.02774 40.0 1400 0.0 0.02988 40.0 0.0 0.02988 40.0 0.0 0.029S8 40.0 0.0 0.02988 40.0 0.0 0.02988 40.0 0.0 0.02988 40.0 0.0 0.02988 40.0 ------- Table 7 (continued). TOTAL QUEUE EMISSIONS, (QQT), CRUISE COMPONENT EMISSION, (Qgc), AND QUEUE LENGTH AS A FUNCTION OF MAJOR AND CROSS-STREET VOLUMES AND CRUISE.SPEED - UNSIGNALIZED INTERSECTIONS Cross-street effective lane volume (veh/hr) 1400 1300 1200 1100 1000 900 800 Element V V 100 0.04072 0.00261 Queue : 40.0 Q | 0.02731 V Queue V V Queue V V Queue V V Queue V V Queue V V Queue 0.00261 40.0 0.02182 0.00261 40.0 0.01904 0.00261 40.0 0.01745 0.00261 40.0 0.01649 0.00261 40.0 0.01587 0.00261 40.0 200 0.0 0.00522 40.0 0.0 300 0.0 0.00782 40.0 0.0 400 0.0 0.01043 40.0 0.0 0.00522 0.00782 0.01043 40.0 40.0 0.0 0.00522 40.0 0.05670 0.00118 176.9 0.06894 0.00522 40.0 0.04709 0.00522 40.0 0.03915 0.00522 40.0 0.0 0.00782 40.0 0.0 0.00782 40.0 0.0 0.00782 40.0 0.0 0.00782 40.0 0.06669 0.00331 94.4 40.0 0.0 0.01043 40.0 0.0 0.01043 40.0 0.0 0.01043 40.0 0.0 500 0.0 0.01304 40.0 0.0 0.01304 40.0 0.0 0.01304 40.0 0.0 0.01304 40.0 0.0 0.01304 40.0 0.0 0.01043 0.01304 40.0 0.0 0.01043 40.0 40.0 0.0 0.01304 40.0 600 0.0 0.01565 40.0 0.0 0.01565 40.0 0.0 0.01565 40.0 0.0 0.01565 40.0 0.0 0.01565 40.0 0.0 0.01565 40.0 0.0 0.01565 40.0 700 0.0 0.01826 40.0 0.0 0.01825 40.0 0.0 0.01825 40.0 0.0 0.01825 40.0 0.0 0.01825 40.0 0.0 0.01825 40.0 0.0 0.01825 40. C 800 O.C 0.02086 900 0.0 0.02347 40.0 40.0 o.o ; o.o 0.02086 40.0 0.0 0.02086 40.0 0.0 0.02347 40.0 0.0 0.02347 40.0 0.0 0.02086 0.02347 40.0 0.0 0.02086 40.0 0.0 0.02086 40.0 0.0 0.02086 40.0 40.0 0.0 0.02347 40.0 0.0 0.02347 40.0 0.0 0.02347 40.0 1000 0.0 1100 0.0 1200 0.0 0.02608 0.02868 ; 0.03129 1300 0.0 0.03390 40.0 . 10.0 40.0 40.0 0.0 I 0.0 0.0 ' 0.0 0.02608 40.0 0.0 0.02608 40.0 0.0 0.02608 40.0 0.0 0.02608 40.0 0.02868 i 0.03129 . 0.03390 iO.O I 40.0 ! 40.0 0.0 0.02868 .0.0 0.0 | 0.0 0.03129 1 0.03390 40.0 : 40.0 0.0 ' 0.0 • 0.0 0.02868 : 0.03129 0.03390 .0.0 ; 40.0 I 40.0 0.0 j 0.0 ' 0.0 0.02868 ; 0.03129 : 0.03390 >0.0 40.0 40.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 j 0.0 0.02608 0.02868 0.03129 40 . 0 ,0 . 0 0.0 0.0 0.02608 40.0 0.02868 .0.0 40.0 0.0 0.03129 40.0 0.03390 40.0 0.0 0.03390 I 40.0 1400 ; o.o 0.03651 40.0 0.0 0.03651 40.0 : 0.0 0.03651 40.0 0.0 0.03651 40.0 0.9 0.03651 40.0 o.o 0.03651 40.0 0.0 0.03651 40.0 ------- Table 7 (continued). TOTAL QUEUE EMISSIONS, (QQT), CRUISE COMPONENT EMISSION, (QqC), AND QUEUE LENGTH AS A FUNCTION OF MAJOR AND CROSS-STREET VOLUMES AND CRUISE SPEED - UNSIGNALIZED INTERSECTIONS eS^T^L W» «W 500 0 L V V V V Q— e V V "• ! V : V i **•* - !v • "Vic : Q— "• \ V ! V_ - V V *-" ?lajor street voliase (vehicle/hour) cmise speed is 45 n/hr) 100 0-01546 0.00261 40.0 O.O1518 0.00261 40.0 0.01498 O-OOZil 40.0 O.01485 2OO 0.03529 O.O0522 40.0 0.03313 0-00522 40.0 O.O31S1 O.OOS22 40.0 O.O3O97 O.00261 O.OO522 40.0 i 40.0 O.01475 0.00761 40.0 0.01468 0.00261 40.0 O.01462 0.00261 48.0 0.03O40 O.O0522 4O.O 0.03O91 0. 00522 40.0 O.02974 O.O0522 40.0 300 0.07711 O.O0782 40.0 0.06027 0.00782 40.0 0-05339 O-OO782 40.0 0. 04*15 0.00782 4O.O 0.04779 O.OO782 40-O O.O4649 O.OO782 4O.O O.O4364 O.OO782 4O-0 400 0.0 500 0.0 0.01O43 0.01304 40.0 j 40.0 O.O7O16 0.00385 108.3 O-O9543 0.01O43 40. O 0.0767O 0.01O43 40.0 0.06912 0.01O43 4O.O O.O6521 O.O1043 40.0 0.06292 0.01O43 40.0 0.0 0.01304 40.0 0.0 0.01304 40.0 0.08917 0.00763 68.4 0.10330 0.013O4 40.0 0.08926 0.01304 40.0 0.08293 0.01304 40.0 600 700 0.0 0.0 0.01565 0.01825 40.0 [ 40.0 0.0 0.01565 40.0 0.0 0.01565 40.0 0.0 0.01565 40.0 0.07358 0.30431 145.1 0.12686 0.01496 41.8 0.1O968 0.01565 40.0 0.0 0.01825 40.0 0.0 0.0182S 40.0 0.0 0.01825 40.0 0.0 son 0.0 0.0208* 900 0.0 0.02347 40.0 | 40.0 O.O . 0.0 0.02O86 j 0.02347 40.0 - 0.0 0.02O86 40.0 0.0 4O.O 0.0 0.02347 40.0 0.0 0.0208* ; 0.02347 40.0 40.0 0.0 0.01825 O.O2O86 40.0 O.O6201 0.00193 379.3 0.12053 O. 01352 54.0 40.O 0.0 0.02086 40.0 0.05487 0.00048 1729.4 O.O 0.02347 4O.O 0.0 0.02347 40.0 0.0 0.02347 40.0 1000 0.0 0.02608 40.0 0.0 0.02608 40.0 0.0 0.02608 40.0 0.0 1100 0-0 0.02668 40.0 0.0 0.02868 40.0 O.O 0.02868 40.0 0.0 0.02608 • 0.02868 40.0 40.0 0.0 0.02608 40.0 0.0 0.026O8 0.0 O.02868 40.0 0.0 0.02868 40.0 40.0 ; 0.0 0.0 0.02608 ! 0.02868 40. 0 40.0 1200 0.0 0.03129 40.0 1300 0.0 0.03390 40.0 0.0 1 0.0 0.03129 0.03390 40.0 40.0 0.0 0.03129 40.0 0.0 0.0 0.03390 40.0 0.0 0.03129 0.03390 40.0 0.0 0.03129 40.0 0.0 0.03129 40.0 0.0 0.03129 40.0 1400 0.0 0.03651 40,0 0.0 0.03651 40.0 0.0 0.03651 40.0 0.0 0.03651 40.0 ' 40.0 1 0.0 0.03390 40.0 0.0 0.03390 40.0 0.0 0.03390 40.0 0.0 0.03651 40.0 0.0 0.03651 40.0 0.0 0.03651 40.0 O 10 ------- Table 8. EMISSION CORRECTION FACTORS FOR REGION, CALENDAR YEAR, SPEED, PERCENT COLD STARTS (C) PERCENT HOT STARTS (H) AND TEMPERATURE (T) BY VEHICLE TYPE (M) £•13310* COmCCTlON MCTURS FUH ReGlOXs tUH M.UTUOC YI«SJ smo M M C T LOV 20 10 20 20 10 40 20 IS 10 ?0 IS 80 20 60 10 20 60 40 HO 10 20 ao 10 00 ao is 20 «o is ao 40 60 20 40 60 40 LOT 20 10 20 20 10 40 20 15 20 20 15 40 20 60 20 20 60 40 40 10 20 40 10 40 40 IS 20 40 IS 40 40 60 20 40 60 40 MC 20 10 20 20 10 40 20 IS 20 20 IS 40 20 60 20 20 60 40 40 10 20 40 10 40 40 IS 20 40 is ao 40 60 20 40 60 40 HOC HDD 19/e 1976 i9rs 1979 i960 i9so i»so i9§o 1952 1962 i«u i««* i»es i9«* i«§* i»ss 0 IS JO 45' .22 1.30 1.J7 1.42 .12 1.18 1.2) 1.26 .94 2.17 2.19 2. b8 .57 1.74 1.90 2.01 2.6S 3.0! 3.42 1.74 2.03 2.30 2.57 2. 81 .24 1.J2 1.J9 |.aa .14 1.20 1.2S 1.?8 .96 2.19 2.41 2.60 .60 1.76 1.92 2. OS 2.67 I. OS 1.44 1.76 2. OS 2.12 2.60 2.81 1.16 1.17 1.1S 1.S1 2.94 2.91 1.06 1.18 .80 S.ll S.6S 6.10 .01 4.22 4.62 4.97 .43 7.05 7.95 8.70 .11 5.S2 6.19 6.76 .21 1.22 3.40 1.S5 .99 2.96 HO 1.23 .84 5.16 S.69 6. IS .08 4.26 4.67 S.02 .47 7.10 7.99 8.7S S.16 S.S6 6.24 6. BO 0.47 0.81 0.92 1.02 0.82 0.71 0.81 0.92 0.78 .16 l.SS .71 0.62 .08 1.21 .15 1.09 .90 2.17 .40 0.81 .42 1.62 .79 0.47 .82 0.91 .01 0.43 .74 0.84 .92 0.78 .16 1.56 .72 0,62 .08 1.24 .16 1.09 .9] 2.18 2.41 0.82 .43 |.6l 1.80 1.72 5.80 S.51 6.16 0.03 0.62 0.60 0.62 0 15 SO 45 1.00 I.It 1.17 1.22 0.91 0.99 1.04 1.08 .64 1.86 2.09 2.25 .31 1.49 1.63 1.75 .28 2.66 1.00 3.29 .72 1.98 2.23 2.43 .02 1.12 1.19 1.24 .92 I. 01 1.06 1.09 .66 1.90 2.10 2.27 .33 1.50 1.65 1.77 2.30 2.68 3.02 3.10 1.73 2.00 2.24 2.44 2.86 3.00 3.19 3.14 2.65 2.74 2.89 3.01 4.38 4.92 5.45 5.90 3.65 4.00 4.40 4.73 5.91 6.84 7.72 8.46 4.66 5.26 5.91 6.45 2.90 3.04 1.21 1.19 2.69 2.78 2.93 1.05 4.42 4.96 5.49 5.94 1.70 4.04 4.44 4.77 5.95 6.88 7.76 8.50 4.70 5.10 5.95 6.50 0,18 0.67 0.72 0.77 0.14 0.59 0.64 0.68 0.61 1.17 .11 1.43 0.50 0.91 .01 1.10 0.89 1.68 .90 2.09 0.66 1.21 .19 1.52 0.18 0.68 .71 0.78 0.14 0.60 .65 0.69 0.64 1.18 .12 1.44 0.50 0.92 .02 1.11 0.90 1.69 .91 2.10 0.66 1.24 .39 I.S3 1.73 5.54 5.62 6.S6 0.01 0,6« 0.57 0.57 6 15 SO 45 0.74 0.83 O.S9 0.91 0.67 0.75 0.79 0.8? .25 1.43 1.59 J.72 .00 1.13 1.25 l.SS .75 2.01 2.29 2.51 .11 4.52 4,74 4..M .75 0.85 0.90 0.95 .68 0.76 0.81 0.8* .26 1.S4 4.»| 4»7J .01 1.15 1.27 1.16 .76 2.04 2.11 2.52 .14 1.51 U71 4*M 2.50 2.81 3.0« S.19 2.30 2,S6 2.72 2.B* 3.94 4.76 5.10 5.75 1.21 1.79 4.19 4.52 5.17 6.69 7.57 8,10 4.16 5.01 5.66 6.19 2.54 2.87 1.08 1.21 2.11 2.59 2.76 i. 68. 1.97 4.80 5.14 5.79 1.26 1.81 4.21 4.56 5.41 6.71 7.61 8,14 4.19 5.07 5.70 6.21 0,10 0,54 0,57 0,60 0.27 0.48 0.50 0.52 0.51 0.98 1.08 1.17 0,40 0.75 0.82 0,69 0.72 1.41 1.60 1.75 0.51 1.02 1.15 1.26 0.10 0.55 0.56 0.61 0.27 0.49 0.51 0.5S 0.52 0.99 1.09 1.18 o . 40^ o. 76 _o-8s_o.69 0.71 1.42 1.60 1.76 0.51 I.OI 1.16 1.26 1.71 5.21 5.77 6.91 O.OS 0.60 0.55 ».S1 0 IS SO 45 0.47 0.52 .41 0.47 .65 0.92 .69 0.75 .22 1.11 .96 1.03 .49 0.54 .44 0.49 .66 0.94 .71 0.76 .23 1.34 .97 1.04 .97 1.IB .68 1.06 .55 2.00 .26 1.56 .13 2.61 .63 2.10 .96 1.20 .90 1.08 .56 2.01 .27 1.59 .14 2.63 .64 2.11 ,1~5 0.27 .13 0.24 .25 0.49 .20 0.36 .36 0.71 .26 0.51 .15 0.28 .14 0.24 .26 0.49 .20 0.38 .16 0.71 .26 0.52 .57 .51 .04 .64 .50 .16 .58 .51 .05 .85 .52 .18 .27 .14 .21 .75 .18 .16 .29 .15 .24 .77 .20 .18 .26 .25 .54 .41 .60 .57 .29 .25 .54 .41 .80 .56 .60 .54 .13 .90 .65 .27 .61 .55 .14 .92 .66 .26 .14 .19 .42 .69 .49 .56 .16 .20 .41 .90 .51 .60 .29 .25 .56 .44 .87 .61 .30 .26 .59 .44 .86 .63 l.ST S.97 4.67 S.66 07*5 O.S9 V.51 0.51 1967 1967 1967 It*} 0 IS SO 45 0.38 0.40 0.44 0.46 0.15 0.17 0.40 0.42 0.71 0.72 0.61 «.•• 0.59 0.60 0.67 0.71 1.01 1.04 1.19 1.10 0.84 0.64 0.95 4.M 0.19 0.41 0.45 0.48 0.16 0.18 0.41 0.41 0.72 0.74 0.63 0*90 0.61 0.62 0.69 0.74 1.05 1.06 1.20 1.12 0.65 0.6S 0.97 4*06 1.51 1.99 2.15 2.26 1.40 1.79 1.91 i.00 2.44 1.16 3.76 4.07 1.99 2.65 2.95 1.17 3.36 4.74 S.16 5.88 2.58 1.52 1.98 4.15 l.SS 2.01 2.17 2.26 1*42 4.61 1.94 2*01 2.47 1.19 1.78 4.10 2.01 2.66 2.97 S.20 1.18_4.76_5,J9,5.« 2.60 l.SS 4.00 4.37 .0.09..0.1ILQ.1IL0.19 0.08 0.15 0.16 0.16 0.16 0.12 0.15 0.18 .0^4 J_0* 24 ..0_. 2_*_t^6. 0.23 0.46 0.52 0.57 0.17 0.33 0.37 0.41 JU40 o_.4e__tae_o_as 0.09 0.16 0.16 0.1* 0.16 0.12 0.35 0.36 J+li 9+25-*+21_i*a 0.23 0.46 0.52 O.S7 0.17 0.34 0.36 0.41 1.52 3.21 S.9I 4.76 0.01 0,59 B.S2 BrSI I99B I9«t !••• •••• • IS St 4S O.SI O.SO O.SS O.SS 0.29 0.26 O.SI O.S2 0.61 O.ST 0.64 0.69 0.52 0.49 O.SS 0.60 0.90 0.8S 0.94 1.06 0.75 0.70 0.79 0.67 0.3S O.S2 O.SS O.S7 0.30 0.29 O.S2 0,14 0.62 0.56 0.6S 0.71 0.54 0.50 0.56 0.61 0.9| 0.64 0.96 1,05 -0.77 0.71 0.61 0.68 0.52 0.76 0.6S 0.67 .0.47 0.66 0.74 0.77 0.63 I.SO t.«6 l.SS 0.67 1.02 1.14 1.23 1.15 1.64 2.09 2.29 0.66 1.36 1.54 1.66 0.52 0.77 0.84 0.66 .0.48 0.69 0.75 0.76 0.64 t.Sl 1.47 1.59 0.68 1.03 1.15 1.24 .1.15 1.85 2.10 2.10 0.66 I.S7 1.55 1.69 0.07 0.12 0.41 0. IS 0.06 0.11 O.tl O.It 0.11 0.21 0.25 0.27 .0.09 0.17 0.19 0.20 0.16 O.SS O.S7 0.41 0.12 0.24 0.27 0.29 0.07~0.13 O.IS OVIT 0.06 O.M 0.11 O.tl 0.11 0.21 0.2S 0.27 0.09 0.18 0.19 0.26 O.t6 O.S4 O.S6 0.41 0.12 0.24 0.27 0.29 i.SS 2.S2 S.20 S.tS 0.01 0.59 0.52 0.50 ------- Table 8 (continued). EMISSION CORRECTION FACTORS FOR REGION, CALENDAR YEAR, SPEED, PERCENT COLD STARTS (C) PERCENT HOT STARTS (H) AND TEMPERATURE (T) BY VEHICLE TYPE (M) Cn«RtCTIO» F4C1JNS MICH M.1I10M TE»«I I97B 197? 1978 1978 IDV 20 10 20 20 10 DO 20 IS 20 20 35 «o 20 60 20 ao «o oo 00 10 20 10 10 00 ao 35 20 00 IS 00 00 60 20 ao 60 ao LOT 20 10 20 20 10 on 20 35 20 20 J5 40 20 60 20 20 60 40 ao 10 20 ao 10 ao 40 35 20 40 55 40 40 60 20 40 60 40 _"C 20 10 20 20 10 40 ao 35 20 20 35 40 20 60 20 20 60 ao ao 10 ?0 ao 10 ao 40 35 20 40 35 40 40 60 20 40 60 40 HOE HOD 1.00 1.7] 2.M 2.44 0.93 1.S6 1.93 2.22 1.84 1.94 j.;|(j 4.9, 1.48 2.J4 2.79 3.14 2.65 4.16 4.83 5.38 2.02 3.13 3.65 4.07 1.03 1.71 2.1 I 2.41 0.92 ].5a |.9| 2.19 1.83 2.93 3.46 3.N8 1.47 2.33 2.77 3.12 2.64 a.|4 0.81 5.35 2.01 3.11 3.63 4.04 3.93 4.40 5.54 6.02 3.57 4.02 5.11 5.94 6.77 7.28 8.l>9 9.S2 5.51 5.95 7.17 8.14 9.6210.1611.8513.23 7.45 7.08 9.2410.35 3.8B 4.35 5.46 6.32 3.52 3.97 5.03 5.80 6.72 7.22 8.62 9.73 5.46 5.90 7.10 8.05 9.5610. 1011. 7713. |3 7.40 7.82 9.1M0.25 1.45 1.09 1.39 1.63 1.28 0.98 1.26 1.50 2.67 .84 2.21 2.52 2.08 ,45 1.77 2.03 3.90 .59 3.03 3.40 2.88 .93 2.27 2.56 1.43 .06 1.38 1.62 1.27 .97 1.25 1.4* 2.66 .83 2.20 2.50 2.07 ,44 1.76 2.01 3.88 2.58 3.02 3.38 2.87 1.92 2.26 2.54 2.36 8.6! 8.19 4.48 0,08 1,01 0.47 1,00 1980 1980 I960 I960 1982 19*2 1962 1982 |9M 1*6* 1*8* !•*« 1*67 I9*T 19*1 1*0? 199* 1*4* !••* !*•• 0 IS 10 45 0.85 1.U6 1.76 1.96 0.76 1.30 1.58 1.78 1.53 2.56 2.99 3.33 1.21 2.00 2.3S 2.62 2.22 3.65 a. 22 4.68 1.66 2.69 3.11 3.116 0.85 1.46 1.7S 1.97 0.75 1.30 1.57 1.76 1.53 2.55 2.98 3.32 1.20 1.99 2.34 2.60 i>. 21 3.65 4.21 4.67 1.66 2.68 3.10 3.44 3.43 4.04 5.00 5.74 3.12 3.66 4.57 5.26 5.86 6.78 8.04 9.03 4.77 5.46 6.52 7.36 8.29 9.5211.0712.33 b.43 7.26 8.48 9.47 3.38 4,00 4.95 5.67 3.07 3.62 4.51 5.19 5.82 6.74 7.98 8.96 4.73 5.42 6.47 7.29 8.25 9.0811.0112.26 6.38 7.22 8.42 9.40 0.88 0.88 .12 1.32 0.77 0.78 .01 1.19 1,66 1.57 .69 2.14 1.26 1.21 .47 1.69 2.44 2.27 .65 2.96 1.79 1,65 .94 2.18 0.87 0.87 .11 1.30 0.76 0.77 .99 1.17 1.65 1.56 .87 2.12 1.27 1.20 ,46 1.67 2.44 2.26 2.64 2.95 1.70 1.64 1.93 2.16 2.24 6.13 6.24 9.70 o.oii n.^a o,4> nn4? 0 IS SO 4S 0.65 I.OT 1.26 1.40 0.58 0.96 1.1) 1.26 1.19 1.87 2.17 2.40 0.94 1.47 1.71 1.90 1.73 2.67 S.07 3.40 1.30 1.99 2.24 2.54 0.65 1.07 1.26 1.40 0.58 6.96 1.13 1.26 1.19 1.67 2.17 2.40 0.94 1.47 1.71 1.84 1.73 2.67 3.07 1.40 1.31 1.99 2.29 .£.51 2.88 3.74 4.S3 S.I2 2.60 3.15 4. OB 4.62 4.45 6.42 7.S1 6.41 3.94 S.06 S.97 6.66 7.03 9.mo.53U.70 5.38 6.78 7.86 8.74 2.85 3.72 4.49 5.07 2.58 3.33 4.05 4.58 4.93 6.40 7.50 6.17 3.97 5.04 5.94 6.64 7.00 9.0910,5011.66 5.35 6.75 7.83 6.70 0.58 0.70 0.90 1,05 O.SO 0.62 0.60 0.94 1.12 1.30 I.SS 1.76 0.85 0.99 1.20.U7 1.66 1.89 2.21 2.47 1.20 1.36 1.60 1.74 0.57.0,69 0.69 U04 O.SO 0.61 0.76 0.91 1.11 1.29 1.54 1.78 0.84 0. 46.1,1 * J_.)S_ 1.65 1.88 2.14 2.4S 1.14 l.)5 1.S4 1.76 2.16 7.61 6.4610. IS 0,p7 0,47 0-88 O.BT I • IS 16 4S 0.4S 0.6* 0.7) 0.60 0.40 O.S6 0.66 0.72 0.64 I.I) 1.24 |.4» 0.66 0.4| 1.04 1.1\$ 1.22 1.62 1.66 2. OS 0.96 1.25 1.4) 1.57 0.46 0.65 0.7* A. 61 0.4) O.S8 0.67 0.73 0.64 I.I* 1.10 1.43 0.69 0.92 I. OS 1.16 1.23 1.6) 1.67 2.06 0.97 1.26 1.44 I.S8 1.06 1.46 1.7) 1.92 0.96 1.30 l.SS 1.7) 1.6| 2.44 2.90 1.21 1.46 1.96 2.29 2.S4 2.57 3. S3 4.07 4. SO 1.96 2.62 3.03 3.35 1.05 1.45 1.72 1.92 0.95 1.30 l.SS 1.72 1.61 2.44 2.64 3.21 1.45 1.46 2.26 2. S3 2.56 3.S3 4.06 4.44 1.95 2.62 3.02 3.34 0.26 0.34 0.44 0.52 0.23 0.30 0.39 0.46 O.SO 0.6) 0.76 0.66 0.38 0.48 O.S9 0.67 0.75 0.42 1.06 1.20 0.54 0.67 0.78 0.88 0.26 0.34 0.4) O.S1 0.22 0.30 0.38 0.45 0.50 0.63 0.7S 0.8S 0.36 0.46 O.S6 0.66 0.74 0.42 1.07 1.20 0.54 0.66 0.76 0.67 1.8) 5.S2 6.51 7.*) 0.06 6.66 0.77 0.74 .6 It »• 41 .17 0.46 0.5* fl.ST .39 0.42 0.46 O.SI .71 0.61 0.9* |.6* ,54 0.64 o.7< 6.M .04 1.20 |.I* I.S2 .US 0.96 |.|6 1.21 .18 0.47 O.S4 O.S6 .35 0.4) 0.49 O.SI .72 0.6* 0.9k l.OS .61 0.70 0.60 O.BT .06 1.22 1.34 l.M .66 0.97 l.tl 1.22 .61 2.11 2.74 3.03 .48 2.09 2.46 *.T) .77 3.97 4.60 S.64 .24 3.1) ).64 4. OS .91 5.61 6.46 T.I* .00 4.17 4.6| 5.12 .62 2.33 2.73 1.02 .47 2.09 2.46 2.72 .76 3.97 4.59 S.06 .2) 3.1) 3.63 4.02 .90 5.61 6.4S 7.14 .99 4.17 4.60 5.31 .14 0.20 0.26 O.JO .12 0.18 0.2) 0.27 .27 0.17 0.45 O.SI .21 0.26 0.35 0------- Table 8 (continued). EMISSION CORRECTION FACTORS FOR REGION, CALENDAR YEAR, SPEED, PERCENT COLD STARTS (C) PERCENT HOT STARTS (H) AND TEMPERATURE (T) BY VEHICLE TYPE (M) IHIUK* CUMNtCTIU* »«CtO*S fO» nfilWl CBl|»Oft*U o in tnio 8) M C t< 10V 20 10 20 20 10 40 20 15 20 20 15 40 20 60 20 20 60 40 40 10 20 ao 10 «o ao IS 20 ao IS ao 40 60 20 40 60 40 LOT 20 10 20 20 10 40 20 IS 20 20 IS ao 20 60 20 20 60 ao ao 10 20 ao 10 ao ao IS 20 ao is ao ao 60 20 ao 60 ao _"C_20 |0 20 20 10 40 20 IS 20 20 JS ao 20 60 20 20 60 ao ao 10 20 ao 10 ao 40 IS 20 40 IS 40 40 60 20 40 60 40 HOC HDD 8 li 39 45 1.09 .07 l.ll |.|4 l.oj .00 1.02 1.04 1.64 .71 |.87 2.01 l.4| .45 1.58 1.68 2.19 .15 2.64 .87 1.79 .91 ?.|a .12 1.11 .09 1.11 .|6 1.04 .02 I.OS .06 1.66 .7] 1.89 .01 1.41 .48 |.60 .70 2.21 .17 2.66 .90 l.8| .91 2.16 .14 1.21 .OS S.IO .12 1.02 .84 2.8S .8a i.05 .92 5.14 .68 a. 29 .16 4.48 .7) 6.87 .78 7.S9 .25 5.57 .49 6.11 .61 1.11 .12 1.17 .18 1.09 .91 2. 9J .91 5.11 .99 5.41 .75 4.17 .24 4.SS .80 6.95 6.8ft 7.66 .11 S.6S .57 6.18 .6« 0.66 .81 0.9S 1.04 0.60 .75 0.85 0.9a 1.10 .19 1.58 1.7S 0.87 .10 1.26 1.19 1.54 ,11 2.22 2.46 1.IS .45 1.66 I.B1 0.67 .84 0.96 I.OS 0.60 .76 0.86 0.95 1.11 .19 1.59 1.76 0.88 .11 1.27 l.ao l.SS .9S 2.2) 2.a6 1.16 .46 1.67 1.H4 1.44 5.41 5.77 7.04 0.01 0-61 0-57 0.58 8 15 18 4.1 a. 74 0.69 1.10 0.86 1.47 1.22 0.75 0.71 1.12 0.97 1.48 1.21 2.81 2.64 4.46 1.81 6.10 5.01 2.89 2.71 4.51 ).«! 6.17 5.11 0.56 O.SO 0.99 0.77 l.«2 1.04 0.57 0.51 1.00 0.78 1.41 I.OS .81 0.85 .76 0.79 .11 1.46 .14 1.2V .84 2.07 .*2 1.71 .") 0.87 .78 0.81 .15 1.48 .1* 1.27 .86 2.09 .55 1.71 .69 2.76 .51 2.55 .40 4.80 .77 4.08 .10 6.84 .01 5.61 .77 2.81 .59 2.6) .47 4.87 .85 a. is .18 6.9| .10 5.68 .69 0.76 .61 0.67 .21 l.)6 .94 1.05 .71 1.97 .26 1.4) .69 0.76 .61 0.67 .22 1.37 .94 |.06 rvw .87 .88 .51 .11 .26 .86 ."9 .82 .59 .15 .28 .88 .79 .56 .11 .12 .44 .08 .86 .61 .19 .19 .51 .15 .81 .71 .49 .14 .17 .57 .82 .72 .49 .15 .74 1.98 2.17 .27 1.44 1.58 l.ll 5.12 5.90 7.29 0.01 8.61 0.54 0.54 9 l« 18 9« .44 .64 t,6t .41 .56 O.S9 .»» .91 I.I* .58 .88 8.9V .08 .41 1.61 .74 .28 1.15 .45 .62 0.65 .42 .58 8.61 .67 .8) I.IS .58 .99 9.99 .09 .45 1.61 .75 .22 1.47 .)2 .27 2,34 .18 .1) 2.18 .71 .75 4.18 .21 .25 1.54 .18 ,H 5.86 .28 .18 4.89 .19 ,)4 2.42 .25 .20 2.25 .78 .82 4.17 .10 .11 1.61 .17 .29 5.93 .15 ,4S 4.97 .48 .56 0.61 .42 .49 0.5) .87 .82 1.18 .67 .78 0.87 .26 .48 1.67 .91 .07 1.21 .49 .57 0.61 .41 .50 0.54 .88 .81 1.15 .67 .79 0.87 .6* .61 • *• .21 .88 .76 .8> .67 .8)1 .2) .86 .»• .89 .38 .28 .38 .76 .38 .SI .45 .27 .45 .8) .45 .39 .64 .55 .24 .94 .84 .32 .65 .56 .25 .»9 1.26 .48 1.68 1.84 0.92 .87 1.21 1.13 1.25 4.89 6.91 7.52 0.01 0.60 OtS3 8.52 9 IS 38 45 0.10 8.40 ••• .46 0.17 0.38 .41 .4) 0.28 0.7) .82 .89 0.24 0.64 .72 .78 0.18 1.06 .21 .32 0.32 0.9| .0) .12 0.18 0.42 .66 .48 0.17 0.40 .4) .45 0.28 0.75 .84 .91 0.25 0.66 .74 .79 0.18 1.08 .22 .34 0.12 0.92 .05 .14 0.8] 0.85 .88 .90 0.77 0.80 .8) .84. 1.12 1.42 .57 .68 1.16 1.25 .)7 .46 1.82 2.00 .25 .45 1.56 1.71 .91 .08 0.84 0.88 .91 .9) 0.80 0.8) .66 .87 I.)S 1.46 .60 .71 1.19 1.28 .40 .49 1.85 2.0) .26 .46. I. 59 1.74 .95 .11 0.26 0.29 .31 .32 0.23 0.25 .27 .28 0.47 0.52 .58 .63 0.)6 0.40 .44 .48 0.69 0.75 .65 .94 O.SO O.SS .62 .67 0.26 0.29 .31 »)2 0.2) 0.26 .27 .28 0.48 0.52 .56 .6) "6.17 0.40 .45' .48 0.69 0.76 .66 .94 O.SO 0.55 .62 .68 1.19 3.77 4.81 6.04 .0—0* 0.60 O.Stf 0-51 9 19 19 49 0.11 0.15 0.18 0.40 0.10 0.32 0.35 0.37 0.17 0.65 0.73 0*79 0.15 0.57 0.64 0.69 0.24 0.95 I.OB 1.19 0.20 0.81 0.92 4.84 0.11 0.16 0.40 0.42 0.10 0,14 0.17 0.19 0.16 0.67 O.JS 0^81 0.15 0.59 0.66 0.71 0.24 0.97 1.10 1.21 0.21 0.81 0.94 JU.03 1.27 1.40 1.47 1.51 1.21 1,32 _U38_1,04- 2.09 2.40 2.65 2.88 1.86 2.12 2.11 2.48 2,91 3.39 3.62 -6UZ 2.50 2.91 3.27 3.56 1.12 1.46 1.51 1.57 1,25 1,38_4,44.4,8T 2.14 2.45 2.70 2.90 1.90 2.17 2.18 2.54 2.95. J.45 J.66 _4,23 2.55 2.97 1.11 1.62 O.L7 O.JIUU29_0*2ft O.IS 0.16 0.17 9.17 0.32 0.14 0.17 0.40 O.i2_4_0 . 26 ^29^0^14. 0.«6 0.49 O.SS 0.60 0.31 0.15 0.40 0.41 0,18 0.19 0.20 0.20 0.15 0.16 0.17 0.18 0.12 0.14 0.18 0.41 0.24 0.26 0.29 O.li 0.46 0.49 O.SS 0.61 0.11 0.16 0.40 0.44 1.25 3.09 4.00 5.91 0,01 0.59 0.52 O.SO 8 19 99 49 •••••••••••••*••••• .86 0.31 0.34 0.16 .06 0.29 0.32 0.11 .11 O.S9 < .10 0.52 C .16 0.87 C .13 0.75 .06 0.32 .06 0.30 .11 0.61 .10 O.SS .16 0.89 .14 0.76 .4\$ 0.55 .43 0.52 .77 0.97 .69 0.86 .09 1.39 .94 1.20 .47 0.58 .45 O.SS .79 1.00 .70 0.69 .10 1.42 .96 1.23 .12 0.13 .11 O.|| .23 0.20 .17 0.18 .11 0.34 .24 0.25 .12 0.13 .11 0.11 .23 0.24 .17 0.18 .13 0.35 •2* ••« .67 6.71 .SB 6.61 .M 1.69 .85 6.91 .16 6.16 .11 6.» .66 6.76 .66 6.65 .01 l.ll .87 6.95. .59 6.61 .55 6.ST .86 1.17 .95 I.Ot .58 1.72 .16 I.0B .61 0.66 .56 6.S9 .11 1.19 .96 1.6S .60 1.7S .36 1.51 .11 0.14 .12 6.12 .26 6.26 .20 0.21 .39 0.43 .26 0.30 .14 6.14 .12 6.12 .26 6.28 .20 0.21 .39 9.43 .26 0.36 1.36 2.0S 3.27 8.16 8.W O.S9 0.52 8.56 ------- INTERSECTIONS wo j- eoo • 2 TSO o a 700 £ § X 6BO o ZED COI*CE!IT!»»T!Oll(y^. EXCESS EMISS •* * 9 O • o <• o 5 o O O O O o _! 4 « 3BO S 300 260 too, / / 1 / / / / ' i t 1 / 1 / / 1 1 ' 1 1 0 ao BO 100 SOO 300 600 10 eueut LENOTH, LI («) Figure 25. Normalized CO concentration contribution from excess emissions on approach 1 as a function of queue length on approach 1 for intersections 106 ------- INTERSECTIONS N w T 7§ s N 190 140 ISO no too 90 so 60 80 40 90 20 10 20 50 100 ISO 200 EFFECTIVE QUEUE LENOTH.L, (mttm) BOO Figure 26, Normalized CO concentration contributions from excess emissions on approaches 2, 3, and 4 as a function of queue length on approach 1 for intersections 107 ------- UNINTERRUPTED FLOW LOW EMISSIONS 8u> < O C o o 2 u. I u « 700 k. O I 600 T m 'o 300 z 400 O K 5 300 * NOMMALIZED COI — to 0 0 _o o o 1111 \ \ \ 11 1 1 III* \ \ 1 1 1 1 x^ .ill V X \ S X v \ i X^ ^ i •^ ^ > IS 20 25 50 35 4O 45 90 60 70 80 90 IO ROADWAY/RECEPTOR SEPARATION, m«Ur» Figure 27. Normalized CO concentration contribution at each traffic stream at locations of uninterrupted flow 108 ------- 800 700 C- 60° 7 *f 500 o "*- 400 _»• 'zf •^-^ 300 2 u FREE INTERSECTIONS CONTRIBU RMALIZED CONCENTRA CV) 2 o — S o M w*wO»>ia>«) o 0000000 MAIN ROAD 10 U CROSSROAD 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 8090100 EFFECTIVE QUEUE LENGTH, L« ( m«tert) ISO 200 Figure 28. Normalized CO concentration contributions from free-flow emissions on each lane of roadways at intersections 109 ------- 700 60O 600 CM £ «j 400 in o 300 200 100 \ Im/see. = l.5m L0=2m 10 IS 20 25 30 * ROAD/RECEPTOR SEPARATION, meters Figure 29. Normalized CO concentration in street-canyons assuming vortex has formed ------- INTERSECTIONS '0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 MO 120 ISO 140 ISO 160 I7O 180 x ROAD/RECEPTOR SEPARATION, i Figure 30. Distance correction factor for excess emission contributions at intersections ------- INTERSECTIONS 1.3 1.2 => I. I to 2 1.0 o o O 0.9 u 0.8 at" 0.7 o S 0.5 ui ------- C. SPECIAL INSTRUCTIONS Presented here are discussions on several topics that are directly relevant to hot spot analysis. These discussions serve to treat in detail several areas that are especially important in hot spot analysis, but which were only briefly discussed in previous sections of this document. 1. Optimum Receptor Siting The location of the optimum receptor site is at the position where the maximum projected pollutant concentration is most likely to occur. The optimum receptor placement may be determined according to the following guidelines. Uninterrupted flow locations; (i) The optimum receptor site is on the side of the road that has the heaviest peak-hour traffic flow (vehicles/hour). (ii) The receptor should be located at the minimum perpendicular distance, x, from the roadway consistent with the criteria for being a reasonable receptor site. For the purposes of hot spot verification, the most practical guidance that can be given is to assume the receptor to be located at the centerline of the adjacent sidewalk or at the right-of-way limit if no sidewalk exists. (iii) Each traffic stream (all lanes in one direction of travel) should be assigned an identification number with regard to the receptor site as depicted below. (J. TRAFFIC STREAM RECEPTOR 113 ------- Intersection locations: (i) The receptor should be located on an approach rather than the departure side of an intersection leg. (ii) If all such approaches to the intersection have an equal number of approach lanes, the receptor should be located on the approach having the highest peak volume. (iii) If the approaches have an unequal number of lanes, and the approach having the greatest number of lanes also has the highest lane volume, the receptor should be lo- cated on that approach. (iv) If the approach having the largest number of lanes does not have the greatest lane volume, Table 5 and Figure 32 must be used to determine receptor placement. Enter Table 9 using the lane volume of the approach having the most lanes as V . to determine the queue length, Le, which develops on that approach. Use this quantity to enter Figure 32 to determine the normalized concentrations , -r . Next, designate the largest lane volume as V and enter Table 5 to determine the queue length which develops on the correspond- ing approach. Again use Figure 32 to find the resulting normalized concentration r~z\ • The receptor should be located on the approach which yields the highest value. (v) Each traffic stream (all lanes in one direction of travel) approaching the intersection should be assigned an identifica- tion number with regard to the receptor site as depicted below. 114 ------- 880 100 — 780 TOO 680 7 i § o 600 sso O 800 400 a 80 300 280 200 10 20 30 40 80 TO 100 200 300 QUEUE LENGTH, L, (m) 800 TOO 1000 Figure 32. CO concentration contribution from excess emissions on approach 1 as a function of number of lanes and queue length 115 ------- t (vi) As with-the uninterrupted flow location, the receptor should be located at the centerline of the adjacent sidewalk or at the right-of-way limit if no sidewalk exists. Examples - Three examples illustrating the above principles are shown. EXAMPLE 1 m N w S STOP SIGN Given the following data: Road segment No. of approach lanes Peak hour volume per lane Average cruise speed (assume intersection in an outlying business district) N 1 300 25 S 1 200 25 E 1 500 25 W 1 500 25 116 ------- W-E roadway has uninterrupted flow. is controlled by a stop sign. Solution: N-S roadway flow Criterion (i) requires that the receptor be located on the N-S roadway. Since both N and S approaches have an equal number of lanes (1), the receptor should be located on the N approach according to criterion (ii). The traffic streams are then assigned identification numbers as depicted below according to criterion (v). ® STOP SIGN N 1 1 .d 3 W t 2 STOP SIGN EXAMPLE 2 N W t Road segment No. of approach lanes Peak hour volume per lane Average cruise speed Intersection controlled by a signal. N 2 500 25 S 3 600 25 E 2 500 25 W 0 - - 117 ------- Solution: The road segment having the greatest number of approach lanes (segment S) also has the highest peak hour lane volume. Hence, the receptor should be located on segment S based on criterion (iii) and the traffic streams iden- tified as shown below. N Z u W ft t Note: Since the crossroad (E-W) is a one-way street, segment W has no approach lanes and need not be con- sidered in the subsequent analysis. However, segment E is still assigned the No. 4 identification number due to its relative position with respect to approach No. 1 (segment S). EXAMPLE 3 N U W ft Road segment No. of approach lanes Peak hour volume per lane Average cruise speed Intersection controlled by a signal. N 2 800 35 S 2 900 35 E 3 600 35 W 1 600 35 118 ------- Solution: Since the road segment having the greatest number of approach lanes (segment E) does not have the greatest lane volume (segment S) , a test must be made according to criterion (iv) to determine the location of the highest expected CO concentration. (a) First designating approach E as the main road: Vmain = 600 and Vcross = 900. Enter Table 5 at cruise speed 35 and the appropriate lane volumes. The resulting queue length, Le, on approach E is 231.0 m. Enter Figure 32 at Le = 231 m and read the (xu/Q)e value at the intersection of Le = 231 and "3-lanes" line or calculate the (xu/Q)e value from the appropriate equation. In this case, the equation must be used, so (xu/Q)e = 785 log (Le) - 610 for a 3- lane approach and (xu/Q)e = 1245.4 in this case. (b) Next designate approach S as the main road: Vmain = 900 and Vcross = 600. Again use Table 9 to determine the queue length on approach S (283.9 m). Enter Figure 32 at Le = 283.9 m and read the value of (xu/Q)e at the intersection of Le = 283.9 and the "2 lanes" line or calculate the value from the equation. Once again, the equation must be used: (xu/Q)e = 575 log (Le) - 400 for a 2-lane approach and (xu/Q)e = 1010.6 in this case. (c) The (xu/Q)e value is maximized by locating the receptor on segment E. The traffic streams approaching the intersection should be identified as depicted below. N w 119 ------- 2 . Cruise Speed It is recognized that travel speed data are not always readily available and that the effort required to actually measure travel speed is rather substantial. Offered here are alternative methods for deriving reasonable (in the context of hot spot analysis) estimates of cruise speed for various types of roadways. These methods involve a rather subjective process of defining speed as a simple function of lane volume. Figures 33 and 34 present specific speed-lane volume relationships that may be used for estimating cruise speeds on free-flowing sections of expressways at rural arterial streets. Table 9 provides suggested ranges of speeds for urban streets in several settings. Again, the speed estimates derived from these should be used only in the absence of measured data. 3. Cold Starts It is likely that information regarding the percentages of vehicles operat- ing in the cold mode will not be directly available for most areas; there- fore, this parameter must be estimated. A study9 of the percentages of vehicles operating in the cold mode at 60 locations in two major U.S. cities provides the basis for the following general guidance for estimating the fraction of cold operating vehicles as a function of facility type and location. Location and street type Range of percent of vehicles operating in the cold-start mode CBD and fringe area; all facilities Outer areas; arterials, collectors, locals Core area expressways Outer expressways Indirect sources 40 to 70 percent 30 to 60 percent 15 to 30 percent 0 to 20 percent 40 to 60 percent Reflects afternoon peak travel hour conditions. 120 ------- CL E a UJ uj a V) uj ------- a. E o" ui Ul Q. UJ CO 5 o UJ UJ 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 -SPEED LIMITS AVERAGE HIGHWAY SPEED 200 400 600 800 1000 1200 1400 1600 1800 2000 AVERAGE LANE VOLUME, VEHICLES /hour KEY: AVERAGE HIGHWAY SPEED SPEED LIMIT Figure 34. Typical relationships between average lane volume and average speed in one direction of travel on multilane rural highways under uninterrupted flow conditions Note: Average Highway Speed is the maximum speed at which a driver can comfortably travel over the stretch of roadway under favorable weather and zero volume conditions and maintain safe vehicle operation. Here again the Average Highway Speed represents the roadway design speed. (The legal speed limit cannot be higher than the Average Highway Speed.) 122 ------- Table 9. CRITERIA FOR SELECTION OF CRUISE SPEED VALUES FOR URBAN ROADWAYS AND INTERSECTIONS General location Operating characteristics Cruise speed range, mph Central business district; Fringe business district Outlying business district; Dense residential/ commercial land use Outlying and residential residential/commercial land use Much interference and fric- tion from pedestrians or parking and unparking vehi- cles; closely spaced inter- sections; individual vehicle speed nearly always controlled by speed of the entire traf- fic stream Occasional interference and friction from pedestrians or parking and unparking vehicles; nearby intersec- tions occasionally restrict flow; individual vehicle speed somewhat controlled by speed of entire traffic stream Infrequent interference or friction from pedestrians or maneuvering vehicles, no interference form downstream intersections; speed of indi- vidual vehicle mildly influ- enced by speed of traffic stream 15 - 20 20 - 30 25 - 35 123 ------- D. EXAMPLE An example of the hot spot verification procedure for a signalized inter- section, School Street at Lexington Street, is presented here. This exam- ple makes use of Worksheet No. 5, Calculation of CO Concentration at Intersections. A completed worksheet is presented in Figure 35. Figure 36 provides a sketch of the intersection indicating the orientation of the approaches and the location of the optimum receptor site. The first six entries are concerned with recording the data required to perform the hot spot verification. The Lexington Street north approach has the highest volume; thus, the optimum receptor site is positioned along this approach. The G/Cy of 0.53 for the Lexington Street approach is recorded in line 7.b.i and used with the approach volume, 455, to compute the effective crossroad volume of 330 vehicles per hour. These two volumes are entered on the appropriate section of Table 5 to determine & the queue length (line 8). The free flow emission rate is found in Table 6 for each approach and entered on line 9. For this example, the queue length is 41m, and the free flow emission rates in g/m-sec are 0.00392, 0.00278, 0.00227, and 0.00248 for the four approaches. The normalized concentrations are found using curves in Figure 28, as ap- propriate and entered in line 10. The distance correction factors, line 12, are obtained from Figure 31 at the appropriate roadway/receptor separation distance for the Main Road approaches only; the correction fac- tor for the cross-street approaches equals 1.0. Since the emission rates provided in the verification represent a specific set of assumptions re- garding calendar year, vehicle, type distribution, cold- and hot-start per- centages, etc., a correction factor must be applied to reflect actual con- ditions (i.e., the "assumed" actual conditions, which here, are those in- dicated in the heading data). This factor is determined using Table 8, * These volumes are also used later with Table 5 to determine the excess emission rate. 124 ------- WORKSHEET NO. 5 CALCULATION OF CO CONCENTRATIONS AT INTERSECTIONS 1 of 3 Location: ScHtmi. Sr. (5) ST. A]y\. Date; Analysis by: T. M. ./.,/•«// Checked by: TP(V\ Assumptions: Analysis Year: I9fi£ . Location: Californiaj X 49 State, low altitude; 49-State. high altitude. Ambient temperature: j2o_°F. Percent, of vehicles operating in: (a) cold-start mode / Q ; hot-start mode /?,O Vehicle-type distribution: LDV_7§_%; LPT II %; HDV-G fe %; HDV-D_5 %; MC O %. Main road 1. Site 2a. i - 2b. - 4. x. - 5. V. - 1 6. S, - 7. a. identification Intersection approach identification Is approach located in a street canyon Number of traffic lanes in approach i Roadway/receptor separation (m) Peak-hour lane volume in each approach (veh/hr) Cruise speed (mph) on each approach Type of intersection (signalized or unsignalized) Crossroad Lexineton St. i-bL No i 4 455 15 2A- MO 1 6 325 15 School St. 3£_ M------- Main road Crossroad 9. 10. 11. 12, 13. 14. Qf . - Free-flow emission rate (g/m-sec) - Normalized concentration con- ' tribution from free-flow emis- sions on main roadway (10 m"1) , - Normalized concentration ' contribution from free-flow emission on crossroad (10-3 m'1) Cdf. - Distance correction factor, free- flow emissions - Emissions correction factor, free- flow emissions. a. b. r - f.main - Concentration contribution from free-flow emissions on main road (mg/m3) Y,. - Concentration contribution f cross ' from free-flow emissions on crossroad (mg/m3) 15. 16. 17. 18. 19. 20. Xf - Total concentration from free-flow emissions (mg/m3) Q - Excess emission rate (g/m-sec) ~- . - Normalized concentration contri- Q e i ' bution from excess emissions on approach i (10~3m~1) Cde. - Distance correction factor, excess emissions C - Emissions correction factor, excess emissions X . - Concentration contribution from ex- ' cess emissions on approach ± (mg/m3) 380 -UO L33 320 120 1.31 0.8 5.0 85 J.35 40 J.O 1.0 21. x - Total contribution, from excess emis- sions (mg/m3) 22, KE -,_, - 1-hour average concentration ' resulting from vehicle emissions (mg/m3) Figure 35 (continued). Example Hot Spot Verification 126 ------- 23. XE fl-hr ~ ^-hour average CO concen- •? o, ' tration (mg/m3) -10-•O 25- n o_u_ - 8-hour average background con- B' nr centration (mg/tn3) ™ Q , - Total CO concentration, 8-hour T,o-hr / / ^\ average (mg/m3) 26. XT g_hr - Total CO concentration, 8-hour ' average (ppm) Figure 35 (continued). Example Hot Spot Verification 127 ------- UJ UJ IT SCHOOL STREET o z X UJ t Figure 36. Approach orientation and receptor (R) location 128 ------- for 49-state, low altitude conditions and the conditions described in the heading data regarding analysis year, location, etc., for each vehicle type. The individual correction factors for each vehicle type are then weighted according to the actual percentages observed (or assumed) in the traffic stream, and a composite factor is derived. In this example, the individual correction factors from Table 8 are: 0.83, 2.85, 5.23, and 0.6 for LDV's, LDT's, HDV-G's, and HDV-D's, respectively. Weighting these according to the percentages of each type of vehicle (from the heading data) yields: C£f = (0.78X0.83) + (0.11X2.85) + (0.06)(5.23) + (0.05)(0.6) = 1.33 The concentration contribution from free-flow emissions is computed separately for each approach for both the main street and the cross street. For the main street approaches, the free-flow concentration, xf a;n> is I! jTHal.ll computed from the following equation: X£ • = [(line 10)(line 13)1 ("(line 3)].(line 9)^line 12)i + i ,main |_ J L (line 3)2(line 9)2(line 12)21 = [(380X1.33)] [(1X0.00392X1.3) + (1)(0.00278X1.15)] = 4.2 mg/m3 For the cross-street contribution: v = F(line llXline 13)1 [(line 3)3(line 9)3 + (line 3)u (line Af,cross L J L ["(120X1.33)] [(1X0.00227) + (1)(0.00248) ] = 0.8 mg/m3 The total contribution, xf> from free-flow emissions is: V=Y +y/. =4.2 mg/m3 +0.8 mg/m3 = 5.0 mg/m3 xf xf,main xf,cross 129 ------- The next step is to compute the excess emissions correction factor. This factor is derived in the same manner that the free flow emissions correction factors are developed, except a speed of 0 mph is used in Table 8. The excess emissions correction factor thus derived is 0.96. The excess emission rate, 0_, is computed indirectly using cruise and ' E queue component emission rates found in Table 5, and appropriate correction factors. The cruise component, Q-v-,, and the total queue component, Q_»,, qc Cjl are obtained from Table 5 based on the highest main road volume of 455 vehicles (from line 5 on the Worksheet), and the effective crossroad vo- lume of 330 vehicles (from line 7.b.ii. of the Worksheet). The correction factors applied to Q and Q are the free flow emissions correction CJL l^l factor, C-,c (from line 13 of the Worksheet), and the excess emissions CiT correction factor, C (from line 19 of the Worksheet), respectively. The actual excess emission rate, Q,,, is then computed by: E (0.02302X0.96) - (0.00221)(1.33) = 0.01916 The normalized concentration contribution from excess emissions for each approach is determined using Figures 25 and 26, and distance correction factors are computed for the main street approaches using Figure 30. The above data are used to compute the excess emissions contribution for each approach, x •> from: X . = (Q )(*£•) . (Cde). ei e Q ei i The total concentration from excess emissions, then is: 4 x = £ x • e n ei n-1 130 ------- xn this example, Xe was found to be 11.1 mg/m3 . The total 1-hour average concentration, then, is: f + Xe = 5.0 + 11.1 = 16.1 tng/tn3 X The 8-hour average CO concentration is computed as the product of 16.1 (the 1-hour average) and 0.7 (a correlation factor), which yields 11.3 mg/m3; this value is recorded on line 23. The 11.3 mg/m3 concentra- tion is the local traffic contribution to which a background concentration, 2.9 mg/m , is added to determine the total 8-hour average CO concentration, which is 14.2 mg/m3. To convert the concentration from mg/m3 to ppm, 14.2 mg/m3 is multiplied by 0.87, which yields 12.4 ppm; this is entered on line 29. The results of the verification indicate a hot spot potential at the Lexington Street - School Street intersection. The highest likely 8-hour average CO concentration computed for the north approach of Lexington Street is 16.8 mg/m3 (14.6 ppm). 131 ------- SECTION IV REFERENCES 1. Midurskij T. Carbon Monoxide Hot Spot Guidelines Volume I: Techniques. GCA/Technology Division, Bedford, Massachusetts. Prepared for U.S. En- vironmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle Park, N.C. EPA-450/3- 78-033. August 1978. 2. Benesh, F. , and T. Midurski. Carbon Monoxide Hot Spot Guidelines Volume II: Rationale. GCA/Technology Division, Bedford, Massachusetts. Prepared for U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle Park, N.C. EPA-450/3-78-034. August 1978. 3. Midurski, T. Carbon Monoxide Hot Spot Guidelines Volume III: Workbook. GCA/Technology Division, Bedford, Massachusetts. Prepared for U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle Park, N.C. EPA-450/3- 78-035. August 1978. 4. Benesh, F. Carbon Monoxide Hot Spot Guidelines Volume IV: Documentation of Computer Programs to Generate Volume I Tables and Curves. GCA/Tech- nology Division, Bedford, Massachusetts. Prepared for U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle Park, N.C. EPA-450/3-78-036. August 1978. 5. Benesh, F. Carbon Monoxide Hot Spot Guidelines Volume V: Users Manual for the Intersection-Midblock Model. GCA/Technology Division, Bedford, Massachusetts. Prepared for U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle Park, N.C. EPA-450/3-78-037. August 1978. 6. Benesh, F. Carbon Monoxide Hot Spot Guidelines Volume VI: Users Manual for the Modified ESMAP Model. GCA/Technology Division, Bedford, Massachusetts. Prepared for U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle Park, N.C. EPA-450/3-78-040. August 1978. 7. Midurski, T. Carbon Monoxide Hot Spot Guidelines Volume VII: Example Applications at Waltham/Providence/Washington, D.C. GCA/Technology Division, Bedford, Massachusetts. Prepared for U.S. Environmental Pro- tection Agency, Research Triangle Park, N.C. EPA-450/3-78-041. 8. Highway Capacity Manual. Highway Research Board, National Academy of Sciences, National Research Council, Washington, D.C. Special Report No. 87. 1965. 132 ------- Midurski, t. P. Determination of Percentages of Vehicles Operating in the Cold Start Mode. GCA/Technology Division, Bedford, Massachusetts. Prepared for the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle Park, North Carolina. EPA-450/3-77-023. August 1977. 133 ------- TECHNICAL REPORT DATA (Please read Instructions on the reverse before completing) 1. REPORT NO. 2. 3. RECIPIENT'S ACCESSION-NO. 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Carbon Monoxide Hot Spot Guidelines Volume III: Workbook 5. REPORT DATE August 1978 6. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION CODE GCA-TR-78-32G(3) 8. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION REPORT NO. 7. AUTHOR(S) Theodore P. Midurski 9. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME AND ADDRESS GCA Corporation GCA/Technology Division Bedford, Massachusetts 01730 10. PROGRAM ELEMENT NO. 2AF643 11. CONTRACT/GRANT NO. 12. SPONSORING AGENCY NAME AND ADDRESS Office of Air Quality Planning and Standards Environmental Protection Agency Research Triangle Park, N.C. 27711 13. TYPE OF REPORT AND PERIOD COVERED 14. SPONSORING AGENCY CODE 15. SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES 16. ABSTRACT This report presents a summary of the guidelines for the identification and evaluation of localized violations of carbon monoxide air quality standards in the vicinity of streets and highways. The guidelines are provided to facilitate the rapid and effi- cient review of CO conditions along existing roadway networks, without the need for extensive air quality monitoring, and are based upon the use of limited traffic data. Two stages of review are provided for. Preliminary screening, performed with simple nomographs included herein, simply identifies those locations with the potential to violate CO standards; no quantitative estimate of CO concentrations results from preliminary screening. Verification screening, using procedures and forms provided herein, allows for consideration of additional site-specific conditions and provides quantitative estimates of maximum CO concentrations. Both screening procedures are performed manually and are based upon the EPA Indirect Source Review Guidelines. Data collection procedures, computation techniques, and forms are recommended, and examples are provided. A more comprehensive explanation of the guidelines in terms of their development, technical basis, capabilities and limitations is provided in Volume I. KEY WORDS AND DOCUMENT ANALYSIS DESCRIPTORS Air Pollution Atmosphere Contamination Control Atmospheric Models Carbon Monoxide Exhaust Gases Traffic Engineering Transportation/Urban Planning b.IDENTIFIERS/OPEN ENDED TERMS Air Pollution Model Automobile Exhaust Highway Corridor Air Quality Analysis Relationships between Traffic and Nearby Air Quality c. COSATI Field/Group 13/13B Release Unlimited 19. SECURITY CLASS (This Report) TTNCLASSIFIED 21. NO. OF PAGES 147 20. SECURITY CLASS (This page) UNCLASSIFIED 22. PRICE 220-1 (9-73) GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE: 19 79-6 134 013 4 196REGION NO. 4 ------- ```