For Water Supply and Water Quality Manageaent
DATE:  Novenber 5, 1962            DISTRIBUTION

Prepared by   3g)?g£               Project Staff
Reviewed by _________             Cooperating Agencie*.

Approved by ____________             General
                     Public Health Service
                           Region IX

         Division of Water Supply and Pollution Control
                     Room 570 Pittock Block
                        Portland 5, Oregon

This working paper contains preliminary data and information

primarily intended for internal use by the Columbia River

Basin Project staff and cooperating agencies.  The material

presented in this paper has not been fully evaluated and

should not be considered as final.

                     Table of Contents
A.  Introductory                                       1
B.  Fisheries                                          1,
    1.  General                                        1
    2.  Present Situation                              2
    3.  Potential Situation                            3
    4.  Water Quality Need                             9
C.  Recreation                                        10
    1.  General                                       10
    2.  Present Situation                             11
    3.  Potential Situation                           19
D.  Riparian Dwellings                                21
    1.  General                                       21
    2.  Present Situation                             22
    3.  Potential Situation                           24
B.  General Public                                    25
F.  Power                                             27
G.  Navigation                                        27
H.  Irrigation and Other Agricultural Uses            27
I.  Municipal and Industrial Water Supply             27
J.  Conclusions                                       28
Prepared by:  Economic Studies Group
              Water Supply and Pollution Control
                    ,  Program, Pacific Northwest
              November 1962

                      WILLAMETTE RIVER BASIN (OREGON)                    C-l

A.  Introductory

    The purpose of this section is to describe the uses for water in which

quality Is important.  These provide a basis for establishing water quality

objectives.  These water quality objectives, in turn, are used to compute

the stream flow requirements needed for water quality management purposes.

The following description of water uses is also the first step in making

an analysis of benefits to be derived from making these water uses possible.

Such benefit evaluation studies, however, will be carried out at a later

stage of study.

    It should be noted that there are other beneficial  »es for water than

those for which quality is important.  These other uses are described else-

where in this report

    Because the purpose of this section is only to establish the nature of

water uses in -die Willamette basin, the discussions of Individual uses are

limited to general descriptions of use to show that certain uses do occur

and their general magnitude.  Although this includes readily available data

such as park locations and attendance, it is beyond the scope of this study

to quantify the extent of each use in terms of detailed user statistics.

B.  Fisheries

    1.  General

        The Willamette River"and  its tributaries  support a large amount of

game fishing and provide spawning areas for migratory species of fish which

constitute a valuable natural resource of the Pacific Northwest.


        Reduction of the natural habitat of resident species and of spawning

areas of anadromous groups has resulted from construction of dams on several

water-bodies and from the effects of various kinds of water pollution.  In

contrast, commercial and sport fishing pressure has risen with population.

Unfortunately, very few statistics are available on the number of anglers

using each stream or the contribution of basin streams to commercial fish

harvested outside the Willamette basin.

        Most of the emphasis in this discussion has been placed on the de-

scription of the salmonids, not only because they are the most important

sport and commercial fish, but also because their water quality requirements

(with reference to temperature and dissolved oxygen) are more critical than

other species.  By using their requirements as a design criteria the require-

ments of other species will also be met.

        The data and conclusions presented in the following parts of this

section are based on discussions with the U. S. Fish and Wildlife Service

and publications of state conservation agencies.

    2.  Present Situation

        a.  General

            Adverse pressures on fish populations are heavy as a result of

fishing and the effects of civilization on environments.  Trout populations

behind dams frequently give way to scrap fish, which are better adapted to

reservoir conditions, and displace trout through their consumption of fry

and food resources.  Perhaps more serious is the situation of anadromous

species which use the upper areas as a spawning ground.  Production is now

limited to the spring run;  low summer water flow and low dissolved oxygen


levels prevent a fall run.  Flood control dams have closed off much of the

natural spawning ground;  and embankments, erosion, irrigation canals, and

heavy municipal and industrial wastes on some reaches of the river have

either destroyed spawning areas or added to the hazards of migration.

            Despite these hazards to the fishery, the Willamette River

basin has an important and widespread distribution of salmonlds and other

game fish.  The distribution of the salmonids among the major water bodies

in the basin is shown in Table I.

            The use of the fishery of the Willamette River basin cannot be

described precisely.  Although comprehensive fishing statistics are not

available, there is evidence to indicate that the number of anglers is

growing.  For Oregon, as a whole, the number of fishing license applications

rose at a six percent annual rate during the 1950's.


                                         TABLE I

                          Distribution of Salmonid Game Eish in
                      Major Water Bodies of the Willamette Basin i'
                                           Trout          	        Salmon
                                           Dolly   Cut-    Steel-
                           Rainbow  Brook  Varden  throat  head   ' Chinook  Coho  Kokaoea
Upper Basin
  Willamette River
    Main Stem                 x                       x       x       x       x
    Middle Fork               x              x        x       x       x
    Coast Fork                x                       x               x
  McKenzie River              x              x        x               x
  Long Tom River              x                       x
  Cottage Grove Reservoir     x                       x
  Dexter Reservoir            x                       x
  Dorena Reservoir            x
  Fern Ridge Reservoir                                x
  Lookout Point Reservoir     x                       x
Middle Basin
  North Santiam River         x       x               x       x       x       x
  South Santiam River         x                       x       x       x       x
  Pudding River               x                       x
  Luckiamute River            x                       x                       x
  Rickreall Creek             x                       x
  Marys River                 x                       x                   .
  Mill Creek                  x                       x
  Yamhill River               x                       x               x       x
  Long Tom River              x                       x
  Willamette River            x                       x       x       x       x
  Calapooya River             x                       x       x       x       x
  Cascade Lakes               x       x      x        x                              x
  •Detroit Reservoir           x       x            •                                 x
Lower Basin
  Willamette River            x                       x       x       x       x
  Clackamas River             x •             x        x       x       x       x
  Molalla River               x                       x       x       x       x
  Tualatin River              x                       x       x       x       x
  High Mountain Lakes         x       x      x        x       x
\J Sources:
  Oregon State Game Commission, Fishery Division:  Annual Report.  1960.
  Fish Commission of Oregon:  Environmental Survey Report Pertaining to  Salmon and
Steelhead in Certain Rivers of Eastern Oregon and the Willamette River and its
Tributaries. June 1960.


            Another example of the growth in numbers of anglers can be seen

in the statistics for the Detroit Reservoir which is considered by the

Oregon State Game Commission to be a representative area. —   The nature of

this growth is indicated in the table which follows:

                               TABLE II &

                    Angler Use of Detroit Reservoir

                    Year                   Anglers

                    1954                    49,062
                    1955                    61,738
                    1956                    64,787
                    1957                    91,660
                    1958                    97,950
                    1959                   108,753
                    1960                   134,331

            As described in the following sections both the upper and middle

basin areas contain important spawning areas for anadromous salmonids, as

well as resident populations of salmonids in both the tributaries and main

stem of the Willamette.  The lower basin area generally lacks a resident

salmonid population in the main stem, but has spawning areas on the tribu-

taries in addition to providing passage to upstream areas.

        b.  Upper Willamette

            There is no commercial fishing in the upper Willamette basin,

but the game fishing resources of the area are considered excellent.  The

McKenzie River is one of the nation's famous fishing streams;  the mountain

lakes and streams of the Willamette National Forest and the forks and major

tributaries of the Willamette River are heavily fished.
JL^ ' Oregon State Game Commission:  Statement Concerning the Fish and Wild-
    life Resources of the Middle Willamette Basin (delivered to the Oregon
    State  Water Resources Board),  November 1961.
21  Oregon State Game Commission, Fishery Division:  Annual Report, 1960.


            Although an occasional Chinook is taken behind Lookout Point

or Dorena Dam, the McKenzie River is the only major spawning area remaining

in the upper Willamette basin and presently accounts for about half of the

total Willamette River salmon production.

            The State of Oregon operates two salmon hatcheries in the upper

basin area, - one at Leaburg on the McKenzie and one at Oakridge on the

Middle Fork;  an egg-collecting station at Dexter, and trout-breeding farms

on the McKenzie and at Oakridge.

        c.  Middle Willamette

            Although the take of fish in the middle Willamette basin is

exclusively for sports purposes, the water bodies of the basin have

relevance to commercial fisheries in that they serve as passageways and

spawning grounds for migratory salmon, upon whose existence an important

regional industry depends.  Since the major spawning grounds are in the

upper basin, passage through the middle basin is necessary to maintenance

of this resource.

            The waters of the middle basin support extensive recreational

fishing, and natural stocks must be supplemented in many cases by hatchery-

reared fish.  Nearly all of the game fish species found in the State of

Oregon are represented in the fish population of the basin.  Spring run

chinook and coho salmon and steelhead trout annually migrate into the

Willamette and many of its middle basin tributaries.  Rainbow, dolly vardea,

cutthroat, and brook trout frequent the basin.  Whitefish occur in some

tributaries.  Warm-water game fish are present in all of the lower streams

and reservoirs, and include largemouthj.smalimouth, and warmouth base,

and black creppie^ bullhead catfish, and bluegliio


        d.  Lover Willamette

            The waters of the lower Willamette basin support a considerable

game fishery, serve as the entrance to spawning grounds in the upper reaches

of the river system, and maintain a modest and irregular amount of commercial


            A variety of species are found in the region.  In addition to

the salmonids described in Table I, warm-water game fish, including sturgeon,

crappie, bass, sunfish, and catfish, are found in various rivers, backwaters,

and lakes.

            Because it forms the gate for migratory fish passing from or

into the Columbia River, the lower Willamette is of critical importance to

maintenance of Willamette River system salmon and steelhead runs.

            Because of the dense population of the lower basin, there is a

large use of the area's streams for sport fishing.  This is indicated in

the long-term statistics maintained for the lower basin by the Oregon State

Game Commission, as illustrated in Table III.

                               TABLE III

              Willamette River Spring Chinook Sport Fishery

              Year     Total Run            Angling Denatty
                     (no. of fish)            (man days)

              1950      24,800                  73,400
              1951      49,600                  92,600
              1952      67,500                  91,100
              1953      96,800                 102,805
              1954      44,400                 104,061
              1955      32,500                  77,656
              1956      77,600                  84,100
              1957      52,800                  95,458
              1958      62,800                 137,875
              1959      .53,400                 134,089
              1960      24,200                  92,278


            It should be noted that the secular decline in the salmon run

has persisted despite restrictions on commercial fishing inaugurated in

the early  '50's, some shortening of the sport fishing season and catch

limit, and intense seeding efforts of State and Federal conservation


    3.  Potential Situation

        Future development of the basin's fisheries would appear to depend

to a great extent on public policy.  Depletion of game fish populations

through heavy fishing and alteration of environment is being combatted

by various agencies.

        Research into environmental conditions may result in appearance of

other species (e.g., an experimental planting of sockeye salmon in the

Middle Fork of the Willamette appears, provisionally, to have been success-

ful).  Species presently living in the basin's waters are presumed to per-

sist through the study period.  Augmentation of anadromous populations in

the upper basin might well result from downstream measures to improve

migratory conditions, including maintenance of water quality standards

favorable to salmon.

        The Fish Commission of Oregon has outlined a series of recommenda-

tions intended to promote numbers of salmon and steelhead,-^'  in the belief

that the middle basin appears able to provide additional spawning areas

along the Yamhill, Luckiamute and Santiam river systems, and perhaps even

support a fall run of salmon in certain streams.
I/  Fish Commission of Oregon:  Environmental Survey Report Pertaining to
    Salmon and Steelhead in Certain Rivers of Eastern Oregon and the
    Willamette River and its Tributaries. June 1960.


        The lower basin also offers some opportunity to increase fish


        It is considered that fall runs of salmon may be established in

the Clackamas and Tualatin rivers, in the event that storage projects

augment present depleted summer flows.  Improved water quality at

Willamette Falls, where fish passage is delayed, would aid escapement of

migrating salmon and steelhead, and improve spawning levels in upper areas

of the basin.

    4.  Water Quality Need

        The desirability of maintaining fisheries is well recognized, with

considerable sums expended by various government agencies to maintain

hatcheries, passageways, seeding efforts, and research.  Provision of

water quality sufficient to permit year-round passage of migratory fish

in the lower Willamette River and to support salmonids and other species

in all other streams and major water bodies of the basin is needed in order

to serve this use of water in the Willamette basin.

        For the purposes of this report, and based on discussion with the

U. S. Fish and Wildlife Service and information obtained from state con-

servation agencies, the water quality required in the main stem of the

Willamette in the lower basin should be adequate to permit year-round

passage of migratory fish, and that of all other major streams and water

bodies of the Willamette basin should be adequate to support both resident

and anadromous salmonid populations.


  C.  Recreation

      1.   General

           The recreational uses of water to be considered in this section in-

  clude boating, swimming and bathing, skin diving, water skiing, recreational

  shore uses, and  other similar uses of water.

           As  described in the following sections for Individual study areas,

  all of  the  streams and major water-bodies in the Willamette basin support

  recreational uses despite, in some cases, very low water quality.  The

  demand  for  these uses is expected to grow.

           Although user statistics which are available for public or govern-

  ment operated recreational areas are included in the discussion of indi-

'  vLdual sections of the basin, there are many other areas of private or

  informal nature  which also contribute to the recreational use of water in

  the basin.   Attendance figures at public parks provide a sketchy insight

  into recreational use of waters.  The fact that the major rivers are all

  accessible  at a  number of points where no record of use is made gives such

  use figures value only in indicating trends rather than establishing use

  levels.   The existence of considerable areas of riparian settlement at

  places  along the Willamette and its tributaries and the existence of diving

  boards,  floats,,  and boats in conjunction with many of these residences ie

  further evidence of the desire for recreational use of water.

           A further complicating factor encountered in evaluating recreational

  use of  water is  suggested in the sections dealing with recreation in the

  individual  study areas.  There is apparently a considerable latent demand

  for recreation opportunities that Is stimulated by the existence of


facilities.  It would appear that the level of recreational demand is

not only somewhat higher than available resources can adequately support9

but that additions or improvements to recreational facilities tend to

raise the level of requirements by calling forth additional users and

increasing the intensity of use by current users.

        Although there appears to be a demand for the recreational use of

water on all of the area's streams, it is not considered likely that it

will be possible to provide enough stream flow to provide adequate water .

quality for all recreational uses for all stretches of all streams.  For

instance, immediately below major points of waste discharge (even though

adequately treated) or areas of uncontrolled drainage there may be limited

areas where quality will be impaired sufficiently to restrict some

recreational uses of the stream, even though very large stream flows are

made available.  Because of the problems, and because it is not practical

at this time to describe the use and demand for each type of recreation

for each stretch of stream, it is considered to be reasonable to examine

the problem from the reverse viewpoint, i.e. what level of recreation will

be permitted if the flow requirements for other uses are met?  The amount

and types of recreation which such flow requirements will permit will then

need to be evaluated to see if the area's apparent needs will be met.

    2.  Present Situation

        a.  General

            Although use statistics are sketchy amd provisional, they iadi°

cate that the recreational facilities of the Willamette basin ase receiving

increasingly intensive use.  Population growth and am apparent


 per capita participation in outdoor recreation is creating a strain on many

 facilities.  For example, on the peak boating day on Fern Ridge Reservoir

 in 1958, as reported by the U. S. Army Corps of Engineers, there were 100

 craft on the water.  Information from resort and county park personnel,

 however, indicates that during July and early August 1962, 300-350 craft

 were on the reservoir every weekend day, and an additional launching

 facility at Zurawalt County Park 'was required to handle the growing number

 of boaters.  Similarly, the number of users of the picnic ground and boat

 launching facilities of North Shore Park on the Dexter Reservoir climbed

 from a reported 45,000 in 1958 to a reported 135,000 in 1960.

             In addition to increasing demands from the area's residents,  '

 visitors also were significant users of the water recreation opportunities

 of the basin.  Tourism became Oregon's second source of income in 1961,

 supplanting agriculture in that position, according to the State Department

 of Industrial Development;  and much of the fixed investment in the state

 during the late '50's and early  '60's has been directed to the tourist

 industry.  There is an obvious willingness for boaters, campers, and even

 picnickers to travel considerable distances, when necessary, in pursuit of

 recreation.£ e.g., An enumeration of users of recreational facilities main-

 tained by Pacific Power & Light Company on the Lewis River in southwest

• Washington indicates that 55 percent of the users over a period of years

 (1959-1962) came from Oregon.  At present rates of use, over 50,000 visitors

 annually travel a minimum of fifty miles each way to the Lewis River area

 to enjoy picnicking and boating^/  Thus increasing use of basin recreation

 sites by tourists would seem likely in the future.  In addition, the

Improvement of the basin's recreational opportunities uouid, in sissy

save the area's residents considerable time and travel expense,,

        b.  Upper Willamette

            Water-based recreation activities are abundant in Che upper

Willamette basin.  Private firms, federal agencies,,the State of Oregon,

Lane County, and the municipalities of Eugene, Cottage Grove, and Oakridge

all maintain recreation facilities of some type.  Water°side picnicking and

camping facilities are abundant.  Many swimming opportunities are present

in the clean waters above Eugene.  Six large reservoirs provide boating

opportunities, and the rapids of the McKenzie are used for "Whitewater"

boating.  For the most part, recreational facilities are readily accessible

from major highways, though the distance from population centers makes a

trip to some forests stream, and reservoir locations an extended day's

outing;  while the scarcity of camping facilities - other tbam fchose isa

the National Forest - discourages over-night excursions,,  The remote lakes

of the Willamette national Forest are little used for boating becaus© of

their inaccessibility.  Conversely, there is some swimming in the

Willamette near Eugenes although the river is officially closed £© swimmerst

            The following table summarises by stseam ehe major m£e2""ba®ed

recreation facilities in this area.


                          TABLE IV

Attendance at Water-based Recreation Sites in the Upper Basin

                                   1950 5/  1958 ±f
Willamette, Coast Fork
  Cottage Grove Reservoir         49,300     56,000    117,300 .
  Dorena Reservoir                19,800     32,000     39,o6o  .
  Baker Bay Co. Park (Dorena Res.)           80,000      n.a.   -

Long Tom River
  Zumwalt Park      )
  Perkins Peninsula )            134,700    213,000    437,900 £/
  Richardson Point  )

McKenzie River
  Armitage State Park             34,437    110,720    129,465 .£/
  Hendricks Bridge State Park      2,190     34,362     45,030 £'
  Ben and Kay Dorris State Park      705     25,764     22,431 •£/
  Howard J. Morton State Park                 6,339      6,147 SJ
  Jennie B. Harris State Park                 3,765      4,584 ^
  Weyerhaeuser Park                           6,000      n.a.   —'
  Leaburg Park                               45,000      n.a.   £/
  Blue River Park                   _         4,000      n.a.   &

Willamette, Middle Fork
  Lookout Point Reservoir                   136,000     91,300 &
  Dexter Viewpoint                           25,000      n.a.   £/
  Dexter North Shore                         45,000 .   135,000 &
  Oakridge Municipal Park                     n.a. -'     n.a.   .§/
&l  Columbia Basin Inter-Agency Committee:  Recreation Survey of the
    Pi^c.lfic Northwest: Region, March 1961.
b/  Corps of Engineers, Department of the Army:  Public Recreation
    Use. Civil Works Projects. May 1962.
cl  Oregon State Highway Commission -1960 figures.
d/v Lane County Bureau of Parks and Recreation - 1960 figures.
e/' Not available.


       c.  Middle Willamette

           Recreational use of water - other than fishing - is less intensive

in the middle Willamette basin than in either the upper or lower basin.   In

large measure, it would appear that the relatively low use of water for

recreation in the area may be traced to scarcity of opportunities.

           The number of water-side recreation areas in the middle  Willamette

basin is not high, and their quality is generally under that of neighboring

areas.  This is due to the existing character and quality of streams,

which are mainly shallow, slow-flowing, very low in summer months,  often

turbid, and frequently polluted.  At some recreational areas such as

Newberg Boat Landing, Champoeg State Park, and Lafayette Locks County  Park,

the water is posted against swimming.  It might be said that under  present

conditions only the Santiam and its forks, Detroit Reservoir, and some

Cascade lakes are suitable for swimming;  while Detroit Reservoir and  the

Willamette River are the only bodies large enough to permit boating.

           Table V summarizes main water-side recreation areas in the  middle

Willamette basin.

                                TABLE V

    Attendance at Water-based Recreation Sites in the Middle Basin

                                                        a/           b/
Silver Creek
  Silver Falls State Park
  North Falls State Park

Willamette River
  Champoeg State Park
  Sodaville Springs State Park

Santiam River
  Cascadia State Park

North Santiam River
  Detroit Reservoir
    Lakeshore State Park
    Mongold State Park
  North Santiam State Park
  Niagara County Park
  Buell County Park

Yamhill River
  Dayton Landing County Park
  Lafayette Locka County Park

Marys River
  Avery Municipal Park

n.a. •£'
       It is notable that most of the growth was centered on the Detroit

Reservoir, with its extensive swimming and boating opportunities.  Attend-

ance at other areas appeared to drop off as the relative advantages of the

Detroit Reservoir parks were realized.  It may be worth particular note

that attendance at Champoeg State Park dropped about 10.5 thousand from

1958 to 1960.  Located at a slow-moving pool on the Willamette, a short

area downstream from the places where the municipal wastes of Newberg and
&l  Columbia Basin Inter-Agency Committee:  Recreation Survey of the
    Pacific Northest Region. March 1961
b/  Oregon State Highway Commission
 /  Not available


 the effluent of a pulp plant are released,  the park provides  an example

 of less than optimum use of potential recreational opportunity  due  to lot?

 water quality.

      d.  Lower Willamette

          The population of the lower Willamette basin uses  the  recreational

 water resources of the area extensively despite the low water quality of

the area's principal water body.  The population of the area also exerts

 considerable pressure on surrounding areas  in their attempt to  satisfy the

 recreational demand.  The Clackamas River is a clean, attractive, swift-

 flowing stream that provides swimming and fishing.  The Willamette  receives

 heavy use by boaters, and the Willamette above Oregon City  is much  used by

 swimmers.  The sluggish, turbid Tualatin is used by swimmers  at public

 resorts and by residents.  The Molalla River is utilized by swimmers, and

 picnicking is common along its banks.  Lake Oswego was developed as an

 area for recreational living;  and though the public recreation area has

 been usurped by housing, residents make heavy use of the waters for boatingt

 swimming and water skiing.  There are two public resorts on the Tualatin,

 three on the Clackamas, at least fourteen moorages and marinas  om tine

 Willamette, and two on Lake Oswego.  Attendance at parks in the asaa is

 shown in Tabl© VI.

Attendance a£ Uater°foaseci  laere'atioffl Sites  in ths Lower Basia

                                                l     1960
  Promontory Park

Roslyn Lake
Bins® Lake
  Biws Lake County Park
    of  the
Sandy River
  Dabney Stafce Park                      81,SIS     109,371 ^,
  Lewis & Clark State
         Trail Couimty

Deep Creek
  Deep Creek County Park                   m.a0

Eagle Creek
  Eagle Fera County Park              '     suSo
  Metzler Couaty Park                      n0a=
_b/  Oregoa Sfcate Wghuay
el  Poreiaad Gtsaerai Electric  Compaay
  Feyrer Couinfcy Park                       n,&o        ffl.a»
  Wagon Wheel Coumty Park                  a0a<,        n.a0

Willamette River
  Clackamstt® MuamicipQl Park    ,           iQoa.        B0a.
  River Mill Park                                     4,270 £'

Lake Harriet
  Lake Harriet Park
                                                     15P87S .£'

Timothy Lake


     3.  Potential Situation

         In addition to a growing per capita use of the area's water based

recreational facilities by the present residents, several other factors

will also be significant in determining the potential demand for these

facilities.  Industrial development groups are stressing Oregon's ability

to offer intangible social benefits, recreation among them, as an induce-

ment to recruiting new industries and high quality industrial personnel.

There are indications that this appeal is effective and it presents the

possibility of rising demand for recreational opportunities from an immigrant

work force attracted partly by recreational considerations.  Also posing the

possibility of growing demand pressures is the fact that the basin's rela-

tively abundant recreational resources are likely to attract increasing

numbers of visitors from other areas where natural recreation facilities

are less abundant.

         In the upper basin area the fishing possibilities of the McKenzie

River and the moderately used reservoirs on the North Fork of the Willamette

offer room for expanded use.  The principal area of unsatisfied demand

would appear to be for the use of the Willamette River near Eugene for

swimming.  Expansion of the Eugene-Lane County park system along the banks

of the river will unquestionably give rise to added pressures from potential

swimmers, particularly when the saturated level of use of Fern Ridge

Reservoir, the only considerable body of swimming water close to the

metropolitan area, is taken into account.

         The growing population envisaged for the middle Willamette basin

will unquestionably make considerable demands on the limited recreational


 water resources of the area.   In view of the rising  nuober  of potential

 users and the trend of visits per person, the presently available fishing,

 boating, and swimming facilities of the middle basin should become saturated

 in the very near future,   (Some evidence of this  is  indicated at  Detroit

 Reservoir where it was necessary to zone its waters  in 1960 to  accommodate

 both anglers and water-skiers.)  Power-boating and swimming opportunities

 on such narrow, sluggish  streams as the Luckiamute,  Marys River,  Rickreall

 Creek, and the Yamhill River  will always be limited.

          The main potential body of recreationally useful water which can

 be made available to the  population of the middle Willamette basin is the

 Willamette River.  Making the Willamette available for swimming over  its

 middle areas would unquestionably absorb considerable recreational demand

sad stave off for some time the need for the population of the middle  basin

 to resort to other areas  in search of suitable recreational water bodies.

          Greater recreational use of the Willamette  below Willamette  Falls

 is restricted for matay types  of recreation, due to the industrialised

 character of the river bank in many areas.  Above Wiliasaette Falls, measures

 to reduce turbidity might make increased recreational us© posoible aad

 desirable, in spite of the impediment offered by huge lengths of  log  rafts

                of fctoia portion of the river.

          Frasther development  of the recreational possibilities  ©f the

              likely,  The Tualatin Rives's recreational possibilities as©

 limited9 dw© 60 the fctsrbidity and slow flow of the river.   Added  upstream

 storage could produce in the  Tualatin a wholly new recreation area.


         The desire for recreational use of water is intense in the lower

basin, where an urbanized population is keenly aware of the attractions

of water sports.  Because other uses would appear to restrict recreational

development in some portions of the lower Willamette River, water manage-

ment programs for other water bodies should reflect the need for developing

additional recreational possibilities.  Rising population levels in con*

junction with the trend to make more extensive use of recreational water

indicate that maintenance of water quality in the interest of recreation will,

in the future, become an increasingly pressing problem in the lower

Willamette basin.

D.  Riparian Dwellings

    1.  General

        The degree of riparian settlement correlates rather directly with

two factors, the level of recreation opportunities available on a water

body, and the proximity to a population center„  It 10 expected that as

populations increase along the Willamette, the prevalence of waterside

dwellings will grow at a somewhat faster rate than the historical rate.

        Although there are no direct water quality requirements for s'iparlsa

dwellings, their desirability and land value depend in part on the recreation

possibilities of water and in part on the aesthetic qualities of the w©ter°

body and its banks.  The existence of riparian dwellings oriented towards

a stream is a useful indicator that a demand for pccreatioual end aestfeetie

enjoyment of the stream exists.  Erosion, turbidity, unsightly or odoriferous

conditions, or water quality too low to support recreation may be presumed

to have an adverse effect o» riparian eattieaent and the valtse of siperiaa

residential land.

         a.  Upper Willamette

             The establishment  of  dwellings by lake© or streams of the

Willamette basin foas only  occurred in a feu areas*  Farm homes are for

most part oriented to roads rather than water5 and the Willamette nosr

Etagens<=Sprimgfield is largely vacant  or left to industrial sites 0

             Escep£ioBS asre obseirvables howeveir;  axad there ©ppoasrs £o b@ a

definite teraJency fos areas with water^based scenic or irecreatiomal

attractions  to become built=mp. With the epcceptioa of the McKemsie River

areaj where  rscreatioxiial cornsideratioias have resulted in resort type of

development„ water=®ide buildiag has  t^ken place ^©re aearaess to urbsa

areas and ease of access are marked.

             Houses are spaced  along  the McKensie River from Springfield to

McKensie Bridge, & distance of  about  fifty miles „  The seven settled places

along the'river are all oriented to the stream,  A dosen fishing resorts

axtd scores of summer home® line the river from Leaburg to Blw® River„  All

in all 5 perhap® two hundred dwelling  units stand along the McKensio,  At

Lowell fifteen homes, roughly a quarter of the dwelling unit® in the tomj,

have been buailt on the bank of  Dester Reservoir„  Farm houses abov© Cottag©

Grov© Reservoir are  largely located asar ©ad facing £hs re©Qrvoi5?5

the sis miloB of sfeE-eamsida from Dos©as Baa feo C©S£ags Gsovo to© la

dwelling© o   Fall Cff©©ks froa J«ase  'mstQidG ipslragfiald fo5? ©b®«i(S

                        fas© te

             Fern Ridge Reservoir, Eugene's main recreation area,  provides

the best example of settlement near water.  The west bank of the reservoir

has a number of summer homes and year-round dwellings, and a cluster of

recently built houses stands near the east bank.

         b.  Middle Willamette

             The use of water-side sites for residential dwellings is

relatively scarce through most of the countryside of the middle basin,

and are limited to places near towns or cities.  Though farm boundaries

often Include streams, the predominant pattern has the farm home located

near a road or highway, rather than in view of the stream.  In those cases

where a town is located on a river - St. Paul, Dayton, Independence,

Feoria, and Harrisburg - the backs of buildings are in most cases  turned to

the river, their fronts to the road.  In the cities of Salem and Albany,

the riverside is largely undeveloped or given over to industrial uses.

             There are exceptions, however, provided by some urban areas

where residential emplacements exist along river banks and display a

definite desire to make use of the scenic and recreational resources of the

water body.  Outside of Corvallis several dozen dwellings may be observed

along the banks of the Willamette River and Marys River.  In several

instances, private moorages are situated near Willamette River homes.  Both

Sweet Home and Lebanon on the South Santiam River have fairly new resi-

dential suburbs reaching up from the river.  Outside of Newberg, perhaps

a dozen houses have been built along the Willamette River.  Here,  too,

several houses are connected to pleasure-boat docks.


         c.  Lower Willamette

             Water-side dwelling places are generally regarded as  desirable

in the highly urbanized lower Willamette basin.   Dwelling structures occupy

much of the non-Industrial land on the banks of  the Willamette from the

Ross Island Bridge to some distance past Oregon  City, a distance of about

fifteen miles.  Lake Oswego, an impoundment adjacent to the mouth of the

Tualatin River, has become the center of an incorporated suburb with a

1960 population of 8,906.  The community's population growth, from 3,316

in 1950 and 1,726 in 1940, is dramatic testimony to the desire for water-

side dwelling.  The lower reaches of the Clackamas River have a considerable

number of homes.  Over two hundred houses obviously oriented to the stream- -

many with connected floats and diving boards - exist along the Tualatin.

Pressure of desire for water-side land is so intense in the area about

Portland that prevailing custom calls for prices for riparian homesites

to be quoted in terms of running feet of water-front land, rather than

over-all area.

     3.  Potential Situation

         The population of the upper basin has been projected to more than

double by 2010, with the Eugene-Springfield area expected to remain the

principal focus of settlement.  The social forces that have contributed to

the desirability of water-side locations show no sign of abatement.  It

would appear likely, then, that attractive water-side areas adjacent to

the Eugene-Springfield urban  core, and readily accessible by automobile,

will become increasingly built-up.  The banks of Fern Ridge Reservoir, the

main stem of the Willamette both above and below the Eugene area, and the


Coast Fork of the Willamette near Cottage Grove appear to be likely sites

for residential housing.  The McKenzie and North Fork of the Willamette

offer a number of suitable areas for construction of summer cottages.

         The experience of the upper and lower areas of the Willamette

basin suggests some future growth for strearnside settlement in the middle

basin.  Although the present incidence of riparian dwelling is low, it

appears highly likely that this may be attributed in part to a high

proportion of rural population and also to the level of recreational

opportunities present on those streams.  The development of urban pressures

as a result of population expansion in Salem, Corvallis, Albany, Newberg,

Lebanon, and Sweet Home will result in the appearance of concentrations of

riverside homes.  In addition, if the Willamette River were to become

available for more intensive recreational use at some future date, then the

emplacement of homes along its banks would occur at an accelerated pace.

         Although the greater portion ofwater-side land in the lower basin

is already occupied, further settlement along the Clackamas and Tualatin

Rivers would seem likely..

E.  General Public

    The uses of water which are in this category are Intangible in nature

and consist of the uses by, or influence on, the public at large rather than

on those specific uses described in previous sections.  In this category

are included the effect of the water bodies on the surrounding environment

including scenic-areas, residential areas, and public thoroughfares.  The

manifestation of this influence would be in terms of the effect on morale,

community pride, worker productivity, and physical and mental health of


residents and general satisfaction and impression received by tourists

and other travelers.  In the Willamette Basin, these consideratins are

particularly important because the Willamette River runs through every

major community and is thus adjacent to the majority of the basin's popu-

lation.  At Portland, for example, it splits a metropolitan area contain-

ing 728,000 people.  In addition, as described in the section on

recreation, the tourist industry is a major economic force in Oregon and

its continued existence is based on providing a pleasing aesthetic


     It should be noted that the effect or influence of water quality in

this category is not always dependent upon contact or even frequent obser-

vation of the quality.  The knowledge that gross stream pollution exists,

for instance, can be distasteful to the general public in an area even

though the polluted water cannot be readily observed.

     For the purposes of this analysis, the water quality to be sought

for this category of use should be as high as is reasonably possible in

all of the basin's streams and major water bodies.  Of particular

importance will be to provide a quality which is not injurious to the

health of the various users and which is visually attractive.  It is

considered reasonable to assume that if the previously described water

quality objectives for recreational and fishery use of the basin's  streams

are met, the resulting quality will also be adequate for  the category of

general public  considerations.


P.  Power

    In this category of water use are included both hydroelectric appli-

cations and thermal applications.  The importance of quality to the

former is due to the possibility of corrosion damage to structures and

equipment.  This damage is considered to be too minor in the study area

to be influential in setting water quality goals.  The Importance of

quality in thermal applications is discussed elsewhere in this report in

toe section on industrial water supplies.

G.  Navigation

    Navigational uses  of water are quite tolerant in their quality re-

quirements, with avoidance of corrosion being the principal concern.

This damage is  considered to be too minor in the study area to be

influential in  setting water quality goals.

H.  Irrigation  and Other Agricultural Uses

    Water quality is of considerable importance to irrigated agriculture

and for such other uses as stock watering.  Because of their similarity

to other water  supply  problems, however, irrigation withdrawals and

quality requirements have been examined elsewhere in this report.

I.  Municipal and Industrial Water  Supply

    The water quality  requirements  for municipal and industrial water

supplies are an important  consideration  in  determining water  quality

objectives  and  computing  stream  flow requirements.  The  quantity  and

quality requirements of  this water  use,  however, are examined in  the


sections of this report concerned with engineering data and computations.

J.  Conclusions

    The level of water quality to be maintained in the Willamette basin

should be adequate to provide for present and potential beneficial uses.

These uses, aa described in the foregoing sections, are enumerated as


                   1.  Fisheries
                   2.  Recreation
                   3.  Riparian Dwelling
                   4.  General Public
                   5.  Power
                   6.  Navigation
                   7.  Irrigation and Other Agricultural Uses
                   8.  Municipal and Industrial Water Supply

    Based on the uses of water descxibed in the foregoing sections of this

report, the critical use is anticipated to be that of fisheries.  It

should be noted that this use of water occurs in all streams and wa;er

bodies of the basin  and throughout the year.  The water quality needed to

serve this use must  be adequate for the salmonid species of fish.  It is

expected that the temperature and dissolved oxygen requirements for this

use will become the  basis  (at this level of study) for establishing stream

flow requirements.   After such requirements have been determined  it will

be necessary to examine the result of such stream flows on the other

parameters of water  quality to see if the remaining water usee can be

served.  In particular, it will be necessary  to srcamine the amount and

types of recreation  which  the water quality will permit co sea if th«

apparent needs will  be met.