Study of Potential Needs and Value of Storage for Water
 for Municipal, Industrial,and Quality Control Purposes
        Public Health Service, Pacific Northwest
            Region IX, Portland, Oregon

                 APRIL 1962

   Preliminary Investigation of Municipal and Industrial
   Water Supply and Stream Quality Control Requirements
   and Benefits Associated with Multiple-Purpose Studies
          of the Proposed Monmouth-Dallas Project
                    Polk County, Oregon
              Prepared at the Request of and
          in Cooperation with the Area Engineer,
            Lower Columbia Development Office,
           Bureau of Reclamation, Salem, Oregon
                    Public Health Service
Water Supply and Pollution Control Program, Pacific  Northwest
                 Region IX, Portland,  Oregon

                         April 1962

                           TABLE Qg COOTEKTS
SUMMARY   ... ....... '  .................   A-3

             ASflO PMgQSB . .  .  .  ............ "...   A-4
STUPY OBJUOIVBS AND PMCEPmSS   ............... .  B-l

  RSCOKKAESSAKCB AND ESTimTE 0? CBCaiH. 1960-2010  .....  .   'C-l

I^TROBUCTICN . . , .......................   C-l

PAST G2JEJTH  ......... c ................   C-2

                        ....  ................   c-4

                                                              .   C-6

      SUBTLY- .......  ,  .  .  .  ...... ' ........   D-l

                                             '•••'  ......   E"1
BISCUSSIOSi  .........  .................    F-l



This report represents .a preliminary examination of present and future

municipal and industrial water supply and stream quality control needs

in the Rickreall Creek area of the Willamette River Basin with particular

reference to the feasibility of including provisions for satisfying

these needs in the Bureau of Reclamation's proposed Monmouth-Dallas

Project, Polk County, Oregon.

Request for the investigation and report was made by the U. S. Depart-

ment of tha Interior, Bureau of Reclamation, Lower Columbia Development

Office, Salem, Oregon by letter dated August 28, 1961 asking for

assistance in carrying out provisions set forth in the Water Supply

Act of 1958 (Title III, P.L. 500, 85th Congress) for implementation

of water supply programs and for an evaluation of needs, requirements,

and benefits applicable to flow regulation for control of stream quality

as provided in the Federal Water Pollution Control Act Amendments of


.The report identifies uses and sources of water in the project area and

describes sources of waste, waste treatment practices and the effects

of waste effluents and land drainage materials on the quality of

specific reaches of Rickreall Creek.

Included also is a preliminary economic evaluation of the area, the

findings of which have formed the basis for estimating future municipal


and industrial water supply needs and for approximating the effects

of future wastes and land uses on stream quality.

Siaee thio -investigation has been mads in advance of study schedules

plamaed for establishment of a Comprehensive Water Supply and Water

Quality Control Program for the Columbia River Basin, certain materials

presented tauat necessarily awaitxlater confirmation.

It is believed, however, that the conclusions on municipal and indus-

trial water cupplioo, the low flow requirements for quality control,

    bsaofito as given possess a degree of finality suitable for

      ainary project planning and use in determining project feasibil-

ities and Justifications.                      •  •    '



1.  Whereas Rickreall Greek waters downstream, from the City of Dallas

are frequently composed only of sewage treatment plant effluent and

waters of questionable quality originating from agricultural and

other land drainage sources, increased stream flows would be essential

to the maintenance of sanitary, aesthetic and aquatic conditions

throughout the lower thirteen miles of Rickreall.Creek and would

improve stream conditions at points of diversion,  recreation and

population downstream and along the Willamette River.

2.  The benefit associated with.provisions for maintaining continuous

stream flows of 9.5, 11.0 and 13.5 cubic feet per second downstream

from Dallas and out through the mouth of Rickreall Creek for the

years 1960, 1980 and 2010, respectively, is estimated to be in the

order of $50,000-$60,000 annually.

                      PROJECT ABBA AM) PURPOSE  •  •

The MoKSiouth-Ballas Project  is  situated  in  the  southeastern corner

.of Polk Couaty, Oregon.  The area io about  12 miles long and 5 to 6

E»ileo uide.  Tha Uillesaetta  River flood  plain forms the eastern

boundary and the low  rolling foothills of the Coast Range form the

limit on the wast.  The  towns of Honmouth,  Independence, and Dallas

are the .urban  centers within the area.   About 12,000 acres would

coma under development.
     purpooo of tha investigation is  to  obtain  feasibility data on

 irrigation potentials,  drainage requirements,  municipal and  industrial,

 water supply and stream quality control by  low flow augmentation.

 Water supplies to the area will be drawn  from  existing Federal

 reservoirs, the releases from which  will  flow  down  the Willamette .

 River to a point ol withdrawal  about one  mile 'below the town of

 Buena Vista.  A main pumping plant and  canal,  two relift plants and

 an' extension canal comprise the major features of the project plan.



The objective of this study and report is to establish,  by use of

existing and projected data, preliminary conclusions on the feasibility

of providing in the proposed Monmouth-Dallas Project water for municipal

and industrial supply and flow regulation for stream quality control

and to enumerate where practicable the benefits that would accrue to

the project with these purposes included.

Existing sources of municipal and industrial water supply are examined

and with projected demand data, the adequacy or suitability of these

sources in meeting future demands is estimated.  Where warranted, alter-

nate supplies to either replace or supplement the developed sources

are identified and explanations are given on procedures to be followed

for determining whether use of the Federal project, in lieu of other

development possibilities, would be feasible or justified and if so,

on what basis benefits may be derived.

Plow regulation requirements relate to the control of specific quality

parameters and achievement of specific objectives as governed by the

beneficial uses enumerated and the particular quality required to

satisfy these uses.  Whereas flow regulation for quality control is

regarded as a supplement to conventional waste treatment or other

measures of control at the source, computations involving needs for

additional waste assimilation capacity and dilution in the stream

reflect provisions for such treatment.  In cases where the quality of

irrigation return flows may be suspected of contributing significantly


to reduced stream quality, i.e., nutrient or mineral enrichment

(excessive slime and algal growth), toxicity,' turbidity, biochemical

oxygen demand, etc., a statement to this effect is included with an

explanation of the intent of the Public Health Service to conduct

studies and surveys at a later date on which to base recommendation

for possible further means of control.

Inasmuch as the flow regulation requirements for quality control include

allowances for reasonable degrees of waste treatment, the alternate

method and hence, the benefit assignable to the storage associated with

such regulation is considered equivalent to construction, operation

and maintenance costs involved in the development of the least costly

single-purpose alternate facility so designed as to provide the

recommended regulation.  Although, for example, such alternates as  .

waste distillation ,or underground disposal would accomplish similar

control, these methods are not at this time considered to be feasible

or equivalent alternates.  Annual benefits assignable to the project

for quality control, therefore, may be based on amortized costs plus

annual operation and. maintenance expenses involved in achieving similar

regulation by the cheapest single-purpose flow regulation method.

                     MONMOUTH-DALLAS AREA  (OREGON)
                   AND ESTIMATE OF GROWTH. 1960-2010

This  analysis is intended to provide a preliminary estimate of antici-

pated population growth in the portion of Polk County in the area of

Dallas and Monmouth.

Several  limitations apply to this study.  The first is that it is  .

intended only as a preliminary estimate of the outlook for the subject

area's growth.  Subsequently, in connection with the Columbia River

Basin Project for Water Supply and Water Quality Management, an analysis

will  be  made on an industry-by-industry basis of the growth potential

in the various sub-basins.  At that time, this preliminary estimate

will  be  reviewed, and revised if necessary.

Another  limitation is that this study is intended for use particularly

in assessing future water needs.  Individual industries have been

considered only insofar as t^iey may have a significant effect on future
                            *«                     t
population.  The study is ndt submitted as a detailed industrial forecast,

It should also be noted that this study was made before employment data

from  the 1960 U.S. Census had becomeavailable.

Estimates of future population of cities are subject to a wider margin

of error than those for areas such as counties or river basins because
             . \
of the additional variable of possible annexations to the cities.


In the case of the three cities discussed in this.report,  no attempt

has been made to separate the portion of their past growth due to

annexations from the portion due to development within previous bound-

aries.  It would appear that there are some limited possibilities for

small annexations around each of these three cities in the future.

It is assumed, in the following projections, that future growth will

represent about the same mixture as it has in the past of  (1) annexa-

tion and (2) more intensive development of the older area.


Table I shows the history of population growth from 1920-60 in the

three cities that are the subjects of the report and the comparable

grox7th in the rest of Folk County.  Table II shows  this same growth

in terms of a percentage rate, compounded annually.

By far the most rapid growth in Polk County .has occurred in West Salem.

This was part of the national trend toward urbanization, accentuated by

the growth of state government employment in Salem.  Monmouth has also

had above average growth, a result of growing expenditures on education

and tedcher training—the Oreg6n College of Education is the principal

industry in Monmouth.  Dallas, the county seat, grew at the same rate

as Polk County as a whole during the period 1920-60.  Independence has

grown less rapidly than the county as a whole, and actually declined

during the decade 1950-60.

                                Table I
                     Growth of Population. 1920-60
Principal Cities of Polk County
West Salera
Rest of County
Total County
- 1950
Table II
Rate of Growth of Population, 1920-60
Principal Cities
West Salem
Rest of County
Total County •
(d) Decrease
Annual Rate,
of Polk County
Annually, Per
2.0 •
(40 years)
Table II shows that recent growth in Polk County has been sharply irregular.

The decade 1940-50 saw rapid growth in all cities and parts of the county,

as agricultural and lumber production increased with the war effort and

in-migration to Oregon.  During 1950-60, however, total population in

the county remained almost stationary.  A decline in rural population and

in the population of Independence was just offset by increases in urban

population, particularly in. Salem and Monmouth. •


Polk County is part of an area defined, for purposes of the Columbia

River Basin Project, as the Mid-Willamette Basin.  Table III shows that

Polk County's growth lagged behind that of most of the counties in

this sub-basin during 1950-60.

                               Table III
                 Population Growth in Counties in the
                     Mid-Willamette Basin. 1950-60
              Annual Rate. Compounded Annually. Percent

          County                             Annual Rate. %

          Benton                                  2.2
          Linn                                    0.8
          Marion                                  1.8 .
          Polk                                    0.1
          Yamhill                                -0.3(d)

          Total Mid-Willamette Basin           .1.2

          (d) Decrease


The difference in growth rates among the various counties shown in

Table III can be,explained by their respective economic bases.  A

significant part of the economy of Benton County is associated with

Oregon State University, which has had a rapid growth.  Marion County's .

growth has received impetus from employment in state government at

Salem.  Linn County's growth has been largely due to its relatively
.diversified economy centereo at Albany, where metal research and

manufacturing is located.  Polk and Yamhill Counties, on the other hand,

are dependent almost entirely on agriculture and two types of manufac-
      . '.*• '          '              '
turing:   lumber-wood products and food processing.  In Polk County,

as of April, 1960,  food processing and lumber-wood represented about


80 percent of all manufacturing employment in the county.   The only

other element in the county's basic economy is the Oregon  College of

Education at Monmouth, employing about 300 persons.

The economic base of the three cities which are the subjects of this

study can be seen more'specifically by listing some of their typical

manufacturing firms, as shown in Table IV.  The table emphasizes their

great dependence upon agriculture, food processing and lumber-wood

products manufacturing.

                               Table IV
                    Selected Manufacturing Firms in
                Dallas. Independence and Monmouth. 1961

               All Manufacturing Firms Employing More than     Number of
    City       	Ten Persons	     Employees

Dallas         DeGraff Church Furniture Company                    15
               Friesen Core Company (wooden spools)                11
               Gerlinger Carrier (lumber handling equip.)          252
               LaCreole Lumber Company                  .          17
               Tracy Co. (fruit and vegetable canning)         30 to 130
               Willamette Valley Lumber Company                   400

Independence   Holt Equipment Co. (farm and lumber equip.)         85
               Interstate Shingle Company                          25
               Mountain Fir Lumber Company                 '        61
               Rein Lumber Company                                 16

Monmouth       None (Monmouth1s economic base is almost
               entirely dependent on the Oregon College of

Source:  Oregon State Department of Planning and Development, 1961
         Directory of Oregon Manufacturers.


The only other distinctive element in the economic base of any of these

cities is .the fact that county government is located at Dallas.  Each

of the cities, of course, derives some support from providing trade and

service facilities for the surrounding rural area.


An initial appraisal of the outlook for growth in the five counties in

the Mid-Willamette Basini' during 1960-80 is that the rate of increase

will be considerably above that of the 1950-60 decade (1.2 percent per

year), but less than that of the 1940-50 decade (3.7 percent per year).

However, most.of this growth is expected to be associated with Salem,

Albany, and Corvallis.  Polk County is likely to continue to grow at

a much slower rate than the Mid-Willamette'Basin as a whole.  Within

Polk County, it appears likely that most of the growth will be in the

portion in or near Salem.

Of the* three cities under consideration, only Monmouth has a present

economic base which appears to be capable of considerable enlargement.

Growth at the Oregon College of Education might parallel growth in

state population, for which a preliminary estimate is 2.0 percent per

year for the period 1960-80, 1.7 percent per year for the period 1980-

2000, and 1.5 percent per year for 2000-2010.  While the need for

teachers ncy grow more rapidly than population, Monmouth's share of

total teacher training in the state may decline with the growth of

Portland State College.              .
I/ These preliminary evaluations are based, on a judgment of the distri-
   bution among the state's sub-basins of population forecasts for the
   state as a whole.


Dallas' population growth might parallel, as it did over the 1920-60

period, that of Polk County, for which a preliminary estimate is 0.8

percent per year for 1960-80, 0.6 percent for 1980-2010.  This rate

of growth would be very much higher than Polk County's growth from

1950-60, though only about half of its average for the period 1920-60.

Such growth in Dallas would probably be built upon expansion of food

processing and wood manufacturing.

Growth for Independence is more difficult to foresee because an

economic base upon which such growth might be built does not appear

to exist at the present time.  Its chief asset is its location on

the Willamette.  However, abjove and below it on the Willamette are

Albany and Salem, with more'attractions for industrial location.  For

purposes of these projections, it is assumed that Independence might

grow at a rate of 0.1 percent per year (the rate for Polk County during

1950-60) during the period 1960-80 and 0.2 percent per year from


On the basis of these assumptions, the following table shows the future

populations of the three cities that might reasonably result.

                                Table V
          Preliminary Projections of Population. 1980 and 2010
             Dallas, Independence and Monmouth (Polk County)

    Area           1960 Census       1980 Estimate      2010 Estimate

Dallas                5,072             5,900               7,100
Independence          1,930             2,000               2,100
Moiucouth              2,229             3,300               5,400


                             WATER SUPPLY

 In considering  the Moninouth-Dallas Project as a  source of municipal

.and industrial  water-supply, it  is believed  that use of this source

 In view of those  presently available  to  the  cities of Dallas, Monmouth,

 asid Independence  would not be  feasible.  Such factors as anticipated

 futu™Q demands, water treatment  costs, and appurtenance involved in

 tho usa of project water, have led to this conclusion.


                            QUALITY CONTROL

Augmentation of low flows in Rickreall Creek downstream from the city

o£ Dallas would ba beneficial in alleviating .critical stream conditions

arioias froa sewage treatment plant effluents and agricultural and

©fchar lazsd drainage materials? attributable to an over-appropriation

of the natural summer stream flows.  For example, the flow in Rickreall

Creek -at the Dallas sewage treatment plant outfall has been observed

to be non-existent during the past two irrigation seasons.

Is addition to the usa made of Rickreall Creek for carrying pollu-

fcioaal ssaterials, water rights have been issued for domestic, municipal,

industrial, -irrigation, fioh and wildlife uses.  The aesthetic, sani-

tary and quality values associated with these and other uses including

sum-fishing recreation in downstream Rickreall Creek and Willamette

River areas would appear to justify provisions for stream quality

            in this -area.
It is believed that minimum stream flows to maintain dissolved oxygen

levels in Rickreall Creek of no less than six parts per million would

offer tho extent of quality maintenance necessary to protect all water

vaoeo .  Following are the minimum rates of stream flow estimated to

achieve this objective between the Dallas waste outfall and mouth of

Mckreall Creek:.
                                   Minimum Flow Requirement
                 Year              _ c.f.s.

                 1%0                          9.5
                 1980                         11.0
                 2010                         13.5


A study of available streara flow data indicates that these flows

would be required from June 1 through October 15.   On this basis,

4,180 acre-feet of additional water would be needed to fulfill

this requirement.  It should be understood that the extent of regu-

lation required to maintain suitable dissolved oxygen levels would

provide, by means of dilution and increased assimilative capacity,

significant control of the effects of land drainage as well as con-

trol of the effects of residu'al materials not removed from wastes

by knox^n conventional trea unisnt means.



 The protection of public  health  through the provision of a safe water

. supply has long been a matter  of primary concern to the public health

 profession and has been a significant contributing factor to the high  .

 health standards'of the Nation.   However, the problem of providing

 adequate amounts of safe  potable water has become increasingly difficult

 due to the pyramiding water  demands of a rapidly expanding population.

 Furthermore,  the resulting increase in waste flows has caused a gradual

 degradation in the quality of  the Nation's waters.  While improved

 methods of treatment and  disinfection of both wastes and water have

 served to maintain the quality within tolerable limits, the progress

 in pollution abatement and water treatment has not kept pace with this

 population growth and industrial expansion.

 The familiar problems of  pollution by bacteria, organic matter, and

 chemicals of known toxicity  and  behavior have been further intensified

 and complicated by problems  of mineral enrichment due to water reuse

 and by new types of contaminants associated with our chemical and atomic

 age.  The effects of these newer contaminants on water treatment

 processes and on the human consumer are largely unknown.  The defi-

 ciencies in knowledge and the  prospect of even greater quantities of

 yet more complex pollutional materials reaching our surface waters

 emphasize the urgency of  intelligent water quality management.


Inasmuch as maintenance of a high level of water quality for all uses

is basic to public health and the general well-being of the populations

and economy, planning for future water demand and uses requires the

utmost of care with application of a reasonable degree of optimism.

This is especially true when planning for needs many years in advance

as is the objective of this evaluation.

Although the Rickreall Creek Watershed and Monmouth-Dallas area con-

stitute only a very small fraction of the Willamette River Basin system

and area within the State of Oregon, its importance as a potential

and growing contributor to the widespread economy of the region is

believed sufficient to Justify, where reasonable and practicable,

provisions for maintaining an acceptable sanitary environment and a

means whereby the water resource may be preserved for the continuance

and expansion of any and all legitimate and/or riparian purposes.

Whereas Rickreall Creek waters downstream from the City of Dallas are

frequently composed only of sewage treatment plant effluent and waters

.of questionable quality originating from agricultural drainage and

other land sources, provisions for increased stream flows by use of

higher quality waters from any available or reasonable source would

introduce dilution factors and natural self-purification properties

essential to the maintenance of satisfactory sanitary, aesthetic and

aquatic conditions throughout the lower thirteen miles of Rickreall

Creek and would improve conditions at points of diversion, recreation

and population downstream and along the Willamette River.  .


      •                        c
It  is believed that the Bureau of Reclamation's Monmouth-Dallas Project

could be  designed  to include  stream quality control as a project func-

tion and  that benefits accruing from such provisions could be applied

toward project justification, especially as waters pumped from the

Willamette River to the project area are associated with upstream


Inasmuch  as the minimum flows established for Rickreall Creek incorporate

provisions for conventional waste treatment (85 percent BOD reduction)

in meeting quality objectives, and reasonable or equivalent alternatives

other than increased stream flow are not available to supplement this

treatment, it is suggested that the benefit associated with low flow

.augmentation for quality control, in the absence of an evaluation of

direct benefits, be the equivalent.of single-purpose costs to provide

the required regulation.

It  is. recognized as only problematical that in the absence of the

Bureau project, increased stream flow in addition to waste treatment

and control of land drainage effects would be provided on a local level.

It  is believed less probable, however, that methods of control such as

waste distillation, underground disposal (this would interfere with

downstream water rights), or  auxiliary waste treatment would be provided

in  the absence of  the project.

Benefits  derived from single-purpose costs to provide increased stream

flow, however, should be tempered or substantiated by judgment based.


on beneficial uses of the stream, land values to be protected, and

relative importance of the resource to the economy and well-being

of the particular region.

It is suggested, even though waste distillation and auxiliary waste

treatment may be unrealistic, that these costs and equivalent effects

be compared with single-purpose costs to develop stream flow for

purposes of facilitating further judgment in the assessment of reason-

able benefits.  It is estimated, for example, that costs to treat the

projected Dallas treatment p'.ant effluent by distillation as this

process is now known, would rangi ir. ths neighborhood ox $182,000

to $355,000 annually.  Au^il^ary ••._ _^. cncnt of Dallas wastes based

on the difference in cost ostween primary cr.c secondary waste treatment

for further renovcl of biochemical oxygen demand is estimated to range

from $10,000 to $15,OCG anauslly and tho least costly single-purpose

development of increased stream flovj (puuping project from Willamette

River to deliver 4,180 acre-feet c£ uatar) as determined by the

Bureau of Reclamation is estimated to be $62,2CC Annually.  This value

does not include the annual storage cost for uhi 4,180 acre-feet of

water ($9,400 estimated by the Corps of Zngineers) which would be

associated with Corps of Engineer storage projects.  Neither the

distillation nor auxiliary treatment ..2thod would provide the kind

or extent of quality maintenance th-t '.:ould be achieved by

increased stream flow.


In view of the many uses made of Rickreall Creek, the relative

reliance of the area on a protected water resource,  and the rela-

tionships of the area to downstream Willamette River conditions

and activities, it is suggested that the benefit assignable to

the proposed Monmouth-Dallas Project for quality control be in

the order of $50,000 to $60,000 annually.  Water quality mainten-

ance values* are both tangible and intangible and may not be as-

signed to specific beneficiaries, and -are held to be "widespread"
in nature..