COLUMBIA RIVER BASIN PROJECT

FOR WATER SUPPLY AND WATER QUALITY MANAGEMENT
      WILLAPA RIVER BASIN (WASHINGTON)
             ECONOMIC BASE STUDY
      AND ESTIMATE OF GROWTH,1960-2010
               March 29, 1963
               A JOINT REPORT

  STATE OF WASHINGTON
  DEPT. OF COMMERCE AND ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT
  OLYMPIA, WASHINGTON

  U. S. DEPT. OF THE INTERIOR
  BUREAU OF RECLAMATION
  SPOKANE, WASHINGTON

  U. S. DEPT. OF HEALTH, EDUCATION AND WELFARE
  PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE
  DIV. OF WATER SUPPLY AND POLLUTION CONTROL
  PORTLAND, OREGON

-------
      WILLAPA RIVER BASIN (WASHINGTON)
             ECONOMIC BASE STUDY
      AND ESTIMATE OF GROWTH,1960-2010
              Table of Contents



  SUMMARY

  I.   INTRODUCTION                       1

      A.  Purpose of this Analysis       1

      B.  Definition of the Area         1

      C.  Study Period                   1

      D.  Limitations of this Analysis   1
              i
      E.  Participating Agencies         2

 II.   PRESENT ECONOMIC BASE              2

      A,  Population                     2
              ->
      B„  Industry                       3

III.   GROWTH POTENTIALS AND FORECAST     8

      A.  Factors Influencing Future
            Growth                       8

      B.  Estimate Future Growth        12

-------
SUMMARY




     1.  The Willapa River Basin had a population of almost 9,000 in 1960,




about 5,000 of whom were in the Basin's two incorporated places,  Raymond




and South Bend.  The Basin's economy is largely dependent upon lumber and




wood products manufacturing, fisheries, and food processing, particularly




oysters from Willapa Bay.  (See attached Economic Base Report prepared




jointly by the U. S. Public Health Service, U.  S. Bureau of Reclamation




and the State of Washington.)  The population in the Basin as a whole, as




well as of each of the two cities, declined during 1950-60, despite the




growth of Washington state population at a rate slightly greater  than the




national average.




     2.  An examination of the factors likely to influence future growth




in the area, does not suggest a strong growth trend except to the'extent




that the possible availability of industrial plant sites in the study area




is a significant factor.  Based on further utilization of the area's timber




resource and improved irrigation in the Basin,  it is forecast that a ply- •  .




wood mill and an increase in food processing will occur.  In addition,




recreation and tourism, as well as a ^rend toward urbanization, are antici-




pated to increase the size of the two major communities in the Basin and




also result in the Basin increasing its percentage of total county-population.




Such growth would be reflected by an increase in the Basin's population from




9.0 thousand in 1960 to 10.7 thousand in 1985,  and 13.0 thousand  in 2010.




Population in the two incorporated places is projected to increase from 5.0




thousand in 1960 to 6.4 thousand in 1985 and 8.5 thousand in 2010.  Popula-




tion in Pacific County is projected to increase from 14.7 thousand in 1960




to 17 thousand in 1985 and 20 thousand in 2010.  For purposes of  comparison

-------
 it can be noted that  the  projection  for  the  county is the equivalent of an




 average annual growth rate  of  0.6  percent a  year while U. S. Census Bureau




 forecasts (Series  II)  indicate a growth  rate in excess of 2 percent a year




for Washington State.




      3.  In addition  to the forecast summarized above, the Washington State




 Department of Commerce and  Economic  Development has indicated several types




 of industries which might consider locating  in the study area based on the




 possible availability of  plant sites.  Because of the wide variety of these




 developments and the  likelihood that some of them might be based on unusual




 circumstances such as the discovery  of petroleum or the installation of




 defense or space vehicle  facilities, no  specific forecast of these possi-




 bilities has been  made.   For this  reason the forecasts which are included




 in this report .should be  considered  as a base to which can be added the




 inonrement of industry and population that is indicated by the assurances




 available from local  or state  agencies having special knowledge or responsi-




 bility concerning  such potential development of industrial sites in the




 study area.  The evaluation of the importance of these hypothetical potentials




 should include consideration of the  value of providing water supplies in




 advance of need as a  possible  developmental  factor of importance to the




 growth of the area.

-------
                        WILLAPA RIVER BASIN (WASHINGTON)
                              ECONOMIC BASE STUDY
                        AND ESTIMATE OF GROWTH,1960-2010


I.  INTRODUCTION

    A.  Purpose of this Analysis

        This analysis is intended to provide ant;.:.estimate of the economic poten-

tials and anticipated growth of the subject area as guidance in examining water

supply and water quality needs.

    B.  Definition of the Area

        The area drained by the Willapa River lies entirely within the northern

portion of Pacific County, Washington.  For purposes of this study, the Willapa

Basin is defined as the,area comprised by 1960 Pacific County Census Divisions

2,3, and "Raymond".  This is the area within the dotted line shown on the

attached map (Figure 1), and conforms closely to the actual physical drainage

basin.  Because the Willapa Basin includes over half of total county population

(61 percent in 1960) and because employment statistics are available only for

the county as a whole, data are presented in this study, where practicable, for

both the Willapa Basin and for Pacific County as a whole.

    C.  Study Period

        The study period is the ,50-year period 1960-2010, with an interim

point at 1985.

    D.  Limitations of this Analysis

        This study is intended for use particularly in assessing future water

needs, in relation to a proposed water control project in the Willapa Basin.

Emphasis has been placed on the consideration of those industries which make

heavy demands upon the water resource.  Other industries have been considered

only insofar as they may have a significant effect on future population.  For

-------
                                                                               2

these reasons, this study is not submitted as a detailed industrial forecast.

    E.  Participating Agencies

        This study has been prepared jointly by the U.  S. Public Health Service

(Pacific Northwest Water Supply and Pollution Control Office);   the Washington

State Department of Commerce and Economic Development;   and the U.  S.  Bureau of

Reclamation.

II.  PRESENT ECONOMIC BASE

    A.  Population

        The population of the Willapa Basin in 1960 was about  9,000.  About

5,000 were in the Basin's two incorporated places,  Raymond and  South Bend.   As

shown in Table I, the Willapa Basin and the two cities  and the  unincorporated

area comprising it all declined in population from 1950 to 1960.  The  popula-

tion of the remainder of the county and its incorporated places  also  declined

during the decade.  Where data for 1940 are available,  it appears that there

was a slight increase in population from 1940 to 1950 in some  parts of the

county, but population in 1960 was generally below that of 1940.

                                   TABLE I

       POPULATION OF PACIFIC COUNTY, WASHINGTON, AND THE WILLAPA BASIN
                                1950 AND 1960              ,

                    BY INCORPORATED AND UNINCORPORATED  AREAS

Area                                                       1950 'SJ      1960 &
Willapa Basin, Total                                     10.382       8.962
     South Bend                                           1,857       1,671
     Raymond                                              4,110       3,301
     Unincorporated area                                  4,415       3,990
Remainder of County, Total                                6.176       5,712
     Long Beach                                             783         665
     Ilwaco                                                 628         518
     Unincorporated area.                                  4,765       4,529

Pacific County, Total                                    16,558     14,674
&l  As of April 1 of year shown.
Source:  U. S. Census of Population.

-------
                                                                              3






    B.  Industry




        The economy of Pacific County, particularly the portion of it identi-




fied as the Willapa Basin, is heavily dependent upon two resources:  timber




and the Willapa Bay fisheries. In the southern part of the county, mainly out-




side the Willapa Basin, tourism and recreation are important to the economic




base.  Table II shows the employment distribution by industry in the whole




county.  Table III describes the principal manufacturing firms in the Basin.




In 1960, sixty percent of all manufacturing employment was in lumber and wood




products.  More than half of this employment was in one plant, that of the




Weyerhaeuser Company at Raymond.  Of the remaining employment in manufacturing,




nearly all was in food processing, a large part of which was connected with the




oyster industry at South Bend.




        Table II reveals the decline in the economic base of Pacific County




during the 1950-60 decade which was associated with the population decline




mentioned in the previous section.  Employment in many of the industrial cate-




gories, and particularly in two of the basic industries, (fisheries and lumber




and wood products manufacturing) declined substantially during the decade.




Agricultural employment also declined considerably, but this was partly due




to consolidation of farms and increased labor productivity as part of a national




trend.  There was some increase in food and kindred manufacturing.  Employment




also increased in some of the service categories, which is in line with national




trends.

-------
                               TABLE II

                 EMPLOYMENT, BY INDUSTRY, PACIFIC COUNTY

Industry                                                1950 -/     I960 -

Agriculture                                              518         332
Forestry and fisheries                                   376         211
Mining                                                     79

Manufacturing, total                                   2,344       1,779
  Lumber,wood prod., furn. & fix. •                     1,754       1,074
  All other durables                                      53          41
  Food and kindred                                       476         600
  Printing and publishing                                 57          42
  All other non-durables, and misc.                        4          22
                          *'
Construction                                             306         301
R. R. transp.                                             36 .         25
Trucking and warehousing                                  65          72
Other transp. (shipping, docks,etc.)                     179         123
Communications and utilities                             113         152
Wholesale trade                                          106          70'
Retail trade                                             749         667
Fin.,Ins. ,R.E., Bus. & repair serv.                      218         146
Personal serv.,enter., & recreation                      297         329
Education                                                200         315
Medical, hosp. other prof; and related                   161         278
Public administration                                    193         179
•Industry not reported                                    154          92

Employed Civilian Labor Force, Total                   6,022       5,080

Military                                                  28          72

Unemployed                                               376         358

TOTAL LABOR FORCE                                      6,426       5,510

TOTAL POPULATION, PACIFIC COUNTY                      16,558      14,674

Percent of Total Population in Labor Force              38.81       37.5%
 &!' As  of April  1 of year shown.

 Source: U. S. Census of Population

-------
                                   TABLE III

              PRINCIPAL MANUFACTURING FIRMS IN THE WILLAPA BASIN
 Name of Firm

 Raymond:

   Dennis Company
   Elk Prairie Timber Co.
   Olympic Hardwood Co.
•   Weyerhaeuser Company
   Willapa Cedar Sales

 South Bend:

   Coast Oyster Company
   Minks Oyster Company
   New Washington Oyster  Sales
   Palix Oyster Company
   Sedy Bros. Lumber Company
   South Bend Shingle Company
   Willapa Logging Company
   Woodward Logging Company
                                     Product
                                     Carbonated beverages
                                     Studs, ties
                                     Lumber, studs
                                     Lumber
                                     Shakes, shingles
                                     Seafood
                                     Seafood
                                     Seafood
                                     Seafood
                                     Shingles,  shakes
                                     Cedar products
                                     Logs
                                     Logs
Employment ~
   20-49
   20-49
   100-199
   500-999
   50-99
   100-249
   10=19
   20-49
   20-49
   10-19
   10-19
   10-19
   10-19
                                                                             b/
a/  Normal employment is within range shown.

b_/  Peak employment was in range 250-499.

Source:  Directory of Washington State Manufacturers,  1961,  Washington State
Department of Commerce and Economic Development.

-------
                                                                               6

        The decline in the economic base is also reflected in figures on water-

borne commerce in Willapa Bay for the 1950-60 decade.  Total tonnage, both in

vessels and rafted, declined from 934,000 tons in 1951 to 450,000 tons in 1960."

Total seafood landings have also declined during recent years,  both in tonnage
                  2/
and dollar value. ~

        Table IV, by comparing the employment distribution in Pacific County

with that in the Seattle Region and the United States, emphasizes the dominant

importance of fisheries, lumber and wood products manufacturing, and food pro~

cessing to the county's economy.  The table also reveals some possible special-

ization in the "other transportation" category, which represents dock work and

                                                       3/
water transport in connection with seafood and lumber. ~
\l  In 1960, the principal products handled in Willapa Bay by waterborne
commerce were shellfish and rafted logs, in local movements, and 73,000 tons
of lumber in coastwise trade.  Waterborne Commerce of the U. S., 1960, Corps
of Engineers, p. 86.

2/  Total pounds of oysters, crabs, shrimps, salmon and clams landed in Willapa
Bay in 1958 was 12.3 million, which had declined to 8.3 million pounds in 1961.
The dollar value declined from $1.7 million in 1958 to $1.4 million in 1961.
Washington State Dept. of Fisheries, Annual Yearbook reports.

3/  Ibid I/

-------
                               TABLE IV

          COMPARATIVE DISTRIBUTION OF LABOR FORCE, BY INDUSTRY

                          AS OF APRIL 1, 1960

          PACIFIC COUNTY, SEATTLE REGION, AND UNITED STATES

                  (As Percent of Total Labor Force)

Industry                             Pacific Cty. Seattle Region -/  U-S.

Agriculture       >                      '6.0           4.5          6.1
Forestry and fisheries                    3.8            .5           ;1
Mining                                     .2            .1           .9

Manufacturing, Total                     32.3          24.1         25.1
  Lumber, wood prod., furn. & fix.       19.5           570          1.5
  All other durables       '                .7          11.3         12.6
  Food and kindred                       10.9           2.6          2.6
  Printing and publishing                  .8     '      1-3          1.6
  All other non-durables and misc.         .4           3.9          6.8

Construction                              5.5           5.8          5.5
R. R. transp.                              .5           1.1          1.3
Trucking and warehousing                  1.3           1.2          1.3
Other transp.(shipping, docks, etc.)      2.2           2.0          1.3
Communications and utilities              2.8           2.3          2.5
Wholesale trade                           1.3           3.7          3.2
Retail trade                             12.1          13.5         13.7
Fin.,Ins.,R.E., Bus. & repair serv.       2.6           6.0          6.2
Personal serv., enter. & recreation       6.0           5.5          6.2
Education-'                                5.7           5.2          4.8
Med.,hosp.,other prof, and related        5.0           6.3     .     6.0
Public administration                     3.2           4.7          4.6
Industry not reported                     1.7           2.6          3.7

Employed Civilian Labor Force            92.2          89.1         92.5

Military                                  1.3           4.6          2.5

Unemployed                                6.5           6.3          5.0

TOTAL LABOR FORCE                       100.0         100.0        100.0
a/  Defined as Washington State.less 5 counties in southwestern Washington
(in the Portland Region) and 15 counties•in eastern Washington (in the
Spokane Region).

Source:  U. S. Census of Population

-------
                                                                                8

 III.   GROWTH POTENTIALS  AND  FORECAST

       A.   Factors Influencing  Future  Growth

           1.  Lumber and wood  products

               About 83 percent of  Pacific  County  timber  is  privately owned, with

 Weyerhaeuser, Crown Zellerbach and Rayonier  holding  the  majority  of this private

 timber. ~   In addition  to the lumber mill operated  by Weyerhaeuser at Raymond,

•their  timber resources appear  to be adequate for  the establishment of a plywood

 mill,  probably in the same vicinity,  and it  is  assumed here that  such a mill

 will be added during the study period.  Weyerhaeuser has recently constructed a

 400 ton-per-day sulfite  pulp facility at Cosmopolis,  about  twenty miles north

 of Raymond.   Rayonier's  Pacific County  resources  are directed towards its  320

 ton-per-day  sulfite pulp mill  at Hoquiam,  only  about 25  miles away by major

 highway.   Crown Zellerbach's Pacific  County  timber is brought out via Cathlamet

 and thence to its various mills in the  region.  When a Crown Zellerbach pulp and

 paper  mill being built at Wauna, across the  Columbia from Cathlamet, is completed,

 it is  likely that Pacific County timber will be used there.  Because so much of

 the county's timber is thus  committed to use in existing modern plants in  adjacent

 areas, it appears unlikely that further .major;   ;  expansion will occur in the

 Willapa Basin in this industry, other than the  plywood plant already mentioned.

 This pattern is further  strengthened  by the  historical trend in the pulp in-

 dustry towards increasing plant size  and enlarging the capacity of existing

 installations.  This trend reduces the  likelihood of a small pulp plant being

 established  in the area  to utilize the  relatively limited uncommitted chippable

 resources.
 \l  Unpublished study by the Washington State  Department  of Commerce and
 Economic Development, January 1963.

-------
          2.  Fisheries

              The reasons for the decline in the landings of oysters and other

seafood referred to above have not been established at this time.  It is assumed

here that the decline in the Willapa Bay fishery will not continue, but that

landings and employment in the industry will maintain about their present levels.

If this decline does not stop, an important segment of the economic base will

continue to erode, and the modest population growth projected in the following

section would not be likely to be achieved.

          3.  Agriculture

              Some increase in agricultural production would be expected to re-

sult from construction of the proposed Bureau of Reclamation project in the

Willapa Basin.  The agricultural economy of the area is predominantly dairying,

with some beef production.  It is estimated that, with an adequate water supply

for irrigation, crop yields might double. —   Dairying would continue as the

predominant farm type but dependable irrigation would permit some diversifica-

tion. —   As far as employment in agriculture is concerned, it is assumed here

that, while improved irrigation might increase the incomes of farmers, no signi~

ficant increase in farm employment would result.  At most, the declining trend

in farm employment might be halted.

          4.  Food processing

              Since the principal raw materials used in the food processsing

industry in the Willapa Basin are oysters and other seafoods, and since it has

been assumed that total landings will remain about at their present level, no

increase is foreseen in employment in food processing.  The increase in farm
_!/  U. S. Bureau of Reclamation, South Fork and Lower Willapa River Watershed,
Report of field inspection, April 1962, P. 7-8.

-------
                                                                                10
 production that would result  from an adequate  water  supply  for  irrigation  could


 possibly lead to an increase  in production  of  dairy  products and possibly  a


 small  increase in food processing employment.

           5.   Recreation and  tourism


               As population increases in western Oregon and western Washington,


 the  need for  recreational facilities will become greater, and areas with recre-

 ational  potential,  such as  Pacific County,  will be visited  by larger numbers of


•people.   The  parts  of the county likely to  experience the major effects of this


 increase in tourism lie outside the  Willapa Basin, but some increases in service

 industry employment in the  Basin are anticipated.  The Willapa Basin does have


 hunting  and steelhead fishing possibilities, and some small increase in service

 industry employment could be  butfit upon this.  The completion of the bridge


 across the Columbia at Astoria  will  make access easier from Highway 101 to the

 Pacific  County beaches.  However,  it should be pointed out  that easier communi-


 cation between Pacific County and  the City  of  Astoria can also have a negative


 effect on other types of service industry employment (entertainment, wholesale
                                  _f                                    j
 trade, finance, insurance,  etc.)   since facilities in the larger city (Astoria)

 may  replace those in the heretofore  more isolated places in Pacific County.

           6.   Other industries


               The availability  of  a  large plant site in the vicinity of Raymond


 might also represent a significant factor influencing future growth.  This site

 is accessible to ocean-going  vessels through a 26-foot channel and thus extends

 the  range of  industrial possibilities to those for which water transportation

 may  be significant.  An examination  of comparable plant sites in western


 Washington indicates that the availability  of  such sites is restricted.

-------
                                                                               11






Attached to this report as Appendix A is a summary of an unpublished report of



the Washington State Department of Commerce and Economic Development which




summarizes the situation for large plant sites having deep water potential.




This report also indicates the types of industries which might consider locating




in the study area based on the availability of the plant site and other features




the area possesses.




      B.  Estimated Future Growth




          The population history of Pacific County during the past two decades




contrasts sharply with that of the State,of Washington as a whole, as shown in




Table V.  While the state's population was growing rapidly, at rates exceeding




the national average, Pacific County's population was growing only slightly or




declining.  The examination of the factors likely to influence future growth




in the county, discussed in the previous section, does not suggest the possi-




bility of a strong growth trend; in the future, except to the extent that the




availability of industrial plant sites in the study area is a significant factor.




Because of the wide variety of developments that could be considered as a po-




tential and the likelihood that some types of development might be based on




unusual circumstances such as the discovery of petroleum or the installation




of defense or space vehicle facilities, it is not thought to be reasonable to




make a specific forecast of the type or size of such industrial potentials or




their impact on study area population.  For this reason, the forecasts which




are included in this report should be considered as a base to which can be




added the increment of industry and population that is indicated by the assur-




ances available from local or state agencies having special knowledge or re-




sponsibility concerning such potential development of industrial sites in the




study area.

-------
                                                                               12


          These  assurances would be those normally required by the construction

 agency  as a  basis  for  including water requirements in a proposed project.  The

 determination of the need for such water requirements should include considera-

 tion of the  importance of having various facilities available to industrial

 sites in advance of need.  It should be recognized that the availability of such

 basic features as  water supply could have special importance as a developmental

 factor  to the growth of the area.  It must also be recognized, however, that some

•types of industrial development might have an adverse effect on other water uses

 or users and that  the analysis of location factors should include the considera-

 tion of these effects or the costs of overcoming them.

          The 1960-85 and 1985 to 2010 growth rates for Washington State, shown

 in Table V,  are  based upon a projection of national population by the U. S.

 Bureau  of the Census and an allocation of that national population among the

 various  states.  —   The projected rates for Pacific County represent a judgment

 based upon the projected state rates of growth, relative growth in other areas

 of the  state,  and  the factors expected to influence growth in the county.  These

 projected rates  for Pacific County are shown in Table V.

                                     TABLE V

      POPULATION GROWTH RATES IN PACIFIC COUNTY AND WASHINGTON STATE, 1940-60
                 AND PROJECTED RATES FOR 1960-85 AND 1985-2010

                        (Annual Compound Rates, Percent)

 Area                     1940-50    1950-60    1940-60    1960°85    1985°2010

 Pacific  County            0.4       Deer.      Deer.       0.6         0.6
 Washington State          3.2        1.8        2.5        2.2         2.1
\f  The national projection used is Series II9 the higher of the two projections
now considered to be the most likely to eventuate.  The allocation among the
states is based on Kerr Committee (U. S. Congress, March 1960) report number 5,
pp. 6,7 and 29.

-------
                                                                               13



          On  the basis of the rates of growth assumed in Table V, estimates of



 future population  in Pacific County, the Willapa Basin, and the incorporated



 portions of the Basin are shown in Table VI.  These projections must be regarded



 as illustrative and based more upon judgmental evaluations than upon quanti-



 fiable factors.  It has been assumed that the location of a plywood mill in the



 vicinity of Raymond and the possible increase in food processing resulting from



•improved irrigation in the Willapa Basin will result in the Basin's increasing



 its percentage of  total county population, even though tourist and recreation



 services in the southern part of the county experience growth.  For the same



 reasons, and  also  because of the pronounced trend toward urbanization through-



 out the nation, it is assumed that the incorporated areas will increase as a



 percentage of Basin population.  The unincorporated portion of the Basin de-
                                                 i


 clined less than the cities during 1950-60 and it is assumed that it will grow



 less during the study period, thus maintaining a greater stability with less re-



 sponse to new economic factors.
                            (Table VI on next page)

-------
                                                                           14

                                  TABLE VI

     ESTIMATED FUTURE POPULATION OF PACIFIC COUNTY,  THE WILLAPA BASIN
          AND THE INCORPORATED PORTIONS OF THE WILLAPA BASIN,
                                1960-2010

Area                                           Population or Percent
	                                    1950      1960       1985      2010

Pacific County, population             16,558    14,674    17,000     20,000

Willapa Basin as %
  of Pacific County's population           63%       61%        63%       65%

Willapa Basin, population              10,382     8,962    10,700     13,000

Incorporated portion —  of
  Willapa Basin as % of
  Willapa Basin's population               57%       55%       60%        65%

Incorporated portion —'of                    .
  Willapa Basin, population             5,967     4,972     6,400      8,500

Unincorporated portion
   of Willapa Basin, population         4,415     3,990     4,300      4,500
_!/  Includes Cities of Raymond and South Bend, which may grow by annexation
as suburban-.population density increases.
BIBLIOGRAPHY

In addition to the sources mentioned in footnotes on the preceding pages,
the following studies were also reviewed in connection with this study:

.  Area Redevelopment Association, Pacific County. October 1962

  Willapa Harbor Development Association, Pacific County, by N. H. Engle
    and D. C. Hastings, Bureau of Business Research, University of
    Washington, Seattle, March 1955.

-------

       FIGURE 1'
WILLAPA BASIN and
PACIFIC COUNTY, WASHINGTON .
The Wiliana Basin, shown
inside the dashed line, is
defined as the area comprised
by 1960 County Census Divisions
2, 3, and "Raymond^1/
                   •V^M*P

-------
                                                                              16
                                 APPENDIX A
SUMMARY OF UNPUBLISHED REPORT OF THE WASHINGTON STATE DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE
  AND ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT CONCERNING INDUSTRIAL SITES AND POTENTIALS
                              FEBRUARY 1963
      Following is a general review of eight possible industrial sites in

western Washington having deep water potential:

      1.  Ferndale - slightly more than 500 acres with major drawback being

lack of rail.

      2.  Padilla Bay - over 500 acres but major development required.

      3.  Tulalip Indian Reservation - over 500 acres, but no rail and

difficult to get rail into the area.

      4.  Tacoma - well over 500 and 1,000 acres developed and presently

in extensive development program.

      5.  Grays Harbor - slightly over 500 acres, but major development

required.

      6.  Longview, Kalama, Woodland - slightly over 500 acres,  minor rail

development required.

      7.  Vancouver = over 500 acres, but major development required.

      8.  Willapa Bay - Well over 1,000 acres,  but major development and

channel development required.

      With reference to the Willapa River area, it would appear that the avail-

ability of 5,000 acres of land, two major railroads, ample energy supply,  as

well as industrial water from the dam project itself would be of more than

casual interest to industry in the market for a location.

      While the types of industry which might consider locating in the area

-------
                                                                               17


are almost endless, certainly the nine listed below would have more  than average

likelihood.

      1.  Missile Space Industry             5.   Industrial  Chemical Industry
      2.  Aluminum Industry                  6.   Pulp Industry
      3.  Ferro Alloy Industry               7.   Plywood Mill
      4.  Electrical Chemical Industry       8.   Hardwood Sawmill &  Plywood Mill
                            9.  Refinery Industry

-------