Estimating Staffing for
   unicipal Wastewater
  Treatment Facilities
  U.S. Environmental Protection Agency
   Office of Water Program Operations
      Washington, D.C.  20460

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                  ESTIMATING  STAFFING
                            FOR
   MUNICIPAL  WASTEWATER  TREATMENT  FACILITIES
        OPERATION & MAINTENANCE PROGRAM
            Office  of Water  Program  Operations
           U, S.  Environmental Protection  Agency
                 Washington,  D. C.    20460
                  Contract  No.  68-01-0328
                      MARCH,  1973
For sale by the Superintendent of Documents, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, D.C. 20402
               Price $1.26 domestic postpaid or $1 QPO Bookstore

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          EPA REVIEW NOTICE
This report has been review by the Office
of Water Program Operations.

Approval does not signify that the contents
necessarily reflect the views and policies
of the Office of Water Program Operations,
nor does mention of trade names or commercial
products constitute endorsement or recommendation
for use.

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Inquiries pertaining to this report should be directed to:

  OPERATION AND  MAINTENANCE PROGRAM
       Office of  Water  Program  Operations
       U. S. Environmental Protection Agency
             Washington,  D. C.   20460

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                              CONTENTS


                                                                  Pag*

INTRODUCTION                                                      1

STEP 1,    DEVELOPING ADJUSTMENT FACTORS                         ?

          Plant Layout                                                2
          Unit Processes                                              -
          Level of Treatment                                           2
          Type of Waste Removal Requirement                             3
          Industrial Wastes                                             3
          Productivity of Labor                                         3
          Climate                                                    4
          Training                                                   4
          Automatic Monitoring                                         4
          Automatic Sampling                                          5
          Off4Hant Laboratory Work                                     5
          Off-Plant Maintenance                                         5
          Pattern of Staffing                                           5
          Age and Condition of Equipment                                7
          Storm and Infiltration Flow                                    7
          Operation at Less Than Design Flow                              7

STEP 2.    DEVELOPING ANNUAL-MANHOUR STAFFING FOR AN
          "AVERAGE" PLANT                                         7

STEP 3.    APPLYING ADJUSTMENT FACTORS                            8

STEP <    BREAKING DOWN ANNUAL MANHOURS INTO SPECIFIC JOBS      8


APPENDIXES

    A     SOURCES AND USE OF DATA, STAFFING FOR
          PLANTS NOT COVERED

    B     USING THE STAFFING ESTIMATE WORKSHEET

          Example 1: Trickling Filter Plant, 1*0 mgd                         B-l
          Example II: Activated Sludge Plant, 9,5 mgd                       B-5
          Example III: Activated Stodge Plants with Relatively Extreme
           Staffing Nseds, 20 Orogd                                     Bป9

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CONTENTS (continued)


                                                                             Page

     C     WHETHER TO PROVIDE 24-HOUR STAFFING

     D     STAFFING CURVES AND TABLE

           Supervisory and Administrative                                       D-l
           Clerical                                                           D-2
           Lab9ratory                                                        D-3
           Yardwork                                                         D-4
           Raw Sewage Pumping                                               D-5
           Screening and Grinding                                             D-6
           Grit Removal                                                      D-7
           Primary Clarification                                                D-8
           Aeration                                                          D-9
           Trickling Filters        .                                            D-10
           Secondary Clarification, Activated Sludge                             D-l 1
           Secondary Clarification, Trickling Filtration                           D-l 2
           Chlorination                                                       D-l 3
           Anaerobic Digestion                                                D-l4
           Aerobic Digestion                                                  D-l5
           Gravity Thickening                                                 D-l 6
           Flotation Thickening                                               D-l 7
           Sludge Drying Beds                                                 D-l 8
           Sludge Lagoons                                                    D-l9
           Separate Chemical Coagulation and Settling                           D-20
           Lime Recalcination                                                 D-21
           Ammonia Stripping                                                 D-2 2
           Two-Stage Recarbonation                                           D-23
           Mixed-Media Filtration                                             D-24
           Granular Carbon Adsorption                                         D-25
           Granular Carbon Regeneration                                       D-26
           Nitrification-Denitrification                                          D-27
           Ammonia Removal by Selective Ion Exchange                         D-2 8
           Demineralization by Ion Exchange                                   D-29
            Reverse Osmosis                                                   D-30
           Electrodialysis                                                     D-31
            Stabilization Ponds                                                 D-32
           Aerated  Ponds                                                     D-3 3

            UNIT MANHOUR REQUIREMENTS                                 D-34


      E     TASK AND JOB DESCRIPTIONS

      BIBLIOGRAPHY

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CONTENTS (continued)






                                                                            Page






                                    TABLES




    Table of Adjustment for Local Conditions                                    6




    Table A-1  Treatment Plants Visited—List                                    A-3




    Table A-2  Treatment Plants Visited—Capacities and Processes                  A-5

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INTRODUCTION AND STEPS 1-4

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                                    INTRODUCTION
This manual, intended for use by consulting engineers, plant management personnel, state
regulatory  agencies, and  the EPA, describes a four-step method for preparing staffing
estimates for  sewage treatment plants.  It covers  plants  with capacities of from 0.5 to
25-mgd  (million  gallons  per day) of  sewage,  using primary,  secondary,  and advanced
treatment processes. The four steps are  to:

     1.   Develop  from  a  Table of  Adjustment for  Local  Conditions,  factors  for
         increasing or decreasing  staffing needs relative to those for an "average" plant.

     2.   Develop the staffing for such an "average" plant from a number of curves that
         show annual manhour needs for:

              a.    Supervisory, clerical, laboratory, and  yard work on the basis of plant
                   design capacity.

              b.    Operation and  maintenance work  on  the basis of both plant design
                   capacity and types of process units or steps.

         In  addition, develop  from a table  the  operation and maintenance manhour
         needs for certain types  of non-continuous processes on the basis of the time
         that the equipment for these processes is in operation.

     3.   Increase or decrease the  annual-manhour staffing for these six types of work by
         using the factors taken from the Table of Adjustment  for Local Conditions.

     4.   Break down this staffing by type of work into specific jobs.

Because of the many differences in personnel and operational efficiencies  from plant to
plant, the staffing estimates prepared according to this manual should not be used as rigid
requirements.  Step  1  permits  the  staffing  significance  of  these  differences to  be
approximated. However, the final decision on the staff  required for a particular plant
should be made by a person experienced with similar plants in a similar area:  ultimately,
a plant staffing requirement must be a matter of judgment.
                                           -1-

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                STEP  1.  DEVELOPING  ADJUSTMENT FACTORS

The staffing adjustment factors, shown in the Table of Adjustment for Local Conditions
(TALC), were developed from staffing studies of 35 treatment plants through the U. S.
(These studies are discussed briefly in Appendix A.)  Some experience and familiarity in
treatment plant layout,  design, and operations is needed to select or interpolate between
the factors shown in TALC. However,  TALC does not require you  to  be  a treatment
plant  expert.

Enter  the individual TALC factors, and their  totals for each of  the basic  staffing
categories in the first  table of the Staffing Estimate Worksheet, as it  is done  in  the
sample  worksheets in Appendix B. You can copy the blank worksheets in the appendix
for your own use. Each of the adjustment factors is explained below.

PLANT LAYOUT

Plant layout  affects  operation and maintenance staffing because of the time required to
walk  from one piece of equipment to another. It also affects yardwork, particularly if, to
keep  up appearances in a residential area, grass, flowerbeds, and shrubs must be tended.

High  land costs or other reasons for restricting  the site  area  may make a plant more
compact  than  it would ordinarily  be.  Sometimes, plant  enlargements or the  shape of
available property may make the plant more extended than ordinary.

Generally speaking,  if there are or  were no reasons for  restricting the  site area during
design, and  if there are no  extended expansion layouts or awkward site shapes that
extend the layout, the layout can be considered average.

As a general rule,  for  a given design flow, the  layout of a primary treatment plant is
slightly more compact than a secondary treatment plant,  and the layout of a secondary
plant  more compact than  an advanced treatment plant. TALC accounts  for this  normal
 type  of difference  in the  "Level of Treatment" adjustment. The "Layout" adjustment
 refers to unusual layout conditions.

 UNIT PROCESSES

 A plant where  process  equipment  units  of the  same  type come  from  different
 manufacturers  is  less  efficient to  maintain  than  a  plant  where all  or  most  of the
 equipment  of  the  same type is from  the same manufacturer.  Similarly, a plant with
 non-standard process equipment—such as a filter press rather than  a vacuum  filter for
 dewatering—will be  less efficient to  maintain and operate, as far as staffing goes, than a
 plant with standard  equipment.
                                           -2-

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LEVEL OF TREATMENT

Higher levels of treatment require  more staff and more staff training. Note that TALC
decreases the advanced process maintenance staff additions, as they are given on the Step
2 curves, by  20 percent. This is because of maintenance economies of scale that can be
realized when advanced processes follow secondary processes.

TYPE OF WASTE REMOVAL REQUIREMENT

Waste  removal  requirements generally stipulate  either the percentage of wastes to be
removed from the incoming sewage or the maximum concentration of wastes that will be
permitted in  the plant effluent. The latter requirement entails more laboratory  work and
greater operational care, staffing factors for which are  provided by TALC. Operation and
maintenance  manhours  added by  removal standards  strict enough to require  advanced
treatment processes are covered in the Step 2 curves for these processes.
        /
INDUSTRIAL WASTES

Industrial  waste loadings, if constant,  can usually  be provided  for in-plant  design or
regular  operations  practices,  so that  these  wastes   do  not  require  significant extra
attention.  However,  when industrial waste loadings vary, either seasonally or erratically,
the added attention  they require adds to the operations workload. Erratic, unpredictable
industrial waste loadings add also to the laboratory workload.

PRODUCTIVITY OF LABOR

The  productivity of labor in  a sewage treatment plant depends chiefly on  two things,
which  are  hard  to  quantify, One is morale—job satisfaction and  pride  in the plant
working well. The other is the rigidity of job definitions and areas of work responsibility;
too  much  rigidity  can  result  in  some  men  being  overworked  while  others  are
underworked. Union contracts  should thus  be  examined when  setting the  productivity
factor.

In small plants, of  less than about  10-mgd capacity, high morale  can make a great
difference in  productivity. In  large plants, with capacities of around  25-mgd and more,
the complexity of staffing organization makes it difficult to use the factor of morale to
good  advantage. Labor productivity is thus usually lower in larger plants  than in  the
better-run of  the smaller plants.

As  discussed in  Appendix A,  this  manual uses  6-1/2 hours of productive work per man
per day which amounts to 1,500 hours per year as the  normal level of labor productivity.
                                           -3-

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CLIMATE

Ordinarily, the  major impact  of climate  on  most aspects of sewage  treatment plant
staffing is offset with proper design. Maintenance work, however, is hindered by extreme
winters and TALC accounts for this. Where winters  are moderate, as along the  Pacific
coast,  the maintenance manhours  indicated  on  the  Step 2  staffing  curves need no
adjustment. Where winters are  extreme,  as  in  the  northern  continental  states,  the
maintenance manhours indicated on the curves  should be increased,

TRAINING

Generally speaking, good training makes a treatment plant  staff more efficient. The Step
2 curves assume that plant personnel have the uniformly high level of training indicated
by certification, but do not have the benefit of a continuing education program. Thus, as
reflected in TALC,  a plant can be assumed to be more efficient  than indicated  by the
Step 2 curves if it has  a continuing education program, but less efficient if its personnel
do not have to be  certified.  Although not shown in  TALC, supervisory manhours will
need  to be  increased  slightly  if the  plant is participating in programs similar  to the
government-sponsored Emergency Employment Act, Employment  Supplement Program,
Public Employment Program, or other similar local programs.

The  effects of training may  also be  looked at from  a  monetary standpoint.  Since an
operator is entrusted with a very large investment—the plant itself, it is  necessary to be
sure that he knows how to get the most out of the plant—how  to use it most efficiently.
 If the staff is not well enough trained to  get  the most out of the  plant, some of the
investment in the  plant is being wasted.

 Many training programs are available. The ones in your area can be found by asking the
 state  or the  EPA. More comments on  training and training manuals can also be found in
 the references in the  Bibliography.

 AUTOMATIC MONITORING

 Automatic monitoring, as the  term  is  used in this manual, means the  continuous,
 instrumented sensing of process variables,  such as  chlorine residual, dissolved  oxygen,
 sludge density, and turbidity.  It may,  but in most plants today, usually does not  include
 control functions. While it permits closer and  more efficient process control, its potential
 for decreasing  staffing needs  may be  offset by its requirements for frequent repair and
 calibration involving relatively  high maintenance skills. The table does  show decreasing
 staffing needs for increasing  levels of automatic monitoring.  See  Appendix C for more
 comments on this topic.
                                             -4-

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AUTOMATIC SAMPLING

Manual collection and compositing of samples  is done either  by plant operators or
laboratory  personnel  or  both.  Time  is  lost, both  for  the actual  sampling,  and the
transition time between one task and another. Laboratory and operations time  for such
sampling can  be  reduced  by equipment that automatically collects and composites test
samples.  As TALC indicates, both laboratory  and  operations manhours decrease as the
number of automatic sampling points are increased.

OFF-PLANT LABORATORY WORK

Letting outside contracts for laboratory work reduces laboratory staffing needs. Generally
such contracts are most economic when  they are used for testing receiving  waters—for
such waste indicators  as  heavy metal concentrations, toxicity, and pesticides—and for
testing requiring  special equipment, such  as  coliform tests. Usually, letting laboratory
contracts for  process control is economic  only when several treatment  plants, serving a
regional sewerage  district, are grouped together.

OFF-PLANT MAINTENANCE

Contracts for  off-plant maintenance are  usually let for two types of work. One is ground
and  building  maintenance, which  can be economic  even at small  plants. The  other is
instrument   and  control  system  maintenance,  which  requires  special skills. Some
maintenance  that  cannot  be scheduled, such  as electric motor rewinding  or  clarifier
mechanism repair, may be done by outside personnel on  a job-by-job basis. In  none of
the  plants  visited in  preparing this  manual  was  all maintenance done by off-plant
personnel:  at  the very least,  preventive equipment-maintenance  such  as lubrication still
had to be done by the  plant staff.

PATTERN  OF STAFFING

Commonly, night staffing is about one-third of day staffing, and weekend staffing about
one-third of weekday staffing. When this ratio is lower or higher, the total staffing should
be adjusted proportionately as indicated in TALC.

TALC  does not answer questions about the organization of the shift staffing. This should
be decided  by the treatment plant administration.

A list of considerations for 24-hour staffing are given in Appendix C.
                                          -5-

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TABLE OF ADJUSTMENT FOR LOCAL CONDITIONS
LOCAL CONDITION
PLANT LAYOUT
UNIT PROCESSES
LEVEL OF TREATMENT
TYPE OF WASTE REMOVAL
REQUIREMENT
1 INDUSTRIAL WASTE
PRODUCTIVITY OF LABOR
CLIMATE
TRAINING
AUTOMATIC
MONITORING
AUTOMATIC
SAMPLING
OFF- PLANT
LABORATORY WORK
OFF- PLANT
MAINTENANCE
AGE AND CONDITION
OF EQUIPMENT
STORM AND
INFILTRATION FLOW
PRESENT FLOW OPERATION
AT LESS THAN DESIGN FLOW
PATTERN OF STAFFING
ADJUSTMENT
COMPACT
YARD WORK: -sax
OPERATIONS, MAINTENANCE: -IOX
STANDARD EQUIPMENT,
SAME MANUFACTURER
MAINTENANCE: -10 %
PRIMARY
SUPERVISORY, CLERICAL,
OPERATIONS: -40%
LABORATORY: -20 x
YARDWORK: -wx
AVERAGE
NO ADJUSTMENT
STANDARD EQUIPMENT,
DIFFERENT MANUFACTURERS
NO ADJUSTMENT
SECONDARY
NO ADJUSTMENT
PERCENTAGE OF WASTE REMOVAL
SUCH AS* 85 X REMOVAL OF BOD"
NO ADJUSTMENT
NONE OR CONSTANT
NO ADJUSTMENT
HIGH
OPERATIONS, MAINTENANCE : -IS%
EXTENDED
YARDWORK: '50%
OPERATIONS, MAINTENANCE: '/o x
NON-STANDARD EQUIPMENT,
DIFFERENT MANUFACTURERS
OPERATIONS, MAINTENANCE: 'lox
n
ADVANCED
SUPERVISORY, CLERICAL,
LABORATORY: '2% /AWT PROCESS
OPERATIONS: ">o%
MAINTENANCE .' - 20 X
YARD WORK : "10 X
AMOUNT OF WASTE IN EFFLUENT, SUCH
AS -NO MORE THAN 20 MG/L BOD"
LABORATORY: >io%
OPERATIONS: *s x
SEASONAL
OPERATIONS: *sx
AVERAGE (6>2-HR/DAY)
NO ADJUSTMENT
MODERATE WINTERS
NO ADJUSTMENT
CERTIFICATION AND
CONTINUING EDUCATION
SUPERVISORY: -/ox
OPERATIONS '. -5 X
NONE
Of CITATIONS : *SX
NONE
LABORATORY, OPERATIONS: 'SX
NONE
NO ADJUSTMENT
NONE
NO ADJUSTMENT
ERRATIC
LABORATORY, OPERATIONS : '/OX
LOW
OPERATIONS, MAINTENANCE: *is%
EXTREME WINTERS
'MAINTENANCE : '/OX
CERTIFICATION BUT NO
CONTINUING EDUCATION
NO ADJUSTMENT
MONITORING ONLY
NO ADJUSTMENT
OF INFLUENT AND EFFLUENT
LABORATORY, OPERATIONS:-}*
FOR RECEIVING-WATER
MONITORING ONLY
LABORATORY: -/ox
CORRECTIVE MAINTENANCE ONLY
MAINTENANCE: -2sx
RELATIVELY NEW AND/OR
WELL- CARED FOR
NO ADJUSTMENT
NEITHER CERTIFICATION NOR
CONTINUING EDUCATION
SUPERVISORY, OPERATIONS: tiox
MONITORING WITH FEEDBACK
OPERATIONS : - SX
MAINTENANCE: *sx
THROUGHOUT PLANT
LABORATORY : -/OX
OPERATIONS: -sx
FOR ENTIRE PLANT
LABORATORY : -IOO%
ALL MAINTENANCE EXCEPT MINOR
PREVENTIVE EQUHHENT MAINTENANCE
MAINTENANCE : -90%
RELATIVELY OLD AND /OR
POORLY CARED FOR
INCREASE MAINTENANCE : '10%
NO ADJUSTMENT. EXCEPT MAY INCREASE SOLIDS DISPOSAL
FOR INCREASED SCREENINGS AND GRIT
NO ADJUSTMENT, EXCEPT COMPLETELY BYPASSED
UNITS MAY BE SUBTRACTED OUT
SMALLER NIGHT AND WEEKEND
STAFF THAN ORDINARY
DECREASE APPROPRIATE
STAFFING PROPORTIONATELY
NIGHT STAFF : 1 FOR EVERY 3
OF DAY STAFF
WEEKEND STAFF: i FOR EVERY 3 OF
WEEKDAY STAFr
NO ADJUSTMENT
LARGER NIGHT AND WEEKEND
; STAFF THAN ORDINARY
INCREASE APPROPRIATE
STAFFING PROPORTIONATELY

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AGE AND CONDITION OF EQUIPMENT

Maintenance workload  will increase if plant equipment is old or improperly cared for.
The amount that it  will increase is highly variable,  but has been set at 10 percent in
TALC for initial estimation.

STORM AND INFILTRATION FLOW

Storm and infiltration flows  from combined, sanitary, and storm sewer systems will, up
to a point, be anticipated in plant design,  Staffing to meet these flows  will thus, up  to
some  point, be included  in  the  Step 2  curves,  which  are  based on  design capacity.
Storms,  however,  will periodically overload these combined-system plants. Extra  staffing
to take  care of the  resulting process  upsets  and heavy grit and solids loadings must be
obtained, on an  emergency  basis, as needed.  It is  not practical to staff—and TALC,
therefore, does not provide for staffing—a combined-system plant to handle these periodic
peak  storm loads.   While personnel  from  other city  departments  may  possibly  be
borrowed, generally plant staff can be  reassigned to help during storm loading conditions.

OPERATION AT  LESS THAN DESIGN FLOW

This manual assumes that a sewage treatment plant—if all equipment is operating—will
require the same staff at less  than design flow as  it would at full design  flow. If certain
process  units can be totally  by-passed, then the  manhours required  for that particular
process would become those required for the actual flow through the process.
            STEP  2.  DEVELOPING  ANNUAL-MANHOUR STAFFING
                         FOR  AN  "AVERAGE"PLANT
Curves D-l through D-4 in Appendix D show the annual supervisory, clerical, laboratory,
and yardwork manhours  at an  "average" sewage treatment plant, on the basis of plant
design  flow. Curves D-5 through D-33 show annual operation and maintenance manhours,
also on the basis of plant design flow,  for plant unit  processes. They assume 24-hour,
seven-day-a-week operations, with nighttime  staff one-third of day staff, and  weekend
staff one-third of weekday staff. (See page 10 for example). The curves are valid only for
plants  of from  0.5 to 25-mgd and should not be extrapolated beyond that range. They
do not cover collection system maintenance or off-plant (contract) laboratory work.
                                          -7-

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Using the curves, enter the annual manhours  for each type of work and process unit in
the second table of the Staffing Estimate Worksheet. Note how it  is done in the sample
worksheets in Appendix  B.  Remember  to  use design flow with  the  curves, not  present
flow. Present flow is used only for idle (bypassed) process units.

Table D-34, which follows the curves,  shows operation and maintenance  manhours per
hour of unit operation for  the process units of centrifugation, vacuum filtration,  and
incineration.  Develop  annual operation  and maintenance manhours for these units  and
enter them also in the second table of the Staffing Estimate Worksheet.
                  STEP 3.  APPLYING  ADJUSTMENT  FACTORS
 This step is just  arithmetic. Simply apply the totalled adjustment  factors  from the  first
 table of the Staffing Estimate Worksheet to the total annual manpower estimates for each
 type  of work  in the second table  of the worksheet.  For instance,  in the  Example  I
 sample worksheet in Appendix B, the total adjustment factor for  Operations is plus 15
 percent. The total annual manhours  for Operations, before adjustment, is  1,468: adding
 15 percent and rounding to the nearest 10 brings it to 1,690.
               STEP  4.  BREAKING  DOWN ANNUAL  MANHOURS
                              INTO  SPECIFIC  JOBS
 Rather than try to limit you to any given set  of job titles and descriptions, this manual
 uses  six general classifications of  work. These classifications are on the worksheet and
 also appear in TALC. They are supervisory, clerical, laboratory, operations, maintenance,
 and yard.  Yard includes  the jobs  that do not fit into  the other categories:  custodial,
 general housekeeping, operator assistance, for example.

 Definitions of these six categories are given in  Appendix E to help you decide what kind
 of men you  need. Twenty-one job titles and  descriptions developed in previous studies
 are also included in the Appendix  to help you in making up your own job classification
 system.

 The  procedure, as shown in  the examples, is to develop, from TALC  and the  curves, a
 column of figures giving the annual productive manhours in each of the six categories.
 These  manhours are then divided  by 1,500 to determine the number of men in each
 category.  (Round off to the nearest one-tenth in figuring these numbers.) This second
 column now gives you a basis for making job assignments.
                                            -8-

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Fifteen  hundred (1,500) hours per year assumes  a  5-day work week, an average of 2C)
days for holidays,  vacations and sick  leave, and 6-1/2 hours per day of productive work.
If conditions  at your plant are significantly  different, you might want  to develop a
different figure.

Any fractional amounts of men obtained in  column two should be combined whenever
possible. This  would  mean you might have  a man performing both the supervisory and
clerical  jobs,  or  both  the  operations and  lab work.  These  combinations should  be
reasonable—both from the standpoint  of what the men have to do and what  kind of men
are available.

If the manual is being used on an expansion  of an  existing plant,  every effort must be
made to interface the existing personnel setup most effectively with the plant expansion.

You should work  through the examples in Appendix B to  acquaint yourself with the
allocation procedure.  For instance, Example I in Appendix B shows a particular 1 0-mgd
trickling filter  plant as calling for the following annual manhours:

                Supervisory                          540
                Clerical                                50
                Laboratory                          340
                Yard                               470
                Operations                          1,690
                Maintenance                        1,600

                  Total                            4,690

Dividing these  manhours by 1,500 gives the following  breakdown:

                Supervisory                        0.4 men
                Clerical                            0
                Laboratory                        0.2
                Yard                             0.3
                Operations                          1.1
                Maintenance                        1,1

                  Total                            3   men (to nearest half man)
                                           -9-

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A reasonable allocation among these three men here might be:

                Supervisor     -                    60% in operations
                                                  40% in supervision

                Operator                          50% in operations
                                                  30% in maintenance
                                                  20% in lab work

                Maintenance Man                  70% in maintenance
                                                  30% in yard work.

Different  job  titles might be used,  but this tells you what kind of men you need and
each man's responsibility.

It should be recognized  that TALC  implies a certain pattern of staffing—the median level
or: 'the week night staff equal to 1/3  of the weekday staff and the weekend staff equal
to  1/3  of the weekday staff.' These formulas or rules-of-thumb are best explained by an
example:

Let's assume that, after  working  through the  curves and TALC, we arrive at an estimate
of 20 men. What is the median pattern  of staffing for this total of 20?  We know that the
total of the weekday and weekend  staff is 20 and that the weekend staff is 1/3 of the
weekday  staff, so we can write the following equations:

                        (weekend) + (weekday) = 20, and

                        1/3 (weekday)  = (weekend).

 Substituting, we have:

                        1/3 (weekday)  + (weekday) = 20, and solving this:

                        weekday staff  =  3/4 (20) =  15.

 This means that the weekend staff is the remainder, or 5.

 Now, we know that the total week day staff is 15, and  also that  the nighttime  staff is
 1/3 of the daytime staff. Therefore,  we can write:

                        (daytime)  + (nighttime) =  15, and

                        1/3 (daytime)  = (nighttime).
                                          -10-

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Substituting again, we have:

                        (daytime)  +  1/3 (daytime) = 15, and solving:

                        daytime staff =  3/4 (15), say 11.

The remainder of 4 is the nighttime staff.

In summary, this staffing pattern might look like this:

              Weekday

                        Day shift             11 men
                        Night shift             2
                        Graveyard  shift        2

              Weekend staff                   5

                         Total Staff          20 men

If it is decided  that the plant  should be attended  more often or less  often than  this,
appropriate  additions or deletions from the staff should be  made. More  on the  question
of weekend  and  night staffing can be found in Appendix C.

It must be  remembered that the conversion  of manhours  to jobs is an arbitrary  one
There can be no hard-and-fast rule on  what jobs there should be at a  treatment  plant, so
individual treatment plant administrations should not feel restricted to a specific  selection
of job titles or  shift staffing. The  staffing at a plant must be tailor-made to meet the
planf s specific requirements.

Examples II,  IIIA,  and  IIIB in  Appendix B show how staffing guidelines are developed
similarly for larger plants.
                                          -11-

-------
APPENDIX A

-------
                 APPENDIX  A  SOURCES  AND  USE  OF  DATA,
                    STAFFING FOR  PLANTS  NOT  COVERED
This manual is based on three  types of data. The first type consists of general comments
and information obtained from EPA Regional Offices, state and interstate water pollution
control  agencies, and some local regulatory agencies. The second type is data  gathered
during visits to 35 sewage treatment plants across the country. These plants are listed in
Table A-l  and their capacities and process steps shown in Table A-2. The third type is
data from EPA reports and the  literature, as cited in the Bibliography.

Two  kinds of  information were  collected  during  the plant visits.  One kind  was
information on  the  size  of  staff and  on its breakdown  into  supervisory,  clerical,
laboratory, yard, operation, and maintenance workers. Maintenance, to distinguish it from
operations, was defined  for  this manual  as "working on equipment to prevent failure
(preventive  maintenance)  or   repairing   equipment  that  had   failed  (corrective
maintenance)," Thus,  cleaning the weirs  and  effluent channel of a clarifier were,  for
instance,  considered  to  be operations,  while greasing a  clarifier  sludge pump  was
considered to be maintenance.

The  second kind of  information  collected during  the visits  was the  operation  and
maintenance manhours that were spent per process  unit. It  was  found that when these
hours were totalled for the year  they were consistently lower, in a ratio of about 6-1/2
to 8,  than the manhours attributed  directly to operation and  maintenance staff members.
Average operation and maintenance work  productivity was thus taken  to be 6-1/2 hours
per day, or—when vacations, sick leaves,  and holidays were taken into account—about
1,500 hours per year. The same productivity level was assumed to hold for supervisory,
clerical, laboratory, and yardwork. As TALC indicates, if these conditions  do not apply
at your plant, you should develop a new number.

Analysis of the data showed  that manhours for the six types of plant work could, for an
"average"  plant  and most common processes,  be  based on design flow. Factors, which
were later  organized into the Table of Adjustment for Local Conditions  could  then be
applied  to account for individual plant variations from an average plant.

The manhour curves for secondary treatment processes are the most reliable because they
are  based  on  data from a large number of operating  plants. The curves for  primary
treatment are less reliable because they  are based on  data from fewer  plants. Most data
for  advanced waste treatment processes  are from the  South Tahoe Public Utility District
                                        A-l

-------
plant and cover chemical coagulation and settling, lime recalculation, ammonia stripping,
two-stage  recarbonization,  mixed-media  filtration,  granular  carbon  adsorption,  and
granular  carbon regeneration, The unit manhour  requirements given in Table  D-34,  for
centrifugation, vacuum filtration, and incineration, are also based on limited data.

Pilot  scale  data  or  data  from   the  literature  were  used  for  the  processes  of
nitrification-denitrification, ion-exchange ammonia removal and demineralization, reverse
osmosis, and electrodialysis.

Treatment facilities smaller  than those covered by  the staffing curves (below  0 5-mgd),
may  be of  the conventional type  or may be  package  plants or stabilization ponds.
Generally these can be staffed by just one person, though sometimes a small conventional
plant  may require a  staff  of two or  three.  Conventional plant and package  plant
attendants  should be  trained  in  equipment maintenance (possibly by the  equipment
manufacturers), in recognizing process upsets, and  in sampling  procedures. Stabilization
pond  attendants will  mainly be  expected to perform maintenance duties, such as dike
repair, weed control and minor maintenance on the chlorinator. Attendants at all of these
small  plants should have a qualified person to seek  help from in the event  of operational
problems.

Iowa  State University's Department  of Industrial Engineering is currently developing  a
staffing manual for the EPA that  is intended specifically for plants smaller than 1-mgd
(37),  The preliminary draft, entitled  "Estimating Manpower Requirements and Selected
Cost Factors for Small Waste-water Treatment Plants," is now  available.

Treatment plants larger  than  those  covered  by  the  staffing curves  were  adequately
 covered by a previous staffing study (3). Plants of  these  sizes are usually  in larger cities
 where a large  skilled labor pool is available,  so that it  would be easier  to find highly
 qualified personnel. Operations at  some of these plants may be so complex or large, or
 connected with other city operations so that a special study would be warranted.
                                           A-2

-------
                                   TABLE  A-l




             TREATMENT PLANTS  VISITED  -  NUMERICAL CODES





No,                                  Name





 1.               Sacramento County   Northwest Plant, California




 2.               City of San Leandro, California




 3,               City of San Rafael,  California




 4.               South Tahoe PUD, California




 5.               City of San Jose, California




 6.               Los Angeles County Sanitation District, California




 7.               City of Medford, Oregon




 8.               City of Salem, Oregon




 9.               City of Tualatin, Oregon




10.               North Roseburg Sanitation District, Oregon




11.               City of Durham, North Carolina




12.               City of Lebanon, Pennsylvania




13.               City of Chapel Hill, North Carolina




14.               City of Lancaster, Pennsylvania




15,               City of Stockton, California




16.               City of Dallas, Oregon




17.               Security Water and Sanitary District, Colorado




18,               East Canon Sanitation District, Colorado




19.               City of Aurora, Colorado




20.               City of Troutdale, Oregon
                                         A-3

-------
TABLE A-l (continued)







No.                                                 Name





21.               City of Portland   Tyron Creek, Oregon




22.               San tee County Water District, California




23.               City of Grand Rapids, Michigan




24.               City of Boulder, Colorado




25.               City of Colorado Springs, Colorado




26.               City of Logan, Utah




27,               Metropolitan  Sewer. District, Louisville   Kite Creek Plant, Kentucky




28.               Johnson County Main Sewer Districts   Main Plant, Kansas




29.               Johnson County Main Sewer Districts   Indian Creek Plant, Kansas




30.                Municipality of Metropolitan Seattle, Washington




31.                City of Glendale,  Colorado




32.                City of Bellingham, Washington




33.                Richmond Sanitary District, Indiana




 34.                Chatham Township, New Jersey




 35.                City of Trenton, New Jersey
                                            A-4

-------
TABLE  A-2
TREATMENT PLANTS VISITED
\wปocess
CAPACITT\
(MCO) \
0. - 0.5
0.5- 1
1 - 2
2 - 4
4 - 6
6 - 8
8 - 10
10 - 12
12 - 14
14 • 16
16 • IB
18 - tO
tO • 22
22 • 24
24 -26
K~4UP

SCREENING
SOUNDING
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PRIMARY
CLARIFICATION

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SECONDARY
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PACKAGE
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DISPOSAL
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EPPLUENT
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ANAEROBIC
DIGESTION

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$$
-------
APPENDIX B

-------
        APPENDIX  B, USING THE  STAFFING  ESTIMATE  WORKSHEET
The  following  Staffing  Estimate  Worksheets are completed for four treatment plants.
Work them through yourself for practice, copying as many copies of the blank worksheet
as you need.

EXAMPLE I: TRICKLING FILTER PLANT, 1.0 MGD'

Plant I is  a  17-year-old plant serving a small town of 8,000 people that has no significant
industry. The town  has a well-maintained separate  sewer system. The plant was well
designed with an average layout. The plant has not been modified extensively and was all
built  under a single contract.  As a result, most  of the equipment is from  the same
manufacturer. It is currently operating at full design capacity.

Regulatory requirements for 80 percent BOD  and suspended solids removal  are met  by
the trickling filter process.

Motivation is reasonably good  at the plant so  that productivity is average. Many of the
staff  are not properly  trained nor certified,  however,  so that  operations are not as
efficient as they could be.

The  plant has no  automatic monitors or samplers, nor does it  use any outside contracts
for laboratory or maintenance work.

Equipment maintenance has  not  been a  serious problem, due in  part to a  regular
preventive maintenance program.
                                         B-l

-------
BY.
DPH
DATE  FFR 7 1973	

     PLANT    EXAMPLE  I
ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY
   STAFFING ESTIMATE WORKSHEET
                                                             TYPE
PA 01  1 OF 'i
                                               TRICKLING FILTER
      LOCATION
                                                                    DESIGN FLOW 10 MGD
I. ADJUSTMENT FOR LOCAL CONDITIONS (SEE TALC)
LOCAL CONDITION

PLANT LAYOUT
UNIT PROCESSES
LEVEL OF TREATMENT
TYPE OF REMOVAL
REQUIREMENT
INDUSTRIAL WASTES
PRODUCTIVITY
CLIMATE
TRAINING
AUTO. MONITORING
AUTO. SAMPLING
OFF-PLANT LABORATORY
OFF-PLANT MAINTENANCE
AGE OF EQUIPMENT
STORM, INFILTRATION
PRESENT FLOW
TOTAL

COMMENT

AVERAGE
STANDARD, DIFF,
SECONDARY
PERCENTAGE
NONE
AVERAGE
MODERATE
SOME CERTIFIED
NONE
NONE
NONE
NONE
WELL CARED FOR
NONE
AT DESIGN


ADJUSTMENT
OPERATION
—
-
-
-
-


•W.
+5%
*5%

-
-
-
-
<• 1 5%

MAINTENANCE
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
0

SUPERVISORY
-
-
-
-
- •
-

-5%
-
-
-
-
-
-

^5%

CLERICAL
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
*
-
-
-
-
-
-
0

LABORATOR/
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-

*&%
-
-
.. -
-
—
• c/"/.

('ARDWORK





-


-
-
-
-
—
-

0


-------
                                  STAFFING ESTIMATE WORKSHEET
PAGE 2 OF 3
II.  ANNUAL MANHOURS
UNIT PROCESS
RAW SEWAGE PUMP STATION
SCREENING
GRIT REMOVAL
PRIMARY CLARIFIER
TRICKLING FJLTER
SECONDARY CLARIFIER
CHLORINATION
ANAEROBIC DIGESTER
SLUDGE BEDS



'





TOTAL
ADJUSTMENT (FROM 1)
ADJUSTED TOTAL
GRAND TOTAL 4,690
OPERATION
—
43
200
230
380
65
130
180
240









1,468
+220
1,690

MAINTENANCE
330
17
22
220
540
230
200
44
—

-







1,603
0
1,600

SUPERVISORY


















510
+26
540

CLERICAL


















53
0
50

LABORATORY





-












320
•16
340

YARDWORK


















470
0
4/0


-------
III.  STAFFING SUGGESTION
•ASSUMES 1500 HOURS PER YEAR PER MAN
 (SEE PAGE 9)
                                       STAFFING ESTIMATE WORKSHEET
                                         PAGE 3 OF 3
                                             TOTAL HOURS PER YEAR
                                        NUMBER OF MEN'
OPERATIONS
 1,690
                                                                                                  1.1
MAINTENANCE
 1,600
1.1
SUPERVISORY
  540
0.4
CLERICAL
                                                      50
LABORATORY
                                                     340
                                             0.2
YARDWORK
 470
                                             0.3
TOTAL
4,690

-------
EXAMPLE II: ACTIVATED SLUDGE PLANT, 9.5 MOD
Plant II is a  10-year-old plant serving 60,000 people in an area where winters are severe.
The  plant  was  well  designed  using  conventional  unit  processes.  Much of  the  minor
equipment (pumps, etc.) is of the same manufacturer. The plant is now operating at close
to  design  flow.  Due to a  well  established  sewer  maintenance  program  and  good
enforcement  of an ordinance prohibiting storm drain  connections to the sanitary sewer
there are no problems with  infiltration  or storm runoff. The plant is used for research
purposes by  a nearby university so there is no laboratory  work done at the plant.

The  state regulatory  agency requires  85 percent  BOD  and suspended  solids involved.
These removals are generally exceeded by the well run activated sludge plant.

There is a small meat packing plant and dairy in town, but no seasonal industry. There is
good  rapport between the treatment plant  operators  and the plant foremen which has
helped prevent operation problems.

Certification is encouraged so that all the operators are certified, but are not engaged in
any regular continuing education program.

There  are no automatic  samplers,  and  the only  automatic monitoring is  for  chlorine
residual. Maintenance on this  monitor is done by an outside contract.

A small amount of equipment corrective maintenance is done by contract, in addition to
the  maintenance on the chlorine residual monitor. The equipment is generally well cared
for so that no special maintenance problems exist.
                                         B-5

-------
BY
     -6W4-
DATE FFR 7  1Q73	


     PLANT    EXAMPLE
ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY
   STAFFING ESTIMATE WORKSHEET
                                   TYPE
      PAGE 1 OF 3
ACTIVATED SLUDGE
     LOCATION.
                                                                  DESIGN FLOW 9.5 MGD
I. ADJUSTMENT FOR LOCAL CONDITIONS (SEE TALC)
LOCAL CONDITION

PLANT LAYOUT
UNIT PROCESSES
LEVEL OF TREATMENT
TYPE OF REMOVAL
REQUIREMENT
INDUSTRIAL WASTES
PRODUCTIVITY
CLIMATE
TRAINING
AUTO. MONITORING
AUTO. SAMPLING
OFF-PLANT LABORATORY
OFF-PLANT MAINTENANCE
AGE OF EQUIPMENT
STORM, INFILTRATION
PRESENT FLOW
TOTAL

COMMENT

AVERAGE
STANDARD/DIFF
SECONDARY
PERCENTAGE
CONSTANT INFLOW
AVERAGE
SEVERE WINTERS
ALL CERTIFIED
SOME, NO FEEDBACK
NONE
NO LAB AT PLANT
A LITTLE
WELL CARED FOR
NO SPECIAL
PROBLEM
AT DESIGN FLOW


ADJUSTMENT
OPERATION
-
-
-
—
_
-
—
-
—
+5%
-
-
-
-
-
+5%

MAINTENANCE
-
-
-
—
_
-
+ 10%
-
-
-
-
-15%
-
-
-
-5%

SUPERVISORY
-
-
-
-
—
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
0

CLERICAL
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
0

LABORATORY
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
+5%
-100%
-
-
-
-
-100%

YARDWORK
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
0


-------
                                          STAFFING ESTIMATE WORKSHEET
                                                                                        PAGE 2 OF 3
       II. ANNUAL MANHOURS
UNIT PROCESS
SCREENING, GRINDING
GRIT REMOVAL
PRIMARY CLARIFIER
AERATION .'
SECONDARY CLARIFIER
CHLORINATION
ANAEROBIC DIGESTER
SLUDGE TRUCKING










TOTAL
ADJUSTMENT (FROM 1)
ADJUSTED TOTAL
GRAND TOTAL 17,500
OPERATION
900
680
2,000
1,500
1,800
330
860
(750)










8,820
+410
9,230

MAINTENANCE
39
60
490
1,700
400
390
210
—










3,289
-164
3,120

SUPERVISORY


















2,250
0
2,250

CLERICAL


















800
0
800

LABORATORY


















2,250
-2,250
0

YARDWORK


















2,100
0
2,100

c:

-------
                                                  STAFFING ESTIMATE WORKSHEET
                                          PAGE 3 OF 3
          III.  STAFFING SUGGESTION
          OPERATIONS
                                                       TOTAL HOURS PER YEAR
 9,230
NUMBER OF MEN*


      6.2
          MAINTENANCE
                                                                3,120
                                               2.1
          SUPERVISORY
 2,250
      1.5
oc
          CLERICAL .
  800
      0.5
          LABORATORY
          YARDWORK
 2,100
      1.4
          TOTAL
17,500
     ir/2*
          •ASSUMES 1500 HOURS PER YEAR PER MAN
          (SEE PAGE I)

         " ROUNDED TO NEAREST ONE-HALF

-------
EXAMPLE  III:  ACTIVATED  SLUDGE  PLANTS  WITH  RELATIVELY  EXTREME
STAFFING NEEDS, 20.0 MGD
 Examples IIIA and IIIB show the possible effects of the TALC factors on two treatment
 plants of the same  size and with  the same process units, but differing in  a number of
 opposite ways from an "average" plant.

 Plant IIIA,  due to restricted land availability, has an unusually  compact layout. On  the
 whole, it is well designed and equipped, and excellently run. Regulatory agencies require
 that it remove 85 percent of the BOD  and suspended solids from  the sewage. While its
 process units and other equipment are conventional, the same types  of equipment have in
 a  number of instances  been  supplied by different manufacturers. Fortunately, the plant
 has no  industrial  wastes to  contend with, nor does it have an extreme  winter to make
 maintenance difficult.

 A progressive management insists  on  operator certification,  provides  periodic in-plant
 training  sessions, and when possible sends personnel to short courses on sewage treatment
 practice  and theory  at  a local technical school For these and other reasons, morale and
 productivity are good.

 Chlorine  residual  at  the plant  is  monitored and chlorination  is  paced by automatic
 equipment;   influent  and  effluent  sampling  is  done  automatically,  too.  All   other
 maintenance, as well as  laboratory work, is  performed by the plant staff,

Plant  IIIB, in sharp contrast, is a problem plant. First built 20 years  ago on low-cost land
in  an  area of severe winters, its layout was relatively extended. Then a booming economy
and population forced it to expand when much of the land surrounding it was owned by
industry. An awkward, inefficient process layout was thus forced upon it By this time,
too, many of its process units were obsolete.

Discharging  as it does to a river, regulatory agencies stringently require that BOD and
suspended solids  in  its effluent be kept  below  15 parts per million.  Meeting this
requirement  is difficult  enough by itself, but the plant's work is  complicated by the fact
that it has  had a history of  erratic, illegal  dumping of industrial wastes. Some of these
wastes have  contained  heavy metals,  so that the plant must  constantly  monitor its
influent for  heavy  metal compounds and other wastes that might upset its processes. The
plant  has automatic  sampling equipment  to help in  this task;  it  also has automatic
chlorine-residual monitoring equipment, which is used to pace the chlorinator.

In part because key staff positions in the plant are  political appointments, without regard
for technical qualifications, the morale  of most of the plant staff is low. Certification is
                                          B-9

-------
not required  and no  training programs are held or even encouraged. The plant does its
own laboratory  and maintenance work, with  the exception of contract maintenance of
the automatic monitoring and  sampling equipment. Many  of the maintenance tasks are
difficult to perform during the long, cold, and snowy winters.
                                          B-10

-------
BY.
DPH
DATE  FEB. 2, 1973

      PLANT   EXAMPLE III-A
ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY
   STAFFING ESTIMATE WORKSHEET
                                                              TYPE
PAGE 1 OF 3
                                              ACTIVATED SLUDGE
      LOCATION.
                                                                    DESIGN FLOW 20.0 MGD
I.  ADJUSTMENT FOR LOCAL CONDITIONS (SEE TALC)
LOCAL CONDITION

PLANT LAYOUT
UNIT PROCESSES
LEVEL OF TREATMENT
TYPE OF REMOVAL
REQUIREMENT
INDUSTRIAL WASTES
PRODUCTIVITY
CLIMATE
TRAINING
AUTO. MONITORING
AUTO. SAMPLING
OFF-PLANT LABORATORY
OFF-PLANT MAINTENANCE
AGE OF EQUIPMENT
STORM, INFILTRATION
PRESENT FLOW
TOTAL

COMMENT

COMPACT
STANDARD/DIFF.
SECONDARY
PERCENTAGE
NONE
AVERAGE
MODERATE
CERT. W.
EDUCATION
SOME W.
FEEDBACK
OF INFLUENT,
EFFLUENT
NONE
NONE
WELL CARED FOR
NO PROBLEM
AT DESIGN FLOW


ADJUSTMENT
OPERATION
-10%
-
-
-
-
-
-
-5%
-5%
-5%
-
-
-
-
-
-25%

MAINTENANCE
-10%
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
+5%
-
-
-
-
-
-
-5%

SUPERVISORY
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-10%
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-10%

CLERICAL
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
0

LABORATORY
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-5%
-
-
-
-
-
-5%

YARDWORK
-50%
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-50%


-------
                                  STAFFING ESTIMATE WORKSHEET
                                                                                 PAGE 2 OF 3
II.  ANNUAL MANHOURS
UNIT PROCESS
SCREENING, GRINDING
GRIT REMOVAL
PRIMARY CLARIFICATION
AERATION
SECONDARY CLARIFICATION
CHLORINATION
ANAEROBIC DIGESTION
CENTRIFUGE (24 H/D)
SLUDGE TRUCKING









TOTAL
ADJUSTMENT (FROM 1)
ADJUSTED TOTAL
GRAND TOTAL 31,570
OPERATION
2,500
1,020
4,100
2,100
4,100
450
1,450
2,630
(1,500)









19,850
-4,963
14,890

MAINTENANCE
50
82
630
2,800
490
490
350
1,760
—









6,652
-333
6,320

SUPERVISORY


















3,700
-370
3,330

CLERICAL


















2,000
0
2,000

LABORATORY


















3,500
-175
3,330

YARDWORK


















3,400
-1,700
1,700


-------
 I.  STAFFING SUGGESTION
                                        STAFFING ESTIMATE WORKSHEET
                                        PAGE 3 OF 3
'ASSUMES 1500 HOURS PER YEAR PER MAN
 (SEE PAGE 9)
                                             TOTAL HOURS PER YEAR
                                        NUMBER OF MEN'
OPERATIONS
                                                     14,890
                                              9.9
MAINTENANCE
                                                      6,320
                                              4.2
SUPERVISORY .
 3,330
2.2
CLERICAL
                                                      2,000
                                              1.3
LABORATORY
 3,330
                                                                                                   2.2
YARDWORK
 1,700
1.1
TOTAL
31,570
21

-------
BY.
DATE FEB. 2. 1973

     PLANT   EXAMPLE
         ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY
            STAFFING ESTIMATE WORKSHEET
I-B
                                             TYPE
      PAGE 1 OF 3
ACTIVATED SLUDGE
      LOCATION
                                                                   DESIGN FLOW  20.0 MGD
I. ADJUSTMENT FOR LOCAL CONDITIONS  (SEE TALC)
LOCAL CONDITION

PLANT LAYOUT
UNIT PROCESSES
LEVEL OF TREATMENT
TYPE OF REMOVAL
REQUIREMENT
INDUSTRIAL WASTES
PRODUCTIVITY
CLIMATE
TRAINING
AUTO. MONITORING
AUTO. SAMPLING
OFF-PLANT LABORATORY
OFF-PLANT MAINTENANCE
AGE OF EQUIPMENT
STORM, INFILTRATION
PRESENT FLOW
TOTAL

COMMENT

EXTENDED
NONSTANDARD
SECONDARY
BOD, SS=15PPM
ERRATIC INFLOW
LOW
EXTREME WINTERS
NOT CERTIFIED
SOMEW. FEEDBACK
OF INFLUENT,
EFFLUENT
NONE
NONE
POORLY CARED FOR
NO PROBLEM
AT DESIGN FLOW


ADJUSTMENT
OPERATION
+10%
+ 10%
-
+5%
+10%
+ 15%
—
+10%
-5%
-5%
-
-
-
-
-
+50%

MAINTENANCE
+ 10%
+10%
-
-
-
+ 15%
+ 10%
-
+5%
-
-
-
+10%
-
-
+60%

SUPERVISORY
0
-
-
-
-
-
—
+10%
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
+ 10%

CLERICAL
0
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
0

LABORATORY
0
-
-
+10%
+10%
-
-
-
-
-5%
-
-
-
-
-
+ 15%

YARDWORK
+50%
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
+50%


-------
                                          STAFFING ESTIMATE WORKSHEET
                                                                                         PAGE 2 OF 3
        II. ANNUAL MANHOURS
UNIT PROCESS
SCREENING, GRINDING
GRIT REMOVAL
PRIMARY CLARIFICATION
AERATION
SECONDARY CLARIFICATION
CHLORINATION
ANAEROBIC DIGESTION
CENTRIFUGE (24 H/D)
SLUDGE TRUCKING









TOTAL
ADJUSTMENT (FROM 1)
ADJUSTED TOTAL
GRAND TOTAL 55,620
OPERATION
2,500
1,020
4,100
2,100
4,100
450
1,450
2,630
(1,500)









19,850
+9,925
29,780

MAINTENANCE
50
82
630
2,800
490
490
350
1,760
	









6,652
+3,990
10,640

SUPERVISORY


















3,700
+370
4,070

CLERICAL


















2,000
0
2,000

LABORATORY


















3,500
+525
4,030

YARDWORK


















3,400
+ 1,700
5,100

03

-------
III.  STAFFING SUGGESTION
•ASSUMES 1500 HOURS PER YEAR PER MAN
 (SEE PAGE 9)
                                        STAFFING ESTIMATE WORKSHEET
                                         PAGE 3 OF 3
                                             TOTAL HOURS PER YEAR
                                         NUMBER OF MEN"
OPERATIONS
 29,780
19.9
MAINTENANCE
 10,640
                                                                                                   7.1
SUPERVISORY
 4,070
2.7
CLERICAL
 2,000
1.3
LABORATORY
 4,030
2.7
YARDWORK
 5,100
3.4
TOTAL
55,620
                                                                                                  37

-------
APPENDIX C

-------
         APPENDIX  C.  WHETHER  TO  PROVIDE  24-HOUR STAFFING
Effluent  quality and  public health and  safety are  the things to consider when deciding
whether to staff a plant nights and weekends. Erratic influent quality; complex, easy to
upset processes; stringent discharge requirements: if any of these conditions exist,  then
24-hour, seven day per week staffing should be evaluated.

More specifically,  these are  some  points  to  consider when determining the need for
24-hour, seven day staffing:

     1.   When the plant has a capacity greater than 10-mgd.

     2.   When the influent is highly erratic  or has a large and fluctuating proportion of
         industrial wastes.

     3.   When power failures are common.

     4.   When full-scale, complete advanced-waste-treatment schemes are used to remove
         nutrients and other pollutants in addition  to BOD and suspended solids. (Partial
         advanced  waste  treatment at a plant, such as chemical coagulation alone,  may
         not require more staffing than would a strictly secondary-level plant.)

     5.   When equipment requiring highly  specialized maintenance is used.

     6.   When the plant's effluent is discharged close to  a downstream water intake.

     7.   When the plant's  effluent is discharged  into  a small, enclosed  water-contact
         recreational area,  though this  factor need influence staffing only  during  the
         recreational season.

     8.   When the plant's effluent is discharged into a shell  fishery.

     9.   When the effluent flow is very high in proportion  to the receiving water flow.

Automatic monitors and controls may be used to improve operation and reduce staffing
needs—especially nighttime staffing.  The present state of the art in instrumentation is
such that, although better operation and  control may be achieved through  the use of
these monitors  and control systems,  increases in  maintenance and meter calibration time
                                         C-l

-------
can offset any  savings anticipated in  staff.  In addition, highly trained and specialized
personnel are  required to repair and maintain these instruments. These points should be
kept in mind when evaluating the use of automatic monitors and controls against 24-hour
staffing.

This  is  not to  say that the  option  of  automatic monitors  should  not  be carefully
examined. On the contrary, the potential in this field is enormous. The art and science of
reliable instrumentation is advancing rapidly. No doubt  the future will see more reliable
and maintenance-free systems.
                                           C-2

-------
APPENDIX D

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-------
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0.5 1 U 2 3 4 5 6 8 10 15 20 25
PLANT DESIGN FLOW
— — — OPERATION
(MGD)

— 	 MAINTENANCE

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                                      TABLE D-34
                         UNIT  MANHOUR  REQUIREMENTSf
CENTRIFUGATION
                      Operation                      0.3 hours/hour of operation
                      Maintenance                    0.2 hours/hour of operation
VACUUM FILTRATION
                      Operation                      0,6 hours/hour of operation
                      Maintenance                    0.3 hours/hour of operation
INCINERATION
                       Operation                      0.2 hours/hour of operation
                       Maintenance                    0.2 hours/hour of operation
 f The requirements shown are for single units of equipment. For three or more of these units, of whatever mix, reduce
 the  operation  and maintenance requirements  by half. For  instance, one  centrifuge, one vacuum filter, and one
 incinerator would require a total of about 0.35, rather than  0.^, hours of maintenance per hour of operation.
                                             D-34

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APPENDIX E

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                       APPENDIX  E.  TASK DESCRIPTIONS
The following six pages are general descriptions of the six tasks or general classifications
of work at a plant.  The  descriptions  are  in  the  form of  lists  of  different  jobs, or
activities, performed under each task. The list is not meant to be complete by any means,
but should  give you  a good idea of the  difference  between each  task, and what is
supposed to be done under them.

These task descriptions are not the same as job descriptions; they do not tell you who
reports to whom, or who tells who what to  do. They do tell you what a man  engaged in
a particular task would be doing or should know how to do. Anything beyond  that is left
to the job descriptions themselves.

The various activities, or  jobs, listed  for each task  can be  combined  in almost  any
reasonable way to make up your own job descriptions.  "One man's meat is another man's
poison"—and this certainly holds  true  for job descriptions. This is why TALC and the
worksheet do not hold you to any one set of job descriptions—they allow you  to make
up your own.  To help you in this, twenty-one job titles developed by others in the past
(3) are  listed  along with some indication of approximately what  jobs go under  which
general tasks. The final pages of this appendix are an  example of a thorough description
of the job title 'superintendent' taken from (3).

                              OPERATIONS  TASK

Included in this  task are various activities that  are  commonly  identified with  the
mechanics of plant operation.  The  following are examples:

    o    Operation of process equipment, valves, pumps, engines, and generators.

    o    Cleaning  of  clarifier weirs, bar screens, and other items necessary for proper
         unit process  function.

    o    Taking sewage samples as required.

    o    Operation of electrical controls (timers, etc.)

    o    Monitoring of gauges, meters,  and control panels.
                                         E-l

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    o    Recognition of process upsets, and of critical conditions in unit processes.

    o    Determination of  treatment process condition using lab data and meter  and
         gauge readings.

    o    Mixing of any chemicals required in treatment.

    o    Inspection of plant for overall process condition.

                              MAINTENANCE TASK

Maintenance  has been  divided into two  types: preventive and corrective maintenance.
These can  be defined as  "what you do to keep equipment from breaking (preventive),
and what you do to fix broken equipment (corrective),"Some of the activities you might
perform in both types of maintenance are the following:

     o   Lubricate equipment and check for equipment malfunctions.

     o   Replace packing in pumps and valves.

     o   Service and replace bearings in motors  and other equipment.

     o   Install and start up new equipment,

     o   Clean out pipes (sludge lines).

     o    Do some  minor plumbing.

     o    Do some  welding  and cutting.

     o    Calibrate  and repair meters and  gauges (although this is sometimes done by an
          electrician or by outside contract).

     o    Set up  and  maintain  a regular program of  lubrication  and replacement of
          critical parts (bearings).

     o    Inspect  and  service  mechanical  and  electrical control systems (timers,  level
          controllers, etc.).
                                           E-2

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                               SUPERVISORY  TASK

This task includes all activities that are necessary for the administration and management
of the entire plant. Every  plant must have someone who performs the supervisory task.
His exact title  is unimportant, except that it should differentiate him from the remainder
of the staff. Some of the individual activities involved in this task are the following:

     o    Regular inspection of plant operation and maintenance.

     o    Analysis and evaluation  of the functions performed under the other five tasks,

     o    Organization and direction of the activities of the plant staff.

     o    Organization and direction of training programs.

     o    Formulation of budget and control of expenditures.

     o    Development  of  plans  and  procedures  to  insure  efficient operation  and
          maintenance.

     o    Reporting to authorities  on the operation and expenditures of the plant.

     o    Maintenance of good public relations.

     o    Preparation  of work schedules, shift staffing, and operation.

     o    Evaluation of operation and maintenance records.

                                 CLERICAL  TASK

This task includes all record  keeping and secretarial  activities  necessary in a plant—the
"paper work" task. Some of the jobs included under "paper work"  are:

     o    The maintenance of operation and maintenance records.

     o    The maintenance of shift logs and meter readings.

     o    The filling out of regulatory agency forms: discharge reports, operation reports,
          staff reports.

     o    The maintenance of reports on operating expenditure.
                                          E-3

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And, further:

     o   Composition of routine correspondence  and the handling of routine inquiries
         from the public.

     o   Operation  of office machinery:  typewriters, calculators, etc.

     o   Maintenance of financial records.

     o   Posting, filing and sorting of various reports and records.

                               LABORATORY  TASK

Work  in the  laboratory is highly  specialized  and requires considerable  training  and
experience. In small plants, this task may be handled by those spending time at either the
supervisory  or  operations  tasks.  Thus  the supervisor  might also  be the laboratory
technician.  Some of the  activities involved in laboratory work are the following:

     o    Collection of samples (sewage and receiving water).

     o    Performance of laboratory analyses—both simple and complex.

     o    Assembling and reporting of data from tests.

     o    Evaluation of  data in terms of plant process performance.

     o    Preparation of common chemical reagents and bacteriological media.

     o    Recommending process changes based on laboratory data.

     o    Reporting to regulatory agencies on the operation of the plant.

                                    YARDWORK

 This task  is a catch-all.  It includes custodial work, janitorial work, gardening and minor
 maintenance  tasks.  Almost  anything that  does  not fit  in  the  other five tasks could
 conceivably go here. Some of the most common activities included in yardwork are listed
 below:

      o    Driving, loading and unloading  of sludge trucks and other  equipment.

      o    Gardening:  cutting grass, trimming shrubs, watering, etc.
                                            E-4

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o    Removing of snow, ice and ponded water.
o   Washing of equipment and tools.
o   Cleaning and polishing of floors, walls, furniture, etc.
o   Serving as night watchman.
              RELATIONSHIPS OF JOB  TITLES TO TASKS
              Task

           Operations
           Maintenance
           Supervisory
            Job Title

Operations Supervisor
Shift Foreman
Operator II
Operator I
Chemist
Laboratory Technician

Maintenance Supervisor
Mechanic Maintenance Foreman
Mechanic II
Mechanic I
Electrician II
Electrician I
Maintenance Helper
Automotive Equipment Operator
Laborer
Painter
Storekeeper
Custodian

Superintendent
Assistant Superintendent
Clerk Typist
Operations Supervisor
Shift Foreman
Maintenance Supervisor
Mechanical Maintenance Foreman
Chemist
Laboratory Technician
                                 E-5

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                    Task                           Job Title

                Clerical                     Clerk Typist

                Laboratory                  Chemist
                                            Laboratory Technician

                Yardwork                   Laborer
                                            Painter
                                            Storekeeper
                                            Custodian

This list should give you an idea of what portions of tasks  to put under which job titles.
The list tells you that a man engaged in one of the tasks in the left column will do some
or all of the corresponding jobs listed in the right column.  An important point to notice
here is  the overlap. This is a  good example illustrating  the difficulty  of using rigid job
titles. For example, a  "chemist"  may in fact  do supervisory  work, or he  may just do
laboratory work.
                                         E-6

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                      SAMPLE  OCCUPATION  DESCRIPTION

Title: SUPERINTENDENT, WASTEWATER TREATMENT PLANT

JOB DESCRIPTION

Responsible for administration,  operation,  and  maintenance  of  entire plant  Exercises
direct authority over all  plant  functions  and  personnel, in accordance with approved
policies  and procedures.  Inspects plant  regularly. Analyzes  and evaluates operation and
maintenance functions;  initiates or recommends new or improved practices. Develops
plans  and  procedures  to  insure  efficient   plant  operation.  Recommends  plant
improvements  and additions. Coordinates  data  and prepares or reviews and approves
operation  reports  and budget  requests. Controls expenditure of  budgeted  funds and
requests approval  for major  expenditures,  if required. Recommends  specifications  for
major  equipment  and  material  purchases.  Organizes and  directs activities of  plant
personnel, including  training programs. Maintains effective communications and working
relationships with employees, government officials, and general public.

QUALIFICATIONS PROFILE

     1.   Formal Education

         College  degree  in  sanitary,  civil,  chemical, or mechanical engineering highly
         desirable.  Minimum  high school graduate or equivalent, plus 5  to  7  years
         practical experience  in  treatment plant operations,  depending upon size and
         complexity of plant.

     2.   General Requirements

         a.    Knowledge of processes and equipment involved in wastewater treatment,
              including basic chemical, bacteriological, and biological processes.

         b.   Understanding of managerial,  administrative, and accounting practices and
              procedures involved in successful plant operation.

         c.    Knowledge  of industrial wastes and  their effects on treatment processes
              and equipment.
                                          E-7

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    d.   Ability  to prepare or supervise  preparation of  clear, concise reports  and
         budget recommendations.

    e.   Ability  to  plan,  direct,  and  evaluate plant operation  and maintenance
         functions.

    f.   Ability  to  establish  and maintain  effective communication and working
         relationships.

3.  General Educational Development

    a.   Reasoning

         (1)  Apply principles  of logic  to  define  problems, collect  and analyze
              data, and draw  valid conclusions. Deal with a variety of concrete and
              abstract variables.

         (2)  Interpret  a wide  variety of technical instructions, in  book, manual,
              and mathematical or diagrammatic form.

     b.  Mathematical

         Perform  ordinary arithmetical, algebraic, and geometric  procedures in
          standard, practical applications.

     c.   Language

          (1) Write  and edit operation reports.

          (2) Evaluate and interpret engineering and other technical data.

          (3) Interview applicants and employees.

          (4)  Establish and maintain  communications with employees, government
               officials, and the public.

 4.    Specific Vocational Preparation

      a.   Completion  of  operator training  course  or equivalent training  and
          experience.

      b.   Five  to 7 years experience  in  wastewater  treatment plant operation,
                                      E-8

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              depending upon size and complexity of plant and educational background.
              Minimum of one year supervisory experience.

    5.   Aptitudes-Relative to General Working Population

         a.    Intelligence                   /     Highest third excluding
         b.    Verbal                       \     top 10 percent
         c.    Numerical
         d,    Form Perception
         e.    Spatial
         f,    Clerical Perception
         g.    Motor Coordination           ^   Middle Third
         h.    Finger Dexterity
         i,    Manual Dexterity
         j.    Eye-Hand-Foot Coordination
         k.    Color Discrimination

    6.   Interests

         Prefer working with people in  situations involving organization and supervision
         of varied activities.

    7.   Temperament

         Prefer situations involving  the direction,  control,  and  planning of an  entire
         activity or  the activity of others.

    8.   Physical Demands

         Sedentary work, except for regular plant inspection trips.

    9.   Working Conditions

         Largely inside. Occasional exposure to weather, fumes, odors, dust, and risk of
         bodily injury. Possible exposure to toxic conditions.

ENTRY SOURCES

Assistant  Superintendent,  Operations  Supervisor,  Shift Foreman,  or  Chief  Chemist;
depending on individual qualifications and size and complexity of plant.

PROGRESSION TO:
Similar position in larger or more complex plant.
                                        E-9

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BIBLIOGRAPHY

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                                 BIBLIOGRAPHY
 1. Austin, John H., "Training - How to  Do  It," Journal  American  Water Works
    Association, 62(7), pp. 431-432, July 1970.

 2. Austin,  John  H.,  McLellon,  Waldron,  M.,  and  Dyer,  Jon C.,  "Training  the
                                                                        L
    Environmental  Technician,"  American  Journal  of Public  Health,   60(12),  pp
    2314-2320, Dec. 1970.

 3. Black  and  Veatch, Estimating Costs and  Manpower Requirements for Conventional
    Wastewater Treatment Facilities. Oct 1971

 4. Conference of State  Sanitary Engineers: Recommendations  for Minimum Personnel,
    Laboratory Control and Records for Municipal Waste  Treatment. 1963.

 5. DiGregorio,  David,  Cost   of Wastewater   Treatment  Processes,  United  States
    Department of the Interior, Federal Water Pollution Control Association, Cincinnati,
    Ohio. Dec. 1968.  Report No. TWRC-6.

 6. Environmental  Protection   Agency,  Advanced  Waste  Treatment Seminar,  San
    Francisco October 1970, Session IV  Combined Treatment  and Applications.

 1. Environmental   Protection   Agency,  Clemson   University,   Criteria  for  the
    Establishment and  Maintenance   of  Two   Year  Post  High  School   Wastewater
    Technology Training Programs   Informational Packet. Prepared for the March 29,
    1972, meeting.

 8, Environmental   Protection   Agency,  Clemson   University,   Criteria  for  the
    Establishment and  Maintenance   of  Two   Year  Post  High  School   Wastewater
    Technology Training Programs - Volume I, Program Criteria. 1970,

 9. Environmental   Protection   Agency,  Clemson   University,   Criteria  for  the
    Establishment and  Maintenance   of  Two   Year  Post  High  School   Wastewater
    Technology Training Programs  Volume II, Curriculum Guidelines.  1971.

10. Evans, D. R., and Wilson,  J. C.,  "Capital and Operating Costs    AWT," JWPCF,
    44(1), pp. 1-13, Jan.. 1972..

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11.  Fransmathes,  J, R.,  "Operational Costs of  Trickling  Filters in the  Southeast,"
    JWPCF, 41(5), pp. 814-821, May  1969,

12.  Garber,  William  F.,  "Treatment Plant Equipment and  Facilities Maintenance,"
    JWPCF, 42(10), pp. 1740-1770, Oct. 1970.

13.  Harper,  Fred A., "Operator Training  by  an In-Plant Apprenticeship Program,"
    Journal Water Pollution Control Federation, 41(12),  pp. 2010-2017, Dec. 1969.

14. Joint  Committee  on  Operation,  Certification  and  Training,  "Model  Law  on
    Regulations  for Mandatory Certification of Operators  of Water Treatment Plants,
    Water Distribution Systems and  Wastewater Treatment  Plants," JWPCF, 38(12), pp.
     1898-1914, Dec. 1966.

15. Kerri, K. D.,  and Dendy, B. B.,  "A New Approach to  Operator  Training," JWPCF,
    42(2), pp. 190-194, Feb. 1970.

16.  Lisack, J, P.,  Office  of Manpower Studies, School of Technology, Purdue University,
    Manpower Requirements for Pollution Control and Water Resources in Indiana and a
    Related Pollution Control  Technology Curriculum, Manpower Report 69-1, Feb. 24,
     1969.

 17.  Michel,  Robert  L., "Costs and Manpower for Municipal Wastewater Treatment Plant
     Operation  and  Maintenance, 1965-1968," JWPCF, 42(11),  pp. 1883-1910, Nov.
     1970.

 18.  Michel,  R. L., Pelmoter, A. L,,  and Pelange, R. C., "Operation and Maintenance of
     Municipal Waste Treatment Plants," JWPCF, 41(3), pp.  335-354, March  1969.

 19.  New York State, Department of Environmental Conservation, Manual of Instruction
     for Sewage Treatment Plant Operators.

 20.  New  York  State, Department  of Health, Laboratory Procedures  for Wastewater
     Treatment Plant Operators.

 21.  Olympus Research  Corporation, Manpower  Training for Wastewater Treatment
     Plants.

 22.  The  Ontario  Water  Resources  Commission, .Basic  Course for  Sewage  Works
     Operators. 1969.

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23.  The Ontario Water Resources Commission, Intermediate Course for Sewage  Works
     Operators. 1968.

24.  The  Ontario  Water  Resources  Commission,  Senior  Course  for Sewage  Works
     Operators. 1969.

25.  Redekopp,  A. B.,  and  Austin,  J. H.,  "Systems  Approach  to Licensing,"  paper
     presented at the American Waterworks Association Annual Conference, June  1971.

26.  Sacramento State College, Department of Civil Engineering, Operation of Waste-water
     Treatment Plants  A Field Study Training Program, 1970.

27.  Smith,  Robert and McMichael, W. F., Cost and Performance Estimates for Tertiary
     Waste-water  Treating  Processes,   Federal  Water Pollution  Control Administration
     Report No.  TWRC-9.

28.  Swanson,  Charles   L.,  Unit  Process   Operating and Maintenance  Costs  for
     Conventional  Waste  Treatment Plants,  United States  Department of  the Interior,
     F. W. P. C. A., Cincinnati, Ohio. June 1968.

29.  United    States   Department   of   Health,   Education  and  Welfare,   Federal
     Guidelines - Design,  Operation and Maintenance of Wastewater Treatment Facilities:
     Sept. 1970.

30.  United  States Department of the  Interior, Federal Water  Quality Administration,
     Report   No.    PPB1704:  Current  Status   of   Advanced   Waste   Treatment
    Processes  - Dissolved Inorganic Removal, July 1970.

31.  United  States Department of the  Interior, Federal Water Quality Administration,
     "Training Unpolluters," Manpower, May  1970.

32.  URS Research Company, Manpower Factors and Training Requirements. May  1972.

33.  URS Research Company, Procedures for Evaluating Performance of Waste Treatment
    Plants - A Manual. May  1972.

34.  Wight, George, "A Survey of Operating Personnel," JWPCF, 43(10), pp. 2114-2117,
     Oct. 1971.

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35.  Harbridge House  Inc., Effectiveness Evaluation  of Operator  Training  Conducted
     Under the PSC Program, June 1972.

36.  Longino,  C. F. Jr.,  Green, C. S.,  Kauffman,  C. F. Sewage Treaters  or Pollution
     Controllers   Trainees View Their Jobs.

37.  Iowa  State University, Department of Industrial  Engineering, et.  al.,  Estimating
     Manpower Requirements and Selected Cost Factors For Small Wastewater Treatment
     Plants.
                                                        ft U.S. GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE : 1 973—51 "t-1 55/302

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