United States
              Environmental Protection
               Oil and Special Materials
               Control Division
               Washington, DC 20460
January 1980
              Water and Waste Management
Damages and Threats
Caused by Hazardous
Material Sites


                             Chemical Control Site-Elizabeth, New Jersey-January 198G



                WASHINGTON, D.C.  20460

                       MAY 1980

                      TABLE OF CONTENTS

Preface	v1
Introduction   	 1x
Section 1.
     Examples of Hazardous Waste Sites Causing
     Adverse Public Health and Environmental 	 1
Section 2.
     Abstacts of Hazardous Waste Site Releases .... 41
     and Potential  Releases
Alabama	42
Alaska   	47
Arizona	48
Arkansas	51
California	54
Colorado   	60
Connecticut	65
Delaware	72
Florida	74
Georgia	78
Guam	79
Idaho	80
Illlinois	81
Indiana	99
Iowa	103

                TABLE OF CONTENTS (Continued)
Kansas	106
Kentucky	108
Louisiana	110
Maine   	114
Maryland	117
Massachusetts 	  119
Michigan	123
Minnesota	131
Missouri	141
Montana   	146
Nevada	147
New Hampshire	148
New Jersey	150
New Mexico	174
New York	175
North Carolina	197
Ohio	201
Oregon	207
Pennsylvania  	  208

                TABLE OF CONTENTS (Continued)
Rhode Island	225
South Carolina	230
South Dakota	232
Tennessee   .	233
Texas	240
Utah	244
Vermont	245
Virginia	246
Washington	250
Wisconsin   	254


     This document is a partial compilation  of damages and
threats from hazardous waste  sites  in  the  United States.   It
was compiled only from data readily  available  to EPA during
February and March 1980.
     The damages covered  in the more than  350  site
descriptions contained in this report  included ground water
contamination, drinking water well  closures, fish kills,
property damage from fires and explosions,  and kidney
disorders, cancer and death.
     The pathways through which the  hazardous  materials cause
these damages encompass all environmental  media — land,
surface waters, ground waters and air.
     The hazardous materials  which migrate from sites to
cause these damages  include the full range of  organic and
inorganic chemicals  as well as waste oils  and  grease.  They
can be loosely divided into six main groups:
     o  solvents and related  organics  such as
        trichloroethylene,  chloroform and  toluene
     o  PCB's and PBB's
     o  pesticides
     o  inorganic chemicals such  as  ammonia, cyanide, acids
        and bases
     o  heavy metals such as  mercury,  chromium, lead, and
     o  wastes oils  and grease

Each group of wastes,  and  often  individual pollutants,
exhibits different rates of migration,  different effects on
biota and public health, and  requires  different site
containment, remedy and restoration  procedures.
     The report is divided into  two  sections.   The first
provides detailed descriptions of  24 sites* where there has
been significant public health and environmental damage.
Many of these sites have been assessed  in  order to determine
necessary cleanup and  remedy  action  but currently are only
being contained due to the lack  of funding and  legal
     The second section is a  compilation of abstracts of
approximately 350 hazardous waste sites where damages have
occurred or threaten to do so.   The  abstracts briefly
describe the site,  the toxic pollutants involved,  the media
or resource affected and the damages.   Where information was
readily available,  the status of the site  and possible
remedial actions are included.   Sites are  summarized in the
right hand margin by two identifiers.   The  first  names the
pollutant(s) involved, while the second is  the  damaged
resource or affected media.
     In summary, it is important to  reiterate that this
report is only an initial and incomplete listing  of
environmental and public health  damages resulting from
inadequate handling and disposal of  hazardous materials.

•condensed descriptions are included in the  second section

The report will be revised and expanded as time and  resources

permit.  Moreover, a great deal of additional  information

concerning actual and threatened damages  from  hazardous

material sites will be available shortly  from  a variety of

sources and activities.  These include State and EPA

assessments of hazardous material sites,  surface impoundment

assessments conducted by the States under the  Safe Drinking

Water Act, drinking water analysis surveys, and the

prospective inventory of active hazardous waste sites

required by the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act.

     Users desiring further information regarding the

preparation of this report may contact Mr. Robert Mason,

Hazardous Waste Site Control Branch (WH-548),  U.S.

Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, D.C. 20460



     Hazardous wastes pose a threat to  public  health  and the
environment.  The Resource Conservation and  Recovery  Act of
1976 established a system for managing  hazardous  wastes, but
recent events have drawn attention  to several  problems which
existing law does not address.  These include  authority and
funding for cleanup of abandoned and inactive  waste sites and
for compensation of a variety of third  party damages
including personal injury, property damage and lost income.
     EPA defines hazardous wastes as those that are toxic,
corrosive, ignitable, or chemically reactive.   Ten  to fifteen
percent of all industrial wastes (or about 30-40  million
metric tons, annually) are hazardous.   These figures  are
estimated to increase three percent each year.  Hazardous
wastes are generated and disposed of in virtually every state
in the nation.  EPA estimates that  80 to 90  percent of these
wastes are being disposed of in an  environmentally  unsafe
     The types of hazardous waste being disposed  of include
pesticides, highly toxic organic chemicals,  other organic
chemicals of unknown toxicity, inorganics, radioactive
substances, explosives and flammables.   Some wastes are not
biodegradable and persist in the environment indefinitely.
In addition, the mixing of certain  chemical  wastes may
produce constituents that are more  persistent  and dangerous.

     Hazardous wastes are composed of many constituents which

vary in type, toxicity, and effect.  Various constituents  can

pollute the air, contaminate ground and surface water

(possibly public water supplies), accumulate in the  food

chain, produce fires and explosions, and cause poisoning,

cancer, genetic deformation, birth defects, and miscarriages.

In addition, social damages such as property loss  or

devaluation and loss of economic livelihood are potential

consequences of improper hazardous waste disposal.

     In the past, a lack of Federal and State legislation,

the relative surplus of land and water, and the nature of  the

free market economy (which does not adequately internalize

disposal costs), allowed generators of hazardous wastes to

dispose of their residues in the least costly manner.  These

methods include disposal into unregulated landfills, many  of

them poorly designed and sited; in on-site pits, ponds, or

lagoons, often without proper sealing; and unmonitored and

uncontrolled incineration.  At present there are

approximately 18,500 municipal solid waste disposal  sites,

23,000 sites for disposal of sewage sludge, and over 100,000

industrial waste sites.  Adding to the problem are an untold

number of sites where hazardous wastes have been illegally

disposed.  As a result of improper disposal methods, the

environment and public health has been threatened  and in

many cases damaged.
     The most highly publicized contamination  incident  by
toxic chemicals occurred at the Love Canal industrial waste
site in Niagara Falls, New York.  However, this document
clealry establishes that the tragedy of Love Canal is not an
isolated example but, rather, is part of a pervasive national
problem.  Hazardous waste sites are causing widespread  damage
to the environment and pose a substantial threat to public

                           Errata  -  Page xii
                Summary of  Number  of Sites  in Each State
                                 Table I
Del aware
111 inois
Number of Sites

New Hampshire
New Jersey
New Mexico
New York
North Carolina
Rhode Island
South Carolina
South Dakota
Number of Sites

   '  11

     The following table summarizes  the  number  and type of
hazardous materials damages  identified  in  the Hazardous Waste
Site Report.  The types of hazardous materials  damages have
been grouped under nine general  categories:
     1.  Groundwater/Water Supply  -  These damages  that have
          resulted in the contamination  of  water  supplies
          and/or groundwaters.   Water supplies  are both
          groundwaters and reservoirs.   While most potable
          water supplies in  the  Report are  groundwaters,  not
          all groundwaters are potable drinking water
     2.  Well Closures - These are incidents where drinking
          water wells were actually closed.  Instances of
          contamination but  not  closure  are not included.
          The citation consists  of the number of sites in a
          particular State followed  by the  number  (in
          parentheses) of actual wells closed in the State.
     3.  Habitat Destruction - These are incidents where
          natural habitats such  as streams, rivers, lakes,  or
          fields have been rendered unfit for indigenous
          species or contaminated  to the extent that
          indigenous species, while present, are adversely
     4.  Human Health - These are  instances of  actual  human
          health damages such as kidney malfunction,
          respiratory difficulties or death.  Endangerment
          sites are not included in this category.

     5.  Soil Contamination - While most  sites have  some

          degree of soil contamination, only those sites

          where the major consideration is the hazard

          presented by the presence of contaminated  soils  are

          included.  Such sites as those  rendered unfit for

          planned playgrounds or developments are examples of

          situations in this category.

     6.  Pish Kills - These are cases of  documented  fish

          kills caused by the chronic release of hazardous

          materials from a site.

     7.  Livestock - These are instances  of actual loss of

          livestock due to the ingestion  of contaminated

          vegetation or waters.

     8.  POTWs or Sewers - These are instances of chronic

          discharge of hazardous materials into sewer  systems

          or to publicly owned treatment  works (POTWs) which

          rendered them unsafe or inoperable.

     9.  Other - These sites include damages to crops  or

          wildlife, air pollution, fire or explosion hazards,

          and abandoned sites.

It should be noted that, for a given site, the categories

described above and summarized in the table are not  mutually

exclusive; that is, one site may have resulted in more than

one category of damages.

                                   SUMMARY OF DAMAGES BY HAZARDOUS  MATERIALS
                                                    TABLE II
State    Ground water/   Well     Habitat    Human      Soil
         Water Supply  Closures Destruction Health  Contamination
                                                             POTW's or  Other.
Alabama         3
Arizona         3
California      7
Colorado        2
Connecticut     7
Delaware        2
Florida         2
Hawaii -
Illinois       17
Indiana         4
Iowa            3
Louisiana       2
Maine           3
Maryland        1
Massachusetts   4
Michigan        7
Minnesota       7
Missouri        1
New Hampshire   1
New Jersey      9
New Mexico
New York       15
North Carolina  2
North Dakota
Ohio            3
Oregon          1
Pennsylvania   35
Rhode Island    5
South Carolina  2
South Dakota
Tennessee       5
Texas           1
Utah            1
Vermont         1
Washington      6
West Virginia
Wisconsin       4
Trust Territories





3 &



44(468+)  74



     The following tables provide summary  data for  the

chemicals found at the more than 350 hazardous materials

sites identified in the report.  Neither the  sites  identified

in the Report, nor the chemicals identified at the  sites  are

intended to constitute a valid statistical sampling of  the

total hazardous materials situation.  The  EPA does  believe/

however, that these data are useful in  illustrating the basis

of the hazardous materials situation and shows the

relationship between raw materials subject to fee collection

and wastes present at hazardous waste disposal sites.

     Table III list the petrochemical and  inorganic raw

materials to which the proposed Superfund  fee will  be

assessed and gives the number of sites  that were identified

as containing each raw material as well as the number of

sites containing chemical compounds which  are derived from

the listed raw materials.  It can be seen  from the  table  that

toluene and chromium and chromium compounds are the raw

materials most often found at sites while  benzene and

chlorine are the most frequent precursors  of  substances found

at the hazardous materials sites.

     Table IV lists the direct  raw material  precursors for

each of the chemicals  found  at  hazardous  material  sites

identified in the Report.  There  are  three points  to be made

with regard to the information  included in this  table:

     1) The list of chemicals identified  as  being  present at

        the sites is not necessarily  a complete  list of those

        chemicals actually present.   The  number  and  type of

        chemicals identified at sites has generally  been

        limited due to resource and technical  constraints.

     2) The list of raw materials  compiled for each  chemical

        is not exhaustive.  Many  intermediate  chemicals and

        catalysts have been omitted.

     3) Many chemicals, especially acids  and bases,  which

        were originally placed  at  disposal sites,  may  quickly

        react with other materials present,  e.g.,  containers,

        other wastes,  thereby changing their chemical  nature

        and avoiding detection  during 6n-site  visits.

Therefore, neither the lists of materials identified at the

sites nor the raw materials may be considered  to be  complete.

Only a conservative idea of the extent to which each of the

raw materials subject to the Superfund fee collection

contributes to the hazardous materials sites situation can  be

obtained from these data.

                          TABLE III


  Acetylene                    0                56           56
  Benzene                     19               113          132
  Butane                       0                 88
  Butylene                     0                 88
  Butadiene                    0                 00
  Ethylene                     0                97           97
  Methane                      1                44           45
  Napthalene                   2                 02
  Propylene                    0                14           14
  Toluene                     23                30           53
  Xylene                      12                 6           18

WASTE OIL                     35                 0           35


  Ammonia                      6                22  •         28
  Antimony & compounds         1                 01
  Arsenic & compounds         10                 0           10
  Barium sulfide               0                 00
  Berylium & compounds         0                 00
  Bromine                      0                 22
  Cadmium                      5                 05
  Chlorine & compounds         5               197          202
  Chromium & compounds        18                 1           19
  Cobalt                       1                 01
  Copper                       6                 17
  Hydrogen fluoride            2                 13
  Lead & compounds            11                 0           11
  Mercury                     16                 0           16
  Nickel                       4                 04
  Nitric acid                  1                 01
  Phosphorous & compounds      6                 8           14
  Potassium hydroxide          1                 01
  Selenium                     1                 01
  Sodium hydroxide             0                39           39
  Sulfuric acid                3                35           38
  Stannic(ous) chlorides       0                 00
  Zinc                         9                 2           11

                               TABLE  IV




 Butane,  Ethylene,  Methane,  Propane
 Benzene,  Propylene
 Acetylene,  Chlorine,  Pentane
 Benzene,  Propylene,  Sulfuric acid
 Chlorine, Copper,  Sodium hydroxide
  Sulfuric  acid,  Propylene
 Natural mineral
 Benzene,  Chlorine
 Acetic acid,  Ethylene,  Chlorine,
 Chlorine, Methane, Propane
 Benzene,  Chlorine
 Chlorine, Methane
 Chromium, Sulfuric acid
 Benzene,  Phosphoric  acid,
Ammonia, Methane
Ammonia, Benzene,  Sulfuric  acid
Bromine, Chlorine, Propylene
Benzene, Chlorine, Sulfuric  acid
Butylene, Chlorine,  Phosphorus,
  Sodium, Hydrogen sulfide
Chlorine, Benzene
Acetylene, chlorine, Pentane
Chlorine, Crude oil. Natural gas
Chlorine, Ethylene

                        TABLE  IV  (Continued)



Hydrogen sulfide, Methane
Ethylene, Sodium hydroxide
Acetic acid, Chlorine, Phenol,
  Sodium hydroxide
Butylene, Chlorine, Pentane,
  Toluene, Sulfuric acid
Acetylene, Ethylene, Chlorine,
  Pentane, Hydrochloric acid,
  Sodium hydroxide
Benzene, Coal, Ethylene, Xylene
Butane, Ethylene
Bromine, Ethylene
Ethylene, Sodium hydroxide
Chlorine, Ethylene, Methane,
  Hydrogen fluoride
Crude Oil
Acetylene, Chlorine, Pentane
Benzene, Chlorine
Butylene, Hydrochloric acid
Chlorine, Pentane
Crude oil
Hydrogen, Sulfur
Aluminum, Chlorine, Pentane
Benzene, Chlorine
Natural metal

                        TABLE  IV  (Continued)




Ammonia, Benzsene,  Propylene
Natural gas
n-Butane/ Butylene
Chlorine, Methane
Aluminum, Chlorine, Pentane
Ammonia, Benzene, Sulfuric  acid
Ethanol, Chlorine,  Methane,
  Phosphorus, Ammonia, Sodium
Benzene, Bromine
Benzene, Chlorine
Benzene, Chlorine,  Phenol,  Toluene
Benzene, Sodium hydroxide,
  Sulfuric acid, Toluene
Natural metal
Aluminum ore, Sodium hydroxide
Benzene, Ethylene,  Xylene
Benzene, Chlorine
Ethylene, Chlorine
Ethylene, Chlorine
Acetylene, Chlorine, Ethylene
Ammonia, Chlorine,  Bromine,
Ammonia, Methane
Acetylene, Ethylene, Hydrochloric
  acid, Sodium hydroxide
Chlorine, Hydrochloric acid.  Zinc

                        TABLE  IV (Continued)





Nitric acid, Chromic acid,
  Sulfuric acid
Sodium hydroxide, Potassium
Benzene, Butylene, Butadiene,
  Napthalene, etc.
Benzene, Chlorine
Napthalene, Toluene, Benzene
Methane, Ammonia, Nitric acid
Mineral salts, Heavy metals
Arsenic, Benzsene, Chlorine
Nitric acid, Ammonia
Arsenic, Benzene, Chlorine

Benzene, Napthalene, Toluene
Butylene, Butadiene, Napthalene,
Cadmium, Chromium, Lead, Mercury
Methane, Acetylene, Benzene,
Napthalene, Toluene, Xylene

           SECTION 1
Examples of Hazardous Waste Sites
causing adverse Public Health and
Environmental  consequences.

                       Lathrop, California,  1980
     The Occidental Chemical Company's  facilty in Lathrop,  California
has been the source of extensive environmental contamination and
potential human health problems in the  town of Lathrop.   For many
years, Occidental and its predecessors  have dumped chemical and
radiological wastes into unlined ponds, a  lined pond,  ditches and other
disposal areas at the Lathrop  facility.  The  liquid and  solid wastes
from the manufacture of pesticides and  fertilizer products  at the plant
have percolated downward through the soil, causing pollution and
contamination of the underlying shallow groundwater.   This  shallow
groundwater, the top layer of  which lies approximately 7 to 25 feet
from the surface, generally migrates in a  northerly direction frcm the
Lathrop facility toward the cities of Stockton and Lathrop.  Polluted
groundwater frcm the facility's disposal areas, in the course of
migraton, has reached groundwater that  is  the source of  drinking water
for the Lathrop County Water District, whose  wells are located
approximately 1.5 miles from the facility  and service  more  than 3,000
persons.  In addition, other local domestic and public water supplies
within the district have been  affected.

     Occidental Chemical Company is a wholly  owned subsidary of Hooker
Chemical Corporation, whose parent company is Occidental Petroleum
Corporation.  Its main production facility located in  the town of
Lathrop, lies approximately 10 miles south of Stockton,  California and
1.8 miles east of the San Joaquin River in San Joaquin County.   The
plant is bordered by an automobile glass manufacturing plant,  a dairy
farm, two streets and the outskirts of Lathrop.

     The company and its predecessors have manufactured,  formulated and
handled pesticide and fertilizer products  at  the  Lathrop facility since
1953, when the original Best Fertilizer Company plant  was constructed.
In 1963, Occidental acquired Best and has  continued to produce
pesticides including lUbromochloropropane  (DBCP until  1977),
Heptachlor, Hexachlorocylohexane (BHC), the ganma iscmer of which is
commercially known as Lindane, S, S, S-Tributyl phosphorotrithioate
(DEF), Chlordane, Dieldrin, Ethylene Dibrcmide, Dimethoate, and 1,1,1
Trichloro-2, 2-tois (p-chlorophenyl) ethane (otherwise  known as DDT).
In addition, Occidental has produced a wide range of fertilizers  such
as sulfuric, phosphoric, and flurosilicic  acid, anmcnia,  anrncnium
phosphate, and anroonium sulfate.  Gypsun (also known as  calciun
sulfate) is produced as a fertilizer by-product.

     As long ago as I960, the  California Regional Water  Quality Control
Board issued a Resolution prohibiting Occidental's predecessor.  Best
Fertilizer, frcm discharging chemical wastes  which would cause the
level of inorganic chemicals in usable groundwater to  exceed
permissible limits or otherwise pollute ground or surface waters  so as
to be deleterious to human, animal or aquatic life.  In  1968  this
Resolution was reissued to Occidental.

     Since then, a host of hazardous chemicals have teen  discovered in
the vicinity of the facility and seme of these have migrated  from
containment ponds and disposal areas to the Lathrop County Water
District wells.  Among the disposal facilities on-site are an unlined
pesticide waste pond; six unlined gypsum ponds; an unlined concentrator
pond that cools phosphoric acid plant concentrator; a hydraulic
asphalt-lined rainwater runoff pond; a cooling pond disposal  ditch used
to transport pesticide wastes from the plant  to the pesticide pond,  and
a "boneyard" disposal area where solid pesticide  and heavy metal
catalyst wastes have been disposed.

     Hazardous wastes that have migrated to the Lathrop District
drinking wells and have been found in detectable  levels are the
following:  DBCP, a known animal and suspected human carcinogen which
causes sterility in males; Lindane, a toxic pesticide and known animal
carcinogen which drastically affects reproduction in animals,  and DBF,
which damages the central nervous system.  Alpha  radiation frcrn uranium
in gypsum ponds has also been detected in  the Lathrop water supply,
water wells and irrigation wells.  It is a known  human carcinogen which
usually causes fatal leukemia.  Among chemicals detected  in the soil at
the facility and/or in the groundwater are:   Chlordane, Dieldrin,
Heptachlor, Ethylene Dibromide, Dimethoate, and DDT, all  of which are
highly toxic and known animal carcinogens.  Concentrations of sulfates
and nitrates exceeding the Regional Water  Board's limits  have also been
found in production wells in the vicinity  of  the  Lathrop  facility.

     "Hie Justice Department, acting for EPA,  and  with the State of
California filed suit in Federal District  Court in Sacramento on
December 18, 1979 against Occidental and its  parent corporation,
charging that the company's discharges pose an "imminent  and
substantial endangerment to health and the environment" and will
continue to do so in the future.

     Occidental is specifically charged with  having taken inadequate
account of possible environmental dangers  from its waste  disposits over
a period of years in unlined or inadequately  lined ponds  and  other
disposal areas; failure to take adequate precautions to prevent waste
migration and ultimately contamination of  agricultural, industrial and
domestic water; and failure to report its  discharges of pesticides and
radiological substances.

     The suit asks the court to enjoin the company to complete clean-up
measures by July 1, 1981 to prevent further migration of  groundwater
contaminants.  The measures include implementation of a comprehensive
plan to determine the extent of pesticide, chemical and radiological
contamination of nearby groundwater and soils; immediate  and  perpetual
monitoring of contaminants to verify that  the migration has ceased;
excavation of hazardous waste materials and contaminated  soils from
various disposal areas; curtailment of hazardous, liquid

and solid waste storage for any period in excess of 6 months;  cessation
of the discharge of pesticide, chemical and other wastes to  surface
water, groundwater or land; a guarantee of sufficient funds  to
clean-up; and provision of drinking water to any users whose water
supply is contaminated by discharge from Occidental/Hooker's Lathrop
facility.  In addition to this injunctive relief, the suit asks for
financial reimbursement to California and the U.S. for costs incurred
in determining the extent of the public health and environmental
threat, and substantial civil penalties to the State of California for
continuing violations of the Regional Water Board's orders.

       Stringfellow Disposal Site, Riverside County, California

     The Stringfellow Class I Disposal Site landfill contains a wide

variety of industrial wastes (primarily spent acids and caustics),

totaling approximately 32,000,000 gallons in 19 years.  Contamination

of groundwater has occurred from leachate and surface run-off.  The

State Legislature in 1978 appropriated $370,000 for the closure and

maintenance of the Stringfellow site ty the Santa Anna Regional Water

Quality Control Board.  Final closure is now estimated to total $12 -

13 million.

     On March 5, 1980, the Regional Response Team determined that

Stringfellow was leaching wastes to the Santa Anna River, and in

imminent danger of major structural failure.  $290,000 in 311K funds

was spent over ten days to remove 4 million gallons of wastewater,

reinforce containments, and repair the access road.  Leachate was

controlled, and there were no major discharges.

     Waste received primary wastewater treatment, dilution, and

discharge to an ocean outfall.

     Groundwater Contamination Beneath the Pocky Mountain Arsenal

     Rocky Mountain Arsenal, jointly operated by the U.S.  Army

Chemical Corps, and Shell Chemical Company,  is  located between Denver

and Brighton, Colorado.  Over the years, the facility  has  disposed of

a complex mixture of chemical by-products  from  the manufacture of

pesticides and herbicides, along with other  wastes during  the  years

1943-1957.  Originally, wastes were disposed of in unlined holding

ponds, a practice which resulted in infiltration into  the  shallow

water table aquifer and the consequent migration of  contaminants

through the groundwater.  Although this practice was discontinued in

1957, extensive groundwater contamination  is  still very much in


     To date, thirty square miles of the shallow water table aquifer

are contaminated, resulting in the temporary  abandonment of sixty-four

domestic, stock, and irrigation wells.  Soil  in the  vicinity of one

pond is contaminated by the pesticides aldrin and dieldrin.

Classified as cyclodienes, these compounds are  derivatives of

hexachlorocyclopentadiene.  They bioaccumulate  in the  fatty tissues of

terrestrial and aquatic organisms and tend to persist  in the

environmental over long periods.  These pesticides are quite toxic,

mainly affecting the central nervous system.  Typical  symptoms of

poisoning include:  headache, blurred vision, dizziness, involuntary

muscular movements, sweating, insomnia, nausea,  and  general malaise.

More severe cases manifest jerking of muscles and convulsions

resembling epilepsy, with loss of consciousness, disorientation,

personality changes .and loss of memory.

     In April 1975, the Colorado Department of Health issued a cease
and desist order against the U.S. Army  and Shell Chemical Company to
stop polluting the surface  and  groundwater.  Since that the Army
has entered into an extensive joint monitoring program with the
Department of Health.  A 96 acre asphalt lined reservoir with a
holding capacity of 240 million gallons and an injection well have
been constructed.  In an effort to eliminate leakage from the
perimeter of the asphalt-lined  reservoir,  the influent pipe has been
extended to the center, and 800 feet  of chemical sewer line has been
replaced.  Water which has  surfaced in  a slough area located 1.3 miles
northeast of the reservoir  has  been pumped back to prevent further
     The Army has constructed a slurry  trench cut-off wall along a
section of the northern boundary of the arsenal property.
Contaminated groundwater is pumped from one side of the cutoff wall,
treated, and re-injected on the other side.  The Army is evaluating
plans for extending this trench.

                   Byron Salvage - Byron,  Illinois

     The Byron Salvage Yard, occupying an area of approximately 20

acres, was established in  1970  as a waste disposal operation.  As

early as October, 1970,  investigative field work by the Illinois EPA

(IEEA) revealed that cyanide-containing plating waste was sprayed onto

the roads in and around  the  salvage yard and that plating wastes,

barrels of waste oil, sodium cyanide,  paint and paint thinners were

dumped, partially buried,  or buried in the ravine on the property and

are strewn on the ground surface.   These activities resulted in high

concentrations of cyanide  and toxic metals in soils,  surface water and

groundwater.  An estimated 10 acres of the 20 acre site are


     The salvage yard is primarily located on an upland area which is

dissected by several small ravines.  These ravines,  10 to 20 feet

deep, are tributaries to South  Branch  Woodland Creek which is an

intermittent stream.  The  South Branch Woodland Creek flows northwest,

about two miles, to Rock River.

     Infiltration of liquid wastes or  leaching out of chemicals from

the wastes by precipitation has caused an  accumulation of cyanide and

heavy metals in the soils  on the site  in significant quantities.

Samples collected from pools and flowing water indicate that surface-

water is polluted in the ravines and downstream in South Branch

Woodland Creek near the  ravines.

     The magnitude of the  pollution of groundwater seems to be less

than that of soils and surface  water,  although percolation of the

polluted surface water does pose a  serious  threat to the two principal

aquifers in the area.

     No remedial action has been taken  at the Byron Salvage Yard

except for covering of the barrels  in the ravines,  which was ordered

by IEPA in 1972.

               MID-CO-Industrial Highway,  Gary,  Indiana

     In August, 1977, a  five-acre  solvent  recovery facility in Gary,

Indiana was the scene of a spectacular  fire  leaving a large amount of

debris from the fire and a small number of undamaged druns at the


     The Industrial Highway  facility had provided above ground storage

in an open field since early 1975.   While  no inventory has been taken

of the wastes present at the site, they included at least plating

wastes, solvents, acids, and cyanide.

     The site is in a heavily industrial area of the City of Gary with

the nearest residence located approximately  one  half mile away.   The

site is strewn with the  charred  remains of perhaps 40,000-50,000

55-gallon drums.  There  is also  at least one in-ground storage tank

(which still contains an unidentified pink substance),  several hundred

intact drums (some containing cyanide),  and  a sludge pit with surface

dimensions of approximately  100  x 20 feet.   There are also several

large tanks, a truck trailer, distillation equipment and assorted

other debris strewn around the site.

     Soil and water samples  from the site  have shown contamination by

phenols, chromium, cyanides, arsenic and lead.   There is a potential

for groundwater contamination.  The  site also poses a fire hazard and,

due to lax security may present a potential  exposure of solvent  fumes

to the public.

     Estimates of the cost of cleaning  the site  are approximately

$1,800,000 for removal and disposal  of  remaining on-site wastes  and

monitoring, and $3,114,000 for measures which minimize future

pollution problems.

        Hexachlorobenzene Contamination of Cattle in Louisiana

     In 1972, a routine sample of beef fat taken as  part of the U.S.

Department of Agriculture's Meat  and Poultry Inspection Program,

revealed a high level of contamination by hexachlorobenzene (HCB).

HCB, a by-product of the manufacture of carbon  tetrachloride and

perchloroethylene, can cause  liver deterioration,  convulsions and


     Contaminated steer were  traced to a  herd in Darrow,  Louisiana.

Subsequent sampling of the entire herd revealed extensive

contamination by HCB in the cattle, as veil  as  in soils and


     The source of the HCB contamination  was traced  to volatilization

of HCB from landfilled wastes in  the area, as well as  fron direct

emissions into the air from the Vulcan Materials Corporation and  other

similar industrial plants in  the  area.  Settlement of  HCB on pastures

led to bioaccumulation of HCB in  the tissues of grazing cattle.

     When evidence of widespread  contamination  was confirmed,  the

State of Louisiana imposed a  quarantine on livestock produced over  the

100 square mile wide affected area.  In 1973, the State also forced

the Vulcan Materials Corporation  to stop  any air emissions of HCB,  as

well as to bury its wastes on-site, using a  plastic  liner and soil


     Initial estimates of losses  to be incurred by ranchers were  as

high as $3.9 million, based on the assumption that approximately

30,000 cattle would have to be destroyed.  However,  levels of HCB

dropped with time as the cattle were removed fron contaminated areas

and fed an uncontaminated diet.   Only  27  animals proved unmarketable

by the end of 1974, when the  quarantine was  lifted by  the State.


     The total direct cost of this incident was  in excess of $380,000,

primarily due to monitoring and enforcement costs  of $143,000 and the

loss of use of grazing land estimated at $200,000.   The loss due to

unmarketable cattle was reduced to $38,000.

     As a result of the incident, a number of HCB-related studies were

initiated by EPA and other agencies.  One of these has  shown

disproprotionately high plasma HCB levels in people  living in the area

of Louisiana where the contamination occurred.  The highest level

encountered in the general population was 23 ppb, and a waste disposal

facility worker was found to have a level of 345 ppb.   The average

level was 3.6 ppb.  No toxic symptoms were evident.

     HCB is a pollutant of concern because it is persistent in the

environment and is chemically and biologically stable.  Continued low-

dose exposure to HCB by ingesticn or inhalation causes bioaccumulation

in animal adipose issues.  This can result in chronic damage to the

liver and affect enzymatic function.

  Wells Closed as a Result of Chemical Contamination in Gray/ Maine

     In September of 1977 the McKin Company was ordered to close by

town officials of Gray, Maine, due to drinking water well contamina-

tion associated with the site.   The facility was built in 1972 to

handle waste oil fron the "Tamano" oil spill  in Casco Bay.  From 1972

until 1977, the primary operation was as a transfer station for fuel

still bottoms.  Materials stored in existing  tanks were mixed together

for final shipment to rerefiners.  Approximately 100,000 to 200,000

gallons were annually processed by McKin at the Gray site.

     There was evidence that wastes were spilled at the processing

facility and leached into the groundwater  aquifer.  An unpleasant

taste and offensive odors in the drinking  water were reported in 1974.

Samples of drinking water were submitted to the state laboratory for

testing, but the contaminants were not identified.  The well water

discolored laundry, and so the residents started turning to alternate

sources for their water supply.

     In 1977, trichloroethane, trichloroethylene, freon, acetone,

xylene, dimethyl sulfide, trimethylsilanol, and alcohols were'

identified.  Toxic organics were detected  in  eight domestic wells

within 2,000 feet of the McKin Company.  As a result, the town health

officer ordered sixteen contaminated wells in the area capped.  Traces

of these same chemicals were also discovered  in the town's public

water supply.  Contaminants are thought to have leached into the water

table f ran the town dump where the company disposed of its chemical


     Remedial measures have been undertaken.  The town has  Installed

an alternative water supply to the threatened hones in the  area  at a

cost of approximately $600,000.  Half of the funding was ootnnitted by

the U.S.  Department of Housing and Urban Development.  In  addition/

costs were estimated at $50,000 for cleanup of the McKin facility.

                    Environmental Contamination in
                        Wbburn, Massachusetts

     A hazardous waste disposal site in Wbburn, Massachusetts  is  under

investigation, in what may be one of the oldest chemical disposal

areas in the country.  The site located in the northern section of the

town covers approximately 800 acres.  Historically, the area has  been

inhabited by a myriad of industries known or suspected to have used

dangerous chemicals.  A portion of the site was occupied by Merrimac

Chemical Company which supplied acids and other chemicals to regional

textile, leather, and paper industries.  Over the years, Monsanto,

Stepan Chemical, and Stauffer Chemical have operated  facilities in the

town of Vibbum or in the Aber jona River drainage basin.  Recently a

portion of the area was acquired by a local developer who subdivided

and sold several parcels for ocmnercial development

     A number of taiown contaminants were disposed of  en-site  in

substantial quantities.  Heavy metals associated with tannery  wastes-

chromium, arsenic, lead, and zinc, as well as volatile organics and

chlorinated organics were disposed of in the area,  and it is now

suspected that these wastes are contaminating the air, soils,  and

groundwater,  and may be responsible  for human health  problems  in  the


     The Massachusetts Department of Public Health  has begun to

analyze cancer mortality  statistics  for  the years 1969 through 1978.

Age adjusted death rates  for  these years were  13% higher than would be

statistically expected  from 1972  until the present  and the  acute

childhood  leukemia rate is more than double statistical  predictions.

For the census tract, which encompasses  the southern portion of the

town, less than cne case would be  expected in a 15 year period - eight

have been observed.

     As a result of these statistics, careful correlation of health

data with environmental sampling is necessary.   Studies are now being

undertaken to assess this problem.  Although  Federal and State consent

decrees under wetland protection laws have been  negotiated to deal

with about 250 acres of the site,  there are a number of hazardous

wastes that must be investigated further.  In addition,  the management

issues to assure most efficient use of the resource of  more than two

dozen government and private entities are substantial.

      Hooker Chemical, Montague Plant, Muskeegon, Michigan,  1979

     The Hooker Chemical Conpany occupies an 880 acre  site near

Muskeegon, Michigan where over 30 types of chemical substances,

including pesticides, were disposed.  The disposal site  is located on

the shore of White Lake and contains barrels of waste  materials which

have been buried as well as the residues of liquid wastes that were

dumped there.

     The leaching of these hazardous materials from the  disposal  site

has contaminated both the soil and groundwaters within the site.   In

addition, the leachate has migrated to White Lake where  it has harmed

aquatic life.  Leachate has also contaminated  drinking water wells

thus exposing nearby residents to possible health effects.

     In October of 1979, Hooker Chemical Company and the State of

Michigan signed a consent decree whereby the company agreed  to clean

up this disposal site.  The cost of remedial actions is  estimated to

be $15,000,000 and is to include purge wells,  carbon filtration,

removal of  contaminated soil, dismanteling of  buildings  and  the

construction of a vault to contain the remaining hazardous materials.

                    Arsenic Poisoning in Minnesota

     Beginning in May, 1972, eleven  residents  of Perham,  Minnesota

developed arsenic poisoning, shortly after a well was  drilled to

supply drinking water for a new office and warehouse structure.

     Over a ten week period, eleven  employees  on the site became ill.

Two persons required hospital ization and one person lost  the use of

his legs for about six months due to severe neuropathy.   Acute arsenic

poisoning results in marked irritation of the  stomach  and intestines.

Nausea, vomiting and diarrhea are frequently symptoms.  3h severe

cases, this can lead to shock with weak, rapid pulse,  cold sweats,

coma and death.  Liver damage may occur, and distrubances of the

blood, kidneys, and central nervous  system are not infrequent.

Arsenic compounds are also a recognized  carcinogen of  the skin,  lungs

and liver.

     Analysis of water from the recently drilled well  revealed high

concentrations of arsenic.  The source of arsenic  was pinpointed to

approximately fifty pounds of grasshopper bait which had  been buried

in a trench about forty years before.  The area  of disposal  was

directly adjacent to the new office  and warehouse  structure.

     Several options have been proposed  for solving the problem.

These include the following:  (a) removal of approximately 2,000 cubic

yards of contaminated soil to sealed vaults; (b) chemical fixation  of

the soil and (c) covering the area with  asphalt  to retard further

leaching of arsenic into the groundwater.  The estimate costs of these

solutions range from $2,500 to $25,000.

        Lang-Term Pollution Prbblans Associated with Creosote
               Production in St. Louis Park, Minnesota
     For 50 years, Reilly Tar and Chemical Company and Republic

Creosoting Company operated on an 80 acre site  in St. Louis Park,  a

western suburb of Minneapolis.  Reilly Tar and  Chemical  refined  coal

tars to produce creosote, and Republic Creosoting then used the

material to treat wood products.  While the operation supposedly

included discharge of waste products into a ponding area on the

property, there were apparently numerous cases  of spills,  leaks,

pipeline breaks, and burial of wastes over the  year.

     The site has a long history of pollution problems.  As early as

the 1930's, sane drinking water wells in the area were closed due to a

tar like taste.  In 1969, low levels of possible carcinogens were found

in a groundwater investigation for the City.  The Minnesota Pollution

Control Agency ultimately trough suit against the generators in  1970,

and in 1971 the operations were closed down.

     Several years of study have revealed the extensive  contamination

that the St. Louis Park plant has caused.  Cn the site,  analyses have

documented the presence of phenols and three polynuclear organics —

phenanthrene, chrysene, and pyrene.  Low phenol concentrations have

also been found in wells further than one mile  off the site.  Certain

drinking water supplies have already been closed due to  the capability

of pollutants to migrate with the groundwater flow.

     St. Louis Park purchased the property in 1973 with plans to

conduct a cleanup operation, but the decision as  to who will pay has

not yet been settled.  In September of 1978,  the  County went to court

in an attempt to obtain payment for cleanup from  Reilly Tar  and

Chemical.  The actual costs involved have  only been roughly  estimated,

and are based on a number of assumptions.   To date, in  excess of

$500,000 has been spent by the City and State on  investigative studies

and in addition, the city has incurred costs  of more than one million

dollars for various mitigative measures including the capping of veils

and excavation of contaminated materials.

     Final cleanup may involve from $20-200 million, depending upon

the extent of mitigation and the remedial methods chosen.  Remedial

measures would include the excavation and  removal of contaminated

soil, the closing of a fourth well, and the construction of  new wells

to service the area.

    Dioxin Poisoning Caused by Improper Waste Disposal  in Missouri

     In August, 1971, a six-year old girl suffering  fron an

inflammatory reaction of the kidney and bladder bleeding was  admitted

to a Missouri hospital.  A significant clue to the origin of  her

illness was the fact that she lived on a farm where  many animals had

recently died.  The animals, including horses, cats,  dogs,  and birds,

developed a mysterious fatal illness shortly after the  spraying  of

waste oil on the farm's horse arena as a dust control measure.   The

spraying had take place in late May, 1971, and the child had

frequently played around the horse arenas during  the sunnier.  Birds

died within three days of the spraying and the first horse  died  four

weeks later.  A total of 63 horses ultimately died,  and toxic illness

of varying degrees affected ten people, who experienced symptoms of

diarrhea, headaches, nausea, polythralgias, and persistent  skin


     Soil samples taken from the arena revealed the  presence  of

dioxin, one of the most toxic chemicals known.  Dioxin  is a by-

product of the manufacture of a herbicide, which  had been manufactured

locally until 1969.  Dioxin was subsequently produced as a  by-product

of the manufacture of trichlorophenol and hexachlorophene by  Northern

Eastern Pharmaceutical and Chemical Co., a subsidiary of Syntex

Agribusiness Inc., at the same site.  Residues containing a high

concentation of dioxin had been held in a large storage tank  on  the


     In 1971, the Bliss Waste Oil Co. had contracted to remove the

residues fron the storage tanks, which led to the subsequent  contamin-

ation of the waste oil which Mr. Bliss sprayed in the horse arenas.

     The estimated total  financial  loss, based en filed law suits/ is

close to $500,000.  This  amount  includes medical  expenses and cleanup

costs, as well as the loss of business and  subsequent sale of one of

the horse arenas.  Horses exposed to the contaminated arena continued

to die as late as 1974.

     Although Syntex disclaimed  legal responsibility for the inherited

residues in the storage tanks, the  conpany has volunteered to pay for

the safe disposal of wastes.  Several alternative disposal methods

have been considered, including  incineration at sea.

  Petrochemical Contamination of the Cohansey Aquifer in New Jersey

     Dumping of approximately 6,000 drums of liquid chemical wastes  in

the abandoned Reich chicken farm, Dover Township, New Jersey, has

resulted in the chemical contamination of the Gohansey Aquifer, which

is a heavily used aquifer in the New Jersey Coastal Plain.

     The wastes, which included a wide variety of petrochemicals with

toxic, flammable, explosive, and oxidizing properties, originated at

the Bound Brook, New Jersey plant of the Union Carbide Corporation.

Although Union Carbide had contracted with a private hauler  to dispose

of the wastes at a landfill, the drums were instead dumped on the

abandoned farm site.

     The drums were dumped between August and December of 1971.  In

early 1974, evidence of contamination of local wells appeared.  The

incident has resulted in the permanent loss of 148 private supply

wells, and contamination of an unknown portion of the Cohansey

Aquifer.  While no public health problems appeared to result from this

incident, the possibility of chronic health effects could not be


     Direct costs of this incident total over $400,000.  These costs

include the cost of removal of drums, sampling and analysis, and

drilling of new wells.

     Indirect costs, such as the cost to residents in inconvenience

and devaluation of property, the time spent by Federal, State and

local authorities in dealing with the problem, and possible  future

spread of the contaminated zone, have not been calculated.

     Drums and contaminated soil were excavated  and hauled away for


    Threat to State Groundwater from Industrial Disposal Facility

     An industrial landfill operated in South Brunswick,  New Jersey

has been linked to groundwater contamination problems.   A number of

residential wells adjacent to the facility have been contaminated,  at

least one of which has significant levels of chloroform,  toluene,

xylene, trichloroethane and trichloroethylene.  Toxic substances may

be moving toward the Foresgate Water Company which supplies water for

Monroe Township.  Although no immediate health effects have been

reported yet, these substances render the water unsuitable for

drinking.  The cost of extending the municipal water line to  affect

six residences has been estimated at $300,000.

     After an extensive investigation by the State Department of

Environmental Protection and the U.S.  Environmental Protection Agency,

the J.I.S. Industrial Service Company was cited as the source of the

underground pollution.  In 1975,  the state ordered the facility  to

stop accepting petroleum products, hazardous substances and all  other

liquid and solid wastes.  It also ordered J.I.S. to submit plans  for

the removal of previously disposed material and/or the containment  of


                     Jackson Township.  New Jersey

     The nunicipal landfill was  licensed  by NJDEP in 1972 to accept
sewage sludge and septic tank wastes.   However,  chemical dumping
allegations have been confirmed  by chemical analysis of underlying
groundwater.  The landfill was recently closed to all wastes.
     The landfill abuts the Ridgeway Branch of Toms River, and overlies
the Cohansey Aquifer, the sole source of  drinking water for the
surrounding residential community.   The soil is composed of porous
sands and no natural or manmade  liners exist.   Over 100 residences used
private water wells within  1.5 miles of the site.  Water is now trucked
to the community.
     Approximately 100 drinking  water wells surrounding the landfill
have been closed because of organic chemical contamination.  Analysis
of water samples has shown  the presence of chloroform, methylene
chloride, benzene, toluene, trichloroethylene, ethylbenzene and
acetone.  Residents claim that premature  deaths, kidney malfunctions,
kidney removals, recurrent  rashes,  infections and other health related
problems are due to the contamination of  their water supplies by the
landfill.  Although use of  the water wells has been banned, residents
are still using well water  for bathing, dishwashing and irrigation
because no other dependable source of water exists.
     The State is taking legal action against the Township.  Recently,
the landfill was closed.  Residents were  drinking the well water until
November 1978 and had been  bathing with the water until January 1980.
A $1.2 million water system is planned for the affected residents.
However, the Township anticipates the 100 residents will repay the
state low interest loan.  No  actions are  being taken to restore
groundwater quality.

  Spilled Wastes Damage the Kernersville,  North Carolina/ Reservoir

     On the night of June  3,  1977,  unknown persons entered the

Destructo Chemway Corporation property and opened the valves of six

large storage tanks, spilling approximately 30,000 gallons of wastes

onto the ground.  Chemway  Destructo operates an incinerator at the

site, receving  liquid wastes  from such companies as Allied Chemical

and Proctor Chemical.  The company  did not have a Spill  Prevention,

Control and Countermeasure (SPCC) plan as  required by law,  and the

chemical wastes very quickly  drained f ran  the site to a  small  stream

1/4 mile away.  From there the chemicals moved into the  Kernersville

Reservoir, located 1 1/2 miles fron the site.

     A local resident noted the unusual odor from the spill and called

the police, who subsequently  activated the North Carolina Department

of Natural and Economic Resources,  the National Guard and Civil

Defense agencies.  Approximately  1,000 people were evacuated fron  the

immediate area of the spill.

     Dead fish were  observed  floating  on the 22-acre reservoir,  which

served as the primary water supply  for Kernerville.   Analysis  of the

water showed the presence  of  fuel oil  toluene,  allylether,  xylene,

dichloroethane, and trichloroethane, prompting  the State Department of

Health to declare it unsuitable for drinking,   fortunately,  a  smaller

reservoir was available to serve as a  backup water supply,  although

some curtailments of water use were necessary until Kernersville was

able to obtain supplies fron adjacent  towns.

     Total impacts of the incident are difficult to assess.   Almost

one-third of the chemicals were eventually recovered for incineration.

Another 32,000 cubic feet of contaminated soils were removed and

landfilled at Destructo Chemway.  In the cleanup process three men

were hospitalized for corneal ulcers from exposures to the chemical

fumes.  Approximately 90% of the  fish in the  reservoir were  killed.

The city decided to abandon the use of the reservoir for drinking

water.  Construction costs for a  larger water main to neighboring

supplies were two million dollars.  Textile mills in the area had to

pay for tanker delivery of water  and for process modifications to

conserve water.  layoffs and cutbacks in working hours also resulted

from the water shortages.  Nb known health effect from exposure  to the

chemical fumes were observed among the local  residents.

           Waste Industries, Inc./ New Hanover County,  1980

     The Flemington  landfill a now inactive site,  is a 70 acre tract

in New Hanover County, North Carolina, which has accepted municipal as

well as industrial wastes  from 1972 to 1979.  The  Flemington landfill

is located in close proximity to at least  thirty-three  residential

wells and ten comnercial wells and overlies an aquifer  which serves

these wells.  Hie land in  the vicinity of  the  site is composed of a

variety of porous sands through which  water and contaminants can

easily pass.

     Waste material disposed of at the Flemington  landfill has leached

into the groundwater underlying the site and has contaminated the

aquifer to such an extent  that the water in the domestic  wells of

several households has been rendered hazardous  for human  consumption

and other uses.  The groundwater passing beneath the site may

eventually contaminate the waters of the Cape New  Fear  and Northeast

Cape New Fear Rivers, which are within one mile of the  landfill.

     The following chemicals have been detected in the  residential

wells at levels sufficient to affect adversely  human health and the

environment: tetrachloroethylene, benzene,  vinyl chloride,

trichloroethylene and 1,2  - dichloroethane,  all carcinogens,  as well

as methylene chloride and  lead.  In addition, the  presence of

chlorides, dichlorophenol, chlorobenzene,  iron, manganese,  phenol and

zinc, have rendered the water unfit for human consumption due to

extreme bad taste or odor.

     The EPA has spent $25,000 in ascertaining  the nature and extent

of the groundwater contamination and has filed  a complaint in U.S.

District Court in order to affect remedial measures.

     Suntnit National Liquid Services/ Portage County,  Ohio,  1980

     A liquid industrial waste treatment and disposal  company is

located on an 11 acre site in Portage County, Ohio and has been in

operation since 1973.  The site  is within  200 feet of  residential

areas and rain water runoff carries chemicals and oils fron  the site

to a tributary of the Berlin Reservoir which is used to  augment a

public water supply for the Mahoning Valley.  Currently,  several

thousand leaking barrels, a 300,000-gallon cracked and leaking

concrete storage tank, and other vessels of varying sizes are being

used to store wastes including acetone, MEK,  toluene,  latex, oils,

hexachlorocyclopentadiene and mirex.

     The site presents a fire hazard from  the improperly stored

barrels as well as a source of soil and groundwater contamination.

Also present is the possible contamination of the drinking water in

the reservoir.

     The site has been closed since 1978 by orders of the Ohio EPA and

is currently being cleaned.  The cost estimated for transportation and

disposal of the present inventory of wastes is  $360,000 and  does not

include funds for analysis, special handling, excavation or

reclamation.  In addition, mitigating measures  taken to secure the

site are estimated to cost $1,762,000.  These costs are  currently

being paid by the State of Ohio.

    Chemicals and Mineral Reclamation/  Inc.  Cleveland,  Ohio/ 1980

     Chemicals and Minerals Reclamation,  Inc. occupies  about 8.4 acres

in downtown Cleveland, Ohio near the mouth of the Cuyahoga River and

is engaged in treating and storing  solid  and hazardous  wastes.

Approximately 4,000 55-gallon drums containing hazardous wastes  are

stored in an old weatherbeaten warehouse  with an  additional 2,000

drums nearby.

     Numerous inspections of the property since March of 1979 by the

U.S. EPA, the Cuyahoga County Health Department and the Ohio EPA have

found many violations of the Municipal Code, strong chemical odors,

puddles of spill residue, hardened material  in the aisles between the

drums, and leaking drums.  The labels on  the drums and  samples of

materials in the drums identified the following chemicals:   acetic

acid, acetone, antimony oxides, asphalt, butyl acetate, butyl alcohol,

chromic acid, heptane, lubricating oils, methyl alcohol, methylene

chloride, methyl ethyl keytone, paint and miscellaneous solvents,

perchloroethylene, resin/rubber solvent,  toluene,

1,1,1-trichloroethane, xylene, zinc chloride, ethanol, ethyl acetate,

hexane, ethyl benzene, 3-methyl hexane, tetrachloroethylene,

trichloroethylene, 3-methylpentane, 2-methyl-l-pentene,

2-methylpentane, 2,4-dimethylpentane, 2-methylpropanol and 4-methyl-2-


     Hie Chemicals and Mineral Reclamation facility is located only

1/2 mile from the downtown area where thousands of people could be

subjected to contaminated fumes if a fire were to occur.

              Chem-Dyne Corporation Hamilton, Ohio, 1980

     The Chem-Dyne Corporation occupies approximately 4 acres  in

downtown Hamilton, Ohio.  It is bounded on one  side by  an  impounded

stream which empties into the Great Miami River.  On  other sides are

the residential and business districts of the town, as  well as several

recreation areas.

     Thousands of 55-gallons damaged, rusty  and leaking drums  and

seven large tanks store over 1 1/2 million gallons of hazardous

chemical wastes on the site.  Since 1976, the site has  received

shipments of hazardous wastes where they have been transferred between

containers or mixed in open pits.  Among the chemicals  which have been

identified as being stored, mixed or disposed of at the site include:

1-dichloroethane and benzene, both carcinogens, as well as phenol,

acetone, xylene, toluene, hexane, 1,1,1-trichloroethane,

dichlorobenzene, napthalene, cyanides and arsenic.

     The site presents an imminent fire hazard  fron the improper

storage of the flammable organic materials.  Runoff has shown  the

presence of toxic chemicals which have leached  into the soil and

possibly to the groundwater.  In addition to foul odors from the site

there have been instances of periodic sickness  of nearby workers and

occasionally of people using the nearby recreation facilities.

     The site is currently in litigation but the assets of the

corporation may not cover the clean-up costs.   The State  of Ohio or

the United States may have to furnish the necessary funds.

               	Disposal of Hazardous Wastes  Results in
               Potential Health Hazard at a Public Park
                     Neville Island,  Pennsylvania
     The Ohio River Park  site was  closed  indefinitely in the spring of

1979 when public health officials  expressed concern  that there may be

public health dangers  from wastes  buried  at the  site nearly thirty

years ago.  The essentially completed park, located  on the  western tip

of Neville Island, Pennsylvania, was donated to  Allegheny Cbunty in

1976 by the Hillman Company via its foundation.  The company is the

parent for the now defunct Pittsburgh Obke and Chemical  Company.   Of

the $3.3 million originally appropriated  for site development,

approximately $1.8 million has been spent; equal sums having been

obtained from the County and the U.S. Department of  the  Interior.   An

additional $1.5 million was allocated for a pleasure boat marina.

     Pour acres of the site were reportedly, used as  a municipal

garbage dump from 1935 to 1945.  In the early 1950's large  quantities

of miscellaneous industrial wastes were deposited extensively.   It is

not clear exactly which companies, both on and off the island used the

Pittsburgh Coke and Chemical property as a waste disposal site.

However, due to the nature of their product, two chemical companies,

Pittsburgh Coke and Chemical and the Neville Chemical Company had  the

most difficult problems with waste disposal.

     During park development, workers complained of  noxious  fumes

emanating from certain areas of the park.  An outside consulting  firm

was hired to conduct a field investigation.  Among the chemicals

uncovered at the park were benezene, phenols, cyanide, mercury, coal

tar residues, and parathion.  Workers who built  the  Chio River Park

reported an unusually high rate of health problems ranging  from eye

irritation to blood in the urine.  In a preliminary study conducted by

the Allegheny County Health Department, twenty-six percent  of the

respondents cited health problems while working at the park.

     A recently completed study of remedial alternatives estimated

that continued park closure with monitoring would cost $150,000 to

$250,000.  Development of a limited park along the relatively clean

eastern section of the property would cost $300,000 to $430,000.

Removal of contaminated wastes in order to rebuild the park as

originally conceived is estimated to cost seven to twenty-four  million


                        ABM Wade,  Pennsylvania

     In Chester, Pennsylvania, a chemical  fire resulting in the

hospitalization of  firemen  overcome by toxic  fumes, brought another

incident of hazardous waste management into the limelight.   The fire

occurred at the Wade Disposal Site, a three acre plot of land situated

along the Delaware  River in southeastern Pennsylvania.   This site had

received approximately 300  drums per  week  during its  three  years of

operation, a total  of nearly 15,000 barrels.   Examination of the site

revealed that only  1,000 of the 4,500 visible barrels appear to remain

unruptured.  The remaining  3,500 are  broken and crushed  with their

contents spilled from their original  containers.  Drums  found en-site

carried the labels  of numerous chemical companies including Dupont,

Monsanto, Dow, Rohm and Haas, Jorden  Chemical and Wentz  Chemical.

     Tank trailer disposal  operations were also carried  on  at the  site

by the ABM company.  Documented evidence indicates that  trailer

tahklcads of liquids could have been  drained  on the property via a

street drain and a  concrete sump,  250 feet from the Delaware River.

Presently, seven tankers, some of which may be full of hazardous

liquids, still remain on the site.  A State Department of

Environmental Resources sampling program revealed concentrations of

heavy metals which  substantially exceeded  drinking water standards —

chromium, copper, nickel and lead.  In addition, numerous volatile

organics were detected at the Wade-ABM site including methacrylic

acid, which is lethal at a  five percent vapor concentration with a

thirty minute exposure.  A  variety of aromatic hydrocarbons were also

identified that are frequently skin,  eye and  respiratory irritants

with short-term exposure. Over the  long-term,  these toxics cause

central nervous system depression,  and depending  on the compound

hepatic, renal and bone marrow disorders.   They have also been

recognized as known and suspected carcinogens.

     Minimum required costs to clean  up  the Wade  Site were estimated

at 1.25 million dollars.  This total  would  include $650,000 for

disposal of material located above  the natural grade and $600,000 for

disposal of "hot spots,"  areas deemed highly contaminated with

hazardous wastes, as well as contaminated soils below grade.  Further-

more, additional cleanup  activities also may need to be undertaken.

Remedial measures are being taken to  prevent further runoff or

discharge frcm the site.

                      Hardanan County,  Tennessee

     Velsiool Chemical Corporation of Memphis,  Tennessee is the owner

of approximately 242 acres  in Hardeman  County near the Town of Toone,

Tennessee.  Between 1964 and 1972,  the  Company  trucked about 300,000

55-gallons drums of their waste material  fron a pesticide plant in

Memphis to the site for disposal.   The  company's waste residue

including endrin, dieldrin,  aldrin, and other pesticides,  were buried

in unlined trenches over about 50  acres of the  property.

     The USGS has been investigating  the  area since 1966,  due to

questions raised about the  threat  posed to groundwater supplies.  A

1967 report already noted pollution of  a  nearby stream and the shallow

water zone.  At that time,  no local domestic  well  was  contaminated.

However, subsequent to the  1967 report, the dump was enlarged to twice

its original size, from approximately 20  acres  to  45 acres.

     A current study by the USGS indicates more extensive  problems in

the site area.  As predicted,  the water-table aquifer  has  also become

polluted and contaminants have reached  the wells of nearby residents.

Some of the organic compounds are  estimated to  be  migrating at a

minimum rate of 80 feet per  year in the water table zone.   Rough cost

estimates to handle the contamination problems  include about $120,000

for the establishment of a water supply system  from Toone  to nearby

homes, and $741,000 to set  up and operate a monitoring program.   Other

estimated clean-up costs range from to  $6 million  to over  $165

million, depending upon the  extent  and  methods  of  the  operation.  A

class action suit by local citizens for $2.5  billion has been filed

against Velsicol.

             Contamination of Surface  Water Via an
               Processing Plant in Saltville.  Virginia
     From 1895 until  1972, an  alkali  processing plant was operated on
the banks of the North Fork of the Holston River in Saltville,
Virginia.  The facility  produced  a variety of alkali products,
including hydrazine,  dry ice,  soda ash,  bicarbonates, fused ash, lime
soda caustic, chlorine,  electrolytic  caustic, anhydrous caustic, and
liquid carbon dioxide.   At the same time,  waste disposal from the
various processes was via a series of lagoons, with effluent
discharged directly to the North  Fork.   The plant currently owned by
the Olin Corporation, has been shut down since 1972, apparently due to
a variety of economic reasons.
     Total dissolved  solid concentrations in the river have frequently
exceeded the 500 mg/1 stream standard,  and chloride concentrations are
also high.  The primary  concern,  however, is the levels of mercury
found in the North Fork  of the Holston from the site of the old
chlorine plant.  Three fourths of the fish samples taken in July 1976,
at six stations along the nearly  seventy miles of river showed
concentrations at least  twice  as  high as the FDA action level.  This
is evidence that the  contamination extends down the river to the TVA
Cherokee Reservoir  one-hundred miles  from Saltville, Virginia.
Tennessee Health Department officials imposed a ban on fishing in the
North Fork of the Holston  in  1970. To date, no mercury related
illnesses have been reported.   Mercury continues to enter the Holston
both from the site  of the  old  chlorine plant and from the two of six
big "muck ponds" which were used  for  disposal of the primary waste
stream from the Olin  complex.   The grounds in which  the "cell

building" once stood contain,  according to an Olin consultant,
some 220,000 Ibs. of mercury.
     Several corrective actions  have  already been taken, including
grading and construction of erosion control structures,  along North
Fork bank at a cost of $40,000.   The  State of Virginia,  EPA, TVA, Oak
Ridge National Laboratory and  Ohio participate in a task force to
monitor progess of cleanup.  A rough  estimate of ultimate upgrading
costs range from over $4 million  to greater than $23 million.   The
lower estimate would involve measures to minimize surface and
groundwater intrusion through  the pond  and chlorine plant site,  and
remove significant portions of mercury  from the river system.   The
higher estimate would remove mercury  wastes from the chlorine  plant
site and larger quantities of  mercury from the river system.

               SECTION 2

Warrior River, Alabama

    In 1972 more than one million bluegill fish

were killed as the result of the dumping of a

pesticide  into the Warrior River in Alabama.

A private contractor was believed responsible

for the Inc i dent.
fish kiI I

pestic ide
Alabama,  1970

     In  1970, 51,000 acres of waters were closed

due to mercury contamination,  including the

Pickwick  Reservoir and  impounded tributaries

of the Tennessee River, the Tombigbee River

(between  Jackson Lock and Dam  and the Mobile

River), the Mobile River, and  the Tensaw River

system.   Sport fishermen also  were warned not to

eat  fish  from these waters.  Restrictions continued

until May  1975.  Several Industrial sources were

believed  responsible  for dumping the substance

into  the  State's waters, including the 01 in Corp.

and  the Geigy Chemical  Corp.
mercury, fish,

surface waters

Anniston, Alabama, Kelvar  Waste  Site
     In 1973 Southern Metal Processing      acids,  heavy metals
Company contracted with DuPont's  Richmond,  surface water,
Virginia plant for removal of wastes        human  health
containing acids and heavy metals.
Over the following year approximately
10,000 drums were accumulated.   In
1976 the stored containers were  found
to be leaking, and polluting surface waters.
In 1976 a fire at the site injured two  firemen.
DuPont assumed responsibility for the
site and removed the drums at a  cost of
$650,000.  The acid saturated soils
were treated with lime and graded.  EPA
Region IV has requested that the State
of Alabama assume responsibility for
monitoring the site.
Decatur, Alabama
     In 1954, approximately 200,000
pounds of coal tar was spilled or dumped
into a barge unloading area connecting
to the Tennessee River.  The bulk of the
material is still on the river bottom.
The coal tar occasionally causes an oil
sheen.  In 1977 and 1978, EPA sampled
and analyzed water and river sediment.
coal tar, creosite
surface water

Decatur, Alabama
     Fly ash was hauled by  private
transporter to the Johnson  Landfill
near Trinity, Alabama  for disposal.
The fly ash was used on one of  the
roads leading through  a rural area  to
the landfill.  Several tons of  this
material was piled beside the road.
Analysis showed levels of cadmium and
chromium in the fly  ash.  Similar
metals  have been found in a local
residential  (groundwater) well  and
monitoring is continuing.   The
company is under order by the State
to remedy the situation.
cadmium, chromium
drinking water wells
Decatur,  Alabama
     Sludge  from a company's waste-
water  treatment  facility has been
disposed  by  surface application on
a  tract of property just south of
the  plant.   EPA  analysis of samples
of a well located on plant property
showed organic contamination.  The
drinking water wells

well supplies drinking  water  to  the
resident of a house owned  and  leased
to the occupant by the  company.   Due
to concern over contamination  of  the
groundwater, the  company will  not
renew the leases  on seven  homes  in
the vicinity of the contaminated  well.
Additional sampling has been done and
the company, State and  EPA officials
are working to locate the  source  of
Blount County, Alabama
     Numerous dump sites  (five visited
by EPA) exist in an abandoned strip
mining area.  Wastes consists of oily
sludge containing heavy metals dumped
by unknown persons.  State solid
waste agency thinks waste is coming
from Birmingham industrial area.
State is investigating.
oily sludge,
heavy metals

Redstone Arsenal, Alabama
     Large quantities of PCB's and DDT
mixed with soil have been  detected near
the old Olin Chemical plant at Redstone
Arsenal which was shutdown in 1971.
Storm water runoff has carried DDT to
the Tennessee River where  it  remains in
the sediment and water.  Levels  up to
MOO parts per million of DDT  have been
detected in fish.  Several federal
agencies are developing a  remedial plan
which may include removal  of  the DDT
contaminated soil for burial  in  a secure
chemical waste  landfill.   Monitoring wells
to insure groundwater protection may be
installed around the disposal site.
Public water supplies  in  the  area have been
tested and do not show DDT contamination.
surface water, soil
Blount  County,  Alabama
Waste oil pits  have been found in
an abandoned strip mining area.  The
oily sludge contains heavy metals.  The
source  of the waste oil is unknown.
waste oil,
heavy metals

Red Devil Mine, Alaska

     Mercury contamination  from mercury

mine tailings ponds may be  entering Red

Devil Creek which is a tributary to the

Kuskokwim River.  Studies in other areas

have shown that, over time, elemental

mercury is converted to the highly toxic

methyl mercury by bacteria.  Methyl

mercury then bio-accumulates in aquatic

life, rendering fish unfit  for

consumption.  The Kuskokwim River is an

important food source to the local

population.  EPA is currently evaluating


surface water

Globe, Arizona, 1980
     There are four abandoned  asbestos
mills which are full  of  asbestos  dust,
and should be dismantled.   These  are not
closed, and are easily accessible by
children.  In addition,  on  the site  of
one closed mill,  the  tailings  were
leveled,  and the  area subdivided. There
are 25 families living in  this area,
with  high exposure  to asbestos dust.
The state is currently handling the
problem.   Cleanup of  the site  is  in
process and the state is satisfied
with  the  progress being  made.   Cleanup
include covering  subdivision lots with
clean fill and  seeding to lessen the
asbestos  exposure.   Estimates  for
clean up  costs  are in the range of
from  $1 to $5 million.   The latter
figure would  include purchase  of the
25 homes  in  the area.
air & soil
 Phoenix,  Arizona, 1980
      A series of old sand and gravel
 pits have been used as municipal dumps.
 At least  one was used for disposal of
 hazardous wastes.  The dumps are operated
heavy metals

by the City.  When  it  rains,  the  pits  are

almost filled with  water,  connecting

with groundwater which is  the

Phoenix drinking water supply.  The

city and EPA are currently monitoring

to determine the path  of leachate,

and the amount of contamination.   So

far mostly heavy metals have  been

found, in high concentrations.  EPA

is also assisting in finding  a new

site for municipal  wastes.  Hazardous

wastes which previously went  to the

19th Street site, (now closed) are

being transported,  with manifests,

to a temporary disposal site.

The manifests should give  an

idea of the types of wastes that

formerly went into  the  19th Street

site.  There are some  drinking water

wells about one mile from  the site.

Phoenix, Arizona, 1980
     A fabricating factory discharged      groundwater
potentially hazardous materials into
percolating ponds.  The ponds were breached
by floods last year.  There are seven
drinking and irrigation wells within one
mile of the ponds.  It is believed the
ponds are highly permeable and that the
material is migrating into the ground-
water.  No cost estimates are available
on damages at this time.


Jacksonville, Arkansas

     Since 1948, a facility new owned by

Vertac manufactured chlorophenoxy herbicides

including 2,4-D and 2,4,5-T.  Chemical wastes,

such as dioxin and chlorinated hydrocarbon

pesticides, are buried at several locations.

Traces of dioxin were discovered in the

sediment of a nearby creek and a downstream

bayou; both of which have been quarantined

by the state health department.  Soil con-

tamination has been documented.  The cost to

cleanup the site may exceed $4 million.


  surface water,

air pollution
West Memphis, Arkansas

     The Gurley Oil Company operated pits for

disposal of oily sludges for a waste oil

recycling operation.  The 3.5 acre site is

now abandoned and subject to flooding.

Oil releases have been controlled by

pumping after each rain.  Estimated cleanup

is expected to be between $700,000 and

$1,000,000.  The sludges contain PCB's,

cadmium, chromium, lead and zinc.
  PCB's, heavy metal

  surface water

Newport, Arkansas
    The Lambert Seed Company maintained seven
large evaporation ponds in which dilute surfuric
acid was held.  In 1976 Newport Air Force Base
reported increases in the sulfate levels of their
drinking well waters.  It was established that the
Air Base derived 25% of their drinking waters from
the aquifer underlying the ponds.  A program to pump
the contaminated water from the aquifer by the use
of three interceptor wells has resulted in the decline
in sulfate levels of the Air Base's drinking water.
Leaking  ponds were identified and have been replaced
with PVC-lined ponds.
sulfuric acid
drinking water

Fort Smith,  Arkansas
     The Industrial  waste control  site was
closed in 1978.   The site had accepted up
to 22,000 cubic  yards of oils, plating waste
and organics.  Surface seepage has occurred
to a neighboring property. The site is now
being assessed for remedial and cleanup actions.

Magnolia, Arkansas
     The Arkansas Pollution Control and
Ecology Dept.  named the Dow Chemical  Co.
site in Magnolia as one of the 10  worst
pollution problems in Arkansas. A pond
containing spent brine is leaking  and the
Dept. is concerned about possible  water
and land pollution.
oils, plating wastes,
  surface water

San Joaquin Valley, California, 1979
     An ongoing sampling study which was
Initiated In June, 1979 by the California
Department of Health Services and County
health departments throughout the San
Joaquin Valley is finding widespread
contamination of water supplies with
high levels of DBCP.  To date, in the
San Joaquin Valley, approximately 29 wells
on large municipal systems (greater than
200 hook-ups) have been found to have
DBCP levels in excess of 1.0 ppb, with
an additional 150 wells having levels
exceeding 0.05 ppb.
drinking water wells
Lathrop, California, 1980
     In the vicinity of Lathrop, Ca.,
one well of the Lathrop County Water
District System has been shut down
due to DBCP contamination.  Water is
currently being supplied to affected
municipal customers from the clean
wells in the county's system.  The
Federal Government and the State of
California filed a suit against
drinking water wells

Occidental Chemical seeking injunctive
relief and civil penalties.  No federal
state or local monies are known to have
been spent to provide for the alternative
water supply.  The present estimate for
clean up costs is as much as $15 million.
Rancho Cordova, California,1979
     The Aerojet General Corporation along
with Cordova Chemical Company, a subsidiary,
occupies 8,000 acres south of the American
River, a tributary of the Sacramento River.
The Aerojet company discharged waste streams
directly into an open pit.  Sulfates, pesticides
and heavy metals from Cordova Chemical  have been
found in an old dredge pit as well as in the
groundwater to the pit, where these chemicals
were dumped over a 2-year period.  TCE, other
organic solvents, and perchlorate from Aerojet
has also been found off-site.  Out of approximately
50 private wells sampled within a half male of
Aerojet's property line, about 25-30 have been found
to have some level of contamination from organic solvents.
Also, there are several unlined surface percolation
ponds and defective lined ponds receiving wastes from
Aerojet and Cordova Chemical.  The State of California
has brought suit against these companies seeking remedial
actions.                         55
TCE, pesticides
  heavy metals
drinking water wells

San Gabriel Valley area of Los Angeles County, 1980
     In this area, 56 municipal wells within
18 water supply systems have been shut down        TCE
to date due to excessive levels of TCE             drinking water wells
contamination.  The immediate effect has
been the reduction in the number of available
clean wells in the area, however, all users
are being supplied with water from clean wells
within each system.  State and county agencies have
begun an investigation to define the full extent of
the problem and to determine the source of the
pollution.  No federal or state money has been spent
to provide alternative water supplies.  No estimate for
cost of correction is available at this time.

Riverside County, California
     The Stringfellow class I Disposal Site
landfill contains a wide variety of  industrial     Organics, adds
wastes  (primarily spent acids, caustics),            ground and surface
totaling approximately 32,000,000 gallons            waters
in 19 years.  Contamination of groundwater
has occurred  from leachate and surface run-off.
The State  Legislature in 1978 appropriated $370,000
for the closure and maintenance of the site by the
Santa Anna Regional Water Quality Control Board.
Final closure is estimated to total  $1-2.5 million.
A total of $290,000 was spent from CWA 311 funds.

Visalia, California
     A coal tar waste tank cracked and
leaked for four to five years, contaminating
soil and groundwater in the vicinity of the
spill with pentachlorophenol.  Apparently
the contamination is confined.  Southern
California Edison, which assumed all
responsibility for the spill, has paid
$2,000,000 for cleanup.
land & groundwater
Cabazon Dump (Murietta), 1972
     Instead of properly disposing of some
drums containing unidentified residues, a
disposal company dropped them at a dump
located in Cabazon.  A heavy rain unearthed
the drums, which gave off poisonous gases
and contaminated the water.
toxic substances
air & surface water
Mather Air Force Base, 1979
     Officials at Mather Air Force Base
disconnected a well after discovering
traces of TCE, a chemical solvent suspected
of causing cancer in humans.  Five tests over
30 days had found between 16.5 and 30.2 parts
per billion of TCE in the wells, which was used
by about 75 employees.
drinking water wells

McLellan Air Force Base, 1980
     Several wells on base and off base            TCE, organics
are contaminated with TCE and other                drinking water wells
organics.  Some of the wells have
been shut down.  The problem may be
from old industrial sludge pits.

Fullerton, California
     This is an eight-acre site that
was used for dumping an estimated 50,000
tons of World-War II era chemical wastes           sulfuric acid sludge
(priminarly sulfuric acid and heavy metals).       heavy metals
The area is bounded by residential neighborhoods
to the south and east, a golf course to the west,
and by land zoned for residential development to
the north.  The wastes are seeping to the surface
near homes  and near the edge of the golf course.
State agencies are working with the current owners
of the land to develop a clean-up plan.

Barstow, California
    Ground-water contamination extends down-
gradient 4 miles from the source.  A well field
is threatened.  Complaints of well contamination
began in 1952.  Several wells were abandoned.
Previous investigations traced the contamination to
local municipal  and industrial waste disposal.  A
study initiated by the U.S. Geological Survey to
evaluate the groundwater degradation in this area
found ground water degraded by (1) natural ground-
water inflow, (2) industrial  and municipal waste
disposal from several sources, and (3) irrigation-
return water.  Data suggest two plumes of contamination,
an old plume near the base of the aquifer and a shallow
plume produced by more recent contamination.  No remedial
action was reported.

Commerce City, Colorado, 1980
     The present owner  of  the  site,  formerly the
site of the Woodbury Chemical  Company,  is  the
Rock Island Railroad, which is in  receivership.
Woodbury Chemical Company  is defunct.   The
company formulated  pesticides  on  the  property.
In the late 1960's  a major fire occurred  on
the property  contaminating the area  with
high levels of organo-chloride and organo-
phosphate  pesticides.   Data indicates that
the ground surface, over eleven years after
the fire,  still  is  highly  contaminated.
Even the relatively degradable organo-phosphate
pesticides are present  in  significant amounts.
Unconfirmed reports state  that fire  ruble in
places may be buried  to depths of 15 feet.
Surface drainage of rain water has been analyzed
and found  to  contain  a  number  of  pesticides.
No data on ground water are available.  On warm
days there is a  pesticide  odor on the site.

Jefferson County, Colorado, 1980
     The Aerr Company stores, treats and disposes of
chemical wastes.  After a fire at the site firefighters
will not return to the site because of the hazards       cyanide, chemicals
present.  There is a probable hazard to workers on the   human health
site.  Also present is the problem of runoff onto
neighboring lands.
                                                         drinking water
Boulder, Colorado, 1980
     The Marshall landfill has two sections; one has
been closed since 1965, and the other is still  active.    toxic chemicals
Many types of wastes were accepted, including
industrial liquid wastes, and perhaps hazardous wastes,
including PCB's.  The problem which exists is that
leachate from the landfill flows into the Community
Ditch which is sometimes used as a potable water
supply for the town of Louisville.  Also, there may
be bontamination of the aquifer under the landfill.

Lafayette, Colorado
     Seventeen barrels of pure PCB's were
discovered to have been stored on a local
farm for 10 years.  A state epldemologlst
recommended that a woman resident temporarily
stop nursing her one year old son after hazardous
levels of PCB's were discovered 1n her breast milk;
soil in the vicinity of the barrels was also
contaminated.  The affected family has since relocated.
The PCB has been recontainerized and moved to a
secure storage area.  The ground contamination still
Soils, human health
L.C. Corporation, Denver, Colorado, 1979
     Facility disposed of acid wastes by placing
them in  plastic  lined storage pits near Sand Creek.
Acids were partially neutralized, but storage pits
are still highly acidic.  The potential problem of
toxic or hazardous materials leaking from the pits
into Sand Creek  exists.  As the  result of a settle-
ment, clean  up is taking place under supervision by
a  State  court.   The company 1s paying for the clean up.
acid, toxic material
surface water

65th and Huron  (BFI,  Inc.)» Colorado
     Methane gas from an active 90 acre landfill
site in central Adams County exploded and destroyed
a home in January 1980.  Subsequent investigations
revealed the site contained 3.4 million yards of
domestic refuse and 30-40% explosive gas by volume.
Lateral migration off-site was found at the south-
central portions of the site.  Two houses, including
the one where the explosion occurred, were found to
harbor heavy methane gas concentrations inside and
adjacent to the structures.  Following the accident,
both homes were vacated and a power extraction and
control system are now being installed.
methane gas
Denver, Colorado, 1943-1975
     The Rocky Mountain Arsenal was established in 1943
for the production of chemical warfare agents.  In the   pesticides
late 1950's Shell Chemical Company leased most of the    ground water
industrial facilities for the production of insecticides:
from 1943 to 1957 unlined canals conveyed liquid chemical
wastes to unlined holding ponds for storage; waste liquids
moved directly into the ground water.  Severe contamination
of the aquifer resulted in widespread well  contamination.
In 1975 the State Department of Health issued a cease and
desist order against the Army and Shell Chemical to stop
polluting surface and underground water in the area.

Lowry Landfill - Denver, Colorado
     This landfill receives a major portion of the
industrial wastes in the Denver metropolitan Area.
There is data that indicates groundwater contamination.
The landfill  is not operated consistent with good
practice.  Municipal sludge is spread at rates well
above the recommended levels.  Governor Lamm has
expressed concern over the facility and has appointed
a study commission to investigate and present
recommendation.  EPA Region VIII is in the process of
documenting conditions at the facility.
48th and Holly  (Landfill,  Inc.), Colorado
     Two separate  methane  gas  explosions at  a 100
acre landfill in southern  Adams County  in June 1977
killed  two  utility workers and injured  four  fireman.
A lawsuit was filed shortly after  the accident,  and
a preliminary hearing is  scheduled for  April 1980.
     The site was  landfilled with  an estimated 7,000,000
cubic yards of  domestic refuse during the late 1960s
and early 1970s.   Current  methane  testing today  indicates
that the landfill  contains 40-50%  methane gas with
extensive >ateral  migration of the gas  off-site, both
 in a northerly  and southerly direction  up to 700 feet.
Current tests show that several buildings adjacent to the
 site still  contain methane gas in  concentrations up to  35%.
 Site monitoring is underway and safety  precautions have
 been observed.
methane gas


Ledyard,  Connecticut

    Six private wells became contaminated with         styrene

styrene -- an aromatic hydrocarbon --  In  1962.         private  wells

An Investigation revealed that styrene had been  used

to burn brush In clearing land for the housing

development at which the wells became  contaminated.

Barrels partially filled with styrene  had been burled

at two different locations.  The affected wells

were within about 300 feet of the barrels.

All  known contaminating materials was  removed

from the  ground.  Activated charcoal filters

were Installed  In the wells In 1962.

Concentrations of styrene fluctuated seasonally

and  In response to precipitation.  By  1964, no

styrene was detected In any of the wells.  New

production wells were supplied to affected homes.

Canterbury, Connecticut

     A private landfill has accepted       chemical waste

11,000 gallons of chemical wastes in

the  past  several years.  No information

is currently available on contamination,

but  it is being investigated for both

enforcement and 311 response.

Southington, Connecticut, 1967-1980

     The Solvents Recovery Service engages

in the distillation, recovery and disposal

of industrial solvents In Southington,

Connecticut.  The handling, storage and

disposal of hazardous wastes by the

company has contaminated the groundwater

around Southington  causing the closure of

three of the city's six wells.  The

following chemicals were found in two of

the three wells at  levels Which may affect

human health adversely:

tetrachloroethylene, chloroform,

trichloroethylene,  1,1,1,-trichloroethane,

dichloroethane and  carbon tetrachloride.

In addition, during the early 1970 's  tests

of soils and crops  in the vicinity of the

site showed very high levels of  lead,

reportedly  from open burning of wastes at

the site.   EPA. filed suit  under RCRA  in

December, 1979 and  is developing

groundwater hydrogeological  information as

a basis for the case.
solvents, lead

drinking water wells,

   air pollution

Plain-field, Connecticut, 1978
     State police discovered 1700 barrels of
chemical wastes illegally buried in two PI ainfield
gravel pits.  Groundwater contamination was
detected but there are no wells in the area.  The
owner of the site was fined $25,000 and is paying
for site cleanup, estimated at $750,000.
chemical wastes
Plainville, Connecticut
     In July 1975, local officials discovered that
one of the Plainville water company water supply
wells was contaminated with industrial  solvents,
including trichloroethylene, chloroform and carbon
tetrachloride.  The Mott Metallurgical  Co. in
Farmington has been identified as the probable
source of the solvents.  Mott had previously
disposed of its wastes in an underground dry well
about 100 yards from the water supply well.  The
Mott Co. has since changed its disposal practices
and the Plainville Water Company has discontinued
use of the well.
drinking water wells

Sharon, Connecticut
     The Brookfield Chemical Company
discharged various chemical wastes  from
its opertions into a dry well  and septic
tank on their property.  By 1972,
chemicals, including ethylene  glycol,
chloroform, benzene, and toluene
leaked into the gound water and have
been detected in residential and
commercial wells in the area.
drinking water wells
East Haddam, Connecticut
     State Department  of  Health  lab
reports showed  that  two of  six wells
near Pioneer Products, Inc.,  had been
contaminated with  hydrocarbons.   Pioneer
had discharged  untreated  chemical waste
for more  than a year.  In June 1979,
State  officials ordered Pioneer  to
cease  its discharge, and  to correct
contamination that the discharge had
drinking water wells

Bridgeport, Connecticut
     The State of Connecticut hired Chem-Trol
Pollution Services to remove 3,000-5,000 drums of
chemicals from a boarded up warehouse owned by
Chemical Waste Removal.  The drums were discovered
by the State police organized crime unit during a
raid at the site.  The cost of removal should
total $250,000.
toxic chemicals
Canton, Connecticut
     It was reported that solvent-type chemicals,
including carbon tetrachloride, methyl ethyl
ketone, trichloroethylene and chloroform, dumped
by the former John Swift Chemical Co. between 1969
and 1972 have been found in eleven Canton wells.
The estimated costs of extending water lines  from
nearby communities range from $145,000-$379,000.
The State of Connecticut Department of
Environmental Protection has ordered the dump
site's current owners, Auto World Realty, to  clean
up the site.
drinking water wells

Torrington, Connecticut, 1979

     Construction workers building a new

shopping center uncovered a major asbestos

dumping ground on the site formerly occupied

by the Fitzgerald Gasket Company.  Unprotected

workers had been exposed to asbestos dust.

The Company has remedied the problem,

construction of the shopping center has


Wblcott, Connecticut, 1974

     Several domestic and industrial wells

were found to be polluted with hydrocarbons

and mixed solvents.  A  State  investigator

discovered that a  local service station dumped

or spilled gasoline  into floor drains, which

may have been connected to wells; workers at a

local tool company were also  found  to be

dumping solvents and oils onto the  ground in

back of a shop.

Bristol, Connecticut,  1980

     A trucking company and middleman disposal

firm are reported to be responsible for the

disposal of 30,000-90,000 barrells at the

Bristol landfill.  Groundwater has been found

to be  contaminated with hydrocarbons.  The


State has issued an order to the city  to

develop a groundwater monitoring system.  EPA

has begin preliminary investigation to

determine whether Federal enforcement  vs.

haulers or generators is appropriate.  There

are no water supply wells in the aquifier.

Wilmington, Delaware
     Rainwater and groundwater percolating
                                                                 heavy metals, orgam
through the Llangollen Landfill produced a                       groundwater
leachate containing high concentrations of
iron, chlorides, ammonia, heavy metals
and dissolved organics.  The leachate
migrated from the site and in some  places
moved through a clay layer into the deeper
Potomac aquifer used extensively in New
Castle County for a water supply.  The
County has  installed wells to intercept
contaminated groundwater in order to
prevent contamination of the public water
supply wells at a cost of over $1 million.

New Castle County, Delaware

    A large zone of ground water was contaminated.

The ground water contamination was traced to the

Llangolen landfill some 88 feet away.  The land-

fill, which operated between I960 and 1968, was

originally a dump and received various unknown

types of Industrial wastes.  When the landfill was

operating, some of the clay beneath the site was

removed for cover material, permitting movement

of leachate to the underlying aquifer.  About 100

wells or borings have been made to date to determine

the extent of ground water contamination.  Wells

have been Installed near the landfill to reverse

the flow of ground water back toward the landfill,

and they are pumping about 3 million gallons per day.

Pumpage In both the water supply wells and the

wells of the plant has been cut back, and water Is

obtained from other sources.  An Increase In the

number of wells to Intercept more leachate has

been considered.  An estimated 10 years would be

necessary to renovate the aquifer adequately.

Removal of the landfill may be necessary.  About

30 private wells in the contaminated area have

been replaced with a public water supply.

pub I ic water


ground water

Fanning Bayou, Florida
    On October 13,  1976, a  large  fish  kill

occurred on the Fanning Bayou,  Bay  County,

Florida, after 35,000 gallons of  wastewater

spilled from the  McKenzie Tank  Lines property.

The wastewater contained chemical contaminants

and tank washing  solutions  used in  connection

with the facility's tank truck  cleaning

operations.  Officials reported unknown damage

to other aquatic  life.
fish kill, surface wate)

chemical wastes

Tofs, Florida
     The Woodbury Chemical Co., a bankrupt
pesticide formulator, vacated its warehouse and
left behind hundreds of barrels of DDT, Sevin,
Malathion and Parathion.  The company also left a
pallet of broken and corroded bottles of
concentrated parathion exposed on an outdoor
loading dock.
abandoned warehouse
Whitehouse, Florida
     Seven pits covering seven acres were filled
with waste oil sludge contaminated with PCB's and
abandoned in 1968.  In 1976 the level of one of
the pits gave way and about 50,000 gallons of oily
material was released to McGirts Creek.  The EPA
drained the liquids from the pits and covered the
pits using a plan developed by the City of
Jacksonville.  The sludge covered in place was
highly acidic and contained high concentrations of
lead, zinc and copper.  The material may need to
be transported to a proper disposal facility.
Other remedial actions are beind considered.
PCB's, lead, zinc,
surface water

North Miami Beach, Florida
     A drinking water odor incident led to an
extensive investigation of the public water
system.  Several odor-causing compounds were
isolated and appeared related to coal gas
manufacturing residue disposal.  Impacted wells
were closed and the city added a powdered
activated carbon system to resolve the problem.  A
total of nine wells were impacted.  All of the
wells are back in operation at present with
further studies by the utility being carried out.
No Federal or State funds were expended beyond
those for consultation and preliminary sample
coal gas residue
drinking water wells
 Hillsborough Co., Florida
      Investigation of a  landfill showed volatile
 organic  groundwater contamination  in samples from
 six wells.  Of these six wells, one was a water
 supply well on the landfill site,  three were
 private  wells supplies serving single residences,
 and two  were private supplies serving trailer
 courts qualifying as a community supplies.  Upon
 release  of the data indicating private well supply
 contamination, the County Health Dept. instituted
 drinking water wells

a bottled-water distribution program to impacted
residents pending a long-term solution to the


General Electric, Rome, Georgia
     The GE transformer manufacturing plant in
Rome, GA is responsible for PCB contamination of       RGB's
sludge from the local sewage treatment plant, as       surface water
well as contamination of the upper reaches of Lake
Weiss.  The plant had general surface
contamination (PCB's) at the bulk off-loading
facility.  Plant employees contaminated with PCB's
used the plant's shower facilities for clean-up,
which  contributed to contamination of the city
sewers.  PCB contaminated storm waterwater runoff
entering combined sewers also contributed to
contamination of the sewage treatment plant
sludge.  Tons of PCB contaminated sludge is now
being  hauled to Chemical Waste Management of
Alabama.  The GE plant is also responsible for a
standing advisory against the commercial taking of
bottom-feeding fish from the upper reaches of Lake
Weiss  due to the PCB contamination.

Agana, Guam, 1974
     High levels of several heavy metals                 heavy metals
(selenium, chromium, mercury} were discovered            public water
at the FENA water treatment plant. Old
munitions dumps may have been the source
of the toxic pollution.

Yellow Pine, Idaho, 1980
     Two large tailings piles remain at
the Yellow Pine Mine site in north central
Idaho.  The tailing piles are located in a
stream valley and are leaching arsenic and
heavy metals.  No significant environmental
damage has yet occurred; however, grading
and erosion control measures may be necessary
to protect the stream.
arserri c
surface water

   Byron,  Illinois
        Three cattle  died  of cyanide  poisoning  which
   resulted  from the  unregulated  land disposal  of
   3,400 55-gallon  drums of  industrial wastes on  two
   farms,  one of which  had since  been purchased by
   Commonwealth  Edison.  The drums of unknown origin
   had been  deposited within the  previous two years.
   Subsequent investigation  discovered wildlife kills
   and vegetation damage.  Cyanide was also found in
   17 wells  in the  Byron area.  Commonwealth Edison
   agreed  to clean  up its  farm at an  approximate cost
   of $209,000.   The washes  remained  on the other
Rock Island, Illinois
    A landfill operation began in 1955 in a swampy
area on the floodplain of the Rock River.  Contamination
of monitoring wells was detected  in  1972.  The City of
Rock Island has been denied a permit  for continued
use of the site.  The case is in litigation.   City
officials have begun to look for another site.  The existing
landfill will probably be closed when a new site
is found.  No remedial action has been reported.

Winnetka, Illinois
     The Winnetka landfill  site  has  been
used for disposal since  1947.  A  study
was made of  the hydrogeologic  and
water-quality conditions at  the
landfill.  A groundwater mound has
formed within the landfill;  ground-
water flow is therefore  away from the
landfill on  all sides.  Groundwater
contamination is limited to  the  fill
South Beloit,  Illinois
     An  investigation by  the  Illinois
Environmental  Protection  Agency  of  a
landfill  for which  a permit  application
had been  received disclosed  groundwater
contamination  as  a  result of  the landfill
operation.  The landfill  has  been in
operation in a sand and  gravel  quarry  since
19^6, and several private wells  had become
contaminated several years ago.   The
landfill  site  is  closed  and  monitoring of
groundwater has been initiated.
private well

Rockford, Illinois
    In late 1971, contamination of a public
water supply well became apparent when
detected in wells and in near-by homes.  An
investigation traced the source of contamination
to a near-by landfill.  Several industrial wells
had previously shown contamination and their use
had been discontinued.  At the request of the
superintendent of the Rockford Water Department, a
groundwater recovery program was developed by the
Illinois State Geological Survey and State Water
Survey.  The plan recommended pumping groundwater
and recovering methane.  The proposal was never
implemented.  Legal action was taken in early 1974
by the Illinois Environmental Protection Agency.
An agreement was reached whereby the site was closed
and covered.  Several homes whose wells had been
affected were provided with public water.  Remedial
action following contamination of the initial well
might have limited the spread of contamination.
public wells

Palos Hills, Illinois
    When landfill operations were begun in a sand
and gravel quarry, disposal was directly into water
at the base of the quarry.  Concern about possible
groundwater contamination led to an investigation.
It was determined that the sand and gravel aquifer was
contaminated, but there was no evidence that the
underlying limestone aquifer was affected.  A 1972
Illinois Pollution Control Board ruling against the
landfill required diversion of surface water,
installation of a clay liner in places, closure within
a year, and continued monitoring.  The site has been
closed and final cover is nearly complete.

South Elgin, Illinois
    A landfill was operated on a 45-acre site for
several  years.  Monitoring wells installed in the
shallow sand and gravel aquifer detected groundwater
contamination about 1970.  The monitoring wells had been
placed between the landfill and the South Elgin well
field.  In 1972, the operators of the landfill  were
fined $10,000 by the Illinois Pollution Control Board
for causing groundwater contamination and posing a
potential threat to the South Elgin well field.  In
1975, a permit was issued for the use of the site for
inert materials to bring the site up to grade for closing.
The permit provides for some collection and treatment
of surface leachate.  Monitoring continues to show
groundwater contamination of the shallow aquifer.

Marshall, Illinois
    Velsicol Chemical Corporation releases
about 110,000 gpd of cooling towers blowdown
water, borter blowdown water, wastes from
sodium zeollite regeneration and chlordane
processing  and contaminated runoff Into 3 surface
impoundments.  Analysis of groundwaters show
high  concentrations  of chloride, chlordane,
borox, oil  and grease.  The pollution seems to
be  confined to the plant  property.  The Company
is  currently upgrading the ponds.
surface impoundment
chlordane, oil
 Cook  County,  Illinois

    Hyon  Waste  Management  Corporation  uses 14
 lagoons for the treatment  of  industrial wastes.       industrial wastes
 Groundwater monitoring  has shown  local                groundwater
 concentrations  of copper,  chromium,  iron, manganese,
 nickel,  zinc, cyanide  and  COD to  exceed background

West Chicago, Illinois
    Between 1932 and 1973, Kerr-McGee and its
predecessor companies operated a facility where
radioactive and rare-earth containing compounds
were processed.  During operation,  liquid waste
was generated at a rate of 400,000  to 600,000 GPD
and discharged to two infiltration  impoundments
between 1932 nd 1953.  Two others were constructed
in 1954.  Groundwater analysis in 1976 did not show
the presence of radioactivity but subsequent  analyses
in 1979 showed elevated concentrations of ammonia,
chloride, fluoride, phosphorus, IDS,  sulfate
and nitrate.
radioactive waste
Kankakee County, Illinois
    The General Foods - Gaines Research Kennel
releases an average of 15,000 GDP  of activated
sludge effluent into a permitted,  rubber-lined
lagoon and then to a subsurface seepage system
for disposal.  After wells in a nearby subdivision
showed elevated levels of nitrate, monitoring wells
were located neard the facility.  These wells
showed elevated levels of ammonia  and nitrate.   The
seepage field has been shown to be the primary
cause of pollution with the lagoon being secondary.

Streator, II I Inols
    Borden Inc. - Smith Douglas manufactures

phosphoric acid, sulfurfc acid and a mixed

fertilizer for agricultural use.  Wastewater

Is currently discharged Into two lagoons, one

of which  Is referred to as the "green pond"

due to its color resulting from a dye used In

the fertilizer.  Green water has been observed

seeping from a bank into a nearby creek.  The

green water has been analyzed and found a certain

high amounts of ammonia, phosphorus, chloride,

fluoride, nd sulfates.  The pH of this water was

4.6.   In  1966 several cattle died as a result of

high nitrate and sulfate concentrations  in the

stream.   Green pond has been subsequently drained

and filled with clear water.
suIf urIc ac i d

surface water

cattle deaths

Danv 11 Ie, I I Ii no Is

    Allied Chemical Corporation manufacturers         chemical  wastes

regrlgerants and aerosol propellants at Its           ground water

plant In Danville.  Wastewater Is generated at

about 50 gpd and contains approximately 30/J spent

hydrochloric acid, less than  \% hydrofluoric acid,

and Is  high  In  chlorides and  Inorganic salts.

Wastewater Is  discharged Into a lagoon and finally

enters  a deep  well Injection system.  Analyses

of water samples from monitoring wells Indicates

that ground  water adajcent to the Impoundment has been

polluted by  fluoride, chloride, sulfate and antimony.

and also that  the contaminant concentrations decrease

to background  levels within the plant property.  The

Impoundment  will be closed in the summe of 1980.

Mahomet, II I I no Is

    The Sangamon Valley Water District operates a     TDS

three-cell  aerated lagoon sewage treatment facility   ground water

that was built   In 1969 and expanded  In 1971.

Groundwater  monitoring wells have shown that  the

facility is  polluting nearby ground  water.  Waters

down-gradient  from the facility have shown 3-fold

increases In TDS and 20-fold  Increases In  chlorides.

No Immediate legal action has been taken  pending

I I IInols EPA studies.

Du Page County. Illinois
    Some deterioration in water quality is
apparent away from the landfill, but ground-water
contamination is generally limited to the fill areas.
The Old Du  Page County landfill was operated from
1952 to 1966.  A study was made of the hydrogeologic
and water  conditions at the landfill.  A ground water
mound, which is reflected by a number of seeps and
springs around the perimeter of the landfill has
developed  at the site.
   water  quality
 Elgin,  Illinois
     Groundwater  contamination  is limited to the
 landfill  site  and  the  area  between
 the fill  and the Fox River-  Filling began in 1968
 at  the Elgin landfill.   Wastes have included both
 household garbage  and  industrial wastes.  A study
 was made  of the  hydrogeologic  and water-quality
 conditions at  the  site.

Lake County, Illinois
    A complaint of contamination of a private
well was made to the Illinois Environmental
Protection Agency in December 1973.  An investigation
traced the source to an industrial waste leaching pit
some 50 feet from the affected well.  In addition, acid
wastes were stored in open barrels near by.  There was
evidence of spillage and discharge to near-by Lily Lake.
The responsible industry agreed to have the industrial
wastes hauled away.  Shortly thereafter, the industry
moved to a new location and legal  action by an
environmental group was dropped.  The owners of the
contaminated well  drilled a new well to a deeper aquifer.
acid wastes
private well

West Chicago, Illinois
    A 1962 report prepared by the Illinois
Geological Survey and the Illinois Water
Survey  indicated an area of mineralized ground
water in West Chicago.  W.J. Butler designed a study
to determine the source and extent of groundwater
mineralization.  The contamination was traced to a
seepage lagoon used by a chemical plant to dispose
of it's wastes—1.6 million gallons of waste water
were discharged to this lagoon weekly.  The bottom
of the  lagoon 1s in sand.  The contaminants apparently
moved through the glacial drift  to the dolomite aquifer.
No remedial action was reported.
 Peoria,  Illinois

     Several  public water-supply wells  became  contaminated
 with highly  mineralized  water shortly  after they were      waste water
 installed.   The contamination was  traced  to near-by        public wells
 surface  disposal  of waste  from a water softener.  The
 wells were relocated.

Geneseo, Illinois
    Dumping was begun at the landfill site
before 1900.  At about the same time, springs
east of the site were tapped as a source of water
for Geneseo.  Increased demand for water has resulted
in the installation of several wells in the landfill
area; the springs have been abandoned.  Water-quality
analyses of the springs and wells during the past
several decades has indicated no groundwater
contamination beyond the limits of the fill.  A change
in quality of raw water was first thought to have resulted
from pollution by the landfill, but the changes may have
been due to increased production.  The site was closed
in 1974 as a threat to local  water supply wells.  The
springs and wells have been abandoned because of
deterioration in the quality of the water.  However, there
has been no conclusive evidence that the landfill is
responsible for the degradation, even though the geologic
setting is undesirable for landfill  operations.

Macomb, Illinois

    Shortly before a landfill was closed
in 1971, leachate was discovered coming from the           leachate
side of the fill.  The continued leachate discharge        surfacewater
has led to the conjecture that a spring was buried in
the course of landfill operation.  Leachate moves toward
the La Moine River.  The city of Macomb tried to stop the
leachate discharges by regrading the site, with some
success.  However, final cover has not been placed on the
landfill to reduce infiltration.

Springfield, Illinois

    Sampling of  monitoring wells in late 1972
revealed groundwater was being contaminated by             leachate
a  landfill operation.  A permit was issued by the          groundwater
IEPA for a new landfill site, which will result in
the closing of the old site.  Groundwater contamination

Danville Illinois-Indiana Wabask River 1977-1978
    In December 1977 a pipeline near Danville, 111.,
that contained xylene ruptured and spilled into a
creek; heavy rains washed out dams which were
controlling the spill, and some of the material
reached the Wabash River.  As a precaution, residents
of Terre Haute, Ind., stopped drawing water from the
river and switched to well water.  At Mt. Carmel, 111.,
which has its water intake valves 8 feet below the
river surface, extra carbon was added to its water
treatment, also as a precautionary measure.  There
were no reports of human injury, but officials
suspected that the xylene may have killed six cows
and sickened 42 others.  The pipeline was owned by the
Amoco Oil Company.  Several months later a second,
smaller spill occurred, involving several hundred gallons
of xylene.  Vapors from that spill were strong enough
to require evacuation of a number of residents.
cow deaths

Aurora, Illinois
     Leachate from a landfill site accepting
industrial waste contaminated nine wells.
Owners of the wells sued the owners, Fox Valley
Disposal Co., and were awarded $54,000 damages to
cover costs of legal expenses and a hook-up to the
city of North Aurora's water lines.  The State
investigations of the incident cost an estimated
Calumet  (Cook County), Illinois
     On  December 18, 1975 a man was severely
burned when  the compactor that he was operating
struct a 55-gallon drum of ethyl acetate; he died
three days later from his burns.  The compactor,
valued at  ($100,000) was total loss.  A
scavenger  hauler had deposited two drums of ethyl
acetate  in the dark hours of the morning.
ethyl acetate
human health

East St. Louis, Illinois
     The Monsanto Chemical Co. maintained   organics
an industrial waste dump on company
property adjacent to the Mississippi
River in East Saint Louis from the mid
1960's.  Wastes dumped into holding
ponds include phenols, nitrobenzene
derivatives, sulfuric acid and fly ash.
In 1972 and 1974 tests of shallow wells
at the perimeter of the site showed
phenol contamination.  In July 1974, the
site was closed.
                                           mixed chemicals
                                           ground water
Mallard Lake Forest Preserve  (DuPage  County),  Illinois
     According to newspaper reports,  the
Illinois Attorney General filed suit  to
close a hazardous chemical waste dumping
site which had taken liquid chemical
wastes including cyanide, phenols
and mercury.  The Attorney General
said the site was "polluting or
threatening to pollute the groundwater
and adjacent Lake Mallard."  The
Attorney General also sued the Illinois
Environmental Protection Agency, which
had issued a supplemental permit that
allowed dumping of the liquid wastes  in
the sanitary landfill.


Marshall, Illinois, August, 1979
     Heavy rains apparently eroded a dike at
a waste-storage pond for hexachlorocylopen-                  hexachlorocyclopentadiane
                                                             surface waters
tadiene owned by the Velsicol Chemical Cor-
poration, near Marshall, washing some of the
contaminant  into two tributaries which fed into
the  Wabash and Ohio Rivers above Franklin,
Illinois.  The spill was contained within
four hours.  Velsicol  and the State are
cleaning  up  the  site.

Gary, Indiana
     In August 1977 explosions and a fire
occurred at Mid-Co. Corp., owned and operated
by Ernest DeHart.  Hazardous wastes stored and
stock-piled in open fields burned out of control
for hours.  The State has estimated site cleanup
would cost $5 million. EPA has filed suit to
require a complete cleanup of the site.  A partial
cleanup was begun in early 1980 under court order-
mixed wastes
fire hazard
Bloomington, Indiana
     Sewer lines, streams and farms have been
contaminated with the toxic chemical PCB.
Westinghouse Electric Corp. has been charged with
dumping up to eight pounds a day into the city's
land,surface water

Dunreith, Indiana
    A railroad tank car accident resulted in
an explosion, a fire, and the spilling of hazardous
chemicals.  Some 1200 gallons of acetone cyanohydrin
percolated into the railroad bed and down a tile drain
into Buck Creek, which supplied water to a downstream
municipality.  Concentrations of cyanide in Buck Creek
were as high as 405mg/l.  The maximum safe level is
20mg/l.  Over 3 tons of calcium hypochlorite was dumped
into Buck Creek to deactivate the cyanide before it
reached downstream water users.  This approach was
apparently successful.  Near-by-well owners were
notified to cease use of their wells.  A sampling
program to test for contamination of groundwater
continued into April.  Contamination water was pumped
from the ground, treated, lagooned, then fed to surface
water.  April snowmelt flushed additional cyanide into
ground water.  Roadbed materials were decontaminated.
The remedial action was apparently successful.  However,
the polluted waters were not noticed quickly enough, and
serious consequences could have resulted*
acetone cyanohydrin

Kingsbury, Indiana
     The site of the Fisher-Calo Chemical and
Solvent Corp. was named in 1979 as a potential               mixed  chemicals
hazard.  An estimated 20,000 drums and several
million gallons in bulk storage of acids,
cyanides, and chlorinated solvents are in a
warehouse and open field at the site.  The site is
located in a sand dune area, and ground and
surface water pollution is probable.  The State
filed suit in this case, but the judge hasn't
heard the case.
     Most cyanide wastes have been moved to the
NECO site in Sheffield, Illinois.
     There is no known surface water
contamination, but one monitoring well has been

Kokomo, Indiana
    A private well was contaminated with a creosote-
like waste.  A new well was drilled near by that also
became contaminated.  An investigation revealed that
molding sand used in the manufacturing of chrome steel
castings had been used for land fill.  Water seeping
through the sand leached out chromate and carried it
through a drainage ditch to a swamp that acted as a
recharge zone to ground water.  The swamp is close to
the affected wells.  No remedial action was reported.
 ground water
     Elkart, Indiana
          In 1973 chromium levels in wells of six
     homeowners were found to be over 100 times  EPA
     drinking water standards.  The suspected source
     of the pollutants is.the Himco industrial landfill
     containing pharmaceutical and other industrial
     waste.  The problem was "remedied"  by digging
     deeper wells.  Recently, USGS is studying the entire
     area around the site to evaluate extent  of  groundwater
     contamination.  The site closed in  1976  through a
     consent agreement with the State.
public wells

Fort Dodge, Iowa
     Contaminated oil  has  been stored       PCB
since March 1977 under  court  order.  The    storage  & road
operator stored oil  for recycling and       application
road application until  the  oil was  found
to be contaminated by  PCB's.   The
operator is not financially able to  dispose
of contaminated oils.   Some oil has  been
disposed at the expense of  the State of
Iowa.  1300 gallons  of contaminated  oil
remains in storage at  Marion  and 23,000
gallons at Fort Dodge  until financial
arrangements for disposal  can  be made.
Malvern, Iowa, 1980
     Approximately 1200 drums,  some
rusting and leaking of flammable
chemicals stored in an unsafe,  wooden
warehouse, pose threats of  fire and
explosion, potentially toxic  vapors
and contamination of a nearby stream
to the community in Malvern,  Iowa.
Private residents are located within
500 feet and bulk storage in  3 gasoline
tanks is about 100 feet from  the rear of
the warehouse.  The site is owned by Robert
Richter-  Efforts are underway to remedy
the situation.  EPA has expended $10,000 in
Section 104 Emergency Funds and the State
has agreed to assume any additional costs.
An enforcement action was filed 3/21/80 in
Federal District Court to obtain relief that
would abate the imminent hazard.
toluene, creotone
zinc oxide
surface water

Charles City, Iowa
     This disposal site is located on the bank of
the Cedar River in Charles City, Iowa.  Salisbury
Laboratories disposed of large quantities of
chemical wastes resulting from the manufacture of
pharmaceutical products at the site since 1953.
Significant amounts of arsenic and organics,
including orthonitroaniline, have been found to be
leaching to the river from the disposal site.
Orthonitroanaline was found in wells over 100
kilometers from the site.  An Administrative Order
was issued by EPA in July 1979 which ordered
Salsbury Laboratories to undertake a series of
remedial actions on a specific schedule including
installation of a groundwater monitoring system.
Monitoring was initiated in September 1979.

Omaha, Iowa
    Ground water 1s contaminated in a zone 5100 feet
wide, 670 feet long (truncated by the Missouri River),
and 40 feet deep. The bottom of the contaminated zone
coincides with the bedrock surface.  Beginning in 1972,
an investigation was made of the extent of possible
ground water contamination associated with the Omaha
landfill.  The landfill 1s 9 years old and covers 110
acres.  No remedial action was reported.
Ames, Iowa
    Ground water was contaminated in a zone extending
7000 feet down-gradient from the landfill  and to a
vertical depth of between 80 and 100 feet.  In 1972,
an Investigation was made to determine whether a
landfilll was causing contamination and, 1f so, to
what extent.  The landfill is 18 years old and covers
34 acres.  No remedial action was reported.

Newton, Kansas
     Fifty-six cattle died and another one
hundred twelve were contaminated when waste
transformer oil containing RGB's was used on back
rubbers at a farm.  The 112 cattle were slain and
buried in an EPA approved south-central Kansas
industrial waste disposal site along with 70 pounds
of contaminated meat, 2 empty PCB contaminated
back rubbers, and 70 cubic yards of PCB contaminated
soil.  The PCB contaminated oil is in storage
awaiting an appropriate disposal method.
PCB cattle
Vulcan Materials Co., Wichita, Kansas
     The Vulcan Materials Co. operated a waste
disposal facitilty  in Wichita, Kansas.  In the
early 1970's extensive air and water pollution
were caused by improper management practices.
Breached lagoons and contaminated runoff resulted
in numerous fishfills.  Vulcan paid a $10,000 fine
for a 1976 fishkill.  Vulcan claims to have spent
$8.9 million on site cleanup and implementation of
a comprehensive waste management program is
complete.  The Kansas Department of Health and
Environment and the EPA Regional Office inspected
the site and facility during the summer of 1979
and approved the clean-up effort.
air & water

Cherryvale, Kansas
     The National Zinc Company site is an inactive
zinc processing facility.  Active clean-up of this      zinc
site has been taking place over the last two years      ground water
under the direction of the State.  Several settling
ponds have been drained and bottom sediments scraped
into the center for further disposal.   A majority of
the structure on-site have been partially disassembled
or removed.

West Point, Kentucky
     The "Valley of the Drums" is an abandoned
disposal site containing approximately 17,000
drums of industrial waste.  Federal funds were
spent to temporarily contain the site.  An
emergency waste treatment system was also
installed.  The State is negotiating with the
waste generators         for removal of the drums
and proper disposal.  Chemicals migrating from the
site have been detected in streams draining to the
Ohio River.
industrial wastes
surface water
Louisville, Kentucky, 1977
     The municipal sewer system was contaminated
by chlorinated organic chemicals dumped by Donald
Distler, a waste hauler.  The wastewater treatment
plant was temporarily evacuated by workers due to
toxic fumes produced by the  illegally dumped
wastes.  EPA funded the cleaning of the municipal
sewers and removal of contaminated sludges.
Distler was convicted on criminal charges of
illegal dumping under the Clean Mater Act.
chlorinated organics
wastewater treatment
  plant, surface water

Louisville, Kentucky
     For five years Lee's Lane Landfill    methane  gas
received municipal and industrial wastes,  evacuation
In 1975 officials temporarily evacuated
eight families because of explosive methane
gas.  The dump was subsequently  closed.
Approximately 400 drums of hazardous waste
are located at the dump within the flood-
plain of the Ohio River.  A gas  venting
system is planned for installation at  the

West Point, Kentucky
     The "Brickyard" site is an  abandoned  industrial wastes
disposal site which was used by  Donald     surface waters
Distler for drum storage.  The site
contains thousands of drums on the
surface.  No effort to contain the site
had been made and surface water
contamination has occurred.

Bayou Sorrel, Louisiana,  1978
     On July 25, a truck  driver employed by
Clean Land Air Water, (CLAW)  died of hydrogen
sulfide asphyxiation while dumping a load of
chemicals into a pit owned by CLAWS's sister
company, Environmental  Purification Advancement.
The facility contained  four surface impoundments
and a landfill cell.  The site, however, was
only permitted for landfill cell.  The liquid
waste originated from chemical and petroleum
industries.  The state  revoked the permit for
land disposal and required Environmental
Purification Advancement  to cleanup the site.
The company is reported to have spent $1,000,000.
The company implemented an enhanced evaporation
plan which accelerated the evaporation and
dispersion of pollutants  into the atmosphere.
This kind of approach,  however, can not be
considered as containment, treatment or
hydrogen sulfide
organics, toxic
death, air
ground water
Baton Rouge, Louisiana, May 1979
     Petro-Processors of Louisiana, Inc. has
dumped hazardous waste into a waste disposal
site.  Heavy rains transported the chemicals
to an adjacent 550 acres of farmland which
toxic wastes
soil, vegetation
cattle deaths

damaged vegetation.  The farmer has waged
a ten-year court fight over the pollution.
His sister and brothers accepted and out-of-
court settlement of $10,000 each plus $20,000
for 160 cattle who died after the chemical
leaks were discovered.  Cleanup costs are
expected to be substantial.
DeQuincy, Louisiana
     A firm used a site In DeQuincy,
Louisiana for land disposal of toxic wastes.
At the DeRidder site, wastes leaking from
some of the 3000 drums stored there have
caused vegetation stress.  Vapors have
also been observed emanating from the
drums.  The site is also subject to flooding
and wash-outs.  Those materials that have not
washed downstream are burled.  Property
surrounding the site is now being developed
for residential use.  State court action
enjoined the firm from further use of portions
this site.  Cleanup costs are expected to be
toxic wastes
surface water, air

Ville Platte, Louisiana
     The BWS Tate Cove site was supposed to
be temporary storage for 5000 drums of industrial  toxic organics
wastes. This unsecured, abandoned site was         heavy metals
poorly managed.  Hazardous wastes, including
toxic organics and heavy metals, have entered
Coulee Teal, which is a recharge area for the
Chicot aquifer.  The cleanup costs for temporary
abatement of runoff is being assessed.
surface and
ground water
Sorrento, Louisiana
     The Cleave Reber site has been abandoned
since 1972 and contains 600 very badly
deteriorating waste drums containing
sulfuric acid, cyclohexamine, and
waste oils and greases. A pond containing
PCB's, drains into a tributary of Blind
River.  The site may also contain styrene tars
that have been covered over.  Currently the
site is under investigation for remedial action.
Organics, PCB's
surface water

Browing-Ferris Industries, Inc. (Darrow/Geismer), Ascersion Parish, Louisana
    The site was opened as a landfill operation
in 1967 by Industrial Waste, Inc.  Industrial Waste,
Inc. had problems with liquid wastes leaving the site
and entering Bayou Conway.  In 1970, approval was
given to operate a refuse and garbage disposal operation
at the same site; however, industrial wastes were
accepted and stored.  Browning-Ferris Industries
purchased the landfill in 1973 but was apparently
unaware of a Cease and Desist Order or disposal
restrictions that had been placed on the site.  In 1974,
BFI started repair of dikes and contracted for the removal
of some of the styene tars.  In January 1978, a dike was
washed out and liquid wastes spilled onto the adjacent land,
BFI repaired the dikes and did some cleanup.
liquid wastes
surface water

Ba1 Ieyv I II e, Ma 1ne
    A large paper mill constructed three lagoons      chemical wastes
In 1977 to treat a wastewater flow of about 35 MGD.   ground water
The lagoons were expected to be "self sealing"
from the deposition of Inert solids so no liners
were Installed.  Adjacent ground water quality moni-
toring surveys has shown elevated levels of sodium,
IDS, sulfate,  iron, chloride, calcium, and magnesium.
Sampling of surface waters near the Impoundments also
show Impact.   A series of meetings have taken place
between the company's representatives and the Maine
Department of  Environmental Protection (DEP) to effect
a lasting solution to the pollution problem.

East Gray, Maine
    A waste disposal  site  In East Gray, Maine         chemical wastes
accepted an estimated  100,000 to 200,000 gallons      well  water
annually of waste oils,  process bottom wastes,
tank bottom wastes, septic tank wastes, Industrial
process wastes, and various other  liquid wastes.
These wastes were stored  In tanks or  placed  In a  1/2
acre aspha11-I Ined  lagoon.  Two years after  commence-
ment of operations complaints of  poor water quality were
voiced by nearby residents.   In  1977  trlchlorethane,
trIchloroethylene, dimethyl sulfate,  acetone,
trImethyIsI Ianol, xylene,  freon and assorted  alcohols
were found  In  20 nearby  residential well waters.   It
was  later verified that  the contamination originated
from the waste disposal  site.   A  moratorium  has been
placed on any  new construction  within a 2-mile radius
of the site and the facility  has  been closed.   Interim
measures have  been taken to  supply residents  with
drinking water until  a  long-term  solution  Is  found.

North Berwick, Maine, I960

    Eight abandoned trailers, containing 800 drums    phenols

of hazardous materials, Including* phenols, toluene,   surface waters

xylene, and creosol were located on the unused portion

of an industrial  parking lot.  The transporters

intended to use this area as a storage and transfer

facility without benefit of required State approvals.

Two of the trailers are leaking In close proximity

of a drainage ditch which leads to the Great Works

River.  All of the drums and trailers have been removed

by the State.  Threat to surface waters allowed EPA

to use CWA section 311 funds to provide site security.

Easton Maine

 Since the early 1960's a potato processing           chemical  wastes

plant and an adjacent sugar beet processing           surface water

plant have established 21  separate surface

Impoundments covering 175 acres to

dispose of, treat, or store their effluent.

The lagoons were not properly engineered,  were

poorly maintained and did  not work properly.

Enforcement actions were hampered by bankruptcy

court proceedings.  Although surface water Impact

from the lagoons Is the most obvious problem,

groundwater contamination  is highly suspected.  A few

private drinking water.wells have become contaminated

but a positive connection  between the contamination

and the lagoons has not been established.

GUI1 ford, Maine
     State officials have warned fisherman to use
discretion in eating fish from the Piscataquis and
Penobscot Rivers due to TRIS, a carcinogen
reportedly discharged into the rivers illegally in
surface water
Saco, Maine
     In 1974 tests indicated that private drinking
water wells adjacent to the town dump had been
contaminated with chromium, iron and manganese.
Disposal of sludges from wastewater treatment
plants receiving large amounts of tannery waste
was apparently the cause of the problem.
heavy metals
drinking water wells
Gray, Maine
     In 1977 residential wells were contaminated
with trichloroethylene and other chemicals by a
solvent and oil waste processing facility.
Municipal water lines were extended to the
affected community at a cost of $500,000.  Health
effects studies are being conducted.  The State
paid for cleanup of the site.
 TCE,  organics
 drinking water wells

Baltimore, Maryland
     Allied Chemical has used chrome ore
wastes for many years as fill in the
Baltimore Harbor area. Leachate from the
fill has drained to the harbor through
storm sewers and has disrupted aquatic
life at the bottom of the harbor.  A
temporary containment and treatment
system has been installed by the State.
Permanent remedial measures will be
undertaken by the State.

Fairchild Republic, Hagerstown, Maryland
     In 1979, Hagerstown, Maryland officials
suspected that chemicals from the Fairchild
Republic Co. were leaching into the groundwater.
Health Department officials located two wells
with contamination.  A consultant has been
contracted to study the wells in the area.
surface water
   toxic chemicals

Sharptown, Maryland,  I960

    Thirty-four storage tanks containing 170,000

gallons of waste oil  contaminated with PCB's,

xylene, benzene, etc.,  are Inadequately stored

adjacent to the Nantlcoke River, a tributary

of Chesapeake Bay and a prime spawning ground

for rockflsh.  Approximately $500,000 In

section 31 I(k) funds have been committed to

clean up the site.  Arrangements are being made

to relocate oil/RGB liquids to temporary

storage at a GSA facility In Curtis Bay, Maryland
waste oiI, PCB «s

surface water

Freetown, Massachusetts. 1979
    An unknown  quantity of organic  solvents were
burled In  leaking drums and dumped  in a pit area
at the H&M  Drum Company's illegal  site.  The
subsurface  geology consists of  gravel deposits
underlain  with  a clay lense 5 to  7  feet in
thickness.   The site also has approximately 300
drums stored in 3 semitrailers  and  700 drums
stored in  a  warehouse adjacent  to  the site.
The State  has acted to remove barrels, however
funds are  not available at this time  to decontaminate
soils or remove materials that  have leached into
the ground.   The owner of the company was criminally
indicted by  a State court and received a jail sentence.
             organic solvents
             land and groundwater
Bedford, Massachusetts, 1979
     The Boston suburb of Bedford has lost 85
percent of its municipal water supply due to
well contamination of dioxane and TCE.  The
town is buying water to replace the supply and
is spending $100,000 to identify the source of
the chemicals.  Several large firms have been
named as potential generators.
dioxane, ICE
drinking water supply

Dorchester, Massachusetts
     In 1979 after complaints of air pollution and
several fires, the City of Boston hired a waste
disposal contractor to remove 2000 barrels of
mixed chemical waste from the site of a bankrupt
wastehauler.  Costs totalled $56,000.  The State
has filed criminal charges in this case.
chemical wastes
fire, air pollution
Rehoboth, Massachusetts, 1978
     Illegal dumping of chemical wastes near Shad
Factory Pond contaminated private wells and
threatened a reservoir.  Among the identified
chemicals are toluene, trichloroethylene, and
ethyl acetate.  Cleanup cost the State $125,000.
chemical wastes
drinking water wells
Lowel1, Massachusetts
     A million gallons of hazardous wastes,
including solvents, waste oils, plating wastes,
toxic  metals and chlorinated hydrocarbons, were
leaking from an abandoned toxic waste disposal
site.  Rain water runoff caused contamination of
Concord River's aquatic environment.  EPA, State
officials, and private contractors removed most of
organics, heavy metals
surface water

the wastes at a  cost  to  the  State  of
approximately $1.5 million.   Another  $600,000
is needed to finish the  work,  and  those
monies have been appropriated  by the  state
legislature.  The contaminated soil and
monitoring requirements  have  not been  met.
Acton, Massachusetts,  1979
     Subsurface disposal  of  benzene,
toluene, dichloroethylene, and other
organics by W.R. Grace and Company,
an organic chemical manufacturer,
led to the loss of 45  percent of  the
municipal water supply.   The town has
a ban on non-essential water use.  As
part of an agreement to determine town
action on a request for building  permit
the company funded a $90,000 groundwater
study.  The results of that  study have
provided the basis for Federal enforcement
action and a Section 7003 RCRA lawsuit
has been filed.  The company has simply
agreed to short term cessation of
discharge of wastes to unline lagoons and
of site storage of wastes, but not to the
broader relief sought by  the government.
toluene, etc.
drinking water wells


     The State of Massachusetts has compiled a
report documenting the severity of groundwater            chemical  contamination
pollution by hazardous substances in that state.          drinking water wells
In 1978 only four communities had closed wells
because of toxic chemical contamination.  By
September 1979, a total of 22 communities had been
affected, with other incidents of contamination
being identified in 26 other communities.  In
September of 1979, at least one-third of Massachusetts's
communities had been affected to some degree by chemical
contamination.  The average loss of water resources to
these communities was approximately 40 per cent, with
a  range of 5 to 100 per  cent loss.  These data exclude
instances of contamination by salt or PCB's.  The
Department of  Housing  &  Urban Development exhausted
their Imminent Hazard Fund in MA by partially funding
new  supplies  in Rowley and Grovel and.  The FmHA also
provided a portion of the Funds for Rowley.  A number
of communities are purchasing supplies from peaking
wells from other towns or from the Boston Metropolitan
District Commission whose supply is now  serving 120%
over capacity.

Story Chemical Co., Dalton, Michigan
     In 1976, the Cordova Company purchased
the assets of the bankrupt Story Chemical  Co.
and agreed to pay for site cleanup in ex-
change for a release from future liability.
Story Chemical had abandoned 8100 55-gallons
drums of chemicals and 8000 cubic yards of
sludges on the site and had, during plant
operation, stopped operating a groundwater
purge system installed by a predecessor at
the facility.  Costs to connect 36 private
residents to a nearby municipal water supply
are estimated at $3 million.  Cordova has  spent
$600,000 on cleanup and the State has spent
Mixed chemicals
drinking water

Monroe County, Michigan
    An investigation was made to evaluate
existing and potential pollution resulting
from a landfill  in Monroe County, Michigan.
The presence of  springs around the periphery
of the landfill  suggests that a ground-water
mound has  developed within the fill.  Ground-
water contamination is limited to the area
beneath the landfill.
ground water
 Bronson,  Michigan
     In 1949,  a shallow domestic well was found
 to be contaminated with chromium.  The contamination
 was traced to leakage from two ponds of a major
 plating company.   Apparently, a ground-water mound
 had formed beneath the ponds.  No  remedial  action
 was reported.
     plating wastes
     ground water

Cast Forge, Inc., Howell, Michigan,

    PCS contamination of groundwater and surface

water.  Company discharged PCS contaminated wastewater

into a lagoon which in the past discharged directly to

the south branch of the Shiwassee River and continues to

discharge to groundwaters.  Sediment and fish of that

river have been contaminated with high concentrations of

PCB.  State has filed a civil  action against the company

seeking cleanup of site.  EPA is monitoring the State's

act Ion.

f i sh ,r iver

sed i ment
Story Chemical Company, Muskegon County, Michigan, 1979

    Surface storage of drummed waste, with occasional

burial  using  Insufficient cover techniques.  Cleanup of

distillation residues, solvents, and raw materials is

under way.  Residential well contamination has been

confirmed.  New owner has completed removal of major

sources of pollution.  State has appropriated funds for

further cleanup and alternate drinking water supplies.
industr ia I



West K.L. Avenue Landfill, Kalamazoo, Michigan, 1979

    Primarily a sanitary landfill.   Received some In-

 ustrial  wastes.  Confirmed ground  water contamination

of private wells off-site.  Private citizens sued for

cleanup and have negotiated a settlement with the company

which would provide an alternative  water supply for  the

Ind ustr i a I


dr i nkIng

we I I

Cast. Forge, Inc. , Howell, Michigan
     PCB contamination of groundwater and  surface
water.  Company discharged PCB contamianted waste-
water into a lagoon which in the past discharged
directly to the south branch of the  Shiwassee
River and continues to discharge to  groundwaters.
Sediment and fish of that river have been
contaminated with high concentrations of PCB.
State has  filed a civil  action against  the
company seeking a complete cleanup of site.
EPA  is monitoring the State's action.
 Story  Chemical  Company,  Muskegon County,  Michigan,  1979
fish and river
      Surface  storage of drummed waste,  with
occassional burial  using insufficient cover
techniques.   Cleanup of distillation residues
solvents,  and raw materials  is underway.
Residential well contamination has been confirmed.
New  owner  has completed removal of major  sources
of pollution.  State has appropriated funds for
further  cleanup and alternate drinking water supplies.
industrial wastes
drinking water
 West K.L.  Avenue Landfill,  Kalamazoo,  Michigan,  1979
      Primarily a sanitary landfill.   Received       industrial
 some industrial wastes.   Confirmed groundwater      drinking water
 contamination of private wells off-site.   Private   well
 citizens sued for cleanup and have negotiated
 a settlement with the company which would provide
 an alternative drinking water supply for the

St. Louis, Michigan 1979

     Between 1971 and 1973 the Michigan

(presently Velsicol) Chemical Corporation

dumped and estimated 269,000 pounds of waste

materials containing 60 to 70 percent

(161,400 to 188,300 pounds) of PBB's into

the Gratiot Oounty landfill.  Significant

traces of PBB's and various levels of other

contaminant exist in ground and surface water

sample taken in and around the landfill site;

domestic water wells at the time were uncontaminated.

EPA granted MDNR $75,000 to study area groundwater

ground/surface water
Adrian, Michigan

     Curene 442, a suspected carcinogen, was

reportedly found in high levels in dust

throughout a subdivision neighboring the

Anderson Development Company, manufacturer

of the chemical.  Unacceptable levels of the

chemical were found in workers at the plant

as well as nearby residents.  The State is

conducting an investigation.
Curene 442

human health

Bofors Lakeway, Inc., Muskegon, Michigan
    Groundwater contamination at this facility
results from past process water discharge to
unlined lagoons.  Contaminated groundwaters have
seeped into Big Black Creek.  In addition,
contaminated wastewater and sludges have entered
the  river  via  surface discharges.  Both sources
have  had a serious effect upon aquatic life in
the  Creek  with the effects evident seven miles
downstream.  Contaminants include dichlorobenzidine,
benzedine, aromatic  amines, benzene, and toluene.
A  fraction of  the contaminated groundwater was
removed by the purge system which was  jointly
funded by  company and State.  State has filed for
injunctive relief, penalties  and damages for total
cleanup of site.
ground and surface

Montague, Michigan,  1957-1979

     The State of  fMichigan filed a multi-

million dollar lawsuit,  alleging that Hooker       pesticides

Chemical Co. buried  tons of brine,  asbestos,        ground/surface water

fly ash and deadly pesticides for approximately

two years on an  880  acre site of its factory.

News media reports charged that 20/000 drums were

leaking wastes from  the  manufacture of the pesticide

precursor C-56;  in 1979  officials also discovered

the highest levels of dioxin ever measured in


     The chemicals leaked  in the groundwater,

contaminating private wells,  and then into

White Lake, which  flows  into Lake Michigan

less than a mile away.

     Hooker offered  the  State a $11.5 million

cleanup pact, but  the Attorney General declined.

Cleanup estimates  range  from $15 million to

$300 million.  In  June 1979,  Hooker agreeded to

install a purge well system to intercept contaminated

water before it  reached White Lake.   In October of

1979, this Company and the State agreed on a

cleanup plan costing over $15 million.

Oscoda, Michigan
     In 1973 high levels of trichloro-
ethylene, a carcinogen, were found in the
well of a private residence.  Over the
following five years>seven other private
residential wells and an industrial  well
used by employees for drinking became
contaminated.  The suspected cause is
open dumping of TCE on the site of a
nearby auto parts plant.  Public water
has been supplied to the residents at a
cost of $140,000, borne by the FHA and
the municipality.
drinking water
Oakland County, Michigan
     Two illegal dumpsites in Oakland
County, Michigan have been named as the
source of PCB's,toxic solvents and other
chemicals found in local wells in August
1979.  Approximately 2000 drums were dumped
at the sites about 12 to 14 years ago.  The
Michigan Department of Natural Resources is
involved in testing local wells and expects
to spend about $500,000 to remove the drums
from the site.  The State declared the
site a "toxic" substances emergency in
September, 1979.
 mixed  chemicals
 drinking water


Pollution Control, Inc.
Shakopee, Minnesota
     28,000 thousands drums of mixed
unidentified chemicals, many of which are          mixed chemicals
flammable solvents and are leaking,
have been stored at this abandoned
site.  A State District Court ordered the
dump's owner Melvin Bell to remove all
barrels, ash, sludge and contaminated soil or
surrender a $900,000 judgement.  Currently
there are about 5000 barrels remaining
along with most of the ash and sludge.
Bell and other principals in the company
now operate a waste disposal incinerator
in El Dorado, Arkansas.

St. Paul,  Minnesota
    After being assured that no surface

impoundments were present on the Koppers

Coke Company property In St. Paul, the MPCA

staff discovered a I0'xl3f unllned basin used

to dispose of oil, grease, various hydrocarbons

and phenols.   Inspection of the property as a

condition of sale revealed both soil and ground-

water contamination with PAH's (polynuclear aromatic

hydrocarbons) as far as  1400' from the pit.   It

Is not known whether deep aquifers are

contaminated.  Corrective measures will be

required by the State.

so I I, ground water
Welsman Scrap Metal, WInona, Minnesota,  1979
    This Is an Inactive site.  500 cubic yards of

PCB - contaminated soil and oil have been placed

in a plastic  lined and covered diked area and  is

awaiting disposal.  Water supply wells are within

3/4 mile.  One well showed a PCB concentration as

high as 45 ppb.  The State Is  Investigating proper

disposal alternatives.
industrial wastes

drinking water

we I I s

Jordan, Minnesota
    The Jordan, Minnesota Municipal  treatment
plant produced an average of 268 MGD in 1978
which discharged into a 24-acre primary basin of
which approximately five acres are covered with
an average depth of seven inches.  The seepage
rate for the ponds and area was estimated to be
44,000 gpd per acre with an accumulation of sludge
from 0.4 to 1  foot thick.  The pond  is completely
anaerobic.  An aquifer monitoring study has shown
phosphorous in groundwater to be about 400 times
background levels 75 feet from the pond.  Nitrate
levels are at least 800 times background 500 feet
from the pond.  In addition, significant
concentrations of detergents were found in
adjacent ground waters.  The State has included
the Jordan facility on its needs survey.

Pine Bond Area,  Minnesota

    In 1971  three major industrial  facilities         chemical  wastes
were shown by the Minnesota Pollution Cash            aquifer
Agency (MPCA) to have contaminated  two square
miles of drinking water aquifer in  the St. Paul
area through the use of unlined seepage ponds and
finishing lagoons.  The groundwaters were
characterized by high total solids, nitrate,
phenolic compounds and sulphate concentrations,
as well as low pH and the presence  of
petroleum odors.  Meetings were held between the
MPCA and each of the companies in 1972.  The use
of the lagoons and ponds were discontinued, monitoring
programs were implemented, treatment facilities were
upgraded and alternate water supplies to the affected
population were provided by the polluting companies.

Rush Creek and Garvin Brook, Minnesota,  1978
     On May 20, 1978, a  fish kill
occurred on Rush Creek and Garvin
Brook near St. Charles in
southeastern Minnesota.  Approximately
100,000 fish were killed including
10,000 trout.  An estimated 13 miles
of trout waters were destroyed.  Most
aquatic life necessary to support fish
was also killed.  This was the worst
event in a recent series of similar
kills in Minnesota.  A similar kill
was observed in Dushee Creek, MN, in
June 1974.  Additional kills were
observed during early June 1979 on
Pine Creek, MN.  The kill on June 7
on this watershed was termed heavy by
one observer who described "windrowed"
dead fish (mainly suckers).  Agricultural
chemicals were implicated in this
toxic event — possibly an organo-
phosphate insecticide.
fish kill
surface water

Minneapolis, Minnesota

    An investigation was made to determine

the extent of possible ground-water contamination

from a landfill during preliminary work  for

highway construction.  The landfill was

in an abandoned limestone quarry.  At  first

all types of refuse went into the site, with

disposal into several feet of water in

the quarry.  Later, only demolition wastes were

accepted.  An investigation  revealed ground-

water contamination and traced  it to the landfill

operation.  The landfill is  situated in  an

abandoned limestone quarry,  which was  about half

full of water.  Ground water is unconfined.

The site was excavated and dewatered for freeway

construction.  The water removed by dewatering

was chlorinated and discharged  to surface water.

ground water

Woodbury Township, Minnesota

    From the mid-fifties until 1966, a company
used pits for disposal of spent solvents and          spent solvents
acids.  A 1963 investigation by the Minnesota         acid
Water Pollution Control Commission indicated the      groundwater
possibility of groundwater contamination. The
report recommended that disposal of acids be stopped
and all other wastes go to clay-lined impoundments.
These two recommendations were followed, but in
1966, one of the nearby private wells showed ground-
water contamination.  All use of the disposal site
was stopped.  A 200-foot test well was drilled, and
most ground-water contamination was found near the
surface.  The 200-foot well was converted to
a barrier well to prevent the spread of groundwater
contamination.  Pumping at 700 gallons per minute began
January 1968.  Two additional barrier wells have since been
constructed and put in operation.  Pumping continues,
but contamination is still present.

Duluth, Minnesota 1973 to the Present
    In June 1973 asbestos-related minerals
or  fibers were  found  in Lake Superior, the
source of supply of drinking water for a
number of communities,  including the City of
Duluth.  This finding came  during the course
of  litigation charging  the  Reserve Mining
Company  of  Silver  Bay,  Minn., with polluting
the lake through the  dumping of waste
tailings from its  taconite  ore mining
 operation.   Taconite  is a low-grade  iron
 ore.  Although  there  was  dispute about the
 precise  nature  and concentrations of the
 asbestos-like fibers  in the waters of the
 lake, there was much  public concern  about
 the presence of any absestos-like substances.
 Asbestos is a known human carcinogen when  inhaled
 occupationally, causing several kinds of cancer,
 including  lung  cancer,  mesothelioma, and
 gastrointestianl cancer.  Despite the lack  of
 known  evidence  that asbestos fibers  ingested
 with drinking water would produce cancer or
 other  health hazards, a number  of these
 communities around the  lake implemented
 additional  treatment  processes  to remove
 the substances  from their drinking water intakes.
drinking water
Lake Superior

Cass Lake Area,  Minnesota

    The St.  Regis Paper Company produces an            arsenic,  groundwater

average wastewater discharge of 12,000 gallons

per day from a wood treatment operation which goes

into an unlined,  aerated pond.  A groundwater

monitoring program established in 1979 has

shown concentrations of arsenic to be 3 times

the Federal primary drinking water standards,

phenol to be 10,000 times the Federal secondary

drinking water standards and pentachlorophehal to

be 10 times the EPA recommended drinking water

level.  In addition, complaints were received

from private citizens in the area about creosote

taste and odor in their well waters and about

the polluted and unusable condition of a nearby

swimming beach.   Final disposition of this

situation is pending a State study of several

Proposed options.

Perham, Minnesota, 1972
     In May 1972, a local contractor,
Hammer Construction Co., occupied a new office     arsenic
and warehouse structure at the outskirts of        drinking water
Perham, a town of 1900 residents in western
Minnesota.  At that time, a well was drilled to
supply drinking water for about 13 people who
worked on the premises.
     Early in May, five employees became ill
with gastrointestinal symptoms.  Following this,
and continuing throughout the next 10 weeks,
other employees also became ill.  Arsenic poisoning
was determined to be the cause, which affected a
total of 11 out of 13 persons exposed to the
     The source of the well water contamination
has been tracked back to the mid-1930's at which
time grasshoppers had constituted a serious problem
to farmers in the area.  Some residents recall that
excess grasshopper bait had been buried at the
former County Fairgrounds, in a corner which
was used as the village dump in those days.
The estimated costs of.solutions range upward
from $25,000.

Kansas City, Missouri
     The Conservation Chemicals Company site is a
chemical waste treatment/disposal facility located
on the river-side of the flood control level, at
the confluence of the Missouri and Blue Rivers in
Kansas City, Missouri.  The facility was operated
since the early 1960's and consisted of three
disposal lagoons, a neutralization basin and
several'storage tanks.  The site is located in
sandy soil and groundwater contamination has been
documented.  In July 1977 the State of Missouri
ordered the company to close, stabilize and cover
the lagoons.  The closure plan has not yet been
completed.  Additional groundwater monitoring is
necessary to more specifically define the extent
of contamination.
chemical waste

Dittmer, Missouri,  1977
     In 1977 a contaminated  waste  pit  in
Missouri was found  to  be  responsible  for
killing all  life  in an adjacent  stream,
as well as generating  fogs  and odors  and
producing  large  amounts  of  contaminated
wastes.  Chemical wastes  including PCBs
apparently had been dumped  into  the  illegal
pit.   The  facility  was an unpermitted
chemical waste disposal site containing
buried drums and  an open  pit where waste
oil  and chemicals had  been  poured.  A CWA
section 311  action  was taken to  clean up
the  site.  Contaminated soil was removed
from the site and sent to a permitted land-
fill (the  permitted landfill has been
closed and all wastes  must  be relocated).
A  carbon absorption unit  was installed on
the  stream which  empties  into the  Merrimac
River. The  cost  to cleanup the  site was
$535,000.  Monitoring  is  conducted by the
State  of Missouri.
chemical waste
aquatic life
surface water

St. Charles, Missouri, 1980
    Approximately 100 drums, suspected to contain
methyl-ethylketone, arsenic trioxide, chlordane,
malathion, and another 50 drums containing unknown
contents are stored in the St. Charles City Warehouse.
Toxic fumes pose a hazard to nearby workers and the
storage area is not diked, located on gravel, and
is adjacent to a drainage ditch.  Efforts to remedy
the situation are underway.  Costs to the City and
State are unknown.  EPA has expended $10,000 from
Section 104 Emergency Funds.
hazardous chemicals
surface water
    The death of numerous animals at three stables
led to an investigation.  After 3 years, it was
detemined that an extremely toxic chemical called
dioxin was responsible for the deaths and illness.
Dioxin had inadvertantlybeen mixed with waste oil
spread in the riding areanas to control dust.
Those animals coming into contact with the
contaminated soil died.  Contaminated soil was
excavated from the stables and removed to
landfills, a highway construction site, and a yardfill
animal deaths

St. Joseph, Missouri

     An unpermitted site where two hundred  sixty four

55-gallon drums containing liquid chemical  wastes      toxic wastes

(consisting primarily of isopropanol, butanol,

stoddard solvent, methyethleketone, phenolics,

and acrylics) were improperly stored  and disposed

of.  Site  is owned by Norris & Sons,  Inc.  Open

pit on site was being used to dispose of liquid

wastes.  Site is being  cleaned up under state order.

Generator has agreed to remove drummed  wastes from

the site.  Estimated clean up cost  is $70,000.
Verona,  Missouri

      Three sites in the Verona,  Missouri area have       dioxin

presently been identified as potential dioxin disposal   environmental

sites.   Investigations at the three sites are being      damage

conducted by EPA.

      The dioxin wastes resulted from the production

of hexachlorophene in 1969-1972 by the Northeast

Riarmaceutical Company.  The company rented equipment

and  operating space from Syntex Agribusiness during the

period of hexachlorophene production.  Wastes from this

process were disposed at several sites.  Several of the

sites are not secure and environmental contamination may

have occurred.  The Northeast Riarmaceutical Company has

declared bahkrupcy.

     EPA Region VII lab has completed  the analyses

water samples taken in the Baldwin Park area, one

of the areas identified as a potential dioxin

contaminated site.  All samples taken  indicated

that water in the area meets or fells  below the

maximum contaminant levels of the National

Interim Primary Drinking Water Standards.

Frontenac (St. Louis County), Missouri

     About 29,000 gallons of waste oil containing

300-400ppn PCB's were stored on a local waste oil   PCS

storage site owned by Bliss Oil Company.  The one   potential  surface

15,000 gallon capacity tank was in poor condition,       water

with drainage into a creek possible.   The creek had  contamination

eroded the foundation under the tank before the oil

was removed.  The owner removed the materials to  a

permitted facility after signing a Federal Consent


Butte, Montana - Radiation Problem

     Monitoring data  In Butte has  Indicated

anomalously high levels of gamma radiation

possibly caused by construction related  use of

phosphate slag  In residential stuctures, driveways

and streets.  The primary  health affects concern  Is

associated with elevated  levels of  Indoor radon decay

products which  have  been  found  In  the area.   HUD  has

required an evaluation of  Indoor radon decay  products

prior to  Insuring home  loans.   EPA awarded  a  $72,000

grant to the Montana  Department of Health and

Environmental Sciences to further  assess the  problem

and aid  In EPA's radon standards setting program.

     This concern over high  radiation levels  In Butte,

is  In part related to data which  Indicates  a  lung

cancer rate of  54.3  per  100,000 per year while the

Statewide average  Is only 30.1  per 100,000.

     At  present the  extent of  the  problem Is  undefined

and there  Is no IdentIfable  source of funding to  correct

this  problem.
gamma radiation

air/human health

Henderson, Nevada, 1980
     The Desert Research Institute discovered
thirthlon pesticides 1n a Bureau of Reclamation
well 200 yards from a waste disposal site.
     Access to the BMI-Stauffer Chemical Co. site
for sampling soils and surface-and ground water
contamination has been refused to EPA contractors.
EPA employees have entered the site to sample.
Some surface waters in the area have been sampled.
Preliminary analysis of samples indicates low levels
of many organic compounds.  It is believed that
ground water contamination will  be found.  No
assessment of damage costs are available at
this time.
ground water

                               NEW HAMPSHIRE
Exeter, New Hampshire, 1978
     Seventeen private wells adjacent to the Cross
Road landfill were found to be contaminated with
phenols, one well was 750 times drinking water
standards.  Lime was applied to the site, and the
town has approved a $200,000 bond issue to supply
public water to the area.  There has been no
restoration of groundwater.
drinking water
Raymond, New Hampshire, 1979
     Drums of chemicals were disposed of on the
site; 30 drums are stored at the site and an un-
known number are buried.  State sampling of surface
water revealed presence of organics.  Surface water
runs off the site to a tributary of the Exeter
River.  The State issued an order in April, 1979 for
cleanup of the drums of chemicals and planned to
divert surface waters around the site.  EPA is
investigating the site under CWA section 311.
surface water

Nashua/ New Hampshire

     A private  landfill  is  responsible for 1500       chemical wastes

barrels and reported bulk disposal of  chemical

and industrial wastes.   A State  court  judgement held

the operator responsible but determined that  the

property owner was not (owner  is mother-in-law  to

operator).  The court further  decided  that the  State

should clean up the site and return  for possible

financial penalties to be leveled.   There  are two

trailer parks also on the site,  with new cement bases

for additional trailers  permitted to be less  than

100 feet from barrels.   Combined use of 208,  Safe

Drinking Water and 104 (CWA) monies  are being used to

develop hydrogeological  information.   The  State has

received a special appropriation of  $300,000  to

clean up this and another site.  EPA is investigating

for 7003 action to force complete clean up by the

owner and operator.

                                 NEW JERSEY
 Deptford Township (Gloucester County),  New Jersey
     The Kinsley Landfill  is approximately 50 feet thick
and covers an area of about 65 acres on  a 300 acre site.
Kinsley accepts municipal  wastes, sewage sludge and
industrial wastes including some chemicals.  The
underlying aquifer contains concentrations of phenols,
cadmium, and lead which exceed drinking  water standards.
Fires have been reported at the site and workers have
complained of skin and eye irritation, as well as
nausea.  The landfill's threat to the surrounding
community has to yet to be determined.
Edison, New Jersey, 1980
      The Kin-Buc landfill encompasses an area of
approximately 220 acres in Edison, New Jersey and was
utilized for the disposal of liquid and solid chemical,
municipal and industrial wastes during the period be-
tween 1969 and 1977.  The landfill site lies adjacent
to the Raritan River and is traversed by two of its
direct tributaries and is also hydraulically connected
via underground aquifers to Mirror Lake, a popular
recreation area.  A pipe and several ditches convey
drainage from pools of liquid wastes into Martins and
Edmonds Creek, both of which flow directly in the Raritan
River.  $50,000 in CWA section 311 funds are being used to
contain wastes and analyze leachate.
surface water

Elizabeth, New Jersey

     At the Chemical Control site,  located on the

banks of the Elizabeth River, 40,000 drums of

chemical wastes were stacked on a smalI site.  Many

contained highly explosive material, and the

site posed a significant fire and explosion hazard

to the area.  The State of New Jersey  has spent

$300,000 for the removal of the most explosive and

radioactive wastes.  The State Department of

Environmental Protection filed suit  In January

1979 against the owners of the bankrupt facility

to force site cleanup.  Estimated cost of total

cleanup was $10-15 million, and was projected to

take at least three years.

     On April 21, 1980, fire erupted at the site

spewing clouds of toxic smoke over the waterfront

section and forcing the shutdown of area schools and

factories.  Eight firemen were Injured, one seriously,

and a resident was treated for respiratory problems.

Residents were advised to stay Inside  until fumes

subsided.  A major catastrophe was narrowly averted

due to winds which blew the toxic clouds away from

heavily populated areas.
chemical wastes

fire, explosion

surface water

air, soiI

human health

Mantua, New Jersey

     The UParl Landfill In Mantua, New  Jersey

accepted chemical  wastes from several producers

Including Rohm and Haas and Owens-Illinois*

Chemical leachate wa entering a nearby stream, and

fish kills were reported.  The site was  closed  In

1970.  A suit filed by the State  for cleanup  was  In

litigation for years.  On March 21,  1980 Federal

suit was filed.
toxic organ Ics

ground & surface


Wins low, New Jersey

      In  1972, four residental  wells  In  WInslow,

N.J.  were closed due to contamination by  phenols.

A large manufacturer of pipe  was  Identified  as the

source of the phenols.  To  remedy  the situation,

the company drained their disposal  lagoons and

constructed new  lined  lagoons.  Nothing was

done  to  restore  the aquifer.

drinking water wells

Bergen County, New  Jersey

     For 40 years,  a company manufactured  a

wide variety of mercury compounds at a  location

near the Hackensack Meadowlands  In Bergen  County,

New Jersey.   In 1974, after the manufacturing plant

had been demolished, It became evident  that the  plant

property was used as a dump for mercury wastes.  High

concentrations of mercury were detected In the soil.

It Is estimated that approximately 200,000 pounds of

mercury were disposed at the plant site.   Testing of

surface waters at the adjacent Hackensack  Meadowlands  Is

currently underway  to determine the environmental Impact

of this Incident and other suspected cases of Indiscriminate

dumping in this area.
mercury,so 11

surface waters
South Brunswick, New Jersey

     Local residents began complaining in 1975 about

water contamination in the area of the Jones  Industrial

Services Landfill.  This site has accepted all types

of chemical wastes, and significant amounts of organic

chemicals were detected in six nearby wells.  The State

ordered the site closed.  Damage to the aquifer Is es-

timated at $300,000.  A lawsuit filed by local residents

was settled out of court for $10,000.
organ Ics

drinking water

we I Is

Bridgeport, New Jersey

     Bridgeport Rental and Oil Service  is a

29 acre site which contains an 11 acre  unlined  lagoon

with unknown quantities of waste oil  and  approximately  50

lined storage tanks with a total volume of greater than

4.5 million gallons   of unknown chemicals.  The waste oil

contains over 40 Clean Water  Act "priority" pollutants.

     The site  is located adjacent to  Cedar Swamp.  The  water

table is less than  5  feet below the surface although no

public wells are  located  in the area.  The water table  layer

of the aquifer  is already contaminated  and the  deeper  layer

is threatened.  The area  Is sparsely  populated, but Chester,

Pennsylvania  is  less  than 2 miles downstream.

Newfield,  New Jersey

     The site  is approximately 23 acres is

located on  property owned by  the Shieldalloy

Corporation.   In  1970 the facility  was  closed

down by the State Health Department because

chromium wastes from  the  firms unlined  lagoon

forced the  closing of private water wells in

the area.   Shieldalloy was required to  suspend

the process which produced the chromium wastes

and replace the contaminated  wells.
     waste oils



     ground water

drinking water

we I Is

 Plumstead Township  (Ocean County), New Jersey
      The Thiokol Corporation Dump has an unknown
 quantity of drums containing mercaptans, spent
 solvents and resins, which were dumped and buried
 over a two acre clearing in the Pine Barrens by
 Thiokol from the late 60's to early 70's.  No
 waste records are available, but as many as 5000
 cubic yards of wastes may have been dumped.  Depth
 to groundwater is estimated at 15 to 20 feet, and
 private wells are located within 3/4 miles of the site.
 Surface water runs within 1000 feet of the site, but no
 analytical data on it is available.  The site is
 located in a fairly remote rural setting, but
 dirt bike trails were observed in the area.  No
 site barriers or waste management practices
 of any kind are evident.

Jackson Township, New Jersey
     Formerly a sandpit, this 5 acre
site received thousands of drums of
phenolic and other organic wastes between
August and December of 1971.  Leaching
from the site has resulted in the permanent
loss of 148 private supply wells and
contamination of an unknown portion of the
Cohansey Aquifer.  The area has been partially
excavated for. removal of the drums,  but
many buried drums of waste are thought to remain.
      chemical  drums
      surface water
toxic organics
drinking water wells

Howe11  Township, New Jersey

     Odor complaints from nearby residents

were first recorded by Howe 11 Township

Health Officers  In December  1974.   55-gallon

drums had been opened and either poured  directly

on the ground or dumped  In open pits.  Chemical

leachate now entered a nearby brook.  To-date  no

action has been taken to cleanup the site.
toxic substances

ground & surface water
Deptford Township,  New  Jersey

     This  site  Is approximately 35 acres and

Is  located adjacent to  a  RCA Corporation

Distribution  Center. The Inactive site Is covered

to  a  large extent with  grass but leachate is

never  the  less  produced at sufficient rates to

pollute adjacent Big Timber Creek.  Chemical

analyses are  planned to determine the compostI on

of  the leachate.

surface water

Kearny, New Jersey
     Meadowlands Sanitary Landfill is a 70
acre currently inactive landfill which allegedly
contains unknown quantity and variety of municipal and
industrial  solid and liquid wastes.  Elevated
approximately 100 feet over the surrounding flatlands,
the fill contains over 11 million cubic yards of
mixed soil  and municipal and industrial refuse.
Located in  a sparsely-populated residential area
adjacent to a marshland draining into the Passaic
River, the  site generates large streams of leachate
and high concentrations of methane gas.  The nearest
drinking water well is within a mile of the site.
Monitoring  wells and a leachate collection and
recirculation system have been installed.   No
site security or waste records exist.
methane gas
drinking water

Pemberton Township, New Jersey
     Pemberton Township Landfill is located near
the Lebanon State Forest  in eastern Burlington
County, New Jersey.   It consists of about 20
acres,  two of which are actively being filled,
while the remainder is covered  with coarse  local
sand.   The on-site operator claimed that  no
chemical wastes  were  ever accepted, but several
full  steel drums exposed  by erosion were  noticed
during  a site inspection. A  residential  well just
below this site  has been  condemned due to organic
contamination.   Many  acres of blueberries and
cranberries  are  located less  than 1/2 mile  down
stream  from  this site.
organic contamination
drinking water well
Hillsborough Township, New Jersey
     This dump is located in Hillsborough Township
in Somerset County.  It is two arces in size and is
located on a very steep terrain.  Several hundred barrels
were reportedly dumped here and leachate analysis by the
New Jersey Department of Environmental Protection has
identified high concentrations of toluene, chloroform,
ethylbenzene, and carbon tetrachloride.  Several high
volume leachate plumes break from the base of the steep
slope and drain into the flaritan River.  Although the site
is posted, it is still used by hunters.
      toluene, chloroform

South Brunswick  (Middlesex  County),  New  Jersey

     This  Is the Princeton  Disposal  Service,  Inc.

site, owned by Browning  Ferris  Industries,  located            pesticides.

In a suburban residential neighborhood.   It was active        chlorinated

from 1970  until closure  in  1978  by administrative order.      hydrocarbons

This resulted from a number of deficiencies and groundwater   surface water

degradation as well as lack of further fill  capacity.

Under the  site area Is the old bridge -  Farrington Aquifer.

Contamination of surface water was reported in  1975.

Contamination of groundwater was reported  in 1976

(elevated  COD and heavy metals).  This area is severely

eroded with visible damage to vegetation.  Strong

chemical leachate is observed.  Tons of  pesticides

and other  chlorinated hydrocarbons were  known to

have been  dumped here.  There Is no site security.
Wall Township, New Jersey

     Monitor Devices  is a very small printed

circuit manufacturer,  located  In an  Industrial

area adjacent to Monmouth Airport  In Wall Township,

N.J.  For a number of years, this  firm has been

discharging Its electroplating rinse waters

directly out the back of the plant and allowing

them to flow down the street.  Since being reported

to the U.S. EPA, a small dike was  built to pond

water behind the plant and EPA Region II personnel

have advised the owner of his NPDES responsibilities,


waste waters

Garfield, New Jersey, 1971
     Leaching from the industrial waste
lagoons contaminated the groundwater and
an industrial well in Garfield, New Jersey.

Fairfield (Essex County)
     In the 1940's metals originating
from electroplating disposal lagoons
contaminated industrial and public water
supply wells.

Manville, New Jersey
     According to State officials dust
from an open asbestos dump operated by a
major pipe manufacturer is a threat to
public health.  State environmental
agency attempts to have the owner cover
wastes with soil had been unsuccessful
as of January 31, 1979.
 Phillipsburg, New Jersey
      Ammonia  and  mercury  laden wastes  spilled
 or leaked from  a  chemical  plant contaminated
 three industrial  supply wells  with  a  combined
 production rate of  over 4,000,000 gallons/day.
 Since the problem's discovery  in 1971,  the plant
 has  discontinued  its mercuric  waste stream;
 the  groundwater quality problem remains.
toxic substances
heavy metals
drinking water wells
land, air
ammonia, mercury

 Neshanic  Station,  New Jersey
      In June  1968,  five members of a farm
 family became ill  after drinking well water.
 The water was contaminated with Lindane 20,
 an extremely  toxic insecticide.  The disposal
 of any empty  pesticide container near the well
 was the source of  the contamination.
 Middletown  Township,  New  Jersey
      In 1973, 60,000  gallons of chemical liquid,
 including crankcase oil and petroleum wastes,
 spilled on  the ground at  the Martee Landfill
 in Middletown Township.   Dead fish and the
 destruction of other  aquatic life alerted
 N.J.  environmental  officials to the problem.
 State and local officials undertook cleanup
  Lindane 20
  well  water
petroleum wastes
aquatic life
Bridgewater Township, New Jersey
     During the 1960's the Ortho Pharmaceutical
Company discharged about 1000 gallons of volatile
liquid organic wastes per week into unlined
subsurface disposal beds. The wastes traveled
one mile underground and polluted a nearby
stream.  The operation was  discontinued in
1968, and all  remaining wastes in  the beds were
removed.   Polluted groundwater was  not restored.
organic wastes
surface & groundwaters

New Brunswick, New Jersey

     The A to Z Chemical Company has

been storing drums containing chemical

wastes since July of 1977.  Many of the

8,000 drums on the property are  leaking

or improperly sealed.  Labels on seme of

the drums  indicate their contents  to

include  solvents, monomer  resins,  and other

flammable  and non-flammable liquids and

solids.  As of March 1980,  there are  no

plans  for  waste  removal and the State has

barely begun testing the  chemicals.
toxic substances

flammable waste

 Winslow Township,  New Jersey

      The King of Prussia site is located

 in the southern corner of Winslow

 Township.  It is an abandoned 80-acre

 liquid chemical waste facility with

 several lagoons.  Linings of lagoons are

 now deteriorated.  There is a large

 area of dead trees on the southeastern

 part of the property.  The site is

 situated directly above the Cohansey

 aquifer.  Groundwater movement is in a

 southeasterly direction towards the great

 Egg Harbor River.  To-date no action has

 been taken to cleanup the site.
toxic substances

ground & surface water

dead vegetation

Woodland Township, New Jersey

     Between the early 1950's and  early

1960's two chemical durtp sites were

operated by 3M, Rohm  & Haas,  and Hercules.

During that time numerous  55-gallon drums

containing unknown chemicals  were  either

burned or buried on site.  The sites are

located in rural area of NJ and are close to

streams which drain into cranberry bogs.

New Jersey Department of Environmental

Protection analysis indicate high  levels

of phenols, toluene,  and cresole.  To-date

nothing has been done to clean up  the site.

Pemberton Township, New Jersey

     Approximately 1500 55-gallon  drums were

dumped on the Lang property prior  to 1975.

The drums were punctured and  emptied onto

the ground, then hauled away  to an unknown

area.  No soil or water has been removed from

the site.  The site is in a very rural  area and

bounded by small streams that flow periodically

on the East and North sides.   Contamination is

not thought to pose an inminent &  substantial

endangerment to health or the  environment.
toxic organics

ground & surface waters

vegetation damage
unknown wastes

Dayton - South Brunswick (Middlesex County), New Jersey
     This is an active generator - on - site facility
known as Mideast Aluminum Industries, Inc.  There are 7
lagoons or ponds on site, 4 of which are now closed,
while 3 are lined.  The capacity of each is between
500,000 and l',000,000 gallons.  The main problem is
the accumulation of aluminum sludge.  There is also
possibility of aquifer contamination.  There was a
large trichloroethane solvent spill in 1977.
aluminum sludge
possibility of
aquifer contamination
Wharton  (Morris County), New Jersey
     The on-site generator is identified as I.E.
Carpenter Co., a manufacturer of vinyl coated
wall and floor coverings.  The company handles
many chemicals, such as vinylene, xylene,
naphthalene, plasticizers, placing residues in
drums  (most of the time) prior to burial.  There
is groundwater contamination showing presence of
phthalate esters, xylene, oil and grease.  Municipal
water  supply wells are in the vicinity, one being 3/4
mile downstream.  There is surface run-off of chemicals
into the Rockaway River less than 150 feet away.
Observed along the river bank is discolored standing
water, discolored silt as well as discolored roots,.
flora  and tree stumps.  Inspection found badly
contaminated water in the plant's storage tank.  There
is evidence of ample pollution on and near this site.
  vinylene, xylene,
  phthalate esters,
  oil and grease.

Monroe Township, New Jersey
     Princetion Disposal  (B.F.I.)  is  an
inactive,improperly closed site which
generates leachate streams adjacent to
a new housing development, where the
homes have private wells.  An  adminis-
trative order has been served  requiring
B.F.I, to correct the problem  by adequate
analysis, diversion ditches, adequate
cover, and leachate disposal and treatment.
groundwater  &
well contamination
Pleasantville, New Jersey
     The Prince Dump accepted large
quantities of chemical waste prior to
1973.  Nearby residents reported seeing
5500 gallon tank trucks dump chemical
waste 4-6 times daily.  The nearest private
well is 150 feet away and the Atlantic City
well fields are 4,000 feet from the site.
To-date no action has been taken to cleanup
the site.
toxic substances
ground water

Cherry Hill, New Jersey
     Earlton Sanitary Landfill  is  an
approximately 10 acre site  in Cherry
Hill, Camden County, New  Jersey.
Although dumping in  this  old gravel
pit  ceased  some  10 to 15  years  ago,
substantial quantities of methane
are  still being  generated.   Wells  in
this area have been  contaminated with
trichlorobenzene and the  nearby residences
have been placed on  city  water. Monitoring
wells,  located along the  east  side,  have a
strong  organic odor  and show groundwater
at a depth  of  10 to  15 feet.   This site
has  been converted to a park and in  places,
the  silt loam  capping has been  eroded away
by dirt bike use.
methane gas
water well
organic odors
 Camden,  New Jersey
      The Harrison Avenue landfill is located in
 an  abandoned gravel pit bordering the Delaware      TCE
 River just north of Camden,  New Jersey.   The site   water wells
 was active until 1976 and supposedly accepted only
 municipal trash.  Contamination of a nearby well
 by  TCE indicates that hazardous materials were
 probably dumped as well.  Leachate from the site runs
 a direct path over tidal mudflats to the Delaware.
 The site has a large residential population nearby.

Monmouth County, New Jersey
     Seaview Square is a two-story shopping mall
built in part, on an inactive landfill in eastern
Monmouth County, N.J.  The portion of this site not
covered by the mall and its parking lots comprises
some 25 acres.  Only coarse local soil materials
cover this area, and wind and water erosion is
judged extreme.  Small, strongly smelling leachate
plumes were seen breaking through the parking lot
pavement and a large plume emptied from beneath
the parking lot into an unnamed tributary of
Deal Lake.  All parts of this site are readily
accessible to the public.
 Kearny,  New Jersey
      The Kearny Chemical  Dump  is  located
 in Hackensack River marshlands  between  Kearny
 and North Arlington in  Essex   County.   It
 consists of about  2 acres  of filled  fly ash
 and chromium  wastes.   Several  drums  dumped here
 were sampled  by state  personnel  and  analysis
 results  are pending.   Construction and  industrial
 refuse  is scattered along  the  water's edge and
 the ground is stained  in many  areas.  Dirt
 bike tracks indicate occasional  recreational
 use of  the site.
     leachate plumes
     surface water
chromium wastes
recreational use

Kearny, New Jersey
     Formerly the location of a chromium
reprocessing plant operated  by Diamond
Shamrock,  this  site  totals approximately
15  acres.  Waste  chromium sludges  were
mixed  with soot-ash, iron salts and  lime,
and dumped to depths of 5 to 10 feet over
approximately 5 acres of the site.   It  is
estimated  that  40-80 thousand cubic  yards
of  these chromium wastes were dumped here.
Sampling and analysis by New Jersey  Depart-
ment of Environmental Protection detected
60,000 ppm Cr in  soil (1500  ppm hexavalent)
and 300 ppm  in  leachate which drains to the
Hackensack River.  The water table is very
shallow at this site, within 5-10  feet of
the surface, and  sinkholes  have developed.

Toms River, New Jersey
     The Toms River Chemical  Company
manufacturer of synthetic organic  dyestuffs
and epoxy resins is all edged to  have disposed
of many of its  chemical wastes in  several  on-
site landfills.   The chemical wastes are believed
to be contaminating the underlying  drinking water
aquifer.  Site  investigations are  still  underway.
chromium, surface
organic dyestuffs
drinking water

Mantua Township, New Jersey
     This landfill, currently owned and operated
by He/I en .M. Kramer, covers an area of about 60
acres and is roughly 40 feet thick.  At present,
the landfill accepts primarily municipal waste,
sewage and sewage sludge, and non-chemical
industrial waste.  In the past, the landfill has
accepted various other types of industrial chemical
waste including hazardous waste.  To the north and
west of the site are cultivated fields, while to
the southeast is a housing development.  Directly
east of the landfill 1s Edward's Run Creek which
directly accepts leachate.  State analyses of
groundwater under the site have verified
contamination of the water beyond potable water
standards.  Several Isolated homes adjacent to
the site probably use well water.
housing development
well water

Trenton, New Jersey
     This 1.5 acre site was purchased by
Delaval Corp. from the H.K. Poter Co., a
brake and clutch manufacturer.  Over a number
of years, Porter dumped asbestos and mercury
laden wastes on this site.  Today, runoff and
leachate from this barren, uncapped site
carry asbestos and other contaminants into
Assunpink Creek.  The site is only partially fenced
and quite close to a residential area.  Use of this
site by dirt bike riders likely increases an
already high amount of airborne asbestos.

Ringwood Boro, New Jersey
     The Ringwood Iron Mines consist of 12 iron
mine shafts and open pits which were commercially
active in the late 1800's.  As late as 1967, Ford
Motor Co. used the abandoned shafts and pits to
dump unknown quantities of spent paint solvents
and sludges.  The local Solid Waste Authority
has added municipal garbage and ink in recent
years.  Groundwater and bedrock are less than 5
feet below the surface site.  Residences are
located adjacent to and on top of the dump areas.
Little or no analytical data exists documenting
possible contamination of potable water supplies.
No site barriers exist.
 surface water
paint solvents
& sludges
                                   169 a

Bellmawr Boro, New Jersey
     The Fazio Landfill is a 50 acre  inactive
site located on a mudflat of the Little  Timber
Creek near the junction of Routes  42  and 295
in Camden County.  Wastes range from  municipal
trash and sewage sludge to dyes and other
industrial chemicals.  A residential  area and  a
public well field are within 1000  feet  of the
site.  The facility  is currently under  review
for an extension of  its landfill permit.
surface water
Mt. Holly, New Jersey
     The Landfill  and Development  Company
operates a 20 acre  landfill  on  the banks
of Rancocos  Creek  and adjacent  to  several
housing developments.   Private  water  wells
in the area, contaminated  with  organic
chemicals, have  been replaced by a deep-well
and water system at the cost of the Landfill
and Development  Company.   The state required
the company  to  install  a liner  at  the fill and
a groundwater pumping and  treatment system to
control the  spread of contaminants but the
effectiveness of the system  is  questionable.
Groundwater  analysis reveals dichloroethylene,
trichloroethylene  and traces of BHC,  dieldrin,
endrine,  chloroform, and carbon textrachloride
organic chemicals
drinking water wells

Marlboro Township  (Monmouth County), New Jersey

     Burnt Fly Bog  is an abandoned oil recovery  landfill   oil,  tar,  PCB's

approximately 1/2 mile  long and  1/4 mile wide.   The        aquifer

whole sit is about  160  acres.  Allegedly chemicals were    endangered

dumped into sandy  lagoons until  the mid 60'a.  Dikes

surrounding the lagoons are eroded and breeched  in

several places.  The site is devoid of vegetation.

Some 300 hundred drums, in various states of decay are

visible.  The contents, if any,  is unknown.  There are

many oily water pools on the site.  There are residences

and private water wells nearby.  Underlying the  bog is an

outcrop of the Englishtown Sand  Aquifer.  PCB's  have been

identified at the site.  The sediment analysis shows a

concentration of 20 ppm, but no  PCB was found in water.

Other chemicals are suspected.

Trenton, New Jersey
     The Duck Island Landfill Is a 56 acre                          exploding drums
                                                                    damaged vegetation
abandoned fill, located in a fairly remote
industrial area south of Trenton, New Jersey
on the Delaware River floodplaln.  It is
adjacent to county parkland and a wetland
which may possibly support nesting eagle
populations.  No records of waste quantities
or types exist, and no sampling or chemical
analyses have been performed for the site.
Exploding drums of waste were observed during
a landfill fire in the late 60's.  Erosion,
leachate migration, and damaged vegetation
have been observed.  There are no drinking
water wells in the area.  There are no site
barriers and extensive open dumping of miscellaneous
debris has occurred here.

Freehold, New Jersey
     The Lone Pine landfill has been
accepting waste materials of all types
since 1967.  Large numbers of illegally
deposited chemical drums were found on
the site.  The drums contained unaccept-
able amounts of certain toxic substances.
A chemical fire occurred at the landfill
on June 23, 1978, which severely disrupted
landfill operations and caused large amounts
of liquid waste materials to flow off-site.
The problem still has not been remedied as
of April 1980.
toxic organics
ground & surface water
chemical fire

                                   NEW MEXICO
Albuquerque, New Mexico, 1970
     Threee children of a local family
became seriously ill after eating a pig
that had been fed corn treated with
a mercury compound.  Local health
officials found several bags of
similarly treated corn in a community
human health

                                    NEW  YORK

Warwick, New York 1979

     A judge temporarily closed a  local

landfill that had been accepting chemical

wastes, and ordered Grace Disposal and

Leasing Ltd., the landfill's owners to show

cause why It shouldn't be closed permanently.

Leachate leaking from the landfill entered

Greenwood Lake, which supplies water for a

reservoir serving Newark and a dozen other

New Jersey communities.  No contaminats

were found offsite by EPA.
toxic substances

surface waters
West Glen Fa I Is/Queensbury, New York

     Authorities stated that they fear

polychlorinated blphenyls may be entering

homes on a lot formerly used to recycle

heat retardant capacitors.  The RGB's may

have caused a  local lack of vegetation; no

health effects have been discovered.  The

State paid for cleanup.

New York City (Queens County), New York

     In the early 1970's a trucking firm

was regularly disposing of chromium and

zinc-containing sludge In a private dump

in a swampy area.  The sludge has contaminated

the groundwater.
heavy metals

surface & ground


Saratoga County, New York
     Several sites in Saratoga and Washington
countries were found to have received PCB
materials in the form of capacitators,rolled
dielectric paper, and waste liquids.  Although
the health department had not declared any of
the sites a public health hazard or a public
health  nuisance some people have suffered
chloracne and possible PCB poisoning; the town
supervisor advised the nearest residents to
vacate  their homes.

Cold  Spring, New York, 1953-1959
      Wastes from a nickel-cadmium battery
plant polluted a marshy area, which leads into
the Hudson River.  Tides are slowly flushing
cadmium into the Hudson, threatening fish as
well  as a bird  sanctuary at the mouth of the
cove.  According to the New York State
Department  of Environmental Conservation, no
efforts have been made to remove the cadmium
from  the cove.
human health
surface waters
surface water
Delaware County,  New York, 1974
     An unknown amount  of organic tarlike
residue from  acid manufacture washed  into the
West Branch of the Delaware River from  a waste
lagoon at an  abandoned  plant.

Big Flats  (Chenung County), New York

     In the 1960's Agway, Inc.  dumped waste

nitrate materials from  its  fertilizer plant

into a lagoon.  The lagoon discharged nitrates

into surrounding soil,  and then into water.

Approximately twenty domestic wells  had

nitrate levels above 100 ppm and were unusable

for drinking.  Families had to  drink bottled

water until a public water supply  line became

available  for most residents.

ground & surface

Glenn Falls, New York

     The Caputo PCB disposal site near South

Glenn Falls, N.Y. is emitting vapors

containing significant concentrations of

PCB's.  High PCB concentrations were detected

ranging from 0.05 ug/m3 - 3ug/m3 in the winter

of 1977 and up to 300 ug/m3 in the sunnier of

1978.  The National Institute for Occupational

Safety and Health (NIOSH) recommends that

PCB's in the work room environment should be

less than 1.0 ug/m3.  It is possible these

volatizing conditions may have existed since

1960.  The site has been capped since April,



Hudson River, New York

     In 1974 striped bass in the Hudson River

were found to contain PCB's at  70 times the

FEA limit.  An estimated one-half million

pounds of PCB's are in the river sediment,

with General Electric plants in Hudson Falls

and Fort Edward the major sources.   In 1976 GE

agreed to contribute $3,000,000 towards

cleanup with the state matching that amount.

Later studies indicating dredging of "hot

spots" would cost  $25,000,000 and a  full

cleanup $204,000,000.  The State has requested

Fed. assistance.

surface water
Middleport,  Niagara County,  New York,  1975

      The FMC corporation dumped one of its

pesticides (Carbofuran)  into a lagoon used for

storing high-pH ammonia  containing wastes.

Djcks and geese, which normally use the lagoon

without incident during  migration were killed

by the Carbofuran.

ducks, geese
 Niagara Falls,  New York

      The Hyde Park landfill is situated in the

 extreme northwest corner of the City of

 Niagara, New York.  The 15 acre landfill is

 triangular in shape and contains two drainage


air, ground &

 surface water

ditches which empty into Bloody Run, a

tributary of the Niagara River.  From 1953 to

1975 the Hooker Chemical Company disposed of

84,000 tons of hazardous wastes containing

hexachlorocyclopentadiene derivatives, chlor-

endic acid (a thiodan precursor), Mirex,

Lindane derivatives, Badosulfan and at least

21 other organic and inorganic chemical


     Dioxin, benzene hexachoride (BHC), tetra-

chloroethylene, trichloroethylene, benzene,

hexachlorobenzene (BHC) tetrachlorobenzene,

chlorobenzene, and phenol have been detected

migrating from the landfill at levels where

contact with the chemicals would adversely

affect human health.  The first six of these

chemicals are carcinogenic.  The remainder are

highly toxic, causing liver and kidney damage

as well as central nervous system disorders.

     It is estimated to cost $6,080,000 in

remedial actions to clean this site.  A

federal suit has been filed against Hooker

Chemical Corporation.

Niagara Falls New York

     The Love Canal  landfill  is  located in the

southeast corner of  the City  of  Niagara Falls,

New York.  The  landfill consists of two

70-foot stripe  of land abutting  on either side

of a 60-foot canal.   From 1942 to 1952 Backer

Chemical Corporation disposed of 21,800 tons

of hazardous wastes  containing dioxin and

hexachlorobenzene, as well as other toxic

organic and  inorganic wastes, at the Love

Canal  site.  Dioxin, tetrachloroethylene,

chloroform,  dichloroethane, benzene

hexachloride, hexachlorobutadiene and

dichlorobenzene, all carcinogens, as well as

trichloroethylene, toluene and phenol have

been  found to have migrated from the landfill

in  levels  sufficient to adversely affect human


      239 homes  and a grammar school were built

on  land around  the canal.  Three storm sewers

underlie the immediate area of the Love Canal

landfill and ultimately  flow into Black Creek,

a tributary  of  the Niagara River.  E&zardous

amounts of the  above substances  have been

found in the sediments and waters of Black



air, ground &

  surface waters

     It is estimated that  it will  cost
$45,000,00 in remedial actions to  clean  the
site.  Suit has been filed  in District Court
against Hooker Chemical Corporation by the
United States for these measures.  EPA awarded
a $4 million grant to the State to use at the
site.  Site remedial action has been  taken.
Niagara Falls, New York
     The 102nd St. site is a 21 acre  landill
which borders on the Niagara River and  is
surrounded by private homes, parks and
productive wetlands.  The City of Niagara
Falls uses the Niagara River as a drinking
water source.  From the early 1940's  to  1972
Hooker Chemical Corporation and the Olin
Corporation disposed of 23,500 tons and  66,000
tons of hazardous wastes on the site,
respectively.  These wastes consisted of
Lindane, as well as other organic and
inorganic hazardous materials.  Lindane, a
carcinogenic pesticide, and tetrachlorobenzene
and phenol, both higly toxic, have been  found
to have migrated from the disposal site.
     It is estimated to cost $16,500,000 in
remedial measures to clean the site.  Suit has
been brought in District Court against Hooker
Chemical Corporation and the Olin Corporation
by the United States for these measures.
ground & surface

Niagara Falls, new York
     The "S" area landfill  is  a  4-acre  site  in
the south central section of   Niagara
Falls, New York,  it  is  land which  has  been
reclaimed from the Niagara  River by filling
with cinders, stone,  slag,  dirt  and
carborundum abrasives.   Between  19^7 and  1975
Hooker Chemical  Corporation disposed of 70,400
tons of hazardous materials at the  "S"
landfill.  These materials  included
endosulfan, benzene hexachloride, as well as
other organic and inorganic hazardous  waste.
Tetrachloroethylene,  hexachloride,  all
carcinogens,  have been  detected  migrating from
the land fill as evidenced  by  their presence
in the public drinking  water supply waters.
     It is estimated  that  it will take
$50,000,000 in remedial  measures to clean this
site.  Suit has  been  filed  in  the District
Court against Hooker  Chemical  Corporation to
obtain these measures.
organic, pesticides,
drinking water

Clean, New York

     Between 1966 and 1972, spills, pipe  leaks

and dumping by C.F.  Insustrles at their Olean,

N.Y. site caused surface and ground water

contamination.  The company was ordered to

clean up the site, and pumping and treatment

operations to reduce the nitrate concentrations

In the groundwater began In 1972.
 ground & surface

Huntlngton (Suffolk County), New York, 1978

     The Suffolk County Health Department

discovered pollution In two Industrial wells

across the road from the Huntlngton town

dump.  The ground water had become contaminated

with chlorides, sodium, manganese and Iron;

methane gas was discovered In 1976 and 1977,

and In 1978 reached a 62 percent level In one

of the four test wells.  Residents of two

nearby homes also complained that their water

tasted so bad as to be undrlnkable.
 methane gas, sodium


 ground water
IsMp (Suffolk County), New York, 1978

     Hlckey's Carting allegedly dumped

chemicals containing an estimated 4,000 gallons

of the Industrial cleaner trlchloethylene In

the town dump.  Trlchloroethylene has been found

In numerous wells throughout the area.

drinking water wells

Onondaga County, New York

     Allied Chemical discharged about

25 pounds per day of mercury to Onondaga

Lake.  Mercury  levels  in fish  exceed FDA

levels.  Allied has sought to  remedy the

situation, but the  lake  Is still contaminated

and  fishing  is  still banned.

surface water,

food chain
South  FarmIngdale, New  York

     Plating wastes  from aircraft manufacture

during World War  II  were discharged  into  seepage

pits and  lagoons  in  South  Farmingdale.

Metallic  ions  leached  from the  plating  wastes,

contaminated a  shallow  water  table aquifer

Long  Island, a  designated  sole  source aquifer.

The  polluter,  Liberty Aircraft  Is now out of

heavy metals

ground water
 Saratoga  County,  New  York

     The  New  York State  Department of  Health

 has  declared  the  Palmer  site  In  the town  of

 Stillwater  a  public health  hazard.  The site

 received  waste materials from General  Electric

 at Waterford, which manufactures si Iicone

 products.   Elevated  levels  of metals,

 benzene and toluene have been found in leachate

 samples.  Adjacent property owners have complained

 of skin rashes and various  illnesses.
metals, benzene,


human health

Cattaraugus County, New York
     Chromium-bearing plating wastes were
dumped in a pit in 1968 at the Vanderhorst
Company.  Chromium leached from the site into
groundwater and contaminated an industrial
cooling well.
chromi urn
Babylon, Suffolk County
     Leachate has steadily entered the shallow
aquifer providing water supply to the residents
and formed a plume two miles long, one-half mile
wide, and 70 feet thick, from a landfill  operated
since 1947-  Groundwater is the only source of
drinking water on Long Island.
Oswego, New York
     Seventy-five hundred drums of chemical  wastes
of unknown composition are stored at the Pollution
Abatement Services, Inc. site.  An equal number of
drums is stored in an abandoned milk plant in the
Town of Mexico.  Wastes have overflowed dikes at the
Oswego site killing vegetation in an adjacent wetland.
The State of New York has appropriated $750,000 for
remedial work at the site.  Bids for the cleanup were
far above the amount of money available.  S.C.A. Services
disposal company has removed about 1200 barrels from the
abandoned milk plant.
toxic substances
land, surface water

Pendleton (Niagra County) New York
     The site, known as Quarry Lake with
a surface area of 22 acres, belongs to
Frontier Chemical Waste Process Inc.  The
lake is some 15 feet deep.  A 3 to 6 foot high
berm surrounds the entire lake to prevent
accidental wastewater discharge into nearby Bull
Creek and wetlands adjacent to the site.  There
are a number of heavy metals in solution in this
lake and its pH is about 3.  Wastewaters from the
site will be treated before discharge.  There is the
possibility of overflow.  The site has been inactive
since 1976.
heavy metals in solution
possibility of overflow

Bethpage/Hicksville, New York
     For 19 years, Hooker Chemical pumped
approximately 2 million gallons a year of
waste water containing carcinogenic vinyl
chloride into several nearby sumps. Fourteen
wells in the Magothy aquifer, including five
public supply wells serving 100,000 customers,
are contaminated by industrial organic wastes.
Hooker stated that it had stopped dumping
wastewater in 1974.

West Nyack, New York
     In 1978, sixteen private wells in West
Nyack had to be closed due to contamination
by trichloroethylene. Various industries
within one mile of the site used the
chemical, but the source of contamination
could not be determined. The Spring Valley
Water Company is supplying water to the
affected residents.  The aquifer has not
been restored.

Glen Cove, New York
     In 1977-78, five of the eight public
water supply wells for Glen Cove, Long Island
were closed after high levels of chlorinated
organic compounds were discovered. The source
of the contamination could not be located.
The USEPA has funded a pilot water treatment
plant for Nassau County.
    drinking water wells
 trichloroethylene (TCE)
 drinking water wells
drinking water wells

Staten Island (Richmond Cdunty), New York
     The Federal Government learned of this site
in December 1978 when the U.S. Coast Guard
investigated an oil sludge spill into Neck Creek
adjacent to this 5 acre site.  It is operated by
Chelsea Terminal, formerly known as Positive
Chemicals.  Throughout 1979, until its closure
ordered by the New York State Department of
Environmental Conservation, the operators have
accumulated a great quantity of chemicals and
waste oils in 55-gallon drums, semi-trailers,
semi-tankwagons and 1n the tank farm (nine 90,000
gallon above ground tanks, located In the center
of the facility).  Many hazardous, flammable
and  incompatible wastes on this site are now
being identified, separated, sold and removed.
Private residences are located within 1/4 mile.

Wheatfield (Niagara County) New York

     This is a 50 acre site.  It is owned

by Niagara County Refuse Disposal District      hazardous  chemicals

and known as Wheatfield Landfill.  Hazardous    leachates,  sites  subject

chemicals were deposited on site from 1968      to  flooding

through 1976, when it was closed.  Among the

chemical manufacturers using this landfill were:

Hooker-Durez (oil and grease,  phenolic resins),

E.J. DuPont denemous (off-grade polyvinyl alcohol),

Olin (lime and brine sludge with mercury),

Goodyear (PVC skins, PVC emulsions, PVC floor-

sweepings,  thiazole polymers).  Hooker of Niagara

Falls disposed hypo mud, soil and chemical wastes

from the southern section of Love Canal.  There

are residences in the immediate vicinity of

the landfill.  The Niagara River is less than

0.5 miles away.  The site is subject to flooding

and there is leachate run-off, leachate

contamination,  odors and insufficient cover.

Sardinia (Erie County), New York
     This 50 acre site is privately owned and has
been active for at least 25 years.  It is known as
Chaffee Landfill, formerly Sardinia Sanitary Landfill,
and handles residential, commercial and industrial wastes.
There are allegations of midnight dumping.  Leachate from
the site shows the presence of a number of pesticides.
Private wells in the vicinity and in private residences do
not show any substantial contamination.  A fish kill was
reported.  Hosmer Creek flows nearby.  Currently the most
important problem is the improper cover.

Ifemapo  (Pockland County), New York

     nils is a 45 acre active municipal

landfill, known as Ttorne Valley RCA and also

as Bamapo Sanitary Landfill.  It accepts mixed

minicipal waste, but also previously accepted

(cosmetic) sludge from Avon.  Midnight dumping

has been observed.  Erosion is of some

concern.  Leachate is bleeding into

groundwater near new wells constructed by the

Spring Valley Water Supply Gonpany.  Official

concern is that substances, such as mercury,

selenium, cadmium and lead found in wastes may

reach the well water and also surface waters

supplying Northern New Jersey.

possible surface

 and groundwater


Johnston (Fulton County), New York
     The Johnston Landfill is an active
68 acre "sanitary" landfill which received
tannery waste sludge  (from local tanneries)
high in chromium and  other metals up  to
1977.  Leachate has contaminated a  creek
and is affecting 3 private wells.
well contamination
fish kill
Hamlet is Narrowburg, Town of Tunsten
(Sullivan County), New York
     This is a 7 acre active site,  11  years  old.
It is known as Tusten Landfill,  formerly  Cortese
The sites accepts municipal waste,
demolition and building  debris.   In  the  past,  it
accepted drummed chemical waste,  believed to bo
paint thinners and solvents.  The drums  are
severely weathered.  There  is concern  that
leachate flow may reach  the Delaware River
and one of the town's water supply wells.
The soil on site is  permeable and there  is ponding.
There is no cover on most the landfill.   At  present,
there are no health  or environmental effects.
 paint thinners,
 leachate flow

Rotterdam (Schenectady County),  New  York
     Schenectady Chemical Co.  is  next  to  the
Mohawk River and stores drums  of  chemical
waste on a slab of black top.  There is also
a sludge pond.  A neighboring  firm is  finding
phenol in their water.  The firm  handles  large
volumes of chemicals  from tank cars, and
allegations of spills have been made.  The
plant is close to the town well  fields, but
there is no evidence  of contamination.
chemical wastes
ground water  &
soil contamination
Nassau (Rennselaer Country), New York
     The Dewey-Loeffel Landfill was  an  oil
reclamation and oil storage and salvage
operation.  The site has been inactive  for
5 or more years.  PCB oil was stored and
possibly spilled.  Nassau Lake fish  are
showing PCB levels.  A nearby well has  been
found to be contaminated with benzene.
PCB contaminat.ion
well & lake

Syossett (nassau County), New York
     The Syossett Landfill operated  for  40  years
(until 1975) and accepted all types  of waste  in-
cluding chemical waste from Hooker Chemicals.
The site is in a suburban location on Nassau
County's primary ground water recharge area.
There is contamination of a deep  well supplying
Jericho Water District.  Test wells  are  being
installed to evaluate the problem.
chemical wastes
ground water
well contamination
Mechanicsville, (Saratoga County),  New  York
     The Dyer Landfill site was  a  small ravine,
filled with bark from local lumber  mills.   The
site is full of leachate  (due  to a spring  in the
ravine) which tends to overflow  in  the  Spring.
The overflow has twice polluted  one of  two lakes
and a stream supplying the municipal water plant.
It is not capped, and the owner  has not made any
recent corrections to preclude another  overflow
and resultant contamination of the stream.
drinking water

Oswego,.New York
     The Volney Landfill Calso known as Oswego Valley
Sanitary Landfill) has 8000 drums of waste buried at
the site.  Leachate contaminated with toxic chemicals
may pose a health threat to groundwater users in the
area.  Six potable water wells have a trace of organic
chemicals.  One of the wells has 10 ug/1 of benzene.
The owner of one of the wells is suing the County for
chemical contamination of their wells.

Oswego,  New York
     The  Clothier Property Site  (also known as Ox Creek
Site) has 500 drums of waste stored at  the site.  Leaks
from the  drums, and leachate from the site may be
entering  Ox Creek, a tributary of the Oswego River.  The
City of  Fulton public water supply well field is near
the Oswego River downstream from the mouth of Ox Creek.
The New  York State Department of Health analyzed a soil
sample from the site and found 92 mg/kg of PCB's.
 water wells,
Public Water

College Point, New York
(PCB Pool)
     A lagoon of approximately 500,000  gallans
of waste oil, contaminated with PCB's in  the
240,000 ppb  range was  found  in an  abandoned
field belonging to the New York City Dept. of
Real Property-  The  oil  was  probably dumped
illegally since the  site  is  relatively  open.
There is a hazard to children or anyone
wandering in the area.   Chemical fires  occured
at the site  on February  15 and April 24,  1980.
An acceptable site for incineration or  disposal
of the PCB's has not been found yet.
PCB contamination
of bay - danger
to public
Hicksville  (Nassau  County),  New York
      The  Hooker  Chemicals  & Plastics,  Co.  is a       vinyl chloride
manufacturer  of  many  chemicals,  including  vinyl      ground water,
chloride.   Residue  of vinyl chloride disposed of in  well contamination,
open  catch  basins in  sandy soil has  infiltrated 14   sole source
wells at  a  neighboring plant which must bring in     aquifer
potable water now.  The plant is located on the
crest of  a  sole  source aquifer.  Potential for
contamination of other water sources in serious.
Tst wells are now being installed.

                  NORTH CAROLINA
Kinston, North Carolina
     Contaminated fertilizer from a Smith-Douglass
plant damaged 6,000 acres of tobacco in North and
South Carolina.  Tordon, a herbicide manufactured
by Dow Chemical Co., was believed to be the
contaminant.  Smith-Douglass shut down its plant
for an investigation of the contamination.
contaminated  herbicide
crop damage
Mecklenburg County, North Carolina (Kelly Road
     About 200 SB-gallon drums of^chemicals,
including acetone and possibly toluene were dumped
into a landfill.  The chemicals may have migrated
into a nearby residential well.  The State of
North Carolina spent $50,000 to clean up the  site.
orgarii cs
drinking water well

North Carolina, New Hanover County
     Groundwater contamination resulting from
improper disposal at the New Hanover County
Landfill was shown to have contaminated 17 private
wells in the vicinity.  Approximately twenty
additional private wells are subject to potential
contamination in the future.  The County is
providing drinking water to residents with
impacted wells and other area residents whose
wells are potentially subject to contamination.
EPA is presently proceeding with court action
against the State, County, and operators of the
landfill.  Monies have been expended by local,
State and Federal agencies.  The county i-s
presently engaged in applying for HUD and State
funding to aid in deferring total costs of
supplying the impacted area with a water supply
system.  Court action is pending.
industrial wastes
drinking water well

Bowdin, North Carolina, 1971
     Open dumping of pesticide containers resulted
In a fish kill in Bear Swamp Creek, Duplin County,
on July 6, 1971.  Jugs of the insecticide, Mai-Dan
Tobacco Spray, were apparently dumped onto the
creek bank.  Some of the jugs appeared to have
broken when they rolled into the creek, releasing
endosulfan, a chemical insecticidal agent.
surface water, fish  kill
Clinton, (Haywood County), North Carolina, $974-
     Approximately one thousand gallons of
petroleum-based cleaning fluids were dumped at a
landfill and leaked into a tributary of Hominy
Creek'..  Cattle died'after"drinkin.g from the
polluted water.  The town of Clinton compensated
the cattle owner and the waters were
decontaminated by surface skimming.
cleaning fluids
surface water, cattle
Holly Ridge, North Carolina
     Approximately 900 drums of 2,4 dinitrophenol
are stored in a collapsed warehouse.  Some of the
drums have burst and the material has spilled onto
the warehouse floor.  The building is accessible
to children and the material can be absorbed
through the skin.  The town of Holly Ridge and the
2,4 dinitrophenol

State of North Carolina have filed suit (public
nuisance) to get the owners to remove and
dispose the material properly.  EPA is assisting
the State and local governments with affadavits.
The apparent owners are Renroh Inc., and
Continental Trading Company.

PCB Spill in North Carolina
    Approximately 250 miles of North Carolina           PCB's
highways were sprayed with PCB's.  The State has        soil
taken action against the suspects in the case.
EPA is assisting the State in cleanup and disposal
operations.  Contaminated soil remains along roads
approximately 3 feet wide and 6 inches deep.

Negly, Ohio, June 1974
     A citizen of Negly  complained  about  the
spillage of hydrochloric acid, oil  and  other
wastes into Little Beaver Creek.  The alleged
source of pollution was  Ecological  Service,
Inc., of East Palestine  now owned by Browning
Ferris, Inc.
suface water
Monroe County, Ohio 1975
     An aluminum plant grossly  contaminated
the groundwater under its site  with flourides,
high pH and other chemicals; the water was
also discolored.  The source of contamination
is leachate from a used tailing pond  and  used
potline pits.
Lake County Ohio, 1971
     A trucking firm that hauls bulk chemicals,
washes residues from a trailer into two lagoons
on its property.  About 5,000 gallons of waste-
waters, including phenols, organic solvents,
phosphates and suspended solids, are washed
into the lagoon each day.  By March 1971, wells
on adjacent property were contaminated; cattle
also refused to drink from a stream polluted
by effluent from the lagoons.
ground & surface

Shawnee Lake, Ohio

     On June 2, 1971, the U.S. EPA, at the request

of the State of Ohio, provided direct support  In the       pesticides

removal of Endrln (a highly toxic pesticide) which         surface water

had been deliberately dumped  Into a small  lake  near

Portsmouth, Ohio.  EPA provided the expertise  In design

and construction of an on-slte carbon adsorption

filter which treated the  lake water and  removed the


Summit National Liquid Services, Portage County, Ohio,  1979

     A liquid  industrial waste treatment and

disposal company Is located on an  11 acre site  In          MEK,  toluene,  latex

Portage County, Ohio.  Currently, several  thousand         oil,  mlrex

leaking barrels, a 300,000-galIon cracked and  leaking      fire  hazard

concrete storage tank, and other vessels of varying        ground  water

sizes are  being used to store wastes  including  acetone,

MEK, toluene,  latex, oils, and mirex.  Residents  live

within 200 feet of the site.  The  site presents a  fire

hazard as  well as a source of  soil and groundwater

contamination.  Also present  is the  possible contamination

of drinking water  In the  reservoir.  The site  has  been

closed since  1978  by order of Ohio EPA and is  currently  being

cleaned.   Total cleanup and abatement costs are estimated

at over $2,000,000.

Massillon, Ohio
     The Tuscarawas River and  shallow  ground
water were contaminated as a result  of induced
infiltration into the permeable  sand and  gravel
aquifer.  When public water-supply wells  became
contamiminated, the contamination was  traced  to  the
discharge of by-products from  an industrial
glass plant to the river.  The problem developed
when the river was diverted to runover a  more
permeable bed.  The water supply wells near the
river induced infiltration of  river  water to  the
wells.  The industry shut down in 1977 as a
result of new state water-quality standards.  New
sources of ground water are being sought  away from
the river
chemical waste
public water
Laskin Green house and Waste Oil company,  Jefferson,  Ohio,  1979
     Improper storage and disposal of PCB  contaminated
oil.  Facility accepted approximately one  million
galloons per year of waste oil and solvents which  they
store in tanks on the property before burning  as  fuel
in the boilers or spraying on roads in surrounding
countries.  Department of Justice filed case at EPA
request on 4/24/79 seeking proper storage  and  disposal
of PCB contaminated oil.  A consent decree is  now
being worked out with the site owner.
PCB, waste oil

Cleveland, Ohio
     In July 1979, it was reported that
Chemical & Mineral Reclamation Inc. improperly
stored chemicals in two warehouses.  A  fire
department inspection uncovered thousands  of
leaking chemical drums stored at  the unsecured
site.  A U.S. District Court ordered clean up
of the site and all drums were removed  by
November, 1979.
mixed chemicals
Walton Hills, Ohio
     In 1979, the Ohio Attorney  General  filed
a $45 million damage  suit against  the  Dow
Chemical Co., BASF Wyandotte  and Dow Chemical
of Canada.  The suit  charged  illegal dumping
of mercury  into Lake  Erie and asked  for  $10
million for cleanup,  $25 million for
compensory  damages, for past, present,  and
future damage, and $10 million for punitive
surface water

Lisbon, Ohio

     Highly mineralized fluids, the products

of neutralized spent pickling  liquids, began               pickling  liquids

to leak from a disposal pit at Chem-Lime Corp.             wildlife

In 1970, fish were killed  in nearby Wilson's pond.

In 1971, Wilson's pond overflowed  into Little Beaver

Creek, causing amajor kill of some 77,000 fish.  The

State filed suit in 1972 or 1973 and a consent order

was entered, requiring the company to install a

collection system and neutralization plant.  The

effluent to Beaver Creek Is now under NPDES permit.

     In 1978, the State filed suit again due to

ammonia discharges.  Settlement negotiations are

underway involving a shut-down schedule and civil

penalties.  Chem-Lime will be required to reclaim

the area.

Ham!I ton, Oh 1o

     In 1976, a tank car  located at the

Chem-Dyne Corp. disposal site  In Hamilton,

Ohio overheated and  leaked fumes.  Subsequently,

the waste disposal firm filed  a multi-million

dollar suit against the city,  claiming that

Hamilton had hurt business.

     The Chem-Dyne Corporation occupies approximately

four acres  in downtown Hamilton.  The ground under the

site Is porous and sandy.  Thousands of 55-gallon drums

and seven large silo tanks are stored on Chem-Dyne's

premises; containing over  1 and  1/2 million gallons of

hazardous chemicals, Including phenol, acetone, xylene,

toluene, hexane,  1,2-dichloroethane,  1,1,1-trichloroethane

benzene, dlchlorobenzene,  napthalene, cyanides and arsenic.

As part of  the operation  at the  Chem-Dyne  site,  large

quantities  of hazardous chemicals are mixed  in several open

pits;  in addition, chemicals have been discharged through

pipes, drains or other confined  conveyances on or around the

Chem-Dyne plant, to  a nearby canal and/or  the Great Miami

River.   In  December, 1979  the  EPA filed suit seeking a court

injunction  to remove thousands of drums filled with chemicals

from their  site after similar  State orders had been  ignored.

A federal judge refrained  from Issuing the injunction until

the receiver appointed  In  State  court had  an opportunity to

cleanup the site.  EPA  Is  monitoring the  progress of this

cleanup and Is proceeding  with discovery.
organic solvents

cyanide chemicals


ground & surface


Alkali Lake, South Central, Oregon, 1980

     This Is an 10 acre state owned desert disposal

site which received approximately 25,000 drums of

known pesticide manufacturing wastes from 1969 - 1974.

The State ordered the site closed In 1972, and

unsuccessfully sued site owners for cleanup.  In

1975, the State legislature allocated $310,000 for

cleanup and in 1976 placed the drums Into shallow

trenches on the site and covered them with a thin

layer of soil.  The State has been monitoring the

groundwater even though the aquifer Is not usable

as a domestic livestock or agricultural  water supply.

The water naturally has a high PH and a high arsenic

concentration.  EPA/State monitoring data indicate

that phenols and other related chemicals have migrated

off-site.  The area Is sparsely populated and there

is no significant threat to public health or the

environment.  Semi-annual monitoring will be conducted

by the State.  EPA will conduct periodic monitoring.



Chester, Pennsylvania
     A rubber recycler received drums of
hazardous wastes from ABM Company, a hauler,
and dumped the wastes on the ground. Drums
and contaminated soil and debris exist on
site. The site is in a residential area
and there is a threat of fire and explosion
with resultant toxic fumes.  The latest
fire produced an acid mist.  An enforcement
case was filed in April, 1979.
     Cleanup of intact drums started in
January, 1980.  A State hydrogeological study
shall be conducted.  Newspaper articles
describe the following potential generators:
Texaco, Scott Paper, Sun Co., Exxon, DuPont,
Boeing-Vertol, and Smith, Klein and French.
Cost to cleanup the site may exceed $3 million.
King of Prussia, Pennsylvania
     Illegal disposal of hazardous wastes
in a well by ABM Company has contaminated
groundwater.  The contaminated groundwater
feeds a reservoir which is the drinking water
supply for suburban Philadelphia.  A hydro-
geological evaluation and well sampling
program is being planned in order to document
leachate migration.
toxic wastes, fire
human health
 toxic wastes
 surface & groundwater,
   drinking water

Sprlngdale, Pennsylvania, 1978
    A mixture of 10 or 11 chemicals, including
the toxic compound bromocyclohexanol,  entered
the sewer system of Springdale, PA, a  suburb
of Pittsburgh, through a connection with a PPG
Industries plant located about 20 miles away.  A
serious health hazard apparently was not present.
However, 752 persons in Allegheny County complained
of bad smells and taste in drinking water, and 65
persons complained of slight  illness.
toxic chemicals
sewer system
Southeastern Pennsylvania
    Surface and ground water were contaminated.
The suspected source was an abandoned  landfill,
which is on property now owned by a chemical
company.  An investigation was made to determine
the extent of ground-water contamination  and  the
feasibility of ground water clean-up.   The  study
showed that poor housekeeping by the chemical  company
and improper waste disposal were major contributors
to surface- and ground-water contamination.   The
degradation caused by the landfill  was less severe.
The case was reported to be still in litigation.
surface water
chemical  wastes

Bucks and Montgomery Counties, Pennsylvania

     The following cases all Involve Trichlo-

roethylene (TCE) contamination of water supplies

In Bucks and Montgomery counties northwest of

Philadelphia, Pennsylvania.  In most cases, the

State has the lead with EPA providing technical

assistance as needed.
TCE, organ Ics

drinking water wells
Tech Alloy, Rahns, Pennsylvania

     A private well has been contaminated

with TCE and other organIcs.  Company  Is

supplying alternative water supplies.

N. Penn Water Co., Montgomery County,  Pennsylvania

     Eight out of 42 wells have  been taken out

of service because of TCE contamination.  N.  Penn

Water Co,, Is conducting  investigations with  area


Superior Tube, Collegeville, Pennsylvania
     TCE has been found in municipal water
supply.  Superior Tube taking  voluntary
action to pump aquifer in order to eliminate
TCE contamination.

Variety Club Camp, Worchester, Pennsylvania
     TCE has been detected in  camp water supply,
Nearby private wells are also  contaminated.
The camp has connected to a safe water supply.
Currently the State is investigating the
private well contamination.

The following active sites involve TCE
and other chemical contamination in water
supplies.  Site investigations are underway
by EPA and State agencies.
- Upper Southampton
- NADC, Wormiraster
- Wormimster
- Wormimster Heights, some cleanup underway
- Hatboro, some cleanup underway
- Warrenton, remedial actions  underway
- Chalfort
- Evansberg
- Fairview Village
- Bristol
- Valley Forge Tabs, remedial  action underway
- Audobon, remedial action underway

Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, 1978

    In mid-1978 a Philadelphia area man pleaded

qullty to violating Federal pollution laws for the

dumping of more than 730,000 gallons of chemical

wastes which were poured Into a storm sewer and

Into the Delaware River near Philadelphia's

Torresdale water treatment plant, which provides

approximately one-half of the city's drinking water.

    Studies by the U.S. EPA of Philadelphia drinking

water found traces of eight cancer-causing chemicals In

water distributed from the Torresdale plant.  Officials

contended that the chemicals were being discharged

by the waste treatment plant and were moving seven

miles upstream to the  Intake pipe of the drinking

water treatment plant.
chemical wastes

surface water

Newbenry Township, Pennsylvania
     Private wells have been contaminated
with carbontetrachlon*de, TCE, tetrachloro-
ethylene, toluene, and dichlorobenzene.
The company involved has agreed to take
remedial action.
Sandy Lake Borough, Pennsylvania
     A private hauler, contracted by
the Pittsburg Plate Glass Co. for removal
of glass manufacturing waste, dumped the
alkaline wastes into a swampy lowland
adjacent to McCutcheon Run. In 1975, after
two years of accepting the wastes at the
landfill, the owner stopped accepting the
wastes and drained the swamp. This caused
a five mile fish kill in McCutcheon Run.

New Beaver, Pennsylvania
     Environmental Aids operated a waste
treatment and disposal facility for pickle
liquors and organic wastes at a New Beaver,
Pennsylvania site.  Wastes were stored in
a pit behind a shale dam.  After a nearby
pond and residential wells were contaminated,
the State ordered the company to clean up
the site.  When the company failed to comply
with the consent decree requirements, the
drinking water wells
   alkaline wastes
   surface water,
     fish kills
    pickle  liquors,
    surface water,
      drinking  water

State seized the firm's assets and cleaned
up the site at a cost of $300,000.  The
groundwater has not been restored.
Bruin, Pennsylvania
     The American International Refining
Corp. operated at a Bruin, Pennsylvania site
until 1972.  In 1968, the breakage of a waste
storage lagoon containing oils, acid wastes,
and alkyl benzene sulfonate into the Allegany
River killed 4.5 million fish valued at
$108,000.  The firm could afford to pay only
$20,000 in fines to cover the damage. The
site was abandoned in 1972 when the company
went out of business.  The State of Penn-
sylvania has spent over $20,000 for cleanup
since 1973.  The new owners of the site have
posted a $100,000 bond for continued cleanup.
Findley, Pennsylvania
     Leachate from the Browning Ferris
Industries industrial waste landfill has seeped
into the groundwater and have caused minor fish
kills in a nearby stream. After 1975, the  site
was no longer authorized to accept industrial
surface water
toxic wastes
surface & groundwatf

Noxamixon, Pennsylvania
     Three of eleven industrial waste lagoons
operated by a chemical company leaked into a
nearby stream.  After the State ordered the
Company to clean up the site in 1970, Revere
abandoned the site and left lagoons containing
3 1/2 million gallons of waste.  During heavy
rains wastes would wash into the Delaware River.
The state finally intervened and spent over
$400,000 to clean up the site.
Falls, Pennsylvania
     Since 1957, a major steel corporation
maintained 13 lagoons for the disposal of
industrial waste.  A comprehensive ground-
water study in 1975 showed significant
concentrations of iron, phenols, zinc,
and other chemicals had entered the ground-
Theodore Inman Landfill, Daugherly, Pennsylvania
     Industrial wastes, including oils and heavy
metals dumped at the Theodore Inman landfill
in Daugherly, Pennsylvania in the early 1970's
destroyed biota in nearby streams and emitted
noxious odors. The site's operating permit was
withheld until the site was 1n compliance
with a state order for remedial action.
toxic wastes
surface water
phenol, zinc
toxic wastes
air, surface water

In June 1974, landfill operators  informed
its clients that liquid wastes would no
longer be accepted.
Lackcawanna Refuse Co., Scranton Pennsylvania
     An illegal disposal site  for hazardous
waste haulers has accepted  thousands  of  drums.
Leachate from site may be contaminating
groundwaters.  The indigent  owner is  in
jail because he had defrauded  the County
toxic wastes
State College, Pennsylvania,  1976
     In August,  1976  samples  of  fish  taken
from the headwaters of  spring Creek in  the
vacinity of  the  Nease Chemical Plant  were
found to contain Kepone in  concentrations
that exceeded Food and  Drug Administration
(FDA) action levels.
     Nease Chemical Co. produced Kepone
for Allied Chemical in  the  late  50's  and  early
60's and produced Mirex for Hooker  Chemical
in 1973.  Improper waste disposal practices
over the years had caused Kepone and  Mirex
contamination of the  plant  property and
Spring Creek, a  trout stream.
     Following EPA recommendations, the
State has advised fishermen to limit  their
fish intake.  The State of  Pennsylvania and
kepone, rairex
surface waters

EPA are working to insure Nease  is
committed to a sound cleanup program.
Haverford, Pennsylvania
     National Wood Preservatives, which  operated
a plant at Haverford from 1952 until 1963,  dumped
waste creosote containing dissolved pentachlora-
phenol into a disposal well.  In 1963  the plant
changed ownership, and the new management
reportedly stopped use of the disposal well,
which had contaminated the upper portion of
the groundwater aquifer.
     This has slowly spread downgradient,
intercepting a storm sewer.  The organic wastes
have begun to enter Naylor Run from the  sewer,
killing all aquatic life for at least  five
or six miles downstream from the point of
entry.  In July 1973, the Pennsylvania Dept.
of Environmental Resources ordered those
presently owning the affected property to
remove the wastes, requiring wells to  be
dug to pump out most of the creosote and
a catch basin to be placed on the storm
sewer.  Estimated cost of this cleanup is
$50,000.  The current owners, claiming
they did not cause the problem, are
surface water

appealing the order-  In  1977,  the  EPA
Environmental Emergency Response  Unit
plugged a drain, preventing  further
surface water pollution.  The  groundwater
remains contaminated.
Neville Island  (Allegheny  County),  Pennsylvania
     The Ohio River  Park occupies a thirty-five
acre lot at  the  western tip  of  Neville  Island.
Essentially  completed, the park is  located  on
a site donated  to  Allegheny  County  in 1976
by the Hillman  Co. via its foundation.   The
company is the  parent  corporation for the
now defunct  Pittsburg  Coke and  Chemical
Co.  Four acres  of the site  were reportedly
used as a municipal  garbage  dump from
1953 to 1945.   In  the  early  1950's  large
quantities of miscellaneous  industrial
waste were deposited extensively.   The
chemicals uncovered  at the park site
includes benzene,  phenols, parathion,
cyanide, mercury and coal  tar residues.
     A recently completed  study of  remedial
alternatives estimated that  continued park
closure with monitoring would cost  $150,000
to $250,000.  Removal  of contaminated waste
in order to  rebuild  the park as originally
conceived would  cost seven to twenty-four
million dollars.                 218
organics, pesticides
  heavy metals
land,  human health

Tioga County, Elkland Borough, Pennsylvania
     In November 1972, the Elkland Tannery
shut down after 33 years of operation.
The site was turned over to Elkland Borough,
which chose to have the site leveled. During
levelling operations, about 20,000 gallons
of chemical waste liquids were  released  and
drained into the Cowanesque River on December
7, 1978. The spill killed everything in the
river for 7 miles. An estimated 2-4 million
gallons of wastes remain stored at the site.

Hazel ton, Pennsylvania
     Trichloroethylene from New Jersey was
brought to Hazel ton by midnight dumpers
and dumped into a quarry.  TCE is believed
to have leaked down to the aquifer,
contaminating a potential water supply
for Hazel ton.  Hazel ton is in need of
a new water supply because of the
questionability of its present reservoir
for future use.

Washington County, Pennsylvania
     The Arden landfill, in operation since
the 1940's, accepts air pollution control
sludges from Hercules, Inc. The sludges
contain heavy metals  including lead,
cobalt, and chromium. Leachate from the
toxic wastes
surface water
 heavy metals
 groundwater, drinking
  water wells

landfill entered groundwater and
contaminated a farmer's well and a
spring one-half mile from the site.
The landfill operator constructed a
leachate collection system.  Leachate is
piped to the City of Washington's municipal
treatment plant.  Sludges from the municipal
treatment plant are then buried at the Arden

White!and Township, Pennsylvania
     Unlined lagoons used by the Foote-
Mineral  Exton  Corp for  disposal of lithium
caused  groundwater contamination and  the
abandonment of 600 wells.   The  lagoons have
since been  lined.

Pittston, Pennsylvania
     In mid 1979, from  500  to  1000 gallons
per day of  a mixture of waste  oil and
organic chemicals poured  for more than
one month from an abandoned mine shaft
into the Susquehanna River. The Susque-
hanna River is used for recreational
purposes and for downstream drinking
water supplies. EPA expenditures at the
site to date total approximately one-half
drinking water wells
 oils, organics
 surface & groundwater

million dollars.  An additional $850,000

has been requested for site assessment

and emergency containment.   It  Is estimated

that $10 million will be needed to fully

remedy the problem.
Philadelphia, Pennsylvania

     In 1979, about 400 gallons of PCB

contaminated liquids flowed down the streets  in

the Kensington area after a vandel opened the valve

of a transformer left  In an abandoned  Independent

Wiring Plant warehouse.  Two tons of sand were

poured on the streets  In an effort to soak up

the substance.  Local  residents experienced eye

Irritation and a young girl who came In direct

contact with the chemical was hospitalized briefly.

Pleasant Township

     Heavy rains broke the earthen dike

of a former refinery waste lagoon releasing

contaminated sludge that entered the Allegheny

River.  450,000 fish, with an estimated value of

$75,000 were killed along a 60-mile stretch of the

river.  Groundwater quality remains degraded.
toxic wastes

surface & groundwater
Butler, Pennsylvania

     Pickling  liquors mixed with lime

escaped from Improperly lined lagoons.
picklIng I Iquors

surface water

An estimated 400,000 gallons per day of
liquid wastes with a pH of 2.6, .has
contaminated a nearby tributary of
Raccoon Creek.  The creek is already
badly damaged by mine acid discharges.

Buffalo Township, Butler County, Pennsylvania
     Prior to 1962, the Hranica Landfill
accepted industrial wastes, including test
paints, solvents, thinners, and pigments.
Leaching by these materials resulted in
the contamination of a spring about 1/4
mile away, a source of drinking water
for local residents. Residents reported
that a film of organic chemicals on the
surface of the water could occasionally
be lit by a match.  The spring water
was still unfit for drinking as of 1975.
Lehigh County, Pennsylvania
     Industrial wastes disposed in the
Heleva Landfill since 1967 contaminated
a well which supplied water to about 50
homes. Excessive  levels of phenols, ethyl
acetate and trichloroethylene were present
in the well water.
 phenols,  organics
 drinking  water wells

Tinicum Marsh, Pennsylvania

     Fly ash was illegally dumped  adjacent

to Tinicum Marsh, causing contamination of

the wetland.  Because the tidal wetland was

considered environmentally sensitive,  the

marsh was cleaned up.
fly ash

Berks County, Pennsylvania

     Seven private wells were contaminated

by leakage from 55-gallon drums containing

paint solvents from the Volberts Company

of Allentown, Pa.  The drums had been

dumped in a quarry in Kutztown, Pa.

They were removed when contamination

was detected in 1972.
paint solvents

drinking water wells
Hamilton, Allegheny Co., Pennsylvania

     An unidentified pesticide manufacturer

produced lindane/BHC on a site in Hamilton.

Operations ceased in 1966, and the site was

later deeded to the town.  Over 400 tons of

highly toxic BHC waste were discovered at

the site, and there was a confirmed leak from

the waste into a local stream.

surface water

Berwick  Borough, Columbia County, Pennsylvania
      In  1965, unlined  lagoons of the                 plating wastes
Fulton Lamp MFG. Co.,  caused contamination          drinking water wells
of  private wells in  the area.  The  lagoons
were leaking plating wastes containing
cyanide, copper, nickel, alkylbenzene-
sulphonate, and phosphate.

                                  RHODE  ISLAND
North Smfthffeld, Rhode  Island,  1979

     Western Sand and Gravel operated a sand and

gravel pit that accepted chemical wastes and septage

fn trenches and in at least ten  unlined lagoons.

The soil status Is a fine grain  sand type.  The

site is upstream of the Saltersville Reservoir and

two of SaltersviIle's municipal  wells.  Groundwater

contamination of 1,1,1 trichloroethane and toluene

has been documented.  At the Governor's request the

EPA Is providing assistance under Section 311 CWA.

On February 15, 1980, analyses showed that

trichloroethytene, benzene, toluent, ethyl benzene

and xylene were leaching Into Tarklin Brook and

StatesviIle Reservoir.  Four lagoons have been emptied

and wastes will be disposed of safely by early May.  The

State is accepting bids for the  disposal of the remaining

septage lagoons and will open bids on May 7, 1980.

surface 4 groundwater

Coventry, Rhode Island

     The Candy Box Farm is a pig farm which has

also been used as a repository for hazardous              organ Ics,  flammable

chemical wastes.  Frequently, the  illegal wastes          surface water

originated out-of-state.  Midnight dumping of

flammable chemicals occured  in ditch areas.

Approximately 20,000 55-gallon drums of chemicals

are stored on the farm.  Fourteen  barrels containing

explosive sodium aluminum hydroxide were removed following

a substantial explosion and  fire  in  late  1977. The  site

slopes to a tributary of the Moosup River.  Surface water

contamination has been confirmed.

     Litigation by the State of Rhode  Island began

In  1979  against the owner, generator and several

haulers.  According to recent reports, the site has

been abandoned with the State spending $60,000 to

study cleanup and restoration alternatives.  The State

legislature appropriated $300,000  to cleanup the site;

however, cleanup costs are estimated at  $38 million

for complete  remedy.

Bristol, Rhode Island
     The Bristol landfill has  three  illegal  dump
sites of chemical wastes.  Toluene and
trichloroethylene have been  found.   As  of  November
1979, 663 barrels had been removed at a  cost  of
$162,000.  The adjacent marshland and at least
eleven wells have become contaminated.   The  site
is recognized to be a serious  problem.
  toluene, TCE
  surface water,
  water wells
Cumberland, Rhode Island
     The 10 acre Cumberland Landfill,  operated  by
J.M. Mills, Inc. has been implicated in  the
closing of four municipal wells; three of which
still closed.  The wells are contaminated by  te-
trachloroethylene and 1,1,1,trichloroethane with
concentrations up to 61 ug/1 and 166 ug/1,
respectively.  According to the USGS,  the three
wells may have drawn groundwater from  the
Cumberland landfill when all three wells were
     Before a remedial action plan can be devised
additional monitoring of the area is required
to document the source of the pollutants.  This
monitoring is being pursued by EPA Region I.
1,1,1, trichloroethane
drinking water wells

North Smithfield, Rhode Island
     Landfill and Resource Recovery operated an
unlined industrial hazardous waste site until the
state prohibited the acceptance of hazardous waste
in September 1979.  The site, however, is still
used as a municipal refuse landfill.  Over 1,000
gallons per day of hazardous waste were accepted.
These wastes included toluene, benzene, carbon
tetrachloride, dioxane, chloroform,
trichloroethane and methylene chloride.
Monitoring wells have shown some contamination of
organics, however, additional monitoring well test
data is being collected by the State to document
the  extent of groundwater contamination.
Contamination leaving this site could affect the
downgradient aquifer.
     Coincidentally, the site is only one quarter
mile from the Western Sand and Gravel Site.

Providence, Rhode Island
     Local government officials have  investigated  a
private hauler who dumped 55-gallon drums on these
vacant lots.  The hauler is believed  to have         chemical  wastes
dumped chemical wastes at other locations            land
throughout the area.

Kingston, Rhode Island
     An inactive Kingston landfill received
contaminated wastes from the now defunct Photeic
Corporation.  Groundwater has become  contaiminated   mercury
with high concentrations of mercury.  There is no    groundwater
immediate health hazard.

                       SOUTH CAROL I INA

Ferguson Site, Rock HIM, South Carolina, 1980

    Twenty-five hundred deteriorating drums and       PCB's

a large storage tank, containing various hazard-      hazardous materials

ous materials, including PCB's, pose a significant    surface water

threat to a tributary of Wildcat Creek from surface

runoff.  The State has filed a suit to remedy

the situation.  $140,000 in CWA section 311 funds

have been expended at the site.

Sangamo Electric Co., Pickens, South  Carolina
     Sangamo Electric Co., disposed of PCB-
contaminated equipment and wastes at  three sites.
Two of the locations are county owned lanfills       PCB-
and the third is a privately owned landfill.         surface  & groundwater
Water testing showed high concentrations of PCBs     water
in the groundwater and nearby waterways, including
Lake Hartwell.  A standing advisory was made
against the commercial taking of bottom-feeding
fish.  The Sangamo Plant now has a permit for
on-site burial of PCB contaminated wastes.

Landrum, South Carolina
     An unidentified industrial-type waste was
dumped into Vaughan Creek, the town's water
supply-  National guardsmen trucked drinking water   industrial  wastes
into the town, while town employees flushed two      town water  supply
storage tanks.  It is believed that the
contamination was discovered at the filtration
plant before being released to the disribution

                                  SOUTH DAKOTA
Oahe Reservoir, South Dakota

     Processing of gold ore by use of a mercury

amalgamation process resulted  in contamination of

the Whitewood Creek, Cheyenne River, and Cheyenne

arm of Oahe Reservoir with mercury compounds.

As a result of this, mercury  levels  in some  fish

in the Cheyenne River have exceeded the FDA  recom-

mended  level.  The State recommened the consumption

of fish be  limited.  No correction of the  problem

has been taken and no firm estimates of costs

have been prepared.  The costs,  however, would be

substantial, since over  100 miles of stream  are


surface water

fish ban

Hardeman County, Tennessee
     Velsicol Chemical Corporation  of  Memphis,
Tennessee, is the owner of approximately  242  acres
in Hardeman County near the Town  of Toone,
Tennessee.  Between  1964 and  1972,  the  Company
trucked about 300,000 55-gallon drums  of  their
waste material from a pesticide plant  in  Memphis
to the site for disposal.  The company's  waste
residue including endrin, dieldrin,  aldrin, and
other pesticides, were buried in  unlined  trenches
over about 50 acres of the property.  The
groundwater has become contaminated and use of
private wells in the area has been  discontinued.
A public water supply has been extended to these
residents, and groundwater monitoring  is
continuing.  Remedial actions at  the site are
being taken by the Company.  Clean-up cost
estimates range from $6 million to  over $165
million.  A class action suit has been  filed
against the Company by local citizens.  A  1979
study indicated liver enzyme abnormalities among
residents who had consumed the water.
drinking water wells

Millington Dump/Landfill, Memphis, Tennessee
     The Millington Landfill is located         chemical wastes
adjacent to Big Creek near Millington,          soil
Tennessee.  Alleged to have accepted
unknown types and quantities of industrial
wastes, the site ceased operation  in  1976.
EPA sampling of sediment  in seepage areas
during May 1979 revealed  two organic  compounds
in low concentrations; chlordane  (0.4 ppm)  and
chlordane  (.019 ppm).  The site is presently
cultivated with soybeans.

Chickasaw  (Old) Ordnance  Site,  Millington,  Tennessee
     Located at the site  of a now  abandoned
Oupont Ordnance plant.  Company reports         chemical  wastes
only small amounts of spilled acid             soil
(sulfuric  and nitric) would have  gone
into the site from their  TNT manufacturing
process.   Wastewater  contaminated  with
residual TNT was disposed through  a drain
field  during the time the plant was  in
operation  and TNT might have accumulated in
the soil.  Sampling  has  not  been  done by EPA
at this site.

Chattanooga, Tennessee
     In June 1978, National Waste Oil
Control Company declared bankruptcy and
abandoned two storage areas containing
30,000 gallons of oil and sludge.  The
site posed the danger of spillage into
nearby Citico Creek and potential
contamination of the city drinking water
supply.  The U.S. EPA spent $100,000 to
land fill the sludge and incinerate
contaminated soil.  After the city filed
a nuisance suit, the owner removed the
remaining sludge, graded and capped
the site.
waste oils
drinking water
Memphis, Tennessee 1976 - 1980
     Complaints from residents of a
neighborhood have initiated several
investigations of reported chemical waste
disposal.  Recent sampling of air, water
and soil has been conducted by EPA.
Analyses have not shown chemical levels above
those normally found in urban areas.  Additional
sampling will be done.
human health
Rutherford County, Tennessee
     Twenty private wells in a rural setting
were found contaminated by the illegal
disposal of waste oils into a sinkhole.  HUD
waste oils
drinking water

and FHA funded a $200,000 extension  to  an
ongoing water supply project  in  order that
impacted residents be  supplied  potable  water.
Nothing was done to restore the  groundwater.
Waynesboro, Tennessee
     In the late  1960's  and  early  1970's,  a
local plant began  to dump  polychlorinated
biphenyls  (PCB's)  and  other  chemical  wastes
into a city dump  site.   The  dumping  continued
until April 1972.   The waste has migrated
into a spring which feeds  Beech Creek.
Aquatic life  in Beech  Creek  has been
adversely  affected.
surface water,
Milan,  Tennessee
     Normal  operation of the Milan Army
Ammunition Plant,  since  its  origin in 19*11
has  resulted in  surface  discharge of plant
process water containing residues of TNT,
DNT, RDX  and "tetryl".   During a routine
testing of wells  on the  installation,
explosive residues were  found in the
vicinity  of  the  industrial lagoons.  Two
water  supply wells for the Army installation
were closed  subject to these findings.  A
survey of on-site and private wells downgradient
from the  installation was instituted by the U.S.
ground water

Army Toxic and Hazardous Materials  Agency
to determine the extent of contamination.
Following this survey, a polllution  abatement
plan will be implemented.

Chattanooga, Tennessee, Velsicol Residue Hill
     On-site disposal of chemical wastes has    chemical  waste
resulted in groundwater contamination.  The     ground  water
company is planning remedial work on-site
for completion this construction season.
Memphis, Tennessee
     Complaints of severe headaches,  nausea,
and eye irritation in sewage treatment plant
workers led to analyses of urine samples.
Chlorinated organics and related compounds
of low levels were found.  The apparent
source of the chemicals was the industrial
waste discharges to sewer lines.  Several
industries have agreed to pay for most of
the cost of cleaning contaminated sludges
from the sewers.
and treatment
Morristown, Tennessee
     Leachate from a dump containing municipal
refuse, DDT, DDE, DDD and dieldrin polluted    pesticides
nearby wells.  Odors emanated from a leachate  surface water
polluted stream.  TVA produced a final closing

plan for the dump, including a two  foot  final
cover and plastic covering of the pesticide
disposal area.

Bellvue Dump, Memphis, Tennessee
     This site is an old  city dump  which       chemical  wastes
ceased operation in 1974.  It is situated
along the Wolf River near N. Watkins  Street.
Illicit dumping at the site is still  occurring.
The Bellvue Dump is one of several  dumps in  the
immediate vicinity; all are located in the Wolf
River flood plain, none are presently permitted
for active dumping.  These various  other dump-
sites were privately owned/operated,  now having
ceased opertion.  EPA is  presently  awaiting
analytical results from leachate and  sediment
samples taken during March 1980 from  the
Bellvue site.

Hollywood Dump, Memphis,  Tennessee
     Located south of the Wolf River  at  the     chemical  waste
Hollywood Street bridge,  the  site was an old   surface water
city dump in the flood plain  and filling of
the Wolf River.  In operation  from  1930  -  1974,
the site was used for disposal of unknown
quantities of household and industrial wastes,
notably including pesticide production wastes
from the Velsicol Chemical Company.  Site  was
the focus of 311 response during February  -
March 1980 when exposed barrels were  removed
from the flood plain of the Wolf River and
eroding areas were filled and  seeded.

Jackson Pit Dump, Memphis, Tennessee
     Situated near the intersection of Tchulahoma

Road and Jackson Pit Road, Jackson Pit is a closed

municipal landfill owned by Shelby County.  Hie site

received much of the industrial solid waste from  the

Shelby County area when it was in active  use.  Adjacent

stream shows three priority pollutants and twelve other

organic compounds in the water phase which are also present

in leachate leaving the site.  The site is being  monitored

for any increase in the concentrations of contaminants in the

leachate streams or for increased volumes of leachate.
chemical waste

surface water


Harris County, Texas

     Acid pit is an abandoned waste disposal

site in the San Jaclnto flood plain near

Highland, Texas.  Dry compacted sludge covers

one acre to a depth of 10 feet.  The site  is

located  in a flood plain and  is not secured.

In 1961, a hurricane flood tide resulted  In a

massive  fish kill.  The site  is being assessed to

determine the need and urgency of cleanup.
toxic wastes

surface water,

fish kills
 LaMarque, Texas

     MOTCO  is, and  unsecured,  abandoned  dump

 site situated  In  a  flood  plain.   One generator

 to  this  site  is a major chemical  company.   There

 are 88 drums  possibly containing  toluene,

 trlethanolamine,  acetic anhydride,  lead  and

 mercury. Pits on the site contain  oily  sludges*

 Analysis of these wastes  reveal significant

 concentrations of PCB, benzene, phenol,

 stryene, trlchloroethylene, chloroform,

 toluene, ethyl benzene, and xylene.   The  site

 Is  causing  air and  surface water  pollution

 problems.   Attempts at recycling  the wastes were

 halted  due  to vinyl chloride emissions.   Costs  for

 containment are estimated to be at least $100,000,

 with cleanup  expected to  costs $1.5 - 4  million.
Organ Ics, PCB's

air & surface water

Mission, Texas

     High concentrations of pesticides and

other chemicals were found on the areas surrounding

an abandoned pesticide formulation plant.  One of the

areas Is used to park school buses and a wood

working shop for the Mission Schools.  Samples

of dust taken from the seats of the school buses

also showed pesticides.  The cost of cleanup  Is

estimated to be approximately $200,000.

health threat
Grand Prairie, Dallas County, Texas

     This nearly 12 acre Inactive site  Is fenced,

but otherwise unsecured.  It Is located within the

city limits of Grand Prairie, a suburb of Dallas.

The disposal of a variety of industrial wastes began

there In 1972 and continued until  the site was closed

In 1978.  In early 1978, there was a fire at the site

which destroyed the Incinerator.
Industrial wastes


Harris County, Texas
     French Limited is a  15 acre waste  disposal
site, in use since 1965.  Approximately,  70
million gallons of acidic and  oily wastes were
disposed into this unlined, abandoned sand pit.
The oily sludges and  sediment  of the pits
contain PCB's.  In 1973,  flooding of the
San Jacinto River inundated the site and
caused the dike to break.  Some of the  oily
sludges were released.  The site was again
inundated in 1979.  Drinking water wells  are
contaminated and a nearby san  pit was closed
due to the movement of toxic pollutants.   The
State has neutralized the pH of the sludges  as
the first step of remedial action.  Substantial
cleanup is required which may  exceed $1,500,000.
acidic, oily
wastes, PCB's
surface water
Harris County,  Texas
      Sikes  Pit  is  a site  for a large
volume of petroleum and chemical  wastes.
The  site is located in the San Jacinto
flood plain.  Sikes Pit is unassessed
at this time.
chemical waste
surface water

Riverside, Texas
     In 1979 high levels of chromate were
found in the drinking water of contaminated
wells.  State officials believe that a leak
in a cooling tower basin at Structural
Metals, Inc. was the source of the pollution.
The state may require the company to pump
and restore the aquifer.

Austin, Texas
     Powdered pesticides, including DDT,
toxaphene, lindane and Alpha and Beta
Benzene Hexachloride, killed several
hundred fish in a Southeast Austin
pond.  The pesticides had been dumped
in paper bags into the St.  Edwards
landfill.  Bulldozers constructing
a baseball field unearthed  the chemicals,
and rain washed them into the pond.
In August, 1979 construction in the
park ceased while officials removed
the contaminated soil.
drinking water wells
  surface water, park

Rose Park, Salt Lake City, Utah, 1979

     Wastes Including old discarded waste oil, somewhat

paraffinic, from a waste processing operation were disposed      waste oil

at the now inactive site.  The park is fenced in for safety      groundwater

purposes.  In warm weather the oil cozes up and has been

described as a three million cubic foot tar pit.  An EPA

consultants report indicates potential for offsite

groundwater contamination.  A contractors review recommended

that the  site be covered with an impervious clay and properly

sloped for drainage.

Rocklngham, Vermont

    Gross pollution of groundwater In Rocklngham,

Vermont was observed seven years after a liquid

Industrial  waste disposal facility was established

In an abandoned gravel quarry.  Groundwater were

characterized by elevated levels of specific

conductance, BOD, COD, chromium, lead, zinc,

potassium and nickel.  While not admitting

culpability, the operator agreed to furnish

potable water to affected neighbors by means

of a public water system.  The disposal  of

liquid wastes has been prohibited but the

groundwater resources remain polluted.
chemical wastes


Saltville, Virginia
     Mercury has leached fgqm an old 01 in
plant site and contaminated the Holston River.                    surface water
A fishing ban was imposed by the State for
the Holston River.  The Company is completing
a field investigation and developing remedial
action strategy. A technical task force made
up of the State Water Control Board, State
Attorney General's Office, and EPA Region III
is overseeing industrial remedial studies,
plans and alternatives. Remedial actions are
to be initiated by Fall, 1980.  To date,
the Company has spent $700-800 thousand,
$200 thousand to put rip rap on the  stream bank
at the old plant site,  and an estimated
$200 thousand to stabilize levees of
on-site  ponds.  The remedial plan includes
covering  the pond containing mercury
and diverting surface water around the
pond basin.  This will  cost approximately
$4 million whereas the  alternative would
be to  remove the mercury and dispose
of it  in a controlled disposal area.
This would cost approximately $32 million.

Waynesboro, Virginia, 1977

    In June 1977 the South River below Waynesboro,

Virginia, and the South Fork of the Shenandoah

River were closed to fishing for eating purposes,

for a total 130 miles.   Officials contended that

an E.I. duPont de Nemours facility at Waynesboro

was the source of the contamination.  Mercury had

been used as a catalyst In the manufacture of

synthetic fibers at the plant between 1929 and

1950.  Concentration levels of more than 240 ppm

were found In the sediments of certain of those

waters, and fish contamination exceeded the FDA

action level  of 0.5 ppm.  Closures In the

Shenandoah area were estimated to have reduced

fishing on the river by 78 percent, a decline that

translated Into a $600,000 yearly loss to the

economy of the region.

surface water


Hopewe11, Virginia

     Kepone, a highly chlorinated hydrocarbon

pesticide, was discharged  Into the environment

around Hopewell, Virginia  from 1966 to  1975  from

two manufacturing operations.  The Allied  Chemical

Corporation Semi-Works Plant  produced Kepone

Intermittently from  1966 to  1974.  Life Science

Products Company initiated Kepone production under

contract to Allied Chemical  In 1974 and continued

production until closure of the  plant  In September

1975.  The finding of high levels of Kepone

contamination  In James River  fish brought  about closure

of the James River to recreational and  commerlcal

fishing  for many species of  fish and shellfish.   An

estimated 20,000 to  38,000 pounds of Kepone  still  Is

In the James River.  The  projected cost  for effectively

eliminating contamination  Is  In  the billions of dollars.

In addition plant workers  have contracted  numerous  illnesses

which may be attributed to Kepone exposure.   Litigation

Is still pending and the  problem has not been resolved.

surface waters

human health

fishing ban

Nelson County, Virginia, 1977
     Acid from copper wastes of  an                copper wastes
American Cyanamid plant which operated            surface water
from the 1940 's to 1969, washed  into  the
Piney and Tye Rivers afer a thunderstorm
killing 73,000 fish.  As of July 1979,
the copper wastes remained, despite
the efforts of the new owner, U.S. Titanium,
to have it moved.

Tacoma, Washington, 1980
     Hooker Chemical Company has recently
reported to the State of Washington and EPA                    organics
Region X that the groundwater at the plant
site is contaminated by chlorinated organic
chemicals. The contamination may be due to
waste chemical migration from disposal
areas and lagoons on the plant site.
Additional groundwater monitoring is
necessary to define the extent of

Helgar - Kronquist  Kaiser Site, Spokane, Washington, 1980
     This site is an old gravel quarry which
is  privately owned. The quarry was used to                      groundwater
dispose aluniraan processing wastes until
closed by a county  order. The shallow perched
water table has  been contaminated by chlorides.
The county has issued an order directing remedial
actions at the site.  Kaiser has agreed to do
additional groundwater monitoring and to
evaluate alternative remedial measures.

Wilders Landfill,  Ferndale, Washington, 1979
                                                                cheaaical wastes
     This privately owned site was permitted
as  a landfill by the county in 1976.  In
violation of permit requirements, hazardous
wastes were disposed in a pit on the  site

and the county ordered the site closed
and covered in 1979.  The site is located
in clay soils and no groundwater contamin-
ation has been detected.  Howeverj monitoring
at the site is being conducted to determine
if additional surface water controls and
grading work is necessary.

Kent, Washington, 1980
     At a chemical waste recycling and
reprocessing facility, improper methods
of waste handling and disposal have contaminated
surface runoff and probably contaminated ground-
water. Remedial actions at the site should
include clean-up of contaminated soils and
groundwater monitoring.  Additional investi-
gation is necessary prior to a definitive
remedial plan.

Spokane, Washington, 1978
     In 1978, private residential drinking
wells near the Kaiser Aluminum and Chemical
Plant were found to have significant concen-
trations of cyanide. The apparent cause of the
contamination is Kaiser's practice of pumping
liquid wastes containing cyanide into on-site
lagoons or directly into the ground. The cyanide
apparently migrated easily through the sandy
flatland which overlies the Spokane aquifer.
  Toxi cs
  surface and groundwater
drinking water

Shelton, Washington, 1972
     In 1972 water in the Mason County
fair grounds well were found to be
contaminated with breakdown products of
waste liquor, tannins and lignins
apparently from Goose Lake, which is
3/4 mile away. During the late 1930's
and early 1940's Rayomier Timber Co.
had disposed of  its waste liquors
and sludge from  its pulping
operations in and near Goose Lake
in Shelton.
surface and groundwater
 Everett,  Washington,  1974
      A combination of aluminum dust,
 magnesium chips and concentrated  phosphorus
 ignited while being compacted at  a  landfill.
 Firemen applied water, which  worsened  the
 situation; two firemen were subsequently
 thrown from a front end loader, but
 escaped injury.  Firefighters extin-
 guished the surface fire but the  fire
 burned underground until it expended
 its fuel.
  human health

Black Diamond (King County), Washington
     For at least 10 years the Palmer Coke
and Coaling company has accepted Industrial
wastes, including paints, solvents and paint
sludges, for dumping in abandoned coal mine
shafts. Wastes, seeping through cracks polluted
surface waters. Although wastes are still
accepted, the site is regularly monitored
by the Department of Ecology.
Silverdale (Kitsap County)
     Water that had been used  to wash
RDX (a high explosive) out of  shells
leached from a dump and contaminated
groundwater. The U.S. Navy Spent
$150,000 on a monitoring program;
final costs might reach $1 million.

Kent, Washington, 1979
     Widing Transportation, Inc. violated
water pollution laws when Its  settling ponds,
used to filter liquid wastes out of Its tanker
trucks, overflowed into an adjacent swamp.
Surface water was contaminated
 ^ groundwater had apparently  not been
 surface water
waste water
liquid wastes
surface water

Calumet County, Wisconsin
    In February 1979, demolition wastes containing
PCB's, mercury, cadi urn, lead, copper and chromium
were dumped by Weiseter Construction into wetlands
adjacent to Lake Innbago.  If they are not removed
the wastes will ultimately enter the lake.  The Corps
of Engineers has sued in federal court.  The State also
has a court order pending.
heavy metals
Sheboygan Falls, Wisconsin
    Extremely high levels of PCB's in fish have
resulted in an advisory against consuming fish
from 129 miles of the Sheboygan, Mullet,, and Onion
Rivers.  One suspected source of the chemical is the
Tecumseh Products Company, which used wastes containing
10,000 parts per million PCB's as fill in the Sheboygan
River floodplain.  Remedial measures have been initiated
by the Wisconsin Department of Natural Resources.
fish ban

Brokaw, Wisconsin
    Surface and ground water were contaminated.

A paper company stored spent sulflte liquor In

a pond for about 4 years.   It was hoped that the

quality of the polluted water would be Improved as

It moved through the soil.  However, an Investigation

revealed both surface and ground water contamination.

Initially, a high-capacity well  was used to withdraw

contaminated ground water from the aquifer, and a

barrier well was used to contain the spread of

contaminants.  Ground water was discharged to the

Wisconsin River.  Two more pumping wells were

installed later.  The remedial  action has  contained

the zone of contamination but is not as effective as

anticipated.  Pumping will be necessary for a long

time to fully renovate the aquifer.
suIfIte Ii q uor

ground water

surface water

Onalaska, Wisconsin
    At least 3 private wells were contaminated.
Investigations undertaken by the state of
Wisconsin between 1966 and 1968 found at least
3 private wells to be polluted by waste leaching
from several near-by impoundments.  The 200,000
gallons of waste produced daily contain high
concentrations of chlorides, fluorides, sulfates,
and trace amounts of metallic ions.  Treatment
of the wastes was provided prior to Infiltration.
A new well was drilled to replace affected wells.
chemical  wastes

RIpon, Wlscons In
    Contamination of a canning company well  led

to an Investigation.  The contamination was traced

to improper handling of the canning company's own

wastes.   The contaminated well was Initially pumped

to remove the contaminants, with little success.  The

well  was abandoned and sealed.  Increased use of a high

capacity well also resulted in contamination of the well.

It was pumped and treated with limited effectiveness.

It was finally deepened, and used with another deep

well  to  supply water for the cannery.   No further

problems have developed.
organ i c waste

ground water
Marinette, Wisconsin
    Storage of arsenic salts and discharges to the

Menominee River have left ground water and the river

sediments contaminated with arsenic.  The generator,

Ansul  Company, paid $7 million to have the wastes

removed, but the soils, ground water and sediments

remain contaminated.  Ansul has. proposed a treatment

system for cleaning ground waters.

ground  water

Madison, Wisconsin
    Surface water and ground water were contaminated.

Contamination does not extend far beyond the edge of

the  landfill.  A study of the landfill was  initiated  in

1967 to define the nature and extent  of ground  water

contamination from the 01 in Avenue  landfill.  The

landfill site is a former marsh.  The presence  of the

landfill has partially converted a ground-water  discharge

zone to a  recharge zone.  Most  ground-water movement  is

toward Wingra Creek.  No  remedial action was reported.

surface &


 Madison,  Wisconsin
     Surface  water  and  ground  water  were  contaminated.

 Contamination  does not extend  beyond  the edge

 of  the  landfill.   A study  of  the  landfill  was  initiated

 in  1967  to define  the  nature  and  extent  of ground

 water contamination from  Truax Field  landfill.   The

 presence of  near  by high-level  welIs  has modified  the

 ground  water flow  pattern  in  this area.   No remedial

 action  was reported.

surface &


                                 258 -

Fond du Lac County, Wisconsin
    Surface water and ground  water  were  contaminated.

At least one well was affected.   In  1964,  the Wisconsin

State Board of Health received  complaints  of  ground

water contamination.  An  investigation suggested  that

organic wastes from a pea cannery were adversely

affecting ground water, but no  definite  proof was found

The contaminated well was abandoned  and  sealed.   The

canning company  lined a disposal pit  to  collect the

silage liquor for proper  disposal.   The  effectiveness

of this action is not known.
organic s

surface &


Wausau, Wisconsin
    An Industrial well pumping  500  gallons  per  minute

became contaminated.  The contamination  was  traced

to an infiltration  pond containing  papermill  wastes

across the Wisconsin River  from the  well.   No re-

medial action was reported.
pa perm iI  I



                                           u.s. oovEiwEm PWOTIHG OFFICE 1900 -o- 311-726 /seas