United States
        Environmental Protection
        Agency
Office of
Radiation Programs
Washington, D.C. 20460
EPA 520/1-89-010

March 1989
        RADON  MEASUREMENTS
        IN SCHOOLS

        An Interim  Report
TOPAY'^ PROW
"IftPONW
      TEST

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                                      EPA-520/1-89-010
 RADON  MEASUREMENTS  IN SCHOOLS

        - AN INTERIM REPORT  -



            March 1989
U.S.  Environmental Protection Agency
    Office of Radiation Programs
       Washington, D.C. 20460

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                               TABLE OF CONTENTS



Section                                                                 Page

     I.   PURPOSE OF THIS DOCUMENT	1

    II.   RADON FACTS  	  1

   III.   HEALTH EFFECTS 	  2

            A.   EFFECTS ON THE GENERAL POPULATION 	  2
            B.   EFFECTS ON CHILDREN 	  2

    IV.   RADON EXPOSURE 	  3

            A.   RADON EXPOSURE AT HOME	3
            B.   RADON EXPOSURE IN SCHOOLS	  3

     V.   RADON PROBLEM IN SCHOOLS	..3

            A.   AVAILABLE INFORMATION 	  4
            B.   INITIAL RESEARCH FINDINGS 	  5

    VI.   RADON MEASUREMENTS IN SCHOOLS  	  5

            A.   WHAT ROOMS TO MEASURE	5
            B.   TIME OF YEAR TO MEASURE	6
            C.   RADON MEASUREMENTS	6
            D.   SCREENING MEASUREMENT OPTIONS  	  7

   VII.   UNDERSTANDING SCREENING MEASUREMENT RESULTS AND CONDUCTING
          CONFIRMATORY MEASUREMENTS	9

            A.  INTERPRETING TWO-DAY SCREENING MEASUREMENT RESULTS  ... 10
            B.  INTERPRETING THREE-MONTH SCREENING MEASUREMENT RESULTS  . 11

  VIII. .  RECOMMENDED TIMEFRAMES FOR REDUCING RADON CONCENTRATIONS  ... 14

    IX.   REDUCING RADON CONCENTRATIONS	16


APPENDIX A: PROTOCOLS FOR USING TWO RADON MEASUREMENT DEVICES	A-l

APPENDIX B: STATE RADIATION CONTROL OFFICES AND EPA REGIONAL
            RADIATION OFFICES  	  B-l

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                               RADON IN SCHOOLS
I.    PURPOSE OF THIS DOCUMENT

      The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and other scientific
organizations have identified an increased risk of lung cancer associated with
exposure to elevated levels of radon in homes.  Recently, schools in many
States have also been tested for radon, and rooms with elevated concentrations
have been found.  Because indoor radon concentrations vary with building
construction, ventilation characteristics, and the underlying soil and rock,
the only way to determine if a particular school has elevated radon
concentrations is to test it.  As a result, an increasing number of schools
throughout the country are initiating their own radon measurement programs.

      To aid in this effort, EPA has developed this interim report for
measuring radon in schools.  This document provides school officials, groups
such as Parent-Teacher Associations, and other interested persons with interim
information on how to measure radon in schools and what to do if elevated
levels are found.  The guidance provided in this document incorporates several
significant findings EPA has obtained in its initial studies of the radon
problem in schools.   Although more studies are being conducted to confirm the
initial findings and to address other important school measurement issues, EPA
believes that the knowledge gained from these early studies have important
implications for schools planning to make radon measurements in the near
future.   As additional information on measuring radon in schools becomes
available this interim report will be updated.

      The first sections of this document contain facts about radon and the
health risks associated with radon exposure.  The next sections summarize what
is known about radon in schools,  and provide guidance for conducting radon
measurements.  The last sections describe how to interpret the measurement
results and suggest techniques that can be used to reduce radon concentrations
if elevated levels are found.  An appendix to this document suggests methods
for placing two types of radon measurement devices so that results obtained
from room to room and from school to school can be compared.
II.   RADON FACTS

      Radon-222 is a colorless, odorless, tasteless, radioactive gas that
occurs naturally in soil, rocks, underground water, and air.  It is produced
by the natural breakdown (radioactive decay) of radium-226 in soil and rocks.
The radon breaks down to radon decay products that can attach themselves to
particles in the air.  Breathing radon decay products increases the chance of
developing lung cancer.   In outdoor air, radon is usually present at such low
levels that there is very little risk.  However,  when radon enters a building,
it and its decay products can accumulate to high concentrations.  The Surgeon
General's office of the U.S. Public Health Service and the EPA recognize that
indoor radon constitutes a substantial health risk, and have publicly advised
that most homes be tested.  EPA also is encouraging the testing of other
structures, such as schools and workplaces.

                                       1

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III.  HEALTH EFFECTS
      A.   Effects on the General Population

      Exposure to elevated radon concentrations has been associated with an
increased risk of lung cancer.  The risk depends not only upon the
concentration of radon but the length of time for which a person is exposed.
In general, risk increases as the level of radon, the length of exposure and
an individual's smoking habits increases.  Estimates of health risks
associated with radon are based on lifetime exposure.

      Not everyone who breathes radon decay products will develop lung cancer,
and for those that do, the time between exposure and the appearance of cancer
may be many years.  Lung cancer generally does not appear until a person is at
least 35 years of age; in most cases lung cancer is discovered between ages 45
and 85.  The EPA and other scientific groups estimate that about 20,000 lung
cancer deaths each year may be due to exposure to radon and its decay
products.  In 1987, there were about 138,000 lung cancer deaths in the United
States; EPA estimates that about 15 percent may have been related to radon
exposure.  Smoking is clearly the major cause of lung cancer, and many lung
cancers may be caused by the combined effect of radon exposure and smoking.
In fact, the National Academy of Sciences estimates that exposure to radon and
tobacco smoke in combination may be as much as ten times as serious as
exposure to either pollutant by itself.
      B.   Effects on Children

      There is currently limited data on how radon exposure affects children.
Consequently, it is difficult to ascertain whether the risks from radon
exposure are higher or lower for children than they are for adults.  Most of
the data relating lung cancer to radiation exposure during childhood comes
from studies on Japanese atomic bomb survivors.   These data suggest that
children may be more susceptible than adults to cancers induced by radiation.
However, sufficient time has not yet elapsed since the atomic bomb exposures
to determine if the higher rate of lung cancer development in the exposed
children will persist.  Until more data become available, it is prudent to
assume that children are at higher risk from exposure to radon than are adults
for two reasons.  First, children have smaller lung volumes and higher
breathing rates, which may result in higher radiation doses to children from a
given radon concentration.  Second, the probability that a specific dose of
radiation will induce cancer may differ with age.

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IV.   RADON EXPOSURE
      A.   Radon Exposure at Home

      EPA has suggested an action level of 4 picocuries per liter  (pCi/L) for
residences based, largely on the ability of current technology to reduce radon
concentrations to that level or below.  The risk associated with a lifetime
exposure to a radon level of 4 pCi/L is roughly equivalent to that associated
with smoking ten cigarettes per day.  The Indoor Radon Abatement Act of 1988
sets a national goal of reducing annual average indoor radon concentrations to
as close to outdoor levels as possible (Approximately 0.2 to 0.7 pCi/L).  EPA
is in the process of developing technologies to meet this goal.  In addition,
the EPA is currently revising the Citizen's Guide to reflect different-action
levels with their associated risks.
   V

      Radon exposure in homes has been identified as a national health
problem.  By 1988, EPA had assisted 17 states in making short-term "screening"
measurements of radon concentrations in homes.  The results of these State
surveys indicate that one out of four homes in these seventeen states have
screening radon levels above the EPA action level of 4 pCi/L.

      Because many people, particularly children, spend much of their time at
home, the home is likely to be the most significant source of radon exposure.
Parents are strongly encouraged to test their homes for radon and take action
to reduce elevated radon concentrations.   Children and teachers may also be
exposed at school, therefore EPA is encouraging the testing of schools.
      B.   Radon Exposure in Schools

      Schools may be a significant source of radon exposure for children and
staff.  However, because occupancy patterns in schools differ from those in
homes, the actual exposures received by each individual, or even by all
students combined, are difficult to determine.  Children, teachers and other
school employees may spend most of their time in one room or may visit several
classrooms each day.  Each of these rooms may have different average radon
concentrations.  Until more information is available, it is reasonable to
assume that a person remains in one school room for six to eight hours a day.
This approach provides a margin of safety, since it probably overstates
exposure if the rooms with the highest readings are used to assess the maximum
health risk due to exposure at school.
V.    RADON PROBLEM IN SCHOOLS

      Elevated radon concentrations have been reported in schools in Virginia,
Maryland, Pennsylvania, New Jersey, Florida, Washington, New York, Maine,
Ohio, Iowa, Colorado,  Tennessee and Illinois.  EPA, with assistance from
Fairfax County, Virginia, studied five schools in the winter and spring of
1988.  In addition, EPA has analyzed data from various studies throughout the

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country.  Several important findings from these investigations are described
below.  EPA is conducting further studies4 to gain information useful for
developing methods for measuring and mitigating radon in schools.
      A.   Available Information

      Schools vary in their construction, heating, ventilation, air
conditioning (HVAC), and occupancy patterns.  EPA has collected information as
to how these variables can affect radon concentrations and has considered this
information in the development of this interim report.

      First, EPA has observed that schools, unlike houses, may be built on
several adjoining slabs.  The joints between these slabs may offer entry
points for radon to enter.

      Second, investigating whether an HVAC system is designed and/or operated
properly is an important part of understanding radon problems in a school.
Sometimes schools were not designed with adequate ventilation.  In other
instances ventilation systems were not operated properly for reasons such as
increased energy cost or uncomfortable drafts.  Schools may have one or more
complex HVAC systems.   HVAC systems in the schools surveyed to date include
central air handling systems, room-sized unit ventilators, and radiant heat.
The unit ventilators and radiant heat can exist with or without a separate
ventilation system.  Central air handling systems and unit ventilators were
most prevalent in the schools visited and are used in most newer, air
conditioned schools.

      Depending on the type of HVAC system in a school, operation of the
system may produce positive or negative pressure conditions.  Positive
pressure within a school decreases the potential for radon entry, while
negative pressure within a school increases the potential for radon entry.  It
has been observed that having the HVAC system operating normally, at a reduced
rate, or completely shut down can increase or decrease radon concentrations
depending on the type of ventilation system and the construction of the
school.  Even though elevated radon concentrations may exist when the system
is off, there is a possibility that the elevated concentrations may dissipate
when the system is on.  On the other hand, a school may have a ventilation
system that creates a negative pressure situation while operating.  In this
case, there is a greater potential for radon entry when the system is on.

       Last, school occupancy patterns can have a varying effect on radon
concentrations.  Unlike homes, schools are usually closed on weekends and
overnight.  Because schools are usually unoccupied on weekends and overnight,
the HVAC system is often turned down during these periods.  This could have an
affect on the radon concentrations and result in measurements that are not
representative of radon concentrations to which children and school employees
are exposed.

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      B.   Initial Research Findings

     The Fairfax County study produced the following findings which EPA also
used in the development of this document:

           Radon concentrations in schools typically vary from room to room.
            Some classrooms may have elevated radon concentrations even if
            other rooms have relatively low radon concentrations.

           Schools in the same general area can have significantly different
            radon concentrations.  Because of different construction
            techniques and underlying geology and soils, the results for one
            school do not apply to a school a few blocks away.

           Radon concentrations vary significantly over time.  Changes in
            ventilation, occupancy patterns, weather conditions, and other
            variables may cause maximum and minimum screening concentrations
            in a room to vary by as much as a factor of 10 or more.   Average
            concentrations may vary by a factor of two to three.  The
           . variability found in schools may be higher than that found in
            houses.

           Radon concentrations are considerably higher in basement and first
            floor rooms than on upper-level floors.
VI.   RADON MEASUREMENTS IN SCHOOLS

      Based on the findings discussed above, this section provides general
guidelines for:  (1) what rooms to measure; (2) what time of year to measure;
(3) how to use screening and (4) how to interpret screening measurement
results and conduct confirmatory measurements.  In addition, two possible
screening measurement options are presented.  If one of these two options is
selected, a detailed protocol for use of the radon measurement device
described can be found in an appendix to this document.  The last sections
provide general information on reducing radon concentrations.
      A.    What Rooms to Measure

      Based on available data, EPA is recommending that measurements be made
in all rooms frequently used on and below the ground-level.  More research is
being conducted in this area to determine whether fewer rooms can be tested.
Frequently used rooms include classrooms, offices, cafeterias, libraries, and
gymnasiums.  Areas such as broom closets and storage closets do not need
testing since they are used infrequently.

     If a school was constructed as an open-plan layout and does not have
individual classrooms, measurements should be taken every 2,000 square feet.
EPA is doing more research in this area.  School officials may want to be
flexible and test less frequently than every 2,000 square feet in open areas
which are not routinely occupied.  When deciding where to test, school

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officials should maximize testing in areas where there is a higher potential
for radon entry (i.e. near structural joints and cracks).

      If, for budgetary or other reasons, a school official chooses not to
measure all rooms, those having the highest potential for elevated radon
concentrations should be tested.  Because ventilation systems can create low
pressure conditions promoting radon buildup, and joints and cracks may allow
radon to enter, the rooms most likely to have radon problems include:  (1)
basement classrooms, (2) occupied rooms that are isolated from the central
ventilation system and only recirculates the room air; (3) rooms on or near
structural joints such as adjacent slabs; (4) rooms with a large floor/wall
joint perimeter; and (5) rooms that have floor slabs with significant cracks.
      B.    Time of Year to Measure

      As with residences, radon screening measurements in schools should be
made in the colder months (October through March) when windows and doors as
well as interior room doors are more likely to be closed and the heating
system is operating.  This is generally known as "closed conditions."  This
situation tends to draw radon indoors by lowering indoor air pressures and
creates a "worst-case" condition for estimating the highest radon level to
which someone might be exposed. In open-plan schools, it may not be possible
to isolate rooms or areas, but the building as a whole should be kept closed.

     In warmer climates, screening measurements should still be made in the
coolest months of the year when windows and doors are likely to be closed.
      C.    Radon Measurements

     The long-term average radon and decay product concentrations which exist
during hours when the school is occupied determines students exposure and
therefore risk.  Several factors make measurements of this long-term average
radon concentration difficult.  The process could take up to a full year and
the techniques required are expensive and labor intensive.  Longer term
studies may be appropriate where reliable information indicates the potential
for elevated radon concentrations.  For initial measurements it may be
appropriate to make concessions to cost and promptness.  The methods in this
report reflect EPA's best effort to identify appropriate techniques for
initial screening and confirmatory measurements in schools.

      Screening measurements taken over a short period of time under closed
conditions are used to quickly determine if there is a potential radon
problem.  Measurements made under these conditions will produce results that
represent the maximum concentrations to which students and teachers may be
exposed.  This is useful information because it is unlikely that the long-term
concentrations, averaged over the full school year, will be greater than the
screening results.  Therefore, if the screening results are low, school
officials can be confident that students are not exposed to high
concentrations.  More research is being done in this area and will be
available with the final guidance.

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      The results of the screening measurements determine whether and what
type of additional measurements are needed.  If elevated levels of radon are
found after taking a screening measurement, confirmatory measurements should
be conducted before any corrective action is taken.  The duration of the
confirmatory measurement depends on the magnitude of the screening measurement
results.  (See Section VII)  If elevated levels are found after a confirmatory
measurement is taken, actions to reduce radon concentrations should be
pursued. (See Section IX for more details.)
      D.    Screening Measurement Options

      This section presents information on two passive detectors--charcoal
canisters and alpha-track detectors-- because these are the devices most
commonly available to school officials for conducting screening measurements.
Other devices are available including electret-ion-chambers and continuous
monitors.  EPA has issued protocols for the use of other measurement devices
in the report entitled "Indoor Radon and Decay Product Measurement Protocols"
(EPA-520-1-89-006).   In addition, school officials should contact State
Radiation Control Offices or EPA Radiation Offices (see Appendix B) for more
information on other devices.

      Both the charcoal canisters and alpha track detectors can be used for
conducting screening measurements.   Charcoal canister measurements are used to
quickly identify rooms and/or schools that have potential radon problems.
There are two types of charcoal canisters commonly used. One is a two-day
device and the other is a seven-day device.  EPA is recommending that charcoal
canister measurements be conducted during the weekend (See Section VI.D.I).
Therefore, EPA recommends if a school official uses a charcoal canister for a
screening measurement, the two-day device should be used.  Charcoal canister
measurements provide a "snapshot" of radon concentrations and are not
representative of annual average radon concentrations.  Alpha-track screening
measurements typically are taken for three months.  An alpha-track detector is
an integrating device and gives a better estimate of the average radon
concentration.  Two options for conducting screening measurements in schools
using these devices are outlined below.  The advantages and disadvantages of
each option are provided.

      1.   Charcoal Canister Option

      This option involves using a two-day charcoal canister during the week-
end with the ventilation system operating as it normally does during the
weekday.  This would not include normal reductions of the ventilation system
at night.  All frequently used schoolrooms on and below the ground-level
should be tested.  Measurements should be made during the coolest season of
the year, and closed-school conditions (windows and doors shut) should be
maintained to the degree possible to approximate a worst case situation to
which children and teachers are exposed.  The appendix provides further
information on the placement of a two-day charcoal canister device.

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      ADVANTAGES
           Charcoal canisters yield quick results.   A charcoal canister
            device provides a prompt initial indication of radon
            concentrations.  The devices are in place for two days, sealed,
            and mailed to a testing laboratory.  Results from the testing
            laboratory are usually returned in a few weeks.


           Charcoal canisters are relatively inexpensive.  Charcoal canisters
            range in price from $10 to $30.  If purchased in large quantities,
            the cost may be as low as $8 per canister.  Prices are higher if
            the costs include the placement of the device by a professional
            contractor.

           Closed-Conditions are controlled on weekends.  By measuring radon
            on the weekends,  schools'  windows and doors can be kept shut to
            maximize the radon potential.

           Tampering with charcoal canisters can be minimized on weekends.
            Tampering with the device affects the quality of the measurement
            and may produce inaccurate readings.

      DISADVANTAGES

           Two-day measurements may be affected by ventilation systems.  Two-
            day measurements may reflect fluctuations in radon concentrations
            caused by changes in the ventilation system operation.  Longer
            measurements are less susceptible to these types of changes.  (See
            Section V.A).

           Two-day measurements vary over time.   Radon concentrations in
            schools can fluctuate dramatically over time.  If two measurements
            are made in the same schoolroom on different weekends, the radon
            concentration may differ by a factor of 2 to 3.

           Charcoal canisters require prompt analysis.  Radon attached to the
            charcoal begins to decay even when the canister  is resealed.  Once
            the radon measurement is made, charcoal canisters must be promptly
            returned to the laboratory.  The use of large numbers of canisters
            requires careful planning to avoid delays.

           Two-day charcoal canisters may be affected by extreme humidity and
            temperature conditions.  While most laboratories can compensate
            for these factors, unusually high or low temperatures or
            humidities can affect the result,  and the laboratory should be
            alerted of such conditions.

      2.   Alpha Track Detector Option

      This option involves using an alpha-track detector for a three-month
period.   As with the charcoal canister, all frequently used  rooms on and below

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the ground-level should be tested. The measurements should be made in the
winter season or, in warmer climates, the coolest season of the year.
Although closed school conditions are preferable, it is not as crucial as it
is with the charcoal canister because the measurements are for longer periods
of time.  The advantages and disadvantages of this option are outlined below.

      ADVANTAGES

           An alpha-track detector provides a better basis for making
            decisions on reducing radon concentrations.  Measurements made
            with alpha-track detectors versus charcoal canisters give a better
            estimate of the average radon concentration.  Alpha-track
            detectors are better integrating devices than charcoal canisters
            and are not as affected by fluctuating radon levels.  The use of
            alpha track detectors is advantageous for school officials that
            believe they may be pressured into taking corrective action upon
            finding elevated radon levels without conducting confirmatory
            measurements.

           Alpha-track detectors do not require immediate analysis.   Unlike
            the charcoal canister, no radon decay occurs in the alpha track
            detector once the measurement is taken.   The time from when the
            radon measurement is completed and when the device is sent to the
            laboratory is not as critical and large numbers of detectors can
            more easily be handled.

      DISADVANTAGES

           Alpha-track detectors cost more than charcoal canisters.   They
            range in price from $20 to $40, but may be obtained for as low as
            $15 each if purchased in large quantities.   Costs will increase if
            the detector is professionally placed.

           If tampered with, alpha-track detectors can give inaccurate
            readings.   Because an alpha-track detector must be used while
            school is in session, children and adults might tamper with the
            device.
VII.  UNDERSTANDING SCREENING MEASUREMENT RESULTS AND CONDUCTING CONFIRMATORY
      MEASUREMENTS

      Whether a screening or a confirmatory measurement is made, a school
official must understand how to interpret the measurement result and how to
effectively communicate the information.  If elevated levels are found the
school official must decide on what type of confirmatory measurements to take.

      The screening measurement does not represent the long-term average radon
level to which school children and teachers are exposed.  If elevated levels
are found with a screening measurement, school officials should take
confirmatory measurements before taking permanent steps to reduce the radon
concentration.

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      There are two important reasons why EPA recommends that no funds be
expended to reduce radon levels before making confirmatory or diagnostic
measurements.  First, there is always the possibility that a single
measurement may be faulty, due to laboratory or clerical errors.  Second,
radon levels fluctuate so greatly that a single measurement (especially a two-
day measurement) may be made during an unusual peak in the radon
concentration.  Making a second measurement will better assess the
concentrations to which students are routinely exposed.  Confirmatory
measurements should be made under weather and ventilation conditions as
similar as possible, and in the same locations as the original screening
measurements.
      A.   Interpreting Two-day Screening Measurement Results

     The following recommendations are summarized in Figure 1.

           If the results of two-day screening measurements are greater than
            about 20 pCi/L, confirmatory tests should be conducted under
            weather and ventilation conditions as similar as possible to the
            original screening tests.  Detectors should be placed in the same
            locations and ventilation conditions should also be similar.

            Confirmatory tests should be conducted over a two-day to a four-
            week period.  The shorter measurement period of two days or one
            week should be used when the result of the screening measurement
            is extremely elevated, for example, when it is greater than about
            100 pCi/L.

            i.    Two-day, weekend confirmatory test - Measurements should
                  begin and end at the same time as the original screening
                  measurements.

            ii.   One-week confirmatory test - There are several methods that
                  can be used to measure over a one-week period.  These
                  include longer-term charcoal canisters (i.e. seven-day
                  diffusion barrier), continuous radon monitors, and electret-
                  ion-chambers.   (Refer to the EPA report "Indoor Radon and
                  Decay Product Measurement Protocols" EPA-520-1-89-006).
                  Measurements over a week's time will yield information about
                  radon levels during occupied as well as unoccupied
                  conditions.

            iii.  Four-week confirmatory test - Both electret-ion-chambers and
                  short-term alpha-track detectors can be used to measure over
                  a one-month period.  (Refer to EPA report "Indoor Radon
                  Decay Product Measurement Protocols" EPA-520-1-89-006).
                  Measurements over one month will yield information about
                  radon levels during several weeks during both occupied and
                  unoccupied conditions.
                                      10

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            If the results of two-day screening tests are between 4 and 20
            pCl/L, confirmatory tests should be made to ensure that levels are
            high enough to warrant permanent corrective action.  Confirmatory
            tests should be conducted over at least a nine-month school year,
            or over 12 months if the school is used year round.  There are two
            options for measurement methods that can be used over this time
            period: long-term electret-ion-chambers or year-long alpha-track
            detectors.  (Refer to EPA report "Indoor Radon Decay Product
            Measurement Protocols" EPA-520-1-89-006).

            If the results of a two-day screening test are less than 4 pCi/L,
            school officials need to consider on a case-by-case basis whether
            further measurements should be made.  As mentioned previously,
            when using a two-day screening test, average radon concentrations
            can vary by a factor of 2 to 3 over time.   Therefore, school
            officials need to consider this variability when making decisions
            on whether further measurements should be made. In some schools
            where EPA has done work on reducing radon concentrations, EPA has
            been successful at reducing levels to below 4 pCi/L.   This is
            dependent on the schools construction and HVAC system, the source
            of the radon problem and the radon concentration initially. This
            is based on limited data and more research in this area is being
            conducted.  School officials should recognize that there is still
            a health risk associated with a lifetime exposure of 4 pCi/L and
            that Congress has set a national goal for indoor radon
            concentrations of outdoor ambient levels (0.2 to 0.7 pCi/L).  If
            screening test results are below 4 pCi/L,  long term average levels
            are probably also below 4 pCi/L.
      B.   Interpreting Three-month Screening Measurement Results

      As discussed previously,  a three-month screening measurement provides a
better estimate of the long-term average radon levels in a school room than
does a 2-day screening measurement.  However, as with all measurements, EPA
advises that some additional testing, either in the form of confirmatory or
diagnostic measurements, be made before permanent corrective action is taken.
The following recommendations are also summarized in Figure 2.

           If the results of three-month screening measurements are greacer
            than 20 pCi/L, EPA recommends that school officials begin
            investigating possible radon entry points by conducting diagnostic
            measurements (see Section VIII).  Diagnostic measurements will
            help school officials understand the distribution of radon levels
            throughout the school.  Actions to reduce elevated radon
            concentrations should be conducted within the time frames outlined
            in Table 1.
                                      11

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                                  FIGURE 1

                   Screening Measurement Guidance:
                Two-Day, Weekend Measurement Option
       Make screening measurements in 10X3% of frequently used ground and
              basement floor rooms under closed-school conditions.
   Level is low;
make case-by-case
 decisions on the
  need for further
  measurements.
 (See Sec. VILA. 1)
                                                       No,
                                                       result
                                                       is 2 20
                                                       pCI/L
   For
each room,
 is result
 <4pCi/L?
Is result
between
4 and 20
 pCi/L?
 Make short-term
   confirmatory
  measurements
  lasting between
2 days and 4 weeks.
 (See Sec. VII. A. 1)
                                        Make long-term
                                         confirmatory
                                         measurements
                                       lasting 12 months,
                                     or 9 months if the school
                                      is not used year-round.
                                        (See Sec. VILA. 1)
                                   No
                     Are the
                   confirmatory
                   test results
                   >4 pCi/L?
                                          Yes
                                         Diagnose radon
                                          entry points
                                          and mitigate
                                      within the time frames
                                        recommended in
                                            Table 1.
                                 12

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                                 FIGURE 2
                   Screening Measurement Guidance:
               Three-Month, Winter Measurement Option
       Make screening measurements in 100% of frequently used ground and
                  basement floor rooms during coolest months.
   Level is low;
make case-by-case
 decisions on the
 need for further
 measurements.
 (See Sec. VII.A.2)
                                                                  No, screening
                                                                  result is
                                                                  >20pCi/L
                                                     Yes
                                             Make long-term
                                              confirmatory
                                             measurements
                                            lasting 12 months.
                                         or 9 months if the school
                                          is not used year-round.
                                            (See Sec. VII.A.2)
                              NO
   Are
confirmatory
 test results
 >4 pCi/L?
                                           Yes
                                13
                         Diagnose radon
                           entry points
                           and mitigate
                       within the time frames
                         recommended in
                            Table 1.

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            If the results of three-month screening measurements are between 4
            pCi/L and 20 pCi/L, confirmatory tests should be conducted over at
            least a nine-month school year or 12 months if the school is used
            year-round.  Such long-term confirmatory tests will provide school
            officials with valuable information on long-term, average
            concentrations.  There are two options for measurement methods
            that can be used over this time period: long-term electret-ion-
            chambers or alpha-track detectors.  (Refer to EPA report "Indoor
            Radon Decay Product Measurement Protocols" EPA-520-1-89-006).

            If the results of a three-month screening measurement are less
            than about 4 pCi/L, school officials need to decide on a case-by-
            case basis whether further measurements should be made.  In some
            schools where EPA has done work on reducing radon concentrations,
            EPA has been successful at reducing levels to below 4 pCi/L.  This
            is dependent on the schools construction and HVAC system, the
            source of the radon problem and the radon concentration initially.
            This is based on limited data and more research in this area is
            being conducted.  School officials should recognize that there is
            still a health risk associated with a lifetime exposure of 4 pCi/L
            and that Congress has set a national goal for indoor radon  .
            concentrations of outdoor ambient levels (0.2 to 0.7 pCi/L).  If
            test results are below 4 pCi/L, long term average levels are
            probably also below 4 pCi/L.
VIII.  RECOMMENDED TIMEFRAMES FOR REDUCING RADON CONCENTRATIONS

      EPA recommends that school officials use the following guidelines when
considering the urgency of taking action to reduce elevated radon
concentrations.  The recommendations are also summarized in Table 1.

      These guidelines are for remedial action based on the results of
confirmatory measurements.

           If a confirmatory measurement is greater than 20 pCi/L, school
            officials should take action to reduce levels as low as possible.
           . EPA recommends that action be taken within several weeks.   The
            urgency of corrective action is greater as the levels increase.
            For example, if levels are about 100 pCi/L or greater, school
            officials should consult with appropriate state or local health
            officials to consider temporary relocation until the levels can be
            reduced.

           If a confirmatory measurement is about 4 to 20 pCi/L, school
            officials should take action to reduce levels as low as possible.
            EPA recommends that action be taken within a few months.
                                      14

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                                    TABLE 1

                  RECOMMENDED TIMEFRAMES FOR REMEDIAL ACTION
If the results of confirmatory
measurements are:
The recommended timeframe for taking
action to permanently reduce radon
levels is:
Greater than about 20 pCi/L
Within several weeks.  The urgency of
remedial action increases if levels
are greater than 100 pCi/L and
school officials should consult with
state or local health radiation
protection officials to determine if
temporary relocation is appropriate
until the levels can be reduced.
Greater than about 4 pCi/L, but less
than about 20 pCi/L
Within several months.
Less than about 4 pCi/L
The need for corrective action must
be assessed on a case-by-case basis.
                                      15

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            If a confirmatory measurement is less than 4 pCi/L, school
            officials should consider on a case-by-case basis whether action
            to reduce radon concentrations below 4 pCi/L should be taken.
            School officials should recognize that there is still a health
            risk associated with a lifetime exposure of 4 pCi/L and that
            Congress has set a national goal for indoor radon concentrations
            of outdoor ambient levels (0.2 to 0.7 pCi/L).  School officials
            should consult with qualified contractors to determine the
            feasibility and cost associated with reducing levels below 4
            pCi/L.  School officials can contact their State Radiation Control
            Office (see Appendix B) for a listing of qualified radon
            contractors.
IX.   REDUCING RADON CONCENTRATIONS

      If confirmatory measurements indicate a need for radon reduction, school
officials should work in conjunction with an experienced radon mitigation
contractor to diagnose the problem and determine which mitigation options are
feasible.  School officials can contact their State Radiation Control Office
(see Appendix B) for a listing of qualified radon mitigation contractors .

     Diagnostics begins with a visual inspection to identify possible radon
entry routes.  Possible areas of radon entry include joints between
foundations, utility openings in foundations, wall-to-floor joints, and
exposed earth in basements.  Short-term radon measurements, such as grab
samples or charcoal canister measurements, may be made near such locations  to
help assess where best to begin corrective actions.

      Because school design, construction and operation patterns vary
considerably, it is not possible to recommend "standard" corrective actions
that apply to all schools.   Costs for radon reduction will also be school
specific and will depend on the initial radon level, the extent of the radon
problem in the school, the school design, construction and operation of the
HVAC system and the ability of school personnel to participate in the
diagnosis and mitigation of the radon problem.   In some cases, maintenance
personnel may be able to install radon reduction systems with the guidance  of
an experienced radon mitigation contractor.

      In initial research efforts,  EPA modified mitigation techniques proven
successful in residential housing and installed them in a number of schools.
The applicability of these mitigation approaches to other schools will depend
on the unique characteristics of each school.  The radon reduction techniques
studied in these initial schools include:

           Installation of a sub-slab suction system to create a lower air
            pressure beneath the slab so that air flows out of the school
            rather than in through the cracks and openings in the foundation
            and floor.  Results indicate that sub-slab suction is much more
            effective when there is crushed scone under the slab.  Schools
            without crushed stone under the slab or schools with many internal

                                      16

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            walls may require an alternative approach or a larger number of
            suction points.

            When possible, installation of a sub-slab suction system should
            always be accompanied by sealing of radon entry routes.  Sealing
            will increase the effectiveness of the system and also reduce the
            energy costs associated with operation of a sub-slab suction
            system.

           Adlustment of the air handling systems to maintain a positive air
            pressure in the school to discourage the Inflow of radon.  This
            technique, referred to as pressurization, can be an effective
            temporary means of reducing radon levels depending on HVAC system
            design.  Whether such a technique is a feasible long-term solution
            depends upon factors such as the proper operation of the system by
            maintenance personnel, changes to the outside environmental
            conditions and any additional maintenance costs and energy
            penalties associated with the changes in the operation of the HVAC
            system.

           Sealing openings and cracks in contact with the soil to reduce
            radon entry.  Sealing alone has been only marginally effective in
            reducing radon levels, particularly when the initial radon levels
            are high.

      A major research program is underway to develop technology to reduce
elevated radon levels in schools.   Guidance on recommended radon reduction
actions will be published as soon as possible.  Preliminary results indicate
that many school reduction programs will be relatively straight forward.
Others,  however,  may require more complex solutions.
                                      17

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                   APPENDIX A:
PROTOCOLS FOR USING TWO RADON MEASUREMENT DEVICES

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           PROTOCOL FOR USING TWO-DAY CHARCOAL CANISTERS TO MEASURE
                          INDOOR RADON CONCENTRATION
PURPOSE

      This protocol provides guidance for using an activated charcoal device
to obtain accurate and reproducible screening measurements of indoor radon
concentrations. This protocol describes,  in general terms,  the placement of
charcoal canisters, selection of location for measurement,  retrieval of the
charcoal device, and required documentation.

      Activated charcoal devices are passive devices that do not need power to
function.  The passive nature of the activated charcoal allows continual
adsorption and desorption of radon. The adsorbed radon undergoes radioactive
decay during the measurement period.  The technique does not uniformly
integrate radon concentrations during the exposure period and, therefore,
represents a short-term screening measurement.

      The charcoal canister commonly used consists of a circular container
2 1/2 to 4 inches in diameter.  It is approximately 1 inch deep, filled with
0.9 to 3.5 ounces of activated charcoal.   One side of the container is fitted
with a screen that keeps the charcoal in, but allows air to diffuse into the
charcoal.  The canister is pre-sealed with a cover until it is ready to be
deployed.

      To initiate the measurement, the cover is removed to allow air to
diffuse into the charcoal bed.  Radon in the air will be adsorbed onto the
charcoal and will subsequently decay, depositing decay products in the
charcoal.  At the end of the measurement period, the canister is resealed with
the cover and returned to a laboratory for analysis.  Specific directions are
usually supplied with the devices.

EQUIPMENT

      Activated charcoal devices made specifically for ambient radon
monitoring can be obtained from commercial suppliers.  To obtain up-to-date
information on available firms, school officials should contact their State
Radiation Control Office or their EPA Regional Radiation office (see Appendix
B).   Only agencies which are state certified or approved by EPA should be
used.

      The following equipment is required to perform charcoal canister
measurements in each schoolroom:

           Charcoal detector(s) sealed with a protective cover.

           An instruction sheet for the individual placing the canister
            (i.e., school facility personnel) and, if sent by mail, a shipping
            container and a mailing label for returning the canister(s) to the
            analytical laboratory.

                                     A-l

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           Data collection log.

      The canister should not be deployed if the individual who performs the
test will not be able to complete the measurement by the time selected for
closing the canister and returning it to the laboratory.

MEASUREMENT CRITERIA

      The following conditions should exist during a measurement period to
ensure that the conditions are as standardized as possible.

           The measurement should be delayed if the school is
            undergoing/planning remodeling, changing the heating, ventilating,
            and air conditioning (HVAC) system, or making other modifications
            that might influence the radon concentration during the
            measurement period.

           To a reasonable extent, the school should be closed, with all
            windows and external doors shut (except for normal entry and exit)
            for at least 12 hours prior to and during the measurement period.
            Normal "entry and exit" includes brief openings and closings of
            doors.  Any opening to the outside should not be left open for
            more than a few minutes.

           While furnaces, exhaust fans, central HVAC systems may be operated
            normally, systems such as window fans should not be operated for
            at least 12 hours prior to and during the measurement period.

           The measurement should not be conducted if major weather or
            barometric changes are expected, or when storms with high winds
            are predicted during the measurement period.  Weather predictions
            on local news stations generally provide sufficient information to
            allow satisfying this condition.

           Schools should measure during the weekend hours so that closed-
            conditions can be more easily satisfied.  Measurements during
            these hours will also minimize the possibilities of children
            interfering with the charcoal canisters.  Ventilation systems
            should not be shut down or operated at a reduced rate (i.e., no
            night-time reductions) during the weekend when the measurement is
            made

           Canisters can be placed on Friday afternoon or Saturday morning
            and collected on the Monday morning (rather than Sunday afternoon)
            without adversely affecting the readings.

           Measurements should be done during the coldest months of the year,
            as it is during these months that the radon concentrations will be
            at their highest in the school due to lack of open windows.
                                      A-2

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           Charcoal canisters should be placed in schoolrooms as soon as
            possible after they are purchased.  They should remain tightly
            sealed until they are placed.

LOCATION SELECTION

      The following criteria should be applied to select the location of a
canister within an individual schoolroom.

           Select a position where the canister will not be disturbed during
            the measurement period.

           The canister should be in open air that people breathe,  e.g. not
            in a drawer or closet.

           The canister should be placed flat on a shelf or table at least 20
            inches above floor level with the detector's top face at least 4
            inches from other objects.

           The canister should not be placed near drafts caused by HVAC
            vents, or windows and doors.  Avoid locations near excessive heat
            or in direct, strong sunlight, and areas of high humidity.

           The canister should not be placed close to the outside walls of
            the schoolroom.

           In gymnasiums or schools designed with the open-room concept,
            charcoal canisters should be placed every 2,000 square feet.

      Remove the protective cover from the canister to begin the measurement.
Save the cover and tape to reseal the canister at the end of the measurement.
(A handy way for saving the cover and tape is to place the lid on the bottom
of the canister and hold it in place with the tape).   Inspect the canister to
see that it has not been damaged during handling and shipping.  It should be
intact, with no charcoal leaking.  Place the canister with the open side up.
Do not allow anything to impede air flow around the canister.

      Accurately fill in the information called for on the data form on the
canister.  Record the canister serial number in a log book along with a
description of where the canister was placed in the school and the room. The
person responsible for placing the charcoal canister should maintain the log
book.

RETRIEVAL OF DETECTORS

      The canisters should be deployed for a two-day measurement period.  In
schools, a two-day measurement should take place on a weekend.
                                     A-3

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      At the end of the measurement, the canister should be inspected for any
deviation from the conditions described in the log book at the time of
deployment.  All changes should be noted.  The canister should be tightly
resealed using the original protective cover.

     The person responsible for the retrieval of the canister should send the
canister to the laboratory as soon as possible, preferably the day of
termination.  Devices returned several days later may produce invalid results
as the radon decays with the passage of time.

DOCUMENTATION

      It is important that information about the measurement be recorded in a
permanent log.  This information includes:

           The date and time of the start and stop of the measurement.

           Whether closed-school conditions, as previously specified,  are
            satisfied.

           The exact location of the instrument drawn on a diagram of the
            school and schoolroom if possible.

           Serial number of the canister and a code number or description
            that uniquely identifies building, room, and sampling position.

           Other easily gathered information that may be useful including the
            type of school (i.e., compartmentalized, open-class room),  the
            type of heating system,  and the existence of basement or crawl
            space.

           General operating conditions for HVAC characteristics (e.g.,  run
            continuously, shut down on weekends).

QUALITY ASSURANCE PROCEDURES

     To minimize uncertainty in the results and ensure that measurements are
as accurate as possible, any school undertaking radon measurements should
follow quality assurance (QA) procedures. The two quality assurance procedures
that the school administrator needs to be concerned about are duplicates and
control detectors.  These terms are defined below along with a suggested
procedure for carrying out a QA program.  More technical information on QA for
charcoal canisters can be found in "Indoor Radon and Radon Decay Product
Measurement Protocols," USEPA (EPA/520-89-006).

DUPLICATES

      Duplicates are side by side measurements that analyze the precision of
the measurement taken in a school.  A duplicate measurement involves putting a
second measurement device next to the original detector.  Side-by-side
measurements should be done with either 10 percent of the number of detectors

                                     A-4

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placed or 50, whichever is smaller.  For instance, if the school official, (or
individuals responsible for placing the measurement devices) place detectors
in 100 rooms in a school, 10 (i.e., 10 percent) of these rooms should have two
detectors placed side-by-side as duplicates, for a total of 110 detectors.  The
duplicate and the original detector should be treated identically in every
respect.

      They should be shipped, stored, opened, installed, removed, and
processed together and not identified as duplicates to the processing
laboratory.  Data from duplicate detectors should agree to within ten percent,
on average, for radon concentrations of 4 pCi/L or greater.  Consistent
failure in duplicate agreement indicates an error in the measurement process
that should be investigated.

CONTROL DETECTORS

      Control detectors are used to monitor whether there is a problem during
shipping, storage or processing of the detectors which would cause an error in
the measurement.  Control detectors are kept in their original package without
being opened and then returned to the laboratory with the exposed measurement
devices.  Control detectors should be opened, immediately resealed for the
remainder of the exposure period, and then returned to the laboratory with the
exposed measurement devices.  The purpose of opening the package is to make it
indistinguishable from the exposed detectors so that laboratory workers will
not know that the detector is a control.  The number of control devices used
should be five percent of the detectors deployed or 25, whichever is smaller.
For instance, if the school official (or individual responsible for placing
the measurement device) places 100 detectors, 5 detectors should be handled
and shipped using the same procedures that are used for the other detectors,
except that the control detectors should be left in their original packages
and not exposed.  The results of the control detector should be monitored
closely to see if the measurement devices were affected by the shipping,
storage or processing.  If the analysis laboratory reports values for these
control detectors greater than about 1 pCi/L, school officials should contact
the analysis laboratory and request an explanation.
                                      A-5

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                   PROTOCOL FOR USING ALPHA TRACK DETECTORS
                     TO MEASURE INDOOR RADON CONCENTRATION
PURPOSE
      This protocol provides guidance for using alpha-track detectors (ATD) to
obtain accurate and reproducible measurements of indoor radon concentrations.
This procedure describes the placement of the ATD, measurement criteria,
location selection for measurement, retrieval of-the ATD, and documentation
requirements.

      An ATD is a small piece of plastic or film enclosed in a container with
a filter-covered opening.  Radon diffuses through the filter into the
container and alpha particles emitted by the radon decay and its products
strike the detector and produce submicroscopic damage called alpha tracks.  At
the end of the measurement period, the detectors are returned to a laboratory.
Plastic detectors are placed in a caustic solution that accentuates the alpha
tracks so they can be counted using a microscope or an automated counting
system.

EQUIPMENT

      ATDs are available from commercial suppliers.  These suppliers offer
contract services in which they provide the detector and subsequent data
readout and reporting for a fee.  A list of firms that currently sell this
device is available from State Radiation Control offices and regional EPA
Regional Radiation offices (see Appendix B).   Only agencies which are state
certified or approved by the EPA should be used.

      The following equipment is needed to use ATDs to measure radon in a
school.

           An ATD in an individual, sealed container, such as an aluminized
            plastic bag to prevent extraneous exposure before deployment.

           A means to attach the ATD to its measurement location if it is to
            be hung from the wall or ceiling.

           An instruction sheet for the individual who will place the ATD
            and,  if it is to be mailed, a shipping container and a prepaid
            mailing label for returning the detector to the laboratory.

           Some means (such as tape) will be needed at the time of retrieval
            to reseal the detector prior to returning it to the supplier for
            analysis.

           Data collection log.
                                      A-6

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MEASUREMENT CRITERIA

      Certain conditions should exist in the school during the measurement
period to standardize the measurement conditions as much as possible.

           The measurement should be delayed if the school, is undergoing or
            planning remodeling, changing its heating, ventilation and air
            conditioning (HVAC) system, or making other modifications that
            might influence the radon concentrations during the testing
            period.

           To a reasonable extent, the schoolroom, as well as the individual
            rooms, should be closed; with all windows and doors closed (except
            for normal entry and exit) during the measurement period.
            However, a few days with the windows open will not seriously
            jeopardize the result of a three-month measurement.  ATD
            measurements should be conducted during the colder months.

           In warm climates, the standardized conditions are satisfied by the
            criteria listed above.  Air conditioning systems that recycle
            interior air can be operated.

           Central heating and ventilation systems should be operated
            continuously during the measurement periods.  This includes
            exhaus t fans.
PLACEMENT OF THE ATD

      ATDs should be placed in the school as soon as possible after they are
received.  School officials should not order more ATDs than they can
reasonably expect to install within a few months to minimize chances of
measurement error.

LOCATION SELECTION

      The following criteria should be applied to select the
location of the detector within a room.

           A position must be selected where the ATD will not be disturbed
            during the measurement period.  In addition, children should be
            educated as to the purpose of the device and the importance of not
            interfering with the measurement.

           The detector should be in the open air that the occupants breathe
            (at least 30 inches above the floor and at least 4 inches from
            other objects).
                                      A-7

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           The detector should not be placed near drafts caused by HVAC
            systems, windows, doors, etc.  Avoid locations near excessive
            heat, such as radiators and baseboard heaters.

           Detectors should not be placed close to the outside walls of the
            schoolroom.

           In areas such as gymnasium, or where a school has open classrooms,
            ATDs should be placed at least every 2,000 square feet.

      Frequently it is convenient to suspend detectors from the ceilings or
walls.  They should be positioned at least 8 inches below the ceiling.  The
location should be coordinated with the teacher to be certain it is acceptable
for the measurement period.

      The measurement begins when the protective cover or bag is removed.  Cut
the edge of the bag or remove the cover so that it can be reused to reseal the
detector at the end of the exposure period.  Inspect the detector to make sure
it is intact and has not been damaged in shipment or handling.

      Fill in the information requested with the detector.  Also, record the
detector serial number in a log book along with a description of the location
of the school room (i.e., the room number) and also the location of the
detector in the room in which the detector was placed.  If it is necessary to
relocate the detector during the exposure period, note this information in the
log book, along with the date it was relocated.  Individuals responsible for
the placement of the detector (i.e., school facilities personnel) should
maintain the log books.

RETRIEVAL OF DETECTORS

      At the end of the measurement period, the detector should be inspected
for damage or deviation from the conditions entered in the log book when the
detector was placed.  All changes should be noted in the log book.  Enter the
date of removal on the data form provided with the detector and in the log
book.  Reseal the detector using the protective cover or bag with the correct
serial number for that detector or with the cover originally provided.  If a
bag is used, the open edge of the bag is folded several times and resealed
with tape.  If the bag cover has been destroyed or misplaced, the detector
should be wrapped in several layers of aluminum foil and taped shut.  After
retrieval, detectors should be returned as soon as possible to the
analytical laboratory for processing.

DOCUMENTATION

      It is important that enough information about the measurement is
recorded in a permanent log so that data interpretations and comparisons can
be made.  Information that should be recorded includes:

           The date and time of the start and stop of the measurement.
                                     A-8

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           Whether closed conditions, as previously specified, are satisfied.

           The exact location of the ATD(s) including a diagram of the
            schoolroom and school.

           Serial number and manufacturer of the detector along with a code
            number that uniquely identifies building, room and sampling
            position.

           Other easily gathered information that may be useful: the type of
            school (i.e., compartmentalized, or open-room),  type of heating
            system, and the existence of crawlspace and/or basements.

           General operating procedures for heating, ventilation, and air-
            conditioning characteristics (HVAC) (e.g., run continuously, shut
            down on weekends).

QUALITY ASSURANCE PROCEDURES

      To minimize uncertainties in the results and ensure that measurements
are as accurate as possible, any school undertaking radon measurements should
follow quality assurance (QA) procedures.  The two quality assurance aspects
that the school official needs.to be concerned about are duplicates and
control detectors.  In the following paragraphs, these terms are defined and a
procedure is given for carrying out a QA program.   More technical information
on QA for ATDs can be found in "Indoor Radon and Radon Decay Product
Measurement Protocols," USEPA (EPA/520-89-006).
DUPLICATES

      Duplicates are side by side measurements that analyze the precision of
the measurements taken in a school.  A duplicate measurement involves putting
a second measurement device next to the original detector.  Side-by-side
measurements should be made with either 10 percent of the number of detectors
placed or 50, whichever is smaller.  For instance, if the individual
responsible for placing the measurement devices places detectors in 100 rooms
in a school, 10 (i.e., 10 percent) of these rooms should have two detectors
placed side by side as duplicates, for a total of 110 detectors.  The
duplicate and original detectors should be treated identically in every
respect.

      They should be shipped, stored, opened, installed, removed and processed
together and not identified as duplicates to the processing laboratory.  Data
from duplicate detectors should agree to within 20 percent, on average, at
radon concentrations of 4 pCi/L or greater.  Consistent failure in duplicate
agreement would indicate an error in the measurement process that should be
investigated.
                                      A-9

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CONTROL DETECTORS
      Control detectors are used to monitor whether there is a
problem during shipping, storage, or processing of the detectors which would
yield an inaccurate measurement.  Control detectors should be opened,
immediately resealed for the remainder of the exposure period, and then
returned to the laboratory with the exposed measurement devices.  The  purpose
of opening the package is to make it indistinguishable from the exposed
detectors so that laboratory workers will not know that the detector is a
control.   The number of control detectors used should be five percent of the
detectors deployed or 25 whichever is smaller.  For instance, if the
individual responsible for placing the measurement device) places 50
detectors, 3 detectors should be handled and shipped using the same procedures
that are used for the other detectors except that the control detectors should
be left in their original package and not exposed.  Information about the
control detectors should be recorded in the logbook.  The results of the
control detector should be monitored closely to see if the measurement devices
were affected by the shipping, storage, or processing.  If the analysis
laboratory reports values for these control devices greater than about 0.1
pCi/L for a 12-month measurement or 0.5 pCi/L for a 3-month measurement,
school officials should contact the analysis laboratory and request an
explanation.
                                     A-10

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                                  APPENDIX B:


                     STATE RADIATION CONTROL OFFICES AND

                        EPA REGIONAL RADIATION OFFICES
      The following appendix is a listing of State Radiation Control offices
and EPA Regional Radiation offices.   Users of this report are encouraged to
contact these offices for questions  regarding radon and measurement of radon
in their school.

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STATE RADON CONTACTS
Alabama
Radiological Health Branch
Alabama Department of Public Health
State Office Building
Montgomery, AL 36130
(205) 261-5315

Alaska
Radiological Health Program
Alaska Department of Health and
      Social Services
P.O. Box H-06F
Juneau, AK 99811
(907) 465-3019

Arizona
Arizona Radiation Regulatory Agency
4814 South 40th Street
Phoenix, AZ 85040
(602) 255-4845

Arkansas
Division of Radiation Control and
      Emergency Management
Arkansas Department of Health
4815 W. Markham Street
Little Rock, AR 72205
(501) 661-2301

California
California Department of Health
      Services
Room 334
2151 Berkeley Way
Berkeley, CA 94704
(415) 540-2134

Colorado
Radiation Control Division
Colorado Department of Health
4210 East llth Avenue
Denver, CO 80220
(303) 331-4812
Connecticut
Radon Program
Toxic Hazards Section
Connecticut Department of Health
      Services
150 Washington Street
Hartford,' CT 06106
(203) 566-3122

Delaware
Division of Public Health
Delaware Bureau of Environmental
      Health
P.O. Box 637
Dover,  DE 19901
(302) 736-4731
(800) 554-4636

District of Columbia
DC Department of Consumer and
      Regulatory Affairs
614 H Street, NW
Room 1014
Washington, D.C. 20001
(202) 727-7728

Florida
Office of Radiation Control
Department of Health and
      Rehabilitative Services
1317 Winewood Boulevard
Tallahassee, FL 32399
(904) 488-1525
(800) 543-8279 (consumer inquiries
      only)

Georgia
Georgia Department of Human
      Resources
878 Peachtree Street, Room 100
Atlanta, GA 30309
(404) 894-6644
                                      1-1

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Hawaii
Environmental Protection and Health
      Services Division
Hawaii Department of Health
591 Ala Moana Boulevard
Honolulu, HI 96813
(808) 548-4383

Idaho
Bureau of Preventative Medicine
Division of Health
Idaho Department of Health and
      Welfare
450 West State Street
Boise, ID 83720
(208) 334-5927

Illinois
Illinois Department of Nuclear
      Safety
Office of Environmental Safety
1301 Knotts Street
Springfield, IL 62703
(217) 786-6384
(217) 786-6399 for Citizen's Guide

Indiana
Division of Industrial Hygiene and
      Radiological Health
Indiana State Board of Health
1330 W. Michigan St.
P.O. Box 1964
Indiannapolis, IN 46206
(317.) 633-0153
(800) 272-9723 (in State)

Iowa
Bureau of Radiological Health
Iowa Department of Public Health
Lucas State Office Building
Des Moines, IA 50319
(515) 281-7781

Kansas
Radiation Control Program
Bureau of Air Quality and Radiation
      Control
Kansas Department of Health and
      Environment
Forbes Field, Building 740
Topeka, KS 66620
(913) 296-1560
Kentucky
Radiation Control Branch
Division of Radiation and Product
      Safety
Department of Health Services
Cabinet for Human Resources
275 East Main Street
Frankfort, KY 40621
(502) 564-3700

Louisiana
Louisiana Nuclear Energy Division
P.O. Box 14690
Baton Rouge, LA 70898
(504) 925-4518

Maine
Indoor Air Program
Division of Health Engineering
Maine Department of Human Services
State House Station 10
Augusta, ME 04333
(207) 289-3826

Maryland
Center for Radiological Health
Maryland Department of Environment
2500 Broening Highway
Baltimore, MD 21224
(301) 631-3300
(800) 872-3666

Massachusetts
Radiation Control Program
Massachusetts Department of Public
      Health
23 Service Center
North Hampton, MA 01060
(413) 586-7525 or
In Boston, Robert Hallisey
(617) 727-6214

Michigan
Division of Radiological Health
Michigan Department of Public Health
3423 North Logan
P.O. Box 30195
Lansing, MI 48909
(517) 335-8190
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Minnesota
Section of Radiation Control
Environmental Health Division
Minnesota Department of Health
717 Delaware Street, S.E.
P.O. Box 9441
Minneapolis, MN 55440
(612) 623-5348

Mississippi
Division of Radiological Health
Mississippi Department of Health
3150 Lawson Street
P.O. Box 1700
Jacksen, MS 39215
(601) 354-6657

Missouri
Bureau of Radiological Health
Missouri Department of Health
1730 E. Elm
P.O. Box 570
Jefferson City. MO 65102
(314) 751-6083
(800) 669-7236 (in State)

Montana
Occupational Health Bureau
Montana Department of Health and
      Environmental Sciences
Cogswell Building, A113
Helena, MT 59620
(406) 444-3671

Nebraska
Division of Radiological Health
Nebraska Department of Health
301 Centennial Mall South
P.O. Box 95007
Lincoln, NE 68509
(402) 471-2168

Nevada
Radiological Health Section
Health Division
Nevada Department of Human Resources
505 E. King Street
Carson City, NV 89710
(702) 885-5394
New Hampshire
Bureau of Radiological Health
Division of Public Health Services
Health and Welfare Building
6 Hazen Drive
Concord, NH 03301
(603) 271-4674

New Jersey
Radiation Protection Element
New Jersey Department of
Environmental Protection
729 Alexander Road
Princeton, NJ 08540
(609) 987-6402
(800) 648-0394 (in State)

New Mexico
Radiation Licensing and Registration
      Section
New Mexico Environmental Improvement
      Division
1190 St. Francis Drive
Sante Fe,  NM 87504
(505) 827-2940

New York
Bureau of Environmental Radiation
      Protection
New York State Health Department
2 University Plaza
Albany, NY 12237
(518) 458-6450
(800) 458-1158 (in State)
(800) 342-3722 (NYSEO) Training
      Information

N. Carolina
Radiation Protection Section
Division of Facility Services
North Carolina Department of Human
      Resources
701 Barbour Drive
Raleigh, NC 27603
(919) 733-4283
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N. Dakota
North Dakota Department of Health
Missouri Office Building
1200 Missouri Avenue
Room 304
P.O. Box 5520
Bismark, ND 58502
(701) 224-2348

Ohio
Radiological Health Program
Ohio Department of Health
1224 Kinnear Road
Suite 120
Columbus, OH 43212
(614) 644-2727
(800) 523-4439 (in State)

Oklahoma
Radiation and Special Hazards
      Service
Oklahoma State Department of Health
P.O. Box 53551
Oklahoma City, OK 73152
(405) 271-5221

Oregon
Oregon State Health Department
1400 S.W. 5th Avenue
Portland, OR 97201
(503) 229-5797

Pennsylvania
Pennsylvania Department of
      Environmental Resources
Bureau of Radiation Protection
P.O.. Box 2063
Harrisburg, PA 17120
(717) 787-2480
(800) 23-RADON (in State)

Puerto Rico
Puerto Rico Radiological Health
      Division
G.P.O. Call Box 70184
Rio Piedras, PR 00936
(809) 767-3563
Rhode Island
Division of Occupational Health and
      Radiation
Rhode Island Department of Health
206 Cannon Building
75 Davis Street
Providence, RI 02908
(401) 277-2438

S. Carolina
Bureau of Radiological Health
South Carolina Department of Health
      and Environmental Control
2600 Bull Street
Columbia, SC 29201
(803) 734-4700/4631

S. Dakota
Division of Air Quality and Solid
      Waste
South Dakota Department of Water and
      Natural Resources
Joe Foss Building, Room 217
523 E. Capital
Pierre, SD 57501
(605) 773-3153

Tennessee
Division of Air Pollution Control
Bureau of Environmental Health
Department of Health and Environment
Custom House
701 Broadway
Nashville, TN 37219
(615) 741-4634

Texas
Bureau of Radiation Control
Texas Department of Health
1100 West 49th Street
Austin, TX 78756
(512) 835-7000

Utah
Bureau of Radiation Control
Utah State Department of Health
288 North, 1460 West
P.O. Box 16690
Salt Lake City, UT 84116
(801) 538-6734
                                      B-4

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Vermont
Division of Occupational and
      Radiological Health
Vermont Department of Health
10 Baldwin Street
Montpelier, VT 05602
(802) 828-2886

Virginia
Bureau of Radiological Health
Department of Health
109 Governor Street
Richmond, VA 23219
(804) 786-5932
(800) 468-0138 (in State)

Virgin Islands
Division of Environmental Protection
Department of Planning and Natural
      Resources
179 Altona and Welgunst
Charlotte, Amalie, V.I. 00801

Washington
Environmental Protection Section
Washington Office of Radiation
      Protection
Thurston AirDustrial Center
Building 5, Mail Stop LE-13
Olympia, WA 98504
(206) 586-3303
(800) 323-9727 (in State)

W. Virginia
Industrial Hygiene Division
West Virginia Department of Health
151 llth Avenue
South Charleston, WV 25303
(304) 348-3526/3427

Wisconsin
Radiation Protection Section
Division of Health
Wisconsin Department of Health and
      Social Services
5708 Odana Road
Madison, WI 53719
(608) 273-5180
Wyoming
Radiological Health Services
Wyoming Department of Health and
      Social Services
Hathway Building, 4th Floor
Cheyenne, WY 82002
(307) 777-6015
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EPA Regional Radiation Offices
EPA Region 1
JFK Federal Building
Boston, MA 02203
(617) 565-3234

EPA Region 2
26 Federal Plaza
New York, NY 10276
(212) 264-4418

EPA Region 3
841 Chestnut Street
Philadelphia, PA 19107
(215) 597-4084

EPA Region 4
345 Courtland St. N.E.
Atlanta, GA 30365
(404) 347-3907

EPA Region 5
230 South Dearborn Street
Chicago, IL 60604
(312) 353-2205
 EPA Region 6
 1445 Ross Avenue
 Dallas, TX 75202-2733
 (214) 655-7208

 EPA Region 7
 726 Minnesota Avenue
 Kansas City, KS 66101
 (913) 236-2893

 EPA Region 8
 999 18th Street
 Denver Place, Suite 500
 Denver, CO 80202-2413
 (303) 293-1709

 EPA Region 9
 215 Fremont Street
 San Fransisco, CA 94105
 (415) 974-8378

 EPA Region 10
 1200 Sixth Avenue
 Seattle, WA 98101
 (206) 442-7660
     For information on which EPA Region your state is in, see below.
     Alabama	 .4
     Alaska	10
     Arizona	9
     Arkansas	6
     California	9
     Colorado	8
     Connecticut	1
     Delaware	3
     District of
        Columbia	3
     Florida	4
     Georgia	4
     Hawaii	9
     Idaho	10
     Illinois	5
     Indiana	5
     Iowa	7
     Kansas	7
Kentucky	4
Louisiana	4
Maine	1
Maryland	3
Massachusetts	1
Michigan	5
Minnesota	5
Mississippi	4
Missouri	7
Montana	8
Nebraska	7
Nevada	9
New Hampshire...... 1
New Jersey	2
New Mexico	6
New York	2
North Carolina....4
North Carolina	4
North Dakota	8
Ohio	5
Oklahoma	6
Oregon	10
Pennsylvania	3
Rhode Island	1
South Carolina	4
South Dakota	8
Tennessee	4
Texas	6
Utah	8
Vermont	1
Virginia	3
Washington	10
West Virginia	3
Wisconsin	5
Wyoming	8
                                       B-6

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