United States
             Environmental Protection
             Air and Radiation
EPA 520/1-90-011
March 1990
Office Of
Radiation Programs
Program Description

           March 1990
 U.S. Environmental Protection Agency
         401 M Street S.W.
       Washington, DC 20460

 This document was prepared by Irma McKnight and Miles Kahn of the Office of Radiation Programs
 Program Management Office. More specific information on any Office program may be obtained by writing
 to the following address or by contacting any of the persons listed in the Organization Chart on page 21
 of this document:

        United States Environmental Protection Agency
       Office of Radiation Programs (ANR-459)
       401 M Street S.W:
       Washington, DC 20460

The ORP Publications List may be obtained from the'same address.


Introduction  	1

Sources of Radiation	 .  1

Major Program Areas	1

  Radon Action Program	1
   Problem Assessment	2
   Mitigation and Prevention	2
   Capability Development	3
   Public Information 	.3

  Nuclear Accident Response	4
   Environmental Radiation Ambient Monitoring System	4
   Radiological Emergency Preparedness and Response  	5
   Protective Action Guides	5

  Radioactive Waste Disposal	5
   Land Disposal of Low-Level Radioactive Waste	6
   Naturally Occurring and Accelerator-Produced
     Radioactive Materials	6
   Disposal of Spent Nuclear Fuel, Transuranic and
     High-Level Radioactive Wastes  . . .	7
   Disposal of Radioactive Materials at Active
     Uranium and Thorium Processing Sites	.7
   Ground-Water Protection at Inactive
     Uranium Mill Tailings Sites	7
   Ocean Disposal of Radioactive  Waste	. . . .  .	  8

  Radioactively Contaminated Sites	  8
   Support to Superfund Program	  8
   Technical  Assistance	9
   Residual Radioactivity	9

  Industrial Sources	9
   National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air
     Pollutants (NESHAPS); Standards for Radionuclides	9
   Guidance  for Occupational Exposure	  10

  Other Radiation Activities	  10
   Diagnostic X Rays	 .	  10
   Electromagnetic Fields	  .		  10

Radiation Standards and Guidance  .	  11
  Radiation Standards	  13
  Radiation Guidance	  14
  Authorities for EPA's Radiation Programs	  15

Office Organization and Functions  . . .	  17
  Washington Office	  17
  Laboratories	  18
  Regional Complement		  19
  Office of Radiation Programs Organization Chart		21
  EPA Regional Radiation Program Managers		  23

The Office of Radiation Programs (the Office)
carries out the Environmental Protection Agency's
(EPA) radiation protection activities. The Office's
goal  is  to  protect   public  health  and  the
environment   from   avoidable   exposures   to
radiation.     These  activities  include  issuing
standards and guidance to limit human radiation
exposure,  measuring   environmental  radiation
levels;  evaluating and assessing the  impact  of
radiation on the public and  the environment;
analyzing data on radiation effects; distributing
public information and working with  State and
local  governments,  industry  and  professional
groups, and citizens to promote actions to reduce
exposures  to harmful  levels of  radiation; and
responding to radiological emergencies.

All Office programs  deal  with either  ionizing
radiation or radiation from electromagnetic fields.
Basically, ionizing radiation is radiation that can
remove electrons from atoms. Ionizing radiation,
which is either natural or man made, constitutes
the greatest source  of radiation exposure to the
public   and  to  the  environment.    Natural
background  radiation  includes  cosmic   rays;
naturally occurring  radioactive  elements in the
earth's  crust, primarily  those  associated  with
uranium, thorium, and potassium; and radioactive
decay products such as radon and its daughters.

Main sources of man-made ionizing  radiation
include  medical  facilities  such as  hospitals,
pharmaceutical   factories,  and  research   and
teaching institutions; nuclear reactors and  their
supporting facilities such as uranium mills and
fuel preparation plants; and federal facilities that
are involved in  nuclear weapons production. All
of these sources generate some radioactive wastes
as a result of the many ways in which radiation is

The primary health effects of exposures to ionizing
radiation are increases in the risk of cancer and
deleterious   genetic   changes;   e.g.,   growth
impairment and mental retardation.
Radiation from electromagnetic fields consists of
both  a  varying  electric and magnetic  field,
operating at  right angles to each other.   The
electric field is a direct function of voltage, while
the magnetic field is  a function of the current

Essentially everyone  in  the  United  States  is
exposed continuously  to  low levels  of radiation
from electromagnetic fields.  People who live or
work near powerful sources are exposed to higher
sources.  The principal sources of exposure are
AM and FM radios and UHF and VHP television
broadcast systems.  Other sources include radars,
microwaves,  satellite   earth  terminals,   and
high-voltage transmission lines.

Radiation from electromagnetic fields does not
change the structure  of atoms, however,  high
levels of  it can  heat body  tissue, which may
produce harmful biological effects.

Office programs can be classified into five major
areas:    Radon,  Nuclear  Accident Response,
Radioactive  Waste  Disposal,   Radioactively
Contaminated  Sites,  and  Industrial  Radiation
Sources.   The  following  sections  describe these
program  areas as well as  major accomplishments
of the Office of Radiation Programs.

Radon Action Program

In response to growing concern about elevated
indoor radon concentrations in houses situated on
the Reading Prong  in  Pennsylvania  and  New
Jersey  and  those  located  elsewhere,  the EPA
Administrator  established  the  Radon Action
Program  in September 1985.

The  goal of the Radon  Action Program is to
significantly reduce the health risks associated with
radon through  a partnership with other Federal
agencies, the States, and the private sector. EPA
estimates that about 20,000 lung cancer deaths
each year in the United States may be attributable
to indoor radon, and as many as 8 million houses
may be affected. Program  activities were expanded

 in 1986 and 1987 in response to the growing scope
 and complexity of the radon problem.

 In October 1988,  the Indoor  Radon Abatement
 Act (IRAA) was signed into law. The long-term
 national goal of the Act is to. reduce indoor levels
 of radon to levels comparable to ambient outdoor

 The IRAA directs EPA to undertake a variety of
 activities to address the growing public concern
 over dangers posed by exposure to radon.  These
 activities include State grants, technical assistance,
 the study  of  schools,  proficiency  programs,
 regional training  centers, model  construction
 standards,  an .updated  Citizens Guide,  and a
 Federal building study.  A number of activities
 described in the law have already been initiated.

 The Radon Action Program is organized into four
 key elements: problem assessment, mitigation and
 prevention, capability development, and public

 Problem Assessment

 The objectives  of problem assessment are  to
 identify and then survey areas with high  radon
 levels  in houses, schools, and the workplace and
 to  determine the national distribution of  radon
 levels  and  associated health risks.   One of the
 next logical steps will then be the establishment
 of a national data base from which various further
 analyses may be performed.

 The Office has issued standardized  measurement
 protocols for 11 measurement methods to help
 ensure that  radon  and  radon-decay product
 measurements are comparable and accurate.

 Since 1987 the Office has assisted 25 States and
 numerous Indian Tribal Lands in designing and
 conducting surveys to identify areas where indoor
 radon may be a problem: The Office is continuing
 efforts to identify  those geological factors and
 characteristics which are most useful as indicators
of high radon levels. In addition, work has begun
on the use of soil gas measurements to predict the
radon potential for individual parcels of land.
 The Office has initiated the National Residential
 Radon  Survey.     Questionnaires  have  been
 completed and measurement devices have been
 placed hi 7,500 homes throughout the United
 States.  Recently guidance was released offering
 valuable   assistance   to   schools   in  their
 measurement and mitigation of radon levels. The
 Office is currently working with 7 States to survey
 and mitigate radon in 21 .schools..  The Office
 conducted workshops in 6 Regional locations on
 radon  in schools   and developed an interim
 technical guidance report to assist school officials
 in  making informal choices in  selecting radon
 reduction strategies.

 Mitigation and Prevention

 The Mitigation and Prevention Program includes
 demonstrations and evaluations of cost-effective
 methods to reduce radon levels in existing homes
 and identification  and  evaluation  of ways to
 prevent elevated radon levels in new construction.

 The Development  and Demonstration Program
 (DDP) is an ongoing program  to  research,
 develop,  and demonstrate  cost-effective radon
 mitigation and prevention techniques for all types
 of houses. The Agency's Office of Research and
 Development  researched  and   demonstrated
 selected mitigation techniques in 64 houses in the
 Reading Prong.  The program has been expanded
 into Maryland, Tennessee, Alabama, and Florida..

 The House Evaluation Program, established in
 1986,  provides  "hands-on"   training in  radon
 diagnosis and mitigation at field projects currently
 located in 11 States. Approximately 10 States are
 selected annually to participate in this program.
 EPA established the  New  House Evaluation
 Program in 1988 to evaluate the  effectiveness of
 radon resistant new construction features.

 The  Office   cooperated with  the   National
 Association  of Home  Builders  and  private
 homebuilders to develop, demonstrate, and release
 interim guidance for preventing  radon in new
 construction.   Currently, the Office is working
with  model  building  codes  organizations  to
 incorporate  radon  prevention  techniques  into

national  building  codes.    The  Office  is  also
beginning research and operational programs to
expand mitigation and prevention activities into
schools and workplaces.

Capability Development

The Office's Washington staff and EPA Regional
components are developing technical information
and providing  policy direction to stimulate the
development    of  State  and   private   sector
capabilities to  assess radon  problems in  homes
and to help homeowners mitigate such problems.

The Office developed a technical training course
on  radon diagnostics and mitigation techniques
for  States and  private contractors.   Thirty-eight
courses   have   been   conducted,   and   2,800
participants from 45 States have been trained. To
meet  growing  demand, the  Office  produced  a
videotape of the  course  and  distributed it  to
Regional offices for use by all 50 States.

"Reducing  Radon in Structures," EPA's radon
diagnosis  and  mitigation training course, was
revised extensively and updated  in  1988.  The
focus  in Fiscal Year  1989  was on  facilitating
Regional  and  State  sponsored  courses.    Two
"Train the  Instructors"  courses were held  to
prepare teachers to deliver the EPA course.  Five
regular courses were  held in  States which had not
previously hosted an EPA radon training course.

A major training activity in 1989 was the selection
and implementation  of three Regional Training
Centers (RTCs):  (1) Colorado State University
to serve  the western States; (2)  University of
Minnesota/Michigan  to  serve the central  States;
and (3)   Rutgers University to serve  the eastern
States. These university-based centers, authorized
under the   IRAA,   offer   training   in  radon
principles,    measurements,    diagnostics,   and
mitigation on a regular basis at locations across
the country. The centers are coordinated through
Regional offices.

The Office established the Radon Measurement
Proficiency Program to allow private firms and
other organizations to demonstrate on a voluntary
basis  their proficiency in measuring radon  and its
decay products. When the program began in 1986,
35 companies participated.  By the end of 1989,
the list of participants had grown to over 5,000,
approximately 670 primary companies  and 5,100
secondary companies. Primary companies provide
measurement  services to the  public  and have
analysis capability.   Secondary companies assist
consumers  by providing  technical  advice  or
distributing  test  results,  but  they  depend  on
primary  companies  to  analyze  measurement

A Radon  Contractor Proficiency (RCP) Program
was developed in 1989 to test the abilities on a
voluntary basis of radon mitigation contractors to
diagnose and mitigate radon problems.  The RCP
Program, which is required by the Indoor Radon
Abatement  Act, is  for contractors who  actually
perform mitigation services. The program consists
of training as well as a standardized examination.
It serves  as a core around which States could
develop certification programs for the contractors.
The    Contractor    Proficiency   Program   is
administered by the Regional Training  Centers.

Public Information

The timely transfer of information to the States,
the private  sector,  and the public is  a critical
element of  the Radon Action  Program.  This
information is disseminated through  brochures
and technical reports, presentations at national
meetings,  and training programs.

The  Agency has developed an array  of public
information material and  conducted  numerous
public information  activities  since  the Radon
Action  Program started  in  1985.   More recent
activities include a radon advertising campaign in
cooperation with the Advertising Council,  the
award of State Grants, projects with the American
Medical   Association,  and  publication  of a
reporter's  guide.

In October 1989 EPA and the Advertising Council
began a national media campaign to inform  the
public about  radon.   The  campaign includes
television and radio public service announcements,
print  and  outdoor  advertising, a toll-free hotline
and brochures.  The  material was developed by
TBWA Advertising  Agency  and  the  Direct
Marketing Group in cooperation with EPA.

 The Indoor  Radon Abatement Act authorized
 EPA to administer grants to help States establish
 radon programs, conduct radon surveys, develop
 public  information  on  radon,  and  conduct
 demonstration and mitigation projects. A total of
 49 States, Puerto Rico, the Virgin Islands, Guam,
 and the District of Columbia submitted notices of
 intent to participate in the State Indoor Radon
 (SIRG) program.   Region  10 awarded the first
 SIRG to the State of Idaho in January 1990. The
 $50,000 grant will allow Idaho to begin its State
 Radon Survey,  In addition,  $755,000 in grants
 were awarded to eight States for innovative radon
 projects, which are administered through a special
 fund as part of the SIRG program.

 EPA and  the  American Medical Association
 (AMA) held 12 Regional conferences in 1988-89
 to inform  health care professionals of the risks
 associated  with indoor radon  so that they can
 better explain the health effects of radon to their
 patients. AMA also produced a brochure and will
 continue to conduct regional conferences.

 In 1989 the  Agency published "Reporting  on
 Radon;  A Journalist's Guide to  Covering the
. Nations's Second Leading Cause of Lung Cancer."
 The. guide provides information on what radon is
 and tells reporters how to communicate effectively
with the public. The guide was prepared by the
 National Safety Council's Environmental Health
 Center with a grant from EPA.

 Nuclear Accident Response

 EPA plays a major  role  in  nuclear  accident
 response. As a major participant in any Federal
 response, the Agency is responsible for monitoring
 and  assessing the effects of radiation exposures to
 the general population from accidents that involve
radioactive materials, for providing guidance to
appropriate officials concerning  the  radiation
levels at which protective actions are warranted,
and for advising those officials of which protective
actions should be taken.

The  Office, through  its Washington headquarters
and the mobile monitoring and assessment teams
from  the   National   Air   and  Radiation
Environmental   Laboratory    (NAREL)   in
Montgomery, Alabama, and the Las Vegas Facility,
 is able to assess potential doses  from and the
 environmental  consequences , of  accidental
 radioactivity releases. In addition, the nationwide
 Environmental Radiation Ambient Monitoring
 System may be put on an emergency sampling
 schedule, depending on the situation. The Office
 can then make recommendations  on protective
 actions   and  . emergency  responses.      The
 Montgomery   and  Las  Vegas   Laboratories
 supplement their response.capabilities by using
 sophisticated  mobile radiation  monitoring  and
 communications equipment

 In  1986, the Agency, led and  coordinated the
 federal  response  to  the  nuclear accident at
 Chernobyl.  In 1988, the Agency participated in
 emergency preparedness activities related  to.the
 reentry of the nuclear-powered Russian satellite,
 Cosmos 1900. In 1989, the Agency participated in
 the launch of the Galileo satellite which carried
 a large quantity of plutonium-238,  a radioactive
 material used to produce heat and electrical power
 for scientific equipment

 Specific activities undertaken by the Agency in
 response to nuclear accidents are described below. *

 Environmental    Radiation    Ambient
 Monitoring System

 The Environmental Radiation Ambient Monitoring
 System (ERAMS), was established in  1973.  It
 comprises 268 nationwide sampling stations that
 collect  air,  precipitation,  surface  and drinking
 water, and milk samples from which environmental
 radiation levels are derived.   Many stations are
 located in the near-environment of major potential
 environmental release points.  The stations were
 selected to  effectively measure the wide-scale
 impact from global events and to provide optimal
 population coverage while monitoring fallout from
 any atmospheric testing of nuclear devices  and
 other possible forms of environmental radioactive
 contamination.  Data generated from ERAMS are
 used to assess  any actions necessary to protect
 public  health  and   to  identify  trends   in
 environmental radioactivity levels.

ERAMS, which is operated with the cooperation
of State radiation program personnel, collects 65
composite pasteurized  milk samples, which  are*

representative of a significant fraction of the U.S.
milk consumption.

Air filter and precipitation samples are obtained
twice weekly from  locations in all 50  States,
drinking  water  samples  quarterly  from  78
locations,  and river water samples quarterly from
58 locations. These samples are then analyzed to
determine their  level of radioactivity. In all, the
sampling stations submit a monthly total of about
2,000 samples for 6,000 analyses. Results of this
monitoring are published in  a publication titled
Environmental  Radiation    Data,   which   is
distributed  quarterly  to  State agencies  and
interested private organizations.

Though there have been no atmospheric  tests
since the Chinese test of October 1980, ERAMS
continues    to  assess   levels   of   long-lived
radionuclides in the environment.  The system is
also employed in certain  emergency situations.

For  example, the  network's  sampling frequency
was increased in early 1983 as part of the Federal
emergency preparedness activity related to reentry
of the nuclear-powered Russian satellite, Cosmos
1402. In 1986, following the  Chernobyl accident,
ERAMS' air sampling frequency was increased to
provide daily measurements.   The milk network
sampling frequency was increased to two per week.

Radiological Emergency Preparedness and

EPA performs  several  essential  functions  in
assisting the  Federal  Emergency  Management
Agency (FEMA) in coordinating Federal efforts
to  aid  States  and  localities in  preparing
radiological emergency response plans. The Office
also assists FEMA in its role of coordinating
Federal  responses  to  significant  radiological
emergencies such as nuclear power plant incidents
and  other unplanned releases of radioactivity to
the environment.

The Agency participates in tabletop and full-field
exercises for simulated accidents. In June 1987,
the Agency participated  in the second triennial
federal  response to a simulated nuclear accident
near  the Commonwealth Edison nuclear power
 plant in Zion, IL.  In addition, the Agency has
 developed  the  EPA  emergency  response  plan.
 Although States and localities are responsible for
 developing their own  emergency response plans,
 the EPA regional staff, with help from the Office's
 field  facilities,  assists  them  in  developing,
 reviewing, and testing their plans.

 Protective Action Guides

 One of the major Office planning responsibilities
 is the specification of projected radiation doses
 (Protective Action  Guides) to individuals  from
 nuclear incidents severe enough to warrant actions
 to reduce or avoid those doses.   The Agency  is
 also  responsible  for  recommending  emergency
 actions  to take to reduce or  avoid excessive
 radiation doses (Implementation Guidance).

 The  Office has issued Protective Action Guides
 (PAGs) and Implementation Guidance for use by
 States relating to exposure of the whole body and
 the thyroid gland to airborne radioactivity from
 accidents at nuclear power plants.  This guidance
 is being revised to  make it applicable to a wide
 range of  nuclear  accidents and  to  incorporate
 lessons learned from response to the accident at
 Chernobyl.  PAGs have also been developed for
 chronic  exposure of the public to  deposited and
 resuspended radioactive materials from accidental
 releases.  These PAGs will be issued in 1989 and
 incorporated in the Manual of Protective Actions
 and Protective Actions for  Nuclear Incidents for
 use by Federal, State, and  local governments in
. developing emergency preparedness  plans for
 radiation  incidents.   In  addition  the  Office  is
 working with the Food and Drug Administration
 to revise PAGS for contaminated food.

 Radioactive Waste Disposal

 The  basic authority for EPA under the Atomic
 Energy  Act  (AEA)  is to  establish "generally
 applicable  environmental  standards  for  the
 protection  of  the general environment  from
 radioactive material."   Since its  inception,  EPA
 has  participated  in  many efforts  to  resolve
 radioactive  waste  management  and  disposal
 problems  under  legislative  responsibilities  to
 protect public health and the environment.

  Typically any activity making use of radioactive
  material inevitably brings about radioactive waste
  as a by product of their operations.  This waste
  contains   varying   levels  or   intensities   of
  radioactivity and are  produced  both  in  the
  commercial sector and  by Federal government
  defense.programs.  As such, radioactive waste is
  usually classified into several categories including:
  (1)   low-level radioactive. waste from  various
  activities; (2) spent fuel and high-level radioactive
  waste  from nuclear reactor  operations;  (3)
  transuranic waste from the defense programs; and
  (4) waste from mining and milling of uranium and
  thorium ores.

  Land Disposal of Low-Level Radioactive

  Topically, low-level radioactive waste  (LLW) is
  ordinary  industrial or research waste such as
  paper,  rags,  plastic bags, protective clothes,
  cardboard, .packing materials,  organic fluids, or
  water treatment residues  which are contaminated
  with radioactive materials.  This waste is a by
  product from a variety of  both government and
.  commercial activities:  research, fuel-cycle activities
  for electric power generation (refining, enrichment,
  fabrication and reactor operations), diagnostic and
  therapy medicine manufacturing (Pharmaceuticals,
  tools,  and instruments),  and  defense programs
  (submarines, ships, and research).

  It is estimated that for the 1985-2004 timeframe,
  there will be about 3 million cubic meters of LLW
 generated by commercial activities (about 150,000
 cubic  meters per year)  and  1.5 million cubic
 meters generated by Department of Energy (DOE)
 activities (about 75,000 cubic meters per year).

 In 1974 the Agency, with the US. Geological
 Survey, published hydrogeologicand hydrochemical
 data to help evaluate suitability of LLW disposal
 sites.   The Office is developing standards for
 management  and  land  disposal  of  low-level
 radioactive waste. They  are  expected  to  be
 promulgated in  1991.  The standards will include
 natural and accelerator-produced waste and will
 establish   criteria  for  designating   levels  of
 radioactivity in waste as below regulatory concern.
 For commercial sites,  the EPA  standards will
 eventually be implemented and enforced by the
 Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC)  through
 its licensing  requirements  or by those States
 having   regulatory   agreements   with   the
 Commission.   DOE will  implement  the  EPA
 standards for Federal Government management
 and disposal .facilities.

 .There are currently three operational commercial
 sites:  Barnwell, SQ  Beatty, NV;  and Richland,
 WA  Commercial sites have been closed at Maxey
 Flats,  KY; West Valley, NY; and Sheffield, IL.
 There are 16 Federal Government storage sites
 widely distributed around the country.

 Under the Low-level Radioactive Waste Policy
 Act of 1980 and the  Amendments of 1985, each
 State by 1993 would be responsible, for providing
 disposal capacity  for all  commercial low-level
 radioactive waste  generated within its borders.
 Regional cooperation  through  compacts  was
 encouraged by  this  law,  and is  presently the
 method by which many States are carrying out
 their responsibility. As a result, it is anticipated
 that 8 to 10 new disposal sites will be operating
 by the mid 1990's.

 Naturally   Occurring   and
Accelerator-Produced Radioactive Materials

 Two broad categories of radionuclides not covered
 under   the Atomic  Energy Act  are  naturally
 occurring   radionuclides   of   insufficient
 concentration  to be considered source materials
 and accelerator-produced radionuclides.  Materials
 containing these nuclides are commonly referred
 to as naturally occurring and accelerator-produced
 radioactive materials (NARM).

 Naturally occurring radioactive materials consist
 principally of uranium,  thorium, and radium.
There  are two very different types of this waste:
 (a) discrete sources or waste streams  of higher
radioactive concentration, such as radium needles
used in medical practice or radium-contaminated
drinking water  cleanup resins, and  (b) lower
activity diffuse sources  such as residuals  from
mining   and  extraction   industries.     Most

accelerator-produced  radionuclides are used  in
medicine  or for research  and have  very short
half-lives. A few are  longer lived.

Because  NARM radionuclides are indistinguish-
able  from   those   that   are   produced   at
AEA-licensed facilities, they are usually disposed
of with AEA LLW.  EPA is proposing standards
for disposal of NARM waste in conjunction with
the standard proposed for low-level  radioactive
waste.   NARM  waste proposed  for regulation
includes  any NARM  waste whose radioactivity
concentration exceeds 2 nanocuries per gram, but
does not include certain named consumer items.

Disposal of Spent Nuclear Fuel, Transuranic
and High-Level Radioactive Wastes

High-level radioactive waste (HLW) is the waste
from reprocessing spent reactor fuel. Commercial
HLW is now stored at individual reactor sites  or
at storage sites  in West Valley,  NY;  Aiken, SC;
and Morris, IL.  Defense HLW is stored at special
sites in  Richland, WA;  Aiken,  SC;  and  Idaho
Falls, ID.   Spent nuclear fuel  is being stored
temporarily in pools of water at individual reactor
sites and  at three specifically designated sites  in
the United States.
In 1987,  there were about  16,000 metric tons  of
commercial spent nuclear fuel and 382,000 cubic
meters of high-level  liquid waste being stored
(both commercial and defense). The total in 2000
is expected  to reach 40,000 metric tons of spent
fuel and  330,000 cubic meters   of  liquid and
solidified waste.

Transuranic (TRU) waste is generated by DOE in
its  defense programs, and is currently  either
burned or stored at several DOE sites.   In 1987
some 3,000 cubic meters of transuranic waste were
stored awaiting disposal in  a geologic repository.
DOE has constructed a geologic repository in New
Mexico for the disposal of  TRU wastes  and is in
the characterization phase  of  developing  one  in
Nevada  for  spent nuclear fuel  and solidified
high-level radioactive  waste.

On  August  15,  1985,  the    Office  issued
environmental standards for the management and
disposal  of spent nuclear fuel, high-level, and
transuranic radioactive wastes. Under court order,
the Agency is reevaluating some of the technical
aspects of the regulations.  Shortly after the rule
was promulgated, several States and environmental
groups challenged it.  In 1987, the U.S. Court of
Appeals  for  the First  Circuit  agreed with  the
plaintiffs' objections  to  two  sections  of  the
standards. The Court remanded Subpart B of 40
CFR Part 191 to EPA for further action.  As a
result of the Court ruling, the Office is developing
new standards for spent  fuel, high-level, and
transuranic radioactive waste.

Disposal of Radioactive Materials at Active
Uranium and  Thorium Processing Sites

On September 30, 1983, the Agency issued final
standards  for  the  control of effluents  and
emissions from uranium and thorium mill tailings
during milling operations and for the final disposal
of tailings.  (Mill tailings are radioactive, sand-like
materials  that remain after uranium  has  been
extracted  from  ore.)    The standards  require
stabilization of tailings so that health hazards will
be controlled and limited for at least 1,000 years.
NRC or States having regulatory agreements with
the  Commission  are directly  responsible  for
implementing and  enforcing  these standards.
There are 27 active (i.e., licensed) milling sites
distributed among the States of Colorado, New
Mexico, Texas, Utah, Wyoming, South Dakota,
and Washington.

Ground-Water   Protection    at   Inactive
Uranium Mill  Tailings Sites

On January  5,  1983, the  Agency  issued  final
standards for the cleanup and disposal of uranium
mill tailings at 24 inactive mill sites that quality
for  remedial action under Uranium Mill Tailings
Radiation Control Act of 1978.  Inactive sites are
located in Arizona, Colorado, Idaho, New Mexico,
North Dakota, Oregon, Pennsylvania, Texas, Utah,
and Wyoming.

The standards included  qualitative standards for
ground-water protection which allowed DOE and
NRC to determine what actions were needed on
a site-by-site basis for  the cleanup and disposal of

 uranium mill tailings at the inactive sites.  As a
 result of a Court order, quantitative standards are
 now being developed.

 Ocean Disposal of Radioactive Waste

 The Marine Protection, Research, and Sanctuaries
 Act of  1972 specifies  that all ocean disposal of
 wastes can be conducted only at EPA-designated
 sites and only in accordance with strict conditions
 set forth in a  disposal permit  issued by EPA.
 Further, only low-level radioactive waste may be
 considered for ocean disposal

 In conjunction with a comprehensive review of
 ocean disposal regulations being conducted by the
 Office of Water, the Office of Radiation Programs
 is developing criteria and supporting background
 information for  additional regulatory  changes
 concerning disposal of low-level radioactive waste.
 The Agency has not received any applications for
 permits for ocean disposal of radioactive waste.

 Radioactively Contaminated Sites

 The handling  and  processing  of  radioactive
 materials have resulted in numerous sites where
 radiation contamination exists, creating risks for
 the population  who live on or near the sites.
 Water supplies may be contaminated by runoff or
 leaching from the site in aquifers, and homes may
. be constructed on fill or with materials reprocessed
 from these sites.

 Sites contaminated with radioactive substances
 require different procedures and protocols  for
 investigation and sampling than do chemically
 contaminated sites. Different instrumentation and
 measurement techniques must be  used, additional
 pathways of exposure must be evaluated, and new
 safety and decontamination procedures must be
 developed for the investigation  process.

The following  sections describe  the  Office's
regulatory  efforts for alleviating or mitigating
problems caused by radioactively contaminated
 Support to Superfund Program

 The Office's goals in supporting Superfund are to
 ensure that  Superfund site cleanup activities do
 not  result  in   radiation  hazards  and  that
 appropriate cleanup technology and methods are
 adopted to effectively and efficiently reduce the
 hazards  associated  with  radiation  problems
 encountered at the sites.

 Thirty-three sites on  the National  Priority List
 (NPL) are contaminated with radioactive materials.
 More are likely to be added in the next few
 months.  Over 1,000 additional hazardous waste
 sites contain nuclear materials.  For those sites on
 the NPL or other sites  managed by the EPA
 Superfund  program*  the  Office  must  provide
 assistance and ensure that protocols are consistent
 with  the Superfund program requirements.  The
 Office is actively involved in site-specific assistance
 and development of alternative technology for site

 Decommissioning or managing cleanup of facilities,
 waste sites, or defunct businesses with radioactive
 waste problems  requires  coordination between
 agencies,   collection   of   information,   and
 establishment of guidelines for cleanup. Thus the
 Office  is  responsible for  establishing  safety
 protocols,   data  quality   objectives   (DQO),
 investigative procedures, and cleanup levels.  A
 two-volume   document,   "Development   and
 Implementation  of Data Quality Objectives for
 Radiologically Contaminated Sites,* was completed
 in 1988 for Superfund site investigations and DQO

 During the summer of 1989, the Office assisted in
 the cleanup of radium from an .abandoned building
 in Woodside, Queens, New York.  This was one
 of the first Superfund removal actions directed at
 radioactive  contamination.    The  abandoned
 building, which belonged to the Radium Chemical
 Company, contained  what may have  been the
world's  largest concentration  of radium.   The
working area of the building contained enough

radium  for  a  person  to  exceed  the  yearly
occupational radiation exposure limit after only 1
hour in the worst parts of the building.

The Office is currently involved in investigations
in the residential areas of Montclair, Glen Ridge,
and  West  Orange,  New Jersey.   These areas
contain radium-contaminated soils with high levels
of gamma radiation and radon gas.  They are on
EPA's National  Priority List.  The contaminated
soils occur in  former landfills which are now
residential  areas.   Approximately  50 acres of
contaminated soil in Glen Ridge and 45 acres in
Montclair and West Orange are included in the
contaminated areas.  Over 300,000 cubic yards of
radium-contaminated soils are estimated at these

The  Office,    in   concert   with   Superfund
requirements,  is evaluating  the use of physical
volume   reduction  and  chemical  extraction
(VORCE)  to remediate the radium-contaminated
soils at these Superfund sites.  The VORCE
investigation consists of (1) soil characterization,
(2)  treatment  studies,  and   (3)  technology
implementation.  The soil characterization phase
provides important data  that paves the way for
the treatment and implementation phases that

Technical Assistance

The Office provides technical assistance upon
request  to  other parts of the Agency, to other
Federal  agencies,  and   to   State  and  local
governments.  Technical  assistance  is provided
mainly through radiation personnel in each of the
10 EPA Regions and the Montgomery and Las
Vegas Laboratories.

Assistance  is provided in three principal forms:
conducting  radiochemical   analyses   of
environmental samples for selected radionuclides;
performing  site  surveys of areas with known or
suspected    unusual   conditions;  and   making
measurement  equipment  available  to  other
organizations.  The Montgomery and Las Vegas
Laboratories also  advise  other laboratories  on
conducting  analyses  and  provide   training  in
radiation monitoring and laboratory procedures.
Internationally,  the  Office  provides  technical
support for the United States' participation in
meetings of the Contracting Parties to the London
Dumping Convention and in  activities of other
organizations  that  guide  the  conduct  of ocean
dumping, such as the International Atomic Energy
Agency  and  the   Organization  for  Economic
Cooperation and Development's Nuclear Energy

Residual Radioactivity

EPA is developing criteria  for cleanup of sites
and  buildings  that  are  contaminated  with
radioactivity.   There are  thousands of facilities,
such  as laboratories and power plants, now in
operation around the country that use radioactive
materials.  When these  facilities cease operation,
the sites must be cleaned up before they can be
made  available for  other  uses.   To  safely
accomplish that, facilities may need to reduce the
levels of residual radiation at these sites and any
remaining equipment must be decontaminated.
Information on the health risks from residual
radioactivity and on decontamination methods is
being compiled  to  assess the costs  and benefits
associated with the criteria being developed. The
criteria may  be developed as generic Federal
Guidance applicable to all  Federal agencies or
they  may  be  supplemented  by standards for
specific types of contamination or sites.

Industrial Sources

National Emission Standards for Hazardous
Air Pollutants (NESHAPS); Standards for

EPA has listed radionuclides as hazardous air
pollutants under Section  112  of the Clean Air
Act.  This listing  was  based on a finding that
radionuclides are carcinogens and are emitted in
significant amounts into the air from thousands of
sources across the nation.

On February 6, 1985,  EPA published  standards
for DOE facilities, NRC licensees, and non-DOE
Federal facilities, and elemental phosphorus plants.
Before these standards can be fully implemented,
however,  sections   of  the final  rule  including

 reporting and record-keeping requirements must
 be completed.

 The final standard for radon-222 emissions from
 underground uranium mines was published in the
 Federal Register on April 17,1985. TTie standard
 requires bulkheading as  a work practice  for
 limiting radon emissions. The Agency found that
 the emission rate of radon  from underground
 mines may be highly variable, depending on mine
 ventilation rates, ore grade, exposed surface areas,
 mining practices, and geologic formations.

 Final standards  for radon-222 emissions from
 licensed uranium mill tailings were published on
 September 24, 1986.  The standards require  the
 .use of improved technology for the management
 of all future uranium tailings piles.  Existing
 tailings  piles may  continue in use for 6 to 15
 years, depending on the status of the piles.

 The  radionuclide  NESHAPS  have  been  re-
 evaluated in compliance with Court order.   On
 October  31,  1989,  EPA  published  final  rules
 controlling radionuclide emissions from industrial
 sources.   The rule covers an  estimated 6,300
 facilities in nine source categories including NRC
 and hon-DOE federal facilities;  nuclear  power
 reactors  and their support facilities; disposal of
 uranium-mill   tailings  piles;  DOE. facilities;
 phosphogypsum  piles;  licensed   uranium-mill
 tailings piles; elemental phosphorous plants; DOE
 radon sources; and underground uranium mines.

 In 1990 EPA will initiate a program that promotes
 delegating NESHAPS implementation authority to
 the  States.   EPA will  prepare  and provide
 guidance to the  States so they  can develop
 programs that will enable them to qualify for such
 authority. In the interim, requests from States  for
 delegation will be reviewed as received. Also in
 1990, pilot Regional and State training programs
 will be conducted.

 Guidance for Occupational Exposure

The types of employment and associated activities
that  involve worker exposure to radiation vary
greatly,  EPA estimates that  approximately  13
million workers were employed in occupations in
which they were potentially exposed to radiation
 in  1980,  the  latest year for which  there  are
 comprehensive assessments.    Most  of  these
 workers  receive  very  low  exposures  and  the
 average worker is believed to incur a relatively
 small risk of harm.

 On January 27, 1987, President Ronald Reagan
 issued revised guidance  to  Federal  agencies
 significantly reducing the level of radiation to
 which workers may be exposed occupationally.
 The guidance, developed by EPA, updates that
 issued by President Dwight Eisenhower in 1960.
 Because  there is no  definitive  evidence  that
 radiation  exhibits any "threshold" level, below
 which no health effects occur, EPA's occupational
 guidance is predicated on the tenet of achieving
 exposures  "as  low  as  reasonably  achievable"
 (ALARA). It  contains new provisions to protect
 the  unborn.    The new  guidance, applies  to
 radiation  workers  employed  by  the  Federal
 Government and  by institutions  or  companies
 subject to Federal regulation.

 Other Radiation Activities

'Diagnostic X Rays

 In 1976, based  on  recommendations developed by
 the Office in  cooperation with other  Federal
 agencies,  including  the  then  Department  of
 Health, Education, and Welfare, President Gerald
 Ford  issued  Federal Guidance  for  radiation
 protection in the  use of diagnostic x rays.  The
 guidance is designed to eliminate unnecessary use
 of x rays and to ensure  that x-ray .personnel,
 equipment, and techniques are of the  highest
 quality, resulting in lower radiation doses.  Among
 its  more  significant provisions,  the guidance
 recommends that  mass screening by using x-ray
 examinations  be  eliminated  unless specifically .
 justified; that use  of medical diagnostic x rays be
 limited only to obtaining diagnostic information;
 that certain numerical guides for common x-ray
 examinations not  be exceeded; and that routine
 dental x-ray examinations not be performed.

 Electromagnetic Fields

 The   existing   concern   over   exposure   to
 electromagnetic field sources such as  microwave

emitters, broadcast towers, and  radars has been
extended to the electric and magnetic fields from
power  lines.    The  Office  maintains  a  small
program to keep abreast of new developments in
the electromagnetic field areas.   This  program
focuses  on  assessing  risks  and  disseminating

The Office responds to numerous  other requests
for assistance  from Regional offices, State and
local  officials,  as  well  as  industries  and
broadcasters.   The Office, at the request of  the
Federal   Communications Commission  (FCC),
made measurements around broadcast facilities in
Portland, OR; Seattle, WA; and Denver, CO, to
determine the environmental  exposure  levels to
which the public could be exposed.  Upon request
from the State of New Jersey, measurements were
made at a group of satellite communications earth
stations  in Vernon, NJ. In 1989, at the request of
the  State of  California,  the  Office  made
measurements around Voice of America facilities
in McFarland, CA. This study was done to assist
the State in its investigation of a cancer cluster in

No amount of exposure to radiation is  without
some risk.    To protect  the  public and  the
environment from radiation exposure, the Office
develops    environmental    standards   and
recommendations for Federal guidance, a unique
authority that applies only to activities of Federal
agencies. In setting standards and recommending
Federal  guidance,   the   Agency   considers
technological, social, and, in some cases, economic
factors in seeking to reduce  exposure risks to
acceptable levels.

The   Office  develops  radiation  standards  in
response to several  pieces of legislation and  set
limits on human radiation exposure levels or on
quantities  or  concentrations  of  radioactive
materials that may be released to the environment.
Once issued, EPA standards apply directly to all
commercial   or  governmental  organizations
involved in the regulated activity.  For instance,
the   Nuclear   Regulatory  Commission   must
incorporate the EPA environmental standards into
its regulations governing their licensees.

Under Federal Guidance authority,  the Agency
may  make recommendations to the President on
guidance  to  Federal  agencies  for  radiation
protection.    If the  President issues  the  EPA
recommendations  as Federal Guidance, affected
agencies must take them into account in carrying
out their responsibilities. The basic philosophy
behind EPA standards and guidance on radiation
is that any exposure to radiation carries some risk
with the risk increasing as the exposure increases.

Following are lists of the radiation standards and
recommendations  for Federal guidance developed
and being developed by the Office of Radiation

Radiation Standards

1. Land Disposal of Low-Level Radioactive Waste
        o  To Be Proposed

2. Disposal of Spent Nuclear Fuel, Transuranic and High-Level Radioactive Waste
        o  Issued 1985
        o  Remanded 1987
        o  To Be Reproposed

3. Disposal of Radioactive Materials at Active Uranium and Thorium Processing Sites
        o  Issued 1983

4. Ground-Water Protection at Inactive Uranium Processing Sites
        o  Issued 1983
        o  Remanded 1987
        o  To Be Reproposed

5. Remedial Actions at Inactive Uranium Processing Sites
        o  Issued 1983

6. Drinking Water
        o  Interim Regulation 1976
        o  Advance Notice of Proposed Rulemaking 1986

7. National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants: Radionuclides
        o  Issued 1985
        o  Remanded 1987
        o  Republished 1989

8. Nuclear Power Operations
        o  Promulgated 1977

Radiation Guidance

1. Exposure of Underground Uranium Miners
        o Final 1971

2. Occupational Exposure
        o Final 1960
        o Revised 1987

3. Dose Limits from Transuranium Elements
        o Proposed 1977

4. Diagnostic X Rays
        o Final 1976

5. Residual Radioactivity
        o To Be Proposed

6. Public Exposure to Radiofrequency Radiation
        o Advance Notice of Proposed Rulemaking 1986

Authorities for EPA's Radiation Programs

1.   Atomic Energy Act of 1954, as amended
      42 USC 2011 et seq. (1970),
      and Reorganization Plan #3 of 1970

2.   Public Health Service Act
      42 USq 201 et seq (1970)

3.   National Environmental Policy Act of 1969
      33 USC 4321 et seq  (1970)

4.   Toxic Substances Control Act
      15 USC 2601 et seq  (1970)
5.   Marine Protection, Research and Sanctuaries
      Act of 1972, 42 USC 1401 et seq (1972)

6.   Federal Water Pollution Control Act as amended
      33 USC 1251 (1973)
7.   Safe Drinking Water Act, 42 USC 300f
      et seq  (1974)

8.   Resources Conservation and Recovery Act
      42 USC 6901 et seq (1976)

9.   Clean Air Act as amended, 42 USC 7401
      et seq  (1977)

10. Uranium Mill Tailings Radiation Control Act
      of 1978 (an amendment to the Atomic Energy Act)
      42 USC 7901 et seq (1978)

11. Comprehensive Emergency Response, Compensation
      and Liability Act of 1980; Superfund Amendments
      and Reauthorization Act of 1986, 42 USC 9601
      et seq

12. Nuclear Waste Policy Act  of 1982 P.L. 97-425
All Federal radiation guidance functions
  and generally applicable environmental
  radiation standards

Radiation monitoring, research, training,
  and technical assistance to States

*Evaluation of Federal actions involving

* Commodities containing carcinogenic
  (e.g., naturally occuring
  radionuclides) materials

Ocean disposal of radioactive waste
Radionuclides in drinking and surface water
*Naturally occurring radionuclides in wastes
  of all types

Airborne emissions of radionuclides
Uranium mill tailing
Radioactive waste cleanup, radon surveys
   and demonstration projects
Generally applicable environmental
  standards for high-level radioactive waste
*The Office of Radiation Programs is not the lead office in these areas.
  401 M ~<
                                                                           39 j

13. Low-Level Radioactive Waste Policy Amendment Act
      of 1985, 42 USC 2012(b)-2021

14. Indoor Radon Abatement Act of 1988
      15 USC 2661-2671
15. Administrative Procedures Act, 5 USC 551-559,

16. Executive Order 10831, "Federal Compliance
      with Pollution Control Standards (1959)

17. Executive Order 12088, "Federal Compliance
     with Pollution Control Standards*  (1978)

18. Executive Order 12148, "Federal Emergency
      Preparedness Management" (1979)
Low-level radioactive waste disposal sites
Radon surveys, mitigation proficiency
   programs, training centers,
   assistance to States, public information

Rulemaking procedures
Federal guidance on radiation
Extension of EPA standards to Federal

Radiological emergencies

The Office  of  Radiation Programs, tinder  the
supervision of a Director, is responsible to  the
Assistant Administrator for Air and Radiation for
the radiation activities of the Agency  including
development or  radiation  protection  criteria,
standards, and policies; measurement and control
of radiation  exposure; and research requirements
for radiation programs.

The Office provides technical assistance to States
through EPA Regional Offices and other agencies
having radiation protection programs; establishes
and directs a national surveillance and investigation
program for measuring radiation levels in  the
environment; evaluates and assesses the  impact of
radiation  on   the  general  public   and   the
environment; and  maintains liaison with other
public and  private  organizations  involved  in
environmental radiation protection activities. The
Office also coordinates with and assists the Office
of Enforcement and  Compliance Monitoring in
enforcement activities where EPA has jurisdiction.

To cany out its activities, the Office relies on a
staff with diverse capabilities including radio-
biology,  radiochemistry,  epidemiology, health
physics, physical  sciences, oceanography, economics,
and engineering. Staff are located in the Office's
headquarters in  Washington, DC, and in two field

Washington Office

In addition to the immediate office, the Office of
Radiation Program's  Washington, DC,  office  is
composed of  three   divisions:    Criteria  and
Standards; Analysis and Support; and Radon.

Criteria and Standards Division

The Criteria and Standards Division  (CSD)  is
responsible for formulating and recommending
policies, criteria, and standards designed to protect
the environment and the public from both ionizing
and nonionizing  radiation. Specific activities carried
out by CSD  includes:
o  Developing guidance designed to protect those
   occupational^ exposed to ionizing radiation

o  Identifying and evaluating new radiation sources
   to determine the public health significance of
   all sources of radiation exposures

o  Assuming lead responsibility for those sections
   of all EPA standards and  guidelines dealing
   with radioactive materials, including those for
   which proposal and promulgation responsibility
   is located  outside of the Office of Air and

Analysis and Support Division

The Analysis and Support Division (ASD) is
responsible  for  providing   support   to  the
development  of   standards  and  regulations.
Support  takes the  form of  evaluating  human
health  and  environmental  risks and  radiation
exposure and providing basic understanding of the
biological effects  of radiation.   In  support of
standards  and   guidance  development,  ASD,
conducts economic studies of alternative choices
of controls and evaluates technology and processes
to reduce exposure to  ionizing and nonionizing
radiation  in  the  environment   Other ASD
activities include;

o  Providing statistical and applied mathematical
   support to the standards setting function
o Developing  mathematical  models  of
   environmental transport of radionuclides
 o Determining and reporting findings  on the
   radiological quality of the environment

 o Determining if environmental levels are within
   EPA established radiological  guidelines and
   standards  and   recommending changes  to
   existing control  programs

 o Developing general guidance  for design and
   implementation of surveillance programs

 o Developing emergency  planning criteria and
   coordinating Agency support to other Federal
   agencies and to the States.

 Radon Division

 The'Radon Division has been designated as the
 lead organization in developing, coordinating, and
 implementing  the  Agency's  Radon  Action
 Program.    Under this  program,  the  Agency
 addresses  national and  regional  problems of
 indoor radon through an integrated effort to
 mitigate elevated-radon levels in structures and to
 disseminate information to the public about radon.
 Radon Division activities include:

 o  Identifying areas with high levels of radon in
    homes,   schools,   and   workplaces;   and
    determining the national distribution of radon
    levels and associated risks

 o  Developing   mitigation   and   prevention
    technologies to reduce radon concentrations
    significantly in existing and new buildings

 o  Stimulating the development  of State  and
    private  sector  capabilities  to  assess  radon
    problems in homes, and helping people to
    mitigate such  problems

 o  Working with States and the private sector to
    provide information to the public on radon, its
    risks, and what  can  be done to reduce those


 The Office operates two laboratories, the National
 Air and Radiation Environmental Laboratory and
 the Las Vegas Facility.

 National Air and Radiation Environmental

 The   National   Air   and   Radiation    and
 Environmental Laboratory (NAREL), located in
 Montgomery, AL, conducts activities in support of
 the Office's  Headquarters  components. NAREL
 provides technical support to  headquarters  and
 technical assistance to States, EPA  Regional
 Offices,  and  other  EPA  Programs  in  their
radiation-related activities, and special laboratory
support to other Government agencies as required.
The Laboratory performs the following functions:
 o  Radon Program.  Provide measurement and
    calibration for the Radon Action  Program.
    NAREL  operates  two  radon  calibration
    chambers to evaluate instruments and methods
    for radon  measurements, to  assist  States in
    preparing for their radon programs,  and to
    provide known exposures for the Office's radon
    quality assurance program.   NAREL also
    analyzes charcoal canister monitors for the
    Office's State survey program.

 o  Measurement  Programs.  Conduct  field  and
    laboratory measurement programs that help the
    Office   set    appropriate   environmental
    radioactivity standards and provide a basis for
    evaluating environmental radiation sources

 o  Radioactivity  Monitoring.   Assess ambient
    radiation levels and levels and levels resulting
    from   nuclear  accidents  by  operating  the
    Environmental Radiation Ambient Monitoring

 o  Emergency   Response.      Assume   lead
    responsibility  within  EPA  for   providing
    capability for field measurements in emergency
    situations involving releases of radioactivity to
    the general environment  NAREL maintains
    two well-equipped vehicles, a mobile  analytical
    laboratory and a communications unit, in a
    state of readiness to respond  to accidental
    releases of radioactivity  that pose  potential
    danger to the population and the environment
   NAREL's role in a typical response is to help
   States  assess the environmental impact of an
   accident and to ensure public health.

 o Assessments.      Evaluate    and   assess
   environmental radiation sources through  the
   development and validation of computer dose

 o Supcrfund Support  Conduct special studies
   and  programs in  support  of  Superfund.
   NAREL has provided radioanalytical analyses
   for two Superfund sites  and has been involved
   in evaluating  innovative technologies for site

A new state-of-the art building to house NAREL
under  one roof has  been constructed  on

approximately 12 acres of land on Gunter Air
Force Base in Montgomery.

Las  Vegas Facility

The  Las  Vegas Facility  (LVF)  provides  the
following technical support for radiation control

o  Field Studies.  Conduct studies in radiation
   problem areas such as Superfund sites, waste
   disposal, mill tailings, construction materials,
   uranium and plutonium operations, and other
   areas as required.   The LVF staff recently
   evaluated human exposure to natural and man-
   made radiation sources around two elemental
   phosphorus plants in Idaho.

o  Radon Program.  Operate a radon chamber in
   support of the Radon Measurement Proficiency
   Program and other ongoing radon programs,
   such  as the national school survey.   The
   chamber is  used to evaluate new measurement
   technologies  and  benchmark  measurement
   proficiency  for approved measurement devices.

o  Electromagnetic Fields. Conduct measurements
   and  analyze  electrical and magnetic fields;
   evaluate   and   calibrate   measurement
   instruments; and provide assistance to States
   and other Government agencies.

o  Assessments.   Estimate dose  and risk from
   radionuclides with the use of computer models
   such  as the  Clean Air   Act  Assessment
   Package-1988 and REPRISK, in support of
   rulemaking activities for the Clean Air Act and
   High-level Nuclear Waste Programs.

o  Emergency  Response.  Provide an emergency
   response capability  for  radiation. incidents.
   This response includes the ability to deliver
   measurement capabilities to the site on short
   notice, make  measurements and assessments,
   and report results to Washington, DC, quickly.
   LVF maintains a Mobile Emergency Response
   Laboratory (MERL) to support federal, State,
   and local efforts in a radiological emergency.

o  Technology Transfer.  Advise EPA Regions,
   and State and  city government officials on
   measurements of both ionizing and electro-
   magnetic radiation.  Provide information to the
   private sector on radon measurement devices.
   Provide assistance and advice on radiochemical
   analyses,  site  assessments for Superfund and
   for Indian Tribes  for reclaiming  abandoned
   uranium   mining   lands;   loan    radiation
   measurement  equipment to States; and train
   State health personnel in laboratory procedures.

Regional Complement

The Office also supports a Regional complement,
with staff located in  each of the Agency's  10
Regional  offices.   The  Regional  staff  bear
principal responsibility for outreach activities with
State and local programs in their respective areas,
particularly for such  subjects as  indoor radon,
where there is strong public interest In addition,
the Regional offices  have a  major role in the
implementation   program  for  the   National
Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants
for radionuclides.

Radiation Program Managers and/or  Radiation
Representatives frequently serve on the Regional
Advisory  Committee  (RAC)  for   radiation
accidents, and are directly involved in the review
and testing of nuclear response plans developed
for nuclear  facilities.   The  Regional staff also
participates  in Headquarters work groups, and
serves as the advisor to the  Agency's Regional
managers on  radiation  matters  which  are  of
interest or concern within the Regions.

Office of Radiation Programs Organization Chart

Criteria * Standards
J. William Ountar

Standards Branch
Terrence McLaughlln

Quid**  Criteria
Allan Richardson

Waste Management
Standards Branch
Floyd Oalpln

Assistant Director for
Program Integration

Raymond Brandweln
Regional Radiation 1
Program Managers 1

Analysis  Support
Martin Helper

Bloeffects Analysis
Jerome Puskln

Economics ft. Control
Engineering Branch
Lewis Battlst

Environmental Studies
and Statistics Branch
Robert Dyer


Office of the Director
Richard J


Margo Oge

Problem Assessment
Kirk Maconaughey

Mitigation, Prevention ft
Quality Assurance Branch
Jed Harrison, Acting

Policy ft Public
Information Branch
Stephen Page

Program Management Office
Loretta Stewart

National Air and
Radiation Environmental
Charles Porter

Environmental Studies
Sam Wlndham

Monitoring ft Analytical
Services Branch
Jon Broadway

Radlochemlstry ft Special
Studies Branch
Charles Porter, Acting

Technical Support
Charles Porter, Acting

Las Vegas
Wayne Bliss

Richard Hopper

Field Studies
Greg Dempsey

EPA Regional Radiation Program Managers
                                                                    Telephone No.
Tom D'Avanzo
Radiation Program Manager, Region 1
U.S. Environmental Protection Agency
Room 2311
Boston, MA 02203
FTS:           835-4502
COMM:  (617)  565-4502
Paul A. Giardina
Radiation Program Manager, Region 2
U.S. Environmental Protection Agency
26 Federal Plaza
Room 1137L
New York, NY 10278
FTS:           264-4110
COMM:  (212)  264-4110
Lewis Felleisen
Radiation Program Manager, Region 3
U.S. Environmental Program Manager
Special Program Section (3AM12)
841 Chestnut Street
Philadelphia, PA 19107
FTS:           597-8326
COMM:  (215)  597-8326
Chuck Wakamo
Radiation Program Manager, Region 4
U.S. Environmental Protection Agency
345 Courtland Stree, N.E.
Atlanta, GA 30365
FTS:           257-3907
COMM:  (404)  347-3907
Gary V. Gulezian
Radiation Program Manager, Region 5
U.S. Environmental Protection Agency
230 S. Dearborn Street
Chicago, IL 60604
FTS:           886-6258
COMM:  (312)  353-2206

 Donna M. Ascenzi                                              FTS:           255-7223
 Radiation Program Manager, Region 6                            COMM: (214) 655-7223
 U.S. Environmental Protection Agency
 Air Enforcement Branch (6T-E)
 Air, Pesticides and Toxics Division
 1445 Ross Avenue
 Dallas, TX 75202-2733
 Carl Walter                                                    FTS:           276-7600
 Radiation Program Manager, Region 7                            COMM:  (913)  551-7600
 U.S. Environmental Protection Agency
 726 Minnesota Avenue
 Kansas City, KS 66101
 Milton W. Lammering                                           FTS:           330-1709
 Radiation Program Manager, Region 8                            COMM:  (303)  293-1713
 U.S. Environmental Protection Agency
 Suite 500
 999 18th Street
 Denver, CO 80202-2405
Michael S. Bandrowski                                           FTS:           556-5285
Radiation Program Manager, Region 9                            COMM:  (415)  556-5285
U.S. Environmental Protection Agency
1235 Mission Street
San Francisco, CA 94103
Jerry Leitch                                                    FTS:          399-7660
Radiation Program Manager, Region 10                            COMM:  (206) 442-7660
U.S. Environmental Protection Agency
1200 Sixth Avenue, Mail Stop 533
Seattle, WA 98101