EPA/530/SW-619
OCTOBER 1977
-2====
                    case studies


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          COST OF LANDSPREADING AND HAULING SLUDGE

         FROM MUNICIPAL WASTEWATER TREATMENT PLANTS

                        Case Studies
              This report (SW-619)  was  written
                     by R.  KENT ANDERSON
            with data collection and case writing
by Mr. Anderson, Bruce R. Meddle, Ted Hillmer, and Al  Geswein
            U.S. ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY

                             1977

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     An environmental protection publication (SW-619) in the solid waste
management series.  Mention of commercial products does not constitute
endorsement by the U.S. Government.  Editing and technical content of
this report were the responsibilities of the Systems Management Division
of the Office of Solid Waste.

     Single copies of this publication are available from Solid Waste
Information, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Cincinnati, Ohio,
45258.

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                               FOREWORD









     It has been estimated that about 25 percent of the municipal




wastewater treatment plant sludge produced in the United States is




disposed of by landspreading.   Landspreading is the practice of applying




sludges to the land so as to utilize certain inherent characteristics of




the material for agricultural benefits.  While landspreading of sludges




is a common practice, the cost of this operation is seldom known.  The




primary reasons for this being poor record keeping, or not being able to




break down the total operating cost for the sewage treatment plant by




function.  Therefore this study was designed to determine the cost of




existing landspreading operations rather than to evaluate the potential




environmental benefits or hazards of landspreading.
                                   111

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                               CONTENTS




                                                       Page







I.    Introduction and Summary                            1




     A.    Purpose                                        1




     B.    Scope of Study                                 1




     C.    Findings                                       3






II.  Current Sludge Handling Practices                   4




     A.    Transportation Systems                         4




     B.    Landspreading Systems                          7






III. Economics                                          17









Appendix       Case Studies                             31

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             COST OF LANDSPREADING AND HAULING SLUDGE  FROM
                 MUNICIPAL WASTEWATER TREATMENT PLANTS
                         by R.  Kent Anderson*

I.    INTRODUCTION AND SUMMARY

A.   Purpose

     This report presents an analysis of the cost of disposing of
municipal wastewater treatment  sludge on land by existing operations.
It is based on an on-site survey of 24 communities with small to medium-
sized plants, i.e.. all with throughputs of less than  100 million gallons
per day (MGD).  The analysis differs from other studies in that much of
the available literature has been developed for large  communities with
sizable quantities of sludge. For these communities, landspreading costs
are considerably higher than for  smaller communities  due to longer haul
distance, increased capital requirements, and higher labor rates.  The
24 city survey was thus designed to provide reliable cost information
for small communities interested in landspreading wastewater treatment
sludge on land.   However, it should be noted that the cost of new
operations may be somewhat higher due to increased cost of equipment.

B.   Scope of Study

     The communities selected for the study were chosen on the basis of
(1) treatment plant size, and (2) sludge dewatering processes employed.
This was done to obtain as wide a range of landspreading practices and
costs as possible.

     Three different plant sizes were selected:

          Average Daily Flow            Number of Communities
                 (MGD)
               <  5                               7
               5-10                               4
               > 10                              13

For purposes of this study, plants processing over  10 MGD are referred
to as large plants, 5-10 MGD as medium-sized plants, and  less than  5 MGD
as small plants.  Table 1 presents a  list of the communities  chosen with
their average daily flow.

     Using the average daily flow in  MGD as the major means  of  cat-
egorizing the communities, an effort  was also made  to obtain a  balanced
selection of liquid and dewatered haul  systems  for  each  size category.
* Mr. Anderson is a sanitary engineer with the Special Wastes  Branch,
  Office of Solid Waste, U. S. Environmental Protection Agency,
  Washington, D. C.

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                                TABLE 1

                       TREATMENT PLANTS SELECTED

                                                      AVERAGE FLOW
LARGE TREATMENT PLANTS                                     (MGD)

     Toledo, Ohio                                           92
     Louisville, Kentucky                                   90
     Grand Rapids, Michigan                                 47
     Salt Lake City, Utah                                   41
     Salem, Oregon                                          28
     Springfield, Ohio                                      20
     Anderson, Indiana                                      18
     York, Pennsylvania                                     16
     LaCrosse, Wisconsin                                    14
     Macon, Georgia                                         13
     Appleton, Wisconsin                                    12
     Bethlehem, Pennsylvania                                12
     Danville, Virginia                                     10.5


MEDIUM TREATMENT PLANTS

     Sheboygan, Wisconsin                                   10
     Greeley, Colorado                                       6.5
     Belleville, Illinois                                    5.5
     Littleton/ Colorado                                     5


SMALL TREATMENT PLANTS

     Lebanon, Pennsylvania                                   4
     Fort Pierce, Florida                                    3.5
     Rochelle, Illinois                                      3.2
     Greene County, Ohio                                     2.6
     Collinsville, Illinois                                  1.2
     Front Royal, Virginia                                   1.2
     Lawrenceville, Illinois                                  .5

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Nearly half of the communities selected used two systems to handle their
sludge. Reasons for this include the fact that many communities had
insufficient handling capacity in their primary system,  and that seasonal
restrictions in conjunction with limited storage capacity prevented the
use of only a liquid system.  The following breakdown was therefore
obtained for the 24 sites:

          Type of Sludge                        Plant Size
                                        Small     Medium    Large

          Liquid                          538

          Dewatered
            Vacuum Filter                 218
            Sand Drying Beds              032
            Centrifuge                    001
            Lagoon                        001

     To determine the cost of landspreading, data was collected on
sludge quantities and detailed cost breakdowns during an on-site visit
to each of the communities.  However, certain assumptions were made to
make the data comparable.  All equipment was depreciated at 8 percent
interest.  The depreciation period used for vehicles was 8 years,
stationary equipment was 10 years, while Buildings were depreciated over
20 years.  In addition, a 10 percent contingency factor was added to the
cost of each system to cover such items as administrative overhead.

C.   Findings *

     1.   The landspreading of liquid sludge was found to be far  less
          expensive than landspreading sludge dewatered by vacuum
          filtration.

          Analysis of the data developed during the course of  this study
     indicates that landspreading liquid sludge is far less expensive
     than landspreading sludge dewatered by vacuum filtration.   Indeed,
     the average cost of the dewatering process alone  ($61/dry ton) was
     found to be considerably more expensive than the entire haul  and
     landspreading cost for liquid sludge.  Those communities  that
     disposed of liquid sludge had an average cost of $32 per  dry ton,
     while those that dewatered  their sludge averaged $87 per  dry ton.
     Even for those communities  that disposed of both liquid and dewatered
     sludge, the vacuum filtered sludge operation was two and  a half
     times more expensive than the liquid  haul  operation.   Since most
     communities spread the liquid sludge  on the  land but only dump the
     dewatered sludge in piles for the  landowner  to  spread  at  his own
     expense, the dewatered sludge operation would be even  more expensive
     under comparable conditions.

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     2.   Personnel costs represented the largest single cost item for both
          liquid and dewatered sludge landspreading.

          Of the $32 per dry ton cost for liquid sludge disposal,
     approximately $13, or 42 percent of the total, was expended for
     personnel.  As would be expected, the round trip haul time involved
     in transporting the sludge is the major personnel cost item.

          For the combined operation of dewatering and hauling vacuum
     filtered sludge, the average cost per dry ton was $87.  As with liquid
     haul, personnel is the largest cost item in the vacuum filtered
     sludge disposal operation.  It accounts for 22 percent of the
     total, followed by chemicals at 20 percent and utilities at 16
     percent.  With vacuum filtered sludge, the dewatering operation had
     an average cost per dry ton of $61.  Personnel, again, was the
     largest cost item at 36 percent of the total, followed by chemicals
     at 24 percent and maintenance on the vacuum filters at 17 percent.

     3.   Liquid sludge was more readily acceptable to the farming
          community than dewatered sludge.

          While none of the municipalities surveyed encountered great
     resistance to their sludge landspreading practices, liquid sludge
     was sought with much more frequency and enthusiasm than dewatered
     sludge.  This preference on the part of the farmer is due both to
     the cost differential (the municipality always spreads the liquid
     sludge on the fields, but not necessarily the dewatered), and to
     the fact that dewatered sludge is more difficult to handle and
     apply evenly.

II.   CURRENT SLUDGE HANDLING PRACTICES
     The desirability and feasibility of sludge landspreading is dependent
upon many factors.  Although cost is a consideration in the selection of
a sludge utilization or disposal alternative, it does not appear to
always be the prime factor.  Many communities find that disposal site
availability, transportation modes and application methods suitable for
either liquid or dewatered sludge landspreading, are more critical than
cost in selecting the system or systems to be used in disposing of their
sludge.  A brief discussion of the transportation and landspreading
systems employed by the 24 communities follows.

A.   Transportation Systems

     1.   Liquid Sludge

          Liquid sludge is most commonly hauled by truck, although
     pipelines, barges, and rail tank cars are also possible modes of
     transportation.  Of the 16 communities surveyed that hauled liquid
     sludge, all used trucks as their sole conveyance mode.

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     Truck capacity varied widely among the communities surveyed;
the smallest capacity was 1,400 gallons,  while the largest was a
6,000 gallon tractor trailer.   Two of the 16 communities used
tractor trailers.   Although these were not large communities,
they generated liquid sludges  with extremely low percentages of
solids which account for their need for trucks with larger capacities.
The average, as well as the median, truck capacity for the liquid
haul systems was 2,500 gallons.

     The communities surveyed used from one to six trucks per plant.
Although two of the plants that handled larger quantities of
liquid sludge utilized the largest truck fleets, one of the smallest
plants had two trucks which were only utilized 7 percent of the
time.  Because the capital cost for trucks amounts to 16 percent of
the total cost of disposing of liquid sludge, a reduction in excess
truck capacity could result in a cost savings.  However, at some
plants, excess truck capacity was necessary since the sludge
generated in the course of an entire year was hauled during the
few months that disposal sites were available for use.  In these
communities sludge was usually stored in oversized digesters or
inoperable digesters.

     The typical community surveyed used one or two truck drivers.
The number of drivers employed was closely tied to the number of
trucks, and not necessarily to plant size.   Table 2 shows the
number of trucks and drivers per community along with averages and
medians.

     Haul distance ranged from one half mile to 30 miles round
trip, with an average round trip distance of 12 miles.  Many of
the communities surveyed used haul distance as a criterion  for
disposal site selection, and would not normally haul outside of
a five or ten mile radius of the treatment plant.  The  time  required
to drive to and from the utilization sites varied  from  five  minutes
to 60 minutes with a median round  trip time of 25  minutes.

2.   Dewatered Sludge

     For the 16 cities that spread dewatered  sludge  on  the  land,  the
transportation system usually  consisted  of one  to  three dump trucks
operated on a part-time basis.  Capacity of  the trucks  ranged from
2 1/2 cubic yards to 30 cubic  yard tractor trailers.  At three  of the
cities, the sludge hauling operation was contracted  to  a private
hauler who used larger capacity trucks and transported  the  sludge a
greater distance.  For the city operated systems,  the average truck
capacity was 8 cubic yards.  The number  of trucks  and their size
usually increased with increased sludge  production,  except  where  the
sludge was spread on plant property.   As would be  expected, the
transportation costs were minimal  (usually  less than one dollar per  dry

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                              Table 2

                 Truck Drivers and Trucks Utilized
                   in the Liquid Haul Operations
Number of
Truck
City Drivers
Anderson, Ind.
Belleville, 111.
Bethlehem, Pa.
Collinsville, 111.
Danville, Va.
Ft. Pierce, Fla.
Front Royal, Va.
Greeley, Colo.
Greene Co. , Ohio
LaCrosse, Wise.
Lebanon , Pa .
Macon , Ga .
Salem, Ore.
Springfield, Ohio
York, Pa.
Average
Median
5
2
1
2
2
2
1
1
1
2
1
1
1
1
4
1.8
1
Yearly
Percent
Each Worked
46
18
15
10; 40
60
40; 90
5
90
38
100
14
14
80
19
100
53
46
Number
of
Trucks
6
2
1
1
2
2
1
1
2
1
2
1
1
2
5
2
2
Yearly
Percent
Each Used
38
18
15
50
60
65
5
90
19
200*
7
14
80
10
80
48
38
*A two-shift operation.

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     ton)  if the sludge  was  disposed of  on plant property,  i.e., within  a
     very short haul distance.  One  city utilized two  truck drivers  full time,
     while the remainder only  used one driver.  Table  3  shows  the  number
     of trucks and drivers per community along with  averages and medians.

          The haul distances for  dewatered sludge ranged from  one
     quarter mile to 90  miles  round  trip, with an average round trip
     distance of 16 miles and  a median distance of 10  miles.   This
     required an average round trip  driving  time of  37 minutes.   In
     comparing the average driving time  of 28 minutes  for the  liquid
     systems and 37 minutes  for the  dewatered systems, it appears  that
     the cities included in  the survey took  longer to  transport their
     dewatered sludge than their  liquid  sludge.  However, Toledo,  Ohio
     hauls their dewatered sludge a  far  greater distance and has  a
     longer driving time than  any other  city surveyed.  If Toledo's
     system is excluded  from the  dewatered sludge analysis, the average
     round trip driving  time is 29 minutes.  This indicates that  the
     driving times for both  liquid and dewatered sludge  hauling are
     nearly identical.  Therefore, from  the  communities  surveyed,  distance
     or haul time to disposal  sites  was  not  a reason for or justification
     to dewater the communities'  sludge. However, dewatering  does
     result in far less  material  for transportation.

B.   Landspreading Systems

     1.   Liquid Sludge

          All the communities  surveyed spread liquid sludge directly from
     the truck. *  The breakdown  of  liquid spreading mechanisms is
     as follows:  one injected the sludge  into  the  soil  with a subsod
     injector on the rear of the  truck;  three used a pressurized spray
     nozzle; three used rear mounted splash plates;  five used a rear
     mounted "T" pipe; and four did not use any distribution device.

          In order to insure a uniform application of liquid sludge,
     the application rate must be geared to the ground  speed of the  truck
     and independent of the hydraulic head created by the  sludge  remaining
     in the tank.  Otherwise,  when the truck is driven  down hill, or
     near the end of the load the application rate will  decrease markedly.
     If no distribution device was utilized, the application tended to
     be rather uneven.  In these  cases, the sludge  flows directly from  a
     valve at the rear of the truck, and covers a 2 to  3 foot wide  swath
     After the site visits were made, Greene County, Ohio, began utilizing
     a sprinkler irrigation system.  The irrigation system consists  of
     a farm tractor driven centrifugal pump, 1,500 feet of irrigation pipe
     with a single riser and nozzle.  Using this system,  their  6,000
     gallon tractor trailer can be unloaded from the roadway  in 20 minutes.

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                              Table 3

                 Truck Drivers and Trucks Utilized
                 in the Dewatered Haul Operations
Number of
Truck
City Drivers
Anderson, Ind.
Belleville, 111.
Bethlehem, Pa.
LaCrosse, Wise.
Lawrenceville, 111.
Louisville, Ky.
Rochelle, 111.
Salt Lake City,
Utah
Springfield, Ohio
York, Pa.
Average
Median
1
1
1
2
1
1
1
1
1
1
1.1
1
Yearly
Percent
Each Worked
30
• 5
30
100
0.5
100
75
12
34
100
48.6
32
Number
of
Trucks
2
1
1
2
1
3
3
1
2
2
1.8
2
Yearly
Percent
Each Used*
15
5
30
100
0.5
33
25
12
17
50
28.8
21
*In addition, some trucks are used an additional amount of time in a
 storage capacity while a load of sludge is being dewatered.
                                 8

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as the truck is driven across the field.   In order to completely
cover the field, the truck must be driven on previously applied
sludge which results in both poor traction and tracking of sludge
onto roadways.  Figure 1 shows an extreme case of applying sludge
without a distribution system.  In this example,  the fields were
too wet to traverse with a truck so sludge was applied with a hose
emanating from a tractor trailer parked on the roadway.  Since this
picture was taken, the system has been abandoned in favor of a
sprinkler irrigation system because of the uncontrollable and
spotty application rate received with the previous system.

     A splash plate or perforated "T" pipe will eliminate some of
the distribution problem by applying sludge over an area at least
as wide as the width of the truck.  However, even with a distri-
bution system of this sort, a much heavier application will be made
at the start as compared to the end of unloading unless the speed
that the truck advances across the field is steadily decreased to
compensate for the steadily decreasing hydraulic head.  Figures 2,
3, and 4 illustrate various types of "T" pipes.  Figure 5 provides
an example of a "T" pipe with a splash deflector device for more
even distribution.

     The pressurized injection or distribution systems will eliminate
these problems of tracking sludge onto roadways and of uneven
application.  By pressure spraying sludge from the side or rear of
the truck, a wide enough area can be covered to eliminate the need
of having to drive on previously applied land.  Also the application
rate is not dependent upon the quantity remaining in the tank or
whether the truck is being driven up or down hill.  The injection
system has additional advantages in that a  follow-up operation to
incorporate the sludge into the soil is not needed.  Many states
require or recommend that surface applied sludge be disced or
plowed under.  Also, this system virtually  eliminates  the chance of
odors, greatly reduces the chance of sludge loss due to erosion or
loss of nutrients to the atmosphere.  The injection system has the
disadvantage of greater power requirements  for unloading while any
pressurized discharge system could have the potential  disadvantage
of pump maintainance.  Figures 6 and 7 illustrate two  types  of
pressure systems.  Figure 6 is a side discharge, pressure spray
system.  Figure 7 is a rear mounted pressure  system with  splash
plate.

     Although there  is a wide variation  in  the effectiveness of  the
various distribution devices  employed, there  appears  to be little
correlation between  the acceptability of  the  sludge to the farmer
and the effectiveness of the  distribution system.   In general,
liquid sludge landspreading  systems  were  considered desirable by
the farming community, regardless  of the  transportation system or
application method employed.

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Figure l--Tractor Trailer with Hose in Greene County,  Ohio
                             10

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. <  ',.
                                ('.< I ».t
        Figure 2—Open  End "T" Pipe in Ft. Pierce,  Florida
                                  11

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Figure 3 —Slotted "T" Pipe in Springfield, Ohio
                       I .

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Figure 4—Perforated "T" Pipe in Front Royal,  Virginia
                           13

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Figure
5__-T"' Plpe with Splash Deflector Device  in Bethlehem, Pennsylvania
                                      14

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Figure 6—Side Discharge,  Pressure Spray System in York,  Pennsylvania
                                  15

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Figure 7—Big Wheel Pressure System with Splash Plate in Collinsville, Illinois
                                       16

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     2.    Dewatered  Sludge

          Most  of  the  communities surveyed hauled dewatered sludge to
     the  farm site and then dumped the sludge in piles.  The landowner
     was  responsible for  spreading and incorporating the sludge into
     the  soil.   One  exception  to this was in Appleton, Wisconsin.  Here,
     the  City contracted  with  a firm to haul the sludge to farmland.  When
     the  driver arrived at the site, he dumped the load of sludge adjacent
     to the  previously applied area and used a tracked dozer at the site
     to spread  his load.  At the end of the day, a four wheel drive farm
     tractor is used to plow the area which had received sludge that day.
     In most cases,  there was  no charge to the farmer for this service.
     Figure  8 illustrates sludge after spreading but prior to incorporation
     into the soil.

          Many  of  the  cities that dewatered sludge stockpiled at  least  a
     portion of their  sludge on the treatment property for local  citizens
     to obtain. The major advantage of this system is that the city does
     not  need to locate receiving areas nor bear the expense of hauling the
     sludge  long distances.

          In some  cases,  the municipality  found it more difficult
     to dispose of its dewatered sludge than its liquid sludge.   In
     York, 'Pennsylvania,  for example,  the  municipality is hauling liquid
     sludge  to  40  farms.  But  it has only  been able to locate  two farms
     that will  accept  its dewatered sludge, primarily because  the farmer
     would have to spread the  sludge and  incorporate it into  the  land
     himself.  In another community, Bethlehem, Pennsylvania,  the
     dewatered  sludge  is  typically  landfilled because  of  a  lack  of
     interest on the part of the  farming  community.

III.  ECONOMICS

     A majority of the communities  visited did not maintain detailed
records  on either the  quantities  of sludge handled,  or the various cost
factors  involved in the disposal  operation.   As a result, some of the
quantitative data utilized in  this  analysis are estimated values derived
from interviews with treatment plant personnel and city hall offices.
The data are nevertheless considered to be reliable and well within the
range of sludge landspreading  costs of existing systems.   However, the
communities  studied in the  survey are not necessarily representative of
all communities using the various disposal methods.   The cost of new
operations may be higher than those found in this survey due to  in-
creased costs of capital items.   In some cases, however, the reported
cost may be too high because'a 10 percent contingency factor was added
to the total cost of each system.   This contingency factor was added to
cover miscellaneous costs such as administrative overhead.  For  purposes
of this survey, sludge disposal costs include all post stabilization
processes.
                                   17

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Figure 8—Spread Vacuum Filtered Sludge in Appleton, Wisconsin
                               18

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     In analyzing the cost data,  Sheboygan,  Wisconsin,  had unusually
high costs for the handling of both their liquid and vacuum filtered
sludges.  Sheboygan's liquid haul operation was the only contracted
liquid disposal system surveyed,  and was over 50 percent higher than the
next most costly operation.  It was impossible to determine the cost for
disposal of Sheboygan's dewatered sludge since the City's incineration
costs were not available.  Also,  the City's dewatering costs were nearly
three times higher than the next most costly dewatering operation.   The
high dewatering costs are mainly attributed to high depreciation charges,
expensive chemical requirements and high personnel costs.  Because these
costs are so much higher than those obtained from any of the other
cities visited, they are not considered representative and have, therefore,
not been included in the analysis.

     Of the communities surveyed, 16 disposed of all or part of their
sludge as a liquid at an average cost per dry ton of $32.  In comparison,
11 communities disposed of part or all of their sludge after dewatering
by vacuum filtration for a total cost of $87 per dry ton.  Five com-
munities used sand drying beds to dewater their sludge prior to disposal
for a total average per dry ton cost of $14.  In addition one city each
used lagooning and centrifuging to dewater their sludge prior to disposal
at a total cost of $9 per dry ton and $20 per dry ton respectively.  At
the plants which dewatered their sludge by sand drying beds, lagoons and
centrifuges, the reported costs are most likely lower than would be the
case for another community initiating these practices.  With all three
of the systems, the cost of trucking the dewatered sludge was very low
or nonexistent since the dried sludge was usually used on site or stock-
piled for citizen use.  Also the drying beds and lagoons were older
installations that did not have any depreciation charges.  Many com-
munities also used secondhand trucks for transporting sludge which
resulted in lower depreciation costs.  Tables 4 and 5 present summaries
of the cost data.

     1.   Liquid Sludge

          At the plants  that disposed of part or all of  their  sludge  as
     a liquid, the cost  of disposal for the  average dry  ton  of  sludge
     was $32.  However,  this varied from a  low  of  $5 per dry ton  to  a
     high of $81 per dry ton  (Sheboygan1s cost  is  $125 per dry  ton).
     When comparing the  size of operation to the  cost per dry  ton,  the
     data points are widely scattered and there is no apparent relationship
     between annual quantity of sludge hauled and  its associated cost
     per dry ton.  However, when  comparing  cost per dry  ton to round
     trip haul time  (Figure 9), there appears to be a very strong
     relationship.

          In this case,  a  line  (linear mode)  was fitted to the data
     using regression  analysis.    One standard deviation was used to
                                    19

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                                 Table  4
               Liquid  Sludge  Landspreading Cost Summary
Community
Anderson, Indiana
Belleville, Illinois
Bethlehem, Pennsylvania
Collinsville, Illinois
Danville, Virginia
Ft. Pierce, Florida
Front Royal , Virginia
Greeley, Colorado
Greene County, Ohio
LaCrosse , Wisconsin
Lebanon, Pennsylvania
Macon, Georgia
Salem, Oregon
Sheboygan, Wisconsin
Springfield, Ohio
York, Pennsylvania
Liquid Sludge Produced
(Dry tons/year)
2,960
500
140
540
1,490
390
900
700
380
710
180
170
1,150
670
520
1,360
Total Cost
($/dry ton)
19
24
47
34
22
81
5
22
40
49
28
8
40
125
22
73
AVERAGE
AVERAGE Excluding Sheboygan
798   Weighted Average 37




806   Weighted Average 32
                                  20

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                              Table 5
            Dewatered Sludge Landspreading Cost Summary
  Community
 Dewatered
   Sludge
  Produced
(Dry tons/yr)
 Dewatering
    Cost
($/dry ton)
     Average
     Average Excluding
     Sheboygan
   3,205 weighted     68
         average

   3,366 weighted     61
         average
  Total
   Cost
($/dry ton)
Vacuum Filter
Anderson, Ind.
Appleton, Wise.
Bethlehem, Pa.
Grand Rapids , Mich .
LaCrosse, Wise.
Lawrenceville , 111.
Louisville, Ky.
Rochelle, 111.
Sheboygan, Wise.
Toledo , Ohio
York, Pa.

900
7,700
460
320
3,650
70
4,590
1,950
790
16,250
970

48
25
110
48
68
120
33
75
380
77
140

53
42
120
54
81
190
50
89
not available
117
165
                     87
Drying Beds
Belleville, 111.
Grand Rapids, Mich.
Greeley, Colo.
Littleton , Colo .
Salt Lake City, Utah

500
2,930
500
510
1,410

33
7
8
12
1

34
15
8
13
1
     Average
Centrifuge
  Salt Lake City, Utah

Lagoon
  Springfield, Ohio
   1,170 weighted      8
         average
   6,500              20
   2,180
                     12
                     20
                                  21

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                   80 -
to
to
             O
            H
             J-l
            Q

             J-i
             
-------
create the band on the figure with one standard deviation being +_
$7.14 per dry ton at any point from the central line.    A "t"  test
at 11 degrees of freedom indicates that the slope is significant at
the 99 percent level.  In determining the variance of a multiple
regression, the data indicate that changes in haul time explain 91
percent of the variation in cost of disposal.  As one might expect,
then, haul time is a good prediction of a community's cost of
disposing of its liquid sludge.

     A similar analysis was performed comparing cost per ton ex-
cluding depreciation charges to haul time.  A comparison of the
results indicates that haul time is a better indicator of cost per
dry ton when depreciation is included.  As would be expected,  the
analysis also showed that depreciation is an important cost factor
for those communities which have new transport vehicles.

     For the liquid haul operations, the major cost category was
personnel which accounted for an average of 42 percent of the total
cost of sludge disposal.  The next highest cost category was vehicle
operation and maintenance with an average of 19 percent of the
total followed by capital cost at 16 percent, fringe benefits
at 14 percent and utilities and miscellaneous at 9 percent.  Figure 10
illustrates the cost breakdown by major cost category.

2.   Dewatered Sludge

     a.   Vacuum Filtration

     Of the 24 plants visited, 16 dewatered part or all of their
sludge.  Eleven of the plants that dewatered sludge used vacuum
filters in their normal operation with a weighted average dry ton
disposal cost of $87.  This cost varied between a low of $42 and a
high of $190.  If only the cost of dewatering sludge is considered,
the average dry ton  cost is $61 with a range of $25 to  $140.  In
Sheboygan, the dewatering cost, using the City's figures,  is $380
per dry ton.  Figure 11 plots dewatering  cost per dry ton versus
annual dry tons processed while Figure 12 plots total cost  for
disposal of vacuum filtered sludge versus sludge volume.  Because
of the limited data, no attempt has been  made to draw conclusions
from these figures.

     With vacuum filtration,  the major average  cost categories  were
personnel at 22 percent of the total cost,  chemicals  at 20  percent,
and utilities at 16  percent.   In addition,  vehicle  operation  and
maintenance, vacuum  filter operation  and  maintenance,  depreciation
and fringe benefits  each accounted  for 9  to 12  percent  of the  total
cost as shown in Figure 13.
                              23

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                         VEHICLE OPERATION
                          AND MAINTENANCE
              FRINGE
             BENEFITS
               14%
CAPITAL
  16%
        UTILITIES
         S  OTHER
         9%
                            PERSONNEL
                               42%
Figure 10—Breakdown of Total Annual Cost for Liquid Haul Systems
                                24

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                 140 -
                 120 -
to
en
         a
         o

-------
NJ
           C
           o
           H
           
-------
                                     VACUUM
                                     FILTER
                                      O & M
                                            UTILITIES
                                              & OTHER
                          FRINGE
                         BENEFITS
                             9%
Figure 13—Breakdown of Total Annual Cost for Vacuum Filtered Sludge
                                  27

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  2.   Dewatered Sludge

       b.   Sand Drying Beds

            Five of the plants dewatered part or all of their sludge
  on sand drying beds for an average dry ton disposal cost of $12.
  This cost varied between a low of one dollar per dry ton and a high
  of $34.  If only the cost of dewatering the sludge is considered,
  the average dry ton cost is $8 with a range of one dollar to $33.
  Of the five plants, four have little or no cost for transporting and
  disposing of the sludge once it is removed from the beds since the
  dried sludge is used on plant property or stockpiled for removal by
  local citizens.  Based on costs for other survey cities of comparable
  size with dewatered sludges, trucking away from the plant could
  easily increase these costs by $10 to $20 per dry ton.  In addition,
  all of the drying beds were older installations that were fully
  depreciated and were, for the most part, only used on a part time
  basis.  As a result there was usually very little maintenance work
  performed on the beds to keep them operating at their maximum
  efficiency.  Because of these factors, the observed costs for the
  sand bed dewatering operation as well as the limited disposal costs
  encountered, amount to about one third of the predicted operation and
  maintenance cost for the dewatering operation.   Therefore, although
  the sand drying beds that were observed provided for a very in-
  expensive means to dewater sludge, they are not representative of
  newer nor continually utilized systems.

  3.   Comparative Cost Data

       Of the cities surveyed, four (excluding Sheboygan) hauled
  both liquid and dewatered sludge (Anderson, Indiana; Bethlehem,
  Pennsylvania; LaCrosse, Wisconsin; and York, Pennsylvania).
  Table 6 presents data from these four communities.

       This table shows that the cost for disposal of the average
  dry ton of sludge as a liquid was $38.  However, for the same
  cities the cost for vacuum filtered sludge was $93.  Therefore,
  on an average, the cities that used both methods paid almost two
  and a half times more per dry ton for the disposal of vacuum filtered
  than liquid sludge.  The major reasons why these communities
  dewatered a portion of their sludge and liquid hauled the remainder
  were that they could not dispose of liquid sludge year-round because
  of either cropping practices or weather conditions.  Some of the
  communities visited eliminated the traditional problem of only
  being able to spread liquid sludge during certain seasons by
"Sludge Processing Transportation and Disposal/Resource Recovery:
 A Planning Perspective, J. Michael Wyatt and Paul E. White, Jr.,
 U.S.E.P.A. Contract No. 68-01-3104 by Engineering Science, Inc.
 (December 197b).

                                28

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                                                     Table 6
                                         Comparative Data on frour Cities
ro
(£>
LIQUID
COMMUNITY

Anderson, Indiana
Bethlehem, Pennsylvania
LaCrosse , Wisconsin
York , Pennsylvania
Quantity
(dry tons/year)
2,960
140
710
1,360
Cost
($/dry ton)
19
47
49
73
FILTERED
Quantity
(dry tons/year)
900
460
3,650
970
Cost
($/dry ton)
53
120
81
165
     Weighted Average
1,292
38
1,495
93

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providing adequate sludge storage capacity at the plant.  The
storage capacity usually resulted from oversized digesters or from
non-functioning digesters.  While these storage facilities were
usually older, fully depreciated structures, they not only provided
flexibility for seasonal sludge disposal but also eliminated the
need for a costly sludge dewatering operation.
                              30

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                               APPENDIX
Data collection and case writing

          by
                         R. Kent Anderson
                         Bruce R. Weddle
                         Ted Hillmer
                         Al Geswein

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                           ANDERSON,  INDIANA
     The City of Anderson,  Indiana is a community of approximately
76,000 population located about 30 miles northeast of  Indianapolis,
Indiana. The City's sewage treatment facility consists of  a  secondary
activated sludge plant incorporating post chlorination of  the  effluent
and anaerobic digestion of the sewage solids,  followed by  dewatering by
vacuum filtration or direct application of liquid sludge to  nearby
farmland.

Persons Contacted

     Mr. A. E. Hallinback
     Superintendent

     Mr. Chuck Bell
     Industrial Monitoring
     Department of Water Pollution Control
     2801 Moss Island Road
     Anderson, Indiana
       Telephone (317) 646-5791

Site Description

     Liquid Sludge Disposal - The City hauls liquid sludge to one of 30
different farms.  Each disposal site varies in size and cropping practice
and is selected from a list of farmers requesting the addition of sludge
to their land.  Because of the waiting list of farmers wanting sludge,
only one application per year is normally made.  Most of the sites
receiving sludge are within 10 miles of the plant.  During wet weather,
sludge is transferred to a Big Wheels at the farm for spreading.

     Vacuum Filtered Sludge - The City's vacuum filtered sludge is
mainly stored on site for the public to pick up.  Excess vacuum filtered
sludge is hauled to the sanitary landfill.

General Information

     The City estimates that industry contributes 44 percent of the
plant flow. Most industries have pretreatment or are installing a pre-
treatment process.  Major industries consist of two automotive related
plants and a meat packing plant.  The population equivalent of the
plant—based on 0.17 Ibs/BOD/person/day—is 100,000.   The present design
capacity is 22.7 MGD and the average daily flow is 18  MGD.  The effluent
is discharged into the White River.  The treatment plant  is presently
undergoing reconstruction to include wet air oxidation.

     All sludge leaving the plant receives secondary  digestion.   The
City reported that in 1974, this amounted to approximately  10,000,000
gallons at 9.3 percent solids  (i.e.,  10.5 dry  tons/day).

                                    33

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Sewage Sludge Composition

     Table 1 presents data on the composition of the Anderson sludge.
The solids content of the liquid sludge is 9.3 percent and of the dewatered
sludge is 26.1 percent.

Transport System

     Liquid Sludge -  The City currently liquid hauls the majority of
its sludge.  The decision to vacuum filter or liquid haul is solely
dependent upon the availability of a readily accessible field.  Liquid
sludge is hauled an average of 5 1/2 days per week.  The City has been
hauling liquid sludge for the past 12 years.  The transport vehicles
consist of five 1,400 gallon tank trucks and one 1,500 gallon Big Wheels
for use in wet fields.  The Big Wheels is only used on a farm during wet
weather for spreading sludge pumped into it from tank trucks.

     In 1974, a total of 5,453 loads of sludge were hauled with an
average total haul time of 52 minutes.  Five drivers and five trucks are
used approximately half time as a yearly average to haul liquid sludge.
The average round trip distance to disposal sites is about 11 miles with
an average driving time of about 25 minutes.  Loading time amounts to
about 4-5 minutes and about 22 minutes to unload.  The trucks are equipped
with a fan-shaped, gravity flow spreading device.

     Vacuum Filtered Sludge - Because of the high cost of maintenance,
chemicals and labor to operate the vacuum filters, they are only used
when conditions are not conducive to liquid hauling and the plant cannot
store additional sludge.  In 1975, the vacuum filters were only operated
one day.  In 1974, the year on which our analysis is based, the vacuum
filters were operated 1,169 hours.  The dried sludge is mainly stockpiled
close-by, on site for private individuals to pickup for garden use.
Excess dried sludge is hauled to the sanitary landfill.  The City has
two 2 1/2 cubic yard dump trucks which are for hauling filtered sludge,
grit, and screenings.
Landspreading System

     Most liquid sludge is. applied by the tank truck directly on the
fields by a gravity flow system through a fan-shaped spreader nozzle.
However, when fields are wet, the sludge is pumped from the tankers into
a Big Wheels for spreading.  The Big Wheels uses a pressurized unloading
system.  Because of the demand for sludge, most fields only receive one
application per year.  The normal application rate is 10,000 gallons per
acre (4 dry tons/acre).  The principal crops grown on land receiving
sludge are corn and soybeans.  A sod farm and airport grounds also
receive liquid sludge.  The City does not charge the farmers for sludge.
                                  34

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Costs

     The 1974 cost to the City for disposal of 2,960 dry tons of liquid
sludge was $19 per dry ton.   In comparison, the City's cost for disposal
of 900 dry tons of vacuum dried sludge was $53 per dry ton.  With the
vacuum filtered sludge, the cost of dewatering accounts for about $48
per dry ton.  The major cost items for dewatering are depreciation of
the vacuum filters at about $14,730, personnel costs of over $14,000,
and chemical costs of about $5,400.  A breakdown of how these costs were
determined is attached.
                                    35

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                  COST FOR DISPOSAL OF LIQUID SLUDGE

Annual Capital Cost

     Vehicle Depreciation    .                              $ 9,490
       1970 Ford, cost: $9,148
       1970 Ford, cost: $9,148
       2 1973 Fords, cost: $7,800
       1974 Chevy, cost: $3,898
       1974 CMC Big Wheels, cost:  $25,954

          Total Annual Capital Cost                                 $ 9,490

Annual Operating Cost

     Personnel                Hourly Rate    % Time Worked    Cost

          5 Truck Drivers       $4.62             46        $21,970
          Chemist                3.61              3            220
                                                            $22,190

     Fringe Benefits (30 percent)                           $ 6,650

     Vehicle-Maintenance and Operation                      $12,620

     Utilities                                              $    20

TOTAL ANNUAL OPERATING COST                                         $41,490

TOTAL ANNUAL CAPITAL AND OPERATING COST                             $50,980

10 PERCENT CONTINGENCY FACTOR 2                                     $ 5,100

TOTAL ANNUAL COST                                                   $56,080

	Total Annual Cost	  =  $56,080	  =  $19 per dry ton
Total Sludge Hauled Annually     2,960 dry tons
     1  Vehicles were depreciated over 8 years at 8 percent interest, which
amounts to a depreciation charge of $14.14 per $1,000 per month.

     2  A 10 percent contingency factor is added to cover such items as admin-
istrative overhead.
                                   36

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               COST FOR DISPOSAL OF VACUUM DRIED  SLUDGE

Annual Capital Cost

     Vehicle Depreciation •*•                                 $    320
       1969 Dump Truck, cost:  $4,400
       1972 Dump Truck, cost:  $4,952

     Stationary Equipment Depreciation                      $14,730
       Vacuum Filters, cost:   $101,110

          Total Annual Capital Cost                                 $15,050

Annual Operating Cost

     Personnel                Hourly Rate    % Time Worked    Cost

          4 Operators           $4.62              30       $11,460
          Truck Driver           4.62              30         2,860
                                                            $14,320

     Fringe Benefits  (30 percent)                            $4,120

     Vehicle Maintenance and Operation                       $  180

     Vacuum Filter Maintenance

          Chemicals                                          $ 5,390
          Parts and Repair                                    3,500

     Utilities                                               $1,000

TOTAL ANNUAL OPERATING COST                                         $28,516

TOTAL ANNUAL CAPITAL  AND OPERATING COST                             $43,560

10 PERCENT CONTINGENCY FACTOR  3                                     $ 4,360

TOTAL ANNUAL COST                                                   $47,920

	Total Annual  Cost	   =  $47,920	 =  $53 per dry  ton
Total Sludge Hauled Annually     900  dry  tons
      1  Vehicles were  depreciated over  8 years  at  8 percent  interest,  which
 amounts to  a depreciation charge of  $14.14 per  $1,000  per month.

      2  Stationary equipment was depreciated over  10 years at 8 percent interest,
 which amounts to a depreciation charge  of $12.13 per $1,000  per month.

      3  A 10 percent contingency factor is added to cover such items as admin-
 istrative overhead.

                                   37

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                              TABLE 1




         HEAVY METAL ANALYSIS ON ANDERSON DIGESTED SLUDGE




                             FALL 1975

2
TS
Cu
MN
ZN
CR
Pb
Fe
Ni
Cd
Mo
AL

SN
Co
Ag
Sb
As
J.

8.56
14.3501
276
9,100
11,040
1,130
16,000
1,140
255
14
28
3
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
2

5.98
12,860
193
6,250
12,510
166
19,870
1,030
212
18
31

NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
_3

6.12
12,440
204
9,420
13,080
338
13,170
1,330
201
9
24

293
41
14
5
9
Samples
_4

5.55
10,520
146
12,940
10,320
583
15,170
2,100
162
8
29

65
32
1
5
1
_5

8.04
10,210
173
12,620
11,630
842
14,850
2,480
229
10
37

99
74
19
8
1
6

7.34
7,400
190
15,720.
8,680
579
11,000
1,740
223
7
29

116
21
12
2
1
7

7.66
6,970
170
17,040
6,080
503
8,130
1,550
170
8
23

93
39
39
1
1
    All results reported in ppm dry solids




2   Total Solids
    Not Analyzed




                             38

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                          APPLETON,  WISCONSIN

     Appleton is a community of approximately 58,000 people that is
located 100 miles north of Milwaukee,  Wisconsin.   The area is served
by one treatment facility which consists of a secondary activated sewage
treatment process incorporating both pre and post-chlorination,  and
partial (25 percent) anaerobic digestion of the resulting solids.  After
digestion, the sludge is vacuum filtered and hauled by a private con-
tractor to local farmland.  Permits  are required by the Lake Michigan
Department of Natural Resources before the sludge can be applied to
the land.

Persons Contacted

     Mr. Wayne Colbert
     Wastewater Superintendent
     City Hall
     225 North Oneida Street
     Appleton, Wisconsin  54911
       Telephone:   (414) 739-4396

     Mr. Richard B. Van Handel
     Sludge Contractor
     2435 East Edgewood Drive
     Appleton, Wisconsin  54911
       Telephone:   (414) 734-1272

Site Description

     The City's dewatered sludge is  hauled by a contractor to several
different site locations for disposal.  Each disposal site varies in
size and cropping practice, and is selected from a list of farmers
requesting sewage sludge for use on their land.  The sludge is hauled
362 days of the year.  An application of approximately eight inches
of sludge is placed on each farm per year.  The soil in this area is an
Allendale loamy fine sand.

General Information

     Industrial input into the City's treatment facilities was estimated
to be approximately 30 percent of the total daily flow.  The design
capacity of the plant is 20 MGD for the primary stage and  12 MGD for the
secondary stage.  The average daily flow is 12 MGD.  The effluent is
discharged directly into the Fox River, which eventually drains  into Lake
Winnobago.  With the present plant design,  it is obvious that this  system
cannot handle peak  flows.  Because of this  situation, the  City  is currently
in the midst of a plant expansion program to upgrade the total  facility.
The present system  of landspreading sludge  will continue with the
proposed expansion.

                                   39

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     The total quantity of primary and secondary activated sludge generated
amounts to 7,700 tons per year of filter cake.  The sludge comes off the
vacuum filter at 20 to 22 percent solids.  The total amount of cake
leaving the plant after partial digestion is 47,680 cubic yards per year.
This partial digestion results from the fact that the digesters are old
and do not function properly.  Therefore, three of the four digesters
are utilized for storage with the remaining digester operating "normally."
The reduced retention time in the operating digester results in about a
25 percent reduction of the sludge.

     Based on national per capita sludge generation figures, the City of
Appleton, Wisconsin, should be generating approximately 5.2 dry tons of
solids per day.  This is not the case, however.  It was reported that
the City generates on the order of 21 dry tons per day.  This results from
the industrial contribution  (Appleton is the home of a paper mill and a
sugar beet cannery that operates six months of the year) and the plant design,
which requires the use of 1,050 tons of lime each year.

Sewage Sludge Composition

     Table 1 presents data relative to the metals content of Appleton
sludge.  Samples were taken by Badger Laboratories and Engineering on
September 16, 1975, and analyzed for several heavy metals.  The sludge
is high in some metals  (i.e., copper, lead, cadmium, and chromium).

Transport System

     The method used for hauling filter cake and spreading is somewhat
unique.  From the "digesters"  (i.e., storage tanks), the liquid sludge
is pumped to the vacuum filters where the dewatering occurs.  The cake
then drops onto a conveyor belt which takes it to an enclosed concrete
slab adjacent to the vacuum filter building.  Here, a front end loader
scoops the cake from the concrete area into a dump truck.  The transport
vehicles used include:  one four wheel drive six by six, used on wet
fields; one Ford 5-axle, used on dry or frozen fields; one Ford dumptrailer,
used in hauling; two blade dozers used in spreading the sludge; and one
four wheel drive tractor, used in plowing the sludge under.

Landspreading System

     The dewatered sludge is hauled by dump trucks to farmland, with the
driver of the dump truck also being responsible for spreading his load
with the blade dozer vehicle.  After spreading of the sludge has taken place,
the sludge is plowed under, usually on the same day as the spreading.
Although there have been some complaints concerning odors before the
sludge is plowed under, the odors are minimal when compared with raw
animal manure solids that are collected, stored, and applied by farmers
                                   40

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to their own land.  All these services—hauling,  dumping,  spreading, and
plowing—are provided by the hauler at no cost to the farmer.   However,
it is possible that in the future,  some costs could be encountered by the
farmer to cover added transportation for long distance hauls.

     Most of the City's sludge is being hauled to corn fields.   Appli-
cations are only made after the field is cropped  or before spring planting.
Of the 350 acres that are available for spreading, it is estimated that
half  (175 acres) is utilized by the City of Appleton to dispose of their
sludge, with the remainder of the acreage being used by the City of
Neenah-Menasha.  Based on figures provided by the plant, it can be
calculated that the Appleton area farmers receive 44 dry tons per acre
per year.  Crop yields on fields which had received sludge that year
were reduced, apparently because of the high metals content of the sludge
and also its high pH, caused by the large lime content.  Two years after
a one-time application of sludge, crop yields were dramatically increased.

Cost

     Based on actual operating information provided by representatives of
Appleton, the City was disposing of its sludge in 1974 at a cost of $42
per dry ton of solids, with operating time of the vacuum filter being  16
hours a day, 7 days a week.  Of this, the cost of dewatering amounted  to
about $25 per dry ton.  Major costs items for dewatering included chemicals,
which cost over $70,000, and personnel, nearly $47,000.  The contractor cost
was $2.25 per yard hauled in 1974.  However, in 1975, the cost rose to
$4.00 per yard hauled.  This would increase the disposal cost to $54 per
dry ton of solids.  A more detailed cost breakdown of the variable  and
fixed costs is attached.
                                    41

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               COST  FOR DISPOSAL OF VACUUM FILTERED SLUDGE

 Annual Capital Cost

      Vehicle  Depreciation                                         0
      Plant Equipment  Depreciation                                 0

           Total Annual Capital Cost

 Annual Operating Cost

      Personnel               Hourly Rate    % Time Worked     Cost

           Vacuum Filter Operator   $5.00          100       $10,400
           Vacuum Filter Operator    5.30          100        11,020
           2 Lime Room Laborers      4.86          100        20,220
           Assistant Superintendent  6.15           30         3,840
           Superintendent            6.97           10         1,450
                                                            $46,930

      Fringe Benefits  at 30 percent                          $14,080

      Vacuum Filter  Operation  and Maintenance

       Chemicals
           Lime                                             $46,980
           Ferric Chloride                                    25,420
           Acid                                               1,240
       Parts  and Repair                                     21,300

      Vehicle  Operation and Maintenance

       Contract Hauling (@ $2.25 per yard)                 $107,220

      Utilities (gas and water)                              $33,240

TOTAL ANNUAL  OPERATING COST                                          $296,410

TOTAL ANNUAL  CAPITAL  AND OPERATING COST                              $296,410

10 PERCENT  CONTINGENCY FACTOR1                                         29,640

TOTAL ANNUAL  COST                                                    $326,050

	Total  Annual Cost	  =   $326,050	  =  $42 per dry ton
Total Sludge  Hauled Annually      7,700 dry tons
     1  A 10 percent contingency factor is added to cover such items as
administrative overhead.

                                   42

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                               TABLE 1
                Sludge Sample  Taken September 16, 1975

                  Badger Laboratories  and Engineering
                     Stephen Taylor, Chief  Chemist
Percent Solids                                    18.6 %

Percent Ammonia Nitrogen                           0.11%
Organic Nitrogen                                   2.70%
Percent Total Nitrogen                             2.81%
Phosphorus                                     2,916 ppm
Potassium                                        123.1 ppm
Chromium                                         734.9 ppm
Copper                                           534.6 ppm
Lead                                             764.1 ppm
Zinc                                              70.2 ppm
Cadmium                                          111.2 ppm
Mercury                                            0.011 ppm
Nickel                                            88.0 ppm
      Figures are reported on a dry weight basis
                                     43

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                         BELLEVILLE, ILLINOIS


     The City of Belleville, Illinois is a community of approximately
41,700 population, located 15 miles southeast of St. Louis, Missouri.  The
City's largest sewage treatment facility consists of a secondary activated
sludge plant incorporating post chlorination of the effluent and anaerobic
digestion of the sewage  solids, followed by air drying and/or direct applica-
tion of liquid sludge to nearby farmland.

Person Contacted

     Mr. George Hankammer
     Superintendent of Treatment
       Plant Operations
     Belleville, Illinois   62220
     Telephone:  (618) 233-6810

Site Description

     Liquid Sludge Disposal - The City hauls liquid sludge to one of several
different site locations.  Each disposal site varies in size and cropping
practice and is selected from a list of farmers requesting the addition
of sludge to their land.  Any farmer within a reasonable haul distance
(i.e./ 5-10 miles) who desires to have sludge placed on his land may place
a request with the City  and if conditions are suitable  (i.e., weather, sea-
son of the year, site accessibility, etc.) the wastewater treatment plant
will make one or two applications of sewage sludge to his land.

     Air Dried Sludge -  The City's air dried sludge is stored in a small
designated area adjacent to the main treatment plant property.  The area
is located just outside  a fenced area that surrounds the plant, thus enabling
persons desiring the sludge to pick it up at their leisure.  No regula-
tion or other controls are placed upon the use or the amount of sludge an
individual may take.  According to one City official, "the pile just seems
to gradually erode away."

General Information

     The City Superintendent of Treatment Plant Operations estimated the
industrial input into the City's treatment facilities to be approximately
40 percent of the total  flow.  The population equivalent, based on a BOD of
0.17 Ibs BOD/cap/day, is calculated at 76,000.  The overall treatment plant
design capacity is rated at 6.0 MGD with an average flow of 5.5 MGD.  The
effluent is discharged directly into a very small stream that drains into
the Kaskaskia River.

     The plant effluent  often exceeds the normal stream flow in the creek.
To improve the effluent  quality, the City is currently in the midst of
                                   44

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upgrading the facility to include tertiary treatment.   After completion,
the City intends to dispose of its sludge by dewatering with a centrifuge
and stockpiling the sludge for citizens to remove.   The centrifuge is
scheduled to come on line shortly after January 1,  1976.

     The combined quantity of primary and secondary activitated sludge
generated today totals approximately 33,000 gallons/day at 4.3 percent
solids  (i.e., 5.9 dry tons/day).  The total sludge  leaving the plant
after digestion averages 15,000 gallons/day at 3.8  percent solids
(i.e., 2.4 dry tons/day or 880 dry tons/year).  This represents a 60
percent reduction in total solids generated.  This  is an extremely high
reduction in solids content as digestion typically  results in only a 35
to 40 percent reduction in solids.  It can be explained by the somewhat
unique nature of the industrial contributors  (i.e., slaughterhouse
waste, brewery plant, hospital, and a paper box manufacturer).  Based on
the type of treatment provided, a more reasonable estimate as to the
total solids disposed annually in the City of Belleville should be 1,000
dry tons/year, or approximately .14 Ibs/cap/day.

Sewage Sludge Composition

     Table 1 presents data on the metals content of the liquid sludge.
Samples were taken from one of the two large  secondary digesters on
January 14, 1974 and analyzed for a comprehensive list of heavy metals.
As displayed, the sludge is fairly low in all metals.  This is probably
due to the fact that the industrial contributors are not major heavy
metal polluters. One possible exception is a  relatively large enamelling
plant.  However, no specific data as to the amount or characteristics of
the industrial waste from this plant were available.

Transport System

     Liquid Sludge - The City currently liquid hauls half of  its  sludge
and has been doing so for the past five or six years.   The  decision  to
air dry or liquid haul is solely predicated upon the availability of a
readily accessible field, weather conditions, season of the year,  and
the haul distance to the site.  In general the City liquid  hauls  its
sludge at 3.8 percent solids 10 to 12 weeks out of the  year.   The
transport vehicles consist of two 2,000 gallon  tank trucks.   One  was
purchased in 1971 at a cost of  $9,000 and  the other is  a  1966 vehicle
purchased at a cost of $6,000.

     It was reported that on days that sludge is hauled an  average of 20
loads of liquid sludge are removed from the plant.  Two drivers  and two
vehicles are used essentially  full time during  the periods  when  sludge
is liquid hauled  (i.e.,  early  spring  and  late fall).   The average haul
distance is approximately  six miles one way with an  average round trip
driving time of 20 minutes.  The  vehicles  take  approximately 10  minutes
to load and 15 minutes to  unload.  They  are not equipped  with a  pump,
spreading "T" or any other device to  aid spreading or  distribution
capability.  The City's  two  large anaerobic digesters  are used for
storage  (i.e.,  1.7 million gallon combined capacity).

                                   45

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      Air Dried - The only transport system involved in handling the  air
 dried sludge is a 1966, 1 1/2 ton Ford dump truck with a three cubic yard
 body purchased at a cost of $2,800.  There is no significant haul  time
 involved, as the vehicle is loaded and then only travels several hundred
 feet before it offloads.

      The air drying beds collectively encompass an area of 2.75 acres of
 actual drying surface and include an additional 2.25 acres of miscellaneous
 area (i.e., roadways, green area, etc.).   Each drying bed holds a  maximum
 of 100,000 gallons of sludge at 4 percent solids (i.e., 15 dry tons  of
 solids or about one weeks worth of sludge) .  Each of the 11 individual
 drying beds are covered at least three times each year.  The land  was pur-
 chased in 1942 at a value of approximately $40/acre.  No information was
 obtained relative to the actual cost of constructing the air drying  beds.

 Landspreading System

      Liquid Sludge - The liquid sludge is applied by gravity flow  directly
 from the rear of the truck.   The City has experimented with pumps  and hoses
 but found it easier and more appealing to the driver to simply let the sludge
 drain out onto the ground.   Each 2,000 gallon load covers an area  of 2500
 to 3000 square feet which results in an application rate of five to  six
 dry tons per acre (i.e., 1000 feet long by 2 1/2 to 3 feet wide)-  No problems
 of odors or flies were noted, even though the sludge is not always turned
 under immediately after application.   The farmer usually turns the sludge
 into the soil at no cost to the City after the field has been fully  covered.

      The City has been and  is currently hauling most of its liquid sludge
 to corn and soybean fields.   Applications are only made after the  field
 is cropped or before the spring planting.   There have been several overtures
 to the  City to haul its sludge to an abandoned strip mined area northeast
 of the  City.   However,  because of the excessive cost and haul distance, no
 further progress has been made in the area.

 Cost

      The City currently employs 22 fulltime employees at its main  treat-
 ment plant.   The total  operating budget for 1974 amounted to $325,549.  The
 salaries and  wages accounted for over 65  percent of the annual operating
 cost.

      The City is currently disposing of its sludge at an average cost of
 $29  per ton of dry solids.   The air drying operation is the more costly
 of the  two systems (i.e., air drying and  liquid haul)  because of the added
 cost of dewatering and  the labor intensive cleaning operation to remove
 the  sludge from the drying beds.   It is estimated that the air drying
 system  (excluding the capital and maintenance cost of the drying beds) cost
 the  city $34  per ton of dry  solids disposed.   The liquid haul and  spread
operation appears to be the  least costly  of the two systems, accounting
for only $24  per dry ton of  solids disposed.   A more detailed cost break-
down of  the capital  and operating costs for each option follows.

                                    46

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                 COST FOR DISPOSAL dF AIR DRIED SLUDGE

Annual Capital Cost

    Vehicle Depreciation                                    0
    Equipment Depreciation                                  0

         Total Annual Capital Cost                                       0

Annual Operating Cost

     Personnel              Hourly Rate   % Time Worked   Cost

          Equipment Operator    $5.60          20        $2,330
          Laborer                4.77          20         1,980
          STP Operator           5.40          11         1,240
          Foreman                6.25           0.8         100
                                                         $7,630

     Fringe Benefits at 25 percent                       $1,910

     Vehicle Maintenance and Operation

          Repairs                                        $1,420
          Fuel, Oil, and Insurance                          950
                                                         $2,370

     Utilities and Other

          Electricity                                    $  100
          Pumps, Motors and Misc. Equipment                 210
          Supplies  (chemical polymers)                    3,960
          Maintenance on Beds                               300
                                                         $4,570

TOTAL ANNUAL OPERATING COST                                         $16,480

TOTAL ANNUAL CAPITAL AND OPERATING COST                             $16,480

10% CONTINGENCY FACTOR1                                             $  1,650

TOTAL ANNUAL COST                                                   $17,130

	Total Annual Cost	  =  $17,130       =  $34 per  dry  ton
Total Sludge Hauled Annually    500  dry tons
     1 A 10 percent contingency  factor  is  added  to  cover  such items  as
administrative overhead.
                                   47

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                  COST FOR DISPOSAL OF LIQUID SLUDGE

Annual Capital Cost

     Vehicle Depreciation \                           $2,550
          1969 Ford: Cost,  $6,000
          1971 Ford: Cost,  $9,000

          Total Annual Capital Cost                             $ 2,550

Annual Operating Cost

     Personnel          Hourly Rate    % Time Worked    Cost

          Truck driver      $5.25           36         $3,930
          Superintendent     6.25            0.5          650

     Fringe Benefits at 25 percent                     $1,150

     Vehicle Maintenance and Operation

          Repairs                                      $1,420
          Gasoline, Oil, and Insurance                    950
                                                       $2,370

     Utilities and Other

           Electrical Power                            $  100
           Pumps, Motors and Misc. Equipment              210

TOTAL ANNUAL OPERATING COST                                     $ 8,310

TOTAL ANNUAL CAPITAL AND OPERATING COST                         $10,960

10% CONTINGENCY FACTOR 2                                        $ 1,100

TOTAL ANNUAL COST                                               $12,060

	Total Annual Cost	 = $12,060	 = $24 per dry ton
Total Sludge Hauled Annually   500 dry tons
     1   Vehicles were depreciated over 8 years at 8% interest which amounts
to a depreciation charge of $14.14 per $1000 per month.

     2  A 10% contingency factor is added to cover such items as administrative
overhead.
                                   48

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                                Table I

                             Sludge Sample*
            January 14, 1974 - Compiled by Peabody Company
pH -
Total solids -
Volatile solids -
Kjeldahl N -
Ammonia  (NH ) -
Organic N -
NO  -
Total N -
SO  -
Cl -
Br -
Fl -
Hardness -
Acidity -
Alkalinity -
COD -
Ca -
Mg -
Na -
Phosphorous -
K -
Al -
Cu -
Ni -
Mn
Fe -
Zn -
Cd -
Cr -
Pb -
Hg
        7.2
        5.58%
        2.64%
        7.7%
        2.9%
        4.8%
         0%
        7.7%
       0 ppm
     8,600 ppm
       54 ppm
       52 ppm
896,060 pppm as CaCo3
 16,880 ppm as CaCO-j
324,190 ppm as CaC03
400,140 ppm
 20,660 ppm
  7,490 ppm
  3,570 ppm
  6,990 ppm
  2,220 ppm
  5,380 ppm
    290 ppm
    270 ppm
    900 ppm
 33,510 ppm
  1,300 ppm
   10.7 ppm
    2.5 ppm
  1,340 ppm
    3.0 ppm
*0n a dry weight basis
                                 49

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                         BETHLEHEM,  PENNSYLVANIA


      Bethlehem,  Pennsylvania is located on the eastern border of the State
 approximately 60 miles north of Philadelphia.  The City wastewater
 treatment plant  utilizes anaerobic  digestion and  serves a population of
 100,000.   Sewage solids from the plant are transported in both the liquid
 and  vacuum filtered form to either  farmland or to a  sanitary landfill.

 Person Contacted

      Mr.  William H.  Grim
      Superintendent of Wastewater Treatment
      Department  of  Public Works
      10 East  Church Street
      Bethlehem,  Pennsylvania  18018
      Telephone:   (215)  865-7168

 Site Description
                                                                 s
      Over the past  seven years of landspreading,  approximately 1500 acres
 of farmland east of the City have received sludge.   However, no records
 were kept showing which land had received  sludge, nor the quantities applied.

 General Information

      The  wastewater treatment plant was constructed  in 1952 and has a
 design capacity  of  12.5 MGD.   The present  average daily flow is 12.0 MGD.
 Industry  contributes about 40 percent  of this flow.  The primary industrial
 contributors  are a  textile mill,  a  hospital, three metal plating plants, a
 dextrose  manufacturer,  and several  commercial laundries.  Wastes from the
 dextrose  plant and  commercial laundries cause some problems in the operation
 of the plant  (from  grease and high  solids  content in their wastes). although
 these  are not serious.   Two of the  three metal platers pretreat their wastes.

     After being anaerobically digested the City's sewage sludge is hauled
 directly  to land as  a  liquid at 4.5 percent solids or vacuum filtered to
 20 to  25  percent solids and hauled  by  dump truck  to  the City's landfill or
 to farmland.   The total dry weight  of  sludge leaving the plant in 1974 was
 600 dry tons.  Of this,  140 dry tons were  applied as a liquid and 460 dry
 tons were dumped  and spread as vacuum  filtered sludge.

 Sewage  Sludge  Composition

     No sludge analysis  was available.

Transport System

     The vacuum  filtered  sludge  is  generally hauled  to a sanitary landfill
five miles from  the plant.  On occasion, however, it is hauled to farmland
if there  is a  site available.  All  liquid  sludge  is  applied to farmland.

                                  50

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The average round trip distance to the landspreading site is nine miles
while it is 10 miles round trip distance to the sanitary landfill. The
average round trip travel time to both sites is 30 minutes.  The
apparatus for loading the trucks consists of a belt conveyor from the
vacuum filters to the dump truck and a gravity flow stand pipe for the
liquid sludge.

Landspreading System

     Liquid Sludge - Liquid sludge is transported and applied to farmland
by a 2,000 gallon tank truck.  The truck is equipped with a "T" distribution
pipe for unloading by gravity flow while being driven across the field.
The average time for unloading the truck is 9 minutes.  Because no
records are kept of the acreage receiving sludge nor the frequency of
application, it is not possible to determine the application rate.  At
the time of the visit, farmers were not eager to receive sludge because
of a recent Pennsylvania State University study which pointed out
potential problems with sewage sludge due to heavy metals.

     Vacuum Filtered - Most of the vacuum filtered sludge was hauled to
the sanitary landfill.  However, when farmland is available, it is normally
dumped in a corner of the field for the farmer to distribute with his
manure spreader.  If crops are not on the fields, the sludge is dumped in
piles across the field for the farmer to spread with a blade.

Cost

     Based on actual operating information provided by the City, the 1974
cost for liquid sludge disposal was $47 per dry ton and for vacuum filtered
sludge was $120 per dry ton.  With the vacuum filtered sludge, the cost of
dewatering accounts for nearly $110 per dry ton.  The major reasons for high
dewatering cost are that repairs on the older vacuum filters cost about
$25,000 and labor to operate them costs over $16,000.  A more detailed cost
analysis is presented on the following pages.
                                  51

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                  COST FOR DISPOSAL OF LIQUID SLUDGE

Annual Capital Cost

     Vehicle Depreciation                              $1,650
          1969 Ford tank truck,  Cost: $9,460
     Stationary Equipment Depreciation                      0
     Building Depreciation                                  0

          Total Annual Capital Cost                              $1,650

Annual Operating Cost

     Personnel           Hourly Rate    % Time Worked   Cost

          Truck driver       $3.31            15       $1,030
          Auto Mechanic       5.00             1          100
          Chief Operator      6.38             6          830
          Superintendent      7.93             3          500

          Total Personnel Cost                         $2,460

     Fringe Benefits at 44 percent                     $1,080

     Vehicle Maintenance and Operation:

          Repairs                                      $  390
          Fuel and Oil                                    230
          Insurance                                       130

     Utilities                                              0

TOTAL ANNUAL OPERATING COST                                      $4,290

TOTAL ANNUAL CAPITAL AND OPERATING COST                          $5,940

10% CONTINGENCY FACTOR2                                          $  590

TOTAL ANNUAL COST                                                $6,530

	Total Annual Cost	 = $6,530	 = $47/dry ton
Total Sludge Hauled Annually   140 dry tons
     1  Vehicles were depreciated over 8 years at 8% interest which
amounts to a depreciation charge of $14.14 per $1000 per month.

     2  A 10% contingency factor is added to cover such items as administrative
overhead.
                                   52

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              COST FOR DISPOSAL OF -VACUUM FILTERED  SLUDGE


Annual Capital Cost

     Vehicle Depreciation 1                            $    0
     Equipment Depreciation 2                              0
     Building Depreciation                                 0

               Total Annual Capital  Cost                         $     0

Annual Operating Cost

     Personnel           Hourly Rate    % Time Worked  Cost

          2 Vacuum
          Filter Operators   $4.08           41        $  8,560
          Clean up            3.31           15          1,030
          Truck Driver        3.31           30          2,060
          Auto Mechanic       5.00            3            290
          Chief Operator      6.38           19          2,490
          Superintendent      7.93            2            330

          Total Personnel Cost                         $14,760

     Fringe Benefits at 44 percent                      6,500

     Vehicle Maintenance and Operation

          Repairs                                         550
          Fuel and Oil                                    240
          Insurance                                       260

     Vacuum Filter Maintenance

          Chemicals                                     1,360
          Parts and  repair                             25,000
      1 Vehicles were  depreciated over 8 years at  8%  interest which  amounts
 to  a  depreciation charge  of  $14.14 per $1000 per  month.

      2   Stationary equipment was depreciated over 10 years  at  8%  interest which
  amounts to a depreciation charge of $12.13 per $1000 per month.

      3   Buildings were depreciated over  20 years  at  8% interest which
 amounts  to a depreciation charge of  $8.36 per  $1000  per month.
                                    53

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     Utilities                                         1,600

TOTAL ANNUAL OPERATING COST                                      $50,270

TOTAL ANNUAL CAPITAL AND OPERATING COST                          $50,270

10% CONTINGENCY FACTOR 4                                         $ 5,030

TOTAL ANNUAL COST                                                $55,300

	Total Annual Cost     = $55,300     = $120/dry ton
Total Sludge Hauled Annually   460 dry ton
     4     A 10% contingency factor is added to cover such items as
administrative overhead.
                                   54

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                       COLLINSVILLE,  ILLINOIS
     The City  of Collinsville, Illinois is a community of approximately
20,000 population located 10 miles east of St.  Louis,  Missouri.   The
City's wastewater treatment facility consists of a tertiary system with
post chlorination of the effluent and secondary aerobic digestion of the
sewage solids.  Digested sludge is stored in ponds awaiting application
to farmland.

Person Contacted

     Mr. Francis Vacca, Superintendent
     Wastewater Control Plant
     300 Simpson Street
     Collinsville, Illinois 62234
     Telephone:   (618) 344-0304

Site Description

     The City hauls liquid sludge to several different site locations.
Each disposal site varies in size and cropping practice and is selected
from a list of farmers requesting the addition of sludge to their land.
The farmers who now receive sludge are located adjacent to the wastewater
treatment facility.  There are ten farm plots totaling 199 acres, that
range in size from 8 to 31 acre's of available land.  In the future, the
superintendent plans to haul to any farmer located within a five mile
haul distance.

General Information

     The City superintendent of treatment plant operations estimated the
industrial input into the City's treatment facilities to be about one
percent of the total flow.  The overall treatment plant design capacity
is rated at 3.5 mgd with an average daily flow of only 1.2 mgd. The
effluent is discharged directly into a small stream - Canteen Creek -
which drains into the Mississippi River.  In 1972, the City constructed
its present facility incorporating tertiary treatment with aerobic
digestion.

     The combined quantities of primary and secondary activated  sludge
totals 540 dry tons per year.  The sludge is pumped to one of several
holding ponds prior to being transported and applied by a Big Wheels
tank truck.

Sewage Sludge Composition

     Table 1 presents data relative to the metals  content of Collinsville
sludge.  As displayed, the sludge is fairly low  in metals except iron
(i.e., 27,148 ppm).  This is probably due to infiltration into the
collection system, street runoff, and ground runoff from the rocky hills
around the area.

                                  55

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Transport System

     The City currently liquid hauls all of its digested sludge.   The
limitation of when one can haul has been greatly minimized due to the
purchase of a Big Wheels vehicle.  The Big Wheels vehicle, which con-
sists of a 1600 gallon tank on a CMC chassis is equipped with high
flotation terra-tires that virtually eliminate the traditional problems
of ruts, compacted soil, and crop damage.  The vehicle was purchased in
1975 at a cost of $35,000.

     It was reported that an average of 13 loads per month of liquid
sludge at 8 to 10 percent solids is hauled from the plant.  The average
haul distance is one mile and the load and unload time are both five
minutes.  The truck is loaded by utilizing a pump on the truck to pump
the sludge from the two ponds which hold 960,000 gallons.  With this
short haul distance, as many as 15 loads per day can be handled by the
truck.  As a result, all the sludge produced at the plant can be hauled
in an average of one day per month.  On haul days, two drivers are
utilized, one working 80 percent of the time and the other 20 percent.

Landspreading System

     The City has experimented with various systems and private contract-
ors but has found it easier and more appealing to utilize the Big Wheels.
This truck is equipped with a pressurized rear spray system with each
load covering an area of 25 to 30 feet by 1000 feet. Sludge is applied
at a rate of about one dry ton per acre.  In some cases two or three
applications will be made per year.  The sludge is turned under by the
farmer within 24 hours of application.  There have not been any problems
with odors or flies.  To date, sludge has been applied to wheat and
soybean fields.

Cost

     The City currently has seven fulltime employees at the treatment
facility.  The total operating budget for the sewage collection system
and the treatment plant is $270,000.

     It is difficult to develop realistic costs on this system because
the new treatment plant has only been in operation a short period, and
they do not haul all the sludge that is currently being produced.  The
lagoons which are used to store the digested sludge are new and there-
fore can be utilized as a holding area until they reach maximum capacity.
During this storage process the liquid from the lagoon is recirculated
to the front of the plant.  Furthermore, a portion of the water evapor-
ates.  Thus when the sludge is pumped from the lagoon to  the vehicle,
the percentage of solids has increased from 3 to 4 percent to approximately
8 to 10 percent.
                                  56

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     Because the City is stockpiling a portion of its sludge/ any cost
analysis based on only the amount actually being hauled would be very
misleading.  Therefore this analysis is based on the City hauling their
entire sludge production of 540 dry tons (which the City will be hauling
once the lagoons are filled).

     Based on information provided by the City of Collinsville and
vehicle maintenance and operational costs provided by the truck manu-
facturers, the City's cost for disposing of its total annual sludge
quantity (excluding the costs of the lagoons) is $34 per dry ton.
                                  57

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                 COST FOR DISPOSAL OF LIQUID SLUDGE

Annual Capital Cost

     Vehicle Depreciation *                                 $ 5,940
          1975, CMC - Big Wheels, cost:  $35,000

               Total Annual Capital Cost                           $ 5,940

Annual Operating Cost

     Personnel           Hourly Rate    % Time Worked          Cost

          Driver
          Driver"s
             Assistant
          Chemist
          Secretary
          Superintendent
$5.31
5.31
5.41
2.50
5.70

3 percent
and Operation:




40 $ 4,420
10 1,100
2 240
2 100
5 590
$ 6,450
$ 2,130

$ 1,170
140
320
600
          Gasoline
          Oil
          Insurance
          Maintenance
                                                            $ 2,230

TOTAL ANNUAL OPERATING COST                                        $10,810

TOTAL ANNUAL CAPITAL AND OPERATING COST                            $16,710

10% CONTINGENCY FACTOR 2                                           $ 1,680

TOTAL ANNUAL COST                                                  $18,430

	Total Annual Cost	  = $18,430	= $34 per dry ton
Total Sludge Hauled Annually    540 dry tons
     1 Vehicles were depreciated over 8 years at 8% interest which
amounts to a depreciation charge of $14.14 per $1000 per month.

     2 A 10% contingency factor is added to cover such items as
administrative overhead.
                                   58

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                              TABLE  1

                          SLUDGE ANALYSIS *
     Barium                                           479    ppm
     Cadmium                                           16    ppm
     Chromium,  Trivalent                               64    ppm
     Copper                                           260    ppm
     Lead                                             345    ppm
     Manganese                                         701    ppm
     Nickel                                            58    ppm
     Silver                                            34    ppm
     Zinc                                            1,585    ppm
     Chromium                                            0.06 ppm
     Mercury                                             0.06 ppm
     Iron                                           27,149    ppm
     Ammonia as N                                    9,173    ppm
     Organic Nitrogen                               24,606    ppm
     Boron                                            157    ppm
     Alkalinity as CaC03                            93,240    ppm
     pH                                                  7.86
     Volatile Solids                                     6.49 %
     Total Phosphorus as P                          14,896    ppm
     Total Solids in Sample                             17.94 %
     Volatile Solids in Sample                           6.49 %
* On a dry weight basis
                                   59

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                           DANVILLE, VIRGINIA
     The  City  of Danville, Virginia  is  a  community of approximately
 49,000  population located,50 miles north  of Greensboro, North Carolina.
 The  City's  Southside  Wastewater Pollution Control Facility consists of a
 secondary extended aeration process  incorporating post-chlorination of
 the  effluent.   The settleable  solids are  thickened and placed in storage
 tanks,  without stabilization,  until  the liquid  sludge can be applied on
 nearby  farmland.

 Person  Contacted

     Mr.  Jerry W.  Harris
     Assistant Chief  of Operations
     Water,  Gas and Electric Departments
     460  Williamson Road
     Danville,  Virginia  24541
     Telephone:   (804)  799-5153

 Site Description

     The  City  is presently utilizing 19 farms having a collective acreage
 of approximately 4,200  acres.   Each  site  varies in size and cropping
 practice  and is selected  from  a list of farmers requesting the addition
 of raw  sludge  to their  land.   Any farmer  within a haul distance of 9
 miles who desires to  have sludge placed on his  land may place a request
 with the  City  and if  conditions are  favorable  (i.e., weather, season of
 the  year, site  accessibility,  etc.),  the  sewage treatment plant will
 make one  to  four applications  of sludge to his  land per year.  It is the
 policy  of the  treatment plant  to spread sludge  only on land which is not
 directly  used  to grow crops for human consumption.  However, sludge has
 been applied to pasture land,  fodder crops and  tobacco.

 General Information

     The  City  estimated the industrial  input to the Southside Wastewater
 Pollution Control  Facility to  be approximately  40 percent of the total
 flow.   Industrial  contribution to the sewage treatment plant is mainly
 from Goodyear Tire Company (the largest Goodyear plant in the U.S.),
 Porter-Disston  tool,  Dan  River Mills (largest textile plant in the U.S.),
 and  Corning  Glass  Company.  Both Porter-Disston and Corning Glass pretreat
 their effluent.   The  population equivalent, based on 0.17 Ibs BOD/cap/day
 is 63,870.   The  total amount of sludge  leaving  the Wastewater treatment
 plant was 1490  dry tons in 1974 or 0.17 Ibs/cap/day. This per capita
 figure  is low because of  the high industrial flow which is very low in
 solids.  The overall  treatment plant design capacity is rated at 15 MGD
with an average daily flow of  10.5 MGD.   The treatment plant is an
 activated sludge plant  with two parallel  aeration basins.  Sludge from
 the clarifiers  is  piped to thickeners and stored in two unusable digesters
until it is  trucked to  various  farms  in the area.

                                   60

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     The secondary treatment facility was put on line in 1969.   In 1973,
construction began on a new secondary plant across the river from the
existing plant, with a design capacity of 24 MGD.   The new plant, which
is scheduled for completion in 1976, will handle primarily the  Dan River
Mills'  (textile) influent.  The mill is presently discharging 60 percent
of its waste in the Dan River.   Following the completion of the new
wastewater facility, sludge from the existing plant will be piped across
the river to the new plant where it will be heat dried and hauled in
dump trucks to farmland.  This will be disced under upon application by
the individual land owner.

     There does not seem to be any problem with public acceptability of
the sludge spreading practice.  In fact, many farmers in Virginia and
North Carolina within a radius of approximately 9 miles of the  treatment
plant have received and would like to continue receiving sludge.  However,
at the time of the visit, sludge was only being hauled to Virginia
because the North Carolina State Public Health Service decided to
further evaluate the effects of the raw sludge before approving further
landspreading.

Sewage Sludge Composition

     Analyses have been performed on the sludge by a private consulting
firm  (see Table 1).

Transport System

     Currently, the City hauls all of the sludge to nearby farmland at
2.7 to  3.6 percent solids every week of the year.  The City has been
hauling liquid sludge for the past 13 years.  The transport vehicles
consist of 1974 deisel-tandem wheel Auto Car  (4,600 gallons), purchased
at a cost of $39,500 and a 1974 diesel-tandem wheel Auto Car (4,600
gallons), purchased at a cost of $45,000.

     It was reported that an average of 14 loads per day is hauled from
the plant.  Two drivers and two vehicles are used essentially full time
during  the periods when sludge is hauled.  The  trucks  are  equipped with
pumps and spreader devices and require  approximately 10 minutes  to load
and 10 minutes to unload.

Landspreading System

     The liquid sludge  is spread by a pressure  system  from the  side  of
the vehicles.  Each load  covers a different  area  depending on  the vehicle:
1974 Auto Car,  1-1/2" discharge pipe which gives  a  35  ft.  spread of
sludge, 1,800 gallons per acre, 500 Ibs per  acre  dry weight at 3.5
percent solids; and, 1974 Auto Car, using  a  1-1/4"  pipe sprays  approxi-
mately  50 ft.,  1,800 gallons  per acre,  500  Ibs  per  acre dry weight  at
                                   61

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3.5 percent solids.  During wet weather periods when fields are un-
accessible, the city spreads liquid sludge from the sides of the paved
runway located at Danville's City Airport.  The City makes four appli-
cations to each site.  No problems of odors or flies were  noted, even
though the sludge is not always turned under immediately after appli-
cation.

Cost

     Based on actual operating information provided by the City of
Danville, current cost for disposing of the City's sludge is $22 per dry
ton.  A more detailed cost analysis follows.
                                   62

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                  COST FOR DISPOSAL OF  LIQUID  SLUDGE

Annual Capital Cost

     Vehicle Depreciation3-
          1974 Auto Car Cost:   $39,500                       $  6,700
          1974 Auto Car Cost:   $45,000                       $  7,640
     Equipment Depreciation
          Standing Pipe                                          20

          Total Annual Capital Cost                                   $14,360

Annual Operating Cost

     Personnel                Hourly Rate   % Time Worked  Cost

          Driver                 $3.25             60         $4,060
          Driver                  3.25             60         4,060
          Lab Technician          4.11              5            430
          Chief Operator          5.76             10         1,200
                                                            $9,750

     Fringe Benefits at 28 percent                          $2,730

     Vehicle Maintenance and Operation
          (estimated)                                       $2,400

     Utilities

          Electricity at $100 per month                     $1,200

TOTAL ANNUAL OPERATING COST                                           $16,080

TOTAL ANNUAL CAPITAL AND OPERATING COST                               $30,440

10% CONTINGENCY FACTOR3                                               $ 3,040

TOTAL ANNUAL COST                                                     $33,480

	Total Annual Cost	 = $33,480	 = $22 per dry ton
Total Sludge Hauled Annually   1,490 dry tons
     1  Vehicles were depreciated over 8 years at 8% interest which
amounts to a depreciation charge of $14.14 per $1000 per month.

     2  Stationary equipment was depreciated over 10 years at 8% interest
which amounts to a depreciation charge of $12.13 per $1000 per month.

     3  A 10% contingency factor is added to cover such items as
administrative overhead.
                                   63

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                                 Table  I
                        Danville, Virginia Sludge

                       SCS Engineers, Consultant*
           Parameter                          ppM



           Cadmium                            __
                                              ^ «7 • /
                                             247.0


           Nickel
                                             178.0



                                             350.0
*Analysis made on A.A.

Dry Weight Basis
                                64

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                          FT.  PIERCE,  FLORIDA
     Ft. Pierce, Florida, is a community of approximately 32,000 popu-
lation located 70 miles due north of West Palm Beach.   The City's
wastewater treatment facility consists of a "standard"  secondary acti-
vated sludge plant and a package secondary activated sludge plant (i.e.,
a small individual plant).   Both plants stabilize the settleable solids
by aerobic digestion, followed by post-chlorination of the effluent.
Ultimately, the effluent is discharged into the Indian River,  while the
sludge is utilized on farmland.

Person Contacted

     Mr. Richard Kasch
     Wastewater Treatment Plant
     Seaway Drive
     Ft. Pierce, Florida  33450
     Telephone:  (305)  464-1996

Site Description

     Of the total sludge generated, 95 percent is hauled in the liquid
state to farmland owned by the Future Farmers of America (FFA) of Ft.
Pierce, with the remainder being transported to other farms in the area.
The FFA farmland, consisting of some 600 acres of available land for
disposal of sludge, is fenced off into small parcels for the purpose of
ongoing research.  The terrain is flat—less than 1 percent slope—with
a sandy-loam soil.

     To obtain the City's remaining sludge, interested citizens contact
the plant superintendent.  When conditions are such that the driver is
unable to traverse the FFA land  (e.g., heavy rainfall periods, early
spring, etc.), the City will haul sludge to other sites which are
predominately used for grazing.

General Information

     The City's superintendent of wastewater operations estimated the
industrial input  (from such contributors as citrus and tomato processors,
a commercial laundry, and the seasonal tourist trade establishments)
into the City's main  facility and package plant to be approximately
10 percent of the total  flow.  The package plant receives  30  percent
of the total influent and is equipped with a contact stabilization
chamber, an aerobic digester, and a pre-chlorination tank.  Although
the average daily flow of the total system is  3.5 MGD, the overall
treatment plant design capacity  is rated at 5.0 MGD.  The  population
served by the system  is  32,000 with a population equivalent of  33,400
based on a BOD of 0.17 Ibs/cap/day.
                                  65

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     Although the average amount of sludge hauled from the main plant
and the package plant on a daily basis equals approximately 10,000
gallons at 2.4 percent solids, seasonal variations are large.  Sludge
hauled from the plants in 1974-75 amounted to approximately 390 dry tons
per year, or 0.07 Ibs/cap/day.  For the type of treatment employed, this
figure is very low.  This is apparently due to operational problems
experienced by the plants.

Sewage Sludge Composition

     No sludge analysis was available.

Transport System

     Ft. Pierce hauls all of its digested sludge as a liquid at less
than 3 percent solids and usually does so 52 weeks of the year.  Trans-
porting sludge by tank truck has taken place for the last 1 1/2 years,
and the present transport vehicles include two 2,200-gallon tank trucks.
One truck, a 1971 International, was purchased in 1971 at a cost of
$8,790; the other vehicle, a 1974 International, was purchased at a cost
of $9,820.

     It was reported that an average of 35 loads of liquid sludge per
week are hauled from the plant by two drivers.  One driver works 90
percent of his time on sludge-hauling operations; and the other works
during the peak tourist trade season  (approximately 40 percent of the
year).  With a one-way haul distance of approximately 15 miles, the
average round-trip driving time is 50 to 60 minutes.  In addition, it
takes approximately 10 minutes to load the sludge and 10 minutes to
unload it at each site.

Landspreading System

     Liquid sludge is applied by gravity flow directly from a pipe at
the rear of the truck.  A spreading device is not utilized on these
trucks.  Each load covers an area of 5,000 to 6,000 square feet  (2,000
feet long x 2 1/2 to 3 feet wide).  The application rate is approxi-
mately 2.4 dry tons of solids per acre per application.  In instances in
which two to three applications are made, as much as 5 to 7 1/2 tons of
dry solids may be applied.  Even though the sludge is never turned under
after application, no problems of odors or flies have been noted.

Cost

     Based on actual operating information provided by the City of Ft.
Pierce, the current cost for disposing of its sludge is $81 per ton of
dry solids.  This high figure is primarily the result of a long haul
distance and the $5,000 fee charged each year by the FFA for sludge
disposal on its land.  A more detailed cost analysis follows.
                                  66

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                COST FOR DISPOSAL OF LIQUID  SLUDGE

Annual Capital Cost

     Vehicle Depreciation                             $  3,160
          1971 International,  Cost:   $8,790
          1974 International,  Cost:   $9,800

          Total Annual Capital Cost                              $  3,160

Annual Operating Cost
Personnel
Driver
Driver
Lab Tech-
nician
Superin-
tendent
Overtime

Fringe Benefits at
Vehicle Operation
Gasoline
Oil
Insurance
Truck License
Hourly Rate %
$3.18
$3.18

$4.67

$6.72


38 percent
and Maintenance:



fees
Maintenance and Repair
Time Worked Cost
90 5,950
40 2,650

5 490

5 700
230
$10,020
$ 3,810

1,980
70
690
10
4,370
                                                     $ 5,120

TOTAL ANNUAL OPERATING COST            -                          $20,950

TOTAL ANNUAL CAPITAL AND OPERATING COST                          $24,110

10%  CONTINGENCY FACTOR2                                         $ 2,411

COST FOR DISPOSAL ON FFA LAND                                    $ 5,000

TOTAL ANNUAL COST                                                $31,520

	Total Annual Cost	 = $31,520	= $81 per dry ton
Total Sludge Hauled Annually   390 dry tons
     1    Vehicles were depreciated over 8 years at 8% interest which
amounts to a depreciation charge of $14.14 per $1000 per month.

     2    A 10% contingency factor is added to cover such  items as
administrative overhead.

                                    67

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                     FRONT ROYAL, VIRGINIA
      This community of approximately 9500 population is located  60 miles
 southwest of Washington, D.C.  The City's sewage treatment facility
 consists of a primary plant incorporating post-chlorination of the
 effluent and anaerobic digestion of the sewage solids followed by air
 drying and/or direct application of liquid sludge to farmland adjacent
 to the treatment plant.

 Person Contacted

      Mr. C.H. Williams
      Superintendent of Water and Wastewater
      Box 1560
      Front Royal, Virginia  22630
      Telephone:   (703) 635-3552

 Site Description

      Sewage sludge is applied primarily on 15 acres  of City owne"d land.
 It is also applied to a large nearby farm when cropping conditions dd
 not permit application to the City properly.

 General Information

      The treatment plant was constructed in 1950 and consists of primary
 treatment with a 1.5 MGD design capacity.   The average daily flow is 1.2
 MGD.   Presently,  the plant treats only domestic waste.   (There is a
 large FMC plant  in town but it does not discharge into the municipal
 system.)   The City of Front Royal is reviewing plans for a new plant to
 be constructed in 1977 adjacent to the old plant.  It intends to continue
 its landspreading operation and expects to purchase  a new  tank truck.

      The sludge  is anaerobically digested  and thickened with enzymes and
 lime.   The resulting solids content is reported to be approximately 15
 percent.   The City generates approximately 18,000 gallons  of sludge per
 month,  (i.e.  10-12 dry tons per month).

 Sewage  Sludge Composition

      No sludge analysis was available.

 Transport System

      The  City transports its sludge in a 1947  International  truck
 equipped  with a 1500 gallon tank.   The vehicle was purchased in
 1956  at a cost of  $300.   The haul  distance from the  loading area to
the primary disposal site is approximately 1/4 of  a  mile.   Because the
vehicle is not operated on public  roads, it is not maintained regularly,
thereby reducing transportation costs.

                                   68

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     Total loading and unloading time for the truck is 30 minutes.   A
truck driver is borrowed from the sanitation department on an average
of one day per month for this operation.   He applies approximately
12 loads of sludge (approximately 18,000  gallons)  to the landspreading
site.  This is the total amount of sludge generated on a monthly basis.
Sludge is stored in the digester between  applications.

Landspreading System

     Liquid Sludge - The sludge tank truck is equipped with a perforated
"T" pipe at the rear of the tank to distribute the liquid sludge by
gravity.  In the field, the technique used to empty the load is to drive
in low gear (10-15 mph) starting in the middle of the field making a
continuous circle and proceeding until empty.  The driver continues with
this technique until the entire field is  covered.   A local farmer
harvests hay from the 15 acre City property and discs the sludge under
about once every three years.  From two cuttings in 1974, the City field
yielded 1,500 bales which is reported to exceed the yield of nonsludged
fields in the area.  No water, soil or plant monitoring system is
provided at this site.

     Drying Beds

     Because of the proximity of the liquid disposal sites, the drying
beds are only used when the digester needs repair.  When the drying beds
are used, the dried sludge is hauled away by local citizens.

Costs

     Based on actual operating information provided by  the City of Front
Royal, the City is currently disposing of its liquid  sludge at a cost  of
$5 per dry ton.  A more detailed cost analysis  follows.
                                   69

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$3.73
4.32
5.78
5
0.5
0.5
$ 390
40
60
                COST FOR DISPOSAL OF LIQUID SLUDGE

Annual Capital Cost

     Vehicle Depreciation 1                                         0
       1947, International Truck, Cost:  $ 300

          Total Annual Capital Cost

Annual Operating Cost

     Personnel               Hourly Rate    % Time Worked       Cost

          Driver
          Foreman
          Superintendent
                                                                $ 490

     Fringe Benefits at 25 percent

     Vehicle Operation and Maintenance

          Gasoline                                              $  50
          Oil                                                      10
          Antifreeze                                               10
                                                                   70
     Utilities

          Electricity                                         10

TOTAL ANNUAL OPERATING COST                                           $ 690

TOTAL ANNUAL OPERATING AND CAPITAL COST                               $ 690

10 PERCENT CONTINGENCY FACTOR                                         $  70

TOTAL ANNUAL COST                                                     $ 760

    Total Annual Cost	 = $760	 = $5 per dry ton
Total Sludge Hauled Annually  140 dry tons
     1  Vehicles were depreciated over 8 years at 8% interest which
amounts to a depreciation charge of $14.14 per $1,000 per month.

     2  A 10% contingency factor is added to cover such items as
administrative overhead.
                                  70

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                        GRAND RAPIDS,  MICHIGAN
     Grand Rapids is a fairly large metropolitan area  with a wastewater
treatment plant serving a population of 250,000.  The  plant currently
vacuum filters approximately 65 percent of its sludge, most of which is
incinerated.  The remaining 35 percent is air dried and disposed of on
nearby farmland. Both raw and waste activated sludge are processed at the
facility.
Persons Contacted:

     Mr. Qtto Green
     Superintendent of Wastewater
       Treatment
     City of Grand Rapids
     Wastewater Treatment Plant
     1300 Market Avenue, S. W.
     Grand Rapids, Michigan  49502
     Telephone:   (616)  456-3206

Site Description
Mr. Jim Biener
Director of the Department of
  Environmental Protection
City of Grand Rapids
Wastewater Treatment Plant
1300 Market Avenue, S. W.
Grand Rapids, Michigan  49502
Telephone:   (616) 456-3206
     All sludge from the vacuum filters or air drying beds that is not
incinerated is hauled to one location and used either as a top dressing
on completed portions of a sanitary landfill or spread on nearby farmland.
The farm to which sludge is hauled is located about 10 miles from the
treatment plant.  The principal crop grown on the sludge amended soil is
corn.

General Information

     The wastewater treatment plant was built in 1929, and upgraded in
1954 to include two primary and four secondary digesters.  Vacuum filters
and an incinerator were added in 1959.  The design capacity of the plant is
44 MGD with a current average daily flow of 47 MGD.  Construction is
presently underway to increase the overall capacity of the plant to 90
MGD. Plans call for the inclusion of the Zimpro heat treatment process and a
general upgrading of the present incinerator.

     It is estimated that 55 percent of the plant flow is from industrial
or commercial establishments.  There are 190 industries that contribute
approximately 50,000 gal/day of a possibly toxic discharge.  Grand Rapids
also has one of the highest concentrations of metal plating industries  in
the U.S., although all of these plants are required to pretreat.

     The plant is presently producing sludge at the rate of approximately
22 dry tons per day  (i.e., 0.18 Ibs/cap/day).
                                 71

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Sewage Sludge Composition

     Table 1 presents data on the metals content of the sludge from the
drying beds and the vacuum filters.  The solids content of the sludge
from the air drying beds is -about 25 percent and that from the vacuum
filters is 22 percent.

Transport System

     The drying beds are only operated 12-15 weeks during the summer and
handle about 30 percent of the sludge generated in the plant.  The
operation consists of one man who fills the beds for an estimated 480
hrs/year at $5 per hour and one man who cleans the beds at an estimated
500 hrs/year at $5.58 per hour.  The front end loader used in cleaning the
beds is rented at a rate of $6.22/hr.  This includes the cost of fuel and
maintenance for the 500 hrs/year it is in use.  The sludge is loaded into
one of several 20 yd3 containers owned and maintained by a contractor who
hauls the sludge away at a cost of $54.40 per load.  Out of this, the
contractor pays the farmer $12/load to dump the sludge in a pile on the
farmer's land.

     Most of the vacuum filtered sludge is incinerated.  However, during
times when the incinerator is not in operation, some digested vacuum
filtered sludge is loaded by conveyor into one of the contractor's
20 yd3 containers for transfer to the farmer's land.  In FY 1975, 6
percent of the vacuum filtered sludge, or approximately 320 dry tons were
handled in this manner.

Landspreading System

     Since the farmer also operates a large sanitary landfill, he has
considerable heavy equipment at his disposal for applying and incorporating
the sludge into the soil.  After the sludge has been stockpiled for several
months, he utilizes a large scraper to spread the sludge at a depth of
about two feet.  This is then plowed into the soil with the aid of a
crawler tractor.  The farmer feels that this heavy earth-moving equipment
is the only way to efficiently apply dried sludge to the land.  During the
1974-1975 year, the farmer applied all of the sludge which he received
onto a 23 acre plot of land.  This amounted to over 143 dry tons per acre.
To date, only one application has been made to any one field.  However,
at this heavy application rate the farmer has noticed some spots where
nothing will grow within the first year after he has applied the sludge.
These areas amounted to about 5 percent of the total field.  Although
the farmer did not have accurate records on crop yield, he stated that
yields did increase significantly on the sludge amended soil the second
year after it was applied.
                                  72

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Cost

     Based on actual operating information provided by the City of Grand
Rapids, the City is presently disposing of sludge from its drying beds
at $15 per dry ton and from its vacuum filters at $54 per dry ton. On
the vacuum filter operation, half of the cost of the building was
applied to the filter operation and depreciated at 8 percent over 20 years.
The vacuum filters were depreciated at 8 percent over 10 years.  Because
only 6.5 percent of the vacuum filtered sludge is landspread (the remainder
is incinerated), only this portion of all vacuum filtering costs are
included in this analysis.  With the drying bed operation, dewatering
accounted for $7 per dry ton while for the vacuum filter operation
dewatering accounted for $48 per dry ton.  A more detailed cost break-
down of capital and operating costs for each system follows.  No reliable
cost information was obtained regarding the sludge incineration operation.
                                   73

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                 COST FOR DISPOSAL OP AIR DRIED SLUDGE

Annual Capital Cost

     Vehicle Depreciation                                       0
     Equipment Depreciation                                     0

          Total Annual Capital Cost                                       0

Annual Operating Cost

     Personnel                Hourly Rate    % Time Worked   Cost

          Laborer                $5.00            23        $2,390
          Front End Loader       $5.58            24        $2,790
          Administration
            Trucking                                        $3,200
            Sludge Conditioning                             $  360
            Sludge Storage & Pumping                        $4,200
                                                           $12,940

     Fringe Benefits at 40 percent                         $ 5,"180

     Vehicle Maintenance and Operation

          Loader Rental                                    $ 3,110
          Contract Hauling                                 $15,380
          Pumping and Storage                              $ 4,200

TOTAL ANNUAL OPERATING COST                                         $40,810

TOTAL ANNUAL CAPITAL AND OPERATING COST                             $40,810

10% CONTINGENCY FACTOR 1                                            $ 4,080

TOTAL ANNUAL COST                                                   $44,890

	Total Annual Cost     = $44,890	 = $15 per dry ton
Total Sludge Hauled Annually   2930 dry tons
     1   A 10% contingency factor is added to cover such items as
administrative overhead.
                                  74

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                COST FOR DISPOSAL OF VACUUM FILTERED SLUDGE

Annual Capital Cost

     Vehicle Depreciation                                   0
     Equipment Depreciation
          1960 Vacuum filter, cost -$81,600               770
     Building Depreciation ^
          1960 Building, cost - $262,600              $ 1,710

          Total Annual Capital Cost                               $ 2,480

Annual Operating Cost

     Personnel         Hourly Rate    % Time Worked     Cost

          Operators      $ 6.01           19          $ 2,370
          Supervision                                     360
                                                      $ 2,730

     Fringe Benefits at 40 percent                    $ 1,090

     Vehicle Maintenance and Operation

          Contract Hauling                            $ 1,710

     Vacuum Filter Maintenance and Operation

          Chemicals                                   $ 3,280
          Repairs                                     $ 3,820

     Utilities

          Electricity                                  $   5  60

TOTAL ANNUAL OPERATING  COST                                        $13,190

TOTAL ANNUAL CAPITAL AND OPERATING  COST                           $15,670
      1     Stationary equipment was depreciated over 10 years at 8%
 interest which amounts to a depreciation charge of $12.13 per $1,000 per
 month.

      2     Buildings were depreciated over 20 years at 8% interest which
 amounts to a depreciation charge of $8.36 per $1,000 per month.
                                   75

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10% CONTINGENCY FACTOR 3                                          $ 1,570

TOTAL ANNUAL COST                                                 $17,340

	Total Annual Cost	 = $17,340	 = $54 per dry ton
Total Sludge Hauled Annually   320 dry tons
     3    A 10% contingency factor is added to cover such items as
administrative overhead.
                                   76

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                               Table I
                       METAL ANALYSIS - SLUDGE*
                             Drying Beds
Filter cake
1975
Jan . Chrome
"
Feb.


Jan. Copper

Feb.


Jan. Nickel

Feb.


Jan. Zinc

Feb.


Jan. Iron
•
Feb.



6300 ppm
4100 "
5000
4700
5100
8500 ppm
5800 "
8000
6300
7400
3600 ppm
2300 "
2300
2400
2900
10100 ppm
7600 "
9000
8800
9000
21000 ppm
16000 "
17000
25000
19000

3200 ppm
1600 "
2300
2700
-2600
3800 ppm
2200 "
3500
2900
3200
3600 ppm
800 "
1300
1500
1700
5700 ppm
3400 "
4700
5600
4800
36000 ppm
24000 "
30000
28000
22000
*  All analyses are reported on a dry weight basis.
                                  77

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                            GREELEY,  COLORADO

      The City of Greeley,  Colorado is a small  community of approximately
 55,000 population,  located approximately 50 miles northeast of Denver.
 The City's sewage treatment operation consists of two  separate wastewater
 treatment systems separated by the Cache La Poudre River.  The North
 plant, which treats approximately two-thirds of  the  influent, is an
 activated sludge plant.  The south plant uses  trickling filters.  The
 sludge produced by both  plants is mixed just prior to  digestion.
 Depending upon weather conditions and land availability, it is either
 liquid hauled to farm land or air dried.   The  effluent from both plants
 receives chlorination before release to the river.

 Persons Contacted

      Mr.  Wyatt Sellers                      Mr. Gary  Harkey
      Plant Superintendent                    Water and Sewer Department
      Greeley Wastewater  Treatment Plant     City of Greeley
      Greeley,  Colorado                      Greeley,  Colorado

 Site Description

      Liquid Sludge  Disposal - The City hauls liquid  sludge to farm sites
 located approximately 4  to 7 miles from the treatment  plant.  Selection
 of  the sites was on a first come,  first served basis.  At the time of
 the visit (October  1975),  the City was hauling sludge  to six sites and
 had a backlog of additional farmers  requesting sludge.  City policy
 limited sludge application at any given site to  10 dry tons/acre.

      Air  Dried Sludge -  The City's air dried sludge  is stored in an area
 adjacent  to the sand  drying beds  that is  accessible  to the public.  No
 regulations or other  controls are  placed  upon  the use  or amount of
 sludge an individual  may take.

 General Information

      The  industrial contribution  to  the treatment plant is equal to
 approximately  2 percent  of the total flow.  Beatrice Foods  (dairy) and
 the Greeley Meat Company are the  two major dischargers to the City's
 treatment plant.  The population  equivalent, based on  a BOD of 0.17 Ibs.
 BOD/cap/day, is calculated to be  approximately 58,000.  The overall
 treatment plant design capacity is rated  at 8  MGD.   Currently, the
 average flow is 6.5 MGD.

     The combined quantity of primary and secondary  activated sludge
generated totals approximately 39,000 gallons/day @  2% solids (i.e., 3.3
dry tons/day).  The concentration  of solids in the sludge is somewhat
lower than  expected due  to  antiquated equipment and  operational problems.
                                  78

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Transport System

     Liquid Sludge - In 1974, the City liquid hauled approximately 60
percent of its sludge.  The decision to air dry or liquid haul is
dependent on the weather, the crop growing season and site availability.
In general, the City is able to haul liquid sludge 6 to 8 months of the
year. During the remaining months, the sludge is stored in the digesters
or dried on sand beds.

     The transport vehicle is an 8 year old 5,500 gallon tractor trailer
which the City purchased for $9,200 in 1974.  The tank is filled by
gravity flow from the digesters.  Since it takes approximately 40
minutes to load the vehicle  (150 gpm), 20 minutes to drive the 10 miles
round trip, and 20 minutes to offload, the vehicle is limited to an
average of six or seven trips a day.  The City has recently installed a
pump on the gravity line, which cuts filling time to 15 minutes.

     Air Dried - Since most of the air dried sludge is removed by
citizens, the City rarely has to haul away any sludge.  In 1974, the
beds were filled 5 times for a total of 500 dry tons.  During 1975 the
decision was made to haul liquid sludge to the agricultural lands as
much as possible.  Therefore, the sand drying beds were utilized only
once during this period.

Landspreading System

     Liquid Sludge - The liquid sludge is applied by gravity flow
directly from the rear of the truck through a spreading T.  The farm to
which sludge was being applied at the time of the site visit had received
approximately 152 loads of sludge averaging 3% solids  (105 dry tons).
Sludge was placed upon approximately 45 acres of the farm at a rate of
2.3 dry tons/acre.  Additional sludge will be hauled to the site weather
permitting.  As a general rule, an average of 2 dry tons are applied per
acre.  However, up to 10 dry tons have been applied per acre.   (Precise
records of the quantity, moisture content and application rates were
only recently started).

Cost

     The City currently  employs 11  full-time employees  and 7  seasonal
employees at the treatment plant.  The total operating  budget  for  1975
amounted to $242,662.  Salaries and  wages accounted  for over  58 percent
of the annual operating  cost.

     Based on the information provided by the City of Greeley,  it
appears that the City is currently  disposing of  its  liquid sludge at a
cost of $22 per dry ton  while the cost for  dewatering sludge  on sand
drying beds is $8 per dry  ton.  A more detailed breakdown follows.
                                  79

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                  COST FOR DISPOSAL OF LIQUID SLUDGE

Annual Capital Cost

Annual Operating Cost
Personnel
Driver
Supervisor
Hourly Rate
$3.73
$6.90
% Time Worked Cost
90 $6,980
10 1,440
     Total Personnel Cost                              $8,420

     Fringe Benefits at 17 percent                     $1,430

     Vehicle Maintenance and Operation

          Fuel                                         $  560
          Tractor-Trailer Rental                       $3,600

TOTAL ANNUAL OPERATING COST                                      $ljl,010

TOTAL ANNUAL CAPITAL AND OPERATING COST                          $14,010

10% CONTINGENCY FACTOR1                                          $ 1,400

TOTAL ANNUAL COST                                                $15,410

	Total Annual Cost	 = $15,410	 = $22 per dry ton
Total Sludge Hauled Annually   700 dry tons
     1  A 10% contingency factor was included to cover such items as
administrative overhead.
                                   80

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                 COST FOR DISPOSAL OF AIR DRIED SLUDGE


Annual Capital Cost                                              $    °

Annual Operating Cost
Personnel
Operator
Laborer
Supervisor
Hourly Rate
$4.23
3.04
7.16
% Time Worked
15
12
1
Cost
$1,350
730
140
     Total Personnel1 Cost                              $2,220

     Fringe Benefits at 17 percent                     $  380

     Vehicle Maintenance and Operation
           (Front end loader with blade)

          Fuel                                         $  360
          Rental                                       $  560

TOTAL ANNUAL OPERATING COST                                      $3,520

TOTAL ANNUAL CAPITAL AND OPERATING COST                          $3,520

10% CONTINGENCY FACTOR1                                          $  350

TOTAL ANNUAL COST                                                $3,870

	Total Annual  Cost	 =  $3,870	 = $8 per dry ton
Total Sludge Hauled Annually   500 dry tons
      1     A 10%  contingency factor  is  added  to  cover  such  items  as
 administrative overhead.
                                    81

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              BEAVERCREEK TOWNSHIP. GREENE COUNTY, OHIO

      Beavercreek  Township,  Ohio  is a predominately rural area between
 Xenia and  Dayton,  Ohio.   The wastewater  treatment facility, which is
 operated by  Greene County,  provides tertiary  treatment consisting of an
 activated  sludge  process, secondary clarification, and microstrainers.
 Sodium aluminate  is added to remove phosphorus and improve settling
 characteristics.   The  plant effluent receives post-chlorination before
 being discharged  into  Beaver Creek, 'which drains into the Little Miami
 River.  All  sludge receives secondary  aerobic digestion before being
 applied to farmland.

 Person Contacted

      Mr. Charles  Lenhart
      Superintendent of Wastewater Treatment
      Greene  Co. Department  of  Sanitary Engineering
      651 Dayton-Xenia  Road
      Xenia,  Ohio   43585
      Telephone:   (513) 426-4540

 Site  Description

      At the  time  of the site visit, the  County was hauling liquid sludge
 to about 14  different  site  locations.  These  sites ranged in size from
 13 to over 700 acres.  The largest site was a  sod farm, while corn,
 alfalfa, and beans were the major crops  grown on the other farms. The
 County hauled sludge and  applied it to the fields at no charge to the
 farmers.   However,  they preferred not  to haul over five miles. Shortly
 after the  beginning of 1976, the County  modified its operation and now
 principally  hauls  sludge  to the  sod farm which is located four miles
 from  the treatment plant.

 General Information

      The County estimates the  industrial input into the Beavercreek
 Plant to be  about  1 or 2 percent of the  total flow.  The major indus-
 trial  sources are  a meat processing plant which has pretreatment, custom
 laboratories, and  an aircraft  fuel systems manufacturing plant.  The
 treatment  plant serves a population of 23,000 and a population equivalent
 of 20,306  based on suspended solids, and a population equivalent of
 25,103 based on BOD load.   The plant was built in 1965 and expanded in
 1972.. The design  capacity  is  2.5 MGD  with a  design BOD population
 equivalent of 25,000.  The  average daily flow is 2.618 MGD.  The treat-
ment plant with all equipment  on line  will normally operate at 98 percent
 efficiency in the  reduction of BOD and 95 percent reduction for suspended
 solids.

     All sludge leaving the plant receives secondary aerobic digestion.
This amounts to an  average  of  345,500  gallons per month at 2.2 percent
                                   82

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solids, or about 380 dry tons per year.   This represents a solids
loading of 0.09 Ibs/cap/day.  While this figure tends to be high, it can
be explained by the type of treatment process in use at the plant.

     When the plant was expanded in 1972, two vertical basket centrifuges
were installed but never operated.  Plans are to place them into operation
to thicken waste activated sludge from 1 percent to 5 percent before it
goes to the digesters.

Sewage Sludge Composition

     Table 1 shows data which was provided by the County on the composition
of the sludge.

Transport System

     The County owns a 6,000 gallon tank trailer with a diesel tractor
for hauling sludge.  When sludge is hauled, an average of 5 to 6 loads
are hauled per day.  The trailer is equipped with a 6-inch valve and
splash plate.  Before the County started hauling exclusively to the sod
farm, sludge was applied by driving across the field or from the side of
a road with the aid of hoses.  In driving across open fields, the splash
plate was used to unload the truck by gravity flow.  This would provide a
12 to 14 foot wide coverage.  When fields were too wet or crops were on the
fields, the truck would be parked on a roadside adjacent to the field
and varying lengths of six-inch collapsable hose were unloaded from the
truck and carried out into the field.  The sludge would then be allowed
to run down crop rows or to spread out on hay land which often resulted
in heavy but uneven applications.  The average time  for a 10-mile round
trip haul is 25 minutes to unload with the splash plate or 35 minutes to
unload with the hose. The trailer was purchased in 1972 and the tractor
in 1975 for a total cost of $36,461.

     In addition to the trailer tank truck,  the county  also owns a  1966
1,500 gallon tanker which is loaned to  farmers  if  they  wish to haul
their own sludge.  Less than 5 percent of  the sludge is hauled by this
truck.

Landspreading System

     The liquid sludge  is applied by gravity flow directly from the rear
of the truck or by hose.  A common application  rate  is  two 6,000
gallons/acre or one dry ton per  acre.   Depending  upon the crop grown,
one or more applications will be  made to a field  each year with a
maximum of about nine.  One farmer who  was interviewed claims a 330
percent increase in hay yield for land  receiving  heavy sludge applications
as compared to  that which  did not receive any sludge.  On alfalfa  fields,
sludge will be  applied immediately after each cutting and possibly after
the alfalfa has started to  grow  back.   On row cropped land,  sludge is
applied both while  the  field is  dormant, as well as when crops are on
the field, by  running sludge down the  rows by gravity flow.

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     After the County decided to haul all the sludge to the sod farm,
the fanner purchased 4-inch irrigation pipe, a farm tractor p.t.o.
driven sludge pump, and a big gun nozzle.  With this system, the 6,000
gallon tanker is unloaded f^rom the road in 15 minutes.  With a 1.4 inch
nozzle and 85 psi. , each load will apply 0.2 inches of sludge to 1.13
acres, i.e., a radius of 125 feet.  Cost of spray irrigation equipment
was $7,000.

Cost

     Based on information provided by the County, the cost for sludge
disposal from the  Beavercreek Township Plant is $40 per dry ton. This
cost may be slightly higher than for other plants because of the small-
scale operation, low percentage of solids in the sludge and the high
depreciation costs on the new transport vehicle.  A detailed cost
bre akdown fo1lows.
                                 84

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                COST FOR DISPOSAL OF LIQUID SLUDGE

Annual Capital Cost

     Vehicle Depreciation1                             $  6,190
       1975, International Tank/Trailer,
       Cost:  $36,500
     Stationary Equipment Depreciation2                    140
       (Heater and Standing Pipe)

          Total Annual Capital Cost                                  $  6,330

Annual Operating Cost

     Personnel           Hourly Rate    % Time Worked    Cost

          Driver            $5.00            38         $3,960
          Superintendent    $8.00             6            990
                                                        $4,950

     Fringe Benefits at 20 percent                      $  990

     Vehicle Operation and Maintenance

          Operation Costs                               $1,290
          Maintenance and Repair Costs                  $  160
                                                        $1,450

TOTAL ANNUAL OPERATING COST                                          $ 7,390

TOTAL ANNUAL CAPITAL AND OPERATING COST                              $13,720

10 PERCENT CONTINGENCY FACTOR3                                       $ 1,370

TOTAL ANNUAL COST                                                    $15,090

	Total Annual Cost	  =      $15,090	 =  $40 per  dry ton
Total Sludge Hauled Annually         380  dry tons
      1  Vehicles  were  depreciated over  8 years at 8%  interest which
 amounts to  a  depreciation charge of  $14.14 per $1000  per month.

      2  Equipment was  depreciated over  10 years  at  8% interest which
 amounts to  a  depreciation charge of  $12.13 per $1,000 per  month.

      3  A 10% contingency factor is  added to  cover  such items as
 administrative overhead.
                                    85

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                      Table 1
   Analytical Data Generated by the Beavercreek
Wastewater Treatment Plant Lab on Composite Samples
   of Secondary Digested Sludge — Sample Period
            August 1 - August 19, 1975
Total Solids - Dry          2.2%

     Volatile               54%

Suspended Solids            17,290 mg/1

     Volatile                9,520 mg/1

     PH                   -6.9

     BOD                     2 , 160

     Nitrogen                 3.25%

     Phosphorus               7.32%
       as
     Potassium                1.58%
       as K20

     Cd                        9 mg/1

     Cr                       39 mg/1

     Cu                      568 mg/1

     Pb                      134 mg/1

     Hg                        0 mg/1

     Ni                       28 mg/1

     Zn                    1,734 mg/1
                     86

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                          LaCROSSE,  WISCONSIN


     The City of LaCrosse, Wisconsin,  has a population of approximately
65,000 and is located 120 miles northwest of Madison.   The City's
wastewater treatment plant consists  of a secondary activated sludge
system which incorporates post-chlorination of the effluent and anaerobic
digestion of the settleable solids.   Following digestion, the solids are
vacuum filtered and/or applied directly to nearby farmland.  The effluent
is discharged directly into the Mississippi River.

Person Contacted

     Mr. Grant Haugstad
     Superintendent of LaCrosse
       Wastewater Treatment Plant
     LaCrosse, Wisconsin
     Telephone:  (608) 784-4882

Site Description

     Presently, the City hauls liquid and vacuum-filtered sludge to
several small farms that vary in size and cropping practice.  Any citizen
with land within a radius of 10 miles and east of the Mississippi River
who desires to receive sludge may place a request with the Superintendent
of the LaCrosse Wastewater Treatment Plant.  If conditions are favorable
(e.g., groundwater table, soil types, runoff, weather, site accessability,
etc.), the wastewater treatment plant will apply sludge to the property
one or more times during the year.

General Information

     Industrial contribution to the wastewater treatment facility is
approximately 50 percent of the total flow.  Based on a BOD of 0.17 Ibs.
per cap per day, the population equivalent is approximately 140,000.
The design capacity of the system is 22 MGD with an average daily flow
of 13.9 MGD.

     The combined quantity of primary, secondary-clarified and activated
sludge is approximately 190,000 gallons per day at 2.5 percent solids
prior to digestion.  Following digestion this equals  0.54  Ibs. of
solids per capita per day  (i.e., 4360 dry  tons per year)   which  is  a
high generation rate.  This high solids  loading can be partially explained
by the local brewery which discharges a high  solids effluent.

     LaCrosse  started disposing of  its  liquid sludge  on  agricultural
land in 1973.  The quantity of sludge increased  significantly with the
addition of an activated  sludge system.   In  1974,  a dewatering system
consisting of  two vacuum  filters was  incorporated into the treatment
plant.  Following the installation  of the  filters, the City purchased
their first dry sludge spreader and began applying digested sludge in
cake form to nearby agricultural  land.

                                   87

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      Full-scale  operation of present land utilization practices began in
 April,  1975,  with the acquisition of a second  cake  spreader and a
 second  liquid tank truck.  The  City has ordered  a third cake spreader
 (12-yard capacity)  to be in service by March 1976.

 Sewage  Sludge Composition

      Table  1  presents data relative to the metal content of LaCrosse
 sludge.   Analyzed at the University of Wisconsin for several elements,
 the  sludge  was shown to be fairly low in metals, except Fe  (21,000 ppm) .
 This particular  element has a higher concentration  mainly because the
 following industries discharge  their wastes without any form of pre-
 treatment:  a manufacturer of  heating and air conditioning parts, a
 lamination  plant,  a machine shop, a brewery, and several bottling firms
 and  laundromats.

 Transport System

      Liquid Sludge -  The City  liquid hauls about 15 percent of its
 sludge.   The  decision to liquid haul or to vacuum filter the sludge is
 solely  determined by the storage capacity of the digesters and the type
 of sludge desired by the farmer.   In general,  the City liquid hauls an
 average of  10 to 15 loads of sludge per day at 3 percent solids 40 to 45
 weeks of the  year.   The vehicle used in transporting liquid sludge is a
 3,500 gallon  tank truck purchased in 1975 at a cos't of $14,000.  Two
 drivers are used full time to provide a two shift operation during
 periods when  sludge is liquid hauled (i.e., early Spring and late Fall).
 The  average haul distance is approximately eight miles one way, with an
 average round-trip driying time of 40 minutes.   The time required to
 load as well  as  unload the truck is approximately seven minutes.

      Vacuum Filtered Sludge- The transport system used in hauling the
 filtered sludge  includes a 1974 seven yard Ford  Knight Spreader, purchased
 at a cost of  $10,900,  and a 1975, 12-yard International Knight Spreader,
 purchased at  a costof $19,000.   Hauling time  for the dry sludge is the
 same as  the wet,  with a 30 minute loading time for  the seven yard truck
 and  a 45 minute  loading time for the 12 yard truck.  An unloading time
 of 10 minutes is  required for both trucks.

      The vacuum  filters were purchased in 1972 and  1974 at a cost of
 $120,000.   They  are operated 16 hours a day, 5 days a week with a total
 of 8 operators for  the two shift operation.  The solids content after
 dewatering  is 25 percent.

 Landspreading System

      Liquid Sludge  - The liquid sludge is applied by gravity flow from
 the  distribution "T" located at the rear of the  vehicle.  Each load
 covers an area of 15,000 square feet (i.e., 1500 feet long by 10 feet
wide).   It  is  calculated that approximately 1.3  dry tons are applied per
acre per application.   No recent problems with odors or flies were
noted, even though  the sludge is  not always turned  under immediately

                                   88

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after being applied.  The farmer usually turns the sludge into the soil
after the field has been fully covered.

     The City has been and is currently hauling most of its sludge to
soybean, oats, rye, and corn fields.  Applications are only made after
the field is cropped or before the spring planting.  With the high cost
of inorganic fertilizers, this has made the use of organic fertilizers
(i.e., sludge) even more popular with local farmers in the community.

     Vacuum Filtered Sludge - The dried filter cake is applied by a
Knight Spreader dump truck.  This vehicle is equipped with a chain
conveyer which moves the dry cake to the rear of the truck where a
grinding mechanism breaks the cake into fine particles and evenly
distributes the material.

Cost

     The City currently has 30 employees at the wastewater treatment
plant. Half of the personnel are involved in some  aspect of disposal of
digested sewage sludge.

     Based on actual operating information provided by the City of
LaCrosse, the 1974  cost  for liquid  sludge disposal was $49 per dry ton
while for vacuum—filtered  sludge, the  cost amounted to $81 per dry ton.
For the vacuum-filtered  sludge, the cost of dewatering accounts for  $68
per dry ton. The  major cost items in the dewatering process are personnel
costs of approximately $110,000 and chemical costs of approximately
$70,000.  A more  detailed  cost analysis of each system is presented  on
the following pages.
                                  89

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                   COST  FOR DISPOSAL OF LIQUID SLUDGE

 Annual Capital  Cost

      Vehicle  Depreciation ^                          $ 2,380
           1975-Ford Tank  Truck,  cost-$14,000
      Equipment  Depreciation 2                              10
           Standing Pipe,  cost-$50

           Total Annual  Capital Cost                                   $ 2,390

 Annual Operating Cost

      Personnel            Hourly  Rate    % Time Worked   Cost

           2 Truck Drivers    $4.60       100         $19,140
           Chemist             4.95         3             310
           Chemist Assistant   4.25         3             260
           Superintendent       6.90         3             430
                                                      $20,140

      Fringe Benefits at 38 percent                    $ 7,650

      Vehicle  Operation  and Maintenance

           Parts                                      $   600
           Fuel  and Oil                                    940
           Insurance, Fees and Tags                         90

 TOTAL ANNUAL  OPERATING  COST                                          $29,420

 TOTAL ANNUAL  CAPITAL AND  OPERATING COST                               $31,810

 10% CONTINGENCY FACTOR  3                                              $ 3,180

 TOTAL ANNUAL  COST                                                    $34,990

	Total Annual  Cost	 =  $34,990	 = $49 per dry ton
Total  Sludge  Hauled Annually     710 dry tons
     1  Vehicles were depreciated over 8 years at 8% interest which amounts
to a depreciation charge of $14.14 per $1000 per month.

     2  Stationary equipment was depreciated over 10 years at 8% interest
which amounts to a depreciation charge of 12.13 per $1000 per month.

     3  A 10% contingency factor is added to cover such items as
administrative overhead.
                                      90

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              COST FOR DISPOSAL OF VACUUM FILTERED  SLUDGE

Annual Capital Cost

     Vehicle Depreciation ^                          $  5,090
          1974 Ford Knight Spreader,  cost-$10,900
          1975 Int. Knight Spreader,  cost-$19,000
     Equipment Depreciation                          $17,470
          2 vacuum filters, cost-$120,000

          Total Annual Capital Cost                                 $  22,560

Annual Operating Cost

     Personnel           Hourly Rate  % Time Worked    Cost

          8 vacuum filter
            operators        $4.60        100        $76,540
          2 Truck drivers     4.60        100         19,140
          Chemist             4.95         17          1,730
          Chemist Assistant   4.25         17          1,480
          Superintendent      6.90         17          2,410
                                                    $101,300

     Fringe Benefits at 38 .percent                  $ 38,500

     Vehicle Operation and Maintenance

          Parts                                     $  3,400
          Fuel and Oil                                 4,950
          Insurance, Fees and Tags                       200

     Vacuum Filter Maintenance

          Chemicals                                 $ 70,000
          Parts  and repairs                           15,000

     Utilities                                      $ 11,920

TOTAL ANNUAL OPERATING COST                                         $245,270

TOTAL ANNUAL CAPITAL AND  OPERATING COST                            $267,830
      1  Vehicles were depreciated over 8 years at 8% interest which
 amounts to a depreciation charge of $14.14 per $1000 per month.

      2  Stationary equipment was depreciated over 10 years at 8% interest
 which amounts to a depreciation charge of $12.13 per $1000 per month.
                                      91

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10% CONTINGENCY FACTOR 3                                            $ 26,780

TOTAL ANNUAL COST                                                   $294,610

	Total Annual Cost	 = $294,610	= $81/dry ton
Total Sludge Hauled Annually    3650 dry tons
     3   A 10% contingency factor is added to cover such items as
administrative overhead.
                                      92

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                               Table 1
                      LaCrosse Sludge Analysis*
                            January, 1974
                   N                        2.06%
                   P                        2.79%
                   K                        3.53%
                   Ca                      20.6 %
                   Mg                       0.60%
                   Na                       0.70%
                   Al                      264 ppm
                   Fe                   21,100 ppm
                   B                       159 ppm
                   Cu                      343 ppm
                   Zn                      580 ppm
                   Mn                      309 ppm
                   Cr                      314 ppm
                   Ba                      342 ppm
                   Sr                      121 ppm
                   Dry Matter              26 %
*  Chemical laboratory results are all on a Dry Matter basis,
                                 93

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                         LAWRENCEVILLE,  ILLINOIS


      The  community of  Lawrenceville,  Illinois, is located 70 miles due
 north of  Terra  Haute,  Indiana  and  has a population of 5,800.  The
 community's  wastewater treatment plant  is a primary treatment-clarifi-
 cation system whose effluent is discharged into the Wabash River.  The
 settleable solids  are  pumped into  a  sludge holding tank for storage.  At
 the  end of each week,  the  sludge is  pumped to a vacuum filter for
 dewatering prior to being  hauled to  agricultural land.

 Persons Contacted

      Mr.  Bill Goff
      Superintendent of the Wastewater
        Treatment Plant
      Lawrenceville,  Illinois   62439
                                   w
      Mr.  Francis Perkins
      Mayor of Lawrenceville
      Lawrenceville,  Illinois   62439
      Telephone:   (618)  943-4115

 Site Description

      Lawrenceville transports  its  vacuum-filtered sludge to a 100-acre
 farm that is located approximately 8 miles west of the wastewater treatment
 plant.  The  soil on the site is a  clay-loam.  The farmer plans to plant
 the  sludge treated land in soybeans  and corn in 1976.  In the past
 farmers have observed  improved crop  response on sludge treated soils.
 However,  no yield  measurements were  available.

 General Information

      The  wastewater treatment  facility  was constructed in 1961 with a design
 capacity  of 2.0  MGD.   The  average  daily flow through the treatment plant
 is only 0.5 MGD  due mainly to  the  fact  that the various industries
 within  the area  presently  treat their own wastes.  The reasons for the
 unusual handling of industrial wastes are the stringent regulatory
 controls  within  the state  of Illinois concerning industrial discharges
 and  the fact that  Texaco,  whose refinery contributes 95 percent of the
 total industrial activity  in Lawrenceville, is trying to generate a
 favorable working  relationship with  the town by treating its own wastes.

      Settleable  solids  from the clarifier are pumped into a sludge
 holding tank without any stabilization.  Based on records from the
wastewater treatment plant, the total amount of sludge filtered in 1975
was approximately  70 dry tons, which amount to 0.06 Ibs of solids per
capita per day.  This  figure is about half of what it should be for the
type of treatment  employed and can only be explained by the fact that
there is no industrial  contribution.

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     The undigested sludge that comes off the vacuum filter at 18
percent solids is hauled to the utilization site.

Sewage Sludge Composition

     No sludge analysis was available.

Transport System

     The community utilizes a Ford 2-ton dump truck to dispose of its
dewatered sludge.  This vehicle was purchased new in 1970 at a cost of
$5,200.

     The sludge is hauled once every week (usually c.i Friday) by a
laborer who also operates the vacuum filter.  The complete process is an
8-hour job, with loading of the truck taking 5 hours.  The site where
the sludge is currently disposed of is located 8 miles from the plant.
It requires a total of 30 minutes of driving and an additional 5 minutes
to unload.

Landspreading System

     The City stockpiles the sludge on the land and it is the farmer's
responsibility to spread and turn the sludge under as soon as possible
after application in order to prevent problems from odors.

Cost

     The City currently employs 4 full-time personnel at its treatment
plant.  The operating budget for Fiscal Year 1975 was $44,850.87, of
which salaries accounted for 40 percent.

     Based on actual operating information provided by the City  of
Lawrenceville, the City is currently disposing of its vacuum filter
sludge at a cost of $190 per ton.  Of this, the cost of dewatering
accounts for approximately $120 per dry ton.  Dewatering costs are high
due to the low quantity of sludge produced  and the high chemical costs.
A more detailed cost breakdown of the capital and operating  costs is
presented on the following page.
                                   95

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              COST FOR DISPOSAL OF VACUUM FILTERED SLUDGE

 Annual Capital Cost

     Vehicle  Depreciation                            $  880
           1970 Ford Dump Truck, cost-$5,200
     Stationary Equipment Depreciation                    0
     Building Depreciation                                0
           Total Annual Capital Cost                              $   880

 Annual Operating Cost

     Personnel         Hourly Rate   % Time Worked     Cost

           Laborer           $3.42          20         $1,420
           Superintendent     7.70           7.5        1,200
                                                     $2,620

     Fringe Benefits at 44  percent                   $  870

     Vehicle  Maintenance and Operation

           Repairs                                    $    0
           Fuel and Oil                                   30
           Insurance                                     180

     Utilities                                       $2,130

     Vacuum Filter Maintenance

           Chemicals                                  $5,430
           Parts and Repair                                0

TOTAL ANNUAL  OPERATING COST                                     $11,260

TOTAL ANNUAL  CAPITAL AND OPERATING COST                          $12,140

10% CONTINGENCY FACTOR 2                                         $ 1,210

TOTAL ANNUAL  COST                                                $13,350

	Total Annual Cost	 = $13,350      =  $190/dry ton
Total Sludge  Hauled Annually     70 Dry Tons
     1  Vehicles were depreciated over 8 years at 8 % interest which amounts
to a depreciation charge of $14.14 per $1000 per month.

     2  A 10% contingency factor is added to cover such items as
administrative overhead.

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                         LEBANON,  PENNSYLVANIA


     The City of Lebanon, Pennsylvania is a community of approximately
28,000 population which is located 70 miles northwest of Philadelphia.
The City's sewage treatment facility consists of a secondary extended
aeration plant incorporating post chlorination of the effluent and
anaerobic digestion of sewage solids, followed by direct application of
liquid sludge to local farmland.

Person Contacted

     Mr. Bob Kline
     Superintendent, Lebanon Sewage
       Treatment Plant
     Lebanon, Pennsylvania
     Telephone:  (717) 272-2841

Site Description

     Only, one land application site is used.  It is located approximately
five miles southwest of the sewage treatment plant.  The soil is Duffield/
Hagerstorm loam-limestone.

General Information

     The plant was constructed in 1962 with a design capacity of 6.5
MGD.  The average daily flow is 4.0 MGD.  The industrial input into the
City's treatment facility is estimated to be 25 percent of the total
flow, with a population equivalent of approximately 45,000.  The sludge
is anaerobically digested with a solids content of 4 percent.  It is
stored in a secondary digester until an appropriate time is selected to
apply the sludge to nearby farm land.

     The total sludge after digestion leaving the plant and applied to
farm land averages 1,055,900 gals/year at 4 percent solids  (i.e., 180
dry tons of solids per year).  This calculates to 0.035 Ibs/cap/day.
This generation rate appears to be low.  One explanation for this may be
that sludge records are kept on the number of loads each week and not
the total gallons.  Two different capacity tank trucks are used by the
wastewater treatment plant to transport liquid sewage sludge.  This
makes record keeping difficult, as it does not indicate exactly how many
loads each truck hauls.  When the plant was built, a coil vacuum  filter
was included in the total facility design as the method of dewatering.
The filter was in operation until 1966.  At that time the relative
economics of the vacuum filter operation were assessed and  it was determined
that landspreading of liquid sludge would be more  cost-effective.  The
City then began hauling liquid sludge to a  local landfill until the
State of Pennsylvania prohibited the disposal of sewage sludge  in landfills.
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      Liquid sludge is now used on agricultural lands.   This practice has
 resulted in a limited number of complaints concerning odors which were
 registered from residents near the application fields.   It is assumed
 that the complaints have resulted from applying liquid sludge near
' residences without discing the sludge under.

      Lebanon is considering upgrading its facilities in the future,
 although the method of sludge disposal is expected to remain the same.

 Sewage Sludge Composition

      No analysis of the sludge was available.

 Transport System

      Currently, all digested liquid sludge is hauled to a farm approx-
 imately five miles from the treatment plant in a 1962 International
 2,000 gallon tank truck and a 1963 Diamond "T" 1,600 gallon tank truck.
 The liquid sludge flows by gravity from the digester to the liquid tank
 trucks.  From the plant, the sludge is hauled to a 100 acre farm plot.
 The time involved in the total operation is 30 minutes round trip (i.e.,
 10 minutes to load, 15 minutes in traveling, and 5 minutes to unload the
 truck) .  The truck driver averages 600 loads per year with the tfank
 trucks; of this, the Diamond "T" hauled approximately 200 loads while
 the remaining 400 loads are hauled by the International.  The decision
 to haul on a particular day is solely based upon the availability of
 land, weather conditions, and the season of the year.  In general, the
 City hauls most of its sludge during early spring and late fall, after
 the land has been fully or partially cropped.  Corn is the principal
 crop to which sludge has been applied.

 Landspreading System

      The digested liquid sludge is applied to the land by a single pipe
 extended from the rear of each tank truck.  The driver controls the
 application of sludge by opening and closing a valve located on the rear
 of the truck.  Once the valve is open, the truck proceeds in a straight
 line in low gear (i.e., 10 to 15 mph) until the vehicle is empty.  There
 is a heavier application at the start of the operation and a much
 lighter application at the end due to the method of spreading employed.
 The driver spends 14 percent of his working year hauling sludge to the
 land disposal site.  Assuming 180 dry tons of sludge were applied per
 year to the 100 acre farm, approximately 1.8 dry tons/acre/year is
 disposed of on this land.  The sludge is not immediately turned under by
 the farmer after application.  According to the farmer, he has noticed a
 great increase in crop yields where sludge has been applied.

 Cost

      Utilizing actual operating cost information provided by the City of
 Lebanon,  it appears the City is currently disposing of its sludge at a
 cost of $28 per ton of dry solids.  A more detailed cost breakdown  follows.
                                   98

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                  COST FOR DISPOSAL OF LIQUID  SLUDGE

Annual Capital Cost

     Vehicle Depreciation 1
          1962, International, cost-in 1970-$1,300   $   220
     Stationary Equipment Depreciation 2
          Standing Pipe, cost-$500                      70

          Total Capital Cost                                       $   290

Annual Operating Cost

     Personnel      Hourly Rate    % Time Worked      Cost
Driver $4.00
Maintenance 5.02
Maintenance
Assistant 4.13
Superintendent 6.50

14
1

1
0.5

$1,160
10

10
70
$1,250
     Fringe Benefits at 20 percent                  $  250

     Vehicle Operation and Maintenance

          Repairs                                   $2,060
          Gasoline                                     430
          Oil                                           30
          Insurance and Fees                           300
                                                    $2,820

TOTAL ANNUAL OPERATING COST                                        $4,320

TOTAL ANNUAL CAPITAL AND  OPERATING COST                            $4,610

10%  CONTINGENCY FACTOR 3                  .                         $  460

TOTAL ANNUAL COST                                                  $5,070

 	Total Annual Cost	 = $5,070	 =  $28 per dry  ton
Total Sludge Hauled Annually   180 dry tons
      1  Vehicles were depreciated over 8 years  at 8%  interest which amounts
 to a depreciation charge of $14.14 per $1000 per month.

      2  Stationary equipment was depreciated over 10  years at 8% interest
 which amounts to a depreciation charge of $12.13 per  $1000 per month.

      3  A 10% contingency factor was included to cover such items as
 administrative overhead.

                                   99

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                           LITTLETON,  COLORADO
      The City of Littleton,  Colorado is a community of  approximately
 41,000 population located about 10 miles south of Denver, Colorado.  The
 sewage treatment facility consists of a trickling filter and a Purox
 package plant.   Sludges generated are anaerobically digested and dried
 on sand drying beds.   The dried sludge rs then used on  City owned lands
 or sold to the general public for $2 per cubic yard.
 Persons Contacted

      Mr.  David Godsey
      Superintendent
      Sewage Treatment Plant
      Littleton, Colorado
      Telephone:  (303)  794-4214

 Site  Description
Mr. Charlie Kerven
Assistant Superintendent
Sewage Treatment Plant
Littleton, Colorado
Telephone:  (303) 794-4214
      The  City's sand  drying bed sludge is  stockpiled  for  later use on
 City parks,  flower beds,  etc.,  or is  sold  to  the  general'public at
 $2  per  cubic yard.  There are no controls  on  the  usage of the digested
 air dried sludge on either the City or general public.

 General Information

      The  treatment plant  consists of  two parts: a primary trickling filter
 plant with a design capacity of 4.5 MGD and a secondary Purox package plant
 with a  design capacity  of 1 MGD.  The  population equivalent, based on a BOD
 of  0.17 Ibs/cap/day is  44,520.   The average daily flow is 5 MGD.  Because
 storm water  is separate,  daily flow rarely exceeds  the current design
 capacity.

      The  City reported  flow of primary and secondary  sludge at 18,000
 and  6,000 gallons per day respectively at  approximately 2 percent solids.
 Based on  these figures  a  combined sludge production was calculated to be
 2 dry tons per day  prior  to digestion.  It is assumed that the digestion
 in this case  gives  a reduction  in total solids of approximately 30
 percent.  Therefore, total sludge production  after  digestion is estimated
 to be 1.4 dry tons  per  day (510 dry tons/year) or .07 Ib/capita/day.

     The City is presently constructing a  new plant to be shared with
 another community.  This  should be on line by late  1977.

Sewage Sludge Composition

     No sludge analysis was  available.
                                  100

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Transport System

     Sludge from the sand drying beds is stockpiled and removed mainly
by private citizens.  An unknown quantity is hauled in the City's dump
trucks for use on City property.

Sand Drying Bed Operation

     The ten sand drying beds occupy an area of approximately 1.5 acres.
Each bed is emptied about four times a year.  The sludge remains on the
drying bed for approximately 8 to 10 weeks during the summer and 10 or
more during the winter.  Sludge removed from the drying beds during the
winter months is stockpiled separately so that it,may dry further before
utilization.  Cleaning the beds requires 16 man hours per bed, while
loading requires 4 to 5 man hours.

Costs

     Based on information provided by the City, the cost for disposal of
the City's air dried sludge is $13 per dry ton.  A more detailed cost
analysis is attached.
                                  101

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                  COST FOR DISPOSAL OF  AIR DRIED SLUDGE

 Annual Capital Cost

      Vehicle Depreciation                                       0
        1964 Crawler Tractor,  Cost:  $2,700
      Equipment Depreciation"                                $2,450
        Dry Beds

           Total Annual Capital Cost                                  $ 2,450

 Annual Operating Cost

      Personnel                Hourly Wage   % Time Worked   Cost

           Operator              $4.50             19        $1,850
           Operator               4.50             19         1,850
                                                            $3,700

      Fringe Benefits at 20 percent                         $  740

      Vehicle Maintenance and  Operation

           Repairs                                          $  220
           Fuel,  oil                                        $  160
                                                            $  380

      Maintenance of Beds                                   $2,200

 TOTAL ANNUAL OPERATING COST                                          $ 7,020

 TOTAL ANNUAL CAPITAL AND OPERATING COST                               $ 9,470

 10% CONTINGENCY  FACTOR3                                                  950

 REVENUE  (Sale of sludge at $2 per cubic yard)                         $ 4,000

 TOTAL ANNUAL COST                                                    $ 6,420

 	Total Annual  Cost	  = $6,420	  = $13 per dry ton
 Total Sludge Hauled Annually    510  dry tons
     1  Vehicles were depreciated over 8 years at 8% interest which amounts
to a depreciation charge of $14.14 per $1000 per month.

     2  Equipment was depreciated over 10 years at 8% interest which amounts
to a depreciation charge of $12.13 per $1000 per month.

     3  A 10% contingency factor is added to cover such items as
administrative overhead.
                                   102

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                         LOUISVILLE, KENTUCKY


     Louisville, Kentucky is located in north central Kentucky.   The
City provides primary treatment and serves a population of approximately
500,000.  The design capacity is 100-105 MGD and the average daily flow
is 90 MDG.  Between 80 and 85 percent of the collection system is combined
storm and sanitary sewers.  The maximum storm flow capacity of the plant
is 338 MGD.

Persons Contacted

     Thomas McBride
     Superintendent

     Richard Hutchelson
     Plant Manager

     Dean Taylor
     Consultant and Former Superintendent
     Morris Foreman Treatment Plant
     4522 Algonquin Parkway
     Louisville, Kentucky 40211
     Telephone: (502) 775-6481

Site Description

     The City currently uses an eleven acre landfill site.  Sewage sludge
is the only material disposed of at this landfill.

General Information

     At the time of our visit, a $66 million expansion of this £lant was
under construction and should be fully operational in early 1976.  This
expansion will provide secondary (activated sludge) treatment.  The
design capacity is 200 MGD.  In the new system, the sludge will be
vacuum filtered, oxidized  (Zimpro), and incinerated  (multiple hearth).
The incinerators are equipped with waste heat boilers which will  htit
the solids handling building and the administration b_ilding.  The
settleables are currently anaerobically digested and vacuum filtered.
The digested sludge is about 6.8 percent  solids.  This sludge is
thickened to about 14 percent solids then vacuum filtered  to about 29
percent solids.  In fiscal year 1975, 15,900 tons of filter cake  were
produced representing 4590 tons of dry solids.  About  50%  of the  flow  and
BOD load on this plant is from industrial sources.

Sewage Sludge Composition
                                  103

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      The  following  heavy  metals  analysis has been performed on the
 sludge:

                     HEAVY METALS ANALYSIS-1974
                                             Concentration
      Constituent                           (ppm dry wt. basis)
           Zn                                  4,486
           Cr                                  2,128
           Cd                                    186
           Ni                                    883
           Pb                                  2,066
           Cu                                  1,272
           Fe                                 18,386
           Mn                                    303
           Hg                                     0.34
Transport System

     Sludge  is hauled  from the plant by  three  fifteen cubic yard dump
trucks  to the landfill site.  The  site is  located approximately three
miles from the plant and  the  average round trip time per load varies
from 30 to 45 minutes.  The dump trucks  are loaded from an inclined belt
conveyor running  from  the vacuum filters.

Landfill Operation

     The sludge is dumped into piles at  the landfill site.  Three to
four times per year a  contractor is brought in to spread and cover the
sludge. This operation requires two days on each occasion.

     Some developers use  the  sludge as a substitute for top soil.
Anyone  can request the  sludge and  pick it  up at the landfill.  However,
the plant personnel prefer that they are informed before large quantities
of the  sludge are taken.

Cost

     Based on information provided by the  City of Louisville, the City's
cost for disposal of vacuum filtered sludge in fiscal year 1975 was
$50 per dry ton.  Of this,  the cost of dewatering the sludge was about
$33 per dry ton.  Major costs for  dewatering included personnel costs
of about $49,000, vacuum  filter maintenance of $26,000 and chemical
costs of $26,000.

                                   104

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            COST FOR DISPOSING OF VACUUM FILTERED SLUDGE


Personnel (includes fringe benefits)                    $  58,190

     2 Vacuum Filter Operators
     1 Laborer
     1 Truck Driver
     1 Supervisor

Plant

     Depreciation of Vacuum Filters                      18,080
     Maintenance of Vacuum Filters and Trucks            30,050
     Chemicals and Materials                             25,940
     Utilities                                           20,000

Transportation (includes capital cost for trucks)        55,990

SUBTOTAL                                                         $208,250

10 PERCENT CONTINGENCY FACTOR1                                   $ 20,820

TOTAL ANNUAL COST                                                $229,070

	Total Annual Cost	  =    $229,070    =  $50 per dry ton
Total Sludge Hauled Annually     4590 dry tons
     1   A 10% contingency factor is added to cover such items as
administrative overhead.
                                    105

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                             MACON,  GEORGIA
      The  City  of  Macon,  Georgia is  a  community of approximately 100,000
population  located 70 miles  southeast of Atlanta, Georgia.  The City's
Lower Poplar Street sewage treatment  facility consists of a secondary
trickling filter  plant  incorporating  pre-chlorination of the influent
and anaerobic  digestion of primary  and secondary clarifier solids.  The
digested  solids are dewatered on sand drying beds or applied directly to
treatment plant land.

Person Contacted

      Robert Moore
      Superintendent of  the Lower Poplar
        Street  Sewage Treatment Plant
      780  Third Street
      P. 0.  Box 108
      Macon, Georgia 31202
      Telephone:   (912)  745-9411 ext.  282

Site Description

      Liquid Sludge Disposal

      City owned property adjacent to  the treatment plant has been
utilized  for the  past eight  to ten  years for the disposal of liquid
sludge.   This  particular piece of property is utilized because hauling
costs are minimal' it is always available  for sludge disposal, and there
are no residential dwellings adjacent to the property.  The soil is of
the Chewacla classification  (a sandysilt to siltysand).  No fertilizer
other than  sludge is used to produce  the hay grown on the property.

      Drying Bed Sludge  Disposal

      Sludge from  the drying  beds is made available for use by area
residents.  In 1973, many local farmers used the dried sludge for soil
erosion control.   However, in 1974  the drying beds were used to a very
limited extent because  the City preferred  to liquid haul to their
hayland.  This  resulted  in increased hay revenue.  Also the drying beds
are old and very  inefficient.

General Information

     The  sewage treatment plant is  a  primary clarification system
followed by a  trickling  filter,  secondary  clarification and discharge.
The  sludge goes through  both primary  and secondary anaerobic digesters.
The  detention  time  is approximately three  months with the solids content
of  the sludge  estimated  to be about four percent.
                                   106

-------
     The plant superintendent estimates the industrial input into the
Lower Poplar Street Plant to be about 30 percent of the total flow.
Principal industrial contributors are a tannery, a poultry processor, an
oil and soap manufacturing plant, a zipper manufacturer,  and a textile
dyeing operation.  Treatment plant personnel estimated that the Lower
Poplar Street Plant serves 60 percent of the residential community of
Macon with the remainder flowing into the Rocky Creek Plant (with a 14
MGD capacity).  Plans for a plant expansion are forecasted in three
years due to the present overload on the system.  The average daily flow
through the plant is 12.8 MGD and the design capacity was 12 MGD.  The
effluent is discharged into the Ocmulgee River.

Sewage Sludge Composition

     Table 1 presents data on the sludge analysis.  Samples were taken
from the #5 secondary digester on October 9, 1975 by SCS Engineers and
analyzed for a comprehensive list of heavy metals.  As is indicated, the
sludge is fairly low in heavy metals.

Transport System

     Liquid digested sludge is hauled  at 4 percent solids content in
a 1600 gallon tank mounted on a  one  and a half  ton dump truck.   Since
sludge is only hauled about 40 days  out of the  year, the tank  is
removed during the remainder of  the  year to  free  the truck  for main-
tenance work around the plant.   Although sludge is hauled a relatively
small number of  days each year,  the  operation  is  spread out over a
nine month period as shown in Table  2.  On days that  sludge is hauled,
an  average of 24 loads per day are removed.  The  average haul  distance
is  about one mile with a round trip  driving  time  of  15 minutes.   Time
required to  load and unload  the  tank is about  five minutes  each.

Landspreading System

     The liquid  sludge  is applied to the  field by gravity flow from the
rear of the  truck.  Two  pipes, with  hydraulic  valves that are operated
from inside  the  cab, discharge  sludge onto a metal splash pan.  Each
tank load will  cover an  area of  about 10  feet  wide by 1000 feet long,
which gives  an  application  rate  of about 1 dry ton per acre.  During
1974, the application  of sewage  sludge applied on the City's property
averaged 2  dry  tons per acre.   Sludge is applied to the hay field when-
ever the ground is  sufficiently dry for the truck to operate and the hay
is  at a stage of growth which will not be hampered by an application of
sludge.  Because the  sludge is being applied to an established hay
field,  the  ground is  not cultivated and therefore the sludge is not
turned  under.   Even so,  there were no apparent problems with odors or
flies.   At  the  time of the site visit there had been two cuttings of hay
with a  third cutting  possible.   The local farmer who bales the hay  for
the City pays 25C per bale which amounted to $1,650 for the two cuttings
in  1974.
                                   107

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Costs
     Based on actual operating information provided by the City of
Macon, it appears the City is- currently disposing of its digested
sewage sludge at a cost of $8 per ton of dry solids.  A more detailed
breakdown of the capital and operating costs follows.
                                  108

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                  COST FOR DISPOSAL OF LIQUID  SLUDGE

Annual Capital Cost

     Stationary Equipment Depreciation1                $    40
       (Standing Pipe)

          Total Annual Capital Cost                              $    40

Annual Operating Cost

     Personnel           Hourly Rate    % Time Worked  Cost

          Driver           $2.40           14           $   680
          Office Manager    4.77            2              200
          Superintendent    6.97            2              290
                                                       $1,170

     Fringe Benefits  at 33 percent                     $   390

     Vehicle Operation and Maintenance:

          Gasoline                                     $   180
          Oil and Lube                                     10
          Insurance                                       300
          Licenses                                          2
          Parts                                           330
          Labor for Repairs                               290
                                                       $1,110

TOTAL ANNUAL OPERATING COST                                      $2,670

TOTAL ANNUAL CAPITAL  AND OPERATING COST                          $2,710

10 PERCENT CONTINGENCY FACTOR2                                   $   270

SUB  TOTAL                                                        $2,980

REVENUE  (Sale of Hay)                                            $1,650

TOTAL ANNUAL COST                                                $1,330

	Total Annual Cost      = $1,330	 =  $8  per  dry  ton
Total Sludge Hauled Annually  170 dry tons
      1  Stationary equipment was depreciated over 10 years at 8% interest
 which amounts to a depreciation charge of $12.13 per $1,000 per month.

      2  A 10% contingency factor is added to cover such items as
 administrative overhead.

                                    109

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                 TABLE 1
             MACON, GEORGIA
             SLUDGE ANALYSIS
      (Emission Spectrophotometry)
Element                          PPM DRY Wt.
   Si                              190,755
   Ca                               11,304
   Al                               84,780
   Fe                               31,793
   Mg                                7,772
   Ti                                5,581
   P                                 4,027
   Ba                                1/059
   B                                    25
   Pb                                  381
   Sn                                  106
   Mn                                  360
   Cr                                  572
   Ga                                   42
   Cu                                  148
   Ni                                  106
   Bi                                   14
   V                                    92
   Ag                                   16
   Na                                5,157
   Zn                                1/483
   Zr                                  515
   Co                                   42
   K                                 3,391
   Sr                                  226
   Cd                                   42
                    110

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                             TABLE 2
          Volume of Liquid Sludge Hauled from Macon's
                Lower Poplar Street Plant*
Month
January
February
March
April
May
June
July
August
September
October
November
December
Totals
1972
189,880
0
141,|639
33,560
12,390
0
15,980
63,858
4,240
0
45,844
19,091
526,482
Year
1973**
0
0
6,963
0
6,890
3,975
0
0
0
0
0
0
19,828
1974
0
0
12,845
4,404
28,442
4,771
19,226
2,110
15,047
35,416
0
15,414
137,675
*Volumes expressed in cubic feet

**During this year the digesters were undergoing major repairs;
  therefore, the sewage sludge was piped to drying beds.
                              Ill

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                      ROCHELLE, ILLINOIS
     The City of Rochelle, Illinois is a small community of
approximately 9,000 population, located 75 miles west of Chicago,
Illinois.  The City's treatment facility is divided into two sepa-
rate plants.  The domestic wastes go to the activated sludge plant
and the major industries' wastes go to the trickling filter plant.
The activated sludge plant effluent subsequently is pumped to the
later units of the trickling filter plant.  All sludges are combined,
thickened, vacuum filtered and applied to farmland.

Person Contacted
     Mr. Paul Barry
     Superintendent of Water and
       Waste Water Facilities
     Rochelle Municipal Utilities
     120 N. 7th Street
     Rochelle, Illinois  61068
     Telephone:   (815) 562-2011

Site Description

     Most of the City's vacuum filtered sludge is hauled to one farmer
who is responsible for spreading the material on his fields and incorporating
it into the soil.  A limited amount is stockpiled at the plant for City
residents to take.  If a resident can use a full truck load, plant
personnel wiil deliver it to his residence.

General Information

     Mr. Paul Barry estimated the industrial input into the City's
treatment facilities to be between 60 and 70 percent of the total flow.
The population served by the plant is 9,000, with a population equivalent
of 165,000.  The design capacity is 4 MGD with an average daily flow of
3.2 MGD.  The effluent from the trickling filter plant is discharged
into the Kyte River.

     The trickling filter plant receives wastes from a large slaughter-
house and also from a yarn dyeing company.  The plant consists of
paunch removal (for the packing house wastes only), preliminary units,
primary settling units, three-stage trickling filtration, two-stage
aerated tertiary lagoons, microscreening, and chlorination.  The
effluent from the activated sludge plant is directed to the tertiary
lagoons.  A portion of the waste sludge from the facilities is anaero-
bically digested.  Both the undigested and digested sludges are then
combined, thickened, and vacuum filtered.  The plant produces 150 tons
per week of sludge at 25 percent solids.
                                  112

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Sewage Sludge Composition

     Table 1 presents data on the composition of the vacuum filter cake
sludge.

Transport System

     The City uses five trucks at the wastewater plant to haul the
paunch manure, grit and screenings to the City sanitary landfill and the
vacuum filtered sludge to the farm land.   Four of the trucks have 8 yd3
grain dump boxes and the newest has an 8 yd3 heavy duty dump box.  The
grain boxes were purchased because of their lower cost.  However, because
of their light construction and the corrosive nature of the sludge,
maintenance costs for the boxes are high.

     Trucks are filled by backing them under a conveyor belt in the
vacuum filter building.  As one is being filled the other is being
emptied.  Three trucks are used in this operation while the other two
haul grit and screenings.  The haul distance to the farm is 13 miles
round trip requiring 25 to 30 minutes.  An average of 6 to 7 loads are
hauled per day in a five day week.

Landspreading System

     The farmer has a concrete paved feedlot which is not being utilized.
The City trucks dump the sludge on the paved area for the farmer to
spread.  A farn. manure spreader is used to spread the sludge on a daily
basis.  If the fields are dry, sludge is dumped directly on the field to
reduce the haul distance for the farmer in spreading the material.  The
Illinois Environmental Protection Agency permit on the Rochelle Sludge
Utilization Project, specifies that sludge cannot be stockpiled at a
utilization site for longer than 2 months, that a maximum of 100 dry
tons total accumulation can be applied to a site, and that sludge must
be applied at or less than the acceptable nitrogen agronomic rate.

     The farmer who is presently receiving the sludge applies about 25
wet tons per acre (6 dry tons/acre).  In addition, based on soil tests,
he applies 200 Ib/acre of 0, 46, 0 commercial fertilizer.  Through
experience the farmer has learned that he must allow the sludge  to dry
on the field for about a day prior to incorporation  in the soil with
an offset disc or chisel.  Otherwise, the sludge is  too slippery for
tractor operation.

Cost

     The total cost to the City of Rochelle for sludge disposal  on farm
land is $89 per dry ton.  This is a very complete  figure which  includes
the depreciation, maintenance, and operating costs  for the vacuum  filter
operation and truck hauling as well as all personnel cost.  The
dewatering operation accounts for about  $75 per dry ton of this  total
cost.  The major cost items which make dewatering  so high are  depreciation-
$60,000, labor—$30,000 and chemicals—$25,000.

                                   113

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              COST FOR DISPOSAL OF VACUUM FILTERED SLUDGE

Annual Capital Cost

     Vehicle Depreciation                                 $ 3,510
       1969 Chev. Grain Truck", cost: $5,248
       1969 Chev. Grain Truck, cost: $5,248
       1972 Chev. Grain Truck, cost: $5,200
       1973 Chev. Grain Truck, cost: $6,000
       1974 I. H. Dump Truck, cost:  $9,500
     Stationary Equipment Depreciation 2                  $29,140
     Vacuum Filter Building Depreciation 3                $30,130

          Total Annual Capital Cost                                   $62,780

Annual Operating Cost

     Personnel           Hourly Rate    % Time Worked       Cost

          2 Laborers        $4.55           100           $18,930
          1 Laborer          4.55            50             4,730
            Laboratory       5.00            12.5           1,300
            Maintenance      5.25            25             2,730
           .Supervisor       10.00           20             4,160
                                                          $31,850

          Fringe Benefits at 25 percent                   $ 7,960

          Vehicle Operation and Maintenance

               Repairs                                   $ 3,150
               Fuel and Oil                              $ 1,000

          Vacuum Filter Maintenance

               Chemicals
                    Lime                                 $14,030
                    Fe Cl                                $10,030
                    Acid                                 $ 1,080
     1    Vehicles were depreciated over 8 years at 8 percent interest,
which amounts to a depreciation charge of $14.14 per $1,000 per month.

     2    Stationary equipment was depreciated over 10 years at 8 percent
interest which amounts to a depreciation charge of $12.13 per $1,000 per
month.

     3    Buildings were depreciated over 20 years at 8 percent interest
which amounts to a depreciation charge of $8.36 per $1,000 per month.
                                  114

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          Parts and Repairs                      $ 8,400

          Utilities

               Electricity @ $0.0239/kwh         $18,230
               Water                                 120

TOTAL ANNUAL OPERATING COST                                  $ 95,850

TOTAL ANNUAL CAPITAL AND OPERATING COST                      $158,630

10 PERCENT CONTINGENCY FACTOR 4                              $ 15,860

TOTAL ANNUAL COST                                            $174,490

     Total Annual Cost	  =  $174,490      =  $89/dry ton
Total Sludge Hauled Annually     1950 dry tons
     4    A 10 percent contingency factor is added to cover such items as
administrative overhead.
                                   115

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                              Table 1






                     Filter Cake Sludge Analysis






     Ammonia Nitrogen (N)                    .21% *




     Organic Nitrogen (N)                   2.41% *




     Total Nitrogen (N)                      2.62% *




     Phosphorous (PO,)                      4.1% *




     Phosphorous (P)                       12.7 ppm*




     Phosphorous (^2°^                     29.2 ppm*




     Cadium                                  .2 ppm*




     Zinc                                 135.2 ppm*




     pH                                    12.1




     Total solids                          25.2%
*Reported on a dry weight basis
                                 116

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                             SALEM,  OREGON

     Salem, Oregon is a community of approximately 100,000 population,
located 50 miles south of Portland,  Oregon.   The City's wastewater
treatment facility consists of a secondary trickling filter with
anaerobic digestion of the settleable solids,  followed by lagoon
drying and/or direct application of  liquid sludge to nearby farmland.

Persons Contacted

     Mr. Cliff Reed                     Mr.  Lyle Klampe
     Superintendent of Wastewater       Field Representative - BIOGRO
       Plant Operations                 City Hall
     City Hall                          555 Liberty Street, S.E.
     555 Liberty Street, S.E.           Salem, Oregon  97301
     Salem, Oregon  97301                 Telephone:  (503) 393-3806
       Telephone: (503) 393-3806

     Mr. Don Marske
     CH2M-Hill, Engineers
     2929 North Mayfair Road
     Milwaukee, Wisconsin  53222
       Telephone:   (414) 774-5530

Site Description

     The City hauls liquid sludge to several different site locations.
Any farmer within a reasonable haul  distance  (i.e., five-mile radius)
who desires to have sludge placed on his land may place a request with
the City and, if conditions are right (e.g., weather, season of the
year, site accessibility, runoff, groundwater table, etc.), the treat-
ment plant will make one or two applications of sludge to his land.

General Information

     The Superintendent of Wastewater Operations estimated the  indus-
trial input into the treatment facility to be approximately 6 percent of
the total flow.  However, during the summer months, the industrial  input
increases to approximately 50 percent of the  total  flow because of  the
seasonal industries  (canneries) in the area.  The population equivalent,
based on a BOD of 0.17 Ib/cap/day, is calculated to be 142,000.   The
overall treatment plant design capacity is rated at 14.7 MGD, with  an
average daily flow of  28 MGD.  The effluent is discharged  directly  into
the Willamette River.  Because of the overload on the  system, the City
is currently in the midst of constructing a tertiary plant incorporating
activated sludge, which is scheduled for completion by midsummer  of
1976.  With the expanded plant the City intends  to  dispose of sludge by
liquid application, using modifications of  its  current system.  This new
system will incorporate the purchase of three new tank trailers which
will be used to transport the liquid sludge to  the  field.   The  sludge
will be pumped from the tankers to two  3-wheeled sludge  applicator  vehicles.

                                  117

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To encourage use of the increased sludge output from the expanded plant,
the digested sludge produced is being promoted under the name of BIOGRO,
an organic fertilizer and soil conditioner.

     The combined quality of primary and secondary trickling filter
sludge generated by the present system totals 50,000 gallons per day at
3.5 percent solids  (i.e., 7.2 dry tons/day).  The total sludge leaving
the plant after digestion averages 6 million gallons per year at 5.5
percent solids  (i.e., 1,376 dry tons/year or 0.087 Ibs/cap/day).  These
figures compare closely to national averages with the same type of
handling and processing.

Sewage Sludge Composition

     No sludge analysis was available.

Transport System

     Currently, the City hauls liquid sludge by a single 2,500 gallon
tank truck, purchased in 1969 at a cost of $13,000.  The decision to air
dry or liquid haul  is solely predicated upon the availability of a
readily accessible  field, weather conditions, season of the year, and
the haul distance to the site.  Generally, the City liquid hauls its
sludge at 5.5 percent solids every week of the year.

     The sewage sludge is stored in three anaerobic digesters  (2.6 million
gallons combined capacity) until spreading of the sludge occurs.  During
the 1975 year, it; was reported that 2,000 loads were handled by liquid
tank truck.  Of the total amount of digested sludge, 80 percent is spread
by liquid tank truck and 20 percent is piped to the lagoon drying beds.
One driver is used  full time during the periods when sludge is being
liquid hauled.  The average haul distance is approximately 10 miles, one
way, with an average round trip driving time of 25 minutes.  It takes
approximately 10 minutes to load and 5 minutes to unload.  The transport
vehicle is unloaded by gravity flow with no spreading or distribution
device.

     The proposed "new" system will be implemented during the early part
of 1976.  This system will incorporate the use of the existing tank
truck, plus three new 6,000 gallon tanktrailers, purchased at a total cost of
$84,000.  The four  vehicles will be used solely for transporting liquid
sludge to" the disposal sites.  Two new 3-wheel tank vehicles will be
stationed at the disposal site, as they are strictly off-road vehicles
and are more adapted to spreading and traversing land otherwise unaccess-
ible to other types of transport vehicles.  Upon arrival of the tanker,
a 3-wheeler will be loaded and the liquid sludge applied at an even
distribution rate.
                                   118

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Landspreading System

     The liquid sludge is applied by gravity flow directly from the rear
of the truck.  The City has experimented with pumps and hoses but found
it easier and more dependable to simply let the sludge drain by gravity.
No problems of odors or flies were noted, even though the sludge is not
always turned under immediately after application.

     The City has been and is currently hauling most of its sludge to
onion, grain, and pasture fields with the remaining sludge being stored
in a holding pond at the wastewater facility.  With expansion of the
present plant, plans are to increase the efficiency of the landspreading
operation to maintain costs at a minimum level.
                  f
Costs

          Based on actual operating information provided by the City of
Salem, it appears the City is currently disposing of its liquid sludge
at a cost of $40 per ton of dry solids.  Sludge handling and disposal
cost will probably increase with full implementation of the new disposal
system being proposed for the spring.  This increase will be due basi-
cally to the increased cost of vehicle depreciation, operation and
maintenance.  A more detailed cost analysis of the present system is
attached.
                                  119

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                  COST FOR DISPOSAL OF LIQUID SLUDGE

Annual Capital Cost

     Vehicle Depreciation                                   $ 2,210
       1969, International, Cost: $13,000
     Standing Pipe Depreciation                                 150

          Total Annual Capital Cost                                   $  2,360

Annual Operating Cost

     Personnel           Hourly Rate     % Time Worked        Cost

          Driver           $ 5.35               80          $ 8,900
          Chemist          $ 5.80                5              600
          Foreman          $ 5.80              100           12,060
          Superintendent   $10.00                5            1,040

          Overtime  (10 hours every 2 weeks)                 $ 1,390
                                                            $23,990

     Fringe Benefits at 23 percent                          $ 5,520

     Vehicle Maintenance and Operation:

          Average at $420 per month                         $ 5,040
          Contractual Costs                                 $ 5,000

TOTAL ANNUAL OPERATING COST                                           $39,550

TOTAL ANNUAL CAPITAL AND OPERATING COST                               $41,910

10 PERCENT CONTINGENCY FACTOR 3                                       $  4,190

TOTAL ANNUAL COST                                                     $46,100

	Total Annual Cost	 = $46,100	  = $40 per dry ton
Total Sludge Hauled Annually   1,146 dry tons
     1  Vehicles were depreciated over 8 years at 8% interest which
amounts to a depreciation charge of $14.14 per $1,000 per month.

     2  Stationary equipment was depreciated over 10 years at 8% interest
which amounts to a depreciation charge of $12.13 per $1,000 per month.

     3  A 10% contingency factor was included to cover such items as
administrative overhead.
                                  120

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                         SALT LAKE CITY,  UTAH

     The City of Salt Lake City,  Utah is  a community of  approximately
180,000 population.   The City's wastewater treatment facility consists
of a secondary standard rate trickling filter that incorporates  pre-
chlorination of the  effluents.  The settleables are pumped to anaerobic
digesters.  The digested sludge is either air dried in drying beds  or
centrifuged.

Person Contacted

     Mr. Jack Peterson
     Superintendent of Wastewater Operation
     1850 N. Redwood Road
     Salt Lake City, Utah  84116
     Telephone:  (801) 328-7611

Site Description

     Centrifuged Sludge - The City hauls  centrifuged sludge to either the
Salt Lake City Airport or uses the sludge as fill material around the
plant.

     Air Dried Sludge - The City's air dried sludge is stockpiled for
one year as required as a protective feature by state law prior to being
made available to local citizens.

General Information

     The treatment plant is a primary clarification system followed
by a trickling filter, secondary  clarification and discharge.  The
sludge goes through both primary  and secondary anaerobic digesters, with
a detention time of approximately three months at 3.0 to 3.5 percent
solids.

     The City Superintendent of Wastewater Treatment Facilities, estimated
the industrial input into the City's treatment facilities to be less than
10 percent of the total flow.  The population equivalent based on a BOD
of 0.17 Ibs/cap/day is 250,000.  The overall treatment plant design capacity
is rated at 45 MGD with an average daily flow of 41 MGD.  The City  is
in the planning stages for a plant expansion.

     The combined quantity of primary and secondary clarified sludge is
approximately 43,500 Ibs per day on a dry weight basis or 7,910 tons per
year.  This represents 0.24 Ibs/cap/day which  in comparison  to  the
national average is above the norm.  This can be partly explained by the
type of industrial discharge.

Sewage Sludge Composition

     No analysis was available.

                                 121

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Transport System

     Centrifuged -  The City currently hauls about 80 percent of its
sludge at 21 percent solids when weather conditions permit and when the
airport requests sludge.  Dewatered sludge has been hauled to the airport
for the past two years and used at the plant for the past ten years.
Transporting this sludge is accomplished with a 1961 International 10-
wheel - 13 ton dump truck purchased at a cost of $12,000.

     It was reported that an average of two loads per day is hauled from
the plant.  The haul distance is approximately 5 miles one way with an
average round trip driving time of 20 minutes.  It takes 3 to 4 hours to
generate a 5 ton load from the centrifuge which is then hauled to the
airport or stored on a drying slab located at the plant.

     Air Dried - The 1961 International 10-wheel is also utilized for
hauling the air dried sludge since the haul distance is minimal.  Once
the vehicle is loaded it travels only several hundred feet before it
off-loads.
                                                                     o
     The air drying beds collectively encompass an area of 300,270 ft
of actual available drying beds.  Sludge is placed on the beds at 5
percent solids and 18 inches thick  (i.e., 470 ton of dry solids).  These
beds are cleaned three times per year which involves two men working
three 8-hour days, with the aid of a blade tractor and dump truck.

Landspreading System

     The centrifuged dried sludge is dumped on the airport property by
the treatment plant personnel.  At this point the sludge becomes the
responsibility of the airport to spread with their equipment.  It is
then used as fill material around the airport.  In some instances  (when
weather conditions are unfavorable or when the airport is unable to take
the centrifuged sludge) it is stored on a concrete slab located near the
drying beds.

     When sludge is utilized as fill material around the treatment
plant, it is dumped in piles for spreading by a tractor.  The sludge is
later seeded.  Even though the sludge is not covered with soil there
were no apparent problems from odors or flies.

Costs
     Based on information provided by the City, the air drying operation
is the least costly of the two systems at $1 per dry ton.  Because of
the maintenance and repair cost involved, the centrifuge operation is
more costly at $20 per dry ton of solids disposed.  The above calculations
do not include the cost for landspreading the sludge.  The City's
responsibility ends when the wastewater treatment plant deposits the
sludge on the airport's property.  A more detailed cost analysis follows.

                                     122

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                 COST FOR DISPOSAL OF AIR DRIED SLUDGE


Annual Capital Cost

     Vehicle Depreciation                                    0
     Equipment Depreciation                                  0

          Total Annual Capital Cost

Annual Operating Cost
Personnel
Operator
Laborer
Hourly
$4
3
Wage
.98
.75
% Time Worked
4
4
Cost
$ 360
$ 270
                                                       $  630

     Fringe Benefits at 33 percent                     $  210

     Vehicle Maintenance and Operation

          Parts and Supplies                           $   60
          Fuel, Oil and Lube                           $  280
          Insurance                                    $   10
                                                       $  350

TOTAL ANNUAL OPERATING COST                                      $1,140

TOTAL ANNUAL CAPITAL AND OPERATING COST                          $1,140

10% CONTINGENCY FACTOR1                                          $  110

TOTAL ANNUAL COST                                                $1,250

	Total Annual Cost	 = $1,250	 = $1 per dry ton
Total Sludge Hauled Annually   1,410 dry tons
     1  A 10% contingency factor is added to cover such items as
administrative overhead.
                                   123

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             COST FOR DISPOSAL OF CENTRIFUGE DRIED SLUDGE

Annual Capital Cost

     Vehicle Depreciation                                         0
     Equipment Depreciation                                 $26,200
          2 - 1969 "Bird" centrifuges Cost: $180,000

          Total Annual Capital Cost                                   $26,200

Annual Operating Cost

     Personnel              Hourly Rate  % Time Worked        Cost

          Operator             $4.88          100           $10,150
          Operator             $4.88          100           $10,150
          Lab Technician       $5.00           25           $ 2,600
          Foreman              $5.80            5           $   600
                                                            $23,500

     Fringe Benefits at 33 percent                          $ 7,760

     Vehicle Maintenance and Operation

          Parts and Supplies                                $ 2,270
          Fuel and Oil                                      $   490
          Insurance                                         $    40
                                                            $ 2,700

     Utilities and Other

          Electricity                                       $ 8,000

     Centrifuge Maintenance

          Maintenance, Parts and Labor                      $26,000
          Contracted Balancing of Centrifuge Blades         $20,000
                                                            $46,000

TOTAL ANNUAL OPERATING COST                                           $87,960

TOTAL ANNUAL CAPITAL AND OPERATING COST                              $114,160
     1  Stationary equipment was depreciated over 10 years at 8% interest
which amounts to a depreciation charge of $12.13 per $1,000 per month.
                                   124

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10% CONTINGENCY FACTOR*
TOTAL ANNUAL COST
      Total Annual Cost
                                          11,420
                                        $125,580
= $125,580
= $20 per dry ton
Total Sludge Hauled Annually   6,500 dry tons
     2    A 10 percent contingency factor was included to cover such items
as administrative overhead.
                                   125

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                         SHEBOYGAN, WISCONSIN


     The City of Sheboygan, Wisconsin is a community of approximately
50,000 population, located On the shore of Lake Michigan.  The City's
sewage treatment plant utilizes vacuum filtration followed by incineration
of raw sludge and, in addition, utilizes anaerobic digestion followed
by direct application of liquid sludge to farmland.

Person Contacted;

     Mr. William Stubbe
     Superintendent
     Sewage Treatment Plant
     3333 Lakeshore Drive
     Sheboygan, Wisconsin   53081
     Telephone:   (414) 457-4713

Site Description

     For the past four years the City has landspread its liquid sludge.  In
1974, portions of 13 farms received sludge between the months of December
and March. p For this operation the City contracted with a septic tank
cleaning firm to locate utilization sites, and haul and spread the liquid
sludge.  Sludge which is vacuum filtered is incinerated in the City's
fluid bed sludge incinerator.

General Information

     The sewage treatment plant was built in 1937 and expanded several
times to include secondary trickling filters, vacuum filters, flash
dryers and a fluid bed incinerator.  The plant employs 15 full time personnel.

     Industrial contribution to the plant is estimated to be 25 to 40 per-
cent of the plant solids.  The largest contributing industry is a leather
tannery which discharges a heavy solids load.  There are 21 plants which
contribute over 10,000 g/d which include a refuse incinerator, a plastics
plant and metal finishing plants.

     During 1974, the treatment plant disposed of 10,618,000 gallons of
sludge.  Of this, 4,618,000 gallons at 3 to 4 percent solids were hauled
for field spreading.  The remaining 6,000,000 gallons were vacuum filtered
to 21 to 24 percent solids and incinerated.  The treatment plant design
capacity is 22 MGD with an average daily flow of 10 MGD.  The effluent is
discharged into Lake Michigan.  The population equivalent based on 0.17 Ibs
BOD/cap/day is approximately 120,000.

Sewage Sludge Composition

     Table 1 presents data relative to the metals content of the liquid
sludge.
                                   126

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Transport System

     The City currently liquid hauls about 45 percent of its sludge.
Sludge is only hauled when crops are off the fields and field conditions
are such that the soil will not be compacted by the heavy trucks.  As a
result, sludge is normally hauled for about two months between December
and March.  The liquid sludge is hauled at 3 to 4 percent solids.  This
method of disposal has been used for the past four years.  All hauling
and spreading is handled by a contractor at a rate of $.0165/gallon.

     The City's secondary digesters, which were built in 1937 and 1941,
are used only for storage of sludge.  The combined capacity of these
digesters is 1,000,000 gallons.

     All vacuum filtered sludge is incinerated.

Landspreading System

     Little information.on the landspreading system was available since
the operation was contracted.  The contractor uses an injection system
to apply the sludge to the land.  The application rate is .94 gallons/ft.
or 6 dry tons/acre.  Each 3,000 gallon load covers an area 400 feet long
by 8 feet wide.  The principal crop grown on the treated soils is corn.

Cost

     Based en operating information provided by the City, the cost for
disposal of liquid sludge is $125 per dry ton.  This is a high cost, but
is a direct result of the high contract cost for transportation and
disposal.  The cost for the City to vacuum filter and dispose of residue,
excluding incineration costs, is $380 per dry ton.  This cost is very
high because of depreciation costs of over $100,000, chemical costs of
nearly $84,000 and personnel costs of over $60,000.
                                    127

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                  COST FOR DISPOSAL OF LIQUID SLUDGE


Annual Capital Cost

          Total Annual Capital Cost                                $0

Annual Operating Cost

     Personnel           Hourly Rate   % Time Worked    Cost

          Superintendent    $7.54           1        $   160
                                                     $   160

     Fringe Benefits at 40 percent                   $    60

     Vehicle Maintenance and Operation

          Contract Hauling                           $76,200

TOTAL ANNUAL OPERATING COST                                        $76,420

TOTAL ANNUAL CAPITAL AND OPERATING COST                            $76,420

10 PERCENT CONTINGENCY FACTOR1                                      $  7,640

TOTAL ANNUAL COST                                                  $84,060
	Total Annual Cost	 = $84,060	 = $125 per dry ton
Total Sludge Hauled Annually   670 dry tons
     1  A 10 percent contingency factor is added to cover such items as
administrative overhead.
                                  128

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  COST FOR VACUUM FILTRATION AND RESIDUE DISPOSAL  EXCLUDING  INCINERATION
Annual Capital Cost

     Vehicle Depreciation
          1968, Ford Dump Truck,  Cost:  $9,000
     Equipment Depreciation
     Building Depreciation
     Total Annual Capital Cost

Annual Operating Cost
                                  $  1,530

                                  $60,670
                                  $40,520
                                                $102,720
     Personnel
Hourly Rate
% Time Worked
Cost
Operator $5.19
Operator 4.91
Operator 4.91
Operator 4 . 91
Foreman 5.41
Superintendent 7.54
100
100
100
75
30
14
$10,210
10,210
10,210
7,660
3,380
2,200
     Fringe Benefits at 40 percent

     Vehicle Operating and Maintenance
          Fuel and Oil

     Vacuum Filter Operation
          Repair
          Chemicals

     Utilities
          Electricity

TOTAL ANNUAL OPERATING COST
                                                        $43,870
                                  $17,550
                                      170
                                  $11,260
                                   83,990
                                   13,000
                                                $169>840
     1  Vehicles were depreciated over 8 years at 8 percent interest
which amounts to a depreciation charge of $14.14 per $1000 per month.

     2  Equipment was depreciated over 10 years at 8 percent interest
which amounts to a depreciation charge of $12.13 per $1000 per month.

     3  Buildings were depreciated over 20 years at 8 percent interest
which amounts to a depreciation charge of $8.36 per $1000 per month.
                                   129

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TOTAL ANNUAL CAPITAL AND OPERATING COST                               $272,550

10 PERCENT CONTINGINCY FACTOR4                                          27,260

TOTAL ANNUAL COST                                                     $299,810
	Total Annual Cost	 = $299,810    = $380 per dry ton
Total Sludge Processed Annually    790 dry tons
     4  A 10 percent contingency factor is added to cover such items as
administrative overhead.
                                    130

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                               Table 1
                       Liquid Sludge Analysis*

         Cr                                           5,000 ppm
         Zn                                           1/400 ppm

         Cd                                              13 ppm
         Ni                                             130 ppm

         Cu                                             13° ppm
         pb                                             260 ppm

*  Chemical laboratory results are all on  a dry weight basis.
                                    131

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                            SPRINGFIELD,  OHIO

     The City  of  Springfield,  Ohio is  a  community  of  approximately
86,000 population,  located between Dayton and  Columbus, Ohio.  The
City's treatment  facility  consists of  a  trickling  filter plant with
secondary  anaerobic digestion.   The effluent receives post  chlorination
prior to discharge  into  the Mad River.   Sludge is  either liquid hauled
to  farm land,  allowed  to air dry in lagoons  for use by private citizens,
or  used by the City as a top dressing  on filled land.

Persons Contacted

     Mr. R. J.  Collins
     Chief of  Operations
       Telephone:   (513) 399-6841

     Mr. Michael  Justice,  Superintendent
     Water Pollution Control Department
     965 Dayton Avenue
     Springfield, Ohio  45501
       Telephone:   (513) 322-4949

Site Description

     Liquid Sludge  Disposal -  The City hauls liquid sludge  to one of
several different site locations.   In  1974,  all liquid sludge was
applied to about  75 acres.   The soil is  predominantly Miami silt loam.
Farms for  sludge  application are selected on the basis of distance from
the plant,  access to fields, and distance from fields to dwellings.

     Lagoon Dried Sludge -  When weather,  field conditions,  or availa-
bility of  truck drivers  will not permit  hauling of liquid sludge to farm
land, it is pumped  to  one  of several large lagoons for air  drying.  The
lagoons are 5  to  6  feet  deep and cover a total area of about 4 acres.
However, the City prefers  to only fill them  to a depth of about two feet
so they dry faster.  After  the  sludge  has dried, it is used as a top
dressing on land  that  has been  filled.   A small amount is also stock-
piled near  a plant  gate  for private citizens to obtain for  home gardening.

General Information

     The City  estimates  the industrial input into  the treatment facility
to be approximately 33 percent  of  the  total  flow.  The design capacity
of the treatment plant is 25 MGD,  with an average  daily flow of 20 MGD.
The BOD population  equivalent is  87,203.   This figure is only slightly
over the population served  figure  of 86,000  because the major industrial
input is as cooling  water from  assembly  plants.
                                 132

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     All treatment plant sludge receives secondary digestion prior to
field application or being placed in lagoons.   The total annual quantity
of sludge is 5,373,000 gallons at 8 percent solids.  Screenings amount
to 240 cubic feet per year, which are incinerated at the plant.  Grit
amounts to an additional 240 cubic feet per year, which is dumped into
the lagoons.

Sewage Sludge Composition

     Sludge analysis, as provided by the City,  is shown in Table 1.

Transport System

     Liquid Sludge - The City currently liquid  hauls about 30 percent of
its sludge.  The decision to liquid haul or lagoon is based on manpower
available for hauling sludge, availability of fields for spreading, and
weather conditions.  In general, the City liquid hauls an average of one
day per week with two 3,000 gallon tank trucks.  An average of 10 loads
per day are.handled on haul days.  In 1974, 520 dry tons of sludge were
hauled.  The majority of the sludge is hauled to two farms, each about
four miles from the plant.  The two tank trucks used in the operation
were purchased in 1969 and 1973, at a cost of $11,269 and $14,402,
respectively.  The trucks are equipped with a cab controlled valve and
gravity flow spread bar.

     Lagooned Sludge - At times, when sludge needs to be removed from
the plant but conditions are not favorable for liquid hauling, sludge is
pumped into one of three large lagoons.  The lagoons are sloped to the
far end from the inlet, with an average depth of five to six feet.
Normal procedure is to fill the lagoons to a depth of about two feet to
allow for faster drying.  In 1974, a total of 3,805,000 gallons of
sludge at 8.3 percent solids were added to the lagoons and 4,880 cubic
yards at 60 percent solids were removed.  A tracked, 1 1/2 cubic yard
bucket loader, purchased in 1969 for $11,496, is used exclusively  to
load sludge from the lagoons into dump trucks.  Two  10 cubic yard  dump
trucks are used 95 percent of the time for transporting  lagooned  sludge.
They were purchased in 1969 and 1974 at a cost of  $10,800  and  $15,843,
respectively.  Most of this sludge is hauled to City land  where  it is
used as a top dressing.

Landspreading System

     Liquid Sludge - The  liquid  sludge  is  applied by gravity flow
directly from the rear of  the truck.  A  spreader pipe  is used to give an
even application over about an  eight  foot  width.   In 1974, 1,568,000
gallons of  sludge were applied  to  75  acres for an average application
rate of 7 dry tons per acre.  Most of the  land which receives sludge is
tilled and  planted with corn or wheat crops.   No sludge is spread within
                                    133

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500 feet of a dwelling.  To date, there have been no complaints about
the operation.

Costs

     In 1974, the City disposed of 520 dry tons of liquid sludge on farm
land at a cost of $22 per dry ton.  In comparison, the City lagoon dried
and disposed of 2,180 dry tons of sludge at a cost of $9 per dry ton in
1974.  A breakdown of the costs included in this analysis is attached.
                                 134

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                  COST FOR DISPOSAL OF LIQUID SLUDGE

Annual Capital Cost

     Vehicle Depreciation-1-                              $4,360
       1969 International, cost:  $11,300
       1973 International, cost:  $14,400

          Total Annual Capital Cost                                    $4,360

Annual Operating Cost
Personnel Hourly Rate
Driver
Chemist
Superintendent
$5.00
10.00

% Time Worked Cost
19 $2,000
4 800
400
                                                        $3,200

     Fringe Benefits at 40 percent                      $1,280

     Vehicle Maintenance and Operation

          Fuel and Oil                                  $  450
          Repairs                                        1,000
          Insurance                                         80

     Utilities

          Electricity for Pumping                           10
          Pumping Facility Maintenance                      10

TOTAL ANNUAL OPERATING COST                                            $6,030

TOTAL ANNUAL CAPITAL AND OPERATING COST                               $10,390

10 PERCENT CONTINGENCY FACTOR                                          $1,040

TOTAL ANNUAL COST                                                     $11,430

	Total Annual Cost	  =  $11,430	  =  $22 per dry ton
Total Sludge Hauled Annually     520 dry tons
     1  Vehicles were depreciated over 8 years at 8 percent  interest, which
amounts to a depreciation charge of $14.14 per $1,000 per month.

     2  A 10 percent contingency factor is added to cover such  items  as
administrative overhead.
                                   135

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               COST FOR DISPOSAL OF LAGOON DRIED SLUDGE

Annual Capital Cost

     Vehicle Depreciation1                              $6,460
       1969 1 1/2 yd3 bucket loader, cost: $11,496
       1969 Dump Truck, cost: $10,800
       1974 Dump Truck, cost: $15,843
     Stationary Equipment Depreciation                      $0
     Building Depreciation                                  $0

          Total Annual Capital Cost                                    $6,460

Annual Operating Cost

     Personnel          Hourly Rate    % Time Worked    Cost

          Driver           $5.00             34         $4,050
          Chemist          10.00              9          1,820
          Superintendent                                   350
                                                        $6,220

     Fringe Benefits at 40 percent                      $2,490

     Vehicle Maintenance and Operation

          Fuel and Oil                                    $470
          Repairs                                       $2,000
          Insurance                                        150

TOTAL ANNUAL OPERATING COST                                           $11,330

TOTAL ANNUAL CAPITAL AND OPERATING COST                               $17,790

10 PERCENT CONTINGENCY FACTOR2                                         $1,780

TOTAL ANNUAL COST                                                     $19,570

	Total Annual Cost	  =  $19,570	  =  $9 per dry ton
Total Sludge Hauled Annually     2,180 dry tons
     1  Vehicles were depreciated over 8 years at 8 percent interest, which
amounts to a depreciation charge of $14.14 per $1,000 per month.

     2  A 10 percent contingency factor is added to cover such items as
administrative overhead.
                                   136

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                                TABLE 1

               Springfield, Ohio, Sludge Analysis (ppm)
                           (dry weight basis)
Date      Cd

2/73

5/73

3/74       5

1/75      88

3/75      17

8/75

12/75     52
Cr
277
400
62
877
477
1,712
1,530
Cu
105
102
32
17
15
170
170
Ni
34
42
45
75
69
62
152
Pb
105
115
31
154
—
—
206
Zn
108
1,492
106
584
226
—
830
                                  137

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                             TOLEDO, OHIO
     Toledo, Ohio is located in Northwestern Ohio approximately 50 miles
south of Detroit, Michigan. 'The activated wastewater treatment plant
serves a population of approximately 500,000.  Design capacity of the
plant is 100 MGD and average daily flow is 92 MGD.  Approximately 30 percent
of the collection system is combined sanitary and storm sewers, the remainder
is sanitary only.  Dewatered sludge is routinely hauled to farmland and
some experiments with liquid sludge have been conducted.

Persons Contacted

     Mr. M. Brandt Tennant
     Commissioner
     Division of Water Reclamation
     Bay View Park
     Toledo, Ohio  43611
     Telephone:   (419) 247-6545

     Mr. Gerald Baumgartner
     Divison of Water Reclamation
     Bay View Park
     Toledo*, Ohio  43611
     Telephone:   (419) 247-6545

Site Description

     The largest portion of the sludge is handled under contract with Soil
Enrichment Materials Corporation  (SEMCO).  This firm has contracted for
867 acres of farmland.  To date only 415 acres have received sludge.  The
land is actively farmed and the principal crops grown are corn, soybeans,
wheat and oats.

     The City also spreads dewatered sludge on its own land.  Sludge is
applied twice annually to land adjacent to the House of Correction.  Of
the 155 acres available, 30 acres have received 2 applications while
another 30 acres have received one application.  Corn, hay, and soybeans are
grown on this land.

     There have also been experimental landspreading trials for liquid
sludge.  These experiments have been conducted by individuals.  The City
personnel felt that high trucking costs would make the landspreading of
liquid sludge economically unattractive, but mechanically, a more manageable
system.  Barging or rail haul are under consideration.  Experiments are also
contemplated to assess the economics and feasibility of composting.

General Information

     The original facility at this location was a. pump station constructed in
1916.   Primary treatment was built during the late 1920's with anaerobic diges-
ters.   Secondary treatment was added in 1959.  In 1968 vacuum filters were

                                   138

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added and landfilling of the sludge was begun.   Prior to  1968  sludge
lagoons were used.   In 1973 the present landspreading programs were
initiated.  Additional capacity was added to the secondary treatment
system in 1974.

     A solids content ranging from 6 percent to 9 percent is obtained
from the two-stage anaerobic digesters.  The vacuum filters increase the
solids content to about 20 percent.  Between 200 and 250  tons  per day
of filter cake are produced six days per week.

Sewage Sludge Composition

     Characterization of the sludge cake is attached.

Transport System

     The sludge is dewatered to 20 percent solids on coil vacuum filters.
City personnel use a single axle tractor to position the  30 cubic yard
trailers, under a conveyor belt for loading.  (The trailers are owned
by a contractor).  After the trailers are loaded they are positioned in
a parking area for the trucking firm which delivers them  to the SEMCO
site or the City's site at the House of Correction's Farm.  The haul
distance to the SEMCO site is 45.2 miles one-way requiring a round trip
driving time of 2.5 hours.  The distance to the House of  Correction's
Farm is 34 miles each way.  At the landspreading sites the trailers are
unloaded at a central stockpiling location.

Landspreading System

     SEMCO has a contract for 867 acres in Wood County which  can be used for
sludge application at no cost to the farmer.  A compacted crushed  limestone
pad has been prepared at the site for  stockpiling the sludge  while it
awaits application to the fields.  When weather and  cropping  conditions will
permit, sludge is loaded with a 4-yard loader into a farm manure  spreader
or a Field Gymmy for application to the land.  The Field Gymmy has an
8-yard hopper box, high flotation tires and a rear spinner  assembly for
spreading.  This piece of equipment is preferred over the manure  spreader
because it compacts the field less, distributes the  load more evenly and
is able to operate in wetter fields than  the tractor-drawn  spreader.   The
normal application rate is 10 dry tons per  acre per  year but  varies from
5 to 30 dry tons per acre.

     The  landspreading at the House of Correction is done in  a similar
fashion.  The City also owns a Field Gymmy  and keeps a front  end loader
at the site for loading.  Because  of cropping  practices  used  on this farm,
landspreading  is done'only in the  spring  and fall.   The  application rate is
between 10 and  13 dry tons per acre per  year.
                                    139

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Costs

     The annual sludge treatment and handling costs are estimated to
be between 40 and 50 percent of plant operating costs.  The contract with
SEMCO separates the hauling and spreading costs.  The firm iszpaid $2.92
per wet ton for hauling and $3.24 per wet ton for spreading.  Based on
operating information provided by the City of Toledo, the City is current-
ly disposing of its vacuum filtered sludge at a cost of $117 per dry ton.
The cost of dewatering accounts for about $77 per dry ton.  The major
cost factors for dewatering are dept retirement of about $500,000 and labor,
chemical and power costs for operating the'vacuum filters of about $730,000.
A breakdown of costs that were available from the City is attached.
                                    140

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              COST FOR DISPOSAL OF VACUUM FILTERED SLUDGE


Annual Capital Cost

     Debt Service on Vacuum Filters and
       City Owned Trucks                          $500,000

          Total Annual Capital Cost                              $  500,000

Annual Operating Cost

     Labor, Chemicals and Power to
       Operate Vacuum Filters                     $730,000

     Sludge Hauling  (contract @ $2.92/wet ton)     237,000

     Sludge Spreading (contract @ '$3.24/wet ton)   263,000

TOTAL ANNUAL OPERATING COST                                      $1,230,000

TOTAL ANNUAL CAPITAL AND OPERATING COST                          $1,730,000

10% CONTINGENCY FACTOR 1                                         $  173,000

TOTAL ANNUAL COST                                                $1,903,000

	Total Annual Cost	 = $1,903,000      = $117/dry ton
Total Sludge Hauled Annually     16,250 dry tons
     1  A 10% contingency factor is added to cover such items as administrative
overhead.
                                    141

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                     SLUDGE CAKE CHARACTERIZATION
                    TOLEDO WATER RECLAMATION PLANT
PARAMETER*

% Solids
% Volatile Solids
% Fixed Solids
% T 0 C
PH
Density
PCB
HEAVY METALS

Aluminum
Arsenic
Beryllium
Boron
Cadmium
Calcium
Chromium
Copper
Iron
Lead
Magnesium
Manganese
Mercury
Nickel
Selenium
Sodium
Zinc
NUTRIENTS

% Nitrogen-Total
% Nitrogen-Organic
% Nitrogen-NH3
% Nitrogen NO -NO_
% Phosphorus-Total
Phosphorus-Water
  Soluble
% Potassium
RANGE
14.5 -
38 -
62 -
16 -
10 -
1.05 -
0.5 -
2/200 -
3 -
0.5 -
5.6 -
23 -
60,000 -
47 -
420 -
22,000 -
340 -
6,700 -
870 -
0.01 -
41 -
1 -
83 -
1,850 -
1.72 -
1.23 -
0.002 -
6 -
2.13 -
40 -
0.027 -
27
50
50
18
13
1.09
5
53,500
17
1
16.1
41
135,000
1,120
1,570
101,000
720
22,000
35,000
2.2
696
67
910
4,050
2.42
2.38
0.64
60
2.95
240
0.35
AVERAGE

   20
   44
   56
   17.4
   12
    1.067
    2
AVERAGE POUNDS
  PER DRY TON
                    16,000
                        12
                        0.7
                        7.5
                        26
                   102,000
                       676
                       650
                    71,000
                       526
                    10,300
                    10,400
                        1.1
                       450
                        19
                       690
                     2,740
                        2.08
                        1.48
                        0.222
                        30
                        2.5

                       120
                        0.17
                         32
                          0.024
                          0.0014
                          0.015
                          0.052
                        204
                          1.35
                          1.3
                        142
                          1.05
                         20.6
                         20.8
                          0.002
                          0.81
                          0.038
                          1.38
                          5.48
                         41.6
                         29.6
                          4.4
                          0.06
                         50

                          0.24
                          3.4
* ppm unless otherwise indicated
                                  142

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                          YORK,  PENNSYLVANIA

     York, Pennsylvania is located in the southeastern part of the state,
about 45 miles straight north of Baltimore,  Maryland.   The City's waste-
water treatment plant utilizes activated waste treatment and serves a
population of 115,000.  Sludge from the plant is transported in both
liquid and dewatered  (vacuum filtered)  state to farm land.  Design capacity
of the plant is 18 MGD.  The average daily flow is 16 MGD.

Person Contacted

     Mr. Harvey Bortner
     Superintendent of Wastewater Treatment
     Department of Public Works
     Yprk, Pennsylvania
     Telephone:  (717) 854-9333

Site Description

     The City is presently utilizing 40 farms having a collective acreage
of over 4,490 acres.  Most of the land utilized is actively farmed with
corn being the principal crop.  Two farmers leave alternating strips of
their fields fallow for sludge disposal in bad weather.  These strips
are planted in grasses.

General Information

     The wastewater treatment plant was constructed in 1916 and upgraded
in 1954 to activated sludge.  Design capacity of the plant is 18 MGD
with an average daily flow of 16 MGD.  Sludge in the plant is anaero-
bically digested and then stored in an elutrification tank for vacuum
filtration.  Liquid sludge for the tank trucks is drawn directly from
the secondary digesters.

     The anaerobically digested sludge is about 4.5 percent solids.  A
portion of the sludge is dried by vacuum filtration which results in a
sludge having a 16 percent solids content.  The total dry weight of
sludge leaving the plant in 1975 was 2,330 tons.  Of this 1,360 dry tons
were as a liquid and  970 dry tons as vacuum filtered sludge.  There are
23 major industries which contribute an estimated 50 percent of the
flow.

     The City is presently initiating action to proceed with the  findings
of an engineering study conducted several years ago which recommended
that a sludge incinerator in the plant be upgraded to meet present
emission standards so it can once again handle all the generated  sludge.

Sewage Sludge Composition

     The analysis of  York's sludge,  as shown  in Table  1,  indicates  that  the
sludge is high in Cd.

                                    143

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Transport System

     Sludge is normally removed from the plant five days a week regardless
of weather conditions.  The .vacuum dried sludge is hauled in two five
cubic yard dump trucks to two farms, one three miles from the plant and
the other six miles.

     Liquid sludge is hauled to one of 40 farms five days a week, weather
permitting.  The City has five 2,500 gallon tank trucks.  Of these, one
is standby and the other four average five loads each per day.  The
sites are an average of about 20 miles round trip distance from the
plant with a driving time of about one hour.

     The apparatus for loading the trucks consists of a belt conveyor
from the vacuum filters to the dump trucks and a gravity flow stand pipe
for the liquid sludge.

Landspreading Operation

     The dried sludge is dumped in piles in the fields  for later spread-
ing with a dozer by the farmer.  Normally sludge has to be stockpiled on
a portion of t^ie treatment plant property for about two months of the
year when it is impossible to get into the fields.  The sludge is then
later loaded on other city trucks and hauled to the farms.  Only two
farms receive dried sludge.

     The liquid sludge trucks are equipped with pumps which spray the
sludge over a 10 foot strip, starting about 5 feet from the truck.
Application is very even and unloading time is about five minutes.
During wet weather, sludge is applied to grass land or  along graveled
lanes.  Edges of fields along lanes often receive as many as 30 to 40
applications per year.  Other fields receive one to five applications
per year, depending upon the crop.  The heaviest single application
applied is four loads per acre  (i.e., 2 dry tons).  All fanners except
the two who will take the dried sludge are charged $2 per tank truck
load for the sludge.  Income from this in 1974 was $1,384.  The only
monitoring of sludge utilization sites is being done by the U.S. Department
of Agriculture's Agricultural Research Service.

Costs

     The treatment plant was completed in 1954.  Since  buildings were
depreciated over 20 years and stationary equipment over 10 years, there
are no depreciation costs for these items.  Based on actual operating
information provided by the City, detailed costs were determined for the
annual capital and operating expenses for liquid haul and vacuum filtration
and hauling of sludge.  The total cost per dry ton of liquid sludge
hauled was $73 and for vacuum filtration $165.  With the vacuum filtered
sludge, the cost of dewatering accounts for about $140  per dry ton.  The
major reasons for high dewatering costs are that repairs on the older
vacuum filters cost about $60,000 and labor to operate  them cost about
$53,000.  A detailed breakdown is attached.

                                    144

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                  COST FOR DISPOSAL OF LIQUID SLUDGE

Annual Capital Cost

     Vehicle Depreciation1                             $8280
       1964 RIO Tank Truck
       1967 RIO Tank Truck
       1968 Diamond T Tank
         Truck, cost: $16,148
       1970 International Tank
         Truck, cost: $16,173
       1970 International Tank
         Truck, cost: $16,528
     Stationary Equipment Depreciation                 $0
     Building Depreciation                             $0

          Total Annual Capital Cost                                   $8,280

Annual Operating Cost

     Personnel             Hourly Rate  %^ Time Worked    Cost

          4 Truck Drivers     $4.25         100        $35,360
          Auto Mechanic        4.54          54          5,060
          Laboratory Assistant 5.77           5            600
          Chief Operator       6.00          23          2,810
          Supervisor           7.50           5            720
                                                       $44,550

     Fringe Benefits at 40 percent                     $17,820

     Vehicle Maintenance and Operation

          Repairs                                      $ 9,670
          Fuel and Oil                                   8,010
          Insurance                                      2,890

TOTAL ANNUAL OPERATING COST                                            $82,940

TOTAL ANNUAL CAPITAL AND OPERATING  COST                                $91,220
      1  Vehicles were  depreciated over  8  years  at 8 percent interest,
which amounts  to a  depreciation  charge  of $14.14  per $1,000 per month.
                                    145

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                             2
10 PERCENT CONTINGENCY FACTOR                                         $ 9,120


INCOME FROM SALE OF LIQUID SLUDGE                                     $ 1,380


TOTAL ANNUAL COST                                                     $98,960


	Total Annual Cost	  =  $98,960	  =  $73 per dry ton

Total Sludge Hauled Annually     1,360 dry tons
     2  A 10 percent contingency factor is added to cover such items as
administrative overhead.
                                   146

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              COST FOR DISPOSAL OF VACUUM FILTERED SLUDGE

Annual Capital Cost

     Vehicle Depreciation                                   $3,150
       1970 Chevrolet Dump Truck,  cost:  $6,808
       1974 Diamond T Dump Truck,  cost:  $11,708
     Plant Equipment Depreciation                           $0

          Total Annual Capital Cost                                    $3,150

Annual Operating Cost

     Personnel                Hourly Rate    % Time Worked    Cost

          Truck Driver          $4.25            100         $8,840
          Auto Mechanic          4.54             19          1.770
          2 Vacuum Filter
            Operators            503             100         20,920
          Vacuum Filter
            Laborer              3.86            100          8,030
          Vacuum Filter
            Laborer              3.73            100          7,760
          Laboratory Assistant   5.77              5            600
          Chief Operator         6.00              2.5          310
          Supervisor             7.50              5        	720
                                                            $48,950

     Fringe Benefits at 40 percent                          $19,580

     Vehicle Maintenance and Operation

          Repairs                                           $ 2,100
          Fuel and Oil                                          430
          Insurance                                           1,130

     Vacuum Filter Maintenance

          Chemicals                                         $ 9,590
          Parts and Repair                                    60,000

     Utilities                                              $1,000
      1    Vehicles were depreciated over  8 years  at  8  percent interest,
which amounts  to a depreciation charge of $14.14  per $1,000 per month.
                                    147

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TOTAL ANNUAL OPERATING COST                                          $142,780

TOTAL ANNUAL CAPITAL AND OPERATING COST                              $145,930

10 PERCENT CONTINGENCY FACTOR                                        $ 14,590

TOTAL ANNUAL COST                                                    $160,520

	Total Annual Cost	 =  $160,520      =  $165 per dry ton
Total Sludge Hauled Annually    970 dry tons
     2  A 10 percent contingency factor is added to cover such items as
administrative overhead.
                                   148

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                            TABLE  1
             Sludge Sample from York, Pennsylvania
     Dry Weight                     4.4 percent
     Ash                            39.0 percent
     Zn                          3,260 mg/kg
     Cu                            770 mg/kg
     Ni                            200 mgAg
     Cd                             65.1 mg/kg
     Pb                            960 mgAg
     Cd/Zn                          2.0 percent
     Zn  (Eq)                     5,400
Values reported as mg/kg are  on a dry weight basis,
 ya!542
 SW-619
                               149
                                     •U.S. GOVERHMENT PRINTING OFFICE  1977 0-260-880/103

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                            Regional Offices

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