Let's  Recycle!
Lesson Plans
for Grades  K-6 and 7-12
This booklet (SW-801) was prepared for the U.S.
Environmental Protection Agency under demon-
stration grant 580368-01-Somerville. The editing
and design is by the Office of Solid Waste.
U.S. Environmental Protection Agency 1980

                     In  December  1975,.  the U.S. Environmental .Pro-
                     tection Agency gave financial and technical assis-
                     tance to  a demonstration  project in  the  city of
                     Somerville,  Massachusetts,   to  determine  the
                     feasibility of separating out recyclable  household
                     waste from other waste  prior to pick  up.   The
                     funds were granted on the premise  that informa-
                     tion  on this approach to resource recovery would
                     be of value to other  municipalities throughout the
                     nation. This program was the first of its kind and
                     represented an  opportunity to establish  munici-
                     pal-scale, low-technology recycling  as a viable
                     alternative to disposal.

                     A  major  factor in the  success of the Somerville
                     program was an aggressive public education  cam-
                     paign to inform residents  of the program  and the
                     importance of  their participation.   The school
                     system was  used  to help  spread information to
                     children and, through them, to their  parents.

                     These lesson  plans  are based upon those which
                     emerged  as part of  that educational  effort  (pre-
                     pared by John  Madama, Steppingstones,  Inc.).
                     Many of  the ideas and  activities were  originally
                     developed by  the Environmental Action Coalition
                     of New York City in a series of teaching  packets
                     called "Don't  Waste Waste."  EPA  acknowledges
                     permission  for their use  and permission  by the
                     Atlanta Clean City Commission to reprint  the skit
                     Throwaway Three."

3t's Recycle
ntroduction                               iv
 J~w to. Use These L jsson Plans                v
develop a Fact Sheet                       vi

rades K-6
Topic One—What is Waste?                   2
Topic Two—Where Does Waste Go?             3
Topic Three—How Does Waste Affect
              Our Resources?               6
Topic Four—W-hy Is There So Much Waste?       9
Topic Five—What Can We Do About Waste?     11
\ctivity Puzzles                       •     14

rad«s 7-12
Topic One—What is Waste?            .      18
Topic Two—How Do We Dispose of Our Waste?"  19
Topic Three—How Does Waste Affect
              Our Resources?              23
Topic Four—Why Is There So Much Waste?      26
Topic Five—What Can We Do About Waste?     27
"Throwaway Thr-je"—A Short Skit             33
Make Your Own Paper                       38

tate Solid Waste Agencies                    39

Grades K-6

Let's  Recycle!
In  the United  States  today we
too often discard items which in
earlier times would  have  been
repaired  or saved for other  uses.
In  faqt,  many  modern products
are  designed  for  a  relatively
short life followed by a  speedy
trip  to  the  refusr pile.   The
refuse from the materials  we use
daily  adds   about   140   million
metric  tons  per  year  to  our
municipal waste  (this does not
include the waste generated  by
the  industries  producing  these
materials).   This   quantity  of
solid waste may be visualized by
imagining the  New  Orleans Su-
perdome being  filled from  floor
to ceiling, twice each day, every
day of t'-i? year.

How we  dispose of all this waste
in    an   environmentally   sound
manner is a  complex  and often
controversial issue. Water pollu-
tion not  only results from direct
dumping into the seas, but also
from run-off and  leaching  from
dumps and burial sites. Air pol-
lution  not only  results from open
burning,   but  also   from  faulty
incineration  and    from   gases
(caused  by decomposition) sur-
facing in landfills.  Fires, explo-
sions, noxious odors, rodents, and
disease must be guarded  against
in all cases.  And  direct contact
with refuse is often hazardous to
the .public  as well  as  to  the
waste  collectors  and processors
(who,  incidentally,    have  the
highest on-the-job injury rate of
any occupation in the nation).

Our disposal»options are steadily
being  reduced.   -Locating  sites
for new landfills  is getting more
difficult  due  to  economic  con-
straints,   public  concern   ov
By  the  same  date,  municipal
solid  waste  collection  and  dis-
posal   costs   will  increase  to
around $50 per  ton, or  S7.5 Kil
lion  annually. .  Longer hauling
distances    from   metropolitan
areas  to landfill sites and  more
stringent  environmental regula-
tions  push  this cost upwarJs, as
do  general 'increases  in   labor
costs  and rising land values.

One of the chief ways  to  lessen
our waste disposal problems is to
reuse  many  of  the  things we
have  habitually throv n  out.  If
we  carefully  consider  all pur-
chases,  we can reduce  the  num-
ber of item.s  eventually thrown
away   and  also  conserve  our
dwindling resources.
Some of our trash  has econor.ic
value.  It  can be sold or repro-
.essed to be used again  to make
new products.   Or  it  can  be
burned to produce useful electri-
cal and  other  forms of energy.
This will also reduce our reliance
on  foreign oil  supplies  f jr  fuel.
Moreover,  the recdVery of  ma-
terials reduces1 waste "jid  pollu-
tion  and  also  conserves  our
limited  natural  resources  and

It  is  becoming increasingly  im-
portant  to  make   the  public
aware  of  the  hidden  Mgarbage
crisis," which threatens to engulf
our  cults,  and our natural re-
source bt 36 as we)1.  The school
system i< .in  inva-.uaJle tool for
increas; i%  panic awareness of
this problem.  Teaeners are in an
excellent position  to  enlighten
our younger  citizev concerning
how solid waste  p.oolems relate
to them, and how '.hey can con-
tribute to a solution.

How to use these

iesson  plans

The  purpose  of this guide is to
inform  students  of solid  waste
problems and the options to  dis-
posal.  The  activities  were  de-
signed to  help students better
 understand   the  world  around
 them, a world  that  faces  m-.nv
 health  and  environmental  prc'o
 lems caused by lack  of ?.de<-;uate
 pollution controls to  protect  the
 air, water,  and  land.  We hope
 that  these activities  will stimu-
 late  the students   to  reassess
 some of our present values and
 habits  in light  of  their impacts
 upon our environment.

 The lesson plans deal specifically
 with waste  and recycling,' but in
 so  doing encompass  ?uch-  broad
 areas  as- sona!  and  economic
 issues,  natural  resources, and  a
 variety  of   pollution  problems.
 The  manual is  divided into two
 sections: one  for grades kinder-
 garten  through  6, anri one  for
.grades  7 through 12.  Tiie activi-
 ties have been ilesigneJ  to give
 the teacher maximum  flexibil-
 ity—activities   may   easily  be
 eliminated,  or  modified, as class
 needs  predict.   The  teacher's
 most important  role is to gen-
 erate enthusiasm,  which is best
 accomplished with student  acti-
 vities.  Projects for  all student's
 should  be  encouraged,  and  the
 teacher's  role  as  a   lecturer
 minimized.   Projects should b'e
 designed  so that  the  student's
 personal involvement will  carry
 over into a  continuing conscious-
 ness  for  conservation  in   the

Develop  a Fact Sheet
Y-ou  or  your  class may want to
find the answers to the following-
questions in order to make these
lessons  relate  directly  to  your

    1.  What  is the population of
your  community?    How  many

  ' 2.  How  many  tons of gar-
bage  does  your  community  dis-
pose of each day?   (This  infor-
mation  may  be obtained  from
the Department of Public  Works
or the  Department  of Sanita-

    3. How many pounds are dis-
posed of  per person  per  day?
Per year?   (The national average
is  3.5 pounds per day, or 1,300
pounds per year per person, but
each community is different.)
    4. How much does it cost to
dispose  of the waste  per  ton?
(The average cost to landfill in
1976  was  $30 per  ton.)  How
much  does this cost your com-
munity every day?  Every year?

    5.  How is garbage disposed
of  in  your -community?  Is it
burned,  buried, dumped? Is  any.
of it subject to resource recov-
ery processes,  for example, sep-
arate  collection of newspapers,
cans, and bottles?

    6. Is there a recycling pro-
gram  in your town?  Is it run by
the city or by private citizens? .

An  article describing the results
of this survey might be prepared
for  publication  in the school or
local newspaper.

Topic  One—What  Is  Waste?
Waste is material that is no longer used or needed
Vocabulary:  waste, dump, burn,
garbage, wastebasket.

To lead .into this activity:
Q-  Who knows what  waste or
    garbage >s?
Q-  What are some other names
    we have  for waste?
Q-  Where do we put our class-
    room waste?
To follow up:
Q-  What  happens  to our waste
    when it leaves the school?   •
Q-  What  happens  to our waste
    when it leaves our home?
Q-  What  kinds of  waste do we
    throw  away   at   home?
    (Write  them on the black-
Q-  Where does it go?
Q-  Has anyone ever seen a big
    dump  or a place where  gar-
    bage is burned?
 An activity to follow the above
 would be to  have the children
 draw  their  impressions  of  a
 dump.  Another possibility would
.be to make  a montage  of pic-
 tures of products from a maga-
 zine  jumbled  together like in a
 dump.  The students could go on
 a field trip to a sanitary landfill.
 and draw or write their reactions
 to the site.
There are  many different types  of waste
Vocabulary:  metal, glass, plas-

The teacher or students should
bring in as  many clean and dif-
ferent examples  of waste  as
possible.  Include plastic, news-
paper,  cardboard,  stationery,
different types of cans and glass.
Have the children sort the waste
into categories such as all paper
waste,  metal,  glass,  plastic.
They should  manipulate it  as
much as possible to feel the dif-
ferent textures and shapes.

Have the children see which ob-
jects are attracted to a magnet.
Play a game whereby objects are
placed in  a paper bag  and the
children use only their sense of
touch to determine if it is glass,
metal, plastic, or paper.

Have the children trace outlines
of the objects and make pictures
of them to color.  What are their

 Topic  Two—Where  Does Waste  Go?
Clean air, water, and land are necessary for our
happiness and survival
Vccibulary:  air, water, soil.

To illustrate these media and
ttieir  importance to us you will
need: a balloon (have one of the
children blow it up), a glass of
water, and a potted plant.

Let the air out of the balloon
allowing the children to feel the
air on their hands. Make sure
they understand that this is air
that was in the balloon.
Q- Why do we need air?

Have them take a doep breech to
understand that without  clean
air we could  not live.  Discuss
with them the wind, airplanes,
whistles,  fans—tliese all  illus-
trate"  air and its  movements.
They  .an ma^e a  fan out of
folded paper.

Show them the water.
Q- Why do we need water?

Have  them relate their  experi-
ence with water.

Show them the potted plant..

Q- What grows in the soil?
Q- Does anyone have a garden?
Q- If we had no soil could  we
   have any food?
Waste is  disposed  of in the air, water, and land
Q- How many have ever seen
   pollution? What kind?
Q- Why is pollution bad for us?
Q- What is the worst type of
   pollution?  Have the child-
   ren  vote. The contestants
   are:  smoke, dirty water;
   litter, a*>d open dumps.
Q- Why are these bad  for us?
   (Smoke burns our eyes; lit-
   ter is ugly.)
   How does our waste pollute?
   This question should tie to-
   gether and reinforce the un-
   derstanding that waste pol-
   lutes by smoke, dirty water,
   Utter, and open dumps.

Have the  children look for signs
of pollution  on  the way  to and
irom school.   This  activity  is
especially  good  for litter hunts
with the teacher.  The children
can  count  the number of differ-
ent types of litter.

Q-   What  is the  most common
   :  type? .•
Q-   Where  is   the  most  litter
Q-   What is a litterbug?

This activity gives the option of
having the children clean up the
litter around the school.
What happens at the dump?

The  teacher  should  take a large
plastic  or glass  jar filled  with
moist dirt and ask  the  children
to add  the  following  items:   A
metal barrette or paper clip,  a
piece of  plastic,   a  piece  of
aluminum foil, a piece of news-
paper,  a piece  of- food (apple,
orange  skin).   instead  of  one
minidump for  the  whole  class,
different  individuals  or  groups
can make their own. Add a little
"rain" from time  to time.

Explain  to the children that this
is  the way waste is piled on  an
open  dump.  Observe  what  hap-
pens over the following weeks to
the objects  in the jar.  Over a
period of time you can  expect
the food to rot and smell if the
jar is opened.   The  newspaper
will  also  decompose,, the metal
barrette will gradually rust, and
nothing  will  happen to the plas-
tic or aluminum foil. A group or
individual  could   monitor   the
changes and put them on a chart.
The  teacher  should point out to
the students  that better ways of
disposing of  our garbage on the
land are being developed. Child-
ren  should  be aware  that  the
environmental problems associa-
ted  with  open  dumps  can  be
eliminated  with  sanitary  land-
fills,  which  will continue  to  be
the  major form of disposal for
many years to come.

Some problems with open  burn-
ing of waste may be examined by
using 'a -tin  can with  air holes
punched   around   the   bottom.
Loosely place in it  small  pieces
of  waste  food  (such  as orange
peel, egg shell,  small  piece of
carrot),  a.1 uminum  foil,  plastic
wrap, glass, and newspaper.  In a
safe place outdoors, the teacher
should light a match to the con-
tents.  Have the children observe
what happens.

Q-   Do 'juu see any smoke?  A.iy
Q-   What things melt?
Q-   Could the heat given  off be
     used?  For what?
The paper  will burn easily.  The
food  will  chac,  but net  really
burn.   The plastic  will catch on
fire and drip down  into the pan,
giving off  fumes as a  result of
its petroleum base, and leaving a
sticky residue.  The metals will
not burn at all.
Q-   When  we burn our'garbage,
     wherj does  the  smoke, go?
     Is this air pollution?
Q-   What can happen to us when
     there  is  too  much  smoke
     getting in to the air?

Explain that wasce cp.n be burned
safely and  wit'iout bad  effects
on  the environment  if  properly
constructed and  operated incin-
erators are used.  Th'ise inciner-
ators must have  special controls.
to avoid polluting the air.
Explain  that  garbage  can  also
pollf.te  water. Illustrate-by hav-
ing the children  place different
types  of  garbage  into  a  clear
bowl   containing  clean  water,
shredded  paper,  food scraps, a
tin can, a  dark liquid  such as
coffee. Let the children observe
the chang ;s  in  the  water  after
each addition.

Further  state   that ,  ^ater be-
comes polluted by ^.ii'bage  eveni
when  the garbage is  not  put  d;-
rectly into the water.

Illustrate  by  pouring  some  ink
01 to a  mound  of sand that *;>.t
b en  placed in a bowl.  Expla u
chat the ink represents the po;." ••
t^.iits  in garbage. Sprinkle wa',»;t
over  the mound  (to  repr".sen
rain)  until  it  drains onto ti(
bowl.    Explain  that  the  ./ate
would  run off  into  rivers  am
lakes  or would  seep  down int<
the ground and pollute the wate

Topic Three—How  Does Waste
                           Affect  Our  Resources?
The  materials we use  come from the  earth
Vocabulary: earth, soil.

Have the  children  name  some-
thing made out of paper,  metal,
glass,  and a  favorite type  of
Using, the  blackboard or a large
piece of paper, help the children
to trace these materials back to
the source.  Examples: • Cereal
box - paper - wood - trees - soil
-earth.- Pop bottle - glass - sand
- rocks - earth. Metal  can -
rocks - earth.  Apple - trees -
soil -earth.
Ask the children  if they  can
think of anything that  they use
that is not provided by the earth.
(The children will probably name
some things but, on close exam-
ination, it will be seen that these
things  are actually made from
the earth's natural resources.)
Waste  uses up the  materials of  the earth
Illustrate tire use of & natural re-

From a container labeled "earth,"
pass out clay explaining that this
is  an example of taking  the
earth's resources to make  things

Let .the children make models of
things that they like to use.

Write the words BURY, BURN,
and DUMP/LITTER on 3 small
boxes or cups.
I ot the students place their clay
product into  the  boxes  they

Q- After  we bury, burn, dump,
   or  throw away  our car,
   paper,  etc.,  what  will
   happen to it?

Repeat  several times  to show
that as we buy and use products
we use up the  supply  of the
earth's materials. Point out that
the resource container  is now
empty and that the  resources
have  been  used up; there is no
more  clay  with which to make
new thimrs.
Point out how heavy the garbage
can is, that someone will have to
take it to the disposal site, that
it would contribute to pollution,
and that it will take up room at
the site. Also, point out that it is
still valuable material that  can
be used.

Q- Can  we ever get back  the
   things  we  threw  away?
   Which ones, if possible?
Q- What is going to  happen if
   we  keep  taking  materials
   from the earth?   What  will
   happen when we run out?

Sug^e-c that instead of throwing
the clay away it could be reused.
If  we did this with all our gar-
bage, very little would  have *.o
be hauled to a disposal site, and
we would not  take as much from
the earth.    Point  our that the
heat generated by burning could
be used,  thus  saving some  of our
precious fuels.
                                  The  following  illustrate that by
                                  wasting the things' we use  in our
                                  home we  are  using  up the vital
                                  resour ce supply of the earth.
     each  child  to list all the
different containers that provide
his or her evening meal. (Inc'.ude
ail the  materials used to  nake
the container.)   For example, a
child eats soup, hamburger, ket-
chup, apple  sauce, carrots, ice
cream and milk.   The list might
resemble the following:
    Soup— metal can with label.
    Hamburger— clear    plastic
    and styrofoam wrap.
    Ketchup— gkss  bottle, me-
    tal cap, paper label.
    Apple  Sauce— glass jar with
    metal top and paper label.
    Carrots— plastic  or   paper
    Ice Cream— paper or card-
    board container.
    Milk— waxed cardboard con-

Ask the students  to keep a count
of each material used and  the
total containers used.  They will
be  interested  in seeing  which
family   threw  away  the  most
items.   Stress  accuracy — there
will be a tendency to give elabo-
rate totals and to  magnify  the
amount  used.
When estimated totals are gain-
ed for the number of containers
thrown  away by the whole class
for one meal, it will be a rather
amazing number.  (See activity
eleven.)  To continue this illus-
tration,  have  the  class multiply
one  meal  by three  to  get  an
estimate for one day. Next mul-
tiply  the  class's  total  by  the
number of classes in  the school.
This  total will be  even  more
amazing to them.

An. average count c'  thrrv.away
containers per  family should  '<•*
mads.   Then  multiply  b;   the
number of familie? for the total
number  of  containers  thrown
away in your community for ono
day.  Then multiply by  365 days
in a  year. Review  that  these
containers are made of resources
that are necessary for survival.

Have the students imagine  that
all   the   containers  the  class
threw  away  last  night  were
stacked up in  a  corner of  the

Q-  How   much  of  the  room
    would it occupy?
Q-  How   much  of  the  room
    would a  week's  worth  of
    garbage occupy?

       It  costs  us  money  to  dispose
                                     of our  waste
 If aach person in your commun-
 ity (pop.      ) throws away 3.5
 pounds of refuse each day:

 0-  How many pounds does this
     equal in one day?
 Q-  How many tons is this?

 Have the children try to imagine
 where all this refuse is being put
 every day of every year in every
 city.  Reinforce that  the above
 figures  are only for  your  com-

 You can also go further and get
 figures  for your  State and the
 entire U.S.  Restate  that these
 are resources that can be put to
 good use.

 If it costs your town about $30
 for  each ton of refuse  that is
 disposed of properly:

 Q-  How much does this cost per
 Q-  How much does this cost per
'Q-  Where  does  this  money
     come from?
Some statistics on the. board will
help the students to realize the
enormous amount  of resources
we  are throwing  away.   We
Americans throw away each year
    28 billion bottles—glass
    60 billion cans—metal
    4  million tons  of  plastic—
    40 million tons of  paper--
    .100 million tires—rubber
    3  million cars—metals

To  have  the children  better
grasp  these  enormous  numbers,
ask them if they stacked 1 mil-
lion pennies  on  top  of  each
other, how high the pile of pen-
nies would be.  Answer:  over
5,000  feet.   (Compare to the
height  of a  familiar mountain,
monument, or building.) This  is
an  easy  math problem  using
about  15 pennies to the inch.

Topic  Four—Why  Is There
So  Much Waste?
Population  and lifestyle affect
the  amount of  waste
Draw a squaro on the floor witfi
chalk, approximately fhe  feet
by five  feet.  This square can
also be  delineated by grouping
chairs to form the perimeters.
Ask one child to step inside the
square holding one piece of solid
waste, probably scrap  paper.
Emphasize that each person in-
volved cannot step  outside the
square once he or she is in it.

Then ask another to step in, as-
sume they then have '.wo  child-
ren, those two marry and  have
two children, etc. The number
will grow very quickly  yet the
square remains const-nt.   Ask
the students how th-y would be
able to  get anyone ovt  of the
square.   As  the square  grows
more crowded, obvious reactions
will  be  observed,  especially
pushing, restlessness, and- gen-
eral aggressive bena /ior.
Ask all the students to return to
their seats, having fir;t dropped
their pieces of solid waste in the
square.  The result they will see
will certainly be solid waste pol-
lution.  This graphically bringsi
home ' the  concept  of  mcve
people, , more  waste,  that Dun
crowded  cities  have   limitedl
space,  and that the amount ofl
waste pollution increases everyi

A  "?sual  aid  in  the form  of a
bulletin board or display could be
constructed using packages  and
pictures of  packaging  brought.
from  home by teachers and stu-
dents.  "Actual  packages  work
best,  but carefully  chosen pic-
tures  are  also valuable.   The
bulletin board display can evolve
into a comparison of "good" and
"bad" packaging.  If pictures or
student  drawings are  used,  a
theme  on how  packaging  has
changed could be  developed.   A
discussion of which packages are
excessive and  not needed could
be held. The board can be broken
down  into three categories:
    1. Nature's packaging:  co-
conut, bananas, peanuts, etc.
    2. Older types of packaging:
paper  bags, pottery, returnable
    3. Modern packaging, plastic
wrap,  styrofoam, egg cartons,
plastic-coated  milk  containers,
individually wrapped packets.
Q-  What  are  these  packages   Q-
    made of?
Q-  Where  did   they originally
    come from?
Q-  Can they be recycled or re-
    used?  Which ones?
Point  out the  ways in which
packaging  can  prevent  waste:
reducing   spoilage,   individual
servings,  distribution  efficien-
cies, etc.  Ask if some packages
seem  to use  excessive materials'
and thus contribute to the waste
How  would  you  design  an
ecological package (one that
requires as little energy and
as few resources as  possible
for its production or dispo-
What  about  the  ice cream
cone?  What  other packages
can you eat?

Topic  Five-What Can We  Do About
Recycling  takes  old waste and  turns it into new
Vocabulary: recycle

This  activity is  very important
since it introduces the  concept
of recycling and reuse as an al-
ternative to disposal.  The child-
ren should  become  very  familiar
with  the word "recycle" and use
it frequently.

Write the woro "recycle" on the
board or a  large sheet of paper.
Next to it draw a picture  of a
bicycle wheel.  Point out to the
children that  b> th end  i.i  the
word "cycle."        ,

A bicycle wheel ijoes around and
around—the word recycl*- 'neans
to use over and over agair c,r go

Point out that when wa recycle
something,  it does not add to our
disposal problem but  goes back
around  into something new.  Old
paper  can  become new  paper.
Old cans and glass become new
cans and glass, toys, etc.

Have the children imagine some-
thing old and  what it could be
turned into by recycling.  Exam-
ple:  an old soup  can may  be-
come part of a new fire engine;
a pop bottle may become a new
window in the school.

Q-  Has anyone ever heard of a
    "junkman" who goes around
   ( looking for people's trash?

Q-  What might there be in one
    person's  waste that  would
    not  be  trash or waste to
    someone else?

A possible homework assignment
related tu this concept would be
to ask  the students  to write a
short story, real or imaginary,
describing  something  valuable
that they found buried in the
garbage. The stories  should in-
clude accounts  of the previous
owners and reasons why the ob-
jects were thrown away.

List the possible advantages of
    1. Reducing pollution
    2. Saving natural resources
    3. Saving energy
    4. Saving money
Set up a  "use-it-again" box for
your classroom.  Have the stu-
dents  paint,-color, or paste pic-
tures on it. Place in it all ma-
terials that can be  used again.
For example, paper that has only
been used on  one  side can be
used again for drawing  paper.
quiz sheets, etc.   Craft  items
from home can also' be brought
in  to make collages and other art
projects (egg cartons, margarine
tubes, thread spools, etc.)
Set  up a "swap box"  where the
children can bring in old toys or
objects that  might  be thrown
out.  They can \ trade an old toy
for  another one that  is new to

Have   a  show-and-tell  session
where  the  children bring  in  ob-
jects and discuss how they could
be reused or recycled.
 If there is a recycling program in
 your  community  where  you  can
 bring paper, cans, butties,   or
 ether materials,  s_t  up a recy-
 cling  box  for.  the  classroom.
 .Markets tor collected  materials
 may  be found under  "wastepa-
 per," "scrap dealers," or "recy-
 cling  centers"   in  the  Yellow
 Pages.     When  you  take  the
 materials to the  center bring the
 class to see how  it is run.  If you
 receive  money  for  the  recy-
 clables plan a class trip children
 will remember.
Organize a  play  or a  fair  (or
both) centered around the theme
of recycling and its possibilities.
If you  have a  fair  you  might
include   artwork   related   to
recycling, collages  made  out of
•scrap,  and inventions  made  en-
tirely out of recycled  materials.
This could be particularly impor-
tant if your town does not recy-
 cle,  for you could  turn this class
learning experience into  an  ed-
 ucational opportunity  for  your
 whole community.
 Take a field trip to a papermill
 to see how paper is made.
 Things to do at at home:

 Use things more-than once:
     1'. Use, grocery  bags to hold
-garbage instead • of- buying gar-
 bage bagr..
     2. Use grocery bags to wrap
 packages io send.
     3. Us.e  grocery  bags  for art
     4.  Use small, bags to carry
 your lunch to schook-

 Give things that we can no long-
 er use  to  people  who can use

Recycling  in  nature
        :t*i 1t>
Vocabulary:  mold

Mold   Gardens   -
How   things
As  a demonstration place very
small pieces of fruit such  as ap-
ple,  orange skin, and  bread  on
top of some moist soil  in a con-
tainer.  Cover with  clear plastic
and  rubberband.    Observe  the

As!<  thf cnildren if they know
what  is  growing on the  food?
Explain  to  them  that  these are
molds and that they help  return
things to the soil by feeding on
the food.
This  activity completes the cy-
cle by shov;ing  that recycling  is
something nature has been doing
all the time.

Collect dead leaves  in  several
stages of breakdown.

Q-  Do you know what becomes
    of all the leaves that are on
    the ground  in the fall.
Q-  Where do they go next cum-

Make the  connection that leavec
become soil by  letting the chil-
dren see and reel the layers of
leaf and soil that you collected.

Make a large <»rt project showing
the cycle  of leaves.   The  illus-
tration would show  how a tree's
leaves fall, decay into the soil,
nourish the tree by making the
soil  richer, and thus  help the
tree  to grow and produce  more
Another way -:o illustrate would
be to print  the  follc tfing words
on 3 x 5 caras: soil, buds, roots,
green leaves, trunk, dead leaves,
branch.    Distribute  the seven
cards to seven children' at ran-
dom. After ea:h child has shown
its card to the cl.iis, give a long
piece of strirg to the child hold-
ing the  card marked "soil."  Ask
the  children to arrange  them-
selves  in  the  proper  order  of
growth.   As each determines its
oorrefyonding position, he or she
should  take  hold of the string.
They should end up in a circle.

                          Recycling Center
do not litter

                Recycling Center

Crossword Puzzle

1.   Cans are made of this.
3.   Items made of  iron or steel
    will do this if left outside.
4.   Where recycling begins.
7.   These are made  of rubber
    and take up a lot of space at
    disposal sites.
9.   A lot of paper  can be made
    from one.
10.  Old  clothes,   towels,  and

2.   Everything we make and use
    comes from here.
5.   Used to  make plastic and to
    run rrc-chines.
6.   They  like  to live at  open
8.   Trash which is thrown along
    highways and in parks.
11.  We can  produce this when
    we burn  waste.
Answers on inside back cover

Grades 7-12

Topic  One—What  Is Waste?
       Waste is  material  that  is no
                longer  used  or  needed
Q- • What is waste?
Q-  What ary some of the other
    names we have for waste?

Using a goo'd dictionary, look up
and discuss the cultural  origins
of the words  garbage,  trash,
junk, refuse, rubbish, scrap. List
the above words in their order of
offensiveness to you.  Does this
list have any relation to the ori-
gin of the word?
    What  types  of  waste are
    produced from an average
    Which ones are in the great-
    est quantity?
A display can be set up illustra-
ting the different types*
                           Identify the types of waste that
                           result from the production, con-
                           sumption and disposal of a can of
                           beef stew.  The main compo-
                           nents to be traced are  meat,
                           potatoes, tin can, paper label.

                           For  example:   MEAT—grain
                           from the earth, steers eat  grain,
                           steers slaughtered, we eat beef.
                           Result—grain  waste,  manure
                           waste,  slaughter waste, sewage
                           waste, table scraps.

I    cwoa
1C   1 WO
How  Do  We  Dispose  of
Our Waste?
                   Present  solid waste  disposal
                   causes pollution of  our air,
                   water, and land
                       What is rreant by "throwing
                       something away?"
                   Q-  Where is away?
                   Q-  How are waste products dis-.
                       posed  of  in  our  society?
                       (Dumping, littering, burning,
                       burying, recycling)
                   Q-  How does our town dispose
                       of its residential waste?
                   This activity should take place in
                   a  laboratory  vrith the proper
                   equiprient such as goggles, bun-
                   sen burner, ttr.gs, and a fume

                   Proper VentHsuon and Safety is
                   stressed, crucially for plasticsT"
                              Break the class into teams. Giv
Take a  large plastic OP glass jar
and  fill it  with moist soil.  Add
small pieces of the following ob-
jects. A metal barrette or paper
clip,  newspaper,  plastic,  food
(apple or orange peel), aluminum
foil.  Add  a  little "rain"  from
time to time.

Explain that this is the way solid
waste is piled on an open dump.
Periodically over  the following
weeks, examine the things in the
jar to see if anything happens to
them.  Over a period of time you
can expect the food and newspa-
per  to  begin  to  change.   The.
metal  will rust.   Nothing will
happen  to  the plastic  or  alumi-
num foil.  Make a chart to dis-
play your findings.

Q-  Do you know the location of
    any open   dump* in  this
    area?  What do you think of
Q-  How  does  an   open  dump
    pollute?    (Water  pollution
    from   liquids  and  metals
    •leaching   to   groundwater
    supply.  Air pollution caused
    by  smoke  from   fires and
    gase.s  after  decomposition
    of  materials.   Many  open
    dumps  are found  in  wet-
    lands, interfering  with eco-
    system-   maintenance   and
    flood control. Odors and  rat
    infestation. Unsightly.  Uses
    up  valuable land that  is  in
    short supply.)
Q-  What happens when we run
    out of space to dump?
Q-  In  what ways  would  it  be
    better  if  the  waste  was
    buried in  a  sanitary  land-
    fill—one  designed to pre-
    vent leaching and build-up
    of  gases  from  decomposi-
    tion?  What problems  would
    still remain?
Discuss litter.

Q-  What is litter?  Name some
    examples  that  can he found
    on the way to school.
Q-  What  is the most common
0-  Who  are  the  worst  litter-
Q-  What are  the social and en-
    vironmental costs of litter?
Q-  How  could  littering,  be re-
    duced or stopped?

Waste disposal  costs  money
Find out  the population in  ycur
community.    If  each  person
throws out about 3.5 pounds/day:
Q-  How  many pounds are dis-
    posed of per week,  month,
    and year per person?
Q-  How   many  tons  of  solid
    waste are generated in  your
    community each day?
Q-  How  much does  an average
    family  "throw   away"  per
Q-  How  much is thrown away
    each   year  in  the  United
   ; States based on your com-
    munity's average?  (Popula-
    tion = 225  million, answer =
   ; 144 million tons/year.)
As a homework assignment have
the students list all the ontain-
ers that  made  their  evening
meal.   Have them involve their
parents. List bags, bottles, jars,
cans, and  packages.   Calculate
total   containers   per   class,
school, and city (	fam-
ilies) for one mea£

Q-  How much does  it cost  our
    town to dispose of its refuse
    for one year if it cost $30 to
    dispose o' ,1.^ ton?
Q-  Where  does  this   money
    come from?
Find' out from your Department
of  Sanitation  how  much   the
weight and post of waste  has
changed in your  community  over
as  many years  as  records  are
available.  Graph the results to
show the increase.

Waste has value when  it is  reused  or  recycled
Ask the students to think about
the different kinds of things poo-
pie throw away.

Q-  Would rich people throw out
    different kinds  of  things
    than poor people?   What
    about the junkman  or the
    antique stores?
Q-  What might there be in one
    person's trash that might be
    a treasure to others?  Re-
    late any personal experien-
    ces with such discoveries.
Q-  Has anyone in the class sold
    scrap  metals  or  furniture
    for money?
Q-  Can  we  ever get back the
    things we throw away?
Recycling  is  a  process  of  use  and  reuse
Q-  What does recycle mean?

Break the word into parts:

Q-  What  does the prefix  "re"
Q-  What  are some other words
    that begin with that prefix?
    (repair,  redo, return,  re-
    source, renew, restore)
Q-  What  does LJ~s word "cycle"
It should become clear from the
above that recycle means to do
or  use  over  and over  again.
From old cans come new  cans,
from old paper new paper is pro-

How can recycling reduce pollu-
tion and the cost of waste dispo-
sal? (See Topic Five for a more
complete discussion of recycling
and reuse.)

Topic  Three—How  Does Waste Affect
                        Our Resources?
The  materials we use come from  the earth
and  are in  limited  supply
List on the blackboard the dif-
ferent materials  that  compose
refuse.   Trace each of  these
back to  its  original source.
(Paper to wood to trees to soil to
earth. Glass to sand to pebbles
to  rocks to  earth.   Metal to
rocks to earth. Plastic to petro-
leum to  fossil plants to edrth.
Food to  animals and plants to
Investigate where different ob-
jects in  your  classroom  come

Introduce the word "resource" as
anything  that  is available for
valued use or has plant, animal,
or human utility.
Q- What  are the natural re
   sources in the above list?
0- Why are natural resource^
Q- Are our resources in endles--
Q- What will happen if we con
   tinue to waste our nature
   resources by burning, li'.cer
   ing, dumping, or burvuu
Q- Can we invent anything tha
   does not use  up natural re

Some resources are  non-renewable and
thus  irreplaceable
In order to introduce the concept
of renewable  versus  nonrenew-
able  natural resources, the class
should  obtain  a  collection of
items that would normally be in-
cluded in the waste stream.  Ex-
amples  of products from natural
resources that can or  cannot be
renewed (or re-created):
*   aluminum cans, from baux-
    ite (nonrenewable)
*   tin-plated steel cans,  from
    iron and tin (nonrenewable)
*   glass  bottles,  from  sand,
    soda ash,  and  limestone
    (nonrenewable. but in  plen-
    tiful supply)
*   paper, from  wood  (renew-
*   cardboard, from wood  (re-
*   organic waste, such as plant
    clippings  and  food  scraps
*   plastic  containers or  bags,
    from petroleum (nonrenew-
The students should be helped to
examine these and discuss where
the raw  materials to make them
come from.  In the discussion it
should be pointed out that alumi-
num, tin,  steel, and petroleum
are all nonrenewabte resources,
and, as  such, are  being wasted
daily under our  present  disposal
system.   Paper and  cardboard
come from the renewable source
of wood  (trees), but that is being
used at a faster  rate than it can .
be produced  commercially.  The
students should be able to place
the solid waste  discussed  into
the categories of renewable and
nonrenewable resources.

Why are some materials nonre-
newable?  Because  they are  the
result of geological processes
which take millions of years to
The following suggests the quan-
tities   of some of the.products
Americans use each year.
    28 billion bottles—glass
    54 billion cans—metal
    4 million tons of plastic—
    40 million  tons  of paper--
    204 million tires—rubber .
    3 million cars—metals

How big is a billion?  Calculate
the height of one million and on-e
billion pennies stacked on top of
each  other.   There are 15 p*n-
nies to the inch.

Have  the students imagine  the
land space- required to dispose of
these items. Also remember that
these are only final products.

Resources  are  unequally distributed  around
the  world
Mount a map of the world on the
wall.  Have the students list the
raw .materials used to make pa-
per, plastic, metal cans, alumi-
num cans, rubber, etc. Include
oil'as the energy source to man-
ufacture these products.

Pinpoint c;ach primary source on
the map.  State the fact that the
United States, which possesses
only  5 percent  of  the world's
population,  uses about 40  per-
cent of its -esources.
    What countries' are involved
    in supply ?
    Does our consumption of re-
    sources affect  the  people
    who live in these countries?
    What could happen if other
    countries  begin to consume
    as much an we do?
    What could happen if'avail-
    able resources begin  to  run
    low?   What  would be  the
    effects on society?
Q-  Does scarcity  of resources
    ii.crease the  possibility of
Q-  How fan we begin to lessen
   .our dependency on foreign
    coun'.ries   for  resources?
    What will be  the effects of
    such actions on our society?

Discuss alteratives including re-
ducing  consumption and  recy-
Energy is  required to  process raw  materials
and  manufacture  products
Q-  Is energy a resource?
Q-  What sources of energy are
    available  for  human use?
    (oil, coal, wind, water, sun,
    nuclear, etc.)
Q-  Are any of these  in short
Identify and list  the types and
points where energy is required
in  the mining,  transportation,
and manufacture of glass, paper,
or  metal items.  Point out that
resource conservation  reduces
the need  for  energy and  that
recycling some materials  takes
less energy  than their  original
manufacture   (aluminum,   for
                            Discuss the option of burning
                            solid waste to ' generate  energy
                            and reduce the  need  for other

 Topic  Four—Why  Is There  So  Much
Waste  generation varies according
to population and  lifestyle
Packaging materials account for
more than 50 percent of all con-
sumer waste. This packaging has
grown quickly  in volume over a
very short period of time. From
400 pounds per person in 1958 to
over  6000 pounds per person at
the present time.  In earlier
times  packaging  was at a mini-
mum   and items  were sold  in
either natural  or reusable con-
tainers.  Today,  packages range
from  soup cans to plastic bubble
packs that hold a dozen screws.

To demonstrate  now life styles
effect the amount and types of
packaging used,  have  the stu-
dents  make  up & typical meal.
List all the containers and pack-
aging that conve  *ith the items.
Remember a glass bottle or can
is a package. Examples:
   Chicken—clear plastic over
   paper plate.
   Carrots—Plastic  or  paper
   bag, or box if frozen.
Discuss the purposes- of; packagr
ing.  Some of these are:  reduc-
tion  in waste due to  spoilage,
prevention  of   contamination,
increased  efficiency in distribu-
tion, portion  control, and pro-
duct attractiveness.

Q-  What  purposes do the listed
    packages serve?
Q-  Have  you  noticed  an in-
    crease in packaging over the
    last few years?
Q-  Are   any  products  over-
Q-  What  packaging would  you
    suggest  for  your imagined
Q-  Which packages could be re-
Conduct a survey in you local
supermarket  looking  for  ex-
amples of the  following  three
types of packaging:
    1.  Natural packages,  i.e.,
    2. Older and reusable  pack-
ages,  i.e., paper bags,   paper
wrapping, glass jars that become
drinking glasses, returnable bot-
    3.  Modern packages,  i.e.,
plastic, styrofoam, tin foil, indi-
vidual wrappings.
Find five of #1, five of #-2, and
ten of #3. Make a large list for
the entire class..

Construct a display or bulletin
board of different types of pack-
ages or pictures.
Q-  What  purpose  does  packag-
    ing serve?
Q-  How. dependent is  the pro-
    duct on the package?
Q-  How could each package be
    reused or recycled?

From  your  list,  decide which
packages  reduce   waste   and
which increase waste.

   opic  Five—What  Can We  Do About
Plants and animals depend upon nature's
continuous  recycling process
Discuss the following cycles with . 3. Water Cycle
t'.ie students.  Have the students
give examples which they  see
around them.
Sun   evaporates  water  from
oceans and lakes.
1. Nutrient Cycle

Plants  take up nutrients  from
soil to make sugp.r.

Animals eat planti and return
nutrients  to soil  through  body

Plants and animus die .and de-
cay, returning n .trients  from
decaying parts to soil.

2. Oxygen Cycle

Plants  give off  oxyger. «•& a
waste product of photosynthesis.

Animals take in oxygen for res-

Animals exhale  Co_.

Plants use Co.  for photosynthe-
Water vapor forms clouds when

Clouds release water as rain.

Plants and animals use water.

Water not  used runs  into lakes
and oceans.
4. Mineral Cycle    f

Matter is continually being built
up into  mountains  and , then
eroded into sediment. What was
once sediment on an ocean floor
becomes the highest mountains,'
which eventually return to the
sea.   New  mineral  matter  is
vented  from  volcanos  while
other  minerals are being return-
ed to the eann's interior.

      19     i
Composting is a process whereby
plant material is returned to the
soil by the action of microscopic
fungi and bacteria.  This class of
organisms is called decomposers
and  is- a vital  link in nutrient
cycles.  The process enriches the
soil as a natural fertilizer while
reducing  the amount  of  solid
waste requiring disposal.

The   students   can   make   and
investigate  their  own  compost
     1.  Place the  following  or
similar  organic material   in  a
plastic bag or outside in a mark-
ed area: fruit peels,  leaves, old
bread,  coffee  grounds,   green
tops of vegetables, potato peels.
     2. Chop and  mix  them  up
with some water and soil.
     3.  Twist and  tie  the  bag
securely,  or cover  the  mound
with earth.
     4. Open the bag once a day
to allow  oxygen inside.    It  is
needed  by the  decomposers for
breakdown of the materials.

Discuss what is  going to happen.
Have the students keep a record
of the process  of decay.   Note
odors,   texture,    and    other
Q-   Which materials decay  the
Q-   How long does the complete
     decay process take!

Make a  wet-mount preparation
and stain to use as a microscopic
examination of the decomposers.

Q-   How  many different  types
     of organisms can be found?
Q-   What  would  our  landscape
     look like  if these  organisms
  .   did not exist?
Q-   What objects would not de-
     cay if placed in our compost
To  illustrate the nutrient cycle
take a soil profile by digging out
a wedge  of  soil about  4 to  6
inches  deep.    Use a location
where there  are freshly  fallen
leaves.   Observe the  layers  of
leaf breakdown into the rich top-
soil.  Peel off each layer.  WUt
other things  besides leaves can
you find in the profile that might
hasten decay? Look closely.

The same could be done  with  a
rotting  log.   How do its inhabi-
tants  hasten decay?
                                                                           '** it.
      21     :
To  illustrate  the water  cycle,
make or  show  the  students  a
terrarium.   The following  ma-
terials are needed: glass contain-
er with an airtight  top, gravel,
soil, various types of small plant

Have the students  observe  the
water  droplets  clinging to  the
top.   Where  does   this  water
come from?   Is it  necessary  to
ever add water to a terrarium?

To  further  illustrate  condensa-
tion point  out  t,->  the students
that when  the  weather if  cold
they "see their breath." This  is
due to water vapor being rpleas-
ed  as we exhale warm air and
condensing on contact with, cold-
er"  air.    The  same process  is
involved  in   cloud  formation.
Steam is another example.,

People can  imitate  nature  by  giving  new  life
to  materials  that  are  decay  resistant
o*  in short supply
        products found  in  solid
waste from the home and school
can be recycled.  This  activity
serves as a review of solid waste
problems and explains how glass;
paper, aluminum, and tin-plated
stael  cans  are  recycled.   The
activity  is taken  from the Envi-
ronmental    Action    Counci.' s
"Don'-i Waste Waste."

Introduction and Review

The teacher should  try to  •Licit
tpe sequence  of  steps  l.i  recy-
cling  these materials.   Also a
comparison  can be made of how
these items pollute when dumped
or burned on the land versus the
effect  recycling has on  their

GLASS is  made from soda ash,.
stnd, and lime. It can remain in
a disposal site indefinitely and
does not break down into its or-
ganic  components.  To be recy-
cled, it  must  first be sorted by
color  and  crushed  into  small
pieces  called  "cullet."    The
culiet  is melted down into a
solution  and  then  molded  into
glass containers.  Other products
made from recycled  glass bottles
are insulations, and road-patch-
ing material.
 ALUMINUM  is made from baux-
 ite, which is a nonrenewable re-
 source.  It takes a great amount
 of electricity to produce alumi-
 num.  Nature cannot decompose
 or break it down, so disposal fs a
 prcolem.  When it is recycled it
 is melted and then shaped again
 into  new  cans and  other,items.
 Making aluminum cans from old
 aluminum takes only  5 percent
 as  much  electricity  as   frcm

 made of iron ore and tin, neither
of which are renewable resour-
ces.   The cans will eventual'y
rust and break down, so they a-e
not as much of  a probler  as
some  other  metals.    HOWPV<>< ,
throwing them away is a waste
of valuable metals.  In  the recy-
cling process the cans are put
into a huge container with holes
in the bottom.  This container is
immersed into a caustic solution
which takes the tin off  the cans.
Then the  steel cans are washed
and  sold  as  Number  1  Grade
Steel.  The tin is  removed from
the caustic solution by electroly-
sis  and made into ingots  which
are sold to companies requiring

PAPER is made  from  a renew-
able resource—trees.  Paper is
recycled by first shredding it in-
to  small  pieces  and mixing it
with water.   This mixture is
beaten  into  a . mush-like  pulp
which  flows   onto a  moving
screen  througl-  which  most  of
the water  p'eiSfcs.   The  wood or
paper fibers re.nain.  T^e  fibers
are pressed through hea»*7 rollers
that remove  more wa>r  and
then sent  through  steac -nested
dryers. The result is recy.'led pa-
per.  You can  make reoy.'led pa-
per in class.    i
This activity  can  become  a re-
search  project for  small groups
or individuals.  Suggested topics
for the  groups are The Story of:
    *   an Aluminum Can
    *   a  Plastic Tube
    *   a  Cardboard Box
    *   a  Tin Can
    *   a  Glass Bottle

Reproduce  and give each student
the  following material  to  help
them tell about their particular

 I am a(n)	container.  Please tell my story by finding answers
 to the following question:

 .1. What flo'Ilook like?
 2. Why do I have a label?
 3. What are some of the things I am used for?
 4. What am I made of?
 5. Where do my manufacturers get the raw materials to make me?
 6. Are large amounts of my raw materials available?
 7. How many years will my raw materials probably last?
 8. Is there any pollution of the land, the.air, or the water, when companies
     extract my raw materials.from the earth?  If so, how?
 9. HoW'do manufacturers change the raw materials to make me?
10. Does the changing of my raw materials cause pollution of the land,
    the air, or the water?  If so, how?
11. Am I thrown away after I am used?
12. What  chemicals are released when I am burned? Are they harmful
    if released into the environment? Can they be filtered and disposed
    of properly?
13. D'i> I break down into earth again if I am buried? If so, how?
14. Do I disingegrate if I am thrown into a river, lake, or ocean?  If
    so, how?
15. What  are some ways in which I could be re-used?
16. Can I be recycled?  Am I recycled?  Where am I recycled?
17. What  happens to me when I am recycled?
18. Can I be safely burned to produce energy from the heat?
19. Who pays the real cost for manufacturing and disposing of me?
    *The manufacturer who makes me?
    *The company which uses me?
    *The consumer who buys me?
20. Who is responsible for disposing of me?  Who pays the cost for disposal?
21. Do you think I am a good container? Why or why not?

 By  recycling we  can  reduce  pollution,
 conserve  limited  natural  resources
 and energy, and  save  money
"?.ch classroom may want to be-
gin to recycle its v/astepaper.  Is
there  a  recycling  program   in
,your community?   Check in the
Yellow Pages of your telephone
directory under "recycling pro-
grams," "waste paper," or "scrap
dealers,"  for a market for your
IMper.   Be  sure to ask  exactly
what kind of paper they accept
(newspapers,  magazines,  white
bor.o paper, etc.),  and  if they
\vo\ld also  ?. ;cept glass, alumi-
nur., bi-mrtU cans, etc.

Ha\o  the students record  the
we€;idy  or  i.ionthly results  of
their  program.   Record  and
graph  the  ••eduction  in  solid
waste disrosod through old sys-
tems and th'i amount of glass,
paper, and cv_ns recycled.

Follow  and  record  the fluctua-
tions in  the selling price of the
recycled  materials.   Research
the   reasons   behind   these
changes.  Calculate total money

Find out how  much paper your
class,  other classes,  and  your
school are recycling. Encourage
the students to tell their parents
about recycling.
Have  the students  survey  at
least three different people con-
cerning  their attitudes  toward
recycling to  get an idea of the
differences of opinion that exist.
They  should  interview   their
friends,  parents,  and  neighbors
on whether or not they wot'Id be
willing to source  separate  their
garbage  (for  example,  setting
newspapers in stacks apart  from
other  waste) so it could be  more
easily recycled.

Sample Survey Questions
1. Would you recycle?  At hor e?
In the office?
2. Why would you recycle?  Why
3. What  would encourage you to
4.  Which is more  important to
you about recycling?
    * Saving money?
    * Reducing pollution?
    * Reducing  the  need  for
      additional sanitary land-
      fill sites?

Make  a  chart on  the board and
tabulate  results.   This activity
can develop a number of excel-
lent process skills such as inter-
viewing,   measuring,  categoriz-
ing, comparing, and observing.
Besides  reducing pollution  and
saving natural resources.and en-
ergy, your community can save
money  by recycling. For'  this
activity, assume that your com-
munity could save about $30 per
ton in disposal cost and earn $10
for each ton  of material sold tc
a scrap dealer.

Q-  If  30 percent of all  of the
    communty's refuse couldv be
    recylcd, how  much  molrieyi
    's/aid the city make  in  one

Given, the physical properties of
tin-plated steel,  glass,  and alu-
minum,  devise a mechanical sys-
tem  for separating them out of
the  solid  waste  which  comes
from a home.
Make a survey of products in a
supermarket that are made from
recycled materials. Look for the
recycling symbol  on boxes  and
Research  why there aren't more
recycled  materials in the, mar-
ketplace.   The more  we recycle
the more  recycled materials  will
begin to appear.   Are there  any
barriers that favor virgin "mate-
rials over recycled ones?
Research and debate the issue of
the returnable bottle versus the
no-deposit, no-return one.  What
effect  will  returnable  bottles
have on a recycling program?
                                  Visit paper mills or glass  manu-
                                  facturers who  produce the prod-
                                  ucts   that   become   our  solid
Discuss ways that businesses and
the government  can contribute
to the solution of the solid wast.a
problem.   For  example,  many
businesses  and  commercial  en-
terprises  recycle  their   office
paper and corrugated cardboard,
and the Federal government has
a program. to recycle all  of its
high-grade office  paper.     Do
businesses in  your community re-
cycle their paper?  Perhaps older
students, can  conduct a survey of
local  merchants  and businesses
to  determine  the amount  and
types of waste  they  produce and
whether they are.currently doing
any recycling.  Supermarkets or
chain stores  are a good place to
start  since  many  of. them bale
and   recycle  their   cardboard
wastes. If a nearby. Federal gov-
ernment building or a private of-
fice building has a  paper  recy-
cling  program,  you may  want to
plan a class  trip to  see how it

Throwawav Three
A short skit
By Fay Bradley

Reprinted from "Lessons From Litter" by permission of the
Atlanta Clean City Commission
"Throwaway Three" is a skit in rhyme written for three actors, br> a
different  person  may oe  used  for each of  the  ten  roles,  thus
involving a larger number of students.
Each part has three notations beside it.  The first is  the 'character
(Monkey, Cpvedweller, etc.). The second is that character's date in
history. MaKe signs for each of these, dates and  have one  person hold
up the appropriate date sign at the appropriate  time in the skit. The
third notation (on the right hand side/' describes the props.   This
includes both the costume  for  the person in history and  the articles
thrown away.

The centra* idea  ij that as the skit prog esses, ee.,h  person throws
more trash on  ihe pile m the middle of th . room ?,o that a high stack
is created. The skit suggests that one way to suivi the problem is to
recycle.  A discussion of ways  to solve  che problem of too  much
garbage and trash migjt follow the performance.

Person .1

Person 2
90,000 BC
Person 3
50,000 BC
Person 1
200 BC
Person 2
1200 AD
Person 3
Person 1

 This is the tale of the Throwaway Three
 Of Man and his Garbage throughout his-to-ry:
 Now they're very nice people, just  like you
   and me,
 Who all have a problem, as you  will soon see—
 What shall they do with their garbage and trash?

 Why, throw it! Or  bury it! Or burn it to ash!

 I represent people when we lived in a tree.
 I get rid of my garbage so easily?
 It's a snap! It's no problem—to me, or to him.
 We just let go, plop!  Down  through the limbs!

 I am a cavedweller who lives on the ground.
 What do I do with old stuff all around? .
 Why,,burn  it, like meat; burn it up in the fire;
 Or bury it  like bones, in the  muck and the mire.

 Yes, throw it, or bury it, or burn it to ash!
 That's how we always get rid of our trash!

 I am a Roman who lives in the town.
 Our laws won't allow me to just throw it down.
 I have to drag it away for a mile
 And then I can dump it, forget it, and smile!

 lama Briton, wary and quick;
 Down on our street it can get pretty thick.
 When housewives up  there want to pitch out their goo,
 They just leave it out there and yell: "Gardy-loo!"
    (Person 1 stands on chair and yells "Gardy-loo!")
 It will stay there and stay there until the  next rain,
 Or until our fair London should burn down again.

 Oh, what do we do with our garbage and trash:
.We throw it, or bury  it, or burn it to ash!

 I am the settler. I came without much,
 Oh, a rifle, an axle, some few tools and such.
 But everything else I must make with my  hands.
 So I don't throw out much—I use all I can.
 Cloth scraps become quilts; I reuse my bent nails.
 It will be a long time 'fore the next trade ship sails.

 I am a colonist; now life's not so tough.
 We have trade between cities that brings  lots of stuff
 And some things are  made by our townfolk today,
 I could buy a new harness, throw this old one away.
 We have pigs and hogs running loose in our street,
 If I toss it out there, they'll eat it up neat!
  Monkey Masks
    Banana Peel
    Orange Peel

 Roman Helmet
   Bag of Trash
  Sack of Trash
    Pilgrim Hat
  Coohskin Hat
Leather Harness
      (or Belts)

Person 2
 Person 3
Person 2
Person 3
Person 2
Person 3
(Scientist)  .

'"irson 2
Person 3

Person 2
Or I might bury it right over there.
Or I might burn it; nobody would care.
You see; the New World is the same as the Old!
We trashmakers come from a time-honored mold.

What are we still doing with garbage and trash?
You guessed it! Throw it or bury it or burn it to ash!

i'm the industrial person and new on the scene,
I mass-produce goods with my trusty machine.
This sweater, handmade, took a week in days of yore,
uuc now in one hour, I can mak'; forty-four.
I make things so cheaply, you can now afford two,
And throw out twice as much trash as you need to do.

i am the scientific person in the new post-war age.
We've learned a Tew tr.^ks while the war shortage raged.
When we couldn't get natural stuff to process
We invented synthetics to replace the rest.
                                                             Engineer's Cap i
                                                                C Sweaters
                                                          .  (One handmade;!
                                                        two machine-made)
                                                                  Lab Coat I
Rayons and nylons, acrylics and plastics
For furniture and clothing and even elastics;
Forget your old woolens and silks and your cotton;
Real wooden toys and washboards are forgotten.

Our new stuff will last till forever, you see
Even when it's worn out to you and to me.
Permanent pressed, pre-sized and pre-slirunk
When dingy and old, it's still permanent "junk"
   (Person 1 yells, "Junk."'

We make instant menus that come in a pack.
You just boil the food in its own -plastic sack.
Or our TV dinner in  its tinfoil tray
It's quick; you don't  wash it; just  throw •;. away!

We make lots of TVs and clothes dryers, too.
Don't ask for a trade-in; you're kidding, aren't you?

Our new cars all change with each model year,
Don't try to repair them, the cost's much too dear.
Besides, we don't bother to make last year's parts
For Skylarks or Novas or Cougars or Darts.

It's the New Thing, the NEW-that America craves.
So out, out with the old stuff, away to its graves.

So what if there're more of us buying more goods?
So what if they won't rot away as they should?
                                                           Nylon Stockingsi
                                                  Plastic Bags & Container
                                                       Perma-Pressed Shin
                                                                Plastic Ba<
                                                                 TV dinnei
                                                   Broken Small Appliance
                                                                  Toy Cai

 Person 1
 Person 2
. Person 3
 Person 2
Now wai.t just a minute!  You cannot fail
To include me in your historic trash tale.
We Indians lived simply, on prairies, in woods,
We made no high trash piles, nor mass-produced goods.
Let me be your critic, show you where you stand;
And tell you just how you're defiling our land.
Your new-fangled goods will not rot away.
When you throw- them all down they remain where they lay
Then you say you will bury them deep in the ground: •
All your urban trash will make quite a mound!
So then you would burn it, in smoldering masses
And fill up our air with smoke, deadly gases!
Oh, all of your answers have faults everywhere:
You'll either ruin the water, the land or  the air.
What's more your resources—your lumber, your ore—
Get smaller each year than the year just before.
And what's more—this old earth's not making any more.
       Indian Headband
You're right. Our resources are shrinking away
While our garbage problem grows bigger each day.
We're always converting resources to refuse
Instead of recycling them  for reuse!

Oh stop it! Don't drop it! We'll think of a way
To make food for cows that's  much better than hay.
Don't burn it, return it—we'll  make something new.
A vase for your mother, a  spyglass for you.
   (Flower in bottle for vase, flower out, bottle
 ,  held up to eye for .spyglass)
Don't bury it, carry it—back to the mill.
Well make a new blanket to ward off, the chill.

It's time  we progress past  the Disposal Age
And  make recycling the popular rage! ~
We'll have to give up old solutions for trash
And all realize that its pure balderdash—to just  -

Throw  it, or bury it, or burn it to ash'!
Throw Out Old Blanket
       and Cola Bottle
  Pick Up Orange Peels
          Clear Bottle
                                                                                Pick Up Old Blanket
                                                                                   and Wrap Around-

The  skit  shows  the  children  that  people  have
historically  gotten  rid of solid waste successfully
by throwing it  our, burying it, or burning it.  But
none  of 'iliese  methods solves  modern urban gar-
bage  problems. T^e discussion should  attempt to
reinforce  this concept. One way this can be done
is to discuss the characters in the skit;  how they
disposed  of  r.heir garbage  or trash and why  their
method of dohg so was either  satisfactory cr not

Monkey: Threw it down.
      No  problem developed because no large con-
      centration of   monkeys existed.  The gar-
      bage disintegrated.     .  •

Cavedweiler: Threw it, burned it, buried it.
      These  acts still did not cause a problem for
      the same  reasons.

Roman: Threw it.
      Tossing out garbage  began to be a problem
      because  of  the many  people  who  lived in
      cities, but it was easily solved by taking the
      garbage out of the city.

Briton: Threw it.
      A problem  grewt because  more  and  more
      people moved to the  cities, thus Deducing
      more trash  thaif-they could get rid of in the

Settler: Had virtually no garbage.

Colonist: Threw it, burned it, buried it.
      Greater trade resulted when people did not
      use goods until they wore out, but then  more
      things to be discarded began to accumulate.
      With a greater concentration of people in
      cities  than ever  befc • and  more  buying
      because  machine-raue'goods were cheaper,
      much more was thrown cut.

      The big change to synthetics plus the use of
      enormous amounts of natural resources are
      causing tremendous problems.

We can't throw  away our trash.  There simply  is
no such place as away.  Care is always required to.
prevent our trash from  having bad  effects on our

We can't bu-y  it  all.   Not  enough  places  are
available. Besides,  the  modern synthetics  do not
rot when buried.

We cari't burn it all. Some of the synthetic goods
simply  'on't burn.   Most of the  burning equ'rsa
expensi1 e and often elaborate controls to prevent
air pc'la'ion.  AJI^ there is always ash or some-
thing lef c over which must be buried.

We are  literally  running  out of  some natural
resourcts so tr-s* «iy form of disposal of certain
goods is self-def .->.ting.         :

                            State  Solid  Waste  Agencies
Division of Solid Waste
  and Vector Control
Department of Public Health
State Office Building
Montgomery, AL  36130

Air & Solid Waste Mgmt. Program
Dapartment of Environmental
  Conservation,  Pouch 0
Juneau, AK 99811

American Samoa
Environmental Quality Commission
American Somoa Government
Pago Pago, American Samoa 96799
(overseas  oper.) 633-4116

Bureau of Sanitation
Department of Health Services
411 North 24th Street
Phoenix, AZ  85008

Solid Waste Management Div.
Deoart.aent of Pollution Control
  and Ecology, Box 9583
Little Rock, AR  72219

Solid Waste Program
Department of Energy
3000 Kavanaugh
Little Rock, AR  72205
State Solid Waste Management
  Board, Be; 1743,
1020 Ninth Street
Sacramento, CA 95814

Hazardous Material Mgmt. Section
Department of Health Services
744 P Street
Sacramento, CA 95814

Department of Public Health
4210 East Eleventh Avenue
Denver, CO  80220

Commonwealth of
North Mariana Islands
Environmental Protection board
Dept. of Health Services
Saipan, Mariana Islands 96950
(overseas oper.) 9370

Div. of Environmental Quality
Department of Public Health
  and Environmental Services
Saipan, Mariana Islands 96950

Solid Waste  Management Unit
Dept. of Environmental Protection
165 Capital  Avenue
Hartford,  CT 06115

Industrial <5c  Hazardous Materials
  Management Unit
Dept. of Environmental Protection
(same address as above)
Connecticut Resource Recovery
  Authority, Suite 603
179.Allyn Street
Hartford, CT  06103   ,

Solid Waste Management
Department of Natural Resources
  and Environmental Control
Edward Tatnall Building
Dover, DE 19901

District of Columbia
Dept. of Environmental Services
415 Twelfth Street, NW.
Washington, DC  20004

Solid Waste Management Program
Dept. of Environmental Regulator!
2600 Blair Stone Road
Tallahassee, FL  32301

Environmental Protection Div.
Dept. of Natural Resources
Rm. 822
270 Washington Street, SW.
Atlanta, GA  30334

Environmental Protection Agency .
Government of Guam
P.O. Box 2999
Agana, GU  96910
(overseas oper.) 646-8863

Make  Your Own  Paper
                      rolling pin
 What you need

 10 pieces of tissue or newsprint
 A piece of screen
 A flat dish, a little larger than the screen
 4 pieces of blotting paper the size of the screen
 A bowl
 An egg beater (it wcr cs better with a blender)
 A round jar or rolling pin
 Newspaper and blotter paper •
 2 cups of hot water
 2 teaspoons of instant starch (for stronger paper,
     if desir'ed)

 What to  do

 1.   Tear the paper into very small bits into
     the bowl. Pour in the hot water.
 2.   Beat the tissue and water to make pulp.
 3.   Mir .. the starch if desired.
 4.   Four the mixture into the flat dish--
 5.   Slice the screen into  the bottom of the
     dish and  move it around until it is evenly
     covered with pulp.
 6.   Lift the screen out carefully. Hold it level
     and let it drain for a  minute.
 7.   Put the screen, pulp side up, on a blotter
     on some  newspaper.  Put another blotter
     over the pulp, more newspaper over  that.
 8.   Roll the jar over the  sandwich to squeeze
     out the rest of the water.
 9.   Take off the top newspaper. Turn the blotter
     sandwich over so that the screen is on top.
     Then take off the blotter and the screen
     very carefully. Don't move the pulp. There
     is your paper.
10.   Put a dry blotter on the pulp and let it

Environmental Health Division
Department of Health
P.O. Box 3378
Honolulu, HI 96801

Idaho   '
Solid Waste Management Section
Department of Health Sc Welfare
Boise, ID 83720

Division of  Land 
 •?ew Mexico
 'Olid and Hazardous Waste
  Management Programs
 iealth and Environment Dept.
 '.0. Box 968
 :«ewn Building
 ianta Fe, NM 87503
 i05-827-5271 Ext. 282

 'Jew York
 Division of Solid Waste Mgmt.
 Department of Environmental
 50 Wolf  Road
 Albany,  NY  12233

 North Carolina
 Solid and Hazardous Waste
  Management Branch
 Division of  Health Services
 Department of Human Resources
 S.6. Box 2091
 Raleigh, NC  27602

 North Dakota
 Division of Environmental
  Waste Management & Research
 Department of Health
 1LOO Missouri Avenue
 Bismarck, ND 58505

 OTFTce of Land Pollution Control
 Environmental Protection Agency
 P.O. Box 1049
 Columbus, OH 43216-

industrial & Solid Waste Se;vi e
 Department of Health
 P.O. Box5355l
Oklahoma City, OK  73152

Solid Waste Management Division
Dept. of Environmental Quality
P.O. Box 1760
Portland, OR 97207

 Bureau of Solid Waste Management
 Dept. of Environment&i Resources
 P.O. Box 2063
 Harrisburg, PA 17120
Puerto Rico
Environmental Quality Board
Office of the  Governor
P.O. Box 11488
Santurce. PR  00910
809-725-2062, Ext. 229

Rhode Island .
Solid Waste Management Program
Dept. of Environmental Mgmt.
204 Health Building
Davis Street
Providence, RI 02908

Rhode Island Solid Waste Corp.
39 Pike Street
Providence, RI 02903

South Carolina
Solid Waste Management Division
Department of Health and
  Environmental Control
2600 Bull Street
Columbia, SC 29201
803-758-5681 .

South Dakota
Air Quality and Solid
  Waste Programs
Department of Health
Carnegie Library Building
Pierre, SD  5750"l

Division of Sc .id  Wsste  M.gmt.
Bureau of tm ''ronmer.tnl Services
Department of Pub'ic Health
Capito) HUM B.-Jg., Suite 326
Nashville, TN 37219

Division of Solid  Wasle  Mgmt.
Texas Department of Health
1100 West 49th Strpjt
Austin, TX  78756

Industrial Solid Waste Unit
Department of Water Resources
P.O. Box 13087 Capital Station
Austin, TX  78711
Bureau of Solid Waste Mgmt.
State Division of Health
P.O. Box 2500
Salt Lake City, UT 84110

Air and Solid Waste Programs
Agency of Environmental
State Office Building
Montpelier, VT  05602

Virgin Islands
Solid Waste  Planning Of fir:
Department of Public Works
Government of the Virgin Islands
Ch^.rolotte Amalie
ot. Thomas,  VI  00801

Bureau of Solid and Hazardous
   Waste Management  -
Department of Health
109 Governor Street
Richmond, VA 23219

Solid  Wastr  Management Div.
Departmenc of Ecology
Olympia, WA 98504

West  Virginia
Solid Wast-  Division
Department o' Health
1800 Washington Street,  E  •
Charleston,  WV  25305

Bureau of Solid  Waste Management
Department of Natural Resources
Box 792.1
Madison, WI 53707

Solid Waste  Management Program
Dept. of Environmental Quality
Hathaway Building
Cheyenne, WY  82002

Other  Publications
Bottles and Cans, Using Them Again.    McPhee,
Gribble,  Puffin Books, 1977.  (Viking Press, New
York.) A colorful,  well-illustrated booklet that
contains  many interesting activities involving the
reuse of  materials to make craft projects.

Don't Waste Waste.   Environmental Action Coali-
tion,  1976.    Curriculum for  grade levels  4-6
includes  bibliography and list of additional resour-
                                   •'-/! -  '
Eco-News.  Environmental Action  Coalition.  A
monthly  environmental newsletter  for young peo- •

Environmental Exchange... a Beginning. U.S. EPA,
n;v. ed. 1980.  Office of  Public Awareness.  Cur-
riculum for grades K-12.
Garbage Reincarnation.   *  .
Community Recycling Center.
manual for erades K-6.
Sonoma    County
$5.95.  Instruction
   . Importance of Being a Garbologist.  Group for
Recycling in Pennsylvania, rev.  ed. 1979. Intend-
ed for grades 3-6.

Let's Dump the Dump.   Channing  L. Bete  Co.,
Greenfield, Mass.,  rev.  ed. 1979.  $.75 each, $.50
per copy in order of 25-99, plus shipping.  Cartoon
presentation  explaining what is improper about
dumps and suggesting alternatives.
Let's Go to a RecyelioeCeater.
Sons, New York. 1977.^
   G.P.  Putnam's
Recycling.  An  educational reprint  from Ranger
Rick's  Nature Magazine.  National  Wildlife  Fed-
eration, November 1971. Intended for grades 3-6.

Recycling and the Consumer.  U.S.  EPA,  1974.
Office of Solid Waste order no. SW-117.1. Poster-
size  flyer describes what is and is  not  recycled,
barriers  to  recycling, approaches  to  municipal
recycling, trends, and what the consumer can do.

Recyclopedia.  Houghton  Mifflin   Co.,  Boston,
Mass.,  1976.  $3.95  paper,  $7.95  hardcover.
Developed  at  the Boston  Children's  Museum.
Includes chapter on how to make games, science
equipment, and crafts  from recycled materials.
 Resource Recovery and You.   Channing  L. Bete
 Co., Greenfield, Mass., rev. ed. 1978.  $.75 each
 $.50  per  copy  in, order of  25-99  copies,  plus
 shipping.  A cartoon  presentation of  facts about
 the  use, reuse,  reprocessing, and recycling of

 There  Lived a Wicked Dragon.   U.S.  EPA,  1973.
 U.S.  Government Printing Office order  no. 055-
 002-00106-8.  $1.20  each, $27.50 for packet of
 100. Coloring/story book for grades K-3.

 Toys:  Fun in the Making. U.S.  Dept of HEW,  rev.
 ed. 1979. U.S. Government Printing Office order
 no.  OHD-79-30031.    Instructs  children.how to
 make toys out of common throwaway items, such
 as toilet paper rolls*. Intended  for preschool-6.

 Use It  Again Sam. U.S. EPA, 1978. Office of Solid
 Waste  order no. SW-616. Four-page pamphlet de-
scribes operation of Federal government's office-
 paper  recycling program. (Also available:  bum-
 per sticker, order no. SW-414; and poster)

 Waste  Alert!  A  Citizen's Introduction to  Public
 Participation  in Waste Management.  U.S. EPA,
 1979.   Office of Solid Waste  order number  SW-
 800.  A 32-page pamphlet giving an overview of
 the nation's- solid waste  problem and  the various
 ways in which the public can  and should become
 involved in finding solutions.

 Waste  Not, Want Not. U.S. EPA, 1972. U.S. Gov-
 ernment  Printing  Office  order  no.    055-002-
 00094-1, $.35 each, $4.50 per  100. Small  poster
 deals with basic conservation  issues from putting
 as  little as.  possible  into the  garbage can  to
 supporting community recycling programs.

 What You Can Do To Recycle More Paper.   U.S.
 EPA, 1975.  Office of Solid Waste order no. SW-
 446.  Twelve-page  pamphlet  discusses the recy-
 cling options of consumers, householders, citizens,
 students, teachers, and employees.

 A World Fit for Chipmunks  and Other  Living
 Things.  U.S.  EPA  Region  VII,  rev.  ed.  1977.
 Coloring  book or recycling litter, intended for
 grades K-3.