United Slates
      Environmental Protection
      Agency
Office of Pollution   EPA 745-K-94-008
Prevention and Toxics     May 1994
7408
      EPA's 33/50 Program
      Company Profile
Dexter Shoe Company
                        Printed on Recycled Paper

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                                      THE 33/50 PROGRAM
    This Company Profile is part of a series of reports being developed by EPA to highlight the accomplishments
 of companies participating in the 33/50 Program.  The 33/50 Program is an,EPA voluntary pollution reduction
 initiative that promotes reductions in direct environmental releases and offsite transfers of 17 high-priority toxic
 chemicals.  The program derives its name from its overall goals -- an interim goal of a 33% reduction by 1992 and
 an ultimate goal of a 50% reduction by 1995. The program uses 1988 Toxics Release Inventory (TRI) reporting
 as a baseline. In February, 1991, EPA began contacting the parent companies of TRI facilities that reported using
 33/50 Program chemicals since 1988 to request their participation in the 33/50 Program. As of April, 1994, a total
 of 1,216 companies had elected to participate in
 the Program, pledging to reduce emissions of the
 17  target chemicals  by more than 355 million
pounds by 1995.  Companies are encouraged to
 set  their own reduction targets, which may vary
from  the Program's national 33%  and 50%
 reduction goals.   Company commitments and
 reduction pledges continue to be received by EPA
 on a daily basis.
17 PRIORITY CHEMICALS TARGETED
       BY THE 33/50 PROGRAM
              BENZENE
      CADMIUM & COMPOUNDS
      CARBON TETRACHLORIDE
           CHLOROFORM
     CHROMIUM & COMPOUNDS
              CYANIDES
        DICHLOROMETHANE*
        LEAD & COMPOUNDS
      MERCURY & COMPOUNDS
      METHYL ETHYL KETONE
     METHYL ISOBUTYL KETONE
       NICKEL & COMPOUNDS
      TETRACHLOROETHYLENE
              TOLUENE
      1,1,1-TRICHLOROETHANE
       TRICHLOROETHYLENE
              XYLENES

    Also referred to as methylene chloride
    The  1992 TRI data revealed that  releases
and transfers of 33/50  Program chemicals de-
clined by 40% between 1988 and 1992, surpass-
ing the Program's 1992 interim reduction goal by
more than 100 million pounds. This accomplish-
ment, together with evidence from analysis of
facilities' projected releases and transfers of the
17 priority chemicals, reported to TRI under the
Pollution Prevention Act, offers strong encourage-
ment that the 33/50 Program's ultimate goal of a
50% reduction by 1995 will be achieved.

    EPA is committed to recognizing companies
for their participation in the 33/50 Program and
for the emissions reductions they achieve.  The
Program  issues periodic  Progress Reports, in
which participating companies are listed and highlighted. In addition, Company Profiles, such as this one, are being
prepared  to provide more detailed information about companies that have written to EPA describing significant
emissions reduction initiatives.  Information presented in these profiles is drawn primarily from the company's
written 33/50 Program communications and the annual TRI reports submitted by their facilities (including Pollution
Prevention Act data reported to  TRI in Section 8 of Form R). All company communications to EPA regarding
the 33/50 Program are available to the public upon request.

    EPA does not endorse the performance, worker safety, or environmental acceptability of any of the technical
options discussed in -this Profile.  Mention of any product or procedure in this document is for informational
purposes  only, and  does not constitute a recommendation of any such product or procedure,  either express or
implied, by EPA.
   For information on the 33/50 Program,  contact the TSCA Hotline at (202) 554-1404 or contact 33/50
   Program staff directly by phone at (202) 260-6907 or by mail at Mail Code 7408, Office of Pollution
   Prevention and Toxics, U.S. EPA, 401 M Street, SW, Washington, D.C. 20460.
33/50 Program Company Profile:  Dexter Shoe Company

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                             Dexter Shoe  Company
    Dexter Shoe Company reduced emissions of TRI
'chemicals by 47% from 1988 to  1992 at its facilities
participating in the  33/50 Program  by eliminating
209,471 pounds of solvent emissions.  The company
has pledged total reductions of 88% at these facilities
by 1995.

       I. CORPORATE BACKGROUND

    Dexter Shoe Company is a manufacturer of shoes
for men, women, and children. The company is head-
quartered in Dexter,  Maine and has four facilities in
Maine reporting  to  TRI:  two in Dexter, one in
Skowhegan, and one in Milo.

    The company purchases  pre-dyed leather stock
that is then cleaned, primed, and treated for water-
proofing and desired  forming and wearing properties
such as stiffness or flexibility.  Assembling the shoes
requires  aqueous  and solvent-based adhesives  in
addition to nails and stitching. Following construc-
tion, the finished shoes may be cleaned and treated
again  with solvent-based products.  Solvents are also
used for cleaning machine parts.
Dexter Shoe Company's pledged emis-
sions reductions under the 33/50 Program
far exceed those that would have been
achieved if the company had planned
merely to meet its regulatory requirements
for the State of Maine.
    Dexter currently uses two 33/50 Program chemi-
cals: methyl ethyl ketone and toluene. The company
reported using trichloroethane and methylene chlo-
ride in previous years, but has stopped using  both
chemicals.  Acetone is the only non-33/50 Program
TRI chemical used  by the company. Table I, at the
end of this profile, presents the company's TRI data
on  releases and transfers for the  whole  company,
while Table II provides these data for each facility.

    Dexter reported a total of 514,057 pounds of TRI
releases in 1988.  Because of the company's reliance
on volatile solvents, all of its reported releases are air
emissions. The company also reported an additional
5,084 pounds of TRI chemicals transferred offsite for
treatment or disposal.
     Releases of TRI Chemicals Reported by
            Dexter Shoe Company
                  (1000 Ibs)

                           1988       1992
  33/50 Chemicals
    Dichloromethane            9          0
    Methyl ethyl ketone       184        60
    Toluene                  46        42
    1,1,1-Trichloroethane       28          0

  33/50 Subtotal*             267        103

  Other TRI Chemicals
    Acetone                 247        151

  Total*                    514        254

  *  Columns do not sum to totals due to rounding.
     II. CORPORATE ENVIRONMENTAL
                 STRATEGY

    Dexter Shoe Company has been actively seeking
opportunities for recycling and reducing hazardous
waste and toxic chemical use since 1989. In 1990, the
State of Maine  passed the Toxics and Hazardous
Waste Reduction Law which mandates a 30% reduc-
tion in total releases of toxic substances by 1998 from
a baseline of the average of 1990 and 1991 levels.
Because Dexter anticipated passage of the Maine law
before it became effective, the company was able to
commence its search for alternatives prior to passage
of the law. The emissions reductions proposed by the
company  through its 1995 33/50  Program goals far
exceed those that would be achieved if the company
had planned merely to  meet its 1998 regulatory re-
quirements.

        III. 33/50 PROGRAM GOALS

    The company is focusing most of its 33/50 reduc-
tion efforts on its two largest operations - the Head-
quarters plant in Dexter and the plant in Skowhegan.
In 1988, the Dexter Shoe Company reported overall
releases of 514,057 pounds for all TRI chemicals at
all facilities (see Table  I).  Of this amount, 449,449
pounds - 87% of the total - were released  from the
two facilities participating in the 33/50 Program (see
Table II).  AJthough Dexter's- two^'other facilities
   3.1/50 Program Company Profile: Dexter Shoe Company

-------
reported releases  in 1988, these plants have signifi-
cantly reduced releases of 33/50 Program chemicals.
Dexter is projecting an 88% reduction in
TRJ releases from 1995 to 1988 at its two
largest facilities.
    The Headquarters facility pledged to reduce total
releases of all reported  TRI chemicals 83% by 1995
from 1988 levels, while the plant in Skowhegan has
committed to a reduction of 97% in total releases of
TRI chemicals by 1995 from 1988 levels. The compa-
ny has also made interim goals for 1992 of a 36%
reduction  at  the Headquarters  plant and  an 80%
reduction at the Skowhegan plant.
33/50 Program Goals for Dexter Shoe Co.
Reductions in releases of all TRI
chemicals from 1988 levels
Plant
Headquarters
Skowhegan
1992
36%
80%
1995
83%
97%

     The combined goal for  the two  participating
facilities  is an 88% reduction in total  emissions of
TRI chemicals by 1995, with a combined interim goal
of 48% by 1992.  These goals far exceed both the
total quantity of reductions and the timing of reduc-
tions required under Maine's Toxics and Hazardous
Waste Reduction Law.

    IV. FACILITY AND  PROCESS  LEVEL
    POLLUTION REDUCTION ACTIVITIES

    Both the Headquarters and Skowhegan facilities
are using a three-tiered approach to meet its 33/50
Program  goals:  reduction in chemical use, substitu-
tion with less hazardous chemicals, and solvent recov-
ery.

    The Skowhegan facility has had particular success
in substitution  and solvent recovery.  The  facility
reports the following activities:
             TRI Chemical Releases
            At Participating Facilities
                                                           300 T
                          HActual Releases
                           33/50 Coal
                                                                1988   1992   1995
                                                                   Headquarters
                          1911   1992   199S
                            Skowhegan
    Replacing  two  solvent-based  waterproofing
    agents with aqueous-based products. These new
    products  are more expensive than their solvent
    predecessors, but provide better coverage using
    less product.

    Replacing methyl ethyl ketone as  a cleaning
    solvent with heptane.  Because  heptane still
    poses some risk, however, the company is contin-
    uing to investigate other alternatives.
Dexter is employing a three-tiered ap-
proach for achieving reductions:  reduce
chemical use; substitute with less hazard-
ous chemicals; and solvent recovery.
    Employing solvent recovery for cleaning solvents,
    such as methyl ethyl ketone and heptane.  Dexter
    uses solvent recovery both for reuse of individual
    solvents and for generalized recovery of mixed
    cleaning solvents. Some of the solvent recovery
    is done within the process for which the chemi-
  33/50 Program Company Profile: Dexter Shoe Company

-------
    cals are used and, thus, can be considered source
    reduction.

    A similar progress report  from Dexter's Head-
quarters  facility describes the following individual
reduction accomplishments:

   Substituting solvents  and cleaners containing
    methyl ethyl  ketone,  methylene chloride,  and
    toluene with water-based products.

   Replacing a filler product containing 40% ace-
    tone with a cut  insert  material bonded to the
    upper part of the shoe with a hot melt adhesive.

   Installing a solvent recovery system for reuse of
    cleaning solvents.

    While these measures have significantly decreased
Dexter's  total use of TRI chemicals, the company's
overall use of solvent-based  adhesives has increased
due to expanding production.  However, Dexter has
substantially reduced the amount of solvent used per
pair of shoes manufactured  since  1990, from 0.044
pounds per pair in 1990 to 0.034 pounds per pair in
1993  (a  reduction  of approximately 23%).    The
company also continues to explore the use of water-
based and low-VOC adhesives as  replacements for
existing solvent-based applications. Limited produc-
tions of certain shoe styles manufactured with water-
based urethanes was  initiated in 1993.

       V. PROGRESS TOWARDS 33/50
             REDUCTION GOALS

    As a result of these efforts, Dexter seems to be
well on its way to meeting its 33/50 Program goals.
Emissions of all TRI chemicals at the company's two
participating facilities have  already decreased 47%
from  1988 to 1992  through elimination of 209,471
pounds of emissions:

   At the Skowhegan facility, releases of TRI chem-
    icals decreased  by 83%  from  1988  to  1992,
    indicating that the facility has surpassed its 33/50
    Program interim goals.

   At  the  Headquarters facility, releases of  TRI
    chemicals decreased by 25% from 1988 to 1992.
    The facility's Pollution Prevention Act  (PPA)
    data for 1992 indicates that emissions will contin-
    ue to decrease, with 1994 releases projected to be
    58% lower than  1988 releases.
           Dexter's Progress Towards
              Meeting 33/50 Goals
             (participating facilities)
     460
     400
     350
  ~f 300
  =S

  <| 260

  I
   3 200
     150
     100
      50
D Non-33/60
 Chemicals
33/60 Chemicals

                33/50
                Goal
          1988  1989  1990   1991   1992  1993*
           33/50 Goal: 88% reduction in releases of TRI
           chemicals by 1995
           '1993 projections from company progress report
    Dexter projects  further reductions  of 105,978
pounds by 1994, for an overall reduction of 70% at
participating facilities, indicating that the company is
well its way to meeting its goal of an 88% reduction
of TRI chemicals by 1995.

        VI.  SUMMARY OF DEXTER'S
                 EXPERIENCE

    Overall, Dexter Shoe Company's participation in
the 33/50 Program has been positive. Dexter pledged
to  significantly  reduce  its emissions of five TRI
chemicals by  1995  from 1988 levels - commitments
that far exceed the reductions necessary to meet its
regulatory  requirements  under  Maine  State law.
Indeed, by 1992 Dexter had already  reduced total
emissions by  47%  at  its two participating facilities.
Not only is the company reducing emissions of TRI
chemicals,  it  is employing pollution   prevention
techniques in achieving these results, rather than
relying on end-of-the-pipe waste management ap-
proaches.
   33/50 Program Company Profile:  Dexter Shoe Company

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                                                        Table I
                                                 Dexter Shoe Company
                                   Releases and Transfers of TRI Chemicals, 1988-1992
                                        (all data from TRI unless otherwise noted)
Chemical
Dichloromethane


Methyl ethyl ketone




Toluene




1,1,1 -Trichloroethnne
33/50 Program Chemicals




Acetone




All TRI Chemicals




Percent Chanee, 1988-92
33/50 Program Chemicals
Non-33/50 Program TRI Chemicals
All TRI Chemicals
Year
1988
1990
1991
1988
1989
1990
1991
1992
1988
1989
1990
1991
1992
1988
1988
1989
1990
1991
1992
1988
1989
1990
1991
1992
1988
1989
1990
1991
1992




Transfers Percent
Off-site Change
Total Air for Treatment/ Total Releases 1988-1992
Emissions Disposal/Other and Transfers (1) Total Releases
(pounds) (pounds) (pounds) and Transfers
9,185 (2)
21,882
19,900
183,808
42,421
43,895
51,300
60,200
45,945 (2)
51,684
29,265
39,400
42,405
28,050
266,988 (2)
94,105
95,042
110,600
102,605
247,069
198,286
122,309
132,400
150,925
514,057 (2)
292,391
217,351
243,000
253,530

-62%
-39%
-51%
0
0
0
500
8,200
0
0
0
1,834
2,773
0
0
0
2,250
4,584
10,973
0
0
0
500
250
0
0
0
5,084
1 1 ,223
0
0
0

-100%
-100%
-100%
9,185 (2)
21,882
19,900
184,308
50,621
43,895
51,300
60,200
47,779 (2)
54,457
29,265
39,400
42,405
30,300
271,572 (2)
105,078
95,042
110,600
102,605
247,569
198,536
122,309 -
132,400
150,925
519,141 (2)
303,614
217,351
243,000
253,530

-62%
-39%
-51%


-100%




-67%




-11%
-100%




-62%




-39%




-51%




Notes:  (1)  1991 Total Releases and Transfers do not include on- or off-site recycle or energy recovery.
        (2)  Includes 1988 data from company progress reports to the 33/50 Program where chemical use was below
            TRI reporting threshold.

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                         Table II
                   Dexter Shoe Company
Releases and Transfers of TRI Chemicals by Facility, 1988-1992
          (all data from TRI unless otherwise noted)
Chemical
Headquarters Plant, Dexter, ME
Dichloromethane


Methyl ethyl ketone




Toluene




33/50 Chemical Total




Acetone




Facility Total




Skowhegan, ME
Methyl ethyl ketone


Transfers
Off-site
Total Air for Treatment/ Total Releases
Emissions Disposal/Other and Transfers (1)
Year (pounds) (pounds) (pounds)

1988 (2)
1990
1991
1988
1989
1990
1991
1992
1988 (2)
1989
1990
1991
1992
1988 (2)
1989
1990
1991
1992
1988
1989
1990
1991
1992
1988
1989
1990
1991
1992

1988
1991
1992

9,185
21,882
19,900
115,488
42,421
43,895
36,200
48,224
9,387
51,684
29,265
39,400
42,405
134,060
94,105
95,042
95,500
90,629
149,584
198,286
100,374
1 14,600
121,236
274,459
292,391
195,416
210,100
211,865

68,320
15,100
11,976

0
0
0
250
8,200
0
1,700
0
0
2,773
0
0
0
250
10,973
0
1,700
0
250
250
0
0
0
500
11,223
0
1,700
0

250
0
0

9,185
21,882
19,900
115,738
50,621
43,895
37,900
48,224
9,387
54,457
29,265
39,400
42,405
134,310
105,078
95,042
97,200
90,629
149,834
198,536
100,374
1 14,600
121,236
274,959
303,614
195,416
211,800
211,865

68,570
15,100
11,976

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                                                 Table II
                                           Dexter Shoe Company
                        Releases and Transfers of TRI Chemicals by Facility, 1988-1992
                                  (all data from TRI unless otherwise noted)
Chemical
Acetone



Facility Total



Subtotal for 33/50 Facilities
33/50 Chemicals




Acetone




All TRI Chemicals




Year
1988
1990
1991
1992
1988
1990
1991
1992

1988
1989
1990
1991
1992
1988
1989
1990
1991
1992
1988
1989
1990
1991
1992
Transfers
Off-site
Total Air for Treatment/
Emissions Disposal/Other
(pounds) (pounds)
97,485
21,935
17,800
16,137
165,805
21,935
32,900
28,113

202,380
94,105
95,042
110,600
102,605
149,584
198,286
118,174
130,737
121,236
449,449
292,391
217,351
243,000
239,978
250
0
0
0
500
0
0
0

500
10,973
0
1,700
0
250
250
0
0
0
1,000
11,223
0
1,700
0
Total Releases
and Transfers (1)
(pounds)
97,735
21,935
17,800
16,137
166,305
21,935
32,900
28,113

202,880
105,078
95,042
112,300
102,605
149,834
198,536
118,174
130,737
121,236
450,449
303,614
217,351
244,700
239,978
Dexter, ME
       1,1,1 -Trichloroethane
       Toluene
Milo, ME
       1,1,1 -Trichloroethane
       Acetone
1988

1988



1988

1992
18,163

36,558



 9,887

13,552
2,000

1,834



  250

    0
20,163

38,392



10,137

13,552
Notes: (1) 1991 Total Releases and Transfers do not include on- or off-site recycle or energy recovery.
       (2) 1988 data from company progress reports to the 33/50 Program.

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                                                          Table III
                                                    Dexter Shoe Company
                                            Pollution Prevention Act Repotting (1)
                                           (All data from TRI unless otherwise noted)
Chemical
Dichloromethfine

Methyl ethyl ketone



Toluene



33/50 Program Chemicals



Acetone



All TRI Chemicals



Projected Percent Change,
33/50 Program Chemicals
Energy
Recycled Recovery Treated
On-site Off-site Off-site
Year (pounds) (pounds) (pounds)
1991
1993
1991
1992
1993
1994
1991
1992
1993
1994
1991
1992
1993
1994
1991
1992
1993
1994
1991
1992
1993
1994
1991-1994

Non-33/50 Program Chemicals
All TRI Chemicals

150
0
9,000
10,606
7,600
6,100
2,500
1,300
500
250
11,650
11,906
8,100
6,350
50
1,300
0
500
11,700
13,206
8,100
6,850

-45%
900%
-41%
150
0
740
1,083
400
1,000
400
1,000
0
200
1,290
2,083
400
1,200
425
640
200
215
1,715
2,723
600
1,415

-7%
-49%
-17%
0
0
1,700
0
1,000
0
0
0
0
0
1,700
0
1,000
0
0
0
0
0
1,700
0
1,000
0




Percent
Percent Total Change
Change Production 1991-1994
Quantity 1991-1994 Related Production
Released Quantity Wastes Related
(pounds) Released (pounds) Wastes
19,900
0
51,300
60,200
44,000 (2)
24,000
39,400
42,405
40,000 (2)
25,000
110,600
102,605
84,000 (2)
49,000
132,400
150,925
122,700 (2)
93,000
243,000
253,530
206,700 (2)
142,000

-56%
-30%
-42%
20,200
-100% 0
62,740
71,889
53,000 (2)
-53% 31,100
42,300
44,705
40,500 (2)
-37% 25,450
125,240
116,594
93,500 (2)
-56% 56,550
132,875
152,865
122,900 (2)
-30% 93,715
258,115
269,459
216,400 (2)
-42% 150,265

-55%
-29%
-42%

-100%



-50%



-40%



-55%



-29%



^2%




(t)  Actual data for 1991 and 1992, projections for 1993 and 1994.
(2)  Includes projections from the Company's August 1993 progress reports.

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                Table IV
          Dexter Shoe Company
Pollution Prevention Act Data by Facility (1)
 (All data from TRI unless otherwise noted)
Chemical Year
Headquarters. Dexter. ME
Dichloromethane 1991
1993
Methyl ethyl ketone 1991
1992
1993
1994
Toluene 1991
1992
1993
1994
33/50 Program Chemicals 1991
1992
1993
1994
Acetone 1991
1993
1992
1994
Facility Total 1991
1992
1993
1994
Skowhegan. ME
Methyl ethyl ketone 1991
1992
1993
1994
Acetone 1991
1992
1993
1994
Energy
Recycled Recovery Treated
On-site Off-site Off-site
(pounds) (pounds) (pounds)

150
0
9,000
10,566
7,500
6,000
2,500
1,300
500
250
11,650
11,866
8,000
6,250
50
0
1,300
500
11,700
13,166
8,000
6,750

0
40
100
100
0
0
0
0

150
0
700
1,068
400
1,000
400
1,000
0
200
1,250
2,068
400
1,200
400
200
600
200
1,650
2,268
600
1,400

40
15
0
0
25
25
0
10

0
0
1,700
0
1,000
0
0
0
0
0
1,700
0
1,000
0
0
0
0
0
1,700
0
1,000
0

0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
Quantity
Released
(pounds)

19,900
0
36,200
48,224
38,000 (2)
20,000
39,400
42,405
40,000 (2)
25,000
95,500
90,629
78,000 (2)
45,000
1 14,600
110,000 (2)
121,236
75,000
210,100
211,865
188,000 (2)
120,000

15,100
11,976
6,000 (2)
4,000
17,800
16,137
12,700 (2)
10,000
Total
Production
Related Production/
Wastes Activity
(pounds) Index

20,200
0
47,600
59,858
46,900
27,000
42,300
44,705
40,500
25,450
110,100
104,563
87,400
52,450
115,050
110,200
123,136
75,700
225,150
227,699
197,600
128,150

15,140
12,031
6,100
4,100
17,825
16,162
12,700
10,010


0.90


1.12
0.90


1.12
0.90






1.12
0.90







1.01
0.90


1.01
0.90

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                                                        Table IV
                                                  Dexter Shoe Company
                                        Pollution Prevention Act Data by Facility (1)
                                         (All data from TRI unless otherwise noted)
Energy
Recycled Recovery Treated
On-sitc Off-site Off-site
Chemical Year (pounds) (pounds) (pounds)
Facility Total 1991
1992
1993
1994
Subtotal for 33/50 Facilities
33/50 Program Chemicals 1991
1992
1993
1994
All TRI Chemicals 1991
1992
1993
1994
Milo. ME
Acetone 1992
1994
0
40
100
100

11,650
11,906
8,100
6,350
11,700
13,206
8,100
6,850

0
0
65
40
0
10

1,290
2,083
400
1,200
1,715
2,708
600
1,410

15
5
0
0
0
0

1,700
0
1,000
0
1,700
0
1,000
0

0
0
Total
Production
Quantity Related Production/
Released Wastes Activity
(pounds)  (pounds) Index
32,900
28,113
18,700 (2)
14,000

110,600
102,605
84,000 (2)
49,000
243,000
239,978
206,700 (2)
134,000

13,552
8,000
32,965
28,193
18,800
14,110

125,240
116,594
93,500
56,550
258,115
255,892
216,400
142,260

13,567
8,005
(1) Actual data for 1991 and 1992, projections for 1993 and 1994.
(2) Projections from the Company's August 1993 progress reports.

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