EPA-600/2-75-001
MARCH 1975
                       Environmental Protection Technology Series
                   Projects  in the
    Industrial Pollution  Control Division
                  - December  1974
                                 Office of Research and Development
                                 U.S. Environmental Protection Agency
                                 Washington, D.C. 20460

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               RESEARCH REPORTING SERIES
Research reports of the Office of Research and Development,
Environmental Protection Agency, have been grouped into five
series.  These five broad categories were established to
facilitate further development and application of environmental
technology.  Elimination of traditional grouping was consciously
planned to foster technology transfer and a maximum interface
in related fields.  The five series are:

     1.  Environmental Health Effects Research
     2.  Environmental Protection Technology
     3.  Ecological Research
     4.  Environmental Monitoring
     5.  Socioeconomic Environmental Studies
This report has been assigned to the ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION
TECHNOLOGY series.  This series describes research performed
to develop and demonstrate instrumentation, equipment and
methodology to repair or prevent environmental degradation
from point and non-point sources of pollution.  This work
provides the new or improved technology required for the
control and treatment of pollution sources to meet environmental
quality standards.
The Office of Research and Development has reviewed this report
and approved its publication.  Mention of trade names or
commercial products does not constitute endorsement or recommen-
dation for use.

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                                       600/2-75-001
                                       March 1975
           PROJECTS IN THE

INDUSTRIAL POLLUTION CONTROL DIVISION

            DECEMBER 1974
       PEMP 1BB036 Task 003
            1BB037 Task 003
              Director
           William J.  Lacy
   Chief, Heavy Industries Branch
             George Rey
   Chief, Light Industries Branch
          H.  George Keeler
 Office of Research and Development
 Office of Environmental  Engineering
U. S. Environmental Protection Agency
       Washington, D.  C.  20460

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                                ABSTRACT



     Projects of the Industrial Pollution Control Program - December 1974
                                                          y
is a compilation of information sheets from projects initiated since fiscal


year 1967 through fiscal year 1974.  Each sheet contains the objectives,

statistical information, and a brief description of the project.



     General introductory  information on the Federal Industrial Pollution
                                         «
Control Program is also presented to provide perspective on the magnitude

of industrial pollution and the research directions that must be pursued

in order to develop the technology to adequately control this largest

point source of pollution  in the United States.
                                    ii

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                            TABLE OF  CONTENTS
                                                                Page

Abstract                        .                                i
Table of Contents                                               ii
Key Staff Locations          .                                   iii
Key Management-Implementation Staff                             v
Organizational Chart                                            vi
Introduction                                                    1-1
Chemicals and Allied Products, and Petroleum Refining           II-l
     Project Index                                              II-7
     Final Reports Available                                    11-72
Food and Kindred Products                                       III-1
     Project Index                                              111-16
     Final Reports Available                                    III-100
Joint Industrial-Municipal Point Sources                        IV-1
     Project Index                                              IV-3
     Final Reports Available                                    IV-25
Metal and Metal Products                                        V-l
     Project Index                                              V-9
     Final Reports Available                                    V-62
Miscellaneous Industrial Point Sources                          VI-1
     Project Index                                              VI-2
     Final Reports Available                                    VI-22
Rubber and Plastics Products                                    VII-1
     Project Index                                              VI1-6
     Final Reports Available                                    VII-15
Textile Mill Products                                           VIII-1
     Project Index                                              VIII-4
     Final Reports Available                                    VIII-25
Thermal  Pollution                                               IX-1
     Project Index                                              IX-2
     Final Reports Available                                    IX-27
Wood Pulping, Paper and Paperboard Manufacturing, and           X-l
 Lumber and Wood Products
     Project Index                                              X-3
     Final Reports Available                                    X-49
Appendix A - Project Index by Grantee or Contractor             A-l
Appendix B - Project Index by Project Number                    B-l
                                   in

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                          KEY STAFF LOCATIONS
NAME

Mr. William J.  Lacy
202 755-2877
Mr. William Galegar
                                                           405 253-2224
Dr. David Duttweiler
Dr. Norbert Oaworski
ADDRESS

Director, Industrial  Pollution
 Control Division (RD-679)
EPA-ORD
Washington, D. C. 20460

Director, Robert S. Kerr Environ-
 mental Research Lab, EPA
P. 0. Box 1198
Ada, Oklahoma  74820

Director, Southeast Environmental
 Research Lab, EPA
College Station  Road
Athens, Georgia  30601

Director, Pacific Northwest Environ- 503 752-4572
 mental Research Lab, EPA
200  SW  35th  Street
Corvallis, Oregon 97330
404 546-3134
 Dr. Tudor Davies
 Dr.  Peter  Lederman
 Mr.  George Rey
 Mr.  George  Keeler
 Mr.  Leon  Myers
 Director,  Grosse  lie  Field  Station
 Environmental  Protection  Agency
 9311  Groh  Road
 Grosse lie,  Michigan  48138

 Director,  Industrial  Waste  Treat-
  ment Research Lab,  EPA
 Edison, New  Jersey 08817

 Chief, Heavy Industries Branch
 Industrial Pollution Control
  Division  (RD-679),  EPA-ORD
 Washington,  D. C. 20460

 Chief, Light Industries Branch
 Industrial Pollution Control
  Division  (RD-679),  EPA-ORD
 Washington,  D. C. 20460

 Chief, Petroleum and Organic
  Chemicals Section
 R. S. Kerr Environmental  Research Lab
 P. 0. Box  1198
 Ada,  Oklahoma  74820
 313  226-7554
 201  548-3402
 202 426-4170
 202 426-9428
 405 253-2202

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NAME

Dr. Robert Swank
Mr. Frank Rainwater
Mr. James Boydston
Dr. Hugh Durham
Mr. John Ciancia
ADDRESS
                                     TELEPHONE
Chief, Industrial Pollution Branch   404 546-3175
Southeast Environmental Research Lab
College Station Road
Athens, Georgia  30601

Chief, Energy Conversion Assessment  503 752-4349
 Branch, Pacific Northwest Environ-
 mental Research Lab, EPA
200 SW 35th Street
Corvallis, Oregon 97330
                                     503 752-4313
                                     313 226-7811
Chief, Industrial Waste Branch
Pacific Northwest Environmental
 Research Lab, EPA
200 SW 35th Street
Corvallis, Oregon 97330

Chief, Heavy Industrial Sources
 Branch, Grosse lie Field Station
9311 Groh Road
Grosse lie, Michigan
Chief, Industrial  Pollution Control  201 548-3410
 Branch, Industrial  Waste Treatment
 Research Lab, EPA
Edison, New Jersey 08817

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                                     KEY MANAGEMENT - IMPLEMENTATION  STAFF
   Program Area
   Joint  Industrial-Municipal
   Petrochemical Petroleum Refining
  Agricultural Chemicals
  Textiles
  Iron & Steel, Transportation
    Equipment
  Non Ferrous Metals,  Metal
    Finishing
  Rubber  & Plastics
  Inorganic,  Miscel. Chemicals
 Miscel.  Industries
 Electric Power
 Water Supply
 Wood Pulping
 Paper,  Paperboard
 Lumber,  Wood Products
Meats, Fats,  Oils,  Tanning
Fruits,  Vegetables, Sugar
  Bakeries
Grain Products, Beverages
Dairy, Seafoods, Miscel.
  Foods
HEADQUARTERS MANAGEMENT
 Program Area Manager
    William J,  Lacy
     Branch Chief
     George Rey
                                                                           FIELD IMPLEMENTATION
    George  Keeler
 Program Element
   Director
 William Galegar
 William Galegar
 David Outtweiler
 David Duttweiler
 Tudor Davies

 Peter Lederman
 Peter Lederman
 Peter Lederman
 Peter Lederman
Norbert Jaworski
Branch Chief
Leon Myers
Leon Myers
Robert Swank
Robert Swank
Hugh Durham

John Ciancia
John Ciancia
John Ciancia
John Ciancia
Frank Rainwater
Frank Rainwater
James Boydston
James Boydston
James Boydston
James Boydston
James Boydston

James Boydston

James Boydston

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                                                                   ORGANIZATION CHART
                                                             INDUSTRIAL POLLUTION CONTROL R?.0
                                                              ASSISTANT ADMINISTRATOR, R&D
                                                                    Hashington, D. C.
                                                             DEPUTY ASSISTANT ADMINISTRATOR,
                                                                ENVIRONMENTAL ENGINEERING
                                                                    Washington, n. C.
NATIONAL ENVIRONMENTAL RESEARCH CENTER
           CorvalHs, Oregon
                                      PROGRAM  AREA MANAGER
                              INDUSTRIAL  POLLUTION CONTROL DIVISION
                                       Washinaton,  n.  C.
                                                HEAVY  INDUSTRIES BRANCH
                                                     LIGHT  INDUSTRIES BRANCH
                                                 NATIONAL ENVIRONMENTAL RESEARCH CENTER
                                                	Cincinnati, Ohio
                                                                                 1
R. S. KERR ENVIRONMENTAL
      RESEARCH LAB
     Ada, Oklahoma
SOUTHEAST ENVIRONMENTAL RESEARCH
      LAB, Athens,  Georgia
 PACIFIC NORTHWEST  ENVIRONMENTAL
          RESEARCH  LAB
	Corvallis,  Oregon	
GROSSE ILE LAB
Grosse lie, MI
  Petrochemical, Petroleum
   Ref i ni ng
  Joint Industrial-
   Municipal
  Agricultural  Chemicals
  Textiles
INDUSTRIAL WASTE TREATMENT
       RESEARCH LAB
    Edison, New Jersey
  Wood  Pulping,  Paper, and
    Paperboard
  Lumber, Wood Products
 • Meats, Fats, Oils, Tanning
  Fruits, Vegetables, Sugar,
    Bakeries
  Grain Products,  Beveraqes
  Dairies, Seafoods, Misc. Foods
 - Electric Power
 - Water Supply
  Iron and Steel,
   Transportation
   and Equipment
  NonFerrous Metals, Metal
   Finishing
  Rubber and Plastics
  Inorganic, Misc. Chemicals
  Misc. Industries

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HEAVY INDUSTRIES BRANCH
CHIEF
Georqe Rev
Branch Secretary —
u 1 crK 1 y pi S L
Chemical and Allied Products — —


Metal and Metal Products —
Misc. Industrial Point Sources 	
Rubber & Plastics Products —
Textile Mill Products 	

Power Industry 	
II J. 0 1
INDUSTRIAL POLLUTION CONTROL DIVI
DIRECTOR
William J. Lacy
Secretary W. Mable Sea
Consultant Dean K. Fuhr



SION


les
iman
LIGHT INDUSTRIES
CHIEF
H. George Ke
— Malessa R. Porter Branch Secretary — — •
Mona A. Whittaker Lurnb
— Paul E. des Rosiers Food
n 	 T r-

des Rosiers
— Paul E. des Rosiers J
— Paul E. des Rosiers p , p
	 Paul E. des Rosiers Ulp' pap
— Paul E. des Rosiers


— Charles H. Ris


i. Ris



• i. T J 11 c*




PROGRAM ELEMENTS
1BB036 - Heavy Industries
1B8037 - Light Industries
1BB392 - Thermal
1BB509 - Joint Ind-Mun





BRANCH

eler
Clara P. Williams
A v-t-U 1 1 m LI Mall f\n
ttrLnUr n. riot I ion
Marshall Dick

Charles H. Ris
Arthur H. Mallon




1975

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                              INTRODUCTION


WATER QUALITY LEGISLATION DEALING WITH INDUSTRIAL SOURCES

History

     The first legislation relating to water quality was the Rivers and
Harbors Act of 1899, followed by the 1909 Boundary Waters Treaty between
Canada and the United States.  Both were oriented toward the naviaational
aspects of rivers for commercial purposes.  The Public Health Service
Agency was established by legislation in 1912.  PL 68-238 (Oil ^Dilution
Act of 1924) provided for protection of navigation from "obstruction and
injury by preventing the discharge of oil into the coastal navinable
waters of the United States."

     The first step toward restoration of our national water resources
was taken in 1948, with enactment of PL 80-845 (Federal Water Pollution
Control Act) to "provide for water pollution control activities in the
Public Health Service."  This act established the Federal Water Pollution
Control Advisory Board.  In addition, the tonic of industrial waste treat-
ment research was covered; the act provided support and technical aid
research to the states "to devise and perfect methods of treatment of
industrial wastes which are not suscentible to known effective methods
of treatment."  This act had several amendments: PL 82-579 (Water Pollu-
tion Control Act Extension of 1952), PL 84-660 (Water Pollution Control
Act Amendments of 1956), and PL 87-88 (Federal Water Pollution Control
Act of 1960).

     Another law amending the 1948 Act was PL 89-234 (Water Oualitv Act
of 1965), which established the Federal Water Pollution Control Adminis-
tration (FWPCA) to "provide grants for research and devel opmentj to
increase grants for construction of sewage treatment works, to require
establishment of water quality criteria and for other purposes."  This
was the first water legislation authorizing a federal technoloqy research
program for the restoration of the nation's water resources.

     PL 84-753 (Clean Water Restoration Act) amended the Federal  Water
Pollution Control Act again in 1966 in order "to improve and make more
effective certain programs pursuant to such acts."  Section 6(b)  of this
act provided authorization for "grants to persons for research and
demonstration projects for prevention of pollution of waters by industry
including, but not limited to, treatment of industrial waste."  Also,
Section 6(a)(2) provided for authorization for grants for asststtnq in
the development of any project that would demonstrate new or improved
methods of joint treatment systems for municipal  and industrial wastes.

     The 1966 Act made the first significant provision for water pollu-
tion technology research activities.  The intent O-F making private
institutions eligible for participation in these activities was to
                                   1-1

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combine the private and  public  resources of the nation to work  on  the
water pollution problem.   The provision for the us e of Fed era^  funds  for
grants to private institutions  in  joint pollution control research
ventures could be considered as the carrot in a  cajrot-anj-^nnv  ,n
approach.  The "carrot11  would be the incentive to advance technology  in
a manner conducive to cleaning  up  the environment- s?H^nq,  a  basis  for
establishing or improving  environmental regulations ( the stick )  would
evolve as an output.

     PL 91-190 (National  Environmental Policy Act of 1969) established
the Council of Environmental Duality and also established environmental
pollution and restoration  as a  national policy.  This law ream res
Federal agencies to prepare, and circulate for comment, analyses of the
environmental imnacts of their  actions.  Agencies must disclose the
impact of proposals,  consider reasonable alternatives, and integrate  the
goals and objectives  of  the act into traditional missions and patterns
of decision making.

     The District of Columbia Court of Appeals issued a significant
decision concerning Federal technology programs and the assessment of
the implications of related research activities when they have  reached a
stage of commitment to implementation likely to restrict later  alterna-
tives.  The relationship of this decision and the need for assessino  the
EPA R&D program proposed in this achievement plan is relevant.   Any major
effort by the Agency to  expand  the program along the course proposed  by
this plan should be construed as a commitment toward the implementation
of the developed results of the proposed program.

Current:  PL 92-500

     PL 92-500 (Federal  Water Pollution Control Act Amendments  of  1972)
is based on technology.   It brought together the disciplines  of adminis-
tration, engineering, economics, law, and the ecological sciences  in
order to define the national program in water pollution control.

     PL 92-500 clearly specifies the objective, policies, and goals of
the national water pollution control program, all of which are  relevant
to industrial pollution  point sources.  The national program  directives
are pictonally presented  in Figure 1,               '
of thni          "  °bjectl've "to rest°re and maintain  the intearitv
                    5'   C°nqreSS provfded a foca1 P°int  for
             r                    In °^er to meet the objective,
"eliminaioE ni Ihf J^T actlJ1ti«? necessary to achieve the  qoal  of
industHa i  Lit *  dlschar?* of PO^utants into naviqable waters"  by
industrial  point sources.  These activities are:

     1.   EPA will establish industrial effluent limitations  and standards

                                 pol1utant and industrial pretreatment
                                  1-2

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3.   EPA will institute a nationwide permit and licensing program
    for industrial discharges.

4.   EPA will mount a ma.ior research and demonstration effort to
    develop the technology necessary to eliminate the discharge of
    pollutants into navigable waters, waters of the contiguous zone,
    and the oceans.  To accomplish this, the law mandates that EPA
    shall  conduct and promote the coordination and acceleration of
    research, investigations, exneriments and demonstrations,
    surveys, and studies relating to the extent, prevention, reduc-
    tion,  and elimination of pollution.

    As a result, EPA is authorized to:

    a.  Conduct continuing comprehensive studies of the effects and
        methods of control  of thermal  discharges

    b.  Contract with public or private groups and individuals

    c.  Develop effective and practical processes, methods, and
        prototype devices

    d.  Conduct research and investigations on technology for reduc-
        ing the flow of sewage and water consumption

    e.  Conduct projects with public agencies to assist them in the
        development of advanced waste treatment and water purffica-
        tion methods and to develop new and/or improved methods of
        treating combined municipal-industrial wastes

    f.  Conduct projects with any state or related agency that will
        demonstrate, in river basins or portions thereof, advanced
        treatment and environmental enhancement techniques to control
        pollution from all  sources

    g.  Conduct specific grant and contract R&D nro.iects for the
        prevention of pollution and the reduction and elimination of
        the discharge of industrial pollutants

        (1)  With priority attention to waste management methods for
             the elimination of the discharge of pollutants includ-
             ing the effects of pollutants from in-place or accumu-
             lated sources

        (2)  With priority attention to advanced waste treatment
             methods for reclaiming and recycling water and confin-
             ing pollutants so that they will not migrate to cause
             water or environmental pollution (indirect pollution
             control).
                             1-3

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technology was  to  include new and/or improved re*(>dshaYing in
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process change, o'vd water recycle as a necessary part of  a sound  national
program.  General guides for evaluating new technologies  on a comparable
economic basis were developed.  These included achieving  effective treat-
ment and/or control of wastewaters within the economic constraint rf  cost
of implementation not to exceed 2% to 4% of manufacturing cost.   It
should be noted that the viability of a technology is determined  by its
economic acceptability or adsorbability (.in the case of forcing acceptance)
Costs identified in excess of the range specified have been used  to iden-
tify the need to consider manufacturing process changes or raw materials
alterations in lieu of end-of-pipe treatment as the more  likely payoff
areas for R&D investment.  Demonstration of by-product recovery,  process
change, and wastewater reuse approaches to pollution control were sought.
Many opportunities to pursue these approaches were found  and brought  forth
by the private sector.  These approaches are examples of  cost/benefit
effective solutions to control pollution in lieu of end-of-pipe treatment
technology.

     An operating policy for the administration of R&D grants also evolved.
This was the result of the Federal need to deal with private industry on a
joint-venture research basis.  The joint-venture approach (through cost-
sharing grants) was found to be more economical in terms  of taxpayer
dollars than the contract approach (in which the entire financial burden
is absorbed by the Federal Government).  The program made ample use of
headquarters, regional, and laboratory personnel for relevancy, policy,
and technical evaluations.  Capital obligations of a Federal grant share
of a project cost were avoided.  In addition, cost overruns were not con-
sidered for supplemental Federal funding, any cost overruns were  incurred
by the grantee.  The program was characterized as being essentially
extramural, letting those who have the problem solve it with their skills
and resources, under general Federal guidance and direction and partial
financial assistance.  Industrial cooperation and financial contribution
have been substantial.  Unfortunately, limited resources  have not allowed
extensive involvement with all the significant industrial segments of
concern to the NPDES program established under PL 92-500.

     Mechanisms have been established to ensure EPA-industry cooperation
to resolve a national problem.  Technology produced has become publicly
available.  Financial participation has also been assured; to date, over
two industry dollars have been expended for every EPA dollar.   The pro-
ductivity of the joint approach of R&D has been acknowledged by the parti-
cipating parties; EPA coordinates the national program for industry,  a
task that industry should not and would not take on because of antitrust
laws and the competitiveness of private enterprise.

     The program has proved to be an effective and high-leverage (Federal
to private resources; method of advancing the state-of-the-art.   It has
enabled EPA to develop expertise in various industrial  sectors within the
constraints of the limited resources used over the oast six years.

     The demonstration projects involved have propagated research activi-
ties in industry and other agencies and have developed communication  with
related national industrial  organizations.  Technology transfer between
                                   1-5

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the betterment  of the industry and the nation.

     Industrial  associations have participated in the EPA program and  have
indicated the value of workinq together to reduce the financial impact of
dup iSive  R&S expense on the individual  industrial  fliembershiDS.   Labora-
to?y and sLll-scalPe feasibility investigations of new technologies  have
been carried out by individual industrial  grant applications, who have
sought support  in further establishing the newer technologies.  Where  an
industrial  group as a whole was found reluctant to work ^ cooperatively  in
the R&D grant program, individual companies representative of that
industry have been willing to participate in the program.

     In addition to direct involvement of the private industrial sector,
public institutions have also been involved extensively in projects
involving industrial technologies as well  as projects for joint industrial -
municipal pollution control in Publicly Owned Treatment Works  (POTW).
Eight state  agencies are directing and coordinating technology research in
conjunction  with industries within their borders as a result of EPA grants
relevant to  the EPA mission.  POTW, PTA (Public Treatment Authority),  and
PO (Publicly Owned) utilities are currently involved in projects to achieve
the advancement of technology necessary to clean up the nation's waters.
Several problem areas have been identified in which the only plausible
solution to  cleanup was through a combined and cooperative effort of the
public and private sectors of the nation.

THE NEED FOR A  VIABLE FEDERAL R&D EFFORT

     Industrial wastes are the largest man-made or man-induced point
sources of pollution entering the environment.  The sources  are grouped
into four major classes of origin for the purpose of this plan: heavy
industries, light  industries, electric power  generation utilities,  and
combined industrial  and municipal sewerage systems (Publicly Owned  Treat-
ment Works  (POTW)} wherein the industrial portion of the waste load is
the overriding consideration.  In many instances the industrial portion
discharges  incompatible industrial pollutants that pass through,  are not
susceptible to treatment  in,  or  interfere with the operation of  POTW.
Such pollutants require pretreatment  or treatment on site or in special-
ized basin  or  areawide  service facilities.
 for  atmSt^nl «S ^? V'  Wat^. Resources  Council,  industry accounted
 for  almost 50% of all water  used in the  United  States  in  1965   It is

 Industry  ** by 198° *°n  than M °f  a11  ^ter  used will  be drawn by


     The annual volume of wastewater discharges originatina  from all
                                   1-6

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contact and non-contact) and other non-process waters: the remaininq
4 trillion gallons represent industrial process wastewater.

     The amount of 8005 (Biological Oxygen Demand) and SS (Suspended
Solids) in industrial process raw wastewaters is equivalent to that of
untreated domestic sewage from a sewered population of more than 400
addition to the high BODs and SS, industrial  process wastewater contains
varying concentrations of different pollutants such as dissolved solids
toxic and hazardous constituents, color, nutrients, and ingredients that
are incompatible with POTW.  Industrial operations and pollution control
activities also produce significant amounts of residues ^potential or
actual solid wastes) which, because of their water solubility, may enter
our nation's waters directly or indirectly.

     Industrial wastewaters emanate from more than 400 different manu-
facturing subcategories, each with different waste characteristics.  Over
300,000 individual establishments are classified within "these
subcategories, and more than 20,000 of these establishments are ma.ior
industrial facilities.  Many of these point sources are significant water
pollution sources.  The problem is further amplified by the fact that
industrial expansion is taking place at an annual rate of nearly 4%,
about triple the population growth rate.

     The rapid rate of expansion, the complexity of point sources, and
the diverse characteristics of industrial  wastes result in the discharge
of many new synthetic chemicals.   Many of these new chemicals are to
inhibit biological activities; some are toxic or hazardous, while toxicity
of others has yet to be determined.  Many of these chemicals are entering
the environment without any significant monitoring or regulatory control.

     The economic aspects of industrial pollution control  are an integral
part of assessing the viability of a technology base used for the purpose
of establishing effluent water quality standards for point source dis-
charges.  The economic impact resulting from the application of new tech-
nology and the practicability of the technology to satisfy PL 92-500
requirements must be guided by cost/benefit analysis before establishment
of regulations requiring nationwide implementation.  Another factor that
should be considered before making the final  assessment is the reasonable-
ness of the potential cost as it relates to the typical cost of manu-
facturing within the industrial segment.  Guidelines and/or criteria as
to what constitutes reasonableness, based on  the characteristics of the
industrial segment, are necessary in order to judge the adequacy of the
technology developed as a potential solution  to industrial pollution
problems.

     For the past several years the Office of Environmental  Enaineering
of EPA has used a rule of thumb that a net cost range of 2% to 4% of
manufacturing costs of "wet industries" is a  proper environmental  require-
ment to expect for practicable water pollution control  for these indus-
tries, based on end-of-pipe treatment.  (The  "wet industries" are those
heavy water users that have significant impact on water pollution.)  Costs
                                  1-7

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in excess of this,  when  applying an applicable end-of-pipe  treatment tech-
nology, have been viewed as  indicators of the need to upgrade  manufactur-
ing technology (process  change) and/or in-plant practices,  alter raw
materials used, or optimize  overall industrial water management practices.
With an appropriate technology research effort during the next decade it
is believed that all  significant discharges causing pollution  can be
eliminated within a cost range of 2% to 4% of manufacturing  cost.

     Economic impact studies indicate that costs of this range of magni-
tude will not materially affect the health of the U. S. economy.   Exper-
ience in England indicates that the "capital cost of an effluent-treatment
plant for a chemical  factory is normally between 3% to 5% of the  capital
cost of the factory and  the viscose industry is no exception."  The chem-
ical industry is one of  the most significant of "wet industries."   For
"dry" industries the  costs of water pollution control should be less,  even
when water effluent discharges are characteristic of the industry.   For
some "dry" industries there is essentially "no discharge" of water
effluents.

     The magnitude  of industrial discharges, their diversity of pollu-
tants, the numerous  classifications of industrial  activity,' and the
potential economic  impact of a national  effort to contorl and  abate these
sources of pollution  suggested an obvious need for a coordinating  Federal
role for any significant  R&D effort directed to support advancing  tech-
nology toward the objective of PL 92-500.  The Act's reliance  on  regula-
tory standards  for  discharges is dictated by the technological state-of-
the-art.   This  state-of-the-art can only be changed by an'investment in
KaU.
                                  1-8

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          CHEMICALS AND ALLIED PRODUCTS, AND PETROLEUM REFINING


     The basic objective of the industrial wastewater treatment research
program with respect to the chemicals and allied products and petroleum
refining industries is to establish the technology for new or improved
pollution control methods, having industry-wide application, which will
support the mandates of the Federal Water Pollution Control  Act of 1972,
PL 92-500.  The significant wastewater sources in the chemicals and
applied products and petroleum refining fields are shown in the following
table, which is organized according to the Standard Industrial  Classifi-
cation (SIC) System and which is based on data taken from the 1967 Census
of Manufacturers - Water Use in Manufacturing, a U. S. Department of
Commerce publication.  (Further subcategorization is delineated in a
subsequent paragraph.)

                                                            1968
                                                   Wastewater Discharge
SIC   Industry Description	Million Gallons

281   Industrial Inorganic Chemicals                         832

283   Drugs                                                   67

284   Soaps, Detergents, and Cleaning                         30
      Preparations, etc.

285   Paints, Varnishes, Lacquers, Enamels,  and                6
      Allied Products

286   Industrial Organic Chemicals                         2,181

287   Agricultural Chemicals                                 114

289   Miscellaneous Chemical Products                        190

29    Petroleum Refining and Related Industries            1,217

                                     TOTAL                 4,637

     The chemicals and allied products industry produces  large  numbers  of
different products and mixtures thereof.   Identical products  are,  in many
instances, made by any one of several different manufacturing processes.
Also, the manufacture of certain basic chemicals  by non-chemically classi-
fied standard industries further compounds the problem of a  clear  defini-
tion of the sub-industrial classification within  the industry.   These
dimensions of complexity do not make it readily feasible  to  characterize
all the manufacturing establishments solely  by the specific  products pro-
duced or solely by the manufacturing process in use.   Accordingly, the
sub-industries may either be classified on the basis  of a pollution
problem based on the pollution problem of the major controlling pollutant
in the effluent, on the general type of manufacturing operation, or by  the
class(es) of product(s) produced.
                                  II-l

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     The  difficulty of defining the sub-industries  by the SIC code
 numbers has led to acceptance of an arbitrary division of the industry
 into primarily two major sections:  organic  chemicals  and inorganic
 chemicals.  In this method of classification, a sub-industry, as defined
 by  the SIC code, may be considered  as  in either the organic or inorganic
 product classification depending on the specifics  of the plant in
 question.  Hence, a complete sub-categorization, including the petroleum
 refining  category, follows:

 SIC   Industry Description __ _

 28     Chemicals and Allied Products

 281    Industrial Inorganic Chemicals
       2812   Alkalies and Chlorine
       2813   Industrial  Gases
       2816   Inorganic Pigments
       2819   Industrial  Inorganic  Chemicals, n.e.c.

 283   Drugs
       2831   Biological  Products
       2833   Medicinal  Chemicals and Botanical  Products
       2834   Pharmaceutical  Preparations

 284    Soaps,  Detergents,  and Cleaning  Preparations, etc.
       foil   c°ap.a?d Other  ^^gents, Except Specialty  Cleaners
       ?u\   ?P!?    I JJean!nS. Polishing, and Sanitation  Preparations
       2843   Surface  Active Agents, Finishing Agents, Sulfonated
              Oils, etc.
       2844   Perfumes, Cosmetics,  and Other Toilet Preparations

 285    Paints, Varnishes,  Lacquers,  Enamels, and Allied Products

 286    Industrial  Organic  Chemicals
       2861    Gum and  Wood  Products

       2865                     CyCliC Inte™di*tes, Dyes,  and Organic
       2869    Industrial Organic Chemicals,  n.e.c.

287    Agricultural Chemicals
              Sitro?enous Fertilizers
       m
       ™J   ?h2??atlc Fertilizers
       ?«7Q   ?ri1.1lzers» Mixin9 Only
       2879   Pesticides and Agricultural  Chemicals, n.e.c.
289        ell!r)U? Chemical
              r hf ^es and
              Explosives
              Printing Ink
              Carbon Black
       2899   Chemicals and chile.!  Preparations,  n.e.c.
                                n-2

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SIC     Industry Description
29      Petroleum Refining and Related Industries
        2911   Petroleum Refining
        2951   Paving Mixtures and Blocks
        2952   Asphalt Felts and Coatings
        2992   Lubricating Oils and Greases
        2999   Products of Petroleum and Coal, n.e.c.

The Organic Chemicals Industry

     The important products of this .industry are miscellaneous cyclic
and acyclic organic chemicals and chemical  products, flavor and perfume
materials, gum and wood chemicals, drugs, organic fertilizers, soaps and
detergents, pesticides, miscellaneous chemical products and other synthe-
tic organic chemicals.  The industry ordinarily includes production of
monomers, but does not include production of polymers  or plastics and
synthetic fibers.  Of total shipments in 1967, 75 percent were miscellan-
eous acyclic chemicals, a large number of which are  generally designated
as petrochemicals.  The expansion of the petroleum industry into chemical
production is of particular significance.

     Organic chemicals industry pollutants  originate from the incomplete
removal of principal products or raw materials from reactions, in the
production of non-recoverable or useless by-products,  from equipment
cleaning operations, and from such water uses as cooling and steam pro-
duction.  Wastewater generation in the industry per unit of product
varies so widely that an average value has  little meaning except in a
statistical sense; wastewater generation varies from less than 100
gallons per ton of product to more than 100,000 gallons per ton of
product.  The principal contaminants in the industry's wastewaters are
BOD, COD, oil, suspended solids, acidity, alkalinity,  heavy metals,
color, taste and odor-producing compounds,  and residual organic products
and by-products.

     The production of organic chemicals results in many types of con-
taminated wastewaters, and the treatment methods employed cover the range
of known practical techniques.  In-plant control is the first step in
instituting treatment practices.  Such controls include the salvage of
unreacted chemicals, recovery of by-products, multiple reuse of water,
good housekeeping techniques to reduce leaks and spills, and changes in
processing methods.  These controls can result in reducing the concentra-
tions of almost all potential pollutants and can, most importantly,
reduce the volumes of wastewaters requiring treatment.  Physical  treat-
ment methods such as sedimentation or flotation are used primarily to
remove coarse suspended matter and floating oils and scums.   Filtration
is used as a form of tertiary treatment for reuse or as a pretreatment
step.  Chemical treatment is used primarily as a pretreatment prior to
sedimentation, filtration, or biological  treatment. Biological  treat-
ment, that is, anaerobic and/or aerobic BIOX, is most  widely used in the
industry due to the nature of the wastes, that is, their general  suscep-
tibility to biodegradation as evidenced by  relatively  high BOD/COD values,
                                  II-3

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     Wastewaters from organic chemical  processes  consist of contaminated
and relatively  clean effluent streams.   In general,  the contaminated
JSteSaters  aVe those which are used in direct contact with products or
by-products  in  reactions, separation processes, vessel cleanouts, etc.
The cleaner  wastewaters are those used  for indirect  heat exchange,
general  washing, etc.

     The sources of contaminated wastewaters  from petrochemical opera-
tions are three-fold.  First, wastes containing a principal raw material
or product arise during the stripping of the  product from a solution.
Incomplete removal is a fundamental  requirement of any equilibrium
process.  However, use of more expensive or additional separation equip-
ment may result in reduction of effluents.  By-products produced during
reactions constitute a second source of wastewaters.  Many petrochemical
reactions take  place under extreme conditions where  the vagaries of
organic chemistry result in the production of chemicals other than those
specifically desired.  Often markets cannot be found for those chemicals
or they cannot  be reasonably recovered  and are discarded to the waste
stream.   New production methods are  directed toward  increases in yields
and reductions  in by-products; accordingly, new technology often results
in a decrease in this source of waste.   Spills, slab washdowns, and
vessel cleanouts comprise a third category of effluents and these are
generally not controllable by means  of  process modifications.  Changes
in catalyst  concentrations and increases in yields,  however, reduce the
amount of pollutants from this source and result  in  some changes in the
character of the waste.

     Joint industrial -municipal treatment has proved to be very effective
in treating  organic chemical wastewaters, particularly for smaller chemi-
cal plants located near large municipal treatment systems.  Treatment
costs play an important role in governing the expansion of joint treatment
participation.  Rates established by municipalities  vary extremely.
There are also  some instances where  a specific plant has accepted a muni-
cipal waste  into its treatment facility, oftentimes  as a source of badly
needed nutrients for a BIOX system.

     The industry has generally found that tn-plant, separate treatment
has economic advantages, particularly when significant quantities of con-
^ter are 1nvolved-  No significant percentage  increase
I   Tunt.of Or9anl"c chemical wastewaters that will  be
hnnFmVE-S?  "ear future'  On the basts of  an  annua
            1110  °
  ™                     .
production S^hnnFmVE-S? "ear future'  On the basts of an annual
                         i1!1-10!! P°Unds by the Or9an1c chemicals
                                                           be ** 83°
The Inorganic Chemicals  Industr
                              ™     1s also not eas"y *«n*le in
 produc  value my bnoted  » al5llJ?0r!!anJ,of.the gr°ups 1n terms of
 ing an^onia and U                          ™
                                 II-4

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not sufficient to ignore such groups as industrial gases (excluding
organic gases), which include the important production of nitrogen and
oxygen, paints and allied products, the latter of which includes the
vital surface coatings industry, or inorganic pigments, which involves
inorganic pigments such as titanium oxide.  The surface coatings industry
is typical of the relationship which exists between segments of the
inorganic chemicals industry and the organic chemicals industry.  The
solvents and film formers, which are utilized within the inorganic chem-
icals industry for the production of surface coatings, are important
products of the organic chemicals industry, whereas inorganic pigments,
primarily oxides and salts of titanium, iron and other metals, are pro-
ducts which fall into the inorganic chemicals industry category.  The
total product is generally defined as being part of the inorganic
industry.  However, it is obvious that the complex relationships which
exist between various products and industries (necessary to the smooth
functioning of our technological state) make it extremely difficult, if
not impossible, to arbitrarily associate certain products with one SIC
category.

     The overall output of industrial inorganic chemicals, since they
are utilized in a wide range of industries and for a wide variety of
purposes, usually well removed from the final consumer, depends upon the
level of total economic activity rather than the economic activity in
any specific segment of the economy.

     Changes in consumer preferences or redistribution of income and
spending, such as changes in tax levels or defense spending, may affect
product mixes, but do not significantly affect total  industry output.  In
general, price competition and product substitution are not as signifi-
cant in the inorganic chemicals industry as in the organic chemicals
sector.  However, changes, although slow to come, tend to be quite pro-
found.

     Supplies of raw materials frequently vary and, in the case of certain
materials, the industry may face serious shortages until new raw material
sources (usually ores or brines) are developed.   The widely fluctuating
price of sulfur over the past ten years is a classic case resulting from
supply fluctuations which can be matched by mercury, potash and silver,
among others.  Since new sources of minerals are found infrequently and
usually involve relatively large expenditures to develop, wide fluctua-
tions in the gap between demand and readily available supply are quite
common in the inorganic chemicals industry.

     Industrial chemical industries are generally capital intensive
operations (with a few exceptions such as the paint manufacturing
industry) and are characterized by high productivity, high wages, a low
labor turnover, and a continuing demand for skilled labor.   Most of the
plants operate continuously and must operate at 75 to 85 percent of
capacity to maintain adequate levels of efficiency and profitability.
Smaller plants generally operate batch processes, and hence, tend to
produce low-volume, high-cost, specialized chemicals.

     Regional growth rates reflect a continuing trend to move production
facilities closer to raw materials and markets.   The industry, as a whole,
is thus tending to concentrate in the Midwest and Southwest.

                                  II-5

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     Wastewater from inorganic chemical  processing  consists  both of con-
taminated  and relatively clean effluent  streams.   In  general,  the con-
tarn nated  wastewaters are those taken  from processes, whereas  the cleaner
waslewaLrs  are those used for indirect  heat  exchange,  genera   washing,
etc   Clean  waters are basically uncontami nated  and can be discharged
untreated.   Cooling water and steam condensates  are the primary sources
of such  water.

     Contaminated wastewater from the  inorganic  chemicals  industry arises
primarily  from electrolysis and crystallization  brines, washings from
filter cakes, spent acids and alkalies,  and washings  from  raw  materials.
These wastewaters are generally characterized by both dissolved solids
and suspended solids.  In addition to  contaminated waste streams,
process  cooling discharges occur, accounting  for 40 to  80  per  cent of
the total  discharge on the average. Treatment practices vary, but
involve in-plant segregation of contaminated  wastes from uncontami nated
cooling waters.

     Many waste treatment methods are  available  depending  on the degree
of treatment required; however, equalization, neutralization,  sedimenta-
tion and lagooning processes are most widely  used.   Biological treatment
is not applicable, since the contaminants are primarily dissolved or
suspended inorganic materials.  Plants with small discharges tend to
employ only equalization and neutralization with total  discharge to
municipal sewer systems for joint treatment.   It is estimated  that
between 10 and 20 percent of the process wastewater discharged from this
industry is to municipal systems (7.9  percent of the total discharge).
No significant percentage changes in this regard are expected  through
1974.  The inorganic  chemicals industry has generally found that in-plant,
separate treatment has economic advantages, particularly when  significant
quantities of wastewater are involved.


The  Petroleum Refining and Related Industries

     The petroleum  refining industry is by far the largest water user in
this subprogram element.  The  industry uses 20 billion gallons of water
n^Miv    P?nrcent °f ?tal indus*rial water usage.   Approximately
 diftinrJ nnl9^  nS  P\r day  *™ used ™ Processing operations.  Many
 craSi'na  th*™ ?WC- *S "?* oil  distillation; reforming, catalytic
Sddll  Si<:«?E£ r"*1.1*' Polarization, alkylation, gasoline and
 FoSl  conden  Jf 1,  ^ati?9' m0t0r oil ma"^cturing, etc.  are utilized.
                                     at ^e source, but,  for the most
               HpH                             ,    ,
               of? Si™ ?ntral,waste treatment facilities for pollu-
                    XiSE?1  ^ recove7' followed b* biological con-


               ^^^
                                 II-6

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                    PROJECT INDEX



CHEMICALS AND ALLIED PRODUCTS,  AND PETROLEUM REFINING





    Grantee or Contractor                            Project Status
DIS
DIT
DKF
DML
DMT
DQC
DRC
DSH
DXR
EAS
EAW
EEQ
EFW
EGC
EGM
EID
EJI
EKT
EMI
EPH
ERM
EXG
Union Carbide Corporation
Texas A&M Research Foundation
University of Oklahoma Research Institute
American Oil Company
Engineering Science, Incorporated
State of Louisiana
Illinois Institute of Technology
American Petroleum Institute
Harvard University
The Dow Chemical Company
E. I. duPont de Nemours and Company
The Dow Chemical Company
Armour Industrial Chemical Company
State of Alabama
Farmers Chemical Association, Incorporated
Engineering Science, Incorporated
Datagraphics, Incorporated
American Oil Company
State of Louisiana
Celanese Corporation of America
Mineral Pigments Corporation
Manufacturing Chemists Association, Inc.
A
C
A
B
A
A
A
A
C
A
B
A
B
B
B
A
A
A
B
B
A
A
                         II-7

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            Grantee or Contractor                             Project Status
                                                                    A
EZG         Shell Oil  Company
PER         Union Carbide Corporation                               A
FOH         CIBA-GEIGY Corporation                                  B
FPD         BatteH e-Northwest                                      A
FYE         University of Texas                                     A
QIZ         Southern Dyestuff Company                               B
6ND         Datagraphics, Incorporated                              A
GTR         Atlantic Richfield Company                              B
GXF         B. P. Oil Corporation                                   B
14-12-435   C. W. Rice and Company                                  A
5-532-1     Water Economy Research Institute, Poland                B
68-01-0083  Envirogenics Systems                                    B
68-01-0457  Diamond Shamrock Corporation                            A
68-03-0456  Repro Chemical Corporation                              B
68-03-2133  Hoechst-Uhde Corporation                                B
800300     The  Dow Chemical Company                                B
800312     Georgia  Institute  of Technology                         B
800554     University of Missouri  -  Columbia                       B
800602     Southern  Research  Institute                             A
800766     The  Dow Chemical  Company                               B
800773     State of Louisiana                                     B
800857      Illinois  Institute of Technology                       B
800947     Texas A&M University                                   B
801030     University of California - Berkeley                     B
                                   II-8

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            Grantee or Contractor                            Project Status
801159
801349
801398
801431
801 577
802684
802753
802872
802908
803026
803085
803159
803231
803286
803357
803358
Pharmaceutical Manufacturers' Association
New Jersey Zinc Company
Union Carbide Corporation
Hercules, Incorporated
National Agricultural Chemical Association
State of Florida
University of California - Berkeley
American Defense Preparedness Association
Louisiana Chemical Association
American Oil Company
The Dow Chemical Company
Velsicol Chemical Corporation
University of Connecticut
Pfizer Pharmaceuticals, Incorporated
International Ozone Institute, Inc.
Crown Chemical Company
A
B
B
B
B
B
B
B
B
B
B
B
B
B
B
B
Project Status

A - Completed, Final  Report Available
B - Project Ongoing
C - Project Discontinued
                                  II-9

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INFORMATION  SHEET

        ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY
RESEARCH, DEVELOPMENT OR DEMONSTRATION  PROJECT

  Thi, ahn-l briH'U describe an R & D project Section 104 or 105 of (l.r
  Kcdrral \\atrr Pollution Control Acl  Amrndmcnts ol 197L (PI- J--*'<')

PROJECT  NUMBER: DIS

TITLE  OF PROJECT'.  Anaerobic Treatment of Synthetic Organic Wastes
GRANTEE OR CONTRACTOR:

 Union Carbide Corporation
 R&D Department
 Bound Brook, New Jersey 08805

PrOJeCt Site: south Charleston,
             West Virginia
DESCRIPTION OF PROJECT

Award  Date: December 1968


Completion Date:  June 1971

Summary:
                                       EPA PROJECT OFFICER:

                                        Mr. James Horn
                                        R. S. Kerr Environmental
                                         Research Laboratory, EPA
                                        P. 0, Box 1198
                                        Ada, Oklahoma  74820
                                           Project Cost: $314,859

                                           Federal Cost: $220,400
  The objective of this project was to determine the technical and economic
  feasibility of an anaerobic-aerobic process for the treatment of composite
  organic chemical wastes  from a integrated petrochemical complex.  Optimum

  d^Yf*  r°nStK^ °n 3 5°°0"gpd 8Cale treat**nt facility to obtain
  Sf JL ! I *?? establish operating criteria for larger scale installations.
  The demonstration was conducted subject to a technical and economic feasi-
  bility study based on laboratory-scale research studies
              ADDRESS INQUIRIES TO EPA PROJECT OFFICER

                               11-10

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 INFORMATION^ SHEET
        ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY
RESEARCH. DEVELOPMENT OR DEMONSTRATION PROJECT
  This sheel briefly describes an R & I) project Section 104 or 105 of the
  Federal Water Pollution Control Act Amendments of ll)72 (PL 92-.iOO)

PROJECT  NUMBER:  BIT


TITLE OF PROJECT: Metal Ion-Catalyzed Oxidation of Phenols and
                 Aromatic Amines
GRANTEE OR CONTRACTOR:
 Texas A&M Research Foundation
EPA PROJECT OFFICER:

Mr. George Rey
Environmental Protection Agency
Ind. Pol. Control Division (RD-679)
Washington, D. C. 20460
Project Site:  Texas A&M

DESCRIPTION OF PROJECT

Award Date: September 1967

Completion  Date: August 1972

Summary:
 A study of  the mechanism and feasibility of the metal ion-catalyzed oxida-
 tion of phenols and aromatic amines by molecular oxygen in wastewater
 systems partially treated with potassium permanganate was undertaken in
 this project.
    Project Cost:$234,ooo

    Federal Cost: $40,255
            ADDRESS INQUIRIES TO  EPA PROJECT OFFICER
                             11-11

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                                        SHEET
  Tti. sh,H briefly deibes an R « 0
  Federal Water Pollution Control Acl
                                          ,04 ^ 105 ofU.,
                                          1972 (PI. W-nOO)
PROJECT  NUMBER:
                        DKF
TITLE OF PROJECT:  State-of-the-Art Evaluation on Petroleum and Coal
—                "   Wastes
 GRANTEE OR CONTRACTOR:
  University of Oklahoma Research Institute
  1808 Newton Drive
  Norman,  Oklahoma 73069
         Site: Norman, Oklahoma
                                           EPA  PROJECT  OFFICER:
                                           Mr. Leon Myers
                                           R. S. Rerr Environmental
                                            Research Laboratory,  EPA
                                           Ada, Oklahoma  74820
 DESCRIPTION OF PROJECT
 Award Date:  October
 Completion  Date:   April 1970

 Summary:
                                                Project Cost:  $17,397

                                                Federal Cost: $14,297
   The final report to  this study presents a. state-of-the-art evaluation of
   pollution problems,  abatement procedures, and control  techniques relevant
   to the petroleum and coal industries.  Petroleum wastes  are discussed
   under three broad sections: drilling-production, transportation and
   storage, and refining.  The results  of a field study of  three small refin-
   eries are reported,  providing additional information which delineates the
   characteristics of waste streams from individual processes within the
   refinery. - Coal mining, coal processing, and coal utilization, the wastes
   associated with each, and the corresponding control measures are discussed.
   Acid mine drainage,  the most significant pollution problem from coal min-
   ing, and possible control measures are presented.  The major pollution
   problems associated with coal processing originate from coal cleaning,
   the coking process,  and refuse disposal.  The principal pollutants  in
   water discharged from the processing of  coal are suspended solids  usually
   in the form of  fine clay, black shale, and other minerals commonly
   associated with coal.  The  production of  coke by carbonization of  coal
   produces a wastewater that  is high in phenols,  ammonia, and dissolved
   organics.
               ADDRESS INQUIRIES TO EPA PROJECT OFFICER
                                   II-12

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 INFORMATION SHEET

        ENVIRONMENTAL  PROTECTION AGENCY
RESEARCH,  DEVELOPMENT OR DEMONSTRATION PROJECT
  This shed briefly describes an R & D project Section 104 or I0."> of the
  Federal Water Pollution Control Acl Amendments of 1972 (PL 92-500)
PROJECT NUMBER:

TITLE  OF PROJECT:
                      DHL
                   Treatment  of Refinery Effluent by a Unique Combination
                   of Biological and Chemical Processes
                                         EPA PROJECT OFFICER:

                                         Mr. Clifford Risley
                                         Region V,  EPA
                                         1 North Wacker Drive
                                         Chicago, Illinois  60606
GRANTEE OR CONTRACTOR:
  American Oil Company
  910 South Michigan Avenue
  Chicago, Illinois


Project  Site:  Whiting, Indiana


DESCRIPTION OF PROJECT


Award Date:  February 1969


Completion Date: September 1974


Summary:
  A 30-mgd scale project to demonstrate the advantages of using chemical
  coagulation and air flotation following biological  conditioning to pro-
  vide refinery effluent of high quality was undertaken to establish
  what operating flexibilities exist in such a combination of processes and
  the costs associated therewith.  Evaluation of a number of unique design
  features, including a hitherto unproven process for disposal of oily
  sludges, a unique and low-cost method for preventing sludge deposition in
  an aerated lagoon, a novel application of rotary-drum skimmers and a com-
  parative study of alternate design features for air flotation, was also
  made.
                                             Project Cost: $1,737,775

                                             Federal Cost: $  336,535
             ADDRESS INQUIRIES TO EPA PROJECT OFFICER
                               11-13

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INFORMATION  SHEET

        ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY
RESEARCH,  DEVELOPMENT OR DEMONSTRATION PROJECT

  This shed l>riefl\ describe- an R & D project Section 104 or 105 of the
  Federal \\alcr Pollution Control Act Amendments of 1()72 (PI- 92-500)

PROJECT NUMBER: DMT

TITLE OF PROJECTlThe Characteristics and Pollutional Problems
                 Associated with Petrochemical Wastes
 GRANTEE OR CONTRACTOR:
  Engineering Science, Inc.
  150 East  Foothill Boulevard
  Arcadia,  California  19006

 PrOJeCt Site :  Austin, Texas

 DESCRIPTION  OF PROJECT

 Award  Date:   September 1968

 Completion Date:  April 1969

 Summary:
EPA PROJECT  OFFICER:

 Mr. James Horn
 R.  S. Kerr Environmental
  Research Laboratory
 P.  0. Box 1198
 Ada, Oklahoma  74820
            Cost:
                    $11>190
     Federal  Cost:  $11,190
   The general scope>of the project, as developed under the plan of operation,
   includes a detailed development of the following: 1) History and projec-
   tion of the petrochemical industry; 2) Definition, magnitude, and pollu-
   tants associated with these waste treatment problems; 3) Evaluation of
   control, treatment and disposal practices; 4) Listing of the special
   legal problems involved with petrochemical waste management; 5) Determina-
   tion of the economic feasibility of present and future control methods,
   reflecting downstream uses; and 6) Evaluation of research needs.  The objec-
   tives of this proposed project were achieved through a well coordinated
   plan of operation.  A complete literature review was conducted using the
   numerous volumes  available in the numerous libraries located on the
   University of Texas campus.  Additional information was obtained  from
   various governmental agencies and selected industries.  Additional data
   derived from the unpublished Environmental Health Engineering Reports was
   also utilized.
               ADDRESS INQUIRIES TO EPA PROJECT OFFICER
                                  II-14

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 INFORMATION  SHEET

        ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY
RESEARCH.  DEVELOPMENT OR DEMONSTRATION  PROJECT
  This shed briefly describes an R & U project Section 104 or 10.1 of the
  Federal Water Pollution Control Act Amendments of 1972 (PI, 92-500)


PROJECT NUMBER: DQC


TITLE OF PROJECT.  Polymeric Materials  for Treatment and Recovery of
                   Petrochemical Wastes
GRANTEE  OR  CONTRACTOR:
  Department  of Commerce  and
  Indus try
  State of Louisiana
        Site :
              Baton Rouge, Louisiana
                                          EPA PROJECT  OFFICER:

                                          Mr. James Horn
                                          Robert S. Kerr Environmental
                                           Research Laboratory, EPA
                                          P. 0. Box 1198
                                          Ada, Oklahoma  74820
                                              Project  Cost:  $68,992

                                              Federal  Cost:  $43,295
DESCRIPTION  OF PROJECT

Award Date:  Aprii 1969


Completion Date:  October 1970


Summary:

 Reverse osmosis has been used as a unit operation to  study the recovery
 of products from industrial waste streams.  Precursory examination of
 several industrial wastes was performed in this project. - The recovery
 of glycerin from a petrochemical waste stream containing inorganics and
 polyglycerins has been studied in detail with the results applied to the
 design  of an effective process scale unit.  Membranes employed were asym-
 metric  cellulose acetate butyrate and cellulose acetate.  The pilot-scale
 experimental studies were performed with tubular membrane modules which
 readily accommodated the sample plant stream being studied.  - Good separa-
 tion was achieved operating between 600 and 800 psig  for best selectivity.
 The product throughput rate appeared the limiting consideration and proved
 sensitive to increased turbulence and reduced feed vicosities, the latter
 achieved by dilution. - The pilot-unit data were used to design a counter^
 current multi-stage battery to achieve even closer separations.  It was
 shown that sufficient glycerin could be recovered to provide an attrac-
 tive recurn on the required investment.
             ADDRESS INQUIRIES TO EPA PROJECT OFFICER

                                    11-15

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INFORMATION  SHEET
PROJECT NUMBER:  DRC

TITLE OF PROJECT:  Efficiency of Fibrous Bed Coalescers
 GRANTEE OR CONTRACTOR:
  Department of  Chemical Engineering
  Illinois Institute of Technology
  Chicago, Illinois 60616

 Project Site:  Chicago,

 DESCRIPTION OF  PROJECT

 Award  Date:  June 1970

 Completion Date: June 1971

 Summary:
EPA PROJECT OFFICER:

Mr.  Clifford Risley
Region V, EPA
1 North Wacker Drive
Chicago, Illinois 60606
     Project Cost:  $41,665

     Federal  Cost:  $34,999
   A 1 sq. ft.  coalescer unit using filter press construction has been designed
   for removing dispersed oil from water and has been tested on both a synthetic
   stream and an actual pollutant stream.  The oil removal efficiency was
   essentially 100 percent at a superficial velocity of 1 fpm. The present
   design is suitable for large-scale operation by the use of both mutiple
   cells and larger individual cells. - The performance of fiber  glass coal-
   escers was studied in depth using a cell with an active area of 1.77 sq.
   in.  The commercial fibers, with phenol formaldehyde coatings  and a fiber
   diameter of 3.2u, gave efficiencies of 90-99 percent with bed  densities
   of 12 lb/ft3 when operating at superficial velocities  from 0.2 to 4 fpm
   on emulsions containing 50-500 ppm of oil.  In all cases the pressure drop
   increased continually with run time due to both accumulation of oil in
   the bed  and mechanical degradation of the fibers.  Preliminary tests indi-
   cated  that the bed degradation phenomenon could be eliminated  by  struc-
   turally  stabilizing the compressed fibers with methacrylate resin.
               ADDRESS INQUIRIES TO EPA  PROJECT OFFICER

                                 II-16

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 INFORMATION  SHEET

         ENVIRONMENTAL  PROTECTION AGENCY
RESEARCH,  DEVELOPMENT OR  DEMONSTRATION PROJECT
    i.s sheet briefly describes an R & D project Section  104 or 10.") of the
  Federal Water Pollution Control Acl Amendments of 107:2 (PI, 02-500)
PROJECT NUMBER:
                       DSH
TITLE Or PROJECT)  Improved Capabilities of Biological Systems  to
                   Assimilate Oil
                                              Project Cost: $34,990

                                              Federal Cost:$5i.47o
GRANTEE  OR CONTRACTOR:                  EPA PROJECT OFFICER:

  American Petroleum Institute               Mr. Paul Lefcourt
  Air and Water  Conservation                 Hudson-Delaware Basins Office
  1801 K Street, N.W.                       Environmental Protection Agency
  Washington,  D. C. 20006                   Edison, New Jersey 08817

Project Site:  New York, New York


DESCRIPTION  OF PROJECT


Award  Date:  june 1968


Completion Date:  December 1969


Summary:

  Small-scale, continuous activated sludge systems were exposed to a variety
  of oily compounds at several loading levels and the system performance was
  observed.  Batch studies to determine the biodegradability of the oily
  compounds, and the effects of emulsification and temperature on the rate
  of biological  reaction were also conducted. - As a result of this study,
  it was found that oils introduced into an activated sludge system are
  absorbed on  the floe and are very slowly degraded.  If the loading rate is
  higher than  the degradation rate or  the rate of wastage,  the oil accumu-
  lates on the sludge.  The accumulation causes a loss of density and then
  a loss of acceptable sludge settling characteristics.   The biological
  system fails due to the loss of floe, but it is important to note that the
  ability of the biological system to  remove other substrates is not inhibited
  by the presence of oil compounds until excessive loss  of  MLSS has occurred.
  The continuous feed level of oils to activated sludge should not exceed
  0.10 pounds  per day per pound of sludge under aeration.   Shock loads
  should not exceed 5 per cent of the  weight of the sludge  under aeration.
  The study also considered separation of oils before biological treatment
  and various  chemical methods of handling complex cases.

             ADDRESS INQUIRIES TO EPA PROJECT OFFICER
                                 11-17

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INFORMATION  SHEET

        ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY
RESEARCH, DEVELOPMENT OR DEMONSTRATION PROJECT
Tliis shrrl l.rirfly drsmbrs a,. R & U project Srrlion 104 or lO

Knlrral \\alcr Pollution Control -\cl Amt-ndmc-nts of l()72 (PL
                                               of llir

                                             )2-.->00)
PROJECT NUMBER:
               DXR
TITLE OF PROJECT:  Oil Dispersion Coalescence by Porous Solid Contact
GRANTEE OR CONTRACTOR:                 EPA PROJECT  OFFICER:

  President & Fellows of Harvard College     Mr. Richard Keppler
  Office  of Research Contracts              Region I, EPA
  1350 Massachusetts Avenue                John F. Kennedy Federal Building
  Cambridge, Massachusetts 02138            Boston, Massachusetts  02203

 PrOJBCt  Slt6 .  Cambridge, Massachusetts

 DESCRIPTION OF PROJECT


 Award Date:  February 1970


 Completion  Date: juiy 1971


 Summary:

  The first year-report describes progress toward completion of a laboratory
  experimental and theoretical  investigation of oil  dispersion separation
  by filtration through packed  beds. The end results of this study  should
  be important to process design for treatment of waste aqueous oil  disper
  sions such as those produced  in industrial processing and ship ballast
  discharge.
                                          Project Cost: $16,157

                                          Federal Cost:$15 3/l9
              ADDRESS INQUIRIES TO EPA PROJECT  OFFICER
                                11-18

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 INFORMATION SHEET

        ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY
RESEARCH. DEVELOPMENT OR DEMONSTRATION PROJECT
  This sheet briefly describes an R & D project Section 104 or 105 ol the
  Federal Water Pollution Control Acl Amendments of 1972 (PI- 92-500)


PROJECT NUMBER:


TITLE OF PROJECT!  Recondition and Reuse of Organically Contaminated
                  Waste Sodium Chloride Brines
GRANTEE OR CONTRACTOR:                 EPA PROJECT OFFICER:

  The Dow Chemical Company                  Mr. Clifford Risley
  1000 Main Street                         Region V, EPA
  Midland, Michigan 48640                   1 North Wacker Drive
                                        Chicago, Illinois 60606
PrOJeCt Site :  Midland, Michigan


DESCRIPTION OF PROJECT


Award  Date:  Jime 1969


Completion Date:  June 1971


Summary:

  The development and demonstration of a chemical-adsorption process for
  wastewaters  from a phenol manufacturing plant were performed in this
  study. The process treated the wastewaters  for the removal and recovery
  of phenol and  acetate.  The remaining brine  wastewater was utilized
  for caustic-chlorine production.  The basic  process involves the selective
  separation of  organic constituents by activated carbon beds.
Project Cost: $1,300,408

Federal Cost:   $509,310
            ADDRESS  INQUIRIES TO EPA PROJECT  OFFICER

                              11-19

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INFORMATION  SHEET

        ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY
RESEARCH.  DEVELOPMENT OR DEMONSTRATION PROJECT

  Tin's shrrl l,riH'l> docribo an R & D project Section 104 or I OS of (he
  Federal Water Pollution Control Acl Amendments of 1972 (PI. 92-500)
PROJECT  NUMBER:
                EAW
TITLE OF PROJECT:  Ocean Disposal of Industrial Wastes
GRANTEE OR CONTRACTOR:                EPA PROJECT OFFICER:
 E.  I. duPont de Nemours and Company        Mr. John Ulshoefer
 Pigments Department                     Edison Water Quality Res. Lab.
 Wilmington, Delaware 19898               Environmental Protection Agency
                                     Edison, New Jersey 08817

Project Site:  Wilmington, Delaware

DESCRIPTION OF PROJECT

Award Date: July 1969


Completion  Date:  September 1974


Summary:


 of  antacid-iron'i^ Varl°US technical and economic aspects  of the dispersal

         off the coast of Delaware, was evaluated.
                                         Project Cost: $874>452

                                         Federal Cost: $150,116
            ADDRESS INQUIRIES TO EPA PROJECT OFFICER
                             11-20

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 INFORMATION^  SHEET

        ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY
RESEARCH, DEVELOPMENT OR DEMONSTRATION PROJECT
  This sheet hrid'ly describes an R & D project Section 104 or I(K> of the
  Federal Water Pollution Control Acl Amendments of 1972 (PI- 92-500)


PROJECT NUMBER:  EEQ


TITLE OF  PROJECT!  Treatment  of Wastewaters Resulting from the Produc-
                   tion of  Polyhydric Organic  Compounds
                                        EPA  PROJECT OFFICER:

                                          Mr. James Horn
                                          Robert S. Kerr Environmental
                                           Research Laboratory,  EPA
                                          P.  0. Box 1198
                                          Ada, Oklahoma 74820
GRANTEE OR CONTRACTOR:
  The Dow Chemical Company
  Texas Divis ion
  Freeport, Texas


PrOJCGt Site :  Freeport, Texas


DESCRIPTION OF  PROJECT


Award  Date:  June 1959


Completion  Date: june 1971


Summary:

  The basic goal in this project was to develop a method of  treatment of
  wastes from polyhydric manufacturing processes.  Several alternative
  treatment methods were examined to determine their technical engineer-
  ing, and economic feasibility.  The results will be used to develop a
  conceptual design of a waste treatment facility for the briny wastes
  resulting from this chemical industry. Processes evaluated were  aerobic
  biological systems, solvent extraction, foam fractionation, dialysis, and
  adsorption.   Studies included laboratory, bench-scale, and pilot-plant
  scale testing.
                                            Project Cost:  $282,490

                                            Federal Cost:  $197,740
             ADDRESS INQUIRIES TO EPA  PROJECT OFFICER
                               11-21

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INFORMATION  SHEET

        ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY
RESEARCH, DEVELOPMENT OR DEMONSTRATION PROJECT

  Thi> sheet briefly describes a,, R & D project Section 104 or 105 of lh«'
  Federal Water Pollution Control Acl Amendments of 1()72 (PI- °2-.iOO)
PROJECT NUMBER:
                EFW
TITLE OF PROJECT: Armour Industrial Chemical Company Secondary Wastewater
              ~~ Treatment
GRANTEE  OR  CONTRACTOR:

  Armour Industrial Chemical Co.
  Chicago, Illinois 60611
                                      EPA PROJECT OFFICER:

                                      Mr.  Clifford Risley
                                      Region V, EPA
                                      1 North Wacker Drive
                                      Chicago, Illinois  60606
                                           Project  Cost: $503.000
                                           Federal  Cost:,?in
Project Site :MCcook,


DESCRIPTION OF PROJECT

Award Date: October 1969


Completion  Date: December 1974


Summary:

 The development and demonstration of a secondary treatment biological
 process to reduce the effluent from a fatty acid derivatives chemical
 plant to less than 100 ppm of hexane soluble materials will be undertaken.
 Development work includes the evaluation of an existing pilot-plant test
 unit to be followed by a full-scale (0.5 mgd) demonstration at the Armour
 plant in McCook, Illinois.  The treated effluent water quality improve-
 ment, obtainable by use of a tertiary treatment process, will also be
 explored on a pilot scale.                               «•»«
             ADDRESS INQUIRIES TO EPA PROJECT OFFICER

                               U-22

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 INFORMATION SHEET

        ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY
RESEARCH, DEVELOPMENT OR DEMONSTRATION PROJECT
  Thi> >heet lirirl'h de.MTil«> an R. «K I) project Section 104 or H).") ul' (lie

  Federal \\aler Pollution Control \ci Amendment* of I<)7l2 (PI. <)2-.">()0)
PROJECT NUMBER:
EGC
TITLE  OF  PROJECT.  Treatment and Disposal of Complex Chemical Wastes
GRANTEE OR CONTRACTOR:                 EPA PROJECT OFFICER:

  State of  Alabama                         Mr. Edmond Lomasney
  Geological Survey and Oil & Gas Board       Region IV, EPA
  University, Alabama                       1421 Peachtree Street,  N.E.


PrOJeCt Site :  Tuscaloosa, Alabama

DESCRIPTION OF  PROJECT


Award  Date:  October 1969


Completion Date: September 1974


Summary:

  In this program, development and evaluation of a surface or subsurface
  method for control of pollution from a complex chemical waste from a
  petrochemical  complex, manufacturing alkyd resins and phenols, will  be
  performed.  Development of the methodology and/or testing techniques to
  permit projections of the fate of waste components  and the waste assimu-
  lative capacity  of deep geological formations will  be also made.
                          Project  Cost: $989.525
                                       $314 , 5 25
            ADDRESS  INQUIRIES TO EPA PROJECT OFFICER
                              11-23

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INFORMATION^  SHEET

        ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY
RESEARCH, DEVELOPMENT OR DEMONSTRATION PROJECT

  Thi* «l..-.-l l.rid'lv ,l.'M-ril«-, an R &  U project Section 104 or 105 of llir
  hV,lrr,il \\alrr Pollution Control Act Amendments of 1972 (PL y2->00)
PROJECT NUMBER:  EGM

TITLE OF PROJECT:
Removal of Nitrogenous Compounds from a Fertilizer
Plant Effluent
 GRANTEE OR CONTRACTOR:
  Farmers Chemical Association, Inc.
  P.  0. Box 87
  Harrison, Tennessee

 PfOJBCt Site.' xyner, Tennessee

 DESCRIPTION OF PROJECT

 Award Pate:  April 1969


 Completion Date:  June 1975 (revised)
                  EPA PROJECT OFFICER:

                   Mr. Edmond Lomasney
                   Region IV, EPA
                   1421 Peachtree Street,  N.E.
                   Atlanta, Georgia 30309
                      Project  Cost: $220.300

                      Federal  Cost:$i54.2io
 Summary:

  This project involves the full-scale development and demonstration of the
  treatment of nitrogenous fertilizer effluents using stripping, oxidation
  pretreatment and ion exchange/recovery reuse techniques.  Present objec-
  tive of this project is to determine the efficiency and operating costs
  of a moving bed ion exchange system in removing nitrogenous compounds
  from the nitrogen fertilizer plant effluent.
             ADDRESS INQUIRIES TO EPA PROJECT OFFICER

                               11-24

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 INFORMATION  SHEET
        ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY
RESEARCH, DEVELOPMENT OR DEMONSTRATION PROJECT
  This shed briefly describes an R & D project Section 104 or I0f5 of the
  Federal Water Pollution Control Act Amendments of 1972 (PI- 92-o()0)

PROJECT NUMBER:   BID


TITLE OF  PROJECT!   Preliminary Investigational Requirements -
                   Petrochemical and Refinery Waste Treatment Facilities
GRANTEE OR  CONTRACTOR:
  Engineering Science, Inc.
  150 East Foothills Boulevard
  Arcadia, California 91006

Project Site:   Austlnj Texas

DESCRIPTION OF  PROJECT

Award  Date:   June 1959

Completion Date:   March 1970

Summary:
EPA PROJECT OFFICER:
Mr.  George Putnicki
Region VI, EPA
Dallas, Texas  75202
    Project  Cost:   $17,000

    Federal  Cost:   $17,000
  The objectives of this project included the compilation,  interpretation,
  and presentation of the pertinent  aspects which constitute a preliminary
  wastewater  treatability study for  the refining and petrochemical  indus-
  tries.  The preliminary investigation relative to the successful  treat-
  ment of petrochemical and refinery wastewaters included those factors
  essential in the proper development of design criteria for pollution abate-
  ment and control facilities.
            ADDRESS INQUIRIES TO EPA PROJECT OFFICER
                               11-25

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INFORMATION^ SHEET

        ENVIRONMENTAL  PROTECTION AGENCY
RESEARCH,  DEVELOPMENT OR DEMONSTRATION PROJECT

  Th, «h,H briefly .Im-ribr, an R & U projerl Section 104 or KW uf lln-
  Knlrral \\alrr Pollution Control Ac I Amrndmcnb of !<>,:> (PL W-oOO)

PROJECT NUMBER:  EJI

TITLE OF PROJECT:  Inorganic Chemical Industry Profile
                                              Project Cost: $55,327

                                              Federal Cost: $55,327
GRANTEE OR  CONTRACTOR:                  EPA PROJECT OFFICER:
 Datagraphics,  Incorporated                 Mr. George Key
 4790 William Flynn Highway                 Industrial Pollution Control
 Allison Park,  Pennsylvania                  Division (RD-679)  EPA
                                         Washington, D. C. 20460

Project Site .'   Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania


DESCRIPTION OF PROJECT

Award Date: june 1959.


Completion  Date:  January 1970


Summary:
  The final report to this project presents a description of the inorganic
  chemical industry and the costs that the industry would incur in attain-
  ing various levels of pollution abatement over the five-year period
  through 1974.   For the study purposes,  the inorganic chemical industry
  has been defined as including establishments producing alkalies and
  chlorine, industrial gases, inorganic pigments, paints and allied
  products, fertilizers (excluding ammonia and urea), inorganic insecti-
  cides and herbicides, explosives, and other major  industrial inorganic
  chemicals. The report presents in considerable detail the description
  of the various production processes, the waste treatment methods prac-
  ticed, and the possible impact that changes in processes might have on
  the volume and character of the wastes produced.
  Projections have been based upon the chemical industry data in the 1963
  and 1967 Census of Manufacturers, the 1967 Manufacturing Chemists Assoc.
  survey,  and the 1968 FWPCA study of the organic chemicals industry.  Costs
  of treatment are  estimated by year  for the  levels  of  treatment correspond-
  ing to 27  percent  and 100 percent removal of  contaminants. Data from 59
  inorganic  chemical plants were obtained as  primary input to the study.


              ADDRESS INQUIRIES TO EPA PROJECT OFFICER
                                 11-26

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 INFORMATION  SHEET
        ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY
RESEARCH,  DEVELOPMENT OR DEMONSTRATION PROJECT
  This sheet briefly describes an R. & D project Section  104 or 105 of the
  Federal Water Pollution Control Acl Amendments of 1
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INFORMATION^ SHEET

        ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY
RESEARCH, DEVELOPMENT OR  DEMONSTRATION PROJECT

  This shce, briefly describe, an R & D project Section 104 or 105 of (I,,-
  Federal Water Pollution Control Act Amendments ol 1972 (PL J--->UU)

PROJECT NUMBER: EMI

TITLE OF PROJECT:   Concentration and  Removal of Industrial Wastes by
                   Dialysis
 GRANTEE OR CONTRACTOR:
  State of Louisiana
  Department of Commerce and Industry
EPA PROJECT OFFICER:

 Mr. James Horn
 Robert S. Kerr Environmental
  Research Laboratory, EPA
 P. 0. Box 1198
 Ada, Oklahoma 74820
                                            Project Cost:$67,263

                                            Federal Co$t:$32,539
Project Site : New Orleans, Louisiana

DESCRIPTION OF PROJECT

Award Date: April 1970


Completion Date: June 1974


Summary:

 The objectives of the proposed research were the following:  1) Investi-
 gation of the phenomenon of  dialysis with a view toward developing a
 satisfactory theory of selective migration and generating an appropriate
 mathematical statement. 2) Comparison of the efficiency of various types
 of dialysis equipment with respect to selectivity and mobility of solute
 particles in various media and thereby to develop parameters by which
 dialyzer membrane and optimal operating conditions can be determined for
 a number of typical industrial waste streams. 3) Evaluation of the eco-
 nomics of dialysis as a tool in removing pollutants from industrial
 wastes and concentrating them to the extent that recoverability becomes
 feasible. 4) Design of dialysis equipment for continued research and for
 pilot plant scale studzed for possible industrial applications
              ADDRESS INQUIRIES TO EPA PROJECT OFFICER

                               11-28

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 INFORMATION^  SHEET
        ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY
RESEARCH.  DEVELOPMENT OR DEMONSTRATION PROJECT
  This shed briefly describes an R & U project Section  104 or 10.") of the
  Federal Water Pollution Control Acl Amendments of 1972 (PI. 92-500)
PROJECT NUMBER:
EPH
TITLE OF PROJECT.  Anaerobic-Aerobic Chemical Waste Treatment
GRANTEE  OR CONTRACTOR:
  Celanese Corporation of America
  522 Fifth Avenue
  New York, New York 10036
                   EPA PROJECT OFFICER:

                   Dr. Thomas Short
                   R. S. Kerr Environmental
                   Research Laboratory, EPA
                   Ada, Oklahoma 74820
        Site :
              Bay City, Texas
DESCRIPTION OF PROJECT

Award  Date:  June 1971

Completion Date:  December 1975

Summary:
                       Project  Cost:  $60o,ooo

                       Federal  Cost:  $395,340
 The proposed project will study and demonstrate the economics and process
 parameters of a bio-oxidation disposal system for high-strength organic
 wastes on a commercial scale and compare the economics  to deep-well dis-
 posal. Additionally, the project will: 1) Investigate  the anaerobic con-
 version of intractable organic compounds to aerobically bio-degradable
 species to reduce the COD and BOD to levels suitable for discharge to
 receiving waters or for reuse. 2) Study the nitrate removal characteris-
 tics of the anaerobic—aerobic systems. 3) Demonstrate the use of automatic
 on-stream total organic carbon analyzers as process controllers and/or
 monitors. 4) Investigate the effects of series and parallel operation,
 changes in recycle rates, and dilution on the process efficiency.
             ADDRESS INQUIRIES TO EPA PROJECT OFFICER

                               11-29

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INFORMATION  SHEET

       ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY
RESEARCH.  DEVELOPMENT OR DEMONSTRATION PROJECT

  This sh,rl l.riH'K doiTibo an R & D project Section 104 or 105 of U>e
  Federal \\alcr Pollution Control Act Amendments of 1972 (PL 92-500)

PROJECT NUMBER:  EBM

TITLE OF PROJECT:  Ion-Exchange Effluent Treatment Unit  (PET)
GRANTEE OR CONTRACTOR:
  Mineral Pigments Corporation
  Muirkirk, Maryland
Project  Site :  Muirkirk, Maryland

DESCRIPTION OF  PROJECT

Award Date:   October 1959

Completion  Date:  juiy 1959

Summary:
EPA PROJECT OFFICER:

Mr. John Ciancia
Edison Water Quality
 Research Laboratory, EPA
Edison, New Jersey 08817
    Project Cost:   $225,422

    Federal Cost:   $115,957
  Development and demonstration of the use of an ion-exchange process
  for recovery of chromate from chromate wastewaters  containing high con-
  centrations ( 1000 ppm) of chromate was undertaken.  The proposed
  process was one which is used for dilute chromate content cooling tower
  waters.                                              °
            ADDRESS INQUIRIES TO EPA PROJECT OFFICER

                             11-30

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 INFORMATION  SHEET

        ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY
RESEARCH.  DEVELOPMENT OR DEMONSTRATION PROJECT
  This shed briefly describes an R & L) project Section 104 or 103 of
  Federal Water Pollution Control Acl Amendments of 1072 (PI. 92-3

PROJECT NUMBER: EXG
TITLE OF PROJECT:
The Effects of Chlorination on Treated Organic
Chemicals
GRANTEE OR CONTRACTOR:
  Manufacturing Chemists Assoc.,  Inc.
  1825 Connecticut Avenue, N.W.
  Washington,  D. C. 20009
        Site :   Leonia, New Jersey 07650
                    EPA  PROJECT OFFICER:

                    Dr. Hend Gorchev
                    Region I, EPA
                    John F. Kennedy Federal  Building
                    Boston, Massachusetts 02203
DESCRIPTION OF PROJECT

Award  Date: March 1970
                        Project Cost:  $50,000

                        Federal Cost:  $42,000
Completion Date:  June 1971


Summary:

 The basic objectives of this project were to conduct a study to  determine
 any adverse effects that might result  from the chlorination of certain
 industrial chemicals either before or  after biological treatment.  More
 specific aims included the following:
 1.  Evaluation of the effect of selected organic chemicals and their
     degradation products on chlorine demand and disinfection efficiency.
 2.  Determination, for selected chemicals, of cases in which it  is
     possible to form chlorinated compounds during disinfection of the
     treated effluent.
 3.  Determination of the physical properties and degradation rate of
     chlorinated compounds found.
 4.  Examination of the influence of persistent chlorinated compounds on
     the stream biota, in which several levels of life forms were con-
     sidered.
             ADDRESS INQUIRIES TO  EPA PROJECT OFFICER

                               11-31

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INFORMATION  SHEET
  Thi> sl«,-. kiefU .U-MTiU-s an R & D project Section 104 or Htt of
  F(,|,-ral \\alcr Pollution Control Acl Amendments ol !<),! (PI. J--

PROJECT NUMBER:    EZG

TITLE  OF  PROJECT:  Demonstration of Oily  Waste Disposal by Soil
"             '     Cultivation Process
GRANTEE  OR  CONTRACTOR:
  Shell Oil Company
  P. 0. Box 100
  Deer Park, Texas  77536

 Project Site:   Deer Park, Texas

 DESCRIPTION OF PROJECT

 Award Date:  March 1970

 Completion  Date:  January 1972

 Summary:
EPA PROJECT  OFFICER:
 Mr. Leon Myers
 R. S.  Kerr Env.  Res. Laboratory
 P. 0.  Box 1198
 Ada, Oklahoma  74820
    Project Cost:  $100,000

    Federal Cost:  $ 70,000
   The project consisted of a series of experiments on the treatment of
   oily sludges (crude tank bottoms, Bunker C, intermediate wax oils) by
   spreading and cultivation into soil under prevailing climatic conditions.
   Nine test plots were operated at specific nutrient addition levels.
   The objectives were to determine: 1) Decomposition rates of various
   types of oily waste sludges. 2) Effectiveness  of adding nutrient supple-
   ments. 3) Major microbiological species active in the soil. 4) Cost of the
   process for the disposal of oily waste. 5) Depth of oil penetration into
   the soil. - The demonstration phase followed a six-month pilot phase
   for optimization of waste loading rates and nutrient addition.
              ADDRESS INQUIRIES TO EPA PROJECT OFFICER

                                11-32

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 INFORMATION  SHEET
         ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY
RESEARCH. DEVELOPMENT OR DEMONSTRATION  PROJECT
  This shed briefly describes an R & D project Section 104 or 10.") ol the
  Federal Water Pollution Control Acl Amendments of 1972 (PI. 92-500)

PROJECT NUMBER:   FER


TITLE Or PROJECT.  Identification and Control of Petrochemical Pollutants
                   Inhibiting Anaerobic Treatment Processes
                                          EPA PROJECT  OFFICER:

                                         Mr.  J. H. Ferguson
                                         Water Quality Office, EPA
                                         303  Methodist Building
                                         Wheeling, West  Virginia 26003
                                              Project  Cost$6?,050

                                              Fede£a|_Cosi:$46}936
GRANTEE  OR CONTRACTOR:
 Union Carbide Corporation
 Research and Development Dept.
 P.  0. Box 8361
 South Charleston, West Virginia 25303

Project Site : South Charleston, West Virginij


DESCRIPTION OF PROJECT


Award Date: February 1970


Completion Date: December 1971


Summary:

 The objectives of this project was to identify chemicals in the waste-
 water from a large petrochemical plant that are inhibitory to anaerobic
 treatment and to study applicable means to eliminate such inhibition.
 As  an initial step, inhibitory chemicals were identified by perform-
 ing batch degradability studies in conjunction with analysis by the
 latest methods available at the Union Carbide Technical Center in South
 Charleston, West Virginia.  Materials of particular interest were
 sulfates, B-unsaturated carbonyl compounds, and ammonia.  A second study
 involved the use of a photosynthetic bacterial-algal culture to overcome
 sulfide problems (i.e. microbial inhibition and oxygen demand).   Digestion
 studies in which a degradable substrate was spiked with various levels of
 inhibitory materials was made to indicate allowable levels.  A final demon-
 stration run in pilot facilities using typical wastewaters was planned to
 verify the findings of the laboratory study.
             ADDRESS INQUIRIES TO EPA PROJECT OFFICER
                                11-33

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 INFORMATION SHEET
        ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY
 RESEARCH,  DEVELOPMENT OR DEMONSTRATION PROJECT
  This sheet liriel'U describe.- an R & D project Section 104 or l()o of the
  Federal Water Pollution Control Act Amendments of I°7l2 (PI, 02-500)
PROJECT NUMBER:

TITLE  OF PROJECT:
                 TOH
                  ... .  ,  1/fc
                  Biological/Physico-chemical Treatment Alternatives
                  for a Diversified Organic Chemicals Wastewater
GRANTEE OR CONTRACTOR:
 CIBA-Geigy Corporation
 Ardsley, New York 10502
       Si:
              Cranston, Rhode island
                                       EPA  PROJECT OFFICER:

                                       Mr. D.  H. Stonefield
                                       Surveillance and Analysis
                                        Division
                                       240 Highland Avenue
                                       Needham, Massachusetts 02194
DESCRIPTION OF PROJECT

A»ard Date:  March 1970
                                                        $1)268,300
          Date:
                December 1974
                                           Federal Cost:
                                                          $392,600
Summary:

The objectives of this proiect were- n  T^
of a multi-stage (three or more) nLtL T^*"011 °f the — ***•*
for wastewaters from multip^ea^ £ ^ trickl^g filter process"
and demonstration of the techni if    e  ca-"-s plant.  2) Development
by automated systems for the procesflf%?? °5 tOtal process c°ntrol
of a specific design of plastic «£a Vn    ^ °f the Performance'

per uSf011 °f ^Cr°-°r8^is^ ^a f;ctor tnttaati0n °f thS Stage~V
ST") ii/i/'H^^^*«»-."| f_            j~ ^^"-^ ^*n •  J J j£\Fl% Il1Qt""fy^v«  f J.T               O
an additional treatment operation for further  pfJ?    the Perfo™ance of
                                 further  effluent quality improvement.
           ADDRESS ,NOU,«,IS TO EPA P.O4KT Off,C»

                             II-34

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 IN FORM A TION  SHEET

         ENVIRONMENTAL  PROTECTION AGENCY
RESEARCH. DEVELOPMENT OR DEMONSTRATION PROJECT
  This shed briefly describes an R & 1) project Section 104 or l()o of the
  Federal Water Pollution Control Act Amendments of 1972 (PI- 92-500)

PROJECT NUMBER:
TITLE OF PROJECT!
                      Water Pollution and Its  Control in the Inorganic
                      Fertilizer and Phosphate Mining Industries
GRANTEE OR CONTRACTOR:
  Battelle-Northwest
  P. 0. Box 999
  Richland, Washington
        C! + «.
        bite . Richland, Washington
                                          EPA PROJECT OFFICER:
                                          Mr. Thomas Sargent
                                          Southeast Environmental
                                           Research Laboratory, EPA
                                          College Station Road
                                          Athens, Georgia  30601
                                              Project Cost:$24>75o

                                              Federal Cost: $23,500
DESCRIPTION OF PROJECT


Award  Date: Aprii 1970


Completion Date:  September 1971


Summary:
 A state-of-the-art survey was made of the water pollution problems  which
 result from the production of inorganic fertilizers.  Information required
 to complete the study was obtained through an extensive literature  search,
 questionnaires sent to  the major fertilizer producers, and visits to
 selected production plants.  Ninety-eigh <_ plants representing 33 different
 companies were surveyed.  Production figures since 1940 and estimates of
 production through 1980 were accumulated for phosphate rock and the major
 fertilizer products .  The specific production operations which are  the
 principal generators  of contaminated wastewaters were identified, and the
 wastewater volumes and  compositions for each operation were determined
 wherever possible.  The capability of current technology to treat and control
 the contaminated wastewaters generated by the fertilizer industry was eval-
 uated.  Problem areas where additional research and development effort is
 needed to provide adequate control of wastewater discharge were identified.
             ADDRESS INQUIRIES TO  EPA PROJECT OFFICER
                                11-35

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INFORMATION  SHEET

        ENVIRONMENTAL  PROTECTION AGENCY
RESEARCH,  DEVELOPMENT OR DEMONSTRATION PROJECT

  Thi> sheet briH'U ,1,-M-rilM-s an R & D project Section 104 or 105 of llu-
  Fe.l.-nil Water Pollution Control Acl Amendments of 1972 (PL 92-500)

PROJECT  NUMBER:   FYE

TITLE OF PROJECT!  Characteristics and Pollutional Problems of
                  Pesticide Manufacturing Wastes
GRANTEE OR CONTRACTOR:
  Department of Civil Engineering
  University of Texas
  Austin, Texas
        Site :
               Austin, Texas
EPA PROJECT OFFICER:

 Mr. Thomas  Sargent
 Southeast Environmental
  Research Laboratory, EPA
 College Station Road
 Athens, Georgia 30601
 DESCRIPTION OF PROJECT

 Award  Date: June 1970

 Completion Date: December 1971

 Summary:
           Cost:
                $26 183
    Federal Cost:$9fi 1/(3
  In this project a state-of-the-art study and survey was conducted on
  practices  and research needs pertaining to wastewater treatment and
           "     technol°^ rela
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 INFORMATION  SHEET

        ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY
RESEARCH.  DEVELOPMENT OR DEMONSTRATION PROJECT
  This sheet briefly describes an R & D project Section 104 or 105 of the
  Federal Water Pollution Control Acl Amendments of 1972 (PI. 92-500)

PROJECT NUMBER:   GIZ


TITLE OF PROJECT:  Biological Oxidation and Chemical Coagulation of
                   Dyes tuff and Organic Chemical Wastes


GRANTEE OR CONTRACTOR:                 EPA  PROJECT OFFICER:

 Southern Dyes tuff Company                 Mr. Edmond Lomasney
 Division of Martin Marietta Corp.          Region IV, EPA
 P. 0.  Box 10098                          1421 Peach tree Street,  N.E.
 Charlotte, North Carolina 28201            Atlanta, Georgia  30309

        Site :  Charlotte,  North Carolina
DESCRIPTION OF PROJECT


Award  Date:  February 1971                    Project Cost: $1,515,900


Completion Date: Juiy i973                    Federal Cost:  $ 501,122


Summary:

 The grantee will design, construct, operate,  and evaluate a waste treatment
 system for the control of  wastes from a textile dyestuff and organic chemi-
 cals plant.  The plant produces over 200 different dyestuff products and
 more than" 40 aromatic organic chemicals .  The plant will be designed to
 handle a flow of 2.2 mgd with a BOD of 760 mg/1, a COD of 1750 mg/1, sus-
 pended solids of 350 mg/1, and a high -color content. The waste treatment
 system consists of biological decomposition of a thiosulfate waste stream,
 pH control of acid and alkaline waste streams, and biological oxidation,
 coagulation and clarification of the combined wastes.  The system will be
 operated for a 12-month period in order to determine the unit process
 operating parameters and system characteristics.
 In addition,  pilot-plant studies will be conducted to determine the basic
 design factors needed to upgrade the system's treatment capabilities for
 color  removal.
             ADDRESS  INQUIRIES TO EPA PROJECT OFFICER
                               11-37

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INFORMATION  SHEET
  This she,, briefly de^bes an R & t> project S,elion 104 »r 103 of (he
  K,,l,.ral *a.er Pollution Control Acl Amendment, of 1072 (PI. <)2-,00)


PROJECT NUMBER:  GND


TITLE OF PROJECT! Projected Wastewater Treatment Costs in the
~            ~    Organic Chemical Industry
GRANTEE OR CONTRACTOR:
 Datagraphies , Incorporated
 4790 William Flynn Highway
 Allison Park, Pennsylvania
         Site :  Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania
                                         EPA  PROJECT OFFICER:

                                        Mr. George Rey
                                        Environmental Protection Agency
                                        Ind. Pollution Control Div.  (KD-679)
                                        Washington, D. C.  20460
                                              Project  Cost$6,735
                                              Federal Cost:
                                                            $6,735
DESCRIPTION OF PROJECT


Award Date:  October 1970


Completion  Date:  June 1971


Summary:

  The final report to this project presents a description of the organic
  chemical industry and the costs the industry would incur in attaining
  various levels  of pollution abatement over the five-year period through
  1974.  For the  study purposes, the organic chemical industry has been
  defined as SIC  2815 (cyclic intermediates-, dyes,  organic pigments (lakes
  and toners), and cyclic  (coal tar) crudes); SIC 2818 (organic chemicals,
  not elsewhere classified) ; portions of SIC 2813 (industrial gases);
  portions of SIC 2879 (agricultural chemicals, not elsewhere classified);
  and portions of SIC 2871 (fertilizers).  Organic gases only were included
  from SIC 2813 and ammonia and urea only from the fertilizer industry.
  The report presents in considerable detail the description of the various
  production processes, the waste treatment methods practiced, and the
  possible impact that changes in processes might have on the'volume and
  character of the wastes  produced.
              ADDRESS INQUIRIES TO EPA PROJECT OFFICER
                                 11-38

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 INFORMATION  SHEET
         ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY
RESEARCH.  DEVELOPMENT OR DEMONSTRATION  PROJECT
  This sheel briefly describes an R & D project Section 104 or 105 of the
  Federal Water Pollution Control Act Amendments of 1972 (PI. 92-500)

PROJECT NUMBER:   GTR


TITLE OF PROJECT:  Refinery Effluent Water Treatment Plant (Calgon
                   Filtrasorb System)
GRANTEE OR CONTRACTOR:
  Atlantic Richfield  Company
  260 Broad Street
  Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 19101
PrOJeCt Site :   Wilmington, California

DESCRIPTION OF PROJECT
                            EPA PROJECT  OFFICER:
                            Mr.  Leon Myers
                            R. S.  Kerr Environmental
                             Research Laboratory
                            P. 0.  Box 1198
                            Ada, Oklahoma  74820
Award  Date:
July 1971
Completion Date:  January 1974

Summary:
Project Cost:   $1,159,534

Federal Cost:   $  274,719
  This project will  demonstrate  and evaluate the effectiveness  and economics
  of a non-biological system (activated carbon) for periodic treatment of
  refinery process and storm water runoff.  The system is designed to relieve
  the hydraulic and  waste loading of a municipal system, normally used for
  joint treatment during dry weather conditions, during peak flow storm
  periods. - The system is a parallel downflow granular activated carbon
  system, including  carbon regenerations designed to directly treat 4.2 mgd
  of wastewater, reducing the chemical oxygen demand over 90 percent to an
  effluent value less than 40 mg/1.  In addition, the effluent  water quality
  resulting will be  in compliance with the effluent quality regulations
  imposed by the California Water Quality Board for the Dominguez Channel.
             ADDRESS INQUIRIES TO EPA PROJECT OFFICER

                                 11-39

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IN FORM A TION_ SHEET

        ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY
RESEARCH.  DEVELOPMENT OR DEMONSTRATION PROJECT

  This slu-r, briefly describe an R & D project Section 104 orJOS of ll,r
  Federal Water Pollution Control Acl  Amendment ol  1072 (PL J--*"')
PROJECT NUMBER:
GXF
TITLE OF PROJECT:  Treatment of Oil Refinery Wastewaters for Reuse
                   Using a Sand Filter-Activated Carbon System
 GRANTEE OR  CONTRACTOR:
  B. P.  Oil Corporation
  P. 0.  Box 428
  Marcus Hook, Pennsylvania 19061

 Project Site :  Marcus Hook, Pennsylvania

 DESCRIPTION OF PROJECT

 Award  Date:  juiy 1971

 Completion  Date:  January 1975

 Summary:
                      EPA  PROJECT OFFICER:

                      Mr. Leon Myers
                      R. S. Kerr Environmental
                       Research Laboratory
                      P. 0. Box 1198
                      Ada, Oklahoma 74820
                           Project  Cost:   $2,625,240

                           Federal  Cost:    $  350,000
   Project objectives include: 1)  Demonstration of the unique application of
   sand filtration followed by activated carbon adsorption for total treatment
   of refinery wastewaters. 2) Demonstration of the use of two-stage centrifu-
   gation for sludge dewatering and oil recovery from the centrate. 3) Investi-
   gation of the practicality of the reuse of treated effluent within the
   refinery. 4) Collection of reliable operating data from full-scale facili-
   ties including capital and operating costs of treatment facilities; and
   5) Investigation of the reuse of treated effluent for cooling tower and
   boiler feed water makeup.
   The project plan will be to design, construct, and operate  a refinery waste-
   water treatment facilities consisting of sand filtration and activated carbon
   adsorption.  The design is to be based on information gathered  during prior
   pilot-scale evaluation of  sand filter-activated carbon system.  The project
   will demonstrate the feasibility of use of sand filter-activated carbon
   system for treatment of refinery wastewaters as an alternate to the conven-
   tional biological treatment.
               ADDRESS  INQUIRIES TO EPA PROJECT OFFICER
                                  II-40

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 INFORMATION^  SHEET

         ENVIRONMENTAL  PROTECTION AGENCY
RESEARCH. DEVELOPMENT OR  DEMONSTRATION PROJECT
  This sheet briefly describe.-- an R. & U project Section 104 or 10.") of (lie
  Kederal Water Pollution Control Act Amendments of 1072 (PI, 
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INFORMATION SHEET

        ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY
RESEARCH. DEVELOPMENT OR DEMONSTRATION PROJECT

  Thi, >.„,, iTiefK ,l«..scril,,, an R & I) projert Section 104 or 103 of llu-
  Knl.-ral \\alrr Pollution Control Ad Amondmcnb ol 19,1 (PI- >--*>">

PROJECT NUMBER:   5-532-1

TITLE OF PROJECT:  Physico-Chemical Treatment  of Industrial Wastewater
~~~~   and Sludge Utilization
 GRANTEE OR CONTRACTOR:
  Ministry of Land Resources
   and Environmental Protection
  Katowice, Poland


 PrOJeCt  Site: Katowice, Poland

 DESCRIPTION OF PROJECT

 Award Date: January 1973

 Completion Date:  December 1975
EPA PROJECT OFFICER:
Dr. Herbert S. Skovronek
Edison Water Quality Research
 Laboratory
Edison, New Jersey 08817
     Project Cost:$35,400

     Tederal Cost:$85.4oo
 Summary:
   This project will develop, on a laboratory and pilot-plant scale, physico-
   chemical treatment for combined municipal and industrial (primarily steel
   mill) wastewater.  Sludges available from the current primary wastewater
   treatment, themselves a local environmental problem, are high in iron
   and should be useful as the coagulant for such treatment. The extent to
   which the sludges must be dewatered and/or chemically modified to make
   them suitable for this purpose and the effectiveness of physico-chemical
   treatment for this wastewater, including multi-media filtration, will be
   established.  Biological treatment will also be evaluated for comparison.
              ADDRESS  INQUIRIES TO EPA PROJECT OFFICER

                                II-42

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 INFORMATION  SHEET
         ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY
RESEARCH.  DEVELOPMENT OR DEMONSTRATION  PROJECT
  This sheet briefly describes an R & D projeet Section 104 or l()o of the
  Federal Water Pollution Control Acl Amendments of 1972 (PL 92-500)

PROJECT NUMBER:   68-01-0033
TBTLE OF PROJECT:
Development of Treatment Process for Chlorinated
Hydrocarbon Pesticide Manufacturing and Processing
Wastes
GRANTEE OR CONTRACTOR:
  Envirogenics Systems
  9200 East Flair Drive
  El Monte, California 91734

Project Site :  El Monte, California

DESCRIPTION OF PROJECT

Award  Date:   June 1971

Completion Date:  August 1974

Summary:
                      EPA PROJECT  OFFICER:

                      Dr. Robert R.  Swank
                      Southeast Environmental Research
                       Laboratory
                      College Station Road
                      Athens, Georgia  30601
                          Project  Cost: $328, 640
                          Federal Cost:
  Objective - To develop and demonstrate through the bench scale (1.5  gpm)
  chemical degradation treatment processes for DDT, toxaphene, and chlor-
  dane aqueous pesticide manufacturing and processing wastes.  Specific
  targets for the processes include a 99% or greater conversion of DDT
  (and major isomers) to products of demonstratably reduced hazard to  the
  environment and 95% for toxaphene and chlordane.  Process definition and
  equipment design for DDT wastes are to be completed for possible pilot-
  full scale implementation.  Lab scale screening test data on "in-situ"
  metal/bimetal couple-catalyzed reduction of chlorinated pesticides in
  aqueous wastes will be used for scale-up to the commercialization design
  stage.  The work focuses on chlorinated cyclodiene pesticides:  heptachlor;
  endrin; chlordane; and toxaphene.  Continuous bench scale studies using
  actual manufacturing plant wastes  is being used to provide both the  engineer-
  ing control/design (scaleup) data and process economics needed for the
  ultimate mini-works—full scale design (100 gpm) and demonstration phases.
             ADDRESS INQUIRIES TO EPA PROJECT OFFICER

                                11-43

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INFORMATION  SHEET

        ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY
RESEARCH.  DEVELOPMENT OR DEMONSTRATION PROJECT

  This sheet briefly describes an R & D project Section 104 or l()o of the
  Federal Water Pollution Control Acl Amendments of 1()72 (PI- 92-500)

PROJECT NUMBER:  68-01-0457  OJSAF/EPA Interagency Agreement No. EPA-
                            IAG-008(R))
TITLE OF  PROJECT.  Study of Feasibiiity  of Herbicide ORANGE Chlorinolysis
 GRANTEE OR CONTRACTOR:
  Diamond Shamrock Corporation
  T. R.  Evans Research Center
  Painesville, Ohio 44077

 Project Site:  Painesville, Ohio

 DESCRIPTION  OF PROJECT

 Award  Date: December 1972

 Completion Datj:  February 1974

 Summary:
EPA  PROJECT OFFICER:

Dr. Robert R. Swank
Southeast Environmental Research
 Laboratory
College Station Road
Athens, Georgia  30601
     Project  Cost:$34.7oo

     Federal  Cost:$34.7oo
   A process termed chlorinolysis  (exhaustive chlorination)  was applied to
   samples of USAF Herbicide ORANGE.  The ORANGE (50/50 volume mixture' of
   the n-butyl esters of 2,4-D and 2,4,5-T) contained a production impurity
   called dioxin - a powerful teratogen. - The research objective was to
   demonstrate the feasibility of  converting such herbicides into marketable
   products, namely, carbon tetrachloride (CCl^) , carbonyl chloride (COC^) ,
   and hydrogen chloride (HC1), while destroying any dioxin present. - Bench
   scale  (100 g/hr) chlorinolysis  of ORANGE was evaluated over a range of
   reactor conditions.  The critical reaction parameters were found to be:
   chlorine to carbon ratio (4.4 - 7.2); temperature (600 - 800°C); pressure
   (225 - 300 psig) ; and retention time  (0.5 -  1.0 minute). - Thermodynamic
   analysis had indicated that CCl^, hexachlorobenzene  (HCB) , and  chlorine
   (C12) would exist in equilibrium at  the reaction conditions utilized.
   Because of the balance required between reaction rate  (reactor  size)  and
   HCB content of the effluent, recycle of unconverted  HCB  from the product
   recovery system was found  to be necessary.   Recycle  tests indicated  that
   single pass HCB conversion rates of  80% could be realized.
               ADDRESS INQUIRIES TO EPA PROJECT OFFICER
                                  11-44

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 INFORMATION  SHEET
        ENVIRONMENTAL  PROTECTION AGENCY
RESEARCH,  DEVELOPMENT OR DEMONSTRATION PROJECT
  Thi> sheet hriei'ly describes an R & D project Section 104 or 103 of the
  Federal Water Pollution Control Acl Amendments of 1972 (PL 92-500)

PROJECT NUMBER:   68-03-0455


TITLE OF PROJECT!  Conversion of Chlorocarbon and Pesticide Wastes
                   by Complete or Partial Chlorinolysis
GRANTEE  OR  CONTRACTOR:
  REPRO Chemical Corporation
  1629 K Street, N.W.
  Washington, D. C. 20006

Project Site: Washington, D.  c.

DESCRIPTION OF  PROJECT

Award Date:  May 1974

Completion Date:  December 1974
Summary:
  Task 1 -
                                       EPA PROJECT OFFICER:

                                       Dr.  Robert R. Swank
                                       Southeast Environmental Research
                                        Laboratory
                                       College Station Road
                                       Athens, Georgia  30601
                                           Project  Cost:  $43,400

                                           Federal  Cost:  $48,4oo
        Definition of  the magnitude of the United State's organic waste
        disposal problem with specific reference to chlorinelysis feed-
        stock potential.
Task 2 - Definition of  the impact of chlorinolysis conversion products,
        carbon tetrachloride, carbonyl chloride, and anhydrous hydro-
        chloric acid,  on their respective markets.
Task 3 - Based upon the results of Tasks 1 and 2, provide recommendations
        as to the most cost effective routes for future chlorinolysis
        process development, testing, and implementation.
             ADDRESS INQUIRIES TO EPA PROJECT OFFICER
                               11-45

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INFORMATION  SHEET
PROJECT NUMBER:  68-03-2133


TITLE OF PROJECT:  Chlorolysts Applied to  the Conversion of
- ~~ -        Defoliants/Chlorocarbon Residues
 MMTEE OH Cfl«mCT9.f.                 miROJECLOIFM'-

  Hoechst-TJhde Corporation                 Dr. Robert R. Swank
  560 Sylvan Avenue                       SERL> EPA
  Englewood Cliffs, New Jersey 07632        College Station Road
                                        Athens, Georgia  30601

         Site:  Hoechst, West Germany
 DESCRIPTION  OF  PROJECT


 Award  Date:   August 1974                     Pr°iect  Cost:  $41>°°° (e!


 Completion Date:  December 1974               Federal  Cost:  $25,000


  Summary:

   The purposes of the program study are to determine whether herbicides used
   as defoliants (TCP) can be converted into carbon tetrachloride by  means of
   technology developed by Farbwerke Hoechst AG (for chlorinated residues
   wastes) and whether the byproduct dioxin in TCP is converted into  an
   inert product.  In order to achieve high yield (more than 99%) of  carbon
   tetrachloride and minimal byproduct dioxin it will be necessary to mix
   TCP with residues of  the production of EDC and/or propylene oxide and the
   program will attempt  to establish guidelines on the percentage of residues
   required.

   This  program will help establish whether technology developed by Farbwerke
   Hoechst AG  and  known as Chlorolysis  (for conversion of chlorinated residue
   wastes to carbon  tetrachloride)  can be  applied to the conversion of
   defoliants  without byproduct  dioxins  in harmful concentration and amounts.
               ADDRESS INQUIRIES TO EPA PROJECT OFFICER

                                  11-46

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 INFORMATION  SHEET
         ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY
RESEARCH, DEVELOPMENT OR DEMONSTRATION PROJECT
  Thi> shrcl liriH'ly describe* an R & U project Section 104 or 10."} of the
  Kedcral \\atcr Pollution Control Act Amendment* of 1072 (PI. <)2-7->(}())
PROJECT NUMBER:
800300
TITLE OF PROJECT!   Ultraviolet Chlorination of Organic Acids in
                    Waste Brines
GRANTEE OR CONTRACTOR:
  The Dow  Chemical Co.
  Midland, Mn. 48640
Project Site:
              Midland, Michigan
                      EPA PROJECT OFFICER:
                      Dr. Robert R. Swank
                      Southeast Environmental
                        Research Laboratory
                      College Station Road
                      Athens, Georgia 30601
DESCRIPTION OF PROJECT

Award  Date:  June  1972

Completion Date:    April 1974

Summary:
                           Project  Cost:   $201,733

                           Federal  Cost:   $103,250
  The objectives of this demonstration project are to evaluate:
  1)  Effects of ultraviolet light placement, chlorine concentration operat-
  ing temperature,  and flow rate on removal efficiency; 2) Vent gas composi-
  tion;  3) Corrosive effects of process streams on the equipment;  4) Large
  scale  instrumentation requirements; and 5) Treatment chemical unit ratios.

  In addition to the above demonstration study on the removal of acetic acid
  from waste brines by UV chlorination, laboratory studies will be conducted
  in a mini-plant reactor to determine the applicability of the process to
  other  aliphatic acids, namely, glycolic, lactic, chloroacetic, propionic,
  and butyric acids.  These additional studies will entail determination of:
  1)  Reaction rates as a function of pH at a temperature of 95°C and acid con-
  centrations in the range of 1,000 - 2,000 mg/1 at a constant C12 concentra-
  tion of 10 mg/1;  2) Optimum pH for each acid; 3) Chloride ion dependence:
  4)  Quantum yields of glycolic and lactic acids and comparison of results
  with no UV usage; and 5) Vent gas material balance by mass spectroscopy.
             ADDRESS INQUIRIES TO EPA PROJECT OFFICER

                                11-47

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INFORMATION  SHEET

        ENVIRONMENTAL  PROTECTION AGENCY
RESEARCH. DEVELOPMENT OR DEMONSTRATION PROJECT

  Thin shed liriH'K (tc>ci ilics an R <5i D project Section 104 or l()."> of the
  Kcclenil Water Pollution Control \cl Amendments of 1972 (PI. <)2-/>00)
PROJECT NUMBER:
                800312
TITLE  OF  PROJECT:  Radiation Treatment of High Strength  Chlorinated
                  Hydrocarbon Wastes
GRANTEE OR CONTRACTOR:
  Georgia Institute of Technology
  Atlanta, Georgia 30332
                                       EPA PROJECT OFFICER:
                                       Dr. Robert R.  Swank
                                       Southeast Environmental Research
                                       Laboratory
                                       College Station Road
                                       Athens, Georgia  30601
                                            Project Cost:$76,o55

                                            Federal Cost:
Project Site:  Atlanta, Georgia

DESCRIPTION OF PROJECT


Award Date: October 1972


Completion Date: September 1974


Summary:

 Project Objectives: 1) To investigate the feasibility of using ionizing
 of vl^T w™ r ^ T?inati°n ^ *«acal agents for the treatment
 drill*  ^flue^s resulting from the manufacture of chlorinated hydro-
 carbons;  2) To study the products remaining after treatment to determine
 Mot*T prrirrad^f f resistance ^d/or toxicity to treatment plant
 biota have been sufficiently reduced to make them amenable to ordinary
 biological waste treatment; 3) To design and construct a small pilot-
 scale flow-through system (100 GPH) for continuous irradiation
             ADDRESS INQUIRIES TO EPA PROJECT OFFICER


                              11-48

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 INFORMATION  SHEET
        ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY
RESEARCH.  DEVELOPMENT OR DEMONSTRATION PROJECT
  This shed briefly describes an R & D project Section 104 or 105 ol the
  Federal Water Pollution Control Act Amendments of 1972 (PI, 92-500)

PROJECT NUMBER:    800554


TITLE OF PROJECT!  Carbon Sorption and  Regeneration for Petrochemical
                   Waste Treatment
GRANTEE  OR CONTRACTOR:
  University of Missouri
  Columbia, Missouri 65201
PrOJeCt Site :  Columbia, Missouri
   •
DESCRIPTION  OF  PROJECT

Award  Date: March 1972

Completion Date:  April 1974

Summary:
EPA PROJECT OFFICER:
 Mr. L. Frank Mayhue
 R. S. Kerr Environmental
  Research Laboratory
 P. 0. Box 1198
 Ada, Oklahoma  74820
    Project  Cost:  $33,520

    Federal  Cost:  $36,444
  The subject  proposal  is a two part program:  (1) To determine the specific
  response of  spent activated carbon to regeneration, and (2) To develop
  and fabricate two carbon adsorption pilot plants.  A departure from the
  traditional  empirical approach to activated  carbon regeneration will be
  made in an effort to  evaluate the basic parameters, techniques, and
  requirements of the regeneration process. The successful completion of
  the project  will make a significant contribution to the understanding of
  regeneration phenomena.  An optimum economic utilization of the overall
  carbon adsorption process will be the end result, thereby placing an
  enhanced value on its use in industrial waste treatment activities.
             ADDRESS INQUIRIES TO EPA  PROJECT OFFICER

                                11-49

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INFORMATION  SHEET
  ThU sh.,-1 l,rieflv dt,,nU, an R & D project Section 104 ^
  Fniml lUlor Pollution Control Act Amendment, of 1072 (PL «)2-

PROJECT NUMBER:   soo&o2

TITLE  OF  PROJECT: Waterborne Wastes of the Paint and Pigments Industry
GRANTEE OR CONTRACTOR:
  Southern Research Institute
  2000 Ninth Avenue South
  Birmingham, Alabama 35205

 Project Site : Birmingham, Alabama

 DESCRIPTION OF PROJECT

 Award Date:  June 1972

 Completion Date:  March 1973

 Summary:
EPA PROJECT  OFFICER:
Dr. Herbert S. Skovronek
Edison Water Quality Research
 Laboratory, EPA
Edison, New Jersey 08817
     Project Cost: $35,815

     Federal Cost: $33,000
   The objectives of the proposed research program are: 1)  To characterize
   the subject industries in relation to their wastewater problems; 2) To
   assess the waste-control technology currently being employed in the
   subject industries; 3) To determine the best practice now extant; 4) To ,  J
   determine what can be achieved in the way of control of  effluent quality)
   with technology now available to these industries, and 5) To recommendrrh
   remedial measures where present treatment technology is  either deficient,
   lacking, or nonexistent.  It is anticipated that through pursuit of  these
   objectives it will be possible to define clearly the pollutant-control
   problems of the Paint and Pigments Industries and to provide a sound
   basis for the planning of future research and development efforts necessary
   to the resolution of those problems.
              ADDRESS INQUIRIES TO EPA PROJECT OFFICER
                                11-50

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 INFORMATION  SHEET

        ENVIRONMENTAL  PROTECTION AGENCY
RESEARCH,  DEVELOPMENT OR DEMONSTRATION PROJECT
  Thi> sheet briefly describes an R & D project Section 104 or 10.") of the

  Federal Water Pollution Control Acl Amendments of 1972 (PI, 92-5
PROJECT NUMBER:
TITLE OF PROJECT:
                  800766
                  Optimizing a. Petrochemical Waste Bio-Oxidation
                  System Through Automation
GRANTEE  OR  CONTRACTOR:
  The Dow Chemical Company
  Texas Division
  Freeport, Texas 77541
                                        EPA  PROJECT OFFICER:
                                        Dr. Thomas Short
                                        R. S. Kerr Environmental
                                         Research Laboratory
                                        P. 0. Box 1198
                                        Ada,  Oklahoma 74820
                                             Project Cost:  $226,574

                                             Federal Cost:  $142,250
Project Site :   Freeport,  Texas


DESCRIPTION OF  PROJECT

Award  Date:  January 1972


Completion Date: juiy 1974


Summary:

 Covers the installation and operation of control systems on an existing
 activated sludge pilot plant.  These control devices will allow for
 monitoring and assessing  the nature and amount of the biological process
 variation, and by "feedback" and  "feedforward" responses, will compen-
 sate for  these variations so as to maintain a high rate of removal.  The
 results will be  employed  to develop a conceptual design of a waste treat-
 ment facility  for alkaline, saline and organic-laden wastes generated
 from a manufacturing process producing polyhydric compounds.
             ADDRESS INQUIRIES TO EPA PROJECT OFFICER

                               11-51

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INFORMATION  SHEET
    . s,                                  (,
  K«l,>ral \Valor Pullutiun Control Acl Amendments ol 10,- (H. J-

PROJECT NUMBER: 800773

TITLE OF PROJECT:  Development of Treatment and Control Technology
- ~ - ~ —  for Eefractory Petrochemical Wastes
 GRANTEE OR CONTRACTOR:
  State of Louisiana
  Louisiana State Science Foundation
  Baton Rouge, Louisiana 70804

 PrOJBCt Site .'   Baton Rouge, Louisiana

 DESCRIPTION  OF PR01ECT

 Award  Date:  February 1972

 Completion Date:  February 1975

 Summary:
EPA PROJECT OFFICER:
Mr. Frank Mayhue
R. S.  Kerr Environmental
 Research Laboratory
P. 0.  Box 1198
Ada, Oklahoma  74820
     Project  Cost:  $1,100,205

     Federal  Cost: $  663,750
   The objectives  of this  R&D Program are: 1) To develop and demonstrate
   waste treatment procedures for the reduction of refractory petrochemical
   waste, equivalent to or exceeding that level of treatment attainable by
   biological treatment processes.  Emphasis will be placed on the reduction^
   of waste constituents affecting potable water supplies,  aquatic and
   marine life with respect to taste and oddr.  The process to be investi-,
   gated (individually or in combination) will include biological oxidation,
   solvent extraction, adsorption, and  ozonization. 2)Development of an eco-
   nomical source of activated carbon from a waste petroleum based carbon
   by-product stream.  3)A quantitative definition as to which refractory
   compounds pose hazards in the lower  Mississippi in current and projected
   concentrations, and the effect of industrial  growth on stream quality.
   To meet the objectives of this proposal, nine major tasks  are identifiable:
   1) Waste characterization: priority  ranking of plant streams, and evalua-
   tion of pollution significance; 2) Preliminary process feasibility studies;
   3) Carbon preparation, activation,  and regeneration procedures; 4) Pilot
   plant trials; 5)  Analytical services;  6) Analysis of present  and projected
   loadings, treatment levels, and treatment costs;  7) Supporting  studies;
   8) Evaluation of results and  recommendations; and 9) Participating companies,
               ADDRESS INQUIRIES  TO EPA PROJECT OFFICER
                                   11-52

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 INFORMATION^  SHEET

        ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY
RESEARCH.  DEVELOPMENT OR  DEMONSTRATION  PROJECT
  This shed briefly describes an R & D project Section 104 or 10.") of llie
  Federal Water Pollution Control Act Amendments of \<-)72 (PL 92-500)

PROJECT NUMBER:   300357


TITLE OF PROJECT: State-of-the-Art  for the Inorganic Chemicals  Industry:
                  Industrial Inorganic Gases, Inorganic Pesticides,
                  Commercial Explosives.

GRANTEE OR CONTRACTOR:                 EPA PROJECT  OFFICER:
Illinois Institute of Technology
Dept. of Env. Engineering
Chicago, Illinois 60616
                                        Mr. Elwood E. Martin
                                        Environmental Protection Agency
                                        Washington, D. C.   20460
                                            Project Cost: $30,972

                                            Federal Cost: $28,695
Project Site:    Chicago,


DESCRIPTION  OF PROJECT

Award  Date:  june  1972


Completion Date:  juiy 1974


Summary:

 The project will identify  types and classes of pollutants present in the
 organic chemical industry  wastewaters; define "normal" ranges of raw waste
 loads  associated with industry production; identify wastewater treatment
 processes available to the inorganic chemicals industry, and evaluate the
 effectiveness and  cost of  these processes relative to significant pollu-
 tants; and" from these data, establish practical and achievable wastewater
 effluent guidelines applicable to  the inorganic chemical industry.  The
 study  will yield a condensed, handbook-type compilation of available
 information on inorganic chemicals industrial wastewater composition,
 treatment technology, treatment effectiveness and costs.
             ADDRESS INQUIRIES TO  EPA PROJECT OFFICER

                               11-53

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 INFORMATION  SHEET
        ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY
RESEARCH,  DEVELOPMENT OR  DEMONSTRATION  PROJECT
  Tlii> sherl liriefl) docrilio aci R & D project Section 104 or 105 ol' the
  Federal Water Pollution Control Act Amendments of 1972 (PI, 92-500)

PROJECT NUMBER:  300947
TITLE OF PROJECT:
                   Extraction or Destruction of Chemical Pollutants
                   from Industrial Wastewater Streams
GRANTEE  OR  CONTRACTOR:
  Texas A&M Research Foundation
  P. A. Faculty Exchange H
  College  Station, Texas 77843
        Site:  College Station, Texas
                                         EPA PROJECT  OFFICER:

                                         Mr. Frank Mayhue
                                         R. S.  Kerr Environmental
                                          Research Laboratory
                                         P. 0.  Box 1198
                                         Ada, Oklahoma 74820
DESCRIPTION  OF  PR01ECT

Award Date: March 1972

Completion Date:  Juiy 1974

Summary:
                                             Project Cost: $33,531
                                                          $34,928
 treatment processes for the Eduction S   .  S**  f°r advanced "*st
 Plant waste effluent streams  equivaLnt T ntaminates in Petrochemical
 biological treatment process   The nl+9 °r/xceeding second stage
 include halogenated hydrocarbons  and
 effect potable water suppUes
 River with respect to talte
 of this project are: 1)  To a
 tatively evaluate how selected   ro
 economically by solvent  extraction aS
 tribution, performance,  and other
 of In-plant continuous flow pilot
 solvent recovery systems; 3)^ cons Sue t
bench-sc
                             cons
 bench-scale pilot plant to determine
                                       P™ducts to b* Deduced will o
                                       refjactory compounds which ac
                                             li£e in the lower ****-
                                                 Primary ob3ectives
                                               ben<* work to quanti-
                                               trSamS can be Created
                                         °Xldf ion' 2> ^ obtain dis-
                                     f      f°r Preli*^ary design
                                          ^ S°1Vent extra-tion Sd
                                                 Contlnuo^
                             mne nerfo™
waste streams can be treated economical T     *** dSSigtl data on how
preliminary designs of continuous Sow in ^/r^,0^^10115 4)  To ^ke
previous  processes; and 5) To deterr^   1    ptlot plants f°r the
types of  equipment for the previousT^ reCOinmend ^ «»t suitable
and economics £or the f-U1                       -t estimates
                              11-54

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 INFORMATION  SHEET
         ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY
RESEARCH, DEVELOPMENT OR DEMONSTRATION  PROJECT
  This shed briefly describes an R & D project Section 104 or 105 ol' llie
  Federal Water Pollution Control Act Amendments of 1972 (PI, 92-oOO)

PROJECT  NUMBER:  soioao


TITLE OF PROJECT! Extraction of Chemical Pollutants from Aqueous
                   Industrial Streams with Volatile Solvents
GRANTEE OR CONTRACTOR:
  University of California
  Chemical Engineering Dept.
  Berkeley, California 94720
        Site :  Berkeley, California
DESCRIPTION OF  PROJECT

Award  Date:   june 1972

Completion Date:  May 1975
EPA  PROJECT OFFICER:
Mr.  Jack Hale
R. S.  Kerr Environmental
 Research Laboratory
P. 0.  Box 1198
Ada,  Oklahoma  74820
    Project Cost:  $124,424

    Federal Cost:  $115,125
           - To  obtain experimentally fundamental physico-chemical data
  on the distribution of various pertinent chemical solutes (alcohols,
  phenols, aldehydes, ketones, etc.) between water and  candidate volatile
  solvents, as a  function of temperature, pressure and  solute concentration.
  The solvents include carbon dioxide,  isobutylene and  propane.  - To  esta-
  blish a correlation for distribution  coefficients.  -  To construct and
  operate bench-scale, continuous -flow  demonstration units (mini-plants) for
  quantitative evaluation of the extraction process as  applied to waste-
  stream samples  from petroleum-refining and petrochemical plants.  -  To
  obtain experimentally fundamental physical data (interfacial tensions,
  diffusivities,  mass transfer rates, etc.) and operating data required for
  scale-up of an  efficient extraction process. - To demonstrate the worka-
  bility of extraction with volatile solvents as a method for treating
  typical concentrated petroleum and petrochemical wastewaters on a sustained
  basis. - To determine the most suitable type of extraction contactor and to
  measure and correlate its extraction  efficiency. - To evaluate critically
  performance data from the demonstration unit toward an economic optimiza-
  tion of design  variables.  - To make a preliminary design of a full-scale
  industrial extraction process and to  prepare cost estimates. - To establish,
  on the basis of engineering studies,  the classes of industrial wastewaters
  which can be treated economically by  extraction with volatile  solvents.
                                11-55

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INFORMATION SHEET

        ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY
RESEARCH,  DEVELOPMENT OR DEMONSTRATION PROJECT

  Thi> >heel briefly .l.^oribo an R & l> project Section 104 or 10.1 ol" Hi.'
  Federal \\atcr Pollution Control Act Amendments of l()72 (PI- W-SOO)

PROJECT  NUMBER:  301159

TITLE OF PROJECT: Characterization of Wastewaters from the Pharmaceutical
                 Indus try
GRANTEE OR CONTRACTOR:
  Pharmaceutical Manufacturers' Assoc.
  115 5-15 th Street, N.W.
  Washington, D. C.
        SitB .'  New Orleans, Louisiana
EPA PROJECT OFFICER:

Dr. Herbert  S. Skovronek
Edison Water Quality Research
 Laboratory
Edison, New  Jersey 08817
 DESCRIPTION OF PROJECT

 Award Date:  August 1972

 Completion  Date: June 1973

 Summary:
    Project Cost:  $39,927

    Federal Cost:  $33,933
   The objectives of this project are to collect, summarize and validate the
   data necessary to define the sources and character of the industry's
   wastewaters, current treatment practices and their effectiveness.  In
   addition, an attempt to identify areas where treatment technology  is lack-
   ing and research is needed will be undertaken.
             ADDRESS INQUIRIES TO EPA PROJECT OFFICER

                              H-56

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 INFORMATION^  SHEET

         ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY
RESEARCH, DEVELOPMENT OR DEMONSTRATION PROJECT
  Tlii> shecl briefly describes an R. & D project Section 104 or 10.") of the
  Federal Water Pollution Control Act Amendments of 1972 (PL 92-500)

PROJECT NUMBER: 801349


TITLE OF PROJECT: The Reclamation of Sulfuric  Acid from Waste Streams
GRANTEE OR CONTRACTOR:                  EPA PROJECT OFFICER:
 The New Jersey Zinc Co.                    Dr. Herbert  S. Skovronek
 Palmerton,  Pennsylvania 18071              Edison Water Quality Research
                                          Laboratory
                                          Edison, New  Jersey 08817

        Slt6 :    Palmerton, Pennsylvania
DESCRIPTION OF PROJECT


Award  Date:  February  1972                     Project Cost:  $372,031


Completion Date: March 1974                    Federal Cost:  $154,560


Summary:

 The New Jersey Zinc Company will  carry out  a pilot plant study of a new
 approach to the recovery of sulfuric acid from the waste acid stream
 (20% t^SO/) generated  during production of  titanium dioxide pigment by
 the sulfate process.   Specifically, the study will evaluate total evapora-
 tion of the waste acid stream and subsequent re con cent ration, in two stages,
 of the clean acid back to the 90-95% concentration necessary for reuse in
 the digestion process.  Simplified isolation of the dissolved sulfate salts
 by vapor-solid rather  than liquid-solid separation will be an added advan-
 tage of the total evaporation approach.  -  The technical and economic
 applicability of the total evaporation approach to spent pickle liquor
 from steel mills will  also be evaluated. - Based on results of the pilot
 plant study, a full scale plant will be designed and an economic evalua-
 tion carried out for treatment of waste acid from the sulfate process.
             ADDRESS INQUIRIES TO EPA PROJECT OFFICER

                                11-57

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INFORMATION  SHEET
  Th, ,he,, k,H'K  an R & D projec-l Section 104 or 105 of
  Federal \\aler Pollution Control Act Amendment, of I^TL (PL )--

PROJECT NUMBER:   301398
TITLE OF PROJECT:   Treatment of Petrochemical Wastewater for Reuse
GRANTEE OR CONTRACTOR:
  Union Carbide Corporation
  270 Park Avenue
  New York, New York 10017

 Project Site:  Charleston, West Virginia/
               Ponce, Puerto Rico
 DESCRIPTION  OF PROJECT

 Award  Date:  june 1973

 Completion Date:  June  1975
EPA  PROJECT OFFICER:
Mr.  Leon Myers
R. S. Kerr Environmental
 Research Laboratory
P. 0. Box 1198
Ada, Oklahoma  74820
     Project Cost:  $493,755

     Federal Cost:  $231,773
            I. To develop feasibility, design  and economic data on petro-
 chemical wastewater upgrading and subsequent  reuse by testing  a pilot-scale
 system comprising an integrated sequence of the most promising treatment steps
 for upgrading biorrtreated petrochemical effluents for use in pilot-scale heat
 transfer systems.  Processes comprising the treatment pilot-plant will be
 selected after  an initial technology  review,  followed by bench-scale tests to
 develop design  and feasibility data,  where necessary.  Need for facilities for
 the disposal of sludges and other by-product wastes will be considered in this
 study.  Processes to remove the following categories of residual  contaminants
 will  be included - suspended solids,  soluble organics , and soluble salts. 2. To
 compile present quality criteria for cooling water, boiler-feed water, service
 water, and process water in typical petrochemical plants and to determine the
 effects of using lower quality water, particularly with respect to residual
 organic contamination. 3.  To evaluate alternative or additional operations/
 processes, concurrently, for incorporation in the pilot treatment system if  a
 need  for such alternatives is indicated by pilot-scale operating  experience
 or by more precise definition of quality criteria for reclaimed water. 4. To
 compare the economic and technical feasibility of alternative processes  to aid
 in proper selection and to develop thorough economics for an integrated  treat-
 ment  system capable of producing reuseable water. 5. To refine analytical tech-
 niches for monitoring removals achieved by the various treatment  processes to
                               °f *• Pr°CeSSeS' effectiveness  and to  identify
                                  11-58

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 INFORMATION  SHEET
        ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY
RESEARCH, DEVELOPMENT OR DEMONSTRATION PROJECT
  This slieel briefly 
-------
INFORMATION  SHEET
  Thi. , ..... , Wrfh *-*,, „ R « D project Section
  K.-.I.T.I Water Pollution Control Acl Amendments ol I07J (PI. )--

PROJECT NUMBER:  801577
TITLE OF PROIECT:  Pollution Control Technology for Pesticide Formulators
'	and Packagers
 GRANTEE OR CONTRACTOR:
  National Agricultural Chemical Assoc.
  1155 15th Street N.W.
  Washington, D. C. 20005
EPA PROJECT  OFFICER:

Mr.  David L. Becker
Environmental  Protection Agency
Office  of Water Programs
Washington, D. C.
 Project Site :  Kansas City, Mo./Washington, B.C.

 DESCRIPTION OF PROJECT

 Award Date: September 1972                    Project  Cost: $40.000
 Completion Date: August 1974

 Summary:
     Federal  Cost:$33,ooo
   The objectives of the proposed project are to:  1) Characterize the pes-
   ticide formulation and packaging industry for production and pollution
   purposes;  2) Characterize the industry wastewaters - raw waste loads and
   other unique problems; 3) Identify or define and assess the best practi
   cable treatment technology in terms of operating characteristics and cost;
   4)  Identify or define and assess the best available treatment technology
   in terms of operating characteristics and cost; 5) Identify or define and
   assess pretreatment  technology for discharge to municipal systems, in
   terms of operating characteristics and cost where applicable; 6) Identify
   the R&D needed to achieve a  "closed loop" wastewater control system or
   the elimination of pollutional discharges.
              ADDRESS INQUIRIES TO EPA PROJECT OFFICER
                                 11-60

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 INFORMATION^ SHEET

        ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY
RESEARCH,  DEVELOPMENT OR DEMONSTRATION PROJECT
  This sheet briefly describes an R. & D project Section 104 or I0f> of the
  Federal Water Pollution Control Acl Amendments of l()72 (PL 92-500)
PROJECT NUMBER:
                  802684
TITLE OF PROJECT!  Integrated Slime and Fluorine Control - Phosphate
                   Manufacturing Industry
                                              Project  Cost:sl.979.3AO

                                              Federal  Cost: $506,709
GRANTEE  OR CONTRACTOR:                 EPA PROJECT OFFICER:

 Florida  Dept. of Air  and                   Mr. Edward Lomasney
  Water Pollution Control                   EPA, Region IV
 Tallahassee Bank Building                  1421 Peachtree  Street, NE
 Tallahassee, Florida  32301                 Atlanta, Georgia  30309

Pr°JeCt $ite:  Decatur, Georgia

DESCRIPTION  OF PROJECT


Award  Date: Juiy 1973 (revised)


Completion Date:  june 1977


Summary:

 Pilot  scale demonstration of  an integrated vapor emission control and
 closed cycle wastewater system with fluorine recovery in forms other
 than fluorosilicic acid; pilot-scale demonstration/evaluation of wet-
 process  phosphoric acid digestion modifications  to eliminate vapor
 fluorine emission while producing an insoluble fluoride product suitable
 for concentration via selective flotation and ultimate recovery as useful
 products (flotation technology feasibility to be investigated at bench
 scale);  development and demonstration at bench scale of wet-process
 modifications which will eliminate the need for  wet benefication of  phos-
 phate  rock and therefore eliminate phosphate slime production.   Implica-
 tions/impact of dry mining/matrix process adoption on fluorine control
 and recovery technology as  developed in other phases of this project will
 also be delineated as will  potential for utilization of existing
 aged-slimes as phosphate source.
             ADDRESS INQUIRIES TO EPA PROJECT OFFICER

                                11-61

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INFORMATION^ SHEET

        ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY
RESEARCH.  DEVELOPMENT OR DEMONSTRATION PROJECT

  Tl.i> *hrrl IfiefU .lorHlu, an R & D project S.ehon 104 or 105 ,,1' ll.r
  Krclrral \\alrr Pollution Control \cl Amrndmcnts of 1972 (PI. W-

PROJECT  NUMBER:   302753
TITLE  OF PROJECT!  Renovation of Industrial Wastewater by Evaporation
                  With Interface Enhancement
GRANTEE OR CONTRACTOR:
  University of California
  Berkeley, California
 Project Site :  Berkeley, California

 DESCRIPTION OF PROJECT

 Award Date:  June 1973

 Completion Date:  November 1974
EPA PROJECT OFFICER:
Mr. Richard B. Tabakin
Edison Water Quality Research
 Laboratory
Edison, New Jersey 08817
    Project Cost: $29,615

    Federal Cost: $25,ooo
 Summary:

  The objective of this project is to evaluate the increased heat transfer
  and other advantages which can be achieved with the use of a small amount
  of surfactant in the treatment of wastewaters by upflow vertical tube
  evaporation.  The study will involve the testing of typical inorganic
  wastewaters in a 5,000 gpd vertical tube evaporator.       ^organic
             ADDRESS INQUIRIES TO EPA PROJECT OFFICER

                              11-62

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 INFORMATION^  SHEET
        ENVIRONMENTAL  PROTECTION AGENCY
RESEARCH. DEVELOPMENT OR DEMONSTRATION PROJECT
  This sheet briefly describes an R. & U project Section 104 or 10.") of (he
  Federal Water Pollution Control Act Amendments of 1072 (PL 02-500)
PROJECT NUMBER:
802872
TITLE  OF PROJECT:  State-of-the-Art of the Military Explosives and
                  Propellants Industry
GRANTEE OR CONTRACTOR:
  American Defense Preparedness Assoc.
  Union Trust Building, Suite 819
  740-15th Street
  Washington, D. C.

Project Site: Washington, D. C.

DESCRIPTION OF PROJECT

Award  Date: November 1973

Completion  Date: February 1975
                       EPA  PROJECT OFFICER.
                       Mr. Richard B. Tabakin
                       Edison Water Quality Research
                       Laboratory
                       Edison, New Jersey 08817
                          Project  Cost:$421776

                          Federal  Cost:$4o,5oo
Summary:
 The objective of this project is to define and characterize typical
 wastewater effluents and treatment technology at GO-GO  and GO-CO
 explosives and propellants production and LAP plants.
            ADDRESS INQUIRIES TO  EPA PROJECT OFFICER

                              11-63

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INFORMATION SHEET

       ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY
RESEARCH, DEVELOPMENT OR DEMONSTRATION PROJECT

  This sheet briefly describe an R & D project Section 104 or 103 »f U«-
  Federal Water Pollution Control Act Amendments of 1972 (PL 92-500)

PROJECT NUMBER:   302908

TITLE OF PROJECT'.  Treatment of Ammonia Plant Process Condensate Effluents
GRANTEE OR CONTRACTOR:
  Louisiana Chemical Association
  Taylor Building, Room 300
  251 Florida Street
  Baton Rouge, Louisiana 70801

Project Site : Donaldsonville, La.


DESCRIPTION OF PROJECT

Award  Date: July 1974


Completion Date: December 1975
EPA PROJECT OFFICER:

Dr. Robert R. Swank
Southeast Environmental
 Research Laboratory
College Station Road
Athens, Georgia  30601
    Project  Cost: $258,320

    Federal  Cost:$124}ooo
 Summary.  Objectives - To establish technology to remove the ammonia
  organics and carbon dioxide trace contaminants in the process condensate
  effluent from large ammonia plants. In looking toward the future effluent
  requirements, this program will establish the technology for total process
  effluent recycle.
             ADDRESS INQUIRIES TO EPA PROJECT OFFICER

                              11-64

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 INFORMATION  SHEET

        ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY
RESEARCH.  DEVELOPMENT OR DEMONSTRATION  PROJECT
  This sheet briefly describes an R & I) project Section 104 or !()."> of the
  Federal Water Pollution Control Acl Amendments of 1972 (PL 92-500)


PROJECT NUMBER: 803026


TITLE OF PROJECT:  Final Purification  of Aerated Lagoon Effluent by
                   Chemical Coagulation - Mixed Media  Filtration
                                         EPA PROJECT OFFICER:

                                         Mr. Leon Myers
                                         R. S.  Kerr Environmental
                                          Research Laboratory
                                         P. 0.  Box 1198
                                         Ada, Oklahoma  74820
GRANTEE OR  CONTRACTOR:
 American Oil Company
 910 S. Michigan Avenue
 Chicago, Illinois 60680


Project Site :  Yorktown, Virginia


DESCRIPTION  OF PROJECT


Award Date:   juiy 1971


Completion  Date:  April 1974


Summary:

 The project is for the full-scale (1.5 mgd) treatment of the petroleum
 refinery's aerated lagoon  effluent.  The chemical  coagulation mixed
 media filter system will perform as a polishing facility for final
 clarification and purification to produce a consistent water quality
 effluent with the normal expectations of tertiary  treatment.

 The work encompasses six major efforts summarized  as: 1) Design and
 construction;  2)  Process demonstration; 3) Determination of process
 efficiency and phase separation costs; 4) Economic comparison with air
 flotation;  5)  Establishment of process reliability; and 6) Determination
 of capital and operating costs for full-scale treatment.
                                             Project  Cost: $257,179

                                             Federal  Cost: $ 95,315
             ADDRESS  INQUIRIES TO  EPA PROJECT OFFICER

                               11-65

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INFORMATION  SHEET

        ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY
RESEARCH.  DEVELOPMENT OR DEMONSTRATION PROJECT

  Thi> shn-l briefly .lo.'nl.o an R & U project Section  104 or lift of llu-
  F.-il.-ral \\alt-r Pollution Control Act Amendments o!' W72 (PL 02-500)

PROJECT  NUMBER:  sososs
TITLE OF PROJECT.'  Development of Total Recycle Systems for Petrochemical
                  Waste Brines Containing Refractory Contaminants
GRANTEE OR CONTRACTOR:
  The Dow Chemical Company
  Texas Division
  Contracts Research Laboratory
  Freeport, Texas 75541
Project  Site: Freeport, Texas

DESCRIPTION OF PROJECT

Award Date:  juiy 1974

Completion Date: Juiy 1975

Summary:
EPA PROJECT OFFICER:
Dr.  Thomas Short
R. S. Kerr Environmental
 Research Laboratory
P. 0. Box 1198
Ada, Oklahoma  74820
    Project Cost:  $181,179

    Federal Cost:  $110,023
  A system which utilizes a reverse osmosis-electrodialysis dissolved solids
  removal process will be developed for application to petrochemical wastes.
  Ammonia strippers, chemical oxidation, carbon adsorption, macroreticular
  resin adsorption, and ion exchange will also be evaluated for removal of
  contaminants from the waste stream.
            ADDRESS INQUIRIES TO EPA PROJECT OFFICER

                              11-66

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 INFORMATION  SHEET

        ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY
RESEARCH. DEVELOPMENT OR DEMONSTRATION PROJECT
  This sheet briefly describes an R & D project Section 104 or 105 of the

  Federal Water Pollution Control Act Amendments of 1972 (PI. <)2-.iO())


PROJECT NUMBER:  303159



TITLE OF PROJECT!   Chlorinated Hydrocarbon Pesticide  Removal from
                   Wastewater
GRANTEE OR  CONTRACTOR:
  Velsicol  Chemical  Corporation
  1199 Warford Street
  P. 0. Box 8127
  Memphis,  Tn. 38108

Project Site: Memphis, Tn.


DESCRIPTION OF  PROJECT


Award  Date:  May  1974
                      /

Completion Date:   May 1976


Summary:
EPA PROJECT OFFICER:

Dr.  Robert  R. Swank
Southeast Environmental
 Research Laboratory
College Station Road
Athens, Georgia 30601
    Project Cost: $299,971

    Federal Cost: $221,800
  Two processes for chlorocarbon pesticide wastewater are to be developed,
  demonstrated, and evaluated in parallel through miniworks scale.  The
  demonstration test will involve the heptachlor-endrin wastewater effluent
  from Velsicol's Memphis, Tennessee plant.  The processes of choice are
  resin adsorption removal and in situ metal-bimetal catalytic reduction
  (dechlorination) .
             ADDRESS INQUIRIES TO  EPA PROJECT OFFICER


                               11-67

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INFORMATION  SHEET

        ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY
RESEARCH,  DEVELOPMENT OR DEMONSTRATION PROJECT

  This sheet briefly describes an R & 0 project Section 104 or 105 of the
  Federal \\ater Pollution Control Acl Amendments of 1972 (PL 92-500)

PROJECT  NUMBER:   303221
TITLE OF PROJECT'.  Refractory Indices for Organic Industrial Wastes
GRANTEE OR CONTRACTOR:
  University of Connecticut
  Civil Engineering Department
  Storrs, Connecticut
 Project  Site :  Storrs, Connecticut

 DESCRIPTION OF  PROJECT

 Award Date:  Juiy 1974

 Completion  Date:  juiy 1975

 Summary:
EPA PROJECT OFFICER:
Mr. Billy L. DePrater
Robert S. Kerr Environmental
 Research Laboratory
P. 0. Box 1198
Ada, Oklahoma  74820
    Project Cost: $56.
    Federal Cost:$i8.ooo
  A study of the oxygen demand parameters  of wastewater and the use of
  selected parameters to develop Refractory Indices.  The Refractory
  Indices will help determine whether biological treatment or other
  methods of treatment are necessary for a wastewater.
            ADDRESS INQUIRIES TO EPA PROJECT OFFICER

                              11-68

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 INFORMATION  SHEET
        ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY
RESEARCH, DEVELOPMENT OR DEMONSTRATION PROJECT
  This sheet briefly describes an R & D project Section 104 or 105 of the
  Federal Water Pollution Control Acl Amendments of 1972 (PI, 92-500)

PROJECT NUMBER:  303286


TITLE OF PROJECT!   Demonstration of Evaporator-Incinerator for
                   Concentrated Pharmaceutical Wastes
GRANTEE OR  CONTRACTOR:
  Pfizer Pharmaceuticals, Inc.
  P. 0. Box 628
  Barceloneta, Puerto Rico 00617
                                EPA  PROJECT OFFICER:
                                 Dr. Herbert  S. Skovronek
                                 Edison Water Quality
                                  Research Laboratory
                                 Edison, New Jersey 08817
Site :
              Barceloneta, Puerto Rico
DESCRIPTION OF  PROJECT

Award Date: Juiy 1974

Completion Date:   May 1975

Summary:
                                    Project Cost: $181,395

                                    Federal Cost: $ 70,ooo
  A treatment  facility for control of wastewaters from batch manufacturing
  operations which are relatively high in organics and dissolved salts
  will be constructed and operated.  The process sequence selected includes
  evaporation  and incineration of organics, thermal degradation of weak acid
  salts, and crystallization and fluid bed drying of ionic salts.  Waste
  heat will be recovered and reused within the system.  Products should be
  water vapor, dry salts, and aqueous sodium carbonate from scrubbers.
            ADDRESS INQUIRIES TO  EPA PROJECT OFFICER
                               11-69

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INFORMATION SHEET

        ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY
RESEARCH.  DEVELOPMENT OR DEMONSTRATION PROJECT

  This 4.<-cl uriefK n-iL.rs an R & D project Section 104 or 105 of the
  Federal \\aler Pollution Control Act Amendments of 1972 (PL 92-500)

PROJECT  NUMBER:   803357

TITLE OF PROJECT:  State-of-the-Art Study on Ozone for Industrial
                 Water and Wastewater Treatment
GRANTEE OR CONTRACTOR:
  International Ozone Institute, Inc.
  24 Central Avenue
  Waterbury, Connecticut 06702

PrOJBCt Slt6 :  K'aterbury, Connecticut

DESCRIPTION OF  PROJECT

Award Date: August 1974

Completion  Date: Juiy 1975

Summary:
EPA PROJECT OFFICER:

Mr. L. Frank Mayhue
R. S. Kerr Environmental
 Research Laboratory
P. 0. Box 1198
Ada, Oklahoma  74820
    Project Cost:$15,002

    Federal Cost:$ 8,000
  Study will attempt to combine, in one report, all ozone technology
  references with respect to industrial wastewater treatment.  Field of
  search wxll include such areas as Europe, Canada, Japan, etc.
            ADDRESS INQUIRIES TO EPA PROJECT OFFICER

                             11-70

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 INFORMATION^  SHEET

        ENVIRONMENTAL  PROTECTION AGENCY
RESEARCH. DEVELOPMENT OR DEMONSTRATION PROJECT
  This sheet briefly describes an R & U project Section 104 or 105 of (he

  Federal Waler Pollution Control Acl Amendments of 1972 (PL 92-300)


PROJECT  NUMBER: 303353



TITLE  OF PROJECT:  Closed-Loop Recycle System for Waste  Acid Pickle Liquor
GRANTEE OR CONTRACTOR:

  Crown Chemical Company, Inc.
  515 South Harmon Street
  Indianapolis, Indiana 46225
                                       EPA PROJECT OFFICER:

                                       Mr.  Richard B. Tabakin
                                       Edison Water Quality
                                        Research Laboratory
                                       Edison, New Jersey 08817
Project  Site:  Alton,


DESCRIPTION OF PROJECT

Award Date:   Juiy 1974


Completion Date: juiy 1976


Summary:

  A method for conversion of ferrous sulfate from spent pickle liquor
  to iron oxide and reuseable sulfuric acid will be evaluated. A ferric
  nitrate intermediate, produced by continuous ion exchange, will be
  decomposed to produce the oxide and nitric acid for recycle. A full
  scale system will then be installed in a steel mill so that the total
  closed- loop  system can be studied.
                                           Project Cost:51 ,16

                                           Federal Cost:   $65)0oo
            ADDRESS INQUIRIES TO EPA PROJECT OFFICER

                               11-71

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                         FINAL  REPORTS AVAILABLE

          CHEMICALS AND ALLIED  PRODUCTS, AND PETROLEUM REFINING
Report Number

12020 02/70



12020 DIS 01/72



12020 DJI 06/71
12020 DQC 03/71
Title/Author

Petrochemical  Effluents Treatment
Practices - Summary.  Engineering-Sciences,
Incorporated/Texas, Austin, Texas.

Anaerobic Treatment of Synthetic Organic
Wastes, Union  Carbide Corporation, South
Charleston, West Virginia.

Wastewater Treatment  Facilities for  a
Polyvinyl Chloride Production  Plant,
B. F. Goodrich Chemical Company, Cleveland,
Ohio.

Polymeric Materials for Treatment and
Recovery of Petrochemical  Waste, Gulf
South Research Institute,  New  Or!eans,
LA.
12020 EID 03/71
12020 EJI 07/71
12020 EXG 03/72
12020 FPD 09/71
12020 FYE 01/72
tion of Polyhydric Organics,  Dow Chemical
Company, Texas Division,  Freeport,  Texas

Preliminary Investigational Requirements -
Petrochemical  and Refinery Waste,Treatment
Engineering-Science, Incorporated,  Austin,
Texas.

Inorganic Chemicals Industry  Profile,
Datagrpahics,  Incorporated, Pittsburgh,
Pennsylvania

Effect of Chlorination on Selected
Organic Chemicals, Manufacturing Chemists
Association, Washington,  D. C.

Inorganic Fertilizer and  Phosphate  Mining
Industries - Water Pollution  and Control,
Battelle Memorial Institute,  Richland,
Washington.

Pesticide Manufacturing Industry -  Current
Waste Treatment and Disposal  Practices.
university of  Austin, Texas.
Source

NTIS ($3.00)
PB 192 310
GPO $1.75
NTIS
PB 211 130

GPO $1.00
NTIS -
PB 211 464
GPO $0.70
NTIS -
PB 201  699
12020 EEQ 10/71   Treatment of Wastewater from the Produc-      GPO $1.75
GPO   $1.50
NTIS  -
PB 212  369
GPO $1.75
NTIS  -
PB 206  308

GPO $1.00
NTIS  -
PB 211  160

GPO $1.75
NTIS  -
PB 206  154
GPO $1.00
NTIS -
PB  211 129
                                  H-72

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Report Number     Title/Author
                                             Source
12020 GND 07/71
Projected Wastewater Treatment Costs in
the Organic Chemicals Industry,
Datagraphics, Incorporated, Pittsburgh,
Pennsylvania.
GPO - $1.50
EPA-R2-73-194
Identification and Control of Petrochemical  GPO
Pollutants Inhibitory to Anerobic Pro-
cesses, Union Carbide Corporation, South
Charleston, West Virginia.
EPA-600/2-74-006
EPA-670/2-74-044
Study of Feasibility of Herbicide Orange
Chlorinolysis, Diamond Shamrock Corp.,
Painesville, Ohio.

An Ion-Exchange Process for Recovery of
Chromate from Pigment Manufacturing,
Mineral Pigments Corp., Beltsville,
Maryland.
EPA-670/2-74-030  Waterborne Wastes of the Paint and
                  Inorganic Pigments Industries, Southern
                  Research Institute, Birmingham, Alabama.

EPA-670/2-74-057  Characterization of Wastewaters from the
                  Ethical  Pharmaceutical  Industry, Phar-
                  maceutical Manufacturers Association,
                  Washington, D.  C.
GPO
GPO
                                             NTIS
                                             GPO
EPA-R2-73-200
EPA-12050 DRC
 11/71
EPA-12050 DSH
 03/71
EPA 12050 EKT
 03/71
Recondition and Reuse of Organically Contam- GPO
inated Waste Sodium Chloride Brines, Dow
Chemical U.S.A., Midland, Michigan.

Experimental Evaluation of Fibrous Bed       GPO - $1.75
Coalescers for Separating Oil-Water"NTIS -
Emulsions, Illinois Institute of Technology, PB 210 144
Department of Chemical Engineering, Chicago,
Illinois.

Impact of Oily Materials on Activated Sludge GPO - $1.50
Systems, Hydroscience, Incorporated,NTIS -
Westwood, New Jersey.                        PB 212 422

Fluid Bed Incineration of Petroleum Refinery GPO - $1.50
Wastes, American Oil Company, Mandan, North  NTIS -
Dakota.                                      PB 202 570
                                   11-73

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Report Number     Title/Author                                  Source,
EPA-R2-72-001     Evaluation of Waste Waters from Petroleum    GPO
                  and Coal Processing, Oklahoma University,
                  Norman, Oklahoma

EPA-R2-72-110     Oily Waste Disposal by Soil  Cultivation      GPO
                  Process, Shell Oil  Company,  Deer Park,
                  Texas

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                        FOOD AND KINDRED PRODUCTS
     Activities under this subprogram element encompass those industries
dealing with the processing of products for ultimate human or animal
consumption.  It is estimated that the wastes generated by this industry,
comprising some 32,000 related companies, represent 21% of the total
national manufacturing pollutional load.   The industry has been broken
down into sub-categories along the guidelines of the Standard Industrial
Classification (SIC) Manual.   These encompassed categories include:
(1) Meat Products; (2) Dairy Products; (3) Canned and Frozen Foods;
(4) Grain Mill Products; (5)  Bakery Products; (6) Sugar; (7) Beverage
Industries; (8) Candy and Related Products: (9) Miscellaneous Foods; and
(10) Leather Tanning.

     The diversity of processing operation, volume, and the seasonal
nature of this grouping causes extreme variation in 6005, COD, suspended
and dissolved solids, pH, etc., in the resultant organic waste streams.
The program's goal is to assist the various sub-industries in the develop-
ment of design, operational,  and economic technology to create novel or
improved pollution abatement systems.  This program mission, of a closed-
loop industrial system, will  be met by the proper combination of in-plant
water conservation, pretreatment, and chemical, physical, and biological
wastewater management systems.  This would ultimately result tn the total
process water reuse and in-plant recovery of valuable products (or by-
products).

     The R&D Program for the food industry initiates research efforts
under the grant, contract, and in-house provisions of PL 92-500, Section
104 and 105.  The objectives  are met through a R&D planning function
located at EPA Headquarters,  Washington,  D. C.,and an implementation
program located at the Pacific Northwest  Water Laboratory in Corvallis,
Oregon.

MEAT PRODUCTS AND RENDERING INDUSTRY

     This research area encompasses three food processing industries with
over 5,000 plants and a raw wastewater flow in excess of 80 billion
gallons per year with a 6005  load of over 700 million pounds per year.

     There are three SIC involved, these  are:  2011 (Meat Packing Plants),
2013 (Sausages and Other Prepared Meats), 2015 (Poultry Dressing Plants).
Between 50% and 70% of the discharges are to municipal  sewer systems.

     Red meats and poultry processing both include:  receiving facilttes;
killing; removal of the hide, hafr, or feathers; eviscerating and trim-
ming; cooling; and packing.  Further processing of the meat is more exten-
sive with swine and beef than poultry. By-product operations include
blood drying; hide, hair, or feather processing; viscera handling: and
rendering.
                                  III-l

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     The waste loads  in Ibs  per  1000  Ibs of live weight killed  are  s
for packinghouse and  broiler processors; average values are shown
table below.

WASTE LOAD PARAMETER             BROILERS.                -PACKINGH°USE

       BOD5                       1°                           12']

        SS                         7.8                         8-7

      Grease                       1-7                         6'°

       TKN                         1-2                         1'°

        p                          0.4                         °-2

  Flow (Gallons)                   2200                        1050


      In terms  of reducing waste the extreme  variation in waste loads found
 between plants  is more significant than the  average values above.

     The  large  volume  of wastewater produced contains vast quantities of
 organic process residues.  Most of the primary and secondary process waste
 streams should be separately handled to recover valuable  material  and/or
 reduce  costs  in the  treatment system.  Treatment systems  in the meat pack-
 ing industry  consist of primary units for liquid-sol Ids  separation followed
 by secondary  biological treatment systems to reduce the BOD and suspended
 solids.


 DAIRY PRODUCTS PROCESSING

      Approximately 51  billion kilograms of milk are processed by 5350
 plants  into:   creamery butter (SIC 2021); cheese (natural  and processed)
 (SIC 2022); condensed  and evaporated milk (SIC 2023); ice cream and  frozen
 desserts  (SIC 2024); and fluid milk  (SIC 2026).

      It is  estimated,  on an  annual basis, that of the 56 billion gallons
 of total  water intake  by this industry, 53 billion gallons are discharged
 as waste  with 31  billion gallons going to municipal sewers and 20 billion
 gallons to surface waters.   The total wastewater from this industry
 contains  about 400 million  pounds  of BOD and 200 million pounds of
 suspended solids.

      Another 22 billion  gallons of water are recycled in this  industry
 with fluid milk accounting  for  about 12 billion gallons.  Fluid milk also
 discharges 27 billion  gallons of waste annually which is 51% of that dis-
 charged by the total industry.

      Fluid milk processing  steps  consist of receiving, storage, standard-
 ization pasteurization,  homogenization, deodorization, and packaging.   Fo
                                     For
III-2

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cultured products the process consists of receiving, storage, separation,
pasteurization culturing, packaging.  Processing is similar through the
pasteurization step for natural and processed cheese, then following the
manufacturing step the cheese is pressed Into hoops, dried, cured, and
packaged.
     Unit operations similar to the above are generally used throughout
the rest of the industry.  Sub categories of the dairy industry and average
waste loads are given below:
                                         VOLUME              Kg BOD PER
                                    GAL/10J 1b M. E.       1 ,000 kg M. E.
Receiving Station:  Cans                  100                   0.5
Receiving Station:  Bulk                   65                   0.3
Fluid Products                            465                   1.5
Cultured Products                         465                   2.0
Butter                                    100                   0.8
Natural and Processed Cheese              925                   0.7
Cottage Cheese                            100                   8.0
Ice Cream                                 500                   3.0
Condensed Milk                            475                   1.0
Dry Milk                                  225                   1.5
Condensed Whey                            125                   0.4
Dry Whey                                  125                   0.6
*M. E. = Milk equivalent received
     Properly designed and operated biological treatment systems can reduce
waste loads in the range of 90% to over 98% with the exception of cheese
whey treatment.  This presents, an additional problem due to the 10 billion
kilograms of whey generated annually, and about 40% of this quantity is
discharged as waste.  EPA demonstration grants have partially addressed
this problem in the form of projects involving fermentation, drying,
enzymatic conversion, and regional whey collection to produce useable
by-products in lieu of the wastewater treatment approach.
     Projected long term improvements in wastewater technology for the
dairy products industry lie in the areas of conversion of waste wfiey into
                                  IH-3

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CANNED AND PRESERVED FRUITS  AND VEGETABLES INDUSTRY

     This industrial category is  composed of the following 1972 Standard
Industrial Classifications  (SIC)  codes:  SIC 2032 (Canned Spec Cities )
SIC 2033 (Canned Fruits, Vegetables,  Preserves, Jams, and Jellies;, Mt
2034 (Dried and Dehydrated  Fruits,  Vegetables, and Soup Mixes); SIC 2035
(Pickled Fruits, Vegetable  Sauces,  Seasonings, and ,Sa]adcJ^"ings;;
SIC 2037 (Frozen Fruits, Fruit Juices,  and Vegetables); SIC 2099  (Food
Preparation not elsewhere classified  (scope limited to establishments
processing potato, corn, and other  chips and pectin)).

     Basically the canned and preserved fruits and vegetables industry
extends the shelf life of raw commodities through the use of various pre-
servation methods.  The most common methods being canning, freezing,
dehydrating, and brining.  Preserving of fruits and vegetables in general
include the following unit operations:  clean, sort, peel, size,  stabilize,
and process.  Many specialty products initiate processing with preprocessed
foods .

     This industry category is of high  economic stature in that it employs
some 250,000 individuals, consists  of some 3,000 processing facilities,
and adds some $2 billion to the value of the raw product.

     Water use varies from less  than  500 gallons per ton  (pineapple  and
sauerkraut) to over 13,000 gallons  per ton (asperagus).   BODc loads  (Ibs
per ton of raw product processed) range from  4 (apple juice j to  100  (sweet
potato and red beets); SS vary from less than one to over 50 pounds  per
ton.  This category is a significant  industrial waste discharger  of  BOD5
and SS.

      In  general, the wastes are biologically degradable with some excep-
tions such as, olive storage and processing brines,  cherry brines, and
sauerkraut brines.  Limitation in design and operational  problems may
result from length  of processing seasons,  variability in  processing,  and
lack  of  inorganic nutrients.  Waste treatment and  control range  from no
treatment to extensive in-plant control with by-product recovery  and
complete  land  retention of  all liquid wastes  (no  discharge to  surface
waters).


CANNED AND PRESERVED SEAFOOD  INDUSTRY

      The fish  and seafoods  processing industry  can  be  classified into the
following subcategones: farm raised catfish,  conventional bluf crab
 tuna, and other aquatic  and marine spectes.            contiguous states,

                                   III-4

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     There are about 950 seafood processors.  There is great variability
in length of processing season and day to day amounts of material pro-
cessed.  The total season may be as short as six weeks (salmon) with 50%
of the production occurring in a two week period.

     Available information on water use and wastewater characteristics
was extremely meager until recently.  Examples of unit waste loads for
some species of seafoods processing are shown in the following table:

                                             Water Use      BOD      SS
                                                  gpt       Ibs/ton  Ibs/ton

Farm Raised Catfish                            5500         15.8     18.4

Conventional Blue Crab                          280         10.4      1.5

Mechanized Blue Crab                           8800         44.0     24.0

Alaskan Crab Meat                              7800         17.8     11.2

Alaskan Whole Crab and Crab Sections           4000         12.2      7.0

Dungeness and Tanner Crab in                   4600         16.2      5.4
 the Contiguous States

Alaskan Shrimp                                25000         230       380

Northern Shrimp in the                        14400         240       108
 Contiguous States

Southern Nonbreaded Shrimp in                 11300          92        76
 the Contiguous States

Breaded Shrimp in the                         28000         168       185
 Contiguous States

Tuna                                           4400          26        20
     As shown, there is tremendous variability in both the amount of water
used as well as in the BOD and SS loads generated.

     Treatment of wastewaters from seafood processing is almost nonexistent.
The tuna processing industry has done considerable work on by-product
recovery.  Some of the other segments also screen their wastes for recovery
of solids for use in meal  and feeds.   A considerable amount of work is
needed on in-plant water use as well  as end-of-the-pipe treatment.

     In general, the use of biological treatment systems will  be limited
unless they are long detention time processes because of the length of
processing and the day to day variability.  The most promising approaches
                                  III-5

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compatible with the economics  of the industry  appear to be chemical/
physical systems such as screeninq,  sedimentation,  flotation (with or
without chemical additives),  additional  by-product  recovery, and in-
process changes such as a low  water  use  shrimo peeler.

     Consideration should be  given to the collection of solid wastes from
seafood processors and the transformation of this waste into a useful pro-
duct such as animal feed at a  central  facility.
GRAIN MILLS

     The grain mill products industry is  comprised of six categories in
the 1972 census of manufacturers.   These  are:   SIC 2041  (Flour and Other
Grain Mill Products), SIC 2043 (Cereal  Breakfast Foods), SIC 2044 (Rice
Milling), SIC 2045 (Blended and Prepared  Flour), SIC 2046 (Wet Corn Mill-
ing), SIC 2047 (Dog, Cat, and Other Pet Food),  SIC 2048  (Prepared Feeds
and Feed Ingredients for Animals and Fowls  - not elsewhere classified.
Approximately 3,000 production plants exist in  this  industry.

     It is estimated, on an annual  basis, that  of the 75 billion gallons
of total water intake by this industry 67 billion gallons are discharged
as waste with 20 billion gallons going to municipal  sewers and 47 billion
gallons going to surface waters.  Another 47 billion gallons of water are
recycled in this industry with corn wet milling account  for about 45
billion gallons.  Corn wet milling also discharged 60 billion gallons of
waste annually which is 90% of that discharged  by the total  industry.

     Primary milling subcategories with their  indicated  raw waste loads
are as follows:
Corn Wet Milling

Corn Dry Milling

Normal Wheat Flour Milling

Bulgur Wheat Flour Milling

Normal Rice Milling

Parboiled Rice Milling
   VOLUME
GALS/MS BU*

     50

      4

dry process

      2

dry process

     16**
                                                          BOD         SS
                                                       LBS/MS BU*  LBS/MS BU*
400

 63
200

 90
                                                         0.18***   0.007***
** GAL/CWT
***LB/CWT
                  Bushe1s of Grain Processed
                                       Clean1"<>'
                       drying, mi Hi no,
                                  III-6

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     Treatment technology for these subcategories consists of flow equil-
ization, screening, primary clarification, biological treatment, secon-
dary clarification, chemical flocculation and precipitation, flotation,
and filtration effluent polishing.

     Projected long term improvements in wastewater treatment technology
lies in extended in-plant controls, improved biological  treatment, and
additional solids removal.
SUGAR PROCESSING

     The 1972 Standard Industrial Classification (SIC) separates this
industry into:  SIC 2061  (Cane Sugar - except refining), SIC 2062 (Cane
Sugar Refining), and SIC 2063 (Beet Sugar).

     8005, temperature and pH have been established as the significant
effluent parameters.

     The Sugar Processing Industry encompasses those operations that con-
vert raw sugar cane to raw sugar, raw sugar to refined sugar (liquid or
crystal), and raw sugar beets to refined sugar.

     Approximately 350 production plants are involved in discharging in
excess of 180 billion gallons of waste water annually to surface waters
containing some 300 million Ibs of 6005 and 2000 million Ibs of suspended
solids.

Beet Sugar Segment

     Basically, processing of sugar beets into refined sugar consists of
beet washing, slicing, extraction, purification, concentration, and
crystallization.  Specific processing steps are: (1) Harvest, delivery,
and storage of raw beets; (2) Transporting, washing, weighing, and slic-
ing of raw beets; (3) Sugar extraction from sliced beets (cassettes);
(4) Carbonation-clarification of the raw juice (purification); (5) Juice
concentration by evaporation; and (6) Sugar crystallization by evapora-
tion followed by crystal  separation (centrifugation).

     Existing liquid waste treatment and control systems range from reuse
and partial treatment of the transport - wash water system to extensive
in-plant controls and reuse systems (transport plus condenser water) with
complete land retention of both solid and liquid waste (no discharge to
surface waters).  In-plant process controls include reduction of entrain-
ment in condenser water,  recirculation of condenser water following cool-
ing tower or ponds, and dry handling of filter mud.

     Future EPA research  and development studies will be directed toward
developing technology for establishing total  environmental  control for
this industrial segment.   Specific areas that will  be investigated are:
(1) Evaluating significance of pending high strength organic wastes on
ground water quality; (2) Developing and demonstrating a "dry" transport
                                  III-7

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and cleaning system;  and  (3)  Develop and demonstrate by-products      ^
transport and lime muds.   Many  of the environmental control technologies
developed for one segment of  the sugar industry will have application  to
the other segments of the industry.
Cane Sugar Refining

     Cane sugar refining takes  raw cane sugar (final product from cane
sugar milling) and processes  it into ejther refined crystalline or  liquid
sugar.   The primary difference  between crystalline and liquid refineries
is that liquid refineries  do  not recrystallize their primary product.   In
each of these types of refineries the film is then placed into solution
and taken through various  purification steps,  After purification the two
types of refineries differ.   Crystalline refineries recrystallfze the sugar
and liquid refineries  filter  the purified sugar.  Specific processing steps
are:
     CRYSTALLINE REFINERY

     Affirmation and Melting

     Clarification (Defecation)

     Decolonization

     Concentration (Evaporation)

     Crystallization (Evaporation)

     Finishing
                                        LIQUID REFINERY

                                        Affirmation and Melting

                                        Clarification (Defecation)

                                        Decolorization

                                        Concentration (Evaporation)

                                        Filtration

                                        Inversion
                      itr?atment and disP°sa1 ranges from essentially no
        -     Tplete land  ™tenti™ Wl*h no discharge to surface waters.
Barometric condenser water  recycle system is being utilized by one refinery
      r                                                               nery'


cane              awgar
cessing'into refined sugar
the extraction of .uiceVom
                                                 $ pr°cessed into
                                            "' SUgar ^^n^es for  ro
                                 III-8

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and finally separation of the crystals from the juice.  The specific  pro-
cessing steps are cane harvesting, cane washing, juice extraction, juice
clarification, juice concentration (evaporation), crystallization, and
separation Ccentrifugation).

     Existing treatment and control systems range from essentially no
treatment to extensive reuse with complete land retention of both solid
and liquid wastes (no discharge to surface waters).  In-plant process
controls include reduction of entralnment in condenser water, reclrcula-
tion of condenser water following cooling tower or ponds, dry handling of
filter mud, and recirculation of cane wash water.

     Present and future EPA research and development grants will be
directed toward developing Total Environmental  Control  for this segment
of the Sugar Processing Industry.  Specific areas to be investigated are:
(1) Develop and demonstrate cane wash recycle systems using raw juice as
the washing medium (present grant); (2) By-product use of trash: and bag-
asse for base load electrical  supply (present study); (3j Develop and
demonstrate barometric condenser recycle system wtth. blowftown treated ami
reused as process water; (4) Develop and demonstrate additional  by-products
from trash and bagasse; and (5) Develop and demonstrate additional
by-products from lime mud and wash mud.


MISCELLANEOUS FOODS AND BEVERAGES

     This program area encompasses egg processing, six beverage industries,
five edible oils industries and a catch-all classification of four dozen
food preparation processes.  Miscellaneous foods consists of four Standard
Industrial Classifications (.SIC), these are: SIC 2095 (Roasted Coffee);
SIC 2097 (Manufactured Ice); SIC 2098 (Macaroni, Spaghetti, Vermacelli, and
Noodles); and SIC 2099 (Food Preparation - not  elsewhere classified).

     The beverage industries include:  SIC 2082 (Malt Beverages); SIC 2083
(Malt); SIC 2084 (Wines, Brandy, and Brandy Spirits); SIC 2085 (Distilled,
Rectified, and Blended Liquors); SIC 2086 (Bottled and Canned Soft Drinks
and Carbonated Waters); and SIC 2087 (Flavoring Extracts and Flavoring
Syrups - not elsewhere classified).  Edible Oils consist of SIC 2074
(Cottonseed Oil  Mills), SIC 2075 (Soybean Oil  Mills), SIC 2076 (Vegetable
Oil Mills), SIC 2077 (Animal and Marine Fats and Oils), and SIC 2079
(Shortening and Cooking Oils).  Egg processing  Is part of SIC 2017 (Poultry
and Egg Processing).

     Half of the plants in the beverage industry and the edible oil  indus-
try and three-fourths of the plants in miscellaneous foods have 20 or less
employees.  Thus, the majority of establishments in these industries are
small  operations.  Most of the wastewater is discharged to muntclpal  plants.
The wastewater volumes from the beverage industry far exceed that from
miscellaneous foods and edible oils.
                                  III-9

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                     RAW WASTEWATER LOAD BY INDUSTRY
  Type Of
 Industry
Units of Input
 Flow
Gallons
Malt Beverages
Malt Industry
Wine and Brandy
Distilled Liquor
Soft Drinks
Potato Chips
Yeast
Roast Coffee
Edible Oils
Egg Processing
1000 Barrels
1000 Bushels
1000 Lbs Grapes
1000 Bushels
1000 Cases
1000 Lbs Potato
1000 Lbs Molasses
1000 Lbs Beans
1000 Doz. Eggs
1000 Doz. Eggs
260 ,000
42,000
760
31 ,000
4,000
2,000
2,600
250
60
80
3000
240
37
180
7.3
25
46
2
0.2
250
                       1200
                         41

                        180

                         33

                        0.5
 Malt Beverages
      Processing comprises  adding  hot water  to malt  and  cooked grain,
 followed by enzymatic action  and  then  th.e spent  grain is  removed.   Next
 hops are added  and the mixture  is boiled.   Following cooling and clarifi-
 cation yeast is added and  the mixture  is fermented.  After clarification
 the beer is carbonated and packaged.
      Annual production of  150 million  barrels of beer generated about
 40 billion gallons of process wastewater containing about 450 roll If on
 pounds of BOD and 180 million pounds  of suspended solids  per year.
 Malt Industry
      Manufacturing of malt from barley comprises three  steps - steeping,
 germinating, and kilning.   The  purpose of  malting is to initiate enzymatfc
 reactions  that modify the starch and protein in  barley to produce fermen-
 table sugars and other substances important in  the  brewing of beer  and
 similar products.  This segment of the beverage  industry wtll use about
 5 billion  gallons of process water and 3 billion gallons of cooling water.
 The former will contain about 26 million  pounds  of BOD and 5 mi 11 ton
 pounds of  suspended solids.
                                  111-10

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Wine and Brandy

     Wine processing includes crushing of the grapes followed by primary
fermentation (before or after removal of the solids), racking (removal
of sediment), secondary fermentation, racking, aging, clarification and
bottling.  Brandy is produced by distilling wine and condensing the dis-
tillage to obtain a beverage of high alcoholic content.  There are many
variations in the above processing steps and, as a result, large varia-
tions in quantity and quality of wastewaters.


Distilled Liquor

     Selected grain (corn, rye and/or malt) is milled, mashed, fermented.
distilled, stored and bottled, with many variations to produce whiskey.
The 40 million bushels of grain processed annually, generate about
1.3 billion gallons of process wastewater with over 7 million pounds of
BOD.
Soft Drinks
     Generally soft drinks are manufactured by addina water and concen-
trated flavored base to the container (can or bottle) and carbonatina the
mixture.  Some processors may produce their own flavoring materials but
most purchase them from specialists.   Most of the waste load is generated
in the preparation of the flavoring materials and in the bottle washing
operation.  Annually, wastewater discharges contain over 20 million pounds
of BOD.  About 94 percent of the plants  discharge into municipal systems.


Flavoring

     Raw materials used in producing flavorings, extracts and syrups
include roots, seed, leaves, stems, blossoms, exudates, and bark from
herbs, shrubs, and trees.  Unit operations include milling, comminution,
maceration, digestion, fermentation, percolation, extraction, distillation,
concentration by freezing, and evaporation.  Because of the wide varia-
bility in raw materials and processing methods "typical" or average water
use and effluent BOD and SS loads, BOD concentrations may average near
500 mg/1 with levels of about 50 mg/1 for suspended solids.  Ballpark
figures for BOD and SS loads from this segment are 24 and 2 million pounds
per year, respectively.


Roasted Coffee

  In addition to coffee roasting the classification includes coffee
extracts and instant and freeze-dried coffee.  There were 80 major instant
coffee plants in 1961 and from this segment of the industry comes the
major wastewater and waste solids discharged.  The instant coffee process
                                 III-ll

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 contains  the following equipment:  roasters and grinders,  peculators,
 cyclones, presses,  driers and spray driers.  Material  balances  show  the
 presses  to be by  far  the strongest wastewater source.   Other major water
 discharges are vapors.  The waste solids (grounds)  average 30 cu.  ft. or
 650 pounds (dwb)  per  1000 Ibs of roasted and ground beans.   The roasted
 coffee industry has significant wastewater discharges,  nearly all  made  to
 tidewaters.


 Manufactured Ice  and  Macaroni, Spaghetti,  Vermicelli,  and  Noodle  Industry

      The  manufactured ice industry discharge little in  the way  of  organic
 pollutants and the macaroni, spaghetti,  vermicelli, and noodle  industry
 discharges are even more restricted to cooling water and boiler blowdown.


 Food Preparation  - Not Elsewhere Classified

      The  classification includes establishments  primarily engaged  in manu-
 facturing prepared foods and miscellaneous  food specialties  such as baking
 powder, yeast,  and other leavening compounds,  chocolate and  cocoa  products  •
 except confectionery, peanut butter,  packaged  tea,  ground spices,  vinegar
 and cider, and potato and corn chips.  Of  the  48 food preparations listed
 the known significant wastewater producers  are  the  potato chip  industry and
 yeast industry.


 Potato Chips

      The  wastewaters in potato chips  processing  are  from the peeling  slic-
 ing,  washing,  and rinsing the potatoes.  The wastewaters are Identical  to
 those produced in the same operation  prior  to producing french  fried pota-
Yeast

           e
vpact niZl+     Products  in the food preparation category.  The typical

product, enher compressed yeast or active dry yeast, is^afniy SSd for
from IlcohPo™Cd?s%illi^lrSrtf^eac^sut P^nt are composed of burnt slop
the washer water from yea™ separation 3 ^J-?^1  fr0ra Cult1™«on,
ing.  The  wastewaters ^ t          0 %  % ft  VthTpSTf
                                111-12

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 Egg  Processing

     The egg processing  industry  is changing  rapidly  and  is  expected to
 decrease to 200 large plants with 10% to 25%  of these discharging  to
 navigable waters.   In 1967 dried, frozen, and liquid  egg  products  amounted
 to 380 million pounds.   The wastewater contains broken shells, wasted
 eggs, and chemicals used in the processing.  Waste flows  come from the
 breaking machines and clean up.  Treatment systems include septic  tanks,
 trickling filters,  and extended aeration.  Much of the waste is discharged
 to municipal plants.


 Edible Oils
     Edible oils account for a large percentage of the food energy of the
average diet in the U. S.  Products include shortening, cookinq oils,
salad oils, and margarine which are produced from soybeans, cottonseed,
peanuts, corn, animal fats, and several other minor sources (coconuts,
copra, linseed, and flaxseed).  Soybeans are the major source of edible
oils.  The processing methods include rendering, hydrogenation, deodoriza-
tion, fractional crystallization, interesterification, chilling, and fill-
ing.  Other major products from the processing are meal and hulls which can
be further processed into feeds and food.  Production of edible soy protein
is the most significant from the viewpoint of wastewater discharge.  The
degumming and caustic refining processes involve mixing water with the oil
and then separating the two.   Both processes offer special  potential  for
waste load reduction.  The other potential  areas are in-plant control  and
solid-liquid separation systems prior to discharge to secondary treatment
or a municipal sewer.


Research Strategy

     Wastewaters from these industries are biologically treatable.  Oil  and
water separation prior to biological treatment in the edible of! cateaory
is economically advantageous.  The industries jointly use primary and
secondary treatment systems.   Because the production process utilizes rela-
tive clean raw products and is carried in highly regulated sanitary facili-
ties, the wastewaters are not as subject to contamination that results in
concern over health effects with closed loop systems.  Future research
projects should be building blocks in a closed cycle no-discharge system.


TANNING INDUSTRY

     Standard Industrial  Classification (SIC) classifies  leather and
leather products in major group 31.   This group is further divided into:
SIC 3111 (Leather Tanning and Finishing); SIC 313 (Boot and Shoe Cut  Stock
and Findings); SIC 314 (Footwear - Except Rubber); SIC 315  (Leather Gloves
and Mittens); SIC 316 (Luggage); SIC 317 (Handbags and Other Personal
Leather Goods); and SIC 319 (Leather Goods  - Not Elsewhere  Classified).
The only segment that is  of concern  is leather tanning and  finishino,  all
the rest are essentially  "dry" processes of manufacturing and rely on  the
leather tanning and finishing division for their starting raw materials.

                                 111-13

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     The manufacturing process  in the  leather tanninj can  be  sunmanzed
as follows:  the conversion of  animal  skins  into leather by ^actina the
skin with trivalent chromium, tannin,  or  alum, or a combination  of  these
three chemicals.  The hair is usually  removed from the skin andthe hide
is then treated to remove unwanted flesh  or  protein.  The  skin is then
placed in contact with one or a combination  of two tanninq agents sucn as
trivalent chromium, vegetable tannins, or alum.  After tanninq the  hides
are dried and some of the original  oil restored by soaking in oils.  The
final step is dying of the leather to-the desired color.

     There are a total of 519 establishments in the leather tanning and
finishing industry, including 314 tanneries, 70 converters, and  135 con-
tract tanneries.  Forty-one firms or 10.3 percent of the total account for
69 percent of the sales.  This  includes companies ranging  in  size from 5
to 50 million dollars in animal sales.
POLLUTION - WASTEWATER CHARACTERISTICS

     Wastewater characteristics are shown  in  Table  1.   This  is  a partial
list of pollutants for only 3 of the steps  in the tanning  process.   More
extensive data are not available at this time concernina the wastewater
characteristics for each subcategory of the tanning industry.   However, it
is evident that the wastewater is very  high in BODg, total  solids,  oil,
and grease.  In addition, those tanneries  using chrome  tanning  will  have
high levels of chrome in the effluent,  whereas those employinn  vegetable
tanning will have high color.

                                 Table  1

             Wastewater Characteristics of Tanning  Industry

Parameter                            MANUFACTURING  STEP
(kg/1000 kg hides)        Hide Curing        Wash and Soak        Degrees ing

BOD5                       15,610               7-22

COD                        29,610

Suspended Solids           10,400               8-43

Total Solids              280,500              143-207

Oil and Grease             40,200                .                  10Q

Water Use/kg hides           0.24


PRESENT TREATMENT PRACTICES
syste. also represent
                                 111-14

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industry.  Of the 140 wet process tanneries surveyed, 21 had on-site
biological waste treatment plants, 3 employed activated sludge units,
15 employed lagoons (aerobic-anaerobic operations), and 3 used trickling
filters.

     Solids handling and disposal at tanneries have received little atten-
tion in the past, usually being disposed of in on-site open dumps.   Some
tanneries are beginning now to utilize pressure or vacuum filters or cen-
trifuges for sludge dewatering prior to disposal.

     Efforts by the tanneries  to conserve water and restrict solids into
the sewers have shown good results.   Utilization of newer equipment that
conserves water is also being  done.

     Ultimately, the tanning industry will  face zero discharge require-
ments.  Considering the diversity of the pollution parameters contained in
their wastewater an open-cycle system of discharge will  most probably be
the method of choice.   The use of continuous  processing apparatus instead
of batch type of operation should be considered to meet the ultimate goals.
Additionally, the conversion of nitrogen and  6005  to single cell  protein
by way of control fermentation process may be feasible for larger tanneries
                                 111-15

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      PROJECT INDEX



FOOD AND KINDRED PRODUCTS

DEQ
OFF
DIK
DPE
DQV
DSB
DSG
DSI
DXF
DXL
EAE
ECF
EDK
EDZ
EFM
EGU
EGV
EHS
EHT
EHU
EHV
EIG
EKQ
EOF
(iran tee or mmr-aum —
Dairy Research and Development Corporation
Farmbest, Incorporated
University of Virginia
Corn Products Company
Swift and Company
University of Oklahoma Research Institute
S. B. Foot Tanning Company
Beet Sugar Development Foundation
Crowley's Milk Company, Incorporated
National Canners Association Research Foundation
National Canners Association Research Foundation
Oregon State University
National Canners Association Research Foundation
Green Giant Company
Cardwell Lace Leather Company
Ohio State University Research Foundation
Gold Kist Poultry Division
Melbourne Water Science Institute
North Star Research and Development Institute
National Canners Association Research Foundation
The R. T. French Company
Western Potato Service, Incorporated
Kent Cheese Company
Illinois Packing Company

B
A
A
B
A
A
B
A
B
A
A
A
A
A
A
A
A
A
A
A
A
A
A
C
          111-16

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            Grantee or Contractor                            Project Status
EPC
ESC
ESY
EUB
EUZ
EZP
EZY
FAD
FAK
FDK
FDR
FDS
FJK
FLL
FMF
FQE
FRW
FTC
FUR
GPP
HCW
HFY
HPC
Blues ide Real Estate, Inc.
American Crystal Sugar Company
RAI Research Corporation
John Morrell and Company
Widmer's Wine Cellars, Incorporated
FMC Corporation
Winter Garden Citrus Products Cooperative
Snokist Growers
Beet Sugar Development Foundation
Archer Daniels Midland Company
University of Puerto Rico
Beefland International, Incorporated
Ebinger Baking Company
American Distilling Company
Iowa Beef Packers, Incorporated
National Canners Association
Tabor City Foods, Incorporated
Resource Engineering Associates
Central Soya Company, Incorporated
W. E. Reeves Packinghouse
Anheuser Busch Incorporated
Del Monte Corporation
California Department of Agriculture, Wine
B
B
A
B
B
A
A
A
A
B
C
A
C
A
C
A
B
C
B
B
A
B
B
            Advisory Board
HRR         Amber Labs Division,  Mil brew,  Incorporated

                                 111-17

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                       „  x   a. -                             Project Status
            Grantee or Contractor                           -!-^	
PAV         National Canners Association Research Foundation        A
WP 1486     University of Washington
WPD 93      Beet Sugar Development Foundation
WPRD 133    A. C. Lawrence Leather Company
WPD 185     University of Cincinnati
WPRD  38    Minute Maid Company
WPRD 151    National Canners Association Research Foundation
800250      National Canners Association Research Foundation
800746      Oklahoma State University
800747      Mil brew Incorporated
800904      American Shrimp  Canners Association
800930      Pacific Egg and  Poultry Association
800935      Bacardi Corporation
801007      Oregon  State  University
801037      Pfister and Vogel  Tanning  Company
801432      Winter  Garden Citrus  Products
801484      University of Wisconsin
801684      American  Frozen  Food  Industry
801970      Maryland  State Department  of Health
802174       Cornell University
802253      Armour  Company
802420       Hilo Coast Processing Company
802833       University of Wisconsin
802958       Dulaney Foods
803251       National  Canners Association
A
A
A
A
A
B
A
3
A
B
A
B
B
B
A
B
A
B
B
B
B
B
B
                                  111-18

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            Grantee or Contractor                            Project Status
803280      Snokist Growers                                        B
803301      Oregon State University                                B
803307      Snokist Growers                                        B
803312      American Frozen Foods Institute                        B
803321      Tosi Trading Company                                   B
803325      Maryland State Department of Health                    B
803338      American Shrimp Canners Association                    B
Project Status:
A - Completed, Final Report Available
B - Project Ongoing
C - Project Discontinued
                                 111-19

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INFORMATION^ SHEET

        ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY
RESEARCH, DEVELOPMENT OR  DEMONSTRATION PROJECT

  This shee, briefly d^ibes an R & U project Section 104 or UK ofl he
  Federal \\ak-r Pollution Control Acl Amendment, ol 1971 (M. )--™")

PROJECT  NUMBER:  DEQ

TITIC  nt DDniFPT-  Elimination of Pollution by and Utilization of
MILL  UT riiUitbl.  protein concentrates (Dried Whey) from Milk Residues
                  of Cheese Making
 GRANTEE  OR  CONTRACTOR:
EPA PROJECT OFFICER:
  Dairy Research and Development Corporation  Mr. Max Cochran
  111 Broadway                           NERC
  New York, New York 10006                 200 S.W. 35th Street
                                       Corvallis, Oregon 97330

 Project Site :  Vernon, New York

 DESCRIPTION  OF  PROJECT

 Award Date:  December 1968


 Completion Date:  June 1973


 Summary:

  A development and  full-scale  demonstration for a process for the con-
  version of dairy whey into saleable food products by evaporation and
  spray drying methods will be  undertaken in the project.  The conversion
  of whey to a useable food product in lieu of its disposal as a waste
  product from cheese manufacturing is the pollution abatement method to
  be developed and demonstrated.  Research will be conducted on the use
  of dried whey as a supplement to various food, products.
    Project  Cost: $2,499,033

    Federal  Cost:   $551,350
              ADDRESS INQUIRIES TO EPA PROJECT OFFICER

                              111-20

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 INFORMATION SHEET
         ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY
RESEARCH. DEVELOPMENT OR DEMONSTRATION PROJECT
  Thi> sheet briefly describes uii R & I) project Section 104 or I0."> of the
  Federal \\atcr Pollution Control Act Amendments of I°7l2 (PI. W-i
PROJECT NUMBER:
                  OFF
TITLE OF PROJECT:
                     Waste Treatment Facility, Farmbest, Inc.,
                     Denison,  Iowa
GRANTEE OR CONTRACTOR:
  Farmbest, Inc.
  Denison,  Iowa
                                          EPA PROJECT  OFFICER:

                                           Otmar Olson
                                           Region VII, EPA
                                           911 Walnut Street
                                           Kansas City,  Missouri 64106
                                              Project Cost:  $755,537

                                              Federal Cost:  $239,790
Project Site :   Denison, Iowa


DESCRIPTION  OF PROJECT


Award  Date:    October 1968


Completion Date:  June 1970	


Summary:

  Studies were  conducted to demonstrate the efficiency and suitability of
  using dissolved air flotation, anaerobic lagoons, plastic media trickling
  filters and  chlorination as a system for treating 1 mgd of wastewater from
  a meat packing plant.   The primary objective of  the study was to determine
  if  the plastic media filters could be used to replace the aerobic lagoon
  system normally used to treat the anaerobic lagoon effluent.  -  The over-
  all reduction of 5-day Biochemical Oxygen Demand (BOD5) through the
  system averaged 98.5% over the ten month evaluation period leaving a dis-
  charge concentration of 61 mg/1.   Suspended solids were reduced 95.4%
  through the entire system, leaving an effluent concentration of 90 mg/1
  after chlorination.   The BODr reduction in the anaerobic lagoons averaged
  82% and accounted for the majority of 8005 removed in the system.   The
  BOD5 reduction through the plastic media trickling filters averaged 74%
  of  the applied loading which was  below the 91% efficiency expected during
  design.  Hydraulic overload,  organic overload, and possibly grease con-
  centrations,  contributed to the lower-than-expected performance.
             ADDRESS INQUIRIES TO EPA PROJECT OFFICER

                                111-21

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 INFORMATION  SHEET

        ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY
RESEARCH, DEVELOPMENT OR DEMONSTRATION  PROJECT

  This slice) briefly describes ait R &  L) project Section 104 or 10.") of lite
  Federal \\aler Pollution Control Acl Amendments of 1972 (PL 92-500)
PROJECT NUMBER:
                  DIK
TITLE OF PROJECT:    Anaerobic - Aerobic Lagoon Treatment for Vegetable
                    Tanning Wastes
GRANTEE OR CONTRACTOR:                 EPA PROJECT OFFICER:
University of  Virginia                     Mr. George Webster
Department of  Civil Engineering              Industrial Pollution Control
Charlottesville, Virginia 22903              Division  (RD-679)
                                         Washington, D.  C. 20460

Project Site :  Luray, Virginia


DESCRIPTION  OF PROJECT

Award  Date:    January 19 69


Completion Date:   May 1970


Summary:

A field demonstration lagoon was operated at Virginia Oak Tannery  Inc
llloln  IT1:- ^ 6ValUate the effecti— of an anaerobi'Srobic"
lagoon  in treating spent vegetable tannins blended with batepool and
soak wastewaters.  The anaerobic-aerobic lagoon system was used threat
combmed waste streams with a BOD5 concentration of approximately 100
Aeration jnd volume of the lagoon'were fixed and flow ?o t^sys tern was
varied.  The system load varied by increasinc the           system was
                                            Project Cost:   $68,500

                                            Federal Cost:   $17,801
A. completely mixed aeration unit was
biological degradation of spent vlg
approximately 60% of the COD of spe'nt
degradable and the generally accepted
ship required modification L take into
of COD.  Yield coefficients, endogenous
growth were computed from the       '
                                     tan,
                                                     tO StUdy
                                                 T
                                                  ±8
                                                 ^teractlon
                                              ^n-degradable fraction
             ADDRESS INQUIRIES TO EPA PROJECT OFFICER

                              111-22

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 INFORMATION^ SHEET

        ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY
RESEARCH. DEVELOPMENT OR DEMONSTRATION PROJECT
  This shed briefly describes an R & D project Section 104 or 105 of the
  Federal Water Pollution Control Acl Amendments of 1972 (PI- 92-500)


PROJECT  NUMBER:  DPE


TITLE OF PROJECT!  Treatment of Wastes from the  Wet-Milling Industry
GRANTEE OR CONTRACTOR:
 Corn Products Company
 Corporate Engineering
 P. 0. Box 345
 Argo, Illinois 60501

Project Site:
                        EPA  PROJECT OFFICER:

                         Mr.  Max Cohran
                         PNERL, EPA
                         200  Southwest 35th Street
                         Corvallis, Oregon 97330
Pefcln, Illinois
DESCRIPTION OF PROJECT

Award Date:  juiy 1968

Completion Date:   September 1973

Summary:
                            Project  Cost: $2,556,400

                            Federal  Cost: $482,eso
 This project entails the design, construction, operation, and an economic
 and technical evaluation of a 1-mgd,  completely mixed aerobic system for
 treatment of corn refining wastes.
            ADDRESS INQUIRIES TO EPA PROJECT OFFICER

                             111-23

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INFORMATION^ SHEET

        ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY
RESEARCH, DEVELOPMENT OR DEMONSTRATION PROJECT

  This sheet l.riel'K deseril,e> a.i R & U project Section 104 or 10.1 of ll.e
  Federal Water Pollution Control \cl Amendment of l<>72 (PI- «)2-.>0<))

PROJECT NUMBER:   DQV

TITLE OF PROJECT:  Removal and Recovery  of Fatty Materials from Edible
	  Fat and Oil Refinery  Effluents
GRANTEE OR CONTRACTOR:
  Swift  and Company
  R&D Center
  1919 Swift Drive
  Oak Brook, Illinois 60521
 Project Site :  Bradley, Illinois

 DESCRIPTION OF PROJECT

 Award Date:   juiy 19 68

 Completion Date: November 1972

 Summary:
EPA PROJECT OFFICER:
 Mr. Clifford Risley
 Region V, EPA
 1 North Wacker Drive
 Chicago, Illinois 60606
    Project Cost: $339,970

    Federal Cost: $249.307
  New full-scale equipment was added to existing standard waste treatment
  equipment at the Swift  & Company Edible Oil Refinery at Bradley, Illinois.
  Synthetic acrylamide polymer flocculants with alum, and impressed current,,
  were evaluated for removal of fatty materials from the plant wastewater.
  An in-plant wastewater  survey was made.  A DeLaval PX-213 bowl opening""^
  disc stack centrifuge was successfully tested to concentrate the removed0
  fatty material after caustic and sulfuric acid treatment.  The 7000
  pounds daily of recovered oil (98% ether soluble), worth 4-1/4 to 4-5/8
  cents per pound, could  offset 60% of the total waste treatment direct
  operating costs.
              ADDRESS INQUIRIES TO EPA PROJECT OFFICER

                               111-24

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 INFORMATION  SHEET
         ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY
RESEARCH, DEVELOPMENT OR DEMONSTRATION PROJECT
  This shed briefly (Inscribes an R & U project Section 104 or 105 of the
  Federal Water Pollution Control Act Amendments of 1<)72 (PI, 92-500)

PROJECT  NUMBER:   DSB


TITLE OF PROJECT'.   Demonstration of a Full-Scale Waste Treatment  System
                    for a Cannery
GRANTEE OR CONTRACTOR:
EPA  PROJECT OFFICER:

Mr.  George Putnicki
Region VI, EPA
1402 Elm Street
Dallas,  Texas  75202
                                               Project Cost: $117,so?

                                               Federal Cost: $75,226
 Univ. of Oklahoma Research Institute
 1808 Newton Drive
 Norman, Oklahoma 73069


Project Site :  Stillwell, Oklahoma


DESCRIPTION OF PROJECT

Award  Date:  July 1968


Completion  Date: August 1970


Summary:

 The objective  of this study was to determine the removal efficiencies  of
 a two-stage aerobic biological treatment system while processing high
 strength,  large volume, nutritionally unbalanced cannery wastes, and to
 determine  the  waste characteristics resulting from the processing of a
 wide variety of fruits and  vegetables.  The system was studied over one
 operating Season and data collected on the removal efficiencies of each
 unit process in the system.  The treatment system performed more efficiently
 than expected  in the design assumptions.  Removal efficiencies of greater
 than 95% were  obtained for  most of the processing season, even though
 because of  plant expansion  the organic and hydraulic  load was higher than
 expected.   It  has been demonstrated conclusively that: (1) The Stilwell
 canning wastes can be treated successfully by a two-stage activated sludge
 process;  (2) The two-stage  aeration process is very stable and capable of
 accepting shock loads without being adversely affected; (3) The two-stage
 aeration process is a flexible system allowing adequate capacity for vary-
 ing waste loads: that is, the units can be operated individually or in
 combination  to match the  flow and strength variations.  This provides high
 treatment efficiencies at the lowes^t operational cost; (4) Any one of  the
 units,  such  as the minimal  solids unit, can be started up readily by recvcl-
 itg the mixedADDRESS INQUIRIES TO EPA  PROJECT OFFICER  iiquor from
 one of the operating units.      m_25

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INFORMATION  SHEET

        ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY
RESEARCH, DEVELOPMENT OR DEMONSTRATION  PROJECT

  This sheet briefly describes an R & D project Section  104 or 103 of the
  Federal Water Pollution Control Act Amendments of 1972 (PI- 92-oOO)

PROJECT NUMBER:  DSG
TITLE OF PROJECT:   Aerobic Biological Treatment, Sludge Dewatering, and
	"	   Disposal and Effluent Reuse  for a Side Leather Tannery
 GRANTEE OR  CONTRACTOR:
 S. B. Foot Tanning Company
 Red Wing, Minnesota
                                       EPA PROJECT OFFICER:

                                      Mr. Clarence C. Oster
                                      Minnesota - Wisconsin Field
                                       Office, EPA
                                       7401 Lyndale Avenue South
                                      Minneapolis, Minnesota 55423
                                            Project Cost: $2,045,268

                                            Federal Cost:   $475,000
PrOJeCt Site: RedWing, Minnesota


DESCRIPTION OF PROJECT

Award Date:  May 1968


Completion  Date:  May 1972


Summary:

This project will provide  a full-scale demonstration and investigation of
primary sedimentation, biological secondary treatment utilizing aerated
lagoons, and primary and secondary sludge dewatering and disposal by means
of pressure filtration and incineration.  The system will treat the total
waste flow of 2.1 mgd from the side leather tannery. In addition, an   -to i
evaluation will be conducted to determine the influence of final treatment
plant effluent reuse on hide processing and quality of the finished product
by reusing it in the "llmepaddle" and "wash soak" tanning operations
              ADDRESS INQUIRIES TO EPA PROJECT OFFICER

                               111-26

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 INFORMATION  SHEET
         ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY
RESEARCH. DEVELOPMENT OR DEMONSTRATION PROJECT
  This sheet briefly describes an R & I) project Section 104 or 105 of the
  Federal Water Pollution Control Act Amendments of 1072 (PI, 92-500)

PROJECT NUMBER:   DSI


TITLE OF PROJECT'.  State-of-the-Art of Sugarbeet Processing Waste
                   Treatment
                                          EPA PROJECT OFFICER:

                                          Mr.  Kenneth Dostal
                                          Pacific Northwest Environmental
                                           Research Laboratory, EPA
                                          200 Southwest 35th Street
                                          Corvallis, Oregon 97330
                                              Project Cost: $15,900

                                              Federal Cost: $14,310
GRANTEE  OR CONTRACTOR:

 Beet Sugar Development Foundation
 156 South College Avenue
 P. 0. Box 538
 Fort Collins, Colorado 80521

PrOJeCt Site :  Fort Collins, Colorado


DESCRIPTION  OF PROJECT

Award Date:  April 1959


Completion Date:  June 1970                              	


Summary:
 The beet sugar industry in the United States produces annually more than
 3 million tons of sugar from about 25 million tons of beets grown in 19
 states.  This paper reports the waste disposal practices of the 58 beet
 sugar factories operating in'1968-69  and provides an estimate of the
 amount of pollution of streams attributable to. these factories.  It is
 shown thafr, although stream pollution has been greatly reduced, the beet
 industry still discharges to streams  3.15 pounds BOD per ton of beets
 sliced or a total of about 79 million pounds annually.  Amounts of water
 used are reported and methods of reuse of water described.   Estimates of
 total settleable solids are made; methods of elimination are described.
 Effectiveness of some biological treatments are estimated.   Needed research
 is briefly outlined.   Costs of waste  disposal facilities and annual operat-
 ing costs are shown for many of the plants.  A brief description of the
 beet sugar process is furnished.  Current practices employed by a selected
 group of sugarbeet processing plants  in several Western European countries
 are also described.
             ADDRESS INQUIRIES TO EPA PROJECT OFFICER

                               111-27

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INFORMATION  SHEET


        ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY
RESEARCH, DEVELOPMENT OR DEMONSTRATION PROJECT

  Thi> -hret briefly ,lon il,«> an R & D project Section 104 or 105 of Ui«'
  Federal Wafer Pollution Control Ac I Amendments of 1072 (PI. 
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 INFORMATION  SHEET
         ENVIRONMENTAL  PROTECTION AGENCY
RESEARCH. DEVELOPMENT OR  DEMONSTRATION PROJECT
  This shed liriH'ly describes an R & D projeet Section 104 or 10.1 of llie
  Federal Water Pollution Control Acl Amendments of 1972 (PL 92-500)

PROJECT NUMBER:  DXL


TITLE OF PROJECT:  Reduction of Salt Content of Food Processing Liquid
                   Waste Effluent
                                              Project Cost:  $94,208

                                              Federal Cost:  $64,382
GRANTEE OR CONTRACTOR:                  EPA  PROJECT OFFICER:
  National Canners Association                Mr.  Kenneth Dostal
  Research Foundation                       PNERL, EPA
  1133 20th Street                           200  Southwest 35th Street
  Washington,  D. C. 20036                    Corvallis, Oregon 97330

Project Site : Berkeley, California


DESCRIPTION  OF PROJECT


Award  Date:  December 1969


Completion Date:  May 1971


Summary:

  Olive processing brines containing 0.05 to 0.7 percent sodium chloride were
  passed through a mixed bed of cation and anion exchange resins.  The effect
  of influent  composition on the composition of effluent from the ion exchange
  unit was investigated, using a range of influent  pH, salt content, and COD
  levels.  The unit was operated at sodium chloride levels of 500  to 7,000 ppm
  with random pH and COD levels.  The highest removal of sodium chloride
  (94%) was obtained at a level of 2,700 ppm sodium chloride in the influent.
  With pH and COD held constant the salt content of the influent was varied
  between 600 and 6,000 ppm.  The effluent sodium chloride content was approxi-
  mately 150 ppm at 600, 1,000, and 2,700 ppm and was 790 ppm at 6,000 ppm
  influent concentration.  -  The resins were regenerated using a  solution of
  calcium hydroxide.   To establish the maximum salt concentration  attainable
  in the regenerant effluent, the regenerant was repeatedly recycled through
  the resin bed.  The sodium chloride content of recycled regenerant solutions
  was increased 40 percent over the influent brine  level, and evidence was
  obtained that at least a ten-fold increase was possible.   -  The cost of
  desalination of dilute food processing brines by  this ion-exchange treatment
  was estimated at $0.26 per 1,000 gallons of influent.
             ADDRESS INQUIRIES TO  EPA PROJECT OFFICER

                                111-29

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 INFORMATION  SHEET

        ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY
RESEARCH. DEVELOPMENT OR DEMONSTRATION PROJECT
  This -heel liriel'K dcM-ribe.- an R & D project Section 104 or 10." of Ihe
  Federal \\ater Pollution Control \cl Amendments of 1<)72 (PI. ^2-500)

PROJECT NUMBER:  EAE


TITLE OF PROJECT:   Evaluation of  Controlled Temperature and Forced
                   Aeration in Trickling Filter Treatment of Food
                   Canning Wastewaters

GRANTEE  OR CONTRACTOR:
 National Canners Association
  Research Foundation
 1133 20th Street, N.W.
 Washington, D. c. 20036

Project Site:  San Jose,  California


DESCRIPTION OF PROJECT

Award Date:   june 1969
                                       EPA PROJECT OFFICER:
                                        Mr. William Pierce
                                        Region IX, EPA
                                        760 Market Street
                                        San Francisco, California 94102
                                          Project Cost: $28,7i2
Completion  Date:  May 1970

Summary:
                                                       $18,350
                                        *"
 treated waste and for forced aerato
 was operated at ambient temperatures
 Packed with a high void ratio plastL md
 cannery waste improved the removal of BOD
 added nitrogen a thick fungal slime
 of anaerobic microbial action.   More oten
 declined with increasing organic loading  %**
 unit volume increased wit                *
                                                         canning
                                                f°r heatin* th* §
                                                5 feet dee^ ***
                                              aeratio^ both were

                                                    * tO  the
                                            In the absence of
                                           °d°rS ch^acteristic
                                             P6rcent renmvals
                                              °f BOD removed per
           filter



           ADDRESS  INQU...ES TO ,„ PROJtCT

                            HI-30
                                                  did t

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 INFORMATION  SHEET
        ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY
RESEARCH.  DEVELOPMENT OR DEMONSTRATION PROJECT
  This shed briefly describe;- an R & U project Section 104 or 105 ol' the
  Federal Water Pollution Control Act Amendments of 1972 (PI. «)2-500)

PROJECT NUMBER:  ECF


TITLE OF PROJECT:  Current Practice in Seafoods Processing Waste
                   Treatment
GRANTEE OR CONTRACTOR:
  Department of Food Science and Technology
  Oregon State University
  Corvallis, Oregon 97331

PrOJeCt Site :   Corvallis, Oregon

DESCRIPTION OF PROJECT

Award  Date:  July 1969

Completion  Date:   January 1971
EPA  PROJECT OFFICER:

Mr. Kenneth Dostal
PNERL, EPA
200 Southwest 35th Street
Corvallis, Oregon 97330
     Project Cost: $is,652

     Federal Cost: $17,595
Summary:
 The final report on this project contains discussions of the processing
 of the major United States seafood species, the  resultant wastewater
 strengths and flows, solid wastes magnitudes, current treatment and
 by-product recovery methods, and current and recommended research in
 water pollution abatement. The geographic distribution of fish and
 shellfish landings and products is described. The report is based on
 a comprehensive literature review and extensive  on-site investigations
 of current research, processing, and treatment activities in the major
 seafoods centers of the United States.
             ADDRESS INQUIRIES TO EPA PROJECT OFFICER

                               111-31

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INFORMATION SHEET
  Th-,sh.r. l.n,i'K .IrM-rilK, an R & D pr»jerik,n .04 or J03 of lh-
  K,,,ral XV.,rr Pollution Control Act Amendment, of ,072 A
                                          760 Market Street
                                          San Francisco,  California 94102
 Project Site :  NCA, Berkeley, California
 	~   Univ. of Wisconsin,  Madison, Wisconsin

 DESCRIPTION  OF  PROJECT
                                               Project  Cost:  $22,542

                                               Federal  Cost:  $20,025
 Award Date: May 19 69
i
 Completion Date:   September 1970


 Summary:

  This study estimates that  the 1800 plants in the U. S.  canned and frozen
  fruits and vegetables industry annually utilize 26 million tons of raw
  product, discharge 83 billion gallons of water, and generate 800 million
  pounds of biochemical oxygen demand, 392 million pounds of suspended
  solids,  and 8 million tons of solid residuals.  Increased mechanical
  harvesting is increasing problems in product damage, soil, and loss in
  yields.  Water is  extensively recirculated in food processing plants but
  additional water savings by reconditioning and reuse are needed.  High
  pollutional loads  are generated in blanching and peeling operations and
  large  amounts of relatively clean water are discharged from  cooling and
  condensing operations.  Solids are commonly removed from wastewater by
  screening.  The solid residuals from some commodities are used in large
  quantities for animal feed. Biological processes  are widely used to
  treat  food processing wastewater.  Anaerobic, aerobic, and aerated lagoons,
  activated sludge,  trickling filter, and other treatment systems  are dis-
  cussed.   Roughly half of the canning and freezing  plants discharge their
  wastewaters to city treatment systems and about one-fifth use  spray irri-
  gation for liquid  waste disposal.
               ADDRESS INQUIRIES TO EPA PROJECT OFFICER

                                 111-32

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 INFORMATION^ SHEET
        ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY
RESEARCH,  DEVELOPMENT OR DEMONSTRATION PROJECT
  Thi> slice! liriel'K describe.- an R & U project Section 104 or 105 of (he
  Federal Water Pollution Control Acl Amendments of 1972 (PI. 02-500)

PROJECT NUMBER:   EDZ


TITLE OF PROJECT:  Pilot-Plant Installation for Use of Fungi Imperfect!
                   on Vegetable Wastes


GRANTEE OR CONTRACTOR:                  EPA PROJECT OFFICER:

 Green Giant Company                       Mr. Kenneth Dostal
 LeSueur,  Minnesota 56058                   PNERL,  EPA
                                          200 Southwest 35th Street
                                          Corvallis, Oregon 97330
PrOjeCt SiUi:  North Star Research and Development
             Institute, Minneapolis, Minnesota
DESCRIPTION OF PROJECT


Award  Date:  Juiy ig69                         Project  Cost: $72,86o


Completion Date:  December 1970                 Federal  Cost: $49,742


Summary:

 The use of the imperfect fungus, Trichoderma viride, to treat corn and
 pea wastes has been tested in continuous fermentation at the 10,000
 gallon scale.   Both.a pool unit and an oxidation ditch were  tested.  The
 pH was 3.7, and ammonium ion and phosphate were added.  The  average
 residence time was 20 hours.   An aerated lagoon was  also operated to
 compare with the two fungal  systems.  - In the fungal systems, about
 96% removal of BOD5, 88% removal of COD, and 93% removal of  TOC was
 achieved  on corn canning wastes.  Performance on pea canning wastes was
 somewhat  less.  Essentially  zero levels of ammonia nitrogen  and inorganic
 phosphate could be attained  in the effluent stream.  -  Fungal yields,  on
 a dry-weight basis, were about 50% of the BODc  of the feed,  and the pro-
 tein content of the dry mycelium was about 50%.   -  Costs  are estimated
 at 4.9 cents per pound of BOD5.  Sale of mycelium as feed  could decrease
 this to 3.1 cents.  Operation  on a year-around basis with  sale of  the myce-
 lium would decrease costs to about 1.1 cents per pound of  BOD5. Direct
 feeding of the mycelium without drying could further reduce  the net cost
 to about 0.8 cent  per pound of BODr.


             ADDRESS INQUIRIES TO  EPA PROJECT OFFICER

                               111-33

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 INFORMATION  SHEET
        ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY
RESEARCH. DEVELOPMENT OR DEMONSTRATION PROJECT
  This sheet brie.1'1) describes an R & D project Section 104 or 10.") of the
  Federal Water Pollution Control Acl Amendments of 1972 (PI. 92-500)
PROJECT NUMBER:
                   EFM
TITLE  OF  PROJECT:  Complete Treatment of Tannery Industrial Waste for
                  Chrome Tanning, Alum Tanning, and Vegetable Tanning


GRANTEE OR CONTRACTOR:

Caldwell Lace Leather Company
Auburn, Kentucky 42206
                                        EPA PROJECT OFFICER:

                                       Mr. James Westrick
                                       NERC,  EPA
                                       Cincinnati, Ohio 45268
       Site."  Auburn,  Kentucky
 DESCRIPTION OF PROJECT

       Pate:  December 1966
Completion  Date:

Summary:
                    March 1972
demonstration grant ±  1967   om
methods of treating tannery washes  oo h
research contract with VanderSlt Universlf
previously been reported and are revSed 2
mixed activated sludge plant was constuct ed   *
handle specific problem wastes.  Mter
team conducted a study which showed
dieted by the research phase, excep

ti? 1 %r\fler due t0 me^anical Sob
the  plant began producing an effl££t
removing 97% of the suspended

less  aSUS       the
                                           Project Cost: $68>20o

                                           Federal Cost: $46,34o
                                 .  f—ky, a small tannery using
                                    -f^le tanning, received I
                                       Castigate and demonstrate

                                            * 8"a11 Stream-  A
                                              flndingS wh±ch
                                           ~, A m°dlfled comp
                                           Wlth faci]-ities to
                                         f°r & year'  m *** survey
                                           WaS Perf°rming as pre-
                                              ^ f^ the secon-
                                              ProtlemS were corrected
                                         ***
                                            **'   °* tO

           ADDRESS ,NQU,R,ES TO EPA PROJECT OFFICER

                            111-34

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 IN FORM A TION  SHEET
         ENVIRONMENTAL  PROTECTION AGENCY
RESEARCH, DEVELOPMENT OR DEMONSTRATION PROJECT
  This sheet briefly describes an R & D project Section 104 or UK) of lh<-
  Federal Water Pollution Control Acl Amendments of 1972 (PL 92-500)

PROJECT NUMBER:  ECU


TITLE OF PROJECT:    State-of-the-Art of Dairy Plant Wastes and
                     Waste-Treatment Systems


GRANTEE OR CONTRACTOR:                  EPA  PROJECT OFFICER:

  Ohio State University Research Foundation   Mr. Eugene Harris
  1314 Kinnear Road                         National Environmental Research
  Columbus, Ohio 43212                       Center, EPA
                                          Cincinnati, Ohio 45268

Project Site:  coiumbus,  OMO


DESCRIPTION OF PROJECT

Award Date:    juiy 1959                        Project  Cost:  $18,505


Completion  Date:   May  1971                     Federal  Cost: $12,954


Summary:

  This paper reports a comprehensive study of the state-of-the-art of
  dairy wastes, their control and treatment, both from the point  of view
  of past literature and  current industrial knowledge and practice.  Research
  needs are reviewed in light of on-going research  and the priority of the
  needs.
  The dairy industry has  only limited knowledge of  the Biological Oxygen
  Demand (BOD) of its wastewaters.   Even less information is available con-
  cerning Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD)  and refractory organic and inorganic
  components  of these wastes.
  BOD-COD relationships are reviewed together with  available knowledge on all
  aspects of waste composition.  Sources and control  of in-plant wastes are
  presented.  Detergents  and sanitizers contribute  to  the BOD load, to
  refractory  COD and to the toxicity of some dairy  food plant  wastes.   Waste
  treatment methods are critically  reviewed.   The basic information needed
  for intelligent design  of dairy food plant waste  treatment facilities and
  for their optimal operation are not  generally available.  Most  dairy waste
  treatment systems fail  at least once a year and generally  are less than
  75% efficient about 25% of the time.  Problems  of shock loading, whey,
  cottage cheese wash water and the presence of surfactants  appear to contri-
 bute to the  ADDRESS INQUIRIES TO EPA PROJECT OFFICER difficulty
  of continuing efficient dairy food plant waste treatment.

                                111-35

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 INFORMATION  SHEET
        ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY
RESEARCH, DEVELOPMENT OR DEMONSTRATION PROJECT
  This sheet briel'K dcM/ribes an R & 1) project Section 104 or 105 of the
  Federal \\aler Pollution Control Act Amendments ol' 197:2 (PI. <>2-500)

PROJECT NUMBER:  EGV


TITLE OF PROJECT:  Water and Waste Management in  Poultry Processing
GRANTEE OR CONTRACTOR:
  Gold Kist Poultry Division
  Cotton Producers Association
  P. 0. Box 2210
  Atlanta, Georgia  30301
Project Site :    Durham, North Carolina

DESCRIPTION OF PROJECT

Award Date:  juiy 1969

Completion Date:  December 1972

Summary:
                                      EPA  PROJECT  OFFICER:
                                       Mr.  Harold Snyder
                                       Oil  and Hazardous Materials
                                       Program, Water Quality Research, EPA
                                       Washington, D. C. 20460
                                          Project  Cost:  $233,381

                                          Federal  Cost:  $193,366
                                 resT
duction at the plat was throh
mately 70,000 broilers per day"
of 12.28 gallons per bird received
gallons per bird received.
of 3970 Ibs BOD5 which was
-ade are detailed and .con
the plant with an average annual net ll •      H
Processed.  An initial fnvestmSt of III nil ** $4
costs were $31,023 with annual net favings o
management program is detailed.  MicroSSn
deterioration in product quality as a resuU o
                                               Waste
                                                  tOtaled ^pproxi-
                                            indicated a water use

                                                32 PeTCent to 7'81
                                                       waste load
                                            °8
                                                a
                                                 Pr°fitaSle for
                                                 10°° broilers
                                                A wate^
                                                          waste
           ADDRISS INOUItllS TO EPA PROJECT OFFICER

                            HI-36

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 INFORMATION  SHEET
        ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY
RESEARCH. DEVELOPMENT OR DEMONSTRATION PROJECT
  Thi;-* sheet briefly describes an R & D project Section 104 or 10.") of the
  Federal Water Pollution Control Acl Amendments of 1972 (PI. 'J2-500)

PROJECT NUMBER:  EHS


TITLE OF PROJECT!  Cannery  Waste Treatment by Lagoons
GRANTEE  OR  CONTRACTOR:
 Melbourne Water Science Institute
 Water Science Laboratories
 15-21 Earl Street
 Carlton, Victoria, Australia
EPA PROJECT OFFICER:
Mr.  Kenneth Dostal
PNERL, EPA
200  Southwest  35th Street
Corvallis, Oregon 97330
Project Site :  Shepparton,  Victoria, Australia

DESCRIPTION OF  PROJECT

Award  Date:  May 1969

Completion Date:  January  1972

Summary:
    Project  Cost: $ei,8io

    Federal  Cost: $11,920
 Various mixtures of  fruit and vegetable cannery wastes, and domestic
 sewage were  treated  by anaerobic lagoons followed by an oxidation ditch
 for a two-year period.  The anerobic lagoons consistently achieved BOD
 reductions of 75 to  85 percent at loadings up to 400 Ibs BOD per day
 per acre provided adequate inorganic nutrients were present.  The oxida-
 tion ditch reduced the BOD to low levels and was shown to be very stable
 against overload. Power requirements were less than 0.5 kw hr/lb of
 BOD removed  and the  oxygenation capacity of the rotor was about 30 Ibs
 of BOD per foot of length.
             ADDRESS INQUIRIES TO EPA PROJECT OFFICER

                              111-37

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INFORMATION  SHEET

        ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY
RESEARCH, DEVELOPMENT OR DEMONSTRATION PROJECT

  This sluTl briefly describes an R St D project Section 104 or 105 of the
  Federal Water Pollution Control Acl  Amendments of 1972 (PL 92-500)

PROJECT NUMBER:     m

TITLE OF PROJECT'.    Use of Fungi Imperfect!  in Waste  Control
 6RANTEE OR CONTRACTOR:
  North Star Research and
   Development Institute
  3100 38th Avenue South
  Minneapolis, Minnesota 55406
         Site:   Minneapolis, Minnesota
 EPA PROJECT OFFICER:

Mr.  Kenneth Dostal
Pacific Northwest Environmental
 Research Laboratory, EPA
200  Southwest  35th Street
Coryallis, Oregon 97330
 DESCRIPTION  OF  PROJECT

 Award  Dlte:  September 1967

 Completion Date: juiy 1970

 Summary:
     Project Cost$ii8,585

     Federal Cosy 76,585
   In this project, 45 species of 12 genera of the Fungi Imperfecti were
   screened for those fungal candidates best able to rapidly convert soluble
   and suspended organic material (as measured by BOD)  from corn- and soy
   food-processing waste streams to mycelial protein.  Rapidly growing fun-
   gal strains were selected which were readily  removed from the digested
   waste effluents by coarse filtration.  Trichoderma viride, Gliocladium
   deliquescens, and either Aspergillus oryzae or G_. deliquescens gave the
   best results on corn, soy, and S02-containing soy wheys, respectively.
   Optimal growth conditions included pH  of 3.2  to 3.5, and a temperature
   of 30°C.  Oxygen requirements were relatively low (1 Ib 02/6-7 Ib COD
   removed) .  Nitrogen and phosphate additions were required for the corn
   digestion system,  and additions  of sulfuric acid were necessary  to adjust
   the pH.
               ADDRESS INQUIRIES TO IPA PROJECT OFFICER
                                 IH-38

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INFORMATION^ SHEET
        ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY
RESEARCH.  DEVELOPMENT OR DEMONSTRATION PROJECT
  This sheet briefly describes an R & D project Section 104 or 10.' of the
  Federal Water Pollution Control Acl Amendments of 1972 (PI, 92-500)

PROJECT NUMBER:   EHIJ

TITLE OF PROJECT!  Reconditioning of Food Processing Brines
GRANTEE OR CONTRACTOR:
  National Canners Association Research
   Foundation
  1133 20th Street, N. W.
  Washington, D. C. 20036

        Site :  Central Valley, California
                                          EPA PROJECT  OFFICER:
                                          Mr. William Pierce
                                          Region IX, EPA
                                          760 Market Street
                                          San Francisco, California 94102
DESCRIPTION OF PROJECT
Award
              February  1968
Completion Date:    March 1971

Summary:
Project Cost:$45.ooo

Federal Cost: $31.500
   In this project, storage brines and processing waters from the production
   of canned  ripe olives and glass packed green olives were treated with
   activated  carbon.  The reuse potential of reconditioned brines was
   evaluated.  Reconditioned storage brines can be used to store freshly
   harvested  olives for commercially significant periods.  Canned samples
   prepared from olives stored in reconditioned brine were of good quality.
   Reconditioned brines of lower salt content were reused with no detectable
   effect on  the quality of the final product.

   Estimates  for commercial application of activated carbon treatment of
   storage brines show a cost per ton of olives stored of $3.64 when capital
   costs are  amortized over 10 years for a cannery storing 5,000 tons of
   olives annually.  This value can also be expressed as a cost of $36.40
   for each 1,000 gallons of reconditioned brine produced.  Ten olive can-
   neries reconditioning brine and sending spent carbon to a centrally
   located reactivation facility would have a cost of $1.28 per ton of olives
   stored or  $12.80 for each 1,000 gallons of reconditioned brine produced.
              ADDRESS INQUIRIES TO EPA PROJECT OFFICER
                                 111-39

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INFORMATION^ SHEET


        ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY
RESEARCH, DEVELOPMENT OR DEMONSTRATION PROJECT


  Thi, ,,,,, l,ri
-------
 INFORMATION^ SHEET
        ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY
RESEARCH, DEVELOPMENT OR DEMONSTRATION PROJECT
  This sbeel briefly describes an R & U project Section 104 or 10.") of the
  Federal Water Pollution Control Acl Amendments of 1
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INFORMATION  SHEET

        ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY
RESEARCH, DEVELOPMENT OR DEMONSTRATION PROJECT

  This sheet hrid'h doorilio an R & D project Section 104 or 105 of (he
  Federal \\aler Pollution Control Acl Amendments of 1()72 (Pi. 92-.100)

PROJECT NUMBER:  EKQ

TITLE  OF PROJECT:  Kent Cheese  Company - Waste Treatment Facility
GRANTEE  OR  CONTRACTOR:

  Kent Cheese Company
  1931 North 15th Avenue
  Melrose  Park, Illinois 60160

 Project Site: Kent, Illinois

 DESCRIPTION OF  PROJECT

       Date:   September  1969
 Completion Date:   January 1973

 Summary:
EPA PROJECT OFFICER:

Mr. Dennis W. Taylor
PNERL,  EPA
200 Southwest 35th Street
Corvallis, Oregon 97330
    Project  Cost: $55,722.30

    Federal  Cost: $45,006.00
  In this project the effectiveness of aerated lagoons for the treatment of
  cheese whey process rinse water, in addition to the effluent from a reverse
  osmosis unit was demonstrated.  The treatment system utilizes two aerobic
  lagoons in series with submerged mechanical aeration equipment producing an
  extended aeration process.  Data was collected to evaluate the extended
  aeration process on the aforementioned cheese whey wastewater streams.
              ADDRESS INQUIRIES TO EPA PROJECT OFFICER

                              HI-42

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 INFORMATION  SHEET
        ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY
RESEARCH. DEVELOPMENT OR DEMONSTRATION PROJECT
  This shed briefly describes an R & D project Section 104 or 105 of the
  Federal Water Pollution Control Act Amendments of 1972 (PL 92-500)

PROJECT NUMBER:  EOF


TITLE OF  PROJECT:   A Method of Manure Disposal for a Beef Packing
                   Operation
GRANTEE OR  CONTRACTOR:
 Illinois Packing Company
 911 West 37th Place
 Chicago, Illinois 60609
Project  Site:
                                        EPA PROJECT OFFICER:

                                        Mr. Jack L. Witherow
                                        RSKERL,  EPA
                                        P. 0.  Box 1198
                                        Ada, Oklahoma 74820
                      Packing GO.
DESCRIPTION  OF  PROJECT

Award Date:  October 1969

Completion Date:  June 1971

Summary:
                                            Project  Cost: $156,000

                                            Federal  Cost:  $93,400
 In this 20-month project, demonstration of the  feasibility of the incin-
 eration of cattle paunch and ground manure was  to be undertaken.  The
 project objectives were to include the following:
 1.  Segregation of existing process waste streams for concentration of
     waste solids.
 2.  Development of physical parameters for process waste streams.
 3.  Design and construction of a fluidized bed  incineration unit.
 4.  Investigation and documentation of the treatment system performance,
     the economics, optimal operating characteristics and the significance
     of the system in terms of application of other segments of the animal
     production industry.
 NOTE;  This project was discontinued.
             ADDRESS INQUIRIES TO EPA PROJECT OFFICER

                              111-43

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INFORMATION  SHEET

        ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY
RESEARCH, DEVELOPMENT OR DEMONSTRATION PROJECT

  Thi- sheet Uriei'ly cril)e> an R &  1) project Section 104 or 103 of llie
  Federal \\ater Pollution Control Acl Amendments of 1()7:2 (PI, <)2-500)

PROJECT  NUMBER:  EPC

TITLE  OF PROJECT:  Removal and Recovery  of Sulfide from Tannery Wastes
 GRANTEE  OR CONTRACTOR:
 Blueside Real Estate, Inc.
 800 N. Atlantic Avenue
 Kansas City, Missouri 64116

 Project Site :   St. Joseph, Missouri

 DESCRIPTION  OF PROJECT

 Award Date: April 1970

 Completion Date:  April 1972

 Summary:
EPA PROJECT OFFICER:

 Mr. William Banks
 Region VII, EPA
 911 Walnut Street
 Kansas City, Missouri 64106
    Project Cost:  $388,900

    Federal Cost:  $110,950
 The basic objectives of the project are to translate pilot-plant results
 intc _Ae development and demonstration on a plant scale of a process for
 rem- i .g sulfide from the effluent of a chrome tannery and recovering the
 sul^ii e in a form reuseable in the tannery.  The project will demonstrate
 the technical feasibility of the sulfide removal method and will deter-
 mine the economics of the process on a full-scale plant.
              ADDRESS INQUIRIES TO EPA PROJECT OFFICER

                              111-44

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 INFORMATION  SHEET
         ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY
RESEARCH,  DEVELOPMENT OR DEMONSTRATION PROJECT
  This sheet briefly describe* an R & D project Section 104 or 10.' of the
  Federal Water Pollution Control Acl Amendments of 1972 (PL 92-500)
PROJECT NUMBER:
            ESC
TITLE OF PROJECT:
            Separation, Dewatering,  and Disposal of Sugarbeet
            Transport Water Solids
GRANTEE OR CONTRACTOR:
  American Crystal . Sugar Co.
  Boston Bldg. , P. 0. Box 419
  Denver, Colorado  80201
Site :
                                 EPA PROJECT OFFICER:

                                  Mr. Harold Thompson
                                  PNERL, EPA
                                  200 Southwest 35th Street
                                  Corvallis, Oregon 97330
                 Crookston, Minnesota
DESCRIPTION OF PROJECT
Award  Date:   October 1970

Completion Date:   September 1975

Summary:
                                     Project Cost:

                                     Federal Cost:
$179,840
  This development .and demonstration project  is divided into two phases
  and will be conducted over a 31-month perioa.  *>hase I is a laboratory
  and pilot-scale development activity during whi^   ' --_ the optimum solids-
  clarification environment will be determined.  A p->   -scale vacuum
  filtration unit will be evaluated for iL- <>f>ilitv '-^  -  ^er trie settle-
  able sugarbeet water solids.  At the conclu  -- --C t-Lr«=e I,  a judgment
  will be made as to whether the proposed dewateri.^ system it, the best
  method for handling the solids from the transport water v.  Tes.  -  Phase
  II is a 12-month activity which will consist of the design,  construction,
  and operation of a full-scale solids handling system (vacuum filtration).
  The full-scale facility will be operated and studied for one - -ocessing
  season so as to establish a good data base  for industrywide recommenda-
  tions .
             ADDRESS INQUIRIES TO EPA PROJECT  OFFICER
                               HI-45

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INFORMATION^ SHEET


        ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY
RESEARCH. DEVELOPMENT OR DEMONSTRATION PROJECT

  Thi, >h,,. l,riHK dm-rilH'., an R X D project Section 104 orJ05 of ll.r
  Federal \\atrr Pollution Control Act Amendments of 1972 (PL W-oOO)


PROJECT NUMBER:  ESY


TITLE OF PROJECT:  Improvement of Treatment of Food Industry Waste



 GRANTEE OR CONTRACTOR:                 EPA PROIECT OFFICER:

  RAI Research Corporation                  Mr.  Allyn Richardson
  36-40 37th Street                        Region  I, EPA
  Long Island City, New York 11101          John F.  Kennedy Federal Bldg.
                                         Boston,  Massachusetts 02203

 PrOJeCt Site :  Long Island  City,  New York

 DESCRIPTION  OF PROJECT

 Award Date:  January 1968                     Project Cost:  $57,250


 Completion Date:  July 1959                    Federal Cost: $40,075


  Summary:

   Laboratory studies were conducted to determine  the feasibility of reduc-
   ing  the COD demand of cheese whey waste generated from dairy processing
   plants.  Three primary processing variables were studied;  these were
   agitation, temperature, and current density. Results indicate electro-
   lytic oxidation efficiency was  best at 70°C, agitation at 9.6 feet per
   second and a current density of 9.5 amperes per square foot (equivalent
   to 6 amperes in the test  cell investigated) .  Concentration of 60% of
   the whey protein was also possible by collection of the froth produced
   during electrolysis.  This mechanism of COD reduction could afford
   recoverable protein from the whey.  Carbon adsorption of the electro-
   lyzed whey was also shown to be extremely effective in reducing the COD.
   The carbohydrates after oxidation to carboxylic acids are very readily
   adsorbed, the carbon loading being  in excess of that expected  for secon-
   dary effluents.   The feasibility of combining the  electrolytic oxidation
   with froth collection and carbon adsorption is proposed as a possible
   attractive procedure for recovery of values from the whey.
               ADDRESS  INQUIRIES TO EPA PROJECT OFFICER
                                111-46

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 INFORMATION SHEET
         ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY
RESEARCH. DEVELOPMENT OR DEMONSTRATION PROJECT
  This slurl briefly describes an R & D project Section 104 or 105 of the
  Federal Water Pollution Control Acl Amendments of 1972 (PL 92-500)
PROJECT NUMBER:
EUB
TITLE OF PROJECT:
Construction and Study of a Demonstration Plant Utilizing
the Aerobic Channel Method for Treating Packinghouse
Wastes
GRANTEE OR CONTRACTOR:
John Morrell and Company
Ottumwa,. Iowa 52501
Project Site:    ottumwa, iowa

DESCRIPTION OF  PROJECT

Award Dite:    December, 1966
                       EPA PROJECT  OFFICER:

                        Mr. Jack L. Witherow
                        RSKERL, EPA
                        P. 0. Box 1198
                        Ada, Oklahoma 74820
Completion  Date:
February, 1973
Project Cost:

Federal Cost:
                                          $815,000
$489,000
 Summary:
Four oxidation channels will be constructed to handle an equivalent load of
20,000  Ibs of BOD/day from a packinghouse on a 7-day basis with estimated flow
of 3.5  mgd.  The objective is to find an efficient, effective, and economical
method  of treating raw packinghouse wastes so they can be discharged directly
into streams.  - Each channel will be 460 ft x 60 ft with a capacity of 150,000
cu.ft.  Channels 1 and 2 will receive raw wastewater from existing primary
treatment systems.  The overflow will be directed into Channels 3 and 4  which
will be operated intermittently as aerator and settling basins.  Channel 4 will
allow the sludge to be returned to Channels 1 and 2 or removed for harvesting.
The solids removed will be centrifuged or evaporated and dried.  -  The  most
feasible way of handling solids will be determined.  Tests will be conducted to
determine if the dried solids can be used on an animal-food supplement.   -  The
process will be designed to give variable rates of aeration and flow to  obtain
maximum biochemical oxygen demand and nitrogen removal.   The flow will be
sampled and analyzed for total nitrogen, chemical oxygen demand, suspended
solids, total solids, and grease; weekly samples will be tested for total
volatile solids, total fixed solids,  phosphate, total bacterial content,  and
coliform count.
             ADDRESS INQUIRIES TO EPA PROJECT OFFICER
                                IH-47

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INFORMATION SHEET
                       MO^CTION
MSHHCH. DEmOPMNT OK 'MONSTKATION PMJiCT

  Tim slH-ft briefly describe an R & D project Section 104 or J05 of the
  Federal Water Pollution Control Acl Amendments of 1972 (PI. H-*W)

PROJECT NUMBER:   EUZ


TITLE OF PROJECT)    Winery Wastewater-Characterization and Treatment
 GRANTEE OR CONTRACTOR:

   Widmer's Wine Cellars, Inc.
   Naples, New York 14512
        Site :   Naples, New York
EPA PROJECT OFFICER:

Mr. Dennis W.  Taylor
PNERL,  EPA
200 Southwest  35th Street
Corvallis, Oregon 97330
 DESCRIPTION OF PROJECT
       Date:   December 1969
 Completion  Date:   August 1973

 Summary:
    Project Cost:  $234,000

    Federal Cost:  $143,900
   This project includes design,  construction, and operation of an extended
   aeration waste treatment plant to treat the process wastewaters from a
   winery.

   The activities of the project  are the following:
      1.  Characterization of the winery wasteflow.
      2.  Design, construction, and operation of an extended aeration
         waste treatment system.
      3.  Study and -documentation of the treatment system.
      4.  Optimization of the system.
      5.  Determination of the effectiveness of nutrient addition to the
         operation of the system.

   The facility will be designed for a 120,000-gpd flow.
              ADDtiSS INQUIRIES TO IPA MOJICT OFMCIt
                               111-48

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 INFORMATION  SHEET
         ENVIRONMENTAL  PROTECTION AGENCY
RESEARCH. DEVELOPMENT OR DEMONSTRATION PROJECT
  Thi.- shed briefly describes an R, & I) project Section 104 or 105 of the
  Federal Water Pollution Control Acl Amendments of 1972 (PL 92-500)

PROJECT  NUMBER:   EZP


TITLE OF PROJECT:   Cannery Waste Treatment Kehr Activated Sludge
GRANTEE OR CONTRACTOR:
  FMC  Corporation
  Central Engineering Laboratories
  Box  580
  Santa  Clara,  California 95052
Project Site :   Santa Clara,  California

DESCRIPTION OF PROJECT

Award Date:   December 1966

Completion  Date:  January 1969

Summary:
EPA  PROJECT OFFICER:
Mr. Kenneth Dostal
PNERL,  EPA
200 Southwest 35th Street
Corvallis, Oregon 97330
    Project Cost:  $43,200

    Federal Cost:  $29,300
  The Kehr Activated Sludge Process (KASP)  uses a completely mixed aeration
  tank with no intentional sludge wasting.   The concentration of mixed
  liquor suspended solids was allowed to stabilize at some value as a
  result of cellular synthesis,  endogenous  loss, and washout in the effluent.
  The concentration of mixed liquor suspended  solids ranged from 4,000 to
  12,000 mg/liter.  The BODrj of  domestic sewage and cannery wastes varied
  from 200 to 2000 mg/liter. - Removals obtained were 80% reduction in the
  concentration of total organic carbon and 90% reduction in the concentra-
  tion of BOD^. - The process was able to undergo a 48-hr period of no
  organic loading with no loss of treatment efficiency when the organic
  load was returned.  The KASP appears to have an application for pretreat-
  ment of industrial wastes prior to discharge to a municipal sewer.  The
  KASP, when used in this manner, would handle intermittent waste discharge,
  produce 90% BOD^ removal, and  provide aerobic digestion within the aera-
  tion tank. - Exclusive of any  primary treatment, the cost of treating 10 mgd
  of a waste containing 250 mg/liter of BOD5 using this high solids activated
  sludge process is about 70/1000 gallons using gravity settling and about
  29C/1000 gallons using electroflotation.   The cost of pretreating 1 mgd of
  si waste containing 2,000 mg/liter BOD is  about 280/1000 gallons exclusive
  of primary   ADDRESS INQUIRIES TO EPA  PROJECT OFFICER  treatment.
                               111-49

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INFORMATION  SHEET
Acl
             ol
  Th, ^
  Feclrral \Yatcr Pollution Co

PROJECT NUMBER.   EZY

TITIf  nP  PDniFPT'   Lime Treatment  and Inplant Reuse  of an Activated
TITU  IU  rKUJtU.               Effluent in the cltrus processing Industry
                EPA  PROJECT OFFICER:

                 Dr.  David Hill
                 SERL,  EPA
                 College Station Road
                 Athens, Georgia  30601
 GRANTEE OR CONTRACTOR:
  Winter Garden Citrus Products Cooperative
  P. 0.  Box 399
  Winter Garden, Florida

 PrOJeCt Site: Winter Garden, Florida

 DESCRIPTION  OF PROJECT

 Award  Date:  December  1967

 Completion Date:  August  1971

 Summary:
                     Project  Cost: $397,300

                     Federal  Cost:$155,000
       A full-scale complete mixed activate sludge treatment system effec-
   tively treats concentrated wastewater from the Winter Garden Citrus
   Products Cooperative.  This process has a BOD reduction capability of
   99%; but it produces 0.5 to 0.6 Ibs of waste sludge per pound of influent
   BOD.  The efficiency was reduced by periodic foaming and solids carry-
   over in the effluent caused by the unscheduled discharge of orgnge oil
   and peel press liquor to the treatment plant.

       Controlling the addition of nitrogen and phosphorus to the influent
   of the nutrient deficient wastewater effectively controlled effluent
   nitrogen and  phosphorus concentrations.

       Waste sludge was mixed with citrus peel and processed as a cattle
   feed additive in the existing facilities.  The waste activated sludge
   represented approximately 1.5 percent  of the total cattle feed produc-
   tion on a dry weight basis.  Treatment plant effluent was reused  for
   barometric leg and cooling water and was then  discharged.
               ADDRESS INQUIRIES TO EPA PROJECT OFFICER
                                IT.I-50

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 INFORMATION^  SHEET
         ENVIRONMENTAL  PROTECTION AGENCY
RESEARCH. DEVELOPMENT OR  DEMONSTRATION PROJECT
  This shed briefly describes an R. & I) project Section 104 or 105 of tlic
  Kederal Water Pollution Control Acl Amendments of I "72 (PI. °2-oOO)

PROJECT NUMBER:   FAD


TITLE OF PROJECT:   Aerobic Treatment of Fruit Processing Wastes
GRANTEE OR CONTRACTOR:
 Snokist Growers
 Yakima, Washington
                                          EPA  PROJECT OFFICER:

                                          Mr. James Boydston
                                          PNERL, EPA
                                          200 Southwest 35th Street
                                          Corvallls, Oregon 97330
                                               Project  Cost: $572,262

                                               Federal  Cost: $347,669
Project Site:  Yakima, Washington


DESCRIPTION OF PROJECT


Award  Date:  August 1967


Completion Date: March 1970


Summary:

 In 1966 it was determined that  the Snokist Growers cannery in Yakima,
 Washington, was in need of further treatment  facilities  for the cannery
 waste  Before the waste could be discharged into the Yakima River.   A
 system of aeration was proposed and a grant sought to aid in construction
 of facilities and to study the  results of the treatment  facility follow-
 ing construction.  Facility construction proceeded in two stages with
 the addition of an aerated lagoon in 1967 and the addition of additional
 aeration and clarification facilities in 1968 to complete the treatment
 system.  The treatment system performed more  efficiently than initially
 expected in the original design assumptions,  and nearly  99% of BOD and
 COD from the waste stream was accomplished during a major portion  of the
 1968 processing season. - The treatment systems were studied over  the two
 operating seasons, and operated as an aerated lagoon, as an activated
 sludge treatment system, and as activated sludge system  but including
 sludge reaeration.  Data was collected on biological substrate assimila-
 tion,  sludge growth, oxygen uptake and sludge settleability.  Constants
 were obtained from this data.   Success of the treatment  system is  described
 in the final report on the project and the costs of treatment computed.  It
 is recommended that aerated lagoon treatment  be used where 70£ removal of
 BOD is desired and suspended solids are permissible in the effluent.  Acti-
 vated  sludge treatment ^s recommended for greater than 90% BOD removal and
 where effluent suspended solids must be minimized.
                               111-51

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INFORMATION^ SHEET

        ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY
RESEARCH, DEVELOPMENT OR DEMONSTRATION PROJECT

  Th, shee, l-riefh ,ie.,il,e> an R & D projerl Seet.on 104 or 103 of l|-
  Federal Water Pollution Control Act Amendments of W,l> (PL J--'««)

PROJECT NUMBER:    FAK

TITLE OF PROJECT:  Concentration of Sugar Beet  Wastes for Economic
	•—'  Treatment with Biological Systems
 GRANTEE OR CONTRACTOR:
  Beet Sugar Development Foundation
  156 South. College Avenue
  P. 0. Box 538
  Fort Collins, Colorado 80521
 Project  Site: Longmont, Colorado

 DESCRIPTION OF PROJECT

 Award Date: December 1966

 Completion Date:   May 1970

 Summary:
EPA PROJECT OFFICER:

Mr. Ralph Scott
PNERL,  EPA
200 Southwest 35th Street
Corvallis, Oregon 97330
     Project Cost:$372,500

     Federal Cost:$io2,ooo
  A study of the variables influencing a closed  loop recirculating'flume
  water system for conveying sugarbeets for processing was  conducted.
  The results show that high volume,  high total  solids transport (flume)
  waters can be recirculated with little or no discharge to receiving
  waters.  Rapid removal of suspended solids was accomplished by screening,
  followed by continuous addition of  lime prior  to sedimentation.  The
  build-up of total dissolved solids  was no major problem,  provided the pH
  was 10 or greater and that water temperature did not exceed 20°C.
  The system was designed for primary settling in two alternately used
  ponds.  Settled mud was removed from one pond  by clamshell while the other
  one was in service.  The first settling pond effluent was subjected to
  secondary settling before returning to the fluming and washing operations.
  These segments of treatment essentially operated without  odor. - Biologi-
  cal and nutritional data were collected.  Results indicate that the end
  product water meets discharge standards, however wastes were  retained for
   reuse in the system.  Further work is needed on mud handling  and odor
   abatement.
               ADDRESS INQUIRIES TO EPA PROJECT OFFICER

                                HI-52

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 INFORMATION  SHEET
        ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY
RESEARCH. DEVELOPMENT OR DEMTN3TRATION PROJECT
  This sheet briefly describes an R & U project Section 104 or 10.") of the
  Federal Water Pollution Control Acl Amendments of 1072 (PI. 92-.">00)
PROJECT NUMBER:
FDK
TITLE OF PROJECT!  ADM Company tfastewater Ai.eatment
GRANTEE  OR  CONTRACTOR:
 Archer Daniels Midland Company
 4666 Faries Parkway
 Decatur,  Illinois 62525

PrOJeCt Site:   Decatur,  Illinois

DESCRIPTION  OF PROJECT

Award  Date:   March 1970

Completion Date:  September 1971

Summary:
                     EPA  PROJECT OFFICER:

                       Mr. Jack Witherow
                       PNERL, EPA
                       Corvallis,  Oregon
                         Project Cost:  $245,254

                         Federal Cost:  $106,677
A full-scale (M3-5 mgd)  development-demonstration project  for emulsion
breaking of the effluent wastewaters resulting from soybean processing for
oil will be undertaken.  The project will develop and install the required
additional facilities to break tight emulsions currently being discharged
to a municipal sewer system.  The existing system contains an oil separator-
skimmer and 1-day retention lagoon.  To be explored will be primarily a two-
stage chemical system, with other physical and biological  alternatives also
to be evaluated.  Also to be demonstrated is an ion exchange system for
sodium removal and wash  water recovery, as researched by the USDA.
             ADDRESS INQUIRIES TO EPA PROJECT OFFICER

                              111-53

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INFORMATION SHEET

        ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY
RESEARCH, DEVELOPMENT OR DEMONSTRATION PROJECT

  This sheet briefly describes an R & U project Section 104 or 105 of the
  Federal \\aler Pollution Control Acl Amendments of 1<)72 (PI. "-2-500)

PROJECT  NUMBER:  FDR

TITLE  OF  PROJECT!  Disposal of Rum Distillery Wastes
GRANTEE OR CONTRACTOR:
 Agricultural Experiment Station
 University of Puerto Rico
 Rio Piedras, Puerto Rico


Project Site :   Rio Piedras, Puerto Rico

DESCRIPTION  OF  PROJECT

Award Date:  July 19es

Completion Date: July 1971

 Summary:
EPA PROJECT OFFICER:
 Mr. Edmond Lomasney
 Region IV, EPA
 1421 Peachtree Street, N.E.
 Atlanta, Georgia  30309
    Project Cost:  $35,400

    Federal Cost:  $46,252
 The objective of this project was to develop the best method for the
 disposal of rum distillery waste.  The waste was then to be subjected
 to detailed analysis and then was to undergo pilot treatment by means
 of anaerobic digestion, activated sludge, and lagooning.  These pro-
 cesses were then to be evaluated in terms of efficiency and economics,

 NOTE:  THIS PROJECT WAS DISCONTINUED.
             ADDRESS INQUIRIES TO EPA PROJECT OFFICER

                             111-54

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 INFORMATION  SHEET
         ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY
RESEARCH, DEVELOPMENT OR DEMONSTRATION  PROJECT
  This shed briefly describe.* an R & D project Section 104 or 10.1 of the
  Federal Water Pollution Control Acl Amendments of 1()7:2 (PI. 02-500)

PROJECT NUMBER:  FDS


TITLE OF PROJECT:  Elimination of Water Pollution by Packing House
                   Animal Paunch and Blood
GRANTEE OR CONTRACTOR:
  Beefland International,  Inc.
  Council Bluffs, Iowa 51501
Project Site:   council Bluffs, iowa

DESCRIPTION OF PROJECT

Award  Date:  November 1959

Completion Date:   November 1971

Summary:
EPA  PROJECT OFFICER:
Mr.  Otmar Olson
Hetgion VII, EPA
911  Walnut Street
Kansas City, Missouri 64106
    Project Cost: $367,370

    Federal Cost: $161,393
  The operation of two dehydrating machines,  for the drying of cattle whole
  blood as well as paunch contents (rumen), at  the Beefland International,
  Inc., slaughtering plant at Council Bluffs, Iowa, was studied.

  The BOD5 and COD of the blood and rumen were  established.  The  mean 8005
  of the whole blood and rumen was determined as 156,500 ppm and  50,200 ppm,
  respectively.  The mean COD of the blood and  rumen was established as
  218,300 ppm and 177,300 ppm, respectively.

  The economics of the drying process in costs  per ton of dried product per
  1000 Ibs live kill weight (LWK), and per animal were determined.  The
  dehydrating costs per ton of dehydrated product were found to be  $43.75/
  ton for blood and $38.46/ton for rumen.  The  average cost (blood  and rumen)
  was $40.93/ton.

  Laboratory studies were carried out on the  dried whole blood and  rumen
  with a view toward their actual and potential use as legally accepted feeds
  or feed additives.  Percent moisture, protein, fat, carbohydrate, and other
  analyses of the dried products are reported.
             ADDRESS INQUIRIES TO EPA PROJECT OFFICER

                                111-55

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INFORMATION  SHEET

        ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY
RESEARCH.  DEVELOPMENT OR DEMONSTRATION PROJECT

  ThU she,, briefly AWA** an R & D project Section 104 or HKi of the
  Federal Water Pollution Control Act Amendment, of 1«72 (PI- W-

PROJECT  NUMBER:   FJK
TITLE OF PROJECT:  Acid Emulsion Breaking-Activated Sludge for Bakery
            '      Waste"
 GRANTEE OR CONTRACTOR:
  Ebinger Baking Co.
  2290 Bedford Avenue
  Brooklyn, New York 11226

 Project Site :  Melville, New York

 DESCRIPTION  OF PROJECT

 Award Date:  June 1970

 Completion Date:   April 1972

 Summary:
EPA PROJECT OFFICER:
 Mr. Charles H.  Ris
 Industrial Pollution Control
  Division (RD-679), EPA
 Washington, D.  C. 20460
    Project  Cost: $454,860

    Federal  Cost: $129,729
  A waste treatment system was to be designed,  constructed,  operated, and
  evaluated for a 80,000-gpd effluent from a sweet-goods bakery.  Acid emul-
  sion breaking was to be used as a pretreatment step to destabilize the
  fats and oils in the waste, and activated sludge was to be used as the
  secondary treatment process.  A multimedia filtration system was then to
  be used to render the effluent suitable for subsurface leeching.


  NOTE:  THIS PROJECT WAS DISCONTINUED.
             ADDRESS INQUIRIES TO EPA  PROJECT OFFICER

                              111-56

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 IN FORM A TION  SHEET

        ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY
RESEARCH.  DEVELOPMENT OR DEMONSTRATION PROJECT
  This shed briefly describes an R. & I) project Section 104 or 10.1 ol the
  Federal Water Pollution Control Act Amendment!, of 1072 (PI, ()1>-500)


PROJECT NUMBER:  FLL


TITLE OF PROJECT:  Activated Sludge - Bio Disc Treatment of Distillery
                   Wastes
GRANTEE OR CONTRACTOR:                 EPA PROJECT OFFICER:

  American Distilling Co.                    Mr. Dennis W.  Taylor
  South Front Street                        PNERL, EPA
  Pekin, Illinois 61554                      200 Southwest  35th Street
                                          Corvallis, Oregon 97330
Project Site:  Pekin, niinois


DESCRIPTION OF PROJECT

Award  Date:  june 1970


Completion Date:  April 1973


Summary:

  Plant scale  evaluation of activated sludge and Bio-Disc treatment of dis-
  tillery wastewater has been conducted over a period of more than one year
  at Pekin,  Illinois.  The activated sludge process consistently provided
  in excess  of 90% removal of BOD^, even at loadings greater  than the treat-
  ment plant design levels.  The Bio-Disc process had to be down-rated from
  the original design basis in order to approach a comparable removal
  efficiency.  Of the two systems evaluated, the activated sludge process
  was the more desirable from standpoints of economics,  treatment perfor-
  mance, and ability to handle shock loads.
Project  Cost:  $1,073,000

Federal  Cost:    $384,588
             ADDRESS INQUIRIES TO EPA PROJECT OFFICER

                               111-57

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INFORMATION  SHEET

       ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY
RESEARCH,  DEVELOPMENT OR DEMONSTRATION PROJECT

  Tim slirrt l>rie.n> ,lrM-ril.f> an R & D project Section 104 or 105 of the
  Federal Water Pollution Control Acl Amendments of U)72 (PI. 92-500)

PROJECT NUMBER:    FMF

TITLE OF PROJECT'.   Evaluation of the  Rotating Biological Surface
                  System on Meat Packing Wastes
GRANTEE OR CONTRACTOR:
  Iowa Beef Packers, Inc.
  Dakota City, Nebraska 68731
 Project Site '.   Dakota City, Nebraska

 DESCRIPTION OF PROJECT

 Award  Date: june 1970

 Completion Date:  May 1972

 Summary:
EPA PROJECT OFFICER:

 Mr. William Garner
 Region VII, EPA
 911 Walnut Street
 Kansas City, Missouri 64106
    Project Cost: $559,230

    Federal Cost: $195,751
  This project was to consist of building and evaluating a 3-mgd anaerobic-
  aerobic system where the aerobic treatment was to be achieved by the use
  of ti^SS^f «I°tatln8 biol°8ical ™f*** "its with a total surface area
  NOTE: THIS PROJECT WAS DISCONTINUED.
             ADDRESS INQUIRIES TO EPA PROJECT OFFICER

                             111-58

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 INFORMATION^  SHEET
         ENVIRONMENTAL  PROTECTION AGENCY
RESEARCH. DEVELOPMENT OR  DEMONSTRATION PROJECT
  This sheet briefly describes an R & D project Section 104 or lOo of tin-
  Federal Water Pollution Control Act Amendments of 1972 (PL 92-500)

PROJECT NUMBER:   FQE


TITLE OF PROJECT:   Dry Caustic Peeling of Tree Fruit to Reduce Liquid
                    Waste Volume and Strength
                                               Project  Cost: $19,539

                                               Federal  Cost: $17,533
GRANTEE OR CONTRACTOR:                  EPA  PROJECT OFFICER:
 National Canners Association                Mr. Kenneth Dostal
 1950 Sixth Street                          PNERL, EPA
 Berkeley,  California 94710                  200 Southwest  35th Street
                                           Corvallis, Oregon 97330

Project Site:  Berkeley, California


DESCRIPTION  OF PROJECT

Award  Date:  March 1970


Completion Date:   December 1970


Summary:

 The peeling of apricots, peaches, and pears  was studied with a peel removal
 unit consisting of a series of spindles holding rotating rubber disks.
 The peel was removed by a wiping action of the flexible rubber disks on
 fruit wetted with hot sodium hydroxide solutions.  The quality of fruit
 peeled with the experimental unit was comparable to fruit peeled by conven-
 tional chemical peeling; peeling losses were about the same for the experi-
 mental unit and the commercial units.  The most striking difference between
 the experimental unit and the commercial units was in fresh water require-
 ments and wastewater volume and strength. The peeling of cling peach
 halves required one-fifteenth of the fresh rinse water volume of a conven-
 tional commercial peeler.  The wastewater generated by the experimental
 peeling of peaches had about one-third of the chemical oxygen demand and
 suspended  solid content of the wastewater from the commercial peeler.   The
 experimental peel removal unit accomplishes  a diversion of potentially
 water polluting organic material from the wastewater to a peel sludge.  The
 peel sludge has properties which allow it to be handled readily and dis-
 posed of as solid residual.
             ADDRESS INQUIRIES TO EPA PROJECT OFFICER

                                111-59

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INFORMATION  SHEET
  Th» rf*,t briefly describes an R A D project Section  104 or I W «fl[--
  F,d,ral Water Pollution Control Acl Amendments of 1972 (PL 92-oQO)

PROJECT NUMBER:    FRW

TITLE  OF PROJECT:  Water and Waste Management in Sweet Potato Processing
 GRANTEE OR CONTRACTOR:
   Tabor City Foods,  Inc.
   P.  0. Box 398
   Tabor City, North  Carolina 28463
         Site :  Tabor City, North Carolina
EPA PROJECT OFFICER:

 Mr. Harold  Thompson
 PNEKL, EPA
 200 Southwest 35th Street
 Corvallis,  Oregon 97330
 DESCRIPTION OF PROJECT
 Award Date: April 1971

 Completion Date:   January 1973

 Summary:
     Project Cost: $305,886

     Federal  Cost:$133.833
   The purpose of this project was to make changes in plant  equipment and
   operations for demonstrating effective in-plant control of both water
   use and waste discharge  and to demonstrate effective pretreatment of
   wastes from sweet potato processing.  The project encompasses waste
   abatement and water use  throughout the plant from water intake through
   pretreatment.  -The specific objectives were:
   1.  Installation and/or  modification of a dry caustic peeling process
       and demonstrate its  operation for water and waste reduction.
   2.  Installation and demonstration pretreatment and conditioning of
       wastewaters in the reduction of waste loads.
   3.  Determination of the economic implications of the water  and waste
       reduction techniques demonstrated.
   4.  Formulation of guides  for the management of water and waterborne
       wastes  and the pretreatment of  liquid wastes.


   NOTE:  THIS PROJECT WAS DISCONTINUED.
               ADDRESS INQUIRIES TO EPA PROJECT OFFICER
                                 111-60

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 INFORMATION  SHEET

        ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY
RESEARCH. DEVELOPMENT OR DEMONSTRATION  PROJECT
  This sheet briefly describes an R & I) project Section 104 or 105 of the

  Federal Water Pollution Control Act Amendments of 1972 (PI, 92-500)
PROJECT NUMBER:
FTC
TITLE  OF  PROJECT:  State-of-the-Art Study for Pollution  Control
                  in the Beverage Industry
GRANTEE OR CONTRACTOR:
  Resource Engineering Associates
  Division of Environmental Research
  and Applications, Inc.
  24 Daribury Road
  WiJ.ton, Connecticut 06897
Project Site :  Wilton, Connecticut

DESCRIPTION OF PROJECT

Award Date:   September 1970


Completion  Date:  September 1971


Summary:
                      EPA PROJECT OFFICER:

                      Mr. Harold G. Keeler
                      EPA, Industrial Pollution
                       Control Division (RD-679)
                      Washington, D. C. 20460
                          Project Cost:  $53,664

                          Federal Cost:  $53,664
 The objective of this study was to be the development of a state-of-the-
 art document on water pollution abatement technology and research for the
 beverage industry.
 NOTE:  THIS  PROJECT WAS DISCONTINUED.
            ADDRESS INQUIRIES TO EPA PROJECT OFFICER

                             111-61

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INFORMATION^ SHEET

        ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY
RESEARCH, DEVELOPMENT OR DEMONSTRATION PROJECT

  Th.sh,,, l,n,.h .l-"lH>anRKD^
  K,.,lrral *al.-r Pollution Control Ad Amendment* ol I9,:> (PI. 92-

PROJECT NUMBER:   FUR
TITLE OF PROJECT.  Membrane Separation of Soybean Whey for Product
     ~       ~~  Recovery and Waste Treatment
 GRANTEE OR CONTRACTOR:
  Central Soya Company, Inc.
  1825 North Laramie Avenue
  Chicago, Illinois 60639

 PrOJeCt Site :  Chicago, Illinois

 DESCRIPTION OF PROJECT

 Award Date.' September 1970

 Completion Date:  juiy 1972

 Summary:
EPA PROJECT OFFICER:

Mr.  Clifford Risley
Region V, EPA
1 North Wacker Drive
Chicago, Illinois 60606
    Project Cost: $143.750

    Federal Cost: $35,825
   During this 16-month project, the applicant will design, 'construct, and
   operate a pilot-scale membrane separation process for the treatment and
   product recovery from a soybean whey waste discharge.  The pilot-scale
   facility will process 700 gallons per day of soybean whey and the opera-
   tional data from the project will be used to establish the design scale-
   up factors and economic feasibility of a commercial size facility.  The
   treatment and recovery system will consist of a two-stage membrane separa-
   tion unit followed by an evaporation process.  The system will be designed
   ™and:le a soybean "tey discharge which in its diluted condition has a
    I ,
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 INFORMATION^ SHEET
        ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY
RESEARCH.  DEVELOPMENT OR DEMONSTRATION PROJECT
  This slieel briefly describes an R & D project Section 104 or 10.' of llie
  Federal Water Pollution Control Acl Amendments of 1972 (PI, 92-500)

PROJECT NUMBER:  GPP

TITLE OF PROJECT!     Small Meatpacker Waste Treatment Systems
GRANTEE OR CONTRACTOR:
  W. E. Reeves Packinghouse
  P. 0. Box 477
  Ada, Oklahoma 74820
        Site:   Ada, Oklahoma
                         EPA PROJECT  OFFICER:
                          Mr.  Jack L. Witherow
                          RSKEEL, EPA
                          P. 0. Box 1198
                          Ada, Oklahoma  74820
DESCRIPTION OF PROJECT
Award Date:
November 1970
Completion Date:   March 1975

Summary:
Project  Cost:  $51,185

Federal  Cost:  $35,829
  The objectives of this project are to evaluate various biological systems
  for the treatment of small meat packing house waste flows.  The specific
  objectives will include:  (1) Demonstration to small meatpackers of  the
  suitability of the anaerobic-aerobic lagoon system with high BOD removal,
  simplicity of operation, and minimum capital and maintenance costs;  (2)
  Evaluation of the need for sludge recirculation in anaerobic lagoon-and
  for aeration and sludge retention in the first-stage aerobic lagoon;  (3)
  Determination of the economic and technical advantages of an aerated-
  aerobic lagoon system versus the anaerobic-aerobic lagoon system; (4)
  Demonstration to the meatpacking industry of the capability of the spray-
  runoff soil treatment system to meet future requirements for nitrogen
  and phosphorus removal in addition to high BOD reduction using the raw
  wastewaters, the anaerobic lagoon effluent, and the aerobic lagoon
  effluent.  The project data and evaluations of the waste treatment systems
  will provide the basis for the development of a manual for small meat-
  packing house wastewater treatment.
             ADDRESS INQUIRIES TO EPA PROJECT OFMCIR
                                111-63

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INFORMATION  SHEET
  T,,, - ...... , !.riHl> *»*, a,, R *
  K,,|,T.,| \\al.-r Poll,.li..n <:..nlr»l Ad

PROJECT NUMBER:     HCW
                                              ,
                                          .- (PI- '- •
TITLE OF PROJECT:   Submerged Combustion Evaporation System for
--   Concentration of Brewery Spent Grain Liquors
 GRAHTEE OR CONTRACTOR:
Anheuser-Busch, Inc.
721 Pestalozzi Street
St. Louis, Missouri 63118

 Project Site:  Houston, Texas

 DESCRIPTION OF  PROJECT

 Award  Date:   September  1971

 Completion Date:  August  1972
                                         EPA  PROJECT OFFICER:

                                          Mr.  Robert Killer
                                          South Central Regional Office
                                          1402 Elm Street
                                          Dallas, Texas  75202
                                              Project Cost: $493,817

                                              Federal Cost:  $73,630
  Summary:

 One of the major waste streams in many breweries is the liquor resulting
 from the dewatering of spent grains prior to drying.  This liquor may account
 for a third  or more of the BOD^ and suspended solids generated by a typical
 brewery.  Several methods for treating this liquor or reclaiming the organic
 solids in it were investigated.  Initial studies indicated that reclamation
 was the more desirable approach.  A number of evaporators were evaluated
 to determine which design was most satisfactory for concentrating spent grain
 liquor.  A submerged combustion evaporator appeared to have several distinct
 advantages,  and pilot scale tests bore this out.  -  A full-scale unit was
 installed at the Houston Brewery of Anheuser-Busch, Inc., in 1970.  This
 evaporator was modified several times in an effort  to overcome failures of
 the burner downcomers brought about by high temperatures.  Before a final
 solution  to these problems  could be demonstrated, the project was terminated
 due to  changed  conditions regarding fuel supplies and prices. Increased
 costs  for oil  and gas,  coupled with the poor  thermal efficiency  of the sub-
 merged  combustion evaporator, indicated that  conventional methods of evapor-
 ation would be more economical.
               ADDRESS INQUIRIES TO EPA PROJECT OFFICER
                                 111-64

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 INFORMATION^  SHEET
         ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY
RESEARCH, DEVELOPMENT OR DEMONSTRATION PROJECT
  This sheet briefly describes an R & D project Section 104 or 10.") of the
  Federal Water Pollution Control Act Amendments of 1972 (PI. U-2-.iOO)

PROJECT NUMBER:  HFY


TITLE OF PROJECT:    Dry  Caustic Peeling of Clingstone Peaches on
                     a Commercial Scale
GRANTEE OR CONTRACTOR:
Del Monte Corporation
215 Fremont Street
San Francisco,  California 94119

PrOJeCt Site :   San Jose, California

DESCRIPTION OF PROJECT

Award Date:   April 1971

Completion  Date:  March 1973

Summary:
EPA PROJECT  OFFICER:

 Mr. Harold Thompson
 PNERL, EPA
 200 Southwest 35th Street
 Corvallis, Oregon 97330
    Project  Cost:  $71,293

    Federal  Cost:  $49,900
During the 9-month project period Del Monte Corporation will design,
construct, install, and operate a 15 ton per hour "dry caustic" unit  on a
clingstone peach line at Plant No. 3.  Evaluation of this unit will provide
a full-scale comparison with conventional peeling operations and substan-
tiate  earlier  results obtained under Project 12060 FQE.  Previous data
indicates water reduction from 530 to 35 gallons per ton of peaches processed
is possible, as well as reducing COD and suspended solids in the liquid waste
from 60 to 18 Ibs/ton and 10 to 3 Ibs/ton respectively.
             ADDRESS INQUIRIES TO EPA PROJECT OFFICER

                               111-65

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INFORMATION  SHEET

        ENVIRONMENTAL PROJECTION AGENCY
RESEARCH. DEVELOPMENT OR DEMONSTRATION PROJECT

  This shn-l l.rH-fh ,lm-rilH> an R & D project Section 104 or 10.1 «f llir
  Federal Water Pollution Control Act Amendments of 1<)72 (PI- «>2-.i()»)

PROJECT NUMBER.   HPC

TITLE  OF PROJECT:   Pilot-Plant Treatment of  Wine Stlllage
 GRANTEE OR  CONTRACTOR:
                       EPA PROJECT OFFICER:
 California Dept. of Agriculture
 Wine Advisory Board
 717 Market Street
 San Francisco, California 94103
 Project Site:  Davis, California (Build Unit)
 	   Fresno, California (Run Unit)

 DESCRIPTION OF PROJECT
                        Mr.  Robert Burm
                        PNERL, EPA
                        Corvallis, Oregon
 Award Date:
July 1971
Project  Cost:  $77,332

Federal  Cost:  $49,820
 Completion  Date:   August 1973                   	


 Summary:

 This project will investigate, on a small pilot-plant scale, the aerobic
 and anaerobic treatment of California brandy stillage.  In addition,  direct
 fermentation of the pomace stream will be investigated to look for the most
 utilitarian  method of removing this wastewater stream.  Various grape
 varieties and their resulting compositional wastewater differences will be
 investigated theoretically and experimentally.  -  This project phase has,
 as its ultimate goal, the development of design criteria and standard
 treatment costs for anaerobic and aerobic wastewater  treatment of brandy
 stillage.
              ADDRESS INQUIRIES TO EPA PROJECT OFFICER

                              111-66

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 INFORMATION^ SHEET

        ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY
RESEARCH.  DEVELOPMENT OR DEMONSTRATION PROJECT
  This shccl briefly describes an R & D project Section 104 or 105 of the
  Federal Water Pollution Control Acl Amendments of 1072 (PL 92-500)

PROJECT NUMBER:   HER


TITLE OF PROJECT)  Protein  Production  from Acid Whey Via Fermentation
                                              Project  Cost:$251,549

                                              Federal  Cost:  $95,490
GRANTEE OR CONTRACTOR:                  EPA PROJECT OFFICER:

Amber Laboratories Division                  Mr. Kenneth Dostal
Milbrew, Incorporated                        PNERL, EPA
Juneau, Wisconsin 53030                      Corvallis, Oregon


PrOJeCt Site :  Juneau, Wisconsin


DESCRIPTION OF PROJECT

Award Date:   September 1971


Completion  Date:  juiy 1972


Summary:

From the operation of a demonstration pilot plant over extended periods of
time, it has been shown that yeast may be grown on an acid whey or sweet
whey medium in a continuous, deep tank aerated fermentor. Variations in
fermentation conditions, strain selection, and medium composition produced
cell concentrations of several billion cells per ailliliter.  By a process
of evaporation and spray drying the whole fermented whey mass and the
utilization of the evaporator condensate to dilute incoming condensed whey,
a high grade, non-toxic, protein feed material may be produced without any
effluent streams.  Amino acid analyses and protein efficiency ratios are
presented for this feed material.  -  Economic estimates show that while a
large capital investment and low cost raw material are required for the
commercial feasibility of this fermentation process, it will be competitive
with other methods for the manufacture of single cell protein.  This whey
fermentation is one means of converting large quantities of a potential en-
vironmental pollutant into a useful and needed product.
              ADDRESS INQUIRIES TO EPA PROJECT OFFICER

                                111-67

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INFORMATIO      SHEET
  This she,, briefly describe. .„ R A D project Section 104 or p"»
  Federal Water Pollution Control Acl Amendments of 1972 (PL 92o
PROJECT NUMBER:

TITLE OF PROJECT:
                   PAY
                     Low Water Volume Enzyme Deactivation of
                     Vegetables Before Preservation
GRANTEE OR CONTRACTOR:
   National Canners Association
    Research Foundation
   1133 20th Street, N.W.
   Washington, D.  C. 20036
 PrOJeCt Site:    Berkeley, California

 DESCRIPTION  OF  PROJECT
     t
 Award  Date:     April 1971

 Completion Date:    March 1973

 Summary:
                                         EPA PROJECT  OFFICER:
                                            Mr.  Harold Thompson
                                            PNERL, EPA
                                            200  Southwest 35th Street
                                            Corvallis, Oregon 97330
                                              Project Cost:   $137,505

                                              Federal Cost:    $86,ios
   Four pilot-plant units were operated with asparagus, peas,  corn, beans,
   beets, pumpkin, and spinach to establish the potential for  new blanching
   systems with low wastewater generation.  The systems investigated were
   microwave, hot-gas, steam, arid hot-water.  Single runs of about one hour
   duration were made for each commodity with each blanching system.  Waste-
   water volume was measured and samples were analyzed for COD,  SS, and pH.
   The most striking result obtained was the small volume of steam condensate
   formed hot-gas blanching. Canned samples of vegetable material from each
   blancher were prepared for quality evaluation after storage.  Taste panels
   showed no significant flavor preference  for samples from any  individual
   blanching system. The system used had no significant effect  on the vitamin
   and mineral retention of blanched or canned samples.  The oxygen content of
    canned samples was lowest for hot-gas blanching compared to the other  three
   systems   Estimates  of the cost of blanching using  commercial-scale units
    gave  (dollars/ton blanched):  microwave, 18.47;  hot-gas, 3.39: steam,  2.21;
   and hot-water,  2.36.
               ADDRESS INQUIRIES TO EPA PROJECT OFFICER
                                 111-68

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 INFORMATION^  SHEET

        ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY
RESEARCH,  DEVELOPMENT OR DEMONSTRATION PROJECT
  This shed briefly describes an R & D project Section 104 or 10.1 of (lie
  Federal Water Pollution Control Act Amendments of \<)72 (PI. 92-500)


PROJECT NUMBER:   wp-oi486-oi


TITLE OF PROJECT:  Current Practice in Potato Processing Waste Treatment
                                         EPA PROJECT  OFFICER:

                                          Mr. James Boydston
                                          Pacific Northwest Env.
                                           Laboratory,  EPA
                                          200 Southwest 35th Street
                                          Corvallis, Oregon 97330
Res
GRANTEE OR  CONTRACTOR:
Department of Civil Engineering
University of Washington
Seattle, Washington 98105


Project Site :   Seattle, Washington


DESCRIPTION  OF PROJECT


Award  Date: June 1953


Completion  Date:   June 1970


Summary:
The continued rapid growth  of the potato processing industry represents
a corresponding increase in wastewater volume.  The final report to this
project discusses potato processing, waste treatment,  and current and
needed research in water quality control in this production field.  A
brief description is given  in the report of general characteristics of
the potato and the effects  and importance of cultural  and environmental
conditions on potato processing.  General descriptions of the production
processes have been included and the literature has been extensively
reviewed to present current and proposed waste treatment technology.  The
most urgent research needs  are discussed together with suggested methods
for meeting these needs.
                                             Project  Cost:  $19,331

                                             Federal  Cost:  $is,364
             ADDRESS  INQUIRIES TO EPA PROJECT OFFICER
                              111-69

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INFORMATION SHEET

        ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY
RESEARCH, DEVELOPMENT OR DEMONSTRATION PROJECT

  This sltrrl brirfh doriibo an R & I) project Section  104 or 10.1 uf lh<%
  Kcdt-ral \VahT Pollution Control Act  Amendments of 1()72 (PI. ()2-500)

PROJECT NUMBER:  WPD 93-04-68

TITLE OF PROJECT". Anaerobic-Aerobic Sugar Beet Waste Treatment
 GRANTEE OR CONTRACTOR:
  Beet Sugar Development Foundation
  156 South College Avenue
  P. 0. Box 538
  Fort Collins, Colorado 80521
 Project  Site :  Tracy, California

 DESCRIPTION OF PROJECT

 Award Date:  june 1968
EPA  PROJECT OFFICER:

Mr. Ralph Scott
Pacific Northwest  Environmental
 Research Laboratory, EPA
200 Southwest 35th Street
Corvallis, Oregon  97330
     Project  Cost:   $34,550 (4th yr)

     Federal  Cost:   $25,300 (4th yr>
 Completion Date:  July 1959


 Summary:
   Sugarbeet factory transport (flume) water wastes were treated in pilot-sized
   anaerobic, facultative and aerobic ponds to remove BOD.  Physical, chemi-
   cal, and mechanical data were collected on the performance  of each pond
   which showed cause for abandoning the facultative phase of  treating.  BOD
   removal in the anaerobic pond was a linear function of the  BOD loading
   and up to a loading of 2,000 pounds of BOD per acre per day, BQ% removal
   was accomplished with the  assistance of mechanical aeration.  The algae
   (aerobic), pond was mixed  by means of four 12,000 gpm propeller pumps.
   Some unseparated algae pond effluent was recycled to the anaerobic pond
   providing organic nitrogen, phosphorus and "seed" for the microbial trans-
   formations.  Additional nutrients were required for maximum performance.
   The system was effective in converting soluble BOD to insoluble BOD.  The
   report contains 42 figures and 11  tables which show potential commercial
   application of certain segments of the processes investigated.
              ADDRESS  INQUIRIES TO EPA PROJECT OFFICER
                                111-70

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 INFORMATION  SHEET
        ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY
RESEARCH.  DEVELOPMENT OR DEMONSTRATION PROJECT
  This shed briefly describes an R & D project Section 104 or 105 of the
  Federal Water Pollution Control Act Amendments of \<)7~2 (PL 02-500)

PROJECT NUMBER:  WPRD 133-01-68


TITLE OF PROJECT!   Activated Sludge Treatment of Chrome Tannery Wastes
GRANTEE OR CONTRACTOR:
A. C. Lawrence Leather Company
Division of Swift & Company
10-18 Sawyer Street
Peabody, Massachusetts
PrOJeCt Site :    South Paris, Maine

DESCRIPTION  OF PROJECT

Award  Date:  August 1957

Completion Date:   September 1971

Summary:
EPA PROJECT  OFFICER:

Mr. George Webster
Industrial Pollution Control
 Division (RD-679), EPA
Washington, D. C.  20460
    Project  Cost: $124,593

    Federal  Cost: $ 37,215
A waste treatment process was developed and tested, in pilot-plant scale,
for the treatment of the tannery wastes in combination with municipal
sewage.  The process consisted of the following steps in the order
employed; equalizing and mixing of the alkaline and acid wastes; primary
sedimentation; carbonation followed by upflow sedimentation: addition of
screened municipal sewage: activated sludge treatment and secondary sedi-
mentation of the mixed wastes:  and chlorination.  The sludges resulting
from the treatment of the wastes and sewage were dewatered by centrifuge
and were found to be suitable for burial.  Design factors for the various
steps of the process were developed and are presented in the attached
report.  Studies were made of the fundamental systems and reactions which
form the basis for the processes employed in the pilot plant.

The results of the pilot-plant  investigation indicate that by use of the
methods  recommended,  which are  basically conventional sewage treatment
unit processes, mixtures of chrome tannery wastes and municipal sewage can
be treated successfully.


             ADDRESS INQUIRIES TO EPA  PROJECT OFFICER
                               111-71

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INFORMATION  SHEET
       -r. 1-nHK .i^
  Knlrral \Val.-r Pollution Control Ac-l \mrndmcnfa o! !<),- (PI- J- •>»")

PROJECT NUMBER:   WPD 135-02-68

TITLE OF PROJECT:  Treatment of Sole Leather Vegetable Tannery Wastes
 GRANTEE OR CONTRACTOR:
  Dept. of Environmental Health Engineering
  University of Cincinnati
  Cincinnati, Ohio

 Project  Site:   Marlinton, West Virginia

 DESCRIPTION OF  PROJECT

 Award Date:  May 1968

 Completion Date:  September 1970
EPA PROJECT OFFICER:

Mr. George Webster
Industrial Pollution Control
 Division (RD-679),  EPA
Washington,  D. C. 20460
     Project Cost:  $70,325
              ~~~~  (2nd yr)
     Federal Cost:  $29,325
                   (2nd yr)
 Summary:
  Four major studies, two pilot-scale and two full-scale, were carried out
  during the period of this investigation.  The basic objective of the
  studies was to find a technically feasible and economical procedure for
  treating the wastes from a sole leather vegetable tannery.  A detailed
  identification of the sources of all wastes as well as a comprehensive
  characterization of each waste fraction was made for the International
  Shoe Company Tannery located at Marlinton, West Virginia.

  The lime bearing wastes from the beamhouse were screened, treated with
  polyelectrolytes, and then clarified.  The lime sludge was used for land-
  fill.  The system was designed to treat one million gallons of waste per
  week.  BOD was reduced 85-95% and the suspended cost of  the total system
  was approximately $40,000 and it is estimated that the operating cost will
  be about $15,000 per year or 7 cents per hide processed.
               ADDRESS INQUIRIES TO EPA PROJECT OFFICER
                                 111-72

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 INFORMATION  SHEET
         ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY
RESEARCH, DEVELOPMENT OR DEMONSTRATION PROJECT
  This sbeel briel'h describes an R & 1) project Section 104 or 10.") of the
  Federal Water Pollution Control Acl Amendments of 1972 (PI, 92-.i()()>

PROJECT  NUMBER:   WPRD 38-01-67


TITLE OF PROJECT:   Treatment of Citrus Processing Wastes
GRANTEE OR CONTRACTOR:
 Minute Maid Company
 Orlando, Florida
EPA PROJECT OFFICER:
 Dr. David Hill
 SERL, EPA
 College Station Road
 Athens, Georgia 30601
Project Site."  Leesburg, Florida and Auburndale, Florida
DESCRIPTION OF  PROJECT

Award  Date:   December 1966

Completion Date:  December 1969
    Project Cost: $550,000

    Federal Cost: $350,000
Summary:
 Plant-scale studies were performed in this project  to determine  opera-
 tional and treatment parameters for citrus processing wastewaters.  Part I
 of the final report discusses treatment  of concentrated citrus processing
 wastewaters combined with domestic sewage using a modified activated sludge
 process; namely, extended aeration.  Part II discusses treatment of weak
 processing wastewaters using a system which functioned as an aerated lagoon.
 - Extended aeration yielded 94 to 95 percent BOD removal; however, diffi-
 culties concerning positive control of the treatment process were encoun-
 tered.  Variations in mixed liquor suspended solids concentrations, sludge
 volume indices, sludge recirculation rates, and hydraulic loading were con-
 sidered principal causes adversely affecting the treatment process.  Excess
 sludge buildup amounted to approximately 0.5 pounds per pound of influent
 BOD and sludge wastage accounted for the greater portion of overall nutrient
 removal from the system.  The aerated lagoon process afforded 91t BOD
 removal from daily average hydraulic and organic loadings were controlled
 at 6.4 mgd and 6770 Ibs, respectively (detention time 7.9 days).
 Ecological studies indicated that BOD:N:P ratios of the order of 150:5:1
 were adequate for supporting the population of organisms required for effec-
 tive bio-oxidation.  Organic nutrient removal studies using hyacinths indi-
 cated a minimum of 5 days detention would be required to afford substantial

 nutrient reduction.

                               111-73

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INFORMATION  SHEET

        ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY
RESEARCH. DEVELOPMENT OR DEMONSTRATION PROJECT

  This ,he«-t briefly describes an R & D project Section 104 or I OS of lh«'
  Federal Water Pollution Control Acl Amendments of 1972 (PI. 
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 INFORMATION  SHEET
         ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY
RESEARCH, DEVELOPMENT OR DEMONSTRATION  PROJECT
  This sheet liriei'ly describe^ an R & I) project Section 104 or 10.") of the
  Federal Water Pollution Control Act Amendments of l<)72 (PL 92-500)

PROJECT NUMBER:  800250


TITLE OF PROJECT!   Continuous Hot Air Blanching of Vegetables
GRANTEE OR CONTRACTOR:
                                         EPA PROJECT OFFICER:
National Canners Association
Research Foundation
1133 20th Street N.W.
Washington,  D. C. 20036

        0116 .  Stockton, California and Salem, Oregon
                                          Mr.  Kenneth Dostal
                                          PNERL, EPA
                                          200  S. W. 35th Street
                                          Corvallis, Oregon 97330
                                              Project  Cost: $71,424

                                              Federal  Cost: $49,392
DESCRIPTION OF PROJECT


Award  Date:  June 1972


Completion Date:   September 1973


Summary:

The primary objective of this project is to demonstrate the  technical and
economic  feasibility of the hot air blanching process in the vegetable
preserving industry for substantially reducing a major source of pollution
and as  a  means of water conservation.  Conventional hot water blanching
is employed to inactivate enzymes prior to canning but generates large
volumes of wastewater with high BOD and solids content.  The hot air
blanching process which does not use water, inactivates enzymes by heat
treatment with combusted gas in a plenum chamber producing only small
volumes of steam condensate.  -  Pilot scale hot air blanching equipment
will be modified to provide continuous operation at two processing facili-
ties on five major volume commodities.(spinach,  green peas,  corn, green
beans,  and beets).   Optimum operating conditions and costs will be deter-
mined from consecutive 8-hour runs.  Product quality evaluations will be
conducted and compared with conventional blanched products.  In addition
the volume of condensate will be measured and wastewater characteristics
(COD, pH, SS) determined.
             ADDRESS INQUIRIES TO EPA PROJECT OFFICER
                               111-75

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INFORMATION  SHEET
      h,,-. bri.TI> dc7,riU, an R 4 U project Section .04,, JOS of Ih
  K,,l,ral Wa.,r Pollution Control Ad Amrndmcnb ol 19.2 (PI- W-
PROJECT NUMBER:   800746 (HVQ)
TITLE OF PROJECT'   Utilization of Paunch Manure,  as a By-Product Feed
'      - '   for Channel Catfish, and Its Effects on Water Quality
GRANTEE OR CONTRACTOR:

Oklahoma State University
Stillwater, Oklahoma 74074
                                         EPA PROJECT  OFFICER:

                                         Mr. John Witherow
                                         SERL, EPA
                                         Ada, Oklahoma
                                              Project Cost: $30,497

                                              Federal Cost: $26,600
Project Site :  Stillwater,  Oklahoma


DESCRIPTION  OF PROJECT

Award  Date:  October 1971


Completion Date:   June 1973


Summary:

Part A  of this report examines the  feasibility of using dried paunch at
10, 20, and 30%  levels  in feed for  pond-rearing yearling channel catfish
to market-size,  and at  a 10% level  for cage-culture of yearling catfish.
Part B  describes the effects of fish ponds.  In all, one physical, one
bacteriological, and fifteen chemical parameters were measured.  -  Regard-
less of feed type, pond-reared fish grew faster than the cage-reared fish.
There was no significant difference in final weights attained by fish given
standard, and 10 and 20% paunch feeds but fish given 30% paunch were signi-
ficantly smaller.  Feed costs per kg of catfish produced using the standard
commercial sinking feed and sinking feed containing 10% paunch were essen-
tially  equal, but feed costs for making sinking feed with 10 and 20% paunch
were  greater than the standard.  The costs of making a floating feed con-
taining 10% paunch for raceway or cage culture of channel catfish were
uneconomical.  Neither the  pond culture nor the cage culture caused deter-
ioration in water quality in any of the ponds  to any appreciable degree in
one growing season of 24 weeks, and there was no significant difference in
water quality in general between the ponds in which commercial  feeds were
used and those in which paunch-containing feeds were used—this was true in
both pond  and cage cultures.
              ADDRESS INQUIRIES TO EPA PROJECT OFFICER

                                111-76

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 INFORMATION  SHEET
        ENVIRONMENTAL PROJECTION AGENCY
RESEARCH,  DEVELOPMENT OR DEMONSTRATION PROJECT
  This sheet briefly describes an R & D project Section 104 or 105 of the
  Federal Water Pollution Control Ac I Amendments of 1
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INFORMATION  SHEET

        ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY
RESEARCH, DEVELOPMENT OR DEMONSTRATION PROJECT

  Thi> slu'd briel'K docribo an R &  U project Section 104 or l()."i of ihe
  Federal \\ater Pollution Control At I \im-ndment.-. ol' 1072 (PI. 92-500)

PROJECT NUMBER:   800904

TITLE OF PROJECT'.  Shrimp Canning Waste  Treatment Study
                                             Project Cost: $51,943

                                             Federal Cost: $43,714
GRANTEE OR CONTRACTOR:                 EPA PROJECT OFFICER
American Shrimp Canners Assoc.               Mr. Robert  L. Hiller
P. 0. Box 50774                            Region XI,  EPA
New Orleans, Louisiana 70150                Dallas, Texas


PrOJBCt Site :  Westwego, Louisiana


DESCRIPTION OF  PROJECT

Award  Date:   May 1972


Completion Date:  November 1973


 Summary:
Wastewater surveys were performed at several Gulf shrimp canneries over a
period of three canning seasons.  Water used for each process  within the
plant was metered and the wastewater was tested for biological,  chemical,
 and physical characteristics.  Pilot screening tests were made over two
 canning seasons.   Tangential, rotary  , and vibrating screens were evaluated.
 A 272 cu m/day (50 gpm) dissolved air flotation pilot plant with chemical
 addition and pH control was tested at the study plant over two canning
 seasons.  A pilot basket centrifuge was evaluated for sludge dewatering.
 The study demonstrated that:  (1) The waste poundage discharged per pound
 of raw shrimp processed is similar in most Gulf shrimp  canning plants;  (2)
 Screening removal of heads and  shells can be performed  efficiently and  with
 few operational problems: and (3) Air flotation showed  promise as a waste-
 ^0^^ metlUt  *"* Performi^ Properly, treaLent efficiencies
 till fan h.h°WeVer> the «P«at*m «» sensitive and treatment efficiencies
 that can be expected on a plant scale remain to be demonstrated.
               ADDRESS INQUIRIES TO EPA PROJECT OFFICER

                                111-78

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 INFORMATION  SHEET
         ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY
RESEARCH. DEVELOPMENT OR DEMONSTRATION PROJECT
  This shed hriH'K describes an R & D project Section  104 or 105 of the
  Federal Water Pollution Control Acl Amendments of \V72 (PL ul>-5()0)

PROJECT NUMBER:  800930


TITLE OF PROJECT'.    Recycling of Water in Poultry Processing Plants
GRANTEE OR CONTRACTOR:
Pacific Egg and Poultry Assoc.
5420 Jefferson Boulevard
Los Angeles, California  90016
EPA PROJECT OFFICER:
Mr. Vern Tenney
Region IX,  EPA
San Francisco, California
Project Site : Livingston and Menlo Park, California

DESCRIPTION OF PROJECT
Award  Date:  June 1972

Completion Date:   june 1973

Summary:
    Project Cost: $150,550

    Federal Cost:  $99,206
The primary'objective  of this project is to conduct pilot scale studies
to recycle chiller wastewater at  a rate of 500  gallons per minute follow-
ing filtration and sterilization  steps.  The recycling system consists of
a travelling screen to remove coarse solids, a  cyclonic desludger for
solids removal of particle sizes  100 Mu or larger, and an ultraviolet
unit for sterilization.  The latters irradiation will impart a minimum
dosage of 30,000 micro watts/sq cm to the chiller water stream, well
above the minimum to eliminate a  major portion  of viable pathogens and
viruses. An analysis  of BOD, total solids, oil and grease, iron, chlorides,
total plate count, coliform count, salmonella incidence, poultry virus
incidence, temperature, and adsorption at 253.7 nm, will be conducted at
appropriate time intervals and locations in the continuous chiller system.
The principal site of  the study will be at Foster Farms Inc., located in
Livingston, California.  This plant processes 180,000 birds per day in a
two-shift, 15 hours, operation.
             ADDRESS INQUIRIES TO EPA PROJECT OFFICER

                               111-79

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INFORMATION  SHEET

        ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY
RESEARCH, DEVELOPMENT OR DEMONSTRATION PROJECT

  This ?heel briefly describe an R & D project Section 104 or 105 of the
  Federal \\ater Pollution Control Acl Amendments of 1()72 (PI. <)2-500)

PROJECT NUMBER:   800935

TITLE OF PROJECT:  Rum Distillery Waste  Treatment by Anaerobic Digestion
 6RANTEE OR CONTRACTOR:
 Bacardi Corporation
 GPO Box 3549
 San Juan, Puerto Rico 00936
        Site :  San Juan, Puerto Rico
EPA PROJECT  OFFICER:
 Mr. George Keeler
 Industrial Pollution Control
  Division (RD-679), EPA
 Washington, D. C. 20460
 DESCRIPTION OF PROJECT
 Award Date:  April 1972

 Completion Date:  May 1974

 Summary:
    Project Cost: $128,725

    Federal Cost:  $39,758
  An investigation was made of the feasibility of rum distillery slops
  treatment by the anaerobic contact process.  Both bench and pilot-scale
  experimental studies were conducted to permit determination of the Monod
  kinetic constants  for the anaerobic treatment of neutralized, phosphorus-
  amended rum slops.  The settling characteristics of mixed liquor suspended
  solids from the anaerobic contact unit were determined using a moderately
  cationic high molecular weight polymer  as a coagulant aid.  The experimen-
  tal results  developed with the bench and pilot units, were used to define
  a process flow sheet, detailed design criteria, and an economic analysis
  analvS'f^ f *Pplic?tio»8 °f rum dlstillery slops treatment, at design
  analysis for full-scale applications of  rum distillery slops treatment^
  ct              1         *~ ™ ™ ^ ~ ^day) to 1,140
              ADDRESS INQUIRIES TO EPA PROJECT OFFICER

                                111-80

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 INFORMATION  SHEET
         ENVIRONMENTAL  PROTECTION AGENCY
RESEARCH. DEVELOPMENT OR DEMONSTRATION PROJECT
  This sheel briefly describes an R Si D project Section  104 or 103 of the
  Federal Water Pollution Control Acl Amendments of 1972 (PL 92-500)
PROJECT NUMBER:
801007
TITLE OF PROJECT!   Seafoods Processing Waste Water Characterization
GRANTEE OR CONTRACTOR:
  Oregon State  University
  Dept. of Food Science and
  Technology
  Corvallis,  Oregon 97331

        Slt6 I
                        EPA PROJECT OFFICER:

                        Mr. Kenneth Dostal
                        Pacific Northwest Environmental
                         Research Lab, EPA
                        Corvallis, Oregon 97330
                Corvallis, Oregon
DESCRIPTION OF  PROJECT
Award Date:
               September, 1971
Completion Date:
Jvne,  1973
                            Project Cost:

                            Federal Cost:
                                         $81,343
                                                             $54,817
Summary:
 The Oregon  State University Seafoods Laboratory proposes to employ a mobile
 wastewater  analytical laboratory on its premises in Astoria, Oregon, to
 monitor the wastes produced by six different seafoods processing plants.
 The study will include categorization of tuna, bottom fish, crab, clams,
 shrimp, salmon, and by-products.  -  Using methods proven in previous
 laboratory  work and utilizing equipment already on hand, they will (with
 flow-proportioned composite samples whenever possible) monitor on site:
 1) flow, 2) temperature, 3) dissolved oxygen, and 4) pH.  After passage
 through a 20 mesh screen, the composite samples would be analyzed in the
 mobile facility for the following constituents: 5) total solids,  6) dis-
 solved solids, 7) volatile solids, 8) settleable solids, 9) suspended
 solids, 10) chemical oxygen demand, 11) 5-day biochemical oxygen demand
 (at intervals), 12) ultimate biochemical oxygen demand (at intervals), and
 13) oil and grease.  In addition,  a portion of each composite sample would
 be preserved and shipped to the O.S.U. Department of Food Science Waste
 Management  Laboratory in Corvallis, Oregon, for complete nitrogen and
 phosphorus  analysis.   - Solid waste magnitudes will also be monitored.
 All results will be expressed in terms of production volume (e.g. Ibs
 BOD5/ton raw product).
              ADDRESS INQUIRIES TO EPA  PROJECT OFFICER
                                 III-8 I

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INFORMATION^ SHEET

        ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY
RESEARCH, DEVELOPMENT OR DEMONSTRATION PROJECT

  This >hee, briefly describe, an R & D project Section 104 orJ05 «f the
  Frdrral Wal,-r Pollution Control Act Amendments of 1072 (PI, 92-,00)

PROJECT NUMBER:   801037
TITLE OF PROJECT:  Leather Tannery Waste Management Through Process
	~~    Change, Reuse and Pretreatment
                                        EPA  PROJECT OFFICER:

                                        Mr. William Banks
                                        Region VII, EPA
                                        1735 Baltimore, Room 249
                                        Kansas City, Missouri 64106
                                             Project  Cost: $275,905

                                             Federal  Cost:  $99,342
GRANTEE OR CONTRACTOR:

Pfister & Vogel Tanning Co., Inc.
1531 No. Water Street
P.  0. Box 745
Milwaukee, Wisconsin 53201

Project Site :  Milwaukee, Wisconsin


DESCRIPTION  OF PROJECT


Award  Date: March 1972


Completion Date:   March  1974


 Summary:

This project will demonstrate that it is technically and economically
feasible to achieve major reductions in the pollution load discharge from
a  large side leather tannery through process changes, reuse, and recovery
techniques and pretreatment methods.  Conventional batch type tanning
operations will be replaced by newly developed hide processing machines
in which the hide is not removed from the unit until the tanning step has
been completed. This process change will permit a waste volume reduction
of approximately 50%.  Additional major waste reductions will result from
the recovery of processing chemicals and the reuse and pretreatment of
 individual waste streams.  Recovery of soluble proteins extracted from the
hides will be investigated.  Adequate sampling will be performed to achieve
 parameter weight balances throughout multiple process cycles to character-
 ize the tannery effluent.
              ADDRESS INQUIRIES TO  EPA PROJECT OFFICER

                               111-82

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INFORMATION^ SHEET
       ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY
RESEARCH,  DEVELOPMENT OR DEMONSTRATION  PROJECT
  This shed briefly describes an R & D project Section 104 or 105 of the
  Federal Water Pollution Control Acl Amendments of 1972 (PL 92-500)

PROJECT NUMBER:   8oi432


TITLE OF PROJECT!   Treat Wastewater from Citrus Processing Industry
GRANTEE OR CONTRACTOR:
 Winter Garden Citrus Products Co-Op
 Gainesville, Florida
Project Site :   Gainesville,  Florida

DESCRIPTION  OF PROJECT

Award Date: February 1973

Completion Date: August 1974

Summary:
EPA PROJECT OFFICER:

 Mr. H. W. Thompson
 PNERL, EPA,
 Corvallis, Oregon
    Project  Cost:  $49,500

    Federal  Cost:  $45,500
 Waste activated sludge will be gravity thickened, concentrated in a cen-
 trifuge, dried in a kiln and tested as an animal feed supplement in a
 series of chicken feeding tests.
            ADDRESS INQUIRIES TO EPA PROJECT OFFICER

                            111-83

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INFORMATION  SHEET

        ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY
RESEARCH. DEVELOPMENT OR DEMONSTRATION PROJECT

  This sheet brief!) describes a.i R & D project Section 104 or 105 of the
  Federal \\alrr Pollution C«»ntrol Act Amendment, of 1072 (PI. 02-500)

PROJECT NUMBER:  801484
TITLE OF PROJECT:   Evaluation of a New Blanching Process  (IQB) for
- - -•-              Waste Water Abatement in Canning Vegetables
 GRANTEE OR CONTRACTOR:
 University of Wisconsin
 Department of Food  Science
 Madison, Wisconsin  53706

 Project Site:  Madison, Wisconsin

 DESCRIPTION OF PROJECT

 Award Date:  September 1972

 Completion Date:   December 1973

 Summary:
EPA PROJECT  OFFICER:
 Mr. Harold W. Thompson
 PNERL, EPA
 Corvallis, Oregon
    Project Cost: $16,324

    Federal Cost: $15,324
 A study on the  efficacy of a new blanching system, Individual Quick
 Blanch (IQB), as applied to vegetables prior to canning was conducted.
 Peas, corn, lima beans, green beans, potatoes, carrots, and beets were
 adequately blanched by IQB.  Compared to deep bed steam blanching or
 pipe blanching, IQB generally resulted in a significant reduction in
 effluent.  Slight drying of the vegetables before IQB reduced effluent
 even more; however, product quality was adversely affected in most cases.
 It was demonstrated that the IQB process can significantly reduce effluent
 volume and BOD  generation in the blanching operation while adequately ful-
 filling the objectives of blanching. Recommendations for commercial
 development of  IQB are given.
              ADDRESS INQUIRIES TO EPA PROJECT OFFICER

                               111-84

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 INFORMATION  SHEET
         ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY
RESEARCH, DEVELOPMENT OR DEMONSTRATION PROJECT
  This shed briefly describes an R & U project Section 104 or !()."> of th
  Kederal Water Pollution Control Act Amendments of 197:2 (PL W-
PROJECT NUMBER:
                   801684
TITLE OF PROJECT:  Effluent Guidelines  for Specialty Food Industry
GRANTEE OR CONTRACTOR:
 American Frozen Foods Industry
 Washington, D. C.  20006
                                         EPA PROJECT OFFICER:

                                         Mr. Harold W. Thompson
                                         PNERL, EPA
                                         Corvallis, Oregon
                                              Project  Cost:  $4ij391

                                              Federal  Cost:  $28,391
Project Site :  Washington, D. C.


DESCRIPTION  OF PROJECT


Award  Date:   March 1973


Completion Date:   February 1974


Summary:
AFFI with the full cooperation of its member firms and the National Canners
Association wishes to perform a study to accomplish the following objectives:
a) Inventory and categorize the Specialty Foods Industry: b)  Investigate
typical raw waste loads  generated per unit of production by major categories
of the Specialty Foods Industry; c) Evaluate effectiveness and  cost by avail-
able liquid waste control technology, both in-house prevention  and waste
treatment techniques, available to reduce waste loads generated by the
Specialty Foods Industry.  To accomplish these objectives, a  summary of the
plan of operation follows: a) From existing data develop an inventory of
plants; b) Categorize plants by preparation of ingredients, type of major
ingredient, and pack size; all as related to waste generation;  c) Make pre-
liminary plant contacts  and select 25 diverse plants for field  investigation;
d) Make field investigations of 25 plants located in the East,  Middle West,
and West.  Investigation is to include sampling and analysis  of effluents
(approximately 300 samples) plus information required to relate waste gen-
eration to production volume and techniques,  e) Waste treatment methods
and costs will be evaluated for applicability to the wastes identified
from this  industry;  and  f) A report suitable for use by the industry and EPA
will be prepared.
             ADDRESS  INQUIRIES  TO EPA PROJECT OFFICER

                               111-85

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INFORMATION  SHEET
  TO, ^ l>riefly toerita. « R * D project Section ,04 _,,r IOWU*
  Federal Waler Pollution Control Acl Amendment, of 1972 (PI. 92-aOU)

PROJECT NUMBER:    301970   PROJECT OFFICER:

   Maryland State Department of Health         Mr. Kon Barrow
   301 W. Preston Street                     SEKL, EPA
   Baltimore, Maryland 21201                 College Station Road
                                          Athens, Georgia

 PrOJBCt  Sit6 :   Sterling Processing Co., Oakland, Maryland


 DESCRIPTION OF PROJECT

 Award Date: January 1971                      Project Cost: $211,274


 Completion Date:    Juiy 1973                 Federal Cost: $135,879


 Summary:

   The feasibility of reclaiming poultry processing wastewater for reuse
   where potable water is presently  required was studied at the Sterling
   Processing Corporation plant in Oakland,  Maryland, by the Maryland State
   Department of Health and Mental Hygiene.  In addition,  extensive  study was
   made of poultry processing raw waste characteristics and proportions of
   wastes generated  during processing and plant cleanup.   Effluent charac-
   teristics from a  two-stage aerated lagoon are reported.  -  The reclaim-
   ing process consisted of a two-stage aerated lagoon wastewater treatment
   system followed by an advanced water treatment system of micros training,
   flocculation, sedimentation, and  sand filtration.  -  The bacteriological,
   chemical, and physical drinking water standards of the  U. S. Public Health
   Service were consistently met.  Samples were composited at random -and
   examined for human enteric virus  organisms.  All were found to be nega-
   tive.  - The micros training, flocculation, sedimentation, and sand fil-
   tration system had an annual capital and operating cost of $0.71/1000  liters
    ($0.27/1000 gallons).
               ADDRESS INQUIRIES TO EPA PROJECT OFFICER
                                 ni-86

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 INFORMATION  SHEET

        ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY
RESEARCH.  DEVELOPMENT OR DEMONSTRATION PROJECT
  This shed briefly describes an R & D project Section 104 or 105 of llic

  Keileral Water Pollution Control Act Amendments of l()72 (PI, 92-500)
PROJECT NUMBER:
802174
TITLE OF PROJECT!  Egg Breaking and Processing Wastes
GRANTEE  OR  CONTRACTOR:                 EPA PROJECT OFFICER:

 Cornell University                       Mr. J. L.  Witherow
 N.Y. State College of Agriculture          PNERL, EPA
  and Life Sciences                       Corvallis, Oregon
 Ithaca, New  York 14850

Project Site :  Ithaca, New York


DESCRIPTION OF  PROJECT


Award  Date:  February 1973


Completion Date:  june 1974


Summary:

 This project intends to determine the magnitude of the  shell egg and egg
 breaking and processing waste problem on a national and regional basis
 and to indicate waste management methods that are applicable to these
 wastes.  The objectives of the project are: 1)  Define the size of the
 industries and future growth trends; 2) Characterize typical wastes:
 3) Identify  opportunities for in-plant waste reduction  and water reuse;
 and 4) Through treatability studies develop feasible treatment alterna-
 tives for separate waste treatment as well as joint municipal treatment.
                          Project  Cost: $66,732

                          Federal  Cost:$43,990
             ADDRESS INQUIRIES TO EPA PROJECT OFFICER
                              111-87

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INFORMATION  SHEET

        ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY
RESEARCH, DEVELOPMENT OR DEMONSTRATION PROJECT

  Thi>  an R .S. D project Section 104 or 105 of llie
  Federal \\alrr Pollution Control Ael Amendments of 1()72 (PI. «>2-5()0)

PROJECT  NUMBER.  802253

TITLE  OF  PROJECT:   Protein Recovery from Meat Packing Effluent
GRANTEE OR  CONTRACTOR:                 EPA PROJECT OFFICER:
Armour and Co.                            Mr. J. L.  Witherow
Armour Food Co., Fresh Meats Division        PNERL, EPA
Phoenix, Arizona 85077                     Corvallis, Oregon


 Project Site:   Nampa, Idaho


 DESCRIPTION OF  PROJECT

 Award  Date:  March 1973


 Completion  Date:  November 1975


 Summary:

 This project  will demonstrate both the technical and economic feasibility
 of operating a plant scale process (thereafter called the LSA Process)  to
 precipitate and recover proteinaceous nitrogen from meat packing plant
 wastewater in a manner that.results in significant  pollution reduction  and
 in recovery of a salable by-product that presents no ultimate disposal
 problems.  Dissolved-air flotation will be used in  conjunction with addi-
 tion of lignosulfonic  acid to recover the proteinaceous matter.
Project  Cost:  $444,898

Fi_deral_Co$|:  $140,000
             ADDRESS  INQUIRIES TO EPA PROJECT OFFICER

                              111-88

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 INFORMATION  SHEET

        ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY
RESEARCH, DEVELOPMENT OR  DEMONSTRATION PROJECT
  This sheet l»riei'l> dcboribo an R & D project Section 104 or 10.") of the
  Federal Water Pollution Control Acl Amendments of 1972 (PI, U2-3


PROJECT NUMBER:   802420


TITLE  OF PROJECT!  Ecostatic Cane Processing System
GRANTEE OR  CONTRACTOR:                EPA  PROJECT OFFICER:

C. Brewer and Co., Lmt.                   Mr. Harold W. Thompson
Hilo Coast Processing Co.                 NERC, EPA
Pepeekeo, Hawaii 96783                   Corvallis, Oregon


Project Site :   Pepeekeo, Hawaii


DESCRIPTION  OF PROJECT


Award  Date:  june 1973


Completion Date:  January 1976


Summary:

Full-scale demonstration of sugar cane harvesting  and processing with water
reuse and solid waste recovery which will result in major reductions in
wastes discharged, provide more efficient recovery of raw sugar, and pro-
vide an electrical power supply.  Soil entrainment in the cane will he
reduced by modified methods of harvesting and partial cleaning in the field
followed by dry cleaning at the plant.  Final washing will utilize sugar
juice which will be fully recovered.  Bagasse and  cleaned trash (recycled
water)  will be Irurned for power generation.
Project Cost: $7,337,883

Federal Cost:   $479,000
             ADDRESS INQUIRIES TO EPA PROJECT OFFICER

                             111-89

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INFORMATION  SHEET

        ENVIRONMENTAL  PROTECTION AGENCY
RESEARCH, DEVELOPMENT OR DEMONSTRATION  PROJECT

  This sluvl l.riHK de.MTibo an R & D project Section 104 or 10.1 of Hie
  Federal \\alcr Pollution Control Acl Amendments of \<)7'> (PI 'J2-500)

PROJECT NUMBER: 802333
TITLE OF PROJECT:   Characterization and Reduction of Specific Waste-
                   waters from In-Plant Hog Processing Units of the
                   Meat Industry
                                       EPA  PROJECT OFFICER:

                                       Mr. Jack L. Witherow
                                       PNERL,  EPA
                                       Corvallls, Oregon
GRANTEE OR CONTRACTOR:

University of Wisconsin
750 University Avenue
Madison, Wisconsin 53706

Project SltB .  Madison, Wisconsin


DESCRIPTION OF PROJECT


Award  Date:  March 1974


Completion  Date:   August 1975


Summary:

The project  is to characterize wastewater from critical unit operations
in hog slaughtering and associated cleaning,  processes, and to develop
and demonstrate methods and equipment for reduction of the flow and waste
load from these unit operations.

Four processes which are known major contributors to the waste load are to
be studied.  These are 1) Removal and recovery of blood: 2) Removal, process-
ing, and disposal of hair; 3) Processing of the hog carcass; and 4) Process-
ing of the intestinal tract.
                                            Project Cost: $111,962

                                            Federal Cost: $76,ioe
             ADDRESS INQUIRIES TO EPA PROJECT OFFICER

                             111-90

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 INFORMATION  SHEET

        ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AOENCY
RESEARCH. DEVELOPMENT OR DEMONSTRATION PROJECT
  This sheet briefly describes an R & D project Section 104 or 105 of the
  Federal Water Pollution Control Acl Amendments of 1972 (PL 92-500)


PROJECT NUMBER:   802953


TITLE OF PROJECT:   Minimization of Water Use in Leafy Vegetable Washers
GRANTEE OR CONTRACTOR:                EPA PROJECT OFFICER:

   Dulaney Foods Inc.                      Mr. James A. Santroch
   Eymore,  Virginia 23350                   PNERL, EPA
                                        Corvallis , Oregon


        Site:  Eymore, Virginia
DESCRIPTION OF PROJECT

Award Date:   May 1974                       Project Cost:   $75,545


Completion Date:   February 1976              Federal Cost:  $52,882


Summary:

   A full-scale experimental leafy green vegetable washer will be installed
   in a commercial processing line.  The wastewater from each unit process
   in this line and from each unit process in a line with conventional washers
   will be characterized and compared.  The quality of experimentally and
   conventionally washed leafy greens will be monitored and compared.  Eighty
   hours of spinach processing, eighty hours of broccoli processing, and
   eighty hours of processing of other leafy greens will be monitored.
             ADDRESS INQUIRIES TO IM MOJICT OPHCIt
                              111-91

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INFORMATION  SHEET

        ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY
RESEARCH,  DEVELOPMENT OR DEMONSTRATION PROJECT

  This shtvl l.nel'h «le>cnl>e., an R & D project Section 104 or 105 of the
  Federal \\ater Pollution Control A.I Amendments of 1972 (PI. U2-500)

PROJECT  NUMBER:   303251
TITLE  OF PROJECT: Tomato Cleaning and Water Recycle
GRANTEE OR CONTRACTOR:
 National Canners Association
 1133 20th Street N. W.
 Washington, D. C. 20036

 Project Site :  Berkeley, California

 DESCRIPTION OF PROJECT
                        EPA PROJECT OFFICER:
                        Mr. Harold W. Thompson
                        PNEKL, EPA
                        Corvallis, Oregon
 Award  Date:
July 1974
 Completion Date:  March 1975

 Summary:
Project Cost:  $124,455

Federal Cost:  $93,295
 This study will demonstrate low water use cleaning of tomatoes and recycle
 of the dump tank (tomato unloading water cushion) water.  Cleaning will be
 by flexible spinning rubber disc and a small amount of water.  Water use
 for cleaning should be reduced from the present 700 gal/ton to 6 gal/ton.
 In combination with the recycle system the water use for receiving and clean-
 ing should be reduced from 930 gal/ton to 120 gal/ton.
             ADDRESS INQUIRIES TO EPA PROJECT OFFICER

                             111-92

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 INFORMATION  SHEET
        ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY
RESEARCH, DEVELOPMENT OR  DEMONSTRATION PROJECT
  This shed briefly describe:* an R & U project Section 104 or !()."> of the
  Federal Water Pollution Control Acl Amendments ol' 1972 (PI, W-oOO)

PROJECT NUMBER:   803230


TITLE OF PROJECT:   Reuse of Treated Fruit Processing Wastewater
                   Within a Cannery
GRANTEE OR CONTRACTOR:
 Snokist Growers
 2506 Terrace Heights Road
 Yakima, Washington 98901

PrOJeCt Site :  Yakima, Washington

DESCRIPTION OF PROJECT

Award  Date:   juiy 1974

Completion  Date:  July 1975

Summary:
EPA PROJECT OFFICER:

Mr. Harold Thompson
PNERL, EPA
Corvallis, Oregon
    Project Cost: $553,000

    Federal Cost:$249,5oo
 This study will evaluate the feasibility of reclaiming end-of-pipe process
 wastewater for reuse within a fruit cannery.  Reuse of the reclaimed water
 will be evaluated for: equipment and floor cleanup, initial product clean-
 ing and conveying, steam production for use in cooking, blanching, exhaust-
 ing, retorting and cleaning, and direct contact can cooling.  Product quality
 will be monitored throughout the study.
            ADDRESS INQUIRIES TO EPA  PROJECT OFFICER

                             111-93

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INFORMATION SHEET

        ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY
RESEARCH,  DEVELOPMENT OR DEMONSTRATION PROJECT

  Tim shed briefly (h-M-ribr* an R & U project Section 104 or 105 of the
  Federal Water Pollution Control Act Amendments of \l)72 (PI- 92-500)

PROJECT  NUMBER:   803301

TITLE  OF PROJECT:  utilization of Cheese Whey for Wine Production
GRANTEE OR CONTRACTOR:

 Oregon State University
 Corvallis, Oregon 97331
 Project Site :  Corvallis,  Oregon

 DESCRIPTION OF PROJECT

 Award  Date:   juiy 1974

 Completion Date:  October 1975

 Summary:
EPA PROJECT OFFICER:

 Mr. Max W. Cochrane
 PNERL, EPA
 Corvallis, Oregon
    Project Cost: $33,995

    Federal Cost:$37,045
 This project will provide evaluation of technical and economical feasi-
 bility of producing alcoholic beverages for human consumption from fermen-
 tation of cheese whey.  Low energy requirements and almost total utll™-

 tial tf Si  iiqU"and S°lld fractions of whe? 1-d high economic po ten-
 tial to this by-product recovery process.
            ADDRESS INQUIRIES TO EPA PROJECT OFFICER

                             111-94

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 INFORMATION  SHEET

        ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY
RESEARCH. DEVELOPMENT OR DEMONSTRATION PROJECT
  This sheet briefly describes an R & D project Section 104 or I0f> of the

  Federal Water Pollution Control Acl Amendments of 1972 (PI- 92-500)
PROJECT NUMBER:
803307
TITLE  OF PROJECT:
  Cannery Wastewater Biological Solids Cattle
  Feeding Project
GRANTEE OR CONTRACTOR:                 EPA PROJECT OFFICER:

 Snokist Growers                          Mr. James A. Santroch
 2506 Terrace Heights Road                 PNERL, EPA
 Yakima, Washington                       Corvallis, Oregon

PrOJeCt Site :   Yakima, Washington


DESCRIPTION OF PROJECT

Award Date:   juiy 1974


Completion  Date:   July 1975                 	


Summary:

 Waste activated sludge from a fruit cannery wastewater treatment plant will
 be dewatered by float thickening and centrifuging. To evaluate the sludge
 as a feedstuff, four feed rations each with a different proportion of sludge,
 will be fed to 8 steers, in a 68 day metabolism trial and to 24 steers in a
 130-160 day finishing trial.
                          Project Cost: $88,soo

                          Federal Cost:$25,000
            ADDRESS INQUIRIES TO  EPA PROJECT OFFICER

                             111-95

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INFORMATION  SHEET

        ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY
RESEARCH.  DEVELOPMENT OR DEMONSTRATION PROJECT

  Thi> shod briHh .Imribo an R & D project Section 104 or 10.1 of tl.r
  Federal \\alcr Pollution Control Ac I Aim-ndmenb of 1<)72 (PI- 
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 V
 INFORMATION SHEET
        ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY
RESEARCH. DEVELOPMENT OR DEMONSTRATION PROJECT
  This shed briel'l) describes an R & U project Section 104 or 10.") of the
  Federal Waler Pollution Control Acl Amendments of l<>72 (PI, 92-500)

PROJECT NUMBER:   803321


TITLE OF PROJECT!  Tomato  Steam Peeling and Caustic Peeling Comparison
GRANTEE OR CONTRACTOR:
Tosi Trading Company
1499 Boxshore Highway
Burlingame, California 94010

PrOJeCt Site :  Burlingame, California

DESCRIPTION OF PROJECT

Award  Date: August 1974

Completion  Date: April 1975

Summary:
EPA PROJECT OFFICER:

Mr. James A.  Santroch
PNERL, EPA
Corvallis, Oregon
    Project Cost:  $32,125

    Federal Cost:  $12,375
A Vettori-Manghi pressure steam tomato peeler and a FMC Hi-TON peeler
installed in parallel at Stanislaus Canners, Modesto CA will be monitored
for 10 days to evaluate differences in yield, effect on tomato quality,
energy requirements, the quality and quantity of wastewater and solid wastes
generated and possible value of the solid wastes.
            ADDRESS INQUIRIES TO EPA PROJECT  OFFICER
                             111-97

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INFORMATION  SHEET
        ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECT/0111 AGENCY
RESEARCH, DEVELOPMENT OR DEMONSTRATION PROJECT
  Tliis sheet briefly describes an R & D project Section 104 or 10.1 of the
  Federal Water Pollution Control Act  Amendments of 1()72 (PI. 92-300)
PROJECT NUMBER:
803325
TITLE OF  PROJECT'.  Poultry Processing Wastewater Reuse Effects
       ''on Product and Water Safety,
 GRANTEE  OR CONTRACTOR:
 Maryland  State Dept.  of Health
 610 North Howard Street
 Baltimore, Maryland 21201
 Project Site :  Oakland, Maryland
 DESCRIPTION  OF PROJECT
 Award Date:   Juiy 1974
 Completion Date:   March 1975
 Summary:
                      EPA  PROJECT  OFFICER:
                      Mr. Jack L. Witherow
                      PNERL, EPA
                      Corvallis, Oregon
                           Project Cost:  $128,878
                           Federal Cost:  $79,900
 This project is to evaluate the safety for human consumption of poultry
 processed in a plant utilizing reclaimed wastewater in a closed loop
 water system.  The poultry plant will recycle about 50% of their own
 processing wastewater.  Safety will be determined by relative amounts of
 contaminants before and after recycling begins.
             ADDRESS INQUIRIES TO EPA PROJECT OFFICER
                              111-98

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 INFORMATION  SHEET
        ENVIRONMENTAL  PROTECTION AGENCY
RESEARCH. DEVELOPMENT OR DEMONSTRATION PROJECT
  Tl)i> shrcl briefly docribcs an R & D project Section 104 or 10.") of the
  Kederal \\aler Pollution Control Acl Amendments of WT1 (PI. 92-500)

PROJECT  NUMBER:  803333


TITLE OF PROJECT!  Shrimp Cannery Wastewater Treatment Demonstration
                  Project
GRANTEE OR CONTRACTOR:
American Shrimp Canners Association
P. 0. Box 50774
New Orleans, Louisiana 70150

PrOJeCt  Site:  New Orleans, Louisiana

DESCRIPTION OF PROJECT

Award Date:   July 1974

Completion Date:  July 1977

Summary:
EPA PROJECT OFFICER:
Mr. Max Cochrane
PNERL, EPA
Corvallis, Oregon
    Project Cost:  $319,oeo

    Federal Cost:  $239,295
An in-plant water conservation and management program will be instituted
along with several possible process modifications.  The resulting effluent
will be treated (plant scale)  by screening and dissolved-air flotation
with chemical addition.  Screening and sludge will be processed for ulti-
mate disposal.
            ADDRESS INQUIRIES TO EPA PROJECT OFFICER

                             111-99

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                        FINAL REPORTS AVAILABLE

                       FOOD AND KINDRED PRODUCTS
Report Number

12060 - 03/68
12060 07/69
12060 10/69
12060 FAD 10/69
                 Title/Author

                 Aerated Lagoon  Treatment  of  Food
                 Processing Wastes,  Kenneth A.  Postal,
                 Pacific Northwest Environmental Research
                 Laboratory, EPA, Corvallis,  Oregon

                 Secondary Treatment of Potato  Processing
                 Wastes, Kenneth A.  Postal, Pacific  North-
                 west Environmental  Research  Laboratory,
                 EPA, Con/all is, Oregon

                 Current Practice in Potato Processing
                 Waste Treatment, University  of Washington,
                 Seattle, Washington.

                 Aerobic Treatment  of Fruit Processing
                 Wastes, Snokist Growers,  Yakima,
                 Washington.
 12060 DXL 01/71   Reduction of^Salt Content of Food
                  Processing Liquid Waste Effluent,
                  National Canners  Association, Berkeley,
                  California.
 12060 04/70
 12060  ECF 04/70
 12060  EHT 07/70
 12060 08/70
12060 EZP 09/70
                                             Source

                                             GPO $0.55
                                             GPO $0.65
                                             GPO $1.00
                                             NTIS
                                             PB 188 506
                                                              GPO  $0.55
Proceedings:_First National  Symposium on
Food Processing Wastes,  FWQA, USDA,
National  Canners Association, and North-
west Food Processors  Association.

Current Practice in Seafoods Processing
Waste Treatment. Oregon  State University
Corvallis, Oregon.

Use of Fungi  Imperfect!  in Waste Control,
North Star Research and  Development
Institute, Minneapolis,  Minnesota.

Waste Reduction in Food  Canning Operations,
National Canners Association, Berkeley,  "
California.

Cannery Waste Treatment  Kehr Activated
"'"—-  FMO corporation, Santa Clara,
                                                              GPO  $3.00
                                                              NTIS
                                                              PB  202 232
                                                               GPO $1.00
                                                               GPO $1.00
                                                                GPO $0.70
                   California.
                                  Hl-100

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Report Number

12060 10/70



12060 EHV 12/70



12060 FQE 12/70



12060 03/71
12060 EHU 03/71
12060 DSI 07/71
12060 DXF 07/71
12060 EDK 08/71
12060 EDZ 08/71
12060 EZY 08/71
12060 EAE 09/71
Title/Author                                 Source

Treatment of Citrus Processing Wastes,       GPO $2.75
The Coca-Cola Company - Foods Division,
Orlando, Florida.

Aerobic Secondary Treatment of Potato        GPO $1.50
Processing Wastes, R. T. French Company,
Shelly, Idaho.

Dry Caustic Peeling^of Tree Fruit for        GPO $0.60
Liquid Waste Reduction, National
Canners Association, Berkeley, California

Proceedings: Second National Symposium       GPO $4.50
on Food Processing Wastes, EPA, Pacific             ,
Northwest Environmental Research Labora-
tory and National Canners Association.

Reconditioning of Food Processing Brines,    GPO $0.75
National Canners Association, Berkeley,
California.

State-of-the-Art, Sugarbeet Processing       GPO $1.25
Treatment: bv Beet Sugar Development
Foundation, Ft.  Collins, Colorado.

Membrane Processing of Cottage Cheese        GPO $1.25
Whey for Pollution Abatement, Crowley's
Milk Company, Binghamton, New York.

Liquid Wastes from Canning and Freezing      GPO $1.50
Fruits and Vegetables; by National Canners
Association, Berkeley, California.

Pilot Plant Installation for Fungal Treat-   GPO $1.00
ment of Vegetable Canning Wastes, by the
Green Giant Co., Le Suer, Minnesota.

Complete Mix Activated Sludge Treatment      GPO $1.25
of Citrus Process Wastes, Winter Garden
Citrus Products  Cooperative, Winter Garden,
Florida.

Trickling Filter Treatment of Frutt Pro-     GPO $0.50
sessing Waste Waters, National  Canners
Association, Berkeley, California.
                                 m-ioi

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Report Number

12060 DSB 09/71
12060 EAE 09/71
12060 FDS 12/70
12120 09/69
12120 09/70
12120 DTK 12/70
EPA R2 73 209
EPA 660/2 73 012
EPA 660/2 74 025
EPA 660/2 74 031
EPA 660/2 74 027
Title/Author

Demonstration of a Full-Scale Waste Treat-
ment System for a Cannery, L. E. StreebTn,
B. W. Reid and A. C.  H.  Hu, School of
Civil Engineering and Environmental
Science, University of Oklahoma, Norman,
Oklahoma.

Trickling Filter Treatment of Fruit Pro-
cessing Waste Waters, National Canners
Association, Berkeley, California.

Elimination of Water Pollution by Packing-
house Animal Paunch and Blood, Beef land
International Inc., Council Bluffs, Iowa.

Activated Sludge Treatment of Chrome
Tannery Wastes, A. C. Lawrence Leather
Company, Peabody, Massachusetts.

Treatment of Sole Leather Vegetable
Tannery Wastes, University of Cincinnati,
Cincinnati, Ohio.

Anaerobic-Aerobic Lagoon Treatment for
Vegetable Tanning Wastes, University of
Virginia, Charlottesvilie, Virginia.

Secondary Waste Treatment for a Small
Diversified Tannery, Caldwell Lace Leather
Company, Anburn, Kentucky.

Kent Cheese Company Waste Treatment
Facility, Kent Cheese Company, Kent,
Illinois.

Protein Production from Acid Whey Via
Fermentation. Amber LabnratnrW' .iMnoa.,
Wisconsin.
Source

GPO $1.50
Water and Waste Management in Poultry Pro-
cessingGold KTst Poultry, Durham, North
Carolina.
Treatment of Packinghouse Wastes by
Anaerobic Lagoons and Plastic Medfa
Filters, Farmbest Inc.
GPO $0.50
GPO $0.50
GPO $2.00
GPO $1.25
GPO $1.00
GPO $1.25
GPO
GPO $1.25
                                                               GPO $2.50
GPO $1.20
                                 Hl-102

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Report Number     Title/Author                                 Source

EPA 660/2 74 046  Paunch Manure as a Feed Supplement in        GPO  $1.60
                  Channel^Catfish Farming, Oklahoma State
                  University, Stillwater, Oklahoma.

EPA R2 73 025     Anaerobic - Aerobic Ponds for Beet Sugar     GPO  $2.10
                  Waste Treatment - Beet Sugar Development
                  Foundation, Fort Collins, Colorado.

EPA R2 73 017     Cannery Waste Treatment by Anaerobic         GPO  $2.10
                  Lagoons and Oxidation Ditch, Melbourne
                  Water Science Institute, Victoria,
                  Australia.

EPA R2 73 198     Low Water Volume Enzyme Deactivation of      GPO  $1.25
                  Vegetables Before Preservation, National
                  Canners Association, Berkeley, California.

12060 EGU 03/71   Dairy Food Plant Wastes and Waste Treatment  GPO  $4.00
                  Practices, Ohio State University, Columbus,
                  Ohio.

EPA 660/2 73 015  Recovery of Fatty Materials from Edible      GPO  $1.60
                  Oil Refinery Effluents, Swift and Company,
                  Bradley, Illinois.

EPA 660/2 74 006  Wastewater Abatement in Canning Vegetables   GPO  $1.25
                  by IQB Blanching, University of Wisconsin,
                  Madison, Wisconsin.
EPA 660/2 74 014  Activated Sludge - Bio-Disc Treatment of     GPO $1.40
                  Distillery Wastewater, Ann
                  Company, Pekin, Illinois.
Distillery Wastewater, American Distilling
       , P€
EPA 660/2 74 074  Rum Distillery Slops Treatment by Anaerobic  GPO
                  Contact Process, Bacardi Corporation,
                  San Juan, Puerto Rico.

EPA 660/2 74 035  Improvement of Treatment of Food Industry    GPO $1.25
                  Waste, RAI Research Corporation,
                  Long Island City, New York.

EPA R2 73 024     Cannery Wastewater Treatment with Rotating   GPO $0.65
                  Biological Contactor and Extended Aeration,
                  Pacific Northwest Environmental  Research
                  Laboratory, EPA, Corvallis, Oregon.
                                 Ill-, 103

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Report Number     Title/Author                                  Source

EPA R2 73 178     National  Meat  Packing Waste Management       GPO $0.50
                  Research  and Development  Program,  EPA,
                  R.  S.  Kerr Environmental  Research
                  Laboratory, Ada,  Oklahoma.

EPA R2 72 018     Proceedings: Third  National Symposium        GPO $5.25
                  on Food Processing  Wastes,  EPA, Pacific
                  Northwest Water Laboratory  and National
                  Canners Association.

EPA 660/2 73 031  Proceedings:  Fourth National  Symposium on    GPO $4.50
                  Food Processing Wastes, EPA,  Pacific North-
                  west Environmental  Research Laboratory and
                  National  Canners Association.

EPA 660/2 74 050  Proceedings:  Fifth  National Symposium on     GPO
                  Food Processing Wastes, EPA, Pacific
                  Northwest Environmental Research Laboratory
                  and National  Canners Association.

EPA 660/2 74 060  Poultry Processing Wastewater Treatment      GPO
                  and Reuse, Maryland State Department of
                  Health, Oakland, Maryland.

EPA 660/2 74 059  Submerged  Combustion Evaporation for         GPO
                  Concentration of Brewery Spent Gratn'
                  Liquor, Anheuser-Busch Inc., Houston,
                  Texas

EPA 660/2 74 074  Shrimp Canning Waste Treatment Study.        GPO
                  American Shrimp Canners Association, New
                  Orleans, Louisiana.

EPA 660/2 74 028  Biological Treatment of Concentrated Sugar   GPO
                  Beet Wastes, Beet Sugar Development Foun-
                  dation, Fort Collins, Colorado.
                                  Ill-104

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                JOINT INDUSTRIAL-MUNICIPAL POINT SOURCES
     The "Joint".program area is defined as the TR oriented to supplying
POTW's (Public Owned Treatment Works) and PTA's (Public Treatment Author-
ities) with the technology needed for meeting effluent standards for
mixed industrial, mixed industrial  and municipal, and water supply point
sources of discharge.  The qualifying conditions for relevancy to these
point sources includes the involvement or sponsorship of a public treat-
ment authority and the condition that the industrial portion of the
wastewater be the controlling wastewater management factor.

     In terms of point source standards impact, the Joint systems have
direct bearing on the following standards and related technology achieve-
ment levels: (1) Toxic Standards, (2) Industrial BPT, BAT, and NSPS (New
Source Performance Standards), and (3) POTW's Standards for Pretreatment,
Secondary, and BPWTT.

     The identification of sub-categories (program areas) is relatt-d to
the characteristics of the point sources rather than the applicable
sections of the numerous standards.   The sub-areas are Area-Wide T&C
(treatment and control), Joint Indus trial-Municipal  T&C, Residual and
Refractory T&C, and Pretreatment.

     The wastewater characteristics  and related complexities of control
vary as the type of industry input changes.  Given the Phase I industrial
guideline, the purview of this joint program area covers approximately 29
industry segments and 165 industrial technological sub categories.  With
Phase II guidelines providing 18 additional segments and an unknown
number of subcategories.

     The technology for 1977 implementation is best referenced to the 30
Phase I guidelines for industrial and municipal sources.  Generally speak-
ing, biodegradable organics and related suspended solids are controllable
using biooxidation and clarification processes.  The availability of
viable controls for incompatible pollutants such as  inorganic, toxic and
residual-refractory pollutants varies from un demonstrated to inadequate
effectiveness.

     The prime objective of the TR program is to demonstrate adequate,
practicable and economically achievable technology for the elimination
of the discharge of pollutants (closed cycle) for 3 of the 4 problem
areas - Area Wide, Joint, Residual  and Refractory.  Secondary and interim
milestones also exist in the total  environmental  and open cycle waste
management alternatives.  The pretreatment segment of the program is con-
cerned with improving the compatibility of industrial  wastewaters for
discharge to municipal systems.

     The Area Wide T&C problem area  includes those situations in which
wastewaters are collected, combined, and treated for a broad geographical
area.  This subcategory includes: wastes from several  industries combined
with domestic wastes, wastes from an industrial complex, and wastes from
a metro-area, or even from an entire river basin.


                               IY-1

-------
     The Joint Indus trial/Municipal problem area includes those  situations
where only one type of  industry discharges their wastes into  a municipal
treatment plant.   Water discharge figures for 1968 shows that of the total
wastewaters discharged  by manufacturing industries, 14276 bg  (billion
gallons), 7% or 1022  bg was  discharged to public sewers.  This represents
about 20% of the domestic wastewater flow in 1968.  Research  plans  call
for the investigation of selected industries which have a problem with
incompatible or excessive pollutants.

     The residual and refractory problem area includes those  industrial
and municipal wastes  which  are in concentrated form and are either  toxic
or incompatible with  existing biological treatment systems.   Because of
these factors the wastes can be most effectively managed by a common
collection and treatment system which must achieve BAT or Closed Cycle
effectiveness.  These wastes include: liquid concentrated (paints,  pigment
dyes, solvents, oils, acids, alkalies), sludges (inorganic salts, organic,
metallic oxides), and water treatment sludges.  By providing  alternate
disposal techniques for these materials, they can be  removed  from municipal
systems and land fills  where they receive inadequate  stabilization.

     The pretreatment problem area  is concerned with  the treatment  given
an industrial wastewater prior  to its discharge to a  municipal sewer.
Technology research will be carried out to evaluate the economic and
technology impact of pretreatment guidelines at the industrial-municipal
interface  and to define the criteria  for industrial compatibility and
incompatibility relative to municipal treatment practice.
                                  IV-2

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                              PROJECT INDEX
                JOINT INDUSTRIAL/MUNICIPAL POINT SOURCES

            Grantee or Contractor
EDX         Green Bay, Wisconsin
EGK         Jacksonville, Arkansas
EJD         Hagerstown, Maryland
EKK         South St. Paul, Minnesota
EOC         Erie, Pennsylvania
EZR         Dallas, Oregon
DBF         Harriman, Tennessee
DJB         Grand Forks, North Dakota
DLF         Tualatin, Oregon
DPD         Macon, Georgia
DRO         Delaware River Basin Commission
DRT         Stockton, California
DUJ         Walton, New York
FAE         Onondaga County, New York
FAY         Brooksville, Florida
FJQ         Kodiak, Alaska
FYF         Ohio Dept. Natural Resources
GER         Miami Conservancy District
HRA         City of Gainesville
801221      County of Hawaii
803005      Buffalo Sewer Authority
Project Status:
A - Completed, Final Report Available
B - Project Ongoing
C - Project Discontinued
                                  IV-3
Project Status
      A
      A
      B
      A
      A
      A
      A
      B
      A
      A
      A.
      A
      A
      A
      C
      A
      A
      B
      B
      B
      B

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INFORMATION  SHEET
  Mrral »al,T Pollution Control A.-

PROJECT MUHBER:  EDX

TITLE OF PROJECT:  Joint Treatment of Municipal Sewage and Pulp Hill
- ~    "      Effluents


                                                       OFFICER:
Mr. George R. Webster
Industrial Pollution Control
 Division (RD-679), EPA
Washington, D. C. 20460
     Project Cost:  $335,000

     Federal Cost: $251,250
  Green Bay Metropolitan
   Sewerage District
  Green Bay, Wisconsin

 Project Site:    Green  Bay, Wisconsin


 DESCRIPTION OF PROJECT

 Award  Date:  December wee


 Completion  Date:   September 1971


  Summary:
  This project determined the technical and economic feasibility of jointly
  treating the influent  to the present treatment facilities of the Green
  Bay Metropolitan Sewerage District in combination with the weak effluents
  from the pulping sections of four local paper mills,  specifically American
  Can Company, Charmin Paper Products Company, Fort Howard Paper Company, ,nj
  and Green Bay Packaging, Inc.   -  Four activated sludge processes  (con- ^T
  ventional,  step aeration, contact stabilization, and  Kraus) were studied
   in parallel using 1-gpm pilot  plants.  At the end of  the 12 months,  the
   conventional and step  aeration processes were eliminated from further con-
   sideration.  The contact stabilization and  Kraus processes were studied
   for an additional four and one-half months.  Contact  stabilization was
   selected as the most promising process and  units were operated for an
   additional  five months to obtain refined design and operating parameters
   for a full-scale treatment plant.  -  Shortly after initial start-up, the
   pilot plants became infested with filamentous organisms  identified as a
   bacterial  species of the genus Thiothrix.  a sulfur-storing organism.  Of
   various procedures implemented, chlorination of the return activated
   sludge successfully controlled the growth of filamentous organisms which
   caused sludge  bulking.  It was also necessary to  add nutrients  to achieve
   the desired BOD:N:P ratios.  Extensive solids-handling unit process studies
   were conducted at  the pilot-plant  site and in the cooperating manf. lab.

                                  IV-4

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 INFORMATION  SHEET

         ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY
RESEARCH,  DEVELOPMENT OR DEMONSTRATION PROJECT
  Thi> shrel briefly describes an R, & U project Section 104 or 105 of the
  Federal Water Pollution Control Acl Amendment of 1972 (PI. «)2-5()0)

PROJECT NUMBER:  EGK


TITLE OF PROJECT:   Biological Treatment of Cfilorophenolic Wastes
GRANTEE OR CONTRACTOR:
  City of Jacksonville, Arkansas
                                         EPA PROJECT OFFICER:

                                          Mr. George Putnicki
                                          Region VI, EPA
                                          1402 Elm Street
                                          Dallas, Texas 75202
                                              Project  Cost:  $243,313

                                              Federal  Cost:  $153,559
Project Site :   Jacksonville, Arkansas


DESCRIPTION  OF PROJECT

Award  Date:   July 1968


Completion Date:  October 1970


Summary:

 In this  project,  installation of a completely stirred aeration lagoon
 between  an existing conventional sewage treatment plant and existing
 stabilization ponds avoided hydraulic overloading of the former and
 reduced  BOD loading of the latter.  Joint treatment of domestic sewage
 and an industrial waste having high BOD and chlorophenols was facili-
 tated.   This  study confirmed earlier findings that the organisms present
 in domestic sewage readily destroy complex chlorophenols and related
 materials.  Glycolates and acetates contributing to the high BOD of the
 industrial waste  were also readily oxidized biologically.   High sodium
 chloride levels in the treated mixed waste did not adversely effect
 biological activity.   Joint treatment of the complex chlorophenolic
 wastes combined with normal sewage gave rise to biological data which
 did not  differ in any significant manner from that to be expected in a
 similar  system receiving only normal sewage.  -  An historical background
 of the problem at Jacksonville, Arkansas; design and construction infor-
 mation,  and the chemical and biological data resulting from the system
 study  are presented in the final report.
             ADDRESS INQUIRIES TO EPA PROJECT OFFICER
                                IV-5

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 INFORMATION  SHEET
        ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY
RESEARCH. DEVELOPMENT OR DEMONSTRATION PROJECT
  This sheet briefly describes an R & D project Section 104 or 105 of the
  Federal Water Pollution Control Act Amendments of 1<)72 (PI, 92-500)

PROJECT  NUMBER:   KJD


TITLE OF PROJECT:   A Pretreatment Study on Combined  Industrial-
                   Municipal Wastewaters
GRANTEE OR CONTRACTOR:
  City of Hagerstown, Maryland


Project Site :   Hagerstown, Maryland

DESCRIPTION OF PROJECT

Award Date:    March 1968

Completion Date:   juiy 1971

Summary:
sludge system.  The pretreatment tP
by diffused aeration! c^lorinaSon
nitrate and potassium permanganate'
project will be for two yearf and
detailed baseline analyst  c
and full-scale paralleling of
pretreatment technics.
                                      EPA PROJECT OFFICER:
                                      Mr. Harold Snyder
                                      Environmental Protection Agency
                                      Washington, D. C. 20460
                                                 Cost:
                                                       $427>853
                                          Federal Cost:  $320,390
                                                      dyeing
                                     **

                                            «*
                                             rth
                                             in an activated
                                         Pr°Vlde in±tial oxidation
                                         ^ additions of sodium
                                         W±U alflo Be
                                        P^treatment facilities
                                     system, and evaluation of the
           ADDRESS INQUIRIES TO EPA PROJECT OFFICER

                             IV-6

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 INFORMATION  SHEET

        ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY
RESEARCH,  DEVELOPMENT OR DEMONSTRATION PROJECT
  Th!> sliccl hricl'K describo an R & D project Section 104 or 10.") of the
  Federal \\alcr Pollution Control Act Amendments of 1972 (PI. (>2-.iOO)

PROJECT NUMBER:   EKK


TITLE OF PROJECT!  Efficiency and Economy of Polymeric  Sewage Clarifi-
                   cation


GRANTEE OR CONTRACTOR:                 EPA PROJECT OFFICER:
 City of South St. Paul, Minnesota           Mr. Clarence C.  Oster
                                         Minnesota - Wisconsin Field
                                          Office, EPA
                                         7401 Lyndale Avenue South
Project Site:   South  St. Paul, Minnesota    m™**V°1±s> Minnesota 55423


DESCRIPTION OF PROJECT


Award  Date:  june 196?                         Project Cost: $345,159


Completion Date:  January 1971                 Federal Cost: $450,000


Summary:

 This demonstration project included: 1.  Construction of new grit chambers
 (four units: two for industrial wastes,  one  for sanitary sewage, and one
 for either industrial  or sanitary wastes), which will allow sewage to be
 treated individually or in combination of  the two basic sewages in the
 treatment  process following grit removal.  2.  Construction of mechanical
 flash mix-facilities,  laboratory and utility building improvements, and
 the necessary piping and other appurtenant construction.

 The city of South St.  Paul will also construct an interceptor  sewer, sludge
 ejector, and pumping station in conjunction with the demonstration project
which are  not part of  this demonstration grant request.   The project objec-
 tives are  to determine the increased purification attainable by treating
 industrial wastes (packing house), sanitary sewage,  combined sanitary
 sewage, and stormwaters or combinations  of such wastes with polyelectro-
 lytes and  floe "weighting agents."
             ADDRESS  INQUIRIES TO EPA  PROJECT OFFICER

                               IV-7

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INFORMATION  SHEET
  TO. , ..... ., i,,r.> „   ,i,,> »  *
  K,,l,.r..l*al,-r Pollution C..nln>l
PROJECT NUMBER:    EOC
TITLE OF PROJECT:  Joint Municipal and Semichemlcal Pulping Wastes
 GRANTEE OR CONTRACTOR:

  City of Erie
  Erie, Pennsylvania
                                        EPA  PROJECT OFFICER:

                                         Mr. George  R. Webster
                                         Industrial  Pollution Control
                                          Division (RD-679), EPA
                                         Washington, D. C. 20460
                                              Project  Cost: $333,674

                                              Federal  Cost: $88,230
Project Site :  Erie, Pennsylvania

DESCRIPTION  OF  PROJECT


Award  Date:   june 19es


Completion Date:  juiy 1969


Summary:

 The City of Erie, Pennsylvania and Hammermill Paper Company made  a study
 of the joint treatment  of domestic sewage and pulp and papermaking wastes.
 A pilot plant was constructed and operated in a series of controlled
 experiments.  Supplemental studies were conducted in  the Hammermill
 laboratories including the operation of a bench-scale activated sludge
 plant. -  It was demonstrated that a joint treatment plant could
 effectively treat a mixture of domestic sewage and pulp and paper mill
 wastes from Hammermill1s Erie Division.  A full-scale joint treatment
 plant should obtain a BOD removal of approximately 90% in summer months
 and 80%-85% in winter months.  Primary treatment should achieve a 25%
 reduction  in BOD and a 60%  reduction in suspended solids.  Treatment of
 mixed wastes by the activated sludge process will require a long solids
 aeration period and a relatively low BOD to volatile solids loading  to
 avoid high sludge volume indicies.  The activated sludge process does
 not reduce the color of the mixed wastes and the  final  effluent will have
 about 40 mg/1 of suspended solids.  The  chlorine  demand of the final
 effluent  averaged over 60 mg/1.  A NH3-C12 mixture added at a level  of
 2.61 ppm NH3 and 15-17 ppm C12 showed  promise as  a disinfectant with
 coliform counts generally below  1,000/100 ml.
              ADDRESS INQUIRIES TO  EPA PROJECT OFFICER
                                 IV-8

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 INFORMATION^ SHEET
         ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY
RESEARCH, DEVELOPMENT OR DEMONSTRATION PROJECT
  This sheet briefly describe an R & D project Section 104 or 10.") of the
  Federal Water Pollution Control Act Amendments of 1972 (PI, 02-o

PROJECT NUMBER:   EZR
TITLE OF PROJECT:
Combined Treatment of Domestic and Industrial
Wastes by Activated Sludge
GRANTEE OR CONTRACTOR:
 City of Dallas, Oregon



PrOJeCt Site :   Dallas,  Oregon

DESCRIPTION OF PROJECT

Award  Date:   December  1967

Completion  Date:   May  1971
                       EPA PROJECT  OFFICER:

                        Mr. Kenneth  Dostal
                        Pacific Northwest Environ-
                         mental Research Lab.,  EPA
                        200 Southwest 35th Street
                        Corvallis, Oregon 97330
                           Project Cost:  $453,472

                           Federal Cost:  $325,104
Summary:
 The operation  of a completely aerobic secondary treatment  facility for
 treatment of combined domestic and industrial wastewater from the City
 of Dallas, Oregon, was studied for a period of 15 months.  The system was
 designed for an average daily flow of 2.0 mgd and a BOD load of 7000 Ibs
 per day.  The  results of this study indicate the flexibility and economy
 of the completely aerobic system,  consisting of activated  sludge with
 aerobic digestion, for a small community with proportionately high indus-
 trial wastewater loads.  The effluent BOD concentration averaged 8 mg/1
 and the effluent total suspended solids concentration averaged 13 mg/1 for
 the 15-month study period.  The biological solids yield averaged about
 0.7 Ibs of solids per Ib of BOD removed and the net accumulation of bio-
 logical volatile solids  was about  0.42 Ibs of volatile solids per Ib of
 BOD removed.   These values were obtained with a MLSS concentration range
 of 700 to 3000 mg/1, an  average sludge age of 19 days and  an organic load-
 ing range of 0.05 to 0.40 pounds of BOD per Ib of MLSS per day.   Total
 capital cost of the system was about 66% of that for a conventional acti-
 vated sludge plant and operation and maintenance costs were only about 33%
 of those for a conventional system.


             ADDRESS INQUIRIES TO EPA PROJECT OFFICER

                                IV-9

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INFORMATION  SHEET

        ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY
RESEARCH. DEVELOPMENT OR DEMONSTRATION PROJECT

  This shirt briefly describes an R & D project Section 104 or 103 of Ihr
  Knlrral Water Pollution Control Act Amendments of 1972 (PI. 92-500)

PROJECT NUMBER:  DBF
TITLE OF PROJECT.
                   Treatment of Combined Sewage and Neutral Sulfite
                   Semlchemieal (NSSC) Pulp and Paper Mill Wastes
                   by High-Rate Biological Filtration and Extended
                   Aeration
GRANTEE OR CONTRACTOR:                 EPA PROJECT OFFICER:
 Harriman Utility Board
 P.  0. Box 434
 Harriman, Tennessee 37748

 Project Site :  Harriman, Tennessee

 DESCRIPTION  OF PROJECT

 Award Date:  January 1969

 Completion Date:  January 1972

 Summary:
                                        Mr.  Edmond Lomasney
                                        Region IV, EPA
                                        1421 Peachtree Street, N.E.
                                        Atlanta, Georgia  30309
                                            Project Cost: $322,540

                                            Federal Cost: $238,905
 The Harriman Utility Board and the Mead Corporation made a study of the
 joint treatment of primary clarified domestic waste and neutral sulfite
 semichemical (NSSC) pulp and paper mill wastes.  A pilot plant was con-
 structed and operated from April, 1971 through March, 1972.

 The most effective treatment scheme consisted of a biofilter (used as a
 roughing filter) and an extended aeration system.  Color reduction was
 accomplished by massive lime and chlorine additions due to the color's
 dependency on PH.  Disinfection was optimum when ammonia was mixed with
 the combined wastes prior to chlorination.
 The biofliter's BOD removal efficiency ranged from 3 to 45%
 aeration's BOD removal efficiency ranged from 24% to 98%.
                                                       Extended
              ADDRESS INQUIRIES TO EPA PROJECT OFFICER

                               IV-10

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 INFORMATION  SHEET

        ENVIRONMENTAL  PROTECTION AGENCY
RESEARCH.  DEVELOPMENT OR DEMONSTRATION PROJECT
  This short briefly describes an R & U project Section 104 or 105 of the
  Federal Water Pollution Control Acl Amendments of 1972 (PI, 92-500)

PROJECT NUMBER:    DJB
TITLE OF PROJECT:
                   Controlled Treatment of Combined Potato Processing
                   Municipal Wastes by Anerobic Fermentation, Aerobic
                   Stabilization Process
GRANTEE  OR CONTRACTOR:
 City of Grand Forks, North Dakota
 P. 0. Box 1518
 Grand Forks, North Dakota
                                        EPA PROJECT OFFICER:

                                         Mr. Christopher Timm
                                         Region VIII,  EPA
                                         1860 Lincoln Street
                                         Denver, Colorado 80203
                                             Project Cost: $795,904

                                             Federal Cost: $339,478
Project Site :   Grand Forks, North Dakota

DESCRIPTION OF PROJECT

Award  Date:    juiy 1968


Completion Date: August 1973


Summary:

A full-scale, 4.5-mgd demonstration and evaluation of the joint treat-
ment of municipal sewage in conjunction with potato processing wastes
using several pretreatment methods prior to final treatment in existing
stabilizations ponds will be undertaken in this project.   The pretreat-
ment methods include anerobic and aerated treatment (in series, anerobic
treatment alone, and aeration alone) under varying seasonal waste load
conditions.

In addition to determining the most efficient operation of the pretreat-
ment methods, the effects of these methods on the conventional stabili-
zation  ponds will be extensively determined.
             ADDRESS INQUIRIES TO EPA PROJECT OFFICER

                              IV-11

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INFORMATION  SHEET

        ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY
RESEARCH. DEVELOPMENT OR DEMONSTRATION  PROJECT

  This shed briel'h describes an R & D projed Section 104 or 105 of the
  Federal Water Pollution Control Acl Amendments of 1972 (PI, 92-500)

PROJECT NUMBER:    DLF

TITLE OF PROJECT:  Tertiary  Treatment of Combined Domestic/Industrial
                   Wastes
 GRANTEE OR CONTRACTOR:
  City of Tualatin, Oregon
 Project Site :  Tualatin, Oregon

 DESCRIPTION  OF  PROJECT

 Award  Date:   March 19 68

 Completion Date:  August 1971

 Summary:
EPA PROJECT  OFFICER:

 Mr. Dennis Taylor
 PNERL, EPA
 200 Southwest 35th Street
 Corvallis, Oregon 97330
     Project Cost: $323,6oo

     Federal Cost: $230,300
   A secondary and tertiary sewage treatment plant will be constructed  for
   treatment  of combined municipal and industrial wastes.   The industrial
   waste is generated by the manufacture of dog food and will comprise  25%
   of the BOD load on the treatment plant.  The plant will be operated  and
   studied for a period of one year.  The tertiary plant (consisting of
   flocculation, settling, and filtration) will be operated with the addi-
   tion of slum for phosphate removal during the critical six months of
   low stream flow. During the remainder of the year, the secondary effluent
   will receive plain filtration to maintain a very high quality effluent.
   The feasibility of alternate methods of chemical sludge disposal and the
   economics  of tertiary treatment with phosphate removal will be studied.
               ADDRESS INQUIRIES TO EPA  PROJECT  OFFICER

                                 IV-12

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 INFORMATION  SHEET
         ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY
RESEARCH, DEVELOPMENT OR DEMONSTRATION PROJECT
  This sheet briel'h describe an R & U project Section 104 or !()."> of Ilic
  Federal Water Pollution Control Ad Amendment^ of 1972 (PI. (>2-
PROJECT NUMBER:
DPD
TITLE OF PROJECT:   Combined Treatment of Municipal Kraft Linerbo'ard
                    and Fiberboard Manufacturing Wastes
GRANTEE OR CONTRACTOR:
 The City of Macon
 City Hall
 Macon, Georgia  31201

PrOJeCt Site :   Macon,  Georgia

DESCRIPTION OF PROJECT

Award  Date:   February 1969

Completion  Date:   May 1971
                       EPA PROJECT OFFICER:

                        Mr. Edmond Lomasney
                        Region IV, EPA
                        1421 Peachtree Street, N.E.
                        Atlanta, Georgia 30309
                           Project Cost: $m,845

                           Federal Cost: $123,883.75
Summary:
The successful treatment of domestic waste from one drainage basin of the
City of Macon, Georgia, along with wastewater from an 850 ton-per-day
Kraft linerboard mill and a 600 ton-per-day groundwood-cold caustic struc-
tural insulation board mill, was obtained in a 120 gallon-per-minute capa-
city plant.  A pro-rated quantity of the total flow of each waste was
treated.  -  The pilot plant consisted of combined and/or separate primary
sedimentation units,  followed by two parallel secondary treatment systems.
Each secondary system received half of the plant influent.  One secondary
system consisted of 24-30 hours of extended aeration, while the other con-
sisted of a high rate plastic media bio-filter followed by 12-15 hours of
aeration.  Both systems had secondary sedimentation and sludge return.
-  The secondary systems averaged approximately 92% BOD removal with an
effluent concentration in the range of 50 mg/1 BOD.  Auxiliary studies
indicated that supplemental nutrients are not required.   Chlorine proved
to be the best disinfecting agent, but large amounts were required.   An
organism in the ground wood-cold caustic operation interfered with the
fecal coliform test,  making disinfection studies inconclusive.  Settled
secondary sludge was  bulky, containing one to three percent solids,
and was difficult to  dewater.
             ADDRESS  INQUIRIES TO  EPA PROJECT  OFFICER
                               IV-13

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INFORMATION  SHEET
        ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION
RESEARCH. DEVELOPMENT OB OEMOMSTHATIOM PROJfCT

  This shed briefly describes an R & D project Section 104 or 105 of the
  Federal Water Pollution Control Act Amendments of 1972 (PL 92-oOU)
PROJECT NUMBER:
            DRO
TITI F OF PROJECT*    Deepwater - Pilot-Plant - Engineering and Intercep-
IMlt ur rnvjfcvi.        Feasibility Study
 GRANTEE OR CONTRACTOR:
   Delaware River Basin Commission
   25 Scotch Road - P.O. Box 360
   Trenton, New Jersey 08603
 Slt6 .'
                Salem County, New Jersey
 DESCRIPTION OF PROJECT
 Award Date:
         April, 1969
                                 EPA PROJECT  OFFICER:
Mr.  Gilbert Horowitz
Region III, EPA
Curtis Building
Sixth and Walnut Streets
Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 19106
   Project  Cost:   $995,650
 Completion Date:

 Summary:
            April, 1972
   Federal Cost:
$646,700
    A pilot-plant and engineering study to develop a chemical-biological
    treatment process for joint  industrial-municipal wastes, capable of
    attaining at least 88% to 93% removal of major pollutants will be com-
    pleted in the project.  Design, operating,  and cost  information is to
    be obtained for an 80-mgd regional treatment complex.  The basic objec-
    tives of this project are:
    1.

    2.


    3.
Testing and evaluation of advanced waste treatment processes for
final effluent polishing.
Development of suitable cost apportionment formulations for the
treatment of various industrial wastes by a joint regional complex
operated by an interstate agency.
Development and demonstration of the requirements for organizing,
operating, and administering a regional facility by an interstate
agency.
              ADDRESS INQUIRIES TO EPA PROJECT OFFICER

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 INFORMATION  SHEET
        ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY
RESEARCH.  DEVELOPMENT OR DEMONSTRATION PROJECT
  This sheet briefly describes an R & U project Section 104 or 10.") of the
  Federal Water Pollution Control Acl Amendments of 1972 (PI. U2-500)

PROJECT NUMBER:   DRT


TITLE OF  PROJECT! Upstream Packing House Waste Treatment Demonstration,
                  City of Stockton
GRANTEE  OR  CONTRACTOR:
City Council
City of Stockton
Stockton, California

Project Site :  Stockton, California

DESCRIPTION OF  PROJECT

Award  Date: February,  1969

Completion Date:  juiy, 1970

Summary:
EPA PROJECT OFFICER:
Mr. Harold G. Keeler
Industrial Pollution Control
 Division (RD-679), EPA
Washington, D.  C.  20460
    Project  Cost:  $1,035,970

    Federal  Cost:    $331,078
A full-scale (2 mgd) development and demonstration of upstream treatment
of packinghouse waste By use of aerobic treatment in a combination use of
high rate activated sludge and in-sewer treatment will be undertaken in
this project.  The complex is anticipated to result in the reduction of
BOD load to the municipal system of 80% and demonstration of the utility
value of the conveying sewer line to further treat sewage and to reduce
capitol expenditures over a typical activated sludge plant otherwise
required.  It  is intended to consider the use of the Kehr process for
partial upstream treatment during pilot studies.
             ADDRESS INQUIRIES TO EPA PROJECT OFFICER

                              IV-15

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INFORMATION  SHEET


        ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY
RESEARCH. DEVELOPMENT OR DEMONSTRATION PROJECT

  This shn-l briH-K a^mbr* a.i R >!v b proj.vl Action 104 or 1(15 of (in-
  Federal \\aler Pollution Control -\ct Amendments of 1()72 (PI. <)2-500)


PROJECT NUMBER:   DTJJ


TITLE  OF  PROJECT:  Dynamic Process Development for  Biological Treatment
                  of Whey Bearing Wastes


GRANTEE  OR  CONTRACTOR:                 EPA PROJECT OFFICER:

 Village of Walton                         Mr. Allyn Richardson
 Village Hall                             Region  I, EPA
 21 North Street                          John F.  Kennedy  Federal Bldg.
 Walton, New York 13856                    Boston,  Massachusetts 02203

Project Site:  Walton, New York
————————  Hastings on the Hudson, New York

DESCRIPTION OF PROJECT

Award Date:  February, 1969                  Project  Cost: $80,047


Completion Date:   August, 1970               Federal  Cost: $52,730


 Summary:

 Efforts of this one-year bench and pilot  study will be concentrated in
 resolving problems associated with biological treatment of wastes from
 the manufacture of cheese and associated  dairy products.  Frequency
 response techniques will be employed in the development of activated
 sludge systems with stable culture separation characteristics. Odor
 control techniques will be evaluated in packed tower trickling filter
 studies.  A  selected process will be employed in an on-site pilot plant.
             ADDRESS INQUIRIES TO EPA PROJECT OFFICER

                              IV-16

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 INFORMATION^ SHEET
        ENVIRONMENTAL  PROTECTION AGENCY
RESEARCH,  DEVELOPMENT OR DEMONSTRATION  PROJECT
  This sheet briefly de.srribes an R & I) project Section 104 or UKi of the
  Federal Water Pollution Control Acl Amendments of 1972 (PI, 92-500)

PROJECT NUMBER:    FAE


TITLE OF PROJECT.'  A Demonstration of  Joint Municipal-Industrial Waste
                   Treatment  in the Onondaga Lake Watershed
GRANTEE  OR CONTRACTOR:
 Department  of Public Works
 Onondaga County, New York
                                 EPA PROJECT OFFICER:
                                 Mr. Robert Flint
                                 Rochester Field Office, EPA
                                 P. 0.  Box 4748
                                 Rochester, New York 14612
Project Site :    Onondaga County, New York

DESCRIPTION  OF PROJECT

Award  Date:    September 1957

Completion Date:  September 1970

Summary:

Onondaga Lake has been a receptor of domestic and industrial wastes to
such an extent that it is now in an advanced stage of eutrophication.
This project is part of a $20 million program to restore Onondaga Lake.

The objectives of this project are:
                                     Project Cost: $507)70o

                                     Federal Cost: $357,150
     i.

     2.

     3.

     4.
Demonstration of county-industry cooperative wastewater manage-
ment of municipal-industrial wastes based on an entire watershed.
Illustration of the feasibility of treatment of mixtures of
industrial and domestic wastes.
Demonstration of the treatment of an industrial waste stream
with the waste effluent from another industry.
Evaluation of the effects of proposed management and treatment
methods on the economics of the treatment processes and on the
restoration of the lake.
             ADDRESS INQUIRIES TO EPA PROJECT OFFICER

                               IV-17

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INFORMATION  SHEET

        ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY
RESEARCH. DEVELOPMENT OR DEMONSTRATION PROJECT

  This sheet brirfK  a,, R & D project Section 104 or UK, of the
  Federal Water Pollution Control Acl Amendments of W72 (PL <)2-o<)0)
PROJECT NUMBER:
FAY
TITLE OF PROJECT:   Aerobic-Anaerobic Pretreatment of  Citrus Wastes
 GRANTEE OR CONTRACTOR:
  City Commission
  City Hall
  Brooksville, Florida 33512

 Project Site :    Brooksville, Florida

 DESCRIPTION OF PROJECT

 Award Date:   June, 1970

 Completion Date:   March,  1972

 Summary:
                     EPA PROJECT OFFICER:

                      Dr. David Hill
                      SERL, EPA
                      College Station Road
                      Athens, Georgia  30601
                         Project  Cost:   $132,531

                         Federal  Cost:    $88,161
  During the grant period, the grantee will verify the design parameters
  for and determine the feasibility of operating an aerobic-anaerobic
  pretreatment system for a citrus fruit processing plant.   The treatment
  facility will be located on city property and will be operated by the
  City of Brooksville.  The pretreatment system consists of two aerobic
  basins with mechanical aerators and two anaerobic basins. These basins
  will be operated in sequences and combinations and under various biolog-
  ical conditions to determine the optimum system.  The hydraulic capacity
  of the system is 144,000 gpd with effluent requirements of 250 mg/1 BOD,
  100 mg/1 suspended solids, and pH of 6.5-8.5.
              ADDRESS INQUIRIES TO EPA PROJECT OFFICER

                                IV-18

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 INFORMATION^ SHEET
        ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY
RESEARCH. DEVELOPMENT OR DEMONSTRATION PROJECT
  Thi> sheet bricl'K dcM-ribes an R & U project Section 104 or 10.") of the
  Federal Water Pollution Control Act Amendments of 1972 (PL 92-500)
PROJECT NUMBER:
FJQ
TITLE  OF  PROJECT!  Pollution Abatement and By-Product Recovery in
                  Shellfish and Fisheries Processing - Phase I
GRANTEE OR CONTRACTOR:
  City of Kodiak
  Box 685
  Kodiak, Alaska 99615

Project Site:  Kodiak, Alaska

DESCRIPTION OF PROJECT

Award Date:    Aprii, 1970

Completion Date:   June, 1971

Summary:
                      EPA  PROJECT  OFFICER:
                       Mr.  Kenneth Dostal
                       PNERL, EPA
                       200  Southwest 35th Street
                       Corvallis, Oregon 97330
                          Project Cost:  $101,soo

                          Federal Cost:   $49,952
 This research and development project involves the evaluation of the
 various parameters involved in demonstrating the feasibility of construct-
 ing and operating a by-product recovery system for shellfish and fishery
 processing plants.

 Objectives include:

      1.  Conduction of an engineering survey of industrial waste quantities
      2.  Conduction of pilot-plant experiments on by-product operations.
      3.  Preparation of a pre-construction summary report.
            ADDRESS INQUIRIES TO EPA PROJECT OFFICER

                              IV-19

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INFORMATION  SHEET


        ENVIRONMENTAL PROJECTION AGENCY
RESEARCH. DEVELOPMENT OR DEMONSTRATION PROJECT

  Tin, sheet L.riefh .IrM-rilu^ an R & U project Section 104 or 105 of the
  Federal \\ater Pollution Control Acl Amendments of l')72 (PI, 92-500)


PROJECT NUMBER:  FYF


TITLE OF PROJECT: Fluidized-Bed Incineration of  Selected Carbonaceous
                  Industrial Wastes


 GRANTEE OR CONTRACTOR:                 EPA PROJECT OFFICER:
  Ohio Department of Natural Resources       Mr. Eugene Harris
  Ohio Departments  Building                NERC, EPA
  Columbus, Ohio 43215                     Cincinnati, Ohio 45268


 Project Site:  coiumbus,  OMO


 DESCRIPTION OF  PROJECT

 Award  Date:   June, 1970                      Project Cost: $140,818


 Completion Date:  September, 1971              Federal Cost:  $98,573


  Summary:

  The program consisted  of an initial phase in which wastes from the paint,
  plastics, rubber, and  textile industries in Ohio were characterized.  In
  the second phase, samples of various wastes were obtained and analyzed,
  and based on their characteristics, selected wastes were experimentally
  incinerated in a 10-inch-diameter fluidized-bed  system.

  Results of the program indicate that sludges from solvent recovery opera-
  tions in the paint industry, sludges from primary treatment of process
  wastes from plastic manufacturing, flotation sludges from primary treat-
  ment of synthetic rubber manufacture, and the waste from the viscose
  process of the textile industry can be incinerated in a fluidized-bed
  system without the production of noxious or toxic exhaust gases.  The pro-
  gram also indicates that incineration of the various wastes significantly
  reduces their potential  impact on stream pollution.  It is recommended
  that a demonstration plant be constructed and operated at a site close
  to the source of several types of industrial wastes.
               ADDRESS INQUIRIES TO EPA PROJECT OFFICER

                                IV-20

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 INFORMATION  SHEET
         ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY
RESEARCH,  DEVELOPMENT  OR DEMONSTRATION PROJECT
  This sheel briefh drx-ribcs an R. & L) project Section 104 or 105 of llie
  Federal \\alcr Pollution Control Acl Amendments of 197J (PI- 92-500)
PROJECT NUMBER:
GER
TITLE OF PROJECT:
 Optimization of Combined Industrial-Municipal Waste
 Treatment Through Automation and Reuse
GRANTEE OR CONTRACTOR:
The Miami Conservancy District
38 East Monument Avenue
Dayton, Ohio 45402

Project Site :    Franklin, Ohio

DESCRIPTION  OF PROJECT

Award  Date:   October, 1971

Completion Date:   June, 1973

Summary:
                       EPA PROJECT  OFFICER:
                        Mr. James Phillips
                        Region V, EPA
                        1 North Wacker Drive
                        Chicago, Illinois 60606
                           Project Cost:  $1,240,700

                           Federal Cost:    $606,900
The project plan is  to construct and operate a regional type waste treat-
ment facility which  will serve  all industrial and municipal users within
the service area.  The plant will result  in the abandonment of  the exist-
ing City of Franklin sewage treatment plant and four industrial treatment
facilities, all of which are grossly inadequate.   The project will stress
high reliability and performance, flexibility, economy, recovery, and
recycle of pollutants and treated wastewater, and automation of waste
treatment systems.

The project plant  includes the  evaluation and economic analysis of:
1.  Separate industrial collection, primary treatment, and solids disposal
facilities.  2.  Recovery and reuse of industrial by-products.  3.  Reuse
of treated wastewater for industrial process.  4. Waste solids disposal
by soil stabilization. 5. Secondary treatment of  combined industrial waste
by: (a) plug flow, hybrid flow, and completely mixed aerated stabilization,
(b) activated sludge, and (c) contact stabilization.  6.  Process control
computer.
             ADDRESS INQUIRIES TO EPA PROJECT OFFICER

                               IV-21

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INFORMATION  SHEET

        ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY
RESEARCH. DEVELOPMENT OR DEMONSTRATION PROJECT

  This slurl briefly describes an R & D project Section 104 or 105 of U»'
  Friiwal Water Pollution Control Acl Amendments of 1972 (PL 92-500)
PROJECT NUMBER:

TITLE OF PROJECT:
                 HRA
                  Tertiary Treatment of Municipal and Industrial
                  Waste Waters with Recycled MgCOg and Lime
6RANTEE OR CONTRACTOR:

   Department of Public Utilities
   City of Gainesville
   Gainesville, Florida 32601

PrOJBCt Site :   Gainesville, Florida

DESCRIPTION OF PROJECT
                                       EPA PROJECT OFFICER:

                                        Mr. Edmond  Lomasney
                                        Region IV,  EPA
                                        1421 Peachtree Street, N.E.
                                        Atlanta, Georgia  30309
 Award Date:
             July,  1971
 Completion Date:
                  June,  1973
Project Cost:

Federal Cost:
                                                        $141,280
$64,280
 Summary:

   During this 24-month project laboratory investigations will be initiated
   to develop the technology for using MgC03 and lime in a tertiary clarifi-
   cation process for the treatment of selected industrial and municipal
   waste waters.  The techniques for the recovery and reuse of MgCOo and lime
   will be optimized for the waste waters under evaluation. Data obtained
                    ac\ivities wil1 be utilized to design and operate a
                                                           on
             ADDtESS IMQUIRIIS TO IM MOJICT OPPICIR
                               17-22

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 INFORMATION  SHEET
        ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY
RESEARCH. DEVELOPMENT OR DEMONSTRATION  PROJECT
  This slit-el briel'K describes an R. & U project Section 104 or 105 of tin-
  Federal \\aler Pollution Control Act Amendments of 1972 (PI, 92-500)

PROJECT NUMBER:  801221

TITLE OF PROJECT;   Ecostatic Cane Processing System - Pilot Phase
GRANTEE OR CONTRACTOR:
 County of Hawaii
 25 Aupuni Street
 Hilo, Hawaii 96783

Project Site :  Pepeekeo, Hawaii

DESCRIPTION OF PROJECT

Award  Date:    April, 1972

Completion  Date:  March, 1973

Summary:
EPA PROJECT OFFICER:
 Mr. Kenneth Dostal
 NERC, EPA
 200 Southwest 35th Street
 Corvallis, Oregon 97330
    Project  Cost: $979,390

    Federal  Cost: $109,000
 The applicant proposes.to pilot plant several systems on a large scale
 which,  if successful, would result in the processing of raw cane sugar
 with no discharge of liquid wastes to the environment and provide proper
 handling techniques for the various forms of solid waste.  Systems to
 be evaluated include: a field harvester-cleaner, a dry cane cleaner,  a
 juice wet cane cleaner (with juice added back to the process stream) , a
 trash dry cleaner, a trash wet cleaner with silt removal and complete
 recycle of water on a stabilized slope disposal system for thickened
 muds.
            ADDRESS INQUIRIES TO  EPA PROJECT OFFICER

                              IV-23

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INFORMATION SHEET

        ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY
RESEARCH.  DEVELOPMENT OR DEMONSTRATION PROJECT

  This Shr«-( briefly Xenix's an R & U project Srclion  104 or 105 »f llu-
  FtMlrral \\ah-r Pollution Control Acl  Amendments ol l<>,2 
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                         FINAL REPORTS AVAILABLE

                JOINT INDUSTRIAL/MUNICIPAL POINT SOURCES
REPORT NUMBER
TITLE/AUTHOR
11060 EOC 07/69    Joint Municipal  and Semi chemical
11060 FAE 11/69


11060 FAE 04/71


11060 DPD 02/71
12130 EDX 07/70
Pulping Wastes, City of Erie, Pennsylvania
and Hammermill Paper Company.

Feasibility of Joint treatment in a Lake
Watershed, Onondaga County, New York.

Onondaga Lake Study, Onondaga County,
Syracuse, New York.

Combined Treatment of Municipal  Kraft
Linerboard and Fiberboard Manufacturing
Wastes; by Board of Water Commissioners,
City of Macon, Georgia, Georgia Kraft
Co., and Armstrong Cork Co.

Joint Treatment of Municipal Sewage and
Pulp Mill Effluents, the Green Bay Metro
Sewage District, Green Bay, Wisconsin
SOURCE

GPO - $1.50



NTIS PR 201 698


GPO - $4.50


GPO - $1.25
GPO   $6.00
12130 EZR 05/71     Combined Treatment of Domestic and Indus-    GPO - $1.25
12130 EGK 06/71


12130 FJQ 06/71
12130 DUJ 09/71
EPA 660/2-73-038
 3/74
trial Wastes by Activated Sludge, City of
Dallas, Oregon.

Biological Treatment of Chlorophenolic
Wastes, City of Jacksonville, Arkansas.

Pollution Abatement and By-Product
Recovery in Shellfish and Fisheries Pro-
cessing, Food Chemical and Research Labs.,
Inc., Seattle, Washington, and Engineering
Science of Alaska, Anchorage, Alaska.
 s
Whey Effluent Packed Tower Trickling
Filtration, by Ouirk, Lawler & Matusky
Engineers, Tappan, New York.

Deepwater Pilot Plant Feasibility Study,
Delaware River Basin Commission, Trenton,
New Jersey, 08603.
GPO


GPO
$1.50


$1.00
12120 FYF 03/72    Fluidized-Bed Incineration of Selected
                   Carbonaceous  Industrial  Wastes,  State of
                   Ohio, Dept.  of Natural  Resources,  Columbus,
                   Ohio.
GPO - $1.50
GPO - $4.10
                                             GPO - $1.00
                                  IV-25

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REPORT NUMBER     TITLE/AUTHOR

12010 DTQ 02/72   Combined Steel  Mill  and  Municipal
                  Wastewater Treatment,  Weirton Steel
                  Division, National Steel  Corp., Weirton,
                  West Virginia,  26062
EPA 660/2-73-010
 12/73
EPA R2-73-236
 11060 DLF
EPA 660/2 74020
Tertiary Treatment of Combined Domestic
and Industrial  Wastes, by J.  W.
CH2M/HILL, Corvallis,  Oregon.
Lee,
                                             SOURCE

                                             GPO - $1.50
Treatment of Domestic Wastewater and NSSC    GPO - $1.40
Pulp and Paper Mill  Wastes, Harriman
Utility Board, Harriman, New York.
Evaluation of Polymeric Clarification  of
Meat-Packing and Domestic  Wastewater.  by
K. D. Larsen and D.  A.  Maulwauf,
Metropolitan Sewer Board,  South St.  Paul,
Minnesota.
             GPO - $2.60
             GPO -
                                 IV-26

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                        METAL AND METAL PRODUCTS
     This program is classified into four broad categories.  They are the
ferrous metals industries, the non-ferrous metals industries, the metal
fabrication and finishing operations, and the machinery and transporta-
tion equipment manufacturing industries.

     The basic objective of the industrial wastewater management treat-
ment research program is to achieve closed-loop type of control due to
the passage of the Federal Water Pollution Control Act Amendments of 1972,
designated as PL 92-500.

     In general, the following programmed steps are necessary to accom-
plish the most economical pollution abatement of these significant indus-
trial sectors both from the short and long range standards.

     1.  Define the problem by identifying all waste sources including
         the characteristics, volumes,  and pollutant loads.

     2.  Implement process changes and  in-plant control techniques for
         eliminating unnecessary wastes and conserving water.

     3.  Evaluate closed-loop technology and apply such systems to
         achieve maximum recovery of chemicals and reuse of water.

     4.  Carefully assess the alternative technology for treating the
         remaining waste discharges to  meet the Federal effluent require-
         ments with a minimum of capital, energy, operating, and solid
         disposal  costs.

     The steel, machinery, transportation equipment, and metal  finishing
(excluding electroplating) industries are defined by the following
Standard Industrial Classification (SIC) Numbers: 331, 332, 34 (except
3471), 35, and 37.  The non-ferrous metals and electroplating industries
are defined by the following SIC Numbers: 333, 334, 335, 336,  and 3471.


IRON AND STEEL MANUFACTURING:  COKING.  IRON MAKING, STEEL MAKING SEGMENT

     The steel industry uses about 18 billion gallons of water per day or
10 percent of the  total industry usage.  This industry is a 20  billion
dollar a year business which ranks third behind the automotive  and
petroleum industries in the value of its shipments.   Approximately
92 percent of the  total U.S. steel production is produced by 15 major
steel corporations with approximately 70 percent being produced by seven
of the major corporations in 47 plants.  These seven corporations are:
U. S. Steel Corporation in Pittsburgh,  PA; Bethlehem Stial  Corporation
in Bethlehem, PA;  Republic Steel Corporation in Cleveland,  Ohio; National
Steel Corporation  in Pittsburgh, PA; Armco Steel Corporation in Middletown,
Ohio; Jones and Laugh!in Steel  Corporation in Pittsburgh, PA;  and Inland
Steel Company in Chicago, Illinois.
                                   V-l

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     The steel  industry is composed of some 102 companies  operatinn 420
plants.   Of these, 63 are integrated plants, 96 are  non-integrated and
260 are  hot and cold working plants.  These plants are  located in almost
every state,  but the principal concentration is in the  northwest quadrant
of the country  in the States of New York, Pennsylvania, Ohio, Indiana,
and Illinois.

     Generalizations about steelmaking operations are difficult because
exceptions  can  be found in every mill.  Steel mills  in  operation today
range from  older marginal mills built early in  this  century to new modern
facilities  built in the last several years.

     Significant waterborn wastewaters result from  all  steel mill manu-
facturing operations.  These wastes are principally  suspended solids, oils,
waste acids, ammonia, cyanides, phenols,  chlorides,  fluorides, sulfides,
heavy metals, and heated  discharges.

     Basic processing operations  include: by-product coke manufacturing;
blast furnaces; steel making  (electric furnaces,  basic  oxygen furnaces,
and open hearth furnaces); vacuum degassing operations; continuous cast-
ing; sintering operations; rolling mill operations:  and finishing opera-
tions.

     Each of.these  basic  operations contains  a  large complexity of pollu-
tant discharges into  the  environment.  For  the  coking operation, wastes
are emitted from the  waste ammonia liquor,  still  wastes, final cooler
wastes, and light oil  recovery wastes.  The blast furnace, with similar
pollutants to the coking  operation, has its main  aqueous waste resultinn
from gas cleaning with  wet washers.   The  actual steel  making operation
generates liquid wastes  from the  air  pollution  control  equipment, such
as: sparking boxes,  spray chambers, and venturi scrubbers.  The degassing
operation has liquid  wastes  from  the  barometric condenser cooling water.
Cooling water discharge results from  the  casting  operations, whereas dust
control equipment creates the sintering operations  wastewater.  The
rolling mill operation has was tewater from  the  scale, lubricating oils,
spent pickling operations,  and pickling  rinse waters.

      Treatment technology differs for each  of the respective unit oper-
ations.  The coking operation employs,  for  the  waste ammonia liquor,
anhydrous  recovery, bio-oxidation of cyanides and phenols,  ammonia
denitrification, and possibly total  incineration, 'dosed loop is
achievable  for the final  cooler water and a minimum blowdown with tight
 recycle is  available for the light oil  recovery wastes.  The blast
furnace available treatment includes  suspended solids  removal by sedi-
mentation  and  a tight recycle system similar to the coking  operation.
Besides sedimentation and tight recycle,  the actual  steelmaking
 operation  employs, for new sources, several  dry collection  methods
 including  electrostatic precipitators or bag houses.   The vacuum degass-
 ing operation  treats its cooling water wastes by sedimentation,  filtra-
 tion, cooling, and recycle.   The continuous casting mode  recycles spray
 cooling waters with scale pit sedimentation followed by filtration  or
 cooling.   The  sintering phase employs dry dust collection and  gas cleaning
                                   V-2

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equipment for new plants whereas the wet systems incorporate a complete
recycle consisting of a thickener (polyelectrolyte addition), vacuum
filter and clarifier.  The recycle blowdown consists of, aeration for oil
removal, lime precipitation, fluoride neutralization, and addition of
final thickeners.

     The rolling mill operation employs crude settling chambers for scale
and oil recovery, lime neutralization and deep well disposal for strono
pickling operations, recovery of oily wastewaters by primary belt skimmina,
chemical coagulation, magnetic agglomeration, and deep filtration.  The
main treatment operations employed in the finishino operations include
chrome reduction, cyanide oxidation, sedimentation, and metal sludge
filtration.

     Technoloaical gaps exist in the iron and steel treatment technoloay.
These areas will be covered essentially by wastewater constituents and
their removal.

     Cyanides have been proven to be quite troublesome and toxic.  The
oxidation to cyanates (CNO~)  or carbon dioxides (C02) by various oxidizers
(alkaline chlorination or hypochlorite) has been accomplished for the
electroplating wastes but has not been proven effective in polishina
operations for activated sludae reaction effluents.  Bioxidation is effec-
tive but generally susceptible to shock loads and requires a lona
residence time.  Cyanide removal by ion exchange columns is effective but
expensive.

     The phenolic wastes can be removed by either liquid extraction or
vapor recirculation but these methods are not economical".  The same
applies to bio-oxTd"ation of phenols.

     Effective methods of ammonia recovery and removal require the use
of an ammonia still and gas liquid adsorption.  These processes are not
popular with the industry and include indirect and semi-direct recovery
as well as the keystone process.  Biological nitrification-
denitrification of ammonia is not feasible currently because of inherent
system instabilities.  The ion exchange removal approach looks promisina
but little has been done.

     Another problem area is the treatment or disposal of spent picklino
solutions.  The simplest method is, of course, neutralization but
unfortunately leaves a qreat deal of dissolved solids.Ion exchange
removal has been demonstrated for sulfuric and hydrochloric acid.Direct
crystallization of FeS04 from either sulfuric or hydrochloric liquors.
The acid is regenerated in the process and the entire procedure looks
promising.  Finally spent pickling solution separation by reverse osmosis
is now only a matter of speculation.

     In general, the future development and demonstration projects in
this industry will focus upon meeting the mandates of PL 92-500 and
minimizing energy usage, fuel consumption, and pollutant output.
                                   V-3

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     Some technologies to be implemented  in  the  near  future include:
open cycle on  slaa  and sludqe dewaterinq  and disposal;  (best available
treatment) technology development for a closed loon in  an intearated steel
mill (closed cycle); open cycle for reducing phosphates and heavy metals
by the employment of iron pellets without any additional  chemical addition
to sludges; employment of electromembranes in the  f^SC^ oickling operation
to achieve a step towards closed cycle; and  finally a new technology is
emerging using- direct reduction of low grade taconite ore effectively
eliminating the blast furnace and cokina  operation to achieve total
environmental  control.

     All of these aforementioned technologies will be attempted in the
near future to improve the steelmaking industries' technology and to
"preserve the  integrity of our nation's waterways."


NON-FERROUS METALS

     The non-ferrous metals industry in the  United States is larqe and
diversified.   The major non-ferrous metals from  the standpoint of tonnaqes
produced are aluminum, copper, zinc, and  lead.   These metals constitute
over 70 percent of  the total production of non-ferrous  metals.  Some of
the other important non-ferrous metals are manqanese, chromium, nickel,
sodium, tin, magnesium, molybdenum, uranium, antimony,  titanium, tungsten,
silver, cadmium, cobalt, vanadium, mercury,  tantalum, gold, and the rare
earths.

     The major processing operations that are carried out in the non-
ferrous metals industry are: mining and milling; leachino of metal
compounds; smelting; refining; and the fabrication of the metals into
sheets,^wire,  tubing, and other shapes.   Smelters  and refiners are
categorized as primary or secondary, depending upon whether ore or scran
are used as the principle source of the metal.

     There are approximately 100 primary  non-ferrous  metal plants and at
least several  hundred secondary plants in the United  States.  The averaae
employment for primary and secondary olants  is about  500  and 100 people,
respectively.   The  four major non-ferrous metals were produced in the
following quantities in 1971.

     TYPE OF OPERATION                     METAL PRODUCTION (SHORT TONS)

     Primary Aluminum                                 3  935 223
     Secondary Aluminum                                '813*741
     Primary Copper                                  -j  470*350
     Secondary Copper                                  *445J57
     Primary Lead                                       650 000
     Secondary Lead                                    KQC -ja-i
     Primary Zinc                                       347*356
     Secondary Zinc                                    35g;2oo
                                  V-4

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     Besides these primary and secondary facilities, there are over 2,000
fabricating plants that make tubes, wires, sheets, plates, castings, etc.,
from non-ferrous metals.

     The non-ferrous metals industry uses large quantities of water for
cooling and processing purposes.  It is estimated that the total industry
uses approximately 1.5 billion gallons of water per day.

     The major wastewaters arising in the industry are mud slurries, flo-
tation plant tailings, gas scrubber waters from smelting and refining,
discarded leach liquors, spent electrolyte solutions, clean-up water, slaa
and ore storage runoff, direct contact cooling water, and oil-bearing
lubricating wastes, process bath dumps, leaks and spills, and rinsewaters
from fabricating facilities.

     The most significant pollutants discharged by the industry are
inorganic solid particles, a wide variety of toxic heavy metals, acids
and alkalies, fluoride, cyanide, lubricating oils, and sludges.  Among the
minor contaminants are dissolved salts, BOD, and COD.

     The present waste treatment practices used in the milling, concen-
trating, smelting, and refining segments of the non-ferrous metals
industry consist primarily of neutralization and settling.  Relatively
little attention has been given to the removal of .heavy metals and other
toxic contaminants which are usually diluted in the overall plant waste
discharge.  However, substantial progress has been made in water recycl-
ing and reuse.

     Primary aluminum plants have proceeded much further than other seg-
ments of the industry in attacking the pollution problem at the source.
There is a continuing trend in these plants toward implementing dry fume
scrubbers and the recycle of water to the wet scrubbers after precipita-
tion of the fluorides.

     The fabricating segment is more advanced than the remainder of the
non-ferrous metal industry in the implementation of wastewater abatement
technology.  The major water pollution problems occur in copper and brass
mills where sulfurfc acid and chromic acid are used for pickling and
bright dipping, respectively.  In addition to chemical treatment, waste
abatement techniques include process changes (replacement of chromic acid
with hydrogen peroxide for bright dipping), electrolytic recovery and
purification of process baths, cementation for the removal of copper and
reduction of chromium in rinsewaters, and integrated chemical treatment
of rinsewaters.  A new approach is the use of reverse osmosis/evanoration
for treating the overall wastes from the plant.  The only other significant
waste problems occur in the aluminum fabricating plants where the metal
finishing operations are performed in the mill.  Treatment methods include
neutralization and precipitation, ion exchange, and evaporation.

     The projected long term direction of development is toward recyclinn,
recovery, and closed loop type of waste treatment technology.  In milling,
                                   V-5

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smelting,  and  refining operations, the approach will be to abate the
problems  at  the  source where feasible by process chances, dry  treatment
systems and  advanced waste treatment/recovery techno!oqy.  Among the
treatment methods with potential are: ion exchange,  ion flotation,
electrolytic techniques, cementation, membrane systems, evaporation,
freezing,  extraction, high temperature-pressure crystallization, and the
recovery of  metals  from sludges.  Some of the more potentially attractive
methods for  treating wastes produced at fabricating  plants are reverse
osmosis for  concentrating oil or chemicals, ion exchange, electrolytic
techniques,  electrodialysis, evaporation, and cementation.


METAL FINISHING

     There are about 20,000 metal finishing facilities  in the  United States.
The metal  finishing industry consists of several thousand job  shops, some
larger independent  shops, and the remainder are capitive facilities asso-
ciated with  the  automotive, aircraft, electronics, appliance,  jewelry,
and other industries.  The largest volume of metals  used in  plating oper-
ations are nickel,  copper, chromium, and zinc.  Other  important, but lesser
used, plating  metals are cadmium, brass, silver, gold,  and  lead.  Tin is
the highest  volume  metal employed in plating, but the  process  is used in
steel mills  and  the effluents produced are associated  with  steel manufac-
turing wastes.

     The processes  used in the  industry are: (1) Cleaning for  the removal
of surface oils, grease, dirt,  buffing compounds, etc.;  (2)  Removing
undesirable  surfaces such as rust and scale by pickling, defective metal
surfaces by  stripping, and portions of metal surfaces  by etching, and
(3) Electrochemical and chemical processing for surface  coating a basis
metal.

     Metal surface  preparation  and cleaning are accomplished by mechanical
finishing activities, organic solvents and alkaline  cleaners,  and pickling
solutions.  Most pickling operations simply involve  solubilizing the oxide
scale in acids such as sulfuric, hydrochloric, phosphoric,  nitric, and
hydrofluoric,  but some pickling is also carried out  with alkaline solutions.

      Electroplating solutions are basically either acid  or  alkaline baths.
Acid  plating solutions contain  free acid and heavy metals  (usually chromium,
nickel, copper,  and zinc).  Alkaline plating baths are mainly  in the form
of complex cyanide  solutions of metals such as copper,  zinc, and cadmium.

      Other finishing operations include chromate conversion  coating,
anodizing, phosphate coating, stripping, etching, bright dfpptnq. electro
and  chemical polishing, plating on plastics, and the application of
organic coatings on metals.

Hnc  ^J W3SteS  P™duced  in n**31 finishing facilities are  from spent baths,
p^ntc *    -aCClde?ta1 dischar^s, Plant and equipment  cleanup, and regen-
erants from ion exchange  systems.
                                   V-6

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     The primary environmental concern of the industry is water pollu-
tion.  Waterborne wastes contain toxic pollutants such as cyanide and
heavy metals, corrosive substances, otl and grease, surface active agents,
organic solvents, nutrients and settleable solids.

     The methods used for the abatement of pollution involve inolant
control techniques and the installation of treatment or recovery processes
to destroy or remove objectionable substances in the wastewater.

     Inplant abatement practices involves techniques for reducing draqout
from process tanks into the rinsewater, effective rinsinq, water reuse,
and preventing spills, leaks, and other accidental losses.

     The method generally used to treat metal finishina wastes involves
reduction of chromates, neutralization, separation of precipitated metal
hydroxides, and disposal of the sludge.

     Other techniques that have achieved significant application for treat-
inq metal finishing wastewaters are ion exchange, evaporation, and the
integrated or chemical rinse system for treatinq draqout prior to water
rinsing.

     In addition, there are a number of metal finishino waste treatment
methods that have had limited application or are stages of development or
demonstration such as electrolytic destruction of cyanide in strong baths,
the Kastone process (hydrogen peroxide destruction of cyanide), reverse
osmosis, electrodialysis, ozone destruction of cyanide, carbon bed cataly-
tic rinsewaters, and sulfide precipitation of heavy metals.  A number of
methods are in the early development stage.  These include ion flotation,
freezing, a waste-pi us-waste process, activated carbon removal of chro-
mates from rinsewaters, and fluidized bed electrolytic processes using
conductive and nonconductive particles for treating dilute wastes.

     The projected long term research planned for abating pollution in the
metal finish!nq industry is outlined as follows:

     a.  Open Cycle Technology - Develop and demonstrate best available
treatment economically achievable.  Examoles of specific studies planned
are sulfide precipitation, and a three bed ion exchange system for treat-
ing cyanide bearing rinsewaters.

     b.  Closed Cycle Technology - Develop and demonstrate technology with
high chemical recovery and water reuse potential such as reverse osmosis,
electrodialysis, freezing, electrolytic processes for use on the various
wastes qenerated tn the metal finishing industry^ and a new rtstng film
evaporator for treating rtnsewaters.

     c.  Develop and demonstrate techniques and procedures for recovering
the metal values from individual and mixed sludges produced by the various
chemical treatment techniques.  Bench scale investigations have already
been completed on techniques for recovering metals from the widely produced
                                   V-7

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mixed metal  hydroxide  precipitates.   Investigations  in  full-scale systems
have also been  conducted on recover!nq certain metals from sludges pro-
duced in the inteqrated system and  Kastone process.  The stabilization
of unrecoverable  residues for disposal to landfills, etc., are necessary.

     d.   Further  research will be conducted to inteqrate the aforementioned
technologies with the  lowest energy intensive modes  possible.


MACHINERY AND TRANSPORTATION EQUIPMENT MANUFACTURING

     Industrial activities in the Standard Industrial Classification (SIC)
Groups 35 (Machinery), 36 (Electrical Machinery),  and 37 (Transportation
Equipment) are  included in this subnroqram element.  Combined water usane
is approximately  4.4 billion gallons  per day or  4.5  per cent of industrial
water use.  Approximately 0.38 billion qallons per day  is used in process-
ing operations.   Oil,  particulate matter, and cleaners  constitute the
principal contaminants in wastewaters that arise in  processes other than
finishing operations.  The physical process of sedimentation, flotation,
and chemical neutralization are the most frequently  emoloyed treatment
methods.  Metal finishing operations, waste characteristics, and treat-
ment methods and  objectives are similar to those described in the previous
section.

     The program  objectives are met throuqh a research  and development
planning function located at EPA Headquarters, Washington, D. C., and
an implementation proqram located for metal finishing and the non-ferrous
industries,  at  the Industrial Waste Treatment Research  Laboratory in
Edison,  New  Jersey, and for iron and  steel, transportation, and machinery
at the EPA installation at Grosse lie, Michiqan.
                                  V-8

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DPS
DHP
DIM
DMF
DNF
DOT
DPF
ORE
DRH
DSA
DTQ
DUL
EDY
EIE
EQF
EZV
FNM
FPK
FXD
GCS
GUG.
GVV
HGH
                PROJECT INDEX
           METAL AND METAL PRODUCTS

Grantee or Contractor
RAI Research Corporation
Clarkson College of Technology
University of Utah
The Beaton and Corbin Manufacturing Company
CF&I Steel Corporation
University of Waterloo
Volco Brass and Copper Company
Inter!ake Steel Corporation
Minnesota Pollution Control Agency
S. K. Williams Company
Weirton Steel Corporation
Armco Steel Corporation
American Iron and Steel Institute
Metal Finishers' Foundation
Alabama Water Improvement Commission
Armco Steel Corporation
The Fitzsimons Steel Company, Inc.
Battelle Memorial Institute
Metal Finishers' Foundation
Aerodex, Inc.
New England Plating Company, Inc.
Michigan Plating and Stamping Company
                          i \
Grumman Aerospace Corp.   ,
Project Status
      A
      C
      A
      A
      C
      B
      A
      C
      A
      A
      A
      A
      C
      A
      A
      A
      B
      A
      B
      B
      B
      C
      A
                                   V-9

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HOW
HQJ
PPB
WPRD 41
800625
800680
800772
801989
802113
802142
802254
802335
802390
802637-01
802637-02
802924
803064
803073
803177
803226
803261
803264
803265
803304
Grantee or Contractor
Alan Wood Steel Company
American Electroplaters' Society,  Inc.
The John Hopkins University
Chemical Separations Corporation
Attorney General of Illinois
Grumman Aerospace Corporation
Alan Wood Steel Company
National Steel Corporation
Metal Finishers' Foundation
Toledo Pickling and Steel Service
Anaconda American Brass Company
Sealectro Corporation
University of Arizona
Douglas & Lomason Corporation
Douglas & Lomason Corporation
Metal Finishers' Foundation
The Boeing Company
The Boeing Company
The Singer Company
Anaconda American Brass Company
Aluminum Company of America
American Electroplaters' Society  Inc.
Metal Plating Corporation
Keystone Lamp Manufacturing Corporation
Project Status
      B
      B
      A
      C
      B
      A
      B
      B
      B
      B
      A
      B
      B
      B
      B
      B
      B
      B
      B
      B
      B
      B
      B
      B
                                   V-10

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            Grantee or Contractor                            Project Status

803332      Texas Southern University                              B

803342      Metal Finishers' Foundation                            B

803467      Dr. George E. F. Brewer                                B
Project Status:
A - Completed, Final Report Available
B - Project Ongoing
C - Project Discontinued
                                  Y-ll

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INFORMATION  SHEET
 Th» slu-el briefly describe* an R & D project Action 104 or 105 of llu-
 Federal Water Pollution Control Acl Amendments of 1972 (PL JZ
PROJECT NUMBER:
                    DPS
TITLE OF PROJECT*.   Treatment of Cyanide Rinse Waters by Electrodialysis
GRANTEE OR CONTRACTOR:
 RAI Research Corp.
 36-40 37th Street
 Long Island City, New York 11101
                                         EPA PROJECT  OFFICER:
                                          Lloyd Kahh
                                          Edison Water Research Division
                                          Edison, New Jersey 08817
        SitB.'
               Long Island City, New York
 DESCRIPTION OF PROJECT
 Award Date:
              November 1968
            Date:
                  December 1969
Project Cost:   $83 835

Federal Cost:   $58>685
 Summary:
 In a typical metal plating operation, electroplated work is removed from the
 plating bath and rinsed.  The rinsewater discharged from the operation contains
 components of the plating bath.  When cyanide baths are used the waste is highly
 deleterious and toxic.  -  A system is developed in this study whereby the dis-
 charge of rinsewater is eliminated.  The work, according to this method, is
 rinsed in a sequence of two rinses; the final rinse contains a concentration of
 cyanide of 1/10,000 of that of the plating bath.  -  These concentrations are
 maintained by the use of electrodialysis to transport cyanides from the second
 rinse solution to the first rinse solution and also from the first rinse to the
 plating bath.  In this way, all cyanide is recovered and returned to the bath.
 Design parameters are determined from the experiments of this study and costs
 are estimated. -  The experimental system used in this study was a prototype
 of a commercial-size electrodialysis unit operated continuously under conditions
 which simulated those of the projected two-stage commercial system using a
 cyanide copper plating bath.
               ADDRESS INQUIRIES TO EPA PROJECT OFFICER
                                    "-12

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 INFORMATION  SHEET
         ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY
RESEARCH. DEVELOPMENT OR DEMONSTRATION PROJECT
  This sheet liriefly describes an R & D project Section 104 or 105 of the
  Federal Water Pollution Control Acl Amendments of 1972 (PL 
-------
INFORMATION  SHEET
    . *,<•• Wrfly *"•*» » R * D project Motion 104 _o, ^.05 oMbr-
  rVdwal Walor Pollution Control Acl Amendmcnto of 1972 (PI. 92-500)

PROJECT NUMBER:   DM


TITLE Of PROJECT:  Pyrlte  Depression by Reduction of Solution
        "           Oxidation  Potential
 GRANTEE OR CONTRACTOR:

  Dept. of Mineral Engineering
  University of Utah
  Salt Lake City, Utah

 PrOJBCt  SJt6 :   Salt Lake City, Utah

 DESCRIPTION OF  PROJECT
                                  EPA  PROJECT OFFICER:
                                  Mr. James V. Rouse
                                  Division of Field Investigations
                                  Denver Center,  EPA
                                  Denver Federal  Center, Bldg. 22
                                  Denver, Colorado 80225
Date:
              January, 1969
Project Cost:  $13,559

Federal Cost:  $12,663
 Completion Date:  July, 1970


 Summary:

   In this study of pyrite depression by reducing agents with potassium
   ethylxanthate as collector, it has been shown that pyrite may be depressed
   effectively in the flotation of both lead and copper sulf ide ores without
   the use of poisonous cyanide salts.  More specifically, the use of sodium
   sulfite as the depressant may result in metallurgical, economical, environ-
   mental, and safety advantages over the use of cyanide, a poison.  For example,
   in the case of the copper ore, the best results with cyanide as th.e depres-
   sant were a rougher concentrate recovery of 90.2% and a grade of 4.3% Cu.
   However, when sulfite was used as the depressant for the same recovery a
   grade of 7.3% Cu was obtained.  - Experimental results support the theory
   that dixanthogen is the collector species responsible for pyrite flotation.
   The study shows that pyrite depression is possible by maintaining a
   reduced solution oxidation potential thus preventing dixanthogen formation.
   Depression was effected with the following reducing agents: sulfite, sulf ide,
   thiosulfate, hypophosphite, and oxalate.  In all cases the  results were
   similar.  The proposed mechanism of depression involves the adsorption of
   the reductant on surface active sites, thus preventing the  adsorption and
   dissociation of molecular oxygen to nascent oxygen.
               ADDRESS INQUIRIES TO EPA PROJECT OFFICER
                                   V-14

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 INFORMATION SHEET
        ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY
RESEARCH. DEVELOPMENT OR DEMONSTRATION PROJECT
  This sheet briefly describes an R & D project Section 104 or 105 of the
  Federal Water Pollution Control Act Amendments of 1972 (PL 92-500)
PROJECT NUMBER:
DMF
TITLE  OF  PROJECT:   Chemical Treatment of Plating Waste for Elimination
                   of Chromium, Nickel and Metal Ions
GRANTEE OR CONTRACTOR:
  The Beaton and Corbin Mfg. Co.
  Southington,  Connecticut
PrOJBCt Site '.  Southington, Connecticut

DESCRIPTION OF PROJECT

Award  Date: June, iges

Completion Date:   April, 1971

Summary:
                      EPA PROJECT OFFICER:

                      Mr. John Ciancia
                      Industrial Waste Treatment
                        Research Lab, EPA
                      Edison, New Jersey 08817
                          Project Cost:

                          Federal Cost:
$58,220
$37,250
  Chemical rinses for electroplating dragout contamination and batch chemical
  treatment for spent processing solution are demonstrated as a practical
  method of removal of chromium, nickel, zinc, and copper ions to a level
  where substantial quantities of water may be reused.

  The toxic metal ions are precipitated by chemical meams in an easily
  settled sludge and subsequently further compacted in simple outdoor
  earthen sludge beds for ultimate disposal as landfill.
             ADDtISS INQUItllS TO IPA PROJICT OPPICIR
                                 V-15

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INFORMATION  SHEET

       ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY
RESEARCH.  DEVELOPMENT OR DEMONSTRATION PROJECT

  This sheet briefly describes an R & D project Section 104 or 105 of the
  Federal Water Pollution Control Acl Amendments of 1972 (PL 92-500)

PROJECT NUMBER:
TITLE OF PROJECT:
DNF
 Research Study of Coal Preparation Plant and By-Product
 Coke Plant Effluents
GRANTEE OR CONTRACTOR:
  CF&I Steel Corporation
  P. 0. Box 1920
  Denver, Colorado 80201

Project  Site:  puebio, Colorado

DESCRIPTION OF PROJECT

Award Date:   March, 1959

Completion Date:   August,  1970

 Summary:
                      EPA PROJECT OFFICER:
                      Mr. Fred Pfeffer
                      R.  S. Kerr Environmental
                       Research Lab, EPA
                      P.  0. Box 1198
                      Ada, Oklahoma 74820
                          Project Cost: $205,
000
                          Federal  Cost: $86,5oo
  This project will provide for: (a) a study of waste sources, volumes, and
  characteristics; (b) laboratory and bench-scale studies of alternate treat-
  ment processes; and (c) a study of additions to planned coal washery fil-
  tration facilities to develop reuse possibilities of non-coking solids
  and solids waste disposal. Development  of methods for wastewater treat-
  ment to produce effluents suitable for reuse or discharge in accordance
  with state stream standards will be a major objective.
             ADDRESS INQUIRIES TO IFA MOJICT OFFICI1
                                V-16

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 INFORMATION^  SHEET

        ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY
RESEARCH.  DEVELOPMENT OR DEMONSTRATION PROJECT
  This shed briefly describe.* an R & D project Section 104 or 10.' of lh<-
  Federal Water Pollution Control Acl Amendments of 1972 (PL 92-500)
PROJECT NUMBER:
                  DOT
TITLE OF PROJECT.'  Detoxication of Cyanide Wastes by- Electroxidation
GRANTEE OR CONTRACTOR:
  Department of Chemical Engineering
  University of Waterloo
  Waterloo, Ontario, Canada
        Site :    Waterloo,  Ontario, Canada
                                         EPA  PROJECT OFFICER:

                                           Mr. Clifford Risley
                                           Region V,  EPA
                                           1 North Wacker Drive
                                           Chicago, Illinois 60606
                                             Project Cost: $i0j6oo  (2nd yr)

                                             Federal Cost: $10,065  (2nd yr)
DESCRIPTION OF PROJECT


Award  Date:   May, 1970


Completion Date:  October, 1971


Summary:

  An experimental study was carried out to determine the feasibility of detoxi-
  cating dilute cyanide plating wastes by electrooxidation.  Because of the
  high  toxicity of cyanide in the free or complexed form to aquatic and animal
  life  and its detrimental effect on the operation of sewage treatment plants,
  in-plant purifcation of  dilute cyanide wastes is essential.  Although success-
  ful processes have been  developed for destroying cyanide in concentrated
  plating wastes, the economic feasibility of electrolytic technique for
  treating dilute wastes has not been established.  - An electrochemical
  demonstration unit has been developed for the treatment of dilute cyanide
  plating wastes.  'The cyanide and plating metal concentrations can be
  reduced to less than 1 ppm.  Energy requirements vary according to the duty
  and mode of operation ranging from 40 KWhr to 140 KWhr/lb CN.
             ADDRESS INQUIRIES TO EPA PROJECT OFFICER
                                  V-17

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INFORMATION  SHEET

        ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY
RESEARCH, DEVELOPMENT OR DEMONSTRATION PROJECT

  This shod briefly describes an R & D project Section 104 or 105 of U><>
  Federal Water Pollution Control Act Amendments of 1972 (PL 92-500)

PROJECT NUMBER:
TITLE OF PROJECT:
DPF
 Treatment Recovery, and Reuse of Copper Wire Mill
 Pickling Wastes
 GRANTEE OR CONTRACTOR:
  Volco  Brass and Copper Co.
  Kenilworth, New Jersey 07033
 PrOJBCt Sit6.'   Kenilworth, New Jersey

 DESCRIPTION OF PROJECT

 Award Pile:   June, 19es

 Completion  Date:  December, 1970

 Summary:
                      EPA PROJECT OFFICER:

                       Mr. John Ciancia
                       Industrial Waste Treatment
                        Research Lab, EPA
                       Edison, New Jersey 08817
                           Project Cost:  $177jl59
                           Federal  Cost:
$124,000
   The final report to the project describes process changes and waste treat-
   ment, recovery, arid reuse facilities installed by Volco Brass and Copper
   Company, located in Kenilworth, New Jersey.  The plant produces  75 tons of
   wire per day.

   An electrolytic system was installed to recover copper from the  spent
   primary pickle solution and to regenerate the sulfuric acid for  reuse.  A
   hydrogen peroxide bright pickle replaced the chromate and fluoride bright
   pickles previously used.  Copper from the bright pickle is also  recovered
   in the electrolytic system. The electrolytic copper is reused on location
   in casting.  An integrated copper treatment  system was installed to treat
   bright pickle drag-out.  Sludge from the integrated system is recovered
   tor sale.  Rinse water consuption was reduced from 150 gpm to 10 gpm.
   Former discharges of chromium, ammonium, and fluoride ions have  been
   eliminated.  Cost and operating data and effluent analyses are presented.
              ADDtESS INQUIRIES TO EPA PROJECT OFFICER
                                  V-18

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 INFORMATION  SHEET
         ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY
RESEARCH. DEVELOPMENT OR DEMONSTRATION PROJECT
  This shed brief 1) describes an R, & D project Section  104 or 10." of lli<'
  Kcdcral Water Pollution Control Acl Amendments of 1()72 (PL 92-500)

PROJECT NUMBER:  DRE


TITLE OF PROJECT)   Pollution Control of Blast-Furnace Gas Washer
                    Through Recirculation
                                              Project Cost: $525,6oo

                                              Federal Cost: $175,200
GRANTEE  OR CONTRACTOR:                  EPA PROJECT OFFICER:
  Interlake Steel Corporation               Mr. Clifford Risley
  310 South Michigan Avenue                 Region V,  EPA
  Chicago, Illinois 60604                   1 North Wacker Drive
                                          Chicago, Illinois 60606

Project Site :   Chicago, Illinois


DESCRIPTION  OF PROJECT


Award  Date:   January, 1969


Completion Date:  January, 1971


Summary:
  A system was  developed and facilities were installed at  Interlake, Inc.,
  Chicago Plant,  to treat, clarify, cool,  and recirculate blast furnace and
  sinter plant  wet scrubber effluents in one unified system, in order to
  effectively reuse these waters and eliminate their discharge into  the
  Calumet River.  Prior to recirculation of scrubber waters, the concentra-
  tion  of contaminants in effluents consistently exceeded Illinois code
  limitations with gross contaminant discharges totaling about 4,100 tons
  per year.   The  contaminant intake from the river was about 2,900 tons per
  year, so net  contaminant discharge to the river was 1,200 tons per year.
  After the recycle system started operating, gross  contaminant discharge
  decreased to  1?900 tons per year, and net discharge became a negative
  quantity.  The  construction cost of the unified recirculating system was
  $1,109,400 for  this plant producing about 3,200 tons of hot  metal and
  3,300 tons of sinter per day.  Operating costs are  about $285,000 per year
  higher than the costs of operating the old "once-through" water system.
  Elimination of  dredging costs, and increased iron recovery produce savings
  of about $10,000 per year,  so the net increase in plant operating costs is
  about $275,000  per year,  or $.0001 per gallon  of throughput.

             ADDRESS INQUIRIES TO EPA PROJECT OFFICER

                                 V-19

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 INFORMATION  SHEET

        ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECT/0111 AGENCY
RESEARCH,  DEVELOPMENT OR DEMONSTRATION  PROJECT
  This sheet ItriH'ly dcsorilto an R & D project Section 104 or 10.1 of the
  Federal \\ater Pollution Control Ael Amendments of 1972 (PL 92-500)
PROJECT NUMBER:
                   DRH
TITLE OF PROJECT:  New Membranes for Reverse Osmosis Treatment of Metal
                   Finishing Effluents
                                         EPA PROJECT  OFFICER:
                                          Dr. Hugh B. Durham
                                          Grosse lie Laboratory
                                          9311 Groh Road
                                          Grosse lie, Michigan 48138
                                              Project  Cost:  $i06,ioo  (2nd yr)

                                              Federal  Cost:   $75,86o  (2nd yr)
GRANTEE OR  CONTRACTOR:
 Minnesota Pollution Control Agency
 717 Delaware Street, S.E.
 Minneapolis, Minnesota 55440


Project  Site.'  Minneapolis, Minnesota

DESCRIPTION OF  PROJECT

Award Date:   May, 1971


Completion  Date:  April, 1972


Summary:

An important new membrane was developed for the reverse osmosis treatment of
both highly alkaline and  acidic (non-oxidizing) metal finishing rinse waters.
This membrane,  designated NS-1, and  originally developed for seawater desal-
ination, consists of the  following:  a microporous  support film (polysulfone)
coated with polyethylenimine which is cross-linked with tolylene 2,4-diiso-
cyanate.  -  Simulated  alkaline copper and zinc cyanide plating rinses at pH's
of 11.8 and 12.9 were treated by NS-1 membranes during 500- and 340-hour
tests without deterioration of reverse osmosis properties.   Water fluxes above
10 gallons per  square foot  (of membrane) per day (gfd) were observed with
cyanide rejections between 95% and 99%.   The NS-1 membrane  also treated
simulated copper sulfate  rinse waters effectively  at pH 0.5 during 550-hour
tests without deterioration of reverse osmosis properties (fluxes above 10 gfd
with 99.8% rejection of copper).  The NS-1 membrane is the  only known membrane
that can perform well using both acidic and alkaline feed solutions.  Pre-
liminary engineering considerations  indicated the feasibility  of applying
the NS-1 membrane to reverse osmosis treatment and recycle  of  nickel and
zinc cyanide  electroplating rinse waters.



            ADDRESS INQUIRIES  TO EPA PROJECT OFFICER

                               V-20

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 INFORMATION^ SHEET
        ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY
RESEARCH.  DEVELOPMENT OR DEMONSTRATION PROJECT
  This sheet briefly describes an R & D project Section 104 or 105 of the
  Federal Water Pollution Control Acl Amendments of 4972 (PL 92-500)

PROJECT NUMBER:  DSA


TITLE OF PROJECT!    Electroplating Waste Treatment  and Water Reuse
GRANTEE  OR CONTRACTOR:
  S. K. Williams Company
  2370 N. 32nd Street
  Milwaukee, Wisconsin 53210
        Site :  Milwaukee, Wisconsin
                                          EPA PROJECT  OFFICER:

                                           Mr.  Clifford Ms ley
                                           Region V, EPA
                                           1 North Wacker Drive
                                           Chicago, Illinois 60606
                                              Project Cost:

                                              Federal Cost:
                                                           $157,306.80
                                                            $87,750.
DESCRIPTION OF PROJECT


Award Date:   Juiy, 1968


Completion Date:  May, 1971


Summary:

  The S. K. Williams Company has installed a complete waste treatment system
  to make the wastewater effluent suitable for discharge.  Included in the
  new plant are most of the metal finishing processes common to the industry.
  Despite the wide range of toxic materials used in these processes and the
  severely limited availability of water at the new plant, the company is now
  able to discharge an effluent exceeding the quality established by the USPHS
  for drinking water supplies.  -  Five integrated waste treatment systems,
  each designed for a specific type of waste compound, are used to protect
  the rinse waters from contamination by process solution dragout.   A
  batch-type treatment system handles miscellaneous and intermittent dis-
  charges.  The entire design aims for a minimum volume of sludge produc-
  tion, and a unique and economical sludge dewatering technique is  included.
  Improved rinsing efficiency is achieved through the use of integrated
  chemical rinses, thus permitting the plant to operate on a minimum water
  supply.  Chemical reaction efficiency was considered in the design of each
  phase of the treatment system to insure reduced chemical consumption and
  maximum economy of operation.  Data listing the operating and capital costs
  for the entire system is  presented in the final report for the project.
  Operating experiences are also described in the final report.
             ADDRESS INQUIRIES TO EPA PROJECT OFFICER
                                  V-21

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INFORMATION  SHEET
  This ,.*,! briefly de-rib* an R A D project Section .04 «r 105 oMhr
  Federal Water Pollution Control Act Amendments of 1972 (PL 92-nOO)

PROJECT NUMBER:  DTQ

TITLE OF PROJECT:  Combined Steel Mill and Municipal Wastewaters Treatment
 GRANTEE OR CONTRACTOR:
   Weirton Steel Division
   National Steel Corporation
   P. 0. Box 431
   Weirton, West Virginia 26062
 PrOJBCt Site :   Weirton, West Virginia

 DESCRIPTION OF  PROJECT

 Award  Date:  juiy,  1969

 Completion Date:  January, 1971
EPA  PROJECT OFFICER:

Mr. William L. West
Wheeling Field Station,  EPA
llth and Chapline Street
Wheeling, West Virginia 26063
     Project Cost:
$163,963
     Federal Cost:  $95,9i8
  Summary:
   A systems evaluation was made to determine the feasibility and economics
   of treating selected steel mill and sanitary wastewaters in a municipal
   sewage treatment plant.  The project was Phase I of a three-phase program
   to demonstrate that industry and municipalities through cooperative action
   can combine their wastewaters and attain their individual treatment goals
   in an efficient and economical manner.  - Detailed field work was carried
   out at the steel plant  and the total sewage plant treatment system.  Selected
   steel plant wastes were combined with municipal wastes and evaluated in both
   batch and continuous treatability bench-scale studies. -  The Investiga-
   tion revealed that it  is technically and economically feasible to co-treat
   selected steel plant wastes with municipal wastewaters, A demonstration
   plant would further develop the specific operating procedures such as
   sludge  concentration control, PH control, and rates of waste additions so
   that the process scheme could be routinely  implemented in similar situations.
               ADDRESS INQUIRIES TO IFA MOJICT OFFICIR
                                   V-22

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 INFORMATION  SHEET

        ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY
RESEARCH,  DEVELOPMENT OK DEMONSTRATION PROJECT
  This sheet briefly describes an R & D project Section 104 or 10.' of the
  Federal Water Pollution Control Act Amendments of 1972 (PL 92-500)
PROJECT NUMBER:
DUL
TITLE OF PROJECT!  Limestone Treatment of Rinse Waters from Hydrochloric
                   Acid Pickling of Steel
GRANTEE OR CONTRACTOR:
  Armco Steel Corporation
  Middietown, Ohio
                        EPA PROJECT OFFICER:

                        Mr. Edward Dulaney
                        Industrial Pollution Control
                         Division (RD-679), EPA
                        Washington, D.  C. 20460
                                              Project Cost:

                                              Federal Cost:
                                         $1,784,800
                                           $547,500
Project Site:  Middietown, Ohio

DESCRIPTION OF PROJECT


Award  Date:  November, 1957


Completion Date:  November, 1970


Summary:

 Two hydrochloric acid picklers for cleaning steel strip at Armco Steel
 Corporation's Middietown, Ohio Works produce up to 1,500 gpm of acid rinse
 waters which contain up to 0.5 g/1 free hydrochloric acid and up to 0.87 g/1
 ferrous chloride.  A facility  for disposal of these rinse waters was designed
 based on a process developed at bench-scale by Armco research scientists.
 This process utilizes limestone for neutralization plus aeration and- sludge
 recirculation to oxidize ferrous iron and form soluble calcium chloride.
 The final report on this project describes the investigation of process
 variables at pilot-scale and the optimization and demonstration of the
 process at full-scale.  -  The full-scale facility provided 100% neutrali-
 zation of free acid and over 99% removal of iron using a 50% excess of
 limestone.  A very dense, easily filtered sludge was produced.  Although
 influent temperatures as low as 59°F were encountered,  game fish popula-
 tions  were maintained in the treated water.  Capital costs for a facility
 to treat 1,500 gpm acid rinse  water were $1,360,000.  Operating costs
 were 24.0e/l,000 gal. or 4.38c/ton of steel pickled.
             ADDRESS INQUIRIES TO  EPA PROJECT OFFICER
                                  V-23

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INFORMATION^ SHEET

        ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY
RESEARCH. DEVELOPMENT OR DEMONSTRATION PROJECT

  This 
-------
 INFORMATION  SHEET
        ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY
RESEARCH.  DEVELOPMENT OR DEMONSTRATION PROJECT
  This sheel briefly describes an R & D project Section 104 or 10!> of the
  Federal Water Pollution Control Act Amendments of 1972 (PL 92-500)

PROJECT NUMBER:  EIE
TITLE OF PROJECT:
                     An Investigation of Techniques for the Removal of
                     Chromium and Cyanides  from Electroplating Wastes
GRANTEE OR CONTRACTOR:

 Metal Finishers' Foundation
 Upper Montclair, New Jersey
Project Site:   coiumbus,

DESCRIPTION OF PROJECT
                                         EPA PROJECT OFFICER:

                                           Mr. John Ciancia
                                           Industrial Waste Treatment
                                            Research Lab,  EPA
                                           Edison, New Jersey 08817
Award Date:
                March, 1968
Project Cost:
$173,141
                                              Federal Cost:  $117,699
Completion Date:  April> 1971


Summary:

This report describes work which was conducted on the removal of cyanide  and
hexavalent chromium from plating rinse waters employing various treatment
processes.  The study consisted of an initial phase  in which information
was sought by questionnaire and by wastewater analyses on the type of  waste
produced by smaller electroplating plants.  Laboratory studies were con-
ducted on several nonconventional methods for treatment of these waste-
waters, including ion flotation, adsorption on activated carbon, acidifi-
cation volatilization, and solvent extraction.  A demonstration pilot-
plant study also was conducted on the activated carbon process employing
actual rinse waters from a zinc cyanide plating operation.  - The results
of the various phases of the study indicated that activated carbon adsorp-
tion for cyanide removal may have practical application in many small
plating plants.  When combined with pretreatment stages for solids removal,
effective elimination of heavy metals also can be expected.  Further develop-
ment of the process was recommended in actual plating plant installations.
              ADDRESS INQUIRIES TO EPA PROJECT OFFICER
                                   V-25

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INFORMATION  SHEET
        ENVIRONMENTAL  PROTECTION
RESEARCH. DEVELOPMENT OR DEMONSTRATION PROJECT

  This sheet briefly describes an R & D project Section 104 or 105 of lh«-
  Federal Water Pollution Control Act Amendments of 1972 (PL 92-oOO)
PROJECT NUMBER:   EQF

TITLE OF PROJECT:  Electromembrane Process
"                 Spent Pickle Liquor


GRANTEE OR CONTRACTOR:
   Alabama Water Improvement Commission
   State Office Building
   Montgomery, Alabama 36104
                                       for Regenerating Acid from
                                        EPA  PROJECT OFFICER:
                                         Mr.  Edmorid Lomasney
                                         Region  IV, EPA
                                         1421 Peachtree Street, N.E.
                                         Atlanta, Georgia 30309
 PrOJBCt Sit6 .'  Southern Research Institute, Birmingham, Alabama

 DESCRIPTION OF PROJECT
 Award Dlte:  September, 1969

 Completion Date:  November, 1970

 Summary:
                                             Project Cost:  $32jooo

                                             Federal Cost:  $20,000
    Studies of an electromembrane process for regenerating acid from.spent
    sulfuric acid pickle liquor have indicated that the process is  technically
    feasible.  The studies have shown that the iron ions in spent pickle
    liquor can be removed and replaced by hydrogen ions to regenerate H2SO^
    in electromembrane cells.  -  A method of removing iron from spent liquor
    that involves the formation of insoluble iron hydroxides is preferable
    to plating iron metal onto cathodes.  -  Estimated treatment costs were
    $0.045 +0.002 per gallon, whereas the combined costs of purchasing acid
    and disposing of. spent liquor by existing methods were in the range of
    $0.015 to $0.06 per gallon of spent liquor.  -  A determination of th.e
    long-term performance of the ion exchange membranes when treating actual
    pickle liquors that contain organic pickling aids is needed.
              ADDRESS INQUIRIES TO EPA PROJECT OFFICER
                                   V-26

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 INFORMATION  SHEET
        ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY
RESEARCH.  DEVELOPMENT OR DEMONSTRATION PROJECT
  This sheet briefly describes an R & D project Section 104 or 10." of ihr
  Federal Water Pollution Control Acl Amendments of 1972 (PL 92-500)
PROJECT NUMBER:
                   EZV
TITLE OF PROJECT!   Treatment of Wastewater - Waste Oil Mixtures
GRANTEE OR CONTRACTOR:
  Armco Steel Corporation
  Middletown, Ohio
                                  EPA PROJECT OFFICER:

                                   Mr. Edward Dulaney
                                   Industrial Pollution  Control
                                    Division (RD-679), EPA
                                   Washington, D. C.  20460
Site:
               Ashland, Kentucky
DESCRIPTION OF PROJECT
      Dlte:
      November, 1967
                                              Project Cost: $1,541,720
                                               Federal Cost:
                                                     $209,000
Completion Date:  june, 1970


Summary:

  Cold reduction of steel strip results  in the production of large quantities
  of wastewater containing variable amounts of oil.  A five-stand tandem cold
  mill located at Armco Steel Corporation's Ashland, Kentucky Works produces
  200 to 500 gpm of wastewater containing 400 to 4,000 ppm of oil.  The COD
  of the waste varies from 400 to 20,000 ppm.  -  A treatment process and
  facility was developed, constructed, and demonstrated, on full scale, for
  the treatment of cold mill wastes.  The treatment process utilized chemi-
  cal coagulation to break the emulsions.  The chemicals employed included
  alum, lime,  clay, and organic polyelectrolyte.  The process consisted of
  the following treatment steps: equilization, chemical addition and rapid
  mixing, flocculation, and dissolved air flotation.  A number of treatment
  variables were studied in the laboratory and in the field in order to
  establish process kinetics and optimum treatment efficiency.  -  Oil, COD,
  and turbidity were used in field studies to establish the effect of the
  following variables on treatment efficiency: chemical concentration,  order
  of chemical  addition, chemical mixing  time, flocculation mixing time and
  speed, and air flotation time and recirculation rate.   Based on these
  studies, design criteria and operating costs for this process were presented.
             ADDRESS INQUIRIES TO !FA PROJECT OFFICER
                                  V-27

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INFORMATION SHEET

        ENVIRONMENTAL MOTfCTlON AGENCY
RESEARCH, DEVELOPMENT OR DEMONSTRATION PROJECT

  Tim sluvt briefly dcbcrilx* an R & D project Section 104 or 105 of Ihr
  Kedrral Water Pollution Control Act Amendments of 1972 (PL 92-500)

PROJECT NUMBER:
   FNM
TITLE OF PROJECT:  Recovery of Sulfuric Acid and Ferrous Sulfate From
        '~~Waste Pickle Liquor
 GRANTEE OR CONTRACTOR:
  The Fitzsimons Steel Co., Inc.
  P. 0.  Box 1469
  1623 Wilson Ave.
  Youngstown, Ohio  44501
 Project Site:  Youngstown,

 DESCRIPTION OF PROJECT
                          EPA PROJECT OFFICER:
                           Mr. James H. Phillips
                           Region V, EPA
                           1 North Wacker Drive
                           Chicago, Illinois 60606
 Award Date:
May, 1970
Project  Cost:  $143,993.
                                             $39,056.50
 Completion Date:   November, 1971
 Summary:
   This grant provides for the engineering plans, installation, operation,
   testing, evaluation, and reporting on a full-scale facility for the elimina-
   tion of 55,000 gallons per month of spent sulfuric acid pickle liquor
   discharge.  A vacuum cooling-crystallization system will remove ferrous
   sulfate and concentrate the remaining acid solution for recycle to the
   pickling tanks.  Processes for recycle or treatment of the acid rinse waters
   and for conversion of ferrous sulfate to other more marketable products
   will be evaluated.  John N. Cernica and Associates, Consulting Engineers,
   will direct the studies and evaluations and prepare reports.
              ADDRESS INQUIRIES TO  EPA PROJECT OFFICER
                                  V-28

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 INFORMATION  SHEET
        ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY
RESEARCH.  DEVELOPMENT OR DEMONSTRATION PROJECT
  Tim sheet briefly describes an R & D project Section 104 or 10." of the
  Federal Water Pollution Control Acl Amendments of 1972 (PL 92-500)
PROJECT NUMBER:
FP/K
TITLE OF PROJECT:  Water Poiiution
               Control in the Primary Nonferrous-
 Metals Industry - Vol I (Copper,  Zinc, and Lead Indus-
GRANTEE OR CONTRACTOR:
   Battelle Memorial Institute
   505 King Avenue
   Columbus, Ohio 43201
Project Site :   coiumbus,

DESCRIPTION OF PROJECT
Award Dite:   June, 1970

Completion  Date:    June, 1971

Summary:
                         and Vo1 IJ  (Aluminum, Mercury, Gold,  Silver, Molybdenum
                   and Tungsten).
                        Mr. John Ciancia
                        Industrial Waste Treatment
                         Research Lab, EPA
                        Edison, New Jersey 08817
                            Project  Cost: $72 500

                            Federal  Cost:$68.o6o
   This study deals with the processes and water practices in the aluminum,
   mercury,  gold, silver, molybdenum, and tungsten industries.  Data obtained
   from the  producers  of these metals showed the patterns and amounts of water
   usage for different purposes within these types of plants and the degrees
   and types of wastewater either  controlled, treated, or discharged to various
   receiving waters.   Water usage  and recirculation were found to be highly
   variable  among the  individual plants,  with some practices being associated
   with climate and water costs.   This study is also concerned with the pro-
   cesses and water'practices in the copper, lead, and zinc industries.  Data
   supplied  by 50  copper, lead, and zinc producing plants showed that waste-
   water control practices are influenced by climate and production processes.
   No wastewater is discharged from many  operations in the Southwestern desert
   area.  About two-thirds of the wastewaters discharged by the balance of
   the plants were from ponds and exhibited neutral to alkaline pH.   In some
   cases, these wastewaters contained "trace" amounts of heavy metals.
              ADDRESS INQUIRIES TO IPA PROJECT OFFICER
                                   V-29

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IN FORM A TION  SHEET
PROJECT NUMBER:    FXD


TITLE OF PROJECT:  Reclamation of Metal Values  from Metal Finishing
	~~          Waste Treatment Sludges


SMMTEt OH CONTRACTOR:                  EPA PROJECT OFFICER:
  Metal Finishers' Foundation                 Mr. Eugene Harris
  248 Lorraine Avenue                        NERC, EPA
  Upper Montclair, New Jersey                 Cincinnati, Ohio 45268


 Project Site:   coiumbus,  Ohio

 DESCRIPTION  OF  PROJECT

 Award Date:  October, 1970                     Project Cost: $99


 Completion Date:   October,  1972                Federal Cost: $90,o69


  Summary:
   The efforts  of this program have  included the  determination  of the worth
   of recovering metal values from metal finisher's wastewater  treatment
   sludges, the definition and research of processes for such recovery, and
   the selection, design, and costing of a recommended process.  -  The
   study included a survey of the literature to determine the state-of-the-
   art regarding the generation, disposal, and recovery treatment practices
   relevant to metal-finishers' sludges, and to identify metal  recovery
   processes possibly applicable to those sludges.  This information was
   supplemented with a survey by questionnaire to determine the current
   status of relevant practices and conditions.  -  Field investigations pro-
   vided detailed examples  of plant practices, sludge storage conditions,
   and sludge characteristics such as water content and chemical composition.
   Further, a detailed study was performed to determine, for one lagoon,  the
   degree of leaching of metals from the sludge into the underlying soil
   structure.  Samples of sludge were obtained from operating plants for use
   in the experimental program.  On the basis of the information developed in
   the prior portions of the program, a portable pilot process  for the treatment
   of waste sludges and recovery of metal values was selected and equipment and
   operating costs developed.
               ADDRESS INQUIRIES TO  EPA PROJECT  OFFICER
                                    Yr3Q

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 INFORMATION SHEET
        ENVIRONMENTAL PROJECTION AGENCY
RESEARCH. DEVELOPMENT OR DEMONSTRATION PROJECT
  This shed briefly describes an R & D projeet Section 104 or 105 of the
  Federal Water Pollution Control Acl Amendments of 1972 (PL 92-500)
PROJECT NUMBER:
         GCS
TITLE  OF  PROJECT!   Destruction of Cyanide Wastes by an Electrochemical
                   Redox Process
6RANTEE OR CONTRACTOR:
  Aerodex, Inc.
  P. 0. Box 123 MIAD
  Miami, Florida 33148
                                EPA  PROJECT  OFFICER:
                                 Mr. Edmond Lomasney
                                 Region IV, EPA
                                 1421 Peachtree Street, N.E.
                                 Atlanta, Georgia 30309
Site:
               Miami, Florida
DESCRIPTION  OF  PROJECT
Award Date:  February, 1971

Completion Date:  juiy, 1973

Summary:
                                    Project Cost:

                                    Federal Cost:
$183,841
 $85,072
  This project is planned to  culminate in .a. full-scale (250 gpm)  demonstration
  facility for the electrochemical destruction of cyanide in wastes from
  electroplating operations.  Phase I provides for optimization of parameters
  in a 600-gallon batch system.  Phase II will consist of the design of a
  continuous  system based on  the data and conclusion from Phase I.  Phase III
  will consist of construction, operation, testing, evaluation, and reporting
  on the effectiveness and economics of the continuous flow demonstration
  facility.
             ADDRESS INQUIRIES TO EPA PROJECT OFFICER
                                 V-31

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 INFORMATION^  SHEET

         ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY
 RESEARCH. DEVELOPMENT OR DEMONSTRATION PROJECT

   This shrcl briefK describes a.. R &  D project Section 104 or 105 »f the
   Fnlrral Water Pollution Control Ad Amendments of 1972 (PI. 92-.>00)

 PROJECT NUMBER:  GUG

 TITLE  OF PROJECT'   Electrolytic Treatment of Job Shop Metal Finishing
 	—	"   Wastewaters
 GRANTEE OR CONTRACTOR:
New England Plating Co., Inc.
31 Garden Street
Worcester, Massachusetts 01605

  Project Sit6 .'   Worcester, Massachusetts

  DESCRIPTION OF PROJECT

  Award Date:  April, 1971

  Completion Date:   December, 1972

  Summary:
EPA  PROJECT OFFICER:
  Mr. John Ciancia
  Industrial Waste Treatment
   Research Lab, EPA
  Edison, New Jersey 08817
     Project  Cost:   $392,252

     Federal  Cost:  $119,424
  Production studies demonstrated the reliability and economics of electrolytic
  cells containing beds of conductive particles between  cathodes and anodes
  for reduction of hexavalent chromium and oxidation of  cyanide in plating
  rinse water.  -  Seventy-five liter/min (20 GPM) sized cells were employed
  for chromium and cyanide rinses.  Chromium'concentrations to 250 mg/liter
  and cyanide concentrations to 150 mg/liter were processed.  Data were
  obtained with parallel equipment using chemical treatment for cost compari-
  son.  - At low chromium concentrations (less than 25  mg/liter) , chemical
  reduction was more economical. At higher concentrations  (150 mg/liter) ,
  electrolytic reduction became the mare economical process.  In cyanide
  oxidation, the electrochemical process reduced direct  costs associated with
  chlorination. -  Waste treatment costs, capital and operating, for the job
  shop are provided with an assessment of total costs on the price of services
  provided.  Water conservation techniques are described. Experiences with
  tube settling equipment for removal of suspended solids and centrifuge for
  sludge concentration is provided.
               ADDRESS INQUIRIES TO EPA  PROJECT OFFICER

                                  V-32

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INFORMATION^ SHEET
        ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY
RESEARCH,  DEVELOPMENT OK DEMONSTRATION PROJECT
  This shod briefly describes an R, & D project Section 104 or 105 of tin-
  Federal Water Pollution Control Act Amendments of-1972 (PL 92-500)
PROJECT NUMBER:
GW
TITLE OF PROJECT.'  Recovery of Chromic Acid and Nickel From Plating Wastes
GRANTEE OR CONTRACTOR:
   Michigan Plating & Stamping  Co.
   740 Ann Avenue, N.tf.
   Grand Rapids, Michigan 49502

Project SJt6 :  Grand Rapids,  Michigan

DESCRIPTION OF PROJECT

Award  Dite:  Marchj 1971

Completion Date:  November, 1972

Summary:
                        EPA PROJECT  OFFICER:
                         Dr. Hugh B. Durham
                         Grosse lie Field Station
                         9311 Groh Road
                         Grosse lie, Michigan 48138
                            Project Cost:

                            Federal Cost:
$1,038,198
                                           $170,061
   This bumper plating plant is installing integrated waste treatment  systems
   to treat nickel and chromium plating bath dragout.  This grant provides for
   the installation, operation, testing, evaluation, and reporting on  the
   heavy metals recovery and water reuse systems  to be installed.  The elec-
   trolytic nickel recovery system is  expected to recover 250 pounds of nickel
   per day from the integrated treatment system sludges and plating bath puri-
   fication system carbons.  The chromate system  is expected to recover 350
   pounds of chromic acid per day by the continuous flow of concentrated rinse
   waters from a saye-rinse tank through an induced draft evaporative  tower.
   Chromium dragout from the save-rinse tank will be reduced and precipitated
   in the integrated chrome treatment  system.  This combination system allows
   appreciable acid recovery, sufficient acid dragout to maintain plating bath
   purity, and a very low chromium concentration  in the plant effluent.  The
   evaporative tower will also receive, concentrate, and recover acid  from the
   chrome-plating line fume scrubbing  system waters.  The installation is
   expected to demonstrate the capability of the  tower to simultaneously serve
   as a fume scrubber and as an acid concentrating and recovering system.
          \
              ADDRESS INQUIRUft TO IPA FROJICT OPPICIt
                                    V-33

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INFORMATION  SHEET
 This ,,»,. Mrfly ucscriks a,, R * D project Section '«* «• '°
 M.T.I Water Pollution Control Act Amendments ol 1972 (PI.
PROJECT NUMBER:
                  HGH
TITLE OF PROJECT:  Treatment and Recovery of Fluoride Industrial Wastes
8RANTEE OR CONTRACTOR:
   Grumman Aerospace Corp.
   Bethpage, New York 11714
 PrOJBCt  SJtB :  Bethpage, New York

 DESCRIPTION OF  PROJECT

               December,  1971
                                          EPA PROJECT OFFICER:
                                           Mr. John Ciancla
                                           Industrial  Waste Treatment
                                            Research Lab, EPA
                                           Edison, New Jersey 08817
                                               Project  Cost:  $55>
978
 Completion Date:  November, 1972

 Summary:
                                               Federal Cost: $34,922
   This report presents the  development and successful demonstration of labora-
   tory and pilot-scale fluoride treatment techniques for selected aerospace
   and metal^working industry chemical processing solutions and rinse waters.
   It includes lab oratory-scale, lime treatment parameters for chemical pro-
   cessing solutions such as temperature, retention  time, pH, slurry concen-
   tration, and fluoride influent and effluent levels, and ion-exchange treat-
   ment techniques to reduce the fluoride concentration of rinse waters to
   levels less than three parts per million.  -  Pilot studies of centrifugal
   techniques to separate lime-precipitated sludges  from titanium chemical
   milling, titanium descaling and aluminum deoxidizing solutions show that
   lime precipitation can give final effluents having fluoride concentrations
   less than three parts per million. Aluminum conversion coating solutions,
   however, require secondary  treatment with aluminum sulfate to give final
   effluents having fluoride concentrations less than three parts per million.
   Chemical and mechanical property tests show that  it is potentially feasible
   to use calcium fluoride sludge as a strength-maintaining additive for
   concrete.  The reuse of treated rinse waters, the economics of precipita-
    tion, and production plans for chemical processing solutions and rinse waters
   are also presented.
               ADDRESS INQUIRIES TO EPA PROJECT OFFICER
                                    V-34

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 INFORMATION  SHEET
        ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY
RESEARCH,  DEVELOPMENT OH DEMONSTRATION PROJECT
  Tim sheet briefly describes an R & D project Section 104 or 10." of the
  Federal Water Pollution Control Acl Amendments of 1972 (PL 92-500)
PROJECT NUMBER:
      HOW
TITLE OF PROJECT'.   Treatment  of Coke Plant Waste Liquor
GRANTEE  OR CONTRACTOR:
 Alan Wood Steel Company
 Conshohocken,  Pa.  19428
        Sit6 .'   Conshohocken, Pa.
DESCRIPTION OF PROJECT
Award  Date:
December 1971
Completion Date:  September 1973
Summary:
                           EPA PROJECT OFFICER:
                           Dr.  Hugh B. Durham
                           Industrial Waste Research Program
                           Environmental Protection Agency
                           Grosse He, Michigan  48138
Project  Cost: $2,105,050
                               Federal  Cost:
                                              $352,652
 This project will demonstrate, in a full-scale (180,000 gpd) system, complete
 treatment of by-product coke plant wastes.  The treatment consists of steam
 stripping of ammonia and phenol, multi-stage flash evaporation, and polishing
 the condensed effluent with activated carbon.  The treated effluent will be a high
 quality water which can be used for boiler  feedwater or cooling water make-up.
 An incinerator will receive all the vapors  and the final concentrate -from the
 evaporator system, producing a scrubbed gas suitable for discharge to the
 atmosphere and an ash to be disposed of by  landfill.
             ADDRISS INQUIRIIS TO IPA MOJICT  OFMCIR
                                  V-35

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INFORMATION^ SHEET

        ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY
RESEARCH, DEVELOPMENT OR DEMONSTRATION PROJECT

  ThN *hrrl l.riefh ,l«smU* an R & U project Section 104 or UK of
  K,,l.-ral \Val.-r Pollution Control Acl Amrndmcnb of 1072 (PI. <

PROJECT NUMBER:    HQJ
TITLE OF PROJECT:    Membrane Processes for Treating Metal Finishing
                     Was tes
 GRANTEE OR CONTRACTOR:
American Electroplaters' Society Inc.
56 Melmore Gardens
East Orange, New Jersey 07017

 Project Site .'   Cambridge, Massachusetts

 DESCRIPTION OF PROJECT

 Award Date:   October,  1971

 Completion Date:    January> 1973

 Summary:
EPA  PROJECT OFFICER:

 Mr.  John Ciancia
 Industrial Waste Treatment
  Research Laboratory, IPCB
 Edison, New Jersey 08817
     Project  Cost:  $120,406
     Federal Cost:
                   $114,386
 Reverse osmosis and ultrafiltration are new approaches that show promise as
 attractive alternatives to existing -methods for treating metal  finishing
 wastes.  The overall objective of this project  is to develop and then demon-
 strate a reverse osmosis/ultrafiltration system in a metal finishing plant.
 The study will evaluate the technical feasibility and economics of the new
 process for treating rinse water from a metal finishing operation by recovery
 of the chemicals in a concentrated solution for return to the bath while
 simultaneously purifying the water for reuse in rinsing.  Where necessary,
 the investigation will also include the removal of impurity build-up in the
 concentrated solution returned to the bath.

 The development phase of the project will involve testing commercially avail-
 able membranes and equipment configurations in modular pilot plant facilities
 using various  types of rinse waters. On the basis of this investigation, a
 system will be selected for treating a specific type of rinse water and will
 be demonstrated in a commercial shop.

               ADDRESS INQUIRIES TO EPA PROJECT OFFICER

                                 V-36

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 INFORMATION SHEET
        ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY
RESEARCH.  DEVELOPMENT OR DEMONSTRATION PROJECT
  This sheet briefly describes an R & D project Section 104 or 105 of llir
  Federal Water Pollution Control Acl Amendments of 1972 (PL 92-500)
PROJECT NUMBER:
                      PPB
TIlLfc Vr rKUJttl.  Management of Recycled Waste-Process Water Ponds
6RANTEE OR CONTRACTOR:
   Dr. Charles E. Renn
   Dept.  of Environmental
   Engineering Science
   The Johns -Hopkins University
   Baltimore, Maryland 21218
PrOjeCt Site.'   Ramps tead, Maryland

DESCRIPTION OF PROJECT
                                  EPA  PROJECT OFFICER:

                                   Dr.  Herbert  Skovronek
                                   Industrial Waste Treatment
                                    Research Lab, EPA
                                   Edison, New  Jersey 08817
Dlte
             December, 1967
Project  Cost: $180,921 (3rd yr>
Completion Dat6: November, 1968

Summary:
                                       Federal Cost:
              $39,627 (3rd yr)
  This study describes the successful operation of a storage pond used to
  collect treated wastewaters and runoff for recycle to manufacturing
  operations under conditions of drought and severe water shortages.  Treated
  sewage and cafeteria wastes are stored in an air sparger mixed pond and
  are returned to the manufacturing plant to provide water for evaporative
  cooling and a variety of production processes.   By applying long term
  storage, air sparger agitation, and controlled  stratification during the
  summer, it has been possible to increase the effectiveness of limited well
  supplies from six to fifteen times.  -  The efficiency of the pond depends
  in large part upon biological processes that go on in the comparatively
  shallow areas of the system.  These act to capture phosphorus and to stabilize
  algal organics generated in the pond itself.
             ADDtESS INQUIRIES TO EPA PROJECT OFFICER
                                  V-37

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INFORMATION  SHEET

       ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY
RESEARCH. DEVELOPMENT OR  DEMONSTRATION  PROJECT

 This sheet hneflN describe, an R & D project Section 104 or 105 of ihe
 Federal \\aler Pollution Control Acl Amendments of 1972 (PI- 92-500)
PROJECT NUMBER:
WPRD 41
TITLE OF PROJECT:  Acid Pickle Liquor Wastes Treatment Utilizing Advanced
                 Ion Exchange Techniques
GRANTEE OR CONTRACTOR:
 Chemical Separations Corporation
 Bus Terminal Road
 Oak Ridge, Tennessee  37830


PrOJeCt  Site :  Oak Ridge, Tennessee

DESCRIPTION OF  PROJECT

Award Date:   December, 1967

Completion Date: March, 1959

 Summary:
                      EPA PROJECT OFFICER:
                      Dr. Hugh B.  Durham
                      Grosse lie Lab
                      Environmental Protection Agency
                      Grosse He,  Michigan  48138
                          Project Cost:   $72>000

                          Federal Cost:  $50,4oo
  The purpose of this grant was to determine the feasibility of using continuous
  ion exchange to strip Fe from pickling wastes and regenerate the acid for
  reuse.
            ADDRESS INQUIRIES TO EPA PROJECT OFFICER

                              V-38

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 INFORMATION^ SHEET
        ENVIRONMENTAL PROJECTION AGENCY
RESEARCH. DEVELOPMENT OR DEMONSTRATION PROJECT
  This shed briefly describes an R & D project Section 104 or 105 of the
  Federal Water Pollution Control Act Amendments of 1972 (PL 92-500)

PROJECT NUMBER:   800525


TITLE OF PROJECT)  Water  Pollution Control Practices in the Carbon
                  and Alloy Steel Industries
GRANTEE OR CONTRACTOR:
  Attorney General of Illinois
  160 N. LaSalle Street
  Chicago,  Illinois 60601

Project Site:  Pittsburgh, pa.

DESCRIPTION OF  PROJECT

Award  Date:   Aprii, 1972

Completion Date:  November, 1972

Summary:
EPA PROJECT OFFICER:
 Dr. Hugh Durham
 Grosse lie Field Station
 9311 Groh Road
 Grosse lie, Michigan 48138
    Project Cost:
$45,000
    Federal  Cost: $42,750
  The objectives of this project were to refine, complete, and extend the
  data and coverage developed by C. W. Rice Division of NUS Corporation
  under Contract 68-01-0006 and contained in the report entitled "Industrial
  Profile Study on Blast Furnace and Basic Steel Products" and to prepare
  a similar report on the alloy steel industry.

  The Attorney General of Illinois proposes to engage Datagraphics, Inc.  to
  carry out this task.
             ADDRESS INQUIRIES TO EPA PROJECT OFFICER
                                V-39

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 INFORMATION  SHEET

        ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY
RESEARCH, DEVELOPMENT OR DEMONSTRATION PROJECT
  Thi> slu-cl brifl'K don ibcs an R & I) project Section 104 or 105 ol' the

  Kcdrral \\at<-r Pollution Control Act Amendments of 1972 (PI. 92-500)
PROJECT  NUMBER:
                  800680
TITLE OF PROJECT.'  Treatment and Recovery of Fluoride and Nitrate
                 Industrial Wastes
GRANTEE OR CONTRACTOR:
  Grumman Aerospace Corp.
  Bethpage, New York 11714
Project Site :   Bethpage, New York

DESCRIPTION OF  PROJECT

Award Date:  December,  1971


Completion Date: September, 1975

Summary:
                                       EPA PROJECT OFFICER:

                                        Dr. Hugh Durham
                                        Grosse He Laboratory, EPA
                                        9311 Groh Road
                                        Grosse lie, Michigan 48138
                                           Project Cost:  $134,896

                                           Federal Cost:   $96,12?
  Industry
                                    T *t-at «•*«**". of laboratory
                              selected aerospace and metal working

                                                   Ion
  strength
  and mechanical test    -
  project has strengthened
  nificantly
                                           u°re  Slud8e M a
                              concrete was established by chemical
                           te<*nol°gy developed in Phase I of this

                           "^^ that further Studles wo^d sig-

                                    f TCeSSeS °f r±nse Waters
       treatment technoloy for h       development of  comprehensive
      effluents and the eSnfmLf /T^1 °f nitrates from lime treat-
  Action scale-up.  SLrSSS wilfbe^ 'TI' *****  *"****•«« P—
  for using ion exchange as a ^L^     Carr±ed °Ut tO  determine parameters
  -etal treatment              8
                              V-40

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 INFORMATION SHEET
         ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY
RESEARCH, DEVELOPMENT OR DEMONSTRATION PROJECT
  This sheet briefly describes an R & D project Section 104 or !()."> of tin
  Federal Water Pollution Control Acl Amendments of 1(>72 (PL <)2-oOO)

PROJECT NUMBER:  300772


TITLE OF PROJECT:   Treatment of Coke Plant Waste Liquor
GRANTEE OR CONTRACTOR:
  Alan Wood Steel Company
  Conshohocken, Pennsylvania 19428
                           EPA PROJECT  OFFICER:
                           Dr. Hugh Durham
                           Grosse lie Laboratory
                           9311 Groh Road
                           Grosse lie, Michigan 48138
        Site :
Conshohocken, Pennsylvania
DESCRIPTION OF PROJECT

Award  Date:  December,  1971

Completion Date:  June, 1975

Summary:
                               Project Cost: $2,010,100.

                               Federal Cost:
  The objective of the project is  to demonstrate the technical and economic
  feasibility of a chemical, thermal, physical waste treatment process  to
  treat the coke plant waste liquor stream.  -  The coke  plant waste  liquor
  stream from the Alan Wood Steel  Company's  Conshohocken, Pennsylvania
  plant contains a variety of waste contaminants including suspended  solids,
  dissolved organics, cyanide, ammonia, phenols, etc.   The treatment  pro-
  cesses to be employed to remove  the waste  contaminants  and prepare  the
  125 gpm of waste water to meet stream objectives will include stripping
  of ammonia, concentration by six effect multistage evaporator,  stripping
  of phenols, biological treatment of phenols, disposal by incineration.
  The product water is to be reused in a closed cooling tower system  to
  alleviate thermal pollution from cooling waters in the  coke plant.
  Laboratory evaluations and pilot plant tests will be  conducted  to obtain
  basic design parameters for the  entire treatment sequence.   A treatment
  system will be constructed to treat 180,000 gallons/day of waste water.
  Post-construction studies will be conducted to verify the treatment plant
  design parameters and to establish an accurate estimate of the  economics
  involved with the treatment process and the treatment effectiveness.

             ADDRESS INQUIRIES TO  EPA PROJECT OFFICER

                                 V-41

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INFORMATION  SHEET

        ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY
RESEARCH, DEVELOPMENT OR DEMONSTRATION PROJECT
 Tl,i< <|M,.. Lrirl-K d.-srribr» a,. R & U projrrl Section 104 or 1
 KnU-rat \VaU-r Pollution Control Ad Amendment* of Wl (PI.
                                                 »f
PROJECT NUMBER:   801989

TITLE OF PROJECT:   Demonstration and Evaluation of Countercurrent Rinsing
~~            ~     for Reducing Pollution from a Halogen Tinplating Line
GRANTEE OR CONTRACTOR:
  Weirton Steel Division
  Division of National Steel Corp.
  Weirton, West Virginia 26062

Project Site :  Weirton, West Virgin:

DESCRIPTION OF  PROJECT

Award  Date: March, 1973

Completion Date:   May, 1976
                                         EPA  PROJECT OFFICER:

                                          Dr.  Hugh Durham
                                          Grosse lie Laboratory
                                          9311 Groh Road
                                          Grosse He, Michigan 48138
                                              Project  Cost:  $318>454

                                              Federal  Cost:  $165,686
 Summary:

   The primary objective of this project is to upgrade the state-of-the-art
   of pollution control of a halogen tinplating line dragout rinse.  Hopefully,
   this project will result in a process which will have a zero discharge from
   the halogen dragout rinse.  The project involves the use of countercurrent-0
   rinsing on the primary dragout rinse tank of a high speed Halogen tinplafc~J-
   ing line.  In the current operation the strip is submersed in a tank Of'  vd
   water and the strip moves countercurrent to the movement of water.  The
   resulting discharge is large in volume and low in concentration of  plat-
   ing solution.  The proposed system is a multi-state counter-current rinse
   tank.   The strip is not submersed but travels over the tanks.  Fresh water
   is fed  into the exit  end of the tank. As the strip passes from stage to
   stage it sees a less concentrated rinse water.  The resulting discharge
   will then be reused as makeup  in the plating cells.  The project objec-
   tives include: 1) To demonstrate on a full-scale production line that
   countercurrent rinsing in the  primary dragout tank with subsequent  reuse
   of the  blowdown as makeup in the plating is applicable through the  use of
   AA-W additive to minimize sludge buildup. 2) Complete recycle of dis-
   charge  to realize a zero discharge or to minimize discharge.

              ADDRESS  INQUIRIES TO EPA PROJECT OFFICER
                                  V-42

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 INFORMATION  SHEET
         ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY
 RESEARCH, DEVELOPMENT OR DEMONSTRATION  PROJECT
  This shed briefly cril>es an R & L) project Section 104 or 10.") of llic
  Federal \\ater Pollution Control \cl Amendments of I072 (PL (J2-.i

 PROJECT  NUMBER: 802113


 TITLE OF PROJECT:   Chromium Removal
 GRANTEE OR CONTRACTOR:
Metal Finishers' Foundation
248 Lorraine Avenue
Upper Montclair, New Jersey 07043
 Project Site :  coiumbus,

 DESCRIPTION OF PROJECT
 Award Date:   February 7, 1973

 Completion Date:   August, 1973

 Summary:
EPA PROJECT OFFICER:
  Mr. John Ciancia
  Industrial Waste Treatment
   Research Laboratory, IPCB
  Edison, New Jersey 08817
    Project  Cost:  $31,853

    Federal  Cost:  $22,000
The objectives of this project are to optimize the regeneration of a recently
developed carbon bed chromate removal process and then evaluate the practical
and economic feasibility of the technique including reuse of the treated water.
The relative effectiveness of alternate regeneration procedures will be deter-
mined by conducting bench-scale experiments in the laboratory.   The optimum
regeneration procedure will be used in a pilot plant demonstration in a plating
shop to establish the effectiveness and economic feasibility of the process, as
well as investigate the extent the treated water can be reused  for rinsing.
             ADDRESS INQUIRIES TO EPA PROJECT OFFICER

                                V-43

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INFORMATION  SHEET
        ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY
RESEARCH, DEVELOPMENT OR DEMONSTRATION PROJECT
     )o of the
  This sheel briefly dorribrs an R & D project Section 104 or l(
  Federal Water Pollution Control Act Amendments of 1972 (PI-

PROJECT NUMBER:  802142
TITLE OF PROJECT:  Regeneration of Hydrochloric Acid Waste Pickle
                  Liquor
GRANTEE  OR  CONTRACTOR:
  Toledo Pickling and Steel
   Service, Inc.
  1149 Campbell Street
  Toledo, Ohio 43607
 Project Site:   Toledo,

 DESCRIPTION OF PROJECT

 Award Date:   March,  1973

 Completion  Date:  juiy, 1975

 Summary:
EPA PROJECT  OFFICER:
 Dr. Hugh Durham
 Grosse He Field Station
 9311  Groh Road
 Grosse lie, Michigan 48138
    Project Cost:  $333,
     Federal Cost:  $222,088.
   The principal objective of this project is to demonstrate in a plant
   scale continuous operation the technical and economic feasibility of
   using the Environmental Technology,  Inc., process and equipment for the
   recovery and regeneration of waste hydrochloric acid pickle liquor in a
   closed-loop system in which no noxious pollutants escape into the environ-
   ment.  The process employs thermal degradation of ferrous chloride to
   hydrogen chloride gas and ferric oxide.  The waste pickle liquor consist-
   ing primarily of aqueous ferrous chloride, with some unreacted hydrochloric
   acid, is sprayed onto a vibrating fixed bed of ferric oxide, in an oxidiz-
   ing atmosphere.  The process is expected to yield 18-20% hydrochloric acid
   for recycling and ferric oxide of any desired particle size.
              ADDRESS INQUIRIES TO EPA PROJECT OFFICER
                                V-44

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  INFORMATION  SHEET
         ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY
 RESEARCH,  DEVELOPMENT OR DEMONSTRATION PROJECT
   Tlii> sheet l>rit'l'l\ describe an R &. 1) project Section  104 or 10.~> of the
   Federal Wafer Pollution Control Act Amendments of 1072 (PL 'J2-300)

 PROJECT NUMBER:  802254


 TITLE OF PROJECT:   Metallic Recovery from  Wastewaters Utilizing
                     Cementation
 GRANTEE OR CONTRACTOR:

Anaconda  American Brass Company
Engineer   Environments Division
Waterbury, Connecticut 06720
         Sit e:   Waterbury, Connecticut
EPA PROJECT  OFFICER:

  Mr.  Richard B. Tabakin
  Industrial Waste Treatment
   Research Laboratory,  IPCB
  Edison, New Jersey 08817
 DESCRIPTION OF PROJECT

 Award  Date:  March, 1973

 Completion  Date:  September, 1973

 Summary:
    Project Cost: $20,765

    Federal Cost:$14,535
The purpose is  to investigate on a bench-scale the simultaneous reduction
of Cr+6 and the precipitation reduction of Cu+2 in acid solution by contact
with sacrificial metals  such as, but not limited to,  iron.  Scale-up to
full size of previous brief bench scale flow experiments was disappointing
(poor copper recovery from brass mill waste streams).  The aim of the pro-
posed work is to identify those factors such as mass  transport and chemical
mechanisms which govern  effectiveness and to describe their operation, with
the view of making rational improvements in full scale application.
              ADDRESS  INQUIRIES TO EPA PROJECT OFFICER

                                 V-45

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INFORMATION SHEET

        ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY
RESEARCH.  DEVELOPMENT OR DEMONSTRATION PROJECT

  Thi> -lieet l»riel'h dcM-rilio an R & I) project Section 104 or 105 of the
  Federal \\aler Pollution Control Ad Amendments of 197:2 (PI. 92-500)

PROJECT  NUMBER:   802335
TITLE OF PROJECT! Ozone Treatment of Plating Wastewaters Containing
                 Cyanide
GRANTEE OR CONTRACTOR:
 Sealectro Corporation
 Mamaroneck, New York 10543
 Project  Site :   Mamaroneck, New York

 DESCRIPTION OF PROJECT

 Award Date:   March, 1973

 Completion  Date:  December, 1973

 Summary:
EPA PROJECT OFFICER:

 Dr. Herbert S. Skovronek
 Industrial Waste Treatment
  Research Laboratory, IPCB
 Edison, New Jersey 08817
    Project  Cost: $77,900

    Federal  Cost: $37,000
 The principal objective is to demonstrate in a full-scale system the
 effectiveness of the ozonation process for the treatment of plating wastes
 containing cyanide.  Further objectives are to optimize the key process
 parameters, establish operating and capital costs and explore the possi-
 bility of producing treated effluent that would meet Federal standards.
             ADDRESS INQUIRIES TO EPA PROJECT OFFICER
                              V-46

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 INFORMATION  SHEET
        ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY
RESEARCH. DEVELOPMENT OR DEMONSTRATION PROJECT
  This sheet briefly describes an R & D project Section 104 or 10.") of the
  Federal Water Pollution Control Acl Amendments of l<)72 (PI. <)2-500)
PROJECT NUMBER:
802390
TITLE OF PROJECT!  Precipitation of Iron from Acidic Process Liquors
GRANTEE  OR CONTRACTOR:
 University  of Arizona
 Tucson, Arizona 85721
PrOJeCt Site :   Tucson, Arizona

DESCRIPTION  OF PROJECT

Award  Date:    April, 1973

Completion Date:  March, 1975

Summary:
                      EPA PROJECT OFFICER:

                       Mary K. Stinson
                       Industrial Waste Treatment
                        Research Laboratory, IPCB
                       Edison, New Jersey 08817
                          Project  Cost:  $39,175

                          Federal  Cost:  $30,000
 The purpose of this study is to investigate on a bench scale the hydrolysis-
 crystallization kinetics of solid ferric oxide compounds from acidic solu-
 tions of ferrous sulfate containing other metallic ions.  The rates are
 known to be temperature dependent; a major goal is to determine whether
 special crystallization techniques can be employed to attain industrially
 useful rates with temperatures at or below 100°C.  Solutions of the type
 proposed for study are generated in large quantities by acid leaching of
 copper ores.  Successful precipitation of the iron can contribute to
 regeneration of acid and greater recycle potential.
             ADDRESS INQUIRIES TO EPA PROJECT OFFICER

                               V-47

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INFORMATION  SHEET

        ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY
RESEARCH, DEVELOPMENT OR DEMONSTRATION PROJECT

  Thi> Jin-l l.riefh .Irsmbrs an R & U project Section 104 or \(K »f the
  Federal \\atcr Pollution Control Ad Amrndmcnts of 1072 (PI. 02-500)

PROJECT  NUMBER:  802637-01
TITLE OF  PROJECT:
Phosphoric Acid Recovery System—Phase I
Process Optimization and Feasibility Study
GRANTEE OR CONTRACTOR:
 Douglas &  Lomason Corporation
 5800 Lincoln Avenue
 Detroit, Michigan 48208

 Project Site :  Detroit, Michigan

 DESCRIPTION  OF PROJECT

 Award Date:   June, 1973

 Completion Date:   October, 1973

 Summary:
                     EPA  PROJECT OFFICER:

                     Mr. John Ciancia
                     Industrial Waste Treatment
                      Research Laboratory, IPCB
                     Edison, New Jersey 08817
                          Project Cost:  $66,5oo

                          Federal Cost:  $45,000
 The objective of this study is to demonstrate the effectiveness  and
 economics of a novel process for recovering phosphoric acid from bright
 finishing solutions used in the preparation of aluminum.  The process
 will remove aluminum contamination from the waste phosphoric acid,
 thereby permitting reuse of the acid in the bright dipping operation.
 A pilot plant investigation will be conducted to optimize the operating
 variables of the process. An economic projection based on an engineered
 system will then be made to permit a. detailed evaluation of the  process
 prior to construction of the full-scale facility.  The new approach will
 also be compared with presently available alternative waste treatment
 methods.
              ADDRESS INQUIRIES TO EPA PROJECT OFFICER

                                V-48

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 INFORMATION  SHEET

        ENVIRONMENTAL  PROTECTION AGENCY
RESEARCH.  DEVELOPMENT OR DEMONSTRATION PROJECT
  This shecl briefly describes an R & L) project Section 104 or l()."i of the
  Kcderal Water Pollution Control Acl Amendments of l°72 (PI. <)2-5()0)

PROJECT NUMBER:   802637-02
TITLE OF PROJECT:
                   Phosphoric Acid Recovery System - Phase II
                   Installation and Operation of Prototype System
                                         EPA PROJECT OFFICER:

                                         Mary K. Stinson
                                         Industrial Waste Treatment
                                          Research Laboratory,  IPCB
                                         Edison, New Jersey 08817
GRANTEE OR  CONTRACTOR:

  Douglas & Lomason Company
  5800 Lincoln Avenue
  Detroit,  Michigan 48208


PrOJeCt Site :  Cleveland, Mississippi

DESCRIPTION OF  PROJECT


Award  Date:   June, 1974


Completion Date: juiy, 1975


Summary:

  This project is  the second phase of a study to develop and demonstrate
  novel technology for recovering spent phosphoric acid from bright finish-
  ing solutions used in the preparation of aluminum.   The proposed system
  uses an anion exchange resin as an acid adsorption medium in a continuous
  countercurrent contractor.  The anion exchange resin accomplishes the
  separation by retarding the phosphoric acid as the processing solution
  flows through the bed.  The aluminum remains in the solution and passes
  out the column in the effluent.  The phosphoric acid is eluted from the
  resin by water,  thus eliminating the need for chemicals to regenerate the
  resin.
                                             Project  Cost:  $288,382

                                             Federal  Cost:   $55,000
             ADDRESS INQUIRIES TO  EPA PROJECT OFFICER

                                V-49

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INFORMATION SHEET

        ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY
RESEARCH. DEVELOPMENT OR DEMONSTRATION PROJECT

  This sheet l.rirlU do^-rihcs an R & D project Section 104 or 105 of llu-
  Federal Water Pollution Control Acl Amendments of 1972 (PI. «)2-300)

PROJECT  NUMBER:   302924

TITLE  OF PROJECT.'  Treatment of Metal Finishing Wastes by Sulfide
                  Precipitation
GRANTEE OR CONTRACTOR:
                                      EPA  PROJECT OFFICER:
  Metal Finishers' Foundation
  248 Lorraine Avenue
  Upper Montclair, New Jersey 07043
                                       Mr.  John Ciancia
                                       Industrial Waste Treatment
                                        Research Laboratory,  IPCB
                                       Edison, New Jersey 08817

PrOJCCt SltC:  South Brunswick Township, New Jersey
 DESCRIPTION OF PROJECT

 Award Date:   April,  1974

 Completion Date:   January) i975

 Summary:
                                           Project Cost: $33)6oo

                                           Federal Cost: $30>000
  A pilot plant investigation will be carried out to optimize and evaluate
  the economic feasibility of a recently developed sulfide precipitation
  process for removing heavy metals from metal finishing wastes.  This unique
  sulfide precipitation technique is a highly effective process which can
  reduce the heavy metal content of wastes down to extremely low levels with
  essentially no excess of sulfide in the effluent.
             ADDRESS INQUIRIES TO EPA PROJECT OFFICER
                                V-50

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 INFORMATION  SHEET

        ENVIRONMENTAL  PROTECTION AGENCY
RESEARCH,  DEVELOPMENT OR DEMONSTRATION PROJECT
  This shed briefly describes un R & D project Section 104 or 10.") of the

  Kcdcral \Valer Pollution Control Act Amendments of 1972 (PI. ()2-500)
PROJECT NUMBER:
803064
TITLE OF PROJECT!  Regeneration of Chromated Aluminum Deoxidizers
                   Phase II - Improved Diaphragms
GRANTEE  OR  CONTRACTOR:                  EPA PROJECT OFFICER:
 The Boeing Commercial Airplane Co.          Dr. Hugh Durham
 P. 0.  Box 3707                           Grosse He T?ield Station
 Seattle, Washington  98124                 9311 Groh Road
                                         Grosse He, Michigan 48138

Project Site :   Seattle,  Washington

DESCRIPTION OF PROJECT

Award  Date:   August) 1971


Completion Date:  April, 1975


Summary:

 In the regeneration process for chromated aluminum deoxidizers as con-
 ducted in the  original work of Project HER, it is necessary to use a
 chemically inert, electrically conductive diaphragm separating positive
 and negative electrodes.  Such a diaphragm was developed during the
 program.

 The fabrication method for these early diaphragms is costlv  and life
 expectancy is  short.   This continuation contract proposes to improve
 cost and performance of  the diaphragms in order to make them commer-
 cially attractive for general job shop use.

 Results of Phase I is published under EPA Report EPA-660/2-73-023.
                           Project Cost:  $89)853

                           Federal Cost:  $37,203.
             ADDRESS INQUIRIES TO EPA PROJECT  OFFICER

                               V-51

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INFORMATION  SHEET

        ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY
RESEARCH, DEVELOPMENT OR DEMONSTRATION PROJECT

  ThN shrrl l.riH'K d^iTil.r* an R & U project Section 104 or 10.', of Hi.-
  Federal \\alrr Pollution Control Ad  Amendments of 1972 (PI- 92-500)

PROJECT NUMBER:   303073
TITLE OF PROJECT:
Aircraft Factory Waste Water Recycling-Pilot
Scale Demonstration
GRANTEE  OR  CONTRACTOR:
  The Boeing  Commercial Airplane Co.
  P. 0. Box 3707
  Seattle, Washington 98124

 PrOJeCt Site :  Seattle, Washington

 DESCRIPTION OF PROJECT

 Award Date:  Juiy, 1974

 Completion  Date: juiy, 1975

 Summary:
                      EPA PROJECT  OFFICER:
                      Dr. Hugh Durham
                      Grosse He Field Station
                      9311 Groh Road
                      Grosse He, Michigan 48138
                          Project Cost:

                          Federal Cost:
  The objective of this project is a pilot scale demonstration of treatment
  and recycle of four dilute wastewater streams resulting from aircraft
  manufacture.  The streams involved are: 1) Chemical process rinses, for
  which both in-exchange and reverse osmosis are to be tried; 2) Dye
  penetrant rinse water, to be treated by activated carbon adsorption;
  3) Cyanide-containing rinses, to be treated by electrolytic destruction,
  and 4) Cutting oil emulsion waste, for which ultrafiltration is to be
  demonstrated.

  After installation, there will be a six-month optimization period, at
  the end of which a decision will be made between in-exchange and reverse
  osmosis for treatment of chemical process rinses.  There will then be a
  9 month period of continuous operation to demonstrate operation under
  actual plant conditions, and to determine if there would be any buildup
  of undesirable contaminants.  Both recurring and non-recurring costs of
  a full-scale recycling plant will be determined.
              ADDRESS INQUIRIES TO EPA PROJECT OFFICER

                                V-52

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 INFORMATION^  SHEET
        ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY
RESEARCH, DEVELOPMENT OR DEMONSTRATION  PROJECT
  This shed briefly describes an R & D project Section 104 or !()."} of Hie
  Federal Water Pollution Control Acl Amendments of 1(J72 (PI. (J2-.i
PROJECT NUMBER:
803177
TITLE OF PROJECT!   Recycling of Industrial Wastewater Containing
                    Cyanide, Chromium, and Other Toxic Material
GRANTEE OR  CONTRACTOR:
 The Singer Company
 321 First Street
 Elizabeth, New Jersey 07207

Project Site :  Elizabeth, New Jersey

DESCRIPTION OF  PROJECT

Award  Date:   june, 1974

Completion Date:  juiy, 1975

Summary:
                     EPA  PROJECT  OFFICER:
                     Mary K.  Stinson
                     Industrial Waste Treatment
                      Research Laboratory, IPCB
                     Edison,  New Jersey 08817
                         Project Cost: $324,030
                         Federal Cost:  $29,
000
 This project will demonstrate a full scale  closed-loop system for the
 treatment of wastewaters arising from deburring, burnishing, stripping,
 and electroplating operations at a metal finishing plant.  The treatment
 consists of ultrafiltration  for the removal of oil, a three BOD ion
 exchange system (strongly acidic, weakly basic and strongly basic) for
 the removal of cyanide and heavy metals from rinse water,  and chemical
 treatment of the ion exchange regenerant solutions and concentrated
 process wastes.
             ADDRESS INQUIRIES TO EPA PROJECT OFFICER
                               V-53

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INFORMATION SHEET

        ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY
RESEARCH,  DEVELOPMENT OR DEMONSTRATION  PROJECT

  TM> sheel briel'l)  an R & U project Seelion 104 or 10.1 of (lie
  Knlrrai \\aler Pollution Control Ael Amendment* of l<)72 (PI. «)2-/>00)

PROJECT  NUMBER:  303226
TITLE  OF PROJECT! 'Study of Copper Recovery from Brass Mill Discharge
                  by Cementation with Scrap Iron in Full Scale
GRANTEE OR CONTRACTOR:
 Anaconda American Brass Company
 P. 0. Box 830
 Waterbury, Connecticut 06720

Project Site :  Waterbury,  Connecticut

DESCRIPTION OF PROJECT

Award  Date:  June, 1974

Completion Date:   January, 1975

 Summary:
EPA PROJECT  OFFICER:

Mr.  Richard B. Tabakin
Industrial Waste Treatment
 Research Laboratory, IPCB
Edison, New Jersey 08817
    Project Cost:  $29,234

    Federal Cost:  $20,000
 This project will demonstrate simultaneous reduction of Cr (VI) and the
 precipitation-reduction of Cu (II) in acid solution by cementation onto
 sacrificial scrap iron.  The mass transport and chemical mechanisms
 governing the effectiveness of the cementation reaction which were iden-
 tified in a bench scale study, EPA Project 802254, will be verified in  i
 this full scale inplant demonstration at a brass mill.
             ADDRESS INQUIRIES TO EPA PROJECT OFFICER

                               V-54

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 INFORMATION^ SHEET
        ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY
RESEARCH,  DEVELOPMENT OR DEMONSTRATION PROJECT
  This shed briefly describes an R & 1) project Section 104 or 105 of the
  Kedcral Water Pollution Control Acl Amendments of \()72 (PI, 9:2-000)

PROJECT NUMBER:    303251
TITLE OF PROJECT:
GRANTEE  OR  CONTRACTOR:
 Aluminum Company of America
 1200 Ring Building
 Washington,  D. C. 20036

Project Site :  Newburgh, Indiana

DESCRIPTION  OF  PROJECT

Award  Date:  June,  1974

Completion Date:  juiy, 1975

Summary:
In-Plant Pilot Program for Treatment,  Concentration
and Recovery  of Phosphate Cleaning Wastes from
Aluminum Finishing Operations

                      EPA PROJECT OFFICER:

                       Mary K. S tins on
                       Industrial Waste Treatment
                        Research Laboratory, IPCB
                       Edison, New Jersey 08817
                          Project Cost: $134)22o

                          Federal Cost:  $36}0oo
 This project will demonstrate a pilot plant scale treatment of dilute,
 phosphates bearing rinsewaters, which result from aluminum cleaning
 operations.  The process will utilize a recently developed unique
 evaporative system to produce high quality water and concentrate the
 phosphate in the rinsewater by effecting a 97-99% reduction in the
 initial wastewater volume.  Low pressure steam, produced by the plant
 waste heat, will be used as the heat source for the evaporation process,
 and about 80% of the steam heat can be recovered for further utilization.
 A closed loop type system is possible.
             ADDRESS INQUIRIES TO EPA PROJECT OFFICER
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IN FORM A TION  SHEET

        ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY
RESEARCH. DEVELOPMENT OR DEMONSTRATION PROJECT

  This shrrl briefly describe* an R & D project Section 104 or 105 of the
  Kedcral Water Pollution Control Act Amendments of 1972 (PL 92-500)

PROJECT  NUMBER:   803264
TITLE  OF  PROJECT:
New Membrane for Treatment of Metal Finishing
Effluents by Reverse Osmosis
GRANTEE OR CONTRACTOR:.
  American  Electroplaters' Society, Inc.
  56 Melmore Gardens
  East Orange, New Jersey

 Project Site:

 DESCRIPTION OF PROJECT
                     EPA PROJECT  OFFICER:
                      Mr.  Donald L. Wilson
                      Industrial Waste Treatment
                       Research Laboratory,  NERC, EPA
                      Cincinnati, Ohio 45268
 Award Date:
                June, 1974
 Completion Date:  April, 1975

 Summary:
                         Project Cost:,9fi ,1S

                         £ederal_C£il:$25,ooo
  The objective of this project is to complete the development of a new and
  improved reverse osmosis membrane by optimizing the fabrication procedure
  and establishing the sustained performance capabilities of the advanced
  membrane for treating metal finishing wastewaters.  The new membrane was1
  shown to provide effective treatment of highly acidic and alkaline metal ^
  finishing wastes beyond the range of presently available reverse osmosis
  membranes in short term testing during a previous grant.
             ADDRESS INQUIRIES TO EPA PROJECT OFFICER
                                V-56

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 INFORMATION  SHEET
        ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY
RESEARCH. DEVELOPMENT OR DEMONSTRATION PROJECT
  This shed briefly describes an R & D project Section 104 or 105 of the
  Federal Water Pollution Control Acl Amendments of 1972 (PI. 92-.iOO)

PROJECT NUMBER:   303265


TITLE OF PROJECT'.  Zinc Sludge Recycling from Kastone Treatment Process
GRANTEE OR CONTRACTOR:
 Metal Plating Corporation
 1740 Georgia Avenue
 Connersville, Indiana 47331

Project Site :   Connersville, Indiana

DESCRIPTION OF PROJECT

Award  Date:  June, 1974

Completion Date:  juiy, 1975

Summary:
EPA PROJECT OFFICER:

Mr.  Donald L. Wilson
Industrial Waste Treatment
 Research Laboratory, MERC, EPA
Cincinnati, Ohio 45268
    Project  Cost:  $3i,258
    Federal  Cost:  $15,
000
 The projectxinvolves an in-plant demonstration  of zinc sludge recycling
 from the Kastone vaste treatment process.  DuPont's Kastone process uses
 a specially formulated grade of hydrogen peroxide to oxidize cyanide to
 cyanate and precipitate the heavy metals in metal finishing rinsewaters.
 This study Twill apply sludge recycling to return the zinc precipitated in
 the Kastone process back into the plating operation.
             ADDRESS INQUIRIES TO EPA PROJECT OFFICER

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INFORMATION  SHEET

        ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY
RESEARCH.  DEVELOPMENT OR DEMONSTRATION PROJECT

  Thi> t> an R & D project Section 104 or 105 of the
  Federal \\aler Pollution Control Acl  Amendments of W72 (PI- 92-500)

PROJECT  NUMBER:    803304
TITLE OF PROJECT: Evaluation Under Plant Conditions of Electrodialysis
                 of Cyanide Rinsewaters—Zero Discharge
GRANTEE OR CONTRACTOR:
 Keystone Lamp Manufacturing Corporation
 Route 873
 Slatington, Pennsylvania 18080

Project Site :  Slatington, Pennsylvania
                  «
DESCRIPTION OF PROJECT

Award  Date:  June, 1974

Completion Date:  January, 1975

 Summary:
EPA PROJECT OFFICER:
 Mr. John Ciancia
 Industrial Waste Treatment
  Research Laboratory, IPCB
 Edison, New Jersey 08817
    Project Cost:  $44,898

    Federal Cost:  $15,000
 This study involves a full scale inplant  demonstration of the use of
 electrodialysis to purify a brass cyanide rinse water for reuse while
 concentrating the chemicals for return to the processing bath.  The
 purpose of this study is to establish the effectiveness and economics
 of using electrodialysis for closing the  loop on cyanide rinse wastes
 under actual plant conditions.
             ADDRESS INQUIRIES TO EPA PROJECT OFFICER

                              V-58

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 INFORMATION  SHEET
        ENVIRONMENTAL  PROTECTION AGENCY
RESEARCH.  DEVELOPMENT OR DEMONSTRATION PROJECT
  This sheet briefly describes an R, & L) project Section 104 or 10.1 of the
  Federal \\ater Pollution Control Act Amendments of l<,'7:2 (PL ()2-500)
PROJECT NUMBER:
803332
TITLE OF PROJECT:  Removal of Toxic Metal Ions  from Metal Finishing
                   Wastewater by Solvent Extraction
GRANTEE  OR  CONTRACTOR:
 Texas Southern University
 Department of Chemistry
 3201 Wheeler Avenue
 Houston,  Texas 77004
Project Site:   Houston, Texas

DESCRIPTION OF  PROJECT

Award Date:   August, 1974

Completion Date:  December,  1975

Summary:
                       EPA PROJECT OFFICER:
                       Mr. Richard  B. Tabakin
                       Industrial Waste Treatment
                        Research Laboratory, IPCB
                       Edison, New  Jersey  08817
                           Project Cost: $84,i86

                           Federal Cost: $79,974
 The primary objective of this project is to develop solvent extraction
 processes in the laboratory which show promise of being scaled  up for
 utilization by small metal plating shops to remove and recover  toxic
 metals ions from wastewaters.  The methods will be developed for removal
 of copper, cadmium, chromium, nickel, and zinc using high molecular
 weight amines including Primene JM-T, Amberlite LA-I, Alamine 336-S.
 Attempts will be made at selective removal of metals and application of
 the approach to sludges. Emphasis will be placed on developing simple,
 economical methods.  A cost analysis will be included.
            ADDRESS INQUIRIES TO EPA PROJECT OFFICER

                               V-59

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INFORMATION  SHEET

        ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY
RESEARCH.  DEVELOPMENT OR DEMONSTRATION PROJECT

  Thi> sheet briefly deseril.es an R & U project Section 104 »r I OS of the
  Kederal \\aler Pollution Control Ac I  Amendment* of \<)7'2 (PI. W-SOO)

PROJECT  NUMBER:   303342

TITLE  OF PROJECT:   Heavy Metals Removal Process
GRANTEE OR CONTRACTOR:
  Metal Finishers' Foundation
  248 Lorraine Avenue
  Upper Montclair, New Jersey 07043

 Project Site :  Bell Gardens, California

 DESCRIPTION OF PROJECT

 Award Date: june, 1974.

 Completion Date:  May> i975

 Summary:
EPA PROJECT OFFICER:

  Fred Ellerbusch
  Industrial Waste Treatment
  Research Laboratory, IPCB
  Edison,  New Jersey 08817
    Project Cost:  $50,ooo

    Federal Cost:  $30,000
  Ihe project is a pilot scale demonstration of an electrolytic technique
  for removing heavy metals and cyanide from metal finishing wastes.  The
  removal system uses a bed of conductive particles between the electrodes
  through which the waste to be treated flows.  A low voltage direct current
  is applied resulting in the plating out of the heavy metals on the conduc-
  tive particles.  The metal removed can be recovered either chemically or
  electrochemically.
             ADDRESS INQUIRIES TO EPA PROJECT OFFICER
                               V-60

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 INFORMATION  SHEET

        ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY
RESEARCH.  DEVELOPMENT OR DEMONSTRATION PROJECT
  This shccl briefly describes an R, & U project Section 104 or 105 of the
  Federal Water Pollution Control Act Amendments of 1972 (PI, U2-300)


PROJECT NUMBER:   803467


TiTLE OF PROJECT: Metal Finishing:  Painting Waste Load Study
GRANTEE  OR CONTRACTOR:
  Dr. George E. F.  Brewer
  Brighton,  Michigan
                                         EPA PROJECT OFFICER:

                                          Dr. Hugh Durham
                                          Grosse lie Field Station
                                          9311 Groh Road
                                          Grosse lie, Michigan 48138
                                             Project Cost:  $17}349

                                             Federal Cost:  $i6,48i
Project Site :   Brighton,  Michigan

DESCRIPTION OF PROJECT


Award  Date:    November,  1974


Completion Date:  December, 1975


Summary:

 A state-of-the-art survey will be conducted on the liquid, solid, and
 gaseous waste  loads generated during industrial painting processing.
 Four available classes of paints (organic solvent-borne, water-borne,
 powder paints, and radiation cured paints),  applied by one or more of
 six painting techniques (spray, dip and flow, roller and brush, electro-
 deposition, powder technology, and radiation curing) are being surveyed.
 Data are being obtained from the literature, trade and scientific organ-
 izations, paint and equipment manufacturers, and industrial users.
             ADDRESS INQUIRIES TO  EPA PROJECT OFFICER

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                        FINAL REPORTS AVAILABLE

                       METAL AND METAL  PRODUCTS
Report Number     Title/Author
                                                              Source
12010 EIE 11/68
12010 EIE 03/71
12010 EZV 02/70
 12010 DIM 08/70
                 A State-of-the-Art Review of Metal Finish-
                 ing Waste Treatment, Battelle Memorial
                 Institute, Columbus, Ohio.
GPO $1.00
                 An Investigation of Techniques for Removal    GPO $1.00
                 of Chromimum from Electroplating Wastes~
                 Battelle Memorial Institute, Columbus, Ohio.
                 Treatment of Waste Water - Waste Oil
                 Mixtures, Armco Steel Corporation,
                 Middletown, Ohio.

                 Pyrite Depression by Reduction  of Solution
                 Oxidation Potential, University of  Utah,
                 Salt Lake City, Utah.
GPO $2.50
GPO $0.70
NTIS/PB-200-257
 12010  DRH 11/71
12010  DUL  02/71   Limestone Treatment^ Rinse Waters  from     GPO $1.50
                 Hydrochloric Acid Pickling of  Steel,  Armco
                 Steel Corporation, Middletown, Ohio.

12010  EQF  03/71   An  Electromembrane Process for Reoenerat-    GPO $1.00
                 ing Acid from Spent Pickle Liquor, Southern
                 Research Institute, Birminqhani,  Alabama.

                 Ultrathin Membranes for Treating Metal        GPO $1.00
                 Finishing Effluents by Reverse Osmosis; by
                 North Star Research & Develooment Institute
                 (through Minnesota Pollution Control  Aqency),
                 Minneapolis, Minn.

                 Combined Steel Mill and Municipal Waste-     GPO $1.50
                 waters Treatment, Weirton Steel  Div.,
                 National Steel Corporation, Weirton,  West
                 Virginia.

                 Brass Wire Mill  Process Changes  and  Waste    GPO $0.55
                 Abatement, Recovery and Reuse, Volco Brass
                 and Copper Company, Kenilworth,  New  Jersey.

                 Chemical Treatment of Plating  Waste  for      GPO $0.75
                 Kanovai  of Heavy Metals  Beaton  & Cnrbin
                 Manufacturing Co., Southinaton,  Conn.
 12010  DTQ 02/72
 12010 DPF  11/71
 EPA-R2-73-044
                                    V-62

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Report Number     Title/Author                                 Source

12010 EDY 12/73   Biological Removal of Carbon and Nitrogen    GPO $2.00
                  Compounds from Coke Plant Wastes, American
                  Iron and Steel Institute, New York, New York

12010 DPS 12/73   Investigation of Treating Electroplaters     GPO $0.90
                  Cyanide Waste by Electrolysis, RAI Research
                  Corporation, Long Island City, New York.

12070 HEK 12/73   Regeneration of Chromated Aluminum           GPO $1.95
                  Deoxidizers, Beoina Co., Seattle, Washington.

12010 DSA 7/74    Waste Water Treatment and Reuse in a Metal   GPO $0.90
                  Finishing Job Shop, S. K. Williams Company,

EPA-660/2-73-033  New Membranes for Reverse Osmosis Treatment  GPO $1.40
                  Of Metal Finishing Effluents', Minnesota
                  Pollution Control Agency, Minneapolis, Minn.

EPA-R2-73-247a    Water Pollution Control in the Primary       GPO $1.90
                  Nonferrous Metals Industry - Vol. I
                  Copper, Line, and Lead IndustriesT"Batte11 e
                  Memorial Institute , Columbus, Ohio.

EPA-R2-73-247b    Water Pollution Control in the Primary Non-  GPO $1.45
                  ferrous Metals Industry - Vpl II, Aluminum,
                  Mercury, Gold, Silver, Molybdenum, and
                  Tungsten, Battelle Memorial Institute,
                  Columbus, Ohio.

EPA-670/2-74-008  Metallic Recovery from Wastewaters Utiliz-   GPO
                  ing Cementation, Anaconda American Brass,
                  Waterbury, Connecticut.
                                   V-63

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                 MISCELLANEOUS INDUSTRIAL POINT SOURCES

     The Miscellaneous Program Area is defined as that technology research
oriented to providing the below listed industries with economically viable
technology to meet the effluent standards for point source discharge.
          Photographic Processing
          Flat Glass
          Glass and Glassware Pressed or Blown
          Purchased Glass Fabrication
          Hydraulic Cement
          Structural Clay Products
          Pottery Products
          Concrete, Gypsum, and Plaster
          Cut Stone and Stone Products
          Abrasi-ve, Asbestos, and Miscellaneous Nonmetallic Mineral Products
          Instrument Manufacturing
          Miscellaneous Manufacturing Industries
          Water Supply
          Commercial Laundries
          Tank Truck, Terminals
          Drum Barrel Cleaning
                                  VI-1

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                             PROJECT INDEX

                 MISCELLANEOUS  INDUSTRIAL POINT SOURCES



           Grantee or Contractor                            Project Status
DOD
ERC
ERF
ESW
EUR
EZF
FRM
FYV
GCH
GLE
HBM
800936
801872
802044
802196
802800
803142
803196
803239
Project
Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute
American Water Works Association
Research Foundation
Berkey Film Processing
Gainesville, Florida
American Water Works Association
Research Foundation
Johns - Manville Products Corporation
Albany, New York
IIL/LSAA Technical Liaison Committee
Vermont Department of Water Resources
Culligan International Company
Oregon Concrete and Aggregate Producers Assoc.
American Water Works Association
Southern Research Institute
Franklin Institute
Portland Cement Association
Montgomery, Alabama
Franklin Institute
Johnson County, Water District #1, Kansas
Stanford Research Institute
Status :
A
A
B
A
A
A
B
A
A
B
B
A
B
B
B
B
B
B
B

  - Completed,  Final  Report Available
B - Project Ongoing
C - Project Discontinued
                                 VI-2

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 INFORMATION  SHEET
         ENVIRONMENTAL  PROTECTION AGENCY
RESEARCH. DEVELOPMENT OR DEMONSTRATION PROJECT
  This sheet briefly describes an R & D project Section 104 or !()."> of the
  Federal Water Pollution Control Acl Amendments of 1^72 (PI, 02-500)
PROJECT NUMBER:
DOD
TITLE OF PROJECT!  Removal  of Syndets  and Reclamation of Laundry Wastes
GRANTEE OR CONTRACTOR:
  Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute
  Research Division
  Troy, New York 12181

Project Site :  Troy, New York

DESCRIPTION OF  PROJECT

Award Date: December 1,  1968

Completion  Date:  November  i, 1971
                   EPA PROJECT OFFICER:
                   Mr. Richard  Keppler
                   Region I,  EPA, John F.
                    Kennedy Federal Building
                   Boston, Massachusetts  02203
                       Project Cost: $53,090

                       Federal Cost: $25,055
              objective of  this project is to optimize and evaluate the best
  process or combination of processes attainable for the treatment  and recovery
  of laundromat wastewaters.  Two commercially available treatment  systems for
  laundromat wastewaters are to be used in the optimization and evaluation
  project. - Laboratory and field studies were conducted to evaluate the capa-
  bilities of two commercially available laundromat waste treatment systems to
  treat laundromat wastes with the possibility of recycling the treated effluent,
  The Winfair Water Reclamation System (WWRS) involves the addition of alum
  to a pH of 4, sedimentation, sand filtration, carbon adsorption,  and passage
  through ion exchange resins.  The American Laundry Machinery Industries
  system employs chemical precipitation prior to filtration through Diatomaceous
  Earth. - The WWRS achieved a 56% BOD reduction, 62% COD reduction, and 94%
  ABS reduction, but suffered from a buildup of total solids in the effluent.
  The system produced an effluent suitable for discharge into many  streams.
  For effluent recycling, a functioning demineralizer would be required.  - The
  ALMI system achieved a 63% BOD reduction, 69% COD reduction, 87%  ABS reduc-
  tion, 94% PO^ reduction, and complete coliform removal.  The increase in
  effluent alkalinity and hardness render very questionable the suitability of
  the effluent for reuse without softening and pH adjustment.   The  use of the
  system would cost about 10 £ per wash.

             ADDRESS  INQUIRIES TO EPA  PROJECT OFFICER
                                 VI-3

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INFORMATION  SHEET
                        MOTfCTIO*            ^n
MSEAKCH. DMLOPMMT OH DEMON5TMTIOH  PROJECT

  ThU slurl briefly describes a, R & D project Section, 104 or 105 of Ihc
  Federal Water Pollution Control Acl Amendments of 1972 (PI, 92-aQO)
PROJECT NUMBER:
ERG
TITLE OF PROJECT: Disposal of Wastes from Water Treatment Plants
 GRANTEE OR CONTRACTOR:
  American Water Works Association
   Research. Foundation
  2 Park Avenue
  New York, New York 10016
         Site.'   New York, New York
                       EPA PROJECT  OFFICER:

                       Mr.  George Webster
                       EPA, Water Quality Research
                       Washington, D. C. 20460
 DESCRIPTION OF PROJECT

 Award Date: juiy  25, 195 s

 Completion Date:  juiy 25,  1959
                           Project Cost:  $53,250

                           Federal Cost:  $46,305
 Summary:
  The final report to this project presents an intensive study of the disposal
  of wastes from water treatment plants.  The wastes  include filter washwater;
  sludge resulting from coagulation, softening, iron  and manganese removal
  processes; diatomaceous earth filtration; and ion exchange brines. - A series
  of four status reports describe in detail what is known of the research,
  engineering, plant operation, and regulatory aspects  of the problem.  A
  special report reviews current technology and analyzes costs of disposal
  methods, based on data collected from 15 operating  plants.  -  Final reports
  were prepared by committees of conference participants to identify future
  needs for information in each aspect of the waste disposal problem.  These
  reports recommend substantially expanded programs of  research and demonstra-
  tion. They include extensive lists of specific problems which must be
  investigated to develop effective and economical technology.  Committee reports
  also recommend establishment of a central service to  promote the planning of
  research and development, and to implement effective  programs of new or improved
  technology.  The service would collect, coordinate, and disseminate data on all
  aspects  of water treatment plant waste disposal problems.
               ADDRESS INQUIRIES TO EPA PROJECT  OFMC1R
                                  yi-4

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 INFORMATION  SHEET

        ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY
RESEARCH. DEVELOPMENT OR DEMONSTRATION PROJECT
  This sheet briefly describes uu R & D project Section 104 or 105 of the

  Federal Water Pollution Control Act Amendments of 197:2 (PI- 92-500)
PROJECT NUMBER:
                      ERF
TITLE  OF PROJECT.  Treatment  of Complex Cyanide Compounds  for Reuse
                  and Disposal
                                        EPA PROJECT OFFICER:

                                        Mr.  Thomas Devine
                                        New England Basins Office,  EPA
                                        240  Highland Avenue
                                        Needlam Heights, Massachusetts
                                                            02194
GRANTEE OR  CONTRACTOR:

Berkey Film Processing
260 Lunenburg Street
Fitchburg,  Massachusetts 01420


PrOJeCt  Site :  Rochester, New York


DESCRIPTION OF  PROJECT


Award Date:  April 23, 1970


Completion Date: April 23, 1971


Summary:

The basic objective in this project is to research and develop methods for
the treatment of ferrocyanide waters from film processing for recovery and
disposal.   Recovery methods to be explored are ozonation and electrolytic
oxidation to  ferricyanide.  Treatment for disposal includes ozonation for
destruction, precipitation of complex cyanides, and chlorination.
                                            Project  Cost: $153,576

                                            Federal  Cost:$114,415
            ADDRESS INQUIRIES TO EPA PROJECT OFFICER
                               VI-5

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INFORMATION SHEET

        ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY
RESEARCH. DEVELOPMENT OR DEMONSTRATION PROJECT

  Thi> shrrt LrieflN (l^cnbo an R & D project Section 104 or 105 of the
  rV.lrral \\atcr Pollution Control Acl Amendments of 1972 (PI, 92-500)
PROJECT NUMBER:
                      ESW
TITLE OF PROJECT: Magnesium Carbonate, a Recycled  Coagulant for Water
                 Treatment
                                         EPA PROJECT OFFICER:

                                          Mr. Edmond Lomasney
                                          Region IV, EPA
                                          1421 Peachtree Street, N.E.
                                          Atlanta, Georgia  30309
                                              Project Cost:$2?,554

                                              Federal Cost: $16,390
GRANTEE OR CONTRACTOR:
City of Gainesville, Florida




 Project Site .'  Gainesville, Florida

 DESCRIPTION OF PROJECT

 Award Date: November 12, 1969


 Completion Date:  June n, 1971


 Summary:

 The principal investigator has  a modified process for the recovery of MgO
 from brucite or dolomite to the separation and essentially quantitative
 recovery of the Mg (OH)2 present in lime-soda softening sludges as very
 pure (99.7 percent) MgC03.  This new process has been successfully tested
 on a pilot-plant scale  at Dayton, Ohio.  Another improvement of the process
 makes it possible for each of the several cities and industrial plants
 softening hard surface  waters containing clay turbidity to employ both lime
 recalcination and magnesium recovery.  This will substantially reduce treat-
 ment costs and also substantially eliminate a major water pollution problem.
 Applications of MgC03 as a coagulant to be studied include the following:
 1. Use in the removal of turbidity and organic color from soft surface
 waters; 2. Use in the removal of turbidity and organic color from hard or
 alkaline surface or well waters; 3. Use in flocculation or sewage and for
 many types of  industrial wastes; 4. Use with synthetic organic anionic and
 cationic polymers in the three applications listed above.
              ADDRESS INQUIRIES TO EPA  PROJECT OFFICER

                                VI-6

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 INFORMATION  SHEET

        ENVIRONMENTAL  PROTECTION AGENCY
RESEARCH.  DEVELOPMENT OR DEMONSTRATION PROJECT
  Thi> sheet briet'l) describes an R & D project Section 104 or 10.") of the

  Kederal Water Pollution Control Acl Amendments of 1972 (PI, 92-5
PROJECT NUMBER:
                       EUR
TITLE OF PROJECT!  Information Resource for Water Pollution Control  in
                   the Water Utility Industry
                                             Project Cost: $42,720
 GRANTEE OR CONTRACTOR:                 EPA  PROJECT OFFICER:

American Water Works Association            Mr. George Webster
 Research Foundation                       Industrial Pollution Control
2 Park Avenue                              Division (RD-679)
New York, New York 10016                    Environmental Protection Agency
 PrOJeCt Site: New York, New York           Washington, D. C. 20460


 DESCRIPTION OF PROJECT


 Award Date: June 28,  1970


 Completion  Date:  December 31§ 1971


 Summary:

The objective of this project is to establish a research and development
oriented information resource for the water utility industry.  The infor-
mation center will provide efficient collection, synthesis, and dissemin-
ation of information pertaining  to the development and demonstration of
water pollution control technology within the water utility industry.

The available literature concerning the water pollution control technology
of the water  industry will be abstracted and indexed for the Water Resources
Scientific Information Center.
                                             Federal Cost:
                                                          $24,990
             ADDRESS INQUIRIES TO EPA  PROJECT OFFICER

                               VI-7

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 IN FORM A TION  SHEET
         ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY
 RESEARCH. DEVELOPMENT  OR DEMONSTRATION  PROJECT
  This slird liriH'h dr.-uibrs an R & D project Section 104 or 10.") of the
  Federal \\ater Pollution Control Acl Amendments of 1972 (PL 92-500)

 PROJECT  NUMBER:   EZF


 TITLE OF PROJECT.   Phenolic Wastewater Reuse by Diatomite Filtration
GRANTEE OR CONTRACTOR:
Johns-Manville Products Corp.
Manville, New Jersey


Project Site:  Defiance, Ohio

DESCRIPTION OF PROJECT

Award Date:  September 1, 1967

Completion Date:  September i, 1970

Summary:
                                          EPA PROJECT  OFFICER:

                                          Mr.  Charles H. Ris
                                          Industrial Pollution Control
                                           Division (KD-679), ORD
                                          Environmental  Protection Agency
                                          Washington, D. C.  20460
                                              Project  Cost: $i64,7oo

                                              federal  Cost:$ 32,350
                                 - r	-^.ji in disposing of wastewater
                                fiberglass manufacturing process,  air-
            the mii^M  '  	3 Phenolic resin as  the fiber blanket
on the  conveyor ch^n^r1JTT°r; "T*** * dep°Sit  °f resin to form
to permit Continuous fo   ^  Cleanin^ before the deposit sets is needed
originates rrS the%£™   ?-°f ^ ^^  fiber mat'   "** wastewater
wash or high "1^ sho^er^  ^ °peration which ™s either a caustic
project a Sain Canine   wat  ^^ ** ^ deposits'  Under the demo
of low-volume, hS^re!Sur!ar/eU?e S7Stem W&S installed w^ch consists
of eight gallons Sr'mSutratSSo^r1^ Un±tS ""^ Water ~»—PtloB
to remove large particle^ Ld flK   P ^  ° StageS °f primary filiation
remove  fine PLticS.te^a£er   ^ «?/ Sr°ndary ^iatomite filter  to
in the  binder batch  overlnr*       Altered water is suitable for reuse
water reuse system has reducel  th    '  ^ *" ^^ ^"^^ ^^^   ^
cleaning, win use water 1 ^t^ K^"7 °f Wat6r requlred f°r Aaln
system, requires 1 lb Of diato™^  beforenevaP°^ati°n removes it from  the
filtered, and provides water  T   PSr  5°° gall°ns °f ^sin-bearing water
1000 gaiions for Sty wlter!    & Uet C°St °f $'37/10°0 gallons-vs: $.75/

             ADDRESS INQUIRIES TO EPA PROJECT  OFFICER
                                VI-8

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 INFORMATION  SHEET

        ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY
RESEARCH.  DEVELOPMENT OR DEMONSTRATION PROJECT
  This sheet briefly describes an R & D project Section 104 or 105 of the
  Federal Water Pollution Control Acl Amendments of 1972 (PL 02-500)

PROJECT NUMBER:   FRM


TITLE OF  PROJECT:   Treatment  of Waste Alum Sludge
                                             Project Cost^45 43Q
                                                        (Phase I Only)
                                             Federal Cost:$31,s?i
 GRANTEE  OR CONTRACTOR:                  EPA PROJECT OFFICER:

City of Albany, New York                      Dr. J.  B. Farrell
Dept.  of Water and Water Supply                National Environmental
City HaU, Albany, New York 12207              Research Center, EPA
                                           Cincinnati, Ohio 45268
 Project Site .* Feura Bush, New York

 DESCRIPTION OF PROJECT


 Award  Date: June 27, 1971


 Completion Date: August, 1972


 Summary:

The purpose is to conduct a detailed pilot-plant alum sludge filtration
study  at the Feura Bush Water Treatment Plant of the City of Albany.

The objectives being to optimize operating parameters,  demonstrate process
reproducibility, and develop information necessary for  full-scale plant
design.

Rotary vacuum precoat  filtration of alum sludge will be conducted,  and
technical and economic feasibility will be determined.

A comparison of the performance of various filter aid grades and other
operating variables and cost effectiveness of the sludge treatment will be
made.  Design criteria for a full-scale facility will be sought.
             ADDRESS INQUIRIES TO EPA PROJECT OFFICER
                              VI-9

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INFORMATION  SHEET
        ENVIRONMENTAL  PROTECTION
RESEARCH, DEVELOPMENT OR DEMONSTRATE PROJECT

  Tim slur, briefly describes a,, R & D project Section 104 or 105 oHhr
  Fnlt-ral Water Pollution Control Acl Amendments of 1972 (PL 92oOU)
PROJECT NUMBER:
FYV
TITLE OF PROJECT!   Modular Laundry Wastewater Treatment System for
	•—•	   the Textile Maintenance Industry
 6RANTEE OR CONTRACTOR:
  IIL/LSAA Technical Liaison Committee
  P. 0. Box 2427
  Miami Beach,  Florida 33140
                      EPA PROJECT  OFFICER:
                       Mr.  Arthur H. Mallon, P.E.
                       Industrial Pollution Control
                        Division (RD-679),  ORD
                       Environmental Protection Agency
                       Washington, D. C. 20460
                                               Project Cost:  $135,277
                                               Federal Cost:
                                          $122,613
Project Site:   The Roscoe co., 3517 w.
	'       Harrison, Chicago,  111. 60624

DESCRIPTION  OF PROJECT


Award  Dite:   February 1, 1971


Completion Date:  August i, 1972


Summary:
  A wastewater treatment system consisting of chemical treatment and  floccu-
  lation facilities, dissolved-air flotation for solids-liquids separation,
  diatomaceous earth filtration for polishing the flotation effluent,  and
  vacuum filtration dewatering of flotation scum was  installed at a commer-
  cial laundry.  Data was obtained on effluent quality, sludge volume, chemi-
  cal costs and other operating costs for industrial  laundry wastewater, linen
  laundry wastewater, and uniform laundry wastewater.  The final effluent of
  the linen and uniform laundry wastewater treatment  met municipal sewer
  ordinance requirements for  grease and heavy metals.  Wastewater suspended
  solids and BOD were also significantly reduced, so  that high municipal sewer
  surcharges would not be imposed.  The effluent from the industrial  laundry
  wastewater treatment did not consistently meet municipal sewer ordinance
  standards.  Complete wastewater treatment operating costs were on the order
  of $0 80/cu  m  ($3.00/1000 gal.) for industrial laundry wastewater,  $0.66/
  cu m  ($2.50/1000 gal.) for  uniform laundry wastewater and $0.40/cu  m ($1.52/
  1000  gal.) for linen laundry wastewater.  It was concluded that the treat-
  ment  system  had applicability in treating laundry wastewater.
               ADDRESS  INQUIRIES TO EPA PROJECT OFFICER
                                   VI-1Q

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 INFORMATION  SHEET
         ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY
RESEARCH. DEVELOPMENT OR DEMONSTRATION PROJECT
  Thi> slieel hriel'K dc-M-ribo an R & D project Section 104 or 105 of the
  Federal Water Pollution Control Act Amendments of 1<)72 (PI- °2-.iOO)

PROJECT  NUMBER:   GCH
TITLE OF  PROJECT:
                    Granite Industry Wastewater Treatment
 GRANTEE OR  CONTRACTOR:
Vermont Department of Water Resources
Montpelier, Vermont 05602
                                           EPA  PROJECT OFFICER:

                                            Mr.  Allyn Richardson
                                            Region I, EPA
                                            John F. Kennedy Federal Bldg.
                                            Boston, Massachusetts 02203
 Project  Site :  Univ. of Vermont,  Burlington,  Vermont 05401

 DESCRIPTION  OF PROJECT
                                               Project Cost:$8?,868

                                               Federal Cost: $61,503
 Award Date:  September i, 1970


 Completion Date:   November 30, 1971
                  *

 Summary:

The purpose is to develop and demonstrate a system capable of abating the
water pollution generated in granite processing.   Included are studies to
optimize industry operations, determine process water demands, and verify
wastewater characteristics.  The project included  a study of overall water
use in a granite plant, water optimization studies, and water reduction
studies.  Laboratory  testing was conducted for waste characterization and
liquid solids separation techniques.  A pilot plant was designed, constructed
and operated to test  the efficiency of plant scale separation procedures.  A
prototype plant was designed and constructed to test the possibility of com-
plete water reuse in  the granite industry.  Successful operation of both
plants indicates that a practical method of treating granite waste effluent
has been developed and that complete recycle of treated effluent is possible
and economically feasible.  Studies were performed to determine the possibil-
ity of by-product use of waste granite sludge.  Two uses were found for the
sludge, but an economic evaluation indicated that  there was  insufficient raw
material to establish a by-product industry.  A survey of sludge disposal
methods in the industry showed that some modification of waste disposal
facilities, and more  cooperation by the industry,  would improve the sludge
disposal procedures.  A modified type of settling  lagoon was recommended.
              ADDRESS INQUIRIES TO  EPA PROJECT OFFICER

                                 VI-11

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INFORMATION^ SHEET

        ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AQENCY
RESEARCH. DEVELOPMENT OR DEMONSTRATION  PROJECT

  This shri-l briefly describes an R & D project Section 104 or 105 of Uir
  Federal Water Pollution Control Acl  Amendments of 1972 (PL 92-500)
PROJECT NUMBER:
GLE
TITLE OF PROJECT.'   Industrial Water Softener Waste Brine Reclamation
 GRANTEE OR CONTRACTOR:
 Culligan International Co.
 One Culligan Parkway
 Northforook, Illinois  60062
        Site :   Riverside,  California
                      EPA  PROJECT OFFICER:
                       Mr. Vern Tenney
                       Region IX, EPA
                       760 Market Street
                       San Francisco, California 94102
 DESCRIPTION OF PROJECT
 Award Date:   April 15, 1971

 Completion Date:  February 1974

 Summary:
                           Project  Cost:  $121,212

                           Federal Cost:  .$69,797
  There are two alternatives for discharge of water softener regenerant brines
  to receiving streams:  1. Truck to approved dumping site; 2. Reclaim for
  reuse. Brine reuse has been studied at a central regeneration facility for
  portable water softeners.  Reclamation used modified lime-soda softening for
  the waste brine to produce an acceptable regenerant brine.  Regenerant wastes
  were reduced by 89% to produce an environmentally acceptable sludge.  'The
  process is feasible technically, marginal economically.  The added costs for
  lime and soda ash are  less than is the value of salt and water reclaimed by
  their use.  That is, the process is cheaper chemically; however,  equipment
  and labor costs negate this savings. Depreciation and operating  costs were
  high at the test location: total costs favor trucking wastes to an approved
  dumping site.
              ADDRESS INQUIRIES TO EPA PROJECT OFFICER
                                 VEL2

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 INFORMATION  SHEET
         ENVIRONMENTAL  PROTECTION AGENCY
RESEARCH. DEVELOPMENT OR  DEMONSTRATION PROJECT
  Tliis shed brief!) describes an R. & U project Section 104 or 10.1 of (lie
  Federal \\ater Pollution Control Act Amendments of 1972 (PI. 
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INFORMATION SHEET

        ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY
RESEARCH, DEVELOPMENT OR DEMONSTRATION PROJECT

  Thi- shed l.rirl'U (Ic-MTilirs an R & D project Section 104 or 105 of the
  Knlrral \\aler Pollution Control Acl Amendments of I()7l2 (PI- 92-500)
PROJECT NUMBER:
800936
TITLE OF PROJECT:   Information Resource for Water Pollution Control
                   in the Water Utility Industry
GRANTEE OR  CONTRACTOR:
American Water Works Association
 Research Foundation
2 Park Avenue
New York, New York 10016

Project Site :   New York, New York

DESCRIPTION OF PROJECT
                     EPA PROJECT OFFICER:

                     Mr.  George Webster
                     Industrial Pollution Control
                      Division (RD-679), ORD,  EPA
                     Washington, D.  C.  20460
       Date:
            February 1, 1972
                  January 31, 1973
                         Project Cost: $46,953

                         Federal Cost: $26,147
Completion  Date:


Summary:

The objective of  this project is to establish a research and development
oriented information resource for the water utility industry.  The informa-
tion center will  provide efficient collection, synthesis, and dissemination
of information pertaining to the development and demonstration of water
pollution control technology within the water utility industry.

The available literature concerning the water pollution control technology
of the water industry will be abstracted and indexed for the Water Resources
Scientific Information Center.
             ADDRESS INQUIRIES TO  EPA PROJECT OFFICER

                               VI-14

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 INFORMATION  SHEET
         ENVIRONMENTAL  PROTECTION AGENCY
RESEARCH. DEVELOPMENT OR DEMONSTRATION PROJECT
  This shed briefly describe.* an R & D project Section 104 or l()r> of the
  Federal Water Pollution Control Acl Amendments of 1<)72 (PI. 92-500)
PROJECT NUMBER:
                         801872
TITLE OF PROJECT:   study of the State-of-the-Art of Disposal and
                    Utilization of Waste Kiln Dust from the Cement
                    Indus try

GRANTEE OR CONTRACTOR:                   EPA PROJECT OFFICER:
                                           Mr. Edmond Lomasney
                                           EPA, Region IV
                                           1421 Peachtree  Street
                                           Atlanta, Georgia  30309
                                               Project  Cost:  $2s,496

                                               Federal  Cost:  $25,000
Southern Research Institute
2000 Ninth Avenue South
Birmingham, Alabama 35205


PrOJeCt Site :  Birmingham, Alabama


DESCRIPTION OF  PROJECT

Award  Date:   Juiy 6, 1972


Completion  Date:   January 1975


Summary:
The rotary kilns used in the manufacture of Portland Cement emit large  amounts
of dust.  To prevent air pollution, this dust  is collected in cyclones, bag
filters, and electrostatic precipitators.   The dust from many cement plants
is high in alkali content, and much of it  cannot be returned to the cement
making process.   Therefore, it presents a solid waste disposal problem.  The
solid waste disposal problem can be solved by  leaching the alkalies out of
dust and returning the dust to the kiln, but leaching poses water pollution
problems unless  the alkalies can be removed from the water.  The proposed
state-of-the-art study will determine the extent of the problem of dust dis-
posal, the present practices used by various cement manufacturers for solving
the problem, and prospects for solving the problem on an industry-wide basis.
We plan to contact all cement manufacturers in the United States and to visit
plants that have well-defined approaches or solutions to the dust disposal
problem.  The results of the study will be presented in the form of a report
that will include estimates of the amount  of dust discarded, descriptions of
present utilization processes, a bibliography  of pertinent literature, and
discussion of processes that are of potential  value in dust utilization.
             ADDRESS INQUIRIES TO EPA  PROJECT OFFICER

                                 VI-15

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INFORMATION^ SHEET

        ENVIRONMENTAL  PROTECTION AGENCY
RESEARCH, DEVELOPMENT OR DEMONSTRATION PROJECT

  Th,, shed l.riH'lv dcM-ribo a.. R £ U project Section 104 or UK, of llir
  Federal \\ater Pollution Control At I Amendment* of 1972 (PI, 92-500)

PROJECT NUMBER:  302044

TITLE  OF PROJECT:  Development of a Monthly Industrial Technology Bulletin
 GRANTEE  OR  CONTRACTOR:                 EPA PROJECT OFFICER:

 The Franklin  Institute Research             Mr.  Charles H.  Ris
 Laboratories                            Industrial Pollution Control
 20th Street and the Parkway                  Division (RD-679), ORD, EPA
 Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 19103            Washington, D.  C. 20460

 Project SlI6 .'   Philadelphia, Pennsylvania

 DESCRIPTION OF PROJECT

 Award Date: August  i, 1974


 Completion  Date: juiy 1973


 Summary:

 A current-awareness bulletin emphasizing advancements  in the field of indus-
 trial technology as related to water quality and water pollution  control
 will be provided to key technical and administrative personnel, both govern-
 ment and  non-government, as directed by the  EPA Project Officer.  A monthly
 publication containing approximately 30 abstracts of articles pertinent to
 industrial pollution  control technology will be prepared for and  distributed
 to the aforementioned recipients.  Annual subject and  author indexes as well
 as a list of all journals from which articles were summarized in  the bulletin
 will also be provided under this grant.
Project  Cost:  $2e,462

Federal  Cost:  $23,815
              ADDRESS INQUIRIES TO EPA PROJECT OFFICER

                               VI-16

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 INFORMATION  SHEET
        ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY
RESEARCH, DEVELOPMENT OR DEMONSTRATION  PROJECT
  Thi* sliecl briefly describes an R & U project Section  104 or 10.1 of the
  Federal Water Pollution Control Act Amendments of 1072 (PI, 'J2-500)

PROJECT NUMBER:   302195
TITLE  OF PROJECT:
Elimination of Water Pollution by Recycling Cement
Plant Dusts
GRANTEE OR  CONTRACTOR:
Portland Cement Association
Old Orchard Road
Skokie, Illinois  60076
        Site :   Skokie,  Illinois
DESCRIPTION  OF  PROJECT

Award Date:   March i,  1973

Completion Date:  August, 1976

Summary:
                     EPA  PROJECT OFFICER:

                      Mr. Donald Wilson
                      EPA - IWTRL
                      Edison, New Jersey
                         Project Cost: $450,000

                         Federal Cost: $ 49,242
 Overall objectives: Elimination of problems associated with disposal of
 kiln dust from cement plants.  Specifically by (a) Formation of clinker
 with concomitant volatilization of alkalies, (b) Leaching of water-soluble
 alkalies and return of leachate to system, Cc)  Other uses of dust,  ferti-
 lizer, soil stabilizer, or agricultural limestone and, (d) Use of dust as
 admixture to modify cement or cement products.
             ADDRESS INQUIRIES TO EPA PROJECT OFFICER
                               VI-17

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INFORMATION^  SHEET

        ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY
RESEARCH, DEVELOPMENT OR DEMONSTRATION PROJECT

  Thi.s sheet briH'K ilcsrribo an R & D project Section 104 or 103 of the
  Federal \\ater Pollution Control Acl  Amendments of 1972 (PI. 92-300)
PROJECT NUMBER:
                     802800
TITLE OF PROJECT:  MgC03 Coagulation in Treatment of Potable Water
GRANTEE  OR  CONTRACTOR:

Water Works and Sanitary Sewer Board
City of Montgomery
P.  0. Box 1631
Montgomery, Alabama  36102
PrOJeCt Site :  Montgomery, Alabama

DESCRIPTION OF PROJECT
                                        EPA  PROJECT OFFICER:

                                        Mr. Edmond Lomasney
                                        Region  IV, EPA
                                        1421  Peachtree Street, N.E.
                                        Atlanta, Georgia  30309
 Award Date:
              June 1,  1971
                  May 31,  1973
Project Cost: $214,520

Federal Cost: $99,500
Completion Date:


Summary:

The City of Montgomery under the direction of the consultant will operate
a pilot-scale facility to demonstrate the use of MgC03 as a coagulant  for
the treatment of municipal water.   The pilot system (50 gpm) will be
operated to verify  the scale-up and operating parameters for a subsequent
10-mgd demonstration and evaluation of the MgC03 system.

The concept of using MgC03 as a coagulant stems from the search for a
solution to the ever increasing problem of disposing of the alum sludges
from municipal water treatment.  The concept to be piloted and demonstrated
will use MgC03 as the flocculant with MgOH precipitated with the addition
of lime.  A scheme  for recycling the magnesium by carbonation with COo will
produce a sludge which is easily dewatered and at the same time recover at
least 90 percent of the magnesium for reuse.  The project activities will
make operational, technical, and cost comparisons between the MgCOo and
conventional  alum coagulation systems.
              ADDRESS INQUIRIES TO EPA PROJECT OFFICER

                                VI-18

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 INFORMATION  SHEET
         ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY
RESEARCH,  DEVELOPMENT OR DEMONSTRATION PROJECT
  Thi.- sheet briefly dchcribes an R & U project Section 104 or I Of) of Hie
  Federal Water Pollution Control Acl Amendments of \()7'2 (PI, <)2-.")00)

PROJECT NUMBER:  803142


TITLE OF PROJECT!  Preparation of the Industrial Technology Bulletin
GRANTEE OR CONTRACTOR:
The Franklin Institute Research
 Laboratories
20th and Race Streets
Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 19103
Project Site:
                          EPA  PROJECT OFFICER:
                          Mr.  Charles H.  Ris
                          Industrial Pollution Control
                           Division (RD-679), ORB,  EPA
                          Washington, D.  C.  20460
Philadelphia, Pennsylvania
DESCRIPTION OF PROJECT

Award  Date:  June is, 1974

Completion Date:  July 1975

Summary:
                              Project Cost: $31,553

                              Federal Cost: $28,403
The Franklin Institute Research Laboratories, Science Information Services
Department, will provide key technical and administrative personnel, both
government and non-government, with a current-awareness bulletin of abstracts
emphasizing advancements in the field of industrial technology as related
to water quality and water pollution control.  This will be in the form of
a monthly publication containing approximately 30 abstracts of articles
pertinent to industrial technology which will be distributed to the afore-
mentioned recipients.  Annual subject and author indexes, a journal list,
and a compilation of each of the monthly bulletins will be included in the
final report, along with camera-ready copy of the entire final report.
             ADDRESS INQUIRIES TO EPA PROJECT OFFICER

                                VI-19

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INFORMATION^ SHEET

        ENVIRONMENTAL  PROTECTION AGENCY
RESEARCH. DEVELOPMENT OR DEMONSTRATION  PROJECT

  This sh«-cl l>ri.'H> .IfM-i-iU-s an R & U project Section 104 or 105 of ihr
  Kt-d.-ral \\atrr Pollution Control Acl Amendments of 1972 (PU 92-500)

PROJECT  NUMBER: 803196

TITLE  OF PROJECT:  Recovery,  Recycle,  and Reuse of C02, Lime,  and
                  Magnesium in Potable  Water Treatment
GRANTEE OR CONTRACTOR:
Water District #1 of Johnson County
5030 Beverly Street
Mission, Kansas
                                        EPA PROJECT OFFICER:
                                        Mr. Alden Christiansen
                                        EPA, PNERL
                                        Corvallis, Oregon
                                             Project Cost:  $267,735

                                             Federal Cost:  $130,000
Project Site:   Mission, Kansas

DESCRIPTION OF PROJECT

Award Date:  juiy 15, 1974


Completion  Date: January, 1975


Summary:

The objectives are: 1) Determine the technical and economic feasibility of
calcium carbonate beneficiation by froth flotation; 2) Determine the tech-
nical and economic feasibility of producing magnesium compounds from highly
turbid surface waters; 3) Develop design information for all unit operations
and processes involved; 4) Provide overall economic analysis and process
evaluation in comparison with the existing process and alternate methods of
sludge treatment.  A two MGD pilot scale study of the various operations will
be conducted over a one year period.  Various water qualities will be obtained
by mixing desired quantities of well and surface waters.
             ADDRESS  INQUIRIES TO EPA PROJECT OFFICER

                                VI-20

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 INFORMATION  SHEET

        ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY
RESEARCH,  DEVELOPMENT OR DEMONSTRATION PROJECT
  This shed briefly describes an R & U project Section 104 or 10."> of llie
  Federal Water Pollution Control Acl Amendments of 1972 (PI, 02-500)


PROJECT NUMBER:   303239


Tilth Ur rKUJtUl.  Review  of  Industrial Technologies-Research and
                   Development Needs for Meeting the Requirements of
                   PL 92-500
                                          EPA PROJECT OFFICER:

                                          Mr. Marshall Dick
                                          Industrial Pollution Control
                                          Division (RD-679), ORD, EPA
                                          Washington, D. C. 20460
GRANTEE OR CONTRACTOR:
Stanford Research  Institute
333 Ravenswood Avenue
Menlo Park, California 94025


PrOJeCt Site :  Menlo Park, California


DESCRIPTION OF PROJECT


Award  Date:  June, 1974


Completion Date:  june,  1975


Summary:
The objective of the study is to provide the Industrial Pollution Control
Division with an assessment of the adequacy of the current industrial water
pollution control  research program for those industrial point sources speci-
fied in PL 92-500.  SRI will assess the rationale and the methodology set
forth by the Industrial Pollution Control Division for the program goals or
milestones listed.  The evaluation of an on-going process development and
demonstration program requires a logical approach to problem identification
or situation analysis.  This will be followed by detailed problem definition
and specification.  Finally, a decision analysis study will be conducted to
select the most desirable program for satisfying the research goals.
                                              Project Cost:$75,275

                                              Federal Cost:$71,500
             ADDRESS INQUIRIES TO EPA PROJECT OFFICER
                                VI-21

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                       FINAL REPORTS AVAILABLE

                   MISCELLANEOUS INDUSTRIAL SOURCES
Report Number

12120 ERC  08/69



12120 ESW  06/71
Title/Author

Disposal of Wastes from Water Treatment
Plants, American Water Works Association
Research Foundation, New York, New York

Magnesium Carbonate, A Recycled Coagulant
for Water Treatment, by Dept. of Public
Utilities, City of Gainesville, Florida
12120 EUR 11/71   Information Resource:  Water Pollution
                 Control in the Water Utility Industry,
                 by American Water Works Assoc. Research
                 Foundation, New York, New York
12080 EZF 09/70
Phenolic Water Reuse by Diatomite Filtra-
tion, Johns-Manville Products Corporation,
Manville, New Jersey
Source

NTIS/PB 186 157
GPO - $1.00
                                             GPO -  $1.50
GPO - $1.25
                                VI-22

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                         RUBBER PRODUCTS  INDUSTRY
                     SYNTHETIC  RUBBER  AND TIRE  SEGMENT
     The  program area  is  defined  as  the  TR oriented  to  providing those
establishments  engaged in manufacturing  - rubber  by  polymerization  and
manufacturing pneumatic casings,  inner tubes, solid  and  cushion tires
with economically viable  technology  needed to meet effluent  standards
for point source discharge.

     The  program area  is  initially divided into two  categories - Synthetic
Rubber  (SIC  2822)  and  Tire and  Inner Tube (SIC 3011), although all  manu-
factured  products  in 2822 are not covered.  Water use figures for 1968
(in billion  gallons) reveal  the following trends  for SIC~2822 and 3011
respectively: water intake - 236.2,  233.2 of which 57.2, 32.2 is process;
0.4, 55.6 is for power generation, 155.2, 116.6 is for cooling and  con-
densing:  23.5,  28.4 is for boiler and sanitary use;  water use - 1279.7,
542.8 and water discharged - 219.2,  225.2.

SYNTHETIC RUBBER

     Although Styrene-butadiene rubbers  dominate  the production of
synthetic rubber there are 10 other  significant production types.   These
are produced in  23 plants  across the U.  S., 12 of which have 1972 produc-
tion greater than  60,960  metric tons/year.
                                   1972 U.S. Production
Polymerization
Principal Synthetic Rubber
Styrene-Butadiene (SBR)

Polybutadiene (PBR)
Polyisoprene
Polyisobutylene-Isoprene (butyl )
Ethyl ene-Propylene Co-polymer (EPR)
Acryl oni tri 1 e- Butadi ene ( Ni tri 1 e )
Polychloroprene (Neoprene)
Butadiene
Epichlorohydrin
Acryl i c
Polyisobutylene
Sill cone'
Polyurethanel
Fluorocarbon derivative1
Chlorosulfonated Polyethylenes'
Pol ysul fide2
Synthetic Rubber Total
(1 ,000 kkg/year)
1,678
139
368
139
163
169
159
177
64
9
2
4
(10)
(14)
(1)
(15)
10
3,081 (40)
Process
Emulsion
Solution
Solution
Solution
Solution
Solution
Emulsion
Emulsion
Emulsion
Solution
Emulsion
Solution
Condensation
Condensation
Emulsion
Backbone Mod.
Condensation

jAre considered part of Plastics and Synthetics  Industry by EPA.
z°olysulfide rubber production is not covered by this  document.
                                  VII-1

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     With  the  exception of 4 types, synthetic  rubbers  are manufactured
by polymerization of unsaturated monomers, in  solvent  or emulsion systems.
Various additives give desired properties and  resistance to degradation.
While the  bulk of these products are produced  in  solid or crumb form, a
portion is also produced in the intermediate latex  form.   The two types
of polymerization and the intermediate product constitutes the technolog-
ical  basis for sub-categorizing the industry.

     The wastes generated by the synthetic rubber industry are those of
a chemical processing plant: biodegradable and refractory organics
(monomers, solvents, emulsifiers, additives) plus suspended solids
(largely rubber particles and carbon black) and dissolved ions (catalysts,
coagulants, acids and salts).  Some heavy metal  ions may also be present,
if boiler or cooling system blowdown has not been segregated.  All three
subcategories  generate contact wastewaters which  contain the same general
constituents.   The  significant water quality parameters are COD, BOD,
suspended solids, dissolved solids, and oil and grease.

TIRE AND INNER TUBE

     In 1971 approximately 181 million tires were manufactured in the U.S.,
while 55.1 million  inner tubes were manufactured and  276,250 kkg of
retreading rubber was handled.  This was accomplished  in 56 plants of
which 19 have capacities greater than 20,000 units/day.  Although the
nature of the product has changed markedly over the recent years, the
basic manufacturing process has remained quite similar.

     The typical tire manufacturing process consists  of the following:

     1.  Preparation  or  compounding of the raw materials.
     2.  Transformation  of these compounded materials  into five tire
         components  tire bead coating, tire  threads, tire side wall,
         inner liner stock and  coated cord fabric.
     3.  The building, milding, and curing of  the final product.

     A wide variety of synthetic rubbers are  used and of the compounding
materials  used, the fillers,  extenders and reinforcers are the most
important with, carbon black  and oil the most  common.   A typical rubber
compound might be described  as  follows:  100 parts rubber; 50 parts
fillers, extenders, and  reinforcers; 3.5 parts curing and accelerator
agents; 8.0 parts  antioxidants  and  pigments.

     The  tire  and tube  industry essentially has no  contact or process
waste water but, in fact,  there is  contaminated discharge due to normal
plant  spills  and leaks  of oil  and  grease from  blending and rolling mills,
suspended  solids from grinding  operations  (rubber fines) and from"the
compounding area (soapstone).

      For  research purposes  the  industry  is  categorized into 2 segments:
      7Vlan*S C?re 1959)  and  new Plants  (PO^ 1959).  The technolog-
     c   !i0!S  1nvolved ™ this subcategorization center upon wastewater
      .  3    ! economics  of retrofitting  control systems.  The older
      Jh    n°*  ve the benef1t of  modern  (post 1959)  design criteria in
      the  waste management and plant maintenance fields.  "

                                VII-2

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     While the wastes generated by the tire  industry would  appear  to be
amenable to containment and use of closed loop  systems,  it  appears  that
the industry has not progressed to this level of implementation.   There
are instances where different segments of the wastewater have  been
isolated and either the oil or the soapstone recovered and  reused  or
disposed of as a concentrate.
                                 VII-3

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              PLASTIC AND SYNTHETIC MATERIALS MANUFACTURING
                       SYNTHETIC RESINS SEGMENT


     Plastics  and  synthetics manufacturing are highly  dynamic  and compe-
titive industries  serving most, if not all, segments of  the world-wide
economy,  with  emphasis  on the buildings, packaging  and automotive indus-
tries.  As  society's  requirements change, the industry has, of necessity,
also changed its products to meet these needs.   It  has been able to do
this thanks to its very strong technological orientation.  The industry
is composed of some 400 plants, most  of which are relatively new (10-15
years) by industrial  standards and produce products which  were not in
commercial  use 25  years, or less, ago.  This industry  produces over
24 billion pounds  of product worth approximately $5 billion annually.
The industry is, to a high  degree, married to the petrochemical  industry
for its raw materials.  For 1972 the  10 major types of products  were:

      1972 Consumption Figures, M Metric Tons

      Polyethylene  (LD,  HD)              3398
      Poly vinyl Choride  (&  copm)         1975
      Polystyrene                        1196
      Polyester (fiber & resin)          1070
      Nylon (fiber  & resin)              1006
      Polypropylene                     767
      Phenol ics                         652
      Acrylics (& SAN, ABS)              639
      Rayon & Cellophane                575
      Urea & Mel amines                  411

      Very definite trends exist in the  industry  for a  number  of the
products; for example,  PVC  is  growing rapidly while cellulosics  are con-
tinuing to lose ground  to newer synthetics such  as  polyester.   Over the
last  decade (1962-1972), the  overall  annual  growth  rate  for the industry
was 13%, while some individual materials, e.g.,  polyvinyl  chloride, are
now increasing at  20% annually.   Phenolics,  after a decline of several
years, may now be  experiencing  a  rejuvenation.

      The industry's products  are  derived from two basic  polymerization
procedures: condensation  (or  step  growth) and addition (or chain growth).
Another group of products,  the  cellulosics are derived from a  natural
product, wood pulp and  converted  to  the desired  form by  chemical reaction
and dissolution without grossly altering the original  polymer  structure.
Manufacture by the industry uses  both continuous and batch operations
depending on the  nature of  the  product  and the volume.  Polymerization
may be carried out in bulk  form  (vapor  or liquid),  solution,  emulsion
or suspension.  Plants  vary from  the  very large  producing more than 500
million pounds annually to  small  producing small batches of "customized"
products for specific end-users.

      Barring a few unusual  and  low  volume inorganic materials, the
industry may be classified  as  organic chemical manufacturing.   In
addition to wastes common  to  almost  all industry such  as cooling, broiler
and sanitary waters which  generally  are not  segregated,  this  industry can
broadly be expected to generate  organic wastes such as solvents, unreacted


                                 VII-4

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monomers, oligomers, emu!sifters, and waste polymers, oils and greases,
metallic catalysts, acids, bases and salts.  The result of these waste
sources .is that the industry's raw waste can be expected to contain
significant levels of COD, suspended solids and possibly dissolved solids
and metallic ions.  The portion of the COD which may be biodeoradable
will depend on the product and manufacturing process, the presence of
toxic constituents and their concentrations.  Although, in some cases,
alternate manufacturing processes which are less polluting have been
devised; in other cases, the inherent character of the system, e.g.,
phenols from phenolic resins, nitrogenous wastes from ureas and melamines,
and acrylonitrile from acrylics manufacture, may not be so readily avoid-
able.

     Many of the larger plants are part of industrial complexes and con-
tribute to a single treatment facility; others, particularly smaller
plants, discharge to municipal treatment systems.  In every case, however,
treatment has been oriented to removal  of suspended solids and BOD by
sedimentation, chemical  coagulation and biological  treatment, usually by
aerated lagoons or activated sludge systems.  Where such industrial
systems are in use, exceedingly long detention times are often necessary
to oxidize the bio-refractories usually present.  Because of the toxicity
of some of the industry's wastes, careful equalization is usually
necessary if upsets of the biological  system are to be prevented.  Lagoons
for further sedimentation and biodegradation may be found as polishing
units where land availability permits.

     The solid wastes generated by the industry usually would consist of
biological  sludge, process tars and waste polymers.  Current practice is
to dispose of this material as landfill, even though the dearadation
resistance of many of the polymers and the possible accumulation of
catalyst metals suggest that this route may be less than desirable.
                                 VII-5

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                              PROJECT INDEX
                      RUBBER AND PLASTICS PRODUCTS

            Grantee or Contractor                             Project Status
DJI         B. F. Goodrich Chemical Company                         A
EUX         Fiber Industries, Inc.                                   A
ES6         American Enka, Corporation                              A
GLP         Firestone Tire and Rubber Company                       A
GUT         General Tire and Rubber Company                         B
PCO         Beaunit                                                 B
801173      Owens - Corning Fiberglas, Corp.                        B
801200      University of Massachusetts                             B
Project Status:
A - Completed, Final  Report Available
B - Project Ongoing
C - Project Discontinued
                                 VII-6

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 INFORMATION^ SHEET
        ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY
RESEARCH.  DEVELOPMENT OR DEMONSTRATION PROJECT
  Thih sheet briefly describes an R & D project Section 104 or 105 of the
  Federal Water Pollution Control Act Amendments of 1972 (PI. 92-500)
PROJECT NUMBER:
DJI
TITLE OF PROJECT:  Waste  Treatment Facilities for Polyvinyl Chloride Manu-
                   facturing Plant
GRANTEE OR CONTRACTOR:
 B.  F. Goodrich Chemical Company
 3135 Euclid Avenue
 Cleveland, Ohio 44115
        Site :   Salem County, New Jersey
DESCRIPTION OF PROJECT

Award  Date:  July 2, 1968
                   EPA PROJECT OFFICER:
                   Gilbert Horowitz
                   Region III, EPA
                   Curtis Building
                   Sixth and Walnut Streets
                   Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 19106
                        Project  Cost:  $823,100
Completion Date: „.  F.  Goodrich chemical        Federal Cost: $364,900
 Company has completed construction and has begun operation of a new polyvinyl
Chloride ^(PVC) production plant that includes emulsion, suspension, & bulk
OU Him dry.  polymerization processes.

 This project  involved the development, demonstration, and evaluation of  the
 bio-chemical  treatment of wastewaters from a typical polyvinyl chloride  manu-
 facturing plant at a 0.85-mgd scale of operation.

 The treatment system is  to produce effluent to meet the receiving water  stan-
 dards (Delaware River) of BOD removal of greater than 85 percent, turbidity of
 not greater than 30 units above river water, and absence of taste- and odor-
 producing substances.

 The process will consist of chemical pretreatment with primary sedimentation,
 followed by activated sludge secondary treatment and a final polishing pond.
 Tertiary treatment studies with activated carbon are also contemplated to de-
 termine the extent to which the secondary effluent will lend itself to ter-
 tiary treatment.

 Operating data of the system is included and supplemented by discussion  of indi-
 vidual unit operations and unit process performance.  Evaluation of a full-scale
wastewater recycle and reuse system is included.
             ADDRESS INQUIRIES TO EPA PROJECT OFFICER

                                VII-7

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INFORMATION  SHEET

        ENVIRONMENTAL  PROTECTION AGENCY
RESEARCH,  DEVELOPMENT OR DEMONSTRATION PROJECT

  Thi> >lierl  I'Hel'K (Ic.MTil.o an R & U project Section 104 or 105 of the
  Federal Water Pollution Control Acl Amendment* of 1972 (HI- 92-300)

PROJECT NUMBER:  EUX
TITLE OF PROJECT:
Reuse of Chemical Fiber Plant Wastewater and
Cooling Water Blowdown
GRANTEE OR CONTRACTOR:
  Fiber Industries,  Inc.
  Box 10038
  Charlotte, North Carolina 28201

Project Site :  Shelby, North Carolina

DESCRIPTION OF PROJECT

Award Date:  Aprii  1968

Completion  Date: September 1970
                      EPA  PROJECT OFFICER:

                      Dr.  R. Thacker
                      Pollution Control Analysis
                        Branch
                      Water Quality Research
                      Washington, D.  C. 20242
                           Project  Cost:  $500,000

                           Federal  Cost:  $350,000
 Summary:
   Demonstration studies were conducted to determine the feasibility of reusing
   industrial and domestic wastewaters from a FORTREL Polyester manufacturing
   plant.  The wastewaters consisted of organic chemical process wastes, cool-
   ing system blowdown, and domestic wastewaters from the plant.  Selected unit
   processes and operations were  superimposed on an existing activated sludge
   system in an effort to improve the quality of the treated discharge.  The
   cooling system blowdown was pretreated with sulfur dioxide in an acidic
   environment to remove the chromium.  The cooling water biocides which passed
   through the chromium reduction unit were observed for their possible effect
   on the biological treatment system.  A plastic media trickling filter was
   evaluated for its effectiveness as a roughing filter ahead of an activated
   sludge unit.  The effluent from the secondary treatment system was filtered
   through a microscreen and treated with polymers and/or carbon to remove
   color, COD, dissolved and suspended solids.
   The results of these studies indicate that chromium can be removed from the
   cooling tower blowdown for 21
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 INFORMATION^ SHEET
         ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY
RESEARCH. DEVELOPMENT OR DEMONSTRATION PROJECT
  This slice! briefly describes au R & D project Section 104 or 105 of the
  Federal Water Pollution Control Acl Amendments of 1972 (PL 92-500)

PROJECT  NUMBER:    ESG
TITLE OF PROJECT:
                     Zinc Precipitation and Recovery from Viscose Rayon
                     Wastewater
GRANTEE OR CONTRACTOR:
   American Enka Corporation
   Enka, North Carolina
        Site:
                                          EPA  PROJECT OFFICER:
                                            Mr. Edmond Lomasney
                                            Region  IV, EPA
                                            1421 Peachtree Street, N.E.
                                            Atlanta, Georgia 30309
                 Enka, North Carolina
 DESCRIPTION OF  PROJECT
 Award Date:    May 24,
                                              Project Cost:   $930,41?
Completion Date:    January, 1971
Federal Cost:   $232,
                                                                   700
           in May,  1968, the Industrial Pollution Control Branch of  the Water
Quality Of f ice of EPA initiated a R&D grant with American Enka Company to perfect
an improved process for the precipitation and recovery  of soluble zinc in rayon
manufacturing wastewaters.  - In the production of viscose rayon,  zinc sulfate
is used as a component of the acid spinning bath.  Zinc is lost in a dilute form
at points where the acid spun yarns are washed with water and at various points
in the  spinning bath system.   The novel zinc recovery system involves .initial
neutralization of the waste stream to pH 6.0, sedimentation of insolubles,
crystallization of zinc hydroxide in a high pH environment, sedimentation of zinc
hydroxide, and solubilizatlon of the zinc with sulfuric acid.   -  This novel
recovery system was' operated at a 600-1000 gpm rate with 70-120 mg/1 of Zn in
the feedwater.   The system can maintain an effluent concentration of Zn less than
1 mg/1, which corresponds to 98-99% removal efficiency.  The unique zinc hydro-
xide sludge is easily concentrated to 5-7% solids by sedimentation and to 10%
solids  by centrifugation.   The sludge particles obtained by this process are
spheroids of 4-8 microns average diameter, while normally precipitated sludge
particles resemble curved platelets about 2 microns in  diameter.   -  A daily
recovery of 2,000 pounds of zinc assures recovery of the 12.5  to 14.0£/lb of Zn
operating and maintenance costs.  The cost of zinc oxide purchased by Enka
•Amounts to 15.6c/lb of equivalent Zn.
              ADDRESS INQUIRIES TO 1FA  PROJICT OFFICER
                                  VII-9

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INFORMATION  SHEET


        ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY
RESEARCH.  DEVELOPMENT OR DEMONSTRATION PROJECT

  Thi> shed briefly describes an R & D project Section 104 or 105 of tin*
  Federal Waler Pollution Control Acl Amendments of 1972 (PI- 92-500)

PROJECT NUMBER:       GLP


TITLE OF PROJECT:  Air  Flotation - Biological Oxidation of  Synthetic Rubber
                   and  Latex Wastewater


GRANTEE OR CONTRACTOR:                  EPA PROJECT OFFICER:
 Firestone Tire  and Rubber Co.                George Putnicki
 Synthetic Rubber and Latex Div.              Region VI, EPA
 381 W. Wilbeth  Road                        1402 Elm Street
 Akron, Ohio 44317                          Dallas, Texas  75202

Project Site :   Lake Charles, Louisiana

DESCRIPTION OF PROJECT

Award  Date: February i, 1971                   Project Cost: $1,372,501


Completion  Date: August 31, 1972                Federal Cost: $392,288


           The  operation of a secondary wastewater treatment system at Firestone's
 Lake Charles, Louisiana  Synthetic Rubber Plant was studied for  a nine-month
 period.  The system was  designed to reduce the  five-day Biochemical Oxygen Demand
 (BOD5) by 90 percent to  a 7 mg/1 level and reduce Suspended Solids by 95 percent
 to a 10 mg/1 level.  An  average BOD5  reduction  of 84.2 percent  and Suspended
 Solids  reduction of 85.2 percent was  accomplished during the demonstration period.
 The raw wastewater flow  is 3.55 million gallons per day, and consists primarily
 of salt brine,  dilute acid wastes, boiler water blowdown, dilute latex, and
 coagulated rubber solids.  The average raw waste concentrations are: BODs, 72  mg/1;
 Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD), 447 mg/1; Suspended Solids, 197 mg/1.
 The wastewater  treatment system includes neutralization, coagulation and floccula-
 tion, primary clarification, biological treatment, final clarification and sludge
 impoundment. Primary and secondary clarification is accomplished by dissolved air
 flotation.  A completely mixed aerated, lagoon provides the necessary biological
 treatment.                            or                   j      &
                   C°St W3S ?1'473»000-  The total project cost was approximately
            since it was necessary to separate process wastewater from storm water.
 mis separation was necessary to avoid treating large quantities of rain water
 contaminated with process wastewater.  The average operational, maintenance, and
 depreciation costs were $0.499 per 1,000 gallons of wastewater treated.
              ADDRESS INQUIRIES TO  EPA PROJECT OFFICER
                               VII-10

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 IN FORM A TION  SHEET
         ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY
RESEARCH, DEVELOPMENT OR DEMONSTRATION PROJECT
  This sheel briefly describes an R & D project Section 104 or 10." of the
  Federal Water Pollution Control Act Amendments of 1972 (PL 92-500)
PROJECT NUMBER:
                       GUT
TITLE OF PROJECT:
                    Industrial Wastewater Renovation Plant, The General
                    Tire and Rubber Company,  Odessa, Texas
GRANTEE OR CONTRACTOR:
The General Tire & Rubber Co.
Odessa,  Texas
                                          EPA  PROJECT OFFICER:

                                          Mr. George Putnicki
                                          Region VI, EPA
                                          1402 Elm Street
                                          Dallas, Texas 75202
                                              Project Cost:  $933,680

                                              Federal Cost:  $451,390
 Project Site :  Odessa, Texas


 DESCRIPTION OF PROJECT

 Award Date:  December 30, 1970


 Completion  Date:  June, 1973


 Summary:

 The proposed project is to demonstrate the  applicability of a vertical tube
 evaporator (VTE)  distillation plant for the renovation of organics containing
 industrial wastewater.

 The chemical waste  effluent emanating from  the General Tire and Rubber Company
 Synthetic Rubber  Plant, Odessa, Texas, at rates up to 750,000 gpd, contains
 dissolved solids, mostly sulphates and chlorides in concentrations up to
 7,000  ppm in addition to organics in excess of 100 ppm.  The proposed VTE
 plant  will be used  to obtain high quality water for,reuse.   The residual con-
 centrated brine will be disposed of by means of the existing 90-acre pvc-lined
 evaporation ponds.

 This grant is intended to demonstrate the applicability of  VTE to the renovation
 of organics containing industrial waste effluents providing high quality recycle
water  and the substantial reduction of the  waste for ultimate disposal to a
practical volume.   This system will have applicability to a wide spectrum of
 Industrial plant effluents, including those where reduction of effluent  to
 complete dryness  is desired.
             ADDRESS INQUIRIES TO EPA PROJECT OFFICER

                               VII-11

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INFORMATION  SHEET

        ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY
RESEARCH. DEVELOPMENT OR DEMONSTRATION PROJECT

  This sheet briefly describes an R & D project Section 104 or 105 oflhc
  Federal Water Pollution Control Act Amendments of 1972 (PI- 92-500)
PROJECT NUMBER:
PCO
TITLE OF PROJECT:  Activated Sludge Treatment of Nylon Wastewaters
   "~~~  Using Enriched Air
GRANTEE  OR  CONTRACTOR:
Beaunit Fibers
Etowah, Tennessee 37331
        Site :  Etowah, Tennessee
                  EPA PROJECT OFFICER:
                  Mr. Thomas N. Sargent
                  Southeast Environmental Research Lab,
                  College Station Road
                  Athens, Georgia  30601
 DESCRIPTION OF PROJECT

 Award Date:  February 25, 1972

 Completion  Date: June, 1973
                      Project Cost: $333,807

                      Federal Cost: $135,927
 Summary,  ^g grantee w±n design,  construct and operate an activated sludge
 system for the treatment of Nylon 6.6 wastewaters.  The activated sludge will
 be aerated using off gases from the manufacturing process containing 40%
 available oxygen.  The system will be designed for a 150,000 gpd flow with a
 biochemical oxygen demand of 1124 pounds per day.  Water Quality Standards
 require that the,system operate with  removal efficiencies in excess of 92%.

           The treatment system will be operated for a 12 month period during
 which time raw waste characteristics, treatment process parameters and cost of
 treatment will be monitored and evaluated.
              ADDRESS INQUIRIES TO  EPA PROJECT OFFICER

                              VII-12

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 INFORMATION  SHEET
         ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY
 RESEARCH. DEVELOPMENT OR DEMONSTRATION PROJECT
  Thi.s sheet briefly describes an R & D project Section  104 or 10." of llir
  Federal Water Pollution Control Act Amendments of 1<)72 (PI. 92-5
PROJECT NUMBER:
801173
TITLE OF PROJECT'. A Demonstration of a Closed Loop Reuse System for the
                  Fiberglas Textile Industry
 GRANTEE OR CONTRACTOR:
 Owens-Corning Fiberglas Corp.
 Fiberglas Tower
 Toledo,  Ohio 43659
                      EPA PROJECT OFFICER:
                      Mr. Sam H.  Thomas
                      Director, Environmental Services
 Project Slt6 :   Owens Corning Fiberglas Corporation, Staff Road, Anderson, S.C.

 DESCRIPTION OF PROJECT
 Award Date:  May 15, 1973

 Completion Date:  May IA, 1975
                          Project Cost:  $935,000

                          Federal Cost:  $245,540
           The project objective is to completely recirculate a complex indus-
trial wastewater, into non-process uses such as washdown,  chain scrubbing,  and
cooling.  To accomplish this objective of total wastewater recirculation, it
is necessary to:
     a.  Establish the level of water quality required for various water uses
        in the plant;
     b.  Provide additional local water conditioning and recycle facilities for
        cooling, scrubbing, and chainwashing;
     c.  Improve wastewater treatment such that the remaining wastewater may be
        reused for floor washing, quenching, and cooling.

Preliminary studies have been underway since 1969 on various aspects of the total
project.
             ADDRESS INQUIRIES TO EPA PROJECT OFFICER
                              VII-13

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INFORMATION  SHEET

        ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY
RESEARCH. DEVELOPMENT OR DEMONSTRATION PROJECT

  Thi> shrrl briefly describe an R & D project Section 104 or 105 of the
  Federal Water Pollution Control Acl Amendments of 1972 (PL 92-500)

PROJECT  NUMBER:  301200
TITLE  OF PROJECT: Waste Water Profile of Plastics, Synthetic Resins,
                and Fiber Manufacturing Industry
GRANTEE OR CONTRACTOR:
University of Massachusetts
Chemical Engineering Department
Amherst, Massachusetts 01002

Project Slt6 :  Amherst,, Massachusetts

DESCRIPTION OF PROJECT

Award  Date: June 29, 1972

Completion Date:  September 1974
                             EPA PROJECT OFFICER:
                            Mr.  Paul E. des Rosiers
                            EPA, Headquarters
                            Washington, D. C. 20460
                                 Project Cost:  $31.405
                                 Federal  Cost:
                                               $29,835
 Summary:
The goal of this project is to prepare a detailed profile of the
 waste water effluents of the plastics, synthetic resins,  and fiber manufac-
 turing industries.  In addition to the chemical profile of the liquid waste
 streams, information will be developed on the treatment facilities currently
 used or in some cases planned, and an estimate, if available, of the waste
 reductions currently achieved by existing technology.
             ADDRESS INQUIRIES TO EPA PROJECT OFFICER

                              VII-14

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                         FINAL REPORTS AVAILABLE

                       RUBBER AMD PLASTIC PRODUCTS
REPORT NUMBER
TITLE/AUTHOR
SOURCE
12090 EUX 10/70   Reuse of Chemical Fiber Plant Waste Water    GPO   $0.70
                  and Cooling Water Slowdown, Fiber
                  Industries, Inc., Charlotte, North Carolina
                  and Davis and Floyd Enqineers, Inc.,
                  Greenwood, South Carolina
12090 ESG 01/71
Zinc Precipitation and Recovery From
Viscose Rayon Wastewater, American Enka
r~   Enka, North Carolina
                  Co.
12020 DJI 06/71   Wastewater Treatment Facilities For a
                  Polyvinyl Chloride Production Plant,
                  B. F. Goodrich Chemical Company,
                  Cleveland, Ohio 44115

EPA 660/2-73-018  Air Flotation - Biological Oxidation of
                  Synthetic Rubber and Latex Wastewater,
GPO - $1.00
                                             GPO -
                                             GPO - $1.60
                  Firestone Tire & Rubber Company,
                  Charles, Louisiana.
                                 Lake
                                 VII-15

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                          TEXTILE MILL PRODUCTS
     The textile program area is defined as the TR (technology research)
oriented to providing those establishments engaged in - preparation of
fiber and manufacture of yarn, thread, braids, twine, cordage, felt,
lace, nonwoven fabrics, miscellaneous textiles woven and knit fabric,
carpet and rugs; dyeing and finishing of fabric, yarn, knit and fibers;
treating fabrics; the integrated manufacture of knits and other articles
from yarn - with economically viable technology to meet the effluent
standards for point source discharge.

     The industry is delineated by SIC Major Group 22 and as of 1967,
had nearly 7100 plants, of which 684 account for 95% of the water use,
employ about 414,000 people and had a value added by manufacturing of
3.73 billion dollars.

     For research purposes the industry can be sub-categorized accord-
ing to type of product and manufacturing operations.  Such a rationale
gives the following sub categorization:  Wool Scouring (2297); Wool
Finishing (2231, 2283); Greige Goods C2211 , 2221, 2241); Woven Fabric
Finishing (2261, 2262); Knit Fabric Finishing C225); Carpet Mills (227);
Stock and Yarn Finishing (2269, 2281, 2282, 2284).

     An initial second order breakdown shows that two subcategories -
Wool Scouring and Greige Goods do not dye and finish textiles while the
remaining five subcategories do.

     The Wool Scouring sub category is significantly distinguished from
other subcategories because of the unique wet cleaning process employed
to remove grease and other impurities from the wool fiber prior to fiber
finishing.   The wool grease constitutes a water quality problem since it
is not readily compatible with bioboxidation and adsorption technologies.

     The Greige Goods subcategory is distinguished from other subcate-
gories because of the absence of any dyeing or finishing operations.  A
greige goods mill processes fiber into woven or knit fabric and basic
yarn into either spun or texturized yarn.  All  of the products are
unbleached, "grey" in color (greige) and must subsequently be dyed and
finished to suit the customer.   There is an exception to these typical
operations  because the industry has the majority of the knitting mills
integrated with the latter discussed - Knit Fabric Finishing subcategory.
The spinning and texturizing of yarns is a dry operation but because of
the normal  spills and maintenance activities it is possible to have a
lubricating oil, similar to mineral oil present in wastewaters.   The
weaving of fiber or yarn into a fabric requires the use of a wet process
known as slashing (sizing) while on the other hand, slashing is  not
necessary for the knitting of fabrics.  The application of a size adds
stiffness to the yarn so as to resist the mechanical  abrasion of the
weaving operation.  Again, because of process clean-ups blowdown and
                                 VIII-1

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spills, wastewaters  from the sizing  operation  are  present.   The waste-
waters contain quantities of SS,  IDS,  and  dissolved organics.

     The remaining subcategories  - Wool  Finishing, Woven Fabric Finish-
ing, Knit Fabric Finishing,  Carpet and Rugs,  and Stock and  Yarn Finish-
ing - are related in that they take  greige goods and/or scoured wool  and
dye-finish the fabric or yarn.  In preparation for dyeing the materials
are subjected to combinations of  the following wastewater producing
operations: desizing, bleaching,  scouring, mercerizing for cellulosics,
and carbonizing and separate rinsing following fulling for wool.  Unique
to the finishing of woven fabrics is the desize and related rinsing^
operations needed to strip the sizing agent.   Each of these pre-dyeing
operations has a wastewater discharge and  characteristic water quality
constituents.

     The most significant pre-dyeing operation in  terms of wastewater
volume and organic loading is the desizing of woven goods.   The sizes
are degraded and/or solubilized so as to permit their removal  from the
fabric through washing and rinsing.   The normally  high volume discharge
of rinse waters, and small quantities of blowdown  from batch solubiliz-
ing operations constitutes the wastewater source.

      Carbonizing is a chemical process for eliminating impurities
(cellulosic matter) from wool by degrading the cellulosic material with
acid  and subjecting the now friable  impurities to  heat.  A hydrochloric
acid  gas (dry process) or sulfuric acid solution (wet process) is used.
The wet process acid bath dump is the source  of wastewater.  Water
quality constituents of concern are  acidity,  SS, TDS, and dissolved
organi cs.

      Fulling is a dry pre-dyeing operation for woolen knit or woven
fabric.  However, it is followed by  a high volume  rinsing sequence
which  is utilized to prevent rancidity and spoilage of the wool.  This
rinse  wastewater can be a significant portion (50%) of the hydraulic
flow  from  a wool finishing plant.

      In scouring, the textile is treated in aqueous or solvent
solutions  in order  to remove impurities such  as fats, waxes, proteins,
dirt, oil, etc.  The aqueous scouring operation may be batch or con-
tinuous  in nature with wastewaters  originating from liquor dumps, blow-
down  and  the high volume  rinses.  The water quality constituents ofLj0r
concern  are  dissolved organics, SS,  TDS, phosphates and heat.    ,,9^.30

      Mercerizing is  a fiber  conditioning process for cellulosic yarn,
fabric,  and  blends whereby the fibers are swollen, the strength and dye
affinity of  the materials are increased and their handle is modified.
The process  involves both swelling in caustic soda baths, stretching,
subsequent neutralization with acid  and rinsing.  The process is
normally continuous  with  blowdown and rinsewaters  the potential source
of w.astewater.  Water quality constituents of concern are the SS, TDS,
and alkalinity.
                                 VIII-2

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     In bleaching, a chemical reagent, capable of partly or completely
destroying the natural coloring of textile fibers and rendering them
white or otherwise lighter in color, is employed.  The dumping of batch
bleach liquors, blowdown from continuous units and subsequent rinses
are the source of wastewaters.  The use of reducing agents for bleach-
ing mainly woolens has in recent years fallen out of use.  Wastewaters
from the bleaching operation contain quantities of SS, TDS, and alka-
linity.

     The dyeing operations, which have been preceded by combinations
of the referenced preparation processes, can be classified based on the
application technology.  This yields 9 ma.ior classes each one having
characteristic process-application factors and hence wastewater features
In addition, these dyes may be mechanically applied using any one of
several types of dyeing machines each one having potentially different
water requirements.  Some machines are pressurized - the others are
atmospheric in nature with the pressurized systems having lower water
needs.  Dyeing systems are either batch or continuous operations with
continuously using less water and no concentrated dumps.  All  aqueous
dyeing is done at elevated temperatures and is followed by dryinn.
Printing, which is also a significant type, uses an aqueous or solvent
based paste which ultimately is the source of concentrated but lower
volume wastewater.  As implied, the qualitative and quantitative
characteristics of dye wastewaters is most difficult to define because
of the many variables.  Generally speaking, dissolved organics, SS,
TDS, alkalinity/acidity, color, metals, phenols, toxics, and heat are
the potential water quality characteristics of concern.   The dumping
of batch dye liquors, the blowdown from continuous dye baths and the
discharge of rinse waters are the wastewaters sources.

     The R&D program for the textile industry initiates  research efforts
under the grant, contract, and in-house provisions of PL 92-500,
Section 104 and 105.

     The objective of the program is to develop and demonstrate tech-
nology which will  result in the elimination of the discharge of pollu-
tants .

     The objectives are met through a R&D planning function located at
EPA Headquarters, Washington, D. C. and an implementation program
located at the Southeast Environmental  Research Laboratory in Athens,
Georgia.
                                 VIII-3

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                             PROJECT INDEX

                         TEXTILE MILL PRODUCTS
ECU
ECS
EOX
EOE
FWD
FZB
DWM
EQO
EGW
HLO
HFK
800294
800852
800929
801192
801211
SFCP 05-
532-3
802586
802973
803174
Grantee or Contractor P
North Carolina State University
Clems on University
Clemson University
North Carolina State University
American Association of Textile Chemists and
Colorists
Georgia Institute of Technology
C. H. Masland and Sons
Palisades Industries, Incorporated
Hoi listen Mills, Incorporated
Cone Mills Corporation
State of Massachusetts
North Carolina State University
Canton Textile Mills
La France Industries
Blue Ridge Winkler Textiles
J. P. Stevens and Company Incorporated
Institute for Meterology and Water Management
Bennett College
S. C. Textile Manufacturers Association
American Dye Manufacturing Institute
reject b tat us
A
A
A
A
A
A
A
A
B
B
A
A
B
B
B
B

B
B
B
Project Status:
A - Completed, Final Report Available
B   Project Ongoing
C - Project Discontinued
                                 VIII-4

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 INFORMATION^ SHEET

        ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY
RESEARCH. DEVELOPMENT OR DEMONSTRATION PROJECT
  This sheet briefly describes an R & D project Section 104 or 105 of the
  Federal Water Pollution Control Act Amendments of 1972 (PL 92-1500)
PROJECT NUMBER:
ECU
TITLE  OF  PROJECT:  Textile Based Water Pollution-Information Study
GRANTEE OR CONTRACTOR:
 Department of Textile Chemistry
 North Carolina State University
 Raleigh, North Carolina 27607


Project  Site :  Raleigh, North Carolina

DESCRIPTION OF PROJECT

Award Date:  May 9, 1959
                  EPA  PROJECT OFFICER:
                 Mr. Harold Snyder
                 Water Quality Research, EPA
                 Washington, D. C. 20242
                     Project Cost: $i2,638

                     Federal Cost: $10,410
Completion  Date:  June 1971


Summary:

 This project involves the collection, abstracting and indexing of all
 available literature dealing with water pollution from textile based
 sources and the preparation and storage of this information into the
 Water Resources Scientific Information System.  Information will also
 be correlated between the Water Resources Scientific Information
 Center, USDI, the M.I.T. Textile Center, and the Shirley Institute
 thesauri.
            ADDRESS INQUIRIES TO EPA  PROJECT OFFICER

                             VIII-5

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INFORMATION  SHEET

        ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY
RESEARCH, DEVELOPMENT OR DEMONSTRATION PROJECT

  This shrrl l.riel'K describes an R & I) project Section 104 or 105 »f llu-
  K.-dcral \\alcr Pollution Control Act Amendments of 1U72 (PI. «)2-oOO)
PROJECT NUMBER:
ECS
TITLE OF PROJECT:  Survey of the State-of-the-Art of Textile Waste
                  Treatment
 GRANTEE OR CONTRACTOR:
  Department of Textiles
  School of  IM & TS
  Clemson University
  Clemson, South Carolina 29631
 Project  Site .'   Clemson, South Carolina

 DESCRIPTION OF PROJECT

 Award Date:  June 24, 1959

 Completion Date: March 30, 1971

 Summary:
                  EPA PROJECT OFFICER:
                 Mr.  Thomas N. Sargent
                 Southeast Environmental Research
                  Laboratory, EPA
                 College Station Road
                 Athens, Georgia 30601
                      Project Cost:  $31,675

                      Federal Cost:  $30,007
  The study will include characterization of the liquid wastes  from the
  major manufacturing processes with respect to composition and quantity
  per unit of production, identification of successful and unsuccessful
  treatment processes and disposal practices presently in use,  and sugges-
  tion of alternatives for least satisfactory practices.  The study will
  be directed towards identifying areas most in need of research and those
  areas where research effort is most likely to yield beneficial results.
              ADDRESS INQUIRIES TO EPA PROJECT OFFICER
                              VIII-6

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 INFORMATION^ SHEET

        ENVIRONMENTAL  PROTECTION AGENCY
RESEARCH, DEVELOPMENT OR DEMONSTRATION  PROJECT
  This shed briefly describes an R & D project Section 104 or 103 of the
  Federal Water Pollution Control Act Amendments of 1972 (PL 92-500)
PROJECT NUMBER:

TITLE OF PROJECT:
   EOX
A Study of the Photochemical Degradation of
Commercial Dyes
GRANTEE OR CONTRACTOR:
 Department of Textiles
 Clemson University
 Clemson, South Carolina
                     EPA PROJECT OFFICER:
                     Dr. A. W. Garrison
                     Southeast Environmental Res.
                     College Station Road
                     Athens, Georgia  30601
Lab,
Project Site :   Clemson,  South Carolina

DESCRIPTION OF PROJECT

Award Date:  August 20,  1959


Completion Date: May 31, 1971

Summary:

 The  objectives of this 12 month research project are to define and charac-
 terize the products of decomposition resulting from ultraviolet radiation
 of selected commercial textile dyes.   The characterization will include
 distinguishing between photochemical and hydrolytically produced decom-
 position  products.
                         Project Cost: $34,040

                         Federal Cost: $31,539
            ADDRESS INQUIRIES TO EPA PROJECT OFFICER

                             VIII-7

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INFORMATION  SHEET

        ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY
RESEARCH. DEVELOPMENT OR DEMONSTRATION  PROJECT

  Thi> sheet briei'h describes an R & D project Section 104 or 105 oHl.e
  Federal Waler Pollution Control Acl Amendments of 1972 (PI. 92-500)
PROJECT NUMBER:
EOE
TITLE OF PROJECT:  Water Pollution Reduction Through Recovery of Desizing
                  Wastes
GRANTEE  OR  CONTRACTOR:
  Department  of Textile Chemistry
  North Carolina State University
  Raleigh, North Carolina  27606
        Site :  Raleigh, North Carolina
                 EPA PROJECT OFFICER:
                 Mr. Harold Snyder
                 Water Quality Research, EPA
                 Washington, D. C. 20242
 DESCRIPTION  OF  PROJECT

 Award Date:  October 6,  1969

 Completion Date:  AuguSt 5, 1971

 Summary:
                     Project Cost:  $39,688

                     Federal Cost:  $35,333
  The objectives of this 12 month research project are to investigate
  processes for the recovery of desizing wastes in solid or concentrated
  form suitable for disposal and to investigate processes for the recovery
  of desizing wastes in a reusable form.  The wastes studies will be those
  from fabrics sized with carboxymethylcellulose (CMC), polyvinyl alcohol
  (PVA) , and starch.  In addition, data will be collected concerning the
  biodegradability of the synthetic sizes.
             ADDRESS INQUIRIES TO EPA PROJECT OFFICER

                              VIII-8

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 INFORMATION^ SHEET

        ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY
RESEARCH. DEVELOPMENT OR DEMONSTRATION PROJECT
  This shoe! briefly describes an R & D project Section 104 or 105 of the
  Federal Water Pollution Control Act Amendments of 1972 (PL 92-500)


PROJECT NUMBER:       FWD


TITLE OF  PROJECT!   A Study  of Gamma Induced Oxidation  of Textile Effluents
GRANTEE OR  CONTRACTOR:                  EPA PROJECT OFFICER:

  American  Assoc.  of Textile                 Mr. Edmond Lomasney
  Chemists  and Colorists                    Region IV, EPA
  P. 0. Box 12215                           1421 Peachtree Street, N.E.
  Research  Triangle Park, North Carolina      Atlanta, Georgia 30309

PrOJeCt Site :  Oak Ridge, Tennessee


DESCRIPTION OF  PROJECT


Award  Date:  May  13, 1970                      Project Cost:  $50,000


Completion Date: September 12,  1971            Federal Cost: $47,500


Summary:

  During the project period, work  will be initiated to further develop and
  optimize  a high-pressure, radiolytic oxidation system.   The  oxidation
  system is of laboratory-scale size and has initially been involved in
  joint PWQA/ORNL  (Oak Ridge National Laboratory) experiments.  Textile mill
  wastes, such as  dyes, special finishing compounds,  and other refractory
  wastes, will be  subjected to the treatment system.  Information from the
  pilot-scale demonstration will be  collected concerning optimum operating
  conditions,  radiation dose, temperature, pressure,  and cost  of treatment
  for various types and concentrations of waste.
             ADDRESS INQUIRIES TO EPA  PROJECT OFFICER

                              VIII-9

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INFORMATION  SHEET

        ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY
RESEARCH. DEVELOPMENT OR DEMONSTRATION  PROJECT

  This shed l.rielh describe* at. R & D project Section 104 or 105 of the
  Federal \\aler Pollution Control Acl Amendments of 1972 (PI. 92-500)
PROJECT NUMBER:

TITLE OF PROJECT:
    FZB
 Dyestuff Color Removal by Ionizing Radiation and
 Chemical Oxidation
 GRANTEE  OR  CONTRACTOR:

  Engineering Experiment Station
  Georgia Institute of Technology
  Atlanta, Georgia 30332


 Project Site:   Atlanta,  Georgia

 DESCRIPTION OF PROJECT


 Award Date:  October ie, 1970
                     EPA PROJECT OFFICER:

                     Mr.  Edmond Lomasney
                     Region IV, EPA
                     1421 Peachtree Street, N.E.
                     Atlanta, Georgia 30309
 Completion Date:
October 15, 1971
Project Cost:  $37,535

Federal Cost:  $35,301
 Summary:
  This 12 month project will investigate the feasibility, of a method of
  treatment dependent on the effects of a combination of ionizing radiation
  and variety of chemical oxidants on textile dye wastes.  The degraded
  products will be examined with regard to BOD, COD,  TOC, color removal,
  biodegradability, and toxicity to treatment plant biota.  A conceptual
  engineering design will be proposed and a preliminary estimate of treat-
  ment costs for a typical dye waste will be made.
             ADDRESS INQUIRIES TO EPA PROJECT OFFICER
                              VIII-10

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 INFORMATION^ SHEET

        ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY
RESEARCH. DEVELOPMENT OR DEMONSTRATION  PROJECT
  This sheet briefly describes an R & D project Section 104 or 105 of the
  Federal Water Pollution Control Acl Amendments of 1972 (PI, U2-500)
PROJECT NUMBER:
                      DWM
TITLE OF PROJECTiBio-Regenerated Activated Carbon Treatment of Textile
                 Dye Wastewater
GRANTEE OR CONTRACTOR:
 C. H. Masland & Sons
 Wakefield,  Rhode Island
                                          EPA PROJECT OFFICER:

                                        Mr. Donald R. Smith
                                        New England Basins Office, EPA
                                        240 Highland Avenue
                                        Needham Heights, Massachusetts 02194
                                              Project  Cost:$39.45o

                                              Federal  Cost:$27,6is
Project Site: Wakefield. Rhode Island


DESCRIPTION  OF PROJECT


AwajjMJatej April 15, 1959


Completion Date: January u,  1971	


Summary:

In the final report  to this project a novel approach to treating a highly
colored textile dyeing waste effluent is  described.   It comprises the
removal by sorption  of color bodies and other organic matter on activated
carbon granules.  Spent carbon granules are then subjected to a virule
aerobic biological culture which desorbs  and bio-oxidizes the desorbed
matter, thereby regenerating the carbon for subsequent new sorption steps.
- Laboratory confirmation of the phenomenon is presented in the final
report.  Field testing of the  treatment process concept in a 50,000 gpd
plant installed at a yarn spinning mill (C.H. Masland & Sons, Wakefield,
Rhode Island) is also reviewed. - Color removal was  virtually complete at
two flow rates evaluated: 8.5  gpm/sq. ft.  and 15.6 gpm/sq. ft. carbon
column bed flow.  TOG removal  was 85 percent or higher at 8.5 gpm/sq. ft.
and only 48 percent  at 15.6 gpm/sq. ft. -  It was demonstrated that acti-
vated carbon had an  adsorption capacity in excess of 3/4 pound TOC per
pound of carbon when the carbon was reactivated only by biological means.
The estimated operating cost for decolorizing 1,000,000 gpd is 8.3 cents/
1000 gallons.                                 \
             ADDRESS  INQUIRIES TO EPA PROJECT OFFICER
                              VIII-ll

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INFORMATION  SHEET

        ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY
RESEARCH, DEVELOPMENT OR DEMONSTRATION  PROJECT

  This sheel briefly drsmbrs an R & D project Section 104 or 105 of the
  Federal \\ater Pollution Control Acl Amendments of 1()72 (PI- 92-500)
PROJECT NUMBER:
EQO
TITLE  OF  PROJECT)   Demonstration of a New Process for the Treatment of
                   High Pollutant Concentration Textile and Finishing
                   Was tes
                                       EPA PROJECT OFFICER:

                                        Mr. Donald R. Smith
                                        New England Basins Office,
                                        240 Highland Avenue
                                        Needham Heights, Mass. 02194
                                          EPA
GRANTEE OR CONTRACTOR:
 Palisades Industries, Inc.
 2 Columbia Street
 Peace Dale, Rhode Island 02883


Project  Site :  Peace Dale, Rhode Island

DESCRIPTION OF PROJECT

Award Date: October 3, 1959


Completion  Date:  September 2, 1971


Summary:

 The project will demonstrate the effectiveness of a pilot-scale treatment
 system which would adequately treat a 50,000 gpd waste flow from a textile
 dye mill.  The system consists of an aerated equalization basin, an anaerobic
 activated carbon unit, an aerobic activated carbon unit and an activated
 sludge regeneration unit.
                                           Project Cost:  $143,750

                                           Federal Cost:  $ 64,687
             ADDRESS INQUIRIES TO EPA PROJECT OFFICER
                             VIII-12

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 INFORMATION  SHEET
        ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY
RESEARCH,  DEVELOPMENT OR DEMONSTRATION PROJECT
  This sheet briefly describes an R & D project Section 104 or 105 of the
  Federal Water Pollution Control Acl Amendments of 1972 (PI. 92-5
PROJECT NUMBER:

TITLE OF PROJECT:
               EGW
           Treatment of Cotton Textile Waste by Enzymes and High
           Rate Trickling Filter System
GRANTEE  OR  CONTRACTOR:
 Holliston Mills,  Inc.
 Ill Lenox Street
 Norwood, Mass.  02060
                                 EPA  PROJECT OFFICER:
                                 Mr. Edmond Lomasney
                                 Region IV, EPA
                                 1421 Peachtree Street, N.E,
                                 Atlanta,  Georgia 30309
Site :
               New Canton, Tennessee 37662
DESCRIPTION  OF PROJECT

Award Date:  December 12, 1969

Completion Date: December 31, 1972
                                     Project Cost:  $235,372

                                     Federal Cost:  $144,741
Summary:
 The industry concerned purchases  cotton greige goods and produces high-grade
 book bindings.  The manufacturing processes which produce a waste flow are
 desizing, caustic extraction, bleaching, dyeing, and sizing.  The applicant
 proposes to substitute an enzyme  desizing chemical in the desizing process
 which will reduce the pH and BOD  load of the waste stream.  A treatment
 system employing a primary clarifier, high-rate trickling filter with
 plastic media, and a secondary clarifier will be used to treat the waste
 flow.  The sludge from the treatment system will then be subjected to  an
 enzyme reaction which will render it amenable to further biological oxida-
 tion.

 The effectiveness of the manufacturing process change and the operating
 characteristics and efficiency of the trickling filter and sludge handling
 system will be evaluated.
             ADDRESS INQUIRIES TO EPA PROJECT OFFICER

                              VIII-13

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IN FORM A TION  SHEET

        ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY
RESEARCH, DEVELOPMENT OR DEMONSTRATION PROJECT

  This sheet l.rie.l'U describes an R. & D project Section 104 or 105 of the
  Federal Water Pollution Control Act Amendments of 1972 (PI- 92-500)
PROJECT NUMBER:
                      HLO
TITLE OF PROJECT!  Catalyzed Bio-oxidation and Clarification of Integrated
                  Textile Wastes for Process Water Reuse
GRANTEE OR CONTRACTOR:
  Cone Mills Corporation
  Greensboro, North Carolina 27405
                                       EPA PROJECT OFFICER:

                                         Mr. Thomas  Sargent
                                         Southeast Environmental Res. Lab.
                                         College Station Road
                                         Athens, Georgia 30601
                                            Project  Cost: $115,250

                                            Federal  Cost: $ 79,415
Project Site .*  Greensboro, North Carolina


DESCRIPTION OF PROJECT

Award Date:  August 17, 1971


Completion  Date:  September 17, 1972


Summary:

 In an effort to satisfy stream water quality standards of 99% BOD5  reduc-
 tion, a 99+% nitrogen and phosphate reduction, and a 98% and 96% reduction
 in COD and suspended solids respectively, the grantee will design,  operate
 and evaluate a pilot scale system to achieve these tertiary levels  of
 treatment. During this 13 month project, three variations of an activated
 carbon catalyzed bio-oxidation process will be evaluated.  The variations
 involve the use of various coagulant acids.
             ADDRESS INQUIRIES TO EPA PROJECT OFFICER
                              VIII-14

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 INFORMATION  SHEET
         ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY
RESEARCH.  DEVELOPMENT OR DEMONSTRATION PROJECT
  This sheet briefly describes an R & U project Section 104 or 10.") of the
  Federal Water Pollution Control Act Amendments of 1972 (PL 92-500)
PROJECT NUMBER:
HFK
TITLE OF PROJECT:  Grease Removal and Pilot-Scale Biological Oxidation of
                   Wool Scouring Wastewaters
GRANTEE  OR CONTRACTOR:
  Division of Water Pollution Control
  Commonwealth of Massachusetts
  100 Cambridge Street
  Boston, Massachusetts 02202
                  EPA  PROJECT OFFICER:
                   Mr.  Thomas Sargent
                   Southeast Environmental Res.
                   College Station Road
                   Athens, Georgia  30601
                                                                    Lab,
        Site :
              south Barre, Massachusetts
DESCRIPTION OF PROJECT

Award  Date: june 30, 1971
                  July 30, 1972
                      Project Cost:  $152,000

                      Federal Cost:  $ 98,482
Completion Date:


Summary:

 Elevated temperature acid-cracking combined with pilot activated sludge
 and lagoon treatment were utilized to treat effluent wastewater from a
 woolen processing plant.  Effluent from woolen "top" (raw wool scouring)
 making is very high in BOD,  COD, and suspended solids (18,880 ppm, 60,600
 ppm, 37,600 ppm, respectively).  The chemical/physical system consisted
 of a hot acid-cracking process to reduce the grease content in the
 influent to the biological system.  Average grease reductions were from
 13,400 ppm to 120 ppm or 99  percent with a BOD reduction of 70 percent
 and COD reduction of 80 percent.  The biological system consisted of a
 pilot extended aeration activated sludge unit with clarification and
 retention in a., pilot facultative lagoon (53 days retention).  Typical BOD
 and COD reductions in the activated sludge/clarification unit were 83 per-
 cent and 54 percent, respectively, and in the lagoon 56 percent and 54
 percent, respectively.
             ADDRESS INQUIRIES TO EPA PROJECT OFFICER
                              VIII-15

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INFORMATION  SHEET

        ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY
RESEARCH, DEVELOPMENT OR DEMONSTRATION PROJECT

  This sheel briefly describes an R & D project Section 104 or \(K of tin-
  Federal Water Pollution Control Act Amendments of 1972 (PI. 92-300)

PROJECT NUMBER:   800294
TITLE OF PROJECT:
                  Recovery and Reuse of Synthetic Size  from Textile
                  Finishing Wastewaters
                                        EPA PROJECT OFFICER:
                                         Mr. Thomas N.  Sargent
                                         Southeast Env.  Research Lab,
                                         EPA, College Station Road
                                         Athens, Georgia 30601
GRANTEE OR CONTRACTOR:
 Department of Textile Chemistry
 North Carolina State University
 Raleigh, North Carolina 27607


PrOJeCt Site:  Raleigh, North Carolina


DESCRIPTION  OF PROJECT

Award  Date:  February 23, 1972


Completion Date: February 22, 1973


Summary:

 The objective of this 12 month project is to demonstrate In pilot scale,
 a process for the removal and recovery of carboxymethyl cellulose size
 from textile finishing wastewaters.  Previous studies under EPA Grant
 Project 12090 EOE have identified the technical and economic feasibility
 of removing,  recovering, and reusing the CMC size.  The size will be
 removed from dilute concentrations by chemical precipitation using alum.'
 Reuse tests will be conducted to further evaluate and demonstrate the
 reuse potential of the recovered material.  A final report will be pre-
 pared concerning all aspects of the project.
                                             Project Cost: $72,771

                                             Federal Cost: $48,043
                                                                      a
             ADDRESS INQUIRIES TO EPA PROJECT OFFICER

                               VIII-16

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 INFORMATION^ SHEET
        ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY
RESEARCH, DEVELOPMENT OR DEMONSTRATION PROJECT
  This sheel briefly describes an R & D project Section 104 or 105 of the
  Federal Water Pollution Control Acl Amendments of 1972 (PL 92-500)

PROJECT NUMBER:  800352


TITLE OF PROJECT!  Optimum Treatment of Textile Finishing Wastes
                  Neutralization and Color Reduction
GRANTEE OR  CONTRACTOR:
  Canton Textile Mills
  Canton, Georgia 30114
PrOJeCt Site:  Canton, Georgia

DESCRIPTION OF PROJECT

Award  Date: Aprii 3, 1972
 EPA PROJECT OFFICER:

 Mr. Thomas N. Sargent
.Southeast Env. Res. Lab,  EPA
 College Station Road
 Athens, Georgia  30601
                 October 2, 1973
     Project Cost: $354,511

     Federal Cost: $209,811
Completion  Date:


Summary:

 Canton Textile Mills will demonstrate a system whereby the biological
 oxidation of  textile finishing wastes will be supplemented with flue gas
 neutralization of the waste stream for control of pH, and fly ash adsorp-
 tion for the  control of color.  The pretreatment and tertiary treatment
 processes will augment an optimized biological oxidation system capable
 of producing  an effluent of 30 mg/1 BOD & SS.  The entire waste treatment
 system will be designed to treat a 550,000 gallon per day waste flow and
 will be operated for a 12 month period during which time operating char-
 acteristics will be documented and evaluated.
            ADDRESS INQUIRIES TO EPA PROJECT OFFICER
                              VIII-17

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INFORMATION  SHEET
        ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY
RESEARCH, DEVELOPMENT OR DEMONSTRATION PROJECT
  This sheet briefly describes au R & D project Section 104 or 105 of the-
  Federal Water Pollution Control Acl Amendments of 1972 (PL 92-500)
PROJECT NUMBER:    300929
TITLE OF  PROJECT:
Treatment and Reuse of Textile Dye House Wastewaters
Using Reverse Osmosis
GRANTEE OR CONTRACTOR:
   LaFrance Industries
   LaFrance, South Carolina 29631
        Site:
                    EPA PROJECT OFFICER:
                     Mr. Thomas N. Sargent
                     Southeast Env. Research Lab., EPA
                     College Station Road
                     Athens, Georgia 30601
               LaFrance, South Carolina
 DESCRIPTION  OF PROJECT
 Award  Date:
               June 12, 1972
 Completion Date:    February, 1974
 Summary:
                        Project Cost:   $293,350
                        Federal Cost:   $198,812
    This 12 month project will demonstrate in pilot scale the technical feasi-
    bility of employing membrane technology for the treatment and control of
    textile dyehouse wastewaters.  Pilot scale reverse osmosis units will   1  -
    evaluate the use of cellulose acetate and dynamic membrane systems for  the
    separation of dissolved solids and color concentrates.  The resulting
    retentate and permeate from the membrane units will be evaluated for recycle
    and reuse potential in the dyeing processes.
             ADDRISS INQUIRIES TO IFA MOJICT OFFICIR
                               viii-18

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 INFORMATION^ SHEET
        ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY
RESEARCH.  DEVELOPMENT OR DEMONSTRATION PROJECT
  This sheet briefly describes an R & D project Section 104 or 105 of the
  Federal Water Pollution Control Acl Amendments of 1972 (PL 92-500)

PROJECT NUMBER:    801192


TITLE OF PROJECT!   Activated Sludge and Alum Precipitation of Textile Dye
                    and Finishing Wastewaters
GRANTEE  OR CONTRACTOR:
  Blue Ridge-Winkler Textiles
  Bangor, Pennsylvania 18013
PrOJBCt Site .'   Bangor,  Pennsylvania

DESCRIPTION  OF PROJECT
EPA PROJECT OFFICER:

  Mr.  Thomas Sargent
  Southeast Env. Res. Lab
  College Station Road
  Athens, Georgia  30601
                                                                   EPA
Award Date:
              June 22, 1972
                    September 21, 1973
    Project Cost:   $254,615

    Federal Cost:  $ 96,156
Completion Date:


Summary:

 This 15 month project will demonstrate in full scale the operation of a
 newly constructed 750,000 gpd wastewater treatment  facility for the treat-
 ment of textile dyeing and finishing wastewaters.   The wastewaters origin-
 ate from  the dyeing and finishing of synthetic and  blend yarns and exhibit
 high organic color content.  The treatment system includes the following
 processes: equalization; nutrient and pH control; activated sludge includ-
 ing secondary sedimentation; alum coagulation consisting of rapid mixing,
 flocculation and final clarification; chlorination; and sludge dewatering.
 Preliminary plant operating data shows a potential  for 95% reduction in
 BOD and a 90% reduction in color contaminants.  The data collected will be
 sufficient to characterize the raw wastewater, to determine the operating
 characteristics of the unit processes (especially with respect to extent
 of color  removal), to fully establish the system treatment capabilities,
 and to determine the cost of treatment under a variety of conditions.
             ADDRESS INQUIRIES TO EPA PROJECT OFFICER

                               VIII-19

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INFORMATION  SHEET

        ENVIRONMENTAL  PROTECTION AGENCY
RESEARCH. DEVELOPMENT OR DEMONSTRATION PROJECT

  This sheet briefly describes an R & D project Section 104 or 105 of the
  Federal Water Pollution Control Acl Amendments of 1972 (PK 92-500)

PROJECT NUMBER:   801211

TITLE  OF PROJECT:  Pollution Control Facilities, Phase  II and Phase III
GRANTEE  OR  CONTRACTOR:

  J. P. Stevens & Co., Inc.
  Greensboro, North Carolina 27420
 Project Site .'  Basile, Louisiana

 DESCRIPTION  OF  PROJECT

 Award Date:  Aprii i, 1973

 Completion Date:  November 1975

 Summary:
EPA PROJECT OFFICER:

 Mr. Thomas Sargent
 Southeast Environmental
  Research Laboratory, EPA
 College Station Road
 Athens, Georgia  30601
    Project Cost:  $886,355

    Federal Cost:  $179,347
  One objective of the project is to produce an effluent from a synthetic
  fabric finishing plant which will have a 5-day BOD and suspended solids
  of 5 mg/1 or less and a minimum dissolved oxygen of 5 mg/1 using multi-
  media filtration.  A second objective of the project is to determine the
  feasibility of wastewater reuse in the manufacturing plant process.  A
  pilot plant scale system consisting of an activated carbon tower and
  cation and anion exchange units will be evaluated.  The activated carbon
  tower is to be designed so that the carbon can be replaced by organic
  scavenging ion exchange material if this is desirable.
              ADDRESS INQUIRIES TO  EPA PROJECT OFFICER

                               VIII-20

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 INFORMATION  SHEET

         ENVIRONMENTAL  PROTECTION AGENCY
RESEARCH. DEVELOPMENT OR  DEMONSTRATION PROJECT
  Thi> sheet briel'h descril>c> an R & D project Section 104 or 105 of llic
  Federal \\alcr Pollution Control Acl Amendments of \l)72 (PI- 92-500)


PROJECT NUMBER:sFCp 05-532-3


TITLE OF PROJECT! Studies  on Removal of Color, Detergents, and Other
                  Refractory Substances from the Textile Wastewater
                                               Project  Cost:  $352,210

                                               Federal  Cost:  $352,210
GRANTEE  OR CONTRACTOR:                  EPA  PROJECT OFFICER:

  Institute  for Meteorology and               Mr.  Thomas N. Sargent
  Water Economy                             Southeast Env.  Res. Lab., EPA
  Krakow,  Poland                             College Station Road
                                           Athens, Georgia  30601

PrOJeCt Site:   Krakow,  Poland


DESCRIPTION OF PROJECT


Award  Date:  February 5, 1973


Completion Date:  February, 1975                      	


Summary:
  To evaluate the effectiveness and economics of treatment afforded by several
  tertiary treatment processes operations as applied to biologically treated
  municipal  textile wastewaters.  This project will generate information use-
  ful to the U. S. and the international textile community.   Many of the pro-
  posed treatment schemes have not been previously  applied to textile wastes,
  especially in different combinations.  This project, therefore, offers
  unique advantages.  This project will evaluate the effectiveness and economics
  of treatment afforded by several tertiary treatment processes/operations as
  applied  to biologically treated municipal/textile wastewaters.  Seven unit
  processes  are to be investigated*separately and in various combinations includ-
  ing reverse osmosis, carbon adsorption, coagulation, media filtration, ion
  exchange,  catalyzed chlorine oxidation, and ozone treatment.   The information
  being generated will be useful for pollution abatement not only in the U.  S.,
  but also in the international community.
             ADDRESS INQUIRIES TO EPA PROJECT OFFICER

                               VIII-21

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INFORMATION  SHEET

        ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY
RESEARCH. DEVELOPMENT OR DEMONSTRATION PROJECT

  This sherl l.ridh  an R & D project Section 104 or 105 ,,f ll.r
  Kcdn-al \\al.-r Pollution Control Acl Amendments, of ll)72 (PL 92-500)

PROJECT NUMBER:  302586
TITLE OF PROJECT: The Application of Cation and Anion Exchange Resins To
                  Remove Textile Industrial Waste Azo Dyes and Permit
                  the Reuse of Resulting Effluent

                                         EPA PROJECT OFFICER:
GRANTEE OR CONTRACTOR:
 Bennett College
 Chemistry Department
 Greensboro, North Carolina 27420

Project Site:  Greensboro, North Carolina

DESCRIPTION  OF  PROJECT

Award  Date: Juiy 29, 1973

Completion Date: July 1974

Summary:
                                         Mr. Thomas N. Sargent
                                         Southeast Environmental
                                          Research Laboratory, EPA
                                         College Station Road

                                         AthenS ' Ge°rgia  3°6°1
                                              Project Cost: $21,903

                                              Federal Cost: $22,993
  The objective of this study is to investigate the use of cation and anion
  exchange resins to remove azo pollutants  from industrial waste before such
  waste is introduced into rivers and streams. - The elution column chroma-
  tographic technique will be used in this  investigation.  Standard azo solu-
  tions representing the broad spectrum of  textile azo dyes will be used.
  These dye solutions will be tested with anion, cation and polar exchange
  resins and their tandum combinations to see which resins and  types give
  the best removal of mixtures of azo dyes. Concurrently these resins will
  be judged for the practicality of regeneration, the elutant reuse potential,
  and the economics elutant disposed.  - Actual dye waste samples from textile
  mills will replace the synthetic standard azo-dyes (except for control
  purposes) as soon as possible.
              ADDRESS INQUIRIES TO EPA PROJECT OFFICER
                                VIII-22

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 IN FOR MA TION SHEET

         ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY
RESEARCH.  DEVELOPMENT OR DEMONSTRATION PROJECT
    ib shed briefly describes an R & D project Section 104 or 105 of tin-
  Federal Water Pollution Control Act Amendments of 1972 (PI- 92-500)


PROJECT NUMBER:   802973


TITLE OF PROJECT:  Mobile Hyperfiltration Demonstration Laboratory
                                          EPA PROJECT OFFICER:

                                          Mr. Thomas N.  Sargent
                                          Southeast Env.  Res. Lab.,  EPA
                                          College Station Road
                                          Athens, Georgia 30601
GRANTEE  OR CONTRACTOR:

  S.C. Textile Manufacturers Assoc.
  1122 Lady Street
  Columbia, South Carolina 29201

Project Site :  Spartanburg, South Carolina

DESCRIPTION  OF PROJECT

Award  Date: May i,  1974


Compietion Date: April, 1975


Summary:

  It is the objective of this project to demonstrate the technical feasi-
  bility of the application of hyperfiltration technology to the renovation
  of textile industrial wastewaters.  The technical feasibility and economic
  potential for direct reuse of both the purified product and the concentrated
  residue will be evaluated.  Engineering data necessary for scale-up  system
  design will be obtained.  A mobile hyperfiltration laboratory, developed at
  the Oak Ridge National Laboratory for on-site tests with sewage effluent,
  will be used in this program.  Samples of effluents from 14 selected mills
  will beorocessed,  at Clemson University.  Seven (7) industrial plants will
  then her selected for site visits by the mobile facility.  The on-site test-
  ing will facilitate the direct involvement of industrialists in the  evalua-
  tion of the direct  recycle of the renovated wastewater.
                                              Project Cost: $188,825

                                              Federal Cost: $120,000
             ADDRESS INQUIRIES TO EPA PROJECT OFFICER

                               VIII-23

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INFORMATION  SHEET

        ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY
RESEARCH.  DEVELOPMENT OR DEMONSTRATION PROJECT

  This shod briefly describe an R & D project Section 104 or 105 of Ihr
  Federal Water Pollution Control Acl Amendments of 1972 (PL 92-500)
PROJECT NUMBER:
           803174
TITLE OF PROJECT'.    Textile Dye Waste Characterization and Treatment
 GRANTEE OR CONTRACTOR:

    American Dye Manufacturers Institute
    74 Trinity Place
    New York, New York 10006
Site :
                                 EPA  PROJECT OFFICER:

                                   Mr. Thomas N. Sargent
                                   SEKL - EPA
                                   College Station Road
                                   Athens, Georgia 30601
                Raleigh, North Carolina
 DESCRIPTION OF PROJECT

 Award Date;   June so,  1974

 Completion Date:     June 29, 1975

 Summary:
                                      Project  Cost:   $108,000

                                      Federal  Cost:   $ 55,000
    The objective of the project is three-fold: to characterize the waste from
    textile dyeing operations (as distinct from preparation or finishing); to
    evaluate biological oxidation, carbon adsorption, chemical oxidation and
    chemical coagulation as  treatment methods  for selected textile dye wastes;
    and to examine several combination methods of treatment as a first step in
    the development of treatment methods for textile dye wastes. - A compendium
    will be prepared describing the significant dye methods in use.  From this
    a tabulation of important dye bath additives will be prepared and will include
    available information concerning the chemical characteristics of these mater-
    ials.  This compilation  will provide a reference resource that will facili-
    tate the study and characterization of dye waste as a waste separate and
    distinct from textile mill waste. - A selection of twenty important combina-
    tions of dye class, fiber, fiber form and application method will be made.
    Dyeings will be prepared using typical recipes for these selections and the
    waste from these dyeings will be studied for  treatability by biological
    oxidation.  These systems will be further studied for  treatability by
    physical/chemical means, including carbon adsorption,  chemical oxidation
    and chemical precipitation.
              ADDRESS INQUIRIES TO EPA PROJECT OFFICER
                                 VIII-24

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                         FINAL REPORTS AVAILABLE

                          TEXTILE MILL PRODUCTS
Report Number

12090 DWM 01/71
Title/Author

Bio-Re gene rated Activated Carbon
Treatment of Textile Dye Waste
                  Water, C.  H.  Mas land and
                  Wakefield, Rhode  Island.
                         Sons
12090 ECS 02/71    State-of-the-Art of Textile Waste
                  Treatment, Clemson University,
                  Clemson, South Carolina.

12090 EOE 01/72    Water Pollution Reduction Through
                  Recovery of Desi'zing Wastes; by
                  Dept.  of Textile Chemistry, North
                  Carolina State University, Raleigh,
                  North  Carolina

12090 FZB 07/71    Dyes tuff Color Removal  by Ionizing
                  Radiation and Chemical  Oxidation;
                  T.  F.  Craft, Engineering  Experiment
                  Station, Georgia Institute of
                  Technology, Atlanta, Georgia 30337
                             Source

                             GPO - $1.00
                                             GPO - $2.50
                                             GPO - $0.60
                                             GPO - $1.75
EPA-R2-73-260
 May 1973
 (12090 FWD)
EPA-660/2-73-036
 January 1974
EPA-R2-73-248
 May 1973
EPA-R2-73-058
Study of Gamma Induced Low Temperature
                             GPO - $0.65
Oxidation of Textile Effluents
E. Ketch en, Oak
Oak ridge, Tn.
Ridge National
 F. Case,
Lab,
Chemical/Physical
Treatment of Wool
  and Biological
  Processing Wastes,
              GPO - $1.05
                  L.  Hatch, R.
                  Boston, Mass
             Sharpin, Metcalf & Eddy,
Anaerobic-Aerobic Treatment of Textile
Wastes with Activated Carbon, C. Poon,
P. Virgadamo, Fram Corporation,
East Providence, Rhode Island.

A Study of the Photodegradation of
Commercial Dyes, J. Porter, Clemson
University, Clemson, South Carolina
                             GPO -  $2.50
                             GPO -  $1.00
                                 VIII-25

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                            THERMAL POLLUTION


     Of the four categories of water users in 1965, (1) Municipal,
12) Industrial, (3) Steam Electric Power, and (4) Agriculture-livestock; the
steam-electric power water user was second largest with 85,000 mgd usage.
Only agriculture was a larger user.  In 1980 steam - electric power will
be the largest user (193,000 mqd vs 138,000 mgd for agriculture - live-
stock) .

     While a number of public utility power producing and industrial power
producing plants make use of cooling towers in order to reduce the amount
of heat rejected into water, the majority of the existing plants make use
of once-through cooling water and have no provision for water reuse.
While some existing power plants are adding cooling towers, ponds, and
canals, all new plants are making provisions for water -reuse as part of
the original installation.  Each existing power producina facility and
its associated ecosystem must be evaluated on a case-by-case basis in
order to determine whether such devices as cool inn towers need to be
added in order to comply with regulations beina promulaated.

     The projects listed here cover technology areas suitable for once-
through or reuse of cooling waters:, they investigate the effects of water
plumes in bodies of water, they determine the amount of drift coming from
cooling towers, they evaluate beneficial uses of heated water in aaricul-
ture, or they assess other treatment methods related to power generation.
If all the remaining power plants expressed a willingness to install
equipment to reduce or eliminate thermal discharaes, the optimum techno-
logy for each facility would still have to be evaluated on an individual
basis.  The underlying motivation for the R&D portion of the thermal
pollution program is therefore to develop an array of technoloaies which
can be used in the overall determination of the best pollution abatement
methods for any given facility or plant.

     The R&D program for the power industry receives support under the
EPA grant and contract monies from PL 92-500.  The objectives of the
program are to:

     1.  Define the water pollution problem as it pertains to all of
        the aspects of power production including thermal.

     2.  Research, develop, and demonstrate the required technology
         to achieve, at minimum cost, the equivalent of best practicable
         and best available treatment, preferably with closed loop
         systems.

     The project objectives are met through the awardina of grants and
contracts to universities, industries, and municipalities and throuah
in-house research activities carried out by the Pacific Northwest
Environmental Research Laboratory.

     The wastewater flows may be identified with the followinn power gen-
erating operations: boiler and cooling system blowdown, disposal  of air
pollution control system wastes, and disposal of water treatment waste-
v/aters and sludges.

                                  IX-1

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                              PROJECT INDEX
                            THERMAL POLLUTION

            Grantee or Contractor                             Project Status

EIK         Eugene Water and Electric Board                         A
EMQ         Purdue Research Foundation                              A
FLM         Washington State University                             A
FOK         Oregon State University           *                      A
FSU         University of Minnesota                                 A
GNK         Environmental Systems Corporation                       A
6SD         Environmental Systems Laboratory                        A
HKK         Hittman Associates                                      A
800613      Vanderbilt University                                   A
801004      Vanderbilt University                                   A
801433      Maryland Department of Natural Resources                B
802044      Franklin Institute                                      B
802753      University of California   Berkeley                     B
802853      Aerospace Corporation                                   B
803142      Franklin Institute                                      B
803196      Johnson County, Kansas                                  B
803207      R. W.  Beck                                              B
803239      Stanford Research Institute                             B
803257      University of  California  - Berkeley                     B
803336      Novato CMarin  County), California                       B
                                   IX-2

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            Grantee or Contractor                            Project Status


68-03-0233  WAPORA, Inc.                                           A

68-03-0430  University of Iowa               •                      B

68-03-2053  Acres American, Inc.                                   B
Project Status:
A - Completed, Final Report Available
B - Project On-qoinq
C   Project Discontinued
                                 IX-3

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INFORMATION  SHEET

        ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY
RESEARCH. DEVELOPMENT OR DEMONSTRATION  PROJECT

  This sheet briefly describe.- an R & U project Section 104 or 105 ol' the
  Federal \\alcr Pollution Control \cl Amendments of I()7l2 (PI. <)2-500)
PROJECT NUMBER:
EIK
TITLE  OF PROJECT'.   Thermal Water Demonstration Project
GRANTEE OR CONTRACTOR:
 Eugene Water and Electric Board
 500 E. 4th Avenue, P. 0. Box 1112
 Eugene, Oregon  97401

Project Site :  Eugene, Oregon

DESCRIPTION OF PROJECT

Award  Date:   May, 1972

Completion Date:  APrii, 1973

 Summary:
                       EPA PROJECT OFFICER:

                       Mr. Frank Rainwater
                       PNERL, EPA
                       200 Southwest  35th Street
                       Corvallis, Oregon 97330
                           Project Cost: $i6o,58o

                           Federal Cost:  $99,900
 The objective of this project is to demonstrate beneficial uses to
 agriculture of water having sufficient heat to result in thermal pollu-
 tion.  The project will encompass the following areas:  (1) Soil heating
 with thermal water, (2) Groundwater drain collection, (3) Water blending
 system (4) Plant cooling, (5) Irrigation, (6) Environmental effects,
 and (7) Frost warning systems.
             ADDRESS INQUIRIES TO EPA PROJECT OFFICER

                              IX-4

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 INFORMATION SHEET
        ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY
RESEARCH. DEVELOPMENT OR DEMONSTRATION PROJECT
  This shod briefly describes an R & D project Section 104 or 10.' of the
  Federal Water Pollution Control Acl Amendments of 1972 (PL 92-500)

PROJECT NUMBER:  EMQ

TITLE OF PROJECT:    Turbulent Bed Cooling Tower
GRANTEE OR CONTRACTOR:
  Purdue Research foundation
  Lafayette,  Indiana
        Site :   Lafayette, Indiana
EPA PROJECT OFFICER:

 Dr.  Shirazi
 PNERL, EPA
 200  Southwest 35th Street
 Corvallis, Oregon 97330
DESCRIPTION OF PROJECT
              February, 1972
Completion Date:   December, 1972

Summary:
    Project Cost:  $19,033

    Federal Cost:  $i8,osi
  This is a continuation grant to complete the development of a turbulent
  bed cooling tower for cooling power-plant condenser cooling water.

  The turbulent bed is a cylindrical bed of low density spheres fluidized
  by ambient air and sprayed from the top with hot water.

  In this portion of the project the pressure drop and cooling data will
  be checked and correlated.  The turbulent bed will be equipped with an
  overhead fan so that cooling performance can be measured.

  All information will be combined into a design of the tower and an
  economic analysis will be performed to indicate optimum design
             ADDtESS INQUItlES TO IPA MOJICT OFFICE!
                               IX-5

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INFORMATION  SHEET
        ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY
RESEARCH,  DEVELOPMENT OR DEMONSTRATION PROJECT
  Thi> sheet briel'K describes an R. & U project Section 104 or \i)7-> of the
  Federal \\ater Pollution Control Acl Amendments of 1972 (PL 92-500)

PROJECT  NUMBER:   FLM


TITLE OF PROJECT'.  Analysis  of Engineering Alterantives for Environ-
                 mental Protection from Thermal Discharges
GRANTEE OR CONTRACTOR:
 Washington State University


Project Site :  Seattle, Washingt

DESCRIPTION OF PROJECT

Award Date:   Juiy, 1971

Completion  Date:  June, 1972

Summary:
           EPA PROJECT OFFICER:

            Mr. Frank Rainwater
            PNERL, EPA
            200 Southwest 35th Street
            Corvallis, Oregon 97330
on
               Project Cost:  $33,582

               Federal Cost:  $30,041
 The objective of this project was to analyze and evaluate current and
 proposed engineering practices used in the protection of the water
 environment from the impact of thermal power systems.
            ADDRESS INQUIRIES TO EPA PROJECT OFFICER

                             IX-6

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 INFORMATION SHEET
        ENVIRONMENTAL  PROTECTION AGENCY
RESEARCH,  DEVELOPMENT OR  DEMONSTRATION  PROJECT
  This shod briefly describes un R & D project Section 104 or 10.1 of the
  Federal Water Pollution Control Acl Amendment of 1972 (PI. <)2-500)
PROJECT NUMBER:
FOK
TITLE OF PROJECT'.  Controlling Thermal Pollution on Small  Streams
GRANTEE  OR  CONTRACTOR:
  School of Forestry
  Oregon State University
  Corvallis, Oregon 97331

Project Site :   Corvallis,  Oregon

DESCRIPTION  OF PROJECT

Award  Date:  juiy, 1970

Completion  Date:  juiy, 1972

Summary:
                       EPA  PROJECT OFFICER:
                        Mr.  F. Rainwater
                        PNERL, EPA
                        200  Southwest 35th Street
                        Corvallis, Oregon 97330
                           Project Cost: $17.074

                           Federal Cost:$n,744
 Buffer strips have been proposed as a method for controlling temperature
 changes in streams adjacent to clear-cuttings.  Nine small mountain
 streams in Oregon's Coast Range and Cascade Mountains were studied to
 determine the influence of buffer strips on water temperature.  Timber
 volume in the strip, strip width, and canopy density perpendicular to
 the sun's rays were compared to the effectiveness of the strip  in con-
 trolling temperature change.  This effectiveness was not well correlated
 with timber volume or strip width. The density of the canopy in the
 path of the sun  is the most important buffer strip characteristic for
 water temperature control.

 A method for measuring the density of the canopy in the path of the sun
 is described. The use of this method in the design of buffer strips will
 provide protection for the stream and maximum harvesting of the timber
 resource.
             ADDRESS INQUIRIES TO EPA PROJECT OFFICER

                               IX-7

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IN FORM A TION SHEET

        ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY
RESEARCH.  DEVELOPMENT OR  DEMONSTRATION PROJECT

  This sheet briefly describes an R & D project Section  104 or 105 of the
  Federal Water Pollution Control Act Amendments of 1972 (PI- 92-500)
PROJECT NUMBER:
                 FSU
TITLE OF PROJECT:  Mixing and Dispersion at a Warm Water Outlet
 GRANTEE OR CONTRACTOR:
  St. Anthony Falls Hydraulic Lab.
  Mississippi River at 3rd Avenue, S.E.
  Minneapolis, Minnesota 55414
                                        EPA PROJECT OFFICER:

                                         Dr. Mostafa A.  Shirazi
 Project Site .*  St. Anthony Falls Hydraulic Laboratory

 DESCRIPTION OF PROJECT

                                              Project Cost: $45,231
Award Date:  November,  1971

Completion Date:  October, 1972

Summary:
                                              Federal Cost: $43)o66
  It is  the objective of this research to continue an ongoing program to
  acquire information and develop methods for temperature and flow pre-
  dictions in heated water effluents.  In particular, efforts will be
  concentrated on solutions of the following problems.
  a.  To determine scale effects on flow and turbulent mixing in heated
      water surface plumes by acquisition of velocity and temperature data
      with laboratory results having identical densimetric outlet Froude
      numbers and downstream flow conditions.
  b.  To develop a temperature and velocity prediction method for heated
      water surface plumes which do not behave like buoyant surface jets.
  c.  To evaluate time-effects on dissipation of heat from thermal dis-
      charges.  Temporary heat storage in natural bodies of water and
      resultant effects on "ambient" temperature surrounding plumes will
      be examined using one- and two-dimensional models.
              ADDRESS INQUIRIES TO EPA PROJECT OFFICER

                                 IX-8

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 INFORMATION  SHEET

        ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY
RESEARCH. DEVELOPMENT  OR DEMONSTRATION PROJECT
  This sheet briefly describes an R & D project Section 104 or 10.") ol' the

  Federal Water Pollution Control Act Amendments of 1972 (PI, 92-500)
PROJECT  NUMBER:
GNK
TITLE OF PROJECT:  Explicit Calibration of the PILLS System
GRANTEE OR CONTRACTOR:                 EPA  PROJECT  OFFICER:

  Environmental Systems Corporation          Mr. Frank Rainwater
  Suite 101, Parkway Building               PNERL,  EPA
  1212 Pierce Parkway                     200 Southwest  35th Street
  Knoxville, Tennessee                     Corvallis, Oregon 97330
Project Site: Knoxville,  Tennessee


DESCRIPTION OF  PROJECT

Award Date:   March, 1972


Completion Date:


Summary:

  Environmental Systems Corporation proposes to refine, field test, and
  demonstrate  instrumentation for monitoring and measuring particle size
  distribution and density  of water droplets in drift from cooling towers,
                         Project Cost: $11,400

                         Federal Cost:$10,soo
            ADDRESS INQUIRIES TO EPA PROJECT OFFICER

                              IX-9

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INFORMATION^  SHEET
        ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY
RESEARCH.  DEVELOPMENT OR DEMONSTRATION  PROJECT
  Thi> >heel brief'  ilocribo an R & D project Section 104 or 105 of the
  Federal Walcr Pollution Control Act Amendments of 1972 (PL 92-500)

PROJECT  NUMBER:   GSD


TITLE OF PROJECT! Proposed Stochastic Calculation of Water Equilibrium
                 Temperature
GRANTEE OR CONTRACTOR:
 Environmental Systems Lab



PrOJeCt  Site :    Sunnyvale, California

DESCRIPTION OF PROJECT

Award Date:   December, 1971

Completion  Date:   juiy, 1972

Summary:
EPA PROJECT OFFICER:

Mr. Frank Rainwater
PNERL, EPA
200 Southwest 35th Street
Corvallis, Oregon 97330
    Project Cost:  $39,100

    Federal Cost:  $39,100
 1.  Formulate a mathematical model for heat exchange at the surface
     of the earth.

 2.  Examine the sensitivity of this model with respect to meteorological
     data.

 3.  Calculate the probability distribution of the equilibrium temperature
     for at least 4 separate time windows.

 4.  Provide a software program for calculation of equilibrium temperature.
            ADDRESS INQUIRIES TO  EPA PROJECT OFFICER

                              IX-10

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 INFORMATION SHEET
        ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY
RESEARCH, DEVELOPMENT OR DEMONSTRATION PROJECT
  This sheet brief!) describe an R 
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INFORMATION  SHEET

        ENVIRONMENTAL  PROTECTION AGENCY
RESEARCH,  DEVELOPMENT OR  DEMONSTRATION PROJECT

  Thi, shrrt LriH'U d<(> an R & I) project Section 104 or 105 of the
  Federal \\atcr Pollution Control Acl Amendment, of 1072 (PI- 92-500)

PROJECT NUMBER: sooeia aeiso FDQ)
TITLE OF PROJECT:  Project for Concentrated Research and Training in
	"     the Hydrologic and Hydraulic Aspects of Water Pollu-
                   tion Control
 GRANTEE OR CONTRACTOR:
  Vanderbilt University
  Nashville, Tennessee 37203
 Project Site :  Nashville, Tennessee

 DESCRIPTION OF PROJECT

 Award Date:  January, 1972

 Completion Date:   December,  1972

 Summary:
EPA PROJECT OFFICER:

 Mr.  Frank Rainwater
 PNERL,  EPA
 200  Southwest 35th Street
 Corvallis, Oregon 97330
    Project Cost: $121,000

    Federal Cost: $ios,ooo
   The major research effort will be on the hydraulic and hydrologic
   aspects of thermal pollution control.  The field data on the discharge
   of heated waters into rivers will be analyzed and a topical completion
   report issued.  A topical report on the warming of cold, hypolimnetic
   water discharged to streams will be completed. Optimal hydraulic design
   of cooling ponds will be investigated.  The critical analysis of computer
   codes for computation of temperature distributions in reservoirs will be
   finished. A common format will be developed and a topical report issued.
   The bulk movement of heat and pollutants vertically in a stratified
   reservoir will be investigated in the field to provide transport coeffi-
   cients for the various theoretical models now in use.  The effects of
   shape, spacing, roughness, etc., of the fill of cooling towers will be
   studied.  An analysis of evaporation formulas will be carried out and
   mechanisms of unifying them into a consistent whole will be attempted.
              ADDRESS INQUIRIES TO EPA PROJECT OFFICER

                                  IX-12

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 INFORMATION  SHEET
        ENVIRONMENTAL  PROTECTION AGENCY
RESEARCH, DEVELOPMENT OR DEMONSTRATION PROJECT
    i> sheet briefly describes an R & D project Section 104 or 105 oV the
  Federal Water Pollution Control Act Amendments of 1()72 (PI, °-2-.~>00)
PROJECT NUMBER:
                  SOIOOA
TITLE  OF  PROJECT!  Abstract Preparation for the Water Resources
                  Scientific Information Center
GRANTEE OR CONTRACTOR:
  Vanderbilt University



PrOJeCt  Site:  Nashville, Term.

DESCRIPTION OF  PROJECT

Award Date:  June, 1971

Completion Date: June,  1972

Summary:
                                         EPA PROJECT OFFICER:
                                         Mr. Frank Rainwater
                                         PNERL, EPA
                                         200 Southwest 35th Street
                                         Corvallis, Oregon 97330
                                             Project Cost: $55,370

                                             Federal Cost: $35,354
 To serve the scientific and technical needs  of scientists, engineers,
 and others interested in the field of Thermal Pollution with  respect to
 available literature; (2) To establish Vanderbilt University  as an
 information retrieval center for the area of Thermal Pollution; (3)  To
 make this information available to the scientific community through  the
 SELECTED WATER RESOURCES ABSTRACTS publication of the Water Resources
 Scientific Information Center,  U. S. Department of the Interior; (4) To
 supply copies of requested abstracted articles at a nominal cost,  when
 possible.
             ADDRESS INQUIRIES TO EPA PROJECT OFFICER

                               IX-13

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INFORMATION  SHEET

        ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY
RESEARCH.  DEVELOPMENT OR DEMONSTRATION  PROJECT
  This shed ltrie.1'1) de.M-rilio an R & U project Section 104 or lO.l of the
  Federal \\ater Pollution Control Ad Amendments of I()7l2 (PI. ()2-/>()0)


PROJECT  NUMBER:   801433


TITLE  OF PROJECT:  Power Plant Thermal Discharge Studies
GRANTEE OR CONTRACTOR:

 Power Plant Siting Program
 State of Maryland
EPA PROJECT OFFICER:

Mr. Frank Rainwater
PNERL, EPA
200 Southwest 35th Street
Corvallis, Oregon 97330
 PrOJeCt Site :   Annapolis, Maryland

 DESCRIPTION OF PROJECT

 Award  Date:


 Completion Date:


 Summary:

 A program is proposed to carry out a comprehensive review of the state-
 of-the-art of various control measures for power plant thermal discharges,
 Control techniques will be assessed by applying them to specific situa-
 tions  within the State of Maryland; however, the conclusions of the pro-
 posed  study will be quite general and will be applicable elsewhere.
    Project Cost: $eo,ooo

    Federal Cost: $51,500
             ADDRESS INQUIRIES TO EPA PROJECT OFFICER

                              IX-14

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 INFORMATION  SHEET
        ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY
RESEARCH, DEVELOPMENT OR DEMONSTRATION PROJECT
  Tliis shed briel'h describes an R. & U project Section 104 or 10.") of the
  Federal Water Pollution Control Act Amendments of |<>72 (PI. °-l>-.~>00)
PROJECT NUMBER:
                  802044
TITLE OF PROJECT:  Development of a Monthly Industrial Technical
                  Bulletin
                                            Project Cost:  $23,791

                                            Federal Cost:  $21,412
GRANTEE OR CONTRACTOR:                 EPA PROJECT OFFICER:
 Franklin Institute Research                Mr.  Charles  Ris
  Laboratories                            Industrial Pollution Control
 20th and Race Street                       Division (KD-679)
 Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 19103           Washington,  D. C.  20460

PrOJeCt  Site :  Philadelphia, Pennsylvania

DESCRIPTION OF PROJECT

Award Date:   May, 1973


Completion  Date:  June,  1974


Summary:

 Monthly Technology Bulletin Specifications:

     1.   Twelve monthly abstracts, first to be delivered  8 weeks after
         grant effective  date.

     2.   Grant period 13  months.

     3.   Six executive summaries.

     4.   Final report consisting of a bound volume of all monthly abstracts
         and executive summaries plus index.

     5.   Distribution mailing list to include up  to 500 addressees each
         month to be supplied prior to first monthly mailing.
            ADDRESS INQUIRIES TO EPA PROJECT OFFICER

                              IX-15

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INFORMATION  SHEET

        ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY
RESEARCH.  DEVELOPMENT OR DEMONSTRATION PROJECT

  Thi> shed l.rirfh describe*, an R & U project Section 104 or 103 of the
  Federal \\ater Pollution Control Ac I Amendments of 1<)72 (PI. 92-500)

PROJECT  NUMBER:   302753
TITLE  OF PROJECT!  Renovation of Industrial Wastewater by Evaporation
                  with Interface Enhancement
GRANTEE OR CONTRACTOR:

  University of California
  Berkeley, California
 PrOJeCt Site:  Berkeley, California

 DESCRIPTION OF PROJECT

 Award  Date:  June> 1973

 Completion Date:  August, 1974

 Summary:
EPA PROJECT OFFICER:

  Mr. Richard B.  Tabakin
  Industrial Waste Treatment
   Research Laboratory,  EPA
  Edison,  New Jersey 08817
    Project Cost: $29.
    Federal  Cost: $25,000
  The objective of this project was to evaluate the increased heat transfer
  and other advantages which can be achieved with the use of a small amount
  of surfactant in the treatment of wastewaters by upflow vertical tube
  evaporation.  The study involved the testing of typical inorganic waste-
  waters in a 5,000 gpd vertical tube evaporator.
             ADDRESS INQUIRIES TO EPA PROJECT OFFICER

                              IX-16

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 INFORMATION  SHEET
        ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY
RESEARCH.  DEVELOPMENT OR  DEMONSTRATION PROJECT
  This sheet briefly describes an R & D project Section 104 or 105 of the
  Federal Waler Pollution Control Act Amendments of 1972 (PI, °2-.iOO)

PROJECT NUMBER:   802353


TITLE OF  PROJECT:   Study of  Power Plant Desulfurization Waste
                    Waters  for Reuse and Discharge
GRANTEE  OR CONTRACTOR:
 The Aerospace Corporation
 P. 0. Box 92957
 Los Angeles,  California 90009

Project Site :  Los Angeles, California

DESCRIPTION  OF PROJECT

Award  Date:   February, 1974
                       EPA PROJECT OFFICER:

                        Mr. A. Christiansen
                        PNERL, EPA
                        200 Southwest 35th Street
                        Corvallis, Oregon 97330
Completion Date:

Summary:
February, 1975
Project  Cost:

Federal  Cost:   $59,000
 The Aerospace Corporation will conduct  a program of experimentation and
 data analysis to determine the technical and economic potential for an
 allowable  discharge of power plant desulfurization system water effluent
 °r for its recycle/reuse in scrubbing and non-scrubbing applications.
 This program addresses one phase of a total consideration by the Environ-
 mental Protection Agency and the power  industry for meeting the national
 geil of zero water pollution discharge  by 1985.  As an interim solution to
 this goal  and in the absence of suitable technology, this program will
 consider the consequence of effluent water discharge to navigable waters
 as may be  required.  As assessment of water treatment technology will  be
 made to determine the technical and economic basis for water reuse or
 discharge  requirements.  -  The purpose of this program is to generate
 the technical and economic data from which EPA may respond to the require-
 ments of the Federal Water Pollution Control Act Amendments of 1972 call-
 ing for interim effluent limitations.   Additionally, the results of this
 Program are expected to provide the basis for guidelines for the deter-
 mination of the appropriate demonstration program necessary to verify  the
 capabilities of control technologies available to effect the reuse or
 discharge  of •JH^^flffifc^ro EPA PROJECT  OFFICER
                               IX-17

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INFORMATION  SHEET
        ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY
RESEARCH. DEVELOPMENT OR DEMONSTRATION PROJECT
  This shed hriel'h describes an R & D project Section 104 or 105 of the
  Federal \\ater Pollution Control Acl Amendments, of 1972 (PI, 92-300)

PROJECT NUMBER:    803142


TITLE OF PROJECT:  Preparation of the Industrial Technology Bulletin
GRANTEE OR CONTRACTOR:
  The Franklin Institute Research
   Laboratories
  20th and Race Street
  Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 19103
Project Site:
                          EPA PROJECT OFFICER:

                          Mr. Charles H. Ris
                          Industrial Pollution Control
                           Division (RD-679), EPA
                          Washington, D. C.  20460
Philadelphia, Pennsylvania
 DESCRIPTION OF PROJECT

 Award Date:   June, 1974

 Completion Date:  June, 1975

 Summary:
                              Project  Cost:  $3i}563

                              Federal  Cost:  $23,403
  The Franklin Institute Research Laboratories,  Science Information Services
  Department, will provide key technical and administrative personnel, both
  government and non-government, with a cur rent-awareness bulletin emphasiz-
  ing advancements in the field of industrial technology as related to water
  quality and water pollution control.  A monthly publication containing
  approximately 30 abstracts of articles pertinent to industrial technology
  will be prepared for and distributed to 750 recipients.  Annual subject
  and author indexes, a journal list, and a compilation of each of the monthly
  bulletins will be included in the final report, along with camera-ready
  copy of the entire final report.
             ADDRESS INQUIRIES TO EPA PROJECT OFFICER
                                IX-18

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INFORMATION  SHEET
        ENVIRONMENTAL  PROTECTION AGENCY
RESEARCH, DEVELOPMENT OR DEMONSTRATION PROJECT
   iis sheet briefly describes an R & I) project Section 104 or !().") of the
  Federal Water Pollution Control Ac I Amendments of 1972 (PI, 
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INFORMATION  SHEET
        ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY
RESEARCH, DEVELOPMENT OR DEMONSTRATION PROJECT
  This sheet briefly describes an R & D project Section 104 or 105 of the
  Federal Water Pollution Control Acl Amendments of 1972 (PL 92-500)

PROJECT  NUMBER:  803207


TITLE OF PROJECT:  Economic Feasibility of a Direct, Air-Cooled
                  Condenser System in a Coastal Environment
GRANTEE OR CONTRACTOR:
 K. W. Beck and Associates
 400 Prudential Plaza
 Denver, Colorado 80202

Project Site:   Braintree, Mass

DESCRIPTION OF PROJECT

Award Date:  June, 1974

Completion Date: June, 1975
                        EPA PROJECT OFFICER:
                         Mr. A. Christiansen
                         PNERL, EPA
                         200 Southwest 35th Street
                         Corvallis, Oregon
                            Project Cost: $40.000

                            FederalCost:$38,ooo
Summary:

 Objectives are:
1.
               2.
               3.
Demonstrate the economic feasibility of a direct,
air-cooled condensation system in a coastal
environment.

Discuss design considerations for a direct, air-cooled
condensation system in a coastal environment.

Evaluate turbine generator/dry tower performance,
bus-bar power costs, and alternative hardware  avail-
ability.
            ADDRESS INQUIRIES TO EPA PROJECT OFFICER

                             IX-20

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 INFORMATION SHEET
        ENVIRONMENTAL  PROTECTION AGENCY
RESEARCH. DEVELOPMENT OR DEMONSTRATION PROJECT
  Thi> sheet briefly describe.- an R & U project Section 104 or I0."> of the
  Federal Water Pollution Control \cl Amendments of l<)72 (PI. 92-300)

PROJECT  NUMBER:  803239


TITLE  OF PROJECT!  Review of Industrial Technologies - Research and
                  Development Needs for Meeting  the Requirements of
                  PL 92-500
GRANTEE OR CONTRACTOR:

 Stanford Research Institute
 333 Ravenswood Avenue
 Menlo Park, California 94025

PrOJeCt  Site :  Menlo Park, California

DESCRIPTION OF PROJECT

Award Date:     August, 1974

Completion Date:  June, 1975

Summary:
EPA PROJECT OFFICER:

Mr. Marshall Dick
Industrial Pollution Control
 Division (RD-679), EPA
Washington, D. C. 20460
    Project Cost:  $75,275

    Federal Cost:
 The objective of this study is to provide the Industrial Pollution Control
 Division with, an assessment of the adequacy of the current industrial
 water pollution control research program for those industrial point sources
 specified in PL 92-500.
            ADDRESS INQUIRIES TO EPA PROJECT OFFICER

                              IX-21

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INFORMATION  SHEET

        ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY
RESEARCH.  DEVELOPMENT OR DEMONSTRATION PROJECT

  This shed  l.rieCK describe, an R & D project Section 104 or 103 of the
  Kedrrul \\aler Pollution Control Acl Amendments of I()72 (HI- W-S

PROJECT NUMBER:   803257
TITLE OF PROJECT'.  Renovation of Power Plant Cooling Tower Slowdown
—'	"              for Recycle by Evaporation-Crystallization with
                   Interface Enhancement
GRANTEE OR CONTRACTOR:
 University of California
 Seawater Conversion Laboratory
 1301 South 46th Street
 Richmond, California 9480A
 Project Site :   Richmond, California

 DESCRIPTION OF PROJECT

 Award Date:   August, 1974

 Completion Date:   juiy, 1975

 Summary:
EPA PROJECT OFFICER:
 Mr. Alden Christiansen
 PNERL, EPA
 200 Southwest 35th Street
 Corvallis, Oregon 97330
     Project Cost: $41,740

     Federal Cost:$39.467
 This work is directed toward developing and demonstrating the feasibility
 of renovating cooling tower blowdown for its total recycle, and  to pro-
 ducing a solid or slurried blowdown with evaporators of substantially
 reduced capital and operation-maintenance costs as compared to the best &
 present practice. Specifically, the objectives are first to obtain test -
 data on the concentration of real cooling tower blowdown with our exist-
 ing 5,000 gpd VTE pilot plant, both without and after the addition of about
 10 ppm of a selected surfactant, to the point of incipient crystallization
 of solutes.  Secondly, the concentrated VTE blowdown will be foam frac-
 tionated to remove surfactant for recycle and particulate matter such as
 dust, and the concentrate will then be evaporated further in a forced-
 circulation, crystallizing evaporator. The overall objective is to define
 the problems inherent in this procedure for the renovation of cooling tower
 blowdown and to determine the best operating conditions and methods of
 process control.  These data should also contribute toward an evaluation of
 the feasibility and cost of this procedure, and facilitate the later opera-
 tion of the proposed mobile test and demonstration facility.
              ADDRESS INQUIRIES TO EPA PROJECT OFFICER

                                IX-22

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 INFORMATION^ SHEET

        ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY
RESEARCH. DEVELOPMENT OR DEMONSTRATION PROJECT
  This sheet briefly describes an R & D project Section 104 or 103 of the
  Federal Water Pollution Control Acl Amendments of 1972 (PI, 92-300)

PROJECT NUMBER:  303336


TITLE OF PROJECT:  Beneficial  Disposal of Water Purification Plant
                  Sludges in  Wastewater Treatment


GRANTEE OR CONTRACTOR:                 EPA PROJECT OFFICER:
  NMCWD                                  Mr. G. Nelson
  P. 0.  Box 146                           PNERL, EPA
  Novato, California 94947                 200 Southwest 35th Street
                                       Corvallis, Oregon 97330

Project Site :  Northern Marin County,  California

DESCRIPTION OF PROJECT


Award  Date:   August, 1974                    Project Cost:


Completion  Date:   August, 1975               Federal Cost:  $39,300


Summary:

  1.  Objective - To study the effects of discharging alum sludge  from a
  water  filtration plant to an operating activated sludge plant.

  2.  Approach - The operation of the wastewater treatment plant would  be
  observed, monitored, and recorded under normal conditions as a baseline,
  and subsequently under addition of alum sludge wastes from a water puri-
  fication plant.
            ADDRESS INQUIRIES TO EPA PROJECT OFFICER

                              IX-23

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INFORMATION  SHEET

        ENVIRONMENTAL PROJECTION AGENCY
RESEARCH, DEVELOPMENT OR DEMONSTRATION  PROJECT
  This shed briefly describes an R. & D project Section 104 or 105 of ihc
  Federal Water Pollution Control Act Amendments of I°72 (PL 92-500)


PROJECT NUMBER:  contract 68-03-0233


TITLE  OF PROJECT:  A Technical and Economic Evaluation of Slowdown
                  Control Techniques
GRANTEE OR CONTRACTOR:
 WAPORA, Inc.
 6900 Wisconsin Avenue, N. W.
 Washington, D. C. 20015

Project Site:   Washington, D. c.

DESCRIPTION OF  PROJECT

Award  Date:   March, 1973
                  August,  1973
EPA PROJECT  OFFICER:

Mr. G.  R. Nelson
PNERL,  EPA
200 Southwest 35th Street
Corvallis, Oregon 97330
    Project Cost:  $21,453

    Federal Cost:  $21,453
Completion  Date:


Summary:

 The objectives were:
 a.  The objective  of this report was to detail the techniques associated
 with the control of blowdown from cooling devices (particularly cooling
 towers) which have a circulation rate of 500 ft3/sec or greater.  The
 cooling devices emphasized were those which had been on-line for five
 years or less, or  were on the drawing boards for the future.

 b.  Information was presented in a manner which enabled representatives
 of regulatory agencies or industry to readily compare the technical aspects,
 economic considerations, and environmental implications of the various
 approaches  to cooling water and waste water treatment.
             ADDRESS INQUIRIES TO EPA PROJECT OFFICER

                               IX-24

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 INFORMATION  SHEET

         ENVIRONMENTAL  PROTECTION AGENCY
RESEARCH. DEVELOPMENT OR DEMONSTRATION PROJECT
  This sheet briefly describe!- an R & D project Section 104 or 105 of the
  Federal Water Pollution Control Acl Amendments of 1972 (PL 92-500)


PROJECT NUMBER:  contract 68=03-0430


TITLE OF PROJECT!  Engineering and Economic Assessment of Backfitting
                   Power Plants with Closed-Cycle  Cooling Systems
GRANTEE OR CONTRACTOR:

  The University of Iowa
  Iowa City,  Iowa 52242
                                          EPA PROJECT OFFICER:

                                          Mr. J, Chasse
                                          PNERL, EPA
                                          200 Southwest 35th Street
                                          Corvallis, Oregon 97330
                                              Project Cost: $32,000

                                              Federal Cost: $32,000
Project Site:   iowa city, iowa


DESCRIPTION  OF PROJECT


Award  Date:   April,  1974


Completion Date:   November, 1974


Summary:

 The proposed research would investigate the engineering and economic
 (including environmental) consequences of backfitting a steam-electric
 power  plant Cboth fossil fueled and nuclear based) operating on an open-
 cycle  cooling system  with each of the following closed-cycle cooling
 systems; a) Mechanical draft evaporative towers, b) Natural draft evapora-
 tive towers, c) Cooling ponds and lakes, and d) Spray cooling ponds and
 canals.  The purpose  of this investigation is to quantify the comprehen-
 sive technical and economic information necessary to facilitate evalua-  •
 tion of  cooling system modifications (from the open-cycle or once-through
 system) .  The major objective of the research is to determine and to
 present  techniques for evaluating the engineering and economic implica-
 tions  of backfitting  a power-plant unit and to provide estimates of the
 additional cost of power generation.  The approach to be utilized would
 provide  for economic  evaluation through consideration of the components
 of the individual cooling systems, of consequent loss of production and
 °f all relevant operating expenditures.  The evaluation and design tech-
 niques are to be illustrated using information and quantitative data on
 specific power generating units which have been backfitted or are under-
 going  such modifications.
             ADDRESS INQUIRIES TO  EPA PROJECT OFFICER
                                IX-25

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INFORMATION  SHEET

        ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY
RESEARCH.  DEVELOPMENT OR DEMONSTRATION PROJECT

  This sheet briefly describes an R & D project Section 104 or 105 of the
  Federal Water Pollution Control Act  Amendments of 1972 (PL 92-500)

PROJECT NUMBER: contract 68-03-2053
TITLE OF PROJECT!   Engineering and Economic Assessment of Once-Through
                    Cooling Systems Modifications  for Adverse Impact
                    Control
 GRANTEE OR CONTRACTOR:

  Acres American Incorporated
  Liberty Bank Building, 9th Floor
  Main at Court
  Buffalo, New York 14202
         Site :   Buffalo, New York
                                         EPA PROJECT OFFICER:

                                         Mr. J.  Chasse
                                         PNEKL,  EPA
                                         200 Southwest 35th Street
                                         Corvallis, Oregon 97330
                                               Project Cost: $58>80o

                                               Federal_Cosi:$58,8oo
DESCRIPTION OF  PROJECT

Award Date:  juiy, 1974


Completion Date:  April, 1975


Summary:

  A methodology is to be developed for evaluating the engineering and economic
  implications of modifying the once-through  cooling water discharge systems
  of thermal-electric generating plants for adverse impact control.   The study
  includes investigation of modifying existing surface and subsurface     j
  discharge systems and an identification and description of operational
  characteristics and specific engineering and cost data important to system
  selection.  -  The study is to be conducted thus: a) Through a literature
  survey and personal communications with the appropriate expertise, a bib-
  liography of cost and engineering data for  generating plants will be
  developed, b) Resolution of the data into viable alternatives representing
  "typical" situations categorized by the type of discharge system (surface or
  submerged), the nature of the receiving water, bathymetry and plant size,
  c) Relating engineering and cost implications to the probability of meeting
  effluent limitations promulgated by EPA under PL 92-500, and d) Develop
  the methodology with which costs  (Capital and Operational) can be estimated
  based on plant and site information and the applicable effluent standards.
               ADDRESS INQUIRIES TO EPA PROJECT OFFICER

                                  IX-26

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                         FINAL REPORTS AVAILABLE

                            THERMAL POLLUTION
REPORT NUMBER

16130 09/68
16130 12/68
16130 09/69
16130 04/70
16130 10/70
16130 DFX
 05/70
16130 DHS
 07/69
16130 DHS
 08/70
16130 DHS
 11/70
TITLE/AUTHOR

Industrial Waste Guide on Thermal
Pollution, by Pacific Northwest Water
Lab., FWPCA, Con/all is, Oregon

Experimental Study of Warm Water Flow
Into Impoundments - Part I
Part II;
                                    SOURCE

                                    NTIS/PB  197  262
                  Part III;
                  by St.  Anthony Falls Hydraulic Lab.,
                  University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, Mn,
                                   NTIS/PB  188  512
                                   NTIS/PB  188  513
                                   NTIS/PB  188  514
Working Paper No. 67: Economic Aspects of    NTIS/PB 208 434
ipj
)11
                  Thermal Pollution Control  in the Electric
                  Power Industry,
                by A. 6. Christiansen and
                Pacific Northwest Water
                  B. A. Tichenor,
                  Lab., FWPCA, Corvallis, Oregon
Guidelines: Biological Survey at Proposed
Heat Discharge Sites, by R. R. Garton,
Pacific Northwest Water Lab., FWQA,
Corvallis, Oregon and R. D. Harkins,
Robert S. Kerr Water Research Center, FWQA,
Ada, Oklahoma

Thermoelectric Generators Powered by
Thermal Waste From Electric PowerTTants;
by M. A. Shirazi, Pacific Northwest Water
Lab., FWQA, Corvallis, Oregon
An Engineering-Economic Study of Cooling
Pond Performance, by Littleton Research
and Engr., Littleton, MA.

A Survey of Alternate Methods for Cooling
Condenser Discharge Water - Large Scale
Heat Rejection Equipment, by Dynatech R/D
Company, Camb ri dge, MA.

A Survey of Alternate Methods for Cooling
Condenser Discharge Water - Operating
Characteristics and Design Criteria, by
Dynatech R/D Company, Cambridge, MA.

A Survey of Alternate Methods for Cooling
Condenser Discharge Water - Total Community
Considerations in the Utilization of
Rejected Heat, by Dynatech R/D Company,
Cambridge, MA.
                                    GPO  -  $1.00
                                    NTIS/PB  206  815
                                    GPO - $0.45
                                    NTIS/PB 207 870
                                   GPO - $1.50
                                   NTIS/PB 206 817
                                   GPO - $1.25
                                   NTIS/PB 208 036
                                   GPO - $1 .00
                                   NTIS/PB 208 035
                                   GPO - $0.65
                                   NTIS/PB 206 816
                                  IX-27

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REPORT NUMBER     TITLE/AUTHOR
16130 DHS
 01/71
16130 DJH
 01/71
16130 DJH
 04/71
16130 DJU
 02/71
 16130 ONE
 03/71
 16130 DNH
 01/71
 16130  DPU
  02/71
 16130  DWO
  10/70
 16130 EES
  11/70
 16130 ENT
  12/69

 16130 EXT
  12/69
 16130 FDQ
  03/71
A Survey of Alternate Methods  for Cooling
Condenser Discharge Water - System
Selection, Design and Optimization, by
Dynatech R/D Company, Cambridge, MA.

A Predictive Model for Thermal  Stratifi-
cation and Mater Quality in Reservoirs,
by Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Cambridge, MA.

Temperature Prediction in Stratified
Water: Mathematical Model - User's Manual
by Ralph M. Parsons Lab., Massachusetts
Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA.
An Analytical and Experimental Investiga-
tion of Surface Discharge of Heated Water,
by Massachusetts Institute of Technology,
Cambridge, MA.

Advanced  Nonthermally Polluting Gas
Turbines  in  Utility Application, by United
Aircraft  Corp., East Hartford, CT.

Potential Environmental Modifications
Produced  by  Large Evaporative Cooling
Towers, by E G & G, Inc., Boulder, CO.

Research  on  the Physical Aspects of Thermal
Pollution, by Cornell Aeronautical Lab.,
Inc.,  Buffalo, New York.

Mathematical Models for the  Prediction  of
Temperature  Distributions Resulting from
the  Discharge of Heated Water into Large
Bodies  of Water, by Tetra Tech. Inc.,
Pasadena, CA.

 Research  on  Dry-Type  Cooling Towers for
Thermal  Electric Generation, Part I:
                              Part II:
by R.  W.  Beck & Associates,  Denver, CO.

Thermal  Pollution: Status of the Art, by
 Vanderbilt  University,  Nashville, TN.

 Mathematical Models  for the  Prediction
 of Thermal  Energy  Change  in  Impoundments,
 by Water Resources Engineers Inc.,  Walnut
 Creek, CA.

 Effect of Geographical  Location on  Cooling
 Pond Requirements  and Performance,  by
 Vanderbilt  University, Nashville, TN.
                 IX-28
SOURCE

GPO - $1.00
NTIS/PB  212 392
GPO - $2.00
NTIS/PB 211 621
GPO - $1.25
NTIS/PB  210  701
GPO - $1.75
NTIS/PB  210  134
GPO  -  $2.00
NTIS/PB  211  283
 GPO  -  $0.75
 NTIS/PB  210 702
 GPO  -  $1.75
 NTIS/PB  210 124
 GPO - $1.75
 NTIS/PB 208 034
 GPO - $2.50
 NTIS/PB 206 954
 GPO - $1.00
 NTIS/PB 210 778

 (Vanderbilt - $4)
 GPO - $1.50
 NTIS/PB 210 126
 GPO - $2.00
 NTIS/PB 208 031

-------
REPORT NUMBER
TITLE/AUTHOR
              SOURCE
16130 FDQ
 03/71
16130 FHJ
 09/70
16130 FSU
 12/71
16130 GFI
 06/71
16130 GKF
 12/70
16130 GNK
 10/71
EPA-R2-72-074a
(16130 ERN)
EPA-R2-72-0745
(16130 ERN)
EPA-R2-72-083
(16130 FOK)
EPA-R2-73-259
(16130 DIP)
Heated Surface Jet Discharged into a
Fl owi ng Ambi ent Stream, by L.  H.  Motz
and B. A. Benedict, Vanderbilt Univer-
sity, Nashville, TN.

Beneficial Uses of Waste Heat - An
Evaluation, by Northwest Water Research
Lab., FWQA, Corvallis, Oregon

Surface Discharge of Heated Water, by
H. Stefan, N. Hayakawa, and F. Schiebe,
St. Anthony Falls Hydraulic Lab., Univ.
of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN.

Potential Environmental Effects of an
Offshore Submerged Nuclear Power Plant,
Vol. I:
Vol. II:
by General Dynamics, Electric Boat Div.,
Groton, CT.

A Method for Predicting the Performance
of Natural Draft Cooling Towers, by
Pacific Northwest Water Lab., EPA,
Corvallis, Oregon

Development and Demonstration of Low-Level
Drift Instrumentation, by Environmental
Systerns Corp., Knoxvilie, TN.

A Procedure and Case Study Demonstration
for Evaluating the Cost of Thermal Effluent
Control for Proposed Steam-Electric Gen-
erating Units (Final Report), by F. A. Smith
and L. Ortolano, The Center for the Environ-
ment and Man, Inc., Hartford, Ct.
A Procedure for Estimating Costs of Thermal  NTIS/PB 214 123
Effluent Modifications for Existing Steam-
Electric Generating Stations (Study Paper
No. 2), by L. Ortolano and F. A. Smith,
The Center for the Environment and Man, Inc.
Hartford, CT.
              GPO - $1.75
              NTIS/PB 211 284
              NTIS/PB 201 724
              GPO - $2.00
              NTIS/PB 211 285
              GPO - $2.50
              NTIS/PB 208 281

              GPO   $2.25
              NTIS/PB 208 282
              GPO - $0.75
              NTIS/PB 210 125
              GPO - $0.65
              NTIS/PB 210 759
              NTIS/PB 214 207
Controlling Thermal Pollution in Smal 1
Streams, by G. W. Brown and J.
Oregon State Univ., Corvallis,
R. Brazier,
Oregon
Heat and Water Vapor Exchange Between
Water Surface and Atmosphere, by W. H.
Brutsaert, Cornell Umv., Ithaca, NY
GPO - $1.25
EP 1.23/2:72-083
NTIS/PB 213 901

GPO - $0.90
EP 1.23/2:73-259
                                  IX-29

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REPORT NUMBER     TITLE/AUTHOR
                                             SOURCE
EPA-R2-73-273
(16130    )
EPA-R2-73-161
(16130 FLM)
EPA-R2-73-162
(16130 DGM)
EPA-R2-72-005a
(16130 FHH)

EPA-660/2-74-011
(16130 EIK)
EPA-660/2-73-004
(16130 HKK)

16130 GSD
 16130 GNK
 EPA-660/2-73-011

 16130 EMQ
Predicting and Controlling Residual
Chlorine in Cooling Tower Slowdown,
by G. R.
Research
Oregon
                                             (Pending)
                           Nelson,  PNW Environmental
                           Lab.,  EPA,  NERC,  Corvallis,
Analysis of Engineering Alternatives for
Environmental Protection from Thermal
Discharges, by State of Washington Water
Research Center, Univ. of Washington/
Washington State Univ., Pullman, WA.

Numerical Thermal Plume Model for Vertical
Outfalls in Shallow Waters, by D. S. Trent,
          Welty, Oregon State Univ.,
and J.  R.
Corvallis

Pendi ng
                                             GPO - $2.60
                                             EP 1.23/2:73-161
                                             NTIS/PB 221 498
GPO - $4.80
EP 1.23/2:73-162
NTIS/PB 221 488
                             Oregon
A Demonstration of Thermal Water Utiliza-    GPO -  $2.i
tion in Agriculture, by Eugene Water and
Electric Board
Nomographs for Thermal Pollution Control
Systems by Hittman Associates

Study for the Stochastic Calculation of
Water Equilibrium Temperature by Environ-
mental Systems Laboratory

Explicit Calibration of the PILLS II
System, by the Environmental Systems Corp

Turbulent Bed Cooling Towers, by Purdue
Research Foundation
                                             GPO - $1.1
                                             GPO - $0.65
                                  IX-30

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            WOOD PULPING, PAPER AND PAPERBOARD MANUFACTURING,

                      AND LUMBER AND WOOD PRODUCTS
     The all-inclusive title "Forest Products" would certainly encompass
the industrial program area addressed here, but that title would not be
sufficiently definitive.  The more lengthy title is preferred since it
categorizes three broad areas in which wood is the basic ingredient for
the manufacture or production of a vast array of consumables.

     The two major industry groups of concern are identified in the
Standard Industrial Classification Manual (SIC).  Under Major Group 26,
"Paper and Allied Products," and under Major Group 24, "Lumber and Wood
Products, Except Furniture," are various sub-categories.  The program
area herein defined in relation to them is one in technology research
(TR) intended to provide an economically viable technology to satisfy
point source effluent discharge standards addressed to various
sub-categories of these two major groups of industries.

     Sub-categories within SIC Group 26 include pulp mills whose primary
activity is the making of pulp from wood or other material such as rags,
linters, waste paper, and straw.  Paper mills primarily engaged in the
manufacture of paper from wood pulp and other fibers as well  as
integrated mills (those who manufacture pulp and paper) are included.
Also included are establishments primarily engaged in manufacturing
paperboard from wood pulp and other fibers.  Building paper and building
board mills using wood pulp and other fibrous pulps are also included.

     Within the SIC Group 24, sub-categories which this program is
addressed to are mills primarily engaged in plywood, veneer and laminated
wood production, as well as particleboard producers and wood preserving
establishments.

     For the pulp and paper making industries it has been estimated that
the total waste load developed from their processes represents 27 percent
of the total pollutional load attributed to all  manufacturing.  Wastes
from these industries may show extreme pH variations; extremely high
biochemical oxygen demand loads (dependent on the pulping process); high
color due to lignin compounds released in pulping and bleaching as well
as loss of pigments and dyes in paper making; and may have a  toxic effect
on aquatic life at various levels of the food chain.  In addition these
wastes can contain significant amounts of settleable and suspended solids
in the form of fiber, dirt, and debris.

     Environmental  problems generated by the lumber and wood  production
include water quality degradation due to log rafting, transport,  and
log pond operations.  The leaching of soluble materials and the accumu-
lation of color and bank debris follows.
                                  X-l

-------
     Lumber production  creates wastes resulting in both  air and water
pollution, however in large mill operations, chips and sawdust residue
can be used as  feed for pulp, hardboard, chipboard,  and  insulation board
manufacture.   Plywood mills, wet process hardboard.  and  insulation board
mills contribute  water  carried wastes containing water soluble wood
extractives,  urea-formaldehyde and phenolic glue residues,  fire retar-
dants, pesticides, and  wood fiber as the product may require.   Wood
preservation  utilizes a number of heavy metals, pentachlorophenol,
creosote, and oil  in processing lumber, poles  and piling.   Water carried
wastes are derived from these operations.

     The R&D program for the above industry areas initiates research
efforts under the grant, contract, and in-house provisions  of  PL 92-500,
Section 104 and 105.  Objectives are to develop and  demonstrate
technology which  will result in the elimination of the discharge of pollu-
tants .

     The objectives are met through a R&D planning function located at
EPA Headquarters, Washington, D. C., and an implementation  program
located at the Pacific  Northwest Environmental Research  Laboratory at
Corvallis, Oregon.
                                   X-2

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                              PROJECT  INDEX
DBD
DEH
DKD
DLQ
DRY
DYD
EBG
EBY
EEK
EEL
EFC
EJU
ELW
EMY
ENC
ESV
EUG
EXQ
EZU
EZZ
FDE

FES
                     PULP, PAPER, PAPERB6ARD, LUMBER
                      AND WOOD PRODUCTS  INDUSTRIES
Grantee or Contractor
Montana State University
University of Washington
Institute of Paper Chemistry
Oreqon State University
Continental Can Company, Inc.
Interstate Paper Corporation
Oreqon State University
Oreqon State University
Georqia Kraft Company
Pulp Manufacturers Research Leaaue
University of Washinqton
St. Reqis Paper Company
Crown Zellerbach Corporation
The Mead Corporation
International Paper Company
Crown Zellerfaach Corporation
Georqia Kraft Company
University of Washinaton
Klamath Plywood Corporation
University of North Caroltna
Esleeck Manufacturina Company and Strathmore
Paper Company
S. D. Warren Company
Project Status
      A
      A
      A
      A
      A
      A
      A
      A
      A
      A
      A
      A
      A
      A
      A
      A
      A
      A
      A
      A
      B
                                   X-3

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            Grantee or Contractor
FKS         Weyerhaeuser Company
FUB         Green Bay Packaging, Inc.
GLV         WAPORA, Inc.
GQD         Crown Zellerbach Corporation
HAR         WAPORA, Inc.
HDD         Georgia - Pacific Corporation
HIG         Koppers Company, Inc.
HPK         University of Washington
14-12-162   Electro-Optical Systems, Inc.
800261      Champion Paper Division, U. S. Plywood  Corp.
800520      Green Bay Packaging Company
800740      The Chesapeake Corporation of Virginia
800853      Institute of Paper  Chemistry
801202      Garrett Research and Development  Corp.
801206      Big Chief Roofing Company
801876      University  of  Arkansas
801207      Institute of Paper  Chemistry
803119      Institute of Paper  Chemistry
803270      St.  Regis Paper  Company
803302      Flambeau  Paper Company
803347      National  Council for Stream  and  Air Improvement
803348      National  Council for Air and  Stream Improvement
Project Status:
A -  Completed,  Final  Report  Available
B -  Project Ongoing
C -  Project Discontinued
Project Status
      C
      A
      A
      A
      A
      A
      B
      B
      C
      A
      B
      B
      A
      B
      B
      A
      A
      B
      B
      B
      B
      B
                                    X-4

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 INFORMATION  SHEET
         ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY
RESEARCH. DEVELOPMENT OR DEMONSTRATION PROJECT
  This sheet briefly describes an R & D project Section 104 or 10!> of the
  Federal Water Pollution Control Acl Amendments of 1972 (PL 92-500)
PROJECT NUMBER:
     DBD
TITLE OF PROJECT:
      Ion Exchange Color and Mineral  Removal
     from Kraft Bleach Wastes
GRANTEE OR CONTRACTOR:
   Department of Civil Engineering
    and Engineering Mechanics
   Montana State University
   Bozeman, Montana 59715
Project Site:    Bozeman> Montana

DESCRIPTION OF PROJECT
                        EPA  PROJECT OFFICER:

                           Dr. H. K. Willard
                           PNERL, EPA
                           200 Southwest 35th Street
                           Corvallis, Oregon 97330
Award  Date:

Completion Date:

Summary:
June  1971
   May 1973
Project Cost:    $110,000
                             Federal  Cost:
                 $91,300
   Laboratory evaluations of  twenty resins and seven carbons  for removing
   color and minerals from a  four-stage kraft bleach plant showed resins
   were equal to carbon for decoloring the combined waste.  With few excep-
   tions, resins were unsuited for decoloring wastes from each stage separately.
   Except for success in the  use of weak wash to regenerate Amberlite XAD-8
   resin, utilization of mill liquors for regeneration was  unsuccessful.
   Sulfuric acid, caustic, and ammonia were good regenerants, but lime was
   poor.  -  Single stage ion exchange and two-stage desalination produced
   water adequate for unbleached and bleached pulping respectively.   Any of
   the continuous counter-current ion exchange processes are  probably adequate
   for producing water for bleached pulping.   - The estimated cost  for desal-
   ination including amortization over a 10 year period at  9% interest, labor,
   chemicals, maintenance, and repairs are estimated to vary  from $1.38/1000
   gal (for the non-optimized process used in the laboratory) to $0.42/1000 gal
   (with estimated 90% cation regeneration efficiency, 85%  anion regeneration
   efficiency, and 87% product recovery).
             ADDRESS INQUIRIES TO EPA PROJECT OFFICER
                                  X-5

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INFORMATION  SHEET

        ENVIRONMENTAL  PROTECTION AGENCY
RESEARCH, DEVELOPMENT OR  DEMONSTRATION PROJECT

  Thi* sheet l.riclk describes an R & D project Section 104 or 105 of Ihr
  Federal \\alcr Pollution Control Acl Amendments of 1972 (PI- 92-500)

PROJECT NUMBER:   DEH

TITLE OF PROJECT: Studies of Low Molecular Weight Lignin Sulfonates
                                              Project Cost: $32,049

                                              Federal Cost: $28,844
GRANTEE OR CONTRACTOR:                  EPA  PROJECT OFFICER:
Department of Chemical Engineering          Dr. H. K. Willard
University of Washington                   PNEKL, EPA
Seattle, Washington 98105                  200 Southwest 35th Street
                                         Corvallis, Oregon 97330

PrOJeCt Site :  Seattle, Washington


DESCRIPTION  OF PROJECT


Award  Date:  September 1970


Completion Date:  October 1971


Summary:

Low molecular weight  lignin sulfonates have been separated in purified
 form and characterized by physicochemical  and chemical methods.  Their
 structure and reactions have been evaluated.

 Lignin sulfonates from the spent sulfite liquor of a  mild acid bisulfite
 cook of Western Hemlock  (Tsuga heterophylla) were purified and fractionated
 in Sephadex G-25 column  chromatography. Samples were analyzed using  ace-
 tylation of hydroxyl-groups and esterification of sulfonate-groups which
 aided the elimination of the polydisperse  nature of the material under
 investigation.

 Complete elemental and functional group compositions  were established for
 lignin sulfonates from a spent sulfite liquor and compared to those from
 milled wood lignin preparation.  This allowed an estimate of the degree of
 sulfonation,  condensation and demethylation as well.

 The feasibility of large scale separations was determined using. 1) th.e extrac-
 tion and precipitation of the dry matter in a spent sulfite liquor with
 alcohol, and  2) the fractionation of the -material By ion exclusion in a
 column arrange^DDRESS INQUIRIES TO EPA PROJECT OFFICER  merit.
                                  X-6

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 INFORMATION^ SHEET

         ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY
RESEARCH,  DEVELOPMENT OR DEMONSTRATION PROJECT
  This sheet briefly describes an R & D project Section 104 or I Of) of the
  Federal Water Pollution Control Act Amendments of 1°72 (PL 92-500)

PROJECT NUMBER:   DKD


TITLE OF PROJECT:  Kraft Effluent Color Characterization Before
                   and After Stoichiometric Lime Treatment
GRANTEE OR CONTRACTOR:
The Institute of Paper Chemistry
Appleton, Wisconsin
                                          EPA PROJECT OFFICER:

                                          Mr.  George Webster
                                          Industrial Pollution Control
                                           Division (RD-679), EPA
                                          Washington, D. C. 20460
                                              Project Cost: $170,721

                                              Federal Cost: $119,505
Project Site :   Appleton, Wisconsin


DESCRIPTION OF PROJECT

Award  Date:   December 1968


Completion Date:   February 1973


Summary:

The lime-treatment  process was  found to remove on an average about 86% of
the color, 57% of the total organic carbon, and 17% of total sugars from
the waste effluent  during the period of approximately 15 months over which
the samples were collected.  No appreciable change in chloride content
was noticed.  -  The "weight average" molecular weights (M^,) of the untreated
acid-insoluble fractions varied from<400 to 30,000 and of  the untreated
acid-soluble, lime-treated acid-insoluble, and lime-treated acid-soluble
fractions from  400 to 5000. - The study shows that color bodies having
an apparent ^ of  400 are not  removed by lime treatment and those having
M^j of 5000 and above are completely removed.  The intermediate range of
MW 400  to 5000  apparently undergoes partial removal.  -  The color bodies
which are not removed by lime treatment have low M^ high nonconjugated
carboxyl groups, some lignin like character, and seem to be associated
with colorless  carbon compounds.
             ADDRESS  INQUIRIES TO EPA PROJECT  OFFICER
                              X-7

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INFORMATION  SHEET

        ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY
RESEARCH.  DEVELOPMENT OR DEMONSTRATION PROJECT

  Thi> shed  briefly de.MTibe.s an R. & D project Section 104 or H)."i of the
  Federal \\alcr Pollution Control Act Amendment* of l<)72 (PI- 92-.i()0)
PROJECT NUMBER:
                   DLO
TITLE OF PROJECT:   Slime Growth Evaluation of Treated Pulp Mill Wastes
                                              Project Cost: $31,259

                                              Federal Cost: $28,325
GRANTEE OR  CONTRACTOR:                  EPA  PROJECT OFFICER:
 Department of Microbiology                  Mr.  Donald May
 Oregon State University                     PNERL, EPA
 Corvallis, Oregon 97331                     200 Southwest 35th Street
                                          Corvallis, Oregon 97330

PrOJeCt Site :    Cprvallis, Oregon


DESCRIPTION OF PROJECT

Award  Date:   May 1959


Completion Date:  August 1971


 Summary:

 The main objectives were to evaluate the slime growth potential of pulp
 mill wastes  treated by various methods of biodegradation.  Wastes were
 tested both  before and after secondary treatment in order  to determine
 the type of  biodegradable material present in the influent, determine     ,
 the extent of  fermentation during treatment, and the amount of biodegrade4
 fermentables discharged in the effluent.  The intent was  to define total
 carbon, readily fermentable carbon, and to design a reasonably accurate
 and sensitive  method for predicting adequate water quality presently
 measured by  BOD.  -  Gas chromatographic analysis of monosaccharides,
 total  carbon,  and continuous culture proved to be effective analytical
 procedures.  These techniques showed that Sphaerotilus natans would grow
 in treated effluent, that residual sugars in the treated  effluent could
 be detected  easily by GC, that total solids and sugar concentrations
 parallel influent flow rate, that during influent surges,  effluent sugar
 concentrations are high enough to support slime growth, that weekly
 variations were evident, and that differences between the  two treatment
 ponds  could  be observed.
              ADDRESS  INQUIRIES TO EPA  PROJECT OFFICER
                                  X-8

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 INFORMATION  SHEET
        ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY
RESEARCH.  DEVELOPMENT OR DEMONSTRATION PROJECT
  This shed briefly describes an R & D project Section 104 or 105 of the
  Federal Waler Pollution Control Acl Amendments of 1972 (PL 92-500)

PROJECT NUMBER:  DRY
TITLE OF PROJECT:
Color Removal and Sludge Disposal Process
for Kraft Mill Effluents
                                              Project Cost:$2.865.970
                                              Federal  Cost:  $750,
                                             000
GRANTEE  OR CONTRACTOR:                 EPA  PROJECT OFFICER:
 Continental Can Company,  Inc.               Dr. H.  K. Willard
 Mill Operations Division                   PNERL,  EPA
 Hodge, Louisiana 71247                     Corvallis, Oregon 97330


PrOJeCt Site :  Hodge, Louisiana

DESCRIPTION OF PROJECT

Award  Date:   juiy 196 s


Completion  Date:   February 1973


Summary:

 A treatment  plant,  removing color by lime addition and recovering sludges,
 treated over 80% of the effluent of an unbleached kraft mill for one year.
 Using up  to  1,100 mg/1 of CaO,  with normal mill fiber loss as a precipita-
 tion aid,  average color reduction was 80% for all-kraft effluent.  At upper
 range of  lime dosage, when residual dissolved Ca was above 400 mg/1 as
 CaO, color removal  was 85-93%.  When mill production included 33-40% NSSC
 hardwood  pulp, color reduction  averaged only 65%.  -  About 12% 8005 reduc-
 tion was  observed,  and average  TOC reduction was nearly 40%.   The chief
 negative  factor is  need for emergency protection against alkaline impact
 on secondary treatment and receiving stream.  -  Following centrifuge
 dewatering,  sludge  incineration had minimal impact on kiln operation;
 there were some adverse effects on lime quality.  Lime recovery was 93%.
  -  Primary clarification and  sludge disposal are included in the process.
 Operating costs, exclusive of capital factors, are estimated  at $0.50-$0.80
 per ton of paper, or 5.5
-------
INFORMATION  SHEET

        ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY
RESEARCH,  DEVELOPMENT OR DEMONSTRATION PROJECT
  Thi.- sheet briefly describes an R & D project Section 104 or 105 of the
  Federal Water Pollution Control Act Amendments of 1()72 (PL ()2-.>00)
PROJECT NUMBER:
                  DYD
TITLE OF PROJECT'  Evaluation and Demonstration of the Massive Lime
	'  Process for the Removal of Color from Kraft Pulp
                   Mill Wastes
                                          EPA PROJECT OFFICER:

                                          Mr. George Putnicki
                                          Region VI, EPA
                                          1402 Elm Street
                                          Dallas, Texas 75202
                                              Project Cost: $350,000

                                              Federal Cost: $595,000
GRANTEE  OR CONTRACTOR:
 International Paper Company
 220 East  42nd Street
 New York, New York 10017


Project Site :  Sprlnghlll, Louisana 71075


DESCRIPTION  OF PROJECT

Award  Date:   June 1968


Completion Date:   December 1972


Summary:

 A demonstration plant was installed and operated to determine effective-
 ness and  feasibility of using massive lime treatment (that is, 20,000 ppm
 lime) to  decolor kraft pulp mill effluents.  The two most highly colored
 effluents and mixtures of these treated in the demonstration plant  were:
 1) The almost black effluent from the caustic extraction stage of pulp    '
 bleaching,  and 2) The light reddish-brown  effluent from the final unbleached
 pulp washing stage. Objectives of the project were to determine:  Effec-
 tiveness  of color removal, design, and performance of massive lime  system
 equipment,  effects on normal pulp mill operations, effects on pulp  quality,
 operating costs.  Impact of the massive lime system on a hypothetical
 1000 tons-per-day bleached kraft pulp and  paper mill is described.  Using
 all the lime normally available in such a  mill would allow massive  lime
 treatment of four million of the mill's twenty-nine million gallons of
 effluent.  Such treatment would remove 72% of the total mill effluent's
 color, reducing final effluent color to approximately 740 APHA units at
 an estimated operating cost of $1.80 per ton of pulp (depreciation,
 insurance,  and taxes included).
              ADDRESS INQUIRIES TO EPA PROJECT OFFICER

                                 X-1Q

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 INFORMATION  SHEET
        ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY
RESEARCH,  DEVELOPMENT OR DEMONSTRATION PROJECT
  This shrcl briefly describes an R & D project Section 104 or 10." of llic
  Federal Water Pollution Control Acl Amendments of 1972 (PL 92-500)
PROJECT NUMBER:

TITLE OF PROJECT:
      EBG
      The Influence of Log Handling on Water Quality
GRANTEE OR CONTRACTOR:
   Oregon State University
   Corvallis, Oregon 9733'i
Project Site:
                         EPA PROJECT OFFICER:

                            Dr. H. K.  Willard
                            PNEKL, EPA
                            200 Southwest 35th Street
                            Corvallis, Oregon 97330
 Corvallis,  Oregon
DESCRIPTION OF PROJECT
Award  Date:

Completion Date:

Summary:
June  1970
    February 1973
Project  Cost:

Federal  Cost:
$21,740
$20,633
   The objective was to determine the effect of log storage on water quality.
   Soluble organic matter and some inorganics leach from logs floating in
   water and from logs held in sprinkled land decks.  The character and
   quantity of leachate from Doublas fir, ponderosa pine, and hemlock logs
   were examined.  Measurements including BOD, COD, PBI,  solids,  and toxicity
   (no kill to 20% TLm 96) have shown that in most situations the contribution
   of soluble leachates to holding water is not a significant water pollution
   problem.  -  The most significant problem associated with water storage
   appears to be the loss of bark from logs during dumping, raft  transport
   and raft storage.  Dislodged bark can float until it becomes water logged
   and sinks, forming benthic deposits.  Floating bark is aesthetically dis-
   pleasing and could interfere with other beneficial uses of a lake, stream
   or estuary.  Benthic deposits exert a small, but measurable oxygen demand
   and may influence the biology of the benthic zone.   Implementation of
   corrective measures by the timber industry to reduce bark losses could
   make the water storage of logs a practice which is  compatible with a high
   quality environment.
             ADDRESS INQUIRIES TO EPA PROJECT OFFICER
                                  x-n

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INFORMATION  SHEET

        ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY
RESEARCH,  DEVELOPMENT OR DEMONSTRATION PROJECT
  This shed l.rid'K dc^-rilu's an R. & U project Section 104 or l()."> ol' Ihr
  Federal \\atrr Pollution Control Act Amendments of 1()72 (PI, 92-500)
PROJECT NUMBER:
                 EBY
TITLE OF PROJECT:   Aerial Photographic Tracing of Pulp Mill
                    Effluent in Marine Waters
GRANTEE OR CONTRACTOR:
 Department of  Civil Engineering
 Oregon State University
 Corvallis, Oregon 97331
 Project Site:
                                         EPA  PROJECT OFFICER:

                                          Mr.  Ralph Scott
                                          PNERL, EPA
                                          200  Southwest 35th  Street
                                          Corvallis, Oregon 97330
               Newport and Gardiner,  Oregon
               Samoa, California
                                              Project Cost: $2o,78i

                                              Federal Cost: $19,237
DESCRIPTION OF  PROJECT


Award Date:  june 1969


Completion Date:   August  1970                 	


Summary:

Aerial photography taken of  waste plumes  from Kraft  pulp mill ocean out-
falls was  shown to be an effective tool in the study of waste disposal
sites.  Photography taken at one instant  provides comprehensive informa-
tion throughout the waste field.  Manpower requirements and costs  for this
method are considerably less than for conventional boat sampling surveys.
 -  Waste  concentrations were measured by conventional boat sampling
techniques while aerial photography was taken of the outfall area  from
altitudes  ranging from 3,000 to 11,000 ft.  Computerized procedures were
used to compute water currents, waste concentrations, toxicity zones,
and diffusion coefficients from the photography.  -   Surface water current
was ^found  to be the dominant factor in the resulting plume pattern.  During
periods of low current velocities in the  receiving water, the hydraulic
head created by the effluent source was a significant factor in the result-
ing plume  shape.  Temperature was found not to be an effective tracer for
tracking the plume or for estimating waste concentrations since the result-
ing plume  temperature may exceed, equal to, or be less than the surrounding
ocean temperature.
              ADDRESS INQUIRIES TO EPA PROJECT OFFICER

                                 X-12

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 INFORMATION^ SHEET
        ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY
RESEARCH,  DEVELOPMENT OR DEMONSTRATION PROJECT
  This sheet briefly describes an R & D project Section 104 or 10." of the
  Federal Water Pollution Control Acl Amendments of 1972 (PL 92-500)
PROJECT NUMBER:
       EEK
TITLE OF PROJECT:
       Treatment of Selected Internal Kraft Mill Wastes
       in a Cooling Tower
GRANTEE OR CONTRACTOR:
    Georgia-Kraft  Co.
    Rome, Georgia
                         EPA PROJECT OFFICER:

                            Mr.  Ralph Scott
                            PNERL, EPA
                            200  Southwest 35th Street
                            Corvallis, Oregon 97330
Project Site:
 Macon, Georgia
DESCRIPTION OF PROJECT
Award  Date:

Completion Date:

Summary:
October 1967
Project  Cost:   $m,ooo
     August 1971
                              Federal  Cost:
               $287,000
    Pulp mill condensates,  decker filtrate, and turpentine decanter  underflow
    from an 850 ton/day Kraft linerboard mill were successfully treated in a
    conventional cooling tower.  These waste streams, in combination with the
    condenser waters from a barometric type evaporator condenser,  were cooled
    in the tower and reused.  The overall accomplishments of this  process were
    the removal of about 10,000 Ibs  of BOD per day and the reduction in overall
    mill water needs of about 8-10 mgd.  Theoretical, laboratory,  and pilot
    studies investigated the BOD removal mechanisms involved and proved that
    the predominant mechanism is stripping of volatile components.   The primary
    factors controlling BOD removal  in this system are blowdown rate, liquid-
    gas ratio, and average  temperature.  For a blowdown rate of 15-20 percent
    of the tower influent,  average treatment efficiencies for the waste streams
    considered are 55-65% for sixth  effect condensate, 45-55% for  combined
    condensate and turpentine decanter underflow, and 25-35 percent  for decker
    filtrate.  -  The reduction in BOD of these waste streams is believed due
    primarily to the stripping of methanol.  Some biological activity is
    evident in the tower, however, and the addition of nutrients results in
    an improvement of 5-10% in BOD removal.  The system has several  advantages
    °?orsthe conventional surface condenser system used with Kraft mill evapor-
             ADDRESS INQUIRIES TO  EPA PROJECT OFFICER
                                   X-13

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INFORMATION  SHEET
        ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY
RESEARCH,  DEVELOPMENT OR DEMONSTRATION PROJECT
  Tim sheet hrid'ly describes an R & D project Section 104 or 10.' of the
  Federal Water Pollution Control Acl Amendments of 1972 (PL 92-500)
PROJECT NUMBER:
    EEL
TITLE OF PROJECT:
      Development of Reverse Osmosis for In-Plant
      Treatment of Dilute Pulping Industry Wastes
GRANTEE OR CONTRACTOR:
  Pulp Manufacturers Research League
  Appleton, Wisconsin
PrOJBCt Site :     Appleton, Wisconsin

DESCRIPTION OF PROJECT
                          EPA PROJECT OFFICER:
                            Mr.  Ralph Scott
                            PNERL, EPA
                            200  Southwest 35th  Street
                            Corvallis, Oregon  97330
Award Date:
August 1967
Completion Date:

Summary:
     February 1972
Project Cost:

Federal Cost:
$690,530
$483,371
   Adaptation of reverse osmosis as  a method of concentration for dilute
   effluents of pulping, bleaching,  and paper manufacture was conducted in
   laboratory, pilot scale, and in large 50,000 gallon per  day field demon-
   strations at pulp mills.  Most dilute wastes at 1% solids contained sus-
   pended particles, colloidal suspensoids,  large molecular-weight wood
   derived organics, and/or scale-forming inorganic chemical residues. Tubu-
   lar membrane systems capable of being operated at self-cleaning velocities
   increasing beyond 2.0 feet per second, as concentration  advanced to 10%
   solids, were apparently best adapted to processing these effluents at  sus-
   tained high flux rates.  Tubular systems  studied were subject to excessive
   failure rates in terms of life of membrane support structures or to leakage
   of internal connections based on the support structure.  Feasibility of
   employing RO for concentration of dilute pulping and bleaching effluents
   depends on developing routes to substantial  improvement  in life expectancy
   of RO equipment  to maintain high flux rates  and rejections at much lower
   membrane maintenance and replacement costs than prevailed with equipment
   available  for these  studies  conducted from 1967 through  1971.
              ADDRESS INQUIRIES TO EPA PROJECT OFFICER
                                  X- 14

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 INFORMATION  SHEET
        ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY
RESEARCH,  DEVELOPMENT OR DEMONSTRATION PROJECT
  This shed briefly describes an R & D project Section 104 or 103 of the
  Federal Water Pollution Control Act Amendment* of 1972 (PI. ^2-500)
PROJECT NUMBER:
EFC
TITLE OF PROJECT!    Pollution Abatement by Fiber Modification
GRANTEE  OR CONTRACTOR:
 College  of Forest Resources
 University of Washington
 Seattle, Washington  98105


Project Site:   Seattle, Washingt

DESCRIPTION  OF PROJECT

Award  Date:   june 1959
                      EPA PROJECT  OFFICER:
                       Mr. Ralph  Scott
                       PNERL, EPA
                       200 Southwest 35th Street
                       Corvallis, Oregon 97330
           on
                          Project Cost:  $41,603

                          Federal Cost:  $37,350
Completion Date:    January 1971


Summary:

 Laboratory studies led to the discovery of two new methods for the collec-
 tion of pollutants by fibers based on oxidative grafting.   Further,  physical
 entrapment by hydrodynamic volume changes were also discovered and a pro-
 cedure for the characterization of copolymer compositions  by surface tension
 was established.  -  Cellulosic or lignocellulosic fibers  can be reacted
 with di- or tri-halogeno-s-triazines in simple aqueous conditions so that
 about 10% of weight of reactive sites can be built into the fiber.  The
 modified fibers can be regarded as polychloro-£-triazinylated fibers in
 which each £-triazine ring contains approximately  one or two reactive
 chlorine atoms.  Chloro-s-triazines are capable of reacting in aqueous
 solutions with amines, mercaptans and phenols,  typical of  those present in
 pulping wastes and bleach plant effluent.  The  efficiency  of this system
 is increased as the size of the pollutant removed  per reactive fiber size
 is increased.   Methods to increase the size of  lignosulfonates by conden-
 sation have been developed.
             ADDRESS  INQUIRIES  TO EPA  PROJECT OFFICER

                                  X-15

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INFORMATION  SHEET

        ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AOENCY
RESEARCH.  DEVELOPMENT OR  DEMONSTRATION PROJECT

  Tliis shrcl briefly describes an R & D project Section 104 or 105 of tin-
  Federal Water Pollution Control Acl Amendments of 1972 (PL 92-500)
PROJECT NUMBER:
         EJU
TITLE OF PROJECT:
         Kraft Pulping Effluent Treatment and Reuse
         State-of-the-Art Portion - Part I
6RANTEE OR CONTRACTOR:
   St.  Regis Paper Company
   150  E. 42nd Street
   New  York, New York 10017
                              EPA PROJECT OFFICER:
                                 Mr. George R. Webster
                                 Industrial Pollution Control
                                  Division (RD-679), EPA
                                 Washington, D. C.  20460
 PrOJBCt Site .'   Jacksonville and Pensacola,  Florida
 DESCRIPTION OF PROJECT
 Award Date:
    June 1969
Project Cost:  $48,ooo*
Date:
                    February 1973 (Part I)
Federal Cost:  $26,soo*
 Summary:
   This report presents a survey of the literature and other sources on
   present practices and advanced methods of handling and treatment of pulp
   and paper mill effluents, with particular emphasis on the kraft process,
   and the use of activated carbon and lime treatment as advanced methods
   of treatment.   The survey was made as a first step in a three part
   development program aimed at maximum water reuse in kraft pulp and -paper
   mills based on effluent treatment using activated carbon.

   The results of the survey include information on activated carbon and its
   applications in treatment of pulp and paper mill effluents as well as in
   treatment of municipal water supplies and effluents.  Information is pre-
   sented on lime treatment of kraft mill effluent and on other advanced
   treatment methods.  It also covers the subjects of in-plant water reuse,
   effluent collection systems, solids removal, and biological oxidation.


   *Approximate, pending apportionment of costs after completion of Parts  II
   and III.
              ADDRESS INQUIRIES TO EPA PROJECT OFFICER
                                  X-16

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 INFORMATION  SHEET
        ENVIRONMENTAL  PROTECTION AGENCY
RESEARCH,  DEVELOPMENT OR DEMONSTRATION PROJECT
  Thi* shed brie.t'l\ describe.- an Ft & U project Section 104 or 10.") of the
  Federal Water Pollution Control Ad Amendment* ol  l<)72 (PI. ()l2-.~>00)
PROJECT NUMBER:
                   ELW
TITLE OF PROJECT.'  Aerated  Lagoon Treatment of Sulfite Pulping Effluents
GRANTEE OR CONTRACTOR:
Crown Zellerbach Corporation
Camas,  Washington
                                          EPA  PROJECT OFFICER:
                                           Mr.  Ralph Scott
                                           PNERL, EPA
                                           200  Southwest  35th Street
                                           Corvallis, Oregon 97330
                                               Project  Cost: $302,000

                                               Federal  Cost: $503,739
Project Site :    Lebanon, Oregon


DESCRIPTION  OF PROJECT


Award  Date:    December 1967


Completion Date:   August 1971


Summary:

Secondary treatment  of  sulfite pulp  and paper mill effluents in aerated
stabilization basins was tested on a full-scale basis over a 17-month
period  of continuous operation.  The secondary treatment plant consisted
of two  aeration basins.  One basin was equipped with two 75-hp surface
aerators and the other  basin of equal volume was equipped with six 25-hp
aeration units.  Piping was designed to permit series and parallel
operation of the two basins and provisions were made to recycle treated
waste.  The waste treated was a mixture of weak wash water from the pulp
mill, evaporator condensate from the spent liquor recovery system, and
paper machine white  water.  -  Results showed that series operation was
more efficient than  parallel operation and that the 75-hp surface aerators
were much more efficient mixing and  aeration devices than the 25-hp units
of equivalent capacity.  An 80% BOD  reduction in the combined secondary
system  was achieved  at  a BOD load of 3.53 Ibs/1,000 cu ft of aeration
capacity or 2.2 Ibs/hp-hr.  This was equivalent to a daily BOD load of
16:000  Ibs.  Biological treatment of the mill waste to a BOD reduction of
80?; to  85% produced  a waste which did not readily support slime growth
when added to simulated experimental streams.  Total operating cost includ-
ing interest on investment and depreciation was $169,500 per year or $4.79/
ton of  produc-ADDRESS INQUIRIES TO EPA  PROJECT OFFICER tion.

                                  X-17

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INFORMATION  SHEET

        ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY
RESEARCH.  DEVELOPMENT OR DEMONSTRATION PROJECT

  This sheet briefly describes an R & D project Section 104 or 105 of ihe
  Federal Water Pollution Control Acl Amendments of 1972 (PL 92-500)

PROJECT NUMBER:

TITLE OF PROJECT:
    EMY
    Multi-System Biological Treatment of Bleached
    Kraft Effluents
GRANTEE OR CONTRACTOR:
   The Mead Corporation
   Chillicothe,  Ohio
                         EPA PROJECT  OFFICER:
                           Mr.  Ralph Scott
                           PNEKL, EPA
                           200  Southwest 35th  Street
                           Corvallis, Oregon 97330
 Project  Site:
Chillicothe,  Ohio
 DESCRIPTION OF  PROJECT
 Award Date:
 Completion Date:

 Summary:
 December 1966
     December 1970
Project Cost:  $428,500

Federal Cost:  $299,950
   A multi-unit pilot plant was used to study the biological  treatment of
   integrated Kraft pulp and paper wastewaters after conventional primary
   clarification.  The biological units included two high-rate trickling
   filters packed with PVC media, an oxidation ditch with brush-type aera-
   tion,  and an earthen lagoon with mechanical surface aeration.  Because
   the main feed could be excluded from one or more biological units and,
   in its place, any of the pilot-unit effluents, except the  aerated lagoon,
   could  be pumped back to the main weir box for feed, simultaneous series
   and parallel operation of the four biological systems was  possible.  The
   combinations using normal strength wastewater included: (a) Trickling
   filters in series, (h) Trickling filter to aerated lagoon,  C.c) Oxidation
   ditch  to aerated lagoon, and Cd). Oxidation ditch, to trickling filtex.
    -  Best efficiencies at normal effluent strength were obtained on the
   pilot  oxidation ditch when run with clarification and sludge return as
   the extended aeration process.  BODr removals as high as 94£ were possible.
   The trickling filter with sludge recycle performed slightly better than the
   conventional trickling filter.  BOD5 removals of 60% to 70% were possible.
   The conventional aerated lagoon at short detention times was improved by
   clarification of the treated effluent.  BOD5 removals of 80% were possible.
               ADDRESS INQUIRIES TO  EPA PROJECT OFFICE*
                                  X-18

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 INFORMATION  SHEET
        ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY
RESEARCH.  DEVELOPMENT OR DEMONSTRATION  PROJECT
  This shed briefly describes an R, & D project Section 104 or 10.") ol' the
  Federal Water Pollution Control Act Amendments of 197:2 (HI, 92-500)
PROJECT NUMBER:
                     ENC
TITLE OF PROJECT)    Color Removal from Kraft  Pulping Effluent
                     by Lime Addition
                                          EPA PROJECT  OFFICER:

                                           Mr. Edmond Lomasney
                                           Region IV, EPA
                                           1421 Peachtree Street, N.E.
                                           Atlanta,  Georgia  30309
                                              Project Cost:  $741>i60

                                              Federal Cost:  $466,895
GRANTEE OR CONTRACTOR:
Interstate  Paper Corporation
300 East 42nd Street
New York, New York 10017


Project Site:    Riceboro, Georgia

DESCRIPTION OF PROJECT

Award  Date:   June 1968


Completion Date:   December 1972


Summary:

A prototype color removal system was designed, constructed and operated as
an integral part of a tertiary treatment system for total process effluent
from a  kraft linerboard mill.   The basic system included a lime precipi-
tation  process for the removal of color combined with primary clarifica-
tion followed by natural biochemical lake stabilization and mechanical
aeration.

Results show that the color removal system can operate successfully under
widely  varying conditions to give a relatively constant effluent color in
the range of 125 ppm APHA color units at treatment  levels of 1000 (+ 50)
ppm of  calcium hydroxide with  untreated effluent colors in the range of
1200 (+ 200) ppm.  Treatment at this level reduces  lime cost to $53.73 per
million gallons with lime at $15.35/ton (90% CaO).   Performance is directly
related to control of lime feed.  Equipment evaluation indicates substan-
tial savings in capital cost for future installations.

Overall BOD5 reduction for the tertiary treatment system is  98% with a
final discharge average BOD^ of 6 ppm.

             ADDRESS  INQUIRIES TO  EPA PROJECT OFFICER

                                 X-19

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INFORMATION  SHEET
        ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY
RESEARCH.  DEVELOPMENT OR  DEMONSTRATION PROJECT
  Tills sheet hriel'h deMTil>e> an R & U project Section 104 or 10.1 of the
  Federal \\aler Pollution Control \cl \mendment> of 1972 (PI. <)2-.~>00)
PR.OJECT NUMBER:
                 ESV
TITLE OF PROJECT:
                   Methods for Pulp and Paper Mill  Sludge Utilization
                   and Disposal
GRANTEE OR  CONTRACTOR:
 Crown Zellerbach Corporation
 Environmental Services Division
 Camas , Washington
        Site :
                                         EPA PROJECT OFFICER:

                                          Mr. Ralph  Scott
                                          PNERL, EPA
                                          200 Southwest 35th Street
                                          Corvallis, Oregon 97330
               Camas, Washington
                                              Project  Cost: $8*8,320

                                              Federal  Cost:$350,000
DESCRIPTION  OF PROJECT

Award Date:  Aprii  1968


Completion Date:   May 1973


Summary:

 The disposal  of pulp and paper mill sludge in a manner which has minimal
 effect on the environment has become a serious problem.  This project was
 carried out to evaluate four methods of disposal, namely: (1) Incinera-
 tion in an air entrained dryer-incinerator, (2) burning in hog fuel
 boilers, (3)  incorporation into soil as an amendment, and (4) hydro-
 mulching for  soil stabilization.  Other possible uses are discussed.
 Burning sludge in incinerators costs between $11 and $13/dry ton,  includ-
 ing all prior dewatering steps.  Sludge can be made available at various
 degrees of dewatering at costs of from $7 to $20/dry ton.  Incorporation
 into farm soil offers the possiblity for disposal of large quantities of
 sludge.   At low levels (100-200 tons/acre) crop yields are satisfactory,
 provided adequate nitrogen is added.  A high level incorporation (600
 tons/acre) requires  a year of fallow preceding crop planting.  Sludge
 alone or in combination with bark can be used as a hydromulch in establish-
 ing grass stands on  steep embankments.
             ADDRESS INQUIRIES TO EPA PROJECT OFFICER

                                 X-20

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INFORMATION  SHEET
        ENVIRONMENTAL  PROTECTION AGENCY
RESEARCH,  DEVELOPMENT OR  DEMONSTRATION PROJECT
  Tl)i> -licet liriH'K dociiho an R & L) project Section  104 or 10." of (lie
  Kcilcral \\alcr Pollution Control Ad \mcmlmcnt.- of l','7J (PI. OJ-.'OO)


PROJECT NUMBER:   EUG


TITLE OF PROJECT:   Foam Separation of Kraft Pulping Wastes
GRANTEE OR CONTRACTOR:

Georgia-Kraft Co.
Rome, Georgia
                                          EPA PROJECT OFFICER:

                                            Mr. Ralph Scott
                                            PNERL, EPA
                                            200 Southwest 35th Street
                                            Corvallis, Oregon 97330
                                              Project Cost: $68,83o

                                              Federal Cost: $48,isi
Project Site :   Rome,  Georgia


DESCRIPTION  OF PROJECT


Award  Date:  August 1957


Completion Date:    October 1959


Summary:
Laboratory studies of  foam separation were conducted to  determine  the
feasibility of this process for reducing BOD, solids content, and  foaming
tendency  of clarified  Kraft mill effluent.  Since Kraft  pulping wastes
have a natural tendency to foam, it was expected that the foaming  process,
which has been found to be useful in treating domestic wastes, might have
applications in treatment of these effluents.  -  Both continuous  flow
and batch experiments  were conducted, and liquid and foam heights, liquid
feed rates, air sparging rates, and temperature were varied over wide
ranges.   -  The BOD reduction in the treated liquid was  disappointingly
small,  averaging less  than 5%, and the BOD enrichment in the foam  phase
was in most cases less than 1.5 times that of the feed.  Solids removal
was correspondingly low.  -  The cost of using a foam process on kraft
mill wastes is estimated to be four to five cents per 1000 gallons of feed:
this cost is exclusive of further processing of the concentrated foamate.
Based on  control of foaming tendency alone, the process  would be unattrac-
tive, from a cost standpoint.
             ADDRESS INQUIRIES TO EPA PROJECT  OFFICER

                                 X-21

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 INFORMATION  SHEET
        ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY
RESEARCH,  DEVELOPMENT OR DEMONSTRATION  PROJECT
    i-* -heel briet'h docriht-v an R \ D project Section 104 or H)o of the
  Federal Water Pollution Control Act A mend month of l()72 (PI- <^-.iOO)

PROJECT NUMBER:   EXQ


TITLE OF  PROJECT!  Steam Stripping Odorous Substances From
                   Kraft Effluent Streams  (SEKOR)
GRANTEE  OR CONTRACTOR:
Department of Chemical Engineering
University of Washington
Seattle, Washington 98105
Project Site:   Seattle,  Washingt

DESCRIPTION OF PROJECT
                             EPA  PROJECT OFFICER:

                              Dr.  H.  K. Willard
                              PNEKL,  EPA
                              200 Southwest 35th Street
                              Corvallis,  Oregon 9733Q
                 on
Award  Date:
September 1970
Completion Date:    April 1973
Project Cost: $32,100

Federal Cost: $28,899
 Summary:

 Laboratory and design studies have been completed relating to volatile
 constituents which appear in Kraft black liquor and condensate streams,
 and how these can best be removed and  recovered.  In order of decreasing
 concentration, the volatile constituents are alcohols, terpenes,  ketones,
 sulfur bearing compounds, and phenolic compounds.   Methanol, the  major
 alcohol contaminant, is found in from  280 to 8400 ppm in condensate
 streams, amounting to 11 to 16 pounds  per ton of pulp produced.  Terpenes
 are found to range from a few ppm to about 4500 ppm in condensates,  4 to
 9 pounds per ton of pulp. Acetone is  present at concentrations of 2 to
 200 ppm, corresponding to 0.07 to 0.4  pounds per ton of pulp.  In all,
 some 40 compounds were found to be present in condensate streams.  The
 feasibility of combining steam stripping of Kraft liquor with steam strip-
 ping of condensates was explored, and  the conditions under which  this may
 be warranted are reported.  Under most present mill situations, steam
 stripping of black liquor and the last stages of evaporator condensates
 does not appear to be warranted except in unusual cases.  Exploratory
 type studies were made and are reported concerning improved methods of pre-
 dicting vapor-liquid equilibria in such systems, and separation of the
 resulting volatile oils.

             ADDRESS INQUIRIES TO EPA PROJECT OFFICER
                                X-22

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 IN FORM A TION  SHEET

         ENVIRONMENTAL  PROTECTION AGENCY
RESEARCH, DEVELOPMENT OR  DEMONSTRATION PROJECT
  Tl)i> sheet hriel'K de>ci ibe.x an R .\ U project Section  104 or 10.") of the

  Federal Water Pollution Control \cl Amendment.- of |J-5
PROJECT NUMBER:
                    EZU
TITLE OF PROJECT!   Aerobic Secondary Treatment of Plywood Glue Wastes
GRANTEE OR CONTRACTOR:
Klamath  Plywood Corp.
Klamath  Falls, Oregon 97601
                                          EPA  PROJECT OFFICER:

                                          Dr. H. K.  Willard
                                          PNERL, EPA
                                          200 Southwest 35th Street
                                          Corvallis,  Oregon 97330
                                              Project Cost: $55,040

                                              Federal Cost: $42,028
Project Site :   Klamath Falls,  Oregon


DESCRIPTION OF  PROJECT


Award Date:    April  1968


Completion  Date:   April 1973                  	


Summary:
An activated sludge treatment system, consisting of  an aeration tank, a
tube-settler clarification module and a waste solids lagoon, was constructed
at Klamath Plywood Corporation to treat urea-formaldehyde glue and steam
vat condensate wastewater.  The  system was  studied over a period of 18
months.  Prior to operation the  flow to the treatment system was reduced
from about 40,000 gallons per day to about  8,000 gallons per day and BOD
from 500-1,000 pounds  per day to 100-400 pounds per  day.  During the
period of greatest efficiency, the flow averaged 6,700 gallons per day
and the BOD averaged 182 pounds  per day. The results indicate that acti-
vated sludge treatment of urea-formaldehyde glue waste alone is not
feasible.  The combined wastewater is amenable to treatment by activated
sludge, but requires the addition of phosphorus.  Without nutrient addition,
the average BOD removal was 38%.  During the period  when phosphorus was
added to the system, the BOD removal averaged 78%.   The flow averaged
9,800 gallons per day  during the latter period.  Treatment efficiency was
adversely affected by  cold weather during part of the study period.
             ADDRESS INQUIRIES TO EPA PROJECT OFFICER

                                X-23

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 INFORMATION  SHEET
        ENVIRONMENTAL  PROTECTION AGENCY
RESEARCH, DEVELOPMENT OR  DEMONSTRATION PROJECT
  This sheel lirict'ly describes an R & L) project Section 104 or !()."> of the
  Federal \\alcr Pollution Control Acl \mendments of l«)72 (PI, <>2-."K)0)

PROJECT NUMBER:   Ezz


TITLE OF  PROJECT'.   Dilute Spent Kraft Liquor  Filtration Through Wood Chips
GRANTEE  OR CONTRACTOR:

School of Forest Resources
University of North Carolina
Raleigh, North Carolina
Site :
                                 EPA PROJECT OFFICER:

                                   Mr. Ralph Scott
                                   PNERL,  EPA
                                   200 Southwest 35th Street
                                   Corvallis, Oregon 97330
                Raleigh, North Carolina
DESCRIPTION OF PROJECT
Award  Date:
              August 1967
Completion Date:    April 1970

Summary:
                                      Project  Cost:  $25,920

                                      Federal  Cost:  $i8,i44
The principal objective of this project was to  determine if contact between
effluent from a Kraft pulp mill and pine chips  would reduce the water pollu-
tion characteristics of the waste liquor.  - The experimental work was
divided into two phases:  1) a small scale laboratory investigation of con-
tacting dilute waste liquor with chips; and 2)  a pilot-scale investigation
of filtering waste liquor through a column and  a pile of chips.  -  It was
found chat contact of alkaline waste liquor, or even distilled water, with
pine chips extracted organic matter from the chips which had a considerable
BOD5.  This extract corresponded to a pollution load of about 3-11 Ibs.
BOD5 per ton of dry wood.  Alkalinity, pH, and  intensity of color of the
waste liquor were somewhat reduced by the contact.  These reductions are,
however,^too small to have any practical application in effluent treatment.
It can, in general, be concluded that contact of alkaline waste liquor, or
water, with wood chips extracts soluble organics and adds pollutional
materials to the effluent stream.
             ADDRESS INQUIRIES TO EPA PROJECT OFFICER

                                X-24

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 INFORMATION  SHEET

         ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY
RESEARCH.  DEVELOPMENT OR DEMONSTRATION PROJECT
  Tlii> sheet briefly dcMTibe.x an R & D project Section 104 or 10.1 of the
  Federal Water Pollution Control Ac I Amendments of 1972 (PL ()2-."iOO)

PROJECT NUMBER:   FDE


TITLE OF PROJECT!  Treatment Plant  for Flocculation and Micros creening
                   of Whitewater


GRANTEE OR CONTRACTOR:                  EPA PROJECT OFFICER:

 Esleeck Manufacturing Company                Mr. Edward J. Conley
  and Strathmore  Paper Company                Region I, EPA
 Turner Falls,  Massachusetts                  John F. Kennedy Federal Building
                                           Boston, Massachusetts 02203

        Slt6 :    Turners  Falls, Massachusetts
DESCRIPTION OF PROJECT


Award  Date:  June 1970                        Project  Cost:  $505,400


Completion Date:                              Federal  Cost:  $252,345


Summary:

 The objective of this grant is to investigate  the applicability of micro-
 screening of paper mill wastes from two paper  mills that manufacture
 business, technical,  and  other papers made from either  rag or chemical
 wood pulps to determine the removal of biochemical oxygen demand  (BOD) ,
 suspended solids, color,  and turbidity.  Tests will be  run utilizing a
 coagulant or coagulant aid, such as a polyelectrolyte,  for the further
 removal of turbidity from the mocroscreener effluent.   Evaluations to
 determine the possibility of reclaiming fibers from the micros creener
 sludge will be done.   Appropriate treatment processes,  such as centri-
 fugation or sedimentation, may enable the mills to economically recover
 lost fibers.

 Data will be obtained to  determine design factors and estimates of the
 cost of construction and  operation of such a facility.  The cost of
 operation will be correlated with the retail market value of the product.
 Also, the study will conduct tests on a ultra-filter supplied free of
 charge by the EPA.


             ADDRESS INQUIRIES TO  EPA  PROJECT OFFICER

                                X-25

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INFORMATION  SHEET

        ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY
RESEARCH, DEVELOPMENT OR DEMONSTRATION  PROJECT

  Thi> shecl l.riei'h de,seril>e> an R & D project Section 104 or 10r> of the
  Federal Water Pollution Control Act Amendments of l<)72 (PI. (^-o()0)

PROJECT NUMBER:   FES
TITLE OF PROJECT:
Sludge Disposal  and Material Recovery System for
Manufacturers of Coated and/or Filled Papers
GRANTEE OR CONTRACTOR:
 S. D. Warren Co.
 89 Cumberland Street
 Westbrook, Maine  04092

 Project Site :  Westbrook, Maine

 DESCRIPTION OF PROJECT

 Award Date:   May 1970

 Completion Date:   July 1971

 Summary:
                       EPA PROJECT OFFICER:

                        Dr. Hend Gorchev
                        Region I, EPA
                        John F. Kennedy Federal Building
                        Boston, Massachusetts 02203
                           Project Cost:  $65>875

                           Federal Cost: $45,053
  A process was developed and tested in a full-scale trial wherein the
  pigment present in waste sludge was reclaimed.  Sludge resulting from
  the primary treatment of white waters was diluted to less  than 0.75%
  solids, centricleaned, dewatered to 30% solids, shredded,  dried, and
  burned in a rotary kiln.  The ash that resulted - the pigment - was then
  pulverized and used as filler pigment in the papermaking process.

  A pigment of acceptable abrasiveness and a GE brightness of 84%-85% could
  be produced provided that the sludge was centricleaned and the temperature
  in the kiln kept below 1600°F.

  A system capable of processing 40 dry tons per day primary treatment
  sludge would produce reusable filler pigment at a net cost of $50 per  ton.
  Compared to the delivered cost of virgin filler clay ($38  per ton) it  can
  be seen that full scale pigment recovery utilizing this sytem is not
  economically justifiable at this time.
              ADDRESS INQUIRIES TO EPA PROJECT OFFICER

                                  X-26

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 INFORMATION^ SHEET
         ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY
RESEARCH. DEVELOPMENT OR DEMONSTRATION PROJECT
    .s sheet briefly describes an R & I) project Section 104 or 105 of llic
  Federal Water Pollution Control Act Amendments of 1972 (PI. 92-500)
PROJECT NUMBER:
FKS
TITLE OF PROJECT:   Steam Stripping and Rectification of Kraft  Pulp
                    Mill Condensates and Black Liquors
GRANTEE OR CONTRACTOR:
 Weyerhaeuser Company
 Longview, Washington  98632
Project SitB :    Longview, Washington

DESCRIPTION OF PROJECT

Award  Date:   April 1970

Completion Date:   March 1972

Summary:
                      EPA PROJECT OFFICER:

                       Dr. H. K. Willard
                       PNERL, EPA
                       200 Southwest 35th Street
                       Corvallis, Oregon 97330
                          Project Cost:  $133,905

                          Federal Cost:  $123,733
 A pilot-plant  stripping unit will be  designed and built.  This will be
 installed along with auxilliary equipment for rectification and storage.
 Runs will be made using decanter underflow, blow condensate, evaporator
 condensate,  and black liquor.  The stripping bottoms water will be tested
 and then sewered.  The overhead, which forms two immiscible liquids when
 condensed, will be decanted, forming  a crude turpentine product and a
 water soluble  organic layer.  This will be further rectified and processed
 to evaluate  the worth of the products therein.   The main objective is to
 determine on a large pilot-plant scale (50 gal/min. stripping unit) the
 efficiency and effectiveness of a steam stripping-rectification unit in
 reducing the volatile organic chemicals in Kraft process condensate
 streams.  This reduction is directly  proportional to the biochemical
 oxygen demand  (BOD) reduction that can be achieved by this process.  The
 mass transfer  data provided by this stripping and rectification equipment,
 along with the economics of any by-products derived, is necessary for
 further decisions regarding full-scale units.
             ADDRESS INQUIRIES TO EPA PROJECT OFFICER

                                 X-27

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INFORMATION  SHEET

        ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY
RESEARCH, DEVELOPMENT OR DEMONSTRATION PROJECT
  Thi* >lieel tiriel'K (le>eril>e> an R X D project Section  104 or 105 of (lie
  Federal Water Pollution Control Ac I \inendmcnLx of I()7l2 (PI. ()2-."5()0)


PROJECT NUMBER:  FUB


TITLE  OF  PROJECT:  Closure of Water Use Loop  in NSSC Pulp and Paperboard
                  Mill Utilizing R-0 as a Unit Operation
                                        EPA  PROJECT OFFICER:

                                        Mr. Ralph Scott
                                        PNERL, EPA
                                        200 Southwest 35th Street
                                        Corvallis, Oregon 97330
GRANTEE OR CONTRACTOR:

 Green Bay Packaging, Inc.
 P. 0. Box 1107
 Green Bay, Wisconsin  54305

Project  Site :  Green Bay, Wisconsin


DESCRIPTION OF PROJECT

Award Date:   June 1970


Completion  Date:   January 1972


Summary:

 This project involved a pilot phase  in which vendors operated proprietary
 equipment  simultaneously and continuously on the same feed on a program
 in progress involving the closure of a pulp and paperboard mill.  Recycle
 and reuse  of weak waste waters containing dissolved organics was carried
 out to permit the development of operating techniques applicable to this
 particular feed.

 Reverse osmosis was investigated as  a unit operation, criteria determined
 for the design of a full-scale production facility, and equipment designs
 of the participating vendors were assessed.
                                             Project Cost:  $42,830

                                             Federal Cost:  $17,665
             ADDRESS INQUIRIES TO EPA PROJECT OFFICER

                                  X-28

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 INFORMATION  SHEET
         ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY
RESEARCH, DEVELOPMENT OR DEMONSTRATION PROJECT
  Thi- -heel hriel'K de-rrihc.- an R &  !) project Section 104 or 10.") ol the
  Federal Water Pollution Control  \cl Amendment.- of \')72 (\>\ nJ-.~>00;
PROJECT  NUMBER:
GLV
TITLE OF PROJECT:  Delineation of Pulp and Paper Mill Wastes
GRANTEE OR CONTRACTOR:
 WAPORA,  Inc.
 1725  DeSales Street,  N.W.
 Washington, D. C.

Project  Site :    Washington, D. C,

DESCRIPTION  OF  PROJECT

Award Date:   December 1970

Completion  Date:   April 1973

Summary:
                        EPA  PROJECT OFFICER:
                         Dr.  Kirk Willard
                         PNERL,  EPA
                         200  Southwest 35th Street
                         Corvallis, Oregon 97330
                            Project Cost:  $70,
940
                            Federal Cost:  $70,940
 The results of this  contractual effort set forth the state-of-the-art
 in the treatment of  pulp and paper mill wastewater as it stands in 1971.
 In order to lay a background for the sections on treatment,  a  review of
 both the general economic position of the industry as a whole  and the
 major production processes is included.  Such a background is  needed
 since a considerable degree of loss control is practiced within the
 processes and water  recycling is an almost universal practice  in this
 industry.  Included  also is a review of the water quality problems which
 the applied treatment processes are designed to rectify.  Performance
 data for treatment processes and systems are presented together with a
 review of the applicability of common analytical methods to  the measure-
 ment of waste characteristics and treatment effectiveness.   The techniques
 used to monitor waste flowages for control purposes and as means of
 recording treatment  efficiency are included.  Finally, the  remaining
 problems relative to control and treatment of pulp and paper mill spent
 process waters are pointed out.  Research and development needs directed
 toward solving these problems are defined.
              ADDRESS INQUIRIES TO  EPA PROJECT  OFFICER
                                  X-29

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 INFORMATION  SHEET
        ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY
RESEARCH,  DEVELOPMENT OR DEMONSTRATION PROJECT
  Thi< -licet briel'K docrihcs an R & U project Section 104 or 10r> of tin-
  Federal \\ater Pollution Control \el Amendments of 1072 (PI, »)2-5()0)

PROJECT  NUMBER:   GQD


TITLE OF PROJECT:   Coliform Bacteria Growth and Control in
                  Aerated  Stabilization Basins
GRANTEE OR CONTRACTOR:
 Crown Zellerbach Corporation
 Environmental Services Division
 Camas, Washington 98607

Project Site:   Lebanon, Oregon

DESCRIPTION OF PROJECT

Award Date:   Juiy i971

Completion Date:  December 1973

Summary:
EPA PROJECT OFFICER:
 Mr. Ralph Scott
 PNERL, EPA
 200 Southwest 35th Street
 Corvallis, Oregon 97330
    Project Cost:  $201,377

    Federal Cost:  $95,568
         efflU6f f™m an *-*»** base sulfite mill in Lebanon, Oregon,
         concentrations of coliforms (total coliform bacteria) in
receiving waters to more than 1000 per 100 ml, the State standard.
SsinfLMonT^^ f°r ^gh COUf0rm P°Pulati°- -re determined and a


                                     '
            ADDRESS INQUIRIES TO EPA PROJECT OFFICER

                              X-30

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 INFORMATION  SHEET
        ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY
RESEARCH,  DEVELOPMENT OR DEMONSTRATION PROJECT
  Tliis shed briefly describe:- an R. & L) project Section 104 or \()7) of the
  Federal \\atcr Pollution Control \cl Amendments of 1<)72 (PI. ()2-.~>()0)

PROJECT NUMBER:   HAR
TITLE OF PROJECT:
Delineation of Paperboard,  Building Paper, and
Board Mill Industry Wastes
GRANTEE OR CONTRACTOR:
 WAPORA, Inc.
 1725 DeSales  St., N.W.
 Washington, D. C.

Project Site:  Washington, D. C.

DESCRIPTION  OF PROJECT

Award  Date:  December  1970

Completion Date:  April  1973

Summary:
                      EPA PROJECT  OFFICER:

                       Dr. Kirk Willard
                       PNERL, EPA
                       200 S. W.  35th Street
                       Corvallis, Oregon 97330
                          Project  Cost:  $45,322

                          Federal  Cost:  $45,322
This report sets forth the state-of-the-art in the treatment of the
industry wastes associated with the paperboard, building paper, and
board mill industries.  Included also is a review of the water quality
problems which the applied treatment processes are designed to rectify.
Performance data for  treatment processes and systems are presented
together with a review of the applicability of common analytical methods
to the measurement of waste characteristics and treatment effectiveness.
The techniques used to monitor waste flowages for control purposes and
as means of recording treatment efficiency are included.  Finally, the
remaining problems relative to control and treatment of spent process
waters are pointed out.  Research and development needs directed toward
solving these problems are defined.
             ADDRESS INQUIRIES TO EPA PROJECT OFFICER

                                 X-31

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INFORMATION  SHEET
        ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY
RESEARCH,  DEVELOPMENT OR DEMONSTRATION PROJECT
  This sheet briefly describes an R. & D project Section 104 or 10.' of lite
  Federal Water Pollution Control Acl Amendments of lc)72 (PL 92-500)
PROJECT NUMBER:
             HDU
TITLE OF PROJECT:
               Mercury  Recovery from  Contaminated  Wastewater
               and Sludges
GRANTEE OR CONTRACTOR:
   Georgia-Pacific Corp.
   P. 0. Box 1236
   Bellingham, Washington 98225
Site .'
                                  EPA  PROJECT OFFICER:

                                      Mr.  Ralph H. Scott
                                      PNERL,  EPA
                                      200 S.  W. 35th Street
                                      Corvallis, Oregon 97330
                  Bellingham, Washington
DESCRIPTION OF PROJECT
 Award Date:
                  June  1971
 Completion  Date:     October 1974
                                       Project  Cost:

                                       Federal  Cost:
                                                               $506,800
                                                       $227,620
 Summary:

   Operations were conducted to remove mercury  from wastewater  and sludge
   produced  by a mercury cell chlor-alkali plant.  Mercury content of the
   wastewater ranged from 300 - 18,000 ppb mercury while content of the brine
   sludge ranged from 150 to 1500  ppm Hg.  Other sludges processed included
   sludges from a waterway near the plant outfall with a Hg content of 10-25 ppm.
   The removal methods selected were sulfide precipitation for  the water treat-
   ment ^ and  high temperature roasting for the sludge treatment.  The sulfide
   precipitation consisted of collecting the various water streams, adjusting
   the pH from 5-8 with spent sulfuric acid, settling the large solid particles,
   in a surge tank, adding sodium  sulfide to a  1-3 ppm excess and adding
   diatomaceous earth at the rate  of 0.07 gpl in an R. P. Adams pressure filter.
   The effluent Hg levels ranged from 10-125 ppb with an average of 50 ppb Hg
   for an 87%-99% removal, averaging 96.8%.  -  The sludge system included a
   collection system, thickener, rotary vacuum  filter, multiple hearth furnace,
   and 3 stainless steel condensers.  Processing rate for th.e sludge was 140-
   320 kg/hr, dry basis.  Operating temperatures ranged from 540 C - 760 C,
   feed Hg content ranged from 290 to 440 ppm Hg (dry basis) , and clinker Hg
   content after treatment contained 0.5-7.2 ppm Hg, for a removal rate of
C

                                             were   asted at 730
                                               rQ             ted at
   TT^  -ii*/ cnn               .         for an 87-92% removal.  Capital costs
   were  $364,500 and oneratin? costs ,>ere  $32 per n ton o* AT? sludge  treated.
                                   X-32

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 INFORMATION  SHEET

        ENVIRONMENTAL  PROTECTION AGENCY
RESEARCH,  DEVELOPMENT OR DEMONSTRATION PROJECT
  Thi.» sheet hriei'K de.sci ihes an R & b project Section 104 or 10.1 of the
  Federal Water Pollution Control Act \mendmcnts of 1072 (PI, 92-500)


PROJECT NUMBER:     HIG


TITLE OF  PROJECT'.   Treatment  of Wood Preserving Wastewater by Chemical
                    and  Biological Methods
GRANTEE  OR  CONTRACTOR:                  EPA PROJECT OFFICER:

 Koppers Company, Inc.                       Mr. James  Phillips
 P.  0. Box 270                              Region V,  EPA
 Carbondale,  Illinois  62901                  1  North Wacker Drive
                                          Chicago, Illinois 60606
Project Site :   Carbondale, Illinois


DESCRIPTION OF PROJECT


Award  Date:      june 1971


Completion Date:


Summary:

 The project  consists  of the design, construction, and operation of treat-
 ment facilities for wood preserving wastewaters.  The 25,000-gpd waste
 flow is characterized by high  BOD and  COD, moderate  concentrations of
 phenols,  and low pH.  The proposed treatment system  will utilize pre-
 skimming and sedimentation, pre- and post-chlorination, and activated
 sludge secondary treatment. The treatment system will be operated for
 a 12-month period in which performance and cost of treatment will be
 documented.
Project Cost: $179,000

Federal Cost: $99,500
             ADDRESS  INQUIRIES TO  EPA PROJECT OFFICER

                                X-33

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INFORMATION^ SHEET

        ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY
RESEARCH, DEVELOPMENT OR DEMONSTRATION PROJECT

  Tills short briefly describes an R & D project Section  104 or 105 of llir
  Federal Water Pollution Control Acl  Amendments of 1972 (PL 92-500)

PROJECT NUMBER:    HPK
TITLE OF PROJECT)    Organic Compounds in Pulp Mill Lagoon Discharge
GRANTEE OR CONTRACTOR:
  University of Washington
  Seattle, Washington 98105
 PrOJBCt Site :   Seattle, Washington 98105

 DESCRIPTION OF PROJECT
                                  EPA PROJECT OFFICER:
                                    Dr. Larry Keith
                                    SERL,  EPA
                                    College Station Road
                                    Athens, Georgia  30601
Dlte:
              September 1971
 Completion Date:

 Summary:
Project  Cost:  $35,302

Federal  Cost:  $31,772
  This project will qualitatively identify and quantitatively measure the
  organic compounds entering and leaving Kraft pulp mill aerated lagoons.
  Wastewater samples will be collected from both Kraft bleached and
  unbleached processes and analyzed by a gas chromatographmass spectro-
  meter, thin layer chromatography, carbon adsorption, IR, TJV, NMR, and
  total organic carbon analysis.  The effect of wood species and biological
  treatment on chemical compounds will be studied to determine which com-
  pounds are destroyed and which are either produced or unchanged in the
  treatment process.  The origin of unchanged components in the process
  will be determined with the aim of defining possible control points
  within the process.
              ADDRESS INQUIRIES TO EPA PROJECT OFFICER
                                  X-34

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 INFORMATION  SHEET

        ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY
RESEARCH, DEVELOPMENT OR DEMONSTRATION PROJECT
  This sheet brief!) describes an R & U project Section 104 or 10.") of the
  Federal Water Pollution Control Act Amendments of 1071' (PI. 92-.">00)


PROJECT  NUMBER:    14-12-162


TITLE OF PROJECT!  Plasma Arc Processing of Spent Sulfite Liq
              'uors
GRANTEE OR CONTRACTOR:

 Electro-Optical Systems,  Inc.
 300 North Halstead Street
 Pasadena, California 91107

Project Site:  Pasadena, California

DESCRIPTION OF PROJECT

Award Date:  May 1968


Completion Date:  February 1969


Summary:
EPA PROJECT OFFICER:

 Mr. George Webster
 Industrial Pollution Control
  Division (RD-679), EPA
 Washington, D.  C. 20460
    Project Cost: $49,945

    Federal Cost: $49,945
The basic objective of this project is to determine the technical and
economic feasibility of plasma arc treatment of sulfite waste liquors.
            ADDRESS INQUIRIES TO EPA PROJECT OFFICER

                              X-35

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INFORMATION  SHEET

        ENVIRONMENTAL PROJECTION AGENCY
RESEARCH. DEVELOPMENT OR DEMONSTRATION PROJECT

  Thi> "IwH liriel'l)  an R & D project Section 104 or 105 of the
  Federal Water Pollution Control \cl Amendment of I()7l2 (PI. ()2-500)

PROJECT NUMBER:   300261
TITLE OF PROJECT:   Color Removal from Kraft Mill  Effluents  by Ultra-
                    filtration
GRANTEE OR CONTRACTOR:
 Champion International  Corp.
 Knightsbridge
 Hamilton, Ohio 45020

Project Site :    Canton, North Carolina

DESCRIPTION OF PROJECT

Award Date:  February  1972

Completion  Date:   May 1973

 Summary:
EPA PROJECT OFFICER:

  Mr. Edward P.  Lomasney
  Region IV, EPA
  1421 Peachtree Street  N.E,
  Atlanta, Georgia 30309
    Project Cost: $152,155

    Federal Cost:  $99,096
 The purpose of this program was  to examine ultrafiltration as a means of
 reducing color in kraft mill effluents more efficiently and/or more
 economically than the presently  available method.  The scope of the program
 included the six month operation  of a 10,000 gpd pilot plant at the
 Champion Papers' Canton, North Carolina, pulp and paper mill.

 The major experimental effort dealt with treatment of pine bleaching
 caustic extraction filtrate with lesser emphasis on unbleached pine and
 hardwood pulp washing Decker effluents.  Four experimental aspects of the
 process were evaluated:  feed pretreatment, ultrafiltration, concentrate
 disposal and water reuse potential.

 The process color removal efficiency was satisfactory.  For all influent
 studied typical results were 90% color removal with 98.5%-99% water
 recovery.
              ADDRESS INQUIRIES TO EPA PROJECT OFFICER

                                 X-36

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 INFORMATION  SHEET
        ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY
RESEARCH,  DEVELOPMENT OR DEMONSTRATION  PROJECT
  Tlii.- ^heel briefly de.-cribe.s an R & t) project Section 104 or 10." of (lie
  Federal \\aler Pollution Control  \d Amendment:- of 1972 (PI. ():2-.~00)
PROJECT NUMBER:
800520
TITLE  OF PROJECT'.   Closed Process Water-Loop in NSSC Pulp Production
GRANTEE  OR  CONTRACTOR:
 Green Bay Packaging Inc.
 P. 0. Box 1107
 Green Bay, Wisconsin 54305

Project Site :   Green Bay,  Wisconsin

DESCRIPTION  OF PROJECT

Award  Date:  Marcn 1972

Completion  Date:  December 1974

Summary:
                     EPA  PROJECT OFFICER:

                     Mr.  Ralph H.  Scott
                     PNERL, EPA
                     200  Southwest 35th Street
                     Corvallis, Oregon 97330
                         Project Cost:  $626,
820
                         Federal Cost:  $300,430
The primary objective of this project is to achieve the maximum closure
of the  process water-loop in an integrated neutral sulfide semichemical
(NSSC)  pulp and paperboard mill.  Contaminated process water will be
recycled for direct reuse.  Excess surge volumes occurring during process
upsets  will be processed in a reverse osmosis plant to separate dissolved
constituents from the process water.  This permeate will be recycled and
the separated solids will be destroyed in the fluid bed combustion system.
Another objective of the project is to demonstrate the techniques required
to stabilize operations and control ambient conditions in a tightly closed
NSSC system.

The result of this project will be the first detailed description of activi-
ties required to accomplish a closed process water-loop in a NSSC pulp and
paperboard mill.
             ADDRESS INQUIRIES TO EPA  PROJECT OFFICER

                                X-37

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INFORMATION  SHEET

        ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY
RESEARCH, DEVELOPMENT OR DEMONSTRATION PROJECT
  '\\\\- sli.-t-l l.riet'U (U-M-ril)t-> an R & U project Section 104 or l
  Kcd.-ral \\aler Pollution Control Acl Amendments of 1<)72 (PI.

PROJECT NUMBER:   300740
                                               a of the
TITLE OF PROJECT:
                   Minimizing the Pollutional Impact  of Kraft Pulping
                   Through Oxygen Bleaching
                                         EPA PROJECT OFFICER:

                                          Dr. James  D. Gallup
                                          Paper & Food Products
                                          Industries Section, EPA
                                          Washington, D. C.  20460
                                             Project  Cost:  §12fl6o,
GRANTEE  OR  CONTRACTOR:

 The Chesapeake Corporation
  of Virginia
 West Point, Virginia 23181


Project Site :  West Point, Virginia


DESCRIPTION OF PROJECT


Award  Date:  March 1972


Completion Date:  February 1975


 Summary:

 This project will demonstrate the practicality of operating a 300 ton per
 day three or four stage oxygen bleaching system for producing hardwood
 kraft pulp.  The application of molecular oxygen to other unit processes
 including oxygen oxidation of black liquor will be investigated throughout
 the mill.  In addition to being the first demonstration of oxygen bleach-
 ing in North America, the project will also be the first application of
 oxygen technology to be integrated into an entire mill system.  The over-
 all result of the project will be a bleached Kraft effluent with signifi-
 cant reductions in organics, both BOD and color, and inorganics, particu-
 larly chlorides.
000
                                             Federal Cost:    $433,938
              ADDRESS INQUIRIES TO EPA PROJECT OFFICER

                                 X-38

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 INFORMATION  SHEET
         ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY
RESEARCH. DEVELOPMENT OR DEMONSTRATION PROJECT
  Tlii> sheet briefly describes an R & U project Section 104 or 10.") of the
  Federal Waler Pollution Control  \cl Amendments of 197J (PI. W-.VM))

PROJECT  NUMBER:    800353


TITLE OF PROJECT!   Color Characterization Before and  After Lime Treatment
                                               Project  Cost:  $U2,i77

                                               Federal  Cost:   $99,524
GRANTEE OR CONTRACTOR:                  EPA PROJECT OFFICER:

 The Institute of Paper Chemistry            Mr. Ralph  H. Scott
 P. 0. Box 1048                             PNERL, EPA
 Appleton, Wisconsin 54911                   200 Southwest 35th Street
                                           Corvallis, Oregon 97330
PrOJeCt Site :   Appleton, Wisconsin


DESCRIPTION  OF PROJECT


Award  Date:   January 1972


Completion  Date:  April 1974


Summary:

In general,  the  lime treatment removed maximum color from the  caustic
extract and minimum from the neutral sulfite semichemical (NSSC) effluent.
~ The massive  lime treatment was found to remove 73% color and 53% total
organic carbon (TOC) from kraft decker effluent, and 96% color and 80%
TOC from kraft bleach caustic extract. The analysis of the solids from
the decker and caustic effluents showed respective reductions  of 73% and
59% phenolic hydroxyls, 63% and 26% sugars, and  51%  and 16% methoxyls by
lime treatment.  -  The stoichiometric lime treatment was found to
remove 79% color and 50% TOC from kraft decker effluent,  and 64% color and
30% TOC from NSSC effluent.  The analysis of the solids from the decker
and NSSC effluents showed respective reductions  of 76% and  25% phenolic
hydroxyls, 31% and "negligible" percent sugars,  and  42% and 9.7% methoxyls
by lime treatment.  -  In the metal ion-lime system  the addition of 150-
300 ppm FeCl3 with only 300-500 ppm lime removed about 98%  color from
bleach  caustic extract.   Over 50% of the color left by conventional lime
treatment  process could also be removed by incorporating  polyvalent metal
ions with  lime.  However,  below 1000 ppm of lime, the sludge obtained
settled slowly.  More color could be removed by  metal ion-lime system than
when each  was used individually indicating that  a "synergistic" effect  exists,
              ADDRESS  INQUIRIES TO EPA PROJECT OFFICER
                                  X-39

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 INFORMATION  SHEET
        ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY
RESEARCH, DEVELOPMENT OR DEMONSTRATION PROJECT
  Thi> sheel hriet'K describes an R & U project Section 104 or 105 of llie
  Federal \\ater Pollution Control Acl Amendments of l()72 (PI, ()2-5()0)
PROJECT NUMBER:
801202
TITLE  OF  PROJECT:  Pyrolysis of Industrial Waste  for Oil  and
                  Activated Carbon Recovery
6RANTEE OR CONTRACTOR:
Garrett Research and
 Development Co.,  Inc.
1855 Carrion Road
LaVerne, California 91750
Project Site :  LaVerne, California

DESCRIPTION OF PROJECT

Award  Date:    May 1972

Completion Date:

Summary:
                       EPA PROJECT OFFICER:
                       Dr. Kirk Willard
                       PNERL,  EPA
                       200 Southwest 35th Street
                       Corvallis, Oregon 97330
                           Project  Cost: $440,745

                           Federal  Cost: $292,556
 The objective of this research project is to demonstrate-the economic and
 technical effectiveness of the flash pyrolysis process to dispose of
 industrial wastes, principally bark, with the production of activated
 carbon and heating oil as by-products.  A modified four ton/day pilot
 plant will be operated utilizing bark, rice hulls, and cattle feedlot
 wastes to provide process engineering data for the design of commercial
 scale demonstration plants.
             ADDRESS INQUIRIES TO  EPA PROJECT OFFICER

                               X-40

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INFORMATION  SHEET
        ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY
RESEARCH. DEVELOPMENT OR DEMONSTRATION  PROJECT
  This shed hriel'U describe:- an R & U projcd Section  104 or !(•."> of the
  Federal Water Pollution Control Ad Amendments of 1072 (PI, <)2-.~>0<))

PROJECT NUMBER:   801206


TITLE OF  PROJECT:   Water Reuse' in a Paper  Reprocessing Plant
GRANTEE  OR  CONTRACTOR:
Big Chief Roofing Company
P. 0. Box 908
Ardmore, Oklahoma  73401

PrOJeCt Site :   Admore, Oklahoma

DESCRIPTION OF PROJECT

Award  Date:  June 1972

Completion Date:  February 1975

Summary:
EPA PROJECT OFFICER:
Mr.  John Ruppersberger
PNERL, EPA
200  Southwest 35th Street
Corvallis, Oregon 97330
    Project Cost: $120,709

    Federal Cost:  $45,053
This project  is concerned with the treatment of paper reprocessing waste
water in a facility designed for water reuse.  Economic reasibility of
waste water recycle and various treatment alternatives are determined
from laboratory and full-scale tests.  Studies will determine the
effect of recycle on product quality; predict increases in operating
costs resulting from increased corrosion rates, scale formation, slime
growths and deposits; determine savings from decreased waste treatment
costs; fiber  losses, and water use; and determine increases in chemical
costs for slime control and corrosion inhibition.
             ADDRESS INQUIRIES TO EPA PROJECT OFFICER

                               X-41

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INFORMATION  SHEET

        ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY
RESEARCH, DEVELOPMENT OR DEMONSTRATION PROJECT

  Thi> -heel briefN dcscnl.o an R & D project Section 104 or 10,1 of the
  Federal Water Pollution Control \cl  \mendments of I<)7l2 (PI. ()2-oOO)
PROJECT NUMBER:
TITLE OF PROJECT:
    A Test Method for Volatile Component Stripping
    of Waste Water
GRANTEE OR CONTRACTOR:
  College of Engineering
  University of Arkansas
  Fayetteville, Arkansas 72701

PrOJeCt Site :    Fayetteville, Arkansas

DESCRIPTION OF PROJECT
                         EPA PROJECT  OFFICER:

                          Mr. John S. Ruppersberger
                          PNERL,  EPA
                          200 Southwest 35th Street
                          Corvallis, Oregon 97330
 Award Date:
October 1972
 Completion  Date:    May 1974

 Summary:
Project Cost:   $33,954

Federal Cost:  $24,705
  This work is concerned with the air-strippable volatile organic fraction
  of industrial wastewaters.  The primary purpose was to develop laboratory
  apparatus and procedures that may be employed to assess the desirability
  of air-stripping in cooling towers as a treatment operation for removal
  of a portion of the organics from industrial wastewater.  The apparatus
  developed consists of a short packed (Intalox Saddle) section with  liquid
  recirculation and single pass countercurrent air flow.  Desorption  is
  performed in the apparatus at 25 °C and ambient pressure conditions.

  Desorption experiments were performed on single pure components in  water,
  simulated wastewater preparations and actual industrial wastewater  samples.
  Industrial wastewater samples were representative of: poultry, metal,
  oil-field, canning, pharmaceutical, paper,  food, fibers, petroleum  refinery
  and petrochemical industries.  BOD, COD, TOC, and gas  chromatographic analy-
  sis were employed with the experiments.
              ADDRESS INQUIRIES TO EPA  PROJECT OFFICER

                                  X-42

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 INFORMATION  SHEET
        ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY
RESEARCH.  DEVELOPMENT OR DEMONSTRATION PROJECT
  This sheet briefly describes an R & D project Section 104 or 105 of the
  Federal Water Pollution Control Act Amendment* of 1972 (PL 92-500)
PROJECT NUMBER:
    801207
TITLE OF PROJECT:
      Treatment  of Sulphite Evaporator Condensates
      for Recovery of Volatile Compounds
GRANTEE OR CONTRACTOR:
 The Institute of Paper Chemistry
 P. 0. Box 1048
 Appleton, Wisconsin 54911
PrOJBCt SJt6 .'   Appleton, Wisconsin

DESCRIPTION OF PROJECT
                          EPA PROJECT  OFFICER:
                            Mr.  Ralph H. Scott
                            PNERL, EPA
                            200  Southwest 35th Street
                            Corvallis, Oregon 97330
Award Date:
May 1972
Completion Date:    December 1973
Project  Cost:   $150,000

Federal  Cost:    $40,000
 Summary:
 Pilot studies were conducted on  two routes for recovery of volatile com-
 ponents in condensates from evaporation of spent  liquors from acid sulfite
 pulping.  The condensates were steam stripped prior to adsorption on
 activated carbon.   The first route utilized fractional distillation and
 solvent extraction from the carbon, while the second route used low-
 temperature thermal regeneration.  Relatively pure S02, methanol, furfural,
 and ethyl acetate  were recovered.  Estimated process economy, based upon
 recovery of saleable volatiles,  favorable mass and heat balances, and
 credits for BOD removal, indicates the first route may provide a favorable
 method for the removal of pollutants from condensates.  Low temperature
 regeneration studies failed due  to mechanical design problems  but this
 second route continues to be considered as technically feasible. This
 report concludes that steam stripping of condensates from a sulfxte pulp-
 ing process will yield reusable  and saleable material of value exceeding
 the cost of steam  stripping associated with attaining a reduction in BOD5
 up to 90% in the condensate.
             ADDRESS INQUIRIES TO  EPA PROJECT OFFICER
                                 X-43

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INFORMATION  SHEET

        ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY
RESEARCH,  DEVELOPMENT OR DEMONSTRATION PROJECT
  This -heel briefly deMTibes an R & D project Section 104 or 105 ol' the
  Federal \\atcr Pollution Control Act \mendments of 1072 (PI, 92-500)

PROJECT  NUMBER:   303119


TITLE OF PROJECT;   Mechanisms for Removal of Soluble BOD5 in
                   Clarification Systems
GRANTEE OR CONTRACTOR:
The Institute of Paper Chemistry
Appleton, Wisconsin
Project  Site :   Appleton, Wisconsin

DESCRIPTION OF PROJECT

Award Date:    Juiy i974

Completion  Date:  juiy 1975
EPA PROJECT OFFICER:

Mr. Ralph H. Scott
PNERL, EPA
200 Southwest 35th Street
Corvallis, Oregon 97330
    Project Cost: $151,130

    Federal Cost:  $50,000
 Summary:

 The objective is to develop and apply a greater understanding of the
 mechanisms  for removal of soluble BOD in clarifiers, to new and more
 practical in-plant treatment of process water for increased recycle,
 and to improve existing clarification systems efficiencies.
            ADDRESS INQUIRIES TO EPA PROJECT OFFICER

                              X-44

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 INFORMATION  SHEET
        ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY
RESEARCH.  DEVELOPMENT OR DEMONSTRATION  PROJECT
  Tlii* sbcel briefly describe* ;in R & U project Section 104 or 10.1 of (b
  Federal \Valer Pollution Control  Act Amendments of 1972 (PI. U2-.
PROJECT NUMBER:

TITLE OF PROJECT:
    803270


    Activated Carbon Treatment of  Kraft Pulp
    Bleaching Effluents
GRANTEE  OR CONTRACTOR
St. Regis Paper Company
Cantonement, Florida
PrOJeCt Site :    Cantonement, Florida

DESCRIPTION  OF PROJECT
                         EPA PROJECT OFFICER:

                         Mr. John S. Ruppersbereer
                         PNERL, EPA
                         200 Southwest 35th Street
                         Corvallis,  Oregon 97330
Award  Date:
July 1974
Completion Date:    April  1975

Summary:
Project Cost:  $106,990

Federal Cost:   $69,594
The principle objective is  to demonstrate activated carbon treatment  of
highly  colored chlorination and caustic extraction stage effluents.   This
project will use the pilot  plant from a related study, EJU,  in which  kraft
pulp mill effluents were treated for general reuse in the mill.  However,
chlorides remaining in the  activated carbon treated bleach plant effluents
prevent general reuse.  In  this project activated carbon treatment of
bleach plant wastewater will be principally for color removal prior to
discharge, or for general mill reuse after chlorides are removed by
another process.
             ADDRESS  INQUIRIES TO EPA PROJECT OFFICER

                                X-45

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INFORMATION  SHEET
        ENVIRONMENTAL  PROTECTION AGENCY
RESEARCH, DEVELOPMENT OR DEMONSTRATION PROJECT
  This cnl>r> an R & U project Section 104 or 10.") of the
  Federal \\atcr Pollution Control \rl \mendment* of 1(>7:2 (PL °:2-oOO)
PROJECT NUMBER:
   803302
TITLE  OF PROJECT!  Treatment of Sulfite Evaporator Condensate for
                  Recovery of Volatile Components
6RANTEE OR CONTRACTOR:
Flambeau Paper Co.
Park Falls, Wisconsin
Project Site :  Park Falls, Wisconsin

DESCRIPTION OF PROJECT
                        EPA  PROJECT  OFFICER:

                         Mr. Ralph H. Scott
                         PNERL, EPA
                         200 Southwest 35th  Street
                         Corvallis, Oregon 97330
Award Date:
July 1974
Project Cost: $3,407,521
Completion Date:   November 1976

Summary:
                            Federal Cost:  $50o,
                   000
 This project  involves the operation of a mill scale plant to demonstrate
 the treatment of evaporator condensate.  The aim is to  show that soluble
 products and  separate clean water, for reuse in the sulfite washing
 system, can be produced.

 The system proposes to recover methanol, furfural and ethyl acetate of
 industrial purity, as well as the recovery of sulfur dioxide for use in
 the making of cooking acid.
             ADDRESS INQUIRIES TO EPA  PROJECT OFFICER

                               X-46

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INFORMATION SHEET
        ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY
RESEARCH, DEVELOPMENT OR DEMONSTRATION PROJECT
  Tlii> sheet liriel'h dcscriho an R & D project Section 104 or 105 ol' (lie
  Federal Water Pollution Control Act Amendments of l°7_' (PI, 92-.~>00)

PROJECT NUMBER:   803347


TITLE  OF PROJECT'.  Heat Treatment for  Paper Mill Sludge Conditioning
GRANTEE OR  CONTRACTOR
EPA PROJECT OFFICER:
 National  Council  of the Paper
  Industry for Mr and Stream
  Improvement
 260 Madison Avenue
 New,York.  New York 10016
 Project Site :  Western Michigan Univ.,  Kalamazoo, Michigan
 Mr, Victor J.  Dallons
 PNEKL, EPA
 200 Southwest  35th Street
 Corvallis, Oregon 97330
DESCRIPTION  OF  PROJECT

Award Date:  juiy 1974

Completion Date:  juiy  1975

Summary:
    Project Cost:  $59,095

    Federal Cost:  $29,545
 Various  sludges  from paper mills will be heat  treated to assist in dewater-
 ing.  Wet oxidation will be employed for deinfcing waste sludge to determine
 if it will enable the reuse of the paper fillers on new products.  The
 papers produced  will be tested for marketable  characteristics.  Acid hydro-
 lysis will also  be investigated for its beneficial aid in heat treatments.
             ADDRESS INQUIRIES TO EPA PROJECT OFFICER

                               X-47

-------
 INFORMATION  SHEET

        ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY
RESEARCH, DEVELOPMENT OR DEMONSTRATION PROJECT
  Thi> shrrl briefly describes an R & U project Section 104 or \(
  Federal \\aler Pollution Control \cl Amendments of I()7l2 (PI-

PROJECT  NUMBER: 803348
                                             K of lite
TITLE OF  PROJECT:
                   Investigation of Reuse Potential of
                   Ash from Paper Mill Sludges
GRANTEE OR CONTRACTOR:
National Council of the Paper Industry
 for Air and Stream Improvements, Inc.
260 Madison Avenue
New York, New York 10016
                                       EPA PROJECT OFFICER:
                                         Mr. Victor J. Dallons
                                         PNERL, EPA
                                         200 Southwest 35th Street
                                         Corvallis, Oregon 97330
Project Site :  Western Mich. Univ., Kalamazoo,  Michigan

DESCRIPTION OF PROJECT
 Award Date:  juiy 1974

 Completion Date:   Juiy 1975

 Summary:
                                           Project Cost: $47,120

                                           Federal Cost: $23,545
The sludge produced from primary treatment of white water from paper
making where inert filler and coatings are used, will be separated by
vibratory screens and the ash content used back on paper making.  Tests
will determine the feasibility of this reuse process and the new paper
quality.
             ADDRESS INQUIRIES TO EPA PROJECT OFFICER

                               X-48

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                           FINAL  PROJECT  REPORTS

                      PULP,  PAPER,  PAPERBOARD,  LUMBER
                      AND  WOOD PRODUCTS  INDUSTRIES
REPORT NUMBER
                  TITLE/AUTHOR
                                             SOURCE
12040 EUG 10/69


12040 EZZ 04/70
12040 EBY 08/70
12040 ELW 12/70
12040 EMY 12/70
12040 EFC 01/71
12040 EEK 08/71
12040 DLQ 08/71
12040 FUB 01/72
12040 FES 07/71
                  Foam Separation  of  Kraft  Pulping Hastes,     NTIS
                  Georgia  Kraft  Company, Rome, Georgia         PB 189 160

                  Dilute Spent Kraft  Liquor  Filtration         NTIS
                  Through  Wood Chips, School of Forest         PB 191 873
                  Resources, University of North Carolina,
                  Raleigh, North Carolina.

                  Aerial Photographic Tracing of Pulp Mill     GPO $1.25
                  Effluent in Marine  Waters, Oregon State
                  University, Corvallis, Oregon.

                  Aerated  Lagoon Treatment of Sulfite Pulping  GPO $1.25
                  Effluents, The Crown Zellerbach Corporation,
                  Lebanon, Oregon.
Multi-System Biological Treatment of
Bleached Kraft Effluents, The Mead Corpora-
tion, Chillicothe, Ohio.

Pollution Abatement by Fiber-Modification,
College of Forest Resources, Inst. of
Forest Products, University of Washington,
Seattle, Washington.
                                                               GPO $2.00
                                                               GPO $0.65
                                             GPO $1.25
                                             GPO $1 . 50
                                             GPO $1 .00
                  Treatment of Selected Internal Kraft Mill
                  Wastes  in a Cooling Tower, Georgia Kraft
                  Company, Rome, Georgia.

                  Slime Growth Evaluation of Treated Pulp
                  Mill Waste, Dept. of Microbiology, Oregon
                  State University, Con/all is, Oregon.

                  Recycle of Papermill Waste Waters and
                  Application of Reverse Osmosis, by D. C.
                  Morris, W. R. Nelson, and G. 0. Wai raven,
                  Green Bay Packaging Inc., Green Bay,
                  Wisconsin.

                  Sludge Material Recovery System for Manu-    GPO $1 .00
                  facturers of Pigmented Papers, by S. Pi
                  Warren Co., A Div. of Scott Paper Company,
                  Environmental Improvement Dept., Westbrook,
                  Mai rte .
                                   X-49

-------
REPORT NUMBER     TITLE/AUTHOR
                                             SOURCE
EPA 660/2-73-019
Color Removal  From Kraft Mill Effluents
by Ultrafiltration, by H. A. Fremont,
D. C. Tate, and R. L. Goldsmith, Chamnion
International  Corn., Hamilton, Ohio.
GPO $2.40
EPA 660/2-74-029  Color Characterization  Before and After
                  Lime Treatment  by  H.  S.  Duaal,  R. M.
                  Leekley,  and  J.  W.  Swanson,  The Institute
                  of Paper  Chemistry, Appleton, Wisconsin.

EPA 660/2-73-030  Treatment of  Sulphite Evaporator Conden-
                  sates for Recovery of Volatile Compounds  by
                  K. W. Boierl, N.  L. Ghana,  B.  F. Lueck,
                  A. J. Wiley,  and R. A.  Holm, The Institute
                  of Paper  Chemistry, Appleton, Wisconsin.

EPA 660/2-74-044  A Test^Method for Volatile  Component
                  Stripping of  Waste Water.Louis J.
                  Thibodeaux, University or Arkansas,
                  Fayetteville, Arkansas.  May 1974.
                                             GPO $2.15
                                             GPO $2.10
                                             GPO $1.70
12040 ENC 12/71.   Color Removal ^from Kraft Pulping Effluent    GPO $1.25
                  by Lime Addition,  by C.  L.  Davis Jr.,
                  Interstate Paner Corporation, Riceboro,
                  Georqia.

12040 EEL 02/72   Reverse Osmosis  Concentration of Dilute
                  Pulp and Paper Effluents, by A. J. Wiley,
                  G. A. Dubey, and I.  K.  Bansal, Pulp Manu-
                  facturing Research Leaaue and Institute of
                  Paper Chemistry, Appleton,  Wisconsin
                                             GPO $2.75
 EPA-R2-73-255
 EPA-R2-73-195
 Ion Exchange Color and Mineral Removal
 from Kraft Bleach Wastes, Robert L. Sanks,
 Montana State University, Bozeman, Montana
GPO $2.35
 EPA-R2-73-164
Aerobic Secondary Treatment of Plywood Glue  GPO $0.90
Wastes, J. L. Graham, CH2M/HILL, Corvallis,
Oregon, and Columbia Plywood Corporation,
Portland, Oregon

Kraft  Pulping Effluent Treatment and Refuse  GPO $1.25
State-of-the-Art, by W. G. Timpe, E. Lang,
and R. L. Miller, St. Regis Paper Company
R&D Center, Pensacola, Florida
 EPA-R2-73-196
 Steam Stripping Odorous Substances from
 Kraft Effluent Streams (SEKOR), Dept. of
 Chemical Engineering, University of
 Washington, Seattle, Washington, by B. F.
 Hrutfiord, L. J. Johanson and  J. L. McCarthy
GPO $1.25
                                   X-50

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REPORT NUMBER     TITLE/AUTHOR                                 SOURCE


EPA-R2-73-232     Methods  for Pulp and  Paper  Mill  Sludge       GPO $2.10
                  Utilization and  Disposal, by  T.  A. Asm'tante,
                  A.  S.  Rosenfield,  B.  C.  Smale,  and H. R.
                  Arnberq of Environmental  Services Division,
                  Crown-Zellerbach Corp.,  Caroas,  Washington.

EPA-R2-73-086     Color  Removal  from Kraft Pulp Mill           GPO $2.00
                  Effluents by  Massive  Lime Treatment  by
                  J.  L.  Oswalt  and J. G.  Land,  Jr.,  Inter-
                  national  Paper Company,  Springhill,  La.

EPA-R2-73-085     The Influence of Log  Handling on Water       GPO $2.00
                  Quality,  by F.  D.  Schaumbero, Oregon State
                  University, Corvallis,  Oreaon 97331.

EPA-R2-73-141     Kraft  Effluent Color  Characterization Before GPO $1.00
                  and After Stoichiometric Lime Treatment,  by
                  J.  W.  Swanson,  H.  S.  Dugal, M.  A.  Buchanan,
                  and E. A. Dickey.

EPA-660/2-73-028  Coliform Bacteria  Growth and  Control  in      GPO $2.75
                  Aerated Stabilization Basins, by S.  H.
                  Watkins,  Crown-Zellerbach,  Camas,  Washington.

EPA-660/2-74-067  Studies  of Low Molecular Weight Lignin       GPO $1.55
                  Sulfonates, Dept.  of  Chemical Engineerina,
                  University of Washington, Seattle, Washington.

EPA-R2-73-184     State-of-the-Art of Pulp and  Paper Waste     GPO $2.50
                  Treatment, by Dr.  Harry  Gehin,  WAPORA. Inc.
                  Washington, D.  C.

EPA-660/2-74-008  Color  Removal  and  Sludge Disposal  Process    GPO $1.65
                  for Kraft Mill  Effluents, by  E.  L. Spruill,
                  Jr., Continental Can  Company, Hodge,  LA.
                                    X-51

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APPENDIX A

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                              PROJECT INDEX
GRANTEE OR CONTRACTOR
PROJECT NUMBER
PAGE
Acres American Incorporated
Aerodex Incorporated
The Aerospace Corporation
Alabama, City of Montgomery
Alabama, State of
Alabama Water Improvement Commission
Alaska, City of Kodiak
Aluminum Company of America
Amber Laboratories Division
American Assoc. of Textile Chemists
 and Colorists
American Crystal Sugar Co.
American Defense Preparedness Assoc.
American Distilling Co.
American Dye Manufacturers Institute
American Electroplaters1 Society, Inc.
American Electroplaters' Society, Inc.
American Enka Corporation
American Frozen Foods Industry
American Frozen Foods Industry
American Iron & Steel Institute
American Oil Company
American Oil Company
American Oil Company
American Petroleum Institute
American Shrimp Canners Association
American Shrimp Canners Association
American Water Works Association
American Water Works Association
American Water Works Association
Anaconda American Brass Company
Anaconda American Brass Company
Anheuser-Busch, Inc.
Archer Daniels Midland Company
Arizona, University of
Arkansas, City of Jacksonville
Arkansas, University of
Armco Steel Corporation
Armco Steel Corporation
Armour Industrial Chemical Co.
Armour Industrial Chemical Co.
Atlantic Richfield Company

Bacardi Corporation
Battelle Memorial Institute
Battelle-Northwest
The Beaton and Corbin Mfg., Co.
Beaunit Fibers
68-03-2053
GCS
802853
802800
EGC
EQF
FJQ
803261
HRR
FWD

ESC
802872
FLL
803174
HQJ
803264
ESG
801684
803312
EDY
DML
EKT
803026
DSH
803338
800904
ERC
EUR
800936
802254
803226
HCW
FDK
802390
EGK
801876
DUL
EZV
EFW
802253
GTR

800935
FPQ
FPD
DMF
PCO
IX-26
V-31
IX-17
VI-18
11-23
V-26
IV-19
V-55
111-67
VIII-9

111-45
11-63
111-57
VIII-24
V-36
V-56
VII-9
111-85
111-96
V-24
11-13
11-27
11-65
11-17
111-99
111-78
VI-4
VI-7
VI-14
V-45
V-54
111-64
111-53
V-47
IV-5
X-42
V-23
V-27
11-22
111-88
11-39

111-80
V-29
11-35
V-15
VII-12
                                  A-l

-------
GRANTEE OR CONTRACTOR
                                            PROJECT NUMBER
                         PARE
K. W. Beck and Associationes
Beefland International, Inc.
Beet Sugar Development Foundation
Beet Sugar Development Foundation
Beet Sugar Development Foundation
Bennett College
Berkey Film Processing
Big Chief Roofing Company
Blue Ridge-Wink!er Textiles
Blueside Real Estate, Inc.
Boeing Commercial Airplane Co.
Boeing Commercial Airplane Co.
B. P. Oil Corporation
Dr. George E. F. Brewer
Buffalo Sewer Authority
California
California,
California,
California,
Caldwell  Lace Leather Company
California Dept.  of Agriculture
            City  of Stockton
            University of
            University of
            University of
Canton Textile Mills
Celanese Corporation of America
Central Soya Company, Inc.
CF&I Steel Corporation
Champion International Corp.
The Chesapeake Corporation
CIBA-Geigy Corporation
Cincinnati, University of
Clarkson College  of Technology
Clemson University
Clemson University
Cone Mills Corporation
Connecticut, University of
Continental Can Company, Inc.
Corn Products Company
Cornell University
Crowley's Milk Company, Inc.
Crown  Chemical Company, Inc.
Crown  Zellerbach  Corporation
Crown  Zellerbach Corporation
Crown  Zellerbach Corporation
Culligan International Co.

Dairy  Research and  Development Corporation
Datagraphi cs, Incorporated
Datagraphics, Incorporated
Del Monte  Corporation
Delaware  River Basin  Commission
Diamond Shamrock Corporation
                                    A-2
803207
FDS
DSI
FAK
WPD 93-04-68
802586
ERF
801206
801192
EPC
803064
803073
GXF
803467
803005

EFM
HPC
DRT
801030
802753
803257
800852
EPH
FUR
DNF
800261
800740
FOH
WPD 185-02-68
DHP
ECS
EOX
HLO
803231
DRY
DPE
802174
DXF
803358
ELW
FSV
GOD
GLE

DEQ
EJI
GND
HFY
DRO
68-01-0457
IX-20
111-55
111-27
111-52
111-70
VIII-22
VI-5
X-41
VIII-19
II1-44
V-51
V-52
II-40
V-61
IV-24

111-34
111-66
IV-15
11-55
11-62,  IX-16
IX-22
VIII-17
II-29
111-62
V-16
X-36
X-38
II-34
111-72
V-13
VIII-6
VIII-7
VIII-14
II-68
X-9
111-23
111-87
111-28
11-71
X-17
X-20
X-30
VI-12

111-20
11-26
11-38
111-65
IV-14
11-44

-------
GRANTEE OR CONTRACTOR
PROJECT NUMBER
PARE
Douglas & Lomason Corporation
Douglas & Lomason Corporation
The Dow Chemical Company
The Dow Chemical Company
The Dow Chemical Company
The Dow Chemical Company
The Dow Chemical Company
Dulaney Foods Inc.
E. I.  duPont de Nemours and Company

Ebinger Baking Co.
Electro-Optical Systems, Inc.
Engineering Science, Inc.
Engineering Science, Inc.
Environmental Systems Corporation
Environmental Systems Lab
Envirogenics Systems
Esleeck Manufacturing Company
Eugene Water and Electric Board

Farmbest, Inc.
Farmers Chemical Association, Inc.
Fiber Industries, Inc.
Firestone Tire and Rubber Co.
Fitzsimons Steel Company Incorporated
Flambeau Paper Co.
Florida, Brooksvilie City Commission
Florida Dept. of Air and Water
 Pollution Control
Florida, City of Gainesville
Florida, City of Gainesville
FMC Corporation
S. B.  Foot Tanning Company
Franklin Institute Research
Franklin Institute Research
R. T.  French Company

Garrett Research and Development Co.,Inc.
General Tire & Rubber Co.
Georgia, City of Macon
Georgia Institute of Technology
Georgia Institute of Technology
Georgia-Kraft Co.
Georgia-Kraft Co.
Georgia-Pacific Corp.
Gold Kist Poultry Division
B- F.  Goodrich Chemical Company
Green Bay Packaging, Inc.
Green Bay Packaging, Inc.
Green Giant Company
Grumman Aerospace Corp.

                                    A-3
802637-01
802637-02
EAS
EEQ
800300
803085
800766
802958
EAW

FJK
14-12-162
DMT
EID
RNK
RSD
68-01-0083
FDE
EIK

DFF
ERM
EUX
RLP
FNM
803302
FAY
802684

ESW
HRA
EZP
DSG
802044
803142
EHV

801202
GUT
DPD
FZB
800312
EEK
EUG
HDU
EGV
DJI
FUB
800520
EDZ
HRH
V-48
V-49
11-19
11-21
11-47
11-66
11-51
111-91
II-20

111-56
X-35
11-14
11-25
IX-9
IX-10
11-43
X-25
IX-4

111-21
II-24
VII-8
VII-10
V-28
X-46
IV-18
11-61

VI-6
IV-22
111-49
111-26
VI-16, IX-15
VI-19, IX-18
111-40

X-40
VII-11
IV-13
VIII-10
II-48
X-13
X-21
X-32
111-36
VI-7
X-28
X-37
111-33
V-34

-------
GRANTEE OR CONTRACTOR
PROJECT NUMBER
PARE
Grumman Aerospace Corp.

Harriman Utility Board,  Tennessee
Harvard College, President & Fellows of
Hawaii, County of
Hercules, Incorporated
Hilo Coast Processing Co.
Hittman Associates, Inc.
Hoechst-Uhde Corporation
Holliston Mills, Inc.

IIL/LSAA Technical Liaison Committee
Illinois, Attorney General of
Illinois Institute of Technology
Illinois Institute of Technology
Illinois Packing Company
Institute for Meteorology and
 Water Economy
The Institute of Paper Chemistry
The Institute of Paper Chemistry
The Institute of Paper Chemistry
The Institute of Paper Chemistry
Inter!ake Steel Corporation
International Ozone Institute, Inc.
International Paper Company
Interstate Paper Corporation
Iowa  Beef Packers, Inc.
Iowa, University of

Johns Hopkins University
Johns-Manville  Products  Corp.

Kent  Cheese  Company
Keystone Lamp Manufacturing Corp.
Klamatu  Plywood Corp.
Koppers  Company,  Inc.

LaFrance Industries
A.  C.  Lawrence  Leather  Company
Louisiana Chemical Association
Louisiana,  State  of
Louisiana,  State  of
Louisiana,  State  of

Manufacturing  Chemists  Assoc., Inc.
Maryland, City  of Hagerstown
Maryland, State of
Maryland State  Department of  Health
Maryland State  Department of  Health
 C.  H. Masland  & Sons
800680

DBF
DXR
801221
801431
802420
HKK
68-03-2133
EGW

FYV
800625
DRC
800857
EOF
SFCP 05-532-3

DKD
801207
803119
800853
DRE
803357
DYD
ENC
FMF
68-03-0430

PPB
EZF

EKO
803304
EZU
HIR

800929
WPRD  133-01-68
802908
DOC
EMI
800773

EXG
EJD
801433
801970
803325
DWM
V-40

IV-10
11-18
IV-23
11-59
111-89
IX-11
II-46
VIII-13

VI-10
V-39
11-16
11-53
111-43
VIII-21

X-7
X-43
X-44
X-39
V-19
II-70
X-10
X-19
111-58
IX-25

V-37
VI-8

111-42
V-58
X-23
X-33

VIII-18
111-71
11-64
11-15
11-28
11-52

11-31
IV-6
IX-14
111-86
111-98
VIII-11
                                    A-4

-------
GRANTEE OR  CONTRACTOR
 PROJECT NUMBER
 PAGE
Massachusetts,  Div.  of Water  Pol.  Con.
Massachusetts,  University  of
The Mead Corporation
Melbourne Water Science Institute
Metal  Finishers'  Foundation
Metal  Finishers'  Foundation
Metal  Finishers'  Foundation
Metal  Finishers'  Foundation
Metal  Finishers'  Foundation
Metal  Plating Corporation
Miami  Conservancy District
Michigan Plating  & Stamping Company
Mil brew, Inc.
Mineral Pigments  Corporation
Minnesota, City of South St.  Paul
Minnesota Pollution  Control Agency
Minute Maid  Company
Missouri, Univ. of at  Columbia
Montana State University
John Morrell &  Company

National Agricultural  Chemical Assoc.
National Canners  Association
National Canners  Association
National Canners  Association
National Canners  Association
National Canners  Association
National Canners  Association
National Canners  Association
National Canners  Association
National Canners  Association
National Council  of  the Paper Industry
National Council  of  the Paper Industry
National Steel  Corporation
New England  Plating  Co., Inc.
New Jersey Zinc Co.
New York, City  of Albany
New York, Onondaga County
New York, Village of Walton
NMCWD
North  Carolina, University of
North  Carolina  State University
North  Carolina  State University
North  Carolina  State University
North  Dakota, City of  Grand Forks
North  Star Research  and Development  Inst.

Ohio Department of Natural  Resources
Ohio State  University Research Foundation
 HFK
 801200
 EMY
 EHS
 EIE
 FXD
 802113
 802924
 803342
 803265
 GER
 GVV
 800747
 ERM
 EKK
 DRH
 WPRD  38-01-67
 800554
 DBD
 EUB

 801577
 DXL
 EAE
 EDK
 EHU
 FOE
 PAV
 800250
 803251
 WPRD  151-01-68
 803347
 803348
 DTO
 GUG
 801349
 FRM
 FAE
 DUJ
 803336
 EZZ
 ECU
 EOE
 800294
 DJB
 EHT

FYF
EGU
 VIII-15
 VII-14
 X-18
 111-37
 V-25
 V-30
 V-43
 V-50
 V-60
 V-57
 IV-21
 V-33
 111-77
 II-30
 IV-7
 V-20
 111-73
 11-49
 X-5
 111-47

 11-60
 111-29
 111-30
 111-32
 111-39
 111-59
 111-68
 111-75
 111-92
 111-74
 X-47
 X-48
 V-22
 V-32
 11-57
 VI-9
 IV-17
 IV-16
 IX-23
 X-24
 VIII-5
 VIII-8
 VIII-16
 IV-11
 111-38

IV-20
111-35
                                   A-5

-------
GRANTEE OR CONTRACTOR
PROJECT NUMBER
PAGE
University of Oklahoma Research Institute
University of Oklahoma Research Institute
Oklahoma State University
Oregon, City of Dallas
Oregon, City of Tualatin
Oregon Concrete and Aggregate
 Producers Association
Oregon State University
Oregon State University
Oregon State University
Oregon State University
Oregon State University
Oregon State University
Oregon State University
Owens-Corning Fiberglas Corp.

Pacific Egg and Poultry Assoc.
Palisades Industries,  Inc.
Pennsylvania, City of  Erie
Pfister & Vogel Tanning Co.,  Inc.
Pfizer Pharmaceuticals, Inc.
Pharmaceutical Manufacturers' Assoc.
Portland Cement Association
Puerto Rico, University of
Pulp Manufacturers Research League
Purdue Research Foundation

RAI Research Corporation
W. E.  Reeves Packinghouse
Rensselaer  Polytechnic Institute
REPRO  Chemical Corporation
Resource  Engineering  Associates
C. W.  Rice  and Company

S. C.  Textile Manufacturers Assoc.
Sealectro  Corporation
Shell  Oil  Company
The Singer  Company
Snokist Growers
Snokist Growers
Snokist Growers
Southern  Dyestuff Company
Southern  Research Institute
Stanford  Research Institute
 St. Anthony Falls Hydraulic  Lab.
J.  P.  Stevens  &  Co.,  Inc.
 St. Regis Paper  Company
DKF
DSB
800746
EZR
DLF
HBM

EBG
EBY
ECF
DLQ
FOK
801007
803301
801173

800930
EQO
EOC
801037
803286
801159
802196
FDR
EEL
EMQ

ESY
GPP
DOD
68-03-0456
FTC
14-12-435

802973
802335
EZG
803177
FAD
803280
803307
GIZ
800602
803239
FSU
801211
EJU
11-12
111-25
111-76
IV-9
IV-12
VI-13

X-ll
X-12
111-31
X-8
IX-7
111-81
111-94
VII-13

111-79
VIII-12
IV-8
111-82
11-69
11-56
VI-17
111-54
X-14
IX-5

111-46
111-63
VI-3
11-45
111-61
11-41
 11-32.-^
 V-53:  *-
 111-51
 I I 1-93
 111-95
 11-37
 11-50
 VI-21,  IX-21
 IX-8
 VIII-20
 X-16
                                    A-6

-------
GRANTEE OR CONTRACTOR
PROJECT NUMBER
PAGE
St. Regis Paper Company
Swift and Company

Tabor City Foods, Inc.
Texas A&M Research Foundation
Texas A&M Research Foundation
Texas Southern University
Texas, University of
Toledo Pickling & Steel Service Inc.
Tosi Trading Company

Union Carbide Corporation
Union Carbide Corporation
Union Carbide Corporation
Utah, University of

Vanderbilt University
Vanderbilt University
Velsicol  Chemical Corporation
Vermont Dept. of Water Resources
Virginia, University of
Volco Brass & Copper Company

WAPORA, Inc.
WAPORA, Inc.
WAPORA, Inc.
S. D. Warren Co.
Washington State University
Washington, University of
Washington, University of
Washington, University of
Washington, University of
Washington, University of
Water District #1 of Johnson County
Water Economy Research Institute
Waterloo, University of
Western°Potato Service, Inc.
Weyerhaeuser Company
Widmer's  Wine Cellars, Inc.
S. K. Williams Company
Winter Garden Citrus Products Co-Op
Winter Garden Citrus Products Co-Op
Wisconsin, Green Bay Metropolitan
 Sewerage District
Wisconsin, University of
Wisconsin, University of
803270
DQV

FRW
DIT
800947
803332
FYE
802142
803321

DIS
FER
801398
DIM

800613
801004
803159
GCH
DIK
DPF

GLV
HAR
68-03-0233
FES
FLM
DEH
EFC
EXQ
HPK
01486-01
803196
5-532-1
DOT
EIG
FKS
EUZ
DSA
EZY .
801432
EDX

801484
802833
X-45
111-24

111-60
11-11
11-54
V-59
11-36
V-44
111-97

11-10
11-33
11-58
V-14

IX-12
IX-13
11-67
VI-11
11-22
V-18

X-29
X-31
IX-24
X-26
IX-6
X-6
X-15
X-22
X-34
111-69
VI-20, IX-19
II-42
V-17
111-41
X-27
111-48
V-21
111-50
111-83
IV-4

111-84
111-90
                                   A-7

-------
APPENDIX B

-------
                              PROJECT INDEX


PROJECT NUMBER      GRANTEE OR CONTRACTOR                           PAGE

      DBD           Montana State University                        X-5
      DBF           Harriman, Tennessee                             IV-10
      DEH           University of Washington                        X-6
      DEQ           Dairy Research and Development Corp.            111-20
      OFF           Farmbest, Inc.           '                       111-21
      DHP           Clarkson College of Technology                  V-13
      DIK           University of Virginia                          111-22
      DIM           University of Utah                              V-14
      DIS           Union Carbide Corporation                       11-10
      DIT           Texas A&M Research Foundation                   11-11
      DJB           Grand Forks, North Dakota                       IV-11
      DJI           B. F. Goodrich Chemical Company                 VI-7
      DKD           The Institute of Paper Chemistry                X-7
      DKF           University of Oklahoma Research Institute       11-12
      DLF           Tualatin, Oregon                                IV-12
      DLQ           Oregon State University                         X-8
      DMF           The Beaton and Corbin Mfg.  Co.                  V-15
      DML           American Oil Company                            11-13
      DMT           Engineering Science, Inc.                       11-14
      DNF           CF&I Steel  Corporation                          V-16
      DOD           Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute                VI-3
      DOT           University of Waterloo                          V-17
      DPD           Macon, Georgia                                  IV-13
      DPE           Corn Products Company                           111-23
      DPF           Volco Brass and Copper Co.                       V-18
      DQC           State of Louisiana (Commerce Department)        11-15
      DQV           Swift and Company                               111-24
      DRC           Illinois Institute of Technology                11-16
      ORE           Interlake Steel  Corporation                     V-19
      DRH           Minnesota Pollution Control Agency              V-20
      DRO           Delaware River Basin Commission                 IV-14
      DRT           Stockton, California                            IV-15
      DRY           Continental  Can Company, Inc.                   X-9
      DSA           S. K. Williams Company                          V-21
      DSB           University of Oklahoma Research Institute       111-25
      DSG           S. B. Foot Tanning Company                       111-26
      DSH           American Petroleum Institute                    11-17
      DSI           Beet Sugar Development Foundation               111-27
      DTQ           National Steel Corporation                       V-22
      DUG           Walton, New York                                I V-16
      DUL           Armco Steel  Corporation                         V-23
      DWM           C. H. Masland & Sons                            VIII-11
      DXF           Crowley's Milk Company, Inc.                    III-28
      DXL           National Canners Association                    111-29
                                    B-l

-------
PROJECT NUMBER      GRANTEE OR CONTRACTOR                            PARE
      DXR           Harvard College                                  11-18
      DYD           International  Paper Company                      X-10
      EAE           National  Canners Association                     II1-30
      EAS           The Dow Chemical Company                         11-19
      EAW           E.  I. duPont de Nemours and Company              11-20
      EBG           Oregon State University                          X-ll
      EBY           Oregon State University                          X-12
      ECF           Oregon State University                          II1-31
      ECS           Clemson University    '                           VIII-6
      ECU           North Carolina State University                  VIII-5
      EDK           National  Canners Association                     II1-32
      EDX           Green Bay, Wisconsin                             IV-4
      EDY           American Iron and Steel Institute                V-24
      EDZ           Green Giant Company                              III-33
      EEK           Georgia-Kraft Co.                                X-13
      EEL           Pulp Manufacturing Research League               X-14
      EEQ           The Dow Chemical Company       '                  11-21
      EFC           University of Washington                         X-15
      EFM           Caldwell Lace Leather Company                    II1-34
      EFW           Armour Industrial Chemical Co.                   11-22
      EGC           State of Alabama                                 11-23
      EGK           Jacksonville, Arkansas                           IV-5
      EGM           Farmers Chemical Association, Inc.               11-24
      EGU           Ohio State University Research Foundation        III-35
      EGV           Gold Kist Poultry Division                       111-36
      EGW           Holliston Mills, Inc.                            VIII-13
      EHS           Melbourne Water Science Institute                111-37
      EHT           North Star Research and Development  Institute    III-38
      EHU           National Canners Association Research            111-39
      EHV           The R. T. French Company                         II1-40
      EID           Engineering Science, Inc.                        11-25
      EIE           Metal Finishers' Foundation                      V-25
      EIG           Western Potato  Service, Inc.                     111-41
      EIK           Eugene Water and Electric Board                  IX-4
      EJD           Hagerstown, Maryland                             IV-6
      EJI           Datagraphics,  Incorporated                       11-26
      EJU           St.  Regis Paper Company                          X-16
      EKK           South St. Paul, Minnesota                        IV-7
      EKQ           Kent Cheese Company                              III-42
      EKT           American Oil Company                             11-27
      ELW           Crown Zellerbach Corporation                     X-17
      EMI           State of Louisiana  (Commerce Department)         11-28
      EMQ           Purdue Research  Foundation                       IX-5
      EMY           The  Mead Corporation                             X-18
      ENC           Interstate Paper Corporation                     X-19
      EOC           Erie, Pennsylvania                               IV-8
                                    B-2

-------
PROJECT NUMBER      GRANTEE OR CONTRACTOR                           PAGE
      EOE           North Carolina State University                 VI11-8
      EOF           Illinois Packing Company                        II1-43
      EOX           Clemson University                              VIII-7
      EPC           Blueside Real Estate, Inc.                      111-44
      EPH           Celanese Corporation of America                 11-29
      EQF           Alabama Water Improvement Commission            V-26
      EQO           Palisades Industries, Inc.                      VIII-12
      ERC           American Water Works Association                VI-4
      ERF           Berkey Film Processing                          VI-5
      ERM           Mineral  Pigments Corporation                    11-30
      ESC           American Crystal Sugar Co.                      III-45
      ESG           American Enka Corporation                       VII-9
      ESV           Crown Zellerbach Corporation                    X-20
      ESW           Gainesville, Florida                            VI-6
      ESY           RAI Research Corporation                        II1-46
      EUB           John Morrell and Company                        II1-47
      EUG           Georgia-Kraft Co.                               X-21
      EUR           American Water Works Association                VI-7
      EUX           Fiber Industries, Inc.                          VII-8
      EUZ           Widmer's Wine Cellars, Inc.                      Ill-48
      EXG           Manufacturing Chemists Assoc., Inc.             11-31
      EXQ           University of Washington                        X-22
      EZF           Johns-Manville Products Corp.                   VI-8
      EZG           Shell  Oil Company                               11-32
      EZP           FMC Corporation                                 II1-49
      EZR           Dallas,  Oregon                                  IV-9
      EZU           Klamatu  Plywood Corp.                           X-23
      EZV           Armco Steel  Corporation                         V-27
      EZY           Winter Garden Citrus Products Cooperative       I11-50
      EZZ           University of North Carolina                    X-24
      FAD           Snokist  Growers                                 II1-51
      FAE           Onondaga County, New York                       IV-17
      FAK           Beet Sugar Development Foundation               II1-52
      FAY           Brooksville, Florida                            IV-18
      FDE           Esleeck  Manufacturing Company                   X-25
      FDK           Archer Daniels Midland Company                  II1-53
      FDR           University of Puerto Rico                       III-54
      FDS           Beefland International, Inc.                    111-55
      FER           Union Carbide Corporation                       11-33
      FES           S.  D.  Warren Co.                                X-26
      FJK           Ebinger  Baking Co.                               111-56
      FJQ           Kodiak,  Alaska                                  IV-19
      FKS           Weyerhaeuser Company                            X-27
      FLL           American Distilling Co.                          111-57
      FLM           Washington State University                      IX-6
      FMF           Iowa Beef Packers,  Inc.                          II1-58
                                   B-3

-------
PROJECT NUMBER      GRANTEE OR CONTRACTOR                           PAGE
      FNM           The Fitzsimons Steel  Co., Inc.                  V-28
      FOH           CIBA-Geigy Corporation                          11-34
      FOK           Oregon State University                         IX-7
      FPD           Battelle-Northwest                              11-35
      FPK           Batten e Memorial  Institute                     V-29
      FOE           National Canners Association                    111-59
      FRM           Albany,  New York'                                VI-9
      FRW           Tabor City Foods,  Inc.                          111-60
      FSU           St. Anthony Falls  Hydraulic Lab.                IX-8
      FTC           Resource Engineering Associates                 111-61
      FUB           Green Bay Packaging,  Inc.                       X-28
      FUR           Central  Soya Company, Inc.                      II1-62
      FWD           American Assoc. of Textile Chemists             VIII-9
                     and Colorists
      FXD           Metal Finishers' Foundation                     V-30
      FYE           University of Texas                             11-36
      FYF           Ohio Department of Natural Resources            IV-20
      FYV           IIL/LSAA Technical Liaison Committee            VI-10
      FZB           Georgia Institute of Technology                 VIII-10
      GCH           Vermont Department of Water Resources           VI-11
      GCS           Aerodex, Inc.                                   V-31
      GER           The Miami Conservancy District                  IV-21
      GIZ           Southern Dyes tuff Company                       11-37
      GLE           Culligan International Co.                      VI-12
      GLP           Firestone Tire and Rubber Co.                   VII-10
      GLV           WAPORA, Inc.                                    X-29
      GND           Datagraphics,  Incorporated                      11-38
      GNK           Environmental Systems Corporation               IX-9
      GPP           W. E. Reeves Packinghouse                       111-63
      GQD           Crown Zellerbach Corporation                    X-30
      GSD           Environmental  Systems Lab                       IX-10
      GTR           Atlantic Richfield Company                      11-39
      GUG           New  England  Plating Co.,  Inc.                   V-32
      GUT           The  General Tire & Rubber Co.                   VII-11
      GVV           Michigan Plating and Stamping Co.               V-33
      GXF           B. P. Oil Corporation                           11-40
      HAR           WAPORA, Inc.                                    X-31
      HBM           Oregon  Concrete and Aggregate Producers         VI-13
                     Association
      HCW           Anheuser-Busch, Inc.                            111-64
      HDU           Georgia-Pacific, Corp.                          X-32
      HFK           Commonwealth of Massachusetts                   VII1-15
      HFY           Del  Monte Corporation                           III-65
      HGH           Grumman Aerospace Corp.                         V-34
      HIG           Koppers Company,  Inc.                           X-33
                                    B-4

-------
PROJECT NUMBER
GRANTEE OR CONTRACTOR
                                                 PAGE
      HKK
      HLO
      HPC
      HPK
      HQJ
      HRA
      HRR
      PAV
      PCO
      PPB
     800250
     800261
     800294
     800300
     800312
     800520
     800554
     800602
     800613
     800625
     800680
     800740
     800746
     800747
     800766
     800773
     800852
     800853
     800857
     800904
     800929
     800930
     800935
     800936
     800947
     801004
     801007
     801030
     801037
     801159
     801173
     801192
     801200
     801202
     801206
     801207
                                  Inc.
Hittman Associates,  Inc.
Cone Mills Corporation
California Dept. of  Agriculture
University of Washington
American Electroplaters'  Society,
Gainesville, Florida
Amber Laboratories Division
National Canners Association
Beaunit Fibers
The Johns Hopkins University
National Canners Association
Champion International  Corp.
North Carolina State University
The Dow Chemical Co.
Georgia Institute of Technology
Green Bay Packaging  Inc.
University of Missouri  -  Columbia
Southern Research Institute
Vanderbilt University
Attorney General of  Illinois
Grumman Aerospace Corp.
The Chesapeake Corporation
Oklahoma State University
Mil brew, Inc.
The Dow Chemical Company
State of Louisiana
Canton Textile Mills
The Institute of Paper  Chemistry
Illinois Institute of Technology
American Shrimp Canners Assoc.
LaFrance Industries
Pacific Egg and Poultry Assoc.
Bacardi Corporation
American Water Works Association
Texas A&M Research Foundation
Vanderbilt University
Oregon State University
University of California
Pfister & Vogel  Tanning Co.,
Pharmaceutical  Manufacturers
Owens-Corning Fiberglas Corp.
Blue Ridge-Wink!er textiles
University of Massachusetts
Garrett Research and Development Co., Inc.
Big Chief Roofing Company
The Institute of Paper  Chemistry
                             Inc.
                              Assoc.
IX-11
VIII-14
111-66
X-34
V-36
IV-22
111-67
111-68
VII-12
V-37
111-75
X-36
VIII-16
11-47
11-48
X-37
11-49
11-50
IX-12
V-39
V-40
X-38
111-76
111-77
11-51
11-52
VIII-17
X-39
11-53
111-78
VIII-18
111-79
II1-80
VI-14
11-54
IX-13
111-81
11-55
111-82
11-56
VII-13
VIII-19
VII-14
X-40
X-41
X-43
                                    B-5

-------
PROJECT NUMBER
GRANTEE OR CONTRACTOR
PARE
     801211
     801221
     801349
     801398
     801431
     801432
     801433
     801484
     801577
     801684
     801872
     801876
     801970
     802044
     802113
     802142
     802174
     802196
     802253
     802254
     802335
     802390
     802420
     802586
   802637-01
   802637-02
     802684

     802753
     802800
     802833
     802853
     802872
     802908
     802924
     802958
     802973
     803005
     803026
     803064
     803073
     803085
     803119
     803142
     803159
     803174
     803177
J. P.  Stevens & Co., Inc.
County of Hawaii, Hilo, Hawaii
The New Jersey Zinc. Co.
Union  Carbide Corporation
Hercules, Incorporated
Winter Garden Citrus Products Co-Op
State  of Maryland
University of Wisconsin
National Aqricultural Chemical Assoc.
American Frozen Foods Industry
Southern Research Institute
University of Arkansas
Maryland State Department of Health
Franklin Institute Research
Metal  Finishers' Foundation
Toledo Picklinq and Steel Service, Inc.
Cornell University
Portland Cement Association
Armour and Co.
Anaconda American Brass Company
Sealectro Corporation
University of Arizona
Hilo Coast Processing Company
Bennett Colleqe
Douglas & Lomason Corporation
Douqlas & Lomason Corporation
Florida Dept. of Air and Water
  Pollution Control
University of California
Montgomery, Alabama
University of Wisconsin
The Aerospace Corporation
American Defense Preparedness Assoc.
Louisiana Chemical Association
Metal  Finishers' Foundation
Dulaney  Foods Inc.
S. C.  Textile Manufacturers  Assoc.
Buffalo Sewer Authority
American Oil Company
The Boeinq Commercial Airplane  Co.
The Boeing Commercial Airplane  Co.
The Dow  Chemical Company
The Institute of Paper  Chemistry
The Franklin  Institute  Research
Velsicol Chemical  Corporation
American Dye Manufacturers  Institute
The Singer Company
VIII-20
IV-23
11-57
11-58
11-59
111-83
IX-14
111-84
II-60
111-85
VI-15
X-42
111-86
VI-16, IX-15
V-43
V-44
111-87
VI-17
111-88
V-45
V-46
V-47
111-89
VIII-22
V-48
V-49
11-61

11-62, IX-16
VI-18
111-90
IX-17
II-63
11-64
V-50
111-91
VIII-23
IV-24
11-65
V-51
V-52
11-66
X-44
VI-19, IX-18
11-67
VIII-24
V-53
                                   B-6

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PROJECT NUMBER
GRANTEE OR CONTRACTOR
PAGE
     803196
     803207
     803231
     803226
     803239
     803251
     803257
     803261
     803264
     803265
     803270
     803280
     803286
     803301
     803302
     803304
     803307
     803312
     803321
     803325
     803332
     803336
     803338
     803342
     803347
     803348
     803357
     803358
     803467
     5-532-1
   14-12-162
   14-12-435
  68-03-0456
  68-01-0457
  68-03-0233
  68-03-0430
  68-01-0083
  68-03-2053
  68-03-2133
   05-532-3
  WP-01486-01
 WPD 93-04-68
 WPRD 38-01-67
WPRD 133-01-68
WPRD 151-01-68
 WPD 185-02-68
Water District #1 of Johnson County, Kansas
K. W. Beck and Associates
University of Connecticut
Anaconda American Brass Company
Stanford Research Institute
National Canners Association
University of California
Aluminum Company of America
American Electroplaters' Society, Inc.
Metal Plating Corporation
St. Regis Paper Company
Snokist Growers
Pfizer Pharmaceuticals, Inc.
Oregon State University
Flambeau Paper Company
Keystone Lamp Manufacturing Corporation
Snokist Growers
American Frozen Food Institute
Tosi Trading Company
Maryland State Dept. of Health
Texas Southern University
NMCWD
American Shrimp Canners Association
Metal Finishers' Foundation
National Council of the Paper Industry
National Council of the Paper Industry
International Ozone Institute, Inc.
Crown Chemical Company, Inc.
Dr. George E. F. Brewer
Ministry of Land Resources
Electro-Optical Systems, Inc.
C. W. Rice and Company
Repro Chemical Company
Diamond Shamrock Corporation
WAPORA, Inc.
The University of Iowa
Envirogenics Systems
Acres American Incorporated
Hoechst-Uhde Corporation
Institute for Meteorology and Water Economy
University of Washington
Beet Sugar Development Foundation
Minute Maid Company
A. C. Lawrence Leather Company
National Canners Association
University of Cincinnati
VI-20, IX-19
IX-20
11-68
V-54
VI-21, IX-21
111-92
IX-22
V-55
V-56
V-57
X-45
111-93
II-69
111-94
X-46
V-58
111-95
111-96
111-97
II1-98
V-59
IX-23
111-99
V-60
X-47
X-48
11-70
11-71
V-61
11-42
X-35
11-41
11-45
II-44
IX-24
IX-25
11-43
IX-26
11-46
VIII-21
111-69
111-70
111-73
111-71
111-74
111-72
                                    B-7

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                                   TECHNICAL REPORT DATA
                            (Please read Instructions on the reverse before completing)
1. REPORT NO.

   EPA-600/2-T3-001
                                                            3. RECIPIENT'S ACCESSION* NO.
4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE

  Projects  in  the Industrial  Pollution Control
  Division  -  December 1974
              5. REPORT DATE
                December  1974
              6. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION CODE
7. AUTHOR(S)
                                                            8. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION REPORT NO
9. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME AND ADDRESS
  Environmental  Protection Agency, Industrial  Pollution
  Control  Division (RD-679),  401  M Street S. W.,
  Washington,  D.  C. 20460
              10. PROGRAM ELEMENT NO.

                1BB036   PEMP Task  003
              11. CONTRACT/GRANT NO.
12. SPONSORING AGENCY NAME AND ADDRESS
  Environmental  Protection Agency
  401 M  Street S.W.
  Washington,  D.  C. 20460
                                                            13. TYPE OF REPORT AND PERIOD COVERED
              14. SPONSORING AGENCY CODE
15. SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES
16. ABSTRACT
  Projects  of the Industrial  Pollution Control  Program - December  1974  is  a compila-
  tion of  information sheets  from projects initiated  since fiscal  year  1967 through
  fiscal year 1974.   Each sheet  contains the objectives, statistical  information, and
  a brief  description of the  project.

  General  introductory information on  the Federal  Industrial Pollution  Control Program
  is also  presented to provide perspective on the  magnitude of industrial  pollution
  and the  research directions that must be pursued in order to develop  the technology
  to adequately control this  largest point source  of  pollution in  the United States.
17.
                                KEY WORDS AND DOCUMENT ANALYSIS
                  DESCRIPTORS
b.lDENTIFIERS/OPEN ENDED TERMS  C.  COSATI Field/Group
  Industrial Wastewater Treatment
  Research & Development
  Industrial Pollution Control
                                 13B
18. DISTRIBUTION STATEMENT

  Release Unlimited
19. SECURITY CLASS (This Report/
21. NO. OF PAGES
     439
                                              20. SECURITY CLASS (Thispage)
                                                                         22. PRICE
EPA Form 2220-1 (9-73)

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                                                        INSTRUCTIONS

   1.   REPORT NUMBER
       Insert the EPA report number as it appears on the cover of the publication.

   2.   LEAVE BLANK

   3.   RECIPIENTS ACCESSION NUMBER
       Reserved for use by each report recipient.

   4.   TITLE AND SUBTITLE
       Title should indicate clearly and briefly the subject coverage of the report, and be displayed prominently.  Set subtitle, if used, in smaller
       type or otherwise subordinate it to main  title. When a report is prepared in more than one volume, repeat the primary title, add volume
       number and include subtitle for the specific title.

   5.   REPORT DATE
       Each report shall cany a date indicating at least month and year. Indicate the basis on which it was selected (e.g., date of issue, date of
       approval, date of preparation, etc.).

   6.   PERFORMING ORGANIZATION CODE
       Leave blank.

   7.   AUTHOR(S)
       Give name(s) in conventional order (John R. Doe, J.  Robert Doe, etc.).  List author's affiliation if it differs from the performing organi-
       zation.

   8.   PERFpRMING ORGANIZATION REPORT NUMBER
       Insert if performing organization wishes to assign this number.

   9.   PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME AND ADDRESS
       Give name, street, city, state, and ZIP code. List no  more than two levels of an organizational hirearchy.

   10. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER
       Use the program element number under which the report was prepared. Subordinate numbers may be included in parentheses.

   11. CONTRACT/GRANT NUMBER
       Insert contract or grant number under which report was prepared.

   12. SPONSORING AGENCY NAME AND ADDRESS
       Include ZIP code.

   13. TYPE OF  REPORT AND PERIOD COVERED
       Indicate interim final, etc., and if applicable, dates covered.

   14. SPONSORING AGENCY CODE
       Leave blank.

   15. SUPPLEMENTARY NpTES
       Enter information not included elsewhere but useful, such as:  Prepared in cooperation with, Translation of. Presented at conference of,
       To be published in, Supersedes, Supplements, etc.

   16. ABSTRACT
       Include a brief (200 words or less) factual summary  of the most significant information contained in the report. If the report  contains a
       significant bibliography or literature survey, mention it here.

   17. KEY WORDS AND DOCUMENT ANALYSIS
       (a) DESCRIPTORS - Select from the Thesaurus of Engineering and Scientific Terms the proper authorized terms that identify the major
       concept of the research and are sufficiently specific and precise to be used as index entries for cataloging.

       (b) IDFNTIFIERS AND OPEN-ENDED  TERMS - Use identifiers for project names, code names, equipment designators, etc.  Use open-
       ended terms written in descriptor form for those subjects for which no descriptor exists.

       (c) COSATI FIELD GROUP - Field and  group assignments are to be taken from the 1965 COSATI Subject Category List.  Since the ma-
       jority of documents are multidisciplinary in nature, the Primary Field/Group assignment(s) will be specific discipline, area of human
       endeavor,  or type of physical object. The application(s) will be cross-referenced with secondary Field/Group assignments that will follow
       the primary posting(s).

   18. DISTRIBUTION STATEMENT
       Denote releasability to the public or limitation for reasons other than security for example "Release Unlimited." Cite any availability to
       the public, with address and price.

   19.&20. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION
       DO NOT submit classified reports to the National Technical Information service.

   21. NUMBER OF PAGES
       Insert the total number of pages, including this one and unnumbered pages, but exclude distribution list, if any.

   22. PRICE
       Insert the price  set by the National Technical Information Service or the Government Printing Office, if known.
EPA Form 2220-1 (9 73) (Reverse)

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